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Organic Chemistry Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students who might be puzzled by the world of organic chemistry will definitely want to bookmark this useful site created by a team of researchers at the University of Liverpool. The site focuses on providing interactive 3D animations for a number of important organic reactions that will be encountered by students taking organic chemistry. The site's homepage contains a list of recent updates and additions, and visitors will want to also look at the list of reactions covered on the left-hand side of the same page. After clicking on each reaction, visitors can view the animation and also click on the animation to view additional resources. For those who are looking for specific reactions, the site also contains an embedded search engine feature.


Quality of organic animal products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen a sharp rise in demand for organic animal products. There is no evidence of consistent differences in flavour or nutritional qualities between organic products and conventional ones. However, organic animal products have lower levels of veterinary drugs and pesticides. There is no clear evidence to indicate that organic food is more prone to mycotoxin contamination than

Maryline Kouba



Soil animals alter plant litter diversity effects on decomposition.  


Most of the terrestrial net primary production enters the decomposer system as dead organic matter, and the subsequent recycling of C and nutrients are key processes for the functioning of ecosystems and the delivery of ecosystem goods and services. Although climatic and substrate quality controls are reasonably well understood, the functional role of biodiversity for biogeochemical cycles remains elusive. Here we ask how altering litter species diversity affects species-specific decomposition rates and whether large litter-feeding soil animals control the litter diversity-function relationship in a temperate forest ecosystem. We found that decomposition of a given litter species changed greatly in the presence of litters from other cooccurring species despite unaltered climatic conditions and litter chemistry. Most importantly, soil fauna determined the magnitude and direction of litter diversity effects. Our data show that litter species richness and soil fauna interactively determine rates of decomposition in a temperate forest, suggesting a combination of bottom-up and top-down controls of litter diversity effects on ecosystem C and nutrient cycling. These results provide evidence that, in ecosystems supporting a well developed soil macrofauna community, animal activity plays a fundamental role for altered decomposition in response to changing litter diversity, which in turn has important implications for biogeochemical cycles and the long-term functioning of ecosystems with ongoing biodiversity loss. PMID:15671172

Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Gasser, Patrick



Altered glial plasticity in animal models for mood disorders.  


Numerous clinical evidences support the notion that glial changes in fronto-limbic brain areas could contribute to the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Glial alterations have been reported not only in patients, but also in various kinds of animal models for depression. Molecular and cellular data suggest that all the major classes of glial cells are affected in these conditions, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, NG2-positive cells and microglia. The aim of this review was to summarize the currently available experimental results demonstrating alterations in glial morphology and functioning in animal models for mood disorders. Better understanding of these glial changes affecting neuronal activity could help us to identify novel targets for the development of antidepressant drugs. PMID:23597041

Czéh, Boldizsár; Fuchs, Eberhard; Flügge, Gabriele



Alteration of glasses by micro-organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-organisms are suspected to play a basic part in materials alteration. Obviously, they will be present in nuclear waste repositories, either introduced by technological activity or laid by fluids circulation. Their metabolism may induce chemical modifications to the surrounding media and then affect the durability of storage materials. Biodegradation of glasses is studied in the Pierre Süe Laboratory. In the frame of a collaboration with microbiologists interested in stained glasses alteration, leaching experiments with various species of bacteria and fungi are carried out. Ion beam analysis techniques are performed to quantify surface modification of glasses and elemental incorporation in micro-organisms. Analyses of the solutions will lead to a complete assessment of elemental exchanges between glass sample, culture media and micro-organisms. In this paper, preliminary results on characterisation of glasses and micro-organisms and the first results of leaching experiments are presented.

Gallien, J.-P.; Gouget, B.; Carrot, F.; Orial, G.; Brunet, A.



Alienation, recovered animism and altered states of consciousness.  


Alienation is the feeling that life is 'meaningless', that we do not belong in the world. But alienation is not an inevitable part of the human condition: some people do feel at one with the world as a consequence of the animistic way of thinking which is shared by children and hunter-gatherers. Animism considers all significant entities to have 'minds', to be 'alive', to be sentient agents. The animistic thinker inhabits a world populated by personal powers including not just other human beings, but also important animals and plants, and significant aspects of physical landscape. Humans belong in this world because it is a web of social relationships. Animism is therefore spontaneous, the 'natural' way of thinking for humans: all humans began as animistic children and for most of human evolutionary history would have grown into animistic adults. It requires sustained, prolonged and pervasive formal education to 'overwrite' animistic thinking with the rationalistic objectivity typical of the modern world. It is this learned abstraction that creates alienation--humans are no longer embedded in a world of social relations but become estranged, adrift in a world of indifferent things. Methods used to cure alienation and recover animistic modes of thinking involve detachment from the social systems that tend to maintain objectivity and rationality: for example, solitude, leisure, unstructured time and direct contact with nature. Many people also achieve similar results by deliberately inducing altered states of consciousness. Animistic thinking may emerge in meditation or contemplation, lucid dreaming, from self-hypnosis, when drowsy, in 'trance states' induced by repetitious rhythm or light, or when delirious due to illness, brain injury, psychoses, or intoxication with 'entheogenic' drugs--which is probably one reason for the perennial popularity of inducing intoxicated states. However, intoxication will typically damage memory processes making it harder to learn from any spiritual experiences; and even mild states of cognitive impairment may be dangerous in situations where skilled or responsible behaviour is required. Despite these constraints and limitations, recovering animism through seeking altered states of consciousness could already be considered a major world spiritual practice. PMID:17141965

Charlton, Bruce G



Impacts of Applied Genetics: Micro-Organisms, Plants and Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines the application of classical and molecular genetic technologies to micro-organisms, plants, and animals. Current developments are especially rapid in the application of genetic technologies to micro-organisms; these were studied in th...



Animal Welfare in Relation to Standards in Organic Farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

: The new EU-regulations on organic farming (1804\\/1999) are also influencing the animal welfare. A lot of positive regulations is to find, but also regulations that seen to mind more about the general public and customer and their view on organic farming, than the health and welfare of the animals. The paper specially focus on the impact of the regulations

Karl-Erik Hammarberg



Consumer perception of organic food production and farm animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is derived from a larger scale project investigating consumer attitudes towards organic food in the UK. Presents focus group results on consumer perceptions, attitudes and behaviour in relation to two key interrelated food trends: organic food and animal welfare. The results indicate that consumers often confuse organic and free-range products because they believe that “organic” is equivalent to

Gemma C. Harper; Aikaterini Makatouni



A novel animal model linking adiposity to altered circadian rhythms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Researchers have provided evidence for a link between obesity and altered circadian rhythms (e.g., shift work, disrupted sleep), but the mechanism for this association is still unknown. Adipocytes possess an intrinsic circadian clock, and circadian rhythms in adipocytokines and adipose tissue metab...


Animal health in organic livestock production systems: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic livestock production is a means of food production with a large number of rules directed towards a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs and the production of a healthy product without residues (pesticides or medical drugs). The intentions of organic livestock production have been formulated by the International Federation of Organic

A. Kijlstra; I. A. J. M. Eijck



Lattice animal model of chromosome organization.  


Polymer models tied together by constraints of looping and confinement have been used to explain many of the observed organizational characteristics of interphase chromosomes. Here we introduce a simple lattice animal representation of interphase chromosomes that combines the features of looping and confinement constraints into a single framework. We show through Monte Carlo simulations that this model qualitatively captures both the leveling off in the spatial distance between genomic markers observed in fluorescent in situ hybridization experiments and the inverse decay in the looping probability as a function of genomic separation observed in chromosome conformation capture experiments. The model also suggests that the collapsed state of chromosomes and their segregation into territories with distinct looping activities might be a natural consequence of confinement. PMID:23005456

Iyer, Balaji V S; Arya, Gaurav



The Ethical Contract as a Tool in Organic Animal Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores what an ethicfor organic animal husbandry might look like,departing from the assumption that organicfarming is substantially based in ecocentricethics. We argue that farm animals arenecessary functional partners in sustainableagroecosystems. This opens up additional waysto argue for their moral standing. We suggestan ethical contract to be used as acomplementary to the ecocentric framework. Weexpound the content of the

Vonne Lund; Raymond Anthony; Helena Röcklinsberg



Animal welfare standards in organic farming in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes a literature survey recently performed on the animal welfare status in organic farming in The Netherlands. It is shown that for several aspects of animal welfare, mostly related to behavior, comfort, and feeding level, Dutch organiclivestock production performs well. However, several other (mainly health) aspects arestill a major point of concern. The results are used for communication

M. A. W. Ruis; J. B. Pinxterhuis



Learning about Skeletons and Other Organ Systems of Vertebrate Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes students' (n=175) understandings of the structure of animal (including human) skeletons and the internal organs found in them. Finds that older students have a better knowledge of animals' internal anatomies, although knowledge of human internal structure is significantly better than knowledge of rat, bird, and fish internal structure.…

Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael



Web-Based Interactive Animation of Organic Reactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This WWW-based service for the automated animation of organic reactions we believe to be a versatile tool for teaching and learning organic chemistry. It allows the investigation of the influence of substituents of starting materials on the reaction coordinate and the energy of the depicted reaction. Starting from a list of precalculated organic reactions hydrogen atoms can be substituted by a variety of organic substituents and functional groups using the molecule editor. The new set of starting material is submitted to the calculation of intrinsic reaction coordinates that yields automatically an animation of the reaction that can be viewed with the Chime plugin.


Animal models of female pelvic organ prolapse: lessons learned  

PubMed Central

Pelvic organ prolapse is a vaginal protrusion of female pelvic organs. It has high prevalence worldwide and represents a great burden to the economy. The pathophysiology of pelvic organ prolapse is multifactorial and includes genetic predisposition, aberrant connective tissue, obesity, advancing age, vaginal delivery and other risk factors. Owing to the long course prior to patients becoming symptomatic and ethical questions surrounding human studies, animal models are necessary and useful. These models can mimic different human characteristics – histological, anatomical or hormonal, but none present all of the characteristics at the same time. Major animal models include knockout mice, rats, sheep, rabbits and nonhuman primates. In this article we discuss different animal models and their utility for investigating the natural progression of pelvic organ prolapse pathophysiology and novel treatment approaches.

Couri, Bruna M; Lenis, Andrew T; Borazjani, Ali; Paraiso, Marie Fidela R; Damaser, Margot S



Concepts of Animal Health and Welfare in Organic Livestock Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2005, The International Federation of Organic Agricultural Movements (IFOAM) developed four new ethical principles of organic\\u000a agriculture to guide its future development: the principles of health, ecology, care, and fairness. The key distinctive concept\\u000a of animal welfare in organic agriculture combines naturalness and human care, and can be linked meaningfully with these principles.\\u000a In practice, a number of challenges

Mette VaarstHugo; Hugo F. Alrøe


Animal welfare in relation to standards in organic farming.  


The new EU-regulations on organic farming (1804/1999) are also influencing the animal welfare. A lot of positive regulations is to find, but also regulations that seen to mind more about the general public and customer and their view on organic farming, than the health and welfare of the animals. The paper specially focus on the impact of the regulations and the recommendations that phytotherapeutic essences and homeopathic products take precedence over the so called chemically-synthesised allopatic veterinary medical products, and that the use of the same is prohibited for preventive treatments. Key questions here are the lack of scientific evidence concerning homeopathy in animals, and that Swedish veterinarians are not allowed to work with homeopathy. Differences in interpretation of the regulations between animal owners and veterinarians will also be discussed. What is a disease that needs treatment? Who is to decide about the treatment? Parasitic infections are discussed as an illustrative example. Other consequences of the regulations concerning the animal welfare are problems in certain geographical zones, for instance subarctic areas where necessary crops are impossible to grow. Animal transports and splitting mother-offspring are briefly discussed as future problems to be handled in the regulations, and the paper ends by presenting the need of regulated herd health control programs in organic husbandry, which can detect and focus on welfare and production problems. The organic movement is not static, and must not be so. PMID:11995386

Hammarberg, K E



Fulminant infection by uncommon organisms in animal bite wounds.  

PubMed Central

In 1995 and 1996, 215 patients exposed to different species of animals were treated at the Amarnath Polyclinic, Balasore, in India. Among them were two children infected by uncommon organisms, i.e., Capnocytophaga canimorsus and Pasteurella multocida; the patients recovered with appropriate antibiotic therapy.

Dutta, J. K.



ICLAS Working Group on Harmonization: international guidance concerning the production care and use of genetically-altered animals.  


Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, the ‘Three Rs’ of Russell & Burch, are accepted worldwide as fundamental to the ethics of animal experimentation. The production, care and use of genetically-altered animals can pose particular challenges to the implementation of the Three Rs,1 necessitating additional considerations by those responsible for overseeing the ethical use and appropriate care of animals involved in science. The International Council for Laboratory Animal Science brings representatives of the international laboratory animal science community together to recommend acceptance of guidance documents.The harmonization of guidance concerning genetically-altered animals was seen as a priority because of the increasing globalization of research involving these animals. PMID:23563121

Rose, M; Everitt, J; Hedrich, H; Schofield, J; Dennis, M; Scott, E; Griffin, G



Detection of alterations in testicular and epididymal function in laboratory animals  

SciTech Connect

The potential impact of an agent altering male reproductive function is greater for humans than for animals. Consequently, it is essential that sensitive criteria be used to look for effects on a multiplicity of target sites when an agent is evaluated using an animal model. No animal model has reproductive characteristics similar to those of humans, but this does not negate the validity of using animal models. Classic methodologies for reproductive toxicology are limited by the approaches used for subjective evaluation of testicular histology and use of natural mating for fertility tests. After dosing for an interval at least equal to six times the duration of one cycle of the seminiferous epithelium, sperm from ejaculated semen or the cauda epididymidis can be evaluated for normalacy of morphology or function and should be used for artificial insemination of females to critically evaluate fertility. Normal males of animals models ejaculate a great excess of sperm. Artificial insemination of a critical number of sperm, selected to result in slightly less than maximal fertility for control animals, will maximize the probability of detecting a decrease in fertility if the same critical number of sperm is inseminated for treated animals as for control animals. Testicular function should be evaluated by objective, rather than subjective, criteria. Among the more sensitive criteria of testicular function are the minor diameter of essentially round seminiferous tubules, the ratio of leptotene spermatocytes to Sertoli cells, the corrected numbers of germ cells per seminiferous tubule cross section, and the number of homogenization-resistant spermatids per testis.

Amann, R.P.



Immunosenescence is associated with altered gene expression and epigenetic regulation in primary and secondary immune organs  

PubMed Central

Deterioration of the immune system (immunosenescence) with age is associated with an increased susceptibility to infection, autoimmune disease and cancer, and reduced responsiveness to vaccination. Immunosenescence entails a reduced supply of naïve T cells from the thymus and increased specialization of peripheral T cell clones. Both thymic involution and peripheral T cell homeostasis are thought to involve cellular senescence. In order to analyze this at the molecular level, we studied gene expression profiles, epigenetic status, and genome stability in the thymus and spleen of 1-, 4-, and 18-month-old Long Evans rats. In the thymus, altered gene expression, DNA and histone H3K9 hypomethylation, increased genome instability, and apoptosis were observed in 18-month-old animals compared to 1- and 4-month-old animals. In the spleen, alterations in gene expression and epigenetic regulation occurred already by the age of 4 months compared to 1 month and persisted in 18-month-old compared to 1-month-old rats. In both organs, these changes were accompanied by the altered composition of resident T cell populations. Our study suggests that both senescence and apoptosis may be involved in altered organ function.

Sidler, Corinne; Woycicki, Rafal; Ilnytskyy, Yaroslav; Metz, Gerlinde; Kovalchuk, Igor; Kovalchuk, Olga



Immunosenescence is associated with altered gene expression and epigenetic regulation in primary and secondary immune organs.  


Deterioration of the immune system (immunosenescence) with age is associated with an increased susceptibility to infection, autoimmune disease and cancer, and reduced responsiveness to vaccination. Immunosenescence entails a reduced supply of naïve T cells from the thymus and increased specialization of peripheral T cell clones. Both thymic involution and peripheral T cell homeostasis are thought to involve cellular senescence. In order to analyze this at the molecular level, we studied gene expression profiles, epigenetic status, and genome stability in the thymus and spleen of 1-, 4-, and 18-month-old Long Evans rats. In the thymus, altered gene expression, DNA and histone H3K9 hypomethylation, increased genome instability, and apoptosis were observed in 18-month-old animals compared to 1- and 4-month-old animals. In the spleen, alterations in gene expression and epigenetic regulation occurred already by the age of 4 months compared to 1 month and persisted in 18-month-old compared to 1-month-old rats. In both organs, these changes were accompanied by the altered composition of resident T cell populations. Our study suggests that both senescence and apoptosis may be involved in altered organ function. PMID:24151501

Sidler, Corinne; Wóycicki, Rafa?; Ilnytskyy, Yaroslav; Metz, Gerlinde; Kovalchuk, Igor; Kovalchuk, Olga



Dynamics of behavioral organization and its alteration in major depression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the nature of human behavioral organization, specifically how resting and active periods are interwoven throughout daily life. Active period durations with physical activity counts successively above a predefined threshold follow a stretched exponential (gamma-type) cumulative distribution with characteristic time, both in healthy individuals and in patients with major depressive disorder. On the contrary, resting period durations below the threshold for both groups obey a scale free power law cumulative distribution over two decades, with significantly lower scaling exponents in the patients. We thus find underlying robust laws governing human behavioral organization, with a parameter altered in depression.

Nakamura, Toru; Kiyono, Ken; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Nakahara, Rika; Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu



14 CFR 121.365 - Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization. 121.365...DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations...



14 CFR 121.365 - Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization. 121.365...DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations...



White matter abnormalities and animal models examining a putative role of altered white matter in schizophrenia.  


Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder affecting about 1% of the population worldwide. Although the dopamine (DA) hypothesis is still keeping a dominant position in schizophrenia research, new advances have been emerging in recent years, which suggest the implication of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. In this paper, we will briefly review some of recent human studies showing white matter abnormalities in schizophrenic brains and altered oligodendrocyte-(OL-) and myelin-related genes in patients with schizophrenia and will consider abnormal behaviors reported in patients with white matter diseases. Following these, we will selectively introduce some animal models examining a putative role of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. The emphasis will be put on the cuprizone (CPZ) model. CPZ-fed mice show demyelination and OLs loss, display schizophrenia-related behaviors, and have higher DA levels in the prefrontal cortex. These features suggest that the CPZ model is a novel animal model of schizophrenia. PMID:22937274

Xu, Haiyun; Li, Xin-Min



9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...administered experimental biological products or live organisms...or research sponsor to control disposition of all animals...administered experimental biological products or live organisms...including challenged control animals) shall...



9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...administered experimental biological products or live organisms...or research sponsor to control disposition of all animals...administered experimental biological products or live organisms...including challenged control animals) shall...



9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...administered experimental biological products or live organisms...or research sponsor to control disposition of all animals...administered experimental biological products or live organisms...including challenged control animals) shall...



New animal model to study epigenetic mechanisms mediating altered gravity effects upon cell growth and morphogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gravitational field and its variations act as a major environmental factor that can impact morphogenesis developing through epigenetic molecular mechanisms. The mechanisms can be thoroughly investigated by using adequate animal models that reveal changes in the morpho-genesis of a growing organ as a function of gravitational effects. Two cooperative US\\/Russian experiments on Foton-M2 (2005) and Foton-M3 (2007) were the

Eleonora N. Grigoryan; Natasha Dvorochkin; Elena A. Radugina; Valentina Poplinskaya; Julia Novikova; Eduardo Almeida



Altered phenotype of NK cells from obese rats can be normalized by transfer into lean animals.  


In diet-induced obese rats, leptin-mediated natural killer (NK) cell activation has been demonstrated to be impaired by abrogated intracellular JAK2-STAT3 signaling. The contribution of the obese microenvironment to this NK cell dysfunction and its reversibility remains elusive. In this study, the functions of NK cells from diet-induced obese rats after adoptive transfer into lean littermates were investigated using in vivo and in vitro approaches. Endogenous NK cells of normal-weight and diet-induced obese F344 rats were depleted in vivo. Then, NK cells from either normal-weight or obese donors were transferred. The numbers of peripheral blood NK cells were analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and the distribution pattern of NK cells in lung and spleen by immunohistochemistry. Ob-R expression was evaluated by immunohistology and activation of intracellular target proteins of Ob-R by immunoblotting. The numbers of NK cells in blood and lung were significantly higher in obese animals compared to lean ones after transfer of NK cells from obese F344 rats. This was correlated with increased postreceptor signaling (JAK-2p, PKBpT308, ERK-2p) without altered Ob-R expression in those NK cells transferred to lean (ob-->nw) vs. obese (ob-->ob) animals. These results show for the first time that the altered phenotype of NK cells from obese rats can be normalized by generation of a physiological (metabolic) environment of lean rats. PMID:19444229

Lautenbach, Anne; Wrann, Christiane D; Jacobs, Roland; Müller, Guenter; Brabant, Georg; Nave, Heike



Intervertebral disc changes in an animal model representing altered mechanics in scoliosis.  


The intervertebral discs become wedged and narrowed in a scoliosis curve, and this may be due in part to altered biomechanical environment. To study this, external rings were attached by percutaneous pins transfixing adjacent vertebrae in 5-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats and four permutations of mechanical conditions (4 groups of animals) were compared: (A) 15 degrees Angulation, (B) Angulation with 0.1 MPa Compression, (C) 0.1 MPa Compression, and (D) Reduced mobility. These altered mechanical conditions were applied for 5 weeks. After 5 weeks, disc narrowing at the intervention levels was evident in micro-CT images. Average disc space loss as a percent of the initial values over the 5 weeks was 19%, 28%, 22% and 20% four groups listed above. Increased lateral bending stiffness relative to within-animal controls was also observed at all groups. The minimum stiffness was recorded at an angle close to the in vivo value, indicating that angulated discs had adapted to the imposed deformity. In the angulated and compressed discs there was a small difference in the amount of collagen crimping in the disc annuli between concave and convex sides. All experimental interventions produced substantial changes in the intervertebral discs of these growing animals. 'Reduced mobility' was present in all interventions, and the changes in the discs with reduced mobility alone were comparable with those in loaded and angulated discs. This suggests that imposed reduced mobility is the major source of disc changes, and may be a factor in disc degeneration in scoliosis. Further studies are in progress to characterize gene expression, matrix protein synthesis and composition in these discs. PMID:18810036

Stokes, I A F; McBride, C A; Aronsson, D D




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the wonderful world of animals Listen to the animal sound. See if you can identify the animal.Animal sounds. Explore and find out about different animals.Kids Planet Create a animal report using one of the animals found in the web site.Kids Planet,SeaWorld/animals Create a picture of your animal examples are found...Your big backyard ...

Unsworth, Mrs.



14 CFR 135.423 - Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization. 135.423...RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations...



New animal model to study epigenetic mechanisms mediating altered gravity effects upon cell growth and morphogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gravitational field and its variations act as a major environmental factor that can impact morphogenesis developing through epigenetic molecular mechanisms. The mechanisms can be thoroughly investigated by using adequate animal models that reveal changes in the morpho-genesis of a growing organ as a function of gravitational effects. Two cooperative US/Russian experiments on Foton-M2 (2005) and Foton-M3 (2007) were the first to demonstrate differences in the shape of regenerating tails of space-flown and ground control newts. The space-flown and aquarium (simulated microgravity) animals developed lancet-shaped tails whereas 1 g con-trols (kept in space-type habitats) showed hook-like regenerates. These visual observations were supported by computer-aided processing of the images and statistical analysis of the results. Morphological examinations and cell proliferation measurements using BrdU demon-strated dorsal-ventral asymmetry as well as enhanced epithelial growth on the dorsal area of regenerating tails in 1 g newts. These findings were reproduced in laboratory tests on newts kept at 1 g and in large water tanks at cut g. The 1 g animals showed statistically significant deviations of the lancet-like tail shape typically seen in aquarium animals. Such modifications were found as early as regeneration stages III-IV and proved irreversible. The authors believe that the above phenomenon detected in newts used in many space experiments can serve as an adequate model for studying molecular mechanisms underlying gravitational effects upon animal morphogenesis.

Grigoryan, Eleonora N.; Dvorochkin, Natasha; Radugina, Elena A.; Poplinskaya, Valentina; Novikova, Julia; Almeida, Eduardo


Circadian organization of an animal lacking a pineal organ; the young American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circadian rhythms were examined in young American alligators,Alligator mississippiensis, an animal that naturally lacks a pineal organ. Individual alligators displayed persistent, stable, free-running circadian activity rhythms under both constant darkness and constant illumination. Free-running activity was entrained by 24 h light-dark cycles. The circadian period length was also temperature compensated, with Q10's of 1.0–1.40 obtained for a 22–32 °C interval.

Martin Kavaliers; Charles L. Ralph



Position paper Natural living—a precondition for animal welfare in organic farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses animal welfare in organic farming systems in relation to values and aims in organic farming. It sums up experiences from a 4-year interdisciplinary project. An important finding is that animal welfare is understood somewhat differently in organic farming from what is common in conventional agriculture. It is interpreted in terms of natural living, which includes the possibility

Vonne Lund


Natural living—a precondition for animal welfare in organic farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses animal welfare in organic farming systems in relation to values and aims in organic farming. It sums up experiences from a 4-year interdisciplinary project. An important finding is that animal welfare is understood somewhat differently in organic farming from what is common in conventional agriculture. It is interpreted in terms of natural living, which includes the possibility

Vonne Lund



14 CFR 125.245 - Organization required to perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Organization required to perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration. 125.245 Section 125...RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Maintenance § 125.245 Organization required to...



Animal model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproate: altered glutamate metabolism in the hippocampus.  


Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by deficits in social interaction, language and communication impairments and repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, with involvement of several areas of the central nervous system (CNS), including hippocampus. Although neurons have been the target of most studies reported in the literature, recently, considerable attention has been centered upon the functionality and plasticity of glial cells, particularly astrocytes. These cells participate in normal brain development and also in neuropathological processes. The present work investigated hippocampi from 15 (P15) and 120 (P120) days old male rats prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA) as an animal model of autism. Herein, we analyzed astrocytic parameters such as glutamate transporters and glutamate uptake, glutamine synthetase (GS) activity and glutathione (GSH) content. In the VPA group glutamate uptake was unchanged at P15 and increased 160% at P120; the protein expression of GLAST did not change neither in P15 nor in P120, while GLT1 decreased 40% at P15 and increased 92% at P120; GS activity increased 43% at P15 and decreased 28% at P120; GSH content was unaltered at P15 and had a 27% increase at P120. These data highlight that the astrocytic clearance and destination of glutamate in the synaptic cleft might be altered in autism, pointing out important aspects to be considered from both pathophysiologic and pharmacological approaches in ASD. PMID:23219577

Bristot Silvestrin, Roberta; Bambini-Junior, Victorio; Galland, Fabiana; Daniele Bobermim, Larissa; Quincozes-Santos, André; Torres Abib, Renata; Zanotto, Caroline; Batassini, Cristiane; Brolese, Giovana; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto; Riesgo, Rudimar; Gottfried, Carmem



Ferritin gene organization: Differences between plants and animals suggest possible kingdom-specific selective constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferritin, a protein widespread in nature, concentrates iron ?1011?1012-fold above the solubility within a spherical shell of 24 subunits; it derives in plants and animals from a common ancestor\\u000a (based on sequence) but displays a cytoplasmic location in animals compared to the plastid in contemporary plants. Ferritin\\u000a gene regulation in plants and animals is altered by development, hormones, and excess

D. Proudhon; J. Wei; J.-F. Briat; E. C. Theil



Complex organic chemical balms of Pharaonic animal mummies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of votive mummies of mammals, birds and reptiles were produced throughout ancient Egypt, with their popularity increasing during the reign of Amenhotep III (1400 BC) and thereafter. The scale of production has been taken to indicate that relatively little care and expense was involved in their preparation compared with human mummies. The accepted view is that animals were merely

Stephen A. Buckley; Katherine A. Clark; Richard P. Evershed



Toxic Effect of High Oxygen Pressures on the Animal Organism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Blood transfusion from an animal subjected to compressed oxygen and showing a series of convulsive seizures did not produce an oxygen poisoning syndrome in the recipient in the small doses employed. At high oxygen pressures an increase in blood sugar is o...

I. M. Ivanov B. D. Kraychinskii S. I. Prikladovitskii V. R. Sonin



Towards sustainable management of rodents in organic animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 26 to 28 May 2004 an international seminar was held in Wageningen, the Netherlands, about current knowledge and advice on rodent management on organic pig and poultry farms in Western Europe. This paper summarizes the discussions. Rodent management is necessary to protect the food production chain from health hazards to livestock and humans. Some organic farmers prefer biological rodent

B. G. Meerburg; M. Bonde; F. W. A. Brom; S. Endepols; A. N. Jensen; H. Leirs; J. Lodal; G. R. Singleton; H.-J. Pelz; T. B. Rodenburg; A. Kijlstra



Towards sustainable management of rodents in organic animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 26 to 28 May 2004 an international seminar was held in Wageningen, the Netherlands, about current knowledge and advice on rodent management on organic pig and poultry farms in Western Europe. This paper summarizes the discussions. Rodent management is necessary to protect the food production chain from health hazards to livestock and humans. Some organic farmers prefer biological rodent

B. G. Meerburg; M. Bonde; F. W. A. Brom; S. Endepols; A. N. Jensen; H. Leirs; J. Lodal; G. R. Singleton; H.-J. Pelz; T. B. Rodenburg; A. Kijlstra



[Effects of indol-3-carbinol and epigallocatexin-3-gallate on alteration and reparation in affected urethra of experimental animals].  


The effects of indol-3-carbinol and epigallocatexin-3-gallate on alteration and reparation in the urethra were studied in 30 male Shinshilla rabbits. From the observation day 2 the rabbits were fed with indol-3-carbinol and epigallocatexin-3-gallate in addition to standard diet. Microcirculation was assessed with a laser analyzer of capillary circulation LAKK-01 which detected earlier recovery of microcirculation in the group of the animals fed with indol-3-carbinol and epigallocatexin-3-gallate. Thus, antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of indol-3-carbinol and epigallocatexin-3-gallate improve alteration and reparation in affected urethra due to development of soft elastic connective tissue with better capillary circulation. PMID:20209866

Pavlov, V N; Kazikhinurov, A A; Safiullin, R I; Kazikhinurov, R A; Kutushev, K G; Valiev, I R



Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Right from its inception, a main strength of Flash has been its animation capabilities. Despite the arrival of ActionScript\\u000a programming shifting the focus somewhat, animation (or tweening in Flash authoring terms) is still considered a core feature of Flash. As yet, we have no timeline functionality for animating\\u000a 3D objects aside from some limited 2.5 effects (the “postcards in space”

Rob Bateman; Richard Olsson



Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ah, animation! Where would we be without the likes of Disney, Warner Bros., Walter Lanz, Hanna-Barbera, and dozens more like\\u000a them? For many people, animation is the reason to get involved with Flash as a creative outlet. This makes perfect sense, because Flash began life more than a decade ago\\u000a as an animation tool. Supplemental features like ActionScript, XML parsing,

Tom Green; David Stiller



EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT During mammalian sexual differentiation, the androgens, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone are critical for the organization of the male phenotype. In rats, play behavior is sexually dimorphic. Administration of exogenous androgens during the perinatal period r...


Alteration and Formation of Organic Molecules via Hypervelocity Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectral analyses of residues from polystyrene impactors on Al foils show the presence of intact polystyrene, carbon, and an unknown organic that is tentatively identified as a metal phthalate created during the hypervelocity impact.

Price, M. C.; Burchell, M.; Kearsley, A. T.; Cole, M. J.



Efficient quantitative morphological phenotyping of genetically altered organisms using stereology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetically modified organisms present the challenge of quantifying structures and functions in organs, tissues and cells.\\u000a Morphological investigation is greatly facilitated by taking sections in MRI, CAT scanning, histological preparations or EM,\\u000a and powerful unbiased quantitative tools called stereology can use these sections in a sampling based approach to measure\\u000a volume, number surface and length. Stereological tools have become methods

John Milton Lucocq



[Method for endogenous formaldehyde evaluation in animal organism].  


A method for endogenous formaldehyde (FA) level evaluation has been worked out. The method involves the administration of dimedone, which forms the stable complex with FA, and the determination of formaldimedone concentration in biological samples by the fluorescence approach. The method was tested on rat's models of FA metabolism modulation. Animals received FA (10 mg/kg); or methylamine - substrate of FA-generating enzyme SSAO, (250 mg/kg); or semicarbazide - SSAO inhibitor, (200 mg/kg). Concentration of FA bound with dimedone in the liver tissue were, correspondingly: 7.5 +/- 1.5 mkg/kg; 5.4 +/- 0.9 mkg/kg; 2.4 +/- 0.7 mkg/kg; control - 4.2 +/- 1.4 mkg/kg. Obtained data indicate, that the elaborated method gives reliable information about FA level. PMID:22364027

Shandrenko, C H; Savchuk, M M; Dmytrenko, M P


Effectiveness of animal-assisted therapy interventions in altering childhood aggressive behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to better understand the human-animal bond and how that unique relationship can be helpful to clinicians. Specifically, this study looked at how forming a relationship with an animal can help decrease aggressive behaviors in children and adolescents. Of the 210 participants, by gender, 57 were identified as female and 153 as male. By grade

Lucinda Long



The Concept of Animal Welfare at the Interface between Producers and Scientists: The Example of Organic Pig Farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In organic farming animal welfare is one important aspect included in the internationally agreed organic principles of health,\\u000a ecology, fairness and care (IFOAM 2006), reflecting expectation of consumers and farmers. The definition of organic animal welfare includes—besides traditional\\u000a terms of animal welfare—‘regeneration’ and ‘naturalness’. Organic animal welfare assessment needs to reflect this and use\\u000a complex parameters, include natural behaviour and

Christine Leeb



Main achievements of the World Organisation for Animal Health/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization network on animal influenza.  


The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) joint network of expertise on animal influenza (OFFLU) includes all ten OIE/FAO reference laboratories and collaborating centers for avian influenza, other diagnostic laboratories, research and academic institutions, and experts in the fields of virology, epidemiology, vaccinology, and molecular biology. OFFLU has made significant progress in improving its infrastructure, in identifying and addressing technical gaps, and in establishing associations among leading veterinary institutions. Interaction with the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Influenza Program is also critical, and mechanisms for permanent interaction are being developed. OFFLU played a key role in the WHO/OIE/FAO Joint Technical Consultation held in Verona (October 7-9, 2008), which provided an opportunity to highlight and share knowledge and identify potential gaps regarding issues at the human-animal interface for avian influenza. OFFLU experts also contributed to the working group for the Unified Nomenclature System for H5N1 influenza viruses based on hemagglutinin gene phylogeny (WHO/OIE/FAO, H5N1 Evolution Working Group, Towards a unified nomenclature system for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in Emerging Infectious Diseases 14:el, 2008). OFFLU technical activities, led by expert scientists from OIE/FAO reference institutions and coordinated by OIE and FAO focal points, have been prioritized to include commercial diagnostic kit evaluation, applied epidemiology, biosafety, vaccination, proficiency testing, development of standardized reference materials for sera and RNA, and issues at the human-animal interface. The progress to date and future plans for these groups will be presented. OFFLU is also involved in two national projects implemented by FAO in Indonesia and Egypt that seek to establish sustainable mechanisms for monitoring virus circulation, including viral characterization, and for streamlining the process to update poultry vaccines for avian influenza. PMID:20521664

Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Hamilton, Keith; Kim, L Mia; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Capua, Ilaria; Edwards, Steve



Organic farming in the Nordic countries--animal health and production.  


Organic farming (or ecological agriculture) is of growing importance in the agricultural sector worldwide. In the Nordic countries, 1-10% of the arable land was in organic production in 1999. Organic farming can be seen as an approach to agriculture where the aim is to create integrated, humane, environmentally and economically sustainable agricultural production systems. Principles like nutrient recycling, prevention rather than treatment and the precautionary principle are included in aims and standards. Animal welfare is another hallmark of organic livestock production but despite this, several studies have indicated severe health problems e.g. in organic poultry production in Denmark. Also the quality of animal food products in relation to human health, particularly the risk of zoonotic infections, has been debated. For these reasons there is a need for improvement of production methods and animal health status. Vets play an important role in this development through work in clinical practice and in research. On-farm consultancy should be tailored to the individual farmers needs, and the practitioner should be willing to take up new ideas and when needed, to enter a critical dialogue in relation to animal welfare. Better base line data on animal health and food safety in organic food systems are needed. PMID:11995394

Thamsborg, S M



Organ concentration quantification for small animal PET images by registration with a statistical mouse atlas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on quantification of probe concentration in major organs of small animal micro-PET images. In order to delineate organ ROIs, a statistical mouse atlas is registered to the micro-PET image. This statistical atlas is trained from 22 organ-labeled micro-CT images using Principle Component Analysis (PCA). By tuning the shape-controlling parameters of the atlas, we are able to adapt

Hongkai Wang; David B. Stout; Arion F. Chatziioannou



Effects of lithium on oxidative stress and behavioral alterations induced by lisdexamfetamine dimesylate: relevance as an animal model of mania.  


Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a prodrug that requires conversion to d-amphetamine (d-AMPH) for bioactivity. Treatment with d-AMPH induces hyperlocomotion and is regarded as a putative animal model of bipolar mania. Therefore, we sought to determine the behavioral and oxidative stress alterations induced by sub-chronic LDX administration as well as their reversal and prevention by lithium in rats. A significant increment in locomotor behavior was induced by LDX (10 and 30 mg/kg). To determine Li effects against LDX-induced alterations, in the reversal protocol rats received LDX (10 or 30 mg/kg) or saline for 14 days. Between days 8 and 14 animals received Li (47.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline. In the prevention paradigm, rats were pretreated with Li or saline prior to LDX administration. Glutathione (GSH) levels and lipid peroxidation was determined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HC) and striatum (ST) of rats. Lithium prevented LDX-induced hyperlocomotion at the doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg, but only reversed LDX-induced hyperlocomotion at dose of 10mg/kg. In addition, both doses of LDX decreased GSH content (in ST and PFC), while Li was able to reverse and prevent these alterations mainly in the PFC. LDX (10 and 30 mg/kg) increased lipid peroxidation which was reversed and prevented by Li. In conclusion, LDX-induced hyperlocomotion along with associated increments in oxidative stress show promise as an alternative animal model of mania. PMID:23333378

Macêdo, Danielle S; de Lucena, David F; Queiroz, Ana Isabelle G; Cordeiro, Rafaela C; Araújo, Maíra M; Sousa, Francisca Cléa; Vasconcelos, Silvânia M; Hyphantis, Thomas N; Quevedo, João; McIntyre, Roger S; Carvalho, André F



Lipidosis-Like cellular alterations in lymphatic tissues of chlorphentermine-treated animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The ultrastructure of popliteal lymph nodes of rats was examined after ora administration of the anorectic drug chlorphentermine,\\u000a which has been demonstrated previously to cause lipidosis-like alterations in various other tissues. After 1 to 2 weeks of\\u000a drug treatment (40 mg\\/kg b.w. daily) the great majority of plasma cells, lymphocytes, and reticulum cells contained membrane-bound\\u000a lamellated inclusion bodies with a

Renate Liillmann-Raueh; Norbert Pietschmann



Experimentally increased snow accumulation alters soil moisture and animal community structure in a polar desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snow accumulation can influence soil properties in arctic and alpine tundra, boreal and temperate forests, and temperate grasslands.\\u000a However, snow may be even more influential in arid ecosystems, which by definition are water limited, such as the hyper-arid\\u000a polar desert of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Moreover, snow accumulation may be altered by climate change in the future.\\u000a In order

Edward Ayres; Johnson N. Nkem; Diana H. Wall; Byron J. Adams; J. E. Barrett; Breana L. Simmons; Ross A. Virginia; Andrew G. Fountain



Aposymbiotic culture of the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes: role of the symbiotic bacterium Vibrio fischeri in host animal growth, development, and light organ morphogenesis.  


The sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes forms a bioluminescent mutualism with the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri, harboring V. fischeri cells in a complex ventral light organ and using the bacterial light in predator avoidance. To characterize the contribution of V. fischeri to the growth and development of E. scolopes and to define the long-term effects of bacterial colonization on light organ morphogenesis, we developed a mariculture system for the culture of E. scolopes from hatching to adulthood, employing artificial seawater, lighting that mimicked that of the natural environment, and provision of prey sized to match the developmental stage of E. scolopes. Animals colonized by V. fischeri and animals cultured in the absence of V. fischeri (aposymbiotic) grew and survived equally well, developed similarly, and reached sexual maturity at a similar age. Development of the light organ accessory tissues (lens, reflectors, and ink sac) was similar in colonized and aposymbiotic animals with no obvious morphometric or histological differences. Colonization by V. fischeri influenced regression of the ciliated epithelial appendages (CEAs), the long-term growth of the light organ epithelial tubules, and the appearance of the cells composing the ciliated ducts, which exhibit characteristics of secretory tissue. In certain cases, aposymbiotic animals retained the CEAs in a partially regressed state and remained competent to initiate symbiosis with V. fischeri into adulthood. In other cases, the CEAs regressed fully in aposymbiotic animals, and these animals were not colonizable. The results demonstrate that V. fischeri is not required for normal growth and development of the animal or for development of the accessory light organ tissues and that morphogenesis of only those tissues coming in contact with the bacteria (CEAs, ciliated ducts, and light organ epithelium) is altered by bacterial colonization of the light organ. Therefore, V. fischeri apparently makes no major metabolic contribution to E. scolopes beyond light production, and post-embryonic development of the light organ is essentially symbiont independent. J. Exp. Zool. 286:280-296, 2000. PMID:10653967

Claes, M F; Dunlap, P V



Unusual organic osmolytes in deep-sea animals: adaptations to hydrostatic pressure and other perturbants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shallow-living marine invertebrates use free amino acids as cellular osmolytes, while most teleosts use almost no organic osmolytes. Recently we found unusual osmolyte compositions in deep-sea animals. Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) increases with depth in muscles of some teleosts, skates, and crustaceans (up to 300 mmol\\/kg at 2900 m). Other deep-sea animals had high levels of (1) scyllo-inositol in echinoderms, gastropods,

Paul H Yancey; Wendy R Blake; James Conley



Animal Toxins Can Alter the Function of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9  

PubMed Central

Human voltage-activated sodium (Nav) channels are adept at rapidly transmitting electrical signals across long distances in various excitable tissues. As such, they are amongst the most widely targeted ion channels by drugs and animal toxins. Of the nine isoforms, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are preferentially expressed in DRG neurons where they are thought to play an important role in pain signaling. Although the functional properties of Nav1.8 have been relatively well characterized, difficulties with expressing Nav1.9 in established heterologous systems limit our understanding of the gating properties and toxin pharmacology of this particular isoform. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the role of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 in pain perception and elaborates on the approaches used to identify molecules capable of influencing their function.

Gilchrist, John; Bosmans, Frank



Aerobic Exercise Alters Analgesia and Neurotrophin-3 Synthesis in an Animal Model of Chronic Widespread Pain  

PubMed Central

Background Present literature and clinical practice provide strong support for the use of aerobic exercise in reducing pain and improving function for individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain syndromes. However, the molecular basis for the positive actions of exercise remains poorly understood. Recent studies suggest that neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) may act in an analgesic fashion in various pain states. Objective The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on pain-like behavior and NT-3 in an animal model of widespread pain. Design This was a repeated-measures, observational cross-sectional study. Methods Forty female mice were injected with either normal (pH 7.2; n=20) or acidic (pH 4.0; n=20) saline in the gastrocnemius muscle to induce widespread hyperalgesia and exercised for 3 weeks. Cutaneous (von Frey monofilament) and muscular (forceps compression) mechanical sensitivity were assessed. Neurotrophin-3 was quantified in 2 hind-limb skeletal muscles for both messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels after exercise training. Data were analyzed with 2-factor analysis of variance for repeated measures (group × time). Results Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise reduced cutaneous and deep tissue hyperalgesia induced by acidic saline and stimulated NT-3 synthesis in skeletal muscle. The increase in NT-3 was more pronounced at the protein level compared with mRNA expression. In addition, the increase in NT-3 protein was significant in the gastrocnemius muscle but not in the soleus muscle, suggesting that exercise can preferentially target NT-3 synthesis in specific muscle types. Limitations Results are limited to animal models and cannot be generalized to chronic pain syndromes in humans. Conclusions This is the first study demonstrating the effect of exercise on deep tissue mechanical hyperalgesia in a rodent model of pain and providing a possible molecular basis for exercise training in reducing muscular pain.

Ryals, Janelle M.; Gajewski, Byron J.; Wright, Douglas E.



Thermal alteration of organic matter during a shrubland fire: A field study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation fires profoundly alter the C cycle of terrestrial ecosystems, notably through the potential formation of highly stable pyrogenic structures. Fire-induced changes in the structure of organic matter (OM) have been studied mainly under controlled laboratory conditions. The objective of this work was to characterise changes in OM chemistry occurring in the litter layer of a scrub–oak ecosystem subjected to

M. A. Alexis; C. Rumpel; H. Knicker; J. Leifeld; D. Rasse; N. Péchot; G. Bardoux; A. Mariotti



Organic compound alteration during hypervelocity collection of carbonaceous materials in aerogel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Stardust mission brought to Earth micron-size particles from the coma of comet 81P/Wild 2 using aerogel, a porous silica material, as the capture medium. A major challenge in understanding the organic inventory of the returned comet dust is identifying, unambiguously, which organic molecules are indigenous to the cometary particles, which are produced from carbon contamination in the Stardust aerogel, and which are cometary organics that have been modified by heating during the particle capture process. Here it is shown that 1) alteration of cometary organic molecules along impact tracks in aerogel is highly dependent on the original particle morphology, and 2) organic molecules on test-shot terminal particles are mostly preserved. These conclusions are based on two-step laser mass spectrometry (L2MS) examinations of test shots with organic-laden particles (both tracks in aerogel and the terminal particles themselves).

