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1

Organic Chemistry Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students who might be puzzled by the world of organic chemistry will definitely want to bookmark this useful site created by a team of researchers at the University of Liverpool. The site focuses on providing interactive 3D animations for a number of important organic reactions that will be encountered by students taking organic chemistry. The site's homepage contains a list of recent updates and additions, and visitors will want to also look at the list of reactions covered on the left-hand side of the same page. After clicking on each reaction, visitors can view the animation and also click on the animation to view additional resources. For those who are looking for specific reactions, the site also contains an embedded search engine feature.

2

Animal Welfare in organic framing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of farm animal welfare can, for practical purposes, be translated into the so-called Five Freedoms.[1] Organic farming aims to meet animal welfare needs and should therefore comply with these Freedoms. The first Freedom, from hunger and thirst, is met in any system properly managed to organic standards. The Freedom from thermal and physical discomfort is challenged as organic

Hans AM Spoolder

2007-01-01

3

Alteration of glasses by micro-organisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-organisms are suspected to play a basic part in materials alteration. Obviously, they will be present in nuclear waste repositories, either introduced by technological activity or laid by fluids circulation. Their metabolism may induce chemical modifications to the surrounding media and then affect the durability of storage materials. Biodegradation of glasses is studied in the Pierre Süe Laboratory. In the frame of a collaboration with microbiologists interested in stained glasses alteration, leaching experiments with various species of bacteria and fungi are carried out. Ion beam analysis techniques are performed to quantify surface modification of glasses and elemental incorporation in micro-organisms. Analyses of the solutions will lead to a complete assessment of elemental exchanges between glass sample, culture media and micro-organisms. In this paper, preliminary results on characterisation of glasses and micro-organisms and the first results of leaching experiments are presented.

Gallien, Jean-Paul; Gouget, Barbara; Carrot, Francine; Orial, Geneviève; Brunet, Anne

2001-07-01

4

Effect of altered 'weight' upon animal tolerance to restraint.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of altered weight upon animal tolerance to restraint was determined by simulating various accelerative forces with directed lead weights using restrained and nonrestrained domestic fowl (chickens). Weighting (increased weight) and conterweighting (reduced weight) produced a stressed condition - reduced relative lymphocyte counts, loss of body mass, and/or the development of a disorientation syndrome - in both restrained and nonrestrained (caged only) birds. The animal's tolerance to altered weight appeared to be a function of its body weight. Unrestrained birds were stressed by counterweighting (mean plus or minus standard error) 58.3 plus or minus 41% of their body weight, whereas restrained birds tolerated only 32.2 plus or minus 2.6% reduction in body weight. A training regimen for restrained birds was not effective in improving their tolerance to a reduced weight environment. It was concluded that domestic fowl living in a weightless (space) environment should be restrained minimally and supported by ventrally directed tension equivalent to approximately 50% of their body mass (their weight in a 1 G environment).

Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.; Beljan, J. R.

1971-01-01

5

Metabolism and effects of organic compounds in animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge of the metabolism and effects of organic compounds in animals, specifically food-producing animals, are of paramount importance in assessing potential human health hazards. An intensive effort has been directed at detection of chemicals in the environment, determination of their physiological insult and cellular interaction; in particular their carcinogenic and mutagenic induction capability. The chemical exposure of food-producing animals

Eisele

1985-01-01

6

Outlining a Conception of Animal Welfare for Organic Farming Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of animal welfare refersto the animal's quality of life. The choice ofdefinition always reflects some basicvaluation. This makes a particular conceptionof welfare value-dependent. Also, the animalhusbandry system reflects certain values oraims. The values reflected in the chosenconception of animal welfare ought tocorrespond to values aimed for in the husbandrysystem. The IFOAM Basic Standards and otherwritings dealing with organic

Vonne Lund; Helena Röcklinsberg

2001-01-01

7

Animal Welfare in Relation to Standards in Organic Farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

: The new EU-regulations on organic farming (1804\\/1999) are also influencing the animal welfare. A lot of positive regulations is to find, but also regulations that seen to mind more about the general public and customer and their view on organic farming, than the health and welfare of the animals. The paper specially focus on the impact of the regulations

Karl-Erik Hammarberg

2002-01-01

8

Consumer perception of organic food production and farm animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is derived from a larger scale project investigating consumer attitudes towards organic food in the UK. Presents focus group results on consumer perceptions, attitudes and behaviour in relation to two key interrelated food trends: organic food and animal welfare. The results indicate that consumers often confuse organic and free-range products because they believe that “organic” is equivalent to

Gemma C. Harper; Aikaterini Makatouni

2002-01-01

9

Taphonomy of Animal Organic Skeletons Through Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Investigations of organically preserved invertebrate fossils have focused on abundant taxa such as graptolites and arthropods.\\u000a Analyses have shown that their composition cannot be explained either as a result of decay resistance, or the introduction\\u000a of macromolecular material from surrounding sediment. The fossilization of organic materials is a result of the diagenetic\\u000a transformation of lipids in the organism itself by

Neal S. Gupta; Derek E. G. Briggs

10

Animal health in organic livestock production systems: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic livestock production is a means of food production with a large number of rules directed towards a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs and the production of a healthy product without residues (pesticides or medical drugs). The intentions of organic livestock production have been formulated by the International Federation of Organic

A. Kijlstra; I. A. J. M. Eijck

2006-01-01

11

Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals 2012: another increase in experimentation - genetically-altered animals dominate again.  

PubMed

The Annual Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals Great Britain 2012 reveal that the level of animal experimentation in Great Britain continues to rise, with just over 4.1 million procedures being started in that year. Despite the previous year's indication that the dominance of the production and use of genetically-altered (GA, i.e. genetically-modified animals plus animals with harmful genetic defects) animal might be abating, it returned with a vengeance in 2012. Breeding increased from 43% to 48% of all procedures, and GA animals were involved in 59% of all the procedures. Indeed, if the breeding of these animals were removed from the statistics, the total number of procedures would actually decline by 2%. In order to honour their pledge to reduce animal use in science, the Coalition Government will have to address this issue. The general trends in the species used, and the numbers and types of procedures, are also reviewed. Finally, forthcoming changes to the statistics are discussed. PMID:24168136

Hudson-Shore, Michelle

2013-09-01

12

Animal welfare standards in organic farming in The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes a literature survey recently performed on the animal welfare status in organic farming in The Netherlands. It is shown that for several aspects of animal welfare, mostly related to behavior, comfort, and feeding level, Dutch organiclivestock production performs well. However, several other (mainly health) aspects arestill a major point of concern. The results are used for communication

M. A. W. Ruis; J. B. Pinxterhuis

2009-01-01

13

Genetically Modified Animal Organs for Human Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The major barrier to successful discordant xenogeneic organ transplantation is the phenomenon of hyperacute rejection\\u000a (HAR). Hyperacute rejection results from the deposition of high-titer preformed antibodies that activate serum complement\\u000a on the luminal surface of the vascular endothelium, leading to vessel occlusion and graft failure within minutes to hours.\\u000a Here we describe our strategy to overcome HAR in the

Stephen P. Squinto

1997-01-01

14

Web-Based Interactive Animation of Organic Reactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This WWW-based service for the automated animation of organic reactions we believe to be a versatile tool for teaching and learning organic chemistry. It allows the investigation of the influence of substituents of starting materials on the reaction coordinate and the energy of the depicted reaction. Starting from a list of precalculated organic reactions hydrogen atoms can be substituted by a variety of organic substituents and functional groups using the molecule editor. The new set of starting material is submitted to the calculation of intrinsic reaction coordinates that yields automatically an animation of the reaction that can be viewed with the Chime plugin.

15

Animal models of female pelvic organ prolapse: lessons learned  

PubMed Central

Pelvic organ prolapse is a vaginal protrusion of female pelvic organs. It has high prevalence worldwide and represents a great burden to the economy. The pathophysiology of pelvic organ prolapse is multifactorial and includes genetic predisposition, aberrant connective tissue, obesity, advancing age, vaginal delivery and other risk factors. Owing to the long course prior to patients becoming symptomatic and ethical questions surrounding human studies, animal models are necessary and useful. These models can mimic different human characteristics – histological, anatomical or hormonal, but none present all of the characteristics at the same time. Major animal models include knockout mice, rats, sheep, rabbits and nonhuman primates. In this article we discuss different animal models and their utility for investigating the natural progression of pelvic organ prolapse pathophysiology and novel treatment approaches.

Couri, Bruna M; Lenis, Andrew T; Borazjani, Ali; Paraiso, Marie Fidela R; Damaser, Margot S

2012-01-01

16

ICLAS Working Group on Harmonization: international guidance concerning the production care and use of genetically-altered animals.  

PubMed

Replacement, Reduction and Refinement, the ‘Three Rs’ of Russell & Burch, are accepted worldwide as fundamental to the ethics of animal experimentation. The production, care and use of genetically-altered animals can pose particular challenges to the implementation of the Three Rs,1 necessitating additional considerations by those responsible for overseeing the ethical use and appropriate care of animals involved in science. The International Council for Laboratory Animal Science brings representatives of the international laboratory animal science community together to recommend acceptance of guidance documents.The harmonization of guidance concerning genetically-altered animals was seen as a priority because of the increasing globalization of research involving these animals. PMID:23563121

Rose, M; Everitt, J; Hedrich, H; Schofield, J; Dennis, M; Scott, E; Griffin, G

2013-07-01

17

An environmental antiandrogen, vinclozolin, alters the organization of play behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

During mammalian sexual differentiation, the androgens, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone are critical for the organization of the male phenotype. In rats, play behavior is sexually dimorphic. Administration of exogenous androgens during the perinatal period results in masculine-like play behavior of juveniles. Recently, there has been increasing concern about the potential for environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to alter sexual differentiation in mammals.

A. K. Hotchkiss; J. S. Ostby; J. G. Vandenbergh; L. E. Gray

2003-01-01

18

Mathematical model for cyclodextrin alteration of bioavailability of organic pollutants.  

PubMed

While many cyclodextrin-based applications have been developed to assess or enhance bioavailability of organic pollutants, the choice of cyclodextrin (CD) is largely empirical, with little consideration of pollutant diversity and environmental matrix effects. This study aimed at developing a mathematical model for quantifying CD alteration of bioavailability of organic pollutants. Cyclodextrin appears to have multiple effects, together contributing to its bioavailability-enhancing property. Cyclodextrin is adsorbed onto the adsorbent matrix to different extents. The adsorbed CD is capable of sequestrating organic pollutants, highlighting the role of a pseudophase similar to solid environmental matrix. Aqueous CD can reduce adsorption of organic pollutants via inclusion complexation. The two effects cancel each other to a certain degree, which determines the levels of organic pollutants dissolved (comprising freely dissolved and CD-included forms). Additionally, the CD-included form is nearly identical in biological activity to the free form. A mathematical model of one variable (i.e., CD concentration) was derived to quantify effects of CD on the bioavailability of organic pollutants. Model analysis indicates that alteration of bioavailability of organic pollutants by CD depends on both CD (type and level) and environmental matrix. The selection of CD type and amendment level for a given application may be predicted by the model. PMID:23668369

Liu, Huihui; Cai, Xiyun; Chen, Jingwen

2013-06-01

19

Immunosenescence is associated with altered gene expression and epigenetic regulation in primary and secondary immune organs  

PubMed Central

Deterioration of the immune system (immunosenescence) with age is associated with an increased susceptibility to infection, autoimmune disease and cancer, and reduced responsiveness to vaccination. Immunosenescence entails a reduced supply of naïve T cells from the thymus and increased specialization of peripheral T cell clones. Both thymic involution and peripheral T cell homeostasis are thought to involve cellular senescence. In order to analyze this at the molecular level, we studied gene expression profiles, epigenetic status, and genome stability in the thymus and spleen of 1-, 4-, and 18-month-old Long Evans rats. In the thymus, altered gene expression, DNA and histone H3K9 hypomethylation, increased genome instability, and apoptosis were observed in 18-month-old animals compared to 1- and 4-month-old animals. In the spleen, alterations in gene expression and epigenetic regulation occurred already by the age of 4 months compared to 1 month and persisted in 18-month-old compared to 1-month-old rats. In both organs, these changes were accompanied by the altered composition of resident T cell populations. Our study suggests that both senescence and apoptosis may be involved in altered organ function.

Sidler, Corinne; Woycicki, Rafal; Ilnytskyy, Yaroslav; Metz, Gerlinde; Kovalchuk, Igor; Kovalchuk, Olga

2013-01-01

20

Cortical Bone Mechanical Properties Are Altered in an Animal Model of Progressive Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic kidney disease (CKD), which leads tocortical bone loss and increasedporosity,increases therisk of fracture. Animal models have confirmed that these changes compromise whole bone mechanical properties. Estimates from whole bone testing suggest that material properties are negatively affected, though tissue-level assessmentshavenot been conducted. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to examine changes in cortical bone at different length scales using a rat model with theprogressive development of CKD. At 30 weeks of age (?75% reduction in kidney function), skeletally mature male Cy/+ rats were compared to their normal littermates. Cortical bone material propertieswere assessed with reference point indentation (RPI), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy,and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Bones from animals with CKD had higher (+18%) indentation distance increase and first cycle energy dissipation (+8%) as measured by RPI.AFM indentation revealed a broader distribution of elastic modulus values in CKD animals witha greater proportion of both higher and lower modulus values compared to normal controls. Yet, tissue composition, collagen morphology, and collagen cross-linking fail to account for these differences. Though the specific skeletal tissue alterations responsible for these mechanical differences remain unclear, these results indicate that cortical bone material properties are altered in these animals and may contribute to the increased fracture risk associated with CKD.

Newman, Christopher L.; Moe, Sharon M.; Chen, Neal X.; Hammond, Max A.; Wallace, Joseph M.; Nyman, Jeffry S.; Allen, Matthew R.

2014-01-01

21

Organic matter alteration at active and relict sedimentary oxidation fronts  

SciTech Connect

Sedimentary oxidation fronts, generated by downward diffusion of O[sub 2] into previously reducing sediments, provide an opportunity to study the effects of O[sub 2] exposure on organic matter preservation, where other factors are invariant. Oxidation fronts have now been identified in a number of environments, including turbidities found on the Madeira abyssal plain (NE Atlantic) and in sapropels from the Mediterranean. A multifaceted study is being carried out on a series of relict fronts in turbidities of varied origin and composition, recovered from the Madeira abyssal plain on ODP Leg 157. A similar study is being made on an active front in the most recent, S1 sapropel, from the central Mediterranean. In both cases, the relatively organic-rich turbidities and sapropels are intercalated with typical, organic-poor pelagic marts. Analyses include major and minor inorganic elements, stable and N isotopes, palynomorphs, surface areas and a comprehensive suite of biochemicals. Although the extent of alteration varies, striking changes in organic content and composition occur across many of the oxidation fronts, and the oxidized horizons resemble the interclated marls. A common trend is that organic C contents drop from [open quotes]monolayer equivalent[close quotes] sorptive loadings in the unoxidized horizons (typical of continental mar in sediments) to submonolayer loadings, typical of the pelagic marls. Shifts are also observed in redox-sensitive trace metals and in stable C and N isotopic compositions, although the patterns and extent are not uniform. The results clearly indicate that in these pelagic settings, where O[sub 2] exposure is typically long, organic material deposited and then preserved for extended periods under anomalous reducing conditions, can be extensively altered on relatively short-term exposure to O[sub 2] Implications of these findings will be discussed.

