Sample records for animals altered organisms

  1. Organic Chemistry Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students who might be puzzled by the world of organic chemistry will definitely want to bookmark this useful site created by a team of researchers at the University of Liverpool. The site focuses on providing interactive 3D animations for a number of important organic reactions that will be encountered by students taking organic chemistry. The site's homepage contains a list of recent updates and additions, and visitors will want to also look at the list of reactions covered on the left-hand side of the same page. After clicking on each reaction, visitors can view the animation and also click on the animation to view additional resources. For those who are looking for specific reactions, the site also contains an embedded search engine feature.

  2. Soil animals alter plant litter diversity effects on decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Hättenschwiler, Stephan; Gasser, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    Most of the terrestrial net primary production enters the decomposer system as dead organic matter, and the subsequent recycling of C and nutrients are key processes for the functioning of ecosystems and the delivery of ecosystem goods and services. Although climatic and substrate quality controls are reasonably well understood, the functional role of biodiversity for biogeochemical cycles remains elusive. Here we ask how altering litter species diversity affects species-specific decomposition rates and whether large litter-feeding soil animals control the litter diversity–function relationship in a temperate forest ecosystem. We found that decomposition of a given litter species changed greatly in the presence of litters from other cooccurring species despite unaltered climatic conditions and litter chemistry. Most importantly, soil fauna determined the magnitude and direction of litter diversity effects. Our data show that litter species richness and soil fauna interactively determine rates of decomposition in a temperate forest, suggesting a combination of bottom-up and top-down controls of litter diversity effects on ecosystem C and nutrient cycling. These results provide evidence that, in ecosystems supporting a well developed soil macrofauna community, animal activity plays a fundamental role for altered decomposition in response to changing litter diversity, which in turn has important implications for biogeochemical cycles and the long-term functioning of ecosystems with ongoing biodiversity loss. PMID:15671172

  3. How animals alter their behaviour in order to respond to the demands of a changing external environment remains a central

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    How animals alter their behaviour in order to respond to the demands of a changing external or energy-storing organs. The constellation of changes that occurs to create the new behavioural state, octopamine may be released as a neurohormone to prepare the animal for a period of extended activity

  4. Effect of altered 'weight' upon animal tolerance to restraint.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.; Beljan, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The effect of altered weight upon animal tolerance to restraint was determined by simulating various accelerative forces with directed lead weights using restrained and nonrestrained domestic fowl (chickens). Weighting (increased weight) and conterweighting (reduced weight) produced a stressed condition - reduced relative lymphocyte counts, loss of body mass, and/or the development of a disorientation syndrome - in both restrained and nonrestrained (caged only) birds. The animal's tolerance to altered weight appeared to be a function of its body weight. Unrestrained birds were stressed by counterweighting (mean plus or minus standard error) 58.3 plus or minus 41% of their body weight, whereas restrained birds tolerated only 32.2 plus or minus 2.6% reduction in body weight. A training regimen for restrained birds was not effective in improving their tolerance to a reduced weight environment. It was concluded that domestic fowl living in a weightless (space) environment should be restrained minimally and supported by ventrally directed tension equivalent to approximately 50% of their body mass (their weight in a 1 G environment).

  5. Alienation, recovered animism and altered states of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    Alienation is the feeling that life is 'meaningless', that we do not belong in the world. But alienation is not an inevitable part of the human condition: some people do feel at one with the world as a consequence of the animistic way of thinking which is shared by children and hunter-gatherers. Animism considers all significant entities to have 'minds', to be 'alive', to be sentient agents. The animistic thinker inhabits a world populated by personal powers including not just other human beings, but also important animals and plants, and significant aspects of physical landscape. Humans belong in this world because it is a web of social relationships. Animism is therefore spontaneous, the 'natural' way of thinking for humans: all humans began as animistic children and for most of human evolutionary history would have grown into animistic adults. It requires sustained, prolonged and pervasive formal education to 'overwrite' animistic thinking with the rationalistic objectivity typical of the modern world. It is this learned abstraction that creates alienation--humans are no longer embedded in a world of social relations but become estranged, adrift in a world of indifferent things. Methods used to cure alienation and recover animistic modes of thinking involve detachment from the social systems that tend to maintain objectivity and rationality: for example, solitude, leisure, unstructured time and direct contact with nature. Many people also achieve similar results by deliberately inducing altered states of consciousness. Animistic thinking may emerge in meditation or contemplation, lucid dreaming, from self-hypnosis, when drowsy, in 'trance states' induced by repetitious rhythm or light, or when delirious due to illness, brain injury, psychoses, or intoxication with 'entheogenic' drugs--which is probably one reason for the perennial popularity of inducing intoxicated states. However, intoxication will typically damage memory processes making it harder to learn from any spiritual experiences; and even mild states of cognitive impairment may be dangerous in situations where skilled or responsible behaviour is required. Despite these constraints and limitations, recovering animism through seeking altered states of consciousness could already be considered a major world spiritual practice. PMID:17141965

  6. The Use of Animal Models to Decipher Physiological and Neurobiological Alterations of Anorexia Nervosa Patients

    PubMed Central

    Méquinion, Mathieu; Chauveau, Christophe; Viltart, Odile

    2015-01-01

    Extensive studies were performed to decipher the mechanisms regulating feeding due to the worldwide obesity pandemy and its complications. The data obtained might be adapted to another disorder related to alteration of food intake, the restrictive anorexia nervosa. This multifactorial disease with a complex and unknown etiology is considered as an awful eating disorder since the chronic refusal to eat leads to severe, and sometimes, irreversible complications for the whole organism, until death. There is an urgent need to better understand the different aspects of the disease to develop novel approaches complementary to the usual psychological therapies. For this purpose, the use of pertinent animal models becomes a necessity. We present here the various rodent models described in the literature that might be used to dissect central and peripheral mechanisms involved in the adaptation to deficient energy supplies and/or the maintenance of physiological alterations on the long term. Data obtained from the spontaneous or engineered genetic models permit to better apprehend the implication of one signaling system (hormone, neuropeptide, neurotransmitter) in the development of several symptoms observed in anorexia nervosa. As example, mutations in the ghrelin, serotonin, dopamine pathways lead to alterations that mimic the phenotype, but compensatory mechanisms often occur rendering necessary the use of more selective gene strategies. Until now, environmental animal models based on one or several inducing factors like diet restriction, stress, or physical activity mimicked more extensively central and peripheral alterations decribed in anorexia nervosa. They bring significant data on feeding behavior, energy expenditure, and central circuit alterations. Animal models are described and criticized on the basis of the criteria of validity for anorexia nervosa. PMID:26042085

  7. The use of animal models to decipher physiological and neurobiological alterations of anorexia nervosa patients.

    PubMed

    Méquinion, Mathieu; Chauveau, Christophe; Viltart, Odile

    2015-01-01

    Extensive studies were performed to decipher the mechanisms regulating feeding due to the worldwide obesity pandemy and its complications. The data obtained might be adapted to another disorder related to alteration of food intake, the restrictive anorexia nervosa. This multifactorial disease with a complex and unknown etiology is considered as an awful eating disorder since the chronic refusal to eat leads to severe, and sometimes, irreversible complications for the whole organism, until death. There is an urgent need to better understand the different aspects of the disease to develop novel approaches complementary to the usual psychological therapies. For this purpose, the use of pertinent animal models becomes a necessity. We present here the various rodent models described in the literature that might be used to dissect central and peripheral mechanisms involved in the adaptation to deficient energy supplies and/or the maintenance of physiological alterations on the long term. Data obtained from the spontaneous or engineered genetic models permit to better apprehend the implication of one signaling system (hormone, neuropeptide, neurotransmitter) in the development of several symptoms observed in anorexia nervosa. As example, mutations in the ghrelin, serotonin, dopamine pathways lead to alterations that mimic the phenotype, but compensatory mechanisms often occur rendering necessary the use of more selective gene strategies. Until now, environmental animal models based on one or several inducing factors like diet restriction, stress, or physical activity mimicked more extensively central and peripheral alterations decribed in anorexia nervosa. They bring significant data on feeding behavior, energy expenditure, and central circuit alterations. Animal models are described and criticized on the basis of the criteria of validity for anorexia nervosa. PMID:26042085

  8. A novel animal model linking adiposity to altered circadian rhythms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers have provided evidence for a link between obesity and altered circadian rhythms (e.g., shift work, disrupted sleep), but the mechanism for this association is still unknown. Adipocytes possess an intrinsic circadian clock, and circadian rhythms in adipocytokines and adipose tissue metab...

  9. Altered egos: antibiotic effects on food animal microbiomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The human food chain begins with upwards of 1000 species of bacteria that inhabit the intestinal tracts of poultry and livestock. These intestinal denizens are responsible for the health and safety of a major protein source for humans. The use of antibiotics to treat animal diseases was followed b...

  10. Altered glutathione homeostasis in animals prenatally exposed to lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuangui; Carvey, Paul M.; Ling, Zaodung

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into gravid female rats at embryonic day 10.5 resulted in a birth of offspring with fewer than normal dopamine (DA) neurons along with innate immunity dysfunction and many characteristics seen in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. The LPS-exposed animals were also more susceptible to secondary toxin exposure as indicated by an accelerated DA neuron loss. Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant in the brain. A disturbance in glutathione homeostasis has been proposed for the pathogenesis of PD. In this study, animals prenatally exposed to LPS were studied along with an acute intranigral LPS injection model for the status of glutathione homeostasis, lipid peroxidation, and related enzyme activities. Both prenatal LPS exposure and acute LPS injection produced a significant GSH reduction and increase in oxidized GSH (GSSG) and lipid peroxide (LPO) production. Activity of ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), the rate-limiting enzyme in de novo GSH synthesis, was up-regulated in acute supranigral LPS model but was reduced in the prenatal LPS model. The GCS light subunit protein expression was also down-regulated in prenatal LPS model. GSH redox recycling enzyme activities (glutathione peroxidase, GPx and glutathione reducdase, GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GT) activities were all increased in prenatal LPS model. Prenatal LPS exposure and aging synergized in GSH level and GSH related enzyme activities except for those (GR, GST, and ?-GT) with significant regional variations. Additionally, prenatal LPS exposure produced a reduction of DA neuron count in the substantia nigra (SN). These results suggest that prenatal LPS exposure may cause glutathione homeostasis disturbance in offspring brain and render DA neurons susceptible to the secondary neurotoxin insult. PMID:17291629

  11. Altered basolateral amygdala encoding in an animal model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Alex; Burton, Amanda C; O'Donnell, Patricio; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey; Roesch, Matthew R

    2015-04-22

    It has been proposed that schizophrenia results, in part, from the inappropriate or spurious attribution of salience to cues in the environment. We have recently reported neural correlates of salience in the basolateral amygdala (ABL) of rats during learning in an odor-guided discrimination task. Here we tested whether this dopamine-dependent salience signal is altered in rats with neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions (NVHLs), a rodent model of schizophrenia. We found that ABL signals related to violations in reward prediction were only mildly affected by NVHL; however, neurons in rats with NVHLs showed significantly stronger selectivity during odor sampling, particularly for the more salient large-reward cue. The elevated cue-evoked activity in NVHL rats was correlated with heightened orienting behavior and also with changes in firing to the shifts in reward, suggesting that it reflected abnormal signaling of the large reward-predicting cue's salience. These results are broadly consistent with the proposal that schizophrenics suffer from enhanced signaling of salience. PMID:25904791

  12. Taphonomy of Animal Organic Skeletons Through Time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neal S. Gupta; Derek E. G. Briggs

    \\u000a Investigations of organically preserved invertebrate fossils have focused on abundant taxa such as graptolites and arthropods.\\u000a Analyses have shown that their composition cannot be explained either as a result of decay resistance, or the introduction\\u000a of macromolecular material from surrounding sediment. The fossilization of organic materials is a result of the diagenetic\\u000a transformation of lipids in the organism itself by

  13. The Ethical Contract as a Tool in Organic Animal Husbandry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vonne Lund; Raymond Anthony; Helena Röcklinsberg

    2004-01-01

    This article explores what an ethicfor organic animal husbandry might look like,departing from the assumption that organicfarming is substantially based in ecocentricethics. We argue that farm animals arenecessary functional partners in sustainableagroecosystems. This opens up additional waysto argue for their moral standing. We suggestan ethical contract to be used as acomplementary to the ecocentric framework. Weexpound the content of the

  14. Web-Based Interactive Animation of Organic Reactions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This WWW-based service for the automated animation of organic reactions we believe to be a versatile tool for teaching and learning organic chemistry. It allows the investigation of the influence of substituents of starting materials on the reaction coordinate and the energy of the depicted reaction. Starting from a list of precalculated organic reactions hydrogen atoms can be substituted by a variety of organic substituents and functional groups using the molecule editor. The new set of starting material is submitted to the calculation of intrinsic reaction coordinates that yields automatically an animation of the reaction that can be viewed with the Chime plugin.

  15. Lattice animal model of chromosome organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Balaji V. S.; Arya, Gaurav

    2012-07-01

    Polymer models tied together by constraints of looping and confinement have been used to explain many of the observed organizational characteristics of interphase chromosomes. Here we introduce a simple lattice animal representation of interphase chromosomes that combines the features of looping and confinement constraints into a single framework. We show through Monte Carlo simulations that this model qualitatively captures both the leveling off in the spatial distance between genomic markers observed in fluorescent in situ hybridization experiments and the inverse decay in the looping probability as a function of genomic separation observed in chromosome conformation capture experiments. The model also suggests that the collapsed state of chromosomes and their segregation into territories with distinct looping activities might be a natural consequence of confinement.

  16. Dynamics of behavioral organization and its alteration in major depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Toru; Kiyono, Ken; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Nakahara, Rika; Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2007-07-01

    We describe the nature of human behavioral organization, specifically how resting and active periods are interwoven throughout daily life. Active period durations with physical activity counts successively above a predefined threshold follow a stretched exponential (gamma-type) cumulative distribution with characteristic time, both in healthy individuals and in patients with major depressive disorder. On the contrary, resting period durations below the threshold for both groups obey a scale free power law cumulative distribution over two decades, with significantly lower scaling exponents in the patients. We thus find underlying robust laws governing human behavioral organization, with a parameter altered in depression.

  17. Growth Animation of Human Organs Roman Durikovic Silvester Czanner

    E-print Network

    Durikovic, Roman

    Growth Animation of Human Organs Roman Durikovic Silvester Czanner , Hirofumi Inoue Computer The growth of the organs of human embryo is chang- ing significantly over a short period of time growth: First, uses a simple line segment skele- ton demonstrated on a stomach model and the other method

  18. Animal models of female pelvic organ prolapse: lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Couri, Bruna M; Lenis, Andrew T; Borazjani, Ali; Paraiso, Marie Fidela R; Damaser, Margot S

    2012-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a vaginal protrusion of female pelvic organs. It has high prevalence worldwide and represents a great burden to the economy. The pathophysiology of pelvic organ prolapse is multifactorial and includes genetic predisposition, aberrant connective tissue, obesity, advancing age, vaginal delivery and other risk factors. Owing to the long course prior to patients becoming symptomatic and ethical questions surrounding human studies, animal models are necessary and useful. These models can mimic different human characteristics – histological, anatomical or hormonal, but none present all of the characteristics at the same time. Major animal models include knockout mice, rats, sheep, rabbits and nonhuman primates. In this article we discuss different animal models and their utility for investigating the natural progression of pelvic organ prolapse pathophysiology and novel treatment approaches. PMID:22707980

  19. Detection of alterations in testicular and epididymal function in laboratory animals

    SciTech Connect

    Amann, R.P.

    1986-12-01

    The potential impact of an agent altering male reproductive function is greater for humans than for animals. Consequently, it is essential that sensitive criteria be used to look for effects on a multiplicity of target sites when an agent is evaluated using an animal model. No animal model has reproductive characteristics similar to those of humans, but this does not negate the validity of using animal models. Classic methodologies for reproductive toxicology are limited by the approaches used for subjective evaluation of testicular histology and use of natural mating for fertility tests. After dosing for an interval at least equal to six times the duration of one cycle of the seminiferous epithelium, sperm from ejaculated semen or the cauda epididymidis can be evaluated for normalacy of morphology or function and should be used for artificial insemination of females to critically evaluate fertility. Normal males of animals models ejaculate a great excess of sperm. Artificial insemination of a critical number of sperm, selected to result in slightly less than maximal fertility for control animals, will maximize the probability of detecting a decrease in fertility if the same critical number of sperm is inseminated for treated animals as for control animals. Testicular function should be evaluated by objective, rather than subjective, criteria. Among the more sensitive criteria of testicular function are the minor diameter of essentially round seminiferous tubules, the ratio of leptotene spermatocytes to Sertoli cells, the corrected numbers of germ cells per seminiferous tubule cross section, and the number of homogenization-resistant spermatids per testis.

  20. Prenatal immune activation alters hippocampal place cell firing characteristics in adult animals.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Amy R; Bilkey, David K

    2015-08-01

    Prenatal maternal immune activation (MIA) is a risk factor for several developmental neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Adults with these disorders display alterations in memory function that may result from changes in the structure and function of the hippocampus. In the present study we use an animal model to investigate the effect that a transient prenatal maternal immune activation episode has on the spatially-modulated firing activity of hippocampal neurons in adult animals. MIA was induced in pregnant rat dams with a single injection of the synthetic cytokine inducer polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) on gestational day 15. Control dams were given a saline equivalent. Firing activity and local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded from the CA1 region of the adult male offspring of these dams as they moved freely in an open arena. Most neurons displayed characteristic spatially-modulated 'place cell' firing activity and while there was no between-group difference in mean firing rate between groups, place cells had smaller place fields in MIA-exposed animals when compared to control-group cells. Cells recorded in MIA-group animals also displayed an altered firing-phase synchrony relationship to simultaneously recorded LFPs. When the floor of the arena was rotated, the place fields of MIA-group cells were more likely to shift in the same direction as the floor rotation, suggesting that local cues may have been more salient for these animals. In contrast, place fields in control group cells were more likely to shift firing position to novel spatial locations suggesting an altered response to contextual cues. These findings show that a single MIA intervention is sufficient to change several important characteristics of hippocampal place cell activity in adult offspring. These changes could contribute to the memory dysfunction that is associated with MIA, by altering the encoding of spatial context and by disrupting plasticity mechanisms that are dependent on spike timing synchrony. PMID:25843370

  1. Organic matter alteration at active and relict sedimentary oxidation fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Cowie, G.L.; Calvert, S.E. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)); Hedges, J.I. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)) (and others)

    1996-01-01

    Sedimentary oxidation fronts, generated by downward diffusion of O[sub 2] into previously reducing sediments, provide an opportunity to study the effects of O[sub 2] exposure on organic matter preservation, where other factors are invariant. Oxidation fronts have now been identified in a number of environments, including turbidities found on the Madeira abyssal plain (NE Atlantic) and in sapropels from the Mediterranean. A multifaceted study is being carried out on a series of relict fronts in turbidities of varied origin and composition, recovered from the Madeira abyssal plain on ODP Leg 157. A similar study is being made on an active front in the most recent, S1 sapropel, from the central Mediterranean. In both cases, the relatively organic-rich turbidities and sapropels are intercalated with typical, organic-poor pelagic marts. Analyses include major and minor inorganic elements, stable and N isotopes, palynomorphs, surface areas and a comprehensive suite of biochemicals. Although the extent of alteration varies, striking changes in organic content and composition occur across many of the oxidation fronts, and the oxidized horizons resemble the interclated marls. A common trend is that organic C contents drop from [open quotes]monolayer equivalent[close quotes] sorptive loadings in the unoxidized horizons (typical of continental mar in sediments) to submonolayer loadings, typical of the pelagic marls. Shifts are also observed in redox-sensitive trace metals and in stable C and N isotopic compositions, although the patterns and extent are not uniform. The results clearly indicate that in these pelagic settings, where O[sub 2] exposure is typically long, organic material deposited and then preserved for extended periods under anomalous reducing conditions, can be extensively altered on relatively short-term exposure to O[sub 2] Implications of these findings will be discussed.

  2. Organic matter alteration at active and relict sedimentary oxidation fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Cowie, G.L.; Calvert, S.E. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Hedges, J.I. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Sedimentary oxidation fronts, generated by downward diffusion of O{sub 2} into previously reducing sediments, provide an opportunity to study the effects of O{sub 2} exposure on organic matter preservation, where other factors are invariant. Oxidation fronts have now been identified in a number of environments, including turbidities found on the Madeira abyssal plain (NE Atlantic) and in sapropels from the Mediterranean. A multifaceted study is being carried out on a series of relict fronts in turbidities of varied origin and composition, recovered from the Madeira abyssal plain on ODP Leg 157. A similar study is being made on an active front in the most recent, S1 sapropel, from the central Mediterranean. In both cases, the relatively organic-rich turbidities and sapropels are intercalated with typical, organic-poor pelagic marts. Analyses include major and minor inorganic elements, stable and N isotopes, palynomorphs, surface areas and a comprehensive suite of biochemicals. Although the extent of alteration varies, striking changes in organic content and composition occur across many of the oxidation fronts, and the oxidized horizons resemble the interclated marls. A common trend is that organic C contents drop from {open_quotes}monolayer equivalent{close_quotes} sorptive loadings in the unoxidized horizons (typical of continental mar in sediments) to submonolayer loadings, typical of the pelagic marls. Shifts are also observed in redox-sensitive trace metals and in stable C and N isotopic compositions, although the patterns and extent are not uniform. The results clearly indicate that in these pelagic settings, where O{sub 2} exposure is typically long, organic material deposited and then preserved for extended periods under anomalous reducing conditions, can be extensively altered on relatively short-term exposure to O{sub 2} Implications of these findings will be discussed.

  3. Urotensin II Alters Vascular Reactivity in Animals Subjected to Volume Overload

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Gregory S.; Lust, Robert M.; Katwa, Laxmansa C.; Wingard, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) alters vascular reactivity and an up regulation in Urotensin II (UTII), a potent vasoactive peptide. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between CHF and UTII in altering vascular reactivity in a rat model of volume overload heart failure. Animals were divided into 4 groups: control, UTII infused (UTII), volume overload only (VO) or volume overload+UTII (VO+UTII). Volume overload was established by the formation of an aorto-caval fistula. Following fistula formation animals were administered UTII at a rate of 300 pmol/kg/hr for 4 weeks subcutaneously with mini-osmotic pumps. Thoracic aorta rings, with/without endothelium, were subjected to cumulative dose-responses to phenylephrine, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), acetylcholine (ACH), UTII, and the Rho-kinase inhibitor HA-1077. Aortas from VO animals exhibited increased sensitivity to phenylephrine and UTII with a decreased relaxation response to ACH and HA-1077. Aortas from animals subjected to chronic UTII with volume overload (VO + UTII) retained their sensitivity to phenylephrine and UTII while they improved their relaxation to HA-1077 but not ACH. The constrictive response to UTII was dose-dependent and augmented at concentrations < 0.01 ?M in VO animals. The changes in vascular reactivity paralleled an elevation of both the UTII and ?1a-adrenergic receptor while the Rho and Rho-kinase signalling proteins were diminished. We found that volume overload increased sensitivity to the vasoconstrictor agents that was inversely related to changes in the Rho-kinase expression. The addition of UTII with VO reversed the constrictive vascular response through alterations in the Rho-kinase signalling pathway. PMID:20723572

  4. [Animals (Animalia) in the system of organisms. 1. Typological systems].

    PubMed

    Shatalkin, A I

    2005-01-01

    Since times of Aristotle animals were considered as a group, opposing to plants. The last were distinguished by two characters. Plants as distinct from animals live the attached way of a life and all nutrients receive from a substratum on which live and from the surrounding air. Animals live an active way of life and exist due to digestion. Fungi at such definition belong to plants. Only in second half of XX centuries due to works of Whittaker and of Tachtadjan fungi have received the separate status equally with plants and animals. In this new system of a plant embraced either oxygenic phototrophs, or photosynthetic eukaryotes. The traditional characters distinguishing animals from plants and fungi are in detail analysed. Many of them appeared formal, not reflecting the structure of relationship. Comparing heterotrophs some authors saw in absorptive nutrition the main difference of fungi from animals. However on mechanisms of receipt of substances in a cell fungi, animals and plants do not differ. Phagocytosis and pinocytosis (clathrin-mediated endocytosis), considered as the most characteristic feature of animals, are revealed both in fungi, and in plants. On photosynthetic activity plants form heterogeneous group, differing on primary and secondary plastids. The last besides have the various origin connected to symbiogenesis of the host cell with red or green algae. Heterotrophy cannot be considered as a uniting attribute of fungi and animals. It is essentially different and focused on diverse food sources. Evolution of animals is connected to perfection of structure of a plasmatic membrane and saturation by its molecules allowing a cell, and through it all organism to be guided in an environment and adequally to be up to external irritants. At a cellular level animals use the various mechanisms of cellular activity connected to moving of cells, their combination in aggregates and complexes or, on the contrary, separation in new cellular configurations. The complex of cellular adaptations connected to the analysis of external signals and adequate response to them of cells, underlies the phenomenon of irritability. At a cellular level irritability is mediated through work of the actin apparatus. Lamarck in "Philosophie zoologique" considered irritability as the main distinctive feature of animals. Evolution of plants and fungi went in a direction of development of a secondary metabolism. The secondary metabolism, concerning synthesis of protective substances, is peculiar to all sedentary organisms, including the animals. PMID:16212279

  5. Alterations in cognitive and psychological functioning after organic solvent exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, L.A.; Ryan, C.M.; Hodgson, M.J.; Robin, N. (Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Exposure to organic solvents has been linked repeatedly to alterations in both personality and cognitive functioning. To assess the nature and extent of these changes more thoroughly, 32 workers with a history of exposure to mixtures of organic solvents and 32 age- and education-matched blue-collar workers with no history of exposure were assessed with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Although both groups were comparable on measures of general intelligence, significant differences were found in virtually all other cognitive domains tested (Learning and Memory, Visuospatial, Attention and Mental Flexibility, Psychomotor Speed). In addition, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories of exposed workers indicated clinically significant levels of depression, anxiety, somatic concerns and disturbances in thinking. The reported psychological distress was unrelated to degree of cognitive deficit. Finally, several exposure-related variables were associated with poorer performance on tests of memory and visuospatial ability.

  6. Pak2 restrains endomitosis during megakaryopoiesis and alters cytoskeleton organization.

    PubMed

    Kosoff, Rachelle E; Aslan, Joseph E; Kostyak, John C; Dulaimi, Essel; Chow, Hoi Yee; Prudnikova, Tatiana Y; Radu, Maria; Kunapuli, Satya P; McCarty, Owen J T; Chernoff, Jonathan

    2015-05-01

    Megakaryocyte maturation and polyploidization are critical for platelet production; abnormalities in these processes are associated with myeloproliferative disorders, including thrombocytopenia. Megakaryocyte maturation signals through cascades that involve p21-activated kinase (Pak) function; however, the specific role for Pak kinases in megakaryocyte biology remains elusive. Here, we identify Pak2 as an essential effector of megakaryocyte maturation, polyploidization, and proplatelet formation. Genetic deletion of Pak2 in murine bone marrow is associated with macrothrombocytopenia, altered megakaryocyte ultrastructure, increased bone marrow megakaryocyte precursors, and an elevation of mature CD41(+) megakaryocytes, as well as an increased number of polyploid cells. In Pak2(-/-) mice, platelet clearance rate was increased, as was production of newly synthesized, reticulated platelets. In vitro, Pak2(-/-) megakaryocytes demonstrate increased polyploidization associated with alterations in ?1-tubulin expression and organization, decreased proplatelet extensions, and reduced phosphorylation of the endomitosis regulators LIM domain kinase 1, cofilin, and Aurora A/B/C. Together, these data establish a novel role for Pak2 as an important regulator of megakaryopoiesis, polyploidization, and cytoskeletal dynamics in developing megakaryocytes. PMID:25824689

  7. White Matter Abnormalities and Animal Models Examining a Putative Role of Altered White Matter in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Haiyun; Li, Xin-Min

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder affecting about 1% of the population worldwide. Although the dopamine (DA) hypothesis is still keeping a dominant position in schizophrenia research, new advances have been emerging in recent years, which suggest the implication of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. In this paper, we will briefly review some of recent human studies showing white matter abnormalities in schizophrenic brains and altered oligodendrocyte-(OL-) and myelin-related genes in patients with schizophrenia and will consider abnormal behaviors reported in patients with white matter diseases. Following these, we will selectively introduce some animal models examining a putative role of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. The emphasis will be put on the cuprizone (CPZ) model. CPZ-fed mice show demyelination and OLs loss, display schizophrenia-related behaviors, and have higher DA levels in the prefrontal cortex. These features suggest that the CPZ model is a novel animal model of schizophrenia. PMID:22937274

  8. Altered neuronal excitability underlies impaired hippocampal function in an animal model of psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Grüter, Thomas; Wiescholleck, Valentina; Dubovyk, Valentyna; Aliane, Verena; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Psychosis is accompanied by severe attentional deficits, and impairments in associational-memory processing and sensory information processing that are ascribed to dysfunctions in prefrontal and hippocampal function. Disruptions of glutamatergic signaling may underlie these alterations: Antagonism of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) results in similar molecular, cellular, cognitive and behavioral changes in rodents and/or humans as those that occur in psychosis, raising the question as to whether changes in glutamatergic transmission may be intrinsic to the pathophysiology of the disease. In an animal model of psychosis that comprises treatment with the irreversible NMDAR-antagonist, MK801, we explored the cellular mechanisms that may underlie hippocampal dysfunction in psychosis. MK801-treatment resulted in a profound loss of hippocampal LTP that was evident 4 weeks after treatment. Whereas neuronal expression of the immediate early gene, Arc, was enhanced in the hippocampus by spatial learning in controls, MK801-treated animals failed to show activity-dependent increases in Arc expression. By contrast, a significant increase in basal Arc expression in the absence of learning was evident compared to controls. Paired-pulse (PP) facilitation was increased at the 40 ms interval indicating that NMDAR and/or fast GABAergic-mediated neurotransmission was disrupted. In line with this, MK801-treatment resulted in a significant decrease in GABA(A), and increase in GABA(B)-receptor-expression in PFC, along with a significant increase of GABA(B)- and NMDAR-GluN2B expression in the dentate gyrus. NMDAR-GluN1 or GluN2A subunit expression was unchanged. These data suggest that in psychosis, deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory may be caused by a loss of hippocampal LTP that arises through enhanced hippocampal neuronal excitability, altered GluN2B and GABA receptor expression and an uncoupling of the hippocampus-prefrontal cortex circuitry. PMID:26042007

  9. Chronic Ankle Instability Alters Central Organization of Movement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris J. Hass; Mark D. Bishop; Douglas Doidge; Erik A. Wikstrom

    2010-01-01

    Background: Chronic ankle instability alters spinal level sensorimotor function and is hypothesized to alter supraspinal motor control mechanisms. Gait initiation is a functional task modulated by supraspinal pathways, but the effect of chronic ankle instability, a peripheral musculoskeletal impairment, on gait initiation and thus supraspinal motor control mechanisms remains unknown.Purpose: This study was conducted to determine if supraspinal aspects of

  10. New animal model to study epigenetic mechanisms mediating altered gravity effects upon cell growth and morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, Eleonora N.; Dvorochkin, Natasha; Radugina, Elena A.; Poplinskaya, Valentina; Novikova, Julia; Almeida, Eduardo

    The gravitational field and its variations act as a major environmental factor that can impact morphogenesis developing through epigenetic molecular mechanisms. The mechanisms can be thoroughly investigated by using adequate animal models that reveal changes in the morpho-genesis of a growing organ as a function of gravitational effects. Two cooperative US/Russian experiments on Foton-M2 (2005) and Foton-M3 (2007) were the first to demonstrate differences in the shape of regenerating tails of space-flown and ground control newts. The space-flown and aquarium (simulated microgravity) animals developed lancet-shaped tails whereas 1 g con-trols (kept in space-type habitats) showed hook-like regenerates. These visual observations were supported by computer-aided processing of the images and statistical analysis of the results. Morphological examinations and cell proliferation measurements using BrdU demon-strated dorsal-ventral asymmetry as well as enhanced epithelial growth on the dorsal area of regenerating tails in 1 g newts. These findings were reproduced in laboratory tests on newts kept at 1 g and in large water tanks at cut g. The 1 g animals showed statistically significant deviations of the lancet-like tail shape typically seen in aquarium animals. Such modifications were found as early as regeneration stages III-IV and proved irreversible. The authors believe that the above phenomenon detected in newts used in many space experiments can serve as an adequate model for studying molecular mechanisms underlying gravitational effects upon animal morphogenesis.

  11. Altered nociceptive C fibre input to primary somatosensory cortex in an animal model of hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Tanja; Granmo, Marcus; Schouenborg, Jens

    2011-04-01

    Evaluating potentially analgesic effects of drugs and various treatments is critically dependent on valid animal models of pain. Since primary somatosensory (SI) cortex is likely to play an important role in processing sensory aspects of pain, we here assess whether monitoring SI cortex nociceptive C fibre evoked potentials can provide useful information about central changes related to hyperalgesia in rats. Recordings of tactile and CO(2)-laser C fibre evoked potentials (LCEPs) in forelimb and hind limb SI cortex were made 20-24h after UV-B irradiation of the heel at a dose that produced behavioural signs of hyperalgesia. LCEPs from irradiated skin increased significantly in duration but showed no significant change in magnitude, measured as area under curve (AUC). By contrast, LCEPs in hind limb SI cortex from skin sites nearby the irradiated skin showed no increase in duration or onset latency but increased significantly in magnitude after UV-B irradiation. The LCEPs in forelimb or hind limb SI cortex elicited from forelimb skin did not change in magnitude, but were significantly delayed in hind limb SI cortex. Tramadol, a centrally acting analgesic known to reduce hyperalgesia, induced changes that counteracted the changes produced by UV-B irradiation on transmission to SI cortex from the hind paw, but had no significant effect on time course of LCEPs from forelimb skin. Tactile evoked potentials were not affected by UV-B irradiation or tramadol. We conclude that altered sensory processing related to hyperalgesia is reflected in altered LCEPs in SI cortex. PMID:20947398

  12. Sustaining animal health and food safety in European organic livestock farming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mette Vaarst; Susanne Padel; Malla Hovi; David Younie; Albert Sundrum

    2005-01-01

    In Europe, organic livestock production has experienced a rapid growth in the past decade, which has produced many challenges for the animal food production system. Whilst emphasising the importance of a systems approach to animal health and welfare protection, organic livestock production standards place considerable restrictions on the use of many animal health inputs that are routinely used in conventional

  13. Natural Behavior, Animal Rights, or Making Money – A Study of Swedish Organic Farmers' View of Animal Issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vonne Lund; Sven Hemlin; James White

    2004-01-01

    A questionnaire study was performed among Swedish organic livestock farmers to determine their view of animal welfare and other ethical issues in animal production. The questionnaire was sent to 56.5% of the target group and the response rate was 75.6%. A principal components analysis (exploratory factor analysis) was performed to get a more manageable data set. A matrix of intercorrelations

  14. Fear induced neuronal alterations in a genetic model of depression: An fMRI study on awake animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Huang; Meghan E. Heffernan; Zhixin Li; Nanyin Zhang; David H. Overstreet; Jean A. King

    2011-01-01

    Previous human imaging studies used facial stimuli to explore the potential association between depression and fear. This study aimed at investigating brain alterations in a rodent model of depression when innate fear was induced in the form of the predator odor trimethylthiazoline (TMT). Flinders sensitive line (FSL) rats, a genetic animal model of depression, and their control counterpart Flinders resistant

  15. Role of neuroinflammation in the emotional and cognitive alterations displayed by animal models of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Castanon, Nathalie; Luheshi, Giamal; Layé, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a high prevalence of mood disorders and cognitive dysfunctions in addition to being a significant risk factor for important health complications such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Identifying the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these health issues is a major public health challenge. Based on recent findings, from studies conducted on animal models of obesity, it has been proposed that inflammatory processes may participate in both the peripheral and brain disorders associated with the obesity condition including the development of emotional and cognitive alterations. This is supported by the fact that obesity is characterized by peripheral low-grade inflammation, originating from increased adipose tissue mass and/or dysbiosis (changes in gut microbiota environment), both of which contribute to increased susceptibility to immune-mediated diseases. In this review, we provide converging evidence showing that obesity is associated with exacerbated neuroinflammation leading to dysfunction in vulnerable brain regions associated with mood regulation, learning, and memory such as the hippocampus. These findings give new insights to the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to the development of brain disorders in the context of obesity and provide valuable data for introducing new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of neuropsychiatric complications often reported in obese patients.

  16. Proteomic Identification of Altered Cerebral Proteins in the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Nahm, Francis Sahngun; Park, Zee-Yong; Kim, Yong Chul

    2014-01-01

    Background. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder. Although the exact pathophysiology of CRPS is not fully understood, central and peripheral mechanisms might be involved in the development of this disorder. To reveal the central mechanism of CRPS, we conducted a proteomic analysis of rat cerebrum using the chronic postischemia pain (CPIP) model, a novel experimental model of CRPS. Materials and Methods. After generating the CPIP animal model, we performed a proteomic analysis of the rat cerebrum using a multidimensional protein identification technology, and screened the proteins differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups. Results. A total of 155 proteins were differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups: 125 increased and 30 decreased; expressions of proteins related to cell signaling, synaptic plasticity, regulation of cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal formation were increased in the CPIP group. However, proenkephalin A, cereblon, and neuroserpin were decreased in CPIP group. Conclusion. Altered expression of cerebral proteins in the CPIP model indicates cerebral involvement in the pathogenesis of CRPS. Further study is required to elucidate the roles of these proteins in the development and maintenance of CRPS. PMID:25313364

  17. AN ENVIRONMENTAL ANTIANDROGEN, VINCLOZOLIN, ALTERS THE ORGANIZATION OF PLAY BEHAVIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT During mammalian sexual differentiation, the androgens, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone are critical for the organization of the male phenotype. In rats, play behavior is sexually dimorphic. Administration of exogenous androgens during the perinatal period r...

  18. PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS -ORIGINAL PAPER Invasive plant architecture alters trophic interactions by changing

    E-print Network

    (Centaurea maculosa), has fundamentally altered the architecture of native grassland vegetation. Here, I use Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA 123 Oecologia (2009) 159:549­558 DOI 10.1007/s

  19. Shock Shape Alteration due to Interaction with Organized Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erlebacher, Gordon; Hussaini, M. Y.

    1998-11-01

    The present work focuses on the dynamics of shocks interactioning with organized structures such as a vortex or a temperature spot. Particular emphasis is placed on the shock shape and its velocity. Appropriate scalings of the shock displacement and velocity in terms of the shock Mach number and the amplitude of the vortex or temperature spot are obtained in the high Mach number limit through an analysis of the shock evolution equation. Numerical simulations of the Euler equations downstream of the shock coupled to the shock evolution equation confirm these findings. For a given shock strength, if the upstream disturbance is sufficiently strong, the shock may develop what is called a branch point or a triple point. It appears that the upstream-propagating acoustic waves (in the downstream region) interacting with the shock leads to the formation of branch points in certain situations. We attempt to conduct a systematic study of this configuration within the constraint of the current grid resolutions to arrive at reasonable conclusions as to the formation and propagation properties of these branch points. Finally, some light is shed on the incipient stage in the formation of these branch points.

  20. The Concept of Animal Welfare at the Interface between Producers and Scientists: The Example of Organic Pig Farming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Leeb

    2011-01-01

    In organic farming animal welfare is one important aspect included in the internationally agreed organic principles of health,\\u000a ecology, fairness and care (IFOAM 2006), reflecting expectation of consumers and farmers. The definition of organic animal welfare includes—besides traditional\\u000a terms of animal welfare—‘regeneration’ and ‘naturalness’. Organic animal welfare assessment needs to reflect this and use\\u000a complex parameters, include natural behaviour and

  1. Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA): Student Performance, Student Perceptions, and Instructor Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunersel, Adalet Baris; Fleming, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that computer animations are especially helpful in fields such as chemistry and in this mixed-methods study, we investigate the educational effectiveness of Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA), a 3-D software, in four undergraduate biochemistry classes at different universities. Statistically significant findings indicate that…

  2. Aposymbiotic culture of the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes: role of the symbiotic bacterium Vibrio fischeri in host animal growth, development, and light organ morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Claes, M F; Dunlap, P V

    2000-02-15

    The sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes forms a bioluminescent mutualism with the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri, harboring V. fischeri cells in a complex ventral light organ and using the bacterial light in predator avoidance. To characterize the contribution of V. fischeri to the growth and development of E. scolopes and to define the long-term effects of bacterial colonization on light organ morphogenesis, we developed a mariculture system for the culture of E. scolopes from hatching to adulthood, employing artificial seawater, lighting that mimicked that of the natural environment, and provision of prey sized to match the developmental stage of E. scolopes. Animals colonized by V. fischeri and animals cultured in the absence of V. fischeri (aposymbiotic) grew and survived equally well, developed similarly, and reached sexual maturity at a similar age. Development of the light organ accessory tissues (lens, reflectors, and ink sac) was similar in colonized and aposymbiotic animals with no obvious morphometric or histological differences. Colonization by V. fischeri influenced regression of the ciliated epithelial appendages (CEAs), the long-term growth of the light organ epithelial tubules, and the appearance of the cells composing the ciliated ducts, which exhibit characteristics of secretory tissue. In certain cases, aposymbiotic animals retained the CEAs in a partially regressed state and remained competent to initiate symbiosis with V. fischeri into adulthood. In other cases, the CEAs regressed fully in aposymbiotic animals, and these animals were not colonizable. The results demonstrate that V. fischeri is not required for normal growth and development of the animal or for development of the accessory light organ tissues and that morphogenesis of only those tissues coming in contact with the bacteria (CEAs, ciliated ducts, and light organ epithelium) is altered by bacterial colonization of the light organ. Therefore, V. fischeri apparently makes no major metabolic contribution to E. scolopes beyond light production, and post-embryonic development of the light organ is essentially symbiont independent. J. Exp. Zool. 286:280-296, 2000. PMID:10653967

  3. Experimentally increased snow accumulation alters soil moisture and animal community structure in a polar desert

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Ayres; Johnson N. Nkem; Diana H. Wall; Byron J. Adams; J. E. Barrett; Breana L. Simmons; Ross A. Virginia; Andrew G. Fountain

    2010-01-01

    Snow accumulation can influence soil properties in arctic and alpine tundra, boreal and temperate forests, and temperate grasslands.\\u000a However, snow may be even more influential in arid ecosystems, which by definition are water limited, such as the hyper-arid\\u000a polar desert of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Moreover, snow accumulation may be altered by climate change in the future.\\u000a In order

  4. ROCK inhibition prevents fetal serum-induced alteration in structure and function of organ-cultured mesenteric artery

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Yang Hoon; Zhou, Qian; Liao, James K.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic treatment with fetal bovine serum (FBS) causes contractility reduction, morphological alteration and DNA synthesis in organ-cultured vascular tissues. Here, we tested the hypothesis that chronic inhibition of ROCK has a protective effect on FBS-induced alterations in small arteries. Rabbit mesenteric arterial rings were cultured in FBS-supplemented culture medium with or without Y-27632, a reversible ROCK inhibitor. Chronic Y-27632 treatment prevented FBS-induced gradual arterial constriction, wall thickening, reduced contractility, and increased ROCK-specific MYPT1 Thr853 phosphorylation. Treatment with Y-27632 also prevented decreased eNOS mRNA expression, and reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation. Sudden application of Y-27632 to pre-cultured rings reduced MYPT1 phosphorylation and re-widened the constricted rings. Chronic treatment with Y-27632, however, rather augmented than reduced the FBS-induced RhoA over-expression, also increased ROCK1 and MYPT1 expression and averted the FBS-induced reduction of MLC expression, suggesting a compensation of inhibited RhoA/ROCK activity. Sudden removal of Y-27632 caused a rebound in MYPT1 phosphorylation and vasoconstriction in rabbit mesenteric artery. To test which ROCK isoform has greater involvement in FBS-induced contraction, haploinsufficient Rock1+/? and Rock2+/? mouse mesenteric arterial rings were subjected to organ-culture. FBS-induced contraction and RhoA over-expression in either heterozygous animal was not different from wild-type animals. These results suggest that FBS-induced contraction is mediated by up-regulation of RhoA and subsequent activation of ROCK. In conclusion, chronic ROCK inhibition produces some effects that protect against FBS-stimulated vasoconstriction and remodeling. There are also negative effects that a sudden withdrawal of ROCK inhibitor might cause a stronger vasoconstriction than before it was used. PMID:21643972

  5. Vaccinia infection of the nervous system in animals with normal and altered immune reaction.

    PubMed

    Simon, J; Werner, G T

    1981-01-01

    The outcome of viral infection appears to be the result of a complex interplay of both viral and host factors. The virus-host cell relationship as well as the host's immune response are the major factors determining the type of infection and the expression of the disease. Demyelination disease appears to be rare complication of a systemic viral infection. The mayor factor in its expression is an altered response to the virus favoring the establishment of a noncytocidal abortive infection of the glial cells, which in turn induce a complex of potentially pathogenic immune mechanisms. PMID:6111888

  6. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  7. Main achievements of the World Organisation for Animal Health/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization network on animal influenza.

    PubMed

    Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Hamilton, Keith; Kim, L Mia; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Capua, Ilaria; Edwards, Steve

    2010-03-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) joint network of expertise on animal influenza (OFFLU) includes all ten OIE/FAO reference laboratories and collaborating centers for avian influenza, other diagnostic laboratories, research and academic institutions, and experts in the fields of virology, epidemiology, vaccinology, and molecular biology. OFFLU has made significant progress in improving its infrastructure, in identifying and addressing technical gaps, and in establishing associations among leading veterinary institutions. Interaction with the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Influenza Program is also critical, and mechanisms for permanent interaction are being developed. OFFLU played a key role in the WHO/OIE/FAO Joint Technical Consultation held in Verona (October 7-9, 2008), which provided an opportunity to highlight and share knowledge and identify potential gaps regarding issues at the human-animal interface for avian influenza. OFFLU experts also contributed to the working group for the Unified Nomenclature System for H5N1 influenza viruses based on hemagglutinin gene phylogeny (WHO/OIE/FAO, H5N1 Evolution Working Group, Towards a unified nomenclature system for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in Emerging Infectious Diseases 14:el, 2008). OFFLU technical activities, led by expert scientists from OIE/FAO reference institutions and coordinated by OIE and FAO focal points, have been prioritized to include commercial diagnostic kit evaluation, applied epidemiology, biosafety, vaccination, proficiency testing, development of standardized reference materials for sera and RNA, and issues at the human-animal interface. The progress to date and future plans for these groups will be presented. OFFLU is also involved in two national projects implemented by FAO in Indonesia and Egypt that seek to establish sustainable mechanisms for monitoring virus circulation, including viral characterization, and for streamlining the process to update poultry vaccines for avian influenza. PMID:20521664

  8. Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christopher Griffith

    This collection contains animations of a nuclear chain reaction, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. It also showcases interactive models of the first atomic bombs and simulation of the "Nuclear Winter" effect.

  9. 17?-Estradiol alters the response of subfornical organ neurons that project to supraoptic nucleus to plasma angiotensin II and hypernatremia.

    PubMed

    Ciriello, John; Roder, Stefanie

    2013-08-14

    This study was done in urethane anesthetized, ovariectomized (OVX) female rats that were either implanted or not implanted with silastic capsules containing17?-estradiol (E2) to investigate the effect of systemic changes in E2 on the discharge rate of subfornical organ (SFO) neurons that projected to supraoptic nucleus (SON) and responded to changes in plasma levels of angiotensin II (ANG II) or hypernatremia. Extracellular single unit recordings were made from 146 histologically verified single units in SFO. Intra-carotid infusions of ANG II excited ~57% of these neurons, whereas ~23% were excited by hypertonic NaCl. Basal discharge rate of neurons excited by ANG II or hypertonic NaCl was significantly lower in OVX+E2 rats compared to OVX only animals. The response of SFO neurons antidromically activated by SON stimulation to intra-carotid injections of ANG II or hypertonic NaCl was greater in the OVX only compared to the OVX+E2 rats. Intra-carotid injections of E2 in either group attenuated not only the basal discharge of these neurons, but also their response to ANG II or hypertonic NaCl. In all cases this inhibitory effect of E2 was blocked by an intra-carotid injection of the E2 receptor antagonist ICI-182780, although ICI-182780 did not alter the neuron's response to ANG II or hypertonic NaCl. Additionally, ICI-182780 in the OVX+E2 animals significantly raised the basal discharge of SFO neurons and their response to ANG II or hypertonic NaCl. These data indicate that E2 alters the response of SFO neurons to ANG II or NaCl that project to SON, and suggest that E2 functions in the female to regulate neurohypophyseal function in response to circulating ANG II and plasma hypernatremia. PMID:23830850

  10. Altered ion channels in an animal model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type IA.

    PubMed

    Devaux, Jérôme J; Scherer, Steven S

    2005-02-01

    How demyelination and remyelination affect the function of myelinated axons is a fundamental aspect of demyelinating diseases. We examined this issue in Trembler-J mice, a genetically authentic model of a dominantly inherited demyelinating neuropathy of humans. The K+ channels Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 channels were often improperly located in the paranodal axon membrane, typically associated with improperly formed paranodes, and in unmyelinated segments between internodes. As in wild-type nerves, Trembler-J nodes contained Nav1.6, ankyrin-G, betaIV-spectrin, and KCNQ2, but, unlike wild-type nerves, they also contained Kv3.1b and Nav1.8. In unmyelinated segments bordered by myelin sheaths, these proteins were clustered in heminodes and did not appear to be diffusely localized in the unmyelinated segments themselves. Nodes and heminodes were contacted by Schwann cells processes that did not have the ultrastructural or molecular characteristics of mature microvilli. Despite the presence of Nav1.8, a tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channel, sciatic nerve conduction was at least as sensitive to tetrodotoxin in Trembler-J nerves as in wild-type nerves. Thus, the profound reorganization of axonal ion channels and the aberrant expression of novel ion channels likely contribute to the altered conduction in Trembler-J nerves. PMID:15703401

  11. Alterations in glucose and protein metabolism in animals subjected to simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondon, C. E.; Rodnick, K. J.; Dolkas, C. B.; Azhar, S.; Reaven, G. M.

    1992-09-01

    Reduction of physical activity due to disease or environmental restraints, such as total bed rest or exposure to spaceflight, leads to atrophy of skeletal muscle and is frequently accompanied by alterations in food intake and the concentration of metabolic regulatory hormones such as insulin. Hindlimb suspension of laboratory rats, as a model for microgravity, also shows marked atrophy of gravity dependent muscles along with a reduced gain in body weight. Suspended rats exhibit enhanced sensitivity to insulin-induced glucose uptake when compared with normal control rats and resistance to insulin action when compared with control rats matched similarly for reduced body weight gain. These changes are accompanied by decreased insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activity in soleus but not plantaris muscle, unchanged glucose uptake by perfused hindlimb and decreased sensitivity but not responsiveness to insulin-induced suppression of net proteolysis in hindlimb skeletal muscle. These findings suggest that loss of insulin sensitivity during muscle atrophy is associated with decreased insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activity in atrophied soleus muscle along with decreased sensitivity to the effects of insulin on suppressing net protein breakdown but not on enhancing glucose uptake by perfused hindlimb.