Spencer, M. K.; Clemett, S. J.; Sandford, S. A.; McKay, D. S.; Zare, R. N.




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Phosphatase hydrolysis has been emerging as an alternative tool to characterize organic phosphorus in soil, animal manure, and other sources. Whereas many phosphate-releasing enzymes have been used for this purpose, the variety of the enzymes and incubation conditions often complicate data analyses ...


Short Animation Movies as Advance Organizers in Physics Teaching: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Advance organizers are instructional materials that help students use previous knowledge to make links with new information. Short animation movies are a possible format and are well suited for physics, as they can portray dynamic phenomena and represent abstract concepts. Purpose: The study aimed to determine guidelines for the…

Koscianski, Andre; Ribeiro, Rafael Joao; da Silva, Sani Carvalho Rutz



Characterizing and mitigating emissions of volatile organic compounds from animal feeding operations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from animal feeding operations negatively impact local and potentially regional air quality though the release of both odorous and ozone precursor molecules. Characterizing emissions of VOCs from AFOs is strongly influenced by both the method and location of ...


What's Inside Bodies? Learning about Skeletons and Other Organ Systems of Vertebrate Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes a study of young children's understanding of what is on the inside of animals--skeletons and other organ systems. The study uses 2-D drawings based on the idea that a drawing is the representational model and is the outward expression of the mental model. The 617 drawings made by participants in the study were awarded one of…

Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael


Formation of Meteoritic Organic Molecules by Aqueous Alteration of Interstellar Carbonaceous Materials: a Laboratory Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been proposed as a component of interstellar dust. PAHs have also been positively identified in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and in carbonaceous meteorites. Many such meteorites show strong evidence for aqueous alteration of their mineral phases, which can be spatially correlated to the presence of organics. This suggests the possibility that PAHs, incorporated into a meteorite parent body, may have been altered along with neighboring minerals and other constituents in the presence of liquid water. We present preliminary results of the alteration of a laboratory analog of interstellar carbonaceous dust, produced by processing naphthalene in a hydrogen plasma, by exposing it to water at elevated temperature (100, 150, and 200 C) and pressure in a sealed container for 24 hours. This is a simulation of pressure capping during the accretion of the parent body. The high temperatures chosen here bring water near its critical point, at which it becomes extremely reactive. One sign of this reactivity is seen in the observed color of the aqueously altered product, changing from golden yellow (original color) to black at 200 C. Comparison of the infrared spectra of the original dust analog with those of the aqueously altered product show an oxidation feature at 1700 cm-1, present in all three products but absent in the dust analog. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of the aqueously altered product, refluxed in tetrahydrafuran, shows a variety of low retention peaks (<600 s), absent in the original dust analog.

Saperstein, E.; Arnoult, K. M.; Wdowiak, T. J.; Gerakines, P. A.



ROCK inhibition prevents fetal serum-induced alteration in structure and function of organ-cultured mesenteric artery.  


Chronic treatment with fetal bovine serum (FBS) causes contractility reduction, morphological alteration and DNA synthesis in organ-cultured vascular tissues. Here, we tested the hypothesis that chronic inhibition of ROCK has a protective effect on FBS-induced alterations in small arteries. Rabbit mesenteric arterial rings were cultured in FBS-supplemented culture medium with or without Y-27632, a reversible ROCK inhibitor. Chronic Y-27632 treatment prevented FBS-induced gradual arterial constriction, wall thickening, reduced contractility, and increased ROCK-specific MYPT1 Thr853 phosphorylation. Treatment with Y-27632 also prevented decreased eNOS mRNA expression, and reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation. Sudden application of Y-27632 to pre-cultured rings reduced MYPT1 phosphorylation and re-widened the constricted rings. Chronic treatment with Y-27632, however, rather augmented than reduced the FBS-induced RhoA over-expression, also increased ROCK1 and MYPT1 expression and averted the FBS-induced reduction of MLC expression, suggesting a compensation of inhibited RhoA/ROCK activity. Sudden removal of Y-27632 caused a rebound in MYPT1 phosphorylation and vasoconstriction in rabbit mesenteric artery. To test which ROCK isoform has greater involvement in FBS-induced contraction, haploinsufficient Rock1+/- and Rock2+/- mouse mesenteric arterial rings were subjected to organ-culture. FBS-induced contraction and RhoA over-expression in either heterozygous animal was not different from wild-type animals. These results suggest that FBS-induced contraction is mediated by up-regulation of RhoA and subsequent activation of ROCK. In conclusion, chronic ROCK inhibition produces some effects that protect against FBS-stimulated vasoconstriction and remodeling. There are also negative effects that a sudden withdrawal of ROCK inhibitor might cause a stronger vasoconstriction than before it was used. PMID:21643972

Huh, Yang Hoon; Zhou, Qian; Liao, James K; Kitazawa, Toshio



Thermal alterations of organic matter in coal wastes from Upper Silesia, Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-heating and self-combustion are currently taking place in some coal waste dumps in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland, e.g. the dumps at Rymer Cones, Starzykowiec, and the Marcel Coal Mine, all in the Rybnik area. These dumps are of similar age and self-heating and combustion have been occurring in all three for many years. The tools of organic petrography (maceral composition, rank, etc.), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and proximate and ultimate analysis are used to investigate the wastes. Organic matter occurs in quantities up to 85 vol.%, typically a few to several vol.%, in the wastes. All three maceral groups (vitrinite, liptinite, and inertinite) are present as unaltered and variously-altered constituents associated with newly-formed petrographic components (bitumen expulsions, pyrolytic carbon). The predominant maceral group is vitrinite with alterations reflected in the presence of irregular cracks, oxidation rims and, rarely, devolatilisation pores. In altered wastes, paler grey-vitrinite and/or coke dominates. The lack of plasticity, the presence of paler-coloured particles, isotropic massive coke, dispersed coked organic matter, and expulsions of bitumens all indicate that heating was slow and extended over a long time. Macerals belonging to other groups are present in unaltered form or with colours paler than the colours of the parent macerals. Based on the relative contents of organic compounds, the most important groups of these identified in the wastes are n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, hopanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives, phenol and its derivatives. These compounds occur in all wastes except those most highly altered where they were probably destroyed by high temperatures. These compounds were generated mainly from liptinite-group macerals. Driven by evaporation and leaching, they migrated within and out of the dump. Their presence in some wastes in which microscopically visible organic matter is lacking suggests that they originated elsewhere and subsequently migrated through the dump piles. During their migration, the compounds fractionated, were adsorbed on minerals and/or interacted. The absence of alkenes, and of other unsaturated organic compounds, may reflect primary diagenetic processes that occurred in coals and coal shales during burial and/or organic matter type. Their absence may also be a consequence of heating that lasted many years, hydropyrolysis, and/or the participation of minerals in the reactions occurring within the dumps. The wastes contain compounds typical of organic matter of unaltered kerogen III type and the products of pyrolytic processes, and mixtures of both. In some wastes, organic compounds are completely absent having been destroyed by severe heating. The distributions of n-alkanes in many samples are typical of pyrolysates. In some wastes, narrow n-alkane distributions reflect their generation over small temperature ranges. In others, wider distributions point to greater temperature ranges. Other wastes contain n-alkane distributions typical of unaltered coal and high pristane content or mixtures of pyrolysates and unaltered waste material. The wastes also contain significant amounts of final ?? hopanes. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are represented only by two- to five-ring compounds as is typical of the thermal alteration of hard coal. Correlations between the degree of organic matter alteration and the relative contents of individual PAHs and hopanes and geochemical indicators of thermal alteration are generally poor. The properties of the organic matter (its composition and rank), temperature fluctuations within the dumps, migration of organic compounds and mineral involvement are probably responsible for this. The processes taking place in coal waste dumps undergoing self-heating and self-combustion are complicated; they are very difficult to estimate and define. The methods of org

Misz-Kennan, Magdalena



Enhancement of organ regeneration in animal models by a stem cell-stimulating plant mixture.  


Adult stem cells play an important role in the regeneration of damaged organs. Attempts have already been made to enhance stem cell production by cytokines, in order to increase the improvement of cardiac functions after myocardial infarction. In our present study we investigated the possibility whether instead of cytokine injection dietary stimulation of stem cell production accelerates the organ regeneration in animals. A dietary supplement, Olimpiq StemXCell (Crystal Institute Ltd., Eger, Hungary), containing plant extracts (previously proved to increase the number of circulating CD34(+) cells) was consumed in human equivalent doses by the experimental animals. In the first experiment carbon tetrachloride was applied to CBA/Ca mice, to induce liver damage, and liver weights between StemXCell-fed and control animals were compared 10 days after the treatment. In the second model experimental diabetes was induced in F344 rats by alloxan. Blood sugar levels were measured for 5 weeks in the control and StemXCell-fed groups. The third part of the study investigated the effect of StemXCell on cardiac functions. Eight weeks after causing a myocardial infarction in Wistar rats by isoproterenol, left ventricular ejection fraction was determined as a functional parameter of myocardial regeneration. In all three animal models StemXCell consumption statistically significantly improved the organ regeneration (relative liver weights, 4.78 +/-0.06 g/100 g vs. 4.97 +/- 0.07 g/100 g; blood sugar levels at week 5, 16 +/- 1.30 mmol/L vs. 10.2 +/- 0.92 mmol/L; ejection fraction, 57.5 +/- 2.23 vs. 68.2 +/- 4.94; controls vs. treated animals, respectively). Our study confirms the hypothesis that dietary enhancement of stem cell production may protect against organ injuries and helps in the regeneration. PMID:20406138

Kiss, István; Tibold, Antal; Halmosi, Róbert; Bartha, Eva; Koltai, Katalin; Orsós, Zsuzsanna; Bujdosó, László; Ember, István



Ineffective delivery of diet-derived microRNAs to recipient animal organisms.  


Cross-kingdom delivery of specific microRNAs to recipient organisms via food ingestion has been reported recently. However, it is unclear if such delivery of microRNAs occurs frequently in animal organisms after typical dietary intake. We found substantial levels of specific microRNAs in diets commonly consumed orally by humans, mice, and honey bees. Yet, after ingestion of fruit replete with plant microRNAs (MIR156a, MIR159a, and MIR169a), a cohort of healthy athletes did not carry detectable plasma levels of those molecules. Similarly, despite consumption of a diet with animal fat replete in endogenous miR-21, negligible expression of miR-21 in plasma or organ tissue was observed in miR-21 -/- recipient mice. Correspondingly, when fed vegetarian diets containing the above plant microRNAs, wild-type recipient mice expressed insignificant levels of these microRNAs. Finally, despite oral uptake of pollen containing these plant microRNAs, negligible delivery of these molecules was observed in recipient honeybees. Therefore, we conclude that horizontal delivery of microRNAs via typical dietary ingestion is neither a robust nor a frequent mechanism to maintain steady-state microRNA levels in a variety of model animal organisms, thus defining the biological limits of these molecules in vivo. PMID:23669076

Snow, Jonathan W; Hale, Andrew E; Isaacs, Stephanie K; Baggish, Aaron L; Chan, Stephen Y



Lipid biomarkers for heterotrophic alteration of suspended particulate organic matter in oxygenated and anoxic water columns of the ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid, sterol and hydrocarbon composition of suspended particles from the central North Pacific VERTEX IV site and from the Black Sea were used to investigate the abundance of biomarkers produced by heterotrophic alteration of particulate organic matter (POM). At the oceanic VERTEX site, bacterial alteration of organic matter did not contribute significant amounts of diagnostic lipids to particles,

Stuart G. Wakeham



The alteration of organic matter in response to ionising irradiation: Chemical trends and implications for extraterrestrial sample analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionising radiation is an energy source capable of generating and altering complex organic matter. A full understanding of the radiolytic formation and evolution of organic matter is essential to appreciate the budget of organic chemicals that exist in cometary and interstellar ices, carbonaceous meteorites, and to understand the results of analyses of irradiated extraterrestrial organic matter, such as that in

Richard W. Court; Mark A. Sephton; John Parnell; Iain Gilmour



Modeling self-organization in pedestrians and animal groups from macroscopic and microscopic viewpoints  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper is concerned with mathematical modeling of intelligent systems, such as human crowds and animal groups. In particular,\\u000a the focus is on the emergence of different self-organized patterns from nonlocality and anisotropy of the interactions among\\u000a individuals. A mathematical technique by time-evolving measures is introduced to deal with both macroscopic and microscopic\\u000a scales within a unified modeling framework. Then

Emiliano Cristiani; Benedetto Piccoli; Andrea Tosin



Animal Health Challenges and Veterinary Aspects of Organic Livestock Farming Identified Through a 3 Year EU Network Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 2003-2006, an EU network project 'Sustaining Animal Health and Food Safety in Organic Farming' (SAFO), was carried out with 26 partners from 20 EU-countries and 4 related partners from 4 candidate or new member states. The focus was the integration of animal health and welfare issues in organic farming with food safety aspects. Four very consistent conclusions became apparent:

Mette Vaarst; Susanne Padel; David Younie; Malla Hovi; Albert Sundrum; Caroline Rymer



Stage-dependent alterations of progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis in an animal model of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome  

PubMed Central

Alcohol-induced Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) culminates in bilateral diencephalic lesion and severe amnesia. Using the pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) animal paradigm of WKS, our laboratory has demonstrated hippocampal dysfunction in the absence of gross anatomical pathology. Extensive literature has revealed reduced hippocampal neurogenesis following a neuropathological insult, which might contribute to hippocampus-based learning and memory impairments. Thus, the current investigation was conducted to determine whether PTD treatment altered hippocampal neurogenesis in a stage-dependent fashion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of 4 stages of thiamine deficiency based on behavioral symptoms: pre-symptomatic stage, ataxic stage, early post-opisthotonus stage, or the late post-opisthotonus stage. The S-phase mitotic marker 5?-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered at the conclusion of each stage following thiamine restoration and subjects were perfused 24-hours or 28-days after BrdU to assess cellular proliferation or neurogenesis and survival, respectively. Dorsal hippocampal sections were immunostained for BrdU (proliferating cell marker), NeuN (neurons), GFAP (astrocytes), Iba-1 (microglia), and O4 (oligodendrocytes). The PTD treatment increased progenitor cell proliferation and survival during the early post-opisthotonus stage. However, levels of neurogenesis were reduced during this stage as well as the late post-opisthotonus stage where there was also an increase in astrocytogenesis. The diminished numbers of newly generated neurons (BrdU/NeuN co-localization) was paralleled by increased BrdU cells that did not co-localize with any of the phenotypic markers during these later stages. These data demonstrate that long-term alterations in neurogenesis and gliogenesis might contribute to the observed hippocampal dysfunction in the PTD model and human WKS.

Vetreno, Ryan P.; Klintsova, Anna; Savage, Lisa M.



The concept of animal welfare at the interface between producers and scientists: the example of organic pig farming.  


In organic farming animal welfare is one important aspect included in the internationally agreed organic principles of health, ecology, fairness and care (IFOAM 2006), reflecting expectation of consumers and farmers. The definition of organic animal welfare includes-besides traditional terms of animal welfare-'regeneration' and 'naturalness'. Organic animal welfare assessment needs to reflect this and use complex parameters, include natural behaviour and a systemic view. Furthermore, various parties with seemingly conflicting interests are involved, causing ethical dilemmas, such as the use of nose rings for outdoor sows (impaired animal welfare vs. destruction of humus). Solutions can only be found when foundational concepts are translated and applied to practical situations. On-farm animal welfare assessment and implementation of improvement strategies are increasingly relevant scientific areas. They combine on-farm welfare assessment, identification of key problem areas and connected risk factors. Constant communication between all parties is crucial for success. Animal health and welfare planning is one application of this approach, which was carried out on Austrian organic pig farms as well as organic dairy farms in seven European countries. The projects included welfare assessment, feedback and benchmarking as a tool for communication between farmers, advisors and scientists. Finally goals were set by the farmer and improvement strategies applicable to organic farming were implemented. This included prevention of disease by management strategies instead of routine treatment with pharmaceutical products. It appeared that next to problem structuring, multidisciplinary problem solving demands good communications skills to relate animal welfare science to value reflections. PMID:21559784

Leeb, Christine



Altered modular organization of structural cortical networks in children with autism.  


Autism is a complex developmental disability that characterized by deficits in social interaction, language skills, repetitive stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests. Although great heterogeneity exists, previous findings suggest that autism has atypical brain connectivity patterns and disrupted small-world network properties. However, the organizational alterations in the autistic brain network are still poorly understood. We explored possible organizational alterations of 49 autistic children and 51 typically developing controls, by investigating their brain network metrics that are constructed upon cortical thickness correlations. Three modules were identified in controls, including cortical regions associated with brain functions of executive strategic, spatial/auditory/visual, and self-reference/episodic memory. There are also three modules found in autistic children with similar patterns. Compared with controls, autism demonstrates significantly reduced gross network modularity, and a larger number of inter-module connections. However, the autistic brain network demonstrates increased intra- and inter-module connectivity in brain regions including middle frontal gyrus, inferior parietal gyrus, and cingulate, suggesting one underlying compensatory mechanism associated with brain functions of self-reference and episodic memory. Results also show that there is increased correlation strength between regions inside frontal lobe, as well as impaired correlation strength between frontotemporal and frontoparietal regions. This alteration of correlation strength may contribute to the organization alteration of network structures in autistic brains. PMID:23675456

Shi, Feng; Wang, Li; Peng, Ziwen; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Shen, Dinggang



Alteration of bacterial communities and organic matter in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) supplied with soil and organic fertilizer.  


The alteration of the organic matter (OM) and the composition of bacterial community in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) supplied with soil (S) and a composted organic fertilizer (A) was examined at the beginning and at the end of 3 weeks of incubation under current-producing as well as no-current-producing conditions. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed a significant alteration of the microbial community structure in MFCs generating electricity as compared with no-current-producing MFCs. The genetic diversity of cultivable bacterial communities was assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of 106 bacterial isolates obtained by using both generic and elective media. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of the more representative RAPD groups indicated that over 50.4% of the isolates from MFCs fed with S were Proteobacteria, 25.1% Firmicutes, and 24.5% Actinobacteria, whereas in MFCs supplied with A 100% of the dominant species belonged to ?-Proteobacteria. The chemical analysis performed by fractioning the OM and using thermal analysis showed that the amount of total organic carbon contained in the soluble phase of the electrochemically active chambers significantly decreased as compared to the no-current-producing systems, whereas the OM of the solid phase became more humified and aromatic along with electricity generation, suggesting a significant stimulation of a humification process of the OM. These findings demonstrated that electroactive bacteria are commonly present in aerobic organic substrates such as soil or a fertilizer and that MFCs could represent a powerful tool for exploring the mineralization and humification processes of the soil OM. PMID:22290652

Mocali, Stefano; Galeffi, Carlo; Perrin, Elena; Florio, Alessandro; Migliore, Melania; Canganella, Francesco; Bianconi, Giovanna; Di Mattia, Elena; Dell'Abate, Maria Teresa; Fani, Renato; Benedetti, Anna



Diabetes teratogenicity is accompanied by alterations in macrophages and T cell subpopulations in the uterus and lymphoid organs.  


Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a well-known teratogen, which might cause growth retardation, malformations and fetal death. We have previously shown, that potentiation of the maternal immune system (immunopotentiation) might protect the embryo from diabetes teratogenicity. Therefore, in the present study we further inquired whether diabetes teratogenicity might be associated with alterations in the level of immune effector cells in systemic and local lymphoid organs as well as in the uterus throughout pregnancy and whether the protection exerted by maternal immunopotentiation might be realized through its effect on those cells. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes in ICR mice was found to reduce pregnancy rate and fetal weight while increasing the resorption rate and the percentage of litters with malformed fetuses. These teratogenic effects were accompanied by a decreased percentage of cells expressing Mac-1, Thy-1.2, CD4 or CD8 in the spleen and inguinal as well as paraaortic lymph nodes, except for Mac-1 expression by splenocytes, which increased significantly in the beginning of pregnancy and decreased later. A different pattern was observed in the uterus, when the percentage of cells expressing these markers tended to increase in the beginning of pregnancy and decrease later. Intrauterine immunopotentiation with rat splenocytes was found to improve the reproductive performance of diabetic animals. This protective effect was accompanied by a general normalization of the level of the various cell surface markers, when in most cases their expression returned to that found in nonimmunopotentiated mice. Our results suggest that the protection exerted by maternal immunopotentiation on the embryo against diabetes teratogenicity might be mediated via its effect on the level of immune effector cells localized to uterus and lymphoid organs, which was found to be altered in diabetic mice. PMID:15313430

Savion, S; Gidon-Dabush, S; Fein, A; Torchinsky, A; Toder, V



Evaluation of organic, conventional and intensive beef farm systems: health, management and animal production.  


The overall aim of the present study was to analyse and compare organic beef cattle farming in Spain with intensive and conventional systems. An on-farm study comparing farm management practices and animal health was carried out. The study also focussed on a slaughterhouse analysis by comparing impacts on the safety and quality of the cattle products. Twenty-four organic and 26 conventional farms were inspected, and farmers responded to a questionnaire that covered all basic data on their husbandry practices, farm management, veterinary treatments and reproductive performance during 2007. Furthermore, data on the hygiene and quality of 244, 2596 and 3021 carcasses of calves from organic, intensive and conventional farms, respectively, were retrieved from the official yearbook (2007) of a slaughterhouse. Differences found between organic and conventional farms across the farm analysis did not substantially reflect differences between both farm types in the predominant diseases that usually occur on beef cattle farms. However, calves reared organically presented fewer condemnations at slaughter compared with intensive and to a lesser extent with conventionally reared calves. Carcass performance also reflected differences between farm type and breed and was not necessarily better in organic farms. PMID:23031524

Blanco-Penedo, I; López-Alonso, M; Shore, R F; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L



Phytoestrogens alter the reproductive organ development in the mink (Mustela vison)  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the present study was to examine the reproductive effects of two perorally applied phytoestrogens, genistein (8 mg/kg/day) and {beta}-sitosterol (50 mg/kg/day), on the mink (Mustela vison) at human dietary exposure levels. Parental generations were exposed over 9 months to these phytoestrogens and their offspring were exposed via gestation and lactation. Parents and their offspring were sampled 21 days after the birth of the kits. Sex hormone levels, sperm quality, organ weights, and development of the kits were examined. The exposed females were heavier than the control females at the 1st postnatal day (PND). The control kits were heavier than the exposed kits from the 1st to the 21st PND. Phytoestrogens did not affect the organ weights of the adult minks, but the relative testicular weight of the exposed kits was higher than in the control kits. The relative prostate weight was higher and the relative uterine weight lower in the {beta}-sitosterol-exposed kits than in the control kits. Moreover, the plasma dihydrotestosterone levels were lower in the genistein-exposed male kits compared to the control male kits. This study could not explain the mechanisms behind these alterations. The results indicate that perinatal phytoestrogen exposures cause alterations in the weight of the reproductive organs of the mink kits.

Ryoekkynen, Ari [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland)]. E-mail:; Nieminen, Petteri [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Mustonen, Anne-Mari [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Pyykoenen, Teija [Institute of Applied Biotechnology, University of Kuopio, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Asikainen, Juha [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Haenninen, Sari [Institute of Applied Biotechnology, University of Kuopio, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Mononen, Jaakko [Institute of Applied Biotechnology, University of Kuopio, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kukkonen, Jussi V.K. [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland)



Varying responses of insect herbivores to altered plant chemistry under organic and conventional treatments  

PubMed Central

The hypothesis that plants supplied with organic fertilizers are better defended against insect herbivores than those supplied with synthetic fertilizers was tested over two field seasons. Organic and synthetic fertilizer treatments at two nitrogen concentrations were supplied to Brassica plants, and their effects on the abundance of herbivore species and plant chemistry were assessed. The organic treatments also differed in fertilizer type: a green manure was used for the low-nitrogen treatment, while the high-nitrogen treatment contained green and animal manures. Two aphid species showed different responses to fertilizers: the Brassica specialist Brevicoryne brassicae was more abundant on organically fertilized plants, while the generalist Myzus persicae had higher populations on synthetically fertilized plants. The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (a crucifer specialist) was more abundant on synthetically fertilized plants and preferred to oviposit on these plants. Glucosinolate concentrations were up to three times greater on plants grown in the organic treatments, while foliar nitrogen was maximized on plants under the higher of the synthetic fertilizer treatments. The varying response of herbivore species to these strong differences in plant chemistry demonstrates that hypotheses on defence in organically grown crops have over-simplified the response of phytophagous insects.

Staley, Joanna T.; Stewart-Jones, Alex; Pope, Tom W.; Wright, Denis J.; Leather, Simon R.; Hadley, Paul; Rossiter, John T.; van Emden, Helmut F.; Poppy, Guy M.




EPA Science Inventory

Exposure of riverine waters to natural sunlight initiated alterations in stable carbon isotope ratios (delta C-13) of the associated dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Water samples were collected from two compositionally distinct coastal river systems in the southeastern United Sta...


Altered expression patterns of lipid metabolism genes in an animal model of HCV core-related, nonobese, modest hepatic steatosis  

PubMed Central

Background Because the gene expression patterns of nonobese hepatic steatosis in affected patients remain unclear, we sought to explore these patterns using an animal model of nonobese hepatic steatosis. Methods We developed mice that conditionally express the hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein regulated by the tetracycline transactivator (tTA). Microarray analyses and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction were performed using liver samples of both the double transgenic mice (DTM), which express both the HCV core and tTA, and single transgenic mice (STM), which express tTA alone, at 2 months of age. Functional categories of genes with altered expression were classified using gene ontology programs. Serum glucose, lipid levels, and systemic blood pressure were also measured. Results Approximately 20–30% of hepatocytes from the DTM were steatotic. No significant differences were observed in the serum glucose, lipid content, or blood pressure levels between the DTM and STM. Gene expression analyses revealed Sterol-regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) pathway activation and dysregulation of the following genes involved in lipid metabolism: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 1, Apolipoprotein AII, Apolipoprotein CI, acyl-CoA thioesterase I, and fatty acid binding protein 1; in mitochondrial function: solute carrier family 25 member 25 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II; in immune reaction: complement component 3, lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus A, lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus C, lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus D, and lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus E. Conclusion Some genes of lipid metabolism, mitochondrial function, and immune reaction and the SREBP pathway are involved in HCV core-related, nonobese, modest hepatic steatosis.

Chang, Ming-Ling; Yeh, Chau-Ting; Chen, Jeng-Chang; Huang, Chau-Chun; Lin, Shi-Ming; Sheen, I-Shyan; Tai, Dar-In; Chu, Chia-Ming; Lin, Wei-Pin; Chang, Ming-Yu; Liang, Chun-Kai; Chiu, Cheng-Tang; Lin, Deng-Yn



Gender-specific behavioral and immunological alterations in an animal model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid.  


Autism is a severe behavioral disorder characterized by pervasive impairments in social interactions, deficits in verbal and non-verbal communication, and stereotyped behaviors, with a four times higher incidence in boys than in girls. The core symptoms are frequently accompanied by a spectrum of neurobehavioral and immunological derangements, including: aberrant sensitivity to sensory stimulation, anxiety, and decreased cellular immune capacity. Recently, a new potential rodent model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA rats) has been proposed. In order to determine if gender has an influence on alterations observed in VPA rats, male and female rats have been evaluated in a battery of behavioral, immunological, and endocrinological tests. A plethora of aberrations has been found in male VPA rats: lower sensitivity to pain, increased repetitive/stereotypic-like activity, higher anxiety, decreased level of social interaction, increased basal level of corticosterone, decreased weight of the thymus, decreased splenocytes proliferative response to concanavaline A, lower IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio, and increased production of NO by peritoneal macrophages. Female VPA rats exhibited only increased repetitive/stereotypic-like activity and decreased IFN-gamma/IL-10 ratio. Sexual dimorphism characteristics for measured parameters have been observed in both groups of animals, except social interaction in VPA rats. Our results confirm existence of similarities between the observed pattern of aberrations in VPA rats and features of disturbed behavior and immune function in autistic patients, and suggest that they are gender-specific, which is intriguing in light of disproportion in boys to girls ratio in autism. PMID:18396377

Schneider, Tomasz; Roman, Adam; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Kubera, Marta; Budziszewska, Bogus?awa; Schneider, Karolina; Przew?ocki, Ryszard



Microcystin-LR and Cylindrospermopsin Induced Alterations in Chromatin Organization of Plant Cells.  


Cyanobacteria produce metabolites with diverse bioactivities, structures and pharmacological properties. The effects of microcystins (MCYs), a family of peptide type protein-phosphatase inhibitors and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), an alkaloid type of protein synthesis blocker will be discussed in this review. We are focusing mainly on cyanotoxin-induced changes of chromatin organization and their possible cellular mechanisms. The particularities of plant cells explain the importance of such studies. Preprophase bands (PPBs) are premitotic cytoskeletal structures important in the determination of plant cell division plane. Phragmoplasts are cytoskeletal structures involved in plant cytokinesis. Both cyanotoxins induce the formation of multipolar spindles and disrupted phragmoplasts, leading to abnormal sister chromatid segregation during mitosis. Thus, MCY and CYN are probably inducing alterations of chromosome number. MCY induces programmed cell death: chromatin condensation, nucleus fragmentation, necrosis, alterations of nuclease and protease enzyme activities and patterns. The above effects may be related to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or disfunctioning of microtubule associated proteins. Specific effects: MCY-LR induces histone H3 hyperphosphorylation leading to incomplete chromatid segregation and the formation of micronuclei. CYN induces the formation of split or double PPB directly related to protein synthesis inhibition. Cyanotoxins are powerful tools in the study of plant cell organization. PMID:24084787

Máthé, Csaba; M-Hamvas, Márta; Vasas, Gábor



Solid sampling in analysis of animal organs by two-jet plasma atomic emission spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of high-power two-jet plasma capabilities for the direct multi-elemental analysis of animal organs was undertaken. The experimental conditions chosen allow the direct analysis of different animal organs after drying and grinding to powder (particle size 20-200 ?m). It was found that evaporation efficiency of the samples depends on the particle size and thermal stability of tissues and can be improved by reduction of a carrier gas flow. Calibration samples based on graphite powder and a tenfold dilution of powdered samples with buffer (graphite powder containing 15% NaCl) were used. 5-10 mg of the sample was quite enough to get the detection limits of elements at the level of 0.1-10 ?g g - 1 . A prior carbonization procedure (not ashing) makes it possible to decrease the detection limits of elements by an order of magnitude. The validation of the techniques was confirmed by the analysis of certified reference materials NIST 8414, BCR 278R and NCS ZC 81001 as well as by using different sample preparation procedures.

Zaksas, Natalia P.; Nevinsky, Georgy A.



Templates of food–habitat resources for the organization of soil animals in temperate and tropical forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functioning and structure of terrestrial ecosystems are shaped and maintained by plant–decomposer interactions. The food and habitat of animal populations are biogenic and are mainly of plant origin (plant litter) in terrestrial ecosystems. Primary resources of the food-habitat template for the organization of soil animals are provided by the primary production of plants, and are then modified through decomposition

Hiroshi Takeda; Takuya Abe



[Combined action of antiblastoma preparations on lysozyme activity in animal organs].  


The lysozyme activity in the spleen, kidneys and lungs of the mice treated with neocid, sarcolysine or Tio-Fef in therapeutic doses increased or remained at the control level by the 5th or 10th day after the drug administration. The use of sarcolysine per se or in combination with neocid increased the activity of lysozyme in the spleen, kidneys and lungs during the whole period of the experiment as compared to the control. The values of the lysozyme activity in the spleen and lungs of the animals treated with neocid in combination with sarcolysine were higher for 5 days, and in all organs examined were higher by the 10the day as compared to the animals treated with neocid alone. Increased lysozyme activity in the spleen, kidneys and lungs was observed under the effect of neocid in combination with sarcolysine as compared to the lysozyme activity in mice treated with sarcolysine per se (assay on the 10th day). Decreased lysozyme activity was determined in the spleen, kidneys and lungs by the 5th day and in the kidneys by the 10th day in the mice treated with sarcolysine in combination with Tio-Tel and in the spleen and lungs by the 5th and 10th days in the animals treated with neocid in combination with sarcolysine or Tio-Tef as compared to the animals treated with sarcolysine. The lysozyme activity in the kidneys under the effect of sarcolysine combination with Tio-Tef was lower by the 5th days and higher by the 10th day as compared to that under the effect of Tio-Tef. PMID:415659

Ievenko, N V; Tsyganenko, A Ia



Alteration of Organic Compounds in Small Bodies and Cosmic Dusts by Cosmic Rays and Solar Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide variety of complex organic compounds have been detected in extraterrestrial bodies like carbonaceous chondrites and comets, and their roles in the generation of terrestrial life are discussed. It was suggested that organics in small bodies were originally formed in ice mantles of interstellar dusts in dense cloud. Irradiation of frozen mixture of possible interstellar molecules including CO (or CH _{3}OH), NH _{3} and H _{2}O with high-energy particles gave complex amino acid precursors with high molecular weights [1]. Such complex organic molecules were taken in planetesimals or comets in the early solar system. In prior to the generation of the terrestrial life, extraterrestrial organics were delivered to the primitive Earth by such small bodies as meteorites, comets and space dusts. These organics would have been altered by cosmic rays and solar radiation (UV, X-rays) before the delivery to the Earth. We examined possible alteration of amino acids, their precursors and nucleic acid bases in interplanetary space by irradiation with high energy photons and heavy ions. A mixture of CO, NH _{3} and H _{2}O was irradiated with high-energy protons from a van de Graaff accelerator (TIT, Japan). The resulting products (hereafter referred to as CAW) are complex precursors of amino acids. CAW, amino acids (dl-Isovaline, glycine), hydantoins (amino acid precursors) and nucleic acid bases were irradiated with continuous emission (soft X-rays to IR; hereafter referred to as soft X-rays irradiation) from BL-6 of NewSUBARU synchrotron radiation facility (Univ. Hyogo). They were also irradiated with heavy ions (eg., 290 MeV/u C ^{6+}) from HIMAC accelerator (NIRS, Japan). After soft X-rays irradiation, water insoluble materials were formed. After irradiation with soft X-rays or heavy ions, amino acid precursors (CAW and hydantoins) gave higher ratio of amino acids were recovered after hydrolysis than free amino acids. Nucleic acid bases showed higher stability than free amino acids. Complex amino acid precursors with high molecular weights could be formed in simulated dense cloud environments. They would have been altered in the early solar system by irradiation with soft X-rays from the young Sun, which caused increase of hydrophobicity of the organics of interstellar origin. They were taken up by parent bodies of meteorites or comets, and could have been delivered to the Earth by meteorites, comets and cosmic dusts. Cosmic dusts were so small that they were directly exposed to the solar radiation, which might be critical for the survivability of organics in them. In order to evaluate the roles of space dusts as carriers of bioorganic compounds to the primitive Earth, we are planning the Tanpopo Mission, where collection of cosmic dusts by using ultra low-density aerogel, and exposure of amino acids and their precursors for years are planned by utilizing the Japan Experimental Module / Exposed Facility of the ISS [2]. The mission is now scheduled to start in 2013. We thank Dr. Katsunori Kawasaki of Tokyo Institute of Technology, and Dr. Satoshi Yoshida of National Institute of Radiological Sciences for their help in particles irradiation. We also thank to the members of JAXA Tanpopo Working Group (PI: Prof. Akihiko Yamagishi) for their helpful discussion. [1] K. Kobayashi, et al., in ``Astrobiology: from Simple Molecules to Primitive Life,'' ed. by V. Basiuk, American Scientific Publishers, Valencia, CA, (2010), pp. 175-186. [2] K. Kobayashi, et al., Trans. Jpn. Soc. Aero. Space Sci., in press (2012).

Kobayashi, Kensei; Kaneko, Takeo; Mita, Hajime; Obayashi, Yumiko; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Sarker, Palash K.; Kawamoto, Yukinori; Okabe, Takuto; Eto, Midori; Kanda, Kazuhiro



Alteration in membrane lipid packing/organization induced by chronic ethanol ingestion  

SciTech Connect

The effect of chronic ethanol on lipid packing and organization was investigated using exogenous phospholipase A/sub 2/ (Crotalus durissus terrificus). Liver microsomal membrane lipids from chronic ethanol fed rats were found to be hydrolyzed at a significantly reduced rate compared to the control although fluorescent probes did not show a difference in lipid order. The reduced activity was also found against liposomes made from extracted phospholipids although to a lesser extent. Thus, although the key component causing the resistance to hydrolysis is a phospholipid, the organization of the membrane is also important. Endogenous phospholipase A/sub 2/ activity was also determined and in contrast to the exogenous phospholipase A/sub 2/, the ethanol altered membranes had a higher level of activity compared to the control. These results suggest that the activity of the exogenous and endogenous phospholipases A/sub 2/ are controlled by different mechanisms. It appears that the exogenous phospholipase A/sub 2/ detects bilayer packing and organizational changes caused by the chronic ethanol whereas the endogenous enzyme itself appears to be modified by the ethanol treatment in a manner which overcomes or is independent of the influence of the lipid bilayer packing and organization.

Stubbs, C.D.; Williams, B.W.; McCall, S.M.; Rubin, E.



Gene expression analysis of normal appearing brain tissue in an animal model for multiple sclerosis revealed grey matter alterations, but only minor white matter changes.  


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Recent studies suggest that, beside focal lesions, diffuse inflammatory and degenerative processes take place throughout the MS brain. Especially, molecular alterations in the so-called normal appearing white matter suggest the induction of neuroprotective mechanisms against oxidative stress preserving cellular homeostasis and function. In this study we investigated whether in an animal model for MS, namely in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), similar changes occur. We isolated normal appearing white and grey matter from the corpus callosum and the above lying cerebral cortex from DA rats with rMOG-induced EAE and carried out a gene expression analysis. Examination of corpus callosum revealed only minor changes in EAE rats. In contrast, we identified a number of gene expression alterations in the cerebral cortex even though morphological and cellular alterations were not evident. One of the most striking observations was the downregulation of genes involved in mitochondrial function as well as a whole set of genes coding for different glutamate receptors. Our data imply that molecular alterations are present in neurons far distant to inflammatory demyelinating lesions. These alterations might reflect degenerative processes induced by lesion-mediated axonal injury in the spinal cord. Our results indicate that the MOG-induced EAE in DA rats is a valuable model to analyze neuronal alterations due to axonal impairment in an acute phase of a MS-like disease, and could be used for development of neuroprotective strategies. PMID:18950873

Zeis, T; Kinter, J; Herrero-Herranz, E; Weissert, R; Schaeren-Wiemers, N



Unusual organic osmolytes in deep-sea animals: adaptations to hydrostatic pressure and other perturbants.  


Shallow-living marine invertebrates use free amino acids as cellular osmolytes, while most teleosts use almost no organic osmolytes. Recently we found unusual osmolyte compositions in deep-sea animals. Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) increases with depth in muscles of some teleosts, skates, and crustaceans (up to 300 mmol/kg at 2900 m). Other deep-sea animals had high levels of (1). scyllo-inositol in echinoderms, gastropods, and polychaetes, (2). that polyol plus beta-alanine and betaine in octopods, (3). hypotaurine, N-methyltaurine, and unidentified methylamines in vestimentiferans from hydrothermal vents and cold seeps, and (4). a depth-correlated serine-phosphate osmolyte in vesicomyid clams from trench seeps. We hypothesize that some of these solutes counteract effects of hydrostatic pressure. With lactate dehydrogenase, actin, and pyruvate kinase, 250 mM TMAO (but not glycine) protected both ligand binding and protein stability against pressure. To test TMAO in living cells, we grew yeast under pressure. After 1 h at 71 MPa, 3.5 h at 71 MPa, and 17 h at 30 MPa, 150 mM TMAO generally doubled the number of cells that formed colonies. Sulfur-based osmolytes which are not correlated with depth, such as hypotaurine and thiotaurine, are probably involved in sulfide metabolism and detoxification. Thus deep-sea osmolytes may have at least two other roles beyond acting as simple compatible osmotica. PMID:12443924

Yancey, Paul H; Blake, Wendy R; Conley, James



Microbial response to the effect of quantity and quality soil organic matter alteration after laboratory heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire-induced soil changes influence indirectly on soil microbial response, mainly due to pH increases and organic matter alterations. Partial carbon combustion can originate both, an increase in microbial activity due to dissolved organic carbon increases (Bárcenas-Moreno and Bååth, 2099, Bárcenas-Moreno et al., 2011), as well as limitation of microbial growth, either due to diminution of some fractions of organic matter (Fernández et al., 1997) or due to the formation of toxic compounds (Widden and Parkinson, 1975; Diaz-Raviña et al., 1996). The magnitude or direction of these changes is conditioned mainly by fire intensity and plant species, so forest with different vegetation could promote different quantity and quality alterations of soil organic matter after fire which leads to different soil microbial response. The objective of this work was to differentiate between the effect of reduction of carbon content and the presence of substances with inhibitory effect on soil microorganisms, inoculating microorganisms from an unaltered forest area on heated soil extract-based culture media. Soil collected from two different vegetation forest, pine (P) and oak (O) forests, with similar soil characteristics was sieved and heated at 450 °C in a muffle furnace. Heated and unheated soil was used to prepare culture media resulting in different treatments: pine unheated (PUH), pine heated at 450 °C (P450), Oak unheated (OUH) and oak heated at 450 °C (O450). To isolate inhibition of microbial proliferation and nutrient limitation, different nutritive supplements were added to the media, obtaining two levels of nutrient status for each media described above: no nutrients added (-) and nutrients added (+). Colony forming units (CFU) were enumerated as estimation of viable and cultivable microbial abundance and soil parameters characterization was also realized. Significant differences were found between CFU isolated using heated and unheated soil extract-based media, independent of the nutrients status, evidencing the existence of some inhibitory factor in heated soil. Culture media made with soil extract from heated pine forest soil showed most marked decrease from microbial abundance than oak forest soil-based media, with and without nutrients. This preliminary study evidences that not only carbon content diminution limits microbial proliferation after fire, but pyrogenic compounds could be inducing negative effect on soil microorganisms. In addition, the identification of plant species which promote more intense inhibitory effect can involve an important tool after a wildfire for possible human decision related to forest management.

Bárcenas-Moreno, G.; Escalante, E.; Pérez-Bejarano, A.; Zavala, L. M.; Jordán, A.



Animals, Animals, Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Third grade students may use this page for additional resources for their animal research. Use these links as part of your animal research: Desert Biome What Swims Beneath: Creatures of the Sea Scaly Surprises (ScienceWorld) Manatees Mammal Guide Endangered Species Picture Book MIKIDS!: Mammals ZOOM MAMMALS - Smithsonian National Zoological Park Enchanted Learning: Zoom Sharks Shark School Sharks: Did You Know? Sharks: Myth and Mystery The Secret World of Sharks and Rays ...

Laz, Mrs.



Structure-activity relationships of organic acid anhydrides as antigens in an animal model.  


Relationships between chemical structure and immunogenicity have been studied in 13 dicarboxylic acid anhydrides. Guinea-pigs were immunized intradermally by a single dose of 0.3 M solutions of succinic anhydride (SA), maleic anhydride (MA), methylmaleic anhydride (MMA), cis-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride (cis-HHPA), trans-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride (trans-HHPA), 4-methylcyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride (MHHPA), cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride (THPA1236), cis-3,4,5,6-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride (THPA3456), cis-3-methylcyclohex-4-ene-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride (MTHPA34), cis-4-methylcyclohex-4-ene-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride (MTHPA44), phthalic anhydride (PA), 4-methylphthalic anhydride (MPA), and trimellitic anhydride (TMA) in olive oil. Specific IgE, IgG, IgG1, and IgG2 antibodies against guinea-pig serum albumin conjugates of the anhydrides were determined by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) tests and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA). Specific IgG was significantly increased in all animals, except those immunized with THPA3456 and SA, which sensitized only 3/9 and 7/9 animals, respectively. Furthermore, the specific IgG values were very low in the SA group. The titers of specific IgG1 and IgG2 were increased in the IgG-positive animals. Specific IgE was positive in all animals immunized with MA, MHHPA, MTHPA (both isomers), and MPA, and in 6/9 and 5/9 guinea pigs immunized with TMA and MMA, respectively. The IgE titers were generally very low; PCA was negative after dilutions to 1:32, or less. The results indicate a considerable variation in the sensitizing potential between different organic acid anhydrides. The most marked general effect of the chemical structure on immunogenicity was the enhancement of antibody formation when a hydrogen atom in the anhydride was substituted with a methyl group. PMID:8545845

Welinder, H; Zhang, X; Gustavsson, C; Björk, B; Skerfving, S



Beagle: an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating the organ distribution pattern of Th in humans  

SciTech Connect

The concentrations and the organ distribution patterns of 228Th, 230Th and 232Th in two 9-y-old dogs of our beagle colony were determined. The dogs were exposed only to background environmental levels of Th isotopes through ingestion (food and water) and inhalation as are humans. The organ distribution patterns of the isotopes in the beagles were compared to the organ distribution patterns in humans to determine if it is appropriate to extrapolate the beagle organ burden data to humans. Among soft tissues, only the lungs, lymph nodes, kidney and liver, and skeleton contained measurable amounts of Th isotopes. The organ distribution pattern of Th isotopes in humans and dog are similar, the majority of Th being in the skeleton of both species. The average skeletal concentrations of 228Th in dogs were 30 to 40 times higher than the average skeletal concentrations of the parent 232Th, whereas the concentration of 228Th in human skeleton was only four to five times higher than 232Th. This suggests that dogs have a higher intake of 228Ra through food than humans. There is a similar trend in the accumulations of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in the lungs of dog and humans. The percentages of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in human lungs are 26, 9.7 and 4.8, respectively, compared to 4.2, 2.6 and 0.48, respectively, in dog lungs. The larger percentages of Th isotopes in human lungs may be due simply to the longer life span of humans. If the burdens of Th isotopes in human lungs are normalized to an exposure time of 9.2 y (mean age of dogs at the time of sacrifice), the percent burden of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in human lungs are estimated to be 3.6, 1.3 and 0.66, respectively. These results suggest that the beagle may be an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating the organ distribution pattern of Th in humans.