Cowie, G.L.; Calvert, S.E. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)); Hedges, J.I. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)) (and others)

1996-01-01

22

Aging and Injury: Alterations in Cellular Energetics and Organ Function  

PubMed Central

Aging is characterized by increased oxidative stress, heightened inflammatory response, accelerated cellular senescence and progressive organ dysfunction. The homeostatic imbalance with aging significantly alters cellular responses to injury. Though it is unclear whether cellular energetic imbalance is a cause or effect of the aging process, preservation of mitochondrial function has been reported to be important in organ function restoration following severe injury. Unintentional injuries are ranked among the top 10 causes of death in adults of both sexes, 65 years and older. Aging associated decline in mitochondrial function has been shown to enhance the vulnerability of heart, lung, liver and kidney to ischemia/reperfusion injury. Studies have identified alterations in the level or activity of factors such as SIRT1, PGC-1?, HIF-1? and c-MYC involved in key regulatory processes in the maintenance of mitochondrial structural integrity, biogenesis and function. Studies using experimental models of hemorrhagic injury and burn have demonstrated significant influence of aging in metabolic regulation and organ function. Understanding the age-associated molecular mechanisms regulating mitochondrial dysfunction following injury is important towards identifying novel targets and therapeutic strategies to improve the outcome after injury in the elderly.

Poulose, Ninu; Raju, Raghavan

2014-01-01

23

[Animals (Animalia) in system of organisms. 2. Phylogenetic understanding of animals].  

PubMed

The development of systematics in last decade has shown that typological classifications of five-six Kingdoms is not adequate for describing the diversity of organisms. Information from the sequences of small subunit rRNA is not sufficient to reconstruct the position of eukaryotes on the phylogenetic tree due to the effect of long branches. Totally new reconstruction of eukaryotic phylogeny was built upon the analysis of many new molecular markers. Evolution of eukaryotes had two mainstreams. One has been connected with diversification of ancestral biciliate forms (Bikonta). Sister-group of Bikonta (Unikonta) includes some originally uniciliate amoebae and moulds (Amoebozoa), and uniciliate eukaryotes with posterior cilium (Opisthokonta). The taxon Opisthokonta unites Fungi, Nuclearimorpha, Mesomycetozoa, Choanozoa and Metazoa. The latter three groups or only Metazoa are attributes to animals. The following differentiation of the groups used in systematic for the description of diversity of organisms is proposed. (1) Taxon is a group which is defined on the basis of ancestry: taxon includes all species descended from one ancestor. Taxon differs from logic classes of typology at an ontologic level. Taxon arises and exists, and its composition and occupied niches can constantly change; taxon can flourish or, on the contrary, fade up to full disappearance. Thus, the predicative characteristic of taxon, including characters which are considered significant, are not absolute. It is significant only at the moment of consideration. But characters (synapomorphies) are important as the practical tool for discerning taxa at given time period. Taxa unite species into unique classification. This understanding of taxon corresponds to monophyletic group sensu Willi Hennig. (2) Class of organisms is a group which is defined on the basis of characters: class includes all species having the given character. The class is only a logic object. Unlike taxa grouping species into classes may be through different and crossed classifications. Inside the given category of groups it is possible to distinguish: (2.1) Level of the organization (grade) described by the differences on the levels of organization: for example prokaryotic and eukaryotic levels of the organization. Eukaryotes can be divided into unicellular (Protoctista, Protista) and multicelluar (tissue-specific-Histonia) forms. (2.2) Types of the organization distinguishing groups of one level: for example, amoedoid type (Sarcodina), naked (Gymnamoebia), and testate (Testacea) amoebas. (2.3) Taxonomic groups as set-theoretical approximations of taxa. (2.4) Groups of the mixed nature. For example, Haeckel has recognized Protophyta and Protozoa describing the unicellular level of the organization inside plants and animals accordingly. Protozoa in Cavalier-Smith's system (2002, 2004) is also an example of groups of the mixed nature. PMID:16245570

Shatalkin, A I

2005-01-01

24

9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...administered experimental biological products or live organisms...or research sponsor to control disposition of all animals...administered experimental biological products or live organisms...including challenged control animals) shall...

2009-01-01

25

9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...administered experimental biological products or live organisms...or research sponsor to control disposition of all animals...administered experimental biological products or live organisms...including challenged control animals) shall...

2010-01-01

26

Erythropoietin reverts cognitive impairment and alters the oxidative parameters and energetic metabolism in sepsis animal model.  

PubMed

Sepsis is characterized by systemic biochemical alterations including the central nervous system in the early times and cognitive impairment at later times after sepsis induction in the animal model. Recent studies have shown that, besides its hematological activity, erythropoietin (EPO) has cytoprotective effects on various cells and tissues. In order to corroborate elucidating the effects of alternative drugs for sepsis treatment, we evaluated the effects of both acute and chronic EPO treatment on oxidative stress and energetic metabolism in the hippocampus, and cognitive impairment, respectively, after sepsis induction by cecal ligation and perforation (CLP). To this aim, male Wistar rats underwent CLP with "basic support" or sham operation. In the acute treatment, EPO was administered once immediately after CLP induction. The rats were then killed after 6 and 24 h, and the hippocampus was removed for analysis of oxidative stress and energetic metabolism, respectively. Regarding the chronic treatment, EPO was administered once daily until the 4th day after induction. Aversive memory was tested on the 10th day after surgery. It was observed that the acute use of EPO (a single dose) alters the oxidative parameters and energetic metabolism. Chronic use (4 days) reversed cognitive impairment in the sepsis animal model. Mortality rates were attenuated only during chronic treatment. PMID:22350588

Comim, Clarissa M; Cassol, Omar J; Abreu, Igor; Moraz, Thais; Constantino, Larissa S; Vuolo, Francieli; Galant, Letícia S; de Rochi, Natália; Dos Santos Morais, Meline O; Scaini, Giselli; Barichello, Tatiana; Streck, Emílio L; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

2012-11-01

27

Altered cerebral glucose metabolism in an animal model of diabetes insipidus: a micro-PET study.  

PubMed

The Brattleboro rat is an animal model of genetically induced central diabetes insipidus. These rats show cognitive and behavioral disorders, but no neurodegenerative disease has been observed. We studied brain glucose uptake, a marker of neuronal activity, in 6 Brattleboro rats, in comparison with 6 matched Long-Evans (LE) control rats. A group of 3 Brattleboro rats and 3 Long-Evans rats was studied in vivo and another group of animals was studied ex vivo. In vivo studies were performed using fluorodeoxyglucose labeled with fluorine 18 ((18)F-FDG) and a dedicated small-animal PET device. At 30 min and 60 min p.i., (18)F-FDG uptake was significantly higher in the frontal cortex, striatum, thalamus and cerebellum of Brattleboro rats than in LE rats when measured by PET in vivo (p<0.05), but only a trend towards higher values was found ex vivo. Our results show for the first time that brain glucose metabolism is modified in Brattleboro rats. This altered brain glucose metabolism in Brattleboro rats may be related to the observed cognitive and behavioral disorders. Functional analyses of brain metabolism are promising to investigate cognitive behavioral disturbances observed in Brattleboro rats and their link to diabetes insipidus. PMID:17559814

Idbaih, Ahmed; Burlet, Arlette; Adle-Biassette, Homa; Boisgard, Raphaël; Coulon, Christine; Paris, Sophie; Marie, Yannick; Donadieu, Jean; Hoang-Xuan, Khê; Ribeiro, Maria-Joao

2007-07-16

28

Conventionally altered organisms: Database on survival, dispersal, fate, and pathogenicity  

SciTech Connect

Although increases in development and sales of biotechnology are projected, research on the risks associated with deliberate releases of biotechnology products lags behind. Thus, there is an urgent need to provide investigators and regulators with guidelines for classifying and evaluating risks associated with the release of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs). If the release of GEMs into the environmental poses risks similar to that of releasing conventionally altered organisms (CAOs), then a study evaluating the hazards associated with environmentally released CAOs would be most useful. This paper provides a survey of the available data on survival, dispersal, pathogenicity, and other characteristics which affect the fate of microbes after release. Although the present study is not exhaustive, it does provide an indication of the type and amount of data available on CAOs. 350 refs.

Kuklinski, D.M.; King, K.H.; Addison, J.T.; Travis, C.C.

1990-03-29

29

Development of Gravity-Sensing Organs in Altered Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments are described in which the development of the gravity-sensing organs was studied in newt larvae reared in micro-g on the IML-2 mission and in Aplysia embryos and larvae reared on a centrifuge at 1 to 5 g. In Aplysia embryos, the statolith (single dense mass on which gravity and linear acceleration act) was reduced in size in a graded fashion at increasing g. In early post-metamorphic Aplysia or even in isolated statocysts from such animals, the number of statoconia produced is reduced at high gravity Newt larvae launched before any of the otoconia were formed and reared for 15 days in micro-gravity had nearly adult labyrinths at the end of the IML-2 mission. The otoliths of the saccule and utricle were the same size in flight and ground-reared larvae. However, the system of aragonitic otoconia produced in the endolymphatic sac in amphibians was much larger and developed earlier in the flight-reared larvae. At later developmental stages, the aragonitic otoconia enter and fill the saccule. One flight-reared larva was maintained for nine months post-flight and the size of the saccular otolith, as well as the volume of otoconia within the endolymphatic sac, were considerably larger than in age-matched, ground-reared newts. This suggests that rearing in micro-gravity initiates a process that continues for several months after introduction to 1-g, which greatly increases the volume of otoconia. The flight-reared animal had abnormal posture, pointing its head upward, whereas normal ground-reared newts always keep their head horizontal. This suggests that rearing for even a short period in micro-gravity can have lasting functional consequences in an animal subsequently reared in 1-g conditions on Earth.

Wiederhold, M. L.; Gao, W. Y.; Harrison, J. L.; Hejl, R.

1996-01-01

30

Climate impacts on bird and plant communities from altered animal-plant interactions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The contribution of climate change to declining populations of organisms remains a question of outstanding concern. Much attention to declining populations has focused on how changing climate drives phenological mismatches between animals and their food. Effects of climate on plant communities may provide an alternative, but particularly powerful, influence on animal populations because plants provide their habitats. Here, we show that abundances of deciduous trees and associated songbirds have declined with decreasing snowfall over 22 years of study in montane Arizona, USA. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that declining snowfall indirectly influences plants and associated birds by allowing greater over-winter herbivory by elk (Cervus canadensis). We excluded elk from one of two paired snowmelt drainages (10 ha per drainage), and replicated this paired experiment across three distant canyons. Over six years, we reversed multi-decade declines in plant and bird populations by experimentally inhibiting heavy winter herbivory associated with declining snowfall. Moreover, predation rates on songbird nests decreased in exclosures, despite higher abundances of nest predators, demonstrating the over-riding importance of habitat quality to avian recruitment. Thus, our results suggest that climate impacts on plant–animal interactions can have forceful ramifying effects on plants, birds, and ecological interactions.

Martin, Thomas E.; Maron, John L.

2012-01-01

31

Position paper Natural living—a precondition for animal welfare in organic farming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses animal welfare in organic farming systems in relation to values and aims in organic farming. It sums up experiences from a 4-year interdisciplinary project. An important finding is that animal welfare is understood somewhat differently in organic farming from what is common in conventional agriculture. It is interpreted in terms of natural living, which includes the possibility

Vonne Lund

32

Conodont color alteration: an index to organic metamorphism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field and laboratory experiments show that color alteration in conodonts is directly related to the depth and duration of burial and the geothermal gradient and correlates with fixed carbon, vitrinite reflectance, palynomorph translucency, and isopach data. Five progressive and irreversible color changes ranging from pale yellow to black are discriminated. Compilation of color alteration index (CAI) maps for limestones of

A. G. Epstein; J. B. Epstein; L. D. Harris

1976-01-01

33

Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animation is making a splash with the recent box office hit, Shrek 2. This Topic in Depth explores how animation works, it's history and the entertaining as well as academic applications of animation. The first website provides a basic overview of digital cinema (1). More information on animation can be found on the second website (2). Digital Media FX provides this history (3 ) of animation. The Library of Congress has also put together a nice website (4 ) with some historical artifacts that for demonstrating a "a variety of elements that go into the creative process of developing and interpreting animated motion pictures." The fourth website provides an extensive list of online resources and academic uses for animation such as Chemistry, Evolution, Genetics, and Physics. (5 ). This fifth website posts the winners of the 2004 Character Animation Technologies competition (6 ). And finally, Slashdot has a nice expose on the Mathematics of Futurama (7).

34

Organic Petrology and Elemental Distribution in Thermally Altered Coals from Telkwa, British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal alteration of both organic and inorganic components of a coal seam from Telkwa, British Columbia, is examined, using reflected light microscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and neutron activation analysis (INAA). The alteration resulted from intrusion of an alkali basaltic dike.The organic components of coal (macerals) at the contact with the intrusion are coked and developed strong anisotropy. The temperature of

FARIBORZ GOODARZI; ALEX R. CAMERON

1990-01-01

35

Research on animal health and welfare in organic farming—a literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic standards aim at good livestock health and welfare. A literature search on organic animal health and welfare was performed in October–November 2001 to investigate how well these aims compare with reality, and to see what areas have been researched. The search also made it apparent that national and historical differences in organic standards and in the way organic farming

Vonne Lund; Bo Algers

2003-01-01

36

Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ah, animation! Where would we be without the likes of Disney, Warner Bros., Walter Lanz, Hanna-Barbera, and dozens more like\\u000a them? For many people, animation is the reason to get involved with Flash as a creative outlet. This makes perfect sense, because Flash began life more than a decade ago\\u000a as an animation tool. Supplemental features like ActionScript, XML parsing,

Tom Green; David Stiller

37

Animal health organizations: roles to mitigate the impact of ecologic change on animal health in the tropics.  

PubMed

Production of livestock across North and South America is extensive. The opportunities for production, commerce, and thriving economies related to animal agriculture are balanced against the devastating threats of disease. Commitment by livestock and poultry producers in exporting countries to production methods, herd health management, and biosecurity in their operations must be coupled with an animal health and marketing infrastructure that allows the industries to thrive and offers assurances to trading partners that their livestock industries will not be jeopardized. National and international animal health organizations play a key role in providing this infrastructure to the industries that they serve. The incentive for the successful World agricultural production economies to provide direction and support for improving animal health and conveying principles for competitive and safe production to lesser developed nations is the assurance that the expanding economies of these nations offer an eager and hungry market for the products of the other industries of an export-dependent economy. The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established after the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The WTO provides the permanent international multilateral institutional framework for implementing dispute resolution agreements and the agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures. The SPS agreements allow for the protection of animal and plant health. PMID:15604467

Acord, Bobby R; Walton, Thomas E

2004-10-01

38

Towards sustainable management of rodents in organic animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 26 to 28 May 2004 an international seminar was held in Wageningen, the Netherlands, about current knowledge and advice on rodent management on organic pig and poultry farms in Western Europe. This paper summarizes the discussions. Rodent management is necessary to protect the food production chain from health hazards to livestock and humans. Some organic farmers prefer biological rodent

B. G. Meerburg; M. Bonde; F. W. A. Brom; S. Endepols; A. N. Jensen; H. Leirs; J. Lodal; G. R. Singleton; H.-J. Pelz; T. B. Rodenburg; A. Kijlstra

2004-01-01

39

Towards sustainable management of rodents in organic animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 26 to 28 May 2004 an international seminar was held in Wageningen, the Netherlands, about current knowledge and advice on rodent management on organic pig and poultry farms in Western Europe. This paper summarizes the discussions. Rodent management is necessary to protect the food production chain from health hazards to livestock and humans. Some organic farmers prefer biological rodent

B. G. Meerburg; M. Bonde; F. W. A. Brom; S. Endepols; A. N. Jensen; H. Leirs; J. Lodal; G. R. Singleton; H.-J. Pelz; T. B. Rodenburg; A. Kijlstra

2005-01-01

40

Animator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

Tech Directions, 2008

2008-01-01

41

AN ENVIRONMENTAL ANTIANDROGEN, VINCLOZOLIN, ALTERS THE ORGANIZATION OF PLAY BEHAVIOR  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT During mammalian sexual differentiation, the androgens, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone are critical for the organization of the male phenotype. In rats, play behavior is sexually dimorphic. Administration of exogenous androgens during the perinatal period r...