  12. Multivariate data analysis of trace element content in animal organs measured by simultaneous atomic absorption spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Gottelt; G. Henrion; R. Henrion

    1997-01-01

    The simultaneous determination of trace elements in animal organs offers improved possibilities to characterize the geographical\\u000a origin of the animal by analyzing its pollution characteristics. Pb, Cd, Ni (GF-AAS) and Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn (F-AAS) in kidneys\\u000a and livers of cows from different sites have been measured using simultaneous AAS. The correct allocation of cows to specific\\u000a regions shows that

  13. Roles of the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) and International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) in the Global Organization and Support of 3Rs Advances in Laboratory Animal Science.

    PubMed

    Turner, Patricia V; Pekow, Cynthia; Clark, Judy MacArthur; Vergara, Patri; Bayne, Kathryn; White, William J; Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baneux, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Practical implementation of the 3Rs at national and regional levels around the world requires long-term commitment, backing, and coordinated efforts by international associations for laboratory animal medicine and science, including the International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). Together these organizations support the efforts of regional organization and communities of laboratory animal science professionals as well as the development of local associations and professional colleges that promote the training and continuing education of research facility personnel and veterinary specialists. The recent formation of a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Collaborating Center for Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare emphasizes the need for research into initiatives promoting laboratory animal welfare, particularly in emerging economies and regions with nascent associations of laboratory animal science. PMID:25836964

  14. Impaired sustained attention and altered reactivity to errors in an animal model of prenatal cocaine exposure.

    PubMed

    Gendle, Mathew H; Strawderman, Myla S; Mactutus, Charles F; Booze, Rosemarie M; Levitsky, David A; Strupp, Barbara J

    2003-12-30

    Although correlations have been reported between maternal cocaine use and impaired attention in exposed children, interpretation of these findings is complicated by the many risk factors that differentiate cocaine-exposed children from SES-matched controls. For this reason, the present dose-response study (0, 0.5, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg cocaine HCl) was designed to explore the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on visual attention in a rodent model, using an intravenous injection protocol that closely mimics the pharmacokinetic profile and physiological effects of human recreational cocaine use. In adulthood, animals were tested on an attention task in which the duration, location, and onset time of a brief visual cue varied randomly between trials. The 3.0 mg/kg exposed males committed significantly more omission errors than control males during the final 1/3 of each testing session, specifically on trials that followed an error, which implicates impaired sustained attention and increased reactivity to committing an error. During the final 1/3 of each testing session, the 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg exposed females took longer to enter the testing alcove at trial onset, and failed to enter the alcove more frequently than control females. Because these effects were not seen in other tasks of similar duration and reinforcement density, these findings suggest an impairment of sustained attention. This inference is supported by the finding that the increase in omission errors in the final block of trials in each daily session (relative to earlier in the session) was significantly greater for the 1.0 mg/kg females than for controls, a trend also seen for the 0.5 mg/kg group. Unlike the cocaine-exposed males, who remain engaged in the task when attention is waning, the cocaine-exposed females appear to opt for another strategy; namely, refusing to participate when their ability to sustain attention is surpassed. PMID:14741754

  15. Photooxidation of wetland and riverine dissolved organic matter: altered copper complexation and organic composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjorie L. Brooks; Joseph S. Meyer; Diane M. McKnight

    2007-01-01

    In natural waters, the uptake of transition metals such as copper (Cu) by aquatic biota depends on the activity of the free\\u000a cupric ion ({Cu2+}) rather than on total Cu concentration. Thus, an important ecological function of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic\\u000a ecosystems is Cu–DOM complexation, which greatly decreases the {Cu2+}. However, Cu bioavailability is greatly modified by source

  16. Endoderm induction by the organizer-secreted factors chordin and noggin in Xenopus animal caps.

    PubMed Central

    Sasai, Y; Lu, B; Piccolo, S; De Robertis, E M

    1996-01-01

    Spemann's organizer has potent neural inducing and mesoderm dorsalizing activities in the Xenopus gastrula. A third activity, the organizer's ability to induce a secondary gut, has been difficult to analyze experimentally due to the lack of early gene markers. Here we introduce endodermin, a pan-endodermal gene marker, and use it to demonstrate that chordin (Chd), a protein secreted by the organizer region, is able to induce endodermal differentiation in Xenopus. The ability of chd, as well as that of noggin, to induce endoderm in animal cap explants is repressed by the ventralizing factor BMP-4. When FGF signaling is blocked by a dominant-negative FGF receptor in chd-injected animal caps, neural induction is inhibited and most of the explant is induced to become endoderm. The results suggest that proteins secreted by the organizer, acting together with known peptide growth factors, regulate differentiation of the endodermal germ layer. Images PMID:8887546

  17. Phytoestrogens alter the reproductive organ development in the mink (Mustela vison)

    SciTech Connect

    Ryoekkynen, Ari [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland)]. E-mail: ryokkyne@cc.joensuu.fi; Nieminen, Petteri [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Mustonen, Anne-Mari [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Pyykoenen, Teija [Institute of Applied Biotechnology, University of Kuopio, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Asikainen, Juha [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Haenninen, Sari [Institute of Applied Biotechnology, University of Kuopio, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Mononen, Jaakko [Institute of Applied Biotechnology, University of Kuopio, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kukkonen, Jussi V.K. [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland)

    2005-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the reproductive effects of two perorally applied phytoestrogens, genistein (8 mg/kg/day) and {beta}-sitosterol (50 mg/kg/day), on the mink (Mustela vison) at human dietary exposure levels. Parental generations were exposed over 9 months to these phytoestrogens and their offspring were exposed via gestation and lactation. Parents and their offspring were sampled 21 days after the birth of the kits. Sex hormone levels, sperm quality, organ weights, and development of the kits were examined. The exposed females were heavier than the control females at the 1st postnatal day (PND). The control kits were heavier than the exposed kits from the 1st to the 21st PND. Phytoestrogens did not affect the organ weights of the adult minks, but the relative testicular weight of the exposed kits was higher than in the control kits. The relative prostate weight was higher and the relative uterine weight lower in the {beta}-sitosterol-exposed kits than in the control kits. Moreover, the plasma dihydrotestosterone levels were lower in the genistein-exposed male kits compared to the control male kits. This study could not explain the mechanisms behind these alterations. The results indicate that perinatal phytoestrogen exposures cause alterations in the weight of the reproductive organs of the mink kits.

  18. PHOTOCHEMICALLY-INDUCED ALTERATION OF STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE RATIOS (DELTA C-13) IN TERRIGENOUS DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of riverine waters to natural sunlight initiated alterations in stable carbon isotope ratios (delta C-13) of the associated dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Water samples were collected from two compositionally distinct coastal river systems in the southeastern United Sta...

  19. Tracing organic compounds in aerobically altered methane-derived carbonate pipes (Gulf of Cadiz, SW Iberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merinero, Raúl; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Menor-Salván, César; Lunar, Rosario; Martínez-Frías, Jesús

    2012-07-01

    The primary geochemical process at methane seeps is anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), performed by methanotrophic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The molecular fingerprints (biomarkers) of these chemosynthetic microorganisms can be preserved in carbonates formed through AOM. However, thermal maturity and aerobic degradation can change the original preserved compounds, making it difficult to establish the relation between AOM and carbonate precipitation. Here we report a study of amino acid and lipid abundances in carbonate matrices of aerobically altered pipes recovered from the seafloor of the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberian Peninsula). This area is characterized by a complex tectonic regime that supports numerous cold seeps. Studies so far have not determined whether the precipitation of carbonate pipes in the Gulf of Cadiz is a purely chemical process or whether microbial communities are involved. Samples from this site show signs of exposure to oxygenated waters and of aerobic alteration, such as oxidation of authigenic iron sulfides. In addition, the degradation index, calculated from the relative abundance of preserved amino acids, indicates aerobic degradation of organic matter. Although crocetane was the only lipid identified from methanotrophic archaea, the organic compounds detected (n-alkanes, regular isoprenoids and alcohols) are compatible with an origin from AOM coupled with bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) and subsequent aerobic degradation. We establish a relation among AOM, BSR and pipe formation in the Gulf of Cadiz through three types of analysis: (1) stable carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of carbonate minerals; (2) carbonate microfabrics; and (3) mineralogical composition. Our results suggest that carbonate pipes may form through a process similar to the precipitation of vast amounts of carbonate pavements often found at cold seeps. Our approach suggests that some organic compound patterns, in combination with additional evidence of AOM and BSR, may help indicate the source of altered methane-derived carbonates commonly occurring in ancient and modern deposits.

  20. Short Animation Movies as Advance Organizers in Physics Teaching: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koscianski, Andre; Ribeiro, Rafael Joao; da Silva, Sani Carvalho Rutz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Advance organizers are instructional materials that help students use previous knowledge to make links with new information. Short animation movies are a possible format and are well suited for physics, as they can portray dynamic phenomena and represent abstract concepts. Purpose: The study aimed to determine guidelines for the…

  1. Characterizing and mitigating emissions of volatile organic compounds from animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from animal feeding operations negatively impact local and potentially regional air quality though the release of both odorous and ozone precursor molecules. Characterizing emissions of VOCs from AFOs is strongly influenced by both the method and location of ...

  2. What's Inside Bodies? Learning about Skeletons and Other Organ Systems of Vertebrate Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael

    This paper describes a study of young children's understanding of what is on the inside of animals--skeletons and other organ systems. The study uses 2-D drawings based on the idea that a drawing is the representational model and is the outward expression of the mental model. The 617 drawings made by participants in the study were awarded one of…

  3. Microcystin-LR and Cylindrospermopsin Induced Alterations in Chromatin Organization of Plant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Máthé, Csaba; M-Hamvas, Márta; Vasas, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria produce metabolites with diverse bioactivities, structures and pharmacological properties. The effects of microcystins (MCYs), a family of peptide type protein-phosphatase inhibitors and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), an alkaloid type of protein synthesis blocker will be discussed in this review. We are focusing mainly on cyanotoxin-induced changes of chromatin organization and their possible cellular mechanisms. The particularities of plant cells explain the importance of such studies. Preprophase bands (PPBs) are premitotic cytoskeletal structures important in the determination of plant cell division plane. Phragmoplasts are cytoskeletal structures involved in plant cytokinesis. Both cyanotoxins induce the formation of multipolar spindles and disrupted phragmoplasts, leading to abnormal sister chromatid segregation during mitosis. Thus, MCY and CYN are probably inducing alterations of chromosome number. MCY induces programmed cell death: chromatin condensation, nucleus fragmentation, necrosis, alterations of nuclease and protease enzyme activities and patterns. The above effects may be related to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or disfunctioning of microtubule associated proteins. Specific effects: MCY-LR induces histone H3 hyperphosphorylation leading to incomplete chromatid segregation and the formation of micronuclei. CYN induces the formation of split or double PPB directly related to protein synthesis inhibition. Cyanotoxins are powerful tools in the study of plant cell organization. PMID:24084787

  4. Repeated exposure to organic material alters inflammatory and physiological airway responses.

    PubMed

    Sundblad, B-M; von Scheele, I; Palmberg, L; Olsson, M; Larsson, K

    2009-07-01

    Farmers and smokers are repeatedly exposed to airborne organic material. We hypothesised that farmers and smokers show altered airway responses to inhaled organic, pro-inflammatory agents. A total of 11 farmers, 12 smokers and 12 controls underwent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) bronchial challenge and spent 3 h in a pig barn. Lung function, exhaled nitric oxide and bronchial responsiveness were assessed and nasal lavage fluid and induced sputum were also collected. Symptoms and body temperature were recorded before and after exposures. Following exposure to the pig barn, bronchial responsiveness, exhaled nitric oxide, sputum interleukin (IL)-6, nasal lavage cell count and IL-8 were increased to a greater extent in controls compared to farmers. The sputum IL-6 response was also attenuated in farmers after LPS challenge. The response shown by smokers following exposure to the pig barn was similar to that of controls regarding measurements of exhaled nitric oxide, IL-8 in nasal lavage and IL-6 in sputum, but more similar to farmers concerning bronchial responsiveness and the cell numbers present in nasal lavage. Sputum IL-8 showed a greater increase in smokers than in the other groups following LPS challenge. We conclude that individuals who are repeatedly exposed to organic material develop an adaptation to the effects of acute exposure to inhaled organic material. PMID:19213791

  5. Animal Health Challenges and Veterinary Aspects of Organic Livestock Farming Identified Through a 3 Year EU Network Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mette Vaarst; Susanne Padel; David Younie; Malla Hovi; Albert Sundrum; Caroline Rymer

    2008-01-01

    From 2003-2006, an EU network project 'Sustaining Animal Health and Food Safety in Organic Farming' (SAFO), was carried out with 26 partners from 20 EU-countries and 4 related partners from 4 candidate or new member states. The focus was the integration of animal health and welfare issues in organic farming with food safety aspects. Four very consistent conclusions became apparent:

  6. Effect of hyperoxic medium on cells, tissues and organs of experimental animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotovskiy, Y. F.; Shimkevich, L. L.

    1973-01-01

    Data on the general morphology, ultrastructure and histochemistry of various organs of experimental animals during hyperoxia are reviewed. Basically, information is presented on the effect of 100% O2 at normal barometric pressure. Oxygen damages the vascular wall by eosinophilic infiltration of tissues and has a pronounced action on the condition of the ultrastructure and metabolism of cells. Initially there is activation of metabolisms of cells without visible morphological changes. This period (6 hours) is considered on the whole as harmless for the organism. Later (after 12 hours) phenomena of a pathological nature arise. A compensatory increase in the activity of glycolytic enzymes ensures following the appearance of secondary hypoxia in tissues.

  7. Modeling self-organization in pedestrians and animal groups from macroscopic and microscopic viewpoints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emiliano Cristiani; Benedetto Piccoli; Andrea Tosin

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a This paper is concerned with mathematical modeling of intelligent systems, such as human crowds and animal groups. In particular,\\u000a the focus is on the emergence of different self-organized patterns from nonlocality and anisotropy of the interactions among\\u000a individuals. A mathematical technique by time-evolving measures is introduced to deal with both macroscopic and microscopic\\u000a scales within a unified modeling framework. Then

  8. Altered Topological Organization of Cortical Network in Adolescent Girls with Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Defeng; Shi, Lin; Liu, Shangping; Hui, Steve C. N.; Wang, Yongjun; Cheng, Jack C. Y.; Chu, Winnie C. W.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a multifactorial disease affecting approximately 1–4% of teenagers especially girls at the age of 10–16, but its etiopathogenesis remains uncertain. Previous study has revealed that the cortical thickness in AIS patients is different from that in normal controls. Cortical thickness measurements are known to be strongly correlated between regions that are axonally connected. Hence, a hypothesis is proposed to study the possibility to demonstrate abnormal structural network revealed by cortical thickness in AIS patients. The aim of the study is to investigate abnormalities in the organization of the brain cortical network in AIS patients. This study included 42 girls with severe idiopathic scoliosis (14.7±1.3 years old) and 41 age-matched normal controls (NC, 14.6±1.4 years old). The brain cortex was partitioned into 154 cortical regions based on gyral and sulcal structure. The interregional connectivity was measured as the statistical correlations between the regional mean thicknesses across the subjects. We employed the graph theoretic analysis to examine the alteration in interregional correlation, small-world efficiency, hub distribution, and regional nodal characteristics in AIS patients. We demonstrated that the cortical network of AIS patients fully preserved the small-world architecture and organization, and further verified the hemispheric asymmetry of AIS brain. Our results indicated increased central role of temporal and occipital cortex and decreased central role of limbic cortex in AIS patients compared with controls. Furthermore, decreased structural connectivity between hemispheres and increased connectivity in several cortical regions were observed. The findings of the study reveal the pattern of structural network alteration in AIS brain, and would help in understanding the mechanism and etiopathogenesis of AIS. PMID:24376742

  9. Altered topological organization of cortical network in adolescent girls with idiopathic scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Defeng; Shi, Lin; Liu, Shangping; Hui, Steve C N; Wang, Yongjun; Cheng, Jack C Y; Chu, Winnie C W

    2013-01-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a multifactorial disease affecting approximately 1-4% of teenagers especially girls at the age of 10-16, but its etiopathogenesis remains uncertain. Previous study has revealed that the cortical thickness in AIS patients is different from that in normal controls. Cortical thickness measurements are known to be strongly correlated between regions that are axonally connected. Hence, a hypothesis is proposed to study the possibility to demonstrate abnormal structural network revealed by cortical thickness in AIS patients. The aim of the study is to investigate abnormalities in the organization of the brain cortical network in AIS patients. This study included 42 girls with severe idiopathic scoliosis (14.7±1.3 years old) and 41 age-matched normal controls (NC, 14.6±1.4 years old). The brain cortex was partitioned into 154 cortical regions based on gyral and sulcal structure. The interregional connectivity was measured as the statistical correlations between the regional mean thicknesses across the subjects. We employed the graph theoretic analysis to examine the alteration in interregional correlation, small-world efficiency, hub distribution, and regional nodal characteristics in AIS patients. We demonstrated that the cortical network of AIS patients fully preserved the small-world architecture and organization, and further verified the hemispheric asymmetry of AIS brain. Our results indicated increased central role of temporal and occipital cortex and decreased central role of limbic cortex in AIS patients compared with controls. Furthermore, decreased structural connectivity between hemispheres and increased connectivity in several cortical regions were observed. The findings of the study reveal the pattern of structural network alteration in AIS brain, and would help in understanding the mechanism and etiopathogenesis of AIS. PMID:24376742

  10. Recent advances in the analysis of behavioural organization and interpretation as indicators of animal welfare

    PubMed Central

    Asher, Lucy; Collins, Lisa M.; Ortiz-Pelaez, Angel; Drewe, Julian A.; Nicol, Christine J.; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.

    2009-01-01

    While the incorporation of mathematical and engineering methods has greatly advanced in other areas of the life sciences, they have been under-utilized in the field of animal welfare. Exceptions are beginning to emerge and share a common motivation to quantify ‘hidden’ aspects in the structure of the behaviour of an individual, or group of animals. Such analyses have the potential to quantify behavioural markers of pain and stress and quantify abnormal behaviour objectively. This review seeks to explore the scope of such analytical methods as behavioural indicators of welfare. We outline four classes of analyses that can be used to quantify aspects of behavioural organization. The underlying principles, possible applications and limitations are described for: fractal analysis, temporal methods, social network analysis, and agent-based modelling and simulation. We hope to encourage further application of analyses of behavioural organization by highlighting potential applications in the assessment of animal welfare, and increasing awareness of the scope for the development of new mathematical methods in this area. PMID:19740922

  11. Interaction of Actinomyces Organisms with Cationic Polypeptides I. Histochemical Studies of Infected Human and Animal Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, James J.

    1971-01-01

    Histochemical techniques were used to study the nature of acidophilic hyaline clubs arranged radially at the peripheries of Actinomyces colonies in infected lung tissues of two persons. Concentrations of arginine-rich polypeptides were demonstrated in the acidophilic areas and in the cytoplasm of granulocytic leukocytes surrounding the colonies. Exposure of Actinomyces organisms to strongly cationic polypeptides (protamine, histone) in vitro killed the organisms and caused them to develop acidophilic staining. Weakly cationic proteins, ribonuclease, and hemoglobin produced no such effects. No acidophilic component could be detected in fresh broth-grown organisms themselves. Viable and nonviable colonies of the test strain lacking hyaline clubs were injected beneath the skin of guinea pigs. Agrinine-rich cationic polypeptides were evident in the cytoplasm of surrounding leukocytes and permeating the microbial colonies. In light of current evidence pertaining to leukocyte lysosomes and capsule production by Actinomyces and related organisms, the acidophilic hyaline clubs observed in human tissues appear to be a combination of a capsular component of the actinomycete and a cationic polypeptide component of host leukocytes. Organisms deeper in the human tissue colonies retained their normal basophilic reaction, suggesting a protective role for the peripheral hyaline club matrix. The acidophilic club complexes serve to indicate the reaction of cationic polypeptides in response of the human host to infecting Actinomyces organisms. These observations also support a broader concept that antimicrobial polypeptides of leukocyte lysosomes are an important factor in response of both the human and animal host to infecting bacteria. Images PMID:4117293

  12. Ethanol alters gene expression and cell organization during optic vesicle evagination

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Ledo, A.; Cavodeassi, F.; Carreño, H.; Aijón, J.; Arévalo, R.

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol has been described as a teratogen in vertebrate development. During early stages of brain formation, ethanol affects the evagination of the optic vesicles, resulting in synophthalmia or cyclopia, phenotypes where the optic vesicles partially or totally fuse. The mechanisms by which ethanol affects the morphogenesis of the optic vesicles are however largely unknown. In this study we make use of in situ hybridization, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry to show that ethanol has profound effects on cell organization and gene expression during the evagination of the optic vesicles. Exposure to ethanol during early eye development alters the expression patterns of some genes known to be important for eye morphogenesis, such as rx3/1 and six3a. Furthermore, exposure to ethanol interferes with the acquisition of neuroepithelial features by the eye field cells, which is clear at ultrastructual level. Indeed, ethanol disrupts the acquisition of fusiform cellular shapes within the eye field. In addition, tight junctions do not form and retinal progenitors do not properly polarize, as suggested by the mis-localization and down-regulation of zo1. We also show that the ethanol-induced cyclopic phenotype is significantly different to that observed in cyclopic mutants, suggesting a complex effect of ethanol on a variety of targets. Our results show that ethanol not only disrupts the expression pattern of genes involved in retinal morphogenesis, such as rx3 and rx1, but also disrupts the changes in cell polarity that normally occur during eye field splitting. Thus, ethylic teratology seems to be related not only to modifications in gene expression and cell death but also to alterations in cell morphology. PMID:23892006

  13. Expression of a Dominant Negative CELF Protein In Vivo Leads to Altered Muscle Organization, Fiber Size, and

    E-print Network

    in slow twitch muscle fibers. Weight gain and mean body weight, total number of muscle fibers, and overallExpression of a Dominant Negative CELF Protein In Vivo Leads to Altered Muscle Organization, Fiber) proteins regulate tissue- and developmental stage-specific alternative splicing in striated muscle. We

  14. Plant roots alter microbial potential for mediation of soil organic carbon decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, M.; Shi, S.; Herman, D.; He, Z.; Zhou, J.

    2014-12-01

    Plant root regulation of soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition is a key controller of terrestrial C-cycling. Although many studies have tested possible mechanisms underlying plant "priming" of decomposition, few have investigated the microbial mediators of decomposition, which can be greatly influenced by plant activities. Here we examined effects of Avena fatua roots on decomposition of 13C-labeled root litter in a California grassland soil over two simulated growing-seasons. The presence of plant roots consistently suppressed rates of litter decomposition. Reduction of inorganic nitrogen (N) concentration in soil reduced but did not completely relieve this suppressive effect. The presence of plants significantly altered the abundance, composition and functional potential of microbial communities. Significantly higher signal intensities of genes capable of degrading low molecular weight organic compounds (e.g., glucose, formate and malate) were observed in microbial communities from planted soils, while microorganisms in unplanted soils had higher relative abundances of genes involved in degradation of some macromolecules (e.g., hemicellulose and lignin). Additionally, compared to unplanted soils, microbial communities from planted soils had higher signal intensities of proV and proW, suggesting microbial osmotic stress in planted soils. Possible mechanisms for the observed inhibition of decomposition are 1) microbes preferentially using simple substrates from root exudates and 2) soil drying by plant evapotranspiration impairing microbial activity. We propose a simple data-based model suggesting that the impacts of roots, the soil environment, and microbial community composition on decomposition processes result from impacts of these factors on the soil microbial functional gene potential.

  15. Altered Topological Organization of White Matter Structural Networks in Patients with Neuromyelitis Optica

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaou; Duan, Yunyun; He, Yong; Wang, Jun; Xia, Mingrui; Yu, Chunshui; Dong, Huiqing; Ye, Jing; Butzkueven, Helmut; Li, Kuncheng; Shu, Ni

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the topological alterations of the whole-brain white-matter (WM) structural networks in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Methods The present study involved 26 NMO patients and 26 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. WM structural connectivity in each participant was imaged with diffusion-weighted MRI and represented in terms of a connectivity matrix using deterministic tractography method. Graph theory-based analyses were then performed for the characterization of brain network properties. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed on each network metric between the NMO and control groups. Results The NMO patients exhibited abnormal small-world network properties, as indicated by increased normalized characteristic path length, increased normalized clustering and increased small-worldness. Furthermore, largely similar hub distributions of the WM structural networks were observed between NMO patients and healthy controls. However, regional efficiency in several brain areas of NMO patients was significantly reduced, which were mainly distributed in the default-mode, sensorimotor and visual systems. Furthermore, we have observed increased regional efficiency in a few brain regions such as the orbital parts of the superior and middle frontal and fusiform gyri. Conclusion Although the NMO patients in this study had no discernible white matter T2 lesions in the brain, we hypothesize that the disrupted topological organization of WM networks provides additional evidence for subtle, widespread cerebral WM pathology in NMO. PMID:23144994

  16. Thyrocyte-specific Dicer1 deficiency alters thyroid follicular organization and prevents goiter development.

    PubMed

    Undeutsch, H; Löf, C; Pakarinen, P; Poutanen, M; Kero, J

    2015-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of posttranscriptional gene expression and involved in embryonic development, regulation of cell differentiation, and growth. Dicer1 is a key enzyme in the maturation process of functional miRNAs. However, miRNA-mediated regulation of normal thyroid function and growth is largely unknown. To understand the role of miRNAs in the thyroid, we generated constitutive and tamoxifen-inducible, thyrocyte-specific Dicer1 knockout mice. The mice with perinatal Dicer1 deletion (cTgDcrKO) showed impaired follicular organization, increased fibrosis, and accumulation of adipocytes in the thyroid. Similar histological changes were observed in tamoxifen-induced adult Dicer1-deficient mice (iTgDcrKO). The thyroid phenotype in both knockout (KO) lines was associated with significantly down-regulated mRNA expression of thyroid transcription factor 1 (Ttf-1/Nkx2-1), thyroid peroxidase, and thyroglobulin (Tg) and up-regulated expression of genes involved in Tgf-? signaling. Furthermore, in cTgDcrKO mice, which developed mild hypothyroidism, the protein expression of Nkx2-1, thyroglobulin, Paired box 8, and TSH receptor were clearly down-regulated compared with controls. Despite similar down-regulation of Dicer1 in cTgDcrKO and iTgDcrKO compared with controls, Dicer1 deletion in adult mice thyrocytes did not lead to acute hypothyroidism. No significant differences in thyroid weights between cTgDcrKO, iTgDcrKO, and controls were observed. However, a goitrogenic diet induced a 4-fold increase in thyroid weight in control animals, whereas it had no effect on iTgDcrKO thyroids. In summary, Dicer1 deficiency in thyrocytes is associated with intrathyroid fibrosis, adipogenesis, and enhanced expression of Tgf-? signaling genes. Furthermore, our data indicate that Dicer1 is required for thyroid follicular organization, thyrocyte differentiation, and goiter development. PMID:25594698

  17. Altered Prefrontal Cortical Metabolic Response to Mesocortical Activation in Adult Animals with a Neonatal Ventral Hippocampal Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Kuei Y.; Amin, Fatema; Lewis, Barbara L.; O’Donnell, Patricio

    2008-01-01

    Background Adult animals with a neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (NVHL) exhibit deficits in working memory and sensorimotor gating similar to those observed in schizophrenia. As cognitive deficits in this disorder are typically associated with changes in cortical metabolic levels, we investigated here whether an NVHL affects metabolic responses to ventral tegmental area (VTA) activation, a procedure that elicits abnormal cell firing in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of NVHL animals. Methods Prefrontal cortex metabolic activity was determined by measuring cytochrome oxidase I (CO-I) staining. Cytochrome oxidase I levels were quantified by densitometry in pre- and postpubertal sham-operated and lesioned rats that received one or three series of fifteen 20-Hz trains of VTA stimuli every 20 seconds. Results Ventral tegmental area stimulation yielded higher levels of PFC CO-I in NVHL animals when compared with the sham-operated group, an effect that appeared only after puberty. Increasing the series of burst stimulations further elevated CO-I in sham-operated, but not in NVHL animals. Conclusions Increased PFC CO-I activity after VTA burst stimulation in NVHL rats highlights the enhanced energy demand that could be linked to the exaggerated response to stress observed in these animals. The inability to further increase the response with higher mesocortical activity, as observed in sham-operated animals, could be expression of a reduced PFC functional capacity in lesioned animals. Thus, a hyperexcitable PFC with a reduced ability to further increase activity could be a plausible pathophysiological scenario for schizophrenia. Human functional studies could be interpreted in the light of this conceptual framework. PMID:16780812

  18. Pollution going multimodal: the complex impact of the human-altered sensory environment on animal perception and performance.

    PubMed

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic sensory pollution is affecting ecosystems worldwide. Human actions generate acoustic noise, emanate artificial light and emit chemical substances. All of these pollutants are known to affect animals. Most studies on anthropogenic pollution address the impact of pollutants in unimodal sensory domains. High levels of anthropogenic noise, for example, have been shown to interfere with acoustic signals and cues. However, animals rely on multiple senses, and pollutants often co-occur. Thus, a full ecological assessment of the impact of anthropogenic activities requires a multimodal approach. We describe how sensory pollutants can co-occur and how covariance among pollutants may differ from natural situations. We review how animals combine information that arrives at their sensory systems through different modalities and outline how sensory conditions can interfere with multimodal perception. Finally, we describe how sensory pollutants can affect the perception, behaviour and endocrinology of animals within and across sensory modalities. We conclude that sensory pollution can affect animals in complex ways due to interactions among sensory stimuli, neural processing and behavioural and endocrinal feedback. We call for more empirical data on covariance among sensory conditions, for instance, data on correlated levels in noise and light pollution. Furthermore, we encourage researchers to test animal responses to a full-factorial set of sensory pollutants in the presence or the absence of ecologically important signals and cues. We realize that such approach is often time and energy consuming, but we think this is the only way to fully understand the multimodal impact of sensory pollution on animal performance and perception. PMID:25904319

  19. Effects of Lead in Drinking Water on Biochemical Alterations in Multi-Organs of Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daozong Xia; Jiaqi Guan; Yeping Ruan; Xinfen Yu

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of lead in drinking water on biochemical alterations in brain, liver and kidney of mice. The biochemical alterations and antioxidant enzymes in different treated mice were determined by commercial kits. The metal concentrations were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that lead acetate with different concentrations of 100,

  20. The Purified and Recombinant Legionella pneumophila Chaperonin Alters Mitochondrial Trafficking and Microfilament Organization?

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Audrey; Lima, Celia A.; Allan, David S.; Nasrallah, Gheyath K.; Garduño, Rafael A.

    2009-01-01

    A portion of the total cellular pool of the Legionella pneumophila chaperonin, HtpB, is found on the bacterial cell surface, where it can mediate invasion of nonphagocytic cells. HtpB continues to be abundantly produced and released by internalized L. pneumophila and may thus have postinvasion functions. We used here two functional models (protein-coated beads and expression of recombinant proteins in CHO cells) to investigate the competence of HtpB in mimicking early intracellular trafficking events of L. pneumophila, including the recruitment of mitochondria, cytoskeletal alterations, the inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion, and association with the endoplasmic reticulum. Microscopy and flow cytometry studies indicated that HtpB-coated beads recruited mitochondria in CHO cells and U937-derived macrophages and induced transient changes in the organization of actin microfilaments in CHO cells. Ectopic expression of HtpB in the cytoplasm of transfected CHO cells also led to modifications in actin microfilaments similar to those produced by HtpB-coated beads but did not change the distribution of mitochondria. Association of phagosomes containing HtpB-coated beads with the endoplasmic reticulum was not consistently detected by either fluorescence or electron microscopy studies, and only a modest delay in the fusion of TrOv-labeled lysosomes with phagosomes containing HtpB-coated beads was observed. HtpB is the first Legionella protein and the first chaperonin shown to, by means of our functional models, induce mitochondrial recruitment and microfilament rearrangements, two postinternalization events that typify the early trafficking of virulent L. pneumophila. PMID:19687203

  1. The purified and recombinant Legionella pneumophila chaperonin alters mitochondrial trafficking and microfilament organization.

    PubMed

    Chong, Audrey; Lima, Celia A; Allan, David S; Nasrallah, Gheyath K; Garduño, Rafael A

    2009-11-01

    A portion of the total cellular pool of the Legionella pneumophila chaperonin, HtpB, is found on the bacterial cell surface, where it can mediate invasion of nonphagocytic cells. HtpB continues to be abundantly produced and released by internalized L. pneumophila and may thus have postinvasion functions. We used here two functional models (protein-coated beads and expression of recombinant proteins in CHO cells) to investigate the competence of HtpB in mimicking early intracellular trafficking events of L. pneumophila, including the recruitment of mitochondria, cytoskeletal alterations, the inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion, and association with the endoplasmic reticulum. Microscopy and flow cytometry studies indicated that HtpB-coated beads recruited mitochondria in CHO cells and U937-derived macrophages and induced transient changes in the organization of actin microfilaments in CHO cells. Ectopic expression of HtpB in the cytoplasm of transfected CHO cells also led to modifications in actin microfilaments similar to those produced by HtpB-coated beads but did not change the distribution of mitochondria. Association of phagosomes containing HtpB-coated beads with the endoplasmic reticulum was not consistently detected by either fluorescence or electron microscopy studies, and only a modest delay in the fusion of TrOv-labeled lysosomes with phagosomes containing HtpB-coated beads was observed. HtpB is the first Legionella protein and the first chaperonin shown to, by means of our functional models, induce mitochondrial recruitment and microfilament rearrangements, two postinternalization events that typify the early trafficking of virulent L. pneumophila. PMID:19687203

  2. Shear Stress-Induced Alteration of Epithelial Organization in Human Renal Tubular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Belloy, Marcy; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien; Casemayou, Audrey; Ducasse, Laure; Grès, Sandra; Bellière, Julie; Caubet, Cécile; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Schanstra, Joost P.; Buffin-Meyer, Bénédicte

    2015-01-01

    Tubular epithelial cells in the kidney are continuously exposed to urinary fluid shear stress (FSS) generated by urine movement and recent in vitro studies suggest that changes of FSS could contribute to kidney injury. However it is unclear whether FSS alters the epithelial characteristics of the renal tubule. Here, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo the influence of FSS on epithelial characteristics of renal proximal tubular cells taking the organization of junctional complexes and the presence of the primary cilium as markers of epithelial phenotype. Human tubular cells (HK-2) were subjected to FSS (0.5 Pa) for 48h. Control cells were maintained under static conditions. Markers of tight junctions (Claudin-2, ZO-1), Par polarity complex (Pard6), adherens junctions (E-Cadherin, ?-Catenin) and the primary cilium (?-acetylated Tubulin) were analysed by quantitative PCR, Western blot or immunocytochemistry. In response to FSS, Claudin-2 disappeared and ZO-1 displayed punctuated and discontinuous staining in the plasma membrane. Expression of Pard6 was also decreased. Moreover, E-Cadherin abundance was decreased, while its major repressors Snail1 and Snail2 were overexpressed, and ?-Catenin staining was disrupted along the cell periphery. Finally, FSS subjected-cells exhibited disappeared primary cilium. Results were confirmed in vivo in a uninephrectomy (8 months) mouse model where increased FSS induced by adaptive hyperfiltration in remnant kidney was accompanied by both decreased epithelial gene expression including ZO-1, E-cadherin and ?-Catenin and disappearance of tubular cilia. In conclusion, these results show that proximal tubular cells lose an important number of their epithelial characteristics after long term exposure to FSS both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the changes in urinary FSS associated with nephropathies should be considered as potential insults for tubular cells leading to disorganization of the tubular epithelium. PMID:26146837

  3. Developmental exposure to the pesticide dieldrin alters the dopamine system and increases neurotoxicity in an animal model of Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason R. Richardson; W. Michael Caudle; Minzheng Wang; E. Danielle Dean; Kurt D. Pennell; Gary W. Miller

    2006-01-01

    Exposure to pesticides has been sug- gested to increase the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the mechanisms responsible for this association are not clear. Here, we report that perinatal exposure of mice during gestation and lactation to low levels of dieldrin (0.3, 1, or 3 mg\\/kg every 3 days) alters dopaminergic neurochemistry in their offspring and exacerbates MPTP toxicity.

  4. Exposure of animals to artificial gravity conditions leads to the alteration of the glutamate release from rat cerebral hemispheres nerve terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, T.; Krisanova, N.; Himmelreich, N.

    2004-01-01

    The biochemical basis underlying the effects of altered gravity on the process of nervous signal transmission is not clear. We have investigated the effect of hypergravity stress (created by centrifugation of rats at l0 g for 1 h) on the basal and stimulated release of l-[14C]glutamate (a chemical transmitter of excitatory signals) from isolated rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes). It has been shown that the hypergravity stress exerted a different influence on the Ca2+-dependent and the Ca2+-independent component of neurotransmitter release. The Ca2+-dependent l-[14C]glutamate release evoked by potassium chloride was equal to 14.4+/-0.7% of total synaptosomal label for control animals and 6.2+/-1.9% for animals, exposed to hypergravity (P<=0.05) and was more than twice decreased as a result of the hypergravity stress. We observed no statistically significant difference in the Ca2+-independent component of l-[14C]glutamate release. For control group and animals exposed to the hypergravity stress it was equal to 7.7+/-2.8% and 12.9+/-2.0%, respectively. We have also investigated the effect of the hypergravity stress on the activity of high-affinity Na+-dependent glutamate transporters. Km and Vmax of l-[14C]glutamate uptake have been determined. The maximal velocity of glutamate uptake was decreased as a result of hypergravity loading, but no difference in the Km values between control rats and hypergravity exposed animals was observed. These findings indicate that hypergravity stress alters neurotransmitter reuptake and exocytotic neurotransmitter release processes.

  5. A truncated bone morphogenetic protein 4 receptor alters the fate of ventral mesoderm to dorsal mesoderm: roles of animal pole tissue in the development of ventral mesoderm.

    PubMed Central

    Maéno, M; Ong, R C; Suzuki, A; Ueno, N; Kung, H F

    1994-01-01

    The biological effects of endogenous bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4), a member of the transforming growth factor beta family, on embryonic development of Xenopus laevis were investigated by using a functionally defective mutant of the BMP-4 receptor (delta mTFR11), which blocks the BMP signaling pathway. Injection of delta mTFR11 RNA into either the animal pole area or ventral marginal cells at the two-cell stage induced a dorsal phenotype in the explant of ventral mesoderm with animal pole tissue from stage 10+ embryo, even though the normal fate of this explant is a "mesenchymal ball" containing blood cells. These explants with the dorsal phenotype contained muscle, neural tissue, eye capsule, and cement gland. Northern blot analysis showed an increase of cardiac alpha-actin mRNA and a decrease of T alpha-globin mRNA expression, providing further evidence of a conversion from ventral to dorsal phenotype. Although injection of delta mTFR11 RNA did not induce mesoderm in an animal cap culture, the same tissue injected with delta mTFR11 RNA can alter the differentiation fate of uninjected ventral mesodermal explant from ventral to dorsal type, suggesting specific interaction of animal pole tissue and prospective ventral mesoderm in vivo. Images PMID:7937937

  6. Cloning of aged animals: a medical model for tissue and organ regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tian, X C; Kubota, C; Yang, X

    2001-11-01

    Cloning by nuclear transfer has great potential application in pharmaceutical protein production, xeno-transplantation, and perhaps most excitingly, therapeutic cloning. In therapeutic cloning a patient's own skin cells can be used to generate cloned embryos from which embryonic stem cells are isolated. Through targeted differentiation, embryonic stem cells can be directed to develop into the desired tissues/organs for replacement. The combination of homologous recombination of genes and nuclear transfer also offers the promise of correcting defective genes in humans. Demonstration of the successful cloning of aged animals is important for these future medical applications because degenerative diseases often afflict older adults. Our studies have demonstrated that skin fibroblast cells from aged adults, even after prolonged culture, provide nuclear donors equally as competent for cloning as cells from young adults or fetuses. These findings have paved the way for medically treating degenerative diseases of aged humans by tissue regeneration technologies made possible through cloning and homologous recombination. PMID:11728879

  7. Influence of the respirator on volatile organic compounds: an animal study in rats over 24?hours.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, F W; Hüppe, T; Fink, T; Maurer, F; Wolf, A; Wolf, B; Volk, T; Baumbach, J I; Kreuer, S

    2015-03-01

    Long-term animal studies are needed to accomplish measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for medical diagnostics. In order to analyze the time course of VOCs, it is necessary to ventilate these animals. Therefore, a total of 10 male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized and ventilated with synthetic air via tracheotomy for 24?h. An ion mobility spectrometry coupled to multi-capillary columns (MCC-IMS) was used to analyze the expired air. To identify background contaminations produced by the respirator itself, six comparative measurements were conducted with ventilators only. Overall, a number of 37 peaks could be detected within the positive mode. According to the ratio peak intensity rat/ peak intensity ventilator blank, 22 peaks with a ratio >1.5 were defined as expired VOCs, 12 peaks with a ratio between 0.5 and 1.5 as unaffected VOCs, and three peaks with a ratio <0.5 as resorbed VOCs. The peak intensity of 12 expired VOCs changed significantly during the 24?h measurement. These results represent the basis for future intervention studies. Notably, online VOC analysis with MCC-IMS is possible over 24?h in ventilated rats and allows different experimental approaches. PMID:25749729

  8. Bio-organic reaction animations (BioORA): student performance, student perceptions, and instructor feedback.

    PubMed

    Gunersel, Adalet Baris; Fleming, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that computer animations are especially helpful in fields such as chemistry and in this mixed-methods study, we investigate the educational effectiveness of Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA), a 3-D software, in four undergraduate biochemistry classes at different universities. Statistically significant findings indicate that students performed better on a quiz completed after a lesson with BioORA than after a lesson with regular teaching methods in three out of four classes. Ratings on several survey items completed after experiencing BioORA, including items related to interest, value, and ability, were higher in two classes. Surveys and one-on-one interviews reveal instructor and student experiences with the software as well as the utility of various software features, which can be adopted in other programs. Instructors and students provide suggestions to maximize BioORA's benefits as an educational tool and findings suggest the importance of multiple forms of information to enhance student understanding and reach students with various learning preferences. PMID:24535982

  9. Ultrastructural Alterations Produced by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on Rat TrachéalEpithelium in Organ Culture1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Roter Dirksen; T. Timothy Crocker

    SUMMARY Ultrastructural alterations of columnar respiratory epithe lium were produced by certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocar bons in suckling rat trachea maintained in organ culture for 11 days. The potent carcinogens 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthra- cene (DMBA) and benzo(a)pyrene and the weakly carci nogenic compounds benz(a)anthracene and 5-fluoro-7,12-di- methylbenz(a)anthracene (F-DMBA) produced cells whose cytoplasm contained little endoplasmic reticulum, many free ribosomes, complex autophagic vacuoles,

  10. Altered Network Topologies and Hub Organization in Adults with Autism: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Itahashi, Takashi; Yamada, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiromi; Nakamura, Motoaki; Jimbo, Daiki; Shioda, Seiji; Toriizuka, Kazuo; Kato, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on autism spectrum condition (ASC) have identified dysfunctions in specific brain networks involved in social and non-social cognition that persist into adulthood. Although increasing numbers of fMRI studies have revealed atypical functional connectivity in the adult ASC brain, such functional alterations at the network level have not yet been fully characterized within the recently developed graph-theoretical framework. Here, we applied a graph-theoretical analysis to resting-state fMRI data acquired from 46 adults with ASC and 46 age- and gender-matched controls, to investigate the topological properties and organization of autistic brain network. Analyses of global metrics revealed that, relative to the controls, participants with ASC exhibited significant decreases in clustering coefficient and characteristic path length, indicating a shift towards randomized organization. Furthermore, analyses of local metrics revealed a significantly altered organization of the hub nodes in ASC, as shown by analyses of hub disruption indices using multiple local metrics and by a loss of “hubness” in several nodes (e.g., the bilateral superior temporal sulcus, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and precuneus) that are critical for social and non-social cognitive functions. In particular, local metrics of the anterior cingulate cortex consistently showed significant negative correlations with the Autism-Spectrum Quotient score. Our results demonstrate altered patterns of global and local topological properties that may underlie impaired social and non-social cognition in ASC. PMID:24714805

  11. Beagle: an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating the organ distribution pattern of Th in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, N.P.; Zimmerman, C.J.; Taylor, G.N.; Wrenn, M.E.

    1988-03-01

    The concentrations and the organ distribution patterns of 228Th, 230Th and 232Th in two 9-y-old dogs of our beagle colony were determined. The dogs were exposed only to background environmental levels of Th isotopes through ingestion (food and water) and inhalation as are humans. The organ distribution patterns of the isotopes in the beagles were compared to the organ distribution patterns in humans to determine if it is appropriate to extrapolate the beagle organ burden data to humans. Among soft tissues, only the lungs, lymph nodes, kidney and liver, and skeleton contained measurable amounts of Th isotopes. The organ distribution pattern of Th isotopes in humans and dog are similar, the majority of Th being in the skeleton of both species. The average skeletal concentrations of 228Th in dogs were 30 to 40 times higher than the average skeletal concentrations of the parent 232Th, whereas the concentration of 228Th in human skeleton was only four to five times higher than 232Th. This suggests that dogs have a higher intake of 228Ra through food than humans. There is a similar trend in the accumulations of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in the lungs of dog and humans. The percentages of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in human lungs are 26, 9.7 and 4.8, respectively, compared to 4.2, 2.6 and 0.48, respectively, in dog lungs. The larger percentages of Th isotopes in human lungs may be due simply to the longer life span of humans. If the burdens of Th isotopes in human lungs are normalized to an exposure time of 9.2 y (mean age of dogs at the time of sacrifice), the percent burden of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in human lungs are estimated to be 3.6, 1.3 and 0.66, respectively. These results suggest that the beagle may be an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating the organ distribution pattern of Th in humans.

  12. Cardiovascular and organ responses and adaptation responses to hypogravity in an experimental animal model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, R.; Capodicasa, E.; Tassi, C.; Mezzasomal, L.; Benedetti, C.; Valiani, M.; Marconi, P.; Rossi, R.

    1995-10-01

    The head-down suspension (i.e antiorthostatic hypokinesia) rat is used to simulate weightlessness. However, little is known about cardiovascular and organ adaptation responses which, over a long time, can become pathologically significant. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate regional changes in the hematology parameters, Endotheline-1 (ET-1) concentration and urinary excretion of N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.30) (NAG) in an experimental antiorthostatic rat model. The data indicate significant variations in the plasma ET-1 level in time, in the superior and inferior cava vessel blood of animals maintained for 10 days in hypogravity with respect to controls. These changes do not seem to be due to hemoconcentration. The increase in urinary NAG was observed during the first 24h of experiment, indicating renal stress, probably due to adverse blood flow variations within the organ. We conclude that the plasma ET-1 level changes could be responsible, overall for the blood flow variations in the kidney and renal stress could be the consequence of extended antiorthostatic hypokinesia. The ET-1 behaviour and urinary NAG excretion in rats exposed to antiorthostatic hypokjnetic hydynamia offer possibilities for understanding if these changes might be reversible or when they become pathological. This could give some relevant information about the effects of prolonged hypogravity during the space voyage.

  13. Animal and public health implications of gastric colonization of cats by Helicobacter-like organisms.

    PubMed Central

    Otto, G; Hazell, S H; Fox, J G; Howlett, C R; Murphy, J C; O'Rourke, J L; Lee, A

    1994-01-01

    The bacterial genus Helicobacter contains a number of species which colonize the gastric mucosa of mammals. Natural and/or experimental gastric pathology has been correlated with colonization in humans and a wide variety of animal species. Historical reports in the literature suggest that a high percentage of cats are colonized by large, spiral, gastric helicobacter-like organisms (GHLOs). One of these bacteria (Helicobacter felis) has been isolated on artificial media and has experimentally caused gastritis in gnotobiotic dogs. This study surveyed the prevalence of helicobacter colonization in random-source cats by using the urease assay. Histologic examination was performed to determine the degree of associated pathology present. GHLOs associated with chronic gastritis were present in 70% of the juvenile and 97% of the adult cats studied. Although further study is needed to determine specifically what role GHLOs play in feline gastrointestinal disease, these results indicate that helicobacter colonization should be considered in the pathogenesis of feline gastroenteropathy. Furthermore, the high prevalence of feline infection is interesting because cats have recently been implicated as a potential reservoir for human infection by helicobacter-like organisms. Images PMID:8027308

  14. [The organization of veterinary services in African animal husbandry systems: chances for the exchange of interdisciplinary learning processes].

    PubMed

    Kirk, M

    1995-12-01

    The structure of the veterinary services to date hinders--together with massive intervention in the land tenure systems and the animal keepers' rights in arid and semi-arid areas--the future organization of productive animal-keeping systems adapted to the ecological conditions. The consensus of the findings of research in the social as well as in the natural sciences, is that state (agrarian) policies and international development cooperation have led to centralism and authoritarian administrations which formalize formerly informal, locally specific rules for securing the health of the animals and the maintenance of grazing and water resources. As a result, the animal-keeping groups have lost their rights, social conflicts arose and the environment suffered. Thus, decentralization, subsidarity and--above all--comprehensive participation on the part of the animal keepers are regarded as the guidelines for the future organization of state and/or private services for maintaining the health of the animals. Thereby, the planning at the various administrative levels is faced by great challenges in view of the progressing differentiation in the animal-keeping systems (e.g. peri-urban systems; urban absentee herd owners; marginalized, subsistence-oriented households). PMID:8651895

  15. Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) preference and behavioral response to animated images of conspecifics altered in their color, aspect ratio, and swimming depth.

    PubMed

    Polverino, Giovanni; Liao, Jian Cong; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) is an example of a freshwater fish species whose remarkable diffusion outside its native range has led to it being placed on the list of the world's hundred worst invasive alien species (International Union for Conservation of Nature). Here, we investigate mosquitofish shoaling tendency using a dichotomous choice test in which computer-animated images of their conspecifics are altered in color, aspect ratio, and swimming level in the water column. Pairs of virtual stimuli are systematically presented to focal subjects to evaluate their attractiveness and the effect on fish behavior. Mosquitofish respond differentially to some of these stimuli showing preference for conspecifics with enhanced yellow pigmentation while exhibiting highly varying locomotory patterns. Our results suggest that computer-animated images can be used to understand the factors that regulate the social dynamics of shoals of Gambusia affinis. Such knowledge may inform the design of control plans and open new avenues in conservation and protection of endangered animal species. PMID:23342131

  16. [Organ and tissue regeneration in lower vertebrate animals during space flight and after its completion].