Singh, N.P.; Zimmerman, C.J.; Taylor, G.N.; Wrenn, M.E.



Iron deficiency anemia in infancy is associated with altered temporal organization of sleep states in childhood.  


The highest prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy coincides with a time of rapid changes in sleep organization. Since IDA in infancy is associated with long-lasting neurofunctional effects despite iron treatment, the normal development of sleep patterns might be affected. Night polysomnographic recordings were performed in 55 healthy 4-y-old children (former IDA = 27, nonanemic controls = 28). Both groups were followed from infancy and were similar in background characteristics. The duration of each waking episode was measured, as was the duration of each episode of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep stages 1 (NREM1), 2 (NREM2), and 3-4 (SWS), and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The data were analyzed according to the successive thirds of the total sleep time (TST). Relative to controls, former IDA children showed: a) longer duration of REM sleep episodes in the first third and shorter in the last third; b) more REM sleep episodes in the first third and fewer in the second third; and c) shorter latency to the first REM sleep episode and shorter NREM stage 2 and SWS episodes within the first sleep cycle. The results show that early IDA is associated with long-lasting alterations in the temporal organization of sleep patterns. PMID:17957147

Peirano, Patricio D; Algarín, Cecilia R; Garrido, Marcelo I; Lozoff, Betsy



Ethanol alters gene expression and cell organization during optic vesicle evagination.  


Ethanol has been described as a teratogen in vertebrate development. During early stages of brain formation, ethanol affects the evagination of the optic vesicles, resulting in synophthalmia or cyclopia, phenotypes where the optic vesicles partially or totally fuse. The mechanisms by which ethanol affects the morphogenesis of the optic vesicles are however largely unknown. In this study we make use of in situ hybridization, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry to show that ethanol has profound effects on cell organization and gene expression during the evagination of the optic vesicles. Exposure to ethanol during early eye development alters the expression patterns of some genes known to be important for eye morphogenesis, such as rx3/1 and six3a. Furthermore, exposure to ethanol interferes with the acquisition of neuroepithelial features by the eye field cells, which is clear at ultrastructual level. Indeed, ethanol disrupts the acquisition of fusiform cellular shapes within the eye field. In addition, tight junctions do not form and retinal progenitors do not properly polarize, as suggested by the mis-localization and down-regulation of zo1. We also show that the ethanol-induced cyclopic phenotype is significantly different to that observed in cyclopic mutants, suggesting a complex effect of ethanol on a variety of targets. Our results show that ethanol not only disrupts the expression pattern of genes involved in retinal morphogenesis, such as rx3 and rx1, but also disrupts the changes in cell polarity that normally occur during eye field splitting. Thus, ethylic teratology seems to be related not only to modifications in gene expression and cell death but also to alterations in cell morphology. PMID:23892006

Santos-Ledo, A; Cavodeassi, F; Carreño, H; Aijón, J; Arévalo, R



Mouse organic solute transporter alpha deficiency alters FGF15 expression and bile acid metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background & Aims Blocking intestinal bile acid (BA) absorption by inhibiting or inactivating the apical sodium-dependent BA transporter (Asbt) classically induces hepatic BA synthesis. In contrast, blocking intestinal BA absorption by inactivating the basolateral BA transporter, organic solute transporter alpha–beta (Ost?–Ost?) is associated with an altered homeostatic response and decreased hepatic BA synthesis. The aim of this study was to determine the mechanisms underlying this phenotype, including the role of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15). Methods BA and cholesterol metabolism, intestinal phenotype, expression of genes important for BA metabolism, and intestinal FGF15 expression were examined in wild type, Ost??/?, Fxr?/?, and Ost??/?Fxr?/? mice. Results Inactivation of Ost? was associated with decreases in hepatic cholesterol 7?-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) expression, BA pool size, and intestinal cholesterol absorption. Ost??/? mice exhibited significant small intestinal changes, including altered ileal villus morphology, and increases in intestinal length and mass. Total ileal FGF15 expression was elevated almost 20-fold in Ost??/? mice as a result of increased villus epithelial cell number and ileocyte FGF15 protein expression. Ost??/?Fxr?/? mice exhibited decreased ileal FGF15 expression, restoration of intestinal cholesterol absorption, and increases in hepatic Cyp7a1 expression, fecal BA excretion, and BA pool size. FXR deficiency did not reverse the intestinal morphological changes or compensatory decrease for ileal Asbt expression in Ost??/? mice. Conclusions These results indicate that signaling via FXR is required for the paradoxical repression of hepatic BA synthesis but not the complex intestinal adaptive changes in Ost??/? mice.

Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha; Haywood, Jamie; Kock, Nancy D.; Dawson, Paul A.



Investigation of the inorganic and organic phosphorus forms in animal manure.  


The most viable way to beneficially use animal manure on most farms is land application. Over the past few decades, repeated manure application has shown adverse effects on environmental quality due to phosphorus (P) runoff with rainwater, leading to eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. Improved understanding of manure P chemistry may reduce this risk. In this research, 42 manure samples from seven animal species (beef and dairy cattle, swine, chicken, turkey, dairy goat, horse, and sheep) were sequentially fractionated with water, NaHCO?, NaOH, and HCl. Inorganic (P(i)), organic (P(o)), enzymatic hydrolyzable (P(e); monoester-, DNA-, and phytate-like P), and nonhydrolyzable P were measured in each fraction. Total dry ash P (P(t)) was measured in all manures. Total fractionated P (P(ft)) and total P(i) (P(it)) showed a strong linear relationship with P(t). However, the ratios between P(ft)/P(t) and P(it)/P(t) varied from 59 to 117% and from 28 to 96%, respectively. Water and NaHCO? extracted most of the P(i) in manure from ruminant+horse, whereas in nonruminant species a large fraction of manure P was extracted in the HCl fraction. Manure P(e) summed over all fractions (P(et)) accounted for 41 to 69% of total P(0) and 4 to 29% of P(t). The hydrolyzable pool in the majority of the manures was dominated by phytate- and DNA-like P in water, monoester- and DNA-like P in NaHCO?, and monoester- and phytate-like P in NaOH and HCl fractions. In conclusion, if one assumes that the P(et) and P(it) from the fractionation can become bioavailable, then from 34 to 100% of P(t) in animal manure would be bioavailable. This suggests the need for frequent monitoring of manure P for better manure management practices. PMID:22565271

Pagliari, Paulo H; Laboski, Carrie A M


Developmental exposure to the pesticide dieldrin alters the dopamine system and increases neurotoxicity in an animal model of Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to pesticides has been sug- gested to increase the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the mechanisms responsible for this association are not clear. Here, we report that perinatal exposure of mice during gestation and lactation to low levels of dieldrin (0.3, 1, or 3 mg\\/kg every 3 days) alters dopaminergic neurochemistry in their offspring and exacerbates MPTP toxicity.

Jason R. Richardson; W. Michael Caudle; Minzheng Wang; E. Danielle Dean; Kurt D. Pennell; Gary W. Miller



Stable carbon isotope compositions during the thermal alteration of organic matter  

SciTech Connect

The use of the amount and carbon isotopic composition of methane as a maturation index was tested by pyrolysis of sedimentary organic carbon (kerogen) at 600 C. The parameters used to describe the maturity are CMR (CH{sub 4}-C/kerogen carbon) and the {Delta}{sup 13}C ({delta}{sup 13}C{sub CH4-} {delta}{sup 13}C{sub OC}). With increasing maturities, smaller amounts of methane are generated and there is a decrease in the fraction between methane and the parent carbon. The pyrolysis of Bakken shale samples, with varying maturities, show high correlation coefficients between the CMR and {Delta}{sup 13}C vs. the atomic H/C ratios (r = +0.91 and {minus}0.89 respectively) which indicates that each of these parameters, independently, can be used as a maturity index. The Bakken shale pyrolysis experiments also show that methane generated from the most thermally altered samples is up to 2% heavier than the parent carbon. In addition, methane-CO{sub 2} exchange experiments, at 600 C, show a shift toward heavier methane values after heating of CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} for 504 hrs. The isotopic composition of methane formed under high temperature regimes may be determined by exchange reactions if any CO{sub 2} is present. For these reasons, it becomes difficult to use carbon isotope compositions of methane to distinguish between thermogenic and mantle methane without any other supporting evidence. The effect of metagenesis on the isotopic composition of organic carbon was determined for a suite kerogen samples from the Cape Verde Rise, DSDP Leg 41, Site 386. With increasing maturities, the {delta}{sup 13}C-OC values are heavier due to a loss of lighter carbon in the form of methane. This is shown by a decrease in the carbon mole ratio, with increasing maturities.

Conkright, M.E.



Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs alter the spatiotemporal organization of Ras proteins on the plasma membrane.  


Ras proteins on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane signal from transient nanoscale proteolipid assemblies called nanoclusters. Interactions between the Ras lipid anchors and plasma membrane phospholipids, cholesterol, and actin cytoskeleton contribute to the formation, stability, and dynamics of Ras nanoclusters. Many small biological molecules are amphiphilic and capable of intercalating into membranes and altering lipid immiscibility. In this study we systematically examined whether amphiphiles such as indomethacin influence Ras protein nanoclustering in intact plasma membrane. We found that indomethacin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, induced profound and complex effects on Ras spatial organization, all likely related to liquid-ordered domain stabilization. Indomethacin enhanced the clustering of H-Ras.GDP and N-Ras.GTP in cholesterol-dependent nanoclusters. Indomethacin also abrogated efficient GTP-dependent lateral segregation of H- and N-Ras between cholesterol-dependent and cholesterol-independent clusters, resulting in mixed heterotypic clusters of Ras proteins that normally are separated spatially. These heterotypic Ras nanoclusters showed impaired Raf recruitment and kinase activation resulting in significantly compromised MAPK signaling. All of the amphiphilic anti-inflammatory agents we tested had similar effects on Ras nanoclustering and signaling. The potency of these effects correlated with the membrane partition coefficients of the individual agents and was independent of COX inhibition. This study shows that biological amphiphiles have wide-ranging effects on plasma membrane heterogeneity and protein nanoclustering, revealing a novel mechanism of drug action that has important consequences for cell signaling. PMID:22433858

Zhou, Yong; Cho, Kwang-Jin; Plowman, Sarah J; Hancock, John F



The effects of natural variation in background radioactivity on humans, animals and other organisms.  


Natural levels of radioactivity on the Earth vary by more than a thousand-fold; this spatial heterogeneity may suffice to create heterogeneous effects on physiology, mutation and selection. We review the literature on the relationship between variation in natural levels of radioactivity and evolution. First, we consider the effects of natural levels of radiation on mutations, DNA repair and genetics. A total of 46 studies with 373 effect size estimates revealed a small, but highly significant mean effect that was independent of adjustment for publication bias. Second, we found different mean effect sizes when studies were based on broad categories like physiology, immunology and disease frequency; mean weighted effect sizes were larger for studies of plants than animals, and larger in studies conducted in areas with higher levels of radiation. Third, these negative effects of radiation on mutations, immunology and life history are inconsistent with a general role of hormetic positive effects of radiation on living organisms. Fourth, we reviewed studies of radiation resistance among taxa. These studies suggest that current levels of natural radioactivity may affect mutational input and thereby the genetic constitution and composition of natural populations. Susceptibility to radiation varied among taxa, and several studies provided evidence of differences in susceptibility among populations or strains. Crucially, however, these studies are few and scattered, suggesting that a concerted effort to address this lack of research should be made. PMID:23136873

Møller, Anders P; Mousseau, Timothy A



The semantic organization of the animal category: evidence from semantic verbal fluency and network theory.  


Semantic memory is the subsystem of human memory that stores knowledge of concepts or meanings, as opposed to life-specific experiences. How humans organize semantic information remains poorly understood. In an effort to better understand this issue, we conducted a verbal fluency experiment on 200 participants with the aim of inferring and representing the conceptual storage structure of the natural category of animals as a network. This was done by formulating a statistical framework for co-occurring concepts that aims to infer significant concept-concept associations and represent them as a graph. The resulting network was analyzed and enriched by means of a missing links recovery criterion based on modularity. Both network models were compared to a thresholded co-occurrence approach. They were evaluated using a random subset of verbal fluency tests and comparing the network outcomes (linked pairs are clustering transitions and disconnected pairs are switching transitions) to the outcomes of two expert human raters. Results show that the network models proposed in this study overcome a thresholded co-occurrence approach, and their outcomes are in high agreement with human evaluations. Finally, the interplay between conceptual structure and retrieval mechanisms is discussed. PMID:20938799

Goñi, Joaquín; Arrondo, Gonzalo; Sepulcre, Jorge; Martincorena, Iñigo; Vélez de Mendizábal, Nieves; Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Bejarano, Bartolomé; Ardanza-Trevijano, Sergio; Peraita, Herminia; Wall, Dennis P; Villoslada, Pablo



A strategy for trade monitoring and substitution of the organs of threatened animals  

PubMed Central

The use of threatened animals as a source of traditional medicines is accelerating the extinction of such species and imposes great challenges to animal conservation. In this study, we propose a feasible strategy for the conservation of threatened medicinal animals that combines trade monitoring and the search for substitutes. First, DNA barcoding provides a powerful technique for monitoring the trade of animal species, which helps in restricting the excessive use and illegal trade of such species. Second, pharmacological tests have been adopted to evaluate the biological equivalence of threatened and domestic animals; based on such testing, potential substitutes are recommended. Based on a review of threatened animal species and their substitutes, we find that the search for substitutes deserves special attention; however, this work is far from complete. These results may be of great value for the conservation of threatened animals and maintaining the heritage of traditional medicine.

Luo, Jiao-yang; Yan, Dan; Song, Jing-yuan; Zhang, Da; Xing, Xiao-yan; Han, Yu-mei; Yang, Mei-hua; Dong, Xiao-ping; Peng, Cheng; Chen, Shi-lin; Xiao, Xiao-he



Hydrothermal alteration of sedimentary organic matter in the presence and absence of hydrogen to tar then oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrothermal alteration (hydrous pyrolysis) experiments, in the absence and presence of H2 (reductive), were conducted on organic matter from marine and lacustrine sediments. The experiments were carried out at discrete temperatures from 150°C to 350°C to assess the yields and compositions of the bitumen (tar) formed and subsequently at higher temperatures the oil generated. The yield of bitumen was observed

Ahmed I. Rushdi; Bernd R. T. Simoneit



Description of Kingella potus sp. nov., an Organism Isolated from a Wound Caused by an Animal Bite  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the isolation and characterization of a hitherto unknown gram-negative, rod-shaped Neisseria-like organism from an infected wound resulting from a bite from a kinkajou. Based on both phenotypic and phylogenetic evidence, it is proposed that the unknown organism be classified as a new species, Kingella potus sp. nov. Animal bites represent a significant source of wound infec- tions in

Paul A. Lawson; Henry Malnick; Matthew D. Collins; Jayesh J. Shah; Marie A. Chattaway; Richard Bendall; John W. Hartley


Description of Kingella potus sp. nov., an Organism Isolated from a Wound Caused by an Animal Bite  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the isolation and characterization of a hitherto unknown gram-negative, rod-shaped Neisseria-like organism from an infected wound resulting from a bite from a kinkajou. Based on both phenotypic and phylogenetic evidence, it is proposed that the unknown organism be classified as a new species, Kingella potus sp. nov. Animal bites represent a significant source of wound infec- tions in

Paul A. Lawson; Henry Malnick; Matthew D. Collins; Jayesh J. Shah; Marie A. Chattaway; Richard Bendall; John W. Hartley



Transgenic Mice Expressing an Altered Murine Superoxide Dismutase Gene Provide an Animal Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis isaprogres- sive neurodegenerative disorder primarily involving motoneu- rons. A subset ofindividuals withfamilial autosomal domi- nantformsofthedisease havemutations ofthecopper\\/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu\\/ZnSOD,SOD-1)gene, which encodes aubiquitously expressed enzyme that plays akeyrole inoxygen free radical scavenging. Thisobservation suggests that altered orreduced SOD-1activity mayplayarole inthe neurodegenerative process. Toexplore this possibility further, wehaveintroduced amutation intothemouseSOD-1gene thatcorresponds tooneofthechanges foundinthehuman geneinfamilial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Integration




Early valproic acid exposure alters functional organization in the primary visual cortex.  


Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders and affects 0.5 to 1% of pregnant women. The use of antiepileptic drugs, which is usually continued throughout pregnancy, can cause in offspring mild to severe sensory deficits. Neuronal selectivity to stimulus orientation is a basic functional property of the visual cortex that is crucial for perception of shapes and borders. Here we investigate the effects of early exposure to valproic acid (Val) and levetiracetam (Lev), commonly used antiepileptic drugs, on the development of cortical neuron orientation selectivity and organization of cortical orientation columns. Ferrets pups were exposed to Val (200mg/kg), Lev (100mg/kg) or saline every other day between postnatal day (P) 10 and P30, a period roughly equivalent to the third trimester of human gestation. Optical imaging of intrinsic signals or single-unit recordings were examined at P42-P84, when orientation selectivity in the ferret cortex has reached a mature state. Optical imaging of intrinsic signals revealed decreased contrast of orientation maps in Val- but not Lev- or saline-treated animals. Moreover, single-unit recordings revealed that early Val treatment also reduced orientation selectivity at the cellular level. These findings indicate that Val exposure during a brief period of development disrupts cortical processing of sensory information at a later age and suggest a neurobiological substrate for some types of sensory deficits in fetal anticonvulsant syndrome. PMID:21215743

Pohl-Guimaraes, Fernanda; Krahe, Thomas E; Medina, Alexandre E



Exposure of animals to artificial gravity conditions leads to the alteration of the glutamate release from rat cerebral hemispheres nerve terminals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biochemical basis underlying the effects of altered gravity on the process of nervous signal transmission is not clear. We have investigated the effect of hypergravity stress (created by centrifugation of rats at l0 g for 1 h) on the basal and stimulated release of l-[14C]glutamate (a chemical transmitter of excitatory signals) from isolated rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes). It has been shown that the hypergravity stress exerted a different influence on the Ca2+-dependent and the Ca2+-independent component of neurotransmitter release. The Ca2+-dependent l-[14C]glutamate release evoked by potassium chloride was equal to 14.4+/-0.7% of total synaptosomal label for control animals and 6.2+/-1.9% for animals, exposed to hypergravity (P<=0.05) and was more than twice decreased as a result of the hypergravity stress. We observed no statistically significant difference in the Ca2+-independent component of l-[14C]glutamate release. For control group and animals exposed to the hypergravity stress it was equal to 7.7+/-2.8% and 12.9+/-2.0%, respectively. We have also investigated the effect of the hypergravity stress on the activity of high-affinity Na+-dependent glutamate transporters. Km and Vmax of l-[14C]glutamate uptake have been determined. The maximal velocity of glutamate uptake was decreased as a result of hypergravity loading, but no difference in the Km values between control rats and hypergravity exposed animals was observed. These findings indicate that hypergravity stress alters neurotransmitter reuptake and exocytotic neurotransmitter release processes.

Borisova, T.; Krisanova, N.; Himmelreich, N.



Stage-dependent alterations of progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis in an animal model of Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol-induced Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) culminates in bilateral diencephalic lesion and severe amnesia. Using the pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) animal paradigm of WKS, our laboratory has demonstrated hippocampal dysfunction in the absence of gross anatomical pathology. Extensive literature has revealed reduced hippocampal neurogenesis following a neuropathological insult, which might contribute to hippocampus-based learning and memory impairments. Thus, the current investigation was

Ryan P. Vetreno; Anna Klintsova; Lisa M. Savage



Decomposer animals (Lumbricidae, Collembola) and organic matter distribution affect the performance of Lolium perenne (Poaceae) and Trifolium repens (Fabaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decomposer animals stimulate plant growth by indirect effects such as increasing nutrient availability or by modifying microbial communities in the rhizosphere. In grasslands, the spatial distribution of organic matter (OM) rich in nutrients depends on agricultural practice and the bioturbation activities of large detritivores, such as earthworms. We hypothesized that plants of different functional groups with contrasting nutrient uptake and

Knut Kreuzer; Michael Bonkowski; Reinhard Langel; Stefan Scheu



Speciation and quantification of volatile organic compounds sorbed to PM 10 fraction associated with confined animal feeding operations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Volatile organic compounds (VOC) associated with confined animal feeding operations (CAFO) is of regulatory interested due to the potential emissions of both ozone precursors compounds and hazardous air pollutants. Emissions of VOC from CAFO occur in both gaseous phase and sorption onto particulate ...


Integration of organic animal production into land use with special reference to swine and poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development in organic livestock production can be attributed to an increased consumer interest in organic products while, at the same time, increased farmers' interest in converting to organic production methods—often stimulated by governmental support or subsidies. It is important that organic production systems can fulfil the expectations of each of these stakeholders if organic livestock production is to increase

J. E. Hermansen; Karin Strudsholm; Klaus Horsted



The Purified and Recombinant Legionella pneumophila Chaperonin Alters Mitochondrial Trafficking and Microfilament Organization?  

PubMed Central

A portion of the total cellular pool of the Legionella pneumophila chaperonin, HtpB, is found on the bacterial cell surface, where it can mediate invasion of nonphagocytic cells. HtpB continues to be abundantly produced and released by internalized L. pneumophila and may thus have postinvasion functions. We used here two functional models (protein-coated beads and expression of recombinant proteins in CHO cells) to investigate the competence of HtpB in mimicking early intracellular trafficking events of L. pneumophila, including the recruitment of mitochondria, cytoskeletal alterations, the inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion, and association with the endoplasmic reticulum. Microscopy and flow cytometry studies indicated that HtpB-coated beads recruited mitochondria in CHO cells and U937-derived macrophages and induced transient changes in the organization of actin microfilaments in CHO cells. Ectopic expression of HtpB in the cytoplasm of transfected CHO cells also led to modifications in actin microfilaments similar to those produced by HtpB-coated beads but did not change the distribution of mitochondria. Association of phagosomes containing HtpB-coated beads with the endoplasmic reticulum was not consistently detected by either fluorescence or electron microscopy studies, and only a modest delay in the fusion of TrOv-labeled lysosomes with phagosomes containing HtpB-coated beads was observed. HtpB is the first Legionella protein and the first chaperonin shown to, by means of our functional models, induce mitochondrial recruitment and microfilament rearrangements, two postinternalization events that typify the early trafficking of virulent L. pneumophila.

Chong, Audrey; Lima, Celia A.; Allan, David S.; Nasrallah, Gheyath K.; Garduno, Rafael A.



Hyper-phosphorylation of GSK-3?: possible roles in chlorpyrifos-induced behavioral alterations in animal model of depression.  


In recent years, the widespread use of chlorpyrifos (CPF) has aroused concerns regarding its potential neurotoxic effects, especially in developing individuals. One of the major consequences of CPF exposure is mood disorders such as depression. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated susceptibility to depression in populations with a history of CPF exposure. Our previous study indicated that repeated CPF exposure in doses from 10 to 160 mg/kg elicits depression- and anxiety-like alterations. However, whether this alteration is due to persistent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was not determined. In this study, we used lower doses of CPF to avoid evident inhibition of AChE to investigate other potential target systems that contribute to CPF's neurotoxic effect. Four-week-old adolescent male rats were repeatedly exposed to CPF at doses of 2.5, 5, or 10mg/kg (s.c., 10 days) and then were subjected to either neurobehavioral testing or immunoblot analysis. Depression-like behaviors as manifested by increased immobility time was observed in force swimming test, while immunoblot analysis revealed a dramatically increased phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) in the hippocampus and striatum, with no effect on the levels of Wnt2, GSK-3?, or ?-catenin. These results suggest a noncholinergic mechanism, the hyper-phosphorylation of GSK-3?, which may contribute to the cellular neurotoxicity of CPF, thus increasing the susceptibility to mood disorders. PMID:22985519

Chen, Wen-Qiang; Ma, Hao; Bian, Jia-Ming; Zhang, You-Zhi; Li, Jin



NMR studies on the chemical alteration of soil organic matter precursors during controlled charring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beside the production of volatiles, vegetation fire transforms various amounts of labile organic components into recalcitrant dark colored and highly aromatic structures. They are incorporated into soils and are assumed to represent an important sink within the global carbon cycle. In order to elucidate the real importance of PyOM as a C-sink, a good understanding of its chemistry is crucial. Although several 'Black Carbon' (BC) models are reported, a commonly accepted view of the chemistry involved in its formation is still missing. Its biogeochemical recalcitrance is commonly associated with a highly condensed aromatic structure. However, recent studies indicated that this view may be oversimplified for PyOM derived from vegetation fire. In order to bring some more light on the structural properties of PyOM produced during vegetation fire, charred plant residues and model chars derived from typical plant macromolecules (casein, cellulose, lignin and condensed tannins) were subjected to controlled charring under oxic conditions (350°C and 450°C) and then characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Subsequently, the chemical features of the PyOM were related to its chemical recalcitrance as determined by chemical oxidation with acid potassium dichromate. Charring cellulose (350°C, 8 min) yielded in a low C-recovery (11%). Treating casein in the same way resulted in a survival of 62% of its C and 46% of its N. Comparable high C-recoveries are reported for lignin. After charring Lolium perenne, 34% of its N and C were recovered. NMR-spectroscopic studies revealed that for this sample most of the charred N and C occurred in pyrrole-type structures. Our studies further indicate that the aromatic skeleton of char accumulating after a vegetation fire must contain remains of the lignin backbone and considerable contributions of furans and anhydrosugars from thermally altered cellulose. Enhancing the temperature during the charring of casein to 450°C decreased the C and N recovery to 30% and 23%, respectively. Comparably the C, O and H recovery were also reduced in the cellulose char, but to a considerably higher extent. These changes went along with a further augmentation of the relative contribution of aromatic C. Increased C, H and O losses were also observed for charring of lignin at higher temperature, although they were smaller than those observed for casein and cellulose. The higher temperature considerably altered the chemistry of the lignin char. The atomic H/C ratio, however, remained above 0.5 showing that in average at least every second C is protonated. Subjecting the produced chars to chemical oxidation with acid potassium dichromate clearly demonstrated that the resistance of the casein chars against heat is not necessarily related to chemical recalcitrance. For the char produced at 350°C, only 13% of the C and N remained in the oxidation residues, whereas for that produced at 450°C this value increased to 80%. In contrast, both cellulose chars showed high chemical resistance with a C-survival of more than 80%. Comparatively, the C and N recalcitrance in the grass chars increased with temperature, whereas, the burned wood residues (350°C) suffered an almost complete oxidation. The chars from condensed tannins, on the other hand showed a high chemical resistance independently from the production temperature. In summary, this study confirmed that the thermal, chemical and biological recalcitrance of biochars is related to their chemical structures and N-contents, which on the other hand depend on the source and the respective charring conditions. The resulting high chemical variability of biochars is in accordance with the concept of BC as a continuum and explains the high discrepancy among BC quantifications obtained with common approaches assuming BC as a highly condensed polyaromatic network.

Knicker, Heike



Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) Preference and Behavioral Response to Animated Images of Conspecifics Altered in Their Color, Aspect Ratio, and Swimming Depth  

PubMed Central

Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) is an example of a freshwater fish species whose remarkable diffusion outside its native range has led to it being placed on the list of the world’s hundred worst invasive alien species (International Union for Conservation of Nature). Here, we investigate mosquitofish shoaling tendency using a dichotomous choice test in which computer-animated images of their conspecifics are altered in color, aspect ratio, and swimming level in the water column. Pairs of virtual stimuli are systematically presented to focal subjects to evaluate their attractiveness and the effect on fish behavior. Mosquitofish respond differentially to some of these stimuli showing preference for conspecifics with enhanced yellow pigmentation while exhibiting highly varying locomotory patterns. Our results suggest that computer-animated images can be used to understand the factors that regulate the social dynamics of shoals of Gambusia affinis. Such knowledge may inform the design of control plans and open new avenues in conservation and protection of endangered animal species.

Polverino, Giovanni; Liao, Jian Cong; Porfiri, Maurizio



Approaches to extrapolating animal toxicity data on organic solvents to public health  

EPA Science Inventory

Developing predictive relationships between exposure and toxicity in humans is difficult because 1) available data are usually derived from experimental animals whose sensitivity to the chemical relative to humans is unknown; 2) the specific neurotoxic endpoints measured in labor...


Influence of Microwave Radiation on the Organism of Man and Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of the microwave field on the organism were studied. The biological bases of the action of microwave electromagnetic radiation on the organism are considered with experimental material on the influence of high and low microwave intensities on t...

I. R. Petrov



Organic egg production in Finland: management of animal welfare and food safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Finland, as in many other countries, the demand for organically produced eggs as well as the number of organic egg producers has increased. Even though organic poultry are given greater possibilities to species-specific behaviour, e.g. by allowing access to outdoors and by housing in free range-systems, maintenance of high welfare status is challenging. Commercial free range or organic egg

U. Holma; M.-L. Hänninen; A.-M. Virtala; T. Hyyrynen; L. Rossow; M. Hovi


Research, values and ethics in organic agriculture - examples from sustainability, precaution, nature quality and animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural systems are characterised by involving both natural and social systems. Organic farming, in particular, has developed as part of a wider organic movement incorporating producers, manufacturers and consumers. The organic movement is based on explicit rules as well as broader formulated principles and goals for farming and manufacturing, which are connected to underlying values and perceptions of the relationship

Hugo Fjelsted Alrøe; Erik Steen Kristensen



Effects of biochemical alteration in animal model after short-term exposure of Jatropha curcas (Linn) leaf extract.  


This study aims to evaluate potential toxic effect of Jatropha curcas leaves methanol extract on laboratory rats as well as determine its LD50. A total of 80 male Wistar rats were used as the experimental animals, 40 for LD50 determination and the other 40 for toxicity study. Based on the pretest that was done in order to establish a range of toxicity, 4 dosages (86.00, 58.00, 46.00, and 34.0?kg/body weight) were chosen. The rats were randomly assigned into four groups with 10 rats in each group. Rats in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were given 0?mg/kg, 500?mg/kg, 1000?mg/kg, and 2000?mg/kg body weight of Jatropha curcas extract, respectively, by oral intubation for 21 days. Thereafter, clinical signs, change in body weight, toxicity symptoms, and biochemical parameters were obtained. The LD50 at 95% confidence limits for rats was 46.0?mg/kg body weight (44.95-52.69?mg/kg body mass). There was no clinical and biochemical signs of toxicity when the extract was administered at 500, 1000, and 2000?mg/kg body weight, respectively (P > 0.05). Results obtained from this study suggest that liver, kidney, and haematological system of rats tolerated methanolic leave extract of Jatropha curcas at a certain concentration. PMID:23781161

Igbinosa, Osamuyimen O; Oviasogie, Efosa F; Igbinosa, Etinosa O; Igene, Otibhor; Igbinosa, Isoken H; Idemudia, Omoruyi G



Characterization of the volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of decomposing animal remains, and compared with human remains.  


Human Remains Detection (HRD) dogs can be a useful tool to locate buried human remains because they rely on olfactory rather than visual cues. Trained specifically to locate deceased humans, it is widely believed that HRD dogs can differentiate animal remains from human remains. This study analyzed the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the headspace above partially decomposed animal tissue samples and directly compared them with results published from human tissues using established solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. Volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of four different animal tissue samples (bone, muscle, fat and skin) from each of cow, pig and chicken were identified and compared to published results from human samples. Although there were compounds common to both animal and human remains, the VOC signatures of each of the animal remains differed from those of humans. Of particular interest was the difference between pigs and humans, because in some countries HRD dogs are trained on pig remains rather than human remains. Pig VOC signatures were not found to be a subset of human; in addition to sharing only seven of thirty human-specific compounds, an additional nine unique VOCs were recorded from pig samples which were not present in human samples. The VOC signatures from chicken and human samples were most similar sharing the most compounds of the animals studied. Identifying VOCs that are unique to humans may be useful to develop human-specific training aids for HRD canines, and may eventually lead to an instrument that can detect clandestine human burial sites. PMID:22424672

Cablk, Mary E; Szelagowski, Erin E; Sagebiel, John C



Endoplasmic reticulum of animal cells and its organization into structural and functional domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in animal cells is an extensive, morphologically continuous network of membrane tubules and flattened cisternae. The ER is a multifunctional organelle; the synthesis of membrane lipids, membrane and secretory proteins, and the regulation of intracellular calcium are prominent among its array of functions. Many of these functions are not homogeneously distributed throughout the ER but rather

Otto Baumann; Bernd Walz



Alteration of organic matter during infaunal polychaete gut passage and links to sediment organic geochemistry. Part I: Amino acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the factors which control the quantity and composition of organic matter (OM) buried in marine sediments, the links between infaunal ingestion and gut passage and sediment geochemistry have received relatively little attention. This study aimed to use feeding experiments and novel isotope tracing techniques to quantify amino acid net accumulation and loss during polychaete gut passage, and to link

Clare Woulds; Jack J. Middelburg; Greg L. Cowie



Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals  

PubMed Central

Intravital fluorescence microscopy has emerged as a powerful technique to visualize cellular processes in vivo. However, the size of the objective lenses has limited physical accessibility to various tissue sites in the internal organs of small animals. The use of small-diameter probes using graded-index (GRIN) lenses expands the capabilities of conventional intravital microscopes into minimally invasive internal organs imaging. In this protocol, we describe the detailed steps for the fabrication of front- and side-view GRIN probes and the integration and operation of the probes in a confocal microscope for visualizing fluorescent cells and microvasculature in various murine organs. We further present longitudinal imaging of immune cells in renal allografts and the tumor development in the colon. The fabrication and integration can be completed in 5–7 hours, and a typical in vivo imaging session takes 1–2 hours.

Kim, Jun Ki; Lee, Woei Ming; Kim, Pilhan; Choi, Myunghwan; Jung, Keehoon; Kim, Seonghoon; Yun, Seok Hyun



Animal Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces students to the concept of animal ecology. The first section explains the different ways animals use camouflage. There is also a discussion of how the process of decay breaks organic matter down into nutrients, and how simple aquatic organisms (algae, zooplankton) provide a food source for larger organisms. The concept of food chains is introduced, and land-based and aquatic examples are described. A quiz and glossary are included.


Microbial alteration of stable nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions of organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the interaction between microbes and organic matter can help elucidate the diagenesis of organic materials in sediments. Vibrio harveyi, a marine, aerobic, heterotrophic bacterium, was cultured on individual compounds each containing carbon and nitrogen, i.e. amino acids or amino sugars. When grown on different substrates, the bacteria fractionated the isotopes uniquely. These fractionations were related to the




Dissolved organics in tannery wastewaters and their alteration by a combined anaerobic and aerobic treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissolved organic load of tannery wastewater and of the effluents of an anaerobic and aerobic treatment were investigated over a 2 yr period. The average dissolved organic carbon content (DOC) of raw wastewater is 900 mg 1?1, corresponding to a discharge of 23 kg DOC t?1 raw hide. The two step biological treatment removes an average 85% of the

Thorsten Reemtsma; Martin Jekel



Tactile stimulation during development alters behaviour and neuroanatomical organization of normal rats.  


The purpose of this study was to examine the anatomical and behavioural sequelae in the normal brain associated with tactile stimulation treatment during development. Using a split litter design, male and female rats were randomly assigned to either the tactile stimulation group (tactile stimulation for 15 min, three times/day, from postnatal day 3 to 21), or the no-tactile stimulation group. In adulthood, the rats were tested on the Whishaw tray reaching task, activity box, novel object recognition, and elevated plus maze. Following behavioural testing, rats were sacrificed for Golgi-Cox analysis. Dendritic length, dendritic branching, and spine density were analyzed in two areas of the prefrontal cortex (mPFC and OFC) and spine density in the amygdala. Tactile stimulation significantly altered rat behaviour on the novel object recognition task and Whishaw tray reaching task, but failed to have an effect on behaviour in the elevated plus maze or activity box. Importantly, tactile stimulation dramatically altered dendritic morphology in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala of both male and female rats. Tactile stimulation significantly increased dendritic branching, dendritic length, and spine density in all brain regions examined. These findings demonstrate that similar to early adversity, positive experiences early in development can dramatically alter neuroplasticity. PMID:22409973

Richards, S; Mychasiuk, R; Kolb, B; Gibb, R



Replication-Associated Mutational Pressure (RMP) Governs Strand-Biased Compositional Asymmetry (SCA) and Gene Organization in Animal Mitochondrial Genomes  

PubMed Central

The nucleotide composition of the light (L-) and heavy (H-) strands of animal mitochondrial genomes is known to exhibit strand-biased compositional asymmetry (SCA). One of the possibilities is the existence of a replication-associated mutational pressure (RMP) that may introduce characteristic nucleotide changes among mitochondrial genomes of different animal lineages. Here, we discuss the influence of RMP on nucleotide and amino acid compositions as well as gene organization. Among animal mitochondrial genomes, RMP may represent the major force that compels the evolution of mitochondrial protein-coding genes, coupled with other process-based selective pressures, such as on components of translation machinery— tRNAs and their anticodons. Through comparative analyses of sequenced mitochondrial genomes among diverse animal lineages and literature reviews, we suggest a strong RMP effect, observed among invertebrate mitochondrial genes as compared to those of vertebrates, that is either a result of positive selection on the invertebrate or a relaxed selective pressure on the vertebrate mitochondrial genes.

Lin, Qiang; Cui, Peng; Ding, Feng; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun



Permissive hypotension does not reduce regional organ perfusion compared to normotensive resuscitation: animal study with fluorescent microspheres  

PubMed Central

Introduction The objective of this study was to investigate regional organ perfusion acutely following uncontrolled hemorrhage in an animal model that simulates a penetrating vascular injury and accounts for prehospital times in urban trauma. We set forth to determine if hypotensive resuscitation (permissive hypotension) would result in equivalent organ perfusion compared to normotensive resuscitation. Methods Twenty four (n=24) male rats randomized to 4 groups: Sham, No Fluid (NF), Permissive Hypotension (PH) (60% of baseline mean arterial pressure - MAP), Normotensive Resuscitation (NBP). Uncontrolled hemorrhage caused by a standardised injury to the abdominal aorta; MAP was monitored continuously and lactated Ringer’s was infused. Fluorimeter readings of regional blood flow of the brain, heart, lung, kidney, liver, and bowel were obtained at baseline and 85 minutes after hemorrhage, as well as, cardiac output, lactic acid, and laboratory tests; intra-abdominal blood loss was assessed. Analysis of variance was used for comparison. Results Intra-abdominal blood loss was higher in NBP group, as well as, lower hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. No statistical differences in perfusion of any organ between PH and NBP groups. No statistical difference in cardiac output between PH and NBP groups, as well as, in lactic acid levels between PH and NBP. NF group had significantly higher lactic acidosis and had significantly lower organ perfusion. Conclusions Hypotensive resuscitation causes less intra-abdominal bleeding than normotensive resuscitation and concurrently maintains equivalent organ perfusion. No fluid resuscitation reduces intra-abdominal bleeding but also significantly reduces organ perfusion.




PubMed Central

Normal aging processes, as well as, psychological stress affect the immune system; each can act alone, or interact with each other, to cause dysregulation of immune function substantially altering physical and mental health. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS), a major mediator of stress effects on immune function, is significantly affected by normal aging process, and stress can affect aging of the SNS. Previously, we have shown age-associated changes in sympathetic noradrenergic (NA) innervation of lymphoid organs in male rodents that affect immune regulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate sympathetic innervation of lymphoid organs and associated alterations in immune responses in young and aging female Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Histofluorescence and immunocytochemistry for NA innervation, and neurochemistry for norepinephrine (NE) levels were performed in the thymus, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) isolated from 3-month-old young (normal estrous cycle), 8- to 9-month-old (onset of irregular estrous cycling), and 24–25 month, and 30–31 month female F344 rats (acyclic) at diestrus based on vaginal smears. Age-related alterations in natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-? (IFN-?) production, T and B lymphocyte proliferation were examined in splenocytes. Sympathetic NA innervation and NE levels increased with aging in the thymus, declined in spleen and MLN, and was accompanied by significant reductions in NK cell activity, IL-2 and IFN-? production, and T and B cell proliferation in old female rats. In 8–9 mo rats, NE levels in the hilar region of the spleen and IFN-? production were unaltered, while NE levels in the end region of the spleen and IL-2 production were reduced. Collectively, these results suggest that aging is characterized by significant alterations in sympathetic NA innervation in the thymus, spleen, and MLN associated with immunosuppression, and that there is a marked shift in NA activity and immune reactivity occurring during middle-aged female rats.

ThyagaRajan, Srinivasan; Madden, Kelley S.; Teruya, Brian; Stevens, Suzanne Y.; Felten, David L.; Bellinger, Denise L.



The pleiotropic Arabidopsis frd mutation with altered coordination of chloroplast biogenesis, cell size and differentiation, organ size and number.  


In higher plants, plastid development must be tightly coordinated with cell and organ development. In this paper, a novel T-DNA-mutagenized Arabidopsis line showing chlorotic leaves and minute stature was identified in a genetic screen for altered chloroplast development. The mutation corresponded to a single locus on chromosome IV and was associated with insertion of the T-DNA. This locus was named FARFADET and resulted in pleiotropic effects on chloroplast biogenesis, cell size and differentiation, organ size and number. Thus, in contrast with previously described chlorotic mutants, frd mutants were affected not only in chloroplast development and chlorophyll accumulation, but also in cell and organ development. Alteration of differentiation affected different cell types such as leaf epidermal cells, trichomes, mesophyll cells, and columella cells. A major effect on mesophyll cell differentiation was the lack of palisadic parenchyma and absence of grana stacks. Moreover, meristem size and lateral meristem initiation were affected. Genetic and molecular characterisation showed that the T-DNA insertion generated 41 bp deletion in a potential miRNA precursor. The predicted miRNA target genes were involved in plant development and stress. It is therefore hypothesized that the frd mutation had affected coordination of cell developmental span and the control of the division-differentiation balance. PMID:16973304

Sulmon, Cécile; Gouesbet, Gwenola; Couée, Ivan; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco; Cavalier, Annie; Penno, Christophe; Zaka, Raïhana; Bechtold, Nicole; Thomas, Daniel; El Amrani, Abdelhak



Organic Phosphorus in Marine Sediments: Chemical Structure, Diagenetic Alteration, and Mechanisms of Preservation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phosphorus, an essential nutrient, is removed from the oceans only through burial with marine sediments. Organic phosphorus P(org) constitutes an important fraction (Ca. 25%) of total-P in marine sediments. However, given the inherent lability of primary ...

K. L. Laarkamp



Organic matter heterogeneities in 2.72 Ga stromatolites: Alteration versus preservation by sulfur incorporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stromatolites of the weakly metamorphosed 2.72 Ga Tumbiana Formation present abundant organic globules that resemble in size, shape and distribution the microorganisms observed in modern stromatolites. In order to evaluate the significance of these cell-like organic materials, we characterized organic matter in-situ down to the nanoscale using a combination of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman microspectroscopy, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These analyses revealed the occurrence of two distinct types of organic matter forming ?m-scale textural and chemical heterogeneities distributed in distinct mineralogical laminae of the stromatolites. Type A organic matter, which is by far the most abundant, consists of sulfur-poor organic matter that is located in mud-type laminae at grain boundaries, mostly in association with silicate minerals. In contrast, Type B organic matter is rare and preserved as inclusions in the core of calcite grains forming laminates. It occurs as micrometer-sized cell-like globules containing variable amounts of organic sulfur likely in the form of thiophenes. Different scenarios may account for these compositional heterogeneities in the kerogen. Based on textural and compositional analogies with modern stromatolites, it is argued that Type B sulfur-rich globules may represent microbial cells protected by mineral encapsulation and selectively preserved through polymerization by early diagenetic sulfurization. In modern sediments, this reaction is fuelled by bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR). This metabolism has been widely considered as a major driver in modern stromatolites calcification and could thus have played an important role in the formation of the Tumbiana Formation stromatolites. In contrast, Type A sulfur-poor organic matter corresponds to either fossil extracellular polymer substances (EPS) or recondensed kerogen. This pool was likely not sulfurized due to either local and/or timely variations in the concentrations of H 2S or adverse pyritization driven by the availability of iron. Our observations thus show the need to use spatially-resolved techniques to complement organic geochemistry analyses and provide a detailed analysis of the organic carbon pools composing Archean stromatolites.

Lepot, Kevin; Benzerara, Karim; Rividi, Nicolas; Cotte, Marine; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; Philippot, Pascal



Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted\\u000a in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical\\u000a agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nutrient cycling, and soil organic matter pools. The objective of this experiment\\u000a was to assess the affect

Hollie Hall; Yuncong Li; Nicholas Comerford; Enrique Arévalo Gardini; Luis Zuniga Cernades; Virupax Baligar; Hugh Popenoe



Comparison of organ-specific toxicity of temafloxacin in animals and humans.  