42

Alteration and Formation of Organic Molecules via Hypervelocity Impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectral analyses of residues from polystyrene impactors on Al foils show the presence of intact polystyrene, carbon, and an unknown organic that is tentatively identified as a metal phthalate created during the hypervelocity impact.

Price, M. C.; Burchell, M.; Kearsley, A. T.; Cole, M. J.

2012-03-01

43

VIDA: a virus database system for the organization of animal virus genome open reading frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

VIDA is a new virus database that organizes open reading frames (ORFs) from partial and complete genomic sequences from animal viruses. Currently VIDA includes all sequences from GenBank for Herpesviridae, Coronaviridae and Arteriviridae. The ORFs are organized into homologous protein families, which are identified on the basis of sequence similarity relationships. Conserved sequence regions of potential functional importance are identified

M. Mar Albà; David Lee; Frances M. G. Pearl; Adrian J. Shepherd; Nigel J. Martin; Christine A. Orengo; Paul Kellam

2001-01-01

44

Excitability of A? sensory neurons is altered in an animal model of peripheral neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Background Causes of neuropathic pain following nerve injury remain unclear, limiting the development of mechanism-based therapeutic approaches. Animal models have provided some directions, but little is known about the specific sensory neurons that undergo changes in such a way as to induce and maintain activation of sensory pain pathways. Our previous studies implicated changes in the A?, normally non-nociceptive neurons in activating spinal nociceptive neurons in a cuff-induced animal model of neuropathic pain and the present study was directed specifically at determining any change in excitability of these neurons. Thus, the present study aimed at recording intracellularly from A?-fiber dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and determining excitability of the peripheral receptive field, of the cell body and of the dorsal roots. Methods A peripheral neuropathy was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by inserting two thin polyethylene cuffs around the right sciatic nerve. All animals were confirmed to exhibit tactile hypersensitivity to von Frey filaments three weeks later, before the acute electrophysiological experiments. Under stable intracellular recording conditions neurons were classified functionally on the basis of their response to natural activation of their peripheral receptive field. In addition, conduction velocity of the dorsal roots, configuration of the action potential and rate of adaptation to stimulation were also criteria for classification. Excitability was measured as the threshold to activation of the peripheral receptive field, the response to intracellular injection of depolarizing current into the soma and the response to electrical stimulation of the dorsal roots. Results In control animals mechanical thresholds of all neurons were within normal ranges. A? DRG neurons in neuropathic rats demonstrated a mean mechanical threshold to receptive field stimulation that were significantly lower than in control rats, a prolonged discharge following this stimulation, a decreased activation threshold and a greater response to depolarizing current injection into the soma, as well as a longer refractory interval and delayed response to paired pulse electrical stimulation of the dorsal roots. Conclusions The present study has demonstrated changes in functionally classified A? low threshold and high threshold DRG neurons in a nerve intact animal model of peripheral neuropathy that demonstrates nociceptive responses to normally innocuous cutaneous stimuli, much the same as is observed in humans with neuropathic pain. We demonstrate further that the peripheral receptive fields of these neurons are more excitable, as are the somata. However, the dorsal roots exhibit a decrease in excitability. Thus, if these neurons participate in neuropathic pain this differential change in excitability may have implications in the peripheral drive that induces central sensitization, at least in animal models of peripheral neuropathic pain, and A? sensory neurons may thus contribute to allodynia and spontaneous pain following peripheral nerve injury in humans.

2012-01-01

45

Human Direct Actions May Alter Animal Welfare, a Study on Horses (Equus caballus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBack pain is the cause of bad welfare in humans and animals. Although vertebral problems are regularly reported on riding horses, these problems are not always identified nor noticed enough to prevent these horses to be used for work.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsNineteen horses from two riding centres were submitted to chiropractic examinations performed by an experienced chiropractor and both horses' and riders'

Clémence Lesimple; Carole Fureix; Hervé Menguy; Martine Hausberger; Georges Chapouthier

2010-01-01

46

Shock Shape Alteration due to Interaction with Organized Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work focuses on the dynamics of shocks interactioning with organized structures such as a vortex or a temperature spot. Particular emphasis is placed on the shock shape and its velocity. Appropriate scalings of the shock displacement and velocity in terms of the shock Mach number and the amplitude of the vortex or temperature spot are obtained in the high Mach number limit through an analysis of the shock evolution equation. Numerical simulations of the Euler equations downstream of the shock coupled to the shock evolution equation confirm these findings. For a given shock strength, if the upstream disturbance is sufficiently strong, the shock may develop what is called a branch point or a triple point. It appears that the upstream-propagating acoustic waves (in the downstream region) interacting with the shock leads to the formation of branch points in certain situations. We attempt to conduct a systematic study of this configuration within the constraint of the current grid resolutions to arrive at reasonable conclusions as to the formation and propagation properties of these branch points. Finally, some light is shed on the incipient stage in the formation of these branch points.

Erlebacher, Gordon; Hussaini, M. Y.

1998-11-01

47

Air Quality in an Animal Facility: Particulates, Ammonia, and Volatile Organic Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of ammonia, volatile organic compounds, particles, and mouse allergen were measured in an animal facility. Ammonia concentrations averaged less than 1 ppm, below any health–based standards. The concentrations of volatile organic compounds were in the 5–15 µg\\/m range. Among the volatile organic compounds found, only the terpenes a–pinene and a–terpinol (which may be derived from the pine shavings used

Julie B. Kacergis; Robert B. Jones; Carolyn K. Reeb; William A. Turner; John L. Ohman; Margarett R. Ardman; Beverly Paigen

1996-01-01

48

Organ concentration quantification for small animal PET images by registration with a statistical mouse atlas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on quantification of probe concentration in major organs of small animal micro-PET images. In order to delineate organ ROIs, a statistical mouse atlas is registered to the micro-PET image. This statistical atlas is trained from 22 organ-labeled micro-CT images using Principle Component Analysis (PCA). By tuning the shape-controlling parameters of the atlas, we are able to adapt

Hongkai Wang; David B. Stout; Arion F. Chatziioannou

2010-01-01

49

Organic petrology and elemental distribution in thermally altered coals from Telkwa, British Columbia  

SciTech Connect

Thermal alteration of both organic and inorganic components of a coal seam from Talkwa, British Columbia, is examined, using reflected light microscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), and neutron activation analysis (INAA). The alteration resulted from intrusion of an alkali basaltic dike. The organic components of coal (macerals) at the contact with the intrusion are coked and developed strong anisotropy. The temperature of formation of this coke is estimated at {gt} 750{degrees}C and possibly {gt} 900{degrees}C with a fast rate of heating. However, coal at a distance of 120 cm from the dike is unaltered. Some liptinite macerals retained their original morphology in the altered residue but developed stronger anisotropy than the altered coal groundmass.

Goodarzi, F.; Cameron, A.R. (Institute of Sedimentary and Petroleum Geology, Calgary, AB (Canada))

1990-01-01

50

An altered spinal serotonergic system contributes to increased thermal nociception in an animal model of depression.  

PubMed

The olfactory bulbectomized (OB) rat, an animal model of chronic depression with comorbid anxiety, exhibits a profound dysregulation of the brain serotonergic signalling, a neurotransmission system involved in pain transmission and modulation. We here report an increased nociceptive response of OB rats in the tail flick test which is reverted after chronic, but not acute, administration of fluoxetine. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated down-regulation of 5-HT transporters ([(3)H]citalopram binding) and decreased functionality of 5-HT1A receptors (8-OH-DPAT-stimulated [(35)S]GTP?S binding) in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord in OB rats. Acute administration of fluoxetine (5-40 mg/kg i.p.) did not modify tail flick latencies in OB rats. However, chronic fluoxetine (10 mg/kg/day s.c., 14 days; osmotic minipumps) progressively attenuated OB-associated thermal hyperalgesia, and a total normalization of the nociceptive response was achieved at the end of the treatment with the antidepressant. In these animals, autoradiographic studies revealed further down-regulation of 5-HT transporters and normalization in the functionality of 5-HT1A receptors on the spinal cord. On the other hand, acute morphine (0.5-10 mg/kg s.c.) produced a similar analgesic effect in OB and sham and OB rats, and no changes were detected in the density ([(3)H]DAMGO binding) and functionality (DAMGO-stimulated [(35)S]GTP?S binding) of spinal ?-opioid receptors in OB rats before and after chronic fluoxetine. Our findings demonstrate the participation of the spinal serotonergic system in the increased thermal nociception exhibited by the OB rat and the antinociceptive effect of chronic fluoxetine in this animal model of depression. PMID:24584836

Rodríguez-Gaztelumendi, Antonio; Rojo, María Luisa; Pazos, Angel; Díaz, Alvaro

2014-06-01

51

Alteration of protein profile in rat liver of animals exposed to subacute diazinon: A proteomic approach.  

PubMed

Diazinon, an organophosphorus insecticide, is employed to control pests in agriculture. Diazinon may contaminate the environment during the manufacturing process or agricultural application. Previous studies have revealed that diazinon may induce alteration in the protein profile of the liver. Here, a proteomics approach was used to investigate the effects on the protein profile in the liver of rats of subacute oral exposures at 15 mg/kg of diazinon. Liver proteins were separated using 2D-PAGE, and stained by MS-compatible silver staining and/or the fluorescent SYPRO® Ruby protein gel stain. Gels were scanned and analyzed using the Image Master software. Differentially displayed protein species were identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF and MASCOT software. Significantly altered protein species were identified to be involved in apoptosis, cell metabolism, transport, and antioxidant systems. Exposure to diazinon decreased levels of some species of catalase, peroxiredoxin-6, 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, and glucose regulated protein78, whereas the level of protein disulfide-isomerase A3 increased. Our results suggested that diazinon may induce hepatotoxicity through oxidative stress, apoptosis, and metabolic disorders in rat liver. PMID:24478057

Lari, Parisa; Rashedinia, Marzieh; Abnous, Khalil; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

2014-05-01

52

Human Direct Actions May Alter Animal Welfare, a Study on Horses (Equus caballus)  

PubMed Central

Background Back pain is the cause of bad welfare in humans and animals. Although vertebral problems are regularly reported on riding horses, these problems are not always identified nor noticed enough to prevent these horses to be used for work. Methodology/Principal Findings Nineteen horses from two riding centres were submitted to chiropractic examinations performed by an experienced chiropractor and both horses' and riders' postures were observed during a riding lesson. The results show that 74% of horses were severely affected by vertebral problems, while only 26% were mildly or not affected. The degree of vertebral problems identified at rest was statistically correlated with horses' attitudes at work (neck height and curve), and horses' attitudes at work were clearly correlated with riders' positions. Clear differences appeared between schools concerning both riders' and horses' postures, and the analysis of the teachers' speech content and duration highlighted differences in the attention devoted to the riders' position. Conclusion/Significance These findings are to our knowledge the first to underline the impact of riding on horses' back problems and the importance of teaching proper balance to beginner riders in order to increase animals' welfare.

Lesimple, Clemence; Fureix, Carole; Menguy, Herve; Hausberger, Martine

2010-01-01

53

Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Organics and Alteration in Carbonaceous Chondrites: Goop and Crud  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The session "Organics and Alteration in Carbonaceous Chondrites: Goop and Crud" included the following reports:Organics on Fe-Silicate Grains: Potential Mimicry of Meteoritic Processes?; Molecular and Compound-Specific Isotopic Study of Monocarboxylic Acids in Murchison and Antarctic Meteorites; Nanoglobules, Macromolecular Materials, and Carbon Sulfides in Carbonaceous Chondrites; Evidence for Terrestrial Organic Contamination of the Tagish Lake Meteorite; Nitrogen Isotopic Imaging of Tagish Lake Carbon Globules; Microscale Distribution of Hydrogen Isotopes in Two Carbonaceous Chondrites; The Nature and Origin of Aromatic Organic Matter in the Tagish Lake Meteorite; Terrestrial Alteration of CM Chondritic Carbonate; Serpentine Nanotubes in CM Chondrites; Experimental Study of Serpentinization Reactions; Chondrule Glass Alteration in Type IIA Chondrules in the CR2 Chondrites EET 87770 and EET 92105: Insights into Elemental Exchange Between Chondrules and Matrices; Aqueous Alteration of Carbonaceous Chondrites: New Insights from Comparative Studies of Two Unbrecciated CM2 Chondrites, Y 791198 and ALH 81002 ;and A Unique Style of Alteration of Iron-Nickel Metal in WIS91600, an Unusual C2 Carbonaceous Chondrite.

2004-01-01

54

Animal Toxins Can Alter the Function of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9  

PubMed Central

Human voltage-activated sodium (Nav) channels are adept at rapidly transmitting electrical signals across long distances in various excitable tissues. As such, they are amongst the most widely targeted ion channels by drugs and animal toxins. Of the nine isoforms, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are preferentially expressed in DRG neurons where they are thought to play an important role in pain signaling. Although the functional properties of Nav1.8 have been relatively well characterized, difficulties with expressing Nav1.9 in established heterologous systems limit our understanding of the gating properties and toxin pharmacology of this particular isoform. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the role of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 in pain perception and elaborates on the approaches used to identify molecules capable of influencing their function.

Gilchrist, John; Bosmans, Frank

2012-01-01

55

Alterations in glucose and protein metabolism in animals subjected to simulated microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reduction of physical activity due to disease or environmental restraints, such as total bed rest or exposure to spaceflight, leads to atrophy of skeletal muscle and is frequently accompanied by alterations in food intake and the concentration of metabolic regulatory hormones such as insulin. Hindlimb suspension of laboratory rats, as a model for microgravity, also shows marked atrophy of gravity-dependent muscles along with a reduced gain in body weight. Suspended rats exhibit enhanced sensitivity to insulin-induced glucose uptake when compared with normal control rats and resistance to insulin action when compared with control rats matched similarly for reduced body weight gain. These changes are accompanied by decreased insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activity in soleus but not plantaris muscle, unchanged glucose uptake by perfused hindlimb and decreased sensitivity but not responsiveness to insulin-induced suppression of net proteolysis in hindlimb skeletal muscle. These findings suggest that loss of insulin sensitivity during muscle atrophy is associated with decreased insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activity in atrophied soleus muscle along with decreased sensitivity to the effects of insulin on suppressing net protein breakdown but not on enhancing glucose uptake by perfused hindlimb.