    PubMed

    Brushilinskaia, N V; Grigorian, E N; Tuchkova, S Ia; Anton, H J; Mitashov, V I

    1997-01-01

    The most important data obtained in studies of the influence of space flight factors on the limb and lens regeneration in the newt Pleurodeles waltlii have been summarized. Regeneration of these organs under the conditions of space flight and after its termination proceeded just as on the ground. However after the 7th, 13th and 16th days of space flight, a trend was shown toward acceleration of the limb and lens regenerates development according to the regeneration stages and synchronization of the achieved stages, which was accompanied in some cases by an increased proliferative activity of the regenerate cells. It was shown that in two groups of animals operated before the 16-day space flight (I) and just after its termination (II) accelerated development of the limb and lens regenerates was observed. In group II, at the large bud stage, the index of 3H-thymidine labeled blastema cells was more than twice that in the control. The size of regenerates in groups I and II exceeded reliably those in the control. These results suggest a prolonged effect of space flight factors on the limb and lens regeneration. It was also shown that the capacity of the muscle minced 14 days before the flight for regeneration was not suppressed, although somewhat decreased. An electron microscopic study showed degenerative-atrophic changes in the intact hind limb muscle after the 16-day space flight. We believe that the phenomenon of synchronization and accelerated regeneration of the limb and lens observed in the most experiments are due to the effect of microgravity on the animals. PMID:9289675

  17. Organic solvent alteration of hydraulic properties of sedimentary rocks of low permeability: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Sklarew, D.S.

    1985-05-01

    A review of the current literature on hydrophysical interactions of organic solutes with sedimentary rocks of low permeability is presented. The motivation was the premise that low permeability rocks may act as secondary (aquifer) barriers for the containment of hazardous organic wastes, thus preventing these wastes from contaminating the groundwater. However, this premise may be incorrect if organic wastes can affect the hydraulic conductivity of these rocks. The results indicate that very little work has been done concerning interactions of organics with consolidated subsurface materials. Available information on three related topics was summarized: the effect of organic compounds on the hydrophysical properties of clays, case studies concerning the interactions of organic compounds with clays and sedimentary rocks, and the effect of shales on inorganic transport. These studies give an indication of some research areas that need to be explored with regard to the effect of organic compounds on the hydrophysical properties of sedimentary rocks; these research needs are briefly summarized. 42 refs.

  18. Altered mechanical environment of bone cells in an animal model of short- and long-term osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Stefaan W; Mc Garrigle, Myles J; Haugh, Matthew G; Voisin, Muriel C; McNamara, Laoise M

    2015-04-01

    Alterations in bone tissue composition during osteoporosis likely disrupt the mechanical environment of bone cells and may thereby initiate a mechanobiological response. It has proved challenging to characterize the mechanical environment of bone cells in vivo, and the mechanical environment of osteoporotic bone cells is not known. The objective of this research is to characterize the local mechanical environment of osteocytes and osteoblasts from healthy and osteoporotic bone in a rat model of osteoporosis. Using a custom-designed micromechanical loading device, we apply strains representative of a range of physical activity (up to 3000 ??) to fluorescently stained femur samples from normal and ovariectomized rats. Confocal imaging was simultaneously performed, and digital image correlation techniques were applied to characterize cellular strains. In healthy bone tissue, osteocytes experience higher maximum strains (31,028 ± 4213 ??) than osteoblasts (24,921 ± 3,832 ??), whereas a larger proportion of the osteoblast experiences strains >10,000 ??. Most interestingly, we show that osteoporotic bone cells experience similar or higher maximum strains than healthy bone cells after short durations of estrogen deficiency (5 weeks), and exceeded the osteogenic strain threshold (10,000 ??) in a similar or significantly larger proportion of the cell (osteoblast, 12.68% vs. 13.68%; osteocyte, 15.74% vs. 5.37%). However, in long-term estrogen deficiency (34 weeks), there was no significant difference between bone cells in healthy and osteoporotic bone. These results suggest that the mechanical environment of bone cells is altered during early-stage osteoporosis, and that mechanobiological responses act to restore the mechanical environment of the bone tissue after it has been perturbed by ovariectomy. PMID:25863050

  19. Abstract. Sensory experience alters the functional orga-nization of cortical networks. Previous studies using

    E-print Network

    Kilgard, Michael P.

    the representation of the sensory environment. Different combinations of receptive-field, temporal, and spectro modulated tones altered the maximum cortical following rate. Exposure to complex acoustic sequences led cortex (A1). For the purpose of this review, acoustic experience can be simply thought of as the spatial

  20. Cheatgrass Invasion Alters Soil Morphology and Organic Matter Dynamics in Big Sagebrush Steppe Rangelands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay B. Norton; Thomas A. Monaco; Jeanette M. Norton; Douglas A. Johnson; Thomas A. Jones

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is an invasive annual grass that increases wildfire frequency, degrades native ecosys- tems, and threatens agriculture across vast areas of the Western United States. This research examines how cheatgrass invasion may alter physical and biological properties of soils. Proliferation of very fine roots and high production of low-quality litter by cheat- grass increases porosity and near-surface

  1. Comparative characteristic of mitochondria ultrastructural organization in Chlorella cells under altered gravity conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Popova

    2003-01-01

    Results from experiments that used cells from the unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris (strain Larg-1) grown on a clinostat, demonstrated the occurrence of rearrangements in cellular organelles, including changes in the mitochondrial ultrastructure compared to controls. Changes in mitochondrial structure were observed in auto- and heterotrophic regimes of cells grown in altered gravity conditions, especially in long-term experiments. The mitochondrial rearrangements

  2. Testicular histomorphologic and stereological alterations following short-term treatment with highly active antiretroviral drugs (HAART) in an experimental animal model.

    PubMed

    Azu, O O; Naidu, E C S; Naidu, J S; Masia, T; Nzemande, N F; Chuturgoon, A; Singh, S

    2014-09-01

    The increased accessibility of antiretroviral therapy continues to positively drive the reduction in viral load and survival of patients despite the attendant reproductive toxicities. We propose that testicular damage caused by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can be attenuated by antioxidant treatment by investigating the testicular histomorphologic and stereological effects of antiretroviral drugs and its interaction with antioxidants using an experimental animal model. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups of six rats per group (A, B... G) using simple random sampling and treated orally with 0.9% normal saline as placebo, a HAART cocktail of stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine using the adjusted human therapeutic doses of 200, 600 and 350-400 mg/day, respectively, and antioxidants ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and I.M ?-tocopherol (vitamin E). Animals were killed after 4 weeks and testicular tissue harvested and processed for light microscopy and stereological evaluations. The results were interpreted by a Veterinary pathologist blinded to the study. No animal died during the experimental period. The histopathological assessment of the testis of animals treated with placebo, ascorbic acid alone and ?-tocopherol alone as well as vitamin E + HAART displayed normal testicular microanatomy. Groups treated with HAART alone, HAART + vitamin C + vitamin E and vitamins C + HAART showed extensive seminiferous tubular atrophy, necrosis and hypocellularity in the histoarchitectural patterns. While testicular cross-sectional area of seminiferous tubules remained unaffected by HAART, epithelial heights significantly decreased (p < 0.05) when compared with controls. There was marked (p < 0.05) increased in testicular-body weight ratio in HAART group. The results show that vitamin E could be useful in protecting testicular tissue from toxicities of HAART regimes as these results mirrors stereological data for the groups. HAART presents with deleterious histopathological changes in the testes causing tubular atrophy with altered morphometric indices. Supplementation with vitamin E appears to be a better adjuvant antioxidant that ameliorates these deleterious effects. PMID:24919589

  3. LESSONS FROM A COOPERATIVE, BACTERIAL-ANIMAL ASSOCIATION: The Vibrio fischeri-Euprymna scolopes Light Organ Symbiosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward G. Ruby

    1996-01-01

    Although the study of microbe-host interactions has been traditionally dominated by an interest in pathogenic associations, there is an increasing awareness of the importance of cooperative symbiotic interactions in the biology of many bacteria and their animal and plant hosts. This review examines a model system for the study of such symbioses, the light organ association between the bobtail squid

  4. Organic matter heterogeneities in 2.72 Ga stromatolites: Alteration versus preservation by sulfur incorporation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Lepot; Karim Benzerara; Nicolas Rividi; Marine Cotte; Gordon E. Brown Jr.; Pascal Philippot

    2009-01-01

    The stromatolites of the weakly metamorphosed 2.72Ga Tumbiana Formation present abundant organic globules that resemble in size, shape and distribution the microorganisms observed in modern stromatolites. In order to evaluate the significance of these cell-like organic materials, we characterized organic matter in-situ down to the nanoscale using a combination of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman microspectroscopy,

  5. Alterations in biodistribution of 11C-methamphetamine (MAP), 14C-MAP, and 123I-N-isopropyl-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in MAP- and cocaine-sensitized animals.

    PubMed

    Numachi, Y; Yoshida, S; Inosaka, T; Sato, M; Mizugaki, M; Kimura, K; Hishinuma, T

    1992-06-28

    Alterations in brain distribution of 11C-MAP, 14C-MAP, and 123I-IMP in MAP- and cocaine-sensitized animals were examined to investigate the mechanism involved in increased dopaminergic transmission and behavioral sensitization. First, a significant increase in 11C-MAP radioactivity in the striatum and hypothalamus was found in the mice pretreated with MAP for 7 days. Secondly, in MAP-sensitized rats, marked increases in 14C-MAP radioactivity were found in the striatum and limbic forebrain, respectively (370% and 650%). These findings may propose a new hypothesis that subchronic MAP administration may result in a long-term change in the presynaptic cell membrane at the nerve terminal which may in turn cause an increase in both MAP and DA uptake accompanied by an increased release of DA at the synaptic cleft. PMID:1632580

  6. The effects of natural variation in background radioactivity on humans, animals and other organisms.

    PubMed

    Møller, Anders P; Mousseau, Timothy A

    2013-02-01

    Natural levels of radioactivity on the Earth vary by more than a thousand-fold; this spatial heterogeneity may suffice to create heterogeneous effects on physiology, mutation and selection. We review the literature on the relationship between variation in natural levels of radioactivity and evolution. First, we consider the effects of natural levels of radiation on mutations, DNA repair and genetics. A total of 46 studies with 373 effect size estimates revealed a small, but highly significant mean effect that was independent of adjustment for publication bias. Second, we found different mean effect sizes when studies were based on broad categories like physiology, immunology and disease frequency; mean weighted effect sizes were larger for studies of plants than animals, and larger in studies conducted in areas with higher levels of radiation. Third, these negative effects of radiation on mutations, immunology and life history are inconsistent with a general role of hormetic positive effects of radiation on living organisms. Fourth, we reviewed studies of radiation resistance among taxa. These studies suggest that current levels of natural radioactivity may affect mutational input and thereby the genetic constitution and composition of natural populations. Susceptibility to radiation varied among taxa, and several studies provided evidence of differences in susceptibility among populations or strains. Crucially, however, these studies are few and scattered, suggesting that a concerted effort to address this lack of research should be made. PMID:23136873

  7. Sodium cyanide induced alteration in the whole animal oxygen consumption and behavioural pattern of freshwater fish Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    David, Muniswamy; Sangeetha, Jeyabalan; Harish, Etigemane R

    2015-03-01

    Sodium cyanide is a common environmental pollutant which is mainly used in many industries such as mining, electroplating, steel manufacturing, pharmaceutical production and other specialized applications including dyes and agricultural products. It enters aquatic environment through effluents from these industries. Static renewal bioassay test has been conducted to determine LC, of sodium cyanide on indigenous freshwater carp, Labeo rohita. The behavioural pattern and oxygen consumption were observed in fish at both lethal and sub lethal concentrations. Labeo rohita in toxic media exhibited irregular and erratic swimming movements, hyper excitability, loss of equilibrium and shrinking to the bottom, which may be due to inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase activity and decreased blood pH. The combination of cytotoxic hypoxia with lactate acidosis depresses the central nervous system resulting in respiratory arrest and death. Decrease in oxygen consumption was observed at both lethal and sub lethal concentrations of sodium cyanide. Mortality was insignificant at sub lethal concentration test when fishes were found under stress. Consequence of impaired oxidative metabolism and elevated physiological response by fish against sodium cyanide stress showed alteration in respiratory rate. PMID:25895263

  8. Renal and hepatotoxic alterations in adult mice on inhalation of specific mixture of organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Vaghasia, Ketan K; Bhavyata, Kalariya; Linzbuoy, George; Hyacinth, Highland N

    2013-05-01

    This study was aimed at investigating alterations in renal and hepatic toxicity induced by exposing to a combination of three solvents, namely, benzene, toluene and xylene in adult mice. The mice were divided into three groups (control, low-dose-treated (450 ppm) and high-dose (675 ppm) groups) using randomization methods. The treated groups were exposed to vapours of a mixture of benzene, toluene and xylene at doses of 450 and 675 ppm, for 6 h day(-1) for a short-term of 7-day exposure period. The study revealed that the solvent exposure resulted in an increase in the weight of liver and kidney as compared to the control. Biochemical analyses indicated a significant decline in the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in both the treated groups, with concomitant increase in lipid peroxidation. Liver aminotransferases (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) were elevated with significant alterations in the levels of protein, creatinine and cholesterol in these tissues upon solvent exposure. Correlated with these changes, serum thyroid hormones T3 and T4 were also significantly altered. This study, therefore, demonstrates that inhalation of vapours from the solvent mixture resulted in significant dose-dependent biochemical and functional changes in the vital tissues (liver and kidney) studied. The study has specific relevance since humans are increasingly being exposed to such solvents due to increased industrial use in such combinations. PMID:23637306

  9. Effects of Biochemical Alteration in Animal Model after Short-Term Exposure of Jatropha curcas (Linn) Leaf Extract

    PubMed Central

    Igbinosa, Osamuyimen O.; Oviasogie, Efosa F.; Igbinosa, Etinosa O.; Igene, Otibhor; Igbinosa, Isoken H.; Idemudia, Omoruyi G.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate potential toxic effect of Jatropha curcas leaves methanol extract on laboratory rats as well as determine its LD50. A total of 80 male Wistar rats were used as the experimental animals, 40 for LD50 determination and the other 40 for toxicity study. Based on the pretest that was done in order to establish a range of toxicity, 4 dosages (86.00, 58.00, 46.00, and 34.0?kg/body weight) were chosen. The rats were randomly assigned into four groups with 10 rats in each group. Rats in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were given 0?mg/kg, 500?mg/kg, 1000?mg/kg, and 2000?mg/kg body weight of Jatropha curcas extract, respectively, by oral intubation for 21 days. Thereafter, clinical signs, change in body weight, toxicity symptoms, and biochemical parameters were obtained. The LD50 at 95% confidence limits for rats was 46.0?mg/kg body weight (44.95–52.69?mg/kg body mass). There was no clinical and biochemical signs of toxicity when the extract was administered at 500, 1000, and 2000?mg/kg body weight, respectively (P > 0.05). Results obtained from this study suggest that liver, kidney, and haematological system of rats tolerated methanolic leave extract of Jatropha curcas at a certain concentration. PMID:23781161

  10. Organic matter heterogeneities in 2.72 Ga stromatolites: Alteration versus preservation by sulfur incorporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepot, Kevin; Benzerara, Karim; Rividi, Nicolas; Cotte, Marine; Brown, Gordon E., Jr.; Philippot, Pascal

    2009-11-01

    The stromatolites of the weakly metamorphosed 2.72 Ga Tumbiana Formation present abundant organic globules that resemble in size, shape and distribution the microorganisms observed in modern stromatolites. In order to evaluate the significance of these cell-like organic materials, we characterized organic matter in-situ down to the nanoscale using a combination of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman microspectroscopy, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These analyses revealed the occurrence of two distinct types of organic matter forming ?m-scale textural and chemical heterogeneities distributed in distinct mineralogical laminae of the stromatolites. Type A organic matter, which is by far the most abundant, consists of sulfur-poor organic matter that is located in mud-type laminae at grain boundaries, mostly in association with silicate minerals. In contrast, Type B organic matter is rare and preserved as inclusions in the core of calcite grains forming laminates. It occurs as micrometer-sized cell-like globules containing variable amounts of organic sulfur likely in the form of thiophenes. Different scenarios may account for these compositional heterogeneities in the kerogen. Based on textural and compositional analogies with modern stromatolites, it is argued that Type B sulfur-rich globules may represent microbial cells protected by mineral encapsulation and selectively preserved through polymerization by early diagenetic sulfurization. In modern sediments, this reaction is fuelled by bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR). This metabolism has been widely considered as a major driver in modern stromatolites calcification and could thus have played an important role in the formation of the Tumbiana Formation stromatolites. In contrast, Type A sulfur-poor organic matter corresponds to either fossil extracellular polymer substances (EPS) or recondensed kerogen. This pool was likely not sulfurized due to either local and/or timely variations in the concentrations of H 2S or adverse pyritization driven by the availability of iron. Our observations thus show the need to use spatially-resolved techniques to complement organic geochemistry analyses and provide a detailed analysis of the organic carbon pools composing Archean stromatolites.

  11. Comparative characteristic of mitochondria ultrastructural organization in Chlorella cells under altered gravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, A. F.

    2003-05-01

    Results from experiments that used cells from the unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris (strain Larg-1) grown on a clinostat, demonstrated the occurrence of rearrangements in cellular organelles, including changes in the mitochondrial ultrastructure compared to controls. Changes in mitochondrial structure were observed in auto- and heterotrophic regimes of cells grown in altered gravity conditions, especially in long-term experiments. The mitochondrial rearrangements become apparent during cell proliferation, which resulted in an increase in the relative volume of mitochondria per cell: up to 2.7±0.3% in short-term clino-rotation (2.2±0.1% in the control) and up to 5.3±0.4% and 5.1±0.4% in long-term clino-rotation (2.3±0.2% in the control). The size of the mitochondria and their cristae increased in cells grown under long-time clino-rotation. In addition, hypertrophied organelles, not typical for this strain, were observed. These changes in the cells were accompanied by increased electron density of the matrix and a well-ordered topography of the cristae. To examine the separation of oxidative phosphorylation and respiration, an inhibitory agent 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) was applied to cells which resulted in insignificant volume changes of the mitochondria (2.5±0.4% versus 2.1±0.2% in the control). The increase of mitochondrial size with regularly arranged cristae, with more condensed matrix and extension of cristae areas of clino-rotated cells, may demonstrate higher functional activity of the mitochondria under altered gravity conditions. Changes observed early in clino-rotated cells, in particular the increased level of respiration, adenylate content (especially ATP) and more intensive electron-cytochemical reactions of Mg 2+-ATPase and succinat dehydrogenase (SDH) in mitochondria (including hypertrophic organelles), also suggest increased activity of mitochondria from cells grown under altered gravity conditions compared to controls.

  12. Alteration of cancer pain-related signals by radiation: Proteomic analysis in an animal model with cancer bone invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hee Chul [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Jinsil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jsseong@yumc.yonsei.ac.kr; An, Jung Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiyoung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Un Jung [Yonsei Medical Research Center, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bae Whan [Yonsei Medical Research Center, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: Although radiotherapy is highly effective in relieving bone pain due to cancer invasion, its mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore this mechanism in an animal model system. Methods and Materials: A hind paw model of cancer pain was developed by transplanting a murine hepatocarcinoma, HCa-1, into the periosteal membrane of the foot dorsum of C3H/HeJ mice. Bone invasion from HCa-1 was histopathologically confirmed from sequential tumor sampling. For three experimental groups, a control (N), tumor without radiation (T), and tumor with radiation (TR), the development and level of pain were objectively examined in mice with a growing tumor by assessing pain-associated behavior. The differential expression of pain-related signals in the spinal cord was analyzed by proteomic analysis using high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry, and those of proteins by Western blotting. The pain-mediating neurotransmitters in the spinal cord were also examined by immunohistochemical staining for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P. Results: In the histopathologic examinations, bone invasion from HCa-1 was seen from Day 7 and was evident at Day 14 after transplantation, and measurable pain-associated behaviors were developed from Day 7. After 25 Gy of radiation to the tumors, the objective level of pain in the TR group decreased, with higher thresholds to mechanical and thermal stimulation than in the T group. From the 2-DE of spinal cord, 107 spots were identified; 12 proteins were changed more than fivefold because of tumor formation but then reversed after radiation in the tumor-bearing mice. The proteins involved included secretagogin, syntenin, P2X purinoreceptor 6 (P2X6), and Ca{sup 2+}/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1 (CaM kinase 1), the functions of which have been known to be involved in the Ca{sup 2+}-signaling cascade, ATP-mediated fast synaptic transmission, or control of vesicular trafficking. Validations using Western blotting were successful for the CaM kinase and P2X6. In immunohistochemical staining of the spinal cord, a significant decrease after irradiation was shown in the expression of CGRP, but not in substance P. Conclusions: We developed a novel model for bone pain due to cancer invasion, which was confirmed by histopathologic examination and measurable pain-associated behaviors. Radiotherapy decreased the objective level of pain. The underlying mechanism seems to be related to the Ca{sup 2+}-signaling cascade or control of vesicular trafficking.

  13. Programmed pyrolysis of organic matter from thermally altered Cretaceous black shales

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, K.E.; Hunt, J.M.; Tarafa, M.E.; Whelan, J.K.

    1983-11-01

    Organic-rich Cretaceous black shales from the Cape Verde Rise in the eastern Atlantic were penetrated by hot diabase sills during the Miocene. Programmed pyrolysis and pyrolysis-gas chromatography of organic matter from core samples taken at various distances from a major sill were used to show: the type of kerogen, its relative level of thermal maturity, the fraction of pyrolyzable organic compounds which are free, and the compositions of the bitumen and kerogen. The dominant factor affecting these sediments appears to be thermal maturity rather than differences in the quality of the organic matter. Systematic changes in the pyrolyzate resulted from thermal cracking of volatile organics from the oil-prone Type II kerogen. Generation of these products caused progressive aromatization of the residual kerogen closer to the sill. These conclusions are supported by changes in kerogen elemental compositions, quantity of bitumen extract, and vitrinite reflectance. Although the major sill is 15 m (about 50 ft) thick, solvent extraction and pyrolysis results show that hydrocarbon generation was restricted to within about 10 m (about 33 ft) of the shale/sill contacts. At equal distances, the maximum temperature reached by the shales was higher above than below the sill. The reflectance of vitrinite responds more rapidly than bitumen composition to high temperatures imposed over a short time.

  14. Animal breeding in organic dairy farming: an inventory of farmers' views and difficulties to overcome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Nauta; A. F. Groen; R. F. Veerkamp; D. Roep; T. Baars

    2005-01-01

    Currently, most organic dairy farmers in the Netherlands use conventional breeding methods and production stock. In view of the organic objective of closed chains, organic dairy farmers discussed in workshops the desirability and practical merits of different possible scenarios for realizing breeding programmes that are more in line with organic farming principles. Generally, farmers concluded that there is a need

  15. Grazer exclusion alters plant spatial organization at multiple scales, increasing diversity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Gilbert, Benjamin; Wang, Wenbin; Liu, Junjie; Zhou, Shurong

    2013-01-01

    Grazing is one of the most important factors influencing community structure and productivity in natural grasslands. Understanding why and how grazing pressure changes species diversity is essential for the preservation and restoration of biodiversity in grasslands. We use heavily grazed subalpine meadows in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau to test the hypothesis that grazer exclusion alters plant diversity by changing inter- and intraspecific species distributions. Using recently developed spatial analyses combined with detailed ramet mapping of entire plant communities (91 species), we show striking differences between grazed and fenced areas that emerged at scales of just one meter. Species richness was similar at very small scales (0.0625 m2), but at larger scales diversity in grazed areas fell below 75% of corresponding fenced areas. These differences were explained by differences in spatial distributions; intra- and interspecific associations changed from aggregated at small scales to overdispersed in the fenced plots, but were consistently aggregated in the grazed ones. We conclude that grazing enhanced inter- and intraspecific aggregations and maintained high diversity at small scales, but caused decreased turnover in species at larger scales, resulting in lower species richness. Our study provides strong support to the theoretical prediction that inter- and intraspecific aggregation produces local spatial patterns that scale-up to affect species diversity in a community. It also demonstrates that the impacts of grazing can manifest through this mechanism, lowering diversity by reducing spatial turnover in species. Finally, it highlights the ecological and physiological plant processes that are likely responding to grazing and thereby altering aggregation patterns, providing new insights for monitoring, and mediating the impacts of grazing. PMID:24223294

  16. Alterations in the Proteome of the Euprymna scolopes Light Organ in Response to Symbiotic Vibrio fischeri

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUDITH DOINO LEMUS; MARGARET J. MCFALL-NGAI

    2000-01-01

    During the onset of the cooperative association between the Hawaiian sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes and the marine luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the anatomy and morphology of the host's symbiotic organ undergo dramatic changes that require interaction with the bacteria. This morphogenetic process involves an array of tissues, including those in direct contact with, as well as those remote from, the

  17. Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nu...

  18. Soil enzyme activities as affected by anthropogenic alterations: intensive agricultural practices and organic pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liliana Gianfreda; Maria Antonietta Rao; Anna Piotrowska; Giuseppe Palumbo; Claudio Colombo

    2005-01-01

    The activity of a range of enzymes related to the cycling of the main biologically important nutrients C, N, P and S was investigated in cultivated and non-cultivated soils from various parts of Europe. Two agricultural sites from North Italy under continuous corn (Zea mays L.) with and without organic fertilization were compared. Two other agricultural sites from South Italy

  19. Organic components of nuclear wastes and their potential for altering radionuclide distribution when released to soil

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, K.M.

    1980-08-01

    Normal waste processing at the Hanford operations requires the use of many organic materials, chiefly in the form of complexing agents and diluents. These organic materials and their chemical and radiolytic degradation products, have potential for complexing fission products and transuranium elements, both in the waste streams and upon infiltration into soil, perhaps influencing future sorption or migration of the nuclides. Particular complexation characteristics of various nuclides which constitute the major fission products, long-lived isotopes, and the most mobile in radioactive wastes are discussed briefly with regards to their anticipated sorption or mobility in soils. Included in the discussion are Am, Sb, Ce, Cs, Co, Cm, Eu, I, Np, Pm, Pu, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, U, and Zr. 107 references.

  20. Alteration of five organic compounds by glow discharge plasma and UV light under simulated Mars conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintze, Paul E.; Buhler, Charles R.; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Calle, Luz M.; Calle, Carlos I.

    2010-08-01

    The Viking missions to Mars failed to detect any organic material in regolith samples. Since then, several removal mechanisms of organic material have been proposed. Two of these proposed methods are removal due to exposure to plasmas created in dust devils and exposure to UV irradiation. The experiments presented here were performed to identify similarities between the two potential removal mechanisms and to identify any compounds produced from these mechanisms that would have been difficult for the Viking instruments to detect. Five organic compounds, phenanthrene, octadecane, octadecanoic acid, decanophenone and benzoic acid, were exposed to a glow discharge plasma created in simulated martian atmospheres as might be present in dust devils, and to UV irradiation similar to that found at the surface of Mars. Glow discharge exposure was carried out in a chamber with 6.9 mbar pressure of a Mars like gas composed mostly of carbon dioxide. The plasma was characterized using emission spectroscopy and found to contain cations and excited neutral species including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. UV irradiation experiments were performed in a Mars chamber which simulates the temperature, pressure, atmospheric composition, and UV fluence rates of equatorial Mars. The non-volatile residues left after each exposure were characterized by mass loss, infrared spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry. Oxidized, higher molecular weight versions of the parent compounds containing carbonyl, hydroxyl and alkenyl functional groups were identified. The presence of these oxidized compounds suggests that searches for organic material in soils on Mars use instrumentation suitable for detection of compounds which contain the above functional groups. Discussions of possible reaction mechanisms are given.

  1. Butenolide inhibits marine fouling by altering the primary metabolism of three target organisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Huoming; He, Lisheng; Liu, Changdong; Xu, Ying; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-06-15

    Butenolide is a very promising antifouling compound that inhibits ship hull fouling by a variety of marine organisms, but its antifouling mechanism was previously unknown. Here we report the first study of butenolide's molecular targets in three representative fouling organisms. In the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite, butenolide bound to acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1), which is involved in ketone body metabolism. Both the substrate and the product of ACAT1 increased larval settlement under butenolide treatment, suggesting its functional involvement. In the bryozoan Bugula neritina, butenolide bound to very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADVL), actin, and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). ACADVL is the first enzyme in the very long chain fatty acid ?-oxidation pathway. The inhibition of this primary pathway for energy production in larvae by butenolide was supported by the finding that alternative energy sources (acetoacetate and pyruvate) increased larval attachment under butenolide treatment. In marine bacterium Vibrio sp. UST020129-010, butenolide bound to succinyl-CoA synthetase ? subunit (SCS?) and inhibited bacterial growth. ACAT1, ACADVL, and SCS? are all involved in primary metabolism for energy production. These findings suggest that butenolide inhibits fouling by influencing the primary metabolism of target organisms. PMID:22458453

  2. Approaches to extrapolating animal toxicity data on organic solvents to public health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing predictive relationships between exposure and toxicity in humans is difficult because 1) available data are usually derived from experimental animals whose sensitivity to the chemical relative to humans is unknown; 2) the specific neurotoxic endpoints measured in labor...

  3. Mutations in M2 alter the selectivity of the mouse nicotinic acetylcholine receptor for organic and alkali metal cations

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    We measured the permeability ratios (PX/PNa) of 3 wild-type, 1 hybrid, 2 subunit-deficient, and 22 mutant nicotinic receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes for alkali metal and organic cations using shifts in the bi-ionic reversal potential of the macroscopic current. Mutations at three positions (2', 6', 10') in M2 affected ion selectivity. Mutations at position 2' (alpha Thr244, beta Gly255, gamma Thr253, delta Ser258) near the intracellular end of M2 changed the organic cation permeability ratios as much as twofold and reduced PCs/PNa and PK/PNa by 16-18%. Mutations at positions 6' and 10' increased the glycine ethyl ester/Na+ and glycine methyl ester/Na+ permeability ratios. Two subunit alterations also affected selectivity: omission of the delta subunit reduced PCs/PNa by 16%, and substitution of Xenopus delta for mouse delta increased Pguanidinium/PNa more than twofold and reduced PCs/PNa by 34% and PLi/PNa by 20%. The wild-type mouse receptor displayed a surprising interaction with the primary ammonium cations; relative permeability peaked at a chain length equal to four carbons. Analysis of the organic permeability ratios for the wild-type mouse receptor shows that (a) the diameter of the narrowest part of the pore is 8.4 A; (b) the mouse receptor departs significantly from size selectivity for monovalent organic cations; and (c) lowering the temperature reduces Pguanidinium/PNa by 38% and Pbutylammonium/PNa more than twofold. The results reinforce present views that positions -1' and 2' are the narrowest part of the pore and suggest that positions 6' and 10' align some permeant organic cations in the pore in an interaction similar to that with channel blocker, QX-222. PMID:1431803

  4. Optical alteration of complex organics induced by ion irradiation:. 1. Laboratory experiments suggest unusual space weathering trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroz, Lyuba; Baratta, Giuseppe; Strazzulla, Giovanni; Starukhina, Larissa; Dotto, Elisabetta; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Arnold, Gabriele; Distefano, Elisa

    2004-07-01

    Most ion irradiation experiments relevant to primitive outer Solar System objects have been performed on ice and silicate targets. Here we present the first ion irradiation experiments performed on natural complex hydrocarbons (asphaltite and kerite). These materials are very dark in the visible and have red-sloped spectra in the visible and near-infrared. They may be comparable in composition and structure to refractory organic solids on the surfaces of primitive outer Solar System objects. We irradiated the samples with 15-400 keV H +, N +, Ar ++, and He + ions and measured their reflectance spectra in the range of 0.3-2.5 ?m before ion implantation and after each irradiation step. The results show that irradiation-induced carbonization gradually neutralizes the spectral slopes of these red organic solids. This implies a similar space weathering trend for the surfaces of airless bodies optically dominated by spectrally red organic components. The reduction of spectral slope was observed in all experiments. Irradiation with 30 keV protons, which transfers energy to the target mostly via electronic (inelastic) collisions, showed lower efficiency than the heavier ions. We found that spectral alteration in our experiments increased with increasing contribution of nuclear versus electronic energy loss. This implies that nuclear (elastic) energy deposition plays an important role in changing the optical properties of irradiated refractory complex hydrocarbon materials. Finally, our results indicated that temperature variations from 40 K to room temperature did not influence the spectral properties of these complex hydrocarbon solids.

  5. Dysfunction of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1a1 Alters Intestinal Bacteria and Bile Acid Metabolism in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B.; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1) is predominantly expressed in liver and is able to transport bile acids (BAs) in vitro. Male Oatp1a1-null mice have increased concentrations of taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA), a secondary BA generated by intestinal bacteria, in both serum and livers. Therefore, in the present study, BA concentrations and intestinal bacteria in wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice were quantified to investigate whether the increase of secondary BAs in Oatp1a1-null mice is due to alterations in intestinal bacteria. The data demonstrate that Oatp1a1-null mice : (1) have similar bile flow and BA concentrations in bile as WT mice; (2) have a markedly different BA composition in the intestinal contents, with a decrease in conjugated BAs and an increase in unconjugated BAs; (3) have BAs in the feces that are more deconjugated, desulfated, 7-dehydroxylated, 3-epimerized, and oxidized, but less 7-epimerized; (4) have 10-fold more bacteria in the small intestine, and 2-fold more bacteria in the large intestine which is majorly due to a 200% increase in Bacteroides and a 30% reduction in Firmicutes; and (5) have a different urinary excretion of bacteria-related metabolites than WT mice. In conclusion, the present study for the first time established that lack of a liver transporter (Oatp1a1) markedly alters the intestinal environment in mice, namely the bacteria composition. PMID:22496825

  6. Elevated temperature alters proteomic responses of individual organisms within a biofilm community.

    PubMed

    Mosier, Annika C; Li, Zhou; Thomas, Brian C; Hettich, Robert L; Pan, Chongle; Banfield, Jillian F

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities that underpin global biogeochemical cycles will likely be influenced by elevated temperature associated with environmental change. Here, we test an approach to measure how elevated temperature impacts the physiology of individual microbial groups in a community context, using a model microbial-based ecosystem. The study is the first application of tandem mass tag (TMT)-based proteomics to a microbial community. We accurately, precisely and reproducibly quantified thousands of proteins in biofilms growing at 40, 43 and 46?°C. Elevated temperature led to upregulation of proteins involved in amino-acid metabolism at the level of individual organisms and the entire community. Proteins from related organisms differed in their relative abundance and functional responses to temperature. Elevated temperature repressed carbon fixation proteins from two Leptospirillum genotypes, whereas carbon fixation proteins were significantly upregulated at higher temperature by a third member of this genus. Leptospirillum group III bacteria may have been subject to viral stress at elevated temperature, which could lead to greater carbon turnover in the microbial food web through the release of viral lysate. Overall, these findings highlight the utility of proteomics-enabled community-based physiology studies, and provide a methodological framework for possible extension to additional mixed culture and environmental sample analyses. PMID:25050524

  7. Origin and alteration of organic matter in termite mounds from different feeding guilds of the Amazon rainforests.

    PubMed

    Siebers, Nina; Martius, Christopher; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Garcia, Marcos V B; Leinweber, Peter; Amelung, Wulf

    2015-01-01

    The impact of termites on nutrient cycling and tropical soil formation depends on their feeding habits and related material transformation. The identification of food sources, however, is difficult, because they are variable and changed by termite activity and nest construction. Here, we related the sources and alteration of organic matter in nests from seven different termite genera and feeding habits in the Terra Firme rainforests to the properties of potential food sources soil, wood, and microepiphytes. Chemical analyses comprised isotopic composition of C and N, cellulosic (CPS), non-cellulosic (NCPS), and N-containing saccharides, and molecular composition screening using pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS). The isotopic analysis revealed higher soil ?13C (-27.4‰) and ?15N (6.6‰) values in nests of wood feeding Nasutitermes and Cornitermes than in wood samples (?13C = -29.1‰, ?15N = 3.4‰), reflecting stable-isotope enrichment with organic matter alterations during or after nest construction. This result was confirmed by elevated NCPS:CPS ratios, indicating a preferential cellulose decomposition in the nests. High portions of muramic acid (MurAc) pointed to the participation of bacteria in the transformation processes. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) revealed increasing geophagy in the sequence Termes < Embiratermes < Anoplotermes and increasing xylophagy for Cornitermes < Nasutitermes., and that the nest material of Constrictotermes was similar to the microepiphytes sample, confirming the report that Constrictotermes belongs to the microepiphyte-feeders. We therewith document that nest chemistry of rainforest termites shows variations and evidence of modification by microbial processes, but nevertheless it primarily reflects the trophic niches of the constructors. PMID:25909987

  8. Origin and Alteration of Organic Matter in Termite Mounds from Different Feeding Guilds of the Amazon Rainforests

    PubMed Central

    Siebers, Nina; Martius, Christopher; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Garcia, Marcos V. B.; Leinweber, Peter; Amelung, Wulf

    2015-01-01

    The impact of termites on nutrient cycling and tropical soil formation depends on their feeding habits and related material transformation. The identification of food sources, however, is difficult, because they are variable and changed by termite activity and nest construction. Here, we related the sources and alteration of organic matter in nests from seven different termite genera and feeding habits in the Terra Firme rainforests to the properties of potential food sources soil, wood, and microepiphytes. Chemical analyses comprised isotopic composition of C and N, cellulosic (CPS), non-cellulosic (NCPS), and N-containing saccharides, and molecular composition screening using pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS). The isotopic analysis revealed higher soil ?13C (-27.4‰) and ?15N (6.6‰) values in nests of wood feeding Nasutitermes and Cornitermes than in wood samples (?13C = -29.1‰, ?15N = 3.4‰), reflecting stable-isotope enrichment with organic matter alterations during or after nest construction. This result was confirmed by elevated NCPS:CPS ratios, indicating a preferential cellulose decomposition in the nests. High portions of muramic acid (MurAc) pointed to the participation of bacteria in the transformation processes. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) revealed increasing geophagy in the sequence Termes < Embiratermes < Anoplotermes and increasing xylophagy for Cornitermes < Nasutitermes, and that the nest material of Constrictotermes was similar to the microepiphytes sample, confirming the report that Constrictotermes belongs to the microepiphyte-feeders. We therewith document that nest chemistry of rainforest termites shows variations and evidence of modification by microbial processes, but nevertheless it primarily reflects the trophic niches of the constructors. PMID:25909987

  9. Hydrothermal alteration of organic matter in uranium ores, Elliot Lake, Canada: Implications for selected organic-rich deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Mossman, D.J. [Mount Allison Univ., Sackville (Canada)] [Mount Allison Univ., Sackville (Canada); Nagy, B. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States)] [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States); Davis, D.W. [Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-07-01

    Organic matter in the uraniferous Matinenda Formation, Elliot Lake, is preserved in the forms of syngenetic kerogen and solid bitumen as it is in many of the Oklo uranium deposits and in the Witwatersrand gold-uranium ores. The Elliot Lake kerogen is a vitrinite-like material considered to be remnants of the Precambrian cyanobacterial mats. The kerogen at Elliot Lake has reflectances (in oil) ranging from 2.63-7.31% RO{sub max}, high aromaticity, relatively low (0.41-0.60) atomic H/C ratios, and it contains cryptocrystalline graphite. Bitumen, present primarily as dispersed globules (up to 0.5 mm dia.), has reflectances from 0.72-1.32% RO{sub max}, atomic H/C ratios of 0.71-0.81, and is somewhat less aromatic than the kerogen. Overall similarity in molecular compositions indicates that liquid bitumen was derived from kerogen by processes similar to hydrous pyrolysis. The carbon isotopic composition of kerogen ({minus}15.62 to {minus}24.72%), and the now solid bitumen ({minus}25.91 to {minus}33.00%) are compatible with these processes. Despite having been subjected to several thermal episodes, ca. 2.45 Ga old kerogen of microbiological origin here survived as testimony of the antiquity of life on Earth. U-Pb isotopic data from discrete kerogen grains at Elliot Lake form a scattered array intersecting concordia at 2130 {+-} 100 Ma, correspond to the Nipissing event. U-Pb systems were totally reset by this event. Uranium and lead show subsequently partial mobility, the average of which is indicated by the lower concordia intersect of 550 {+-} 260 Ma. The migrated bitumen contains virtually no uranium and thorium but has a large excess of {sup 206}Pb, which indicates that the once liquid bitumen must have acted as a sink for mobile intermediate decay products of {sup 238}U. Emplacement of the Nipissing diabase may have been responsible for producing the bitumen and, indirectly, for its enrichment in {sup 206}Pb as a result of outgassing of {sup 222}Rn.

  10. How reservoirs alter drinking water quality: Organic matter sources, sinks, and transformations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Hernes, Peter J.; Doctor, Daniel H.; Kendall, Carol; Downing, Bryan D.; Losee, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Within reservoirs, production, transformation, and loss of dissolved organic matter (DOM) occur simultaneously. While the balance between production and loss determines whether a reservoir is a net sink or source of DOM, changes in chemical composition are also important because they affect DOM reactivity with respect to disinfection by-product (DBP) formation. The composition of the DOM pool also provides insight into DOM sources and processing, which can inform reservoir management. We examined the concentration and composition of DOM in San Luis Reservoir, a large off-stream impoundment of the California State Water Project. We used a wide array of DOM chemical tracers including dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, trihalomethane and haloacetic acid formation potentials (THMFP and HAAFP, respectively), absorbance properties, isotopic composition, lignin phenol content, and structural groupings determined by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). There were periods when the reservoir was a net source of DOC due to the predominance of algal production (summer), a net sink due to the predominance of degradation (fall–winter), and balanced between production and consumption (spring). Despite only moderate variation in bulk DOC concentration (3.0–3.6 mg C/L), changes in DOM composition indicated that terrestrial-derived material entering the reservoir was being degraded and replaced by aquatic-derived DOM produced within the reservoir. Substantial changes in the propensity of the DOM pool to form THMs and HAAs illustrate that the DBP precursor pool was not directly coupled to bulk DOC concentration and indicate that algal production is an important source of DBP precursors. Results suggest reservoirs have the potential to attenuate DOM amount and reactivity with respect to DBP precursors via degradative processes; however, these benefits can be decreased or even negated by the production of algal-derived DOM.

  11. Actions of adiponectin on the excitability of subfornical organ neurons are altered by food deprivation.

    PubMed

    Alim, Ishraq; Fry, W Mark; Walsh, Michael H; Ferguson, Alastair V

    2010-05-12

    Adiponectin (ADP) is a peptide produced by adipose tissue, which acts as an insulin sensitizing hormone. Recent studies have shown that adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) are present in the CNS, and although adiponectin does appear in both circulation and the cerebrospinal fluid there is still some debate as to whether or not ADP crosses the blood brain barrier (BBB). Circumventricular organs (CVO) are CNS sites which lack normal BBB, and thus represent sites at which circulating adiponectin may act to directly influence the CNS. The subfornical organ (SFO) is a CVO that has been implicated in the regulation of energy balance as a consequence of the ability of SFO neurons to respond to a number of different circulating satiety signals including amylin, CCK, PYY and ghrelin. Our recent microarray analysis suggested the presence of adiponectin receptors in the SFO. We report here that the SFO shows a high density of mRNA for both adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2), and that ADP influences the excitability of dissociated SFO neurons. Separate subpopulations of SFO neurons were either depolarized (8.9+/-0.9 mV, 21 of 97 cells), or hyperpolarized (-8.0+/-0.5 mV, 34 of 97 cells), by bath application of 10nM ADP, effects which were concentration dependent and reversible. Our microarray analysis also suggested that 48 h of food deprivation resulted in specific increases in AdipoR2 mRNA expression (no effect on AdipoR1 mRNA), observations which we confirm here using real-time PCR techniques. The effects of food deprivation also resulted in a change in the responsiveness of SFO neurons to adiponectin with 77% (8/11) of cells tested responding to adiponectin with depolarization, while no hyperpolarizations were observed. These observations support the concept that the SFO may be a key player in sensing circulating ADP and transmitting such information to critical CNS sites involved in the regulation of energy balance. PMID:20206611

  12. A variant of Rubus yellow net virus with altered genomic organization.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Lara, Alfredo; Mosier, Nola J; Keller, Karen E; Martin, Robert R

    2015-02-01

    Rubus yellow net virus (RYNV) is a member of the genus Badnavirus (family: Caulimoviridae). RYNV infects Rubus species causing chlorosis of the tissue along the leaf veins, giving an unevenly distributed netted symptom in some cultivars of red and black raspberry. Recently, a strain of RYNV was sequenced from a Rubus idaeus plant in Alberta, Canada, exhibiting such symptoms. The viral genome contained seven open reading frames (ORFs) with five of them in the sense-strand, including a large polyprotein. Here we describe a graft-transmissible strain of RYNV from Europe infecting cultivar 'Baumforth's Seedling A' (named RYNV-BS), which was sequenced using rolling circle amplification, enzymatic digestion, cloning and primer walking, and it was resequenced at a 5X coverage. This sequence was then compared with the RYNV-Ca genome and significant differences were observed. Genomic analysis identified differences in the arrangement of coding regions, promoter elements, and presence of motifs. The genomic organization of RYNV-BS consisted of five ORFs (four ORFs in the sense-strand and one ORF in the antisense-strand). ORFs 1, 2, and 3 showed a high degree of homology to RYNV-Ca, while ORFs 4 and 6 of RYNV-BS were quite distinct. Also, the predicted ORFs 5 and 7 in the RYNV-Ca were absent in the RYNV-BS sequence. These differences may account for the lack of aphid transmissibility of RYNV-BS. PMID:25480633

  13. Trends in the organization and financing of livestock and animal health services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tjaart W. Schillhorn van Veen; Cees de Haan

    1995-01-01

    The world wide avalanche of change related to new political and economic paradigms has also affected animal agriculture. Changing views and objectives with respect to government support for agriculture in OECD countries, economic changes in Latin American and Africa countries, the GATT process and outcome, and interest in an ecosystems approach towards agriculture, are leading to a rethinking of the

  14. Endoplasmic reticulum of animal cells and its organization into structural and functional domains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otto Baumann; Bernd Walz

    2001-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in animal cells is an extensive, morphologically continuous network of membrane tubules and flattened cisternae. The ER is a multifunctional organelle; the synthesis of membrane lipids, membrane and secretory proteins, and the regulation of intracellular calcium are prominent among its array of functions. Many of these functions are not homogeneously distributed throughout the ER but rather

  15. Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation

    E-print Network

    Treuille, Adrien

    #12;Traditional Animation: The Process · Story board ­ Sequence of drawings with descriptions ­ Story board ­ Animatic ­ Final Animation #12;Traditional Animation: The Process · Key Frames ­ Draw a fewAnimation Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward

  16. Altered profile and D2-dopamine receptor modulation of high voltage-activated calcium current in striatal medium spiny neurons from animal models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Martella, G; Madeo, G; Schirinzi, T; Tassone, A; Sciamanna, G; Spadoni, F; Stefani, A; Shen, J; Pisani, A; Bonsi, P

    2011-03-17

    In the present work we analyzed the profile of high voltage-activated (HVA) calcium (Ca2+) currents in freshly isolated striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) from rodent models of both idiopathic and familial forms of Parkinson's disease (PD). MSNs were recorded from reserpine-treated and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats, and from DJ-1 and PINK1 (PTEN induced kinase 1) knockout (-/-) mice. Our analysis showed no significant changes in total HVA Ca2+ current. However, we recorded a net increase in the L-type fraction of HVA Ca2+ current in dopamine-depleted rats, and of both N- and P-type components in DJ-1-/- mice, whereas no significant change in Ca2+ current profile was observed in PINK1-/- mice. Dopamine modulates HVA Ca2+ channels in MSNs, thus we also analyzed the effect of D1 and D2 receptor activation. The effect of the D1 receptor agonist SKF 83822 on Ca2+ current was not significantly different among MSNs from control animals or PD models. However, in both dopamine-depleted rats and DJ-1-/- mice the D2 receptor agonist quinpirole inhibited a greater fraction of HVA Ca2+ current than in the respective controls. Conversely, in MSNs from PINK1-/- mice we did not observe alterations in the effect of D2 receptor activation. Additionally, in both reserpine-treated and 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, the effect of quinpirole was occluded by the selective L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine, while in DJ-1-/- mice it was mostly occluded by ?-conotoxin GVIA, blocker of N-type channels. These results demonstrate that both dopamine depletion and DJ-1 deletion induce a rearrangement in the HVA Ca2+ channel profile, specifically involving those channels that are selectively modulated by D2 receptors. PMID:21195752

  17. Regulatory and Biosafety Issues in Relation to Transgenic Animals in Food and Agriculture, Feeds Containing Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) and Veterinary Biologics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. P. S. Kochhar; G. A. Gifford; S. Kahn

    Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are new organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation and biosafety of

  18. Chloral hydrate alters the organization of the ciliary basal apparatus and cell organelles in sea urchin embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, A.; Schatten, H.; Mitchell, K. D.; Crosser, M.; Taylor, M.

    1998-01-01

    The mitotic inhibitor, chloral hydrate, induces ciliary loss in the early embryo phase of Lytechinus pictus. It causes a breakdown of cilia at the junction of the cilium and the basal body known as the basal plate. This leaves the plasma membrane temporarily unsealed. The basal apparatus accessory structures, consisting of the basal body, basal foot, basal foot cap, striated side arm, and striated rootlet, are either misaligned or disintegrated by treatment with chloral hydrate. Furthermore, microtubules which are associated with the basal apparatus are disassembled. Mitochondria accumulate at the base of cilia - underneath the plasma membrane - and show alterations in their structural organization. The accumulation of mitochondria is observed in 40% of all electron micrograph sections while 60% show the areas mostly devoid of mitochondria. The microvilli surrounding a cilium and striated rootlet remain intact in the presence of chloral hydrate. These results suggest that deciliation in early sea urchin embryos by chloral hydrate is caused by combined effects on the ciliary membrane and on microtubules in the cilia. Furthermore, it is suggested that chloral hydrate can serve as a tool to explore the cytoskeletal mechanisms that are involved in cilia motility in the developing sea urchin embryo.

  19. Effect of K-diformate in starter diets on acidity, microbiota, and the amount of organic acids in the digestive tract of piglets, and on gastric alterations.