This article summarizes animal studies conducted to determine the toxic and mutagenic potential of temafloxacin. The four target tissues of potential concern with fluoroquinolone use are the kidney, the eye, the weight-bearing joints of young animals, and the central nervous system. Based on the results of these studies in rats and dogs, it appears unlikely that crystalluria or nephrotoxicity will occur in humans who receive temafloxacin. Pre-marketing clinical trials in humans (n = 5,308) correlate well with chronic toxicity animal studies, reporting no crystalluria or clinically significant nephrotoxicity. Reversible electroretinographic (ERG) changes in dog studies were demonstrated only with the administration of high temafloxacin dosages. A Phase I study evaluating the safety of temafloxacin at 600 mg b.i.d. for 14 days in human subjects reported no significant changes in ophthalmologic parameters. Evidence of cartilaginous joint damage was observed in puppies receiving oral temafloxacin, in young dogs receiving intravenous temafloxacin, and in a single dog receiving a lethal dosage in a dose range-finding study. However, these toxic findings were not evident in any dogs in the subacute or chronic oral toxicity studies or in a longer duration intravenous study. Although limited evidence would suggest that young children may not be at risk, thorough clinical investigations of quinolones in these patients have only recently been initiated. Signs of central nervous system toxicity caused by temafloxacin were absent in two rodent studies, during which clonic convulsions were induced by concomitant use of fenbufen plus enoxacin or ciprofloxacin, and in human subjects evaluated by positron emission tomography. Temafloxacin, contrary to most other quinolones, was considered nonmutagenic in all mutagenicity tests conducted. In reproductive studies, temafloxacin was not uniquely toxic to the developing conceptus in the laboratory rat, mouse, rabbit, or primate. Based on these animal studies, temafloxacin appears to be non-mutagenic and to have a low potential for producing renal or ocular toxicity; however, like other quinolones, it should not be routinely used in children or pregnant women because of evidence of cartilage damage reported in young dogs. Premarketing clinical trials to date confirm the safety of temafloxacin use in adults. PMID:1662894

Krasula, R W; Pernet, A G



Proceeding with clinical trials of animal to human organ transplantation: a way out of the dilemma  

PubMed Central

The transplantation of porcine organs to humans could in the future be a solution to the worldwide organ shortage, but is to date still highly experimental. Further research on the potential effects of crossing the species barrier is essential before clinical application is acceptable. However, many crucial questions on efficacy and safety will ultimately only be answered by well designed and controlled solid organ xenotransplantation trials on humans. This paper is concerned with the question under which conditions, given the risks involved and the ethical issues raised, such clinical trials should be resumed. An alternative means of overcoming the safety and ethical issues is suggested: willed body donation for scientific research in the case of permanent vegetative status. This paper argues that conducting trials on such bodies with prior consent is preferable to the use of human subjects without lack of brain function.

Ravelingien, A; Mortier, F; Mortier, E; Kerremans, I; Braeckman, J



Postdiagenetic Alteration of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Rock of the Greater caucasus and the Caucasus Piedmont (Based on Studies of Organic matter)  

SciTech Connect

Based on the study of the metamorphism of scattered organic matter (vitrinite), maps have been compiled of the postdiagenetic alteration of the Lower Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous, and Upper Paleogene rocks.

Chichua, B.K.; Agulov, A.P.; Kilasoniva, Z.N.; Zhgenti, T.G.



Mossy fiber plasticity and enhanced hippocampal excitability, without hippocampal cell loss or altered neurogenesis, in an animal model of prolonged febrile seizures.  


Seizures induced by fever (febrile seizures) are the most frequent seizures affecting infants and children; however, their impact on the developing hippocampal formation is not completely understood. Such understanding is highly important because of the potential relationship of prolonged febrile seizures to temporal lobe epilepsy. Using an immature rat model, we have previously demonstrated that prolonged experimental febrile seizures render the hippocampus hyperexcitable throughout life. Here we examined whether (1) neuronal loss, (2) altered neurogenesis, or (3) mossy fiber sprouting, all implicated in epileptogenesis in both animal models and humans, were involved in the generation of a pro-epileptic, hyperexcitable hippocampus by these seizures. The results demonstrated that prolonged experimental febrile seizures did not result in appreciable loss of any vulnerable hippocampal cell population, though causing strikingly enhanced sensitivity to hippocampal excitants later in life. In addition, experimental febrile seizures on postnatal day 10 did not enhance proliferation of granule cells, whereas seizures generated by kainic acid during the same developmental age increased neurogenesis in the immature hippocampus. However, prolonged febrile seizures resulted in long-term axonal reorganization in the immature hippocampal formation: Mossy fiber densities in granule cell- and molecular layers were significantly increased by 3 months (but not 10 days) after the seizures. Thus, the data indicate that prolonged febrile seizures influence connectivity of the immature hippocampus long-term, and this process requires neither significant neuronal loss nor altered neurogenesis. In addition, the temporal course of the augmented mossy fiber invasion of the granule cell and molecular layers suggests that it is a consequence, rather than the cause, of the hyperexcitable hippocampal network resulting from these seizures. PMID:12722980

Bender, Roland A; Dubé, Celine; Gonzalez-Vega, Rebeca; Mina, Erene W; Baram, Tallie Z



Animal health problems in organic farming: subjective and objective assessments and farmers’ actions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health problems associated with organic farming have not yet been fully evaluated. Subjective records (on-farm surveys or expert opinions) are available for most farm species, but their reliability depends on the survey and type of disease concerned, and good records are available only for the most easily diagnosed diseases. Objective information is available mainly for dairy-cattle (metabolic disorders, mastitis

Jacques Cabaret



Simulating climate change-induced alterations in bioaccumulation of organic contaminants in an Arctic marine food web.  


Climate change is expected to alter environmental distribution of contaminants and their bioaccumulation due to changes in transport, partitioning, carbon pathways, and bioaccumulation process rates. Magnitude and direction of these changes and resulting overall bioaccumulation in food webs is currently not known. The present study investigates and quantifies the effect of climate change in terms of increased temperature and primary production (i.e., concentrations of particulate organic carbon, C(POC)), on bioaccumulation of organic contaminants in biota at various trophic levels. The present study covers only parts of the contaminant behavior that is influenced by climate change, and it was assumed that there were no changes in food web structure and in total air and water concentrations of organic contaminants. Therefore, other climate change-induced effects on net bioaccumulation, such as altered contaminant transport and food web structure, should be addressed in future studies. To determine the effect of climate change, a bioaccumulation model was used on the pelagic marine food web of the Arctic, where climate change is expected to occur fastest and to the largest magnitude. The effect of climate change on model parameters and processes, and on net bioaccumulation, were quantified for three modeling substances (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane [HCH], polychlorinated biphenyl [PCB]-52, and PCB-153) for two possible climate scenarios. In conclusion, increased temperature and C(POC) reduced the overall bioaccumulation of organic contaminants in the Arctic marine food web, with the largest change being for PCB-52 and PCB-153. Reduced bioavailability, due to increased C(POC), was the most influential parameter for the less water soluble compounds. Increase in temperature resulted in an overall reduction in net bioaccumulation. PMID:20821579

Borgå, Katrine; Saloranta, Tuomo M; Ruus, Anders



Automated rodent in situ muscle contraction assay and myofiber organization analysis in sarcopenia animal models.  


Age-related sarcopenia results in frailty and decreased mobility, which are associated with increased falls and long-term disability in the elderly. Given the global increase in lifespan, sarcopenia is a growing, unmet medical need. This report aims to systematically characterize muscle aging in preclinical models, which may facilitate the development of sarcopenia therapies. Naïve rats and mice were subjected to noninvasive micro X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging, terminal in situ muscle function characterizations, and ATPase-based myofiber analysis. We developed a Definiens (Parsippany, NJ)-based algorithm to automate micro-CT image analysis, which facilitates longitudinal in vivo muscle mass analysis. We report development and characterization of translational in situ skeletal muscle performance assay systems in rat and mouse. The systems incorporate a custom-designed animal assay stage, resulting in enhanced force measurement precision, and LabVIEW (National Instruments, Austin, TX)-based algorithms to support automated data acquisition and data analysis. We used ATPase-staining techniques for myofibers to characterize fiber subtypes and distribution. Major parameters contributing to muscle performance were identified using data mining and integration, enabled by Labmatrix (BioFortis, Columbia, MD). These technologies enabled the systemic and accurate monitoring of muscle aging from a large number of animals. The data indicated that longitudinal muscle cross-sectional area measurement effectively monitors change of muscle mass and function during aging. Furthermore, the data showed that muscle performance during aging is also modulated by myofiber remodeling factors, such as changes in myofiber distribution patterns and changes in fiber shape, which affect myofiber interaction. This in vivo muscle assay platform has been applied to support identification and validation of novel targets for the treatment of sarcopenia. PMID:22461442

Weber, H; Rauch, A; Adamski, S; Chakravarthy, K; Kulkarni, A; Dogdas, B; Bendtsen, C; Kath, G; Alves, S E; Wilkinson, H A; Chiu, C-S



Enzymic hydrolysis of animal fats in organic solvents at temperatures below their melting points  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipase fromCandida rugosa catalyzed the hydrolysis of inedible beef tallow and pork lard (edible and inedible) in the presence of organic solvents\\u000a at temperatures below the melting point of the fat. Reactions were carried out at 50% substrate with 180 lipase units per\\u000a gram of fat in a two-liter reactor. In the presence of isooctane (5-10%) beef tallow yielded 94%

M. D. Virto; Jose Miguel Lascaray; Rodolfo Solozabal; Mertxe de Renobales



The semantic organization of the animal category: evidence from semantic verbal fluency and network theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semantic memory is the subsystem of human memory that stores knowledge of concepts or meanings, as opposed to life-specific\\u000a experiences. How humans organize semantic information remains poorly understood. In an effort to better understand this issue,\\u000a we conducted a verbal fluency experiment on 200 participants with the aim of inferring and representing the conceptual storage\\u000a structure of the natural category

Joaquín Goñi; Gonzalo Arrondo; Jorge Sepulcre; Iñigo Martincorena; Nieves Vélez de Mendizábal; Bernat Corominas-Murtra; Bartolomé Bejarano; Sergio Ardanza-Trevijano; Herminia Peraita; Dennis P. Wall; Pablo Villoslada



The Effect of Phosphates on the Antibacterial Activity of Crystallomycin and Amphomycin in Vitro and the Titration Methods for These Antibiotics in the Organs and Urine of Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Discussed is the effect of phosphates on the antibacterial activity of crystallomycin and amphomycin in vitro and the titration methods for these antibiotics in the organs and urine of animals. (Author)

I. A. Kunrat



miRGen: a database for the study of animal microRNA genomic organization and function.  


miRGen is an integrated database of (i) positional relationships between animal miRNAs and genomic annotation sets and (ii) animal miRNA targets according to combinations of widely used target prediction programs. A major goal of the database is the study of the relationship between miRNA genomic organization and miRNA function. This is made possible by three integrated and user friendly interfaces. The Genomics interface allows the user to explore where whole-genome collections of miRNAs are located with respect to UCSC genome browser annotation sets such as Known Genes, Refseq Genes, Genscan predicted genes, CpG islands and pseudogenes. These miRNAs are connected through the Targets interface to their experimentally supported target genes from TarBase, as well as computationally predicted target genes from optimized intersections and unions of several widely used mammalian target prediction programs. Finally, the Clusters interface provides predicted miRNA clusters at any given inter-miRNA distance and provides specific functional information on the targets of miRNAs within each cluster. All of these unique features of miRGen are designed to facilitate investigations into miRNA genomic organization, co-transcription and targeting. miRGen can be freely accessed at PMID:17108354

Megraw, Molly; Sethupathy, Praveen; Corda, Benoit; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G



Regulatory and Biosafety Issues in Relation to Transgenic Animals in Food and Agriculture, Feeds Containing Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) and Veterinary Biologics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are new organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation and biosafety of

H. P. S. Kochhar; G. A. Gifford; S. Kahn


Organic components of nuclear wastes and their potential for altering radionuclide distribution when released to soil  

SciTech Connect

Normal waste processing at the Hanford operations requires the use of many organic materials, chiefly in the form of complexing agents and diluents. These organic materials and their chemical and radiolytic degradation products, have potential for complexing fission products and transuranium elements, both in the waste streams and upon infiltration into soil, perhaps influencing future sorption or migration of the nuclides. Particular complexation characteristics of various nuclides which constitute the major fission products, long-lived isotopes, and the most mobile in radioactive wastes are discussed briefly with regards to their anticipated sorption or mobility in soils. Included in the discussion are Am, Sb, Ce, Cs, Co, Cm, Eu, I, Np, Pm, Pu, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, U, and Zr. 107 references.

McFadden, K.M.



Thermal alterations of organic matter in coal wastes from Upper Silesia, Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-heating and self-combustion are currently taking place in some coal waste dumps in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland, e.g. the dumps at Rymer Cones, Starzykowiec, and the Marcel Coal Mine, all in the Rybnik area. These dumps are of similar age and self-heating and combustion have been occurring in all three for many years. The tools of organic petrography

Magdalena Misz-Kennan



Gene deletion of cytosolic ATP: citrate lyase leads to altered organic acid production in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the availability of the genome sequence of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger, the use of targeted genetic modifications has become feasible. This, together with the fact that A. niger is well established industrially, makes this fungus an attractive micro-organism for creating a cell factory platform for\\u000a production of chemicals. Using molecular biology techniques, this study focused on metabolic engineering

Susan Meijer; Michael Lynge Nielsen; Lisbeth Olsson; Jens Nielsen



Butenolide inhibits marine fouling by altering the primary metabolism of three target organisms.  


Butenolide is a very promising antifouling compound that inhibits ship hull fouling by a variety of marine organisms, but its antifouling mechanism was previously unknown. Here we report the first study of butenolide's molecular targets in three representative fouling organisms. In the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite, butenolide bound to acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1), which is involved in ketone body metabolism. Both the substrate and the product of ACAT1 increased larval settlement under butenolide treatment, suggesting its functional involvement. In the bryozoan Bugula neritina, butenolide bound to very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADVL), actin, and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). ACADVL is the first enzyme in the very long chain fatty acid ?-oxidation pathway. The inhibition of this primary pathway for energy production in larvae by butenolide was supported by the finding that alternative energy sources (acetoacetate and pyruvate) increased larval attachment under butenolide treatment. In marine bacterium Vibrio sp. UST020129-010, butenolide bound to succinyl-CoA synthetase ? subunit (SCS?) and inhibited bacterial growth. ACAT1, ACADVL, and SCS? are all involved in primary metabolism for energy production. These findings suggest that butenolide inhibits fouling by influencing the primary metabolism of target organisms. PMID:22458453

Zhang, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Huoming; He, Lisheng; Liu, Changdong; Xu, Ying; Qian, Pei-Yuan



Recent Alterations of Aerosol Concentration, Mercury Distribution and Organic Matter Deposition in the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Material fluxes in the Arctic and Antarctic have been, in several respects, strongly affected recently. For example, atmospheric turbidity conditions are frequently subject to strong changes due to haze and dust transport episodes, which can cause considerable perturbations in the radiation balance of the atmosphere beyond regional scale. This, directly or indirectly, contributes to the increased mercury deposition and organic matter fluxes to sediments. The results show that local emissions are not always the most important factors influencing the composition of aerosol in the atmosphere of the west Spitsbergen region. The direct radiative impact of polar aerosols on the surface and at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) need to be studied more closely through both theoretical studies on the aerosol radiative properties and measurements of the surface reflectance characteristics. Mercury dissolved/solid partitioning, both in the unconsolidated, fluffy layer of suspended matter covering the sediments, and the uppermost sediment layer, indicate that the influence of the athmospheric mercury deposition event (AMDE) can prolong well into summer (July/August), and can provide a pathway to the food chain for mercury contained in sediments. Since terrigenous supplies of organic carbon to the Barents Sea are minor (~5%) compared to the marine supply, modern sediment deposits in this region sequester on average 6.0 g/m2year organic carbon, or 5.8% of the annual integrated pelagic primary production. This burial fraction exceeds, by a factor of 3, the burial fraction derived for the Holocene.

Pempkowiak, Janusz; Zieli?ski, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Be?dowski, Agata Zaborska Jacek



Hypertensive Cardiovascular and Renal Disease and Target Organ Damage: Lessons from Animal Models  

PubMed Central

This brief review discusses some aspects of hypertensive damage to the kidneys and cardiovascular system. A comparison of renal and cardiac manifestations of hypertensive disease between results of clinical and experimental studies was made, with a major focus on the possible role of salt and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in inducing target organ damage. Thus, some degree of renal impairment is often present in patients with essential hypertension, varying from microalbuminuria to end-stage renal disease, whereas in rats with spontaneous hypertension only slight renal damage is seen in old rats with little evidence of renal failure. Since renal damage in hypertensive rats is induced when they are exposed to increased salt intake, we suggested that salt may also account for kidney injury in hypertensive patients. Similarly, cardiac damage is aggravated in hypertensive human beings and rats when given salt excess. We further presented evidence that the RAS may mediate adverse cardiac and renal effects of excessive salt intake. Finally, we also discussed some aspects of the cardiovascular physiology in the giraffe, the only mammal that in comparison with the human being has extremely high pressure at the level of the heart and kidneys but no target organ damage.

Susic, Dinko; Frohlich, Edward D.



Alterations in neural intermediate filament organization: functional implications and the induction of pathological changes related to motor neuron disease.  


The properties regulating the supramolecular organization of neural intermediate filament (NIF) networks have been investigated in cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. The studies described take advantage of the ability of endogenous NIF to incorporate purified biotinylated neurofilament triplet (NFT) proteins, NF-L, NF-M and NF-H. When injected at concentrations of 0.8-1.0 mg/ml injection buffer, each of these proteins is incorporated without perturbing the endogenous NIF network. However, at progressively higher concentrations, NF-H induces the aggregation and accumulation of NIF in the cell body. Subsequent to the induction of these aggregates, numerous alterations in the cytoarchitecture of neurons can be detected. The latter occur in a temporal sequence which appears to begin with the fragmentation of the Golgi complex. At later times, accumulation of mitochondria within the proximal region of neurites, peripheralization of the nucleus, and a significant decrease in neurite caliber become obvious. After longer time periods, the NIF aggregates are seen to react with an antibody which reveals abnormally phosphorylated NF-H. These observations demonstrate that an imbalance in the normal stoichiometric relationships among the NFT proteins rapidly alters the supramolecular organization of the NIF network. These changes most likely reflect the normal functions of neurofilaments in cell shape and the organization and cytoplasmic distribution of membranous organelles. Interestingly, virtually all of these changes closely resemble those which have been reported in motor neuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). These findings suggest that cultured neurons can be used as models for more precisely defining the relationships between the formation of NIF aggregates and the sequence of cytopathological events which typify neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:8886982

Straube-West, K; Loomis, P A; Opal, P; Goldman, R D



Common onion (Allium cepa) extract reverses cadmium-induced organ toxicity and dyslipidaemia via redox alteration in rats.  


Background: Cadmium (Cd) remains an important environmental pollutant of public health concern as it causes organ toxicity, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the roles of common foods such as onion (Allium cepa) need further clarification. The aims of this study were to clarify whether or not Cd-induced organ dysfunction was associated with blood protein, lipid and lipid peroxidation and the effects of onion extract AcE in a rat model. Methods: Control and Cd-treated rats were maintained on control diet, while AcE+Cd-treated rats were also orally administered AcE (1ml/100g body weight). Cd-treated and AcE+Cd-treated rats also received cadmium as CdSO4 (1.5ml/kg body weight of 0.3mg/L of CdSO4) via drinking water. Results: It was found that Cd significantly increased total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, serum albumin, and reduced HDL-cholesterol, total plasma protein, and plasma testosterone. Administration of AcE restored the liver and kidney toxicities and blood protein and lipid profiles. Moreover, AcE improved Cd-induced decrease in urinary volume and renal clearance, and also protected against Cd-induced oxidative stress by normalizing redox status. However, AcE did not affect Cd-induced altered plasma testosterone. Conclusion: Our study suggests that Cd-induced CVD was associated with altered blood dysproteinemia, dyslipidaemia, and oxidative stress. It also provided the first evidence of the therapeutic efficacy of AcE against atherosclerotic conditions and organ toxicity in Cd-intoxicated rats via a mechanism independent of the circulating testosterone level. PMID:23727273

Ige, S F; Akhigbe, R E



Transport and Breakdown of Organic Matter in Urban and Forested Streams: The Effects of Altered Hydrology and Landscape Position  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A better understanding of how urbanization and trees interact to alter organic matter transport and cycling is needed to assess retention in catchments and streams, as well as to estimate the magnitude of carbon fluxes to the atmosphere and to downstream aquatic ecosystems. The influx of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM/DOC) to headwater streams normally originates within or near riparian areas, and is important to aquatic food webs in stream ecosystems. Urban catchments, however, have huge effective drainage densities (due to storm drainage infrastructure), which facilitate a POM/DOC "gutter subsidy" to streams that dwarfs riparian inputs and alters benthic litter quality (and represents a major short-circuit in the carbon vegetation-soil cycle.) We measured in-situ leaf litter breakdown rates, flows, DOC, BOD and nutrients in forested, suburban and urban streams of the BES LTER and Baltimore City DPW sampling networks, which encompassed a variety of urban and rural landscapes. Sycamore and Planetree leaf litter in-situ experiments revealed faster breakdown rates for suburban and urban landscape litter than for riparian litter, with rates being much faster than literature values for forested catchments. DOC, BOD and nutrient data (storm and dry weather) from BES/DPW stream sites showed much higher concentrations and loads in the more urbanized catchments and indicate the streams are likely heterotrophic and experience transient but high dissolved oxygen demands. High nutrient concentrations, faster litter breakdown rates, and substantially higher upland urban fluxes of organic matter (particulate and dissolved) in urban streams suggest that export rates are likely substantially higher than in forested systems and that carbon loads to both downstream aquatic systems and to the atmosphere (as CO2) are substantial.

Belt, K. T.; Swan, C. M.; Pouyat, R. V.; Kaushal, S.; Groffman, P. M.; Stack, W. P.; Fisher, G. T.



Role of minerals in thermal alteration of organic matter--II: a material balance.  


Pyrolysis experiments were performed on Green River and Monterey Formation kerogens (Types I and II, respectively) with and without calcite, illite, or montmorillonite at 300 degrees C for 2 to 1,000 hours under dry and hydrous conditions. Pyrolysis products were identified and quantified, and a material balance of product and reactants resulted. Significant differences were found in the products generated by pyrolysis of kerogens with and without minerals. Both illite and montmorillonite adsorb a considerable portion (up to 80%) of the generated bitumen. The adsorbed bitumen is almost exclusively composed of polar compounds and asphaltenes that crack to yield low molecular weight compounds and insoluble pyrobitumen during prolonged heating. Montmorillonite shows the most pronounced adsorptive and catalytic effects. With calcite however, the pyrolysis products are similar to those from kerogen heated alone, and bitumen adsorption is negligible. Applying these results to maturation of organic matter in natural environments, we suggest that a given type of organic matter associated with different minerals in source rocks will yield different products. Furthermore, the different adsorption capacities of minerals exert a significant influence on the migration of polar and high molecular weight compounds generated from the breakdown of kerogen. Therefore, the overall accumulated products from carbonate source rocks are mainly heavy oils with some gas, whereas light oils and gases are the main products from source rocks that contain expandable clays with catalytic and adsorptive properties. PMID:11542070

Tannenbaum, E; Huizinga, B J; Kaplan, I R



Mutations in M2 alter the selectivity of the mouse nicotinic acetylcholine receptor for organic and alkali metal cations  

PubMed Central

We measured the permeability ratios (PX/PNa) of 3 wild-type, 1 hybrid, 2 subunit-deficient, and 22 mutant nicotinic receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes for alkali metal and organic cations using shifts in the bi-ionic reversal potential of the macroscopic current. Mutations at three positions (2', 6', 10') in M2 affected ion selectivity. Mutations at position 2' (alpha Thr244, beta Gly255, gamma Thr253, delta Ser258) near the intracellular end of M2 changed the organic cation permeability ratios as much as twofold and reduced PCs/PNa and PK/PNa by 16-18%. Mutations at positions 6' and 10' increased the glycine ethyl ester/Na+ and glycine methyl ester/Na+ permeability ratios. Two subunit alterations also affected selectivity: omission of the delta subunit reduced PCs/PNa by 16%, and substitution of Xenopus delta for mouse delta increased Pguanidinium/PNa more than twofold and reduced PCs/PNa by 34% and PLi/PNa by 20%. The wild-type mouse receptor displayed a surprising interaction with the primary ammonium cations; relative permeability peaked at a chain length equal to four carbons. Analysis of the organic permeability ratios for the wild-type mouse receptor shows that (a) the diameter of the narrowest part of the pore is 8.4 A; (b) the mouse receptor departs significantly from size selectivity for monovalent organic cations; and (c) lowering the temperature reduces Pguanidinium/PNa by 38% and Pbutylammonium/PNa more than twofold. The results reinforce present views that positions -1' and 2' are the narrowest part of the pore and suggest that positions 6' and 10' align some permeant organic cations in the pore in an interaction similar to that with channel blocker, QX-222.




Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) is an environmental and occupational health concern. This review examines the cellular actions of the organic and the particulate components of DEP in the development of various lung diseases. Both the organic and the particulate components cause oxidant lung injury. The particulate component is known to induce alveolar epithelial damage, alter thiol levels in

Jane Y. C. Ma; Joseph K. H. Ma



Gradients of strain and strain rate in the hollow muscular organs of soft-bodied animals.  


The cylindrical shape of soft-bodied invertebrates is well suited to functions in skeletal support and locomotion, but may result in a previously unrecognized cost-large non-uniformities in muscle strain and strain rate among the circular muscle fibres of the body wall. We investigated such gradients of strain and strain rate in the mantle of eight long-finned squid Doryteuthis pealeii and two oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana. Transmural gradients of circumferential strain were present during all jets (n = 312); i.e. for a given change in the circumference of the outer surface of the mantle, the inner surface experienced a greater proportional change. The magnitude of the difference increased with the amplitude of the mantle movement, with circular muscle fibres at the inner surface of the mantle experiencing a total range of strains up to 1.45 times greater than fibres at the outer surface during vigorous jets. Differences in strain rate between the circular fibres near the inner versus the outer surface of the mantle were also present in all jets, with the greatest differences occurring during vigorous jetting. The transmural gradients of circumferential strain and strain rate we describe probably apply not only to squids and other coleoid cephalopods, but also to diverse soft-bodied invertebrates with hollow cylindrical or conical bodies and muscular organs. PMID:20106857

Thompson, Joseph T; Taylor, Kari R; Gentile, Christopher



Vanilloid Receptors in Hearing: Altered Cochlear Sensitivity by Vanilloids and Expression of TRPV1 in the Organ of Corti  

PubMed Central

Capsaicin, the vanilloid that selectively activates vanilloid receptors (VRs) on sensory neurons for noxious perception, has been reported to increase cochlear blood flow (CBF). VR-related receptors have also been found in the inner ear. This study aims to address the question as to whether VRs exist in the organ of Corti and play a role in cochlear physiology. Capsaicin or the more potent VR agonist, resiniferatoxin (RTX), was infused into the scala tympani of guinea pig cochlea, and their effects on cochlear sensitivity were investigated. Capsaicin (20 µM) elevated the threshold of auditory nerve compound action potential and reduced the magnitude of cochlear microphonic and electrically evoked otoacoustic emissions. These effects were reversible and could be blocked by a competitive antagonist, capsazepine. Application of 2 µM RTX resulted in cochlear sensitivity alterations similar to that by capsaicin, which could also be blocked by capsazepine. A desensitization phenomenon was observed in the case of prolonged perfusion with either capsaicin or RTX. Brief increase of CBF by capsaicin was confirmed, and the endocochlear potential was not decreased. Basilar membrane velocity (BM) growth functions near the best frequency and BM tuning were altered by capsaicin. Immunohistochemistry study revealed the presence of vanilloid receptor type 1 of the transient receptor potential channel family in the hair cells and supporting cells of the organ of Corti and the spiral ganglion cells of the cochlea. The results indicate that the main action of capsaicin is on outer hair cells and suggest that VRs in the cochlea play a role in cochlear homeostasis.

Zheng, Jiefu; Dai, Chunfu; Steyger, Peter S.; Kim, Youngki; Vass, Zoltan; Ren, Tianying; Nuttall, Alfred L.



Ifenprodil and arcaine alter amygdala-kindling development 1 Intramural research was funded by U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command. Research was conducted in compliance with the Animal Welfare Act, and other Federal statutes and regulations relating to animals and experiments involving animals and adheres to principles stated in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, NIH publication 85-23. The views of the authors do not purport to reflect the position of the Department of the Army or the Department of Defense, (para 4-3), AR 360-5. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NMDA receptor complex is thought to be altered in kindling, an animal model for complex partial epilepsy. This receptor complex has several modulatory sites including those for glutamate, glycine and polyamines with activation resulting in altered cation channel opening. Two NMDA receptor effectors, ifenprodil and arcaine, were evaluated for effects on the acquisition of electrical kindling of the amygdala.

Debra L Yourick; Ronald T Repasi; W. Bradley Rittase; Latonia D Staten; James L Meyerhoff



Genetic variants of human organic anion transporter 4 demonstrate altered transport of endogenous substrates  

PubMed Central

Apical reabsorption from the urine has been shown to be important for such processes as the maintenance of critical metabolites in the blood and the excretion of nephrotoxic compounds. The solute carrier (SLC) transporter OAT4 (SLC22A11) is expressed on the apical membrane of renal proximal tubule cells and is known to mediate the transport of a variety of xenobiotic and endogenous organic anions. Functional characterization of genetic variants of apical transporters thought to mediate reabsorption, such as OAT4, may provide insight into the genetic factors influencing the complex pathways involved in drug elimination and metabolite reclamation occurring in the kidney. Naturally occurring genetic variants of OAT4 were identified in public databases and by resequencing DNA samples from 272 individuals comprising 4 distinct ethnic groups. Nine total nonsynonymous variants were identified and functionally assessed using uptake of three radiolabeled substrates. A nonsense variant, R48Stop, and three other variants (R121C, V155G, and V155M) were found at frequencies of at least 2% in an ethnic group specific fashion. The L29P, R48Stop, and H469R variants displayed a complete loss of function, and kinetic analysis identified a reduced Vmax in the common nonsynonymous variants. Plasma membrane levels of OAT4 protein were absent or reduced in the nonfunctional variants, providing a mechanistic reason for the observed loss of function. Characterization of the genetic variants of reabsorptive transporters such as OAT4 is an important step in understanding variability in tubular reabsorption with important implications in innate homeostatic processes and drug disposition.

Shima, James E.; Komori, Takafumi; Taylor, Travis R.; Stryke, Doug; Kawamoto, Michiko; Johns, Susan J.; Carlson, Elaine J.; Ferrin, Thomas E.



Alteration of chromophoric dissolved organic matter by solar UV radiation causes rapid changes in bacterial community composition†  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the effect of photochemical alterations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) on bacterial abundance, activity and community composition in a coastal lagoon of the Atlantic Ocean with high dissolved organic carbon concentration. On two occasions during the austral summer, bacteria-free water of the lagoon was exposed to different regions of the solar spectrum (full solar radiation, UV-A + PAR, PAR) or kept in the dark. Subsequently, dilution cultures were established with bacterioplankton from the lagoon that were incubated in the pre-exposed water for 5 h in the dark. Cell abundance, activity, and community composition of bacterioplankton were assessed before and after incubation in the different treatments. Changes in absorption, fluorescence, and DOC concentration were used as proxies for CDOM photoalteration. We found a significant CDOM photobleaching signal, DOC loss, as well as a stimulation of bacterial activity in the treatments pre-exposed to UV radiation, suggesting increased bioavailability of DOM. Bacterial community analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that this stimulation was mainly accompanied by the specific enrichment of Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria. Thus, our results suggest that CDOM photoalteration not only stimulates bacterioplankton growth, but also induces rapid changes in bacterioplankton composition, which can be of relevance for ecosystem functioning, particularly considering present and future changes in the input of terrestrial CDOM to aquatic systems.

Piccini, Claudia; Conde, Daniel; Pernthaler, Jakob; Sommaruga, Ruben



Short term temporal variability in the photochemically mediated alteration of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in rainwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the research presented here was to determine the impact of photochemistry on the abundance and spectral qualities of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in precipitation. The relationship between sunlight and CDOM in rainwater was complex with both production and photobleaching of optical properties occurring simultaneously in different regions of the fluorescence excitation emission spectra (EEMs) over relatively short time scales. Spectral slope was inversely correlated with the observed changes in total integrated fluorescence suggesting that photo-induced modifications in the molecular weight of CDOM were occurring along with fluctuations in its optical properties. Atmospheric condensate collected near a high traffic roadway had a response to sunlight similar to authentic rainwater suggesting some fraction of the CDOM in atmospheric waters is derived from local anthropogenic gas phase sources. There was a dramatic increase in fluorescence in two samples photolyzed with photosynthetically active radiation only (PAR; 400-700 nm) compared to analogous samples exposed to full spectrum sunlight indicating that this less energetic light is capable of producing photochemically labile compounds in rainwater. The observed temporal variability in the molecular level response of CDOM to sunlight is important because it may alter the spectral attenuation and the amount of solar radiation reaching the earth's surface.

Kieber, Robert J.; Adams, Mary Beth; Willey, Joan D.; Whitehead, Robert F.; Avery, G. Brooks; Mullaugh, Katherine M.; Mead, Ralph N.



Unexplained gonad alterations in whitefish (Coregonus spp.) from Lake Thun, Switzerland: levels of persistent organic pollutants in different morphs.  


Since 2000, a surprisingly high number of macroscopical gonad alterations has been reported in whitefish (Coregonus spp.) from Lake Thun, Switzerland. This unique phenomenon is still unexplained and has received much public attention. As one possible trigger for these effects, the presence of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic compounds acting as endocrine disruptors in the lake has been discussed. In this study, concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants were examined in two morphs of whitefish from Lake Thun and their link to the observed abnormalities was investigated. Analyzed compound classes included polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated naphthalenes, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecanes. The target substances were identified in all samples and concentrations of the analyzed compounds were highly correlated among each other. These correlations show that the analyzed substances have the same distribution pattern throughout the lake and that uptake, accumulation and elimination processes are similar. Significant differences in contaminant levels within the samples existed between the two analyzed morphs of whitefish, most likely due to different age, food patterns and growth rate. No difference in contaminant levels was observed between fish with abnormal gonads and fish with normal gonads, suggesting no causal link between the investigated lipophilic organohalogen compounds present in fish and the observed gonad abnormalities in whitefish from Lake Thun. A comparison to existing data shows that concentrations in Lake Thun whitefish are at the lower bound of contaminant levels in whitefish from Swiss lakes or from European waters. PMID:18986675

Bogdal, Christian; Naef, Michael; Schmid, Peter; Kohler, Martin; Zennegg, Markus; Bernet, Daniel; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad



Use of mutant 125I-perfringolysin O to probe transport and organization of cholesterol in membranes of animal cells.  


Animal cells strictly control the distribution of cholesterol in their organelle membranes. This regulation requires an efficient machinery to transport insoluble cholesterol between organelles. In the present study, we generate an (125)I-labeled mutant version of Perfringolysin O (PFO), a cholesterol-binding protein, and use it to measure cholesterol in the plasma membrane of intact cells. We also purify plasma membranes from the same cells, which allows us to directly relate cholesterol concentration to (125)I-PFO binding. We show that cholesterol is organized in the plasma membrane in a manner that makes it inaccessible to PFO until its concentration exceeds a threshold of 35 mol% of total lipids. This 35% threshold is in striking contrast to the 5% threshold previously found for PFO binding to endoplasmic reticulum membranes. The (125)I-PFO probe also proved useful in monitoring the movement of LDL-derived cholesterol from lysosomes to plasma membranes. Using three different mutant cell lines, we show that this transport requires receptor-mediated uptake of LDL, hydrolysis of LDL-cholesteryl esters in lysosomes, and transfer of the liberated cholesterol to the plasma membrane. PMID:23754385

Das, Akash; Goldstein, Joseph L; Anderson, Donald D; Brown, Michael S; Radhakrishnan, Arun



Cytoplasmatic Alkaline Phosphatase and Allergic Alteration of Blood Leukocytes after Sensitization during Sonne Keratoconjunctivitis in Animals and during Dysentery in Humans.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Working on the basis of the pathogenetic significance of bacterial sensitization during dysenteric infection, the authors investigated allergic alterations of leukocytes. They determined the nature of changes and distribution of the activity of cytoplasma...

D. M. Nedopryadko G. I. Fredman



Physiologic Aspects of porcine Hemorrhage. II. Alterations in Heart Rate and Arterial Pressure during Fifty Percent Blood Volume Loss in the Conscious Animal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A porcine animal model, designed to simulate physiologic characteristics of the combat casualty, was used to assess the effects of severe blood loss on the heart rate and arterial pressures in the absence of anesthesia or other interventions. Chronic cath...

J. P. Hannon P. B. Jennings R. S. Dixon



Dietary Supplementation of Selenium in Inorganic and Organic Forms Differentially and Commonly Alters Blood and Liver Selenium Concentrations and Liver Gene Expression Profiles of Growing Beef Heifers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In geographic regions where selenium (Se) soil concentrations are naturally low, the addition of Se to animal feed is necessary.\\u000a Even though it is known that Se in grass and forage crops is primarily present in organic forms (especially as L-selenomethionine,\\u000a L-selenocystine, and L-selenocystathionine), the feeding of Se in the naturally occurring organic selenium (OSe) compounds\\u000a produces higher blood and

Shengfa F. Liao; Kelly R. Brown; Arnold J. Stromberg; Walter R. Burris; James A. Boling; James C. Matthews



Organization of the Antiseptic Resistance Gene qacA and Tn552Related  Lactamase Genes in Multidrug- Resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus Strains of Animal and Human Origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A part (12 kb) of a plasmid containing the -lactamase genes of Tn552, the disinfectant resistance gene qacA, and flanking DNA has been cloned from a Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolate and sequenced. This region was used to map the corresponding regions in six other multiresistant S. haemolyticus isolates of human and animal origin. The organizations of the genetic structures were almost

I.-L. Anthonisen; M. Sunde; T. M. Steinum; M. S. Sidhu; H. Sorum




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

SAC (for suppressor of actin) domain proteins in yeast and animals have been shown to modulate the levels of phosphoinositides, thereby regulating several cellular activities such as signal transduction, actin cytoskeleton organization, and vesicle trafficking. Nine genes encoding SAC domain-contai...


Genetic deletion of ABP-120 alters the three-dimensional organization of actin filaments in Dictyostelium pseudopods  

PubMed Central

This study extends the observations on the defects in pseudopod formation of ABP-120+ and ABP-120- cells by a detailed morphological and biochemical analysis of the actin based cytoskeleton. Both ABP-120+ and ABP-120- cells polymerize the same amount of F-actin in response to stimulation with cAMP. However, unlike ABP-120+ cells, ABP-120- cells do not incorporate actin into the Triton X-100-insoluble cytoskeleton at 30-50 s, the time when ABP-120 is incorporated into the cytoskeleton and when pseudopods are extended after cAMP stimulation in wild-type cells. By confocal and electron microscopy, pseudopods extended by ABP- 120- cells are not as large or thick as those produced by ABP-120+ cells and in the electron microscope, an altered filament network is found in pseudopods of ABP-120- cells when compared to pseudopods of ABP-120+ cells. The actin filaments found in areas of pseudopods in ABP- 120+ cells either before or after stimulation were long, straight, and arranged into space filling orthogonal networks. Protrusions of ABP-120- cells are less three-dimensional, denser, and filled with multiple foci of aggregated filaments consistent with collapse of the filament network due to the absence of ABP-120-mediated cross-linking activity. The different organization of actin filaments may account for the diminished size of protrusions observed in living and fixed ABP-120- cells compared to ABP-120+ cells and is consistent with the role of ABP- 120 in regulating pseudopod extension through its cross-linking of actin filaments.



Increased Serum Concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants among Prediabetic Individuals: Potential Role of Altered Substrate Oxidation Patterns  

PubMed Central

Context: There is a need for a better understanding of the potential role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Objective: Our objective was to determine the association of serum concentrations of POPs with early signs of type 2 diabetes in regard to glucose and lipid metabolism. Research Design and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we used recent studies of 148 Danish middle-aged normoglycemic, prediabetic, and diabetic individuals examined by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique with indirect calorimetry; 66 of these individuals also had an iv glucose tolerance test. Concentrations of POPs were analyzed in banked serum from the participants. Associations with basal and insulin-stimulated glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed after adjustment for age, sex, and body fat percentage. Results: Individuals with prediabetes and diabetes had higher serum concentrations of several POPs compared with normoglycemic individuals. In the nondiabetic population, higher POPs levels were associated with elevated fasting plasma glucose concentrations as well as reduced glucose oxidation, elevated lipid oxidation, and elevated serum concentrations of free fatty acids (P < 0.05). We found no associations of POPs with first-phase insulin secretion, hepatic or peripheral insulin sensitivity, or nonoxidative glucose metabolism. Conclusions: Diabetic and prediabetic individuals have elevated serum concentrations of POPs. In nondiabetic individuals, POPs exposure is related to altered substrate oxidation patterns with lower glucose oxidation and higher lipid oxidation rates. These findings indicate that POPs may affect peripheral glucose metabolism by modifying pathways involved in substrate partitioning rather than decreasing insulin-dependent glucose uptake.

H?jlund, Kurt; Vind, Birgitte F.; Vaag, Allan; Dalgard, Christine; Nielsen, Flemming; Grandjean, Philippe



Organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3/Slc22a8) knockout mice exhibit altered clearance and distribution of penicillin G  

PubMed Central

The interaction of renal basolateral organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) with commonly used pharmacotherapeutics (e.g., NSAIDs, ?-lactams, and methotrexate) has been studied extensively in vitro. However, the in vivo role of Oat3 in drug disposition, in the context of other transporters, glomerular filtration, and metabolism, has not been established. Moreover, recent investigations have identified inactive human OAT3 polymorphisms. Therefore, this investigation was designed to elucidate the in vivo role of Oat3 in the disposition of penicillin G and prototypical substrates using an Oat3 knockout mouse model. Oat3 deletion resulted in a doubling of penicillin’s half-life (P < 0.05) and a reduced volume of distribution (P < 0.01), together yielding a plasma clearance that was one-half (P < 0.05, males) to one-third (P < 0.001, females) of that in wild-type mice. Inhibition of Oat3 abolished the differences in penicillin G elimination between genotypes. Hepatic accumulation of penicillin was 2.3 times higher in male knockouts (P < 0.05) and 3.7 times higher in female knockouts (P < 0.001). Female knockouts also exhibited impaired estrone-3-sulfate clearance. Oat3 deletion did not impact p-aminohippurate elimination, providing correlative evidence to studies in Oat1 knockout mice that suggest Oat1 governs tubular uptake of p-aminohippurate. Collectively, these findings are the first to indicate that functional Oat3 is necessary for proper elimination of xenobiotic and endogenous compounds in vivo. Thus Oat3 plays a distinct role in determining the efficacy and toxicity of drugs. Dysfunctional human OAT3 polymorphisms or instances of polypharmacy involving OAT3 substrates may result in altered systemic accumulation of ?-lactams and other clinically relevant compounds.

VanWert, Adam L.; Bailey, Rachel M.; Sweet, Douglas H.



Computational and bioengineered lungs as alternatives to whole animal, isolated organ, and cell-based lung models.  


Development of lung models for testing a drug substance or delivery system has been an intensive area of research. However, a model that mimics physiological and anatomical features of human lungs is yet to be established. Although in vitro lung models, developed and fine-tuned over the past few decades, were instrumental for the development of many commercially available drugs, they are suboptimal in reproducing the physiological microenvironment and complex anatomy of human lungs. Similarly, intersubject variability and high costs have been major limitations of using animals in the development and discovery of drugs used in the treatment of respiratory disorders. To address the complexity and limitations associated with in vivo and in vitro models, attempts have been made to develop in silico and tissue-engineered lung models that allow incorporation of various mechanical and biological factors that are otherwise difficult to reproduce in conventional cell or organ-based systems. The in silico models utilize the information obtained from in vitro and in vivo models and apply computational algorithms to incorporate multiple physiological parameters that can affect drug deposition, distribution, and disposition upon administration via the lungs. Bioengineered lungs, on the other hand, exhibit significant promise due to recent advances in stem or progenitor cell technologies. However, bioengineered approaches have met with limited success in terms of development of various components of the human respiratory system. In this review, we summarize the approaches used and advancements made toward the development of in silico and tissue-engineered lung models and discuss potential challenges associated with the development and efficacy of these models. PMID:22886505

Patel, Brijeshkumar; Gauvin, Robert; Absar, Shahriar; Gupta, Vivek; Gupta, Nilesh; Nahar, Kamrun; Khademhosseini, Ali; Ahsan, Fakhrul



Animal Ears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior and communication. Groups of learners will fashion a headband with fake ears, similar in shape to those of the animal they are going to observe. Then, they record observations of the animalâs reactions when a learner, wearing the ears in different positions, brings it a snack. Learners develop categories of behavior to organize and evaluate the results. Safety Note: an adult handler must be present if working with a horse or even a large dog. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Horse Ears.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.



Decreased glutathione levels and altered antioxidant defense in an animal model of schizophrenia: Long-term effects of perinatal phencyclidine administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perinatal phencyclidine (PCP) administration to rodents represents one of the more compelling animal models of schizophrenia. There is evidence that decreased glutathione (GSH) levels and oxidative stress mediated through free radicals in the central nervous system are involved in the pathophysiology of this disease. Limited data are available on the role of free radicals in neurotoxicity induced by NMDA-receptor antagonists.

Nevena V. Radonji?; Iva D. Kneževi?; Urosh Vilimanovich; Tamara Kravi?-Stevovi?; Ljiljana V. Marina; Tatjana Nikoli?; Veljko Todorovi?; Vladimir Bumbaširevi?; Nataša D. Petronijevi?