Mondon, C. E.; Rodnick, K. J.; Azhar, S.; Reaven, G. M.; Dolkas, C. B.

1992-01-01

56

Altered expression of ?-secretase components in animal model of major depressive disorder induced by reserpine administration.  

PubMed

Altered expression of neurotrophic factors as well as neuroinflammation is commonly associated with Major depressive disorder (MDD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether or not reserpine-induced MDD affects the expression of AD-related proteins, the expression of ?-secretase components and substrate were measured in brains of ICR mice following reserpine treatment for 15 days. In active avoidance test, total response time and peak slightly increased in the 2 mg/kg reserpine (RSP2)-treated group compared to vehicle-treated group (P<0.05). Expression and phosphorylation of MKP-1, which is a key factor in MDD pathology, were both higher in the RSP2-treated group than the vehicle- and 1 mg/kg reserpine (RSP1)-treated groups (P<0.02). Furthermore, full-length expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) was enhanced in the RSP1 and RSP2-treated groups compared to the vehicle-treated group, whereas expression of ?-secretase components decreased (P<0.03). Among the three components of the ?-secretase complex, nicastrin protein underwent the largest decrease in expression, as detected by Western blotting (P<0.03). Therefore, the data presented here provide additional evidence about the pathological correlation between MDD and AD. PMID:22787484

Lee, Hye-Ryun; Hwang, In-Sik; Kim, Ji-Eun; Choi, Sun-Il; Lee, Young-Ju; Goo, Jun-Seo; Lee, Eon-Pil; Choi, Hae-Wook; Kim, Hong-Sung; Lee, Jae-Ho; Jung, Young-Jin; Hwang, Dae-Youn

2012-06-01

57

Altered expression of ?-secretase components in animal model of major depressive disorder induced by reserpine administration  

PubMed Central

Altered expression of neurotrophic factors as well as neuroinflammation is commonly associated with Major depressive disorder (MDD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether or not reserpine-induced MDD affects the expression of AD-related proteins, the expression of ?-secretase components and substrate were measured in brains of ICR mice following reserpine treatment for 15 days. In active avoidance test, total response time and peak slightly increased in the 2 mg/kg reserpine (RSP2)-treated group compared to vehicle-treated group (P<0.05). Expression and phosphorylation of MKP-1, which is a key factor in MDD pathology, were both higher in the RSP2-treated group than the vehicle- and 1 mg/kg reserpine (RSP1)-treated groups (P<0.02). Furthermore, full-length expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) was enhanced in the RSP1 and RSP2-treated groups compared to the vehicle-treated group, whereas expression of ?-secretase components decreased (P<0.03). Among the three components of the ?-secretase complex, nicastrin protein underwent the largest decrease in expression, as detected by Western blotting (P<0.03). Therefore, the data presented here provide additional evidence about the pathological correlation between MDD and AD.

Lee, Hye-Ryun; Hwang, In-Sik; Kim, Ji-Eun; Choi, Sun-Il; Lee, Young-Ju; Goo, Jun-Seo; Lee, Eon-Pil; Choi, Hae-Wook; Kim, Hong-Sung; Lee, Jae-Ho; Jung, Young-Jin

2012-01-01

58

Multiple organ injuries after abdominal high energy wounding in animals and the protective effect of antioxidants.  

PubMed

Multiple organ injuries caused by high energy abdominal wounds were studied in 8 pigs and 24 dogs, and at the same time the protective effect of antioxidants in 14 dogs with multiple organ injuries was also studied. The experimental results showed that: 1) more than two organs (six organs at most) were wounded in each of the animals studied; 2) the injuries were characterized by hemorrhaging, tissue rupture and hematoma, and the main pathologic changes were local edema and necrosis; 3) the marked increase of lipid peroxide (LPO) levels in the vital organs indicated that multiple organ injuries could also involve the molecular level; 4) the injuries were due to the direct effect of pressure waves and ischemic reperfusion and not to shock or infection; and 5) antioxidants (vitamin E and Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.) exhibited significant protective effects against multiple organ injuries through a free radical mechanism. PMID:1450398

Fu, X; Tian, H; Sheng, Z; Wang, D

1992-06-01

59

Altered expression of hypoxia-Inducible factor-1? participates in the epileptogenesis in animal models.  

PubMed

Although epilepsy is a common neurological disorder, its mechanism(s) are still not completely understood. Hypoxia can lead to neuronal cell death and angiogenesis, and the same mechanisms were also found in epilepsy. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) is an important transcription protein that regulates gene expression in the brain and other tissues in response to decreases in oxygen availability. However, little is known regarding the expression of HIF-1? in the epileptic brain and whether HIF-1? interventions affect the epileptic process. The aims of this study are to investigate the expression profile of HIF-1? in rat models and to explore the role of HIF-1? in epilepsy. We performed Western blots and immunofluorescence in a lithium-pilocarpine rat epilepsy model. To determine the role of HIF-1? in epilepsy, we used the HIF-1? agonist DMOG and inhibitor KC7F2 to detect changes in the animal behavior in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and lithium-pilocarpine epilepsy models. The expression of HIF-1? was significantly increased after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. DMOG significantly prolonged the latent period in the PTZ kindling model and decreased the rate of spontaneous recurrent seizures during the chronic stage in the lithium-pilocarpine model. Conversely, the inhibitor KC7F2 produced an opposite behavioral change. Interestingly, both KC7F2 and DMOG had no effect on the acute stage of pilocarpine model and PTZ convulsive model. Our study suggests that upregulated HIF-1? may be involved in the process of epileptogenesis but not in the acute stage of epilepsy. The modulation of HIF-1? may offer a novel therapeutic target in epilepsy. Synapse, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24889205

Jie, Li; Guohui, Jiang; Chen, Yalan; Chen, Ling; Li, Zengyou; Wang, Zhihua; Wang, Xuefeng

2014-09-01

60

Mechanisms underlying altered mood and cardiovascular dysfunction: the value of neurobiological and behavioral research with animal models  

PubMed Central

A bidirectional association between mood disorders and cardiovascular diseases has been described in humans, yet the precise neurobiological mechanisms that underlie this association are not fully understood. This article is focused on neurobiological processes and mediators in mood and cardiovascular disorders, with an emphasis on common mechanisms including stressor reactivity, neuroendocrine and neurohumoral changes, immune alterations, autonomic and cardiovascular dysregulation, and central neurotransmitter and neuropeptide dysfunction. A discussion of the utility of experimental investigations with rodent models, including those in rats and prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), is presented. Specific studies using these models are reviewed, focusing on the analysis of behavioral, physiological and neural mechanisms underlying depressive disorders and cardiovascular disease. Considered in combination with studies using human samples, the investigation of mechanisms underlying depressive behaviors and cardiovascular regulation using animal models will enhance our understanding of the association of depression and cardiovascular disease, and will promote the development of improved interventions for individuals with these detrimental disorders.

Grippo, Angela J.

2008-01-01

61

Mechanisms underlying altered mood and cardiovascular dysfunction: the value of neurobiological and behavioral research with animal models.  

PubMed

A bidirectional association between mood disorders and cardiovascular diseases has been described in humans, yet the precise neurobiological mechanisms that underlie this association are not fully understood. This article is focused on neurobiological processes and mediators in mood and cardiovascular disorders, with an emphasis on common mechanisms including stressor reactivity, neuroendocrine and neurohumoral changes, immune alterations, autonomic and cardiovascular dysregulation, and central neurotransmitter and neuropeptide dysfunction. A discussion of the utility of experimental investigations with rodent models, including those in rats and prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), is presented. Specific studies using these models are reviewed, focusing on the analysis of behavioral, physiological and neural mechanisms underlying depressive disorders and cardiovascular disease. Considered in combination with studies using human samples, the investigation of mechanisms underlying depressive behaviors and cardiovascular regulation using animal models will enhance our understanding of the association of depression and cardiovascular disease, and will promote the development of improved interventions for individuals with these detrimental disorders. PMID:18703084

Grippo, Angela J

2009-02-01

62

Using 18O as a Tracer of Oxygen in the Photochemical Alteration of Dissolved Organic Matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biogeochemical cycling of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters is affected by numerous processes, including photochemical alteration. Photochemical processes result in the net oxidation and mineralization of DOM concomitant with dissolved oxygen consumption and production of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC; principally CO2). The photochemical oxygen budget is not well constrained while DIC production accounts for nearly all the

J. A. Davis; A. Stubbins; J. Helms; R. F. Dias; K. Mopper

2006-01-01

63

Regional Alterations in the Endocannabinoid System in an Animal Model of Depression: Effects of Concurrent Antidepressant Treatment  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that disturbances in endocannabinoid signaling contribute to the development of depressive illness; however, at present there is insufficient evidence to allow for a full understanding of this role. To further this understanding, we performed an analysis of the endocannabinoid system in an animal model of depression. Male rats exposed to chronic, unpredictable stress (CUS) for 21 days exhibited a reduction in sexual motivation, consistent with the hypothesis that CUS in rats induces depression-like symptoms. We determined the effects of CUS, with or without concurrent treatment with the antidepressant imipramine (10 mg/kg), on CP55940 binding to the cannabinoid CB1 receptor; whole tissue endocannabinoid content; and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) activity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, hypothalamus, amygdala, midbrain and ventral striatum. Exposure to CUS resulted in a significant increase in CB1 receptor binding site density in the prefrontal cortex and a decrease in CB1 receptor binding site density in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and ventral striatum. Except in the hippocampus, these CUS-induced alterations in CB1 receptor binding site density were attenuated by concurrent antidepressant treatment. CUS alone produced a significant reduction in N-arachidonylethanolamine (anandamide) content in every brain region examined, which was not reversed by antidepressant treatment. These data suggest that the endocannabinoid system in cortical and subcortical structures is differentially altered in an animal model of depression and that the effects of CUS on CB1 receptor binding site density are attenuated by antidepressant treatment while those on endocannabinoid content are not.

Hill, Matthew N.; Carrier, Erica J.; McLaughlin, Ryan J.; Morrish, Anna C.; Meier, Sarah E.; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Gorzalka, Boris B.

2008-01-01

64

Short Animation Movies as Advance Organizers in Physics Teaching: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Advance organizers are instructional materials that help students use previous knowledge to make links with new information. Short animation movies are a possible format and are well suited for physics, as they can portray dynamic phenomena and represent abstract concepts. Purpose: The study aimed to determine guidelines for the…

Koscianski, Andre; Ribeiro, Rafael Joao; da Silva, Sani Carvalho Rutz

2012-01-01

65

[The cytomorphological evaluation of the effect of Bacillus intermedius RNAse on the organs of experimental animals].  

PubMed

Cytomorphological changes in organs of experimental animals after RNAse Bacillus intermedius treatment have been studied. It has been found that RNAse stimulates elements of lympho- and homopies of thymus and spleen and increases stromal reaction and functional activity of liver. The caused effects don't depend on catalytic enzyme activity. PMID:1302511

Nekhoroshkova, Z M; Kurinenko, B M; Khusnullina, K T; Karpova, S I; Bulgakova, R Sh

1992-01-01

66

Altered Fate of Tendon-Derived Stem Cells Isolated from a Failed Tendon-Healing Animal Model of Tendinopathy  

PubMed Central

We hypothesized that altered fate of tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) might contribute to chondro-ossification and failed healing in the collagenase-induced (CI) tendon injury model. This study aimed to compare the yield, proliferative capacity, immunophenotypes, senescence, and differentiation potential of TDSCs isolated from healthy (HT) and CI tendons. TDSCs were isolated from CI and healthy Sprague-Dawley rat patellar tendons. The yield, proliferative capacity, immunophenotypes, and senescence of TDSCs (CI) and TDSCs (HT) were compared by colony-forming unit assay, BrdU assay, flow cytometry, and ?-galactosidase activity assay, respectively. Their osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potentials and mRNA expression of tendon-related markers were compared using standard assays. More TDSCs, which showed a lower proliferative potential and a higher cellular senescence were present in the CI patellar tendons compared to HT tendons. There was a higher alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization in TDSCs (CI) in both basal and osteogenic media. More chondrocyte-like cells and higher proteoglycan deposition, Sox9 and collagen type II expression were observed in TDSCs (CI) pellets upon chondrogenic induction. There was a higher protein expression of Sox9, but a lower mRNA expression of Col1a1, Scx, and Tnmd in TDSCs (CI) in a basal medium. In conclusion, TDSCs (CI) showed altered fate, a higher cellular senescence, but a lower proliferative capacity compared to TDSCs (HT), which might contribute to pathological chondro-ossification and failed tendon healing in this animal model.

Rui, Yun Feng; Wong, Yin Mei; Tan, Qi; Chan, Kai Ming

2013-01-01

67

ROCK inhibition prevents fetal serum-induced alteration in structure and function of organ-cultured mesenteric artery  

PubMed Central

Chronic treatment with fetal bovine serum (FBS) causes contractility reduction, morphological alteration and DNA synthesis in organ-cultured vascular tissues. Here, we tested the hypothesis that chronic inhibition of ROCK has a protective effect on FBS-induced alterations in small arteries. Rabbit mesenteric arterial rings were cultured in FBS-supplemented culture medium with or without Y-27632, a reversible ROCK inhibitor. Chronic Y-27632 treatment prevented FBS-induced gradual arterial constriction, wall thickening, reduced contractility, and increased ROCK-specific MYPT1 Thr853 phosphorylation. Treatment with Y-27632 also prevented decreased eNOS mRNA expression, and reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation. Sudden application of Y-27632 to pre-cultured rings reduced MYPT1 phosphorylation and re-widened the constricted rings. Chronic treatment with Y-27632, however, rather augmented than reduced the FBS-induced RhoA over-expression, also increased ROCK1 and MYPT1 expression and averted the FBS-induced reduction of MLC expression, suggesting a compensation of inhibited RhoA/ROCK activity. Sudden removal of Y-27632 caused a rebound in MYPT1 phosphorylation and vasoconstriction in rabbit mesenteric artery. To test which ROCK isoform has greater involvement in FBS-induced contraction, haploinsufficient Rock1+/? and Rock2+/? mouse mesenteric arterial rings were subjected to organ-culture. FBS-induced contraction and RhoA over-expression in either heterozygous animal was not different from wild-type animals. These results suggest that FBS-induced contraction is mediated by up-regulation of RhoA and subsequent activation of ROCK. In conclusion, chronic ROCK inhibition produces some effects that protect against FBS-stimulated vasoconstriction and remodeling. There are also negative effects that a sudden withdrawal of ROCK inhibitor might cause a stronger vasoconstriction than before it was used.

Huh, Yang Hoon; Zhou, Qian; Liao, James K.

2011-01-01

68

[Biochemical mechanisms of chromium action in the human and animal organism].  