    PubMed

    Canibe, N; Steien, S H; Overland, M; Jensen, B B

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the effect of K-diformate on the intraluminal pH, microbial composition in digesta and feces, organic acids along the digestive tract, and alterations of the gastric epithelium of pigs. Pigs (n = 36) weaned at 28 d of age were allotted to two groups and fed without (control diet) or with 1.8% supplemental K-diformate. Fecal samples were taken from the rectum on d 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 postweaning. Half of the animals from each group were killed on d 7 and the other half on d 29 postweaning. Growth performance was not different for both groups (P > or = 0.73). The gastric epithelium was not negatively affected by K-diformate (P = 0.25). Potassium-diformate decreased (P < or = 0.04) or tended to decrease (P < or = 0.10) the counts of total anaerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts in feces and digesta samples from the stomach, distal small intestine, cecum, and middle segment of the colon. The pH along the gastrointestinal tract of piglets was not affected by K-diformate (P > or = 0.30). On d 7, the concentration of lactic acid along the gastrointestinal tract was similar with both diets (P = 0.15). On d 29, the concentrations of lactic acid tended to be lower along the small intestine (P < or = 0.08) and the stomach (P = 0.11) of the pigs fed K-diformate. Formic acid in digesta was detected at significant levels only in the distal segment of the small intestine of the control pigs (from 4 to 11 mmol/kg of wet digesta), whereas considerable amounts were measured in the stomach (from 23 to 40 mmol/kg of wet digesta) and all segments of the small intestine (from 7 to 25 mmol/kg of wet digesta) in the K-diformate-fed pigs on both days. On d 7, pigs fed the K-diformate diet had a tendency (P < or = 0.08) to have higher concentrations of organic acids (acetic + propionic + butyric) in the digesta of the distal small intestine, cecum, and proximal colon. On d 29, both groups had similar concentrations of these acids, irrespective of the segment of the gastrointestinal tract (P = 0.95). Our study showed that the addition of K-diformate to a starter diet for piglets decreased total anaerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, coliforms, and yeasts in feces and in digesta from various segments of the gastrointestinal tract, without affecting the gastric or intestinal pH. PMID:11518221

  20. [The lipid peroxidation system in the organism of experimental animals after exposure to cyclic hydrocarbons].

    PubMed

    Shakirov, D F; Enikeev, D A

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of the amounts of diene conjugates, malonic dialdehyde, and Schiff's bases, which are molecular LPO products in the tissues of the lung, liver, kidney in animals exposed to 4-hour inhalation of cyclic hydrocarbons (pyromellitic dianhydride, durol, pseudocumene, and dioxane-1,4). Exposure to ecotoxicants at concentrations of 10 and 1 mg/m3 was found to result in the accumulation of initial, intermediate, and final molecular LPO products. These changes were recorded only after exposure to pseudocumene and dioxane vapors in a dose of 0.1 mg/m3 and after inhalation of dioxane-1,4 vapors in a dose of 0.01 mg/m3. PMID:12652942

  1. Animal and Plant Cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    wlcounts

    2012-04-04

    What are the similarities and differences between plant cells and animal cells? Use the graphic organizer. Graphic Organizer Go here and look at the diagram. Make notes about the anatomy of an animal cell in your graphic organizer. Anatomy of an Animal Cell Go to this website and explore the typical animal cell. Press start and interact with the model. Typical Animal Cell Take the plant cell tutorial with this link. Interact ...

  2. The effect of dynamic factors of space flight on animal organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genin, A. M. (editor)

    1979-01-01

    Physiological, biochemical and morphological studies made on the Cosmos-782 biosatellite are presented. Rats, which were exposed on the biosatellite for 19.5 days, were examined immediately after completion of the flight and also during the 25 day period of readaptation to earth's conditions. The effect of factors of space flight, primarily weightlessness, on the organism was investigated for all systems of the body.

  3. Enzymic hydrolysis of animal fats in organic solvents at temperatures below their melting points

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Virto; Jose Miguel Lascaray; Rodolfo Solozabal; Mertxe de Renobales

    1991-01-01

    Lipase fromCandida rugosa catalyzed the hydrolysis of inedible beef tallow and pork lard (edible and inedible) in the presence of organic solvents\\u000a at temperatures below the melting point of the fat. Reactions were carried out at 50% substrate with 180 lipase units per\\u000a gram of fat in a two-liter reactor. In the presence of isooctane (5-10%) beef tallow yielded 94%

  4. Spatial Organization in Protein Kinase A Signaling Emerged at the Base of Animal Evolution.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mao; Aye, Thin Thin; Snel, Berend; van Breukelen, Bas; Scholten, Arjen; Heck, Albert J R

    2015-07-01

    In phosphorylation-directed signaling, spatial and temporal control is organized by complex interaction networks that diligently direct kinases toward distinct substrates to fine-tune specificity. How these protein networks originate and evolve into complex regulatory machineries are among the most fascinating research questions in biology. Here, spatiotemporal signaling is investigated by tracing the evolutionary dynamics of each functional domain of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and its diverse set of A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). Homologues of the catalytic (PKA-C) and regulatory (PKA-R) domains of the (PKA-R)2-(PKA-C)2 holoenzyme were found throughout evolution. Most variation was observed in the RIIa of PKA-R, crucial for dimerization and docking to AKAPs. The RIIa domain was not observed in all PKA-R homologues. In the fungi and distinct protist lineages, the RIIa domain emerges within PKA-R, but it displays large sequence variation. These organisms do not harbor homologues of AKAPs, suggesting that efficient docking to direct spatiotemporal PKA activity evolved in multicellular eukaryotes. To test this in silico hypothesis, we experimentally screened organisms with increasing complexity by cAMP-based chemical proteomics to reveal that the occurrence of PKA-AKAP interactions indeed coincided and expanded within vertebrates, suggesting a crucial role for AKAPs in the advent of metazoan multicellularity. PMID:26066639

  5. Environmentally alterable additive genetic effects Root Gorelick*

    E-print Network

    Gorelick, Root

    Environmentally alterable additive genetic effects Root Gorelick* School of Life Sciences, Arizona environmentally alterable additive genetic variance confounds prediction of evolutionary trajectories, but (1 phenotypically plastic than animals. Conclusion: Environmentally alterable additive genetic effects place

  6. Effect of K-diformate in starter diets on acidity microbiota and the amount of organic acids in the digestive tract of piglets and on gastric alterations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Canibe; S. H. Steien; M. Overland; B. B. Jensen; M. Øverland

    ABSTRACT: The aim,of this investigation,was,to study the effect of K-diformate on the intraluminal pH, microbial composition in digesta and feces, organic acids along the digestive tract, and alterations of the gastric epithelium,of pigs. Pigs (n = 36) weaned,at 28 d of age were,allotted to two groups,and,fed without (control diet) or with 1.8% supplemental,K-diformate. Fecal samples were taken from the rectum

  7. 34. EXTENTS AND IMPLICATIONS OF ORGANIC MATTER ALTERATION AT OXIDATION FRONTS IN TURBIDITES FROM THE MADEIRA ABYSSAL PLAIN 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory Cowie; Stephen Calvert; Gert De Lange; Richard Keil; John Hedges

    Organic geochemical, stable N isotope, and mineral surface area analyses were made on samples spanning oxidation fronts at the tops of organic matter-rich turbidites from Sites 951 and 952 on the Madeira Abyssal Plain (MAP), off northwest Africa. These oxidation fronts permit the isolation of the effects of oxygen exposure on sedimentary organic matter preservation. Organic matter contents of the

  8. Standardization of flux chamber and wind tunnel flux measurements for quantifying volatile organic compound and ammonia emissions from area sources at animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of wind tunnels and flux chambers have been used to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and ammonia (NH3) at animal feeding operations (AFO). However, there has been little regard to the extreme variation and potential inaccuracies caused by inappropriate air velocity or sw...

  9. Organization of the Antiseptic Resistance Gene qacA and Tn552Related  Lactamase Genes in Multidrug- Resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus Strains of Animal and Human Origins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I.-L. Anthonisen; M. Sunde; T. M. Steinum; M. S. Sidhu; H. Sorum

    2002-01-01

    A part (12 kb) of a plasmid containing the -lactamase genes of Tn552, the disinfectant resistance gene qacA, and flanking DNA has been cloned from a Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolate and sequenced. This region was used to map the corresponding regions in six other multiresistant S. haemolyticus isolates of human and animal origin. The organizations of the genetic structures were almost

  10. Cardiovascular Physiology Teaching: Computer Simulations vs. Animal Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samsel, Richard W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    At the introductory level, the computer provides an effective alternative to using animals for laboratory teaching. Computer software can simulate the operation of multiple organ systems. Advantages of software include alteration of variables that are not easily changed in vivo, repeated interventions, and cost-effective hands-on student access.…

  11. Animal Cell Mitosis Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    This animation demonstrates the stages of mitosis in an animal cell. Use the control buttons in the upper left to run the complete animation. Click on any intermediate stage (for example, Anaphase), and see a representative still frame.

  12. Collagen Content in Skin and Internal Organs of the Tight Skin Mouse: An Animal Model of Scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    Markova, Marina; Siracusa, Linda D.; Jimenez, Sergio A.

    2013-01-01

    The Tight Skin mouse is a genetically induced animal model of tissue fibrosis caused by a large in-frame mutation in the gene encoding fibrillin-1 (Fbn-1). We examined the influence of gender on the collagen content of tissues in C57BL/6J wild type (+/+) and mutant Tight Skin (Tsk/+) mice employing hydroxyproline assays. Tissue sections were stained with Masson's trichrome to identify collagen in situ. Adult Tsk/+ mice skin contains ~15% more collagen, on average, than skin from +/+ mice of the same gender. The heart of Tsk/+ males had significantly more collagen than that of +/+ males. No significant gender differences were found in lungs and kidney collagen content. Overall, the collagen content of Tsk/+ males and +/+ males was higher than that of their Tsk/+ and +/+ female counterparts, respectively. Our data confirm increased deposition of collagen in skin and hearts of Tsk/+ mice; however, the effects of the Tsk mutation on collagen content are both tissue specific and gender specific. These results indicate that comparative studies of collagen content between normal and Tsk/+ mice skin and internal organs must take into account gender differences caused by expression of the androgen receptor. PMID:24260716

  13. Is It an Animal?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Francis Eberle

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about animals. The probe specifically seeks to find out what characteristics students use to determine whether an organism is classified as an animal.

  14. Aquatic Animal Skeleton - Ribcage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; )

    2007-07-15

    The main purpose of an aquatic animal's ribcage is to protect its inner organs, such as the heart, from damage or injury. The ribcage is connected to the backbone of the animal and is made of mostly bone.

  15. Performance of commercial nonmethane hydrocarbon analyzers in monitoring oxygenated volatile organic compounds emitted from animal feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Trabue, Steven; Scoggin, Kenwood; McConnell, Laura L; Li, Hong; Turner, Andrew; Burns, Robert; Xin, Hongwei; Gates, Richard S; Hasson, Alam; Ogunjemiyo, Segun; Maghirang, Ronaldo; Hatfield, Jerry

    2013-10-01

    Quantifying non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) from animal feeding operations (AFOs) is challenging due to the broad spectrum of compounds and the polar nature of the most abundant compounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of commercial NMHC analyzers for measuring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) commonly emitted from AFOs. Three different NMHC analyzers were tested for response to laboratory generated VOCs, and two were tested in the field at a commercial poultry facility. The NMHC analyzers tested included gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID), photoacoustic infrared (PA-IR) and photoionization detector (PID). The GC/FID NHHC analyzer was linear in response to nonpolar compounds, but detector response to polar oxygenated compounds were lower than expected due to poor peak shape on the column. The PA-IR NMHC instrument responded well to the calibration standard (propane), methanol, and acetone, but it performed poorly with larger alcohols and ketones and acetonitrile. The PA-IR response varied between compounds in similar compound classes. The PID responded poorly to many of the most abundant VOCs at AFOs, and it underreported alcohols by > 70%. In the field monitoring study, total NMHC concentrations were calculated from sum total of VOC determined using EPA Methods TO-15 and TO-17 with GC-MS compared to results from NMHC analyzers. NMHC GC/FID values were greater than the values calculated from the individual compound measurements. This indicated the presence of small hydrocarbons not measured with TO-15 or TO-17 such as propane. The PA-IR response was variable, but it was always lower than the GC/FID response. Results suggest that improved approaches are needed to accurately determine the VOC profile and NMHC emission rates from AFOs. PMID:24282968

  16. Methods for study of cardiovascular adaptation of small laboratory animals during exposure to altered gravity. [hypothermia for cardiovascular control and cancer therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popovic, V.

    1973-01-01

    Several new techniques are reported for studying cardiovascular circulation in small laboratory animals kept in metabolic chambers. Chronical cannulation, miniaturized membrane type heart-lung machines, a prototype walking chamber, and a fluorocarbon immersion method to simulate weightlessness are outlined. Differential hypothermia work on rat cancers provides localized embedding of radionuclides and other chemotherapeutical agents in tumors and increases at the same time blood circulation through the warmed tumor as compared to the rest of the cold body. Some successful clinical applications of combined chemotherapy and differential hypothermia in skin cancer, mammary tumors, and brain gliomas are described.

  17. Alterations of the cerebrospinal fluid proteins and subcommissural organ secretion in the arterial hypertension and ventricular dilatation. A study in SHR rats.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Peña y Valenzuela, I; Carmona-Calero, E M; Pérez-González, H; Ormazabal-Ramos, C; Fernández-Rodríguez, P; González-Marrero, I; Castañeyra-Perdomo, A; Ferres-Torres, R

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of spontaneously hypertensive rats, to study their possible role in the relationship between hydrocephalus, arterial hypertension and alterations in the subcommissural organ. Brains from control Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) sacrificed with chloral hydrate were used. Antiserums against some cerebrospinal fluid protein bands and Reissner's fiber (RF) were used for immunohistochemical study of the SCO. Ventricular dilation was observed in the lateral and third ventricle of the SHR. Third ventricle ependyma showed immunoreactive material (IRM) for antibody against 141 kDa protein band anti-B1 and 117 protein band anti-B2 and the SCO of the SHR showed a decrease of the IRM when compared with WKY rats. An alteration in the expression of anti-RF was found to compare the SCO of the WKY and SHR groups. Our results demonstrate that hydrocephalus and hypertension are interconnected in this kind of rat which produce alterations in SCO secretions and some proteins of the CSF. PMID:16329042

  18. Thermally-induced structural and chemical alteration of organic-walled microfossils: an experimental approach to understanding fossil preservation in metasediments.

    PubMed

    Schiffbauer, J D; Wallace, A F; Hunter, J L; Kowalewski, M; Bodnar, R J; Xiao, S

    2012-09-01

    The identification and confirmation of bona fide Archean-Paleoproterozoic microfossils can prove to be a challenging task, further compounded by diagenetic and metamorphic histories. While structures of likely biological origin are not uncommon in Precambrian rocks, the search for early fossil life has been disproportionately focused on lesser thermally altered rocks, typically greenschist or lower-grade metamorphism. Recently, however, an increasing number of inferred micro- and macrofossils have been reported from higher-grade metasediments, prompting us to experimentally test and quantify the preservability of organic-walled microfossils over varying durations of controlled heating and under two differing redox conditions. Because of their relatively low-intensity natural thermal alteration, acritarchs from the Mesoproterozoic Ruyang Group were chosen as subjects for experimental heating at approximately 500°C, with durations ranging from 1 to 250 days and in both oxic (normal present day conditions) and anoxic conditions. Upon extraction, the opacity, reflectivity, color, microchemistry, and microstructures of the heated acritarchs were characterized using optic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results differ for acritarchs prepared under oxic vs. anoxic conditions, with the anoxic replicates surviving experimental heating longer and retaining biological morphologies better, despite an increasing degree of carbonization with continuous heating. Conversely, the oxic replicates show aggressive degradation. In conjunction with fossils from high-grade metasediments, our data illustrate the preservational potential of organic-walled microfossils subjected to metamorphism in reducing conditions, offer insights into the search for microfossils in metasediments, and help to elucidate the influence of time on the carbonization/graphitization processes during thermal alteration. PMID:22607551

  19. Structural alteration of the metal-organic pyrogallol[4]arene nano-capsule motif by incorporation of large metal centres.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ping; Kumari, Harshita; Kennedy, Stuart; Barnes, Charles L; Teat, Simon J; Dalgarno, Scott J; Atwood, Jerry L

    2014-05-01

    Addition of cadmium(II) nitrate to gallium-coordinated metal-organic C-alkylpyrogallol[4]arene nano-capsules affords a variation of the near spherical hexamer motif, structural changes in which are induced by the markedly different nature of the secondary incorporated metal. PMID:24667819

  20. PAPER www.rsc.org/pps | Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences Alteration of chromophoric dissolved organic matter by solar UV radiation

    E-print Network

    Sommaruga, Ruben

    ) on bacterial abundance, activity and community composition in a coastal lagoon of the Atlantic Ocean with high degradation is accelerated when this pool is exposed to UVR.6 In these ecosystems, the coupled photochemical and microbial degradation of CDOM is thought to be an important sink for organic carbon carried by rivers.7

  1. Artificial Animals for Computer Animation

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    animals. We create self-animating, autonomous agents which emulate the realistic appearance, movementArtificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics, Locomotion, Perception, and Behavior ¡ Xiaoyuan Tu 1996 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12;Artificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics

  2. PHOTOCHEMICAL ALTERATION OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER: EFFECTS ON THE CONCENTRATION AND ACIDITIES OF IONIZABLE SITES IN DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN THE SATILLA RIVER OF GEORGIA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acid-base properties of humic substances, the major component of dissolved organic matter (DOM), area major control on the alkalinity, or acid neutralizing capacity of freshwater systems. Alkalinity is one of the fundamental parameters measured in aquatic sciences, and is an ...

  3. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus preferentially alters the translational profile of striatopallidal neurons in an animal model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Visanji, Naomi P.; Kamali Sarvestani, Iman; Creed, Meaghan C.; Shams Shoaei, Zahra; Nobrega, José N.; Hamani, Clement; Hazrati, Lili-Naz

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) is an effective surgical treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), the precise neuronal mechanisms of which both at molecular and network levels remain a topic of debate. Here we employ two transgenic mouse lines, combining translating ribosomal affinity purification (TRAP) with bacterial artificial chromosome expression (Bac), to selectively identify changes in translational gene expression in either Drd1a-expressing striatonigral or Drd2-expressing striatopallidal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum following STN-DBS. 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned mice received either 5 days stimulation via a DBS electrode implanted in the ipsilateral STN or 5 days sham treatment (no stimulation). Striatal polyribosomal RNA was selectively purified from either Drd2 or Drd1a MSNs using the TRAP method and gene expression profiling performed. We identified eight significantly altered genes in Drd2 MSNs (Vps33b, Ppp1r3c, Mapk4, Sorcs2, Neto1, Abca1, Penk1, and Gapdh) and two overlapping genes in Drd1a MSNs (Penk1 and Ppp1r3c) implicated in the molecular mechanisms of STN-DBS. A detailed functional analysis, using a further 728 probes implicated in STN-DBS, suggested an increased ability to receive excitation (mediated by increased dendritic spines, increased calcium influx and enhanced excitatory post synaptic potentials) accompanied by processes that would hamper the initiation of action potentials, transport of neurotransmitters from soma to axon terminals and vesicular release in Drd2-expressing MSNs. Finally, changes in expression of several genes involved in apoptosis as well as cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism were also identified. This increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms induced by STN-DBS may reveal novel targets for future non-surgical therapies for PD.

  4. Zearalenone Altered the Serum Hormones, Morphologic and Apoptotic Measurements of Genital Organs in Post-weaning Gilts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X. X.; Yang, C. W.; Huang, L. B.; Niu, Q. S.; Jiang, S. Z.; Chi, F.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the adverse effects of dietary zearalenone (ZEA) (1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg diet) on serum hormones, morphologic and apoptotic measurements of genital organs in post-weaning gilts. A total of twenty gilts (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc) weaned at 21 d with an average body weight of 10.36±1.21 kg were used in the study. Gilts were fed a basal diet with an addition of 0, 1.1, 2.0, or 3.2 mg/kg purified ZEA for 18 d ad libitum. Results showed that 3.2 mg/kg ZEA challenged gilts decreased (p<0.05) the serum levels of luteinizing hormone, however, serum levels of prolactin in gilts fed the diet containing 2.0 mg/kg ZEA or more were increased (p<0.05) compared to those in the control. Linear effects on all tested serum hormones except progesterone were observed as dietary ZEA levels increased (p<0.05). Gilts fed ZEA-contaminated diet showed increase (p<0.05) in genital organs size, hyperplasia of submucosal smooth muscles in the corpus uteri in a dose-dependent manner. However, the decreased numbers of follicles in the cortex and apoptotic cells in the ovarian were observed in gilts treated with ZEA in a dose-dependent manner. Degeneration and structural abnormalities of genital organs tissues were also observed in the gilts fed diet containing 1.1 mg/kg ZEA or more. Results suggested that dietary ZEA at 1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg can induce endocrine disturbance and damage genital organs in post-weaning gilts. PMID:25557812

  5. Mutations in M2 alter the selectivity of the mouse nicotinic acetylcholine receptor for organic and alkali metal cations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRUCE N. COHEN; CESAR LABARCA; NORMAN DAVIDSON; HENRY A. LESTER

    1992-01-01

    We measured the permeability ratios (Px\\/PNa) of 3 wild-type, 1 hybrid, 2 subunit-deficient, and 22 mutant nicotinic receptors expressed in Xen0pus oocytes for alkali metal and organic cations using shifts in the biionic reversal potential of the macroscopic current. Mutations at three positions (2', 6', 10') in M2 affected ion selectivity. Mutations at position 2' (t~Thr244, 13Gly255, ~\\/Thr253, 8Ser258) near

  6. Animal Tracks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For those of us living in Northern climates, when winter snow covers the landscape it provides great conditions to search for animal tracks. The following websites provide an abundance of information and resources about the ancient art of animal tracking.The first site(1 ), Beartracker's Animal Tracks Den, is an excellent comprehensive "online field guide to tracks and tracking." The site includes animal track images, photos, as well as information about mammals, reptiles, birds, insects, amphibians, and other tracking resources. The second site (2), is an article by Jon C. Boren, Extension Wildlife Specialist and Byron D. Wright, Agricultural Specialist both from the University of New Mexico entitled Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks. The third site (3), on Tracking and Stalking Wildlife, comes from The Virtual Cub Scout Leader's Handbook and provides short information pages on a variety on animals including photos and images of tracks. The fourth site (4) is a well-organized lesson plan with activities on Animal Signs from Eagle Bluff Environmental Learning Center. The fifth site (5) is the Outdoor Action Guide to Animal Tracking by Rick Curtis of Princeton University. This website provides solid and detailed information on many aspects of animal tracking including parts of a track, pattern classification, aging tracks, and more. The sixth site (6) is an article by veteran tracker Jim Halfpenny, Ph.D. about how to determine the accurate track size for an animal. Site visitors can link from this article to the homepage for A Naturalist's World which has information about tracking classes offered in various North American locations. For anyone interested in developing their animal tracking skills, the final two websites also offer courses from very experienced trackers in different regions of North America. The seventh site (7), Tom Brown's Tracker School is the largest school of its kind with locations in New Jersey, California, and Florida. The eighth site, (8) Wilderness Awareness School is located in Washington but offers courses in other regions as well. This website also provides an extensive list of links for many other tracking resources.

  7. A Nutrient-Driven tRNA Modification Alters Translational Fidelity and Genome-wide Protein Coding across an Animal Genus

    PubMed Central

    Zaborske, John M.; Bauer DuMont, Vanessa L.; Wallace, Edward W. J.; Pan, Tao; Aquadro, Charles F.; Drummond, D. Allan

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection favors efficient expression of encoded proteins, but the causes, mechanisms, and fitness consequences of evolved coding changes remain an area of aggressive inquiry. We report a large-scale reversal in the relative translational accuracy of codons across 12 fly species in the Drosophila/Sophophora genus. Because the reversal involves pairs of codons that are read by the same genomically encoded tRNAs, we hypothesize, and show by direct measurement, that a tRNA anticodon modification from guanosine to queuosine has coevolved with these genomic changes. Queuosine modification is present in most organisms but its function remains unclear. Modification levels vary across developmental stages in D. melanogaster, and, consistent with a causal effect, genes maximally expressed at each stage display selection for codons that are most accurate given stage-specific queuosine modification levels. In a kinetic model, the known increased affinity of queuosine-modified tRNA for ribosomes increases the accuracy of cognate codons while reducing the accuracy of near-cognate codons. Levels of queuosine modification in D. melanogaster reflect bioavailability of the precursor queuine, which eukaryotes scavenge from the tRNAs of bacteria and absorb in the gut. These results reveal a strikingly direct mechanism by which recoding of entire genomes results from changes in utilization of a nutrient. PMID:25489848

  8. Altered organ accumulation of oligonucleotides using polyethyleneimine grafted with poly(ethylene oxide) or pluronic as carriers.

    PubMed

    Ochietti, B; Guérin, N; Vinogradov, S V; St-Pierre, Y; Lemieux, P; Kabanov, A V; Alakhov, V Yu

    2002-03-01

    Passive targeting provides a simple strategy based on natural properties of the carriers to deliver DNA molecules to desired compartments. Polyethylenimine (PEI) is a potent non-viral system that has been known to deliver efficiently both plasmids and oligonucleotides (ODNs) in vitro. However, in vivo systemic administration of DNA/PEI complexes has encountered significant difficulties because these complexes are toxic and have low biodistribution in target tissues. This study evaluates PEI grafted with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO(8K)-g-PEI(2K)) and PEI grafted with non-ionic amphiphilic block copolymer, Pluronic P85 (P85-g-PEI(2K)) as carriers for systemic delivery of ODNs. Following i.v. injection an antisense ODN formulated with PEO(8K)-g-PEI(2K) accumulated mainly in kidneys, while the same ODN formulated with P85-g-PEI(2K) was found almost exclusively in the liver. Furthermore, in the case of the animals injected with the P85-g-PEI(2K)-based complexes most of the ODN was found in hepatocytes, while only a minor portion of ODN was found in the lymphocyte/monocyte populations. The results of this study suggest that formulating ODN with PEO(8K)-g-PEI(2K) and P85-g-PEI(2K) carriers allows targeting of the ODN to the liver or kidneys, respectively. The variation in the tissue distribution of ODN observed with the two carriers is probably due to the different hydrophilic-lipophilic balance of the polyether chains grafted to PEI in these molecules. Therefore, polyether-grafted PEI carriers provide a simple way to enhance ODN accumulation in a desired compartment without the need of a specific targeting moiety. PMID:12074538

  9. Bdellovibrio and like organisms enhanced growth and survival of Penaeus monodon and altered bacterial community structures in its rearing water.

    PubMed

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Qiuping; Liu, Renliang; Cai, Junpeng

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a 96-h laboratory reduction test was conducted with strain BDHSH06 (GenBank accession no. EF011103) as the test strain for Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) and 20 susceptible marine bacterial strains forming microcosms as the targets. The results showed that BDHSH06 reduced the levels of approximately 50% of prey bacterial strains within 96 h in the seawater microcosms. An 85-day black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) rearing experiment was performed. The shrimp survival rate, body length, and weight in the test tanks were 48.1% ± 1.2%, 99.8 ± 10.0 mm, and 6.36 ± 1.50 g, respectively, which were values significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those for the control, viz., 31.0% ± 2.1%, 86.0 ± 11.1 mm, and 4.21 ± 1.56 g, respectively. With the addition of BDHSH06, total bacterial and Vibrio numbers were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 1.3 to 4.5 log CFU · ml(-1) and CFU · g(-1) in both water and shrimp intestines, respectively, compared to those in the control. The effect of BDHSH06 on bacterial community structures in the rearing water was also examined using PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE profiles of rearing water samples from the control and test tanks revealed that the amounts of 44% of the bacterial species were reduced when BDHSH06 was added to the rearing water over the 85-day rearing period, and among these, approximately 57.1% were nonculturable. The results of this study demonstrated that BDHSH06 can be used as a biocontrol/probiotic agent in P. monodon culture. PMID:25107962

  10. Bdellovibrio and Like Organisms Enhanced Growth and Survival of Penaeus monodon and Altered Bacterial Community Structures in Its Rearing Water

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Qiuping; Liu, Renliang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a 96-h laboratory reduction test was conducted with strain BDHSH06 (GenBank accession no. EF011103) as the test strain for Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) and 20 susceptible marine bacterial strains forming microcosms as the targets. The results showed that BDHSH06 reduced the levels of approximately 50% of prey bacterial strains within 96 h in the seawater microcosms. An 85-day black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) rearing experiment was performed. The shrimp survival rate, body length, and weight in the test tanks were 48.1% ± 1.2%, 99.8 ± 10.0 mm, and 6.36 ± 1.50 g, respectively, which were values significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those for the control, viz., 31.0% ± 2.1%, 86.0 ± 11.1 mm, and 4.21 ± 1.56 g, respectively. With the addition of BDHSH06, total bacterial and Vibrio numbers were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 1.3 to 4.5 log CFU · ml?1 and CFU · g?1 in both water and shrimp intestines, respectively, compared to those in the control. The effect of BDHSH06 on bacterial community structures in the rearing water was also examined using PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE profiles of rearing water samples from the control and test tanks revealed that the amounts of 44% of the bacterial species were reduced when BDHSH06 was added to the rearing water over the 85-day rearing period, and among these, approximately 57.1% were nonculturable. The results of this study demonstrated that BDHSH06 can be used as a biocontrol/probiotic agent in P. monodon culture. PMID:25107962

  11. [Application of the ferrocin containing waste of wine-making for reduction of 137Cs tansit from forage to laboratory animal organisms and cow milk].

    PubMed

    Gudkov, I N; Lazarev, N M; Vechtomov, Iu V

    2011-01-01

    Addition to rat ration of ferrocin containing wastes of wine-making formed during the process of wine demetalization in the amount of 0.2 g per animal per day reduces the 137Cs content in organs and tissues in 1.5-7 times. Addition of the above-mentioned substance to the ration of milk cows in the amount of 10-16 g per day reduces the radionuclide content in milk 1.5-2 times in two weeks and more than 3 times in four weeks. PMID:22384725

  12. Changing organisms in rapidly changing anthropogenic landscapes: the significance of the ‘Umwelt’-concept and functional habitat for animal conservation

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, Hans

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing recognition for the significance of evolutionary thinking in ecology and conservation biology. However, ecology and conservation studies often work with species-specific, fixed traits that ignore intraspecific variation. The way the habitat of a species is considered is an example of typological thinking biased by human perception. Structural habitat units (e.g., land cover types) as perceived by humans may not represent functional habitat units for other organisms. Human activity may also interfere with the environmental information used by organisms. Therefore, the Umwelt-concept from ethology needs to be integrated in the way we think about habitat and habitat selection. It states that different organisms live in different perceptual worlds dealing with specific subsamples of the environment as a result of their evolutionary and developmental history. The resource-based habitat concept is a functional habitat model based on resource distributions (consumables and conditions) and individual movements. This behavioural approach takes into account aspects that relate to the perceptual world of organisms. This approach may offer new opportunities for conservation and may help avoid failures with habitat restoration. Perceptual ability may be subject to adaptive change, but it may also constrain organisms from showing adaptive behaviours in rapidly changing environments. PMID:25568037

  13. Organization of the Antiseptic Resistance Gene qacA and Tn552-Related ?-Lactamase Genes in Multidrug- Resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus Strains of Animal and Human Origins

    PubMed Central

    Anthonisen, I.-L.; Sunde, M.; Steinum, T. M.; Sidhu, M. S.; Sørum, H.

    2002-01-01

    A part (12 kb) of a plasmid containing the ?-lactamase genes of Tn552, the disinfectant resistance gene qacA, and flanking DNA has been cloned from a Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolate and sequenced. This region was used to map the corresponding regions in six other multiresistant S. haemolyticus isolates of human and animal origin. The organizations of the genetic structures were almost identical in all isolates studied. The ?-lactamase and qacA genes from S. haemolyticus have >99.9% identities at the nucleotide level with the same genes from S. aureus, demonstrating that various staphylococcal species able to colonize animal and human hosts can exchange the genetic elements involved in resistance to antibiotics and disinfectants. The use of antibiotics and disinfectants in veterinary practice and animal husbandry may also contribute to the selection and maintenance of resistance factors among the staphylococcal species. Different parts of the 12-kb section analyzed had high degrees of nucleotide identity with regions from several other different Staphylococcus aureus plasmids. This suggests the contribution of interplasmid recombination in the evolutionary makeup of this 12-kb section involving plasmids that can intermingle between various staphylococcal species. The lateral spread of resistance genes between various staphylococcal species is probably facilitated by the generation of large multiresistance plasmids and the subsequent interspecies exchange of them. PMID:12384372

  14. The evolution of infectious agents in relation to sex in animals and humans: brief discussions of some individual organisms

    PubMed Central

    Reed, David L.; Currier, Russell W.; Walton, Shelley F.; Conrad, Melissa; Sullivan, Steven A.; Carlton, Jane M.; Read, Timothy D.; Severini, Alberto; Tyler, Shaun; Eberle, R.; Johnson, Welkin E.; Silvestri, Guido; Clarke, Ian N.; Lagergård, Teresa; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Unemo, Magnus; Shafer, William M.; Beasley, R. Palmer; Bergström, Tomas; Norberg, Peter; Davison, Andrew J.; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Blomberg, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    The following series of concise summaries addresses the evolution of infectious agents in relation to sex in animals and humans from the perspective of three specific questions: (1) what have we learned about the likely origin and phylogeny, up to the establishment of the infectious agent in the genital econiche, including the relative frequency of its sexual transmission; (2) what further research is needed to provide additional knowledge on some of these evolutionary aspects; and (3) what evolutionary considerations might aid in providing novel approaches to the more practical clinical and public health issues facing us currently and in the future? PMID:21824167

  15. Altered states of consciousness in small animals.

    PubMed

    Platt, Simon

    2014-11-01

    Impaired states of consciousness can be relatively easily identified, although it can occasionally be difficult to assess whether there is a pure disorder of wakefulness or awareness. Regardless, such impairments represent dysfunction of the brainstem and or cerebrum. Acute and severe impairments of consciousness can require immediate assessment, in part currently performed using the modified Glasgow coma scoring system, and emergency stabilization. The prognosis is always guarded and highly sensitive to the underlying etiology. PMID:25441625

  16. Is the beagle dog an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating data to humans on organ distribution patterns of U, Th, and Pu

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, N.P.; Wrenn, M.E. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Concentrations and organ distribution patterns of alpha-emitting isotopes of U (238U and 234U), Th (232Th, 230Th, and 228Th), and Pu (239,240Pu) were determined for beagle dogs of our colony. The dogs were exposed to environmental levels of U and Th isotopes through ingestion (food and water) and inhalation to stimulate environmental exposures of the general human population. The organ distribution patterns of these radionuclides in beagles are compared to patterns in humans to determine if it is appropriate to extrapolate organ content data from beagles to humans. The results indicated that approximately 80% of the U and Th accumulated in bone in both species. The organ content percentages of these radionuclides in soft tissues such as liver, kidney, etc. of both species were comparable. The human lung contained higher percentages of U and Th than the beagle lung, perhaps because the longer life span of humans resulted in a longer exposure time. If the U and Th content of dog lung is normalized to an exposure time of 58 y and 63 y, median ages of the U and Th study populations, respectively, the lung content for both species is comparable. The organ content of 239,240Pu in humans and beagles differed slightly. In the beagle, the liver contained more than 60%, and the skeleton contained less than 40% of the Pu body content. In humans, the liver contained approximately 37%, and the skeleton contained approximately 58% of the body content. This difference may have been due to differences in the mode of intake of Pu in each species or to differences in the chemical form of Pu. In general, the results suggest that the beagle may be an appropriate experimental animal from which to extrapolate data to humans with reference to the percentage of U, Th, and Pu found in the organs.

  17. Organic

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Quiz questions from the organic chemistry question bank provide students with an excellent opportunity to review key concepts.. The Organic topic focuses on the basics of organic chemistry that are taught in general chemistry.

  18. Animal Reproduction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Topic in Depth takes a look at organizations and educational websites concerned with reproduction in humans and other animals. The Society for the Study of Reproduction (SSR) "is an association of scientists and physicians interested in research in reproduction. Some members are engaged in basic or applied research, while others perform clinical practice." The SSR website (1) contains downloadable copies of the SSR Newsletter; position statements; and information about meetings, awards, and the organization. The Society for Reproduction and Fertility (SRF) "is open to scientists and students worldwide, who work on any aspect of reproductive biology or fertility in man and animals." The SRF website (2) contains sections regarding News, Events, Jobs, Honours, and Grants. SRF makes downloadable copies of its newsletter available as well. The primary aim of the European Society of Human Reproduction & Embryology (ESHRE) "is to promote interest in, and understanding of, reproductive biology and medicine. It does this through facilitating research and subsequent dissemination of research findings in human reproduction and embryology to the general public, scientists, clinicians and patient associations; it also works to inform politicians and policy makers throughout Europe." The ESHRE site (3) contains information about activities, membership, publications, special interest groups, and jobs. The primary function of the Centre for Reproductive Biology in Uppsala (CRU) "is to increase the knowledge about reproduction in animals and humans by applying a more comprehensive view on reproductive biology." CRU is composed of scientists from both Uppsala University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Science. The CRU site (4) contains information about a number of publications, and contact information for CRU members. The Population Council is a nonprofit "organization that conducts biomedical, social science, and public health research." The "Council's reproductive biology and immunology program undertakes fundamental research in the reproductive sciences and immunological processes related to sexually transmitted infections, particularly HIV." This website (5) provides information about different aspects of the research program including Germ Cell Dynamics, Sperm Maturation, and Physiology of Sertoli Cells. From Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College, the next site (6) is a concise overview of animal reproduction which addresses important aspects of sexual reproduction, and male and female reproductive systems. The final site (7) contains lecture notes regarding avian reproduction from Dr. Gary Ritchison's Ornithology course at Eastern Kentucky University. The lecture notes are interspersed with some especially nice images and diagrams.

  19. Biogas production from vietnamese animal manure, plant residues and organic waste: influence of biomass composition on methane yield.

    PubMed

    Cu, T T T; Nguyen, T X; Triolo, J M; Pedersen, L; Le, V D; Le, P D; Sommer, S G

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam. PMID:25557826

  20. Animal models of endocrine\\/organ-specific autoimmune diseases: do they really help us to understand human autoimmunity?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. K. Lam-Tse; A. Lernmark; H. A. Drexhage

    2002-01-01

    .   Organ-specific or endocrine autoimmune diseases are complex, polygenic afflictions the penetrance of which is heavily dependent\\u000a on various environmental influences. Important target tissues are the thyroid, the islets of Langerhans, gastric parietal\\u000a cells and steroid-producing cells in the adrenal and ovary. The etiology of these diseases remains to be clarified. The pathogenesis\\u000a is strongly associated with autoimmune phenomena. None

  1. Animal Cloning 101

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Teachers' Domain presents this interactive lesson with reading materials and animations to present information on what a clone is, how cloning live organisms is possible, and examples of animals that have been cloned in the past. The activity also illustrates how cloned animals may one day be used in enhancing human health. On the site, visitors will also find a supplemental background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment from Teachers' Domain.

  2. The Early Years: Animal Adventures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Peggy Ashbrook

    2007-09-01

    Children can have a new favorite animal every week or even every hour. The more familiar the children become with an animal, the more they will be able to understand how its body form and behavior allow it to survive. Learning about the characteristics of organisms and how organisms relate to their environment is part of the National Science EducationContent Standard C. Looking at and drawing animals and talking and reading about the way animals live and what they need to survive pulls together art and science while introducing children to animal diversity and the idea of animal adaptation.

  3. Mapping alteration minerals at Malmbjerg molybdenum deposit, central East Greenland, by Kohonen self-organizing maps and matched filter analysis of HyMap data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enton Bedini

    2012-01-01

    The Malmbjerg molybdenum deposit in central East Greenland is a world-class porphyry molybdenum deposit. The porphyry molybdenum deposit occurs within a granite stock intruded into sedimentary rocks. The Malmbjerg molybdenum deposit is associated with a pronounced zone of hydrothermal alteration. The reflectance spectra of rock samples from the Malmbjerg alteration assemblage show absorption features of a number of minerals including

  4. Mapping alteration minerals at Malmbjerg molybdenum deposit, central East Greenland, by Kohonen self-organizing maps and matched filter analysis of HyMap data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enton Bedini

    2011-01-01

    The Malmbjerg molybdenum deposit in central East Greenland is a world-class porphyry molybdenum deposit. The porphyry molybdenum deposit occurs within a granite stock intruded into sedimentary rocks. The Malmbjerg molybdenum deposit is associated with a pronounced zone of hydrothermal alteration. The reflectance spectra of rock samples from the Malmbjerg alteration assemblage show absorption features of a number of minerals including

  5. Animal Bites

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate ... pants when you are in areas with venomous snakes If an animal bites you, clean the wound ...

  6. New insights into the thermal behaviour of organic ionic plastic crystals: magnetic resonance imaging of polycrystalline morphology alterations induced by solid-solid phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Romanenko, Konstantin; Pringle, Jennifer M; O'Dell, Luke A; Forsyth, Maria

    2015-07-15

    Organic ionic plastic crystals (OIPCs) show strong potential as solid-state electrolytes for lithium battery applications, demonstrating promising electrochemical performance and eliminating the need for a volatile and flammable liquid electrolyte. The ionic conductivity (?) in these systems has recently been shown to depend strongly on polycrystalline morphology, which is largely determined by the sample's thermal history. [K. Romanenko et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2014, 136, 15638]. Tailoring this morphology could lead to conductivities sufficiently high for battery applications, so a more complete understanding of how phenomena such as solid-solid phase transitions can affect the sample morphology is of significant interest. Anisotropic relaxation of nuclear spin magnetisation provides a new MRI based approach for studies of polycrystalline materials at both a macroscopic and molecular level. In this contribution, morphology alterations induced by solid-solid phase transitions in triisobutyl(methyl)phosphonium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (P1444FSI) and diethyl(methyl)(isobutyl)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate (P1224PF6) are examined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), alongside nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, diffusion measurements and conductivity data. These observations are linked to molecular dynamics and structural behaviour crucial for the conductive properties of OIPCs. A distinct correlation is established between the conductivity at a given temperature, ?(T), and the intensity of the narrow NMR signal that is attributed to a mobile fraction, fm(T), of ions in the OIPC. To explain these findings we propose an analogy with the well-studied relationship between permeability (k) and void fraction (?) in porous media, with k(?) commonly quantified by a power-law dependence that can also be employed to describe ?(fm). PMID:26130025

  7. Exploring Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Emily

    2009-03-02

    Each group will be given one of the following categories of animals to explore further and answer questions about. Mammals Invertebrates Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Explore your category of animals and answer these questions: 1. What makes an animal belong to this category? Do you think that an animal can only belong to one category? Why or why not? 2. Explain why these animals live where they do? 3. Does your category of animals have any interesting ...

  8. Comparison of selected animal observations and management practices used to assess welfare of calves and adult dairy cows on organic and conventional dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Bergman, M A; Richert, R M; Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Gamroth, M J; Schukken, Y H; Stiglbauer, K E; Ruegg, P L

    2014-07-01

    Differences in adoption of selected practices used in welfare assessment and audit programs were contrasted among organic (ORG; n=192) herds and similarly sized conventional grazing herds (CON-GR; n=36), and conventional nongrazing herds (CON-NG; n=64). Criteria from 3 programs were assessed: American Humane Association Animal Welfare Standards for Dairy Cattle, Farmers Assuring Responsible Management (FARM), and the Canadian Codes of Practice (CCP). Data were collected by trained study personnel during a herd visit and included information about neonatal care, dehorning, pain relief, calf nutrition, weaning, record keeping, use of veterinarians, and animal observations. Associations of management type (ORG, CON-GR, or CON-NG) with adoption of selected practice were assessed. Almost all farms (97%) met criteria suggested for age at weaning but fewer CON-NG farmers weaned calves at ?5 wk of age compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Only 23% of farms met program requirements for use of pain relief during dehorning, and fewer CON-NG farmers used pain relief for calves after dehorning compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Calves on ORG farms were fed a greater volume of milk and were weaned at an older age than calves on CON-GR and CON-NG farms. Calves on CON-GR farms were dehorned at a younger age compared with calves on ORG and CON-NG farms. The calving area was shared with lactating cows for a larger proportion of ORG herds compared with conventional herds. About 30% of herds met welfare program criteria for body condition score but only about 20% met criteria for animal hygiene scores. The least proportion of cows with hock lesions was observed on ORG farms. Regular use of veterinarians was infrequent for ORG herds. Results of this study indicate that most of the organic and conventional farms enrolled in this study would have been unlikely to achieve many criteria of audit and assessment programs currently used in the US dairy industry. PMID:24819133

  9. Animal Cloning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lee, Amy.

    2002-01-01

    The past few years have seen many changes in the field of genetics, including the ability to genetically clone mammals, first achieved in 1997 with a sheep named Dolly. Still a relatively new phenomenon, news stories are continually detailing new advances in cloning, reasons why cloning is important, and concerns about the safety and ethics of cloning. This week's Topic In Depth highlights some recent news articles and Web sites that address the topic of animal cloning. The first site is a recent article from the Washington Post about the sheep named Dolly, the world's first cloned mammal, who has developed arthritis at a relatively young age and has caused some to question whether cloning can have adverse health effects. An ABC news.com article details the recent birth of five cloned piglets whose parent had been genetically engineered to remove a gene that causes human bodies to reject transplanted animal organs. An Associated Press article discusses some concerns raised by scientists and ethicists surrounding the idea of xenotransplantation (animal to human transplantation). For users who need a primer on what exactly cloning means and why it is done, check out the Cloning Fact Sheet. Developed by the Human Genome Project, it provides short, non-technical explanations of the different types of cloning and some links to other cloning related Web sites. Those users looking for more detailed information about cloning technology will find the next two sites interesting. PPL Therapeutics, which created the five piglets and collaborated with the Roslin Institute to clone Dolly, provides news articles and technical descriptions of cloning and related genetic technology. The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America's Web site provides links to a tremendous amount of information surrounding all aspects of cloning, including recent congressional activity, news, and general resources. Although focused more heavily on human cloning, The American Journal of Bioethics Online has a Web page with links to various articles relating to the ethical issues involved with cloning and genetics.

  10. Current animal models of bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Kurucz, I; Szelenyi, I

    2006-01-01

    Human asthma is on the rise worldwide. The necessity to develop effective treatments against it requires an organized effort which covers every aspect of the disease from the pathological alterations via the genetic background to the use and development of active remedies. In these processes animal experiments have served an indispensable role. As asthma is not a natural disease in the animal kingdom the variety for artificially established animal models is quite wide. The possible selection ranges from the laboratory mouse to the horse, it includes ferret and sheep and even favorite pets such as cats and dogs. The large number of the models indicates that to some extent they might not be appropriate or it means that there is no generally accepted model of human asthma. Whatever the reason for this diversity animal models helped us to understand the detailed pathogenesis of some aspects of the disease, they helped us to develop compounds which are more active then previously used ones, and these models proved to us that human asthma is a unique, possibly species-specific disease the eradication of which requires a huge effort. This enormous task should include the collaboration of the clinical and basic research for the development of improved, advanced animal models, which in turn could strengthen our understanding about human asthma. PMID:17020527

  11. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 117.2 Animal facilities. Animal facilities shall comply with the...

  12. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 117.2 Animal facilities. Animal facilities shall comply with the...

  13. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 117.2 Animal facilities. Animal facilities shall comply with the...

  14. Isolated total lung perfusion as a means to deliver organ-specific chemotherapy: long-term studies in animals

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, M.R.; Christensen, C.W.; Minchin, R.F.; Rickaby, D.A.; Linehan, J.H.; Schuller, H.M.; Boyd, M.R.; Dawson, C.A.

    1985-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a surgical procedure that would allow for bilateral isolated lung perfusion in vivo as a means of delivering organ-specific chemotherapy and to evaluate the influence of the procedure on certain pulmonary physiologic parameters. The sterile surgical procedure that was carried out in dogs involved the setting up of two separate perfusion circuits. Once standard systemic cardiopulmonary bypass was established, a second circuit was devised to perfuse the lungs by placing an inflow cannula into the main pulmonary artery and collecting venous effluent in the left atrium. Cross-contamination between perfusion circuits was determined in acute studies with labeled plasma protein or red blood cells and was found to be in an acceptable range if the aorta was cross-clamped and the heart arrested. Only about 0.4 ml/min of pulmonary perfusate leaked into the systemic circulation, indicating that systemic toxicity should not be a major concern when chemotherapy agents are added to the pulmonary perfusate. Chronic studies demonstrated that hemodynamic parameters, lung water, pulmonary endothelial serotonin extraction, and histologic findings all showed minimal changes after 50 minutes of isolated lung perfusion. Five days after perfusion, lung dynamic compliance and peak serotonin extraction showed significant decreases. However, all of the measured parameters had returned toward baseline levels by the end of the 8-week postoperative study period. The procedure offers significant advantages over the previously described single lung perfusion and may provide a method of delivering immediate high-concentration adjuvant chemotherapy to coincide with resection of primary or metastatic lung tumors.

  15. Character Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A general discussion of the creation and animation of characters in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional character animation techniques, such as those developed by the Disney animators, and also human modelling. The section includes html pages, images and several videos.

  16. Animal Diversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2004-02-05

    This lesson from Science NetLinks exposes children to a wide range of animals and guides them through observation of animal similarities, differences, and environmental adaptations. This lesson can be used as part of a study of plants and animals. Before doing the lesson, students should know the meanings of the terms: plant, animal, and living.

  17. Microgravity alters the expression of salivary proteins.

    PubMed

    Mednieks, Maija; Khatri, Aditi; Rubenstein, Renee; Burleson, Joseph A; Hand, Arthur R

    2014-06-01

    Spaceflight provides a unique opportunity to study how physiologic responses are influenced by the external environment. Microgravity has been shown to alter the function of a number of tissues and organ systems. Very little, however, is known about how microgravity affects the oral cavity. The rodent model is useful for study in that their salivary gland morphology and physiology is similar to that of humans. Useful also is the fact that saliva, a product of the salivary glands with a major role in maintaining oral health, can be easily collected in humans whereas the glands can be studied in experimental animals. Our working hypothesis is that expression of secretory proteins in saliva will respond to microgravity and will be indicative of the nature of physiologic reactions to travel in space. This study was designed to determine which components of the salivary proteome are altered in mice flown on the US space shuttle missions and to determine if a subset with predictive value can be identified using microscopy and biochemistry methods. The results showed that the expression of secretory proteins associated with beta-adrenergic hormone regulated responses and mediated via the cyclic AMP pathway was significantly altered, whereas that of a number of unrelated proteins was not. The findings are potentially applicable to designing a biochemical test system whereby specific salivary proteins can be biomarkers for stress associated with travel in space and eventually for monitoring responses to conditions on earth. PMID:24984624

  18. Animal Matters Fall 2014 Seminar Series from

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    Animal Matters Fall 2014 Seminar Series from Tufts Center for Animals and Public Policy with the American Society for Lab Animal Practitioners Organs-on-Chips as Potential Alternatives to Animal Testing Lecture Hall (VLH) behind the Hospital for Large Animals Members of the public are invited to this free

  19. Animations for Physics and Astronomy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Michael R. Gallis

    This collection of animations illustrates basic concepts in physics and astronomy. Topics include astronomy, mechanics, vectors, electricity and magnetism, waves, optics, and many others. The animations are organized by topic and may be downloaded or streamed from the website. The site also includes links to papers on the use of animations in physics education.