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maternal mild hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with increased risk for bearing children with neural tube defects (NTD). Folate intake corrects hyperhomocysteinemia and prevents up to 70% of NTD. The curly-tail (ct) mouse, an animal model for NTD, has been suggested to display features that closely...


The power of NGS technologies to delineate the genome organization in cancer: from mutations to structural variations and epigenetic alterations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of cancer is characterized by the joined occurrence of alterations on different levels—from single nucleotide\\u000a changes via structural and copy number variations to epigenetic alterations. With the advent of advanced technologies such\\u000a as next generation sequencing, we have now the tools in hands to put some light on complex processes and recognize systematic\\u000a patterns that develop throughout cancer

Michal R. Schweiger; Martin Kerick; Bernd Timmermann; Melanie Isau



Nocturnal Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over time, human beings have blazed their way into the night with fire and artificial light, but we are not true creatures of the night. This Topic in Depth explores the world of nocturnal animals. From Island Discovery & Training, the first site allows visitors to listen to the sounds of several nocturnal animals. After guessing who made the sound, visitors can link to information pages for all but one of the mystery animals (1). Next is an information sheet (2) from BioMedia that answers the question: How Do Animals See In the Dark? The third site, from Enchanted Learning, provides coloring sheets and brief profiles for many nocturnal animals including the Amur Tiger, Badger, Crocodile, and Kinkajou-just to name a few (3). From the Fairbanks Museum & Planetarium in Vermont, the fourth website contains a six-page lesson plan (for students in grades one to eight) emphasizing different senses; and the roles and adaptations of nocturnal species (4). The fifth site, from Science News Online, contains an article addressing research on the ecological impact of artificial nighttime light on nocturnal animals (5). From Wild Asia, the next site contains an article by travel writer and environmental educator David Bowden, that describes his experience watching a marine turtle lay her eggs on Malaysia's Turtle Island (6). The seventh site, from PBS-Nova Online, briefly describes the work of zoologists who study nocturnal and burrowing animals of the Kalahari (7). From this site visitors can also link to a section that discusses how several different animals see at night. The final site, from the University of Utah-John Moran Eye Center, contains information about the role of photoreceptors in vision (8). This Photoreceptors section is part of a comprehensive electronic tutorial regarding neural organization of the mammalian retina.



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Accurately characterizing phosphorus (P) forms in the environment is a prerequisite to develop strategies that minimize the adverse environmental impacts of agriculture. Hedley sequential fractionation procedures have been widely used for characterizing P forms in soil and animal manure. Hydrochlori...


Effect of K-diformate in starter diets on acidity microbiota and the amount of organic acids in the digestive tract of piglets and on gastric alterations  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: The aim,of this investigation,was,to study the effect of K-diformate on the intraluminal pH, microbial composition in digesta and feces, organic acids along the digestive tract, and alterations of the gastric epithelium,of pigs. Pigs (n = 36) weaned,at 28 d of age were,allotted to two groups,and,fed without (control diet) or with 1.8% supplemental,K-diformate. Fecal samples were taken from the rectum

N. Canibe; S. H. Steien; M. Overland; B. B. Jensen; M. Øverland


Sensory Characteristics and Consumer Preference for Cooked Chicken Breasts from Organic, Corn-fed, Free-range and Conventionally Reared Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensory characteristics of cooked chicken breasts from organic (n=4), corn-fed (n=1), free range (n=5) and conventionally (n=5) reared animals from conventional origins were determined. Twelve trained assessors described the sensory characteristics of all samples using twenty-one attributes. One-way analysis of variance showed significant (P<0.05) differences between samples for all appearance, one odour, one flavour, and all texture attributes. Principal



Origin distribution and alteration of organic matter and generation and migration of hydrocarbons in Austin Chalk, Upper Cretaceous, Southeastern Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Austin Chalk is an impure onshore chalk that was deposited on a ramp marginal to the Gulf of Mexico during the Late Cretaceous. Basinal chalks are organic rich, commonly containing 0.5-5.0% amorphous, sapropelic kerogen derived from marine organic matter with only trace amounts of terrestial kerogen. Less organic matter was deposited and perserved in oxygenated shallow water, and fresh-water diagenesis oxidized the organic matter on outcrop. In each sample, the kerogen is concentrated in microstylolites, with organic fluids segregated in micropores in the chalk.

Grabowski, G. J., Jr.



Animal Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those of us living in Northern climates, when winter snow covers the landscape it provides great conditions to search for animal tracks. The following websites provide an abundance of information and resources about the ancient art of animal tracking.The first site(1 ), Beartracker's Animal Tracks Den, is an excellent comprehensive "online field guide to tracks and tracking." The site includes animal track images, photos, as well as information about mammals, reptiles, birds, insects, amphibians, and other tracking resources. The second site (2), is an article by Jon C. Boren, Extension Wildlife Specialist and Byron D. Wright, Agricultural Specialist both from the University of New Mexico entitled Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks. The third site (3), on Tracking and Stalking Wildlife, comes from The Virtual Cub Scout Leader's Handbook and provides short information pages on a variety on animals including photos and images of tracks. The fourth site (4) is a well-organized lesson plan with activities on Animal Signs from Eagle Bluff Environmental Learning Center. The fifth site (5) is the Outdoor Action Guide to Animal Tracking by Rick Curtis of Princeton University. This website provides solid and detailed information on many aspects of animal tracking including parts of a track, pattern classification, aging tracks, and more. The sixth site (6) is an article by veteran tracker Jim Halfpenny, Ph.D. about how to determine the accurate track size for an animal. Site visitors can link from this article to the homepage for A Naturalist's World which has information about tracking classes offered in various North American locations. For anyone interested in developing their animal tracking skills, the final two websites also offer courses from very experienced trackers in different regions of North America. The seventh site (7), Tom Brown's Tracker School is the largest school of its kind with locations in New Jersey, California, and Florida. The eighth site, (8) Wilderness Awareness School is located in Washington but offers courses in other regions as well. This website also provides an extensive list of links for many other tracking resources.


Schistosoma mansoni infection causes oxidative stress and alters receptor for advanced glycation endproduct (RAGE) and tau levels in multiple organs in mice.  


Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by trematode worms from the Schistosoma genus and is characterized by high rates of morbidity. The main organs affected in this pathology, such as liver, kidneys and spleen, are shifted to a pro-oxidant state in the course of the infection. Here, we compared oxidative stress parameters of liver, kidney and spleen with other organs affected by schistosomiasis - heart, brain cortex and lungs. The results demonstrated that mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni had altered non-enzymatic antioxidant status in lungs and brain, increased carbonyl levels in lungs, and a moderate level of oxidative stress in heart. A severe redox imbalance in liver and kidneys and decreased non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity in spleen were also observed. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were differently modulated in liver, kidney and heart, and we found that differences in Superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase protein content may be responsible for these differences. Lungs had decreased receptor for advanced glycation endproduct expression and the brain cortex presented altered tau expression and phosphorylation levels, suggesting important molecular changes in these tissues, as homeostasis of these proteins is widely associated with the normal function of their respective organs. We believe that these results demonstrate for the first time that changes in the redox profile and expression of tissue-specific proteins of organs such as heart, lungs and brain are observed in early stages of S. mansoni infection. PMID:23369670

de Oliveira, Ramatis Birnfeld; Senger, Mario Roberto; Vasques, Laura Milan; Gasparotto, Juciano; dos Santos, João Paulo Almeida; Pasquali, Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt; Moreira, José Claudio Fonseca; Silva, Floriano Paes; Gelain, Daniel Pens



Early Organ-Specific Hemorrhage-Induced Increases in Tissue Cytokine Content: Associated Neurohormonal and Opioid Alterations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemorrhage is associated with an impairment in the immune response and with increased concentrations of circulating inflammatory cytokines. The present study determined the time course and localization of alterations in circulating and tissue pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1-? and -?) in response to fixed-pressure (40 mm Hg) hemorrhage as well as the associated hanges in circulating neurohormonal and opioid mediators. Conscious

Patricia E. Molina; Sayeed Malek; Charles H. Lang; Luping Qian; Rebecca Naukam; Naji N. Abumrad



Inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis alters extracellular matrix deposition, proliferation, and cytoskeletal organization of rat aortic smooth muscle cells in culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arterial proteoglycans have been implicated in several important physiological processes ranging from lipid metabolism to regulation of smooth muscle cell growth. Vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells are the major producers of proteoglycans in the medial layer of blood vessels. To study functional conse- quences of alterations in VSM proteoglycan metabo- lism we used 4-methylumbelliferyl-~-D-xyloside to in- hibit proteoglycan synthesis in

Husam E Hamati; Eric L. Britton; David J. Carey



Alteration of macroinvertebrate community in tropical lentic systems in context of Sediment redox potential and organic pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limnological studies in two tropical Indian aquatic habitats showed that macroinvertebrate communities have greater diversity than other biotic communities present there. Sediment redox potential is found to be an important factor for alteration of macroinvertebrate communities in aquatic bodies. Anthropogenic activities have influenced the changing of sediment redox potential values of the studied sites and thereby affected the macroinvertebrate communities.

D. Chakrabarty; S. K. Das



Diabetes teratogenicity is accompanied by alterations in macrophages and T cell subpopulations in the uterus and lymphoid organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is a well-known teratogen, which might cause growth retardation, malformations and fetal death. We have previously shown, that potentiation of the maternal immune system (immunopotentiation) might protect the embryo from diabetes teratogenicity. Therefore, in the present study we further inquired whether diabetes teratogenicity might be associated with alterations in the level of immune effector cells in systemic

S Savion; S Gidon-Dabush; A Fein; A Torchinsky; V Toder



Cardiovascular Physiology Teaching: Computer Simulations vs. Animal Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At the introductory level, the computer provides an effective alternative to using animals for laboratory teaching. Computer software can simulate the operation of multiple organ systems. Advantages of software include alteration of variables that are not easily changed in vivo, repeated interventions, and cost-effective hands-on student access.…

Samsel, Richard W.; And Others



Nitrogen oxides - animal effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of animal studies investigating the effects of nitrogen dioxide are reviewed in an attempt to arrive at objective grounds for an NOâ standard. There appears to be no threshold level for NOâ so far as some detectable alteration of lung function or structure in animals is concerned. A threshold may be reached for an effect contributing to clinical




The Göttingen minipig for assessment of retinoid efficacy in the skin: comparison of results from topically treated animals with results from organ-cultured skin.  


Göttingen minipigs were treated topically for 6 d with a novel retinoid (MDI 301) at concentrations ranging from 0.3% to 30% in cream vehicle. Treatment of the minipigs did not adversely affect their health (hematological and necropsy parameters) or produce changes in the skin suggestive of retinoid-induced skin irritation. After killing the animals, skin samples from each treatment site were excised and maintained in organ culture for 6 d. In addition, untreated skin was also maintained in organ culture and treated with MDI 301 (0.1-5 microg/ml). After 3 d, the culture supernatants were collected and analyzed for levels of collagen type I and for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Both skin samples treated in vivo and skin samples exposed to MDI 301 in culture demonstrated increased collagen production. Only slight changes in levels of MMP-2 (gelatinase A) or MMP-9 (gelatinase B) were seen. After 6 d, the organ-cultured skin was fixed in formalin and prepared for histology. The organ-cultured skin was compared to skin that was fixed at killing after in vivo treatment. Epidermal hyperplasia was quantified at various MDI 301 concentrations. In vivo and in vitro treatments showed similar results-although the thickness was not substantially changed on average, there were focal areas of hyperplasia at higher retinoid concentrations. Taken together, these data suggest that MDI 301 enhances collagen production in minipig skin, without irritation. Furthermore, these studies suggest that minipig skin exposed to the retinoid in organ culture is equally predictive as topically treated skin. The in vitro organ culture approach may provide a cost-effective alternative model to that of the intact animal for skin retinoid testing. PMID:19536603

Dame, Michael K; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; DaSilva, Marissa; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Ridder, William; Varani, James



The G?ttingen minipig for assessment of retinoid efficacy in the skin: comparison of results from topically treated animals with results from organ-cultured skin  

PubMed Central

Göttingen minipigs were treated topically for 6 d with a novel retinoid (MDI 301) at concentrations ranging from 0.3% to 30% in cream vehicle. Treatment of the minipigs did not adversely affect their health (hematological and necropsy parameters) or produce changes in the skin suggestive of retinoid-induced skin irritation. After killing the animals, skin samples from each treatment site were excised and maintained in organ culture for 6 d. In addition, untreated skin was also maintained in organ culture and treated with MDI 301 (0.1–5 ?g/ml). After 3 d, the culture supernatants were collected and analyzed for levels of collagen type I and for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Both skin samples treated in vivo and skin samples exposed to MDI 301 in culture demonstrated increased collagen production. Only slight changes in levels of MMP-2 (gelatinase A) or MMP-9 (gelatinase B) were seen. After 6 d, the organ-cultured skin was fixed in formalin and prepared for histology. The organ-cultured skin was compared to skin that was fixed at killing after in vivo treatment. Epidermal hyperplasia was quantified at various MDI 301 concentrations. In vivo and in vitro treatments showed similar results—although the thickness was not substantially changed on average, there were focal areas of hyperplasia at higher retinoid concentrations. Taken together, these data suggest that MDI 301 enhances collagen production in minipig skin, without irritation. Furthermore, these studies suggest that minipig skin exposed to the retinoid in organ culture is equally predictive as topically treated skin. The in vitro organ culture approach may provide a cost-effective alternative model to that of the intact animal for skin retinoid testing.

Paruchuri, Tejaswi; DaSilva, Marissa; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Ridder, William; Varani, James



[Evaluation of the fibrogenic effect of coke dust on the lungs and internal organs of experimental animals].  


Based on the data collected by the Provincial Regional Administration Unit for Control of Epidemics and Hygiene in Katowice, dust concentration at the MAKOSZOWY Coking Plant in Zabrze at 18 work-places exceeded the TLV's. The purpose of this study was to determine changes within the respiratory systems of experimental animals exposed to intratracheal administration of MAKOSZOWY Coking Plant dust, sampled at the charging larry 3-4 operating stand and at the battery roof. After pulverization the dusts contained 98.1% and 99.6% respirable particles, and 6.5% and 6.0% of SiO2, respectively, determined with the Polezhajev method. They also contained aluminum and iron compounds. Hydroxyproline content in the lungs of the animals following the intratracheal administration of 50 mg of the dusts investigated 3-6 months after the experiment was determined. Determination of Hypro contend within the animals' lungs was pursued with the Stegemann method as modified by Hurych and Chvapil. The biochemical investigation results obtained were statistically analyzed with the t-Student's Test. Single intratracheal administration of dust from the battery roof work stand of the MAKOSZOWY Coking Plant caused within 6 months a statistically significant increase in the lung Hydroxyproline level in experimental animals (t = 13.10). An almost triole Hypro increase with respect to the control group was observed. No analogy between lung Hypro level increase (12.833 mg) and histological change was noted. Such a significant lung Hydroxyproline level increase could have been due to the SiO2 content of dust (6%), as well as to the presence of iron compounds in it (4.98%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1667024

Zy?ka-W?oszczyk, M; Ociepi?ski, M; Szaflarska-Stojko, E



Isolation and ex vivo expansion of bone marrow-derived porcine mesenchymal stromal cells: potential for application in an experimental model of solid organ transplantation in large animals.  


Pharmacological aspecific immunosuppression, despite being widely used in solid organ transplantation recipients, is unable to completely prevent allograft rejection. It promotes the occurrence of sometimes life-threatening infections. Due to their immunosuppressive and anti- inflammatory properties, there is great interest in the therapeutic use of bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC). Large animal models play a crucial role to investigate the biological and functional properties of MSCs as novel cellular therapy. In the current study we sought to isolate expand ex vivo, and phenotypically characterize MSC derived from BM of 4 Large White 6-month-old piglets. Porcine MSC (pMSC) were characterized for their in vitro differentiation capacity. pMSC were successfully isolated from all BM samples. They showed spindle-shaped morphology and a stable doubling time on culture. They were positive for CD90, CD29, CD105, and negative for CD45 and CD11b. Furthermore, they differentiated, upon specific in vitro conditions toward adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. The optimization of methods for the isolation and characterization of pMSC may be useful to elucidate their biological and functional properties. The anatomy and physiology of the pig, which is similar to humans, make this animal model more attractive than small animals to test the safety and efficacy of MSC in the context of solid organ transplantation. PMID:20534296

Comite, P; Cobianchi, L; Avanzini, M A; Zonta, S; Mantelli, M; Achille, V; De Martino, M; Cansolino, L; Ferrari, C; Alessiani, M; Maccario, R; Gandolfo, G M; Dionigi, P; Locatelli, F; Bernardo, M E



Rapid identification of tissue micro-organisms in skin biopsy specimens from domestic animals using polyclonal BCG antibody.  


Immunostaining with polyclonal anti-Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) was evaluated as a single screening method for the histological identification of micro-organisms in skin biopsy specimens from various veterinary species. Confirmed archival cases infected with Mycobacteria, Nocardia, Actinobacillus, Actinomyces, Streptococcus/Staphylococcus, Dermatophilus, spirochetes, Blastomyces, Coccidioides, Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, dermatophytes, Malassezia, Sporothrix, Leishmania, Pythium, phaeohyphomycetes and Prototheca organisms were selected. A total of 70 skin biopsy specimens from the dog, cat, horse, ox and llama were evaluated. The anti-BCG immunostain labelled bacteria and fungi with high sensitivity and minimal background staining but did not label spirochetes and protozoa (Leishmania). Differences were not noted between veterinary species. The results indicate that immunostaining with polyclonal anti-BCG is a suitable screening technique for the rapid identification of most common bacterial and fungal organisms in paraffin-embedded specimens. Also, mycobacterial and nocardial organisms were identified more readily with the anti-BCG immunostain in comparison to the histochemical stains. PMID:11301538

Bonenberger, T E; Ihrke, P J; Naydan, D K; Affolter, V K



Short-term caloric restriction, resveratrol, or combined treatment regimens initiated in late-life alter mitochondrial protein expression profiles in a fiber-type specific manner in aged animals.  


Aging is associated with a loss in muscle known as sarcopenia that is partially attributed to apoptosis. In aging rodents, caloric restriction (CR) increases health and longevity by improving mitochondrial function and the polyphenol resveratrol (RSV) has been reported to have similar benefits. In the present study, we investigated the potential efficacy of using short-term (6weeks) CR (20%), RSV (50mg/kg/day), or combined CR+RSV (20% CR and 50mg/kg/day RSV), initiated at late-life (27months) to protect muscle against sarcopenia by altering mitochondrial function, biogenesis, content, and apoptotic signaling in both glycolytic white and oxidative red gastrocnemius muscle (WG and RG, respectively) of male Fischer 344×Brown Norway rats. CR but not RSV attenuated the age-associated loss of muscle mass in both mixed gastrocnemius and soleus muscle, while combined treatment (CR+RSV) paradigms showed a protective effect in the soleus and plantaris muscle (P<0.05). Sirt1 protein content was increased by 2.6-fold (P<0.05) in WG but not RG muscle with RSV treatment, while CR or CR+RSV had no effect. PGC-1? levels were higher (2-fold) in the WG from CR-treated animals (P<0.05) when compared to ad-libitum (AL) animals but no differences were observed in the RG with any treatment. Levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were significantly higher (1.6-fold) in the WG muscle of RSV and CR+RSV groups compared to AL (P<0.05) but tended to occur coincident with elevations in the pro-apoptotic protein Bax so that the apoptotic susceptibility as indicated by the Bax to Bcl-2 ratio was unchanged. There were no alterations in DNA fragmentation with any treatment in muscle from older animals. Additionally, mitochondrial respiration measured in permeabilized muscle fibers was unchanged in any treatment group and this paralleled the lack of change in cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity. These data suggest that short-term moderate CR, RSV, or CR+RSV tended to modestly alter key mitochondrial regulatory and apoptotic signaling pathways in glycolytic muscle and this might contribute to the moderate protective effects against aging-induced muscle loss observed in this study. PMID:23747682

Joseph, Anna-Maria; Malamo, Angelina G; Silvestre, Jason; Wawrzyniak, Nick; Carey-Love, Sean; Nguyen, Linda M-D; Dutta, Debapriya; Xu, Jinze; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Adhihetty, Peter J



Microcystin-LR, a protein phosphatase inhibitor, induces alterations in mitotic chromatin and microtubule organization leading to the formation of micronuclei in Vicia faba  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Microcystin-LR (MCY-LR) is a cyanobacterial toxin, a specific inhibitor of type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases (PP1 and PP2A) with significant impact on aquatic ecosystems. It has the potential to alter regulation of the plant cell cycle. The aim of this study was improved understanding of the mitotic alterations induced by cyanotoxin in Vicia faba, a model organism for plant cell biology studies. Methods Vicia faba seedlings were treated over the long and short term with MCY-LR purified in our laboratory. Short-term treatments were performed on root meristems synchronized with hydroxylurea. Sections of lateral root tips were labelled for chromatin, phosphorylated histone H3 and ?-tubulin via histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Mitotic activity and the occurrence of mitotic alterations were detected and analysed by fluorescence microscopy. The phosphorylation state of histone H3 was studied by Western blotting. Key Results Long-term MCY-LR exposure of lateral root tip meristems increased the percentage of either early or late mitosis in a concentration-dependent manner. We observed hypercondensed chromosomes and altered sister chromatid segregation (lagging chromosomes) leading to the formation of micronuclei, accompanied by the formation of disrupted, multipolar and monopolar spindles, disrupted phragmoplasts and the hyperphosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser10. Short-term MCY-LR treatment of synchronized cells showed that PP1 and PP2A inhibition delayed the onset of anaphase at 1 µg mL?1 MCY-LR, accelerated cell cycle at 10 µg mL?1 MCY-LR and induced the formation of lagging chromosomes. In this case mitotic microtubule alterations were not detected, but histone H3 was hyperphosphorylated. Conclusions MCY-LR delayed metaphase–anaphase transition. Consequently, it induced aberrant chromatid segregation and micronucleus formation that could be associated with both H3 hyperphosphorylation and altered microtubule organization. However, these two phenomena seemed to be independent. The toxin may be a useful tool in the study of plant cell cycle regulation.

Beyer, Daniel; Tandor, Ildiko; Konya, Zoltan; Batori, Robert; Roszik, Janos; Vereb, Gyorgy; Erdodi, Ferenc; Vasas, Gabor; M-Hamvas, Marta; Jambrovics, Karoly; Mathe, Csaba



Earthworm Effects without Earthworms: Inoculation of Raw Organic Matter with Worm-Worked Substrates Alters Microbial Community Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEarthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with soil microorganisms. They enhance decomposition rates through the joint action of direct effects (i.e. effects due to direct earthworm activity such as digestion, burrowing, etc) and indirect effects (i.e. effects derived from earthworm activities such as cast ageing). Here we test whether indirect earthworm effects

Manuel Aira; Jorge Domínguez; Justin Wright



Changing organisms in rapidly changing anthropogenic landscapes: the significance of the 'Umwelt'-concept and functional habitat for animal conservation  

PubMed Central

There is a growing recognition for the significance of evolutionary thinking in ecology and conservation biology. However, ecology and conservation studies often work with species-specific, fixed traits that ignore intraspecific variation. The way the habitat of a species is considered is an example of typological thinking biased by human perception. Structural habitat units (e.g., land cover types) as perceived by humans may not represent functional habitat units for other organisms. Human activity may also interfere with the environmental information used by organisms. Therefore, the Umwelt-concept from ethology needs to be integrated in the way we think about habitat and habitat selection. It states that different organisms live in different perceptual worlds dealing with specific subsamples of the environment as a result of their evolutionary and developmental history. The resource-based habitat concept is a functional habitat model based on resource distributions (consumables and conditions) and individual movements. This behavioural approach takes into account aspects that relate to the perceptual world of organisms. This approach may offer new opportunities for conservation and may help avoid failures with habitat restoration. Perceptual ability may be subject to adaptive change, but it may also constrain organisms from showing adaptive behaviours in rapidly changing environments.

Van Dyck, Hans



Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants Expressing a Fungal Cutinase Show Alterations in the Structure and Properties of the Cuticle and Postgenital Organ Fusions  

PubMed Central

A major structural component of the cuticle of plants is cutin. Analysis of the function of cutin in vivo has been limited because no mutants with specific defects in cutin have been characterized. Therefore, transgenic Arabidopsis plants were generated that express and secrete a cutinase from Fusarium solani f sp pisi. Arabidopsis plants expressing the cutinase in the extracellular space showed an altered ultrastructure of the cuticle and an enhanced permeability of the cuticle to solutes. In addition, pollen could germinate on fully differentiated leaves of cutinase-expressing plants but not on control leaves. These differences coincided with strong postgenital organ fusions. The junctions of the fusions contained pectic polysaccharides. As fused organs grew apart from each other, organ deformations and protrusions of epidermal cells developed at positions with high mechanical stress. These results demonstrate that an intact cutin layer not only is important for plant–environment interactions but also prevents fusions between different plant organs and is therefore necessary for normal epidermal differentiation and organ formation.

Sieber, Patrick; Schorderet, Martine; Ryser, Ulrich; Buchala, Antony; Kolattukudy, Pappachan; Metraux, Jean-Pierre; Nawrath, Christiane



[Application of the ferrocin containing waste of wine-making for reduction of 137Cs tansit from forage to laboratory animal organisms and cow milk].  


Addition to rat ration of ferrocin containing wastes of wine-making formed during the process of wine demetalization in the amount of 0.2 g per animal per day reduces the 137Cs content in organs and tissues in 1.5-7 times. Addition of the above-mentioned substance to the ration of milk cows in the amount of 10-16 g per day reduces the radionuclide content in milk 1.5-2 times in two weeks and more than 3 times in four weeks. PMID:22384725

Gudkov, I N; Lazarev, N M; Vechtomov, Iu V


Lung and 'end organ' injury due to mechanical ventilation in animals: comparison between the prone and supine positions  

PubMed Central

Introduction Use of the prone position in patients with acute lung injury improves their oxygenation. Most of these patients die from multisystem organ failure and not from hypoxia, however. Moreover, there is some evidence that the organ failure is caused by increased cell apoptosis. In the present study we therefore examined whether the position of the patients affects histological changes and apoptosis in the lung and 'end organs', including the brain, heart, diaphragm, liver, kidneys and small intestine. Methods Ten mechanically ventilated sheep with a tidal volume of 15 ml/kg body weight were studied for 90 minutes. Five sheep were placed in the supine position and five sheep were placed in the prone position during the experiment. Lung changes were analyzed histologically using a semiquantitative scoring system and the extent of apoptosis was investigated with the TUNEL method. Results In the supine position intra-alaveolar hemorrhage appeared predominantly in the dorsal areas, while the other histopathologic lesions were homogeneously distributed throughout the lungs. In the prone position, all histological changes were homogeneously distributed. A significantly higher score of lung injury was found in the supine position than in the prone position (4.63 ± 0.58 and 2.17 ± 0.19, respectively) (P < 0.0001). The histopathologic changes were accompanied by increased apoptosis (TUNEL method). In the supine position, the apoptotic index in the lung and in most of the 'end organs' was significantly higher compared with the prone position (all P < 0.005). Interestingly, the apoptotic index was higher in dorsal areas compared with ventral areas in both the prone and supine positions (P < 0.003 and P < 0.02, respectively). Conclusion Our results suggest that the prone position appears to reduce the severity and the extent of lung injury, and is associated with decreased apoptosis in the lung and 'end organs'.

Nakos, George; Batistatou, Anna; Galiatsou, Eftychia; Konstanti, Eleonora; Koulouras, Vassilios; Kanavaros, Panayotis; Doulis, Apostolos; Kitsakos, Athanassios; Karachaliou, Angeliki; Lekka, Marilena E; Bai, Maria



Alteration of loosely bound calcium in the guinea pig organ of Corti after treatment with diltiazem as calcium channel blocker  

Microsoft Academic Search

After oral administration of the organic calcium channel blocker diltiazem to guinea pigs for 7 days, calcium ions were precipitated with potassium antimonate in the cochleae. The spatial distribution of the precipitates was studied by energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy and the amount of the ultrastructural reaction products formed was determined semiquantitatively by an image processing system. Compared with untreated control

U.-R. Heinrich; J. Maurer; W. Mann



Association between Altered Circadian Blood Pressure Profile and Cardiac EndOrgan Damage in Patients with Renovascular Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Patients with renovascular hypertension (RVH) have a higher degree of cardiovascular end-organ damage compared to patients with essential hypertension (EH). The precise mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, however, have not been fully elucidated. This study investigated the relationship between circadian blood pressure (BP) profile and cardiac involvement in patients with RVH and EH. Methods: Twenty patients with RVH and 20

Micaela Iantorno; Roberto Pola; Francesca Schinzari; Gianluca Filice; Marco Mettimano; Carmine Cardillo; Domenico Melina



Thermal alteration of clastic organic particles as an indicator of contact and burial metamorphism in sedimentary rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most sedimentary rocks contain dispersed solid organic grains of fine sand or silt size. These generally amount to a fraction of 1% of the rock mass, but may be concentrated after macerating the rock with acids. Study by transmitted or reflected light microscopy shows that these grains are largely plant fragments deposited like other grains of the rock; therefore they

Neely H. Bostick



Animal Hats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this arts and crafts activity about animals and animal characteristics, learners will design animal hats and role-play as animals. Through this dramatic play, learners will practice and develop problem solving, cooperation, symbolic thinking, language and personal expression skills. Use the suggested open-ended questions to encourage learner reflection about their animal hat and animals in general.





EPA Science Inventory

The acid-base properties of humic substances, the major component of dissolved organic matter (DOM), area major control on the alkalinity, or acid neutralizing capacity of freshwater systems. Alkalinity is one of the fundamental parameters measured in aquatic sciences, and is an ...


Earthworm Effects without Earthworms: Inoculation of Raw Organic Matter with Worm-Worked Substrates Alters Microbial Community Functioning  

PubMed Central

Background Earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with soil microorganisms. They enhance decomposition rates through the joint action of direct effects (i.e. effects due to direct earthworm activity such as digestion, burrowing, etc) and indirect effects (i.e. effects derived from earthworm activities such as cast ageing). Here we test whether indirect earthworm effects affect microbial community functioning in the substrate, as when earthworms are present (i. e., direct effects). Methodology/Principal Findings To address these questions we inoculated fresh organic matter (pig manure) with worm-worked substrates (vermicompost) produced by three different earthworm species. Two doses of each vermicompost were used (2.5 and 10%). We hypothesized that the presence of worm-worked material in the fresh organic matter will result in an inoculum of different microorganisms and nutrients. This inoculum should interact with microbial communities in fresh organic matter, thus promoting modifications similar to those found when earthworms are present. Inoculation of worm-worked substrates provoked significant increases in microbial biomass and enzyme activities (?-glucosidase, cellulase, phosphatase and protease). These indirect effects were similar to, although lower than, those obtained in pig manure with earthworms (direct and indirect earthworm effects). In general, the effects were not dose-dependent, suggesting the existence of a threshold at which they were triggered. Conclusion/Significance Our data reveal that the relationships between earthworms and microorganisms are far from being understood, and suggest the existence of several positive feedbacks during earthworm activity as a result of the interactions between direct and indirect effects, since their combination produces stronger modifications to microbial biomass and enzyme activity.

Aira, Manuel; Dominguez, Jorge



Hybrid Shell Engineering of Animal Cells for Immune Protections and Regulation of Drug Delivery: Towards the Design of ``Artificial Organs''  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWith the progress in medicine, the average human life expectancy is continuously increasing. At the same time, the number of patients who require full organ transplantations is augmenting. Consequently, new strategies for cell transplantation are the subject of great interest.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThis work reports the design, the synthesis and the characterisation of robust and biocompatible mineralised beads composed of two layers:

Philippe Dandoy; Christophe F. Meunier; Carine Michiels; Bao-Lian Su; Richard Haverkamp



Formation, Alteration and Delivery of Exogenous High Molecular Weight Organic Compounds: Objectives of the Tanpopo Mission from the Point of View of Chemical Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide variety of organic compounds have been detected in such extraterrestrial bodies as carbonaceous chondrites and comets. Amino acids have been confirmed in extracts from carbonaceous chondrites and cometary dusts. It was suggested that these organics were formed in quite cold environments. We irradiated possible interstellar media, such as a frozen mixture of methanol, ammonia and water, with high-energy particles. Amino acid precursors with high molecular weights were detected in the irradiated products. Such complex amino acid precursors are much more stable than free amino acids against radiation, and heat. It is suggested that interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) brought much more organics than meteorites and comets. However, characteristics of organic compounds in IDPs are little known, since they have been collected only in terrestrial biosphere. We are planning the Tanpopo Mission, where IDPs would be collected in aerogel equipped on the Exposure Facility of the International Space Station. In addition, amino acids and their relating compounds would be exposed to space environments to see their possible alteration processes.

Kobayashi, Kensei; K. Sarker, Palash; Ono, Keisuke; Kawamoto, Yukinori; Obayashi, Yumiko; Kaneko, Takeo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Mita, Hajime; Yabuta, Hikaru; Yamagishi, Akihiko


A(1) and A(3) adenosine receptors alter glutathione status in an organ-specific manner and influence the changes after inhibition of gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase.  


Adenosine levels are increased in stress and act as anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory mediators by binding to 4 G-protein-coupled receptors. Using genetically modified mice lacking A(1) and A(3) adenosine receptors, treated with ip buthionine-[S,R]-sulphoximine injections to inhibit gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase, the question was addressed whether these receptors modulate the responses to the stress related to altered glutathione levels. This study determined organ glutathione levels and expression of two sub-units of gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase and the cationic x(c)-transporter and found that deletion of one or both adenosine receptors influenced the responses in an organ-specific manner. The lack of A(1) and A(3) adenosine receptors is related to decreased basal glutathione content and down-regulation of gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase sub-units in several organs. Moreover, responses to buthionine-[S,R]-sulphoximine were different. For example, the lack of A(3) adenosine receptors, or their blockade of A(3) by MRS 1191, caused a marked increase in gene expression, which was not observed in mice lacking both A(1) and A(3) receptors. The results indicate that A(1) and A(3) adenosine receptors play a role in antioxidant responses and their role differs in an organ-specific way. PMID:19229670

Conte, Carmela; Grottelli, Silvia; Prudenzi, Elvira; Bellezza, Ilaria; Fredholm, Bertil B; Minelli, Alba



[Ethical challenges of genetic manipulation and research with animals].  


Research with animals presents ethical questions both for being used as models of human diseases and for being a prerequisite for trials in humans, as in the introduction of genetic modifications. Some of these questions refer to the fact that, as models, they do not fully represent the human condition; that conducting toxicity tests causes great harm to animals; that their nature is altered by genetic modifications and that introducing genetically modified organisms is a risk. The use of animals in research for the benefit of humans imposes the moral responsibility to respect them, not making them suffer unnecessarily, since they are living beings capable of feeling. PMID:23338641

Rodríguez Yunta, Eduardo


Mutations in M2 alter the selectivity of the mouse nicotinic acetylcholine receptor for organic and alkali metal cations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the permeability ratios (Px\\/PNa) of 3 wild-type, 1 hybrid, 2 subunit-deficient, and 22 mutant nicotinic receptors expressed in Xen0pus oocytes for alkali metal and organic cations using shifts in the biionic reversal potential of the macroscopic current. Mutations at three positions (2', 6', 10') in M2 affected ion selectivity. Mutations at position 2' (t~Thr244, 13Gly255, ~\\/Thr253, 8Ser258) near




Injury-elicited stressors alter endogenous retrovirus expression in lymphocytes depending on cell type and source lymphoid organ  

PubMed Central

Background Murine leukemia virus-type endogenous retroviruses (MuLV-ERVs) constitute ~10% of the mouse genome and are associated with various pathophysiologic processes. In this study, we examined whether MuLV-ERVs’ response to burn-elicited stressors is specific for certain lymphocyte populations and/or locations of lymphoid organ. Results B- and T-cells, which were sorted from nine lymphoid organs of C57BL/6J mice after burn, were subjected to MuLV-ERV expression analyses. Overall, the post-burn MuLV-ERV expression pattern was dependent on lymphocyte type, time after injury, location of lymphoid organ, and MuLV-ERV type. For instance, the MuLV-ERV expression in T-cells from the thymus and three cervical lymph nodes decreased at 3 hours post-burn while the expression of some MuLV-ERVs was augmented in B-cells derived from the mesenteric lymph node. The MuLV-ERV U3 sequences population of the burn-24 hours group was less diverse in comparison to the no burn and burn-3 hours groups. In addition, it was apparent that at the 24 hours time point, the U3 populations of B-cells from both no burn and burn groups were less heterogeneous than the T-cells’ U3 populations. Using the U3 sequences, some of which were isolated only from specific experimental groups (B- vs. T-cells; no burn vs. burn), as probes, 51 putative MuLV-ERVs, including 16 full-length proviruses, were mapped followed by characterization of their biologic properties. Conclusion MuLV-ERVs’ response to burn-elicited stressors may be differentially controlled depending on lymphocyte type, location of lymphoid organ, MuLV-ERV type, and stress duration.



Dysfunction of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1a1 Alters Intestinal Bacteria and Bile Acid Metabolism in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1) is predominantly expressed in liver and is able to transport bile acids (BAs) in vitro. Male Oatp1a1-null mice have increased concentrations of taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA), a secondary BA generated by intestinal bacteria, in both serum and livers. Therefore, in the present study, BA concentrations and intestinal bacteria in wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice were

Youcai Zhang; Pallavi B. Limaye; Lois D. Lehman-McKeeman; Curtis D. Klaassen



Is the beagle dog an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating data to humans on organ distribution patterns of U, Th, and Pu  

SciTech Connect

Concentrations and organ distribution patterns of alpha-emitting isotopes of U (238U and 234U), Th (232Th, 230Th, and 228Th), and Pu (239,240Pu) were determined for beagle dogs of our colony. The dogs were exposed to environmental levels of U and Th isotopes through ingestion (food and water) and inhalation to stimulate environmental exposures of the general human population. The organ distribution patterns of these radionuclides in beagles are compared to patterns in humans to determine if it is appropriate to extrapolate organ content data from beagles to humans. The results indicated that approximately 80% of the U and Th accumulated in bone in both species. The organ content percentages of these radionuclides in soft tissues such as liver, kidney, etc. of both species were comparable. The human lung contained higher percentages of U and Th than the beagle lung, perhaps because the longer life span of humans resulted in a longer exposure time. If the U and Th content of dog lung is normalized to an exposure time of 58 y and 63 y, median ages of the U and Th study populations, respectively, the lung content for both species is comparable. The organ content of 239,240Pu in humans and beagles differed slightly. In the beagle, the liver contained more than 60%, and the skeleton contained less than 40% of the Pu body content. In humans, the liver contained approximately 37%, and the skeleton contained approximately 58% of the body content. This difference may have been due to differences in the mode of intake of Pu in each species or to differences in the chemical form of Pu. In general, the results suggest that the beagle may be an appropriate experimental animal from which to extrapolate data to humans with reference to the percentage of U, Th, and Pu found in the organs.

Singh, N.P.; Wrenn, M.E. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (USA))



9 CFR 116.6 - Animal records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...116.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.6 Animal records. Complete...records, if any, and all other pertinent records...



A gain-of-function mutation in IAA8 alters Arabidopsis floral organ development by change of jasmonic acid level.  


Auxin regulates a variety of physiological processes via its downstream factors included Aux/IAAs. In this study, one of these Aux/IAAs, IAA8 is shown to play its role in Arabidopsis development with transgenic plants expressing GFP-mIAA8 under the control of IAA8 promoter, in which IAA8 protein was mutated by changing Pro170 to Leu170 in its conserved domain II. These transgenic dwarfed plants had more lateral branches, short primary inflorescence stems, decreased shoot apical dominance, curled leaves and abnormal flower organs (short petal and stamen, and bent stigmas). Further experiments revealed that IAA8::GFP-mIAA8 plants functioned as gain-of-function mutation to increase GFP-mIAA8 amount probably by stabilizing IAA8 protein against proteasome-mediated protein degradation with IAA8::GFP-IAA8 plants as control. The searching for its downstream factors indicated its interaction with both ARF6 and ARF8, suggesting that IAA8 may involve in flower organ development. This was further evidenced by analyzing the expression of jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthetic genes and JA levels because ARF6 and ARF8 are required for normal JA production. These results indicated that in IAA8::GFP-mIAA8 plants, JA biosynthetic genes including DAD1 (AT2G44810), AOS (AT5G42650) and ORP3 (AT2G06050) were dramatically down-regulated and JA level in the flowers was reduced to 70 % of that in wild-type. Furthermore, exogenous JA application can partially rescue short petal and stamen observed IAA8::GFP-mIAA8 plants. Thus, IAA8 plays its role in floral organ development by changes in JA levels probably via its interaction with ARF6/8 proteins. PMID:23483289

Wang, Jing; Yan, Da-Wei; Yuan, Ting-Ting; Gao, Xiang; Lu, Ying-Tang



Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading  

PubMed Central

Do non?human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non?human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading—whether scientifically aided or not—have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non?human animals should be accorded.

Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Quiz questions from the organic chemistry question bank provide students with an excellent opportunity to review key concepts.. The Organic topic focuses on the basics of organic chemistry that are taught in general chemistry.



Kupffer cells alter organic anion transport through multidrug resistance protein 2 in the post-cold ischemic rat liver.  


Although Kupffer cells (KCs) may play a crucial role in post-cold ischemic hepatocellular injury, their role in nonnecrotic graft dysfunction remains unknown. This study examined reveal the role of KC in post-cold ischemic liver grafts. Rat livers treated with or without liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene diphosphonate, a KC-depleting reagent, were stored in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution at 4 degrees C for 8 to 24 hours and reperfused while monitoring biliary output and constituents. The ability of hepatocytes to excrete bile was assessed through laser-confocal microfluorography in situ. Cold ischemia-reperfused grafts decreased their bile output significantly at 8 hours without any notable cell injury. This event coincided with impaired excretion of glutathione and bilirubin-IXalpha (BR-IXalpha), suggesting delayed transport of these organic anions. We examined whether intracellular relocalization of multidrug resistance protein-2 (Mrp2) occurred. Kinetic analyses for biliary excretion of carboxyfluorescein, a fluoroprobe excreted through this transporter, revealed significant delay of dye excretion from hepatocytes into bile canaliculi. The KC-depleting treatment significantly attenuated this decline in biliary anion transport mediated through Mrp2 in the 8-hour cold ischemic grafts via redistribution of Mrp2 from the cytoplasm to the canalicular membrane. Furthermore, thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) synthase in KC appeared involved as blocking this enzyme improved 5-carboxyfluorescein excretion while cytoplasmic internalization of Mrp2 disappeared in the KC-depleting grafts. In conclusion, KC activation is an important determinant of nonnecrotic hepatocellular dysfunction, jeopardizing homeostasis of the detoxification capacity and organic anion metabolism of the post-cold ischemic grafts. PMID:15057914

Kudo, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Satoshi; Kajimura, Mayumi; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Uchida, Koji; Arii, Shigeki; Suematsu, Makoto



Role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter--I: generation of gases and condensates under dry condition.  


Pyrolysis experiments were carried out on Monterey formation kerogen and bitumen and Green River formation kerogen (Type II and I, respectively), in the presence and absence of montmorillonite, illite and calcite at 200 and 300 degrees C for 2-2000 hours. The pyrolysis products were identified and quantified and the results of the measurements on the gas and condensate range are reported here. A significant catalytic effect was observed for the pyrolysis of kerogen with montmorillonite, whereas small or no effects were observed with illite and calcite, respectively. Catalytic activity was evident by the production of up to five times higher C1-C6 hydrocarbons for kerogen with montmorillonite than for kerogen alone, and by the dominance of branched hydrocarbons in the C4-C6 range (up to 90% of the total amount at any single carbon number). This latter effect in the presence of montmorillonite is attributed to cracking via a carbonium-ion [carbocation] intermediate which forms on the acidic sites of the day. No catalytic effect, however, was observed for generation of methane and C2 hydrocarbons which form by thermal cracking. The catalysis of montmorillonite was significantly greater during pyrolysis of bitumen than for kerogen, which may point to the importance of the early formed bitumen as an intermediate in the production of low molecular weight hydrocarbons. Catalysis by minerals was also observed for the production of carbon dioxide. These results stress the importance of the mineral matrix in determining the type and amount of gases and condensates forming from the associated organic matter under thermal stress. The literature contains examples of gas distribution in the geologic column which can be accounted for by selective mineral catalysis, mainly during early stages of organic matter maturation. PMID:11539655

Tannenbaum, E; Kaplan, I R



Functional disconnection of the orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala impairs acquisition of a rat gambling task and disrupts animals' ability to alter decision-making behavior after reinforcer devaluation.  


An inability to adjust choice preferences in response to changes in reward value may underlie key symptoms of many psychiatric disorders, including chemical and behavioral addictions. We developed the rat gambling task (rGT) to investigate the neurobiology underlying complex decision-making processes. As in the Iowa Gambling task, the optimal strategy is to avoid choosing larger, riskier rewards and to instead favor options associated with smaller rewards but less loss and, ultimately, greater long-term gain. Given the demonstrated importance of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) in acquisition of the rGT and Iowa Gambling task, we used a contralateral disconnection lesion procedure to assess whether functional connectivity between these regions is necessary for optimal decision-making. Disrupting the OFC-BLA pathway retarded acquisition of the rGT. Devaluing the reinforcer by inducing sensory-specific satiety altered decision-making in control groups. In contrast, disconnected rats did not update their choice preference following reward devaluation, either when the devalued reward was still delivered or when animals needed to rely on stored representations of reward value (i.e., during extinction). However, all rats exhibited decreased premature responding and slower response latencies after satiety manipulations. Hence, disconnecting the OFC and BLA did not affect general behavioral changes caused by reduced motivation, but instead prevented alterations in the value of a specific reward from contributing appropriately to cost-benefit decision-making. These results highlight the role of the OFC-BLA pathway in the decision-making process and suggest that communication between these areas is vital for the appropriate assessment of reward value to influence choice. PMID:23575841

Zeeb, Fiona D; Winstanley, Catharine A



Evaluation of Novel Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates against Human and Animal Gammaherpesviruses Revealed an Altered Metabolism of Cyclic Prodrugs upon Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation in P3HR-1 Cells.  


Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs), such as (S)-1-[(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonomethoxy)propyl)]cytosine (HPMPC), are an important group of broad-spectrum antiviral agents with activity against DNA viruses. In this report, we present the in vitro potencies of novel ANPs against gammaherpesviruses, including Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and three animal gammaherpesviruses. 1-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-5-azacytosine (HPMP-5-azaC), (S)-9-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-3-deazaadenine (3-deaza-HPMPA), and their cyclic derivatives have emerged as highly potent antigammaherpesvirus agents. Interestingly, cyclic prodrugs of ANPs exhibited reduced activities against EBV strain P3HR-1, but not against EBV strain Akata. Cell culture metabolism studies with HPMPC and cyclic HPMPC revealed that these differences were attributable to an altered drug metabolism in P3HR-1 cells after EBV reactivation and, more specifically, to a reduced hydrolysis of cyclic HPMPC by cyclic CMP phosphodiesterase. We did not correlate this effect with phosphodiesterase downregulation, or to functional mutations. Instead, altered cyclic AMP levels in P3HR-1 cells indicated a competitive inhibition of the phosphodiesterase by this cyclic nucleotide. Finally, both HPMPC and HPMP-5-azaC emerged as highly effective inhibitors in vivo through significant inhibition of murine gammaherpesvirus replication and dissemination. With the current need for potent antigammaherpesvirus agents, our findings underline the requirement of appropriate surrogate viruses for antiviral susceptibility testing and highlight HPMP-5-azaC as a promising compound for future clinical development. PMID:24027315

Coen, Natacha; Duraffour, Sophie; Naesens, Lieve; Krecmerová, Marcela; Van den Oord, Joost; Snoeck, Robert; Andrei, Graciela



Exploring Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each group will be given one of the following categories of animals to explore further and answer questions about. Mammals Invertebrates Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Explore your category of animals and answer these questions: 1. What makes an animal belong to this category? Do you think that an animal can only belong to one category? Why or why not? 2. Explain why these animals live where they do? 3. Does your category of animals have any interesting ...

Emily, Miss



Isolated total lung perfusion as a means to deliver organ-specific chemotherapy: long-term studies in animals  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study were to develop a surgical procedure that would allow for bilateral isolated lung perfusion in vivo as a means of delivering organ-specific chemotherapy and to evaluate the influence of the procedure on certain pulmonary physiologic parameters. The sterile surgical procedure that was carried out in dogs involved the setting up of two separate perfusion circuits. Once standard systemic cardiopulmonary bypass was established, a second circuit was devised to perfuse the lungs by placing an inflow cannula into the main pulmonary artery and collecting venous effluent in the left atrium. Cross-contamination between perfusion circuits was determined in acute studies with labeled plasma protein or red blood cells and was found to be in an acceptable range if the aorta was cross-clamped and the heart arrested. Only about 0.4 ml/min of pulmonary perfusate leaked into the systemic circulation, indicating that systemic toxicity should not be a major concern when chemotherapy agents are added to the pulmonary perfusate. Chronic studies demonstrated that hemodynamic parameters, lung water, pulmonary endothelial serotonin extraction, and histologic findings all showed minimal changes after 50 minutes of isolated lung perfusion. Five days after perfusion, lung dynamic compliance and peak serotonin extraction showed significant decreases. However, all of the measured parameters had returned toward baseline levels by the end of the 8-week postoperative study period. The procedure offers significant advantages over the previously described single lung perfusion and may provide a method of delivering immediate high-concentration adjuvant chemotherapy to coincide with resection of primary or metastatic lung tumors.

Johnston, M.R.; Christensen, C.W.; Minchin, R.F.; Rickaby, D.A.; Linehan, J.H.; Schuller, H.M.; Boyd, M.R.; Dawson, C.A.



Medullo-ponto-cerebellar white matter degeneration altered brain network organization and cortical morphology in multiple system atrophy.  


The cerebellum involves diverse functions from motor coordination to higher cognitive functions. Impairment of the cerebellum can cause ataxia and cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome. Multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C) is a neurodegenerative disorder with atrophy of medullo-ponto-cerebellar (MPC) white matter (WM). To understand the role of the cerebellum from the perspective of the local structure to the global function in the presence of MPC WM degeneration, we acquired T1-weighted and diffusion tensor images for 17 patients with MSA-C and 19 normal controls. We concurrently used the measures of local morphology, including MPC WM volume and inner surface area, and properties of global network organization based on graph theory for the MSA-C and control groups. The results showed that MPC WM degeneration caused the destruction of cerebello-ponto-cerebral loops, resulting in reduced communication efficiency between regions in the whole-brain network. In addition, the sulcal area of the inner cortical surface in the cerebellum decreased linearly with the MPC WM volume, and the inferoposterior lobe exhibited a steeper atrophy rate than that of vermis regions. We concluded that the integrity of MPC WM is critical in sustaining the local morphology and the global functions of the whole-brain fiber network. PMID:23636223

Lu, Chia-Feng; Wang, Po-Shan; Lao, Yuan-Lin; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Soong, Bing-Wen; Wu, Yu-Te



Progressive alterations in microstructural organization and biomechanical response in the ApoE mouse model of aneurysm  

PubMed Central

AAA is a complex disease that leads to a localized dilation of the infrarenal aorta that develops over years. Longitudinal information in humans has been difficult to obtain for this disease, therefore mouse models have become increasingly used to study the development of AAAs. The objective of this study was to determine any changes that occur in the biomechanical response and fiber microstructure in the ApoE?/? AngII mouse model of aneurysm during disease progression. Adult ApoE?/? AngII infused mice along with wild-type controls were taken at 14 and 28 d. Aortas were excised and tested simultaneously for biaxial mechanical response and ECM organization. Data sets were fit to a Fung-type constitutive model to give peak strains and stiffness values. Images from two photon microscopy were quantified in order to assess the preferred fiber alignment and degree of fiber orientation. Biomechanical results found significant differences that were present at 14 d had returned to normal by 28 d along with significant changes in fiber orientation and dispersion indicating remodeling occurring within the aneurysmal wall. This return of some of the normal biomechanical function, in addition the continuing changes that occur in the microstructure suggest a restorative response that occurs in the ApoE?/? AngII infused model after the initial aneurysm formation.

Haskett, Darren; Azhar, Mohamad; Utzinger, Urs; Vande Geest, Jonathan P.



pH, ionic strength and dissolved organic matter alter aggregation of fullerene C60 nanoparticles suspensions in wastewater.  


The rapid increase in the production and use of fullerene C(60) nanoparticles raise concerns about environmental risks and human health. Wastewater treatment plants are key barriers to their discharge into the environment. The aggregation behavior of aqueous suspensions of C(60) nanoparticles (nC(60)) could affect their transport, bioavailability, and removal during wastewater treatment. We tested the aggregation of nC(60) in wastewater at different values of pH, ionic strength, and dissolved organic matter (DOM). The nC(60) remained relatively stable in filtered wastewater under environmentally relevant conditions up to 24 h. But at pH 3 or at high ionic strength (>100 mM NaCl), the aggregate size increased greatly, reaching micrometer scale after only 1 h. However, the aggregation behavior varied among wastewater samples even at values of similar zeta potential, compared with that in filtered secondary effluent and aeration tank liquor, that in filtered primary effluent was obviously inhibited. This inhibition could be attributed to the steric stabilization due to the adsorption of DOM on nC(60) aggregate in addition to electrostatic stabilization. The aggregation results also suggest that membrane filtration could be improved by adjustments to pH. PMID:23177247

Yang, Yongkui; Nakada, Norihide; Nakajima, Ryoji; Yasojima, Makoto; Wang, Chao; Tanaka, Hiroaki



A single dose of rituximab does not deplete B cells in secondary lymphoid organs but alters phenotype and function.  


A single dose of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab induces a nearly complete B cell depletion in peripheral blood, but not in secondary lymphoid organs. Modulation of this remaining B cell population due to rituximab treatment may contribute to the therapeutic effects of rituximab. To assess the in vivo effects of rituximab we used lymph nodes (LNs) collected during renal transplant surgery in patients who had received rituximab 4 weeks earlier in preparation for an ABO-incompatible transplantation. Rituximab treatment resulted in a lower percentage of naïve (IgD(+)CD27(-)) and a higher percentage of switched memory (IgD(-)CD27(+)) B cells. Remarkably, transitional (CD24(++)CD38(++)) B cells were virtually lacking in the LNs of rituximab-treated patients. Moreover, LN-derived B cells from rituximab-treated patients produced different amounts of various Ig-subclasses after anti-CD40/IL-21 stimulation ex vivo. Finally, after stimulation of allogeneic T cells with LN-derived B cells from rituximab-treated patients, the proliferated T cells showed a decreased production of IL-17. In conclusion, after treatment with rituximab there remains a B cell population with different functional capacities. Consequently, the effect of rituximab on the immune response will not only be determined by the extent of B cell depletion, but also by the functional properties of the remaining B cells. PMID:23570303

Kamburova, E G; Koenen, H J P M; Borgman, K J E; ten Berge, I J; Joosten, I; Hilbrands, L B



Comparative Genomics of Korean Infectious Bronchitis Viruses (IBVs) and an Animal Model to Evaluate Pathogenicity of IBVs to the Reproductive Organs  

PubMed Central

The K-I and nephropathogenic K-II genotypes of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) have been isolated since 1995 and 1990, respectively, in Korea and commercial inactivated oil-emulsion vaccines containing KM91 (K-II type) and Massachusetts 41 strains have been used in the field. To date, genomic analyses of Korean IBV strains and animal models to test the pathogenicity of Korean IBVs to the reproductive organs have been rare. In the present study, comparative genomics of SNU8067 (K-I type) and KM91 IBVs was performed, and an animal model to test the pathogenicity of SNU8067 was established and applied to vaccine efficacy test. The genome sizes of SNU8067 (27,708 nt) and KM91 (27,626 nt) were slightly different and the nucleotide and amino acid identities of the S1 (79%, 77%), 3a (65%, 52%), and 3b (81%, 72%) genes were lower than those of other genes (94%–97%, 92%–98%). A recombination analysis revealed that SNU8067 was a recombinant virus with a KM91-like backbone except S1, 3a, and 3b genes which might be from an unknown virus. An SNU8067 infection inhibited formation of hierarchal ovarian follicles (80%) and oviduct maturation (50%) in the control group, whereas 70% of vaccinated chickens were protected from lesions.

Hong, Seung-Min; Kwon, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Il-Hwan; Mo, Mei-Lan; Kim, Jae-Hong



Comparative genomics of Korean infectious bronchitis viruses (IBVs) and an animal model to evaluate pathogenicity of IBVs to the reproductive organs.  


The K-I and nephropathogenic K-II genotypes of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) have been isolated since 1995 and 1990, respectively, in Korea and commercial inactivated oil-emulsion vaccines containing KM91 (K-II type) and Massachusetts 41 strains have been used in the field. To date, genomic analyses of Korean IBV strains and animal models to test the pathogenicity of Korean IBVs to the reproductive organs have been rare. In the present study, comparative genomics of SNU8067 (K-I type) and KM91 IBVs was performed, and an animal model to test the pathogenicity of SNU8067 was established and applied to vaccine efficacy test. The genome sizes of SNU8067 (27,708 nt) and KM91 (27,626 nt) were slightly different and the nucleotide and amino acid identities of the S1 (79%, 77%), 3a (65%, 52%), and 3b (81%, 72%) genes were lower than those of other genes (94%-97%, 92%-98%). A recombination analysis revealed that SNU8067 was a recombinant virus with a KM91-like backbone except S1, 3a, and 3b genes which might be from an unknown virus. An SNU8067 infection inhibited formation of hierarchal ovarian follicles (80%) and oviduct maturation (50%) in the control group, whereas 70% of vaccinated chickens were protected from lesions. PMID:23202499

Hong, Seung-Min; Kwon, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Il-Hwan; Mo, Mei-Lan; Kim, Jae-Hong




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue on organization provides an annotated listing of Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and other resources related to organization to be used with K-8 students. Sidebars discuss being organized to be a good student, organizational identities, and organizing an election. Suggests student activities relating to…

Online-Offline, 1999




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This theme issue on organization provides an annotated listing of Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and other resources related to organization to be used with K-8 students. Sidebars discuss being organized to be a good student, organizational identities, and organizing an election. Suggests student activities relating to…

Online-Offline, 1999





1. None of the extracts examined are very potent in small doses. A noticeable effect, however, is produced upon the blood pressure by the extract of fifteen milligrams of shark testis. 2. A small dose of a five per cent. shark testis extract seems to show more pressor action than a larger dose of the same solution. 3. The fall of blood-pressure is due to a vaso-dilation. 4. After repeated (seven or eight) injections of almost any extract, an injection of more of the same extract, or of another extract, which would be rather potent as a "first" injection, causes very little if any response from the blood-pressure. 5. Continued boiling of an extract destroys the pressor substance. 6. The depressor action is then very pronounced and especially prolonged. 7. The depressor substance will dialyze. 8. The pressor and depressor substances cannot be separated by dialysis, because in the repeated sterilizations the pressor substance disappears. 9. The pressor and depressor substances cannot be separated by absolute alcohol, as each seems to be soluble. The solubility is not, however, very great, at least in the cold. 10. It seems impossible to separate the pressor and depressor substances by means of a difference in solubility in cold physiological salt solution, since the depressor substance is even more soluble in that solution than the pressor. And yet the depressor substance is not nearly all removed by this means, even though it is allowed to stand for some time. 11. After cutting the vagi, the recovery from the effect of the depressor substance is much more rapid than with the vagi intact. The amount of fall of blood-pressure is about equal in either case. 12. Extracts of the testis and pancreas of shark; of the testis and spleen of swordfish; and the spiral valve of dogfish show the presence of a pressor substance. 13. Extracts of the testis, spleen, pancreas and liver of shark; of the testis, liver, spleen and kidney of swordfish, and the spiral valve of dogfish show the presence of a depressor substance. 14. Extracts of shark ovary gave no result. I believe, however, that if sufficient of the parenchymatous tissue of the ovary had been obtained a result would have been given by this organ also. PMID:19867114

Joseph, D R



The molecular and isotopic effects of hydrothermal alteration of organic matter in the Paleoproterozoic McArthur River Pb/Zn/Ag ore deposit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The molecular distribution and compound specific stable carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios were measured on solvent extractable hydrocarbons from the Late Paleoproterozoic McArthur River, or "Here's Your Chance" (HYC) Pb/Zn/Ag ore deposit in the Northern Territory of Australia. Five samples were collected from the McArthur River mine on a northeast-southwest transect in order to sample a gradient of hydrothermal alteration. One sample was taken from the unmineralized W-Fold Shale unit immediately below the HYC ore deposit. ?D of n-alkanes, branched alkanes and bulk aromatic fractions were measured, and ?13C of n-alkanes, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and bulk kerogen were measured to assess the isotopic effects of a varying degree of hydrothermal alteration on different components of HYC organic matter (OM). Relative to n-alkanes in Barney Creek Formation sediments that did not undergo mineralization, HYC n-alkanes are enriched in deuterium (D) by 50-60‰. This is likely to be a result of equilibrium hydrogen exchange during ore genesis with a highly D-enriched fluid that originated in an evaporitic basin. Trends with distance along the sample transect are ambiguous, but from the northernmost to southernmost point, n-alkanes are less D-enriched, and PAHs are less abundant and less 13C-enriched. This could be due to decreasing hydrothermal alteration effects, decreasing delivery of highly altered OM by the mineralizing fluid, or both. The carbon isotopic composition of HYC PAHs is inconsistent with a Barney Creek Fm source, but consistent with an origin in the underlying Wollogorang Formation. PAHs are 13C-depleted relative to n-alkanes, reflecting a kerogen source that was 13C-depleted compared to n-alkanes, typical for Precambrian sediments. PAHs are more 13C-depleted with increasing molecular weight and aromaticity, strengthening the case for a negative isotopic effect associated with aromatization in ancient sediments. Together, these data are consistent with a an ore deposition model in which fluids originated in an evaporitic deposit lower in the basin and interacted with metals and OM in the Tawallah Group at temperatures above 250 °C and a depth of ~ 6 km before ascending along a flower structure associated with the Emu Fault and cooling to 200 ± 20 °C before reaching Barney Creek sediments.

Williford, Kenneth H.; Grice, Kliti; Logan, Graham A.; Chen, Junhong; Huston, David



Clinical significance of alterations of chromosome 8 detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis in pathologic organ-confined prostate cancer.  


Loss of 8p22 and gain of 8q24 are known to be common chromosomal alterations in prostate cancer. We have previously demonstrated that concurrent 8q24 overrepresentation and 8p22 loss were associated with a poor prognosis in patients with high-grade, locally advanced prostate cancer. We evaluated the alteration of 8p22 and 8q24 in a large cohort of pathologic organ-confined prostate cancer using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. All 195 patients with Gleason scores > 5, pathologic stage T(2)N(0)M(0) (pT(2)N(0)M(0)) prostate cancer, who underwent a radical prostatectomy at the Mayo Clinic between 1987 and 1991, and for whom blocks were available, were selected for this study. The median follow-up period was 9.5 years, and endpoints of this study were biochemical and clinical disease progression. The latter includes local as well as systemic disease progression. FISH analysis using paraffin-embedded tissues was performed for 8p22 (LPL), centromere 8 (8cen), and 8q24 (MYC) and was successful for 156 tumors (80.0%). Of these tumors, 104 (66.6%) had one or more numeric alterations of the 3 loci evaluated. An increased copy number of 8q24 was observed in 66 (42.3%) tumors, of which 20 (12.8%) had an additional increase (AI) of 8q24, and 46 (29.5%) had a gain of 8q24 with an equivalent gain of 8cen. Losses and gains of 8p22 were detected in 81 (51.9%) and 20 (12.8%) tumors, respectively. An AI of 8q24 was significantly associated with the tumor Gleason score (P = 0.042). Univariate analysis indicated that loss of 8p22 was a significant predictor of biochemical and clinical disease progression (P = 0.025 and P = 0.011, respectively). Furthermore, the group with loss of 8p22 concurrent with an AI of 8q24 (Loss 8p22-any 8cen-AI 8q24) had an increased rate of biochemical disease progression (P = 0.052). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that neither individual nor the Loss-any-AI combination of alterations was a significant independent predictor of disease progression when adjusting for Gleason score, preoperative PSA levels, and DNA ploidy. These data suggest that loss of 8p22 is associated with a poor prognosis, specifically when it is accompanied by AI of 8q24 in pT(2)N(0)M(0) prostate cancer. PMID:12112525

Tsuchiya, Norihiko; Slezak, Jeffrey M; Lieber, Michael M; Bergstralh, Erik J; Jenkins, Robert B



Algae in Animal Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • In the context of threats to fragile environments, there is a need in animal production to identify alternative feed resources, which are environmentally friendly, but at the same time utilize natural resources efficiently. Algae are autotrophic organisms, which have potentia as food and feed for man and animals. They are rich in protein (50-60%), lipids (2-22%), vitamins and

S. A. Chowdhury; K. S. Huque; M. Khatun


Animal Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson from Science NetLinks exposes children to a wide range of animals and guides them through observation of animal similarities, differences, and environmental adaptations. This lesson can be used as part of a study of plants and animals. Before doing the lesson, students should know the meanings of the terms: plant, animal, and living.

Science Netlinks;



A Mutation in ?-Tubulin Alters Microtubule Dynamics and Organization and Is Synthetically Lethal with the Kinesin-like Protein Pkl1pV?  

PubMed Central

Mitotic segregation of chromosomes requires spindle pole functions for microtubule nucleation, minus end organization, and regulation of dynamics. ?-Tubulin is essential for nucleation, and we now extend its role to these latter processes. We have characterized a mutation in ?-tubulin that results in cold-sensitive mitotic arrest with an elongated bipolar spindle but impaired anaphase A. At 30°C cytoplasmic microtubule arrays are abnormal and bundle into single larger arrays. Three-dimensional time-lapse video microscopy reveals that microtubule dynamics are altered. Localization of the mutant ?-tubulin is like the wild-type protein. Prediction of ?-tubulin structure indicates that non-?/?-tubulin protein–protein interactions could be affected. The kinesin-like protein (klp) Pkl1p localizes to the spindle poles and spindle and is essential for viability of the ?-tubulin mutant and in multicopy for normal cell morphology at 30°C. Localization and function of Pkl1p in the mutant appear unaltered, consistent with a redundant function for this protein in wild type. Our data indicate a broader role for ?-tubulin at spindle poles in regulating aspects of microtubule dynamics and organization. We propose that Pkl1p rescues an impaired function of ?-tubulin that involves non-tubulin protein–protein interactions, presumably with a second motor, MAP, or MTOC component.

Paluh, Janet L.; Nogales, Eva; Oakley, Berl R.; McDonald, Kent; Pidoux, Alison L.; Cande, W. Z.



How asymmetry in animals starts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review aims to present a speculation about mechanisms that shape the brains of humans and other animals into an asymmetrical organization. To this end, I will proceed in two steps: first, I want to recapitulate evidence from various experiments that show that some but not all asymmetries of the avian brain result from a prehatch light stimulation asymmetry. This should make it clear that avian embryos have a genetic predisposition to turn their head to the right. This results in a higher level of prehatch light stimulation of their right eye. The concomitant left-right difference in sensory input alters the brain circuits of the animal for the entire lifespan in a lateralized way. In the second part of the paper I will present evidence that some of the asymmetries of the human brain take a similar ontogenetic path as those observed in birds. This review provides the evidence that critical ontogenetic processes discovered in animal models could also be involved in the ontogeny of human cerebral asymmetries.

Güntürkün, Onur




PubMed Central

Powelson, Dorothy M. (Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif.). Metabolism of animal cells infected with mycoplasma. J. Bacteriol. 82:288–297. 1961.—The effect of pleuropneumonia-like organisms (PPLO) upon the metabolism of tissue cultures was tested by comparing the assimilation and accumulation of the amino acids in the medium during growth and maintenance of monolayers of mouse fibroblasts (L strain) and human bone marrow cells (Mox). This preliminary study indicates that PPLO do alter the amino acid metabolism of animal cells. The observed changes in metabolic patterns shown by the infected fibroblast cultures did not mirror the metabolic patterns of the PPLO in the medium alone. Different strains of animal cells showed different responses to one PPLO strain, and different strains of PPLO caused different responses in one strain of animal cells. The PPLO did not grow in the tissue culture medium (no. 199 plus 2% horse serum and 20 to 40 units of penicillin/ml) nor in spent culture fluids and rapidly died off at 37 C but survived for months at 4 C. The altered metabolism of the infected tissue cultures appeared to reflect a true host-parasite interaction.

Powelson, Dorothy M.



Inside Plant and Animal Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Identify the structures that make up plant and animal cells, then determine their function. Today, you will be comparing plant and animal cells. Identify the structures within each cell and determine the function it performs. First, open up the Cell Information Organizer worksheet. You will use this throughout this project to record and organize the cell information. Next, go to the Animal Cell Model. Begin the exercise by clicking Animal Cell. Observe ...




Alterations in the expression of the Atp7a gene in the early postnatal development of the mosaic mutant mice (Atp7a mo-ms) - An animal model for Menkes disease.  


Copper is a trace element that is essential for the normal growth and development of all living organisms. In mammals, the ATP7A Cu-transporting ATPase is a key protein that is required for the maintenance of copper homeostasis. In both humans and mice, the ATP7A protein is coded by the X-linked ATP7A/Atp7a gene. Disturbances in copper metabolism caused by mutations in the ATP7A/Atp7a gene lead to severe metabolic syndromes Menkes disease in humans and the lethal mottled phenotype in mice. Mosaic is one of numerous mottled mutations and may serve as a model for a severe Menkes disease variant. In Menkes patients, mutations in the ATP7A gene often result in a decreased level of the normal ATP7A protein. The aim of this study was to analyse the expression of the Atp7a gene in mosaic mutants in early postnatal development, a critical period for starting copper supplementation therapy in both Menkes patients and mutant mice. Using real-time quantitative RT-PCR, we analysed the expression of the Atp7a gene in the brain, kidney and liver of newborn (P0.5) and suckling (P14) mice. Our results indicate that in mosaic P0.5 mutants, the Atp7a mRNA level is decreased in all analysed organs in comparison with wild-type animals. In two week-old mutants, a significant decrease was observed only in the kidney. In contrast, their hepatic level of Atp7a tended to be higher than in wild-type mice. We speculate that disturbance in the expression of the Atp7a gene and, consequently, change in the copper concentration of the organs, may contribute to the early fatal outcome of mosaic males. PMID:20831904

Lenartowicz, Ma?gorzata; Starzy?ski, Rafa?; Wieczerzak, Krzysztof; Krzeptowski, Wojciech; Lipi?ski, Pawe?; Styrna, Józefa



Endangered Animals Webquest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, students will be defining what an endangered animal is. They will also be creating a poster with certain information about the particular animal they have chosen to focus on. The library media standard that is being focused on is the following: Standard 5 Students organize, synthesize, and present information. Objective 1 Organize information from multiple sources. Objective 2 Present information. INTRODUCTION In order to help familiarize you with the BIG6 model, you will complete the following webquest on Endangered Animals. Follow the directions at each step as each will guide you through the process of what you are to do. Good luck!! ...

Nielson, Mrs.



Organs from Animals for Man  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the following review some of the problems of xenotransplantation shall be discussed, based on the few experimental data available so far and on reports in the literature describing investigations which may be of importance for xenotransplantation. The impact of gravity on the upright posture of man versus almost all other mammals, the dysfunction between enzymes and hormones in different

C. Hammer; R. Linke; F. Wagner; M. Diefenbeck



9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR




[Animal experimentation in Israel].  


In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries. PMID:12017891

Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah



Animal Bites  


Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...


Endangered animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many animals that are in danger of becoming extinct. Humans are largely to blame for their endangerment. Over-hunting and habitat destruction are only a couple of ways that humans are endangering animals.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)



Flash Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collections of Flash animations accompanies Chang's Essential Chemistry, 2/e, but is publically available. These animations are interactive and have voice-overs, thereby providing a multimedia presentation of basic chemical concepts.


Ocean Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many types of Ocean Animals, today we wil be going to identify several Ocean Anumals through specific body parts that makeOcean Animals different from one another. To begin examine the links below to see what different types of ocean animals there are and what makes those animals different from one another Beluga Whales- National Geographic Kids Dolphins- Who lives in the sea? Puffer fish- National Geographic Stingrays- National Geographic Kids ...



Animal Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains links to 12 calendars (12 months). June contains seven activities that mix math with exploring animals. For instance, children conduct a survey about favorite animals, find an animal with paws bigger than their hands, and name as many spotted animals as they can in a minute. Works as a handout, take-home, or group activity. Available as a downloadable pdf and in Spanish.




Channel widening due to urbanization and a major flood can alter bed particle organization and bed stability in an urban boulder-bed channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Anacostia River is a tributary of the Potomac River north of Washington D.C. that has become progressively more urbanized in the past 50 years. Bankfull discharge and bankfull width in the Anacostia have increased by 3- 4x in the past 50 years. Nearby watersheds of similar size and geology, but without significant urbanization, contain threshold gravel-bed streams. The Anacostia, however, is not a threshold channel; it exhibits break-up of boulder-bed channels in upstream reaches and significant gravel bar formation in downstream reaches. These gravel bars have grown and migrated considerably in the past 10-15 years, contributing significantly to local channel widening that can be twice that of adjacent reaches. The purpose of this study is to determine bedload transport rates and grain size distributions and their relationship to discharge, bed organization and sediment supply. Bed mobility data come from both bedload transport measurements and measurements of channel bed changes. Channel bed changes were obtained from a) repeated channel cross section surveys, b) surface and subsurface size distributions, and c) bed particle organization measurements (measurements of location of particles within reaches). These measurements were made prior to and after the floods of 2006, which equalled the largest floods on record for most parts of the Anacostia River. In some boulder bed reaches, boulders were removed from the center of the channel and deposited along and on the channel banks. The mid-channel boulders were replaced by sheets of gravel and cobbles, significantly altering the bed mobility of the channels.

Prestegaard, K. L.; Behrns, K.; Blanchet, Z.; Hankin, E.



Mascot animations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Computer Animation Festival issued a special call for short animations of our robot mascot character. Students and professionals around the world submitted many creative, entertaining animations. The largest group of submissions came from students at the Digital Hollywood school in Tokyo.

Shinji Ameda; Kumiko Arai; Tomonori Isogaya; Taiki Ito; Chihiro Iwamoto; Mari Kameyama; Haruki Kato; Yoshihiro Maruyama; Satoko Matsumaru; Hiroki Matsuoka; Takato Nakai; Moemi Nakano; Kumiko Obora; Naomi Ogura; Koichi Okamura; Yuko Sato; Tetsuro Satomi; Mio Sawaguchi; Nobuhiko Suzuki; Yugo Takahashi; Mai Takayanagi; Keigo Takeshige; Naomi Tanaka; Takeshi Tsuzaki; Yoshihumi Uehiro; Shuhei Yamada; Koji Yamamoto; Melanie Beisswenger; Toru Ogura; Takeshi Saito; Takayuki Sato; Atsushi Sugito; Seiichi Tsuji



Animal Behaviour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is written by a veterinarian and has separate pages for various classes of animals such as domesticated, farm, and exotic animals. There is also an online book available to the user in which they can find more information on some of the same plus some additional animal behaviors.

Mcgreevey, Paul



Physical and gene organization of mitochondrial DNA in fertile and male sterile sunflower. CMS-associated alterations in structure and transcription of the atpA gene.  

PubMed Central

To study the molecular basis of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus), we compared the physical organization and transcriptional properties of mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) from isonuclear fertile and CMS lines. Mapping studies revealed much greater similarity between the two mtDNAs than in previous comparisons of fertile and CMS lines from other plant species. The two sunflower mtDNAs 1) are nearly identical in size (300 kb and 305 kb); 2) contain the same 12 kb recombination repeat and associated tripartite structure; 3) have the same dispersed distribution of mitochondrial genes and chloroplast DNA-homologous sequences; 4) are greater than 99.9% identical in primary sequence; and 5) are colinear over a contiguous region encompassing 94% of the genome. Detectable alterations are limited to a 17 kb region of the genome and reflect as few as two mutations--a 12 kb inversion and a 5 kb insertion/deletion. One endpoint of both rearrangements is located within or near atpA, which is also the only mitochondrial gene whose transcripts differ between the fertile and CMS lines. Furthermore, a nuclear gene that restores fertility to CMS plants specifically influences the pattern of atpA transcripts. Rearrangements at the atpA locus may, therefore, be responsible for CMS in sunflower. Images

Siculella, L; Palmer, J D



Physical and gene organization of mitochondrial DNA in fertile and male sterile sunflower. CMS-associated alterations in structure and transcription of the atpA gene.  


To study the molecular basis of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus), we compared the physical organization and transcriptional properties of mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) from isonuclear fertile and CMS lines. Mapping studies revealed much greater similarity between the two mtDNAs than in previous comparisons of fertile and CMS lines from other plant species. The two sunflower mtDNAs 1) are nearly identical in size (300 kb and 305 kb); 2) contain the same 12 kb recombination repeat and associated tripartite structure; 3) have the same dispersed distribution of mitochondrial genes and chloroplast DNA-homologous sequences; 4) are greater than 99.9% identical in primary sequence; and 5) are colinear over a contiguous region encompassing 94% of the genome. Detectable alterations are limited to a 17 kb region of the genome and reflect as few as two mutations--a 12 kb inversion and a 5 kb insertion/deletion. One endpoint of both rearrangements is located within or near atpA, which is also the only mitochondrial gene whose transcripts differ between the fertile and CMS lines. Furthermore, a nuclear gene that restores fertility to CMS plants specifically influences the pattern of atpA transcripts. Rearrangements at the atpA locus may, therefore, be responsible for CMS in sunflower. PMID:2836801

Siculella, L; Palmer, J D




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)|

Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.



The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.  


The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field. PMID:20919590

Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W



9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR




9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR




Transgenic animals in cardiovascular disease research.  


Worldwide, the highest morbidity and mortality results from such cardiovascular diseases as hypertension, myocardial infarction, cardiac and renal failure, as well as stroke. Since the cardiovascular system and its regulation is quite complex, study of these disorders has been grossly limited to whole organism models. As a result, in recent years, transgenic technology has played a significant role in the discovery of specific gene products for cardiovascular regulation and disease aetiology. Genetic manipulation in rats and mice has altered the expression of numerous genes. In this review, some of the important new genetically modified animals (i.e. transgenic models) with alterations in hormone and second messenger systems involved in cardiovascular regulation are summarized. PMID:11187966

Bader, M; Bohnemeier, H; Zollmann, F S; Lockley-Jones, O E; Ganten, D



Small Animal Imaging with Magnetic Resonance Microscopy  

PubMed Central

Small animal magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) has evolved significantly from testing the boundaries of imaging physics to its expanding use today as a tool in non-invasive biomedical investigations. This review is intended to capture the state-of-the-art in MRM for scientists who may be unfamiliar with this modality, but who want to apply its capabilities to their research. We therefore include a brief review of MR concepts and methods of animal handling and support before covering a range of MRM applications including the heart, lung, brain, and the emerging field of MR histology. High-resolution anatomical imaging reveals increasingly exquisite detail in healthy animals and subtle architectural aberrations that occur in genetically altered models. Resolution of 100 µm in all dimensions is now routinely attained in living animals, and 10 µm3 is feasible in fixed specimens. Such images almost rival conventional histology while allowing the object to be viewed interactively in any plane. MRM is now increasingly used to provide functional information in living animals. Images of the beating heart, breathing lung, and functioning brain can be recorded. While clinical MRI focuses on diagnosis, MRM is used to reveal fundamental biology or to non-invasively measure subtle changes in the structure or function of organs during disease progression or in response to experimental therapies. The ability of MRM to provide a detailed functional and anatomical picture in rats and mice, and to track this picture over time, makes it a promising platform with broad applications in biomedical research.

Driehuys, Bastiaan; Nouls, John; Badea, Alexandra; Bucholz, Elizabeth; Ghaghada, Ketan; Petiet, Alexandra; Hedlund, Laurence W.



Small animal imaging with magnetic resonance microscopy.  


Small animal magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) has evolved significantly from testing the boundaries of imaging physics to its expanding use today as a tool in noninvasive biomedical investigations. MRM now increasingly provides functional information about living animals, with images of the beating heart, breathing lung, and functioning brain. Unlike clinical MRI, where the focus is on diagnosis, MRM is used to reveal fundamental biology or to noninvasively measure subtle changes in the structure or function of organs during disease progression or in response to experimental therapies. High-resolution anatomical imaging reveals increasingly exquisite detail in healthy animals and subtle architectural aberrations that occur in genetically altered models. Resolution of 100 mum in all dimensions is now routinely attained in living animals, and (10 mum)(3) is feasible in fixed specimens. Such images almost rival conventional histology while allowing the object to be viewed interactively in any plane. In this review we describe the state of the art in MRM for scientists who may be unfamiliar with this modality but who want to apply its capabilities to their research. We include a brief review of MR concepts and methods of animal handling and support, before covering a range of MRM applications-including the heart, lung, and brain-and the emerging field of MR histology. The ability of MRM to provide a detailed functional and anatomical picture in rats and mice, and to track this picture over time, makes it a promising platform with broad applications in biomedical research. PMID:18172332

Driehuys, Bastiaan; Nouls, John; Badea, Alexandra; Bucholz, Elizabeth; Ghaghada, Ketan; Petiet, Alexandra; Hedlund, Laurence W



Organic \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents for the first time a 4-bit microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) phase shifter fabricated on, integrated, and packaged into an organic flexible low-permittivity material. A microstrip switched-line phase shifter has been optimized at 14 GHz for small size and excellent performance. In addition, the MEMS phase shifter was packaged in an all-organic flexible low-permittivity liquid-crystal polymer (LCP) package. The

Nickolas Kingsley; John Papapolymerou



Animations for Physics and Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations illustrates basic concepts in physics and astronomy. Topics include astronomy, mechanics, vectors, electricity and magnetism, waves, optics, and many others. The animations are organized by topic and may be downloaded or streamed from the website. The site also includes links to papers on the use of animations in physics education.

Gallis, Michael R.


Biogaserzeugungspotenzial aus Gülle und Koppelprodukten in viehhaltenden und viehlosen Betriebssystemen des ökologischen Landbaus Potential of Biogas production by using slurry and coupled products in organic farming systems with and without animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two agricultural systems with and without animal husbandry the potential to produce renewable energy by digesting slurry and organic residues to biogas were assessed. In comparison to some other methods of energy production by biomass biogas pro- duction has the advantage of keeping the nutrients of the substrates within the agricul- tural system. They can be used as fertilisers.

K. Möller; W. Stinner; A. Deuker; G. Leithold


Impacts of Applied Genetics: Micro-Organisms, Plants, and Animals. Volume II: Appendixes. Part A: Implications of Molecular Genetics for Medicine. Part B: Past, Present, and Future Trends in Crop Breeding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This volume contains working papers written for OTA to assist in preparation of the report, Impacts of Applied Genetics: Micro-Organisms, Plants, and Animals. Part A is entitled, 'Implications of Molecular Genetics for Medicine,' and Part B is 'Past, Pres...



Immunoassay Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Glasgow Department of Pathological Biochemistry has recently made available five immunoassay animations that draw on the interactivity of the FutureSplash plug-in (discussed in the December 20, 1996 issue of the Scout Report). The animations are "a learning resource for students, to show the wide application of the use of antibodies in a clinical biochemistry laboratory," and are "graphical representations of the immunoassay methodology used by a number of commercial manufacturers." Each immunoassay is presented as a series of animations, allowing the user to navigate forward and back in time. A key is provided, and animations can be viewed step by step (with explanations) and then replayed as a single continuous animation without explanations or navigation. Immunoassay Animations is a powerful visual teaching tool.

Chung, Kynwai.; Cowan, Bob.



Ocean Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What characteristics do animals have that help them to survive in the ocean? We have enjoyed learning about lots of different ocean animals in class, but there is still so much more to learn! Here are some websites with fun pictures and videos to teach us about the characteristics that help animals survive in the ocean. Beluga whales have been one of our favorite topics ...

Cole, Ms.



Animation Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides physics tutorials and other resources for animation artists and professionals working in the animation industry. There are three tutorials covering topics related to the graphical representation of linear and accelerated motion, rotations, and center of mass. The presentation is non-mathematical and focuses on the consequences of the laws of physics. The web site also provides other physics references for animators and has started a wiki for community building.

Garcia, Alejandro



The Early Years: Animal Adventures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children can have a new favorite animal every week or even every hour. The more familiar the children become with an animal, the more they will be able to understand how its body form and behavior allow it to survive. Learning about the characteristics of organisms and how organisms relate to their environment is part of the National Science…

Ashbrook, Peggy



DNA: Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Howard Hughes Medical Institute makes available twenty-five short, narrated animations about DNA at this link. The animations are viewable as video clips and topics include, but are not limited to DNA structure, DNA replication, transcription and translation, mutations in DNA, polymerase chain reaction, DNA sequencing, and shotgun sequencing.

Institute, Howard H.



Excelsior Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an art project where students used excelsior, shredded wood used for packing, to create animals. Explains that excelsior can be found at furniture and grocery stores. Discusses in detail the process of making the animals and includes learning objectives. (CMK)|

Steinkamp, Mary J.



``Animal Intelligence''  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a review of my monograph on ``Animal Intelligence,'' in a recent number of NATURE, Mr. Lloyd Morgan credits me with upholding the theory that we have sensations caused by outgoing currents which innervate muscles, and with depending on that theory in some of my own statements about the nature of animals' consciousness. A careless and ambiguous sentence of mine

Edward L. Thorndike



Science Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The use of a well-placed animation in a lecture can help illuminate any number of important concepts in the sciences. Educators seeking high-quality animations need look no further than this very useful site created by staff members at North Harris Community College. The animations are divided into a number of topics, including plants, ecology, astronomy, geology, anatomy, and biology. Each section contains links to a host of fascinating and helpful animations from institutions like Florida State University, Cambridge University Press, the University of Nebraska, and the University of Alberta. As a note, the astronomy and physics areas are particularly strong, and visitors would do well to take a look at the lunar and planetary time-lapse animations offered up by António Cidadão.


Easy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If a picture is worth 1,000 words, then a good animation islike a classic short story--a simple tale simply told.Animations are particularly effective in the teaching ofmathematics because motion is often fundamental to theconcept at hand, and a well-designed animation is usuallyan excellent way to introduce such a concept. In thischapter, we describe two ways to make animations and postthem on your course websites. Once you master the process,you will be surprised at how easy it is to build and post yourown animations. This is a chapter in the Visualization in Science Education section of the Course, Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement (CCLI) April 2004 conference proceedings published under the title Invention and Impact: Building Excellence in Undergraduate Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Education.

Paul Blanchard (Boston University;)




Microsoft Academic Search

The fitness of any evolutionary unit can be understood in terms of its two basic com- ponents: fecundity (reproduction) and viability (survival). Trade-offs between these fitness com- ponents drive the evolution of life-history traits in extant multicellular organisms. We argue that these trade-offs gain special significance during the transition from unicellular to multicellular life. In particular, the evolution of germ-soma



Australian Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will be researching Australian animals in order to prepare a presentation for the class. The children will be divided into groups to research and present about Tasmanian devils, koala bears, kangaroos, or platypi. This IA will provide links for the children to research their animal. Introduction You are a wildlife biologist embarking on an exciting journey to Australia. Hogle Zoo is sending you to discover the most unique animal on the whole continent of Australia. You will be assigned to a team that will research either Tasmanian devils, koala bears, kangaroos, or platypuses. ...

Rusch, Mrs.



Artificial human tissues from cord and cord blood stem cells for multi-organ regenerative medicine: viable alternatives to animal in vitro toxicology.  


New medicinal products and procedures must meet very strict safety criteria before being applied for use in humans. The laboratory procedures involved require the use of large numbers of animals each year. Furthermore, such investigations do not always give an accurate translation to the human setting. Here, we propose a viable alternative to animal testing, which uses novel technology featuring human cord and cord blood stem cells. With over 130 million children born each year, cord and cord blood remains the most widely available alternative to the use of animals or cadaveric human tissues for in vitro toxicology. PMID:20507188

Jurga, Marcin; Forraz, Nico; McGuckin, Colin P



Magnetic resonance for evaluation of toxic encephalopathies: implications from animal experiments.  


Examinations of brain of rats intoxicated with hexachlorophene or acrylamide with ultrahigh-field (4.7 T) proton magnetic resonance (MR) showed alterations consistent with clinical pictures in humans and morphological findings in experimental animals. On the other hand, conventional biochemical analyses have revealed that ethylene oxide, methyl bromide, and acrylamide inhibit creatine kinase (CK; an enzyme catalyzing the reaction: ATP+creatine<-->ADP+phosphocreatine) activities in the brain of animals. Thus, 31P MR combined with magnetization transfer may be utilized to monitor living humans (or animals) intoxicated with these chemicals by determining CK activities in the target organ. PMID:16797711

Igisu, Hideki; Kinoshita, Yoshimasa



Making Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)|

Robinson, James



Animate Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in the United Kingdom, the Animate Projects site is designed to "explore the relationship between art and animation, and the place of animation and its concepts in contemporary art practice." With support from the Arts Council England and Channel 4, they have created this delightful site featuring over 100 films that "explore ideas around animation." On the homepage, visitors can view a rotating selection of these projects, and they are also encouraged to click on the "Films" section to browse through films dating back to 1991. Moving on, visitors can click on the "Events" section to learn about relevant screenings around Britain, lectures, and workshops. Cineastes will want to delve into the "Writing" area, which includes critical responses to some of the works which can be viewed elsewhere on the site. To get a taste of the offerings here, first-time users may wish to view "Amnesia" by Cordelia Swann or Alex Schady's work, "Everything Must Go".


Digital Animators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Getting started in the world of digital animation isn't easy, and it can be useful to have a helpful resource to find out about the current trends in this dynamic field. Fortunately, there is the Digital Animators website which features career-development blogs, tutorials, new software releases, and opinion pieces. First-time visitors can get the flavor of the site by reading a few of the "Top Stories" on the homepage, and then move on to the "Tech News" or the "Company News" areas. Here they will find more detailed information on important developments that affect the business side of this type of animation. Most visitors will want to make a beeline for the "Tutorials" area. Here they will find video clips that talk about how to colorize black and white objects and how to manipulate animation layers with the Autodesk application.



Animal bites  


... infected with a virus that can cause rabies. Bats may spread this disease. Rabies is rare but ... and wild animals, such as skunks, raccoons, and bats, also bite thousands of people each year. If ...


Animal Wastes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Raising, fattening, and slaughtering the animals needed to produce meat for the increasing United States population generate as much waste as a human population of over 2 billion people. Modern techniques required to produce this much meat efficiently and...



Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

HAVING frequently observed in your columns accounts of remarkable instances of reasoning power in animals, I am tempted to send you the following notes, which may perhaps be not without interest to the readers of NATURE.

R. J. Harvey Gibson



Animal Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE term `animal husbandry' is gradually becoming more employed by both administrators and scientists concerned with the live stock industry. That it is differently employed by different speakers is the apology for what follows.