PubMed

Modern data concerning biologic characteristics of chromium (Cr3+) its placement in nature, accessibility and metabolic action of its different forms in humans and animals is presented in this survey. Essentiality of chromium for humans is emphasized, data about consumption norms of this microelement and its use for curing different diseases especially diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis of vessels are presented. The biochemical mechanisms of Cr3+ effect on the metabolism in the human and animal organism are analyzed. It is shown that the organism reacts to chrome additions by the change of some metabolism links. Chrome influences positively growth and development of foetus, stimulates metabolism of glucose and insulin in the humans and animals. However, at the set chromium requirements it is necessary to take into account its low availability in food, high release of Cr3+ from the organism under the influence of stress factors, considerable decline of its level with age, and also in the period of pregnancy and lactation. Therefore experimental researches of introduction of Cr3+ additions to the diet of people and forage of animals taking into account their body mass, age and clinical state, can explain the biochemical mechanisms of biological action of this microelement. PMID:22276423

Iskra, R Ia; Ianovych, V G

2011-01-01

69

Thermal alterations of organic matter in coal wastes from Upper Silesia, Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-heating and self-combustion are currently taking place in some coal waste dumps in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland, e.g. the dumps at Rymer Cones, Starzykowiec, and the Marcel Coal Mine, all in the Rybnik area. These dumps are of similar age and self-heating and combustion have been occurring in all three for many years. The tools of organic petrography (maceral composition, rank, etc.), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and proximate and ultimate analysis are used to investigate the wastes. Organic matter occurs in quantities up to 85 vol.%, typically a few to several vol.%, in the wastes. All three maceral groups (vitrinite, liptinite, and inertinite) are present as unaltered and variously-altered constituents associated with newly-formed petrographic components (bitumen expulsions, pyrolytic carbon). The predominant maceral group is vitrinite with alterations reflected in the presence of irregular cracks, oxidation rims and, rarely, devolatilisation pores. In altered wastes, paler grey-vitrinite and/or coke dominates. The lack of plasticity, the presence of paler-coloured particles, isotropic massive coke, dispersed coked organic matter, and expulsions of bitumens all indicate that heating was slow and extended over a long time. Macerals belonging to other groups are present in unaltered form or with colours paler than the colours of the parent macerals. Based on the relative contents of organic compounds, the most important groups of these identified in the wastes are n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, hopanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives, phenol and its derivatives. These compounds occur in all wastes except those most highly altered where they were probably destroyed by high temperatures. These compounds were generated mainly from liptinite-group macerals. Driven by evaporation and leaching, they migrated within and out of the dump. Their presence in some wastes in which microscopically visible organic matter is lacking suggests that they originated elsewhere and subsequently migrated through the dump piles. During their migration, the compounds fractionated, were adsorbed on minerals and/or interacted. The absence of alkenes, and of other unsaturated organic compounds, may reflect primary diagenetic processes that occurred in coals and coal shales during burial and/or organic matter type. Their absence may also be a consequence of heating that lasted many years, hydropyrolysis, and/or the participation of minerals in the reactions occurring within the dumps. The wastes contain compounds typical of organic matter of unaltered kerogen III type and the products of pyrolytic processes, and mixtures of both. In some wastes, organic compounds are completely absent having been destroyed by severe heating. The distributions of n-alkanes in many samples are typical of pyrolysates. In some wastes, narrow n-alkane distributions reflect their generation over small temperature ranges. In others, wider distributions point to greater temperature ranges. Other wastes contain n-alkane distributions typical of unaltered coal and high pristane content or mixtures of pyrolysates and unaltered waste material. The wastes also contain significant amounts of final ?? hopanes. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are represented only by two- to five-ring compounds as is typical of the thermal alteration of hard coal. Correlations between the degree of organic matter alteration and the relative contents of individual PAHs and hopanes and geochemical indicators of thermal alteration are generally poor. The properties of the organic matter (its composition and rank), temperature fluctuations within the dumps, migration of organic compounds and mineral involvement are probably responsible for this. The processes taking place in coal waste dumps undergoing self-heating and self-combustion are complicated; they are very difficult to estimate and define. The methods of org

Misz-Kennan, Magdalena

2010-01-01

70

Ineffective delivery of diet-derived microRNAs to recipient animal organisms  

PubMed Central

Cross-kingdom delivery of specific microRNAs to recipient organisms via food ingestion has been reported recently. However, it is unclear if such delivery of microRNAs occurs frequently in animal organisms after typical dietary intake. We found substantial levels of specific microRNAs in diets commonly consumed orally by humans, mice, and honey bees. Yet, after ingestion of fruit replete with plant microRNAs (MIR156a, MIR159a, and MIR169a), a cohort of healthy athletes did not carry detectable plasma levels of those molecules. Similarly, despite consumption of a diet with animal fat replete in endogenous miR-21, negligible expression of miR-21 in plasma or organ tissue was observed in miR-21 ?/? recipient mice. Correspondingly, when fed vegetarian diets containing the above plant microRNAs, wild-type recipient mice expressed insignificant levels of these microRNAs. Finally, despite oral uptake of pollen containing these plant microRNAs, negligible delivery of these molecules was observed in recipient honeybees. Therefore, we conclude that horizontal delivery of microRNAs via typical dietary ingestion is neither a robust nor a frequent mechanism to maintain steady-state microRNA levels in a variety of model animal organisms, thus defining the biological limits of these molecules in vivo.

Snow, Jonathan W.; Hale, Andrew E.; Isaacs, Stephanie K.; Baggish, Aaron L.; Chan, Stephen Y.

2013-01-01

71

Ineffective delivery of diet-derived microRNAs to recipient animal organisms.  

PubMed

Cross-kingdom delivery of specific microRNAs to recipient organisms via food ingestion has been reported recently. However, it is unclear if such delivery of microRNAs occurs frequently in animal organisms after typical dietary intake. We found substantial levels of specific microRNAs in diets commonly consumed orally by humans, mice, and honey bees. Yet, after ingestion of fruit replete with plant microRNAs (MIR156a, MIR159a, and MIR169a), a cohort of healthy athletes did not carry detectable plasma levels of those molecules. Similarly, despite consumption of a diet with animal fat replete in endogenous miR-21, negligible expression of miR-21 in plasma or organ tissue was observed in miR-21 -/- recipient mice. Correspondingly, when fed vegetarian diets containing the above plant microRNAs, wild-type recipient mice expressed insignificant levels of these microRNAs. Finally, despite oral uptake of pollen containing these plant microRNAs, negligible delivery of these molecules was observed in recipient honeybees. Therefore, we conclude that horizontal delivery of microRNAs via typical dietary ingestion is neither a robust nor a frequent mechanism to maintain steady-state microRNA levels in a variety of model animal organisms, thus defining the biological limits of these molecules in vivo. PMID:23669076

Snow, Jonathan W; Hale, Andrew E; Isaacs, Stephanie K; Baggish, Aaron L; Chan, Stephen Y

2013-07-01

72

Development of Gravity-Sensing Organs in Altered Gravity Conditions: Opposite Conclusions From an Amphibian and a Molluscan Preparation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several components of the systems animals use to orient to gravity might develop differently in micrograms. If the growth of the "test masses" on which gravity acts (otoliths, in vertebrates, statoliths or statoconia in most invertebrates) is controlled on the basis of their weight, larger otoliths (or their analogs) would be expected to develop in micrograms. The vestibular systems in animals reared in altered gravity have been studied in several species, with varied results being reported. Early Russian reports of Xenopus larvae reared in space indicated no qualitative differences in the vestibular organs, compared to ground-reared controls. A similar lack of differences in Xenopus were reported. The ultricular otolith was 30% larger in space-reared Xenopus. No differences in saccular otolith volume between centrifuged and control adult rats were found. A delay in otoconial development in chick embryos reared at 2 grams on a centrifuge was reported but in a later report, no differences in otolith weight between 2 grams and control chicks were found. Increased optokinetic responses in flight-reared Xenopus tadpoles, suggesting that the animals reared in the absence of gravity made greater relative use of their visual system, rather than the vestibular system, in orienting to a moving stimulus was reported. To test early Japanese newt, CYnops pyrrhogaster, were maintained in orbit for 15 days on the IML-2 mission in 1994. All specimens reached orbit before any otoconia were formed and all major components of the inner ear were formed by the end of the flight. In ground-based studies of he Aplysia statocyst, the volume of the statolith in embryos and the number statoconia in post-metamorphic animals were compared between 1-gram controls and specimens reared at 2 to 5.7 grams.

Wiederhold, Michael L.; Pedrozo, Hugo A.; Harrison, Jeffrey L.; Hejl, Robert; Gao, Wenyuan

1997-01-01

73

Lipid biomarkers for heterotrophic alteration of suspended particulate organic matter in oxygenated and anoxic water columns of the ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acid, sterol and hydrocarbon composition of suspended particles from the central North Pacific VERTEX IV site and from the Black Sea were used to investigate the abundance of biomarkers produced by heterotrophic alteration of particulate organic matter (POM). At the oceanic VERTEX site, bacterial alteration of organic matter did not contribute significant amounts of diagnostic lipids to particles,

Stuart G. Wakeham

1995-01-01

74

Stage-dependent alterations of progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis in an animal model of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome  

PubMed Central

Alcohol-induced Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) culminates in bilateral diencephalic lesion and severe amnesia. Using the pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) animal paradigm of WKS, our laboratory has demonstrated hippocampal dysfunction in the absence of gross anatomical pathology. Extensive literature has revealed reduced hippocampal neurogenesis following a neuropathological insult, which might contribute to hippocampus-based learning and memory impairments. Thus, the current investigation was conducted to determine whether PTD treatment altered hippocampal neurogenesis in a stage-dependent fashion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of 4 stages of thiamine deficiency based on behavioral symptoms: pre-symptomatic stage, ataxic stage, early post-opisthotonus stage, or the late post-opisthotonus stage. The S-phase mitotic marker 5?-bromo-2?-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered at the conclusion of each stage following thiamine restoration and subjects were perfused 24-hours or 28-days after BrdU to assess cellular proliferation or neurogenesis and survival, respectively. Dorsal hippocampal sections were immunostained for BrdU (proliferating cell marker), NeuN (neurons), GFAP (astrocytes), Iba-1 (microglia), and O4 (oligodendrocytes). The PTD treatment increased progenitor cell proliferation and survival during the early post-opisthotonus stage. However, levels of neurogenesis were reduced during this stage as well as the late post-opisthotonus stage where there was also an increase in astrocytogenesis. The diminished numbers of newly generated neurons (BrdU/NeuN co-localization) was paralleled by increased BrdU cells that did not co-localize with any of the phenotypic markers during these later stages. These data demonstrate that long-term alterations in neurogenesis and gliogenesis might contribute to the observed hippocampal dysfunction in the PTD model and human WKS.

Vetreno, Ryan P.; Klintsova, Anna; Savage, Lisa M.

2011-01-01

75

Alterations in Oxidative Markers in the Cerebellum and Peripheral Organs in MPS I Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mucopolysaccharidosis type I is a lysosomal storage disease with alterations in several organs. Little is known about the\\u000a pathways that lead to the pathology. Evidences point oxidative stress on lysosomal storage diseases and mucopolysaccharidosis\\u000a type I. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oxidative biomarkers on mucopolysaccharidosis type I mice model. We evaluated\\u000a antioxidant enzymatic activity, protein damage

Gustavo Kellermann Reolon; Adalisa Reinke; Marcos Roberto de Oliveira; Luisa Macedo Braga; Melissa Camassola; Michael Éverton Andrades; José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira; Nance Beyer Nardi; Rafael Roesler; Felipe Dal-Pizzol

2009-01-01

76

Differential regulation of tropomyosin isoform organization and gene expression in response to altered actin gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotypically altered C2 myoblast cells, generated by the stable transfection of human nonmus- cle actin genes (Schevzov, G., C. Lloyd, and P. Gun- ning. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 117:775-786), exhibit a dif- ferential pattern of tropomyosin cellular organization and isoform gene expression. The\\/~-actin transfectants displaying a threefold increase in the cell surface area, showed no significant changes in the pattern

Galina Schevzov; Catriona Lloyd; Deborah Hailstones; Peter Gunning

1993-01-01

77

Structure of organic matter in conodonts with different colour alteration indexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Devonian conodont samples from the Beechwood Member of the North Vernon Limestone, IN, USA and Garra Formation Wellington, NSW, Australia with Colour Alteration Index (CAI) values of 2 and 4, respectively, were analysed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry (py-GC\\/MS) and Fourier transform infrared emission spectroscopy (FTIRES). The results show the organic matter is different for

C. P Marshall; H. R Rose; G. S. H Lee; G. L Mar; M. A Wilson

1999-01-01

78

Superoxide radical detection in cells, tissues, organisms (animals, plants, insects, microorganisms) and soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple protocol is presented for the assessment of superoxide radical in organisms (animal\\/plant tissues, microorganisms, cell cultures, biological\\/culture fluids) and soils, through the quantification of 2-hydroxyethidium (2-OH-E+), its specific reaction product with hydroethidine (HE). It is an alternative to the quantification of 2-OH-E+ by HPLC (restricted to cell cultures), offering the advantage of the in vivo assessment of superoxide

Ioannis Papapostolou; Konstantinos Grintzalis; Christos D Georgiou

2008-01-01

79

Effect of hyperoxic medium on cells, tissues and organs of experimental animals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data on the general morphology, ultrastructure and histochemistry of various organs of experimental animals during hyperoxia are reviewed. Basically, information is presented on the effect of 100% O2 at normal barometric pressure. Oxygen damages the vascular wall by eosinophilic infiltration of tissues and has a pronounced action on the condition of the ultrastructure and metabolism of cells. Initially there is activation of metabolisms of cells without visible morphological changes. This period (6 hours) is considered on the whole as harmless for the organism. Later (after 12 hours) phenomena of a pathological nature arise. A compensatory increase in the activity of glycolytic enzymes ensures following the appearance of secondary hypoxia in tissues.

Kotovskiy, Y. F.; Shimkevich, L. L.

1973-01-01

80

The impact of organic livestock standards on animal welfare - a questionnaire survey of advisors, inspectors and veterinarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

A questionnaire survey of organic sector body inspectors, organic advisors and farm animal veterinarians was conducted to examine the respondents' perceptions of the ability of the organic standards to deliver positive impacts on welfare of orga nic livestock. A total of 44 separate standards concerning livestock production were extracted from the United Kingdom Register of Organic Food Production livestock production

Malla Hovi; Mohamed Kossaibati; Richard Bennett; Sandra A Edwards; Jamie Robertson; Stephen Roderick

81

Photooxidation of wetland and riverine dissolved organic matter: altered copper complexation and organic composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In natural waters, the uptake of transition metals such as copper (Cu) by aquatic biota depends on the activity of the free\\u000a cupric ion ({Cu2+}) rather than on total Cu concentration. Thus, an important ecological function of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in aquatic\\u000a ecosystems is Cu–DOM complexation, which greatly decreases the {Cu2+}. However, Cu bioavailability is greatly modified by source

Marjorie L. Brooks; Joseph S. Meyer; Diane M. McKnight

2007-01-01

82

Recent advances in the analysis of behavioural organization and interpretation as indicators of animal welfare  

PubMed Central

While the incorporation of mathematical and engineering methods has greatly advanced in other areas of the life sciences, they have been under-utilized in the field of animal welfare. Exceptions are beginning to emerge and share a common motivation to quantify ‘hidden’ aspects in the structure of the behaviour of an individual, or group of animals. Such analyses have the potential to quantify behavioural markers of pain and stress and quantify abnormal behaviour objectively. This review seeks to explore the scope of such analytical methods as behavioural indicators of welfare. We outline four classes of analyses that can be used to quantify aspects of behavioural organization. The underlying principles, possible applications and limitations are described for: fractal analysis, temporal methods, social network analysis, and agent-based modelling and simulation. We hope to encourage further application of analyses of behavioural organization by highlighting potential applications in the assessment of animal welfare, and increasing awareness of the scope for the development of new mathematical methods in this area.