  20. Development of the Gecko (Pachydactylus turneri) Animal Model during Foton M-2 to Study Comparative Effects of Microgravity in Terrestrial and Aquatic Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almeida, E. A.; Roden, C.; Phillips, J. A.; Globus, R. K.; Searby, N.; Vercoutere, W.; Morey-Holton, E.; Gulimova, V.; Saveliev, S.; Tairbekov, M.; Iwaniec, U. T.; McNamra, A. J.; Turner, R. T.

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial organisms exposed to microgravity during spaceflight experience degeneration in bone, muscle, and possibly other tissues that require gravity-mediated mechanical stimulation for normal regenerative growth. In the Gecko experiment aboard Foton M-2, we flew for the first time, five terrestrial Pachydactylus turneri specimens to develop a model of microgravity effects comparable to the newt Pleurodeles waltl, a well-established model organism for spaceflight. These lower vertebrate species have similar body plans and size, are poikilothermic, have tissue regenerative ability, and are adapted to moderate periods of fasting. Furthermore the gecko (Pachydactylus) can also survive prolonged periods without water. In pre-flight control experiments and after a 16-day Foton M-2 spaceflight without food or water, the geckos were recovered and showed no apparent negative health effects. However, detailed analysis of bone mass and architecture by micro Computed Tomography { pCT), showed that both synchronous control and spaceflight animals lost significant amounts of cancellous bone in the distal femur and humerus relative to basal controls. In addition, cell cycle analysis of 30h post-flight liver tissue reveals a shift of DNA content from G2 and S to G1, both in spaceflight and synchronous controls. Together, these results suggest that housing conditions alone induce rapid catabolism of cancellous bone and reduced normal tissue regeneration. Further use of the gecko Puchydactylus turneri as a spaceflight model requires modification of housing conditions, possibly by including water and food, or changing other factors such as eliminating housing stresses to obtain stable bone structure and tissue regeneration during spaceflight experiments.

  1. Transfection of RNA from Organ Samples of Infected Animals Represents a Highly Sensitive Method for Virus Detection and Recovery of Classical Swine Fever Virus

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Denise; Schmeiser, Stefanie; Postel, Alexander; Becher, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Translation and replication of positive stranded RNA viruses are directly initiated in the cellular cytoplasm after uncoating of the viral genome. Accordingly, infectious virus can be generated by transfection of RNA genomes into susceptible cells. In the present study, efficiency of conventional virus isolation after inoculation of cells with infectious sample material was compared to virus recovery after transfection of total RNA derived from organ samples of pigs infected with Classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Compared to the conventional method of virus isolation applied in three different porcine cell lines used in routine diagnosis of CSF, RNA transfection showed a similar efficiency for virus rescue. For two samples, recovery of infectious virus was only possible by RNA transfection, but not by the classical approach of virus isolation. Therefore, RNA transfection represents a valuable alternative to conventional virus isolation in particular when virus isolation is not possible, sample material is not suitable for virus isolation or when infectious material is not available. To estimate the potential risk of RNA prepared from sample material for infection of pigs, five domestic pigs were oronasally inoculated with RNA that was tested positive for virus rescue after RNA transfection. This exposure did not result in viral infection or clinical disease of the animals. In consequence, shipment of CSFV RNA can be regarded as a safe alternative to transportation of infectious virus and thereby facilitates the exchange of virus isolates among authorized laboratories with appropriate containment facilities. PMID:25961582

  2. Flash Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This collections of Flash animations accompanies Chang's Essential Chemistry, 2/e, but is publically available. These animations are interactive and have voice-overs, thereby providing a multimedia presentation of basic chemical concepts.

  3. Developing a HACCP-like system for improving animal health and welfare in organic egg production - based on an expert panel analysis.

    PubMed

    Hegelund, L; Sørensen, J T

    2007-08-01

    In the process of developing a generic Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)-like system for securing animal health and welfare in organic egg production, an expert panel analysis was used to perform the initial hazard analysis. Eighteen advisers and researchers in organic egg production were included in the expert panel. In a series of four questionnaires, the expert panel first scored 34 health and welfare problems seen in Danish organic egg production. Based on scorings of severity and occurrence, 10 problems were selected for further analysis. The experts subsequently suggested and scored risk factors for those problems and finally suggested control points, alarm values indicating the need for corrective actions in order to control the risk factors and monitoring frequencies of these. The 10 selected problems were hunger, thirst, piling, crop impaction, blackhead, pasteurellosis, bone fractures, cannibalism, predators and red mites. A total of 154 different risk factors were suggested for these problems. The 41 risk factors which rated highest in a combined scoring of importance and occurrence were selected for further analysis. There was a high degree of consensus between experts when scoring both problems and risk factors. The level of consensus, as defined by an interquartile range 1, was 79% to 100% when scoring the health and welfare problems (scale 1-5) and 77% to 95% when scoring the risk factors (scale 1-4). On average, 5.8 control points were suggested for every risk factor. Alarm values were often not detailed enough to be of practical significance and further analysis is needed in order to define these. The experts were highly diverse in their suggested monitoring frequencies and establishment of monitoring schemes should be part of developing the farm specific systems. An expert panel analysis based on questionnaires was a useful tool during the first steps of developing a HACCP plan, conducting a hazard analysis and suggesting control points. However, care should be taken regarding the panel's size and fields of expertise in order to assure that the panel fully covers the field of interest throughout the study. A further development of the hazard analysis into a farm-specific HACCP system would include assembling an on-farm HACCP team consisting of farmers and advisors for the practical application of control points, alarm values and monitoring schemes. The results from the fourth questionnaire would be useful as input for this work. PMID:22444804

  4. Computer Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A general discussion of computer animation. This section includes principles of camera animation, character animation and special effects such as particle systems. There is also a discussion of artificial life techniques such as the flocking algorithm and the graphical simulation of different types of life. This section includes html pages, images and several videos.

  5. Logical animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. Costa; R. J. Cunningham; J. Booth

    1990-01-01

    When a formal specification of requirements is presented as a logical theory, symbolic animation of the theory can assist with validation. An animator displays a logical model of the formal specification. We show how minimal models can be derived from a tableau proof system. Examples illustrate the use of animation with a simple data base andfor validating specifications in the

  6. Animated Engines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Keveney, Matt

    This website includes a variety of animations explaining the mechanical workings of a variety of steam, Stirling and internal combustion engines. The animations may be paused, slowed or sped up. The animations are accompanied by additional text explaining how each engine works.

  7. Animal Scent

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2006-01-01

    This activity (on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior. Learners will create five or six scent blocks by rubbing wood blocks with different kitchen spices, foods, or animal scents. Then, learners let their pets investigate each block separately. Carefully observed behaviors are recorded for interpretation. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Animal Scent.

  8. Reconciling scientific approaches for organic farming research. Part I. Reflection on research methods in organic grassland and animal production at the Louis Bolk Institute, The Netherlands. Part II. Effects of manure types and white clover (Trifolium repens) cultivars on the productivity of grass-clover mixtures on a humid sandy soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Baars

    2002-01-01

    Part I<\\/strong> : Reflection on research methods in organic grassland and animal production at the Louis Bolk Institute, The NetherlandsKey words: organic agriculture, anthroposophy, methodology, research strategy, experiential science, multidisciplinary science, Goethean scienceThis dissertation focuses on the research question: what is peculiar to agricultural research when its purpose is to support the conscious development of organic agriculture? What approaches, designs

  9. Animal Alert

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    This Web site from Animal Planet offers visitors the very latest news about animals around the globe. Scroll along the map of the world, and then click on an icon. A pop-up window will appear with a synopsis of a news story, a link to the full story, and a list of related features on the Animal Planet Web site. A key to the map icons is provided. The full news story page also provides general information and trivia about each animal. This is a great resource for anyone wishing to keep informed about animal-related current events without having to register for an email newsletter.

  10. Biological Animation Library

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site produced by the Dolan DNA Learning Center of the Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory contains a number of high quality animations that explain processes important in bioanalytical chemistry. For example, one animation illustrates the process of Sanger sequencing and another explains what Gene Chips are and how they work. PCR, gel electrophoresis, cloning, model organisms and stem cell lines are also treated. The site allows the animations to be viewed or downloaded for PC or Mac, which means that they can be easily incorporated into lectures.

  11. Impact of Anthropogenic Environmental Alterations on Vector-Borne Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Neil

    2008-01-01

    The spread of infectious vector-borne diseases involves at least 3 organisms: a parasite, a vector, and a host. Alterations to the natural environment may change the context within which these entities interact, thus potentially affecting vector-borne disease epidemiology. In this review, examples are presented in which human-driven ecological changes may be contributing to the spread of vector-borne diseases. Such changes include deforestation, agriculture and animal husbandry, water control projects, urbanization, loss of biodiversity, introduction of alien species, and climate change. The global environment is currently being degraded at an alarming pace, potentially placing human populations at increasing risk for unnecessary and preventable outbreaks of vector-borne diseases. Further research is needed to improve our ability to predict and prevent emergence and reemergence of vector-borne diseases from environmental alterations. PMID:19099032

  12. Histopathological alterations after a growth promoter boldenone injection in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Tousson, Ehab

    2013-10-01

    Boldenone (BOL) is a derivative of the testosterone that has dual effects on humans, both directly and indirectly; directly as injection to build muscles and indirectly as through consuming meat of animals that where treated with BOL. However, the action of these steroids on different body organs structures is still unclear; therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the intramuscular injection of BOL undecylenate on the different organ structures. A total of 10 adult New Zealand rabbits were divided into two main groups, the first group was the control group, which includes animals that were injected intramuscularly with olive oil and the second group included animals that received two intramuscular injections of 5 mg/kg body weight BOL dissected after 6 weeks. Our results showed that intramuscular injection of rabbits with BOL showed hypertrophy in both skeletal and cardiac muscles, disturbances of the hepatocytes radially arranged cords with multifocal hepatocellular vacuolations in the liver, glomerulus mass reduction with multifocal glomerular injury in the kidney, disturbances of the cycle of spermatogenesis in the testes. In conclusion, using BOL, while preparing for a young bodybuilding contest, may cause an alteration in the histological structure of most of the body organs; these findings suggested that especially young people who misuse anablic androgenic steroids should be careful if they want to use such steroids to enhance their strength and endurance. PMID:24097356

  13. organism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICHARD E. MICHOD

    The fitness of any evolutionary unit can be understood in terms of its two basic com- ponents: fecundity (reproduction) and viability (survival). Trade-offs between these fitness com- ponents drive the evolution of life-history traits in extant multicellular organisms. We argue that these trade-offs gain special significance during the transition from unicellular to multicellular life. In particular, the evolution of germ-soma

  14. Water Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Kyrk

    This Flash animation provides a detailed explanation of the chemistry and properties of water. Animated diagrams accompanied by written explanations show the configuration of the water molecule, how water molecules link together, what the crystal structure of ice looks like, and how acids and bases are formed. There is also an animated diagram of the pH scale showing the range in which most cellular processes occur and the approximate pH of some common substances. A French translation is available.

  15. NMR Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site features animated tutorials on NMR with sufficient depth to be useful to the non NMR savvy. The animations are accompanied by short descriptions so that the processes displayed can be understood by the viewer. This site goes beyond just showing precession. There are nice animations showing the effect of different pulses, including composite pulses on the magnetization, the effects of magnetic gradient pulses to measure diffusion and do coherence pathway selection.

  16. Astronomy Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

  17. Neurobiology: Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From Blackwell Publishing, this entertaining series of animations is part of a companion website for _Neurobiology: Molecules, Cells and Systems_, a textbook by Gary G. Matthews. The ten instructive and easy-to-understand animations are worth a visit by anyone who has a curiosity about neurobiology. Animation titles include: Mechanosensory Transduction in Hair Cells, Granule Cell Migration Along Radial Glial Cells, Photo isomerization of Rhodopsin, and Propagation of the Action Potential, and more. For visitors lacking Macromedia Flash Player, which is necessary to view these animations, the site provides a link to a free Player download.

  18. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Staczek, J

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovirus infections. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the study of many of the animal cytomegaloviruses in vitro. Consequently, animal cytomegaloviruses can be used as model systems for studying the pathogenesis, immunobiology, and molecular biology of cytomegalovirus-host and cytomegalovirus-cell interactions. PMID:2170830

  19. Animal Genome Size Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gregory, T. Ryan.

    T. Ryan Gregory, doctoral candidate at the University of Guelph (Canada), provides this comprehensive data catalog of animal genome size. Included on site are haploid genome sizes (C-values) for approximately 2,100 species or subspecies of vertebrates and 800 species of invertebrates. Organized by taxa, this Website-in-progress will be of direct use to those researchers whose study organisms are represented here. Continual additions are planned as more data become available.

  20. Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal-Interactions The module Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal-Interactions deals with various aspects of

    E-print Network

    Pfeifer, Holger

    Bio III Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal-Interactions SS 2014 The module Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal is taught: · Lecture: o Animal-plant interactions, e.g. mutualistic interactions (pollination, floral, tritrophic interactions, deception and others). o Furthermore, applied aspects of animal-plant interactions

  1. GPS Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site features Flash animations that illustrate how the Global Positioning System (GPS) works. The animations depict how GPS signals are derived, compare geostationary and polar orbits, and explain satellites, ground control, and user segments, which comprise the three main GPS components. These resources are suitable for use in lectures, labs, or other teaching activities.

  2. Excelsior Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinkamp, Mary J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an art project where students used excelsior, shredded wood used for packing, to create animals. Explains that excelsior can be found at furniture and grocery stores. Discusses in detail the process of making the animals and includes learning objectives. (CMK)

  3. Immunoassay Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chung, Kyn Wai

    This site features animations showing the detailed steps involved in eight different immunoassay examples. The focus of the site is primarily on the biochemical aspects of the immunoassays, not on their analytical applications. The animations depict the following immunoassays: Dihydroxy Vitamin D, ACTH, Bone­specific Alkaline Phosphatase, Cortisol, Deoxypyridinoline, Osteocalcin, Prolactin and Thyroxine.

  4. Collision Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Leeds School of Earth and Environment

    This series of interactive Flash animation explores all aspects of the India-Eurasian continental collision. Animations show the motion of the two continents, the growth of the Himalayas, earthquakes resulting from their collision, and the incredible rate of erosion of the newly formed mountains.

  5. Science Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The use of a well-placed animation in a lecture can help illuminate any number of important concepts in the sciences. Educators seeking high-quality animations need look no further than this very useful site created by staff members at North Harris Community College. The animations are divided into a number of topics, including plants, ecology, astronomy, geology, anatomy, and biology. Each section contains links to a host of fascinating and helpful animations from institutions like Florida State University, Cambridge University Press, the University of Nebraska, and the University of Alberta. As a note, the astronomy and physics areas are particularly strong, and visitors would do well to take a look at the lunar and planetary time-lapse animations offered up by Ant�³nio Cidad�£o.

  6. Animal Skull Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberts, DeLoy

    This intriguing and impressive website of animal skull images and information was developed by DeLoy Roberts, a high school biology and zoology teacher in Idaho. The site is quite extensive with separate skull galleries for mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, crustaceans, and fish. Site visitors will find clear skull images of such animals as a badger, wolf, boa constrictor, golden eagle, salmon, great gray owl, and many more. The site also includes lists of Animal Skull Sizes (organized alphabetically by animal as well as by size) for mammal and bird skulls in the collection. For school groups that can make the trip, the actual skull collection is maintained by Mr. Roberts at his high school in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

  7. Small Animal Imaging with Magnetic Resonance Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Driehuys, Bastiaan; Nouls, John; Badea, Alexandra; Bucholz, Elizabeth; Ghaghada, Ketan; Petiet, Alexandra; Hedlund, Laurence W.

    2009-01-01

    Small animal magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) has evolved significantly from testing the boundaries of imaging physics to its expanding use today as a tool in non-invasive biomedical investigations. This review is intended to capture the state-of-the-art in MRM for scientists who may be unfamiliar with this modality, but who want to apply its capabilities to their research. We therefore include a brief review of MR concepts and methods of animal handling and support before covering a range of MRM applications including the heart, lung, brain, and the emerging field of MR histology. High-resolution anatomical imaging reveals increasingly exquisite detail in healthy animals and subtle architectural aberrations that occur in genetically altered models. Resolution of 100 µm in all dimensions is now routinely attained in living animals, and 10 µm3 is feasible in fixed specimens. Such images almost rival conventional histology while allowing the object to be viewed interactively in any plane. MRM is now increasingly used to provide functional information in living animals. Images of the beating heart, breathing lung, and functioning brain can be recorded. While clinical MRI focuses on diagnosis, MRM is used to reveal fundamental biology or to non-invasively measure subtle changes in the structure or function of organs during disease progression or in response to experimental therapies. The ability of MRM to provide a detailed functional and anatomical picture in rats and mice, and to track this picture over time, makes it a promising platform with broad applications in biomedical research. PMID:18172332

  8. Alterations of the cortico-cortical network in sensori-motor areas of dystrophin deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Minciacchi, D; Del Tongo, C; Carretta, D; Nosi, D; Granato, A

    2010-04-14

    The dystrophin defective mdx mouse, acknowledged model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), bears outstanding alterations of the cortical architecture, that could be responsible for the cognitive impairment often accompanying this pathological condition. Using a retrograde tract tracing technique to label neurons in Golgi-like fashion, we investigated the fine anatomical organization of associative cortico-cortical projections in mdx mice. While the absolute number of associative pyramidal neurons was significantly higher in mdx than in control animals, the ratio between the number of supra- and infragranular cortico-cortical cells was substantially unmodified. Basal dendrites of layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons displayed longer terminal branches in mdx compared to controls. Finally, the density of dendritic spines was significantly lower in mdx animals. The anomalies of associative cortico-cortical projections provide potential groundwork on the neurobiological bases of cognitive involvement in DMD and value the role of cortical microcircuitry alterations as possible source of interference with peripheral motor impairment. PMID:20109538

  9. Animal Presentations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kelly Godwin

    2009-10-05

    Students will pick an animal and create a presentation for the class about that animal. They will learn about research and PowerPoint while learning about animals. Also, students will build presentation skills. Kelly Godwin Instructional Architect 09/19/09 ASSURE Lesson Plan Analyze the learner The students are all in 4th grade so they are approximately 10 years old. Their academic abilities are that of a 10-year-old give or take 1 or 1.5 years. The students are mostly from the middle class suburbs. They have more than ...

  10. Physiological dysfunction of the haemopoietic system in a fresh water teleost, Labeo rohita , following chronic chlordane exposure. Part II — Alterations in certain organic components and serum electrolytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Bansal; S. R. Verma; A. K. Gupta; R. C. Dalela

    1979-01-01

    Clinical chemical analysis used in mammaliam studies are highly developed amd reliable, but omly modest application of the principles and methods bave been extended te the realm of aquatic organisms. However, there is accumulating evidence that valid and useful analytical relations can be drawn between biochemical - physialsgical factors and pathology of an aquatic species. Physiological changes in the blod

  11. Variations in the chemical and stable isotope composition of carbon and sulfur species during organic-rich sediment alteration: An experimental and theoretical study of hydrothermal activity at guaymas basin, gulf of california

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Seyfried, W.E., Jr.; Shanks, Wayne C., III

    1994-01-01

    Organic-rich diatomaceous ooze was reacted with seawater and a Na-Ca-K-Cl fluid of seawater chlorinity at 325-400??C, 400-500 bars, and fluid/sediment mass ratios of 1.56-2.35 to constrain factors regulating the abundance and stable isotope composition of C and S species during hydrothermal alteration of sediment from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. Alteration of inorganic and organic sedimentary components resulted in extensive exchange reactions, the release of abundant H2S, CO2, CH4, and Corganic, to solution, and recrystallization of the sediment to an assemblage containing albitic plagioclase, quartz, pyrrhotite, and calcite. The ??34Scdt values of dissolved H2S varied from -10.9 to +4.3??? during seawater-sediment interaction at 325 and 400??C and from -16.5 to -9.0??? during Na-Ca-K-Cl fluid-sediment interaction at 325 and 375??C. In the absence of seawater SO4, H2S is derived from both the transformation of pyrite to pyrrhotite and S released during the degradation of organic matter. In the presence of seawater SO4, reduction of SO4 contributes directly to H2S production. Sedimentary organic matter acts as the reducing agent during pyrite and SO4 reduction. Requisite acidity for the reduction of SO4 is provided by Mg fixation during early-stage sediment alteration and by albite and calcite formation in Mg-free solutions. Organically derived CH4 was characterized by ??13Cpdb values ranging between -20.8 and -23.1???, whereas ??13Cpdb values for dissolved Corganic ranged between -14.8 and -17.7%. Mass balance calculations indicate that ??13C values for organically derived CO2 were ??? - 14.8%. Residual solid sedimentary organic C showed small (??? 0.7???) depletions in 13C relative to the starting sediment. The experimental results are consistent with the isotopic and chemical composition of natural hydrothermal fluids and minerals at Guaymas Basin and permit us to better constrain sources and sinks for C and S species in subseafloor hydrothermal systems at sediment-covered spreading centers. Our data show that the sulfur isotope composition of hydrothermal Sulfide minerals in Guaymas Basin can be explained by derivation of S from diagenetic sulfide and seawater sulfate. Basaltic S may also contribute to hydrothermal sulfide precipitates but is not required to explain their isotopic composition. Estimates of seawater/ sediment mass ratios based on sulfur isotopic composition of sulfide minerals and the abundance of dissolved NH3 in vent fluids range from 3-29 during hydrothermal circulation. Sources of C in Guaymas Basin hydrothermal fluids include thermal degradation of organic matter, bacteriogenic methane production, and dissolution of diagenetic carbonate. ?? 1994.

  12. Comparing Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Broadhead

    2007-12-05

    As you complete this WebQuest I would like you to think about the story that you are going to be writing. You may choose to write a true animal story. This would be like the news article about the cat and the dog that we read in class. Or you may chose to write a pretend story about a pretend animal. This will be like the folktale we read about the frogs finding their music. Look for ideas and stories that you may want to write your story on. It is okay to change your mind, but you must write a story about an animal. Webquest Introduction: Think about something that you may want to write your story about. Ask yourself: -Do I want to write a true story? -Do I want to write a pretend story? -What kinds of animals ...

  13. Camera Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A general discussion of the use of cameras in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional film techniques and suggestions for the use of a camera during an architectural walkthrough. This section includes html pages, images and one video.

  14. Making Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, James

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)

  15. Screen Animals

    E-print Network

    McMahon, Laura

    2014-01-01

    of Pennsylvania Press, 2000), Jonathan Burt, Animals in Film (London: Reaktion, 2002), Cynthia Chris, Watching Wildlife (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006), Raymond Bellour, Le Corps du cinéma: hypnoses, émotions, animalités (Paris: P.O.L., 2009...

  16. Public perceptions of transgenic animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. Einsiedel

    2005-01-01

    Summary The field of animal biotechnology has been rapidly expanding and the development of transgenic animals has been part of this research expansion. How the public perceives such developments is an important component of policy considerations. In general, biotechnology applications have been judged with evident hierarchies of acceptability. There appear to be hierarchies in terms of the type of organism

  17. Animated Engines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This remarkable Web site contains descriptions and animations of nineteen different kinds of engines. Engine types include internal combustion, steam, and sterling engines, and each page shows how the piston, crankshaft, and other components move together to generate power. The animations demonstrate the processes of intake, compression, and exhaust. Some of the featured engines have more detailed descriptions than others, and oftentimes, a brief account of the engine's history is included. One engine dates back to the early 1700s.

  18. MicroSPECT and MicroPET Imaging of Small Animals for Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The process of drug discovery and development requires substantial resources and time. The drug industry has tried to reduce costs by conducting appropriate animal studies together with molecular biological and genetic analyses. Basic science research has been limited to in vitro studies of cellular processes and ex vivo tissue examination using suitable animal models of disease. However, in the past two decades new technologies have been developed that permit the imaging of live animals using radiotracer emission, Xrays, magnetic resonance signals, fluorescence, and bioluminescence. The main objective of this review is to provide an overview of small animal molecular imaging, with a focus on nuclear imaging (single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography). These technologies permit visualization of toxicodynamics as well as toxicity to specific organs by directly monitoring drug accumulation and assessing physiological and/or molecular alterations. Nuclear imaging technology has great potential for improving the efficiency of the drug development process. PMID:24278622

  19. Noise in animal facilities: why it matters.

    PubMed

    Turner, Jeremy G; Bauer, Carol A; Rybak, Leonard P

    2007-01-01

    Environmental noise can alter endocrine, reproductive and cardiovascular function, disturb sleep/wake cycles, and can mask normal communication between animals. These outcomes indicate that noise in the animal facility might have wide-ranging affects on animals, making what laboratory animals hear of consequence for all those who use animals in research, not just the hearing researcher. Given the wide-ranging effects of noise on laboratory animals, routine monitoring of noise in animal facilities would provide important information on the nature and stability of the animal environment. This special issue will highlight the need for more thorough monitoring and will serve as an introduction to noise and its various effects on animals. PMID:17203909

  20. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin treatment alters eicosanoid levels in several organs of the mouse in an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent fashion

    SciTech Connect

    Bui, Peter; Solaimani, Parrisa [Molecular Toxicology Program, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States) [Molecular Toxicology Program, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Dept of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Wu, Xiaomeng [Dept of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States) [Dept of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hankinson, Oliver, E-mail: ohank@mednet.ucla.edu [Molecular Toxicology Program, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States) [Molecular Toxicology Program, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Dept of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) adversely affects many mammalian organs and tissues. These effects are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 are upregulated by the liganded AHR. These (and other) cytochromes P450 can metabolize arachidonic acid into a variety of bioactive eicosanoids. Towards investigating a potential role of eicosanoids in TCDD toxicity, arachidonic acid, two other unsaturated long-chain fatty acids, and up to twenty-five eicosanoids were measured in five organs/tissues of male and female wild-type and Ahr null mice treated or untreated with TCDD. TCDD generally increased the levels of the four dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) and (where measured) 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid and 18-, 19- and 20-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (HETEs) in the serum, liver, spleen and lungs, but not the heart, of both sexes, and increased the levels in the serum, liver and spleen of several metabolites that are usually considered products of lipoxygenase activity, but which may also be generated by cytochromes P450. TCDD also increased the levels of the esterified forms of these eicosanoids in the liver in parallel with the corresponding free forms. The levels of prostanoids were generally not affected by TCDD. The above changes did not occur in Ahr null mice, and are therefore mediated by the AHR. TCDD increased the mRNA levels of Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1 and the Pla2g12a form of phospholipase A{sub 2} to varying degrees in the different organs, and these increases correlated with some but not all the changes in eicosanoids levels in the organs, suggesting that other enzymes may also be involved. -- Highlights: ? TCDD treatment increases the levels of many eicosanoids in several mouse organs. ? Products of both the cytochrome P450 and classical lipoxygenase pathways are increased. ? These increases are dependent on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. ? Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2 and Cyp1b1 appear to be responsible for much but not all of the increases.

  1. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND ANIMAL BREEDING (*) Alan ROBERTSON

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND ANIMAL BREEDING (*) Alan ROBERTSON Institute of Animal Genetics West Mains have radically altered accepted views on the nature of gene action and of protein synthesis their implications for research in quantitative genetics and evolutionary studies in the light of recent developments

  2. Polydextrose enrichment of infant formula demonstrates prebiotic characteristics by altering intestinal microbiota, organic acid concentrations, and cytokine expression in suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Herfel, Tina M; Jacobi, Sheila K; Lin, Xi; Fellner, Vivek; Walker, D Carey; Jouni, Zeina E; Odle, Jack

    2011-12-01

    Oligosaccharides, the 3rd-most abundant component in human milk, are virtually absent from infant formulas and from the cow milk on which most are based. In breast-fed infants, human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) act as both receptor analogs, interfering with pathogen adhesion, and as prebiotics, stimulating the growth of certain commensal bacteria (e.g. bifidobacteria) and supporting the innate immunity. To further align the functional properties of infant formula with those of human milk, polydextrose (PDX) is proposed as a substitute for HMO. To determine the prebiotic functionality of PDX, 1-d-old pigs were fed a cow milk-based formula supplemented with increasing concentrations of PDX (0, 1.7, 4.3, 8.5, or 17 g/L) for 18 d (n = 13). Additional reference groups included pigs sampled at d 0 and sow-reared pigs sampled at d 18 (n = 12). Ileal Lactobacilli CFU, but not Bifidobacteria, increased linearly with increasing PDX (P = 0.02). The propionic acid concentration in digesta linearly increased with the PDX level (P = 0.045) and lactic acid increased linearly by 5-fold with increasing PDX (P = 0.001). Accordingly, digesta pH decreased linearly (P < 0.05) as PDX increased, with a maximal reduction approaching 0.5 pH units in pigs fed 17 g/L. Expression of TNF?, IL-1?, and IL-8 showed a negative quadratic pattern in response to PDX supplementation, declining at intermediate concentrations and rebounding at higher concentrations of PDX. In summary, PDX enrichment of infant formula resulted in a prebiotic effect by increasing ileal lactobacilli and propionic and lactic acid concentrations and decreasing pH with associated alterations in ileal cytokine expression. PMID:22013198

  3. Animal models.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Antonietta; Moshé, Solomon L

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy accounts for a significant portion of the dis-ease burden worldwide. Research in this field is fundamental and mandatory. Animal models have played, and still play, a substantial role in understanding the patho-physiology and treatment of human epilepsies. A large number and variety of approaches are available, and they have been applied to many animals. In this chapter the in vitro and in vivo animal models are discussed,with major emphasis on the in vivo studies. Models have used phylogenetically different animals - from worms to monkeys. Our attention has been dedicated mainly to rodents.In clinical practice, developmental aspects of epilepsy often differ from those in adults. Animal models have often helped to clarify these differences. In this chapter, developmental aspects have been emphasized.Electrical stimulation and chemical-induced models of seizures have been described first, as they represent the oldest and most common models. Among these models, kindling raised great interest, especially for the study of the epileptogenesis. Acquired focal models mimic seizures and occasionally epilepsies secondary to abnormal cortical development, hypoxia, trauma, and hemorrhage.Better knowledge of epileptic syndromes will help to create new animal models. To date, absence epilepsy is one of the most common and (often) benign forms of epilepsy. There are several models, including acute pharmacological models (PTZ, penicillin, THIP, GBL) and chronic models (GAERS, WAG/Rij). Although atypical absence seizures are less benign, thus needing more investigation, only two models are so far available (AY-9944,MAM-AY). Infantile spasms are an early childhood encephalopathy that is usually associated with a poor out-come. The investigation of this syndrome in animal models is recent and fascinating. Different approaches have been used including genetic (Down syndrome,ARX mutation) and acquired (multiple hit, TTX, CRH,betamethasone-NMDA) models.An entire section has been dedicated to genetic models, from the older models obtained with spontaneous mutations (GEPRs) to the new engineered knockout, knocking, and transgenic models. Some of these models have been created based on recently recognized patho-genesis such as benign familial neonatal epilepsy, early infantile encephalopathy with suppression bursts, severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy, the tuberous sclerosis model, and the progressive myoclonic epilepsy. The contribution of animal models to epilepsy re-search is unquestionable. The development of further strategies is necessary to find novel strategies to cure epileptic patients, and optimistically to allow scientists first and clinicians subsequently to prevent epilepsy and its consequences. PMID:22938964

  4. Animal Models for Therapeutic Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, Patricia L.; An, Yuehuei H. [Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, CSB708, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, Orthopaedic Research Laboratories (United States)], E-mail: any@musc.edu

    2003-04-15

    Embolization techniques have been performed in different animals to accumulate basic data before a clinical trial.Choosing the right embolization model for a specific project is critical. However, there are several variables when defining the best model for embolization research such as the size of the animal to be used, the target organs, the route of introducing the embolization agent, and the feasible methods of evaluation. Commonly used research animals for endovascular embolization include rabbits, dogs, and rats. Frequently used target organs are the kidney and the liver. Most models use a transcatheter for introducing the embolus and occasionally open surgery and direct arterial injection are used. Basic methods of evaluation are straightforward, and commonly include macro observation of the embolized organs, angiogram, and histology. This article concisely reviews the available animal models and their evaluation for embolization research to help researchers to choose the appropriate model.

  5. Altering the spin state of transition metal centers in metal-organic frameworks by molecular hydrogen adsorption: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y Y; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Lee, Kyuho; West, D; Zhang, S B

    2011-03-21

    Our first-principles calculation shows that molecular hydrogen (H(2)) adsorption at an exposed Fe(II) site in metal-organic frameworks could induce a spin flip in the Fe(II) center resulting in a spin-state transition from a triplet high-spin (HS) to a singlet low-spin (LS) state. The Kubas-type Fe-H(2) interaction, where H(2) coordinates onto the Fe(II) center as a ?-ligand, is found commensurate in strength with the exchange interaction of Fe 3d electrons, which is responsible for the occurrence of the spin-state transition in this system. The H(2) binding energies are 0.08 and 0.35 eV per H(2) at the HS and LS states, respectively. This effect is expected to find applications in spin-control in molecular magnets, hydrogen sensing and storage. PMID:21293794

  6. Animal venom studies: Current benefits and future developments.

    PubMed

    Utkin, Yuri N

    2015-05-26

    Poisonous organisms are represented in many taxa, including kingdom Animalia. During evolution, animals have developed special organs for production and injection of venoms. Animal venoms are complex mixtures, compositions of which depend on species producing venom. The most known and studied poisonous terrestrial animals are snakes, scorpions and spiders. Among marine animals, these are jellyfishes, anemones and cone snails. The toxic substances in the venom of these animals are mainly of protein and peptide origin. Recent studies have indicated that the single venom may contain up to several hundred different components producing diverse physiological effects. Bites or stings by certain poisonous species result in severe envenomations leading in some cases to death. This raises the problem of bite treatment. The most effective treatment so far is the application of antivenoms. To enhance the effectiveness of such treatments, the knowledge of venom composition is needed. On the other hand, venoms contain substances with unique biological properties, which can be used both in basic science and in clinical applications. The best example of toxin application in basic science is ?-bungarotoxin the discovery of which made a big impact on the studies of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Today compositions of venom from many species have already been examined. Based on these data, one can conclude that venoms contain a large number of individual components belonging to a limited number of structural types. Often minor changes in the amino acid sequence give rise to new biological properties. Change in the living conditions of poisonous animals lead to alterations in the composition of venoms resulting in appearance of new toxins. At the same time introduction of new methods of proteomics and genomics lead to discoveries of new compounds, which may serve as research tools or as templates for the development of novel drugs. The application of these sensitive and comprehensive methods allows studying either of venoms available in tiny amounts or of low abundant components in already known venoms. PMID:26009701

  7. Effects of altered groundwater chemistry upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial attachment during transport within an organically contaminated sandy aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, R.W.; Metge, D.W.; Barber, L.B.; Aiken, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a dilute (ionic strength = 5 ?? 10-3 M) plume of treated sewage, with elevated levels (3.9 mg/L) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial transport through an iron-laden, quartz sand aquifer (Cape Cod, MA) were evaluated using sets of replicate, static minicolumns. Compared with uncontaminated groundwater, the plume chemistry diminished bacterial attachment under mildly acidic (pH 5.0-6.5) in-situ conditions, in spite of the 5-fold increase in ionic strength and substantively enhanced attachment under more alkaline conditions. The effects of the hydrophobic neutral and total fractions of the plume DOC; modest concentrations of fulvic and humic acids (1.5 mg/L); linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) (25 mg/L); Imbentin (200 ??g/L), a model nonionic surfactant; sulfate (28 mg/L); and calcium (20 mg/L) varied sharply in response to relatively small changes in pH, although the plume constituents collectively decreased the pH-dependency of bacterial attachment. LAS and other hydrophobic neutrals (collectively representing only ???3% of the plume DOC) had a disproportionately large effect upon bacterial attachment, as did the elevated concentrations of sulfate within the plume. The findings further suggest that the roles of organic plume constituents in transport or bacteria through acidic aquifer sediments can be very different than would be predicted from column studies performed at circumneutral pH and that the inorganic constituents within the plume cannot be ignored.

  8. Lesions of area postrema and subfornical organ alter exendin-4-induced brain activation without preventing the hypophagic effect of the GLP-1 receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Baraboi, Elena-Dana; Smith, Pauline; Ferguson, Alastair V; Richard, Denis

    2010-04-01

    The mechanism and route whereby glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, such as GLP-1 and exendin-4 (Ex-4), access the central nervous system (CNS) to exert their metabolic effects have yet to be clarified. The primary objective of the present study was to investigate the potential role of two circumventricular organs (CVOs), the area postrema (AP) and the subfornical organ (SFO), in mediating the metabolic and CNS-stimulating effects of Ex-4. We demonstrated that electrolytic ablation of the AP, SFO, or AP + SFO does not acutely prevent the anorectic effects of Ex-4. AP + SFO lesion chronically decreased food intake and body weight and also modulated the effect of Ex-4 on the neuronal activation of brain structures involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and glucose metabolism. The results of the study also showed that CVO lesions blunted Ex-4-induced expression of c-fos mRNA (a widely used neuronal activity marker) in 1) limbic structures (bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and central amygdala), 2) hypothalamus (paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, and arcuate nucleus), and 3) hindbrain (lateral and lateral-external parabrachial nucleus, medial nucleus of the solitary tract, and ventrolateral medulla). In conclusion, although the present results do not support a role for the CVOs in the anorectic effect induced by a single injection of Ex-4, they suggest that the CVOs play important roles in mediating the actions of Ex-4 in the activation of CNS structures involved in homeostatic control. PMID:20106992

  9. Transgenic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  10. Animal Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  11. Curriculum Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gose, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five teachers with reputations for artistry in curriculum planning were interviewed about their "curriculum animation" plans or how they ensured their curriculum was brought to life. Their statements indicated that much of their planning is informal and intuitive, and that the criteria they use for their curriculum includes: (1) it is…

  12. Animation aerodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jakub Wejchert; David R. Haumann

    1991-01-01

    Methods based on aerodynamics are developed to simulate and control the motion of objects in fluid flows. To simplify the physics for animation, the problem is broken down into two parts: a fluid flow regime and an object boundary regime. With this simplification one can approximate the realistic behaviour of objects moving in liquids or air. It also enables a

  13. Animal Intelligence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl Pearson

    1884-01-01

    THE following instance of animal intelligence may interest some of your readers. While walking through the forest here the other day, I found a young jay upon the ground scarcely able to fly. As I stooped down to examine it I was somewhat startled by a swoop made at my head by the old birds, their wings actually touching my

  14. Animal Transfer Agreement -1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Animal Transfer Agreement - 1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT This Animal Transfer Agreement has been adopted for use by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for use in transferring animals for research transferring the animal) Recipient: (name of laboratory/institution receiving the animal) The Provider agrees

  15. Histopathological and biochemical alterations of the earthworm (Lumbricus Terrestris) as biomarker of soil pollution along Porsuk River Basin (Turkey).

    PubMed

    K?l?ç, Gözde Aydo?an

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated biomarker responses of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris in order to evaluate the soil pollution along Porsuk River Basin. Samples consisted of animals from six sites that are agricultural regions and a forested control. Histopathological and biochemical alterations were examined. Significant histopathological alterations were observed in animals from three of the sampling sites. There was an enlargement of epithelial cell lining, mucus cell hyperplasia and increase in mucus secretion. Circular and longitudinal muscles lost their structural integrity. Chloragogenous tissue was dilated and vocuolized. Necrosis was observed in the cells and tissues of some affected worms. A load of heavy metals in tissues of animals was determined. Heavy metals were found to be accumulated particularly in longitudinal muscles of animals. CAT activity was found to be increased in animals from three of the experimental sites. GST activity was also increased in five sites while it was stable in one site. The results have shown that animals from locations particularly that are close to urbanized and industrialized regions were seriously affected from the soil pollution around the basin. These results are reflecting the biological effects of soil pollution around Porsuk River Basin on the indicator organism L. terrestris and constitute an early warning of ecological change in relation to human health. PMID:21251693

  16. Chronic aluminum intoxication in rat induced both serotonin changes in the dorsal raphe nucleus and alteration of glycoprotein secretion in the subcommissural organ: Immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Laabbar, Wafaa; Elgot, Abdeljalil; Kissani, Najib; Gamrani, Halima

    2014-08-01

    Aluminum (Al) causes multiple impairments in several body systems including the central nervous system. In fact, Al exposure has been mostly associated with neurological dysfunctions that occur in some brain diseases. The effect of Al neurotoxicity on the dopaminergic system is well documented, but this effect on the serotoninergic system is poorly studied. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of chronic Al intoxication (0.3% of aluminum chloride exposure from the intra-uterine age until 4 months of adult age) on dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) which is the main source of serotonin, and also on the glycoprotein secretion of subcomissural organ (SCO), receiving important serotoninergic innervation. This will be executed using immunohistochemistry procedure, with both the anti serotonin and the anti Reissner's fiber antibodies in the rat. Our results showed a significant increase of serotonin immunoreactivity in the DRN, accompanied by a noticeable decrease of RF immunoreactivity in the SCO ependymocytes. This study provides further evidence confirming the toxic effect of Al exposure on serotonin neurotransmission in the brain likely through increased synthesis or decreased release. Al exposure was also shown to decrease RF glycoprotein which is involved in the detoxification of cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:24931428

  17. Animal models of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Jones, CA; Watson, DJG; Fone, KCF

    2011-01-01

    Developing reliable, predictive animal models for complex psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, is essential to increase our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for the development of novel drugs with improved therapeutic efficacy. All available animal models of schizophrenia fit into four different induction categories: developmental, drug-induced, lesion or genetic manipulation, and the best characterized examples of each type are reviewed herein. Most rodent models have behavioural phenotype changes that resemble ‘positive-like’ symptoms of schizophrenia, probably reflecting altered mesolimbic dopamine function, but fewer models also show altered social interaction, and learning and memory impairment, analogous to negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia respectively. The negative and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia are resistant to treatment with current antipsychotics, even after remission of the psychosis, which limits their therapeutic efficacy. The MATRICS initiative developed a consensus on the core cognitive deficits of schizophrenic patients, and recommended a standardized test battery to evaluate them. More recently, work has begun to identify specific rodent behavioural tasks with translational relevance to specific cognitive domains affected in schizophrenia, and where available this review focuses on reporting the effect of current and potential antipsychotics on these tasks. The review also highlights the need to develop more comprehensive animal models that more adequately replicate deficits in negative and cognitive symptoms. Increasing information on the neurochemical and structural CNS changes accompanying each model will also help assess treatments that prevent the development of schizophrenia rather than treating the symptoms, another pivotal change required to enable new more effective therapeutic strategies to be developed. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Translational Neuropharmacology. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.164.issue-4 PMID:21449915

  18. The common neural parasite Pseudoloma neurophilia is associated with altered startle response habituation in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio): Implications for the zebrafish as a model organism.

    PubMed

    Spagnoli, Sean; Xue, Lan; Kent, Michael L

    2015-09-15

    The zebrafish's potential as a model for human neurobehavioral research appears nearly limitless despite its relatively recent emergence as an experimental organism. Since the zebrafish has only been part of the research community for a handful of decades, pathogens from its commercial origins continue to plague laboratory stocks. One such pathogen is Pseudoloma neurophilia, a common microparasite in zebrafish laboratories world-wide that generally produces subclinical infections. Given its high prevalence, its predilection for the host's brain and spinal cord, and the delicate nature of neurobehavioral research, the behavioral consequences of subclinical P. neurophilia infection must be explored. Fish infected via cohabitation were tested for startle response habituation in parallel with controls in a device that administered ten taps over 10min along with taps at 18 and 60min to evaluate habituation extinction. After testing, fish were euthanized and evaluated for infection via histopathology. Infected fish had a significantly smaller reduction in startle velocity during habituation compared to uninfected tankmates and controls. Habituation was eliminated in infected and control fish at 18min, whereas exposed negative fish retained partial habituation at 18min. Infection was also associated with enhanced capture evasion: Despite the absence of external symptoms, infected fish tended to be caught later than uninfected fish netted from the same tank. The combination of decreased overall habituation, early extinction of habituation compared to uninfected cohorts, and enhanced netting evasion indicates that P. neurophilia infection is associated with a behavioral phenotype distinct from that of controls and uninfected cohorts. Because of its prevalence in zebrafish facilities, P. neurophilia has the potential to insidiously influence a wide range of neurobehavioral studies if these associations are causative. Rigorous health screening is therefore vital to the improvement of the zebrafish as a translational model for human behavior. PMID:26028515

  19. Left-Right Asymmetry in Animal Embryogenesis

    E-print Network

    Levin, Michael

    1 Left-Right Asymmetry in Animal Embryogenesis Michael Levin Cell Biology dept. Bldg. C1, rm. 403 of a given type) differences between the left and right sides of an animal's morphology. This specifically of an organism looking the same to some level of detail on either side of a symmetry line). Animal body- plans

  20. Animated Atlas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    A commercial site, Animated Atlas provides excellent audio-visual resources for teachers and students of European and American history. The resources combine maps and animation to create short video presentations on such subjects as the growth of the United States and the First World War. Though most of the videos must be ordered, the site provides free samples of its presentations, including a ten minute presentation on the westward expansion of the United States, the early history of the American Revolution, the European alliances before the First World War, and the beginnings of the Mexican American War. The site provides a timeline of American history that can be referred to during the American expansion video. Students and educators should also explore the site's listings of American history sites and primary source on the Web.

  1. Tinnitus: animal models and findings in humans.

    PubMed

    Eggermont, Jos J; Roberts, Larry E

    2015-07-01

    Chronic tinnitus (ringing of the ears) is a medically untreatable condition that reduces quality of life for millions of individuals worldwide. Most cases are associated with hearing loss that may be detected by the audiogram or by more sensitive measures. Converging evidence from animal models and studies of human tinnitus sufferers indicates that, while cochlear damage is a trigger, most cases of tinnitus are not generated by irritative processes persisting in the cochlea but by changes that take place in central auditory pathways when auditory neurons lose their input from the ear. Forms of neural plasticity underlie these neural changes, which include increased spontaneous activity and neural gain in deafferented central auditory structures, increased synchronous activity in these structures, alterations in the tonotopic organization of auditory cortex, and changes in network behavior in nonauditory brain regions detected by functional imaging of individuals with tinnitus and corroborated by animal investigations. Research on the molecular mechanisms that underlie neural changes in tinnitus is in its infancy and represents a frontier for investigation. PMID:25266340

  2. Logic Animation and Logic Animation Platform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mao Chen; Qiang Ge; Qingtang Liu; Zhiguo Si

    2009-01-01

    Logic animation, a new style of animation, was first proposed in the application of dynamic geometry software. The concept, features, and possible application prospects of logic animation are further introduced in details in this paper, compared with the traditional style of animation-time-sequential animation. Based on the design ideas of dynamic geometry software, Flash and game engine, the design of a

  3. Character Animation Animation is a big topic

    E-print Network

    Stephenson, Ben

    Character Animation 1 #12;Overview · Animation is a big topic · We will concentrate on character animation as is used in many games today ­ humans, animals, monsters, robots, etc. #12;Character is called a pose ­ the state of a skeleton at a particular time of animation #12;Regular layout 2 (no arcade

  4. DNA is organized into 46 chromosomes including sex chromosomes, 3D animation with no audioSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-10-06

    The millions of bases, which make up the human genome are organized into structures called chromosomes. These are arranged into 22 matching pairs plus 1 pair of sex chromosomes consisting of 2 X's in women and an X and a Y in men. So humans have a total of 46 chromosomes in each cell, known collectively as a karyotype. This set of chromosomes has a Y, so it must belong to a male.

  5. The cartilage collagens: a review of their structure, organization, and role in the pathogenesis of experimental arthritis in animals and in human rheumatic disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Cremer; Edward F. Rosloniec; Andrew H. Kang

    1998-01-01

    This contribution reviews the structure and organization of collagen molecules found in cartilage and the roles that they\\u000a may play in rheumatic diseases. Cartilage is unique in its physical properties and molecular composition, and contains sufficient\\u000a amounts of types II, IX, X, and XI collagen to deem these molecules as ”cartilage-specific.” The vitreous body of the eye,\\u000a a ”cartilagelike” tissue

  6. Conditioned deletion of ephrinB1 and/or ephrinB2 in either thymocytes or thymic epithelial cells alters the organization of thymic medulla and favors the appearance of thymic epithelial cysts.

    PubMed

    Cejalvo, Teresa; Munoz, Juan J; Tobajas, Esther; Alfaro, David; García-Ceca, Javier; Zapata, Agustín

    2015-05-01

    Our understanding about medullary compartment, its niches composition and formation is still limited. Previous studies using EphB2 and/or EphB3 knockout mice showed an abnormal thymic development that affects mainly to the epithelial component, including the cortex/medulla distribution, thymic epithelial cell (TEC) morphology and different epithelial-specific marker expression. We have already demonstrated that the lack of ephrinB1 and/or ephrinB2, either on thymocytes or on TECs, alters the cell intermingling processes necessary for thymus organization and affect cortical TEC subpopulations. In the present work, we have used the Cre-LoxP model to selectively delete ephrinB1 and/or ephrinB2 in thymocytes (EfnB1(thy/thy), EfnB2(thy/thy), EfnB1(thy/thy)EfnB2(thy/thy) mice) or TECs (EfnB1(tec/tec), EfnB2(tec/tec), EfnB1(tec/tec)EfnB2(tec/tec) mice) and have analyzed their role on the medullary compartment. In all the studied mutants, medullary areas are smaller and more compact than in the wt thymuses. In most of them, we observe abundant big cysts and a higher proportion of UEA(hi)MTS10(-) cells than in wt mice, which are often forming small cysts. On EfnB1(tec/tec)EfnB2(tec/tec), changes affecting organ size and medullary compartment start at perinatal stage. Our data shed some light on knowledge about wt medulla histological structure and cysts meaning and formation process and on the role played by ephrinB in them. PMID:25417117

  7. Reflections on animal selves.

    PubMed

    Bekoff, Marc; Sherman, Paul W

    2004-04-01

    Is self-cognizance a uniquely human attribute, or do other animals also have a sense of self? Although there is considerable interest in this question, answers remain elusive. Progress has been stymied by misunderstandings in terminology, a focus on a narrow range of species, and controversies over key concepts, experimental paradigms and interpretations of data. Here, we propose a new conceptual and terminological framework, emphasizing that degrees of self-cognizance differ among animals because of the cognitive demands that their species-specific social structures and life-history characteristics have placed upon them over evolutionary time. We suggest that the self-cognizance of an organism falls at a point on a continuum of social complexity and conscious involvement. PMID:16701251

  8. Connective tissue disorders in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Halper, Jaroslava

    2014-01-01

    Though soft tissue disorders have been recognized and described to some detail in several types of domestic animals and small mammals for some years, not much progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical basis and pathogenesis of these diseases in animals. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome described in dogs already in 1943 and later in cats affects mainly skin in these animals. The involved skin is thin and hyperextensible with easily inflicted injuries resulting in hemorrhagic wounds and atrophic scars. Joint laxity and dislocation common in people are less frequently found in dogs. No systemic complications, such as organ rupture or cardiovascular problems which have devastating consequences in people have been described in cats and dogs. The diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and on light or electron microscopic features of disorganized and fragmented collagen fibrils. Several cases of bovine and ovine dermatosparaxis analogous to human Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIIC were found to be caused by mutations in the procollagen I N-proteinase (pnPI) or ADAMTS2 gene, though mutations in other sites are likely responsible for other types of dermatosparaxis. Cattle suffering from a form of Marfan syndrome were described to have aortic dilatation and aneurysm together with ocular abnormalities and skeletal involvement. As in people mutations at different sites of bovine FBN1 may be responsible for Marfan phenotype. Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA), or hyperelastosis cutis, has been recognized in several horse breeds as affecting primarily skin, and, occasionally, tendons. A mutation in cyclophilin B, a chaperon involved in proper folding of collagens, has been identified in some cases. Degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis (DSLD) affects primarily tendons and ligaments of certain horse breeds. New data from our laboratory showed excessive accumulation of proteoglycans in organs with high content of connective tissues. We have identified an abnormal form of decorin with altered biological activity in these proteoglycan deposits, and more recently changes in processing of aggrecan were found by us and other investigators.The naturally occurring diseases of soft tissues in domestic animals described here have a potential to serve as good models for analogous human diseases. This is the case particularly relevant to dogs as a half out of the more than 400 naturally occurring hereditary canine diseases has the potential to serve as a model for human disease. PMID:24443030

  9. [Altered states of consciousness].