A. D. Buchanan Smith



Animal Adaptations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will participate in classroom discussions and visit a website to learn more about animals and how well (or poorly) theyve adapted to satisfying their needs in their natural habitats. This will help move them toward the goal, in later grades, of understanding ecosystems.The Kratts' Creatures website used in this lesson provides students with a simple, visual means for familiarizing themselves with basic world ecosystems as well as some examples of the animals that occupy them.

Science NetLinks (AAAS;)



Animal experimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of animals are used every year in oftentimes extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation\\u000a of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more\\u000a or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context\\u000a correspond to the “3Rs” concept as

Roman Kolar



Animating Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson challenges students to apply their knowledge of object motion by animating sequences of hand-rendered pictures that model a set of physical conditions. The challenges include animating the orbital motion of planets and satellites, the effects of gravity on a falling body, and motions of objects in inertial (moving) frames of reference. The lesson was created by a high school physics teacher to help learners build quantitative reasoning skills in preparation for understanding kinematics.

Latham, Ted



Non-Government Organizations and the Contradictions of Animation Rurale: Questioning the Ideal of Community Self-Reliance in Burkina Faso  

Microsoft Academic Search

In francophone Africa animation rurale is a method of intervention which generally aims to foster community self-reliance through non-formal education and selective material and technical service support. A study of three foreign-funded NGO programmes in Burkina Faso reveals, however, that animation rurale tends to stimulate client-patron relations between rural communities and their aid agency benefactors, a consequence of the structures

Richard Maclure



Animal signals.  


The study of animal signals began in earnest with the publication in 1872 of Charles Darwin's The Expressions of the Emotions in Man and Animals, which laid the basis for a comparative study of signals across all animals, including humans. Yet even before Darwin, the exceptional diversity of animal signals has gripped the attention of natural historians and laymen alike, as these signals represent some of the most striking features of the natural world. Structures such as the long ornamented tail of the peacock, the roaring sounds of howler monkeys, audible kilometers away, and the pheromone trails laid by ants to guide their nestmates to resources are each examples of animal signals (Figure 1). Indeed, because signals evolved for the purpose of communicating (Box 1), their prominence can be hard for even a casual observer to overlook. Animal signals therefore raise many scientific questions: What are their functions? What information do they transmit? How are they produced? And why did they evolve? PMID:24070440

Laidre, Mark E; Johnstone, Rufus A



9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR




9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS...which shows clinical signs or other evidence of disease...



9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS...which shows clinical signs or other evidence of disease...



Maternal low-protein diet alters the expression of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction reference genes in an age-, sex-, and organ-dependent manner in rat offspring.  


Altered perinatal environment, often manifested as low birth weight, is thought to contribute to greater susceptibility for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes as a result of epigenetic modifications and alteration of transcriptional activity for key genes. Real-time polymerase chain reaction is a useful technique for the quantitative determination of differences in transcriptional activity. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction data analyses require normalization of transcriptional activity of target genes to an endogenous control, usually a reference gene. In response to reports of altered expression of reference genes in various experimental models, we hypothesized that adverse perinatal environment alters reference gene expression. We examined the expression of the following reference genes in the offspring of a rodent maternal low-protein diet model: ?-actin, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1, TATA-box-binding protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glucuronidase-? in brain, heart, kidneys, and intestines. We found altered expression in brain, heart, and kidneys for each of the reference genes measured; these effects were age, organ, and sex dependent. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glucuronidase-? were found to be the least affected by these variables, whereas hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 was the most inconsistent. Our findings underscore the importance of empirical determination of a reliable reference gene for real-time polymerase chain reaction studies in the low-protein diet model. PMID:23507230

DuBois, Barent; Pearson, Jacob; Hastings, Bonnie; Mahmood, Tahir; Chan, Tammy; Alnakhli, Ali; Cherala, Ganesh



Animal liberation or animal research?  


The first wave of protest against animal research began over a hundred years ago and lasted for about 40 years. The present wave of protest has only existed for the past 20 years but it is already far more serious, and more violent, than the first. In this Special Feature, Mark Matfield reviews the history of the animal liberation movement, and predicts that unless the scientific community makes a greater effort to inform the public about why animal research is necessary and the humane way in which it is conducted, pharmacological and other areas of biomedical research could become seriously restricted. PMID:1796494

Matfield, M J



USGS Videos and Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of visual media produced by the U.S. Geological Survey provides a broad overview of research and activities carried out by the organization. The collection of recorded lectures, movies, animations, flyovers, Powerpoint presentations and other media covers biology, climate change, earthquakes, geology, plate tectonics, careers with USGS, and many other topics.


Animal Skull Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This intriguing and impressive website of animal skull images and information was developed by DeLoy Roberts, a high school biology and zoology teacher in Idaho. The site is quite extensive with separate skull galleries for mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, crustaceans, and fish. Site visitors will find clear skull images of such animals as a badger, wolf, boa constrictor, golden eagle, salmon, great gray owl, and many more. The site also includes lists of Animal Skull Sizes (organized alphabetically by animal as well as by size) for mammal and bird skulls in the collection. For school groups that can make the trip, the actual skull collection is maintained by Mr. Roberts at his high school in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

Roberts, Deloy



Animal Magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast looks at the mysterious way in which certain animals can travel vast distances around the planet, using the magnetic field of Earth to guide them. Migrating birds, fish, sea turtles, honey bees and even bacteria have all been found to navigate using the magnetic field of Earth, sometimes over quite enormous distances and reaching targets of only a few degrees in width. There is discussion about where magnetic receptors may be within animals and that particular cells in migratory creatures contain magnetite, a substance which humans used many hundreds of years ago to create the first compass. This radio broadcast discusses animal magnetism with researchers who have been working with sea turtles, to discover just how the turtles find their way back to the same beaches every year to lay their eggs. There is explanation of how the magnetic sense in animals has two components: acting as a compass to guide them and providing them with location; and how this seems to be possible since the magnetic field gets stronger in higher latitudes and inclination angle (the angle of the magnetic field to the surface of Earth) changes over different points on Earth. The broadcast also explains why creatures such as honey bees and even bacteria need to be in tune with the magnetic field of Earth, and how magnetic sense is prevalent in many animals with seemingly no need for it. The broadcast is 29 minutes in length.


Evolution Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation provides a tour of the history of the universe, the solar system, and Earth. Moving the slider allows viewers to progress from the Big Bang, almost 14 billion years ago, to the beginnings of life on Earth in the Proterozoic era, through the age of the dinosaurs and finally to the time of Homo sapiens. When the slider stops moving, animations and text appear, highlighting important events. Other animations accompany the time scale and show the movements of the continents, the advance and retreat of the polar ice caps, and changes in the oxygen content of the atmosphere. The length of the timeline helps reinforce the idea of the immense age of the universe. A French translation is available.

Kyrk, John


Groundwater Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features Flash and QuickTime animations related to groundwater. They contrast the permeability of gravel, sand, silt, and clay, as well as the speed of groundwater movement in rivers, lakes, and aquifers. They also outline the hydrologic cycle, discussing infiltration, percolation, and the water table, exhibit groundwater overdraft and the resulting formation of a cone of depression, and show how groundwater entering fractured bedrock can become superheated and pushed to the surface, erupting as a geyser. The animations can be paused and rewound to stress important points. These resources are suitable for use in lectures, labs, or other teaching activities.



Alterations in size, number, and morphology of gustatory papillae and taste buds in BDNF null mutant mice demonstrate neural dependence of developing taste organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory ganglia that innervate taste buds and gustatory papillae (geniculate and petrosal) are reduced in volume by about 40% in mice with a targeted deletion of the gene for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In contrast, the trigeminal ganglion, which innervates papillae but not taste buds on the anterior tongue, is reduced by only about 18%. These specific alterations in ganglia

Charlotte M. Mistretta; Ki A. Goosens; Isabel Farinas; Louis F. Reichardt



Animation aerodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods based on aerodynamics are developed to simulate and control the motion of objects in fluid flows. To simplify the physics for animation, the problem is broken down into two parts: a fluid flow regime and an object boundary regime. With this simplification one can approximate the realistic behaviour of objects moving in liquids or air. It also enables a

Jakub Wejchert; David R. Haumann



Transgenic Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of…

Jaenisch, Rudolf



Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN an excellent paper on ``Animal Intelligence'' (NATURE, vol. xxvi. p. 523), Mr. C. Lloyd Morgan says that ``The brute has to be contented with the experience he inherits or individually acquires. Man, through language spoken or written, profits by the experience of his fellows. Even the most savage tribe has traditions extending back to the father's father. May there

Fritz Mueller; S. GOSTAGE



Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE columns of NATURE have sometimes been open to statements illustrating the practical sagacity of animals of the lower classes. Allow me to place before you the history of an occurrence which appears to prove the power of organisation in the common house-mouse.

G. A. B



Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE following notes of facts observed in New Zealand may be thought of interest; in some way they may serve to illustrate Mr. Romanes' work on ``Animal Intelligence'' : they are submitted without making an attempt to distinguish where they may overlap the fine line between instinct and intelligence. Cases which may show apparent intelligence or the reverse are recorded

T. H. Potts



Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

As NATURE frequently contains notices of intelligence in animals, I have ventured to send you the inclosed note from the Reading local paper, as containing a remarkable fact regarding intelligence in a blind horse. The writer, Mr. Gostage, is quite trustworthy, and I have taken pains to verify the truth of his statements.

Joseph Stevens; S. Gostage



Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

SEVERAL remarkable instances of intelligence in animals have been given in recent numbers of NATURE. Possibly the following instance of reasoning power in an elephant may not be without interest:-Some years ago I was ascending the lower part of the Darjeeling Hill Road, in the Himalaya Mountains, from Terai. At a certain part of the road, where we met a

F. R. Mallet



Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTHOUGH the terms ``ass'' and, at any rate in Germany, ``ox'' (Ochs) are very generally applied to stupid persons, those who have observed the bovine and asinine genera know that this is an injustice to those animals; and the following instances of particular intelligence displayed by two of the thus maligned beasts seem worth recording.

L. C. Hurt



Transgenic Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

Jaenisch, Rudolf



Portrayals of canine obesity in English-language newspapers and in leading veterinary journals, 2000-2009: implications for animal welfare organizations and veterinarians as public educators.  


In industrialized societies, more than 1 in 3 dogs and people currently qualify as overweight or obese. Experts in public health expect both these figures to rise. Although clinical treatment remains important, so are public perceptions and social norms. This article presents a thematic analysis of English-language mass media coverage on canine obesity from 2000 through 2009 and compares these results with a thematic analysis of articles on canine obesity in leading veterinary journals during the same time period. Drawing on Giddens's theory of structuration, this study identified articles that emphasized individual agency, environmental structure, or both as contributors to canine obesity. Comparisons with weight-related health problems in human populations were virtually absent from the veterinary sample. Although such comparisons were almost always present in the media sample, quotations from veterinarians and other spokespeople for the welfare of nonhuman animals emphasized the agency of individual caregivers (owners) over structural influences. Now that weight gain and obesity have been established as a pressing animal welfare problem, these results suggest a need for research and for interventions, such as media advocacy, that emphasize intersections between animal-owner agency, socioenvironmental determinants, and connections between animal welfare and human health. PMID:21932944

Degeling, Chris; Rock, Melanie; Toews, Lorraine; Teows, Lorraine



Animal production systems in the industrialised world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The production of food from animal origin is relatively stable in the industrialised world. However, animal production systems are changing dramatically with respect to location, herd size and specialisation. Increased pressure from a critical public is moving animal-based production towards systems such as organic production and loose-housing systems which allow the animals to better express normal behaviour. The focus

J. T. Sørensen; S. Edwards; J. Noordhuizen; S. Gunnarsson



Current animal models: cotton rat animal model.  


The cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) model has proven to be a suitable small animal model for measles virus pathogenesis to fill the niche between tissue culture and studies in macaques. Similar to mice, inbred cotton rats are available in a microbiologically defined quality with an ever-increasing arsenal of reagents and methods available for the study of infectious diseases. Cotton rats replicate measles virus in the respiratory tract and (depending on virus strain) in lymphoid organs. They can be infected with vaccine, wild-type, and recombinant measles viruses and have been used to study viruses with genetic modifications. Other areas of study include efficacy testing of antivirals and vaccines. The cotton rat also has been an informative animal model to investigate measles virus-induced immune suppression and suppression of vaccination by maternal antibodies. In addition, the cotton rat promises to be a useful model for the study of polymicrobial disease (interaction between measles virus and secondary pathogens). PMID:19203106

Niewiesk, S



Altered distribution of motor neurons in experimental facial nerve paralysis.  


The alteration of motor neurons in the brainstem after recovery from experimental facial nerve paralysis was examined by the retrograde horseradish peroxidase (HRP) technique in the rabbit. Six months after nerve crush injury at the center of the vertical portion, HRP was injected into the zygomatic muscle on the recovered side. The distribution of labelled neurons in the brainstem was compared with that in the normal rabbit. In control animals, motor neurons in the facial nucleus were somatotopically organized, and there were no labelled neurons in other nuclei in the brainstem. In recovered animals, on the contrary, the somatotopic organization of the facial nucleus was obscure and multipolar neurons of varying size were labelled bilaterally in the reticular formation from the pons to the medulla. PMID:1481671

Nakao, Y; Matsumoto, K; Kumagami, H



Swimming in Small Laboratory Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forced swimming in small laboratory animals has been widely used for studying the physiology and capacity of the organism in response to stress. The following studies have been accomplished: Swimming as a test of performance; Factors affecting swimming; U...

C. A. Dawson S. M. Horvath



Molecular consequences of animal breeding.  


The phenotypic diversity in domestic animals provides a unique opportunity to study genotype-phenotype relationships. The identification of causal mutations provides an insight into what types of mutations have contributed to phenotypic evolution in domestic animals. Whole genome sequencing has revealed that fixation of null alleles that inactivate genes, which are essential under natural conditions but disadvantageous on the farm, has not been a common mechanism for genetic adaptation in domestic animals. Numerous examples have been revealed where structural changes cause specific phenotypic effects by altering transcriptional regulation. An emerging feature is also the evolution of alleles by the accumulation of several consecutive mutations which affect gene function. PMID:23601626

Andersson, Leif



Optogenetics in psychiatric animal models.  


Optogenetics is the optical control of neuronal excitability by genetically delivered light-activated channels and pumps and represents a promising tool to fuel the study of circuit function in psychiatric animal models. This review highlights three developments. First, we examine the application of optogenetics in one of the neuromodulators central to the pathophysiology of many psychiatric disorders, the dopaminergic system. We then discuss recent work in translating functional magnetic resonance imaging in small animals (in which optogenetics can be employed to reveal physiological mechanisms underlying disease-related alterations in brain circuits) to patients. Finally, we describe emerging technological developments for circuit manipulation in freely behaving animals. PMID:23695972

Wentz, Christian T; Oettl, Lars-Lennart; Kelsch, Wolfgang



Assessing Students' Ideas About Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is an interview protocol that you can use to gather information about your students' ideas about animals. Specifically, you will be able to determine which organisms your students think are animals and identify what students consider to be th

Barman, Charles R.; Berglund, Kay; Goldston, M. J.; Barman, Natalie S.



Animated Atlas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A commercial site, Animated Atlas provides excellent audio-visual resources for teachers and students of European and American history. The resources combine maps and animation to create short video presentations on such subjects as the growth of the United States and the First World War. Though most of the videos must be ordered, the site provides free samples of its presentations, including a ten minute presentation on the westward expansion of the United States, the early history of the American Revolution, the European alliances before the First World War, and the beginnings of the Mexican American War. The site provides a timeline of American history that can be referred to during the American expansion video. Students and educators should also explore the site's listings of American history sites and primary source on the Web.



Math Animated  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site contains courseware for single and many-variables calculus designed for introductory undergraduate physics and engineering students. Included are text explanations and solved exercises, supported by animated and interactive graphics. The graphics make the material useful for a broader audience in both the classroom and by individual students. These materials use MathML and SVG. The free Firefox browser can be used to view, these resources without any plugins on Windows, Mac and Linux.

Dagan, Samuel



Animal Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Clinical research has delineated the nature and severity of acute and chronic cerebral disturbances in relation to abnormal\\u000a glucose metabolism, as reviewed in the previous chapters of this book. By comparison, insight into the pathophysiology is\\u000a still limited and evidence for effective treatment is largely lacking. Studies in animal models may help to fill in these\\u000a gaps in our knowledge.

Geert Jan Biessels


Correlated alterations in genome organization, histone methylation, and DNA-lamin A/C interactions in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.  


Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a premature aging disease that is frequently caused by a de novo point mutation at position 1824 in LMNA. This mutation activates a cryptic splice donor site in exon 11, and leads to an in-frame deletion within the prelamin A mRNA and the production of a dominant-negative lamin A protein, known as progerin. Here we show that primary HGPS skin fibroblasts experience genome-wide correlated alterations in patterns of H3K27me3 deposition, DNA-lamin A/C associations, and, at late passages, genome-wide loss of spatial compartmentalization of active and inactive chromatin domains. We further demonstrate that the H3K27me3 changes associate with gene expression alterations in HGPS cells. Our results support a model that the accumulation of progerin in the nuclear lamina leads to altered H3K27me3 marks in heterochromatin, possibly through the down-regulation of EZH2, and disrupts heterochromatin-lamina interactions. These changes may result in transcriptional misregulation and eventually trigger the global loss of spatial chromatin compartmentalization in late passage HGPS fibroblasts. PMID:23152449

McCord, Rachel Patton; Nazario-Toole, Ashley; Zhang, Haoyue; Chines, Peter S; Zhan, Ye; Erdos, Michael R; Collins, Francis S; Dekker, Job; Cao, Kan



Galactose toxicity in animals.  


In most organisms, productive utilization of galactose requires the highly conserved Leloir pathway of galactose metabolism. Yet, if this metabolic pathway is perturbed due to congenital deficiencies of the three associated enzymes, or an overwhelming presence of galactose, this monosaccharide which is abundantly present in milk and many non-dairy foodstuffs, will become highly toxic to humans and animals. Despite more than four decades of intense research, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of galactose toxicity in human patients and animal models. In this contemporary review, we take a unique approach to present an overview of galactose toxicity resulting from the three known congenital disorders of galactose metabolism and from experimental hypergalactosemia. Additionally, we update the reader about research progress on animal models, as well as advances in clinical management and therapies of these disorders. PMID:19859980

Lai, Kent; Elsas, Louis J; Wierenga, Klaas J



Survey of hormone activities in municipal biosolids and animal manures.  


The potential exists for natural or synthetic hormonal chemicals present in agricultural fertilizers to be transferred to adjacent aquatic environments in order to alter endocrine function in exposed wildlife. Recombinant yeast and mammalian cell line (BG1Luc4E2) assays were used to screen crude organic extracts of municipal biosolids and animal manures for estrogen-, androgen-, and progesterone receptor gene transcription activities. Of the biosolid extracts, those samples that had undergone aerobic digestion had no or minimal estrogen- and no androgen receptor gene transcription activities. In contrast, those biosolid samples that had undergone anaerobic digestion had much higher estrogen- and, for all but one site, androgen receptor gene transcription activities. Extracts prepared from animal manure samples had variable levels of androgen- and estrogen receptor gene transcription activities, which may be related to the type, sex, age, and reproductive status of the animals. The diet and treatment of animals with hormone implants also appeared to be factors influencing hormone activity in animal manure. Progesterone receptor gene transcription activity was observed for only one chicken litter sample. Overall, results of this study suggest that in vitro bioassays can be used to survey and detect hormone activity in municipal biosolids and animal manures. Furthermore, results of these assays can be used to develop practices that will minimize the potential environmental endocrine-disrupting effects of these substances. PMID:15101037

Lorenzen, Angela; Hendel, John G; Conn, Kenneth L; Bittman, Shabtai; Kwabiah, Allan B; Lazarovitz, George; Massé, Daniel; McAllister, Tim A; Topp, Edward



Cell proliferation, cell shape, and microtubule and cellulose microfibril organization of tobacco BY2 cells are not altered by exposure to near weightlessness in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microtubule cytoskeleton and the cell wall both play key roles in plant cell growth and division, determining the plant’s\\u000a final stature. At near weightlessness, tubulin polymerizes into microtubules in vitro, but these microtubules do not self-organize\\u000a in the ordered patterns observed at 1g. Likewise, at near weightlessness cortical microtubules in protoplasts have difficulty organizing into parallel arrays, which\\u000a are

Björn J. Sieberer; Henk Kieft; Tiny Franssen-Verheijen; Anne Mie C. Emons; Jan W. Vos



Activity Responses to Altered Photoperiods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Locomotor activity responses to altered photoperiods were investigated in male, Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to several types of artificial days. In each 24-hour period, each group of animals was exposed to different light:dark fluctuations without an alte...

E. L. Besch



Animal behavior and animal welfare.  


The value of behavioral techniques in assessing animal welfare, and in particular assessing the psychological well being of animals, is reviewed. Using cats and horses as examples, 3 behavioral methods are presented: (1) comparison of behavior patterns and time budgets; (2) choice tests; and (3) operant conditioning. The behaviors of intact and declawed cats were compared in order to determine if declawing led to behavioral problems or to a change in personality. Apparently it did not. The behavior of free ranging horses was compared with that of stabled horses. Using two-choice preference tests, the preference of horses for visual contact with other horses and the preference for bedding were determined. Horses show no significant preference for locations from which they can make visual contact with other horses, but they do prefer bedding, especially when lying down. Horses will perform an operant response in order to obtain light in a darkened barn or heat in an outside shed. These same techniques can be used to answer a variety of questions about an animal's motivation for a particular attribute of its environment. PMID:2061151

Houpt, K A



Characterization of Genetically Matched Isolates of Campylobacter jejuni Reveals that Mutations in Genes Involved in Flagellar Biosynthesis Alter the Organism's Virulence Potential?  

PubMed Central

Phenotypic and genotypic evidence suggests that not all Campylobacter jejuni isolates are pathogenic for humans. We hypothesized that differences in gene content or gene expression alter the degree of pathogenicity of C. jejuni isolates. A C. jejuni isolate (Turkey) recovered from a turkey and a second C. jejuni isolate (CS) recovered from a chicken differed in their degrees of in vitro and in vivo virulence. The C. jejuni Turkey isolate invaded INT 407 human epithelial cells and secreted the Cia (Campylobacter invasion antigen) proteins, while the C. jejuni CS isolate was noninvasive for human epithelial cells and did not secrete the Cia proteins. Newborn piglets inoculated with the C. jejuni Turkey isolate developed more severe clinical signs of campylobacteriosis than piglets inoculated with the C. jejuni CS isolate. Additional work revealed that flagellin was not expressed in the C. jejuni CS isolate. Microarray and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses revealed that all flagellar class II genes were significantly downregulated in the C. jejuni CS isolate compared to the C. jejuni Turkey isolate. Finally, nucleotide sequencing of the flgR gene revealed the presence of a single residue that was different in the FlgR proteins of the C. jejuni Turkey and CS isolates. Complementation of the C. jejuni CS isolate with a wild-type copy of the flgR gene restored the isolate's motility. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that critical differences in gene content or gene expression can alter the pathogenic potential of C. jejuni isolates.

Malik-Kale, Preeti; Raphael, Brian H.; Parker, Craig T.; Joens, Lynn A.; Klena, John D.; Quinones, Beatriz; Keech, Amy M.; Konkel, Michael E.



Extreme Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online news article discusses the ability of tardigrades to withstand harsh conditions. The article covers the history, biology and significance of tardigrades, as well as the different types of cryptobiosis. It includes detailed images of the organisms and links to related web pages.



Animal Experiments in Order to Determine the Effects of Cd on Parameters of the Reticuloendothelial and Hematopoietic System and on the Distribution of Essential Metals in Different Organs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mice and rats were given low doses of Cd with their drinking water, so that no external signs of intoxication were observed, and the Cd concentrations in different organs were measured after exposure periods of 10, 20, 40 and 90 days for mice and 30 and 9...

G. Goetz



Frederick National Lab: IBC Using Biological Materials in Animals

The NIH Guidelines require IBC review of experiments involving whole animals in which the animal's genome has been altered by stable introduction of recombinant DNA, or DNA derived therefrom, into the germ-line (transgenic animals) and experiments involving viable recombinant DNA-modified microorganisms tested on whole animals.


Animal models of schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Developing reliable, predictive animal models for complex psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, is essential to increase our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for the development of novel drugs with improved therapeutic efficacy. All available animal models of schizophrenia fit into four different induction categories: developmental, drug-induced, lesion or genetic manipulation, and the best characterized examples of each type are reviewed herein. Most rodent models have behavioural phenotype changes that resemble ‘positive-like’ symptoms of schizophrenia, probably reflecting altered mesolimbic dopamine function, but fewer models also show altered social interaction, and learning and memory impairment, analogous to negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia respectively. The negative and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia are resistant to treatment with current antipsychotics, even after remission of the psychosis, which limits their therapeutic efficacy. The MATRICS initiative developed a consensus on the core cognitive deficits of schizophrenic patients, and recommended a standardized test battery to evaluate them. More recently, work has begun to identify specific rodent behavioural tasks with translational relevance to specific cognitive domains affected in schizophrenia, and where available this review focuses on reporting the effect of current and potential antipsychotics on these tasks. The review also highlights the need to develop more comprehensive animal models that more adequately replicate deficits in negative and cognitive symptoms. Increasing information on the neurochemical and structural CNS changes accompanying each model will also help assess treatments that prevent the development of schizophrenia rather than treating the symptoms, another pivotal change required to enable new more effective therapeutic strategies to be developed. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Translational Neuropharmacology. To view the other articles in this issue visit

Jones, CA; Watson, DJG; Fone, KCF



Cell proliferation, cell shape, and microtubule and cellulose microfibril organization of tobacco BY-2 cells are not altered by exposure to near weightlessness in space.  


The microtubule cytoskeleton and the cell wall both play key roles in plant cell growth and division, determining the plant's final stature. At near weightlessness, tubulin polymerizes into microtubules in vitro, but these microtubules do not self-organize in the ordered patterns observed at 1g. Likewise, at near weightlessness cortical microtubules in protoplasts have difficulty organizing into parallel arrays, which are required for proper plant cell elongation. However, intact plants do grow in space and therefore should have a normally functioning microtubule cytoskeleton. Since the main difference between protoplasts and plant cells in a tissue is the presence of a cell wall, we studied single, but walled, tobacco BY-2 suspension-cultured cells during an 8-day space-flight experiment on board of the Soyuz capsule and the International Space Station during the 12S mission (March-April 2006). We show that the cortical microtubule density, ordering and orientation in isolated walled plant cells are unaffected by near weightlessness, as are the orientation of the cellulose microfibrils, cell proliferation, and cell shape. Likely, tissue organization is not essential for the organization of these structures in space. When combined with the fact that many recovering protoplasts have an aberrant cortical microtubule cytoskeleton, the results suggest a role for the cell wall, or its production machinery, in structuring the microtubule cytoskeleton. PMID:19756725

Sieberer, Björn J; Kieft, Henk; Franssen-Verheijen, Tiny; Emons, Anne Mie C; Vos, Jan W



Weight Loss Alters Organ Concentrations and Contents of Lead and Some Essential Divalent Metals in Rats Previously Exposed to Lead1'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of adipose tissue during energy restriction may be accompanied by a loss of lean body mass, including bone mass. Because most of the body lead burden is in the skeleton, we studied the effects of weight loss on the concentrations of lead in bone, blood and several organs in rats with prior but not cur rent lead exposure.



The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. IV - Generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes in laboratory experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of common sedimentary minerals (illite, Na-montmorillonite, or calcite) under different water concentrations on the generation and release of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and select alkenes from oil-prone kerogens was investigated. Matrices containing Green River Formation kerogen or Monterey Formation kerogen, alone or in the presence of minerals, were heated at 200 or 300 C for periods of up to 1000 hours, and the pyrolysis products were analyzed. The influence of the first two clay minerals was found to be critically dependent on the water content. Under the dry pyrolysis conditions, both minerals significantly reduced alkene formation; the C12+ n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids were mostly destroyed by montmorillonite, but underwent only minor alteration with illite. Under hydrous conditions (mineral/water of 2/1), the effects of both minerals were substantially reduced. Calcite had no significant effect on the thermal evolution of the hydrocarbons.

Huizinga, Bradley J.; Tannenbaum, Eli; Kaplan, Isaac R.



DNA is organized into 46 chromosomes including sex chromosomes, 3D animation with no audioSite: DNA Interactive (  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The millions of bases, which make up the human genome are organized into structures called chromosomes. These are arranged into 22 matching pairs plus 1 pair of sex chromosomes consisting of 2 X's in women and an X and a Y in men. So humans have a total of 46 chromosomes in each cell, known collectively as a karyotype. This set of chromosomes has a Y, so it must belong to a male.



Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)|

March, B. E.



Animal welfare and international trade.  


Globalisation is becoming a force that is revolutionising international trade, particularly that of animals and animal products. There is increasing interest in animal welfare worldwide, and as part of its 2001-2005 Strategic Plan the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) identified the development of international standards on animal welfare as a priority. The OIE's scientific approach to standard-setting provides the foundation for the development, and acceptance by all OIE Member Countries, of these animal welfare guidelines. The paper discusses how these guidelines on animal welfare can be implemented, both within the provisions of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements and within the framework of voluntary codes of conduct. Even if animal welfare guidelines are not covered by any WTO agreements in the future, bi- and multilateral agreements, voluntary corporate codes, and transparent labelling of products should result in a progressive acceptance of OIE guidelines. Ultimately, consumer demands and demonstrable gains in animal production will result in an incremental evolution in animal welfare consciousness and adherence to international standards. PMID:16358524

Thiermann, A B; Babcock, S



Organic Cosmetics  


... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Cosmetics Home Cosmetics Product and Ingredient Safety Product Information ... Cosmetics? Tell FDA: Consumer Update and Video - "Organic" Cosmetics March 8, 2010; updated September 15, 2010 The ...


2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin treatment alters eicosanoid levels in several organs of the mouse in an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent fashion.  


2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) adversely affects many mammalian organs and tissues. These effects are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 are upregulated by the liganded AHR. These (and other) cytochromes P450 can metabolize arachidonic acid into a variety of bioactive eicosanoids. Towards investigating a potential role of eicosanoids in TCDD toxicity, arachidonic acid, two other unsaturated long-chain fatty acids, and up to twenty-five eicosanoids were measured in five organs/tissues of male and female wild-type and Ahr null mice treated or untreated with TCDD. TCDD generally increased the levels of the four dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) and (where measured) 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid and 18-, 19- and 20-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (HETEs) in the serum, liver, spleen and lungs, but not the heart, of both sexes, and increased the levels in the serum, liver and spleen of several metabolites that are usually considered products of lipoxygenase activity, but which may also be generated by cytochromes P450. TCDD also increased the levels of the esterified forms of these eicosanoids in the liver in parallel with the corresponding free forms. The levels of prostanoids were generally not affected by TCDD. The above changes did not occur in Ahr null mice, and are therefore mediated by the AHR. TCDD increased the mRNA levels of Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1 and the Pla2g12a form of phospholipase A(2) to varying degrees in the different organs, and these increases correlated with some but not all the changes in eicosanoids levels in the organs, suggesting that other enzymes may also be involved. PMID:22230337

Bui, Peter; Solaimani, Parrisa; Wu, Xiaomeng; Hankinson, Oliver



A Mutation in g-Tubulin Alters Microtubule Dynamics and Organization and Is Synthetically Lethal with the Kinesin-like Protein Pkl1ph V  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitotic segregation of chromosomes requires spindle pole functions for microtubule nucleation, minus end organization, and regulation of dynamics. g-Tubulin is essential for nucleation, and we now extend its role to these latter processes. We have characterized a mutation in g-tubulin that results in cold-sensitive mitotic arrest with an elongated bipolar spindle but impaired anaphase A. At 30°C cytoplasmic microtubule arrays

Janet L. Paluh; Eva Nogales; Berl R. Oakley; Kent McDonald; Alison L. Pidoux; W. Z. Cande



[Microbiological standardization of laboratory animals].  


An overview is given on various aspects of microbiological standardisation of laboratory animals. The paper focuses on small rodents because rats and mice are the most frequently used animal species. An introductory chapter describes the importance of micro-organisms and their potential effects on animals and animal experiments. Some terms describing the microbiological quality of rodents (e.g., germ-free, "SPF", conventional) are explained. Housing conditions and requirements for the management which are both necessary to maintain a high microbiological standard in the animal facility are described. The most relevant sources of micro-organisms are briefly discussed. An overview is given on some aspects which have to be considered during health monitoring like, e.g., micro-organisms to be monitored, sample size and frequency, age of animals. In the reference section primarily actual and general articles or recommendations are listed. Further details can be found at internet homepages which are listed for several organisations active in laboratory animal science. PMID:10472715

Nicklas, W


The Evolution of Multicellular Plants and Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Traces the evolution of unicellular organisms to the multi-cellular plants and animals in existence today. Major events are depicted in a geologic timetable. Organisms, extinct and recent, are classified by taxonomic group. (MA)|

Valentine, James W.



Animal Tails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Call it tail envy. With only a vestigial nub to show for ourselves, perhaps it's no wonder that animal tails capture our attention. The following Web sites present some of the more interesting tails to be found in the animal kingdom. The first Web site contains a recent article from Discovery News describing new findings that at least one species of scorpion produces two distinct types of tail venom, which have completely different effects on their victims (1). The next site from Singapore Zoological Gardens introduces the cebids (our New World monkey cousins), some of which have amazing prehensile tails that are used like a fifth limb (2). The rattlesnake is another famously-tailed creature, highlighted in the following site from the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (3). The site covers the main aspects of rattlesnake natural history, including a section on how the rattle forms. The Great Plains Nature Center in Wichita, Kansas, offers a Web page devoted to the beaver, including tail trivia and an audio clip of a resident beaver surprised in his den at the Kansas Wildlife Exhibit (4). Anyone who has witnessed the freakishly fascinating spectacle of a gecko leaving its tail behind to distract a would-be predator will appreciate this brief bio of the Tokay gecko, presented by, the Herpetologist's Portal (5). Stacy's Wag'N'Train -- offering dog-training classes in San Jose, California -- provides this online guide to dog body language, which would have a very limited vocabulary without the tail (6). So, how did the peacock get its tail? It's a simple question that has driven zoologists crazy for over a century. The next Web site (7) contains an in-depth article on the subject from the Independent (London), offered through National Geographic News. And finally, the bizarre gulper eel -- able to tie its tail in several knots -- gets is own Web page on Pangea, the Web server for the Department of Educational Leadership and Technology at Southeastern Louisiana University (8). This deep-sea curiosity uses its bioluminescent tail tip to lure hapless prey into its impossibly gigantic mouth.

Sohmer, Rachel.



Lung surfactant in a cystic fibrosis animal model: increased alveolar phospholipid pool size without altered composition and surface tension function in cftrm1HGU/m1HGU mice  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Progressive pulmonary dysfunction is a characteristic symptom of cystic fibrosis (CF) and is associated with functional impairment and biochemical alterations of surfactant phospholipids in the airways. However, the fundamental question of whether surfactant alterations in the CF lung are secondary to the pulmonary damage or are present before initiation of chronic infection and inflammation has yet to be resolved in patients with cystic fibrosis but can now be addressed in CF mice that exhibit the basic defect in the airways. A study was therefore undertaken to investigate the pool sizes, composition, and function of lung surfactant in the non-infected cftrm1HGU/m1HGU mouse. METHODS: The amount and composition of phospholipid classes and phosphatidylcholine molecular species were determined in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lavaged lungs by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Surfactant protein A (SP- A) levels in BAL fluid were determined by ELISA and surfactant for functional measurements was isolated from BAL fluid by differential ultracentrifugation. Equilibrium and minimal surface tension of surfactant was assessed by the pulsating bubble surfactometer technique. MF1, BALB/c, C57/BL6, and C3H/He mice served as controls. RESULTS: BAL fluid of cftrm1HGU/m1HGU mice contained 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89 to 1.16) mumol phospholipid and 259 (239 to 279) ng SP-A. BAL fluid of MF1, BALB/c, C57BL/6, and C3H/He mice contained 0.69 (0.63 to 0.75), 0.50 (0.42 to 0.57), 0.52 (0.40 to 0.64), and 0.45 (0.27 to 0.63) mumol phospholipid, respectively. After correction for the different body weights of mouse strains, phospholipid levels in BAL fluid of cftrm1HGU/m1HGU mice were increased by 64 (52 to 76)%, 60 (39 to 89)%, 72 (45 to 113)%, and 92 (49 to 163)%, respectively, compared with controls. The amount of SP-A in BAL fluid and the composition of phospholipid as well as phosphatidylcholine molecular species in BAL fluid and lung tissue was unchanged in cftrm1HGU/m1HGU mice compared with controls. The increase in phospholipids in BAL fluid of cftrm1HGU/m1HGU mice resulted from an increased fraction of large aggregates which exhibited normal surface tension function. CONCLUSION: In cftrm1HGU/m1HGU mice surfactant homeostasis is perturbed by an increased phospholipid pool in the alveolar compartment. ???

Bernhard, W.; Wang, J. Y.; Tschernig, T.; Tummler, B.; Hedrich, H. J.; von der Hardt, H.



[Effect of contrical on the activity of dehydrogenases and their isoenzymes in the muscles and organs of animals with developing granulation tissue].  


Studies of the influence of contrycal on condition of the enzyme systems of the muscles, liver, kidneys and heart of rats with developing granulation tissue showed contrycal, a protease inhibitor, to have a stimulating effect on the LDH and MDH activity and on their isozyme spectrum. The effect of the inhibitor was expressed in the changes occurring in the state of the enzyme system, both at the site of damage (granulations and the underlying tissue) and in a number of internal organs -- the liver and kidneys. PMID:953336

Nosova, I M; Za?denberg, M A



Myocardial diseases of animals.  

PubMed Central

In this review we have attempted a comprehensive compilation of the cardiac morphologic changes that occur in spontaneous and experimental myocardial diseases of animals. Our coverage addresses diseases of mammals and birds and includes these diseases found in both domesticated and wild animals. A similar review of the myocardial diseases in this broad range of animal species has not been attempted previously. We have summarized and illustrated the gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural alterations for these myocardial diseases; and, whenever possible, we have reviewed their biochemical pathogenesis. We have arranged the myocardial diseases for presentation and discussion according to an etiologic classification with seven categories. These include a group of idiopathic or primary cardiomyopathies recognized in man (hypertrophic, dilated, and restrictive types) and a large group of secondary cardiomyopathies with known causes, such as inherited tendency; nutritional deficiency; toxicity; physical injury and shock; endocrine disorders, and myocarditides of viral, bacterial, and protozoal causation. Considerable overlap exists between each of the etiologic groups in the spectrum of pathologic alterations seen in the myocardium. These include various degenerative changes, myocyte necrosis, and inflammatory lesions. However, some diseases show rather characteristic myocardial alterations such as vacuolar degeneration in anthracycline cardiotoxicity, myofibrillar lysis in furazolidone cardiotoxicity, calcification in calcinosis of mice, glycogen accumulation in the glycogenoses, lipofuscinosis in cattle, fatty degeneration in erucic acid cardiotoxicity, myofiber disarray in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and lymphocytic inflammation with inclusion bodies in canine parvoviral myocarditis. The myocardial diseases represent the largest group in the spectrum of spontaneous cardiac diseases of animals. Pericardial and endocardial diseases and congential cardiac diseases are seen less frequently; and, in contrast to man, coronary artery disease and myocardial ischemia are rather infrequent in animals. The present review shows clearly that the spectrum of myocardial diseases in animals is enlarging and that many newly recognized diseases are emerging and assuming considerable importance. For example, various heritable cardiomyopathies have recently been described in the KK mouse, cattle, and rats. Increasingly recognized myocardial diseases include cardiomyopathies in cats, dogs, and birds; anthracycline cardiotoxicity; furazolidone cardiotoxicity; ionophore cardiotoxicity; myocardial damage associated with central nervous system injuries; myocardial hypertrophy in Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 45 Figure 46 Figure 47 Figure 48 Figure 61 Figure 62 Figure 63 Figure 64 Figure 79 Figure 75 Figure 76 Figure 77 Figure 78 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 & 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 38 Figure 39 Figure 40 Figure 41 Figure 42 Figure 43 Figure 44 Figure 49 Figure 50 Figure 51 Figure 52 Figure 53 Figure 54 Figure 55 Figure 56 Figure 57 Figure 58 Figure 59 Figure 60 Figure 65 Figure 66 Figure 67 Figure 68 Figure 69 Figure 70 Figure 71 & 72 Figure 73 & 74

Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.



Optical oxygen microrespirometry as a platform for environmental toxicology and animal model studies.  


We present a new methodology for testing physiological responses of small organisms (size 70-500 microm) via changes in their oxygen respiration monitored by quenched-phosphorescence oxygen sensing on a scale of a single organism. The method is demonstrated using three different formats of respirometric assays, Artemia salina and mouse embryos as model animals, and various effectors including compounds that induce and prevent superoxide-mediated and heavy metal ion toxicity. These assays, which employ soluble oxygen probes, standard fluorescent readers, and accessorytools, provide sensitive, noninvasive, real-time monitoring of animal respiration, and rapid assessment of EC50, sublethal effects, and metabolic alterations. Applications include screening for acute toxicity of compound libraries and environmental samples, and the study of animal physiology and metabolism. PMID:16053104

O'Mahony, Fiach C; O'Donovan, Ciara; Hynes, James; Moore, Tom; Davenport, John; Papkovsky, Dmitri B



Altered Genes, Altered Metabolism - Longer Life?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Studying a tiny worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, scientists discovered that a gene which regulates glucose (sugar) metabolism may also enhance longevity. The principle investigator, Dr. David Finkelstein, says, "this finding suggests that altering glucose metabolism could be a key to slowing aging in higher organisms, even perhaps in humans." Working with a variety of taxa from mice to monkeys, scientists interested in the causes of aging have recently made significant advances in scientists' understanding of the aging process. Researchers have long realized that aging and the pathologies associated with it have evolutionary, physiological and genetic causes, although the relative influence of each of these has been debated. By testing hypotheses in diverse fields, and with a variety of species (from short-lived to long-lived), researchers are growing closer to building an understanding of the mechanisms underlying the aging process.

National Institutes of Health (U.S.). National Institute on Aging.



3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme a dehydrogenase deficiency: identification of a new mutation causing hyperinsulinemic hypoketotic hypoglycemia, altered organic acids and acylcarnitines concentrations.  


The human HADH gene encodes the short-chain-L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, the enzyme which catalyzes the third step of the ?-oxidation of the fatty acids in the mitochondrial matrix. Loss-of-function mutations in the HADH gene lead to short-chain-L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, an autosomal recessive genetic defect of unknown prevalence with a wide spectrum of phenotypic variability. As in other metabolic diseases, the diagnostic relevance of the biochemical evaluations, plasma acylcarnitines, and urinary organic acids, are crucially dependent on the clinical conditions of the patient during specimen collection.This paper describes the eighth patient carrying a HADH gene mutation, a new homozygous deletion c.565delG leading to an early stop codon (p.V116Wfs124X), in an infant with hyperinsulininemic hypoglycemia, displaying abnormal patterns of plasma acylcarnitines and urinary organic acids. We conclude that, when the residual catalytic activity of the mutated enzyme is seriously reduced, the biochemical hallmarks of the disease, namely plasma 3-hydroxybutyrylcarnitine and urinary 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, are invariably present. PMID:23430856

Popa, Florina Ion; Perlini, Silvia; Teofoli, Francesca; Degani, Daniela; Funghini, Silvia; La Marca, Giancarlo; Rinaldo, Piero; Vincenzi, Monica; Antoniazzi, Franco; Boner, Attilio; Camilot, Marta



The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter--IV. Generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes in laboratory experiments.  


A series of pyrolysis experiments, utilizing two different immature oil-prone kerogens ("type I": Green River Formation kerogen; "Type II": Monterey Formation kerogen) mixed with common sedimentary minerals (calcite, illite, or Na-montmorillonite), was conducted to study the effects of minerals on the generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes during laboratory-simulated catagenesis of kerogen. The influence of clay minerals on the aliphatic hydrocarbons is critically dependent on the water concentration during laboratory thermal maturation. Under extremely low contents of water (i.e., dry pyrolysis, where only pyrolysate water is present), C12(+) -range n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids are mostly destroyed by montmorillonite but undergo only minor alteration with illite. Both clay minerals significantly reduce alkene formation during dry pyrolysis. Under hydrous conditions (mineral/water = 2:1), the effects of the clay minerals are substantially reduced. In addition, the dry pyrolysis experiments show that illite and montmorillonite preferentially retain large amounts of the polar constituents of bitumen, but not n-alkanes or acyclic isoprenoids. Therefore, bitumen fractionation according to polarity differences occurs in the presence of these clay minerals. By this process, n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids are concentrated in the bitumen fraction that is not strongly adsorbed on the clay matrices. The extent of these concentrations effects is greatly diminished during hydrous pyrolysis. In contrast, calcite has no significant influence on the thermal evolution of the hydrocarbons. In addition, calcite is incapable of retaining bitumen. Therefore, the fractionation of n-alkanes or acyclic isoprenoids relative to the polar constituents of bitumen is insignificant in the presence of calcite. PMID:11542080

Huizinga, B J; Tannenbaum, E; Kaplan, I R



Drug metabolism alterations in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

Drug-metabolizing enzymes play a vital role in the elimination of the majority of therapeutic drugs. The major organ involved in drug metabolism is the liver. Chronic liver diseases have been identified as a potential source of significant interindividual variation in metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the United States, affecting between 60 and 90 million Americans, yet the vast majority of NAFLD patients are undiagnosed. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of pathologies, ranging from steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Numerous animal studies have investigated the effects of NAFLD on hepatic gene expression, observing significant alterations in mRNA, protein, and activity levels. Information on the effects of NAFLD in human patients is limited, though several significant investigations have recently been published. Significant alterations in the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes may affect the clearance of therapeutic drugs, with the potential to result in adverse drug reactions. With the enormous prevalence of NAFLD, it is conceivable that every drug currently on the market is being given to patients with NAFLD. The current review is intended to present the results from both animal models and human patients, summarizing the observed alterations in the expression and activity of the phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes.