Asher, Lucy; Collins, Lisa M.; Ortiz-Pelaez, Angel; Drewe, Julian A.; Nicol, Christine J.; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.

2009-01-01

83

[The biological effects in animals in relation to the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station. 9. The morphofunctional indices of the immunocompetent organs in mice].  

PubMed

The permanent action of small doses of low-intensity radiation on the immune status of 2.5-3.5 month CC57W mice has been investigated. Total doses of internal and external irradiation were about few cGy. The permanent action of low-level radiation on the experimental animals of the first and fourth generations was shown to change spleen and lymph nodes weights and the count of lymphocytes isolated from these organs. Cellularity and DNA synthesis in the lymph-node lymphocytes and their proliferative response to polyclonal mitogens also changed. The alterations in the parameters that characterized T-lymphocyte population were statistically significant. PMID:1745756

Savtsova, Z D; Kovbasiuk, S A; Iudina, O Iu; Zaritskaia, M Iu; Voe?kova, I M; Indyk, V M; Serkiz, Ia I

1991-01-01

84

N isotope fractionation and measures of organic matter alteration during decomposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most soil organic matter (SOM) derives from plant material but there are substantial gaps in our understanding of its transformation mechanisms. Alterations that occur as SOM decays and is stabilized have proven difficult to study owing largely to its diverse initial chemical composition and stable isotope values. We examined SOM stable isotope ratios in relation to composition using solid-state 13C CPMAS nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in sequentially deeper organic and mineral horizon soil samples collected from an unpolluted ecosystem in southeast Alaska dominated by C3 vegetation. We found that as humified carbon (C)--C not respired as CO2 during decomposition--increased in aliphaticity (ratio of unsubstituted aliphatics to carbohydrates), it also increased in 15N (P<0.0001) but showed no clear trend in 13C or C:N ratio. These results imply that humification (and the concomitant stabilization of soil C) at our site resulted from microbial alteration of organics rather than from accumulation of recalcitrant compounds. The strong, and previously unreported, relation between 15N and SOM composition found at our study site suggests that degree of SOM humification may be correlated with an increase in ? 15N SOM values relative to ? 15N for fresh litter and other source material.

Kramer, M. G.; Sollins, P.; Sletten, R. S.; Swart, P. K.

2003-12-01

85

Alteration of organic matter during infaunal polychaete gut passage and links to sediment organic geochemistry. Part II: Fatty acids and aldoses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activities of sediment-dwelling fauna are known to influence the rates of and pathways through which organic matter is cycled in marine sediments, and thus to influence eventual organic carbon burial or decay. However, due to methodological constraints, the role of faunal gut passage in determining the subsequent composition and thus degradability of organic matter is relatively little studied. Previous studies of organic matter digestion by benthic fauna have been unable to detect uptake and retention of specific biochemicals in faunal tissues, and have been of durations too short to fit digestion into the context of longer-term sedimentary degradation processes. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the aldose and fatty acid compositional alterations occurring to organic matter during gut passage by the abundant and ubiquitous polychaetes Hediste diversicolor and Arenicola marina, and to link these to longer-term changes typically observed during organic matter decay. This aim was approached through microcosm experiments in which selected polychaetes were fed with 13C-labelled algal detritus, and organisms, sediments, and faecal pellets were sampled at three timepoints over ?6 weeks. Samples were analysed for their 13C-labelled aldose and fatty acid contents using GC-MS and GC-IRMS. Compound-selective net accumulation of biochemicals in polychaete tissues was observed for both aldoses and fatty acids, and the patterns of this were taxon-specific. The dominant patterns included an overall loss of glucose and polyunsaturated fatty acids; and preferential preservation or production of arabinose, microbial compounds (rhamnose, fucose and microbial fatty acids), and animal-synthesised fatty acids. These patterns may have been driven by fatty acid essentiality, preferential metabolism of glucose, and A. marina grazing on bacteria. Fatty acid suites in sediments from faunated microcosms showed greater proportions of saturated fatty acids and bacterial markers than those from afaunal controls. Aldose suite alterations were similar in faunated microcosms and afaunal controls, however the impact of faunal gut passage on sedimentary aldose compositions may be observable over longer timescales. Therefore this study provides direct evidence that polychaete gut passage influences OM composition both through taxon-specific selective assimilation and retention in polychaete tissues, and also through interactions with the microbial community. Polychaete gut passage will result in selective loss, preservation, and retention in polychaete tissues of specific aldoses and fatty acids. The pattern of selectivity will be taxon specific. Changes observed during gut passage will align with those commonly observed during OM decay, thus indicating that macrofaunal gut passage is one of the factors controlling sedimentary OM composition. Together with a previous publication reporting amino acid data from the same experiments (Woulds et al., 2012), this study represents the most complete description of OM alteration during gut passage that is available to date.

Woulds, Clare; Middelburg, Jack J.; Cowie, Greg L.

2014-07-01

86

Thermal alteration experiments on organic matter from recent marine sediments in relation to petroleum genesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three fractions of organic matter: lipid (benzene:methanol-extractable), humic acid (alkali-extractable) and kerogen (residue) were extracted from a young marine sediment (Tanner Basin, offshore southern California) and heated for different times (5-116 hr) and temperatures (150-410 C). The volatile (gases) and liquid products, as well as residual material, were then analyzed. On a weight basis, the lipid fraction produced 58% of the total identified n-alkanes, the kerogen fraction 41%, and the humic acid less than 1%. The volatiles produced by heating the lipid and humic acid fractions were largely CO2 and water, whereas those produced from heated kerogen also included methane, hydrogen gas and small amounts of C2-C4 hydrocarbons. A mechanism for hydrocarbon production due to the thermal alteration of organic constituents of marine sediment is discussed.

Ishiwatari, R.; Ishiwatari, M.; Rohrback, B. G.; Kaplan, I. R.

1977-01-01

87

Elemental, stable isotopic and biochemical characterization of soil organic matter alteration across a natural peatland gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern peatlands store around one third of global soil C and thus represent a key reservoir. To elucidate how these systems might respond to climate change, field- and laboratory-based experimental incubation studies are being conducted at sites across a natural peatland gradient in the boreonemoral zone of central Sweden (Ryggmossen). The site comprises four successional stages, from edge to centre; Swamp Forest (SF), Lagg Fen (LF), Bog Margin (BM) and Bog Plateau (BP). The well-preserved succession shows strong decreases in mineral cations and pH, and distinct changes in vegetation and water-table depth. As an underpinning to these experiments, comprehensive characterization of natural soil organic matter (SOM) alteration has been carried out through detailed analyses of vegetation and downcore profiles at contrasting topographic sites (hummock vs hollow) in each of the four locations. As illustrated in Figure 1, while some similarities occur in downcore trends, contrasts are observed in C and N elemental and stable isotopic compositions, between stages and, in some cases, between microtopographic settings. Downcore trends and intersite differences are also observed in biochemical yields and molecular composition (carbohydrates, amino acids, phenols, lipids and D/L amino acid ratios). These reflect SOM decay and alteration combined with the effects of contrasting hydrologic, redox and nutrient regimes and differing vegetation and microbial inputs at each of the study sites. Multivariate analysis is used to to elucidate compositional patterns that characterize and delineate progressive SOM decay, specific vegetation types, and the effects of contrasting environmental conditions at the different sites. Figure 1. A. Organic carbon content (wt %), B. Atomic ratio of organic C to total N, C. Stable C isotopic composition of organic C (d13Corg), and D. Stable N isotopic composition of total nitrogen (d15N), all for core profiles from contrasting settings (hummock and hollow) at locations spanning a peatland gradient. Site locations are defined in the text.

Cowie, G.; Mowbray, S.; Belyea, L.; Laing, C.; Allton, K.; Abbott, G.; Muhammad, A.

2010-12-01

88

Templates of food–habitat resources for the organization of soil animals in temperate and tropical forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functioning and structure of terrestrial ecosystems are shaped and maintained by plant–decomposer interactions. The food and habitat of animal populations are biogenic and are mainly of plant origin (plant litter) in terrestrial ecosystems. Primary resources of the food-habitat template for the organization of soil animals are provided by the primary production of plants, and are then modified through decomposition

Hiroshi Takeda; Takuya Abe

2001-01-01

89

Examining the effect of altered redox conditions on deep soil organic matter stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since subsoil horizons contribute significantly to terrestrial carbon (C) budgets, understanding the influence of disturbances such as forest harvesting on subsoil C stability is critical. Clearcut harvesting leads to changes in the soil physico-chemical environment, including altering redox conditions arising from changes in soil hydrology that increase soil saturation, soil temperature, and pH. These physico-chemical changes have the potential to alter the adsorption of soil organic matter (SOM) to minerals, particularly at depth where SOM is primarily associated with mineral phases. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of differing redox states (aerobic vs. anaerobic) and temperature upon SOM stability of forested soils representative of the Acadian Forest Region of Eastern North America. Composite soil samples through depth (0-10, 10-20, 20-35, and 35-50 cm) from a mature red spruce forest (110 years) were incubated under optimum (aerobic) or saturated (anaerobic) conditions for 1 or 4 months at two temperatures (5 and 15 C). Following incubation, soil leachate was analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV-vis absorbance in order to determine soil C losses and its optical character. Specific UV-vis absorbance SUVA (254 nm) and spectral slope ratios were calculated in order to assess the composition of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Preliminary results from the 1 month incubation indicate that under anaerobic conditions, all depths released DOC with a higher SUVA than under aerobic conditions, with the largest change observed in the 0-10 cm depth increment. Soil incubated at 5 C produced leachate with significantly less DOC and with a lower absorbance compared to 15 C under both redox conditions. These results suggest that both temperature and redox state are important in determining the aromaticity of DOC released from soils. Spectral slope ratios revealed that a greater proportion of CDOM of lower molecular weight (MW) compounds were released from deep mineral podzolic soils when saturated (high SUVA, low spectral slope), while higher MW CDOM were released from shallow soil strata (low SUVA, high spectral slope). This is consistent with research that indicates plant-derived SOM and microbial products each dominate in shallow and deep mineral soils, respectively. These preliminary results suggest that alterations to the redox state of a forested podzolic soil may have the potential to alter the mobilization of SOM, its composition and associated soil carbon stores.

Gabriel, C.; Kellman, L. M.; Ziegler, S. E.

2013-12-01

90

Microcystin-LR and Cylindrospermopsin Induced Alterations in Chromatin Organization of Plant Cells  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria produce metabolites with diverse bioactivities, structures and pharmacological properties. The effects of microcystins (MCYs), a family of peptide type protein-phosphatase inhibitors and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), an alkaloid type of protein synthesis blocker will be discussed in this review. We are focusing mainly on cyanotoxin-induced changes of chromatin organization and their possible cellular mechanisms. The particularities of plant cells explain the importance of such studies. Preprophase bands (PPBs) are premitotic cytoskeletal structures important in the determination of plant cell division plane. Phragmoplasts are cytoskeletal structures involved in plant cytokinesis. Both cyanotoxins induce the formation of multipolar spindles and disrupted phragmoplasts, leading to abnormal sister chromatid segregation during mitosis. Thus, MCY and CYN are probably inducing alterations of chromosome number. MCY induces programmed cell death: chromatin condensation, nucleus fragmentation, necrosis, alterations of nuclease and protease enzyme activities and patterns. The above effects may be related to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or disfunctioning of microtubule associated proteins. Specific effects: MCY-LR induces histone H3 hyperphosphorylation leading to incomplete chromatid segregation and the formation of micronuclei. CYN induces the formation of split or double PPB directly related to protein synthesis inhibition. Cyanotoxins are powerful tools in the study of plant cell organization.

Mathe, Csaba; M-Hamvas, Marta; Vasas, Gabor

2013-01-01

91

Altered chromatin organization and SUN2 localization in mandibuloacral dysplasia are rescued by drug treatment.  

PubMed

Mandibuloacral dysplasia type A (MADA) is a rare laminopathy characterized by growth retardation, craniofacial anomalies, bone resorption at specific sites including clavicles, phalanges and mandibula, mottled cutaneous pigmentation, skin rigidity, partial lipodystrophy, and insulin resistance. The disorder is caused by recessive mutations of the LMNA gene encoding for A-type lamins. The molecular feature of MADA consists in the accumulation of the unprocessed lamin A precursor, which is detected at the nuclear rim and in intranuclear aggregates. Here, we report the characterization of prelamin A post-translational modifications in MADA cells that induce alterations in the chromatin arrangement and dislocation of nuclear envelope-associated proteins involved in correct nucleo-cytoskeleton relationships. We show that protein post-translational modifications change depending on the passage number, suggesting the onset of a feedback mechanism. Moreover, we show that treatment of MADA cells with the farnesyltransferase inhibitors is effective in the recovery of the chromatin phenotype, altered in MADA, provided that the cells are at low passage number, while at high passage number, the treatment results ineffective. Moreover, the distribution of the lamin A interaction partner SUN2, a constituent of the nuclear envelope, is altered by MADA mutations, as argued by the formation of a highly disorganized lattice. Treatment with statins partially rescues proper SUN2 organization, indicating that its alteration is caused by farnesylated prelamin A accumulation. Given the major role of SUN1 and SUN2 in the nucleo-cytoskeleton interactions and in regulation of nuclear positioning in differentiating cells, we hypothesise that mechanisms regulating nuclear membrane-centrosome interplay and nuclear movement may be affected in MADA fibroblasts. PMID:22706480

Camozzi, Daria; D'Apice, Maria Rosaria; Schena, Elisa; Cenni, Vittoria; Columbaro, Marta; Capanni, Cristina; Maraldi, Nadir M; Squarzoni, Stefano; Ortolani, Michela; Novelli, Giuseppe; Lattanzi, Giovanna

2012-10-01

92

Alterations in the metabolism of hamster tracheas in organ culture after infection by virulent Mycoplasma pneumoniae.  

PubMed

Exposure of hamster tracheal rings in organ culture to virulent Mycoplasma pneumoniae organisms leads to alterations in macromolecular biosynthesis and metabolic activity of the respiratory epithelial cells. Avirulent organisms derived from the same parent strain do not produce these effects. During the course of infection by virulent mycoplasmas, tracheal rings show an initial increase in [14C]galactose uptake followed by a significant decline as infection progresses which is also accompanied by abnormal processing of galactose as evidenced by amounts of 14CO2 released. Parallel decreases in the rate of [3H]orotic acid and [3H]amino acid uptake are observed. Within 24 h after infection of tracheal rings by virulent mycoplasmas, inhibition of host cell ribonucleic acid and protien synthesis is evident. Ribonucleic acid synthesis in infected cells, analyzed by gel electrophoresis, is reduced by 80% at 48 h and is negligible by 96 h. The course of mycoplasma infection can be interrupted or reversed by erythromycin after the initial mycoplasma-host cell interaction since addition of erythromycin 24 h or earlier after infection prevents the onset of abnormal orotic acid uptake. However, 48 h after infection, rescue of host cells by erythromycin cannot occur and cytopathology becomes evident. These data suggest that mediation of host cell injury requires continued protein synthesis by attached mycoplasmas, and the primary effect of mycoplasma infection on tracheal organ culture may be at a transcriptional or translational level. PMID:1120610

Hu, P C; Collier, A M; Baseman, J B

1975-04-01

93

A non-destructive technique for 3-D microstructural phenotypic characterisation of bones in genetically altered mice: preliminary data in growth hormone transgenic animals and normal controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-destructive, three-dimensional technique for microstructural phenotypic characterisation of skeletal elements in genetically altered mice is presented. Preliminary data in bovine growth-hormone transgenic animals and control littermates are shown. The technique is based on microcomputed tomography (7CT) and digital postprocessing and allows for a differential quantitative analysis of the cortical and trabecular bone compartments in the axial and peripheral skeleton.