    PubMed

    Gora, E P

    2005-01-01

    The review of modern ideas concerning the altered states of consciousness is presented in this article. Various methods of entry into the altered states of consciousness are looked over. It is shown that the altered states of consciousness are insufficiently known, but important aspects of human being existence. The role of investigation of the altered states of consciousness for the creation of integrative scientific conception base is discussed. PMID:15810684

  10. Symptomatic animal models for dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Bethany K.; Hess, Ellen J.

    2013-01-01

    Symptomatic animal models have clinical features consistent with human disorders and are often used to identify the anatomical and physiological processes involved in the expression of symptoms and to experimentally demonstrate causality where it would be infeasible in the patient population. Rodent and primate models of dystonia have identified basal ganglia abnormalities, including alterations in striatal GABAergic and dopaminergic transmission. Symptomatic animal models have also established the critical role of the cerebellum in dystonia, particularly abnormal glutamate signaling and aberrant Purkinje cell activity. Further, experiments suggest that the basal ganglia and cerebellum are nodes in an integrated network that is dysfunctional in dystonia. The knowledge gained from experiments in symptomatic animal models may serve as the foundation for the development of novel therapeutic interventions to treat dystonia. PMID:23893454

  11. Pattern Alteration: Principles of Pattern Alteration

    E-print Network

    2006-02-09

    or more inches larger than the high bust measurement. Fit across the upper chest is a wiser choice because of the difficulty of altering the upper chest, neck and shoulder areas. 2... in pinpointing areas usually needing alterations. To measure the pattern pieces Measure each pattern piece at points that correspond with body measurements. For example, if your full hip measurement was taken 10 inches below the waist, measure the pattern...

  12. Minutes of Southern Region Animal Waste Team: Southern Regional Water Quality Project Animal Waste Management Topic

    E-print Network

    Minutes of Southern Region Animal Waste Team: Southern Regional Water Quality Project Animal Waste with the Symposium on the State of the Science: Animal Manure and Waste Management Attended by: M. Risse (UGA), T. Doug Hamilton agreed to organize the workshop on "Management of Lagoons and liquid waste storage

  13. Animal Interdependency. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. No organism on Earth can exist independently. Students find out more about animal relationships such as predator/prey relationships and…

  14. Fantastic animals as an experimental model to teach animal adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Guidetti, Roberto; Baraldi, Laura; Calzolai, Caterina; Pini, Lorenza; Veronesi, Paola; Pederzoli, Aurora

    2007-01-01

    Background Science curricula and teachers should emphasize evolution in a manner commensurate with its importance as a unifying concept in science. The concept of adaptation represents a first step to understand the results of natural selection. We settled an experimental project of alternative didactic to improve knowledge of organism adaptation. Students were involved and stimulated in learning processes by creative activities. To set adaptation in a historic frame, fossil records as evidence of past life and evolution were considered. Results The experimental project is schematized in nine phases: review of previous knowledge; lesson on fossils; lesson on fantastic animals; planning an imaginary world; creation of an imaginary animal; revision of the imaginary animals; adaptations of real animals; adaptations of fossil animals; and public exposition. A rubric to evaluate the student's performances is reported. The project involved professors and students of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and of the "G. Marconi" Secondary School of First Degree (Modena, Italy). Conclusion The educational objectives of the project are in line with the National Indications of the Italian Ministry of Public Instruction: knowledge of the characteristics of living beings, the meanings of the term "adaptation", the meaning of fossils, the definition of ecosystem, and the particularity of the different biomes. At the end of the project, students will be able to grasp particular adaptations of real organisms and to deduce information about the environment in which the organism evolved. This project allows students to review previous knowledge and to form their personalities. PMID:17767729

  15. Animal Tails

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sohmer, Rachel.

    2003-01-01

    Call it tail envy. With only a vestigial nub to show for ourselves, perhaps it's no wonder that animal tails capture our attention. The following Web sites present some of the more interesting tails to be found in the animal kingdom. The first Web site contains a recent article from Discovery News describing new findings that at least one species of scorpion produces two distinct types of tail venom, which have completely different effects on their victims (1). The next site from Singapore Zoological Gardens introduces the cebids (our New World monkey cousins), some of which have amazing prehensile tails that are used like a fifth limb (2). The rattlesnake is another famously-tailed creature, highlighted in the following site from the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (3). The site covers the main aspects of rattlesnake natural history, including a section on how the rattle forms. The Great Plains Nature Center in Wichita, Kansas, offers a Web page devoted to the beaver, including tail trivia and an audio clip of a resident beaver surprised in his den at the Kansas Wildlife Exhibit (4). Anyone who has witnessed the freakishly fascinating spectacle of a gecko leaving its tail behind to distract a would-be predator will appreciate this brief bio of the Tokay gecko, presented by ReptileCenter.com, the Herpetologist's Portal (5). Stacy's Wag'N'Train -- offering dog-training classes in San Jose, California -- provides this online guide to dog body language, which would have a very limited vocabulary without the tail (6). So, how did the peacock get its tail? It's a simple question that has driven zoologists crazy for over a century. The next Web site (7) contains an in-depth article on the subject from the Independent (London), offered through National Geographic News. And finally, the bizarre gulper eel -- able to tie its tail in several knots -- gets is own Web page on Pangea, the Web server for the Department of Educational Leadership and Technology at Southeastern Louisiana University (8). This deep-sea curiosity uses its bioluminescent tail tip to lure hapless prey into its impossibly gigantic mouth.

  16. Skin irritation and histopathologic alterations in rats exposed to lightstick contents, UV radiation and seawater.

    PubMed

    Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Rodrigues, Obirajara; Santos, Isaac R; Fillmann, Gilberto; Matthiensen, Alexandre

    2009-10-01

    Lightsticks are fishing gadgets that provide fluorescent lighting when two organic solutions are mixed. In NE Brazil, low-income coastal residents ignore their conventional use and collect lightsticks stranded on beaches. The lightstick solution is then used for various purposes, including direct human skin exposure. We assessed the reactions and possible cell damages on the skin of Wistar rats. Animals were exposed to lightstick contents, UV radiation and/or seawater. Lightstick exposure led to erythemas, oedemas and vesicles. Histopathologic alterations included proliferation of the epidermis and inflammatory infiltrates. In spite of the short time of experimentation (4 days), the rats exposed to the lightstick content alone and together with UV radiation and/or seawater provided evidence of irritation/alteration reactions that may evolve into skin cancer. Our results demonstrated a few of the potential problems associated with lightstick dumping into the ocean and highlight the need for further investigations about this new type of marine pollutant. PMID:19473704

  17. Interaction of metabolic stress with chronic mild stress in altering brain cytokines and sucrose preference.

    PubMed

    Remus, Jennifer L; Stewart, Luke T; Camp, Robert M; Novak, Colleen M; Johnson, John D

    2015-06-01

    There is growing evidence that metabolic stressors increase an organism's risk of depression. Chronic mild stress is a popular animal model of depression and several serendipitous findings have suggested that food deprivation prior to sucrose testing in this model is necessary to observe anhedonic behaviors. Here, we directly tested this hypothesis by exposing animals to chronic mild stress and used an overnight 2-bottle sucrose test (food ad libitum) on Day 5 and 10, then food and water deprive animals overnight and tested their sucrose consumption and preference in a 1-hr sucrose test the following morning. Approximately 65% of stressed animals consumed sucrose and showed a sucrose preference similar to nonstressed controls in an overnight sucrose test, and 35% showed a decrease in sucrose intake and preference. Following overnight food and water deprivation the previously "resilient" animals showed a significant decrease in sucrose preference and greatly reduced sucrose intake. In addition, we evaluated whether the onset of anhedonia following food and water deprivation corresponds to alterations in corticosterone, epinephrine, circulating glucose, or interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) expression in limbic brain areas. Although all stressed animals showed adrenal hypertrophy and elevated circulating epinephrine, only stressed animals that were food deprived were hypoglycemic compared with food-deprived controls. Additionally, food and water deprivation significantly increased hippocampus IL-1? while food and water deprivation only increased hypothalamus IL-1? in stress-susceptible animals. These data demonstrate that metabolic stress of food and water deprivation interacts with chronic stressor exposure to induce physiological and anhedonic responses. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25914924

  18. Experimental Animal Models for Studying Lung Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiang Liu; Michael R. Johnston

    \\u000a Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality for both men and women worldwide. The use of animal models of\\u000a lung cancer is necessary to improve our understanding of lung tumor biology and facilitate novel therapies and diagnostics.\\u000a To this end, animal models should mimic both the genetic alterations found in human lung tumors and their histological characteristics.\\u000a Currently,

  19. Topic in Depth - Animal Reproduction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Topic in Depth takes a look at organizations and educational websites concerned with reproduction in humans and other animals. In this folder, you'll find information about fertility, embryology, reproductive biology, and immunology from a variety of societies and institutions.

  20. Methionine sulfoxide disposition Is altered in animal models of obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 20% of populations in western countries are obese. Recently, two genetic studies indicate that the MSRA locus, containing the gene for the enzyme methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MsrA), is positively linked to the development of visceral adiposity. MsrA catalyzes the repair of methionyl thiol ...

  1. Harvard U. Receives First U.S. Patent Issued on Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, David L.

    1988-01-01

    A patent awarded to Harvard University for the genetic alteration of mice in cancer research is the first ever issued on an animal, at the same time that legislation putting a moratorium on animal patents is pending in Congress. (MSE)

  2. Molecular scissors and their application in genetically modified farm animals.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Bjoern; Niemann, Heiner

    2015-06-01

    Molecular scissors (MS), incl. Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFN), Transcription-activator like endoncleases (TALENS) and meganucleases possess long recognition sites and are thus capable of cutting DNA in a very specific manner. These molecular scissors mediate targeted genetic alterations by enhancing the DNA mutation rate via induction of double-strand breaks at a predetermined genomic site. Compared to conventional homologous recombination based gene targeting, MS can increase the targeting rate 10,000-fold, and gene disruption via mutagenic DNA repair is stimulated at a similar frequency. The successful application of different MS has been shown in different organisms, including insects, amphibians, plants, nematodes, and mammals, including humans. Recently, another novel class of molecular scissors was described that uses RNAs to target a specific genomic site. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is capable of targeting even multiple genomic sites in one shot and thus could be superior to ZFNs or TALEN, especially by its easy design. MS can be successfully employed for improving the understanding of complex physiological systems, producing transgenic animals, incl. creating large animal models for human diseases, creating specific cell lines, and plants, and even for treating human genetic diseases. This review provides an update on molecular scissors, their underlying mechanism and focuses on new opportunities for generating genetically modified farm animals. PMID:25603988

  3. History of deceased organ donation, transplantation, and organ procurement organizations.

    PubMed

    Howard, Richard J; Cornell, Danielle L; Cochran, Larry

    2012-03-01

    The historical development of deceased organ donation, transplantation, and organ procurement organizations is reviewed. The concept of transplantation, taking parts from one animal or person and putting them into another animal or person, is ancient. The development of organ transplantation brought on the need for a source of organs. Although many early kidney transplants used kidneys from living donors, these donors could not satisfy the ever-growing need for organs, and extrarenal organs were recovered only from deceased donors. This need for organs to satisfy the great demand led to specialized organizations to identify deceased donors, manage them until recovery occurred, and to notify transplant centers that organs were available for their patients. The functions of these organ procurement organizations expanded to include other required functions such as education, accounting, and compliance with state and federal requirements. Because of the shortage of organs relative to the demand, lack of a unified organ allocation system, the perception that organs are a national resource and should be governed by national regulations, and to improve results of organ procurement organizations and transplant centers, the federal government has regulated virtually all phases of organ procurement and transplantation. PMID:22489438

  4. Animating reactive motions for biped locomotion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taku Komura; Howard Leung; James Kuffner

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for simulating reactive motions for running or walking human figures. The goal is to generate realistic animations of how humans compensate for large external forces and maintain balance while running or walking. We simulate the reactive motions of adjusting the body configuration and altering footfall locations in response to sudden external disturbance

  5. SYNOPSIS OF HISTOTECHNIQUES FOR AQUATIC ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This synopsis provides an overview of the necropsy, fixation, trimming, and processing of tissues from aquatic organisms for examination using light microscopy. The handling of animals, their tissues, uses of knives, and processing chemicals will be covered. Understanding the his...

  6. Amazing Altered Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieling, Linda W.

    2006-01-01

    Linda Kieling, an art teacher at Rosemont Ridge Middle school in West Linn, Oregon, describes an altered book art project she introduced to her students. Alteration of books is a form of recycling that started in the eleventh century when Italian monks recycled old manuscripts written on vellum by scraping off the ink and adding new text and…

  7. Farm animal genomics and informatics: an update

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Fadiel; Ifeanyi Anidi; Kenneth D. Eichenbaum

    2005-01-01

    Farm animal genomics is of interest to a wide audi- ence of researchers because of the utility derived from understanding how genomics and proteomics func- tion in various organisms. Applications such as xeno- transplantation, increased livestock productivity, bioengineering new materials, products and even fab- rics are several reasons for thriving farm animal gen- ome activity. Currently mined in rapidly growing

  8. 9 CFR 101.7 - Seed organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 101.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES...organism at a specified passage level which is used without further propagation for initiating preparation of a fraction. [49 FR...

  9. 9 CFR 101.7 - Seed organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 101.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES...organism at a specified passage level which is used without further propagation for initiating preparation of a fraction. [49 FR...

  10. Game Animals of Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Div. of Wildlife, Denver.

    This booklet is intended to familiarize the reader with game animals typical of Colorado. Discussions in both English and Spanish are presented. Discussions cover the management of game animals, individual game species, and introduced species of game animals. (RE)

  11. Animal Industries - 10 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2006-06-02

    Three-dimensional computer character animation is becoming more and more prevalent in the entertainment industry. As the demand grows, so does the need for tools that allow animators to create animations quickly. In this thesis, we present a...

  12. Ann Yager, Animal Sciences Student Michael Neary, Extension Animal Scientist

    E-print Network

    Ann Yager, Animal Sciences Student Michael Neary, Extension Animal Scientist Wayne Singleton, Extension Reproductive Physiologist Photo Credits: Wayne Singleton AS-559-W Estrus Detection in Farm Animals Purdue University Department of Animal Sciences Farm Animal Management @Purdue Farm Animal Management

  13. Bridge Rectifier Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an animation of a bridge rectifier circuit or diode bridge. Voltages and parts of the circuit of this 3-D animated gif are highlighted with different colors. Current is displayed by green arrows indicating directional flow. The animation requires a Web browser or other video player software capable of displaying gif animations. A link provides an optional Quicktime version of this same animation.Other 3-D Circuit Animations can be seen here.

  14. Pattern Alteration: Lengthening & Shortening

    E-print Network

    2006-08-04

    , and E-373, Personal Measurement Chart, for basic alteration instructions. A garment needs lengthening if major fi tting points, such as the waist or hem line ride up evenly around the body or fall too short for comfort. You might also want... ................................................................................................................................................................................. Basic lengthening and shortening On the Personal Measurement Chart, determine the amount of alteration you need from line 7, shoulder to waist; line 13, skirt length; line 17, side length; and/or line 11-b, sleeve length. Do this alteration on front...

  15. 21 CFR 500.35 - Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms. 500.35 Section...35 Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms. (a) Investigations...animal feed may be contaminated with Salmonella bacteria, an organism...

  16. Anime Creativity: Characters and Premises in the Quest for Cool Japan

    E-print Network

    Condry, Ian

    This article examines ethnographically the production of anime (Japanese animated films and TV shows) by focusing on how professional animators use characters and dramatic premises to organize their collaborative creativity. ...

  17. Growth and development symposium: Fetal programming in animal agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fetal programming is the ability to improve animal production and well-being by altering the maternal environment and holds enormous challenges and great opportunities for researchers and the animal industry. A symposium was held to provide an overview of current knowledge of fetal programming in re...

  18. BIOENGINEERING OF FARM ANIMALS: MEAT QUALITY AND SAFETY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potential for the manipulation of growth and composition of farm animals has never been greater than at present due to the wide array of strategies for altering the balance between lean and fat. Discoveries of gene manipulation techniques (transgenic animals), and most recently cloning, offer a wide...

  19. Impact of simulated microgravity on the normal developmental time line of an animal-bacteria symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Jamie S.; Khodadad, Christina L. M.; Ahrendt, Steven R.; Parrish, Mirina L.

    2013-01-01

    The microgravity environment during space flight imposes numerous adverse effects on animal and microbial physiology. It is unclear, however, how microgravity impacts those cellular interactions between mutualistic microbes and their hosts. Here, we used the symbiosis between the host squid Euprymna scolopes and its luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri as a model system. We examined the impact of simulated microgravity on the timeline of bacteria-induced development in the host light organ, the site of the symbiosis. To simulate the microgravity environment, host squid and symbiosis-competent bacteria were incubated together in high-aspect ratio rotating wall vessel bioreactors and examined throughout the early stages of the bacteria-induced morphogenesis. The host innate immune response was suppressed under simulated microgravity; however, there was an acceleration of bacteria-induced apoptosis and regression in the host tissues. These results suggest that the space flight environment may alter the cellular interactions between animal hosts and their natural healthy microbiome. PMID:23439280

  20. Novelty stress and reproductive state alters responsiveness to sensory stimuli and 5HT neuromodulation in crayfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurice-Pierre Page ´; Robin L. Cooper

    2004-01-01

    Sensory stimuli can produce varied responses depending on the physiological state of an animal. Stressors and reproductive stage can result in altered biochemical status that changes the responsiveness of an animal to hormones and neuromodulators, which affects whole animal behavior in relation to sensory stimuli. Crayfish serve as a model for examining the effects of neuromodulators at the neuromuscular junctions

  1. Boldine Prevents Renal Alterations in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Salinas, Romina; Vielma, Alejandra Z.; Arismendi, Marlene N.; Boric, Mauricio P.; Sáez, Juan C.; Velarde, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy alters both structure and function of the kidney. These alterations are associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species, matrix proteins, and proinflammatory molecules. Inflammation decreases gap junctional communication and increases hemichannel activity leading to increased membrane permeability and altering tissue homeostasis. Since current treatments for diabetic nephropathy do not prevent renal damage, we postulated an alternative treatment with boldine, an alkaloid obtained from boldo with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic effects. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic and control rats were treated or not treated with boldine (50?mg/Kg/day) for ten weeks. In addition, mesangial cells were cultured under control conditions or in high glucose concentration plus proinflammatory cytokines, with or without boldine (100?µmol/L). Boldine treatment in diabetic animals prevented the increase in glycemia, blood pressure, renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the urinary protein/creatinine ratio. Boldine also reduced alterations in matrix proteins and markers of renal damage. In mesangial cells, boldine prevented the increase in oxidative stress, the decrease in gap junctional communication, and the increase in cell permeability due to connexin hemichannel activity induced by high glucose and proinflammatory cytokines but did not block gap junction channels. Thus boldine prevented both renal and cellular alterations and could be useful for preventing tissue damage in diabetic subjects. PMID:24416726

  2. Boldine prevents renal alterations in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Salinas, Romina; Vielma, Alejandra Z; Arismendi, Marlene N; Boric, Mauricio P; Sáez, Juan C; Velarde, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy alters both structure and function of the kidney. These alterations are associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen species, matrix proteins, and proinflammatory molecules. Inflammation decreases gap junctional communication and increases hemichannel activity leading to increased membrane permeability and altering tissue homeostasis. Since current treatments for diabetic nephropathy do not prevent renal damage, we postulated an alternative treatment with boldine, an alkaloid obtained from boldo with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypoglycemic effects. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic and control rats were treated or not treated with boldine (50 mg/Kg/day) for ten weeks. In addition, mesangial cells were cultured under control conditions or in high glucose concentration plus proinflammatory cytokines, with or without boldine (100 µmol/L). Boldine treatment in diabetic animals prevented the increase in glycemia, blood pressure, renal thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the urinary protein/creatinine ratio. Boldine also reduced alterations in matrix proteins and markers of renal damage. In mesangial cells, boldine prevented the increase in oxidative stress, the decrease in gap junctional communication, and the increase in cell permeability due to connexin hemichannel activity induced by high glucose and proinflammatory cytokines but did not block gap junction channels. Thus boldine prevented both renal and cellular alterations and could be useful for preventing tissue damage in diabetic subjects. PMID:24416726

  3. Exotic Animal Grief Packet

    E-print Network

    Exotic Animal Grief Packet 300 West Drake Road Fort Collins, CO 80523 (970) 491-4143 www.argusinstitute.colostate.edu #12;Grieving The Loss Of Your Exotic Pet When an animal enters our life, a distinct relationship is created. Animals provide a truly unique relationship we cannot replicate anywhere else. Exotic animals

  4. Animal Thinking An Introduction

    E-print Network

    Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

    1 Animal Thinking An Introduction Randolf Menzel and Julia Fischer The topic of this Strüngmann Forum--animal thinking--was not formulated as a question--"Do animals think?--but rather as a statement species alone. The issue of whether animals experience conscious recollections in some similar way

  5. Gesture Driven Facial Animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junyong Noh; Douglas Fidaleo; Ulrich Neumann

    2002-01-01

    Gesture driven facial animation (GDFA) overcomes limitations in conventional performance driven facial animation (PDFA) by providing a high level gesture layer as an interface between the sensing and animation mechanisms. GDFA maintains the same spirit of PDFA in that sensing and analysis provide automatic animation control. A distinguishing factor, however, is the high level abstraction of the information flow between

  6. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    PubMed Central

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of ?-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  7. Animals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Angela

    1988-01-01

    Animals are indispensable to the space program. Their continued use could have many significant results. Those who are opposed to using animals in space should remember that space animals are treated humanely; they are necessary because results can be obtained from them that would be unobtainable from humans; and results from animal experiments can be applied to human systems. Therefore, NASA should continue to use animals in space research.

  8. Colonic microbiome is altered in alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Ece A.; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Rangwala, Huzefa; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Naqvi, Ammar; Engen, Phillip A.; Kwasny, Mary; Lau, Cynthia K.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies indicate the importance of colonic microbiota in metabolic and inflammatory disorders and importance of diet on microbiota composition. The effects of alcohol, one of the prominent components of diet, on colonic bacterial composition is largely unknown. Mounting evidence suggests that gut-derived bacterial endotoxins are cofactors for alcohol-induced tissue injury and organ failure like alcoholic liver disease (ALD) that only occur in a subset of alcoholics. We hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption results in alterations of the gut microbiome in a subgroup of alcoholics, and this may be responsible for the observed inflammatory state and endotoxemia in alcoholics. Thus we interrogated the mucosa-associated colonic microbiome in 48 alcoholics with and without ALD as well as 18 healthy subjects. Colonic biopsy samples from subjects were analyzed for microbiota composition using length heterogeneity PCR fingerprinting and multitag pyrosequencing. A subgroup of alcoholics have an altered colonic microbiome (dysbiosis). The alcoholics with dysbiosis had lower median abundances of Bacteroidetes and higher ones of Proteobacteria. The observed alterations appear to correlate with high levels of serum endotoxin in a subset of the samples. Network topology analysis indicated that alcohol use is correlated with decreased connectivity of the microbial network, and this alteration is seen even after an extended period of sobriety. We show that the colonic mucosa-associated bacterial microbiome is altered in a subset of alcoholics. The altered microbiota composition is persistent and correlates with endotoxemia in a subgroup of alcoholics. PMID:22241860

  9. Center for Civic Engagement -Fact Sheet #7 Animal Care

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    Center for Civic Engagement - Fact Sheet #7 Animal Care Updated February 2010 Taking care of the daily needs of the animals (domestic or wild), teaching, and desktop publishing, are just a few between the life and death of many animals at the agencies listed. In fact, some of these organizations

  10. Basic research: Issues with animal experimentations

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, Shyam K; Kumaraswamy, Vinay

    2013-01-01

    In vivo studies using the animals are helpful in developing the treatment strategies as they are important link between the successful in vitro testing and safe human use. Various research projects in the field of fixation of fractures, development of newer biomaterials, chemotherapeutic drugs, use of stem cells in nonunion of fractures and cartilage defects etc., have hugely depended on animal experimentation. The employment of animals in experiments is both scientific and ethical issue. There must be reasonable reasons to show that it will significantly advance the present knowledge and lead to improvement in care. The regulatory bodies exist for humane use and care of animals used for experiments e.g., International Council for Laboratory Animal Science, Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, International Union of Biological Sciences, International Committee on Laboratory Animals. In India, Indian National Science Academy, Indian Council of Medical Research, National Centre for Laboratory Animal Sciences promote high standards of laboratory animal quality, care and health. The Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals guidelines are well defined and is a must read document for any one interested to carry out research with animal facilities. PMID:23532705

  11. AGGREGATION AND ORGANIC MATTER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil organic matter (SOM) consists of plant, animal and microbial residues, and organic decomposition products that are associated with the inorganic soil matrix. Soil organic mater turnover is coupled to the agradation/degradation of soil aggregates through the activity of soil microorganisms. This...

  12. Understanding Animal Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Understanding Animal Research (Understanding Animal Research)

    2009-01-01

    The public debate on animal research sometimes gets so heated that the facts can be overlooked. How many animals are used in research every year? Do people know that most of them are mice or rats? Why are animals genetically modified? How is animal research regulated? How are the animals cared for? What actually happens to research animals? How does the use of animals in research and testing compare with other uses of animals by society? This website aims to answer all of these questions as well as provide information on animal research and human health, policy issues, and latest news. This website also includes a learning center. Information is geared towards learners in the U.K.

  13. Damage response involves mechanisms conserved across plants, animals and fungi.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Oñate, M A; Herrera-Estrella, A

    2015-08-01

    All organisms are constantly exposed to adverse environmental conditions including mechanical damage, which may alter various physiological aspects of growth, development and reproduction. In plant and animal systems, the damage response mechanism has been widely studied. Both systems posses a conserved and sophisticated mechanism that in general is aimed at repairing and preventing future damage, and causes dramatic changes in their transcriptomes, proteomes, and metabolomes. These damage-induced changes are mediated by elaborate signaling networks, which include receptors/sensors, calcium (Ca(2+)) influx, ATP release, kinase cascades, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and oxylipin signaling pathways. In contrast, our current knowledge of how fungi respond to injury is limited, even though various reports indicate that mechanical damage triggers reproductive processes. In fungi, the damage response mechanism has been studied more in depth in Trichoderma atroviride. Interestingly, these studies indicate that the mechanical damage response involves ROS, Ca(2+), kinase cascades, and lipid signaling pathways. Here we compare the response to mechanical damage in plants, animals and fungi and provide evidence that they appear to share signaling molecules and pathways, suggesting evolutionary conservation across the three kingdoms. PMID:25572693

  14. Beartracker's Animal Tracks Den

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Beartracker's Animal Tracks Den is an excellent comprehensive "online field guide to tracks and tracking." The site includes animal track images, photos, as well as information about mammals, reptiles, birds, insects, amphibians, and other tracking resources. Most of the animals featured on the site are inhabitants of North America. Images of animal tracks also contain descriptions to help users become familiar with the distinctive qualities of each animal's print. This is an excellent resource for nature enthusiasts, animal search and rescue trackers, and everyone in between.

  15. [Possibilities and limitations of fibroblast cultures in the study of animal aging].

    PubMed

    Van Gansen, P; Van Lerberghe, N

    1987-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Aging--the effect of time--occurs in every living organism. Senescence is the last period of the lifespan, leading to death. It happens in all animals, with the exception of a few didermic species (Hydras) having a stock of embryonic cells and being immortal. The causes of animal senescence are badly known. They depend both on genetic characters (maximal lifespan of a species) and on medium factors (mean expectation of life of the animals of a species). Animal senescence could depend on cell aging: 1) by senescence and death of the differentiated cells, 2) by modified proliferation and differentiation of the stem cells of differentiated tissues, 3) by alterations in the extracellular matrices, 4) by interactions between factors 1) 2) and 3) in each tissue, 5) by interactions between the several tissues of an organism. This complexity badly impedes the experimental study of animal senescence. Normal mammal cells are aging when they are cultivated (in vitro ageing): their phenotype varies and depends on the cell generation (in vitro differentiation); the last cell-generation doesn't divide anymore and declines until death of the culture (in vitro senescence). Analysis of these artificial but well controlled systems allows an experimental approach of the proliferation, differentiation, senescence and death of the cells and of the extracellular matrix functions. Present literature upon in vitro aging of cultivated human cells is essentially made of papers where proliferation and differentiation characteristics are compared between early ("young") and late ("old") cell-generations of the cultures. FIBROBLASTIC CELLS OF THE MOUSE SKIN. This cell type has been studied in our laboratory, using different systems: 1) Primary cultures isolated from peeled skins of 19 day old mouse embryos, 2) Mouse dermis analyzed in the animals, 3) Cultivated explants of skins, 4) Serial sub-cultures of fibroblasts isolated from these explants, 5) Cells cultivated comparably on plane substrates (glass, plastic, collagen films) and on tridimensional matrices (collagen fibres). Systems 2), 3), 4) and 5) have been obtained either from 19 day old embryos or from 6 groups of animals of different ages (from 1/2 till 25 month). In primary cultures (system 1) all the cell generations have been analyzed, including the last one until death of the culture. We have shown that many characters are varying with cell-generation: cell form and cell mass, rate of DNA replication and cell division, rate of RNA transcription, nature of the accumulated and of the synthetized proteins, organization of the cytoskeletal elements, organization of the extracellular matrix, type of cell death.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3079271

  16. The Aqueous Alteration of CR Chondrites: Experiments and Geochemical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perronnet, M.; Berger, G.; Zolensky, M. E.; Toplis, M. J.; Kolb, V. M.; Bajagic, M.

    2007-01-01

    CR carbonaceous chondrites are of major interest since they contain some of the most primitive organic matter known. However, aqueous alteration has more or less overprinted their original features in a way that needs to be assessed. This study was initiated by comparing the mineralogy and modal abundances of the most altered CR1 chondrite, GRO 95577, to a less altered CR2. Calculated element distributions imply that GRO 95577 may result from aqueous alteration of Renazzo by an isochemical process on their parent asteroid, whose mineralogical composition was estimated ( Unaltered CR shown included table).

  17. Effects of mild calorie restriction on reproduction, plasma parameters and hepatic gene expression in mice with altered GH/IGF-I axis.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Juliana S; Bonkowski, Michael S; de França, Luiz R; Bartke, Andrzej

    2007-04-01

    The somatotropic axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the nutritional status are deeply interrelated in mammals. Calorie restriction (CR) prolongs lifespan, but usually at some cost to reproduction. Interestingly, many of the physiological characteristics of animals with interruption in the somatotropic axis are shared by CR animals. The level of CR in most studies is 30-60%. We tested if a milder (20%) CR would promote health benefits without inhibiting reproduction in four types of mice with altered somatotropic axis: Ames dwarfs, GHR-KO, and PEPCK-bGH and MT-bGH transgenics. Fertility was not altered by CR in any of the examined groups. Mild CR did not affect final body weights or relative reproductive organ weights; did not alter plasma levels of glucose, insulin, IGF-I, testosterone, progesterone or estradiol; and did not influence hepatic expression of genes related to longevity. Altered activity of the GH/IGF-I axis in the different mice models studied had a major impact on the parameters analyzed. This preliminary study encourages speculation that mild regimens of CR can produce health and longevity benefits without the "costs" of impaired reproductive potential. PMID:17376513

  18. Androgens Alter the Tuning of Electroreceptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlan Meyer, J.; Zakon, Harold H.

    1982-08-01

    Weakly electric fish possess electroreceptors that are tuned to their individual electric organ discharge frequencies. One genus, Sternopygus, displays both ontogenetic and seasonal shifts in these frequencies, possibly because of endocrine influences. Systemic treatment with androgens lowers the discharge frequencies in these animals. Concomitant with these changes in electric organ discharge frequencies are decreases in electroreceptor best frequencies; hence the close match between discharge frequency and receptor tuning is maintained. These findings indicate that the tuning of electroreceptors is dynamic and that it parallels natural shifts in electric organ discharge frequency.

  19. [Anesthesia in experimental animals. Basic principles].

    PubMed

    Cruz, J I

    1996-03-01

    The use of experimental animals often requires anesthesia to provide immobility, analgesia and sufficiently lowered levels of consciousness. In addition to ethical reasons, animals require anesthesia not only for ethical reasons but also because pain or stress can alter the quality of research results. European Union rules contemplating the use of anesthesia, analgesia and other procedures to eliminate the suffering of experimental animals were adopted for use in Spain on March 14, 1980. Among the preoperatory considerations to be kept in mind is the possibility of diseases carried by animals, some of which can be transmitted to humans. Management and restraint of animals must also be planned before administering drugs. Recognition of pain, and its adequate analgesic treatment is important throughout surgical procedures. Different species of experimental animals require different types of administration. Some drugs, types and routes of administration and monitoring requirements are the same as those used in humans. Great differences exist, however, specifically in the large number of drugs used in animals but not in humans, and in techniques such as tracheal intubation that involve special difficulties. PMID:8848647

  20. Animal representations and animal remains at Çatalhöyük

    E-print Network

    Russell, Nerissa; Meece, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    architectural installations and special deposits. Animal parts stuck into walls, reliefs, or pillars are clearly incorporated into the architecture, but so, too, are less visible bones built into walls, placed in pits in platforms, and arguably those placed... Level IX While geometric paintings are known from Level X, the earliest animal representation appears in Level IX. A single large black animal graces the north wall of building IX.8. Mellaart (1964e, 70, pI. XIVb) labels it a bull, but the species...

  1. Oncogenic alterations of metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi V. Dang; Gregg L. Semenza

    1999-01-01

    Over seven decades ago, classical biochemical studies showed that tumors have altered metabolic profiles and display high rates of glucose uptake and glycolysis. Although these metabolic changes are not the fundamental defects that cause cancer, they might confer a common advantage on many different types of cancers, which allows the cells to survive and invade. Recent molecular studies have revealed

  2. Animal spare parts? A Canadian public consultation on xenotransplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edna F. Einsiedel; Heather Ross

    2002-01-01

    Xenotransplantation, or the use of animal cells, tissues and organs for humans, has been promoted as an important solution\\u000a to the worldwide shortage of organs. While scientific studies continue to be done to address problems of rejection and the\\u000a possibility of animal-to-human virus transfer, socio-ethical and legal questions have also been raised around informed consent,\\u000a life-long monitoring, animal welfare and

  3. Creating effective character animation 

    E-print Network

    Gerwig, Jennifer

    1999-01-01

    Several stages are involved in the creation of an graphics. effective, three-dimensional character animation. Before starting any work at the computer, the animator should consider what his characters will look like and how they will move, as well...

  4. Animals Making a Living

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-09-26

    For most animals, finding food is a full-time job. This video segment explores the food-finding strategies of a variety of creatures, illustrating the idea that different animals have very different ways of getting enough to eat.

  5. Hydrogen bonds animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Northland Community and Technical College Biology Department

    2007-12-12

    This color animation of water molecules interacting and forming hydrogen bonds is a hybrid between a PowerPoint slide show an an animation. Students can replay portions or click next if they do not need to replay a segment.

  6. Animal marks and trails

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-06-13

    Items in nature, such as twigs and leaves, can show bite and chew marks where animals have been eating off of plants. Animals make trails by traveling over the same area several times to get to a destination.

  7. Animal Drug Safety FAQs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health A to ... Animal & Veterinary Safety & Health Frequently Asked Questions Animal Drug Safety Frequently Asked Questions I gave my dog ...

  8. Aquatic Animal Appendages - Flippers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton; Student, Biological Sciences)

    2007-06-18

    Several aquatic animals have appendages, such as flippers, that are used as a source of locomotion. Depending on the type of animal, flippers come in different sizes and are usually associated with the same type of bone joints.

  9. Retainer for laboratory animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    Bio-retainer holds laboratory animals in fixed position for research and clinical experiments. Retainer allows full access to animals and can be rapidly opened and closed to admit and release specimens.

  10. Rock Cycle Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Use this interactive rock cycle animation to help you with your schoolwork! This cutaway view of Earth shows where some common rock-forming processes occur. Embedded animations will illustrate the path of a rock moving through the rock cycle.

  11. Fuel Cell Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    US Department of Energy - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy - Energy Education and Workforce Development

    This fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts. The animation consists of four parts - an introduction, fuel cell components, chemical process, and fuel cell stack.

  12. Advances in genetic modification of farm animals using zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN).

    PubMed

    Petersen, Bjoern; Niemann, Heiner

    2015-02-01

    Genome editing tools (GET), including zinc-finger nucleases (ZFN), transcription activator-like endonucleases (TALENS), and meganucleases possess long recognition sites and are thus capable of cutting DNA in a very specific manner. These genome editing tools mediate targeted genetic alterations by enhancing DNA mutation frequency via induction of double-strand breaks at a predetermined genomic site. Compared to conventional homologous recombination based gene targeting, GETs can increase gene targeting and gene disruption via mutagenic DNA repair more than 10,000-fold. Recently, a novel class of genome editing tools was described that uses RNAs to target a specific genomic site. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is capable of targeting even multiple genomic sites in one shot and thus could be superior to ZFNs or TALEN. Current results indicate that these tools can be successfully employed in a broad range of organisms which renders them useful for improving the understanding of complex physiological systems, producing transgenic animals, including creating large animal models for human diseases, creating specific cell lines, and plants, and even for treating human genetic diseases. This review provides an update on the use of ZFNs to modify the genome of farm animals, summarizes current knowledge on the underlying mechanism, and discusses new opportunities for generating genetically modified farm animals. PMID:25596823

  13. Impact of Tobacco Regulation on Animal Research: New Perspectives and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act in the United States and the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco or Health ratified by over 170 countries render scientific investigations into the abuse liability, harm, and effects of tobacco more critical than ever. A key area to explore relates to the potential regulation of nicotine content in cigarettes. Determining the nicotine content per cigarette below which smokers reliably reduce their consumption of and dependence on cigarettes, an idea proposed almost 20 years ago (Benowitz & Henningfield, 1994), could be a powerful approach to reduce the abuse liability and consequent harm from cigarettes. However, this approach is laden with potentially complex issues. Many of these complications can be studied using animal models, but they require a particular perspective. Methods: Herein, we review several challenges for animal researchers interested in nicotine reduction as examples of how this perspective dictates new approaches to animal research. These include defining the threshold nicotine dose for maintaining self-administration, evaluating the differential impact of various implementation strategies, assessing the factors that could interact with nicotine to alter the reinforcement threshold, describing the role of cues in maintaining low dose nicotine self-administration, and examining individual differences in response to nicotine reduction. Conclusions: Researchers who study tobacco using animal models have the opportunity to play a central role in the regulatory science of tobacco and conduct studies that directly inform policy decisions that could impact the lives of millions. PMID:22949581

  14. Animals and Engineering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students are introduced to the classification of animals and animal interactions. Students also learn why engineers need to know about animals and how they use that knowledge to design technologies that help other animals and/or humans. This lesson is part of a series of six lessons in which students use their growing understanding of various environments and the engineering design process, to design and create their own model biodome ecosystems.

  15. Anesthesia and Other Considerations for in Vivo Imaging of Small Animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabel J. Hildebrandt; Helen Su; Wolfgang A. Weber

    2008-01-01

    The use of small animal imaging is increasing in biomedical research thanks to its ability to localize altered biochemical and physiological processes in the living animal and to fol- low these processes longitudinally and noninvasively. In contrast to human studies, however, imaging of small ani- mals generally requires anesthesia, and anesthetic agents can have unintended effects on animal physiology that

  16. Animal Concentration Areas Management

    E-print Network

    Kaye, Jason P.

    Animal Concentration Areas Management W o r k S h e e t 4 W h y B e C o n C e r n e d ? When. Animal concentration areas are very busy places that can be difficult to manage. Good management involves of contaminated runoff to manage. The second principle is to divert polluted runoff from the animal concentration

  17. Purdue extension Animal Sciences

    E-print Network

    of the breeding season. The National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) indicates that less than 20% of beefPurdue extension AS-586-W Animal Sciences Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service, West Lemenager, and Mr. Matt Claeys, Purdue Beef Team, Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University A major

  18. Animals in Disguise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Mary C.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity in which first grade students learn why camouflage is important to an animal's survival. Students see living examples of animals who use camouflage for protection, then create their own camouflaged animals and hide them around the classroom. For assessment, students write and illustrate five things they learned from the study…

  19. Invent an Animal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    1979-01-01

    In this outdoor activity and game, learners explore how animals adapt for survival through coloration, markings and camouflage. By inventing, designing and hiding their own animal models, and hunting for other learners' hidden animals, learners investigate how predators and prey also use shape and behavior to blend into their habitats, so they can succeessfully hunt for food or escape from being eaten.

  20. Animated Texels Fabrice Neyret

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Animated Texels Fabrice Neyret INRIA, Syntim Project B.P. 105, 78153 Le Chesnay Cedex, France of animating complex repetitive geometries, like the effects produced by the wind in a wheat field, or fur], hypertextures [7], volumetric textures [4, 5]. Animating these objects is also a very important point

  1. Purdue extension Animal Sciences

    E-print Network

    , testing, quarantine, eradication, and recovery efforts prior to, during, and after the animal diseasePurdue extension AS-572-W Animal Sciences Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service, West. of Animal Sciences, Purdue University; P. Brennan, Indiana State Poultry Association; M. Kopp, DVM, and M

  2. Pixel Palette: Palm Animation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Describes a project used with fifth-grade students in which they learned about animation. Explains that the students learned about animation used in art. States that they received a personal data assistant to create their own animation of a flower that was growing and pollinated by a butterfly. (CMK)

  3. Michael Neary, Extension Animal Scientist Ann Yager, Animal Sciences Student

    E-print Network

    for individual animal identifi- cation. This system ensures a unique Farm Animal Management @Purdue Farm AnimalMichael Neary, Extension Animal Scientist Ann Yager, Animal Sciences Student AS-556-W Methods of Livestock Identification Purdue University Department of Animal Sciences Animal identification is the basis

  4. Acute Exposure to Microcystin-Producing Cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa Alters Adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Swimming Performance Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Kist, Luiza Wilges; Piato, Angelo Luis; da Rosa, João Gabriel Santos; Koakoski, Gessi; Barcellos, Leonardo José Gil; Yunes, João Sarkis; Bonan, Carla Denise; Bogo, Maurício Reis

    2011-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) are toxins produced by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), primarily Microcystis aeruginosa, forming water blooms worldwide. When an organism is exposed to environmental perturbations, alterations in normal behavioral patterns occur. Behavioral repertoire represents the consequence of a diversity of physiological and biochemical alterations. In this study, we assessed behavioral patterns and whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to cell culture of the microcystin-producing cyanobacterium M. aeruginosa (MC-LR, strain RST9501). MC-LR exposure (100??g/L) decreased by 63% the distance traveled and increased threefold the immobility time when compared to the control group. Interestingly, no significant alterations in the number of line crossings were found at the same MC-LR concentration and time of exposure. When animals were exposed to 50 and 100??g/L, MC-LR promoted a significant increase (around 93%) in the time spent in the bottom portion of the tank, suggesting an anxiogenic effect. The results also showed that none of the MC-LR concentrations tested promoted significant alterations in absolute turn angle, path efficiency, social behavior, or whole-body cortisol level. These findings indicate that behavior is susceptible to MC-LR exposure and provide evidence for a better understanding of the ecological consequences of toxic algal blooms. PMID:22253623

  5. Alterations in Cell Cycle Regulation in Mouse Skin Tumors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sivaprakasam Balasubramanian; Nihal Ahmad; Shanti Jeedigunta; Hasan Mukhtar

    1998-01-01

    The connection between cell cycle and cancer has become obvious in as much as it is considered that dysregulated cellular proliferation is a hallmark of cancer. In many studies, the dysregulation of the cyclin-cdk-cki network has been reported in experimental animal and human tumors, but to our knowledge a complete profile of alterations in regulatory molecules in any tumor model

  6. COMPARATIVE MEDICINE LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES

    E-print Network

    Krovi, Venkat

    .8.1 The veterinary technicians will submit the white card, animal removal card, and complete animal medical record2.C.2 COMPARATIVE MEDICINE LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR ANIMAL animal rooms and in the Laboratory Animal Facilities office, at all locations. 3.2 The animal removal

  7. [Animals and environmentalist ethics].

    PubMed

    Guichet, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    While environmental ethics and animal ethics have a common source of inspiration, they do not agree on the question of the status of animals. Environmental ethicists criticise the narrowness of the reason, focused on pain, given by animal ethicists and their strictly individual point of view; they maintain that their ethical concept is less emotional and more informed by science, with a broad point of view taking natural networks into account. Animal ethicists respond critically, accusing the environmental ethicists of not having any ethical foundation. There are, however, prospects for reconciling the two approaches, provided that they recognise two different ethical stances for animals: one based on the integrity of wild animals and the other based on a model contract for tame animals. PMID:23516753

  8. Alterations of reward mechanisms in bulbectomised rats.

    PubMed

    Grecksch, Gisela; Becker, Axel

    2015-06-01

    The positive association between alcoholism and depression is a common clinical observation. We investigated the relationship between depression and reward mechanisms using a validated animal model for depressive-like behaviour, the olfactory bulbectomy in rats. The effects of bilateral olfactory bulbectomy on reward mechanisms were studied in two different experimental paradigms - the voluntary self-administration of ethanol and the conditioned place preference to alcohol injection and compared to the effects of ethanol on locomotor activity and body core temperature. The voluntary ethanol intake was increased significantly in bulbectomised rats in a drinking experiment and also after a period of abstinence. Conditioned place preference (CPP) was induced in all animals. However, bulbectomised rats needed a higher dose of alcohol to produce CPP. The sedative effect of ethanol on locomotor activity was reduced in bulbectomised animals. Measurement of body temperature revealed a dose-dependent hypothermic effect of ethanol in both groups. These results suggest that the reward mechanisms may be altered in this animal model as a common phenomenon associated with depression. Furthermore, they support the hypothesis that the addictive and/or rewarding properties of some drugs of abuse may be modified in depression. PMID:25771711

  9. Pattern Alteration: Hollow Chest 

    E-print Network

    2006-08-04

    - tern at the same point. You can correct hollow chest problems in clothing with c alterations. Figure 1. Hollow chest Figure 2. Pin excess amount 2... the pat- tern and perpendicular to the center front or to the lengthwise grainline. 3. Draw a vertical line from the shoulder cutting line (about 1 inch or 2.5 cm from the armhole). The line will run to the horizontal line parallel to the length- wise...

  10. Antisense and ribozyme constructs in transgenic animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah L. Sokol; James D. Murray

    1996-01-01

    Geneticists have long sought the ability to add or subtract individual genes from an organism's genome, or to be able to alter the level of expression of a gene in a targeted, developmentally and tissue-specific manner. The development of transgenic technology realized the possibilities of increasing the expression of a specific gene or the transfer of a new gene into

  11. Subfornical organ stimulation elicits drinking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Smith; R. J. Beninger; A. V. Ferguson

    1995-01-01

    The subfornical organ is a specialized central nervous system structure known to be involved in the control of drinking. We report here that electrical activation of subfomical organ neurons (100 ?A, 10 Hz, 1 ms pulse width, for 5 min.) induced drinking in 67% (six of nine) of animals. This effect was site-specific as none of the animals with electrode

  12. Thiophenes as Indicators of Aqueous Alteration in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sephton, Mark A.; Perry, Randall S.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2006-01-01

    A common class of organic compound in low petrographic type meteorites is the sulfur-containing thiophenes. The presence of this compound class in organic-rich meteorites which have experienced substantial levels of aqueous alteration is relatively unexplored. Early reports of these compounds attributed them to artifacts brought about by reactions between elemental sulfur and organic matter during high temperature extraction and analysis steps. Subsequent investigations confirmed their indigeneity, yet their environment of formation remained unconstrained. Here we present data which suggests that thiophenes are parent body alteration products that reflect the role of liquid water on asteroids in the early solar system.