Merrell, Matthew D.; Cherrington, Nathan J.



The effects of radionuclides on animal behavior.  


Concomitant with the expansion of the nuclear industry, the concentrations of several pollutants, radioactive or otherwise, including uranium, caesium, cadmium and cobalt, have increased over the last few decades. These elemental pollutants do exist in the environment and are a threat to many organisms. Behavior represents the integration of all the anatomical adaptations and physiological processes that occur within an organism. Compared to other biological endpoints, the effects of pollutants on animal behavior have been the focus of only a few studies. However, behavioral changes appear to be ideal for assessing the effects of pollutants on animal populations, because behavior links physiological functions with ecological processes. The alteration of behavioral responses can have severe implications for survival of individuals and of population of some species. Behavioral disruptions may derive from several underlying mechanisms: disruption of neuro-sensorial activity and of endocrines, or oxidative and metabolic disruptions. In this review, we presented an overview of the current literature in which the effects of radioactive pollutants on behavior in humans, rodents, fish and wildlife species are addressed. When possible, we have also indicated the potential underlying mechanisms of the behavioral alterations and parameters measured. In fried, chronic uranium contamination is associated with behavior alterations and mental disorders in humans, and cognitive deficits in rats. Comparative studies on depleted and enriched uranium effects in rats showed that chemical and radiological activities of this metal induced negative effects on several behavioral parameters and also produced brain oxidative stress. Uranium exposure also modifies feeding behavior of bivalves and reproductive behavior of fish. Studies of the effects of the Chernobyl accident shows that chronic irradiation to 137Cs induces both nervous system diseases and mental disorders in humans leading to increased suicides, as well as modification of preferred nesting sites, reduced hatching success and fecundity in birds that live in the Chernobyl zone. No significant effect from caesium exposure was shown in laboratory experiments with rats, but few studies were conducted. Data on radioactive cadmium are not available in the literature, but the effects of its metallic form have been well studied. Cadmium induces mental retardation and psychomotor alterations in exposed populations and increases anxiety in rats, leading to depression. Cadmium exposure also results in well-documented effects on feeding and burrowing behavior in several invertebrate species (crustaceans, gastropods, annelids, bivalves) and on different kinds of fish behavior (swimming activity, fast-start response, antipredatory behavior). Cobalt induces memory deficits in humans and may be involved in Alzheimer's disease; gamma irradiation by cobalt also decreases fecundity and alters mating behavior in insects. Collectively, data are lacking or are meagre on radionuclide pollutants, and a better knowledge of their actions on the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control animal behavior is needed. PMID:21170702

Gagnaire, Beatrice; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Bouron, Alexandre; Lestaevel, Philippe



Dendritic cell-specific disruption of TGF? receptor II leads to altered regulatory T-cell phenotype and spontaneous multi-organ autoimmunity  

PubMed Central

In vitrodata and transgenic mouse models suggest a role for TGF? signaling in dendritic cells (DC) to prevent autoimmunity primarily through maintenance of DCs in their immature and tolerogenic state characterized by low expression of MHCII and co-stimulatory molecules, and increased expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), among others. To test whether a complete lack of TGF? signaling in DCs predisposes mice to spontaneous autoimmunity, and to verify the mechanisms implicated previously in vitro, we generated conditional knock-out mice with Cre-mediated DC-specific deletion of Tgfbr2 (DC-Tgfbr2 KO). DC-Tgfbr2 KO mice die before 15 weeks of age with multi-organ autoimmune inflammation and spontaneous activation of T and B cells. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in the expression of MHCII, co-stimulatory molecules, or IDO in secondary lymphoid organ DCs, although Tgfbr2-deficient DCs were more pro-inflammatory in vitro and in vivo. DC-Tgfbr2 KO showed attenuated FoxP3 expression in regulatory T cells (Tregs) and abnormal expansion of CD25?FoxP3+ Tregs in vivo. Tgfbr2-deficient DCs secreted elevated levels of IFN? and were not capable of directing antigen-specific Treg conversion unless in the presence of anti-IFN? blocking antibody. Adoptive transfer of iTregs into DC-Tgfbr2 KO mice partially rescued the phenotype. Therefore, in vivo, TGF? signaling in DCs is critical in the control of autoimmunity through both Treg dependent and independent mechanisms, but it does not affect MHCII and co-stimulatory molecule expression.

Ramalingam, Rajalakshmy; Larmonier, Claire B.; Thurston, Robert D.; Midura-Kiela, Monica T.; Zheng, Song Guo; Ghishan, Fayez K.; Kiela, Pawel R.



Bethesda Animal Technical Services

Animal Holding and Technical Support Program - Bethesda Campus Animal Holding and Technical Support This service is designed to provide the highest quality of care and support services for animal research activities conducted at the NCI-Bethesda campus Animal


New Frontiers in Animal Research of Psychiatric Illness  

PubMed Central

Alterations in neurodevelopment are thought to modify risk of numerous psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, autism, ADHD, mood and anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. However, little is known about the cellular and molecular changes that guide these neurodevelopmental changes and how they contribute to mental illness. In this review, we suggest that elucidating this process in humans requires the use of model organisms. Furthermore, we advocate that such translational work should focus on the role that genes and/or environmental factors play in the development of circuits that regulate specific physiological and behavioral outcomes in adulthood. This emphasis on circuit development, as a fundamental unit for understanding behavior, is distinct from current approaches of modeling psychiatric illnesses in animals in two important ways. First, it proposes to replace the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM) diagnostic system with measurable endophenotypes as the basis for modeling human psychopathology in animals. We argue that a major difficulty in establishing valid animal models lies in their reliance on the DSM/International Classification of Diseases conceptual framework, and suggest that the Research Domain Criteria project, recently proposed by the NIMH, provides a more suitable system to model human psychopathology in animals. Second, this proposal emphasizes the developmental origin of many (though clearly not all) psychiatric illnesses, an issue that is often glossed over in current animal models of mental illness. We suggest that animal models are essential to elucidate the mechanisms by which neurodevelopmental changes program complex behavior in adulthood. A better understanding of this issue, in animals, is the key for defining human psychopathology, and the development of earlier and more effective interventions for mental illness.

Kaffman, Arie; Krystal, John H.



Histopathological alterations in immune organs of chickens and ducks after experimental infection with virulent 9a5b newcastle disease virus.  


The chicken and duck are important hosts of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with distinctive responses to infection. NDV infection in ducks is often subclinical and chronic, while in chickens the infection is clinically apparent and transient. These differences may be due to in part to the host response to NDV infection. This study compares the histopathological changes in the spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius following infection with NDV in chickens and ducks. The 9a5b isolate of NDV was inoculated intranasally into specific pathogen-free chickens and Japanese commercial ducks. NDV nucleoprotein (NDV-NP) and interferon (IFN)-? were detected in tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC), apoptosis was detected by haematoxylin and eosin staining, caspase-3 IHC and the TUNEL assay. Labelling of NDV-NP and lymphoid depletion were most marked in chicken tissues. The pattern of apoptosis in the spleen differed between chickens and ducks. In chickens there were numerous apoptotic cells in the peri-ellipsoidal white pulp and the peri-ellipsoidal, peri-arteriolar and peri-venous lymphoid sheaths, while apoptosis in duck spleens was mainly within the germinal centres. Lymphoid depletion was the main feature in the bursal and thymic tissues of chickens, but apoptosis was marked in these organs in ducks. Expression of IFN-? appeared earlier and was more intense in the tissues from ducks compared with those from chickens. The differences in IFN-? and NDV-NP expression may reflect the relative clinical severity of the infection in the two avian species. PMID:23369809

Anis, Z; Morita, T; Azuma, K; Ito, H; Ito, T; Shimada, A



Programs in Animal Agriculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Five topics relating to programs in animal agriculture are addressed: (1) the future of animal agriculture; (2) preparing teachers in animal agriculture; (3) how animal programs help young people; (4) a nontraditional animal agriculture program; and (5) developing competencies in animal agriculture. (LRA)|

Herring, Don R.; And Others




Microsoft Academic Search

We tested four isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi to assess parasite virulence and ability to cause myocar- ditis, cardiac sympathetic denervation, and histopathologic alterations in organs of the digestive system. The suscep- tibility of rats depends on the population of T. cruzi, with the ABC strain and the CL-Brener clone killing all animals, regardless of the parasitemic pattern. All tested T.



Sex and age modify biochemical and skeletal manifestations of chronic hyperparathyroidism by altering target organ responses to Ca2+ and parathyroid hormone in mice.  


We studied mice with or without heterozygous deletion of the Casr in the parathyroid gland (PTG) [(PTG) CaSR(+/-)] to delineate effects of age and sex on manifestations of hyperparathyroidism (HPT). In control mice, aging induced a left-shift in the Ca(2+) /parathyroid hormone (PTH) set point accompanied by increased PTG CaSR expression along with lowered serum Ca(2+) and mildly increased PTH levels, suggesting adaptive responses of PTGs to aging-induced changes in mineral homeostasis. The aging effects on Ca(2+) /PTH set point and CaSR expression were significantly blunted in (PTG) CaSR(+/-) mice, who showed instead progressively elevated PTH levels with age, especially in 12-month-old females. These 12-month-old knockout mice demonstrated resistance to their high PTH levels in that serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-D) levels and RNA expression of renal Cyp27b1 and expression of genes involved in Ca(2+) transport in kidney and intestine were unresponsive to the rising PTH levels. Such changes may promote negative Ca(2+) balance, which further exacerbate the HPT. Skeletal responses to HPT were age-, sex-, and site-dependent. In control mice of either sex, trabecular bone in the distal femur decreased whereas cortical bone in the tibiofibular junction increased with age. In male (PTG) CaSR(+/-) mice, anabolic actions of the elevated PTH levels seemed to protect against trabecular bone loss at ? 3 months of age at the expense of cortical bone loss. In contrast, HPT produced catabolic effects on trabecular bone and anabolic effects on cortical bone in 3-month-old females; but these effects reversed by 12 months, preserving trabecular bone in aging mice. We demonstrate that the CaSR plays a central role in the adaptive responses of parathyroid function to age-induced changes in mineral metabolism and in target organ responses to calciotropic hormones. Restraining the ability of the PTG to upregulate CaSRs by heterozygous gene deletion contributes to biochemical and skeletal manifestations of HPT, especially in aging females. PMID:23239173

Cheng, Zhiqiang; Liang, Nathan; Chen, Tsui-Hua; Li, Alfred; Santa Maria, Christian; You, Michael; Ho, Hanson; Song, Fuqing; Bikle, Daniel; Tu, Chialing; Shoback, Dolores; Chang, Wenhan



Animal care guidelines and future directions.  


Two notions broadly accepted in developed western societies have made animal care guidelines inevitable. These are that domestic animals are sentient and that humans are responsible to ensure the proper care of domestic animals. Despite these common views, people have differing moral understandings of the human-animal relationship, and there are sharp divisions over how these views should be applied to domestic animal care. Animal care guidelines have been developed by different nations at several organizational levels to represent a compromise that is acceptable to most people. These organizational levels include individual poultry companies, national poultry associations, individual customers of the poultry industry, national associations of customer companies, national governments, and international organizations. Animal care guideline development has typically included input from producers and scientists and, depending on the sponsoring organization, animal advocates and government representatives as well. Animal advocacy groups have also sought to influence domestic animal care by campaigning against animal production practices or by offering their preferred guidelines for producers to adopt in the hope that the endorsement of the welfare group would add value to the product. Originally, animal care guidelines were only recommended, with little or no requirement for compliance. In recent years, the need for retail companies to assure certain welfare standards has led to animal welfare auditing of production facilities. Animal care guidelines primarily have sought to establish standards for handling and husbandry in existing production systems. Future guidelines may put increasing emphasis on adoption of alternative management practices or housing systems. International animal care guidelines are being developed on 2 levels (i.e., among national governments to create a common standard for trade in animal products and within international retail companies to create company-wide animal care standards). These initiatives should tend to unify farm animal care standards worldwide but perhaps at a level some nations might consider lower than preferable. PMID:17495102

Webster, A B



Obese visceral adipose tissue grafted in lean mice can alter glucose homeostasis and energy efficiency.  


Fat transplantation experiments have previously shown regulatory properties of lean adipose tissue on glucose homeostasis in the whole animal. In the current study, we addressed whether obese visceral white adipose tissue grafted in lean mice could alter glucose homeostasis. Obese visceral fat (VF) tissue was effective in increasing body weight gain and energy efficiency but not energy intake, when transplanted into the epididymal VF depot in lean recipient mice. These changes were accompanied by impaired glucose and insulin tolerance tests, showing altered glucose homeostasis. None of these effects were observed when transplants were grafted subcutaneously. These effects show that both physiologic state of donor VF (obese vs lean) and graft location (epididymal vs subcutaneous) in the recipient animal are critical to express deleterious effects of VF on glucose homeostasis in the whole organism. PMID:23034260

Barrera, C; Gatica, A; Morgan, C


Alteration of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region associated (Ag-NOR) proteins in apoptosis-induced human salivary gland cells and human oral squamous carcinoma cells.  


The level of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) and AgNOR-associated proteins (Ag-NOR proteins) varies with cell activity, including ribosomal biogenesis occurring in proliferating cells. Proteins associated with some AgNORs are detected by a specific silver staining. To investigate a possible relationship between apoptosis and the AgNORs or Ag-NOR proteins, we examined the changes of AgNORs and Ag-NOR proteins during apoptosis in a human salivary gland cell line, HSG cells, and a human oral squamous carcinoma cell line, SCC-25 cells. Apoptosis was induced by treatment of HSG and SCC-25 cells with okadaic acid. Proteins prepared from HSG and SCC-25 cells treated with varying concentrations of okadaic acid (OA) were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by transferring to transfer membranes and staining for Ag-NOR proteins by modified Western blot analysis. Four major bands (110 kDa, 43 kDa, 39kDa, and 37 kDa) were detected in the proteins obtained from the control cells. The level of the 110-kDa protein decreased in the proteins prepared from OA-induced apoptotic cells; however, the reaction intensity of the other three bands was changed in apoptotic cells. An additional band of an 80-kDa Ag-NOR protein appeared and increased in the apoptotic cells. Cellular fractionation of HSG cells and SCC-25 cells was done with or without apoptotic induction. An 80-kDa Ag-NOR protein was detected in the nuclear fraction prepared from the apoptotic cells, while the 110-kDa protein decreased in the nuclear fraction of these cells. The 110-kDa Ag-NOR protein may be nucleolin (C23) as deduced from its AgNOR staining features, including molecular weight. The 80-kDa protein may be the cleavage product of the 110-kDa protein. In the cell-free apoptotic system, in which intact nuclei of HSG cells were incubated with the cytosol fraction of apoptotic HSG and SCC-25 cells, the 80-kDa Ag-NOR protein was detected in nuclei incubated with the cytosol fraction of apoptotic cells, while the level of the 110-kDa protein decreased. The changes of Ag-NOR proteins in nuclei prepared from SCC-25 cells incubated with cytosol fractions prepared from HSG and SCC-25 cells were identical to those of the HSG cells. The alternation of AgNORs in apoptosis-induced HSG cells was also examined using double staining with Hoechst 33342 and silver nitrate. Hoechst staining revealed typical apoptotic nuclei, which exhibited highly fluorescent condensed chromatin in OA-treated HSG cells. Silver grains representing AgNORs were not detected in the cells undergoing apoptosis. The dual-imposition view confirmed that AgNORs, which are visible as dots in nucleoli in the control cells, disappeared from the apoptotic nuclei of HSG cells. Our results indicate that the 110-kDa nucleolar Ag-NOR protein is associated with apoptosis and is cleaved during apoptosis. PMID:11302237

Morimoto, Y; Kito, S; Ohba, T; Morimoto, H; Okamura, H; Haneji, T



Postmodernism for animal scientists.  


Many scientists regard the term "postmodernism" as controversial. Because postmodern theorists question whether science can be objective, some scientists view postmodernism as anti-scientific. In this paper, we argue that traditional accounts of science developed during the modern era (16th, 17th, and 18th centuries) are still influential in animal science, but are no longer plausible. In particular, the view that science automatically leads to human betterment seems to be disingenuous. A postmodern view that portrays science as a political activity seems more plausible, and offers a means to better understand contentious policy issues that involve science. Although most animal scientists accept the view that theory selection, experimental designs, and technology development require value-laden judgments, most fail to recognize that such values may be politically motivated and embrace prevailing political structures. Postmodernists such as Michel Foucault argue that through the generation of knowledge, scientific disciplines create a discourse that serves to maintain a particular social structure that has political implications. Viewed in this way, it becomes clear how various interest groups can be critical of certain scientific programs. For example, groups that oppose research dealing with cloning, genetically modified organisms, and intensive livestock production may not be as much opposed to science as they are to the political interests served by this science. In other words, such groups view these research agendas as promoting policies that place them at risk. Such a postmodern account of science, may help animal scientists better understand the nature of contentious issues, and provide a basis for reforming the animal science discipline in ways that make it more responsive to the diverse interests of a pluralistic society. PMID:14677854

Schillo, K K; Thompson, P B



Future Directions in Human-Animal Bond Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human-animal contact can influence psychological and physiological parameters important to health and welfare; nevertheless, there has been relatively little research on the variables that influence or mediate those health consequences. In addition, little attention has been paid on how to create or alter the animal interactions for the betterment of people and their animals. The investigation can be guided by

Alan M. Beck; Aaron H. Katcher



Topic in Depth - Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth takes a look at organizations and educational websites concerned with reproduction in humans and other animals. In this folder, you'll find information about fertility, embryology, reproductive biology, and immunology from a variety of societies and institutions.



Animal Interdependency. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. No organism on Earth can exist independently. Students find out more about animal relationships such as predator/prey relationships and…



Animal Interdependency. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. No organism on Earth can exist independently. Students find out more about animal relationships such as predator/prey relationships and…



Learning with animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

I trained as an animator and I now work at the Animation Workshop, which is part of a Danish university where we run graduate courses to train animators. At the Animation Workshop we offer a BA degree, open workshops, a drawing school, and support for schools. This article explains the ways in which we use animation to support literacy among

Hanne Pedersen



Animals in Space.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Animals are indispensable to the space program. Their continued use could have many significant results. Those who are opposed to using animals in space should remember that space animals are treated humanely; they are necessary because results can be obt...

A. White



Animal Research Ethics  


... How can the number of animals used for experimentation – estimated to be 100 million animals internationally each ... for Plain Language in the Debates on Animal Experimentation Joel Marks 1 1-7 of 7 Results. ...


Experimental Animal Models for Studying Lung Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality for both men and women worldwide. The use of animal models of\\u000a lung cancer is necessary to improve our understanding of lung tumor biology and facilitate novel therapies and diagnostics.\\u000a To this end, animal models should mimic both the genetic alterations found in human lung tumors and their histological characteristics.\\u000a Currently,

Jiang Liu; Michael R. Johnston


Early diagenetic alterations of biogenetic organic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant matter from a beech forest, leaves, and soil were extracted and analyzed by GC-MS technique. The amount of the extract varies with the CPI value. Characteristic compounds like phytadienes, plant alcohols, polycyclic aromatics, sterols, and triterpenes are observed in different samples at various concentrations. It seems there is a rapid change in the composition of extracts from recent plant

A. Hollerbach; Lehrstuhl ffir Geologie



Animals in research.  


Britain's Home Office has issued a white paper, Scientific Procedures on Living Animals, which will--when enacted into law--revise the 1876 Cruelty to Animals Act. The proposed legislation addresses issues of licensing of research teams and projects, control of animal suffering, and registration and inspection of animal supply facilities. Also provided for are an advisory Animal Procedures Committee, government funding for research into alternatives to animal experimentation, and the authority to issue guidelines and codes of practice. The white paper, while welcomed by moderate animal welfare groups whose recommendations provided its framework, has been attacked by some animal rights advocates. PMID:11644485



Morphological and histochemical study of the masseter muscle after occlusal alteration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate alterations in the masseter muscle of 30 male guinea-pigs submitted to occlusal alteration. The animals were divided into 2 equal groups, the control group (C) only submitted to surgical stress, and the occlusal altered group (T) submitted to teeth extraction. Each group was subdivided into 3 groups, with 5 animals, for the



Antiviral silencing in animals  

PubMed Central

RNA silencing or RNA interference (RNAi) refers to the small RNA-guided gene silencing mechanism conserved in a wide range of eukaryotic organisms from plants to mammals. As part of this special issue on the biology, mechanisms and applications of RNAi, here we review the recent advances on defining a role of RNAi in the responses of invertebrate and vertebrate animals to virus infection. Approximately 40 miRNAs and 10 RNAi suppressors encoded by diverse mammalian viruses have been identified. Assays used for the identification of viral suppressors and possible biological functions of both viral miRNAs and suppressors are discussed. We propose that herpesviral miRNAs may act as specificity factors to initiate heterochromatin assembly of the latent viral DNA genome in the nucleus.

Li, Hong-Wei; Ding, Shou-Wei



Animal welfare: protestors as laboratory animals.  


In a test lawsuit brought by the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection, the Royal College of Surgeons has been fined for causing unnecessary suffering to a macaque monkey at the College's Buckston Browne Research Establishment. Meanwhile, members of the Middlesex animal rights group are challenging the Colindale Public Health Laboratory by offering themselves for antiviral antibody testing, usually done with rabbits. Animal rights groups remain unconvinced that pending government regulations go far enough in setting guidelines for animal experimentation. PMID:11653619

Clarke, Maxine



Animal Models and Human Neuropsychiatric Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans have long distinguished themselves from other living organisms. Therefore, to make use of animal models for neuropsychiatric\\u000a disorders, it is important to acknowledge what has changed historically. Darwin argued that there was continuity in mind between\\u000a humans and nonhuman species, and animal experimental psychologists and others have debated the existence of consciousness\\u000a and mentality in animals ever since. Those

Gene S. Fisch



Aquatic Plants and Animals as Ecosystem Engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on aquatic plants and animals focus on population dynamics, the structure of communities and the part played by organisms in food webs and other ecosystem processes. As Lawton and Jones point out in \\

R. S. Wotton



Aquatic Animals as Indicators of Environmental Exposures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aquatic animals are useful as indicators of many kinds of pollutants in the aquatic environment. The presence of pollutants in the general environments of air, land and water is reflected in their accumulations in and effects on aquatic organisms because ...

J. A. Couch



Farm animal genomics and informatics: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farm animal genomics is of interest to a wide audi- ence of researchers because of the utility derived from understanding how genomics and proteomics func- tion in various organisms. Applications such as xeno- transplantation, increased livestock productivity, bioengineering new materials, products and even fab- rics are several reasons for thriving farm animal gen- ome activity. Currently mined in rapidly growing

Ahmed Fadiel; Ifeanyi Anidi; Kenneth D. Eichenbaum



Animation on Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article first considers Kota Ezawa’s video installation, The Simpson Verdict within the broader context of the rising interest in animation on the contemporary art landscape. After exploring three trends within this proliferation of artists’ animation – works that animate moments from film history, works that animate ‘reality’, and works that use popular media such as cartoons, television and video

Karen Beckman



Physics for Animation Artists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.



Animals in Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following books relate to the issues surrounding the use of animals for both food and clothing. Farmers may appreciate the increased productivity of factory farming, but the view of animals as production units and the sometimes questionable treatment of animals in some factory farms raises ethical concerns for those interested in animal welfare issues. Genetic engineering, of both plants

Beth Roberts



Antibiotic resistance in animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is currently no systematic surveillance or monitoring of antibiotic resistance in Australian animals. Registration of antibiotics for use in animals is tightly controlled and has been very conservative. Fluoroquinolones have not been registered for use in food producing animals and other products have been removed from the market because of human health concerns. In the late 1970s, the Animal

Mary D Barton; Rachael Pratt; Wendy S Hart


Value of juvenile animal studies.  


The Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute has undertaken a project to address the impact of juvenile animal studies on pediatric drug development. A workshop, sponsored and organized by the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity Technical Committee, was held on May 5-6, 2010, in Washington, DC, to discuss the outcome of a global survey and the value of juvenile animal studies in the development of drugs intended for use in pediatric patients. During this workshop, summary data from the 2009-2010 survey were presented, and breakout sessions were used to discuss specific case studies to try to assess the impact of juvenile animal studies performed to support specific pediatric drug development. The objectives of the Workshop on The Value of Juvenile Animal Studies were to (1) provide a forum for scientists representing industry, academia, and regulatory agencies to discuss the impact of juvenile animal studies on pediatric drug development, (2) evaluate summary data from the survey to understand how the juvenile study data are being used and their impact in labeling and risk assessment, (3) discuss selected case studies from the survey to highlight key findings, and (4) identify the areas of improvement for the designs of juvenile animal studies. The take home message that resonated from the workshop discussions was that well-designed juvenile animal studies have demonstrated value in support of certain pediatric drug development programs. However, it was also clear that a juvenile animal study is not always warranted. PMID:22623020

Leconte, Isabelle; Bailey, Graham; Davis-Bruno, Karen; Hew, Kok Wah; Kim, James; Silva Lima, Beatriz; Liminga, Ulla; Moffit, Jeffrey; De Schaepdrijver, Luc; Schmitt, Georg; Tassinari, Melissa; Thompson, Kary; Hurtt, Mark



[Dangerous marine animals].  


Sea-biological basic knowledge for divers is offered only in special lessons for advanced scuba divers. According to statistics, however, five per cent of the deadly diving accidents are caused by underwater organisms. This number could be reduced to a fraction, by correct behaviour during the dive and after an accident. The most frequent accidents with sea animals during water sports are not by unprovoked shark attacks, which cause six deaths world-wide per year on the average, but turn out with usually well camouflaged sea inhabitants, that do not attack humans, rather by their inadvertence coincidentally get in contact with it. The various defense instruments of the often small, inconspicuous organisms reach from teeth over poison stings, pricks, spines, scalpelles, nettle injections and chemical weapons up to poison arrows. Due to that variety of the maritime life, the most important representatives of its type are explained including severity level of the caused injury or contamination. Both, diagnostic position and therapy possibility are described as follows: 1. Porifera (sponge), 2. Hydrozoa (white weed, yellow flower head), Actinaria (sea anemones), 3. Conidae (cone shells), Tridocna (giant clam), octopoda (octopus), 4. Acanthaster planci (crown of thorns), Echinodea (sea urchins), Holothurioidea (sea cucumber), 5. Selachoidei (shark), Batoidei (Ray), Muraenidae (moray), Plotosidae (barbel eels), Synanciidae (stonefish), Scorpaenidae (scorpionfish), Pterois (lion fish), Sphyraena Spec. (barracuda), Balistidae (triggerfish), Ostracionidae (puffer). PMID:11315406

Antensteiner, G



[Animal model for superficial mycosis].  


Tinea corporis and the tinea pedis model in guinea pig with Trichophyton mentagrophytes are well established models of dermatophytoses. We attempted to provide animal infection models for T. tonsurans, endemic in Japan, and Malassezia restricta, an important pathogenic factor in seborrhoeic dermatitis, by utilizing the tinea corporis model. An inoculum of the organisms was applied to the back skin of male guinea pigs. T. tonsurans infected animals showed follicular inflammation mimicking those seen in humans. Interestingly, anthropophilic T. tonsurans showed a high infection rate in animal skin. Meanwhile, a single application of M. restricta, as well as consecutive applications to the surface of the skin without any pretreatment, succeeded in producing scales mimicking seborrhoeic dermatitis, but application of the pathogens after the tape stripping of the stratum corneum failed to induce infection. These models using guinea pigs were considered to be useful for studying the pathogenesis of, and evaluating therapies for, T. tonsurans infection and seborrhoeic dermatitis. PMID:19430182

Koga, Hiroyasu



Phenotypic plasticity in juvenile jellyfish medusae facilitates effective animal-fluid interaction  

PubMed Central

Locomotion and feeding in marine animals are intimately linked to the flow dynamics created by specialized body parts. This interaction is of particular importance during ontogeny, when changes in behaviour and scale challenge the organism with shifts in fluid regimes and altered functionality. Previous studies have indicated that Scyphozoan jellyfish ontogeny accommodates the changes in fluid dynamics associated with increasing body dimensions and velocities during development. However, in addition to scale and behaviour that—to a certain degree—underlie the control of the animal, flow dynamics are also dependent on external factors such as temperature. Here, we show phenotypic plasticity in juvenile Aurelia aurita medusae, where morphogenesis is adapted to altered fluid regimes imposed by changes in ambient temperature. In particular, differential proportional growth was found to compensate for temperature-dependent changes in viscous effects, enabling the animal to use adhering water boundary layers as ‘paddles’—and thus economize tissue—at low temperatures, while switching to tissue-dominated propulsion at higher temperatures where the boundary layer thickness is insufficient to serve for paddling. This effect was predicted by a model of animal–fluid interaction and confirmed empirically by flow-field visualization and assays of propulsion efficiency.

Nawroth, J. C.; Feitl, K. E.; Colin, S. P.; Costello, J. H.; Dabiri, J. O.



Evaluation of the experimental inoculation of Cryptococcus albidus and Cryptococcus laurentii in normal mice: virulence factors and molecular profile before and after animal passage.  


The genus Cryptococcus includes free-developing species, a few of which are of medical importance. Some, such as C. neoformans and C. gattii, cause infections in man frequently and C. albidus and C. laurentii cause less so. The aims of this study were to evaluate organ colonization after inoculation of C. albidus and C. laurentii isolates in normal BALB/c mice, the virulence factors (growth at 37 degrees C, capsule, melanin, proteinase, and phospholipase production) and the molecular profile (PCR-fingerprinting) of the yeasts before and after infection. The importance of different profiles (virulence and molecular) was considered in relation to the distribution in different organs and to the time intervals of isolation from organs. C. albidus was isolated from animal organs 2 to 10 days after inoculation and C. laurentii from 2 to 120 days. Most isolates of the two species kept the virulence factors showed before inoculation. The high homogeneity of the molecular profile of C. albidus and the high heterogeneity of C. laurentii were kept through the passages in animals. It is concluded that most isolates of both species were recovered from the animal organs after 5 or more days, and phenotypes were not altered by inoculation. No molecular alteration was detected and the virulence factors were not related to the time intervals before isolation from organs. PMID:19363657

Pedroso, Reginaldo dos Santos; Ferreira, Joseane Cristina; Lavrador, Marco Aurélio Sicchiroli; Maffei, Claudia Maria Leite; Candido, Regina Celia



Gastrointestinal morphological alterations in obese rats kept under hypercaloric diets.  


Hypercaloric diets have been successfully used as experimental models of obesity. This work compared morphological characteristics of inferior gastrointestinal organs. The experiment lasted 10 weeks, during which the rats' food consumption, body weight, distance between the mouth and neck, distance between mouth and neck, distance between neck and tail, and abdominal circumference were evaluated weekly. After the sacrifice of the rats, 20 variables referring to inferior gastrointestinal morphology were assessed. The results comprised descriptive statistics of the data, analysis of main components, linear correlation, and t-tests. Significant differences were found between the two groups for the variables of abdominal circumference, retroperitoneal fat, ratio between retroperitoneal fat/animal weight, stomach weight, ratio between animal weight/intestine weight and mesentery/animal weight, length of small intestine, length of large intestine, and lateral line of the cecum. The data allow us to state that a hypercaloric diet can be responsible an increase in fat in the abdominal cavity as well as gastrointestinal morphological alterations, principally in stomach development. PMID:23807857

Nascimento, Raphael Castiglioni; Mabel, Haryanne; Queiroz, Bruna Nunes; Paresque, Roberta



Gastrointestinal morphological alterations in obese rats kept under hypercaloric diets  

PubMed Central

Hypercaloric diets have been successfully used as experimental models of obesity. This work compared morphological characteristics of inferior gastrointestinal organs. The experiment lasted 10 weeks, during which the rats’ food consumption, body weight, distance between the mouth and neck, distance between mouth and neck, distance between neck and tail, and abdominal circumference were evaluated weekly. After the sacrifice of the rats, 20 variables referring to inferior gastrointestinal morphology were assessed. The results comprised descriptive statistics of the data, analysis of main components, linear correlation, and t-tests. Significant differences were found between the two groups for the variables of abdominal circumference, retroperitoneal fat, ratio between retroperitoneal fat/animal weight, stomach weight, ratio between animal weight/intestine weight and mesentery/animal weight, length of small intestine, length of large intestine, and lateral line of the cecum. The data allow us to state that a hypercaloric diet can be responsible an increase in fat in the abdominal cavity as well as gastrointestinal morphological alterations, principally in stomach development.

Nascimento, Raphael Castiglioni; Mabel, Haryanne; Queiroz, Bruna Nunes; Paresque, Roberta



Ultrastructure of endothelial cells under flow alteration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endothelial cells are stable and quiet in normal animals. They arrange regularly and have a smooth lumen surface and thin endothelial wall. According to Thoma's principle (1893) and Kamiya and Togawa's principle (1980) on the relationship of the vascular diameter to flow alteration, blood flow is in equilibrium to the diameter and in a physiological state. That is to say,

Hirotake Masuda; Koichi Kawamura; Hiroshi Nanjo; Eiketsu Sho; Masayo Komatsu; Tatsuo Sugiyama; Akihiro Sugita; Yasushi Asari; Mikio Kobayashi; Toshihito Ebina; Naoto Hoshi; Tej M. Singh; Chengpei Xu; Christopher K. Zarins



Understanding Animal Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The public debate on animal research sometimes gets so heated that the facts can be overlooked. How many animals are used in research every year? Do people know that most of them are mice or rats? Why are animals genetically modified? How is animal research regulated? How are the animals cared for? What actually happens to research animals? How does the use of animals in research and testing compare with other uses of animals by society? This website aims to answer all of these questions as well as provide information on animal research and human health, policy issues, and latest news. This website also includes a learning center. Information is geared towards learners in the U.K.

Understanding Animal Research (Understanding Animal Research)



Trends in animal use and animal alternatives.  


The Third World Congress (1999, Bologna) celebrated the fortieth anniversary of the publication of Russell & Burch's The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. There was the general notion that the Three Rs offer a unifying concept that contributes to a progressive reduction and refinement in animal use without compromising the quality of research, human health or the protection of the environment. The Bologna Three Rs Declaration was accepted unanimously, calling upon all parties involved to incorporate the Three Rs into animal-based research. The question is raised, what progress has been made and, in particular, what are the developments in animal use and in the implementation of validated alternative methods. For the present contribution, we requested colleagues from European countries, Canada and the United States to provide information on the numbers of animals currently used for scientific purposes, on the development and implementation of alternative methods and on future perspectives about the issues. Based on the results of this survey, the conclusion is reached that legislative regulations are widely implemented and have become rather strict during the last decade. An exception here is the legislative regulation for rats, mice and birds in the USA. These species are not (yet) protected by the US Animal Welfare Act. The number of animals used has decreased considerably, and the review of protocols by animal ethics committees has become a significant trend. In all countries, there is growing support for the Three Rs concept. PMID:23577430

De Greeve, Paul; De Leeuw, Wim; van Zutphen, Bert F M



Venomous animals: clinical toxinology.  


Venomous animals occur in numerous phyla and present a great diversity of taxa, toxins, targets, clinical effects and outcomes. Venomous snakes are the most medically significant group globally and may injure >1.25 million humans annually, with up to 100 000 deaths and many more cases with long-term disability. Scorpion sting is the next most important cause of envenoming, but significant morbidity and even deaths occur following envenoming with a wide range of other venomous animals, including spiders, ticks, jellyfish, marine snails, octopuses and fish. Clinical effects vary with species and venom type, including local effects (pain, swelling, sweating, blistering, bleeding, necrosis), general effects (headache, vomiting, abdominal pain, hypertension, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias and arrest, convulsions, collapse, shock) and specific systemic effects (paralytic neurotoxicity, neuroexcitatory neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, interference with coagulation, haemorrhagic activity, renal toxicity, cardiac toxicity). First aid varies with organism and envenoming type, but few effective first aid methods are recommended, while many inappropriate or frankly dangerous methods are in widespread use. For snakebite, immobilisation of the bitten limb, then the whole patient is the universal method, although pressure immobilisation bandaging is recommended for bites by non-necrotic or haemorrhagic species. Hot water immersion is the most universal method for painful marine stings. Medical treatment includes both general and specific measures, with antivenom being the principal tool in the latter category. However, antivenom is available only for a limited range of species, not for all dangerous species, is in short supply in some areas of highest need, and in many cases, is supported by historical precedent rather than modern controlled trials. PMID:20358686

White, Julian



Comparison of an improved competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the World Organization for Animal Health-prescribed serum neutralization assay for detection of antibody to Equine arteritis virus.  


Equine arteritis virus (EAV) causes contagious equine viral arteritis, characterized by fever, anorexia, conjunctivitis, nasal discharge, dependent edema, abortion, infrequent death in foals, and establishment of the carrier state in stallions. The World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) defines a horse as seropositive if the serum neutralization (SN) antibody titer is ?1:4 to EAV. However, determining the SN titer is time-consuming and requires specific laboratory facilities, equipment, and technical expertise to perform. Furthermore, interpretation of the SN titer of some sera can be difficult because of nonspecific cellular cytotoxicity of particular samples. Finally, the problem of interlaboratory variation also exists with SN assays. For these reasons, an alternative serologic test is desirable; however, none of the reported tests have equivalent sensitivity and specificity to the SN to be generally adopted. In an attempt to improve on a previously developed competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) using EAV gp5-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) 4B2, the current study developed a modified protocol substituting the non-neutralizing mAb 17B7 for the neutralizing mAb 4B2; this along with several modifications of the test procedure improved the performance of the test. The relative specificity of the revamped cELISA was 99.8% when evaluated with 2,223 SN-negative sera. The relative sensitivity was 95.5% when evaluated with 246 SN-positive sera. This new cELISA was not affected by the presence of non-EAV-specific cytotoxicity in sera as observed in the SN assay. The results indicate that this new cELISA may be a viable alternative to the SN assay and merit additional validation. PMID:23404482

Chung, Chungwon; Wilson, Carey; Timoney, Peter; Adams, Ethan; Adams, D Scott; Chung, Joseph Sungyeon; Evermann, James F; Shuck, Kathleen; Lee, Stephen Sauchi; McGuire, Travis C



Animals in a Grassland  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor, warm weather activity, learners use sweepnets to search a grassy area such as a large lawn or field, collecting small animals to find as many different kinds of animals as possible. Learners observe and try to identify the animals they catch and observe how different animals interact with each other. Because some animals can't be caught easily with sweepnets, the Branching Out part of the activity involves making very small "pitfall traps" in the ground. At the end of the activity, learners release all the animals back into the grassy area.

Science, Lawrence H.



Organic livestock farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on production guidelines, organic livestock farming has set itself the goal of establishing environmentally friendly production, sustaining animals in good health, realising high animal welfare standards, and producing products of high quality. By striving for these goals, organic livestock farming meets the demands of an increasing number of consumers who are critical of conventional production methods. The paper gives

Albert Sundrum



Alteration of Impact Melts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this project we study the alteration processes of melt rocks, impact melt in particular. Experimental analyses, succeeded by mineralogical and geochemical modeling, explain the formation of alterations products, e.g., smectites, saponite, zeolites.

Dypvik, H.; Hellevang, H.; Kalleson, E.



Laboratory guidelines for animal care.  


Animal research is a controversial subject because of the ethical and moral implications of using unwilling research subjects in potentially painful or distressful procedures usually ending in euthanasia. As such, it must be conducted in a compassionate and responsible manner geared toward maximizing the animals' quality of life prior to and during experimentation. Because of its contentious nature, the conduct of animal research is highly regulated at the federal, state, city, and institutional levels. It is essential that researchers acquire a working knowledge of the procedures and regulations in order to protect themselves and their staff from occupational hazards as well as protect their labs from criticism or attack from animal rights organizations. Perhaps the best way to protect from the latter is to avoid inadvertent instances of noncompliance with their research protocol or applicable regulations. Regulatory noncompliance can also have serious negative consequences on investigators' research ranging from temporary suspension of their protocols to loss of funding or principal investigator status. To minimize such events, it is advised that researchers build positive and collaborative relationships, trust and rapport with key institutional players, such as the veterinary staff, the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), and top administrators. Guidance is provided regarding the appropriate handling of regulatory noncompliances. PMID:21805282

Couto, Marcelo



Phenotyping small animals as models for the human metabolic syndrome: thermoneutrality matters.  


It is standard practice in preclinical biomedical research to house mammalian model organisms at an ambient temperature substantially below the thermoneutral zone. These experimental studies are performed using animals that are chronically challenged by mild cold stress. This condition increases food intake, metabolic rate, sympathetic activity, blood pressure and heart rate. Furthermore, this condition alters the behavioral and physiological responses to drug administration, energy restriction and overfeeding. This paper will review these observations, which must be understood in the context of phenotyping small mammals to enhance our understanding of the biology of human disease. PMID:21151148

Overton, J M



New evidence of animal consciousness.  


This paper reviews evidence that increases the probability that many animals experience at least simple levels of consciousness. First, the search for neural correlates of consciousness has not found any consciousness-producing structure or process that is limited to human brains. Second, appropriate responses to novel challenges for which the animal has not been prepared by genetic programming or previous experience provide suggestive evidence of animal consciousness because such versatility is most effectively organized by conscious thinking. For example, certain types of classical conditioning require awareness of the learned contingency in human subjects, suggesting comparable awareness in similarly conditioned animals. Other significant examples of versatile behavior suggestive of conscious thinking are scrub jays that exhibit all the objective attributes of episodic memory, evidence that monkeys sometimes know what they know, creative tool-making by crows, and recent interpretation of goal-directed behavior of rats as requiring simple nonreflexive consciousness. Third, animal communication often reports subjective experiences. Apes have demonstrated increased ability to use gestures or keyboard symbols to make requests and answer questions; and parrots have refined their ability to use the imitation of human words to ask for things they want and answer moderately complex questions. New data have demonstrated increased flexibility in the gestural communication of swarming honey bees that leads to vitally important group decisions as to which cavity a swarm should select as its new home. Although no single piece of evidence provides absolute proof of consciousness, this accumulation of strongly suggestive evidence increases significantly the likelihood that some animals experience at least simple conscious thoughts and feelings. The next challenge for cognitive ethologists is to investigate for particular animals the content of their awareness and what life is actually like, for them. PMID:14658059

Griffin, Donald R; Speck, Gayle B



Laboratory Animals. Part II. Animals for Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The directory is divided into the following sections: Section I comprises the listings for the common domestic animals (chickens, turkeys, non-inbred mice, inbred mice, hybrid mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs, dogs, cats, cattle, goats, sheep, and swine)...



Animations in spreadsheets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, Ole Haglund mentioned in this journal that it was possible to incorporate animations into spreadsheets. We would like to describe what might be an easier way to incorporate animations into spreadsheets using Excel™ software.

Aubrecht, Gordon J.; Bolland, T. Kenneth; Ziegler, Michael G.



Animal Technical Services- Bethesda

Animal Holding and Technical Support Program - Courier Services Weekly courier service is available for local shipments on Tuesdays and Thursdays; animals are transported in a temperature-controlled vehicle. Contact Holly Wastler,


"Name" that Animal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.|

Laird, Shirley



Methods for Cloning Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention pertains to methods for cloning animals. In particular, the invention includes methods of cloning an animal by combining a genome from an activated donor cell with an activated enucleated oocyte to thereby obtain a nuclear transfer e...

A. Baguisi E. W. Overstrom



Fuel Cell Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts. The animation consists of four parts - an introduction, fuel cell components, chemical process, and fuel cell stack.

Development, Us D.


Tracing water sources of terrestrial animal populations with stable isotopes: laboratory tests with crickets and spiders.  


Fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water between ecosystem components and organisms have great impacts across levels of biological organization. Although much progress has been made in tracing carbon and nitrogen, difficulty remains in tracing water sources from the ecosystem to animals and among animals (the "water web"). Naturally occurring, non-radioactive isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water provide a potential method for tracing water sources. However, using this approach for terrestrial animals is complicated by a change in water isotopes within the body due to differences in activity of heavy and light isotopes during cuticular and transpiratory water losses. Here we present a technique to use stable water isotopes to estimate the mean mix of water sources in a population by sampling a group of sympatric animals over time. Strong correlations between H and O isotopes in the body water of animals collected over time provide linear patterns of enrichment that can be used to predict a mean mix of water sources useful in standard mixing models to determine relative source contribution. Multiple temperature and humidity treatment levels do not greatly alter these relationships, thus having little effect on our ability to estimate this population-level mix of water sources. We show evidence for the validity of using multiple samples of animal body water, collected across time, to estimate the isotopic mix of water sources in a population and more accurately trace water sources. The ability to use isotopes to document patterns of animal water use should be a great asset to biologists globally, especially those studying drylands, droughts, streamside areas, irrigated landscapes, and the effects of climate change. PMID:21209877

McCluney, Kevin E; Sabo, John L



Alteration in neonatal nutrition causes perturbations in hypothalamic neural circuits controlling reproductive function.  


It is increasingly accepted that alterations of the early life environment may have lasting impacts on physiological functions. In particular, epidemiological and animal studies have indicated that changes in growth and nutrition during childhood and adolescence can impair reproductive function. However, the precise biological mechanisms that underlie these programming effects of neonatal nutrition on reproduction are still poorly understood