Heiko Graichen; Eva-Maria Lochmüller; Eckhard Wolf; Bernd Langkabel; Tobias Stammberger; Michael Haubner; Ingrid Renner-Müller; Karl-Hans Englmeier; F. Eckstein

1999-01-01

94

Alteration of Organic Compounds in Small Bodies and Cosmic Dusts by Cosmic Rays and Solar Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide variety of complex organic compounds have been detected in extraterrestrial bodies like carbonaceous chondrites and comets, and their roles in the generation of terrestrial life are discussed. It was suggested that organics in small bodies were originally formed in ice mantles of interstellar dusts in dense cloud. Irradiation of frozen mixture of possible interstellar molecules including CO (or CH _{3}OH), NH _{3} and H _{2}O with high-energy particles gave complex amino acid precursors with high molecular weights [1]. Such complex organic molecules were taken in planetesimals or comets in the early solar system. In prior to the generation of the terrestrial life, extraterrestrial organics were delivered to the primitive Earth by such small bodies as meteorites, comets and space dusts. These organics would have been altered by cosmic rays and solar radiation (UV, X-rays) before the delivery to the Earth. We examined possible alteration of amino acids, their precursors and nucleic acid bases in interplanetary space by irradiation with high energy photons and heavy ions. A mixture of CO, NH _{3} and H _{2}O was irradiated with high-energy protons from a van de Graaff accelerator (TIT, Japan). The resulting products (hereafter referred to as CAW) are complex precursors of amino acids. CAW, amino acids (dl-Isovaline, glycine), hydantoins (amino acid precursors) and nucleic acid bases were irradiated with continuous emission (soft X-rays to IR; hereafter referred to as soft X-rays irradiation) from BL-6 of NewSUBARU synchrotron radiation facility (Univ. Hyogo). They were also irradiated with heavy ions (eg., 290 MeV/u C ^{6+}) from HIMAC accelerator (NIRS, Japan). After soft X-rays irradiation, water insoluble materials were formed. After irradiation with soft X-rays or heavy ions, amino acid precursors (CAW and hydantoins) gave higher ratio of amino acids were recovered after hydrolysis than free amino acids. Nucleic acid bases showed higher stability than free amino acids. Complex amino acid precursors with high molecular weights could be formed in simulated dense cloud environments. They would have been altered in the early solar system by irradiation with soft X-rays from the young Sun, which caused increase of hydrophobicity of the organics of interstellar origin. They were taken up by parent bodies of meteorites or comets, and could have been delivered to the Earth by meteorites, comets and cosmic dusts. Cosmic dusts were so small that they were directly exposed to the solar radiation, which might be critical for the survivability of organics in them. In order to evaluate the roles of space dusts as carriers of bioorganic compounds to the primitive Earth, we are planning the Tanpopo Mission, where collection of cosmic dusts by using ultra low-density aerogel, and exposure of amino acids and their precursors for years are planned by utilizing the Japan Experimental Module / Exposed Facility of the ISS [2]. The mission is now scheduled to start in 2013. We thank Dr. Katsunori Kawasaki of Tokyo Institute of Technology, and Dr. Satoshi Yoshida of National Institute of Radiological Sciences for their help in particles irradiation. We also thank to the members of JAXA Tanpopo Working Group (PI: Prof. Akihiko Yamagishi) for their helpful discussion. [1] K. Kobayashi, et al., in ``Astrobiology: from Simple Molecules to Primitive Life,'' ed. by V. Basiuk, American Scientific Publishers, Valencia, CA, (2010), pp. 175-186. [2] K. Kobayashi, et al., Trans. Jpn. Soc. Aero. Space Sci., in press (2012).

Kobayashi, Kensei; Kaneko, Takeo; Mita, Hajime; Obayashi, Yumiko; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Sarker, Palash K.; Kawamoto, Yukinori; Okabe, Takuto; Eto, Midori; Kanda, Kazuhiro

2012-07-01

95

N isotope fractionation and measures of organic matter alteration during decomposition across a climate-chrono sequence in Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most soil organic matter (SOM) derives from plant material but there are substantial gaps in our understanding of its transformation mechanisms. Alterations that occur as SOM decays and is stabilized have proven difficult to study owing largely to its diverse initial chemical composition and stable isotope values. We are studying the forms of soil organic matter (SOM) that accumulate across

M. G. Kramer; O. Chadwick; R. Sletten; P. Sollins; P. K. Swart

2006-01-01

96

Bio-organic reaction animations (BioORA): Student performance, student perceptions, and instructor feedback.  

PubMed

Research shows that computer animations are especially helpful in fields such as chemistry and in this mixed-methods study, we investigate the educational effectiveness of Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA), a 3-D software, in four undergraduate biochemistry classes at different universities. Statistically significant findings indicate that students performed better on a quiz completed after a lesson with BioORA than after a lesson with regular teaching methods in three out of four classes. Ratings on several survey items completed after experiencing BioORA, including items related to interest, value, and ability, were higher in two classes. Surveys and one-on-one interviews reveal instructor and student experiences with the software as well as the utility of various software features, which can be adopted in other programs. Instructors and students provide suggestions to maximize BioORA's benefits as an educational tool and findings suggest the importance of multiple forms of information to enhance student understanding and reach students with various learning preferences. © 2014 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 42(3):XXXXX-XXXXX, 2014. PMID:24535982

Gunersel, Adalet Baris; Fleming, Steven

2014-05-01

97

Harmful and beneficial effects of organic monosulfides, disulfides, and polysulfides in animals and humans.  

PubMed

Many organic sulfides (mono-, di-, and polysulfides) are present in our environment. Simple derivatives are produced by some plants and animals, while complex sulfides are secondary metabolites of several genera of bacteria and fungi. Sulfides play an important role in the smell and taste of food, and many such compounds are used as food flavorings. Some sulfides are toxic, and there is evidence that such toxicity is caused by the ability of these substances to generate reactive oxygen species. Some sulfides, however, have been shown to protect against toxicants and carcinogens. These beneficial effects are believed to involve, at least in part, the ability of sulfides to inhibit the enzymatic activation of pro-toxicants and to increase tissue activities of enzymes that protect against electrophiles. Some sulfides also have potential as cancer chemotherapeutics. In this review, the toxic and beneficial effects of sulfides in animals are described, and the possible value of sulfides in cancer chemoprotection and cancer chemotherapy is discussed. PMID:22004350

Munday, Rex

2012-01-13

98

Photochemically-induced alteration of stable carbon isotope ratios (?13C) in terrigenous dissolved organic carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure of riverine waters to natural sunlight initiated alterations in stable carbon isotope ratios (?13C) of the associated dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Water samples were collected from two compositionally distinct coastal river systems in the southeastern United States-the Satilla River which has high DOC concentrations (10-35 mg/l), and the Altamaha River which has relatively low DOC concentrations (3-9 mg/1). Approximately 21-26% of the DOC was remineralized to DIC. The ?13C of remineralized DIC was isotopically “light” (?13C = -28.8 to -33.2‰), relative to the initial DOC (?13C = -27.4‰), leaving a residual fraction of isotopically “heavy” (?13C = -25.8 to -26.6‰) DOC. Photochemically-induced fractionation of 13C results from selective degradation of certain biochemical constituents including lignin phenols. These results are consistent with shifts in ?13C of DOC observed during mixing of river and marine waters, suggesting that photochemically-induced alterations are a factor in determining these changes.

Opsahl, Stephen P.; Zepp, Richard G.

99

Multiple system organ response induced by hyperoxia in a clinically relevant animal model of sepsis.  

PubMed

Oxygen therapy is currently used as a supportive treatment in septic patients to improve tissue oxygenation. However, oxygen can exert deleterious effects on the inflammatory response triggered by infection. We postulated that the use of high oxygen concentrations may be partially responsible for the worsening of sepsis-induced multiple system organ dysfunction in an experimental clinically relevant model of sepsis. We used Sprague-Dawley rats. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. Sham-septic controls (n = 16) and septic animals (n = 32) were randomly assigned to four groups and placed in a sealed Plexiglas cage continuously flushed for 24 h with medical air (group 1), 40% oxygen (group 2), 60% oxygen (group 3), or 100% oxygen (group 4). We examined the effects of these oxygen concentrations on the spread of infection in blood, urine, peritoneal fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage, and meninges; serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers and reactive oxygen species production; and hematological parameters in all experimental groups. In cecal ligation and puncture animals, the use of higher oxygen concentrations was associated with a greater number of infected biological samples (P < 0.0001), higher serum levels of interleukin-6 (P < 0.0001), interleukin-10 (P = 0.033), and tumor necrosis factor-? (P = 0.034), a marked decrease in platelet counts (P < 0.001), and a marked elevation of reactive oxygen species serum levels (P = 0.0006) after 24 h of oxygen exposure. Oxygen therapy greatly influences the progression and clinical manifestation of multiple system organ dysfunction in experimental sepsis. If these results are extrapolated to humans, they suggest that oxygen therapy should be carefully managed in septic patients to minimize its deleterious effects. PMID:24978892

Rodríguez-González, Raquel; Martín-Barrasa, José Luis; Ramos-Nuez, Angela; Cañas-Pedrosa, Ana María; Martínez-Saavedra, María Teresa; García-Bello, Miguel Angel; López-Aguilar, Josefina; Baluja, Aurora; Alvarez, Julián; Slutsky, Arthur S; Villar, Jesús

2014-08-01

100

Mineral-organic Dynamics During Export From Rivers to Oceans: Implications for Organic Matter Source and Diagenetic Alteration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The record of vegetation preserved along continental margins has traditionally been used to assess the contributions of organic matter derived from adjacent watersheds of rivers. Our ability to draw conclusions from these records relies on the fundamental assumption that the processing of these particles is limited, or at least congruent, across different vascular plant biomarkers, thereby allowing direct correlations between vascular plant distributions on land and marine compositions. Ratios of syringyl (S), vanillyl (V) and cinnamyl (C) lignin phenols should provide diagnostic source indicators for angiosperm and gymnosperm woody and nonwoody tissues. We conducted benchtop experiments to test whether lignin phenol-clay particulates prepared in freshwater and exported through a steep geochemical gradient to full marine salinities resulted in distinctly different particulate biomarker compositions. Variations in biomarker compositions highlight the importance of compound- and mineral-specific retention mechanisms as a function of salinity changes. Losses of lignin phenols from mineral surfaces is most pronounced at very low salinities and essentially absent at salinities greater than 2 parts per thousand to full marine salinities. Therefore, sediment processing at slightly elevated salinities, such as in an estuary, may be particularly adept at removing part, but not all lignin phenols sorbed to sediments. Mineral- specific trends indicate that an increase in surface area and reactivity (e.g., cation exchange capacity) slightly increases desorption of particulate-bound lignin phenols. When comparing sediments within and between watersheds, particle history and mineralogy becomes even more important, particularly during the export from riverine to marine settings. For example, preferential loss of syringyl phenols could lead to higher S/V ratios than the areal distribution of angiosperms within the watershed would have indicated. Similarly, the molecular compositions used to infer the extent of diagenetic alteration, and thus the relative age of particulate organic matter, are subject to these desorptive processes. Sediment compositions may appear younger, less diagenetically altered than would be determined for the sediments prior to export. These subtle differences in behavior have significant implications for determining carbon budgets, characterizing vascular plant inputs to marine sediments, and assessing anthropogenic fingerprints from land use change. This work demonstrates a new approach where sorptive-desorptive mechanisms controlling the distribution and composition of vascular biomarkers are accounted for, providing a new lens through which biomarker trends in continental margin sediments should be viewed.

Robinson, A.; Hernes, P. J.; Montanez, I.

2007-12-01

101

Structure-activity relationships of organic acid anhydrides as antigens in an animal model.  

PubMed

Relationships between chemical structure and immunogenicity have been studied in 13 dicarboxylic acid anhydrides. Guinea-pigs were immunized intradermally by a single dose of 0.3 M solutions of succinic anhydride (SA), maleic anhydride (MA), methylmaleic anhydride (MMA), cis-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride (cis-HHPA), trans-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride (trans-HHPA), 4-methylcyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride (MHHPA), cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride (THPA1236), cis-3,4,5,6-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride (THPA3456), cis-3-methylcyclohex-4-ene-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride (MTHPA34), cis-4-methylcyclohex-4-ene-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride (MTHPA44), phthalic anhydride (PA), 4-methylphthalic anhydride (MPA), and trimellitic anhydride (TMA) in olive oil. Specific IgE, IgG, IgG1, and IgG2 antibodies against guinea-pig serum albumin conjugates of the anhydrides were determined by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) tests and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbant assay (ELISA). Specific IgG was significantly increased in all animals, except those immunized with THPA3456 and SA, which sensitized only 3/9 and 7/9 animals, respectively. Furthermore, the specific IgG values were very low in the SA group. The titers of specific IgG1 and IgG2 were increased in the IgG-positive animals. Specific IgE was positive in all animals immunized with MA, MHHPA, MTHPA (both isomers), and MPA, and in 6/9 and 5/9 guinea pigs immunized with TMA and MMA, respectively. The IgE titers were generally very low; PCA was negative after dilutions to 1:32, or less. The results indicate a considerable variation in the sensitizing potential between different organic acid anhydrides. The most marked general effect of the chemical structure on immunogenicity was the enhancement of antibody formation when a hydrogen atom in the anhydride was substituted with a methyl group. PMID:8545845

Welinder, H; Zhang, X; Gustavsson, C; Björk, B; Skerfving, S

1995-11-30

102

Melittin Ameliorates the Inflammation of Organs in an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Animal Model  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a selective loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brainstem, and motor cortex, leading to weakness of the limb and bulbar muscles. Although the immediate cause of death in ALS is the destruction of motor neurons, ALS is a multi-organ disease that also affects the lungs, spleen, and liver. Melittin is one of components of bee venom and has anti-neuroinflammatory effects in the spinal cord, as shown in an ALS animal model. To investigate the effects of melittin on inflammation in the lungs and spleen, we used hSOD1G93A transgenic mice that are mimic for ALS. Melittin treatment reduced the expression of inflammatory proteins, including Iba-1 and CD14 by 1.9- and 1.3-fold (p<0.05), respectively, in the lungs of symptomatic hSOD1G93A transgenic mice. In the spleen, the expression of CD14 and COX2 that are related to inflammation were decreased by 1.4 fold (p<0.05) and cell survival proteins such as pERK and Bcl2 were increased by 1.3- and 1.5-fold (p<0.05) in the melittin-treated hSOD1G93A transgenic mice. These findings suggest that melittin could be a candidate to regulate the immune system in organs affected by ALS.