  13. Chronobiology of ethanol: Animal models.

    PubMed

    Rosenwasser, Alan M

    2015-06-01

    Clinical and epidemiological observations have revealed that alcohol abuse and alcoholism are associated with widespread disruptions in sleep and other circadian biological rhythms. As with other psychiatric disorders, animal models have been very useful in efforts to better understand the cause and effect relationships underlying the largely correlative human data. This review summarizes the experimental findings indicating bidirectional interactions between alcohol (ethanol) consumption and the circadian timing system, emphasizing behavioral studies conducted in the author's laboratory. Together with convergent evidence from multiple laboratories, the work summarized here establishes that ethanol intake (or administration) alters fundamental properties of the underlying circadian pacemaker. In turn, circadian disruption induced by either environmental or genetic manipulations can alter voluntary ethanol intake. These reciprocal interactions may create a vicious cycle that contributes to the downward spiral of alcohol and drug addiction. In the future, such studies may lead to the development of chronobiologically based interventions to prevent relapse and effectively mitigate some of the societal burden associated with such disorders. PMID:25971539

  14. Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Considerations for Animal Models of Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Brabb, Thea; Carbone, Larry; Snyder, Jessica; Phillips, Nona

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy and neuropathic pain are debilitating, life-altering conditions that affect a significant proportion of the human population. Animal models, used to study basic disease mechanisms and treatment modalities, are diverse and provide many challenges for institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) review and postapproval monitoring. Items to consider include regulatory and ethical imperatives in animal models that may be designed to study pain, the basic mechanism of neurodegeneration, and different disease processes for which neuropathic pain is a side effect. Neuropathic pain can be difficult to detect or quantify in many models, and pain management is often unsuccessful in both humans and animals, inspiring the need for more research. Design of humane endpoints requires clear communication of potential adverse outcomes and solutions. Communication with the IACUC, researchers, and veterinary staff is also key for successful postapproval monitoring of these challenging models. PMID:24615447

  15. The impact of aquatic animals on sediment transport in gravel-bed rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Matthew; Rice, Stephen; Pledger, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Invertebrate animals have an important and complex role in altering the physical and biochemical environment of marine and freshwater sediments. A database has been compiled which aims to include all published articles that consider how macroinvertebrates alter aquatic systems. The database contains 2300 entries spanning over 120 years of study and representing 800 species. However, only 24 studies focus on invertebrate animals altering geomorphic processes in streams. This is despite the fact that invertebrates are ubiquitous in temperate and tropical rivers; they regularly occur in high densities; and are known to interact with substrates in a multitude of ways; for example when burrowing, moving and foraging for food. Here, we present two examples that demonstrate the potential biogeomorphic significance of invertebrates in rivers. First, the activity of signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus), a globally widespread invasive crustacean, altered the structure and topography of fluvial substrates in flume experiments. As a result of crayfish destroying grain-scale structures, twice as much material was entrained from disturbed gravel substrates in comparison to control surfaces that had not been exposed to crayfish. Second, Hydropsychid caddisfly larvae bind grains together with silk, which is spun for a variety of purposes including the creation of nets to catch organic matter from the flow. Fine gravels (2-6 mm) that were colonised by natural densities of caddisfly, required significantly greater shear stresses to be mobilised in comparison to uncolonised, control gravels. Whilst these examples demonstrate the potential for invertebrates to alter sediment transport in rivers, their impacts need to be assessed in field environments and at larger scales in order to fully appreciate their significance. Long-term monitoring of radio-tagged crayfish and suspended sediment transport in the Brampton arm of the River Nene suggests that signal crayfish are important at catchment-scales, with crayfish contributing 45% to the total baseflow suspended sediment load over the monitoring period. These findings highlight the need for more research on the biogeomorphic impacts of invertebrates in rivers and, in particular, work that assesses animal impacts in field environments, in the context of ecological and sedimentary complexity and in comparison to the hydraulic processes that bring about sediment transport.

  16. Alternatives to animal testing: A review.

    PubMed

    Doke, Sonali K; Dhawale, Shashikant C

    2015-07-01

    The number of animals used in research has increased with the advancement of research and development in medical technology. Every year, millions of experimental animals are used all over the world. The pain, distress and death experienced by the animals during scientific experiments have been a debating issue for a long time. Besides the major concern of ethics, there are few more disadvantages of animal experimentation like requirement of skilled manpower, time consuming protocols and high cost. Various alternatives to animal testing were proposed to overcome the drawbacks associated with animal experiments and avoid the unethical procedures. A strategy of 3 Rs (i.e. reduction, refinement and replacement) is being applied for laboratory use of animals. Different methods and alternative organisms are applied to implement this strategy. These methods provide an alternative means for the drug and chemical testing, up to some levels. A brief account of these alternatives and advantages associated is discussed in this review with examples. An integrated application of these approaches would give an insight into minimum use of animals in scientific experiments. PMID:26106269

  17. Alternatives to animal testing: A review

    PubMed Central

    Doke, Sonali K.; Dhawale, Shashikant C.

    2013-01-01

    The number of animals used in research has increased with the advancement of research and development in medical technology. Every year, millions of experimental animals are used all over the world. The pain, distress and death experienced by the animals during scientific experiments have been a debating issue for a long time. Besides the major concern of ethics, there are few more disadvantages of animal experimentation like requirement of skilled manpower, time consuming protocols and high cost. Various alternatives to animal testing were proposed to overcome the drawbacks associated with animal experiments and avoid the unethical procedures. A strategy of 3 Rs (i.e. reduction, refinement and replacement) is being applied for laboratory use of animals. Different methods and alternative organisms are applied to implement this strategy. These methods provide an alternative means for the drug and chemical testing, up to some levels. A brief account of these alternatives and advantages associated is discussed in this review with examples. An integrated application of these approaches would give an insight into minimum use of animals in scientific experiments.

  18. Pestiviruses in wild animals.

    PubMed

    Vilcek, S; Nettleton, P F

    2006-08-25

    Pestiviruses are not strictly host-species specific and can infect not only domestic but also wild animals. The most important pestivirus, CSFV, infects domestic pigs and wild boars, which may cause a major problem for successful CSFV eradication programmes. Mainly BVDV specific antibodies have been reported in captive and free-living animals. Virus has been isolated from some of these animal species, but since BVDV can contaminate cell cultures and foetal calf serum, early reports of BVDV isolation have to be considered with caution. Genetic typing of early pestivirus isolates from wild species revealed that the majority were BVDV-1. Of the pestiviruses identified so far three species (CSFV, BVDV-1, giraffe pestivirus) and three genotypes (BDV-2, BDV-4, pronghorn) appear to circulate in wildlife animal populations. The potential for pestiviruses to spread between farm animals and free-living animals is discussed as are epidemiological and technical problems, and the future direction of research. PMID:16839713

  19. Nonlesions, unusual cell types, and postmortem artifacts in the central nervous system of domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Wohlsein, P; Deschl, U; Baumgärtner, W

    2013-01-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS) of domestic animals, numerous specialized normal structures, unusual cell types, findings of uncertain or no significance, artifacts, and various postmortem alterations can be observed. They may cause confusion for inexperienced pathologists and those not specialized in neuropathology, leading to misinterpretations and wrong diagnoses. Alternatively, changes may mask underlying neuropathological processes. "Specialized structures" comprising the hippocampus and the circumventricular organs, including the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis, subfornical organ, subcommissural organ, pineal gland, median eminence/neurohypophyseal complex, choroid plexus, and area postrema, are displayed. Unusual cell types, including cerebellar external germinal cells, CNS progenitor cells, and Kolmer cells, are presented. In addition, some newly recognized cell types as of yet incompletely understood significance and functionality, such as synantocytes and aldynoglia, are introduced and described. Unusual reactive astrocytes in cats, central chromatolysis, neuronal vacuolation, spheroids, spongiosis, satellitosis, melanosis, neuromelanin, lipofuscin, polyglucosan bodies, and psammoma bodies may represent incidental findings of uncertain or no significance and should not be confused with significant microscopic changes. Auto- and heterolysis as well as handling and histotechnological processing may cause postmortem morphological changes of the CNS, including vacuolization, cerebellar conglutination, dark neurons, Buscaino bodies, freezing, and shrinkage artifacts, all of which have to be differentiated from genuine lesions. Postmortem invasion of micro-organisms should not be confused with intravital infections. Awareness of these different changes and their recognition are a prerequisite for identifying genuine lesions and may help to formulate a professional morphological and etiological diagnosis. PMID:22692622

  20. Dermatophytoses in Animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    René Chermette; Laerte Ferreiro; Jacques Guillot

    2008-01-01

    Dermatophytoses are one of the most frequent skin diseases of pets and livestock. Contagiousness among animal communities,\\u000a high cost of treatment, difficulty of control measures, and the public health consequences of animal ringworm explain their\\u000a great importance. A wide variety of dermatophytes have been isolated from animals, but a few zoophilic species are responsible\\u000a for the majority of the cases,

  1. Chapter 1 Algorithm Animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Kerren; John T. Stasko

    An algorithm animation (AA) visualizes the behavior of an algorithm by producing an abstraction of both the data and the operations of the algorithm.\\u000a Initially it maps the current state of the algorithm into an image, which then is animated based on the operations between\\u000a two succeeding states in the algorithm execution. Animating an algorithm allows for better understanding of

  2. New Orleans Flooding Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

    This animation, based on radar topography data captured from the space shuttle, illustrates the vulnerability of New Orleans to flooding. The animation shows the effect of flood ranging from 0 to 9 meters in height, and which portions of the city would be submerged. The animation, which predates Hurricane Katrina, is available as a QuickTime file. Stills are also available in a variety of formats.

  3. Fun with Animals!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Crowell

    2012-10-06

    Animal Habitats Counting with Fish Count the swimming fish then match them by choosing the right number. Meerkat Grab-a-Snack Use your mouse to catch the meerkat's dinner, but look out for snakes! Save the sea creatures! Move the wonder pet's car by clicking the arrows. Collect all of the celery and salads to rescue the animals. Say What? Listen to the clue to match the animal ...

  4. Discovery Collection: Marine Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lisa Breslof

    Marine Animals is one of the AMNH Education Department's many collections of specimens and artifacts gathered the world over by explorers and scientists. In its online Discovery Collection form, Marine Animals includes photographs of 20 specimens with classification and distribution details, an interactive key that guides you through specimen identification, an activity where students select and identify a specimen photograph using the interactive identification key and an Educator's Guide with suggestions for how to use the Marine Animals Discovery Collection in the classroom.

  5. Animation, Part 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Green; David Stiller

    \\u000a What you saw in the last chapter was a compendium of traditional animation techniques—traditional not in the Flash animation\\u000a pioneer John Kricfalusi sense, but in the sense that they represent the basic tools Flash animators have used since time out\\u000a of mind. Some tools don’t change simply because they don’t have to; they’re that useful. The exciting part is that

  6. Animal Diseases and Your Health

    MedlinePLUS

    Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. You can get a disease directly from an animal, or indirectly, through the ...

  7. Preventing Asthma in Animal Handlers

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    ALERT Preventing Asthma in Animal Handlers January 1998 DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-116 Disclaimer ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Preventing Asthma in Animal Handlers WARNING! Exposure to animals or animal products in the workplace can cause asthma

  8. Effect of alteration in organic material of the occlusal caries on DIAGNOdent readings Efeito das alterações no conteúdo orgânico de lesões de cárie oclusal sobre as leituras com DIAGNOdent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fausto Medeiros Mendes; Sérgio Luiz Pinheiro; Antonio Lucindo Bengtson

    DIAGNOdent is a laser fluorescence device used for dental caries diagnosis in occlusal and smooth surfaces. Despite the promising preliminary results, the molecules involved in the increase of fluorescence in cari- ous lesions remain unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the laser fluorescence readings before and after changes in the organic material of occlusal carious lesions in

  9. IN VITRO IDENTIFICATION OF ANDROGENIC AND ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY FROM CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDLOT OPERATIONS (CAFO) AND TERTIARY-TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENT SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish living in ecosystems contaminated with human or domestic animal effluents have been shown to display reproductive alterations. Recent research with effluent from cattle feeding operations in the US, for example, have associated morphological alterations in fish collected fr...

  10. IN VITRO SCREENING OF ENVIRONMENT SAMPLES FOR ESTROGENIC AND ANDROGENIC ACTIVITY: CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDLOT OPERATION, PULP MILL AND TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS, GLOBAL WATER RESEARCH COALITION, AND COMBUSTION BYPRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish living in ecosystems contaminated with human or domestic animal effluents have been shown to display reproductive alterations. Recent research with effluent from cattle feeding operations in the US, for example, have associated morphological alterations in fish collected fro...

  11. Global Climate Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jacqueline Shinker

    1999-02-01

    The Global Climate Animations site contains animations of the Earth's climate system for educational and research purposes. The animations show the climatology of the seasonal cycle for selected climate variables for the time period 1959-1997, based on data from the NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. The individual frames in each animation show the map pattern of the long-term monthly averages for a particular climate variable, and reveal the temporal and spatial variations in that variable over the seasonal cycle.

  12. [Effect of increasing the omega-3 fatty acid in the diets of animals on the animal products consumed by humans].

    PubMed

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2005-01-01

    As shown by huge amount of assays in human as well as in animal models, w-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids play important role in the development and maintenance of different organs, primarily the brain, and could be useful in the prevention of different pathologies, mainly the cardiovascular diseases, and, as proposed recently, some psychiatric, dermatological or rheumatological disorders. For ALA, the major and cheapest source for human is rapeseed oil (canola oil), and walnut "noix de Grenoble" oil). The actual goal is first to identify which foods are naturally rich in w-3 fatty acids, and, second, to determine the true impact of the formulations (enriched in w-3 fatty acids) in chows used on farms and breeding centres on the nutritional value of the products and thus their effect on the health of consumers, thanks to quantities of either ALA, or EPA or DHA or both. This concern fish (in proportion of their lipid content, mainly mackerel, salmon, sardine and herring), eggs (wildly naturally rich in w-3 fatty acids, both ALA and DHA, or from laying hen fed ALA from linseed or rapeseed), meat from birds, mammals (from the highest concentration : rabbit, then pig and monogastrics, then polygastrics such as beef, mutton and goat) \\; in butter, milk, dairy products, cheese (all naturally poor in w-3 fatty acids)... Indeed, the nature of fatty acids of reserve triglycerides (found in more or less large amounts depending on the anatomical localisation, that is to say the butcher's cuts) can vary mainly as a function of the food received by the animal. EPA and DHA are mainly present in animal's products. The impact (qualitative and quantitative) of alterations in the lipid composition of animal foods on the nutritional value of derived products (in terms of EPA and DHA content) eaten by humans are more important in single-stomach animals than multi-stomach animals (due to their hydrogenating intestinal bacteria). The intestinal physiology of birds results in the relatively good preservation of their dietary w-3 fatty acids. The enrichment in eggs is proportional to the amount of w-3 fatty acids in the hen's diet and can be extremely important. Including ALA in fish feeds is effective only if they are, like carp, vegetarians, as they have the enzymes required to transform ALA into EPA and DHA \\; in contrast, it is probably less effective for carnivorous fish (75 % of the fish used for human), which have little of these enzymes : their feed must contain marine animals, mainly fish or fish oil. Analysis of the published results shows that, under the best conditions, feeding animals with extracts of linseed and rapeseed grains, for example, increases the level of ALA acid by 20 to 40-fold in eggs (according to the low or high level of ALA in commercial eggs), 10-fold in chicken, 6-fold in pork and less than 2-fold in beef. By feeding animals with fish extracts or algae (oils), the level of DHA is increased by 20-fold in fish, 7-fold in chicken, 3 to 6-fold in eggs, less than 2-fold in beef. In practise, the effect is considerable for fish and egg, interesting for poultry and rabbit, extremely low for beef, mutton and sheep. The effect on the price paid by the consumer is very low compared to the considerable gain in nutritional value. PMID:16115466

  13. Altered States of Consciousness

    PubMed Central

    Butts, June Dobbs

    1978-01-01

    Medicine, sex, and religion are presented as related areas of human thought and behavior in which people traditionally have sought temporary release from daily living. In essence, these areas represent a search for altered states of consciousness. The harmful way is through drug addiction. Five common characteristics are cited for the three areas. Examples of their universality are traceable by their omnipresence and their appearance in most childhood games—especially those taking on sexual nuances—which are usually hidden from adults. If Eastern knowledge and control of bodily processes were geared to Western technology, mankind would benefit. PMID:712866

  14. Dyspepsia treatment with Al compounds widely used in clinical practice — an animal model approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Canena, J.; Reis, J.; Santos, A. M.; Pinto, A. S.; Quina, M. G.; Reis, M. A.; Alves, L. C.

    1996-04-01

    The potential toxic effects of Al to organs and tissues used in drugs commonly applied in dyspepsia as therapeutic, have been studied. Brain, liver, kidney and serum samples obtained from Wistar rats treated with two commercial Al complexes were studied and compared with equivalent samples collected from healthy animals receiving a placebo. The major alterations found, connected with the persistent intake of medicaments based on Al compounds, are relative to the accumulation of Al in liver and kidney. Also, the Al levels increase in brain and serum of rats supplemented with one of the Al complexes used. In the liver and kidney samples analyzed alterations in the Cu and Zn content levels were observed. Furthermore, a tendency to the decrease of Fe content in kidney and an increase of the Mn levels in brain is observed. The elemental alterations found are probably related to the intake of the drugs tested and are dependent on the type of the Al complex administered. The results obtained suggest that the long term use of these medicaments in the clinical practice should be thought over.

  15. Immunosenescence and organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Heinbokel, Timm; Elkhal, Abdallah; Liu, Guangxiang; Edtinger, Karoline; Tullius, Stefan G.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing numbers of elderly transplant recipients and a growing demand for organs from older donors impose pressing challenges on transplantation medicine. Continuous and complex modifications of the immune system in parallel to aging have a major impact on transplant outcome and organ quality. Both, altered alloimmune responses and increased immunogenicity of organs present risk factors for inferior patient and graft survival. Moreover, a growing body of knowledge on age-dependent modifications of allorecognition and alloimmune responses may require age-adapted immunosuppression and organ allocation. Here, we summarize relevant aspects of immunosenescence and their possible clinical impact on organ transplantation. PMID:23639337

  16. Immunosenescence and organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Heinbokel, Timm; Elkhal, Abdallah; Liu, Guangxiang; Edtinger, Karoline; Tullius, Stefan G

    2013-07-01

    Increasing numbers of elderly transplant recipients and a growing demand for organs from older donors impose pressing challenges on transplantation medicine. Continuous and complex modifications of the immune system in parallel to aging have a major impact on transplant outcome and organ quality. Both, altered alloimmune responses and increased immunogenicity of organs present risk factors for inferior patient and graft survival. Moreover, a growing body of knowledge on age-dependent modifications of allorecognition and alloimmune responses may require age-adapted immunosuppression and organ allocation. Here, we summarize relevant aspects of immunosenescence and their possible clinical impact on organ transplantation. PMID:23639337

  17. Microbial colonization and alteration of basaltic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Einen, J.; Kruber, C.; Øvreås, L.; Thorseth, I. H.; Torsvik, T.

    2006-03-01

    Microorganisms have been reported to be associated with the alteration of the glassy margin of seafloor pillow basalts (Thorseth et al., 2001, 2003; Lysnes et al., 2004). The amount of iron and other biological important elements present in basalts and the vast abundance of basaltic glass in the earth's crust, make glass alteration an important process in global element cycling. To gain further insight into microbial communities associated with glass alteration, five microcosm experiments mimicking seafloor conditions were inoculated with seafloor basalt and incubated for one year. Mineral precipitations, microbial attachment to the glass and glass alteration were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the bacterial community composition was fingerprinted by PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) in combination with sequencing. SEM analysis revealed a microbial community with low morphological diversity of mainly biofilm associated and prosthecate microorganisms. Approximately 30 nm thick alteration rims developed on the glass in all microcosms after one year of incubation; this however was also seen in non inoculated controls. Calcium carbonate precipitates showed parallel, columnar and filamentous crystallization habits in the microcosms as well as in the sterile controls. DGGE analysis showed an alteration in bacterial community profiles in the five different microcosms, as a response to the different energy and redox regimes and time. In all microcosms a reduction in number of DGGE bands, in combination with an increase in cell abundance were recorded during the experiment. Sequence analysis showed that the microcosms were dominated by four groups of organisms with phylogenetic affiliation to four taxa: The Rhodospirillaceae, a family containing phototrophic marine organisms, in which some members are capable of heterotrophic growth in darkness and N2 fixation; the family Hyphomicrobiaceae, a group of prosthecate oligotrophic organisms; the genus Rhizobium, N2 fixating heterotrophs; and the genus Sphingomonas, which are known as bio-film producing oligotrophs. Although no bioalteration of glass could be confirmed from our experiments, oligotrophic surface adhering bacteria such as the Sphingomonas sp. and Hyphomicrobium sp. may nevertheless be important for bioalteration in nature, due to their firm attachment to glass surfaces, and their potential for biofilm production.

  18. MANIPULATION OF SHEEP GRAZING CAN BE USED TO PREDICTABLY ALTER VEGETATION IN THE SAGEBRUSH STEPPE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is considerable debate about the impact of grazing animals on vegetation in the Western rangelands of North America. It is a given that any animal grazing will alter vegetation. Furthermore, the vegetation community will change even if grazing is removed. Historic and recent studies at the U.S...

  19. Natural and Organic Beef Max Irsik DVM, MAB

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    ingredients or bioengineering. · Animals for slaughter must be raised under organic management for the last management practices including the use of vaccines will be used to keep animals healthy. · Producers with the state 20 produced organic animal products. Of the 20 producing animal products, 5 were producing beef

  20. Identification and characterization of an Arabidopsis mutant with altered localization of NIP5;1, a plasma membrane boric acid channel, reveals the requirement for D-galactose in endomembrane organization.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Masataka; Wang, Sheliang; Kamiya, Takehiro; Shigenobu, Shuji; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Fujiwara, Toru; Naito, Satoshi; Takano, Junpei

    2014-04-01

    Endomembrane organization is important for various aspects of cell physiology, including membrane protein trafficking. To explore the molecular mechanisms regulating the trafficking of plasma membrane-localized proteins in plants, we screened for Arabidopsis mutants with defective localization of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-nodulin 26-like intrinsic protein (NIP)5;1. Fluorescence imaging-based screening led to the isolation of a mutant which accumulated abnormal intracellular aggregates labeled by GFP-NIP5;1. The aggregates appeared in epidermal cells in the root elongation zone and included the trans-Golgi network/early endosomes. Rough mapping and whole-genome sequencing identified the mutant as an allele of UDP-glucose 4-epimerase 4 (uge4)/root hair defective 1 (rhd1) /root epidermal bulgar 1 (reb 1), which was originally defined as a cell wall mutant. The responsible gene encodes UDP-glucose 4-epimerase 4 (UGE4), which functions in the biosynthesis of d-galactose, especially for the synthesis of the cell wall polysaccharide xyloglucan and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs). The endomembrane aggregates in the mutants were absent in the presence of d-galactose, indicative of a requirement for a d-galactose-containing component in endomembrane organization. Genetic and pharmacological analyses suggested that the aggregates were not caused by the disruption of cell wall polysaccharides or the cytoskeleton. Overall, our results suggest that UGE4 activity in d-galactose synthesis is required for the structure of cell wall polysaccharides and endomembrane organization. PMID:24343997

  1. Evolution of Animal Photoperiodism

    E-print Network

    Oregon, University of

    Evolution of Animal Photoperiodism William E. Bradshaw and Christina M. Holzapfel Center.091305.110115 Copyright c 2007 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved 1543-592X/07/1201-0001$20.00 Key Words circannual among animals in the temperate and polar regions of the world. 1 Annu.Rev.Ecol.Evol.Syst.2007

  2. Animal Rights Without Controversy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Leslie; Cass R. Sunstein

    2007-01-01

    Many consumers would be willing to pay something to reduce the suffering of animals used as food. Unfortunately, they do not and cannot, because existing markets do not disclose the relevant treatment of animals, even though that treatment would trouble many consumers. Steps should be taken to promote disclosure so as to fortify market processes and to promote democratic discussion

  3. Animated Burn Map

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Shaping San Francisco

    An animation of the spread of the fire that consumed San Francisco in the wake of the 1906 earthquake. The animation, hosted by the Internet Archive, is a 21-second .avi file that is playable by QuickTime and other media players.

  4. Animals. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    The material in this unit is designed to provide upper elementary students with information and experiences to develop a better understanding and appreciation of the variety of animals living today. Unit goals include fostering a better understanding of animals' roles in nature, developing observational skills, facilitating understanding of man's…

  5. Humane Treatment of Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Joan Smithey

    This booklet is designed to give teachers resource information about the humane treatment of and care for animals. The topics are presented as springboards for discussion and class activity. Topics include the care of dogs, cats, birds, horses, and fish; wildlife and ecological relationships; and careers with animals. Illustrations on some pages…

  6. Marketing Animal Facilitated Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristine Howell-Newman; Robert L. Goldman

    1994-01-01

    Animal Facilitated Therapy (AFT) is the therapeutic use of the human-animal bond to improve a patient's physical and emotional health. It is an emerging treatment modality that is gaining acceptance among medical practitioners and healthcare administrators. Medical care has traditionally focused on the clinical well-being of the patient. But it is now widely recognized that emotional health is an integral

  7. Perspectives on algorithm animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc H. Brown

    1988-01-01

    Systems for animating algorithms have received considerable interest of late as effective means for understanding computer programs. Thus far, nothing has been reported in the literature concerning nature of the displays nor to what extent displays can be created automatically. This paper addresses these two issues. The first part presents a taxonomy of displays prevalent in algorithm animation systems; the

  8. Astronomy and Physics Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    H. Tahsiri

    These animations illustrate a variety of astronomical and planetary phenomena, such as the celestial sphere and wobble (precession) of Earth, the sidereal day, why the Earth has seasons, phases of the moon, eclipses, and many others. There are also animations of Kepler's laws; Newton's third law; retrograde motion; the physical concepts of work and energy; and relative velocity.

  9. Animal Anti-Freeze

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this outdoor winter activity, learners search for and create hibernation sites that will protect gelatin "animals" from freezing. Learners come to understand that hibernating animals need to take care in selecting a sleeping spot that will provide protection from the winter cold.

  10. Animal Behavior Biology 350

    E-print Network

    Arévalo, Elisabeth

    Animal Behavior Biology 350 Spring 2012 Course Description: This course is an introduction to the world of animal behavior, especially from an evolutionary and ecological perspective. Course content will combine discussion of behavioral mechanisms, ontogeny, phylogeny, and function, along with evolutionary

  11. Boost Converter Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This animation, created by faculty at Dartmouth University, is a boost converter. The resource features other animations such as buck and discontinuous converters. They also add simple diode, bridge and half-wave rectifiers. Although simple in design, this can still be a useful resource for those interested in electrical engineering.

  12. Animal Diversity Web

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roger Espinosa (University of Michigan Museum of Zoology)

    2006-04-20

    Animal Diversity Web (ADW) is an online database of animal natural history, distribution, classification, and conservation biology, from the University of Michigan. It is a searchable encyclopedia, science learning tool and virtual museum. It has pages suggesting uses for the site in both undergraduate and K12 education.

  13. Plant-Animal Symbiosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernest H. L. Schwarz

    1895-01-01

    IN Prof. Stewart's collection at the Royal College of Surgeons there is a preparation of a mimosa which protects itself from browsing animals by providing in its great thorns a domicile for a species of vicious, stinging ants. I believe this example of plant-animal symbiosis comes from one of the West Indian Islands, while on the mainland of America the

  14. Dreams of the Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statman, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author, when teaching dream poems and poem writing to older kids, uses Margaret Atwood's "Dreams of the Animals" to extend the discussion about dreaming and have the children think about dreams that have little to do with their own. Includes examples of students' poems about animal dreams. (SR)

  15. Rainforest Plant or Animal?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this craft activity, learners will compare and contrast the major functions of plants and animals. Through discussion, a group vote, and a Venn Diagram (to be filled with pictures), learners will develop their ability to understand the differences between plants and animals. This standards-based activity includes wrap up discussion questions and key vocabulary.

  16. A Concise Review of Amyloidosis in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Woldemeskel, Moges

    2012-01-01

    Amyloidosis refers to a group of protein misfolding diseases characterized by deposition of a particular amyloid protein in various organs and tissues of animals and humans. Various types and clinical forms of amyloidosis, in which the pathology and pathogenesis is diverse depending upon the underlying causes and species affected, are reported in domestic and wild animals. The clinical findings are also quite variable consequent to the variation of the tissues and organs involved and the extent of functional disruption of the affected organs in various animal species. The affected organs may be enlarged and exhibit variable pallor grossly, or the amyloid deposit may be discernible only after microscopic examination of the affected tissues. Amyloid appears as a pale eosinophilic homogenous extracellular deposit in tissues. However, microscopic examination and Congo red staining with green birefringence under polarized light are needed to confirm amyloid and differentiate it from other apparently similar extracellular deposits such as collagen and fibrin. Identifying the type of amyloid deposit needs immunohistochemical staining, ultrastructural characterization of the amyloid fibril, and if feasible also genetic studies of the involved species for clinical and prognostic purposes. This paper provides a concise review of the occurrence of amyloidosis in domestic and wild animals. PMID:22577608

  17. Science Experience Unit: Plant and Animal Adaptations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    GRADES OR AGES: No mention. Appears to be upper elementary. SUBJECT MATTER: Science units--plants and animals. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 35 activities. It is mimeographed and staple-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: No objectives are mentioned. The activities suggested aim to recreate common…

  18. AQUATIC ANIMALS AS INDICATORS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic animals are useful as indicators of many kinds of pollutants in the aquatic environment. The presence of pollutants in the general environments of air, land and water is reflected in their accumulations in and effects on aquatic organisms because the aquatic portion of th...

  19. Speciation of VOCs from Animal Feeding Operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Environmental Pollution Agency (EPA) air consent agreement with animal feeding operations (AFO) specifies the use of EPA TO-15 for the speciation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from these facilities. However, compounds emitted from AFO are often both volatile and highly polar chara...

  20. Water Quality Monitoring in Animal Agriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. F. Owsley; W. Deutsch; J. Oates

    Fecal pathogens originating from grazing animals can affect water quality in a manner that is harmful to humans and other organisms. Over 36% of the assessed rivers and streams in the Southeastern region are classified as impaired, meaning that they do not fully support one or more designated uses (USEPA, 2000). These impairments include various pollutants, including E. coli and

  1. Plants, animals and the logic of development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elliot M Meyerowitz

    1999-01-01

    Multicellular plants and animals have evolved independently from a unicellular, last common ancestor. Each lineage started with a common toolkit of functioning genes and evolved to complex, multicellular forms. Comparison of the genes used to serve similar functions shows how organisms can use different genes for similar ends and thereby reveals the principles of development.

  2. Let Animals Teach Your Students to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1986-01-01

    Offers a plan for organizing and implementing a schoolwide reading week entitled, "Drop Everything Else, Read" (DEER). Presents explanations and directions for eight reading activities which focus on animals. Includes materials that can be duplicated and used by students as bookmarks and certificates. (ML)

  3. Workshop on Molecular Animation

    PubMed Central

    Bromberg, Sarina; Chiu, Wah; Ferrin, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Summary February 25–26, 2010, in San Francisco, the Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization and Informatics (RBVI) and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI) hosted a molecular animation workshop for 21 structural biologists, molecular animators, and creators of molecular visualization software. Molecular animation aims to visualize scientific understanding of biomolecular processes and structures. The primary goal of the workshop was to identify the necessary tools for: producing high quality molecular animations, understanding complex molecular and cellular structures, creating publication supplementary materials and conference presentations, and teaching science to students and the public. Another use of molecular animation emerged in the workshop: helping to focus scientific inquiry about the motions of molecules and enhancing informal communication within and between laboratories. PMID:20947014

  4. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    PubMed

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections. PMID:19851698

  5. Should we enhance animals?

    PubMed

    Chan, S

    2009-11-01

    Much bioethical discussion has been devoted to the subject of human enhancement through various technological means such as genetic modification. Although many of the same technologies could be, indeed in many cases already have been, applied to non-human animals, there has been very little consideration of the concept of "animal enhancement", at least not in those specific terms. This paper addresses the notion of animal enhancement and the ethical issues surrounding it. A definition of animal enhancement is proposed that provides a framework within which to consider these issues; and it is argued that if human enhancement can be considered to be a moral obligation, so too can animal enhancement. PMID:19880704

  6. Marine Animal Tracking

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Engineering K-Ph.D. Program,

    Students are introduced to the ideas and implications of animal tracking, which is useful within scientific and commercial industries. For instance, when planning coastal area development, it is important to take into consideration animal presence and movement. Students are engaged in an activity to monitor animal foraging behavior on a spatial scale by working in groups to track each others' movements as they travel a pre-determined course. They record their results individually and collaboratively in an attempt to understand animal movement regarding foraging behavior. Students also engage in a creative design activity, focusing on how they would design a tag for a marine animal of their choice. To conclude, students are questioned about data interpretation and how spatial information is important in relation to commercial, conservation and scientific research decisions.

  7. Workshop on molecular animation.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, Sarina; Chiu, Wah; Ferrin, Thomas E

    2010-10-13

    From February 25 to 26, 2010, in San Francisco, the Resource for Biocomputing, Visualization, and Informatics (RBVI) and the National Center for Macromolecular Imaging (NCMI) hosted a molecular animation workshop for 21 structural biologists, molecular animators, and creators of molecular visualization software. Molecular animation aims to visualize scientific understanding of biomolecular processes and structures. The primary goal of the workshop was to identify the necessary tools for producing high-quality molecular animations, understanding complex molecular and cellular structures, creating publication supplementary materials and conference presentations, and teaching science to students and the public. Another use of molecular animation emerged in the workshop: helping to focus scientific inquiry about the motions of molecules and enhancing informal communication within and between laboratories. PMID:20947014

  8. Nature: Katrina's Animal Rescue

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    There have been many stories that have come out in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, and most of them have dealt with the human tragedies involved in this traumatic set of events. The people at the long-running PBS series, Nature, have created this website to complement a recent edition of the show that offered some insights into the effects the hurricane had on the animal population of Louisiana. On the site, visitors can take advantage of a number of special interactive features. These features allow visitors to ask questions of those involved in the animal rescue efforts and learn about the psychological and physical effects on animals. The site also contains a section where visitors can learn about other web-based resources, such as the homepages for Animal Rescue New Orleans and the Best Friends Animal Society.

  9. [Iron deficiency in domestic animals].

    PubMed

    Agergaard, N; Rotenberg, S; Boisen, S

    1984-01-01

    Iron is essential for the organism. In ionized forms (Fe++, Fe ), it constitutes an integrated part of a lot of different functional proteins (Figure 1). The most important functions are participation in oxygen transport in blood, oxygen storage in muscle tissues and oxidation of nutrients in the mitochondria. Iron is an essential part of cytochrome C and alpha-glycerolphosphate dehydrogenase, and early stages of iron deficiency may, therefore, cause disturbances in tissue metabolism before development of anaemia. Thus, haemoglobin determinations is not very suitable for diagnosing early iron deficiency. The content of iron in roughages, apart from root crops (Table II), is usually sufficient to cover the requirement of domestic animals (Table III), which is met by about 50 mg per kg feed dry matter. Iron deficiency is very often caused by a reduced absorption in the intestinal tract because of components in the feed forming complexes with iron of very low solubility or inhibitors reducing the absorption processes. The immune status of the organism and its resistance against infections depends on the iron supply. Iron deficiency inhibits the myeloperoxidase activity and thus decreases the bacteriocide effect of the leucocytes. In spite of this, when exposed to infections the physiological mechanisms reduce the blood concentration of available iron. By this mode of action, invading pathogens, needing iron like the host animals, will be restrained. The low content of iron in milk (Table II) combined with a high content of iron binding lactoferrin, is ideal to protect newborn and milk fed young animals against intestinal infections.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6431395

  10. Can xenotransplantation solve the organ donor shortfall?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly Pyun

    recipient's immune response towards animal organs. As the major molecules in the donor organ - antigens are recognised as foreign, antibodies are developed in the patient's body to destroy them. Among three major immunological processes, the level of hyperacute rejection can be lowered using an organ from an animal closely related to human. However, despite the effective prevention of hyperacute

  11. A knowledge based approach to matching human neurodegenerative disease and animal models.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Sarah M; Mungall, Christopher J; Lewis, Suzanna E; Imam, Fahim T; Martone, Maryann E

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases present a wide and complex range of biological and clinical features. Animal models are key to translational research, yet typically only exhibit a subset of disease features rather than being precise replicas of the disease. Consequently, connecting animal to human conditions using direct data-mining strategies has proven challenging, particularly for diseases of the nervous system, with its complicated anatomy and physiology. To address this challenge we have explored the use of ontologies to create formal descriptions of structural phenotypes across scales that are machine processable and amenable to logical inference. As proof of concept, we built a Neurodegenerative Disease Phenotype Ontology (NDPO) and an associated Phenotype Knowledge Base (PKB) using an entity-quality model that incorporates descriptions for both human disease phenotypes and those of animal models. Entities are drawn from community ontologies made available through the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) and qualities are drawn from the Phenotype and Trait Ontology (PATO). We generated ~1200 structured phenotype statements describing structural alterations at the subcellular, cellular and gross anatomical levels observed in 11 human neurodegenerative conditions and associated animal models. PhenoSim, an open source tool for comparing phenotypes, was used to issue a series of competency questions to compare individual phenotypes among organisms and to determine which animal models recapitulate phenotypic aspects of the human disease in aggregate. Overall, the system was able to use relationships within the ontology to bridge phenotypes across scales, returning non-trivial matches based on common subsumers that were meaningful to a neuroscientist with an advanced knowledge of neuroanatomy. The system can be used both to compare individual phenotypes and also phenotypes in aggregate. This proof of concept suggests that expressing complex phenotypes using formal ontologies provides considerable benefit for comparing phenotypes across scales and species. PMID:23717278

  12. Effect of dietary quercetin and sphingomyelin on intestinal nutrient absorption and animal growth.

    PubMed

    Barrenetxe, J; Aranguren, P; Grijalba, A; Martínez-Peñuela, J M; Marzo, F; Urdaneta, E

    2006-03-01

    Research on cancer and other conditions has shown flavonoids and sphingolipids to be food components capable of exerting chemoprotective action. Nevertheless, little is known about their effects on healthy individuals and their potential usefulness as therapeutic agents. The present study examined the possible action of a dietary flavonoid, quercetin, and a sphingolipid, sphingomyelin, as functional foods in healthy animals. In particular, the effect on animal growth of supplementing a conventional diet with one or other of these substances (0.5 % quercetin and 0.05 % sphingomyelin) was considered. Possible action affecting intestinal physiology was also analysed by measuring the uptake of sugar and dipeptide, mediated by the Na(+)-dependent sugar transporter SGLT1 and the dipeptide Na(+)/H(+) exchanger PEPT1 respectively, and the activity of related intestinal enzymes such as sucrase, maltase and aminopeptidase N. Both substances seemed to modify small intestinal activity in healthy mice, altering intestinal enzymatic activity and nutrient uptake. These effects observed in the small intestine did not impair normal development of the animals, as no differences in serum biochemical parameters or in organ and body weights were found. The findings should help in elucidating the mechanisms of action of these food components with a view to their possible use in the prevention of certain pathological conditions. PMID:16512930

  13. Altered fingerprints: analysis and detection.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soweon; Feng, Jianjiang; Jain, Anil K

    2012-03-01

    The widespread deployment of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) in law enforcement and border control applications has heightened the need for ensuring that these systems are not compromised. While several issues related to fingerprint system security have been investigated, including the use of fake fingerprints for masquerading identity, the problem of fingerprint alteration or obfuscation has received very little attention. Fingerprint obfuscation refers to the deliberate alteration of the fingerprint pattern by an individual for the purpose of masking his identity. Several cases of fingerprint obfuscation have been reported in the press. Fingerprint image quality assessment software (e.g., NFIQ) cannot always detect altered fingerprints since the implicit image quality due to alteration may not change significantly. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) compiling case studies of incidents where individuals were found to have altered their fingerprints for circumventing AFIS, 2) investigating the impact of fingerprint alteration on the accuracy of a commercial fingerprint matcher, 3) classifying the alterations into three major categories and suggesting possible countermeasures, 4) developing a technique to automatically detect altered fingerprints based on analyzing orientation field and minutiae distribution, and 5) evaluating the proposed technique and the NFIQ algorithm on a large database of altered fingerprints provided by a law enforcement agency. Experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed approach in detecting altered fingerprints and highlight the need to further pursue this problem. PMID:21808092

  14. FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF POLYHALOGENATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS AND HUMAN INFANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A scientific evaluation was made of functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in experimental animals and in human infants. ersistent neurobehavioral, reproductive, and endocrine alteration...

  15. Animal and Range Sciences Department Agricultural Animal Care Training Program

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Animal and Range Sciences Department Agricultural Animal Care Training Program Approved by AACUC May 2003 Goals The goals of the Agricultural Animal Care Training Program are to ensure animal well-being, the validity and effectiveness of research and teaching activities, and the health and safety of animal care

  16. Michael Neary, Extension Animal Scientist Ann Yager, Animal Sciences Student

    E-print Network

    Michael Neary, Extension Animal Scientist Ann Yager, Animal Sciences Student AS-550-W Body Condition Scoring in Farm Animals Purdue University Department of Animal Sciences Body condition scoring reserves, particularly fat and muscle, an animal possesses. If body condition scoring is conducted

  17. Animal Models of Bone Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Rosol, Thomas J.; Tannehill-Gregg, Sarah H.; LeRoy, Bruce E.; Mandl, Stefanie; Contag, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Animal models are important tools to investigate the pathogenesis and develop treatment strategies for bone metastases in humans. However, there are few spontaneous models of bone metastasis despite the fact that rodents (rats and mice) and other animals (dogs and cats) often spontaneously develop cancer. Therefore, most experimental models of bone metastasis in rodents require injection or implantation of neoplastic cells into orthotopic locations, bones, or the left ventricle of the heart. METHODS The current study reviews the natural incidence and clinical manifestation of bone metastases of mammary and prostate carcinoma in animals, as well as the experimental models developed in mice using animal and human-derived neoplasms. RESULTS Rats, mice, dogs, and cats often develop spontaneous mammary carcinoma, but bone metastases are rare. Intact and neutered dogs develop prostate carcinoma that is usually androgen independent and may be associated with regional bone invasion or distant bone metastasis. Normal dog prostate tissue induces new bone formation in vivo and can serve as a model of osteoblastic metastasis without concurrent bone destruction. Experimental models of osteolytic, osteoblastic, and mixed osteolytic/osteoblastic bone metastases include syngeneic rodent neoplasms or human xenografts implanted at orthotopic sites (e.g., breast or prostate glands) in immunodeficient mice, injection of cancer cells into the left ventricle of the heart, or direct injection into bones. New transgenic mouse models of cancer have a low incidence of spontaneous bone metastasis, but cell lines derived from these tumors can be selected in vivo for increased incidence of bone metastasis. It is essential to validate and correctly interpret the lesions in models of bone metastasis to accurately correlate the data from animal models to human disease. Animal models have provided support for the “seed and soil” hypothesis of bone metastasis. However, the roles of vascular patterns in the metaphyses of long bones and rapid bone turnover in young animals in the pathogenesis of metastasis in experimental models are uncertain. Improvements in the imaging of experimental animals in vivo using fluorescent markers or light emitted from luciferase have led to increased sensitivity of detection and more accurate quantification of bone metastases. For example, imaging of human prostate carcinoma PC-3M cells transfected with luciferase, following injection into the left ventricle, has demonstrated that there is rapid localization of tumor cells to bones and other organs, such as the kidneys and lungs. CONCLUSIONS Animal models of metastasis have supported drug development and have been useful for identification of metastasis suppressor and promoter genes as novel targets for the development of novel therapies. Further refinement of these models will involve spatiotemporal analysis of the metastatic process by imaging and use of image data to stage disease and guide tissue sampling for gene expression profiling via gene array technology. In the future, integrated analyses of these models will be needed to understand the complexities of this important disease process. PMID:15043188

  18. Transgenic farm animals: applications in agriculture and biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Tian, X C; Dai, Y; Wang, B

    2000-01-01

    During the last decade, tremendous progress has been made in the area of transgenic farm animals. While there are many important transgenic farm animal applications in agriculture, funding has been very limited and progress has been rather slow in this area. Encouragingly, the potential applications of transgenic farm animals as bioreactors for producing human therapeutic proteins and as organ donors for transplantations in humans have attracted vast funding from the private sectors. Several transgenic animal products are already in various phases of clinical trials. Estimates are, that in the near future, the worlds demands on human pharmaceutical proteins may largely be met by transgenic farm animals. While there are still major challenges ahead in the area of xenotransplantation using transgenic animal organs, transgenic tissues or cells have demonstrated promising results as a potential tool for gene therapy. Recent development on cloning, embryonic stem cells and alternative transgenic methods may further expand the transgenic applications in both agriculture and biomedicine. PMID:10875004

  19. Organic metal neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Butler, M.A.; Ginley, D.S.

    1984-11-21

    A device for detection of neutrons comprises: as an active neutron sensing element, a conductive organic polymer having an electrical conductivity and a cross-section for said neutrons whereby a detectable change in said conductivity is caused by impingement of said neutrons on the conductive organic polymer which is responsive to a property of said polymer which is altered by impingement of said neutrons on the polymer; and means for associating a change in said alterable property with the presence of neutrons at the location of said device.

  20. Alteration of the interconversion of pyruvate and malate in the plastid or cytosol of ripening tomato fruit invokes diverse consequences on sugar but similar effects on cellular organic acid, metabolism, and transitory starch accumulation.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Sonia; Vallarino, José G; Szecowka, Marek; Ufaz, Shai; Tzin, Vered; Angelovici, Ruthie; Galili, Gad; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of decreased cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and plastidic NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ripening. Transgenic tomato plants with strongly reduced levels of PEPCK and plastidic NADP-ME were generated by RNA interference gene silencing under the control of a ripening-specific E8 promoter. While these genetic modifications had relatively little effect on the total fruit yield and size, they had strong effects on fruit metabolism. Both transformants were characterized by lower levels of starch at breaker stage. Analysis of the activation state of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase correlated with the decrease of starch in both transformants, which suggests that it is due to an altered cellular redox status. Moreover, metabolic profiling and feeding experiments involving positionally labeled glucoses of fruits lacking in plastidic NADP-ME and cytosolic PEPCK activities revealed differential changes in overall respiration rates and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux. Inactivation of cytosolic PEPCK affected the respiration rate, which suggests that an excess of oxaloacetate is converted to aspartate and reintroduced in the TCA cycle via 2-oxoglutarate/glutamate. On the other hand, the plastidic NADP-ME antisense lines were characterized by no changes in respiration rates and TCA cycle flux, which together with increases of pyruvate kinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities indicate that pyruvate is supplied through these enzymes to the TCA cycle. These results are discussed in the context of current models of the importance of malate during tomato fruit ripening. PMID:23250627

  1. Alteration of the Interconversion of Pyruvate and Malate in the Plastid or Cytosol of Ripening Tomato Fruit Invokes Diverse Consequences on Sugar But Similar Effects on Cellular Organic Acid, Metabolism, and Transitory Starch Accumulation1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, Sonia; Vallarino, José G.; Szecowka, Marek; Ufaz, Shai; Tzin, Vered; Angelovici, Ruthie; Galili, Gad; Fernie, Alisdair R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of decreased cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and plastidic NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ripening. Transgenic tomato plants with strongly reduced levels of PEPCK and plastidic NADP-ME were generated by RNA interference gene silencing under the control of a ripening-specific E8 promoter. While these genetic modifications had relatively little effect on the total fruit yield and size, they had strong effects on fruit metabolism. Both transformants were characterized by lower levels of starch at breaker stage. Analysis of the activation state of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase correlated with the decrease of starch in both transformants, which suggests that it is due to an altered cellular redox status. Moreover, metabolic profiling and feeding experiments involving positionally labeled glucoses of fruits lacking in plastidic NADP-ME and cytosolic PEPCK activities revealed differential changes in overall respiration rates and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux. Inactivation of cytosolic PEPCK affected the respiration rate, which suggests that an excess of oxaloacetate is converted to aspartate and reintroduced in the TCA cycle via 2-oxoglutarate/glutamate. On the other hand, the plastidic NADP-ME antisense lines were characterized by no changes in respiration rates and TCA cycle flux, which together with increases of pyruvate kinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities indicate that pyruvate is supplied through these enzymes to the TCA cycle. These results are discussed in the context of current models of the importance of malate during tomato fruit ripening. PMID:23250627

  2. Analysis of Grooming Behavior and Its Utility in Studying Animal Stress, Anxiety, and Depression

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    Chapter 2 Analysis of Grooming Behavior and Its Utility in Studying Animal Stress, Anxiety-depth analysis of the behavior would immensely benefit fields utilizing rodent research. Here, we present: Grooming behavior, stress, anxiety, depression, behavioral organization (sequencing), animal experimental

  3. Coordinated international action to accelerate Genome to Phenome- The Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes (FAANG) Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe the organization of a nascent international effort - the "Functional Annotation of ANimal Genomes" project - whose aim is to produce comprehensive maps of functional elements in the genomes of domesticated animal species....

  4. Molecular taphonomy of animal and plant cuticles: selective preservation and diagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, D. E. G.

    1999-01-01

    The nature of organic material and the environment in which it is deposited exert a major influence on the extent to which biomacromolecules are preserved in the fossil record. The role of these factors is explored with a particular focus on the cuticle of arthropods and leaves. Preservation of the original chemistry of arthropod cuticles is favoured by their thickness and degree of sclerotization, and the presence of biominerals. Decay and burial in terrestrial as opposed to marine, and anoxic rather than oxygenated conditions, likewise appear to enhance preservation. The most important factor in the long-term preservation of the chemistry of both animal and plant cuticles, however, is diagenetic alteration to an aliphatic composition. This occurs even in amber, which encapsulates the fossil, eliminating almost all external factors. Some plants contain an original decay-resistant macromolecular aliphatic component but this is not the case in arthropods. It appears that the aliphatic components of many plant as well as animal fossils may be the result of diagenetic polymerization. Selective preservation as a result of decay resistance may explain the initial survival of organic materials in sediments, but in many cases longer-term preservation relies on chemical changes. Selective preservation is only a partial explanation for the origin of kerogen.

  5. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    DOEpatents

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  6. The Vision of Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Ipsen

    2008-04-01

    In their study of animal coloration, the students will be "hiding" animals from themselves. If the students cannot easily spot a fish, they may assume that the fish will be overlooked by another fish or by a preying bird or mammal. If a moth escapes the students' attention, they may assume that the moth will be likely to escape the attention of its real predators. This activity questions such assumptions. This free selection includes reproducible animal patterns, the Table of Contents, Introduction, and the Index.

  7. Animals eponyms in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Nidhi; Jindal, Pooja; Kumar, Jeevan; Gupta, Sanjeev; Jain, Vk

    2014-11-01

    The world of Dermatology is flooded with inflexions among clinical conditions and signs and syndromes; making it interesting, but a tougher subject to remember. Signs and syndromes have always fascinated residents, but simultaneously burdened their minds, as these attractive names are difficult to remember. This work was undertaken to review dermatological conditions and signs based on commonly encountered daily words and objects like animals, etc. Fifty dermatological conditions were found to be based on animal eponyms. For example, the usage of animal terminology in dermatology like leonine facies is present in leprosy, sarcoidosis, mycosis fungoides (MF), and airborne contact dermatitis (ABCD). PMID:25484417

  8. Animals and Seasons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Hoggard

    2009-11-24

    Students will explore the four seasons. They will learn about a few different animals (bear, goose, moose) and their lifestyles. Then as groups, they will take the animals through the seasons and discover what takes place in each season. Goals: 1. Students will be able to identify the four seasons. 2. Students will be able to identify three animals (bear, goose, moose) and know their lifestyle patterns in congruence with the four seasons. Standard 3 Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 1 Investigate changes in the seasons. ...

  9. Lightning safety of animals.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Chandima

    2012-11-01

    This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed. PMID:22215021

  10. Hypergravity-induced altered behavior in Drosophila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosamani, Ravikumar; Wan, Judy; Marcu, Oana; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2012-07-01

    Microgravity and mechanical stress are important factors of the spaceflight environment, and affect astronaut health and behavior. Structural, functional, and behavioral mechanisms of all cells and organisms are adapted to Earth's gravitational force, 1G, while altered gravity can pose challenges to their adaptability to this new environment. On ground, hypergravity paradigms have been used to predict and complement studies on microgravity. Even small changes that take place at a molecular and genetic level during altered gravity may result in changes in phenotypic behavior. Drosophila provides a robust and simple, yet very reliable model system to understand the complexity of hypergravity-induced altered behavior, due to availability of a plethora of genetic tools. Locomotor behavior is a sensitive parameter that reflects the array of molecular adaptive mechanisms recruited during exposure to altered gravity. Thus, understanding the genetic basis of this behavior in a hypergravity environment could potentially extend our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in microgravity. In our laboratory we are trying to dissect out the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying hypergravity-induced oxidative stress, and its potential consequences on behavioral alterations by using Drosophila as a model system. In the present study, we employed pan-neuronal and mushroom body specific knock-down adult flies by using Gal4/UAS system to express inverted repeat transgenes (RNAi) to monitor and quantify the hypergravity-induced behavior in Drosophila. We established that acute hypergravity (3G for 60 min) causes a significant and robust decrease in the locomotor behavior in adult Drosophila, and that this change is dependent on genes related to Parkinson's disease, such as DJ-1? , DJ-1? , and parkin. In addition, we also showed that anatomically the control of this behavior is significantly processed in the mushroom body region of the fly brain. This work links a molecular mechanism of response to changes in gravity with a phenotypical outcome. Characterizing the changes in altered gravity that are consequential for the overall physiology of organisms is crucial for assessing the risks of long-term space travel.

  11. Genetic effects of harvest on wild animal populations

    E-print Network

    Genetic effects of harvest on wild animal populations Fred W. Allendorf1,2,3 , Phillip R. England4~o, Portugal 6 Division of Population Genetics, Department of Zoology, University of Stockholm, S-10691 the world and is often intense. Harvest has the potential to cause three types of genetic change: alteration

  12. ?-Lactam resistance and ?-lactamases in bacteria of animal origin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xian-Zhi Li; Manisha Mehrotra; Shiva Ghimire; Lateef Adewoye

    2007-01-01

    ?-Lactams are among the most clinically important antimicrobials in both human and veterinary medicine. Bacterial resistance to ?-lactams has been increasingly observed in bacteria, including those of animal origin. The mechanisms of ?-lactam resistance include inaccessibility of the drugs to their target, target alterations and\\/or inactivation of the drugs by ?-lactamases. The latter contributes predominantly to ?-lactam resistance in Gram-negative

  13. Collection Policy: ANIMAL SCIENCE Subject Scope | Priority Tables | Other policies . . .

    E-print Network

    Angenent, Lars T.

    , livestock/poultry, international agriculture, and pre- veterinary. The special program Dairy Farm Management graduates typically pursue careers in research, veterinary medicine, animal production, agribusiness companies and pharmaceutical companies. Others work internationally in organizations such as the Peace Corps

  14. COMPUTER ANIMATION AND VIRTUAL WORLDS Comp. Anim. Virtual Worlds (2012)

    E-print Network

    Xu, Kai "Kevin"

    2012-01-01

    COMPUTER ANIMATION AND VIRTUAL WORLDS Comp. Anim. Virtual Worlds (2012) Published online in Wiley John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. KEYWORDS virtual surgery; arthroscopy; ACL reconstruction; procedure simulation animals, cadavers, or plastic models are insufficient for intensive training purpose. The anatomy

  15. Animal transportation networks.

    PubMed

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-11-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  16. Faults and Folds Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    This animation explores the forces and processes that deform rocks by creating folds, faults, and mountain ranges. You will learn how landmasses move, see the resulting deformation, and learn how this deformation relates to plate tectonics.

  17. Physics for Animation Artists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-11-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing (and now indispensable) component of their industry. Art students are keenly aware of these trends and understand that their future careers require them to have a broader exposure to science than in the past. Unfortunately, at present there is little overlap between art and science in the typical high school or college curriculum. This article describes our experience in bridging this gap at San Jose State University, with the hope that readers will find ideas that can be used in their own schools.

  18. Solar Eclipse Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This animation shows the path that a solar eclipse takes across the Earth. The umbra and penumbra are clearly defined, and it is possble to see the regions on Earth's surface where the eclipse is total.

  19. NASA Cloud Albedo Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA

    Clouds greatly affect the Earth's solar energy balance. This animation shows how they deflect a portion of solar energy influx from reaching our planet's surface and how they insulate to prevent a total loss of thermal radiance out into space.

  20. River Flood Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    Use this animation to learn about floods. You will learn about drainage basins, discharge, hydrographs, floodplain deposition, and infiltration. You will also learn about the frequency of floods and what we are doing to control them.

  1. CalPhotos: Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From the University of California-Berkeley Digital Library Project (first mentioned in the April 16, 1999 Scout Report), this CalPhotos website connects visitors to 17,812 images of different animals. Site visitors can locate animal photographs using a search engine with free text fields for Scientific or Common name, Location, and Picture's ID, and drop-down menu fields for Photographer, Country, US State, Collection, and more. Visitors can also peruse extensive, hyperlinked listings of animals grouped under the following categories: Amphibians, Birds, Fish, Invertebrates, Mammals, and Reptiles. Animals are listed by both common and scientific name. The photographs come from a variety of sources, and are accompanied by usage guidelines. CalPhotos collections are also available for Fungi, Plants, People & Culture, and Landscapes & Habitats.

  2. LISTERIOSIS IN ANIMALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript reviews the role of Listeria monocytogenes in food and companion animals. The study examines the epidemiology, modes of transmission, and risk factors involved in listeriosis. It emphasizes the clinical manifestation of listeriosis in livestock: abortion, encephalitis, and septic...

  3. Trainable videorealistic speech animation

    E-print Network

    Ezzat, Tony F. (Tony Farid)

    2002-01-01

    I describe how to create with machine learning techniques a generative, videorealistic, speech animation module. A human subject is first recorded using a videocamera as he/she utters a pre-determined speech corpus. After ...

  4. The Classroom Animal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on the physical and physiological characteristics of fruit flies. Explains their role and function in the study of heredity. Upholds their value as a manageable and safe laboratory animal. (ML)

  5. Anthrax in animals.

    PubMed

    Beyer, W; Turnbull, P C B

    2009-12-01

    Anthrax is the archetype zoonosis; no other infectious disease affects such a wide range of species, including humans, although most susceptible are herbivorous mammals. Although the disease appears to have been recognized for centuries, it has yet to be established scientifically how animals contract it. While primarily a disease of warmer regions, it has long been spread to cooler zones through the trade of infected animals or contaminated animal products. Today it is still endemic in many countries of Africa and Asia and non-endemic countries must remain alert to the possibility of imports from such endemic areas resulting in outbreaks in their own livestock. The epidemiology of anthrax is becoming understood better with new systems coming on stream for distinguishing different genotypes and this is covered in detail. Clinical signs and pathology in animals are described. PMID:19723532

  6. LIGAND EFFECTS ON PHYTIC ACID IN ANIMAL MANURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manures are major sources of the organic phosphorus and are attracting a great deal of interest because of the inefficiency of animal digestive systems in absorbing or retaining phosphorus, in particular myo-inositol hexakis dihydrogenphosphate. Although there have been many studies on the c...

  7. THE EDIACARA BIOTA: Neoproterozoic Origin of Animals and Their Ecosystems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy M. Narbonne

    2005-01-01

    The Ediacara biota (575-542 Ma) marks the first appearance of large, architecturally complex organisms in Earth history. Present evidence suggests that the Ediacara biota included a mixture of stem- and crown-group radial animals, stem-group bilaterian animals, \\

  8. Why study the use of animal products in traditional medicines?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rômulo RN Alves; Ierecê L Rosa

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that as many as 80% of the world's more than six billion people rely primarily on animal and plant-based medicines. The healing of human ailments by using therapeutics based on medicines obtained from animals or ultimately derived from them is known as zootherapy. The phenomenon of zootherapy is marked both by a broad geographical

  9. Animal Egg as Evolutionary Innovation: A Solution to the

    E-print Network

    Newman, Stuart A.

    Animal Egg as Evolutionary Innovation: A Solution to the ``Embryonic Hourglass'' Puzzle STUART A The evolutionary origin of the egg stage of animal development presents several difficulties for conventional developmental and evolutionary narratives. If the egg's internal organization represents a template for key

  10. COMMON MECHANISMS FOR PATHOGENS OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Cao; Regina L. Baldini; Laurence G. Rahme

    2001-01-01

    ? Abstract The vast evolutionary gulf between plants and animals—in terms of structure, composition, and many environmental factors—would seem to preclude the possibility that these organisms could act as receptive hosts to the same microorga- nism. However, some pathogens are capable of establishing themselves and thriving in members of both the plant and animal kingdoms. The identification of functionally conserved

  11. Science Stories: Selecting the Source Animal for Xenotransplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peta S. Cook

    Xenotransplantation (animal-to-human transplantation) involves implanting, infusing or transplanting living animal tissues, cells or organs into a human recipient. The aim is to alleviate or eliminate human health conditions that prevent the individual from living the 'good life'. Hence, xenotransplantation is constructed as a potential and needed solution to fixing 'abnormal' bodies. By crossing species barriers, however, this technology is not

  12. Animal models of mitochondrial DNA transactions in disease and ageing

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Marcos T.; Garesse, Rafael; Kaguni, Laurie S.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transactions, processes that include mtDNA replication, repair, recombination and transcription constitute the initial stages of mitochondrial biogenesis, and are at the core of understanding mitochondrial biology and medicine. All of the protein players are encoded in nuclear genes: some are proteins with well-known functions in the nucleus, others are well-known mitochondrial proteins now ascribed new functions, and still others are newly discovered factors. In this article we review recent advances in the field of mtDNA transactions with a special focus on physiological studies. In particular, we consider the expression of variant proteins, or altered expression of factors involved in these processes in powerful model organisms, such as Drosophila melanogaster and the mouse, which have promoted recognition of the broad relevance of oxidative phosphorylation defects resulting from improper maintenance of mtDNA. Furthermore, the animal models recapitulate many phenotypes related to human ageing and a variety of different diseases, a feature that has enhanced our understanding of, and inspired theories about, the molecular mechanisms of such biological processes. PMID:20123011

  13. Sketching 3D Animations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-francis Balaguer; Enrico Gobbetti

    1995-01-01

    We are interested in providing animators with a general-purpose tool allowing them to create animations using straight-ahead actions as well as pose-to-pose techniques. Our approach seeks to bring the expressiveness of real-time motion capture systems into a general-purpose multi-track system running on a graphics workstation. We emphasize the use of high-bandwidth interaction with 3D objects together with specific data reduction

  14. Growing Continents Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Watch this animation showing the growth of a continent to help you understand plate tectonics better. Continents can grow by accumulating crustal material along their edges at convergent boundaries. In the animation, a terrane carried by a subducting plate is fused to the edge of a continent. The attachment of terranes such as this contributed to continental growth along the west coast of North America.

  15. Digital character performance animation 

    E-print Network

    Gonzalez, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    of Computer Animation. Transferring Emotion. . Lip Sync Conclusion Implications for Future Research. NOTES. REFERENCES . . . . 65 66 69 . . 70 . . . 71 73 . . 74 75 77 APPENDIX A. APPENDIX B . . APPENDIX C. . . . . . 79 . . . 96 98 VITA... Il. ll Mathilde's graphical emotional arcs. Figure ll. Ill Story to animation through character domains. . . . . . Figure II. IV Feeling, thought, behavior, stimulus: relationship . . 22 32 34 Figure III. I Mathilde's center of gravity; left...

  16. Human Embryology Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This collection features animations that illustrate a variety of the processes in the development of the human embryo. The collection was designed as a tool for medical students, but can serve as a review for other health-science practitioners and students. The animations are grouped by topic: cardiovascular embryology, development of the head and neck, gastrointestinal embryology, limb development, and urinary and reproductive embryology. They include written pre- and post-tests, and online assessment materials.

  17. Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Joseph B.; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M.; Arif, Ibrahim A.; Khan, Haseeb A.

    2011-01-01

    Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (Ta) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in Ta as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because Tas are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3–5 °C in Ta over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher Ta, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high Ta. This report examines how increases in Ta might affect body temperature (Tb) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which Ta often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When Ta exceeds Tb, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their Tb; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases Tb is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their Tb to increase as Ta increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in Ta. The data presented should serve as base-line information on Tb of animals in the Kingdom for future scientists in Saudi Arabia as they explore the impact of global warming on animal species. PMID:23961171

  18. Climate change and animals in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Joseph B; Shobrak, Mohammed; Wilms, Thomas M; Arif, Ibrahim A; Khan, Haseeb A

    2012-04-01

    Global warming is occurring at an alarming rate and predictions are that air temperature (T a) will continue to increase during this century. Increases in T a as a result of unabated production of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere pose a threat to the distribution and abundance of wildlife populations worldwide. Although all the animals worldwide will likely be affected by global warming, diurnal animals in the deserts will be particularly threatened in the future because T as are already high, and animals have limited access to water. It is expected that Saudi Arabia will experience a 3-5 °C in T a over the next century. For predicting the consequences of global warming for animals, it is important to understand how individual species will respond to higher air temperatures. We think that populations will not have sufficient time to make evolutionary adjustments to higher T a, and therefore they will be forced to alter their distribution patterns, or make phenotypic adjustments in their ability to cope with high T a. This report examines how increases in T a might affect body temperature (T b) in the animals of arid regions. We chose three taxonomic groups, mammals, birds, and reptiles (Arabian oryx, Arabian spiny-tailed lizard, vultures, and hoopoe larks) from Saudi Arabia, an area in which T a often reaches 45 °C during midday in summer. When T a exceeds T b, animals must resort to behavioral and physiological methods to control their T b; failure to do so results in death. The observations of this study show that in many cases T b is already close to the upper lethal limit of around 47° C in these species and therefore allowing their T b to increase as T a increases are not an option. We conclude that global warming will have a detrimental impact on a wide range of desert animals, but in reality we know little about the ability of most animals to cope with change in T a. The data presented should serve as base-line information on T b of animals in the Kingdom for future scientists in Saudi Arabia as they explore the impact of global warming on animal species. PMID:23961171

  19. Human Embryology Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    O'Loughlin, Valerie

    One of the most impressive ways to learn about biology, particularly that which we seldom see, is through modeling. Dr. Valerie O'Loughlin and her colleagues at Indiana University have created this thoroughly impressive set of animations so that "students could better understand the complex processes that must occur in embryologic development." The site is arranged into five main areas, including: Cardiovascular Embryology, Development of the Head and Neck, Gastrointestinal Embryology, Development of the Limbs, and Urinary and Reproductive Embryology. However, the only two sections currently loaded with animations are the first two. Presumably, the rest are coming soon. Also, because these animations are part of a study of teaching efficacy, Dr. O'Loughlin asks that users participate in an optional survey. However, all animations can be accessed without taking part. As a great addition to the site, users are presented with a few questions regarding the anatomy which they are about to see, prior to viewing the animation. Undboutedly, this is related to the Indiana University course that these animations are a part of, but they serve as a great addition for visitors other than students, too.

  20. The hyperactive syndrome: Metanalysis of genetic alterations, pharmacological treatments and brain lesions which increase locomotor activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davide Viggiano

    2008-01-01

    The large number of transgenic mice realized thus far with different purposes allows addressing new questions, such as which animals, over the entire set of transgenic animals, show a specific behavioural abnormality. In the present study, we have used a metanalytical approach to organize a database of genetic modifications, brain lesions and pharmacological interventions that increase locomotor activity in animal

  1. Molecular Alterations Associated with Osteosarcoma Development

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Kosei; Mori, Kanji; Verrecchia, Franck; Marc, Baud'huin; Rédini, Françoise; Heymann, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent malignant primary bone tumor characterized by a high potency to form lung metastases which is the main cause of death. Unfortunately, the conventional chemotherapy is not fully effective on osteosarcoma metastases. The progression of a primary tumor to metastasis requires multiple processes, which are neovascularization, proliferation, invasion, survival in the bloodstream, apoptosis resistance, arrest at a distant organ, and outgrowth in secondary sites. Consequently, recent studies have revealed new insights into the molecular mechanisms of metastasis development. The understanding of the mechanism of molecular alterations can provide the identification of novel therapeutic targets and/or prognostic markers for osteosarcoma treatment to improve the clinical outcome. PMID:22448123

  2. Microbiology of animal bite wound infections.

    PubMed

    Abrahamian, Fredrick M; Goldstein, Ellie J C

    2011-04-01

    The microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial, with a broad mixture of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Bacteria recovered from infected bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the biting animal, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods. Bacteria may also originate from the victim's own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury. Our review has focused on bite wound infections in humans from dogs, cats, and a variety of other animals such as monkeys, bears, pigs, ferrets, horses, sheep, Tasmanian devils, snakes, Komodo dragons, monitor lizards, iguanas, alligators/crocodiles, rats, guinea pigs, hamsters, prairie dogs, swans, and sharks. The medical literature in this area has been made up mostly of small case series or case reports. Very few studies have been systematic and are often limited to dog or cat bite injuries. Limitations of studies include a lack of established or inconsistent criteria for an infected wound and a failure to utilize optimal techniques in pathogen isolation, especially for anaerobic organisms. There is also a lack of an understanding of the pathogenic significance of all cultured organisms. Gathering information and conducting research in a more systematic and methodical fashion through an organized research network, including zoos, veterinary practices, and rural clinics and hospitals, are needed to better define the microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans. PMID:21482724

  3. Current status of regulating biotechnology-derived animals in Canada: animal health and food safety considerations.

    PubMed

    Kochhar, H P S; Evans, B R

    2007-01-01

    Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are 'novel' organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation of transgenic animals pertain to environmental impact, human food safety, animal health and welfare, trade and ethics. It is a challenge for the developers to prove the safety of the products of biotechnology-derived animals and also for regulators to regulate this increasingly powerful technology with limited background information. In principle, an effective regulatory sieve should permit safe products while forming a formidable barrier for those posing an unacceptable risk. Regulatory initiatives for biotechnology-derived animals and their products should be able to ensure high standards for human and animal health, a sound scientific basis for evaluation; transparency and public involvement, and maintenance of genetic diversity. This review proposes a regulatory regime that is based on scientific risk based assessment and approval of products or by-products of biotechnology-derived animals and its application in context to Canadian regulations. PMID:17097725

  4. CENSHARE - Center to Study Human Animal Relationships and Environments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Established in 1981 at the University of Minnesota's School of Public Health, the Center to Study Human Animal Relationships and Environments (CENSHARE) is an umbrella organization that supports groups that aim to educate about the human animal relationship and the environment they share. This mission of this education is to improve the quality of life for both, encourage scientific study of such relationships, and also serve as a resource for the community on these relationships. Visitors should check out the thorough explanation of "Animal Assisted Therapy" (AAT), and learn how it differs from, say, Animal Assisted Activities (AAA). As animal therapy can be stressful on the animal if it is not properly trained for such demanding work, the AAT link gives helpful tips to visitors on how to get an animal ready to be a therapy animal. Visitors will also learn from the AAT link that such animals have been evaluated and registered by national groups that specialize in therapy animals, but are not given the federal protections that specially-trained service dogs are, such as access to public transportation and public buildings. Finally, visitors should check out the "Companion Animals in Care Environments" link. Here they can read a bittersweet story titled "Lessons to be Learned from the Saga of Mae" which addresses the considerations that should be made when deciding whether to allow a resident animal in a care facility.

  5. Animal Watching: Outdoors and In.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLure, John W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes using domesticated, wild, or feral animals to teach students about nature and animal behavior. Connections can be made with psychology, economics, genetics, history, art, and other disciplines. The study of animal behavior provides opportunities for harmless student experimentation. (SAH)

  6. Animal Care in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llewellyn, Gerald C.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses housing facilities for living animals in the classroom or laboratory. The construction of animal cages from materials obtained locally is described. Space recommendations for laboratory animals and cages are also included. (HM)

  7. Computer animation of quadrupedal locomotion 

    E-print Network

    Thornton, Thomas Lance

    2005-02-17

    A discussion of the theory and methodology for creating believable quadrupedal locomotion for computer animation applications. The study focuses on a variety of issues related to producing realistic animal gait animations and includes a case study...

  8. Design of a Small Animal Biopsy Robot

    PubMed Central

    Bebek, Ozkan; Hwang, Myun Joong; Fei, Baowei; Cavusoglu, M. Cenk

    2009-01-01

    Small animals are widely used in biomedical research studies. They have compact anatomy and small organs. Therefore it is difficult to perceive tumors or cells and perform biopsies manually. Robotics technology offers a convenient and reliable solution for accurate needle insertion. In this paper, a novel 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) robot design for inserting needles into small animal subjects is proposed. The design has a compact size, is light weight, and has high resolution. Parallel mechanisms are used in the design for stable and reliable operation. The proposed robot has two gimbal joints that carry the needle mechanism. The robot can realize dexterous alignment of the needle before insertion. PMID:19163987

  9. Supercooling and Freezing in Winter Dormant Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    William D. Schmid (University of Minnesota; )

    2008-04-11

    Winter dormant organisms, both plants and animals, have two general categories of adaptation for survival of exposure to cold climate stress. They can resist the formation of internal ice by supercooling through the production of antifreeze compounds; or, they can tolerate internal ice by addition of cryoprotectant biochemicals to their body fluids. In the latter case, nucleator chemicals may be produced to promote the formation of ice in extracellular fluids. We will use techniques to measure supercooling points of a winter dormant animal, the goldenrod gallfly, and to evaluate its seasonal production of cryoprotectant chemicals.

  10. Pattern Alteration: Bodice Back Width

    E-print Network

    2006-03-24

    If the back bodice of a garment is too tight or too loose because of a wide or narrow back, the pattern can be altered to make the garment fit better. This publication gives instructions on altering the bodice back width of patterns to solve...

  11. Ageismus – Sprachliche Diskriminierung des Alters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Undine Kramer

    Daniel Sanders, einer der bedeutendsten Lexikografen des 19. Jahrhunderts, wertete für sein Wörterbuch Quellen seit der Lutherzeit aus und\\u000a vermerkt im Wörterbuchartikel zu alt eine „bald lobende, bald tadelnde“ Bedeutung des Adjektivs. Sein Zeit- und Berufsgenosse Jacob Grimm benennt in seiner Rede über das Alter die zeitgenössischen Synonyme zu alt und Alter: „aus einheimischen schriftstellern liesze sich eine lange reihe

  12. Detecting Altered Fingerprints Jianjiang Feng

    E-print Network

    Ross, Arun Abraham

    Detecting Altered Fingerprints Jianjiang Feng Dept.of Automation Tsinghua University Beijing, China.ross@mail.wvu.edu Abstract--The widespread deployment of Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) in law en identification by purposely altering their fingerprints. Available fingerprint quality assessment software cannot

  13. Thymic Alterations in GM2 Gangliosidoses Model Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seiichi Kanzaki; Akira Yamaguchi; Kayoko Yamaguchi; Yoshitsugu Kojima; Kyoko Suzuki; Noriko Koumitsu; Yoji Nagashima; Kiyotaka Nagahama; Michiko Ehara; Yoshio Hirayasu; Akihide Ryo; Ichiro Aoki; Shoji Yamanaka; Joseph El Khoury

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundSandhoff disease is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the absence of ?-hexosaminidase and storage of GM2 ganglioside and related glycolipids. We have previously found that the progressive neurologic disease induced in Hexb?\\/? mice, an animal model for Sandhoff disease, is associated with the production of pathogenic anti-glycolipid autoantibodies.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsIn our current study, we report on the alterations in the

  14. The Use of Animal Models for Cancer Chemoprevention Drug Development

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Vernon E.; Lubet, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    Animal models currently are used to assess the efficacy of potential chemopreventive agents, including synthetic chemicals, chemical agents obtained from natural products and natural product mixtures. The observations made in these models as well as other data are then used to prioritize agents to determine which are qualified to progress to clinical chemoprevention trials. Organ specific animal models are employed to determine which agents or classes of agents are likely to be the most effective at nontoxic doses to prevent organ-specific forms of cancer. These results are then used to target specific organs in high risk populations in clinical trials. The animal models used are either carcinogen-induced with carcinogens specific for particular organ sites or they are transgenic/mutant animals with insertions, deletions, or mutations at targeted gene sites known to enhance cancers in a specific organ. Animal tumor models with characteristics favorable to chemoprevention studies are available for lung, colon, skin, bladder, mammary, prostate, head and neck, esophagus, ovary and pancreas. In addition to single agent dose-response testing, such models are frequently used for testing combinations of agents, testing different routes of administration, evaluating surrogate endpoint biomarkers, and generating initial pharmacokinetics and toxicology data. For some of the more standard animal models there is significant correlation with human chemopreventive trial results. There are a growing number of positive human chemoprevention trials which used agents or combinations which were positive in animal testing. The number of negative human clinical trials have been fewer, but again correlating with negative animal results. Clearly the validation of animal models to predict the efficacy of agents in human clinical trials will await further human data on positive and negative outcomes with chemopreventive agents. Whether validated or not, animal efficacy data remain central to the clinical trial decision-making process. PMID:20816503

  15. Vascular alterations in schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    Papiez, Joseph; Rojiani, Mumtaz V; Rojiani, Amyn M

    2014-01-01

    Schwannomas or neurilemmoma are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors, which most frequently occur at the cerebellopontine angle. This morphologic study examines vascular alterations in these tumors, comparing them to other benign spindle cell neoplasms of the nervous system, while correlating these findings with evidence of vascular permeability. Thirty-four nervous system spindle cell neoplasms, sixteen schwannomas, nine fibroblastic/transitional meningiomas and nine peripheral neurofibromas were stained with H&E, Prussian-blue stain, and immunoreacted for factor VIII-related antigen and interstitial albumin. Schwannomas had focal clusters of vascular proliferation including groups of small thin-walled vessels, as well as larger vessels with extensive hyalinization. Neurofibromas and meningiomas almost uniformly had modest numbers of well-defined, thin walled individual vessels. Free hemosiderin and hemosiderin-laden macrophages were frequently identified in schwannomas. Prussian-blue stain for iron revealed focal or fairly widespread positivity in almost all schwannomas, only one meningioma and none of the neurofibromas. Immunoreaction for albumin demonstrated leakage of vascular proteins into the interstitium confirming tumor vessel permeability in schwannomas. Neither neurofibromas nor meningiomas displayed any detectable interstitial albumin. The above findings confirm a degree of reactive proliferation of vessels in schwannoma along with functional deficits in their vascular integrity with permeability to protein and blood. The presence of hyalinized vessels, hemosiderin, both free and within macrophages, and more readily evident Prussian blue staining, may provide an additional diagnostic clue in discriminating between histologically similar spindle cell lesions. The study however raises the possibility that these changes likely precede or facilitate the degenerative ‘ancient change’ seen in some schwannoma. PMID:25120781

  16. Vascular alterations in schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Papiez, Joseph; Rojiani, Mumtaz V; Rojiani, Amyn M

    2014-01-01

    Schwannomas or neurilemmoma are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors, which most frequently occur at the cerebellopontine angle. This morphologic study examines vascular alterations in these tumors, comparing them to other benign spindle cell neoplasms of the nervous system, while correlating these findings with evidence of vascular permeability. Thirty-four nervous system spindle cell neoplasms, sixteen schwannomas, nine fibroblastic/transitional meningiomas and nine peripheral neurofibromas were stained with H&E, Prussian-blue stain, and immunoreacted for factor VIII-related antigen and interstitial albumin. Schwannomas had focal clusters of vascular proliferation including groups of small thin-walled vessels, as well as larger vessels with extensive hyalinization. Neurofibromas and meningiomas almost uniformly had modest numbers of well-defined, thin walled individual vessels. Free hemosiderin and hemosiderin-laden macrophages were frequently identified in schwannomas. Prussian-blue stain for iron revealed focal or fairly widespread positivity in almost all schwannomas, only one meningioma and none of the neurofibromas. Immunoreaction for albumin demonstrated leakage of vascular proteins into the interstitium confirming tumor vessel permeability in schwannomas. Neither neurofibromas nor meningiomas displayed any detectable interstitial albumin. The above findings confirm a degree of reactive proliferation of vessels in schwannoma along with functional deficits in their vascular integrity with permeability to protein and blood. The presence of hyalinized vessels, hemosiderin, both free and within macrophages, and more readily evident Prussian blue staining, may provide an additional diagnostic clue in discriminating between histologically similar spindle cell lesions. The study however raises the possibility that these changes likely precede or facilitate the degenerative 'ancient change' seen in some schwannoma. PMID:25120781

  17. Graviresponses of osteocytes under altered gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, S. M.; Qian, A. R.; Qu, L. N.; Zhang, W.; Wang, Z.; Ding, C.; Li, Y. H.; Ren, H. G.; Shang, P.

    2011-09-01

    Single cell was capable of sensing and responding to alterations of gravity. Osteocytes, as the most abundant cells of the bone tissue playing an important role in the bone mechanotransduction, are very sensitive to mechanical stimuli. However, the effect of altered gravity on osteocytes so far is less known according to the public papers. Further study on this issue will help to verify and develop the theory of how cells perceive and respond to gravity. It also brings new ideas to the study of space bone loss. In our study, Osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells were exposed to 30 parabolic flights three times on ZERO-G airbus A300 to investigate the comprehensive effect on osteocytes stimulated by hyper- and hypo-gravity forces. It showed that the cell morphology, as well as cell area and height, was not changed significantly by hyper-gravity and hypo-gravity. However, the cytoskeleton was reorganized. In flight cells, F-actin polymerization was enhanced at the cell periphery and microtubule organizing center disappeared, but no apoptotic feathers were detected. The results of western blot showed that connexin 43 (Cx43) expression was down-regulated, indicating an decrease of gap-junction. In conclusion, hyper- and hypo-gravity stimulation altered the cytoskeleton architecture and suppressed gap-junction of osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells.

  18. Animal models of memory impairment.

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, M

    1997-01-01

    Memory impairment in the elderly resembles a mild temporal lobe dysfunction. Alterations in the hippocampal formation are also a probable basis for cognitive deficits in some animal models of ageing. For example, aged rats are impaired in hippocampal-dependent tests of spatial memory. Recent studies have revealed considerable structural integrity in the aged hippocampus, even in aged rats with the most impaired spatial memory. In contrast, atrophy/loss of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain and deficiency in cholinergic transduction in hippocampus correlate with the severity of spatial memory impairment in aged rats. This evidence supports the longstanding view that age-related loss of memory has a cholinergic basis. In this context, it is somewhat surprising that the use of a selective cholinergic immunotoxin in young rats to further test this hypothesis has revealed normal spatial memory after removing septo-hippocampal cholinergic neurons. Young rats with immunotoxic lesions, however, have other behavioural impairments in tests of attentional processing. These lines of research have implications for understanding the neurobiological basis of memory deficits in ageing and for selecting an optimal behavioural setting in which to examine therapies aimed at restoring neurobiological function. PMID:9415923

  19. Human Clostridium difficile infection: altered mucus production and composition.

    PubMed

    Engevik, Melinda A; Yacyshyn, Mary Beth; Engevik, Kristen A; Wang, Jiang; Darien, Benjamin; Hassett, Daniel J; Yacyshyn, Bruce R; Worrell, Roger T

    2015-03-15

    The majority of antibiotic-induced diarrhea is caused by Clostridium difficile (C. difficile). Hospitalizations for C. difficile infection (CDI) have tripled in the last decade, emphasizing the need to better understand how the organism colonizes the intestine and maintain infection. The mucus provides an interface for bacterial-host interactions and changes in intestinal mucus have been linked host health. To assess mucus production and composition in healthy and CDI patients, the main mucins MUC1 and MUC2 and mucus oligosaccharides were examined. Compared with healthy subjects, CDI patients demonstrated decreased MUC2 with no changes in surface MUC1. Although MUC1 did not change at the level of the epithelia, MUC1 was the primary constituent of secreted mucus in CDI patients. CDI mucus also exhibited decreased N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), increased N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), and increased terminal galactose residues. Increased galactose in CDI specimens is of particular interest since terminal galactose sugars are known as C. difficile toxin A receptor in animals. In vitro, C. difficile is capable of metabolizing fucose, mannose, galactose, GlcNAc, and GalNAc for growth under healthy stool conditions (low Na(+) concentration, pH 6.0). Injection of C. difficile into human intestinal organoids (HIOs) demonstrated that C. difficile alone is sufficient to reduce MUC2 production but is not capable of altering host mucus oligosaccharide composition. We also demonstrate that C. difficile binds preferentially to mucus extracted from CDI patients compared with healthy subjects. Our results provide insight into a mechanism of C. difficile colonization and may provide novel target(s) for the development of alternative therapeutic agents. PMID:25552581

  20. The influence of combined magnesium and vanadate administration on the level of some elements in selected rat organs: V-Mg interactions and the role of iron-essential protein (DMT-1) in the mechanism underlying altered tissues iron level.

    PubMed

    Scibior, Agnieszka; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Go??biowska, Dorota; Nied?wiecka, Irmina; Fornal, Emilia

    2014-04-01

    The effect of 12 week co-administration of sodium metavanadate (SMV) and magnesium sulfate (MS) on the levels of some elements in selected rats' organs and an attempt to elucidate a role of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT-1) in the mechanism(s) of the SMV-induced disorders in some tissue Fe homeostasis were studied. SMV taken up separately or in combination with MS may pose a risk of the rise and shortage of the total hepatic and splenic Fe and Cu contents, respectively, cerebral Fe deficiency, splenic Ca deposition, and the hepatic, renal, and cerebral DMT-1 down-regulation. When administered alone, SMV may also cause the decrease in the total renal Fe and Cu contents. A visible protective effect of Mg against the renal and cerebral V accumulation and the decrease in the renal Fe and Cu contents during the SMV-MS co-administration together with our previous findings suggest a beneficial role of Mg at SMV exposure. Further, the SMV-induced fall in total iron binding capacity (TIBC), reported previously, and its correlations with the hepatic, splenic, and cerebral Fe levels allow us to suggest that diminished TIBC could be partly involved in the mechanism(s) responsible for the dramatic redistribution of Fe in those tissues. Finally, DMT-1, which potentially could participate in the hepatic non-transferrin Fe-bound uptake, does not play a significant role in this process indicating the need for studying other Fe transporters to more precisely elucidate molecular mechanism(s) underlying the hepatic Fe loading in our experimental conditions. PMID:24549458

  1. Altered Neurocircuitry in the Dopamine Transporter Knockout Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Bearer, Elaine L.; Boulat, Benoit; Hall, F. Scott; Uhl, George R.; Jacobs, Russell E.

    2010-01-01

    The plasma membrane transporters for the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine modulate the dynamics of these monoamine neurotransmitters. Thus, activity of these transporters has significant consequences for monoamine activity throughout the brain and for a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Gene knockout (KO) mice that reduce or eliminate expression of each of these monoamine transporters have provided a wealth of new information about the function of these proteins at molecular, physiological and behavioral levels. In the present work we use the unique properties of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to probe the effects of altered dopaminergic dynamics on meso-scale neuronal circuitry and overall brain morphology, since changes at these levels of organization might help to account for some of the extensive pharmacological and behavioral differences observed in dopamine transporter (DAT) KO mice. Despite the smaller size of these animals, voxel-wise statistical comparison of high resolution structural MR images indicated little morphological change as a consequence of DAT KO. Likewise, proton magnetic resonance spectra recorded in the striatum indicated no significant changes in detectable metabolite concentrations between DAT KO and wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, alterations in the circuitry from the prefrontal cortex to the mesocortical limbic system, an important brain component intimately tied to function of mesolimbic/mesocortical dopamine reward pathways, were revealed by manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI). Analysis of co-registered MEMRI images taken over the 26 hours after introduction of Mn2+ into the prefrontal cortex indicated that DAT KO mice have a truncated Mn2+ distribution within this circuitry with little accumulation beyond the thalamus or contralateral to the injection site. By contrast, WT littermates exhibit Mn2+ transport into more posterior midbrain nuclei and contralateral mesolimbic structures at 26 hr post-injection. Thus, DAT KO mice appear, at this level of anatomic resolution, to have preserved cortico-striatal-thalamic connectivity but diminished robustness of reward-modulating circuitry distal to the thalamus. This is in contradistinction to the state of this circuitry in serotonin transporter KO mice where we observed more robust connectivity in more posterior brain regions using methods identical to those employed here. PMID:20634895

  2. Animal Models That Elucidate Basic Principles of the Developmental Origins of Adult Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter W. Nathanielsz

    2006-01-01

    Human epidemiological and animal laboratory studies show that suboptimal environments in the womb and during early neonatal life alter development and predispose the indi- vidual to lifelong health problems. The concept of the de- velopmental origins of adult diseases has become well accepted because of the compelling animal studies that have precisely defined the outcomes of specific exposures such as

  3. Alteration of the bone tissue material properties in type 1 diabetes mellitus: A Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Mieczkowska, Aleksandra; Mansur, Sity Aishah; Irwin, Nigel; Flatt, Peter R; Chappard, Daniel; Mabilleau, Guillaume

    2015-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a severe disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia. A higher occurrence of bone fractures has been reported in T1DM, and although bone mineral density is reduced in this disorder, it is also thought that bone quality may be altered in this chronic pathology. Vibrational microscopies such as Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) represent an interesting approach to study bone quality as they allow investigation of the collagen and mineral compartment of the extracellular matrix in a specific bone location. However, as spectral feature arising from the mineral may overlap with those of the organic component, the demineralization of bone sections should be performed for a full investigation of the organic matrix. The aims of the present study were to (i) develop a new approach, based on the demineralization of thin bone tissue section to allow a better characterization of the bone organic component by FTIRM, (ii) to validate collagen glycation and collagen integrity in bone tissue and (iii) to better understand what alterations of tissue material properties in newly forming bone occur in T1DM. The streptozotocin-injected mouse (150mg/kg body weight, injected at 8weeks old) was used as T1DM model. Animals were randomly allocated to control (n=8) or diabetic (n=10) groups and were sacrificed 4weeks post-STZ injection. Bones were collected at necropsy, embedded in polymethylmethacrylate and sectioned prior to examination by FTIRM. FTIRM collagen parameters were collagen maturity (area ratio between 1660 and 1690cm(-1) subbands), collagen glycation (area ratio between the 1032cm(-1) subband and amide I) and collagen integrity (area ratio between the 1338cm(-1) subband and amide II). No significant differences in the mineral compartment of the bone matrix could be observed between controls and STZ-injected animals. On the other hand, as compared with controls, STZ-injected animals presented with significant higher value for collagen maturity (17%, p=0.0048) and collagen glycation (99%, p=0.0121), while collagen integrity was significantly lower by 170% (p=0.0121). This study demonstrated the profound effect of early T1DM on the organic compartment of the bone matrix in newly forming bone. Further studies in humans are required to ascertain whether T1DM also lead to similar effect on the quality of the bone matrix. PMID:25813583

  4. Regulation of Animal Health Products FDA/CVM: Animal drugs, animal

    E-print Network

    ://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/, then Click on Animal Health Literacy Click on Animal Health Literacy Campaign Aquaculture-specific references: A Quick Reference Guide to Approved Drugs for Use in Aquaculture Aquaculture and Aquaculture

  5. Retinoid signaling alterations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kolarcik, Christi L; Bowser, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neuromuscular disease for which effective therapeutic interventions and an understanding of underlying disease mechanism are lacking. A variety of biochemical pathways are believed to contribute to the pathophysiology of ALS that are common to both sporadic and familial forms of the disease. Evidence from both human and animal studies indicates that expression of retinoid signaling genes is altered in ALS and may contribute to motor neuron loss. Our goals were to examine the expression and distribution of proteins of the retinoid signaling pathway in spinal cord samples from patients with sporadic and familial ALS and to evaluate the role of these proteins in motor neuron cell survival. In sporadic ALS, the cytoplasmic binding protein that facilitates nuclear translocation of retinoic acid, cellular retinoic acid binding protein-II (CRABP-II), was localized to the nucleus and retinoic acid receptor ? (RAR?) was significantly increased in motor neuron nuclei when compared to either familial ALS patients or non-neurologic disease controls. Motor neurons with increased nuclear RAR? were negative for markers of apoptosis. Pre-treatment of primary motor neuron-enriched cultures with a pan-RAR or RAR?-specific agonist decreased motor neuron cell death associated with oxidative injury/stress while a RAR?-specific antagonist enhanced cell death. Our data suggest retinoid signaling is altered in ALS and increased nuclear RAR? occurs in motor neurons of sporadic ALS patients. Activation of RAR? protects motor neurons from oxidative-induced cell death. PMID:23383387

  6. Life sciences research in space: The requirement for animal models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. A.; Philips, R. W.; Ballard, R. W.

    1987-01-01

    Use of animals in NASA space programs is reviewed. Animals are needed because life science experimentation frequently requires long-term controlled exposure to environments, statistical validation, invasive instrumentation or biological tissue sampling, tissue destruction, exposure to dangerous or unknown agents, or sacrifice of the subject. The availability and use of human subjects inflight is complicated by the multiple needs and demands upon crew time. Because only living organisms can sense, integrate and respond to the environment around them, the sole use of tissue culture and computer models is insufficient for understanding the influence of the space environment on intact organisms. Equipment for spaceborne experiments with animals is described.

  7. 9 CFR 55.25 - Animal identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal identification. 55.25 Section 55.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  8. Science-based assessment of animal welfare: companion animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. J. Odendaal

    2005-01-01

    Summary Human history reveals that the way in which humans treat animals is based on their views of themselves as well as of the living environment around them. These views may vary from an assumption of human superiority to one of equality between humans and animals. Recent trends affecting companion- animal welfare are: modern philosophies on animal issues, the specialised

  9. Animated Tutorials: General Biology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-04-20

    The Sumanas Corporation was created in 1994 to help design accurate and interesting products for higher education. Along on the way, they have seen fit to create a range of complementary online animations for students and teachers interested in biology. On this page, visitors will find 37 helpful animations that cover a range of topics. The first two on the site address meiosis and mitosis and they are a good place to start for any student of general biology. Each one of the animations includes audio narration, along with a step-by-step tutorial and a short quiz. Other favorites here include "The Scientific Method" and "Simple Stimuli Trigger Fixed Behaviors." Overall, the site is well-designed and it may pique the curiosity of those who haven't thought much about biology in some time.

  10. Small Animal Bone Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Vashishth, Deepak

    2008-01-01

    Animal models, in particular mice, offer the possibility of naturally achieving or genetically engineering a skeletal phenotype associated with disease and conducting destructive fracture tests on bone to determine the resulting change in bone’s mechanical properties. Several recent developments, including nano- and micro- indentation testing, microtensile and microcompressive testing, and bending tests on notched whole bone specimens, offer the possibility to mechanically probe small animal bone and investigate the effects of aging, therapeutic treatments, disease, and genetic variation. In contrast to traditional strength tests on small animal bones, fracture mechanics tests display smaller variation and therefore offer the possibility of reducing sample sizes. This article provides an analysis of what such tests measure and proposes methods to reduce errors associated with testing smaller than ideal specimens. PMID:18672104

  11. Animal Violence Demystified

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Deepa; Caramaschi, Doretta

    2009-01-01

    Violence has been observed in humans and animals alike, indicating its evolutionary/biological significance. However, violence in animals has often been confounded with functional forms of aggressive behavior. Currently, violence in animals is identified primarily as either a quantitative behavior (an escalated, pathological and abnormal form of aggression characterized primarily by short attack latencies, and prolonged and frequent harm-oriented conflict behaviors) or a qualitative one (characterized by attack bites aimed at vulnerable parts of the opponent's body and context independent attacks regardless of the environment or the sex and type of the opponent). Identification of an operational definition for violence thus not only helps in understanding its potential differences from adaptive forms of aggression but also in the selection of appropriate animal models for both. We address this issue theoretically by drawing parallels from research on aggression and appeasement in humans and other animals. We also provide empirical evidences for violence in mice selected for high aggression by comparing our findings with other currently available potentially violent rodent models. The following violence-specific features namely (1) Display of low levels of pre-escalatory/ritualistic behaviors. (2) Immediate and escalated offense durations with low withdrawal rates despite the opponent's submissive supine and crouching/defeat postures. (3) Context independent indiscriminate attacks aimed at familiar/unfamiliar females, anaesthetized males and opponents and in neutral environments. (4) Orientation of attack-bites toward vulnerable body parts of the opponent resulting in severe wounding. (5) Low prefrontal serotonin (5-HT) levels upon repeated aggression. (6) Low basal heart rates and hyporesponsive hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis were identified uniquely in the short attack latency (SAL) mice suggesting a qualitative difference between violence and adaptive aggression in animals. PMID:20407576

  12. Seed Dispersal: Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Pulse of the Planet

    2007-08-02

    The guest scientist in this two-minute radio program discusses seed dispersal in plants. He first explains why it is important for seeds to be distributed away from the mother plant. Then he contrasts wind-dispersed seeds with animal-dispersed seeds, pointing out that animals can disperse larger seeds that contain more nutrients for an emerging seedling. The program, which is available here in audio and text, is part of a Pulse of the Planet series on seed dispersal. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

  13. Altered brain functional networks in heavy smokers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fuchun; Wu, Guangyao; Zhu, Ling; Lei, Hao

    2015-07-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that cigarette smoking is associated with changed brain structure and function. However, little is known about alterations of the topological organization of brain functional networks in heavy smokers. Thirty-one heavy smokers and 33 non-smokers underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. The whole-brain functional networks were constructed by thresholding the correlation matrices of 90 brain regions and their topological properties were analyzed using graph network analysis. Non-parametric permutation tests were performed to investigate group differences in network topological measures and multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine the relationships between the network metrics and smoking-related variables. Both heavy smokers and non-smokers exhibited small-world architecture in their brain functional networks. Compared with non-smokers, however, heavy smokers showed altered topological measurements characterized by lower global efficiency, higher local efficiency and clustering coefficients and greater path length. Furthermore, heavy smokers demonstrated decreased nodal global efficiency mainly in brain regions within the default mode network, whereas increased nodal local efficiency predominated in the visual-related regions. In addition, heavy smokers exhibited an association between the altered network metrics and the duration of cigarette use or the severity of nicotine dependence. Our results suggest that heavy smokers may have less efficient network architecture in the brain, and chronic cigarette smoking is associated with disruptions in the topological organization of brain networks. Our findings may further the understanding of the effects of chronic cigarette smoking on the brain and the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying nicotine dependence. PMID:24962385

  14. [Thyroid homeostasis in animals with iodine deficiency].

    PubMed

    Fabri, Z I

    1988-01-01

    The content of total iodine, its hormonal and nonhormonal fractions as well the level of protein-bound iodine in blood and basic tissue targets in representatives of 4 classes of animals: Esox lucius L., Rana esculenta, Streptopelia decaocto Priv., Lepus europaeus Pall. inhabiting the mountain regions with iodine deficiency in environment and in the lowlands of Transcarpathia with higher iodine provision have been investigated. A considerable decrease of general and hormone iodine level in the animal tissues of the mountain area accompanied by the suppression of the thyroid function has been stated. The utilization of thyroid hormones under the iodine deficiency condition is increased in the majority of cases and the level of protein-bound iodine is lowered that testifies to the transition of animal organism in the iodine-deficient areas to the lower level of thyroid homeostasis. PMID:3265636

  15. Bioterrorism: intentional introduction of animal disease.

    PubMed

    Clarke, N P; Rinderknecht, J L

    2011-04-01

    The possibility of the intentional introduction of animal disease as an act of bioterrorism adds a new dimension to the development of strategies for assessment, prevention, response and recovery from exotic diseases, including the zoonoses. The vulnerability of livestock operations, the likelihood of success, the possibility of the use of genetically engineered organisms and limited resources to handle multiple outbreaks place new pressures on policy-makers and emergency responders to make best use of limited resources. The methods for managing a natural occurrence or accidental introduction of high-consequence diseases are generally applicable to containment and recovery from outbreaks of intentionally introduced animal diseases. Zoonotic agents increase the complexity at both international and national levels. Modern biology provides both increased threat of new disease entities and methods for earlier and more effective detection and intervention. Improved methods are emerging for defining trade restrictions and animal movement and for determining when it is safe to resume normal trade. PMID:21809759

  16. Animals and the invention of the Phanerozoic Earth system.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Nicholas J

    2011-02-01

    Animals do not just occupy the modern biosphere, they permeate its structure and define how it works. Their unique combination of organ-grade multicellularity, motility and heterotrophic habit makes them powerful geobiological agents, imposing myriad feedbacks on nutrient cycling, productivity and environment. Most significantly, animals have 'engineered' the biosphere over evolutionary time, forcing the diversification of, for example, phytoplankton, land plants, trophic structure, large body size, bioturbation, biomineralization and indeed the evolutionary process itself. This review surveys how animals contribute to the modern world and provides a basis for reconstructing ancient ecosystems. Earlier, less animal-influenced biospheres worked quite differently from the one currently occupied, with the Ediacaran-Cambrian radiation of organ-grade animals marking a fundamental shift in macroecological and macroevolutionary expression. PMID:21190752

  17. Emerging principles of altered neural circuitry in schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francine M Benes

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of recent microscopic studies that have sought to define how limbic circuitry may be altered in postmortem schizophrenic brain. The discussion is organized around several basic questions regarding the manner in which interconnections within and between the anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampal formation and involving the glutamate, GABA and dopamine systems may contribute to the

  18. Spaceflight alters microtubules and increases apoptosis in human lymphocytes (Jurkat)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARIAN L. LEWIS; JULIE L. REYNOLDS; LUIS A. CUBANO; JASON P. HATTON; B. DESALES LAWLESS; EDWARD H. PIEPMEIER

    Alteration in cytoskeletal organization appears to underlie mechanisms of gravity sensitivity in space-flown cells. Human T lymphoblastoid cells (Jurkat) were flown on the Space Shuttle to test the hypothesis that growth responsiveness is associated with microtubule anomalies and mediated by apopto- sis. Cell growth was stimulated in microgravity by in- creasing serum concentration. After 4 and 48 h, cells filtered

  19. Animal microsurgery using microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Stirman, Jeffrey N; Harker, Bethany; Lu, Hang; Crane, Matthew M

    2014-02-01

    Small multicellular genetic organisms form a central part of modern biological research. Using these small organisms provides significant advantages in genetic tractability, manipulation, lifespan and cost. Although the small size is generally advantageous, it can make procedures such as surgeries both time consuming and labor intensive. Over the past few years there have been dramatic improvements in microfluidic technologies that enable significant improvements in microsurgery and interrogation of small multicellular model organisms. PMID:24484877

  20. Antimicrobial peptides of multicellular organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Zasloff

    2002-01-01

    Multicellular organisms live, by and large, harmoniously with microbes. The cornea of the eye of an animal is almost always free of signs of infection. The insect flourishes without lymphocytes or antibodies. A plant seed germinates successfully in the midst of soil microbes. How is this accomplished? Both animals and plants possess potent, broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides, which they use to