Lee, Sun-Hwa; Choi, Sun-Mi

2014-01-01

103

Animal and public health implications of gastric colonization of cats by Helicobacter-like organisms.  

PubMed Central

The bacterial genus Helicobacter contains a number of species which colonize the gastric mucosa of mammals. Natural and/or experimental gastric pathology has been correlated with colonization in humans and a wide variety of animal species. Historical reports in the literature suggest that a high percentage of cats are colonized by large, spiral, gastric helicobacter-like organisms (GHLOs). One of these bacteria (Helicobacter felis) has been isolated on artificial media and has experimentally caused gastritis in gnotobiotic dogs. This study surveyed the prevalence of helicobacter colonization in random-source cats by using the urease assay. Histologic examination was performed to determine the degree of associated pathology present. GHLOs associated with chronic gastritis were present in 70% of the juvenile and 97% of the adult cats studied. Although further study is needed to determine specifically what role GHLOs play in feline gastrointestinal disease, these results indicate that helicobacter colonization should be considered in the pathogenesis of feline gastroenteropathy. Furthermore, the high prevalence of feline infection is interesting because cats have recently been implicated as a potential reservoir for human infection by helicobacter-like organisms. Images

Otto, G; Hazell, S H; Fox, J G; Howlett, C R; Murphy, J C; O'Rourke, J L; Lee, A

1994-01-01

104

Cardiovascular and organ responses and adaptation responses to hypogravity in an experimental animal model.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The head-down suspension (i.e antiorthostatic hypokinesia) rat is used to simulate weightlessness. However, little is known about cardiovascular and organ adaptation responses which, over a long time, can become pathologically significant. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate regional changes in the hematology parameters, Endotheline-1 (ET-1) concentration and urinary excretion of N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.30) (NAG) in an experimental antiorthostatic rat model. The data indicate significant variations in the plasma ET-1 level in time, in the superior and inferior cava vessel blood of animals maintained for 10 days in hypogravity with respect to controls. These changes do not seem to be due to hemoconcentration. The increase in urinary NAG was observed during the first 24h of experiment, indicating renal stress, probably due to adverse blood flow variations within the organ. We conclude that the plasma ET-1 level changes could be responsible, overall for the blood flow variations in the kidney and renal stress could be the consequence of extended antiorthostatic hypokinesia. The ET-1 behaviour and urinary NAG excretion in rats exposed to antiorthostatic hypokjnetic hydynamia offer possibilities for understanding if these changes might be reversible or when they become pathological. This could give some relevant information about the effects of prolonged hypogravity during the space voyage.

Biondi, R.; Capodicasa, E.; Tassi, C.; Mezzasomal, L.; Benedetti, C.; Valiani, M.; Marconi, P.; Rossi, R.

1995-10-01

105

ROCK inhibition prevents fetal serum-induced alteration in structure and function of organ-cultured mesenteric artery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic treatment with fetal bovine serum (FBS) causes contractility reduction, morphological alteration and DNA synthesis\\u000a in organ-cultured vascular tissues. Here, we tested the hypothesis that chronic inhibition of ROCK has a protective effect\\u000a on FBS-induced alterations in small arteries. Rabbit mesenteric arterial rings were cultured in FBS-supplemented culture medium\\u000a with or without Y-27632, a reversible ROCK inhibitor. Chronic Y-27632 treatment

Yang Hoon Huh; Qian Zhou; James K. Liao; Toshio Kitazawa

106

Diagenetic alterations of amino acids and organic matter in the upper Pearl River Estuary surface sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to investigate the diagenetic alteration of sediment organic matter (OM) in the upper Pearl River Estuary. Sediment analyses were conducted for three size fractions of OM, including coarse particulate OM (CPOM), fine particulate OM (FPOM), and ultrafiltered dissolved OM (UDOM). Results showed that the highest and lowest carbon (C): nitrogen (N) ratios were in CPOM and UDOM, respectively, indicating that CPOM was relatively enriched in organic C. The highest average total N content in the FPOM fraction showed that FPOM was enriched in N-containing molecules. Our study showed that the "size-reactivity continuum" model was applicable to sediment particulate and dissolved OM. Distributions of amino acids and their D-isomers among the sediment fractions indicated that the amino acid-based diagenetic index, C:N ratio, and percentage of total N represented by total hydrolysable amino acids could be used as diagenetic indicators. Furthermore, the diagenetic state of sediment OM could also be characterized by C- and N-normalized yields of total D-amino acids, and C- and N-normalized yields of D-alanine, D-glutamic acid, and D-serine.

Zhang, J.; Zhang, R.; Wu, Q.; Xu, N.

2012-01-01

107

Diagenetic alterations of amino acids and organic matter in the upper Pearl River Estuary surface sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to investigate the sources, diagenetic alterations of, and bacterial contributions to sediment organic matter (OM) in the upper Pearl River Estuary. Sediment analyses were conducted for three size fractions of OM, including coarse particulate OM (CPOM), fine particulate OM (FPOM), and ultrafiltered dissolved OM (UDOM). Results showed that the highest and lowest carbon (C): nitrogen (N) ratios were in CPOM and UDOM, respectively, indicating CPOM was relatively enriched in organic C, whereas FPOM was enriched in N-containing molecules. Distributions of amino acids and their D-isomers among the sediment fractions indicated that the percentage of total N represented by total hydrolysable amino acids, C- and N-normalized yields of total D-amino acids, and C- and N-normalized yields of D-alanine, D-glutamic acid, D-serine could be used as diagenetic indicators of sediment OM. Correlations between the N yields in total D-amino acids and total hydrolysable amino acids, and total N yields suggested that the bacterial N in general reflected the bulk N changes in CPOM, FPOM, and UDOM. Our results demonstrate the crucial role of bacteria as a N source in the terrestrial (soil and vascular plant debris) OM transported by the river.

Zhang, J.; Zhang, R.; Wu, Q.; Xu, N.

2011-03-01

108

Effective behavioral treatment of focal hand dystonia in musicians alters somatosensory cortical organization  

PubMed Central

New perspectives in neurorehabilitation suggest that behavioral treatments of movement disorders may modify the functional organization of central somatosensory neural networks. On the basis of the assumption that use-dependent reorganization in these networks contributes to the fundamental abnormalities seen in focal dystonia, we treated 10 affected musicians and measured the concomitant somatosensory changes by using whole-head magnetoencephalography. We found that effective treatment, using the method of sensory motor retuning, leads to alterations in the functional organization of the somatosensory cortex. Specifically, before treatment, somatosensory relationships of the individual fingers differ between the affected and unaffected hands, whereas after treatment, finger representations contralateral to the dystonic side become more similar to the less-affected side. Further, somatosensory finger representations are ordered more according to homuncular principles after treatment. In addition, the observed physiologic changes correlated with behavioral data. These results confirm that plastic changes in parallel with emergent neurological dysfunction may be reversed by context-specific, intensive training-based remediation.

Candia, Victor; Wienbruch, Christian; Elbert, Thomas; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Ray, William

2003-01-01

109

[Coenzyme Q10: its biosynthesis and biological significance in animal organisms and in humans].  

PubMed

Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone) is a naturally occurring compound widely distributed in animal organisms and in humans. The primary compounds involved in the biosynthesis of ubiquinone are 4-hydroxybenzoate and the polyprenyl chain. An essential role of coenzyme Q10 is as an electron carrier in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Moreover, coenzyme Q10 is one of the most important lipophilic antioxidants, preventing the generation of free radicals as well as oxidative modifications of proteins, lipids, and DNA, it and can also regenerate the other powerful lipophilic antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol. Antioxidant action is a property of the reduced form of coenzyme Q10, ubiquinol (CoQ10H2), and the ubisemiquinone radical (CoQ10H*). Paradoxically, independently of the known antioxidant properties of coenzyme Q10, the ubisemiquinone radical anion (CoQ10-) possesses prooxidative properties. Decreased levels of coenzyme Q10 in humans are observed in many pathologies (e.g. cardiac disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, AIDS, cancer) associated with intensive generation of free radicals and their action on cells and tissues. In these cases, treatment involves pharmaceutical supplementation or increased consumption of coenzyme Q10 with meals as well as treatment with suitable chemical compounds (i.e. folic acid or B-group vitamins) which significantly increase ubiquinone biosynthesis in the organism. Estimation of coenzyme Q10 deficiency and efficiency of its supplementation requires a determination of ubiquinone levels in the organism. Therefore, highly selective and sensitive methods must be applied, such as HPLC with UV or coulometric detection. PMID:15928598

Siemieniuk, Ewa; Skrzydlewska, Elzbieta

2005-01-01

110

Developmental exposure to the pesticide dieldrin alters the dopamine system and increases neurotoxicity in an animal model of Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to pesticides has been sug- gested to increase the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the mechanisms responsible for this association are not clear. Here, we report that perinatal exposure of mice during gestation and lactation to low levels of dieldrin (0.3, 1, or 3 mg\\/kg every 3 days) alters dopaminergic neurochemistry in their offspring and exacerbates MPTP toxicity.

Jason R. Richardson; W. Michael Caudle; Minzheng Wang; E. Danielle Dean; Kurt D. Pennell; Gary W. Miller

2006-01-01

111

miRGen: a database for the study of animal microRNA genomic organization and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

miRGen is an integrated database of (i) positional relationships between animal miRNAs and genomic annotation sets and (ii) animal miRNA targets according to combinations of widely used target prediction programs. A major goal of the database is the study of the relationship between miRNA genomic organization and miRNA function. This is made possible by three integrated and user friendly interfaces.

Molly Megraw; Praveen Sethupathy; Benoit Corda; Artemis G. Hatzigeorgiou

2007-01-01

112

Intercorrelations among degree of geochemical alterations, physicochemical properties, and organic sorption equilibria of kerogen.  

PubMed

Recent studies reported that kerogen is an important natural organic material dominating sorption of relatively hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) by topsoils and river sediments collected from industrialized regions. Due to its chemical and structural heterogeneity, kerogen is expected to exhibit a spectrum of sorptive phenomena for HOCs. The goal of this study is to establish correlations between heterogeneous physicochemical properties of kerogen and its sorptive characteristics for HOCs. In this study, we simulated diagenetic alterations under laboratory conditions by thermally treating a low-grade lignite at 200, 250, 300, 350, 400, 450, and 500 degrees C, yielding a series of type III kerogen samples having the same parental material but different maturations and physicochemical properties. The treated samples and the original lignite were systematically characterized using different methods and were used as the sorbents for sorption equilibrium study. The results of characterization revealed that black carbon or charwas formed at 450 degrees C or above and that, as the treatment temperature (T) increases, both O/C and H/C atomic ratios decrease whereas aromaticity and reflectance index increase. The sorption and desorption isotherms measured for 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene and phenanthrene are nonlinear and hysteretic. The nonlinearity and apparent desorption hysteresis increase as a function of Tand correlate well with rigidity and aromaticity of the organic matrix. The sorption capacity for each sorbate increases initially as T increases, reaches a maximum at 300-350 degrees C, and then decreases rapidly as Tincreases beyond 350 degrees C. This study suggests that the highly heterogeneous kerogen-based coal materials may have varied elemental compositions, functionalities, and matrix rigidity and that they could play major roles in the isotherm nonlinearity and the apparent sorption-desorption hysteresis exhibited by soils and sediments. PMID:15382870

Yang, Chen; Huang, Weilin; Xiao, Baohua; Yu, Zhiqiang; Peng, Ping'an; Fu, Jiamo; Sheng, Guoying

2004-08-15

113

Global trade requirements and compliance with World Trade Organization agreements: the role of tracing animals and animal products.  

PubMed

The use of a measure incorporating traceability that directly or indirectly affects international trade is permitted under the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, provided that the measure is applied in accordance with the provisions of the Agreement. These provisions state that the measure must be necessary, scientifically justified, no more trade restrictive than required and consistent with the appropriate level of protection of the importing country. If requested, importing countries are required to assess claims by exporting countries regarding an alternative measure(s) providing an equivalent level of protection or with regard to regionalisation. PMID:11548514

Wilson, D W; Beers, P T

2001-08-01

114

Altered expression patterns of lipid metabolism genes in an animal model of HCV core-related, nonobese, modest hepatic steatosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Because the gene expression patterns of nonobese hepatic steatosis in affected patients remain unclear, we sought to explore these patterns using an animal model of nonobese hepatic steatosis. METHODS: We developed mice that conditionally express the hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein regulated by the tetracycline transactivator (tTA). Microarray analyses and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction were performed using liver

Ming-Ling Chang; Chau-Ting Yeh; Jeng-Chang Chen; Chau-Chun Huang; Shi-Ming Lin; I-Shyan Sheen; Dar-In Tai; Chia-Ming Chu; Wei-Pin Lin; Ming-Yu Chang; Chun-Kai Liang; Cheng-Tang Chiu; Deng-Yn Lin

2008-01-01

115

The alteration of organic matter in response to ionising irradiation: Chemical trends and implications for extraterrestrial sample analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionising radiation is an energy source capable of generating and altering complex organic matter. A full understanding of the radiolytic formation and evolution of organic matter is essential to appreciate the budget of organic chemicals that exist in cometary and interstellar ices, carbonaceous meteorites, and to understand the results of analyses of irradiated extraterrestrial organic matter, such as that in cometary nuclei. The effects of ionising radiation on a set of 10 naturally occurring, terrestrial organic assemblages have been revealed by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS), carbon isotopic analysis, and stepped combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (SC-IRMS). Progressive radiolytic alteration of biogenic complex-hydrocarbon mixtures induces a decrease in the average size and extent of alkylation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and an increase in the abundance of oxygen-containing compounds, as indicated by Py-GC-MS, and an enrichment in 13C. These changes are attributed to reactions with free radicals, produced by ionising radiation. In contrast, the progressive radiolytic alteration of bitumens proposed to have derived from the radiolytic polymerisation of methane into an organic solid produces, upon pyrolysis, PAH of increasing average size and degree of alkylation. This, the opposite of the trend observed in the irradiated complex-hydrocarbons mixtures, cannot be explained in terms of the radiolytic alteration of a pre-existing array of complex organic molecules. Instead, it suggests the gradual construction of PAH from smaller molecules, supporting the hypothesis of a methane origin. Radiolytic alteration is also associated with a previously unrecognised increase in the mean combustion temperature of organic matter. This leads to predictions regarding the combustion characteristics of the irradiated organic matter present on cometary nuclei. A full understanding of the relationship between the combustion characteristics of organic polymers, radiation dose and the atomic H/C ratio should lead to the better design and implementation of in situ extraterrestrial sample analysis hardware and aid the interpretation of data from such missions. This study establishes predictable organic chemical responses of organic matter, upon exposure to ionising radiation. Our results support proposals that extraterrestrial PAH may be formed by the cosmic irradiation of simple hydrocarbons in interstellar ices. Our data may also be relevant to analogous material formed in other hydrocarbon-rich environments, such as the surface and atmosphere of Titan and other icy bodies, such as comets, and to the results of in situ analyses of extraterrestrial organic matter.

Court, Richard W.; Sephton, Mark A.; Parnell, John; Gilmour, Iain

2006-02-01

116

Developmental exposure to the pesticide dieldrin alters the dopamine system and increases neurotoxicity in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Exposure to pesticides has been suggested to increase the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the mechanisms responsible for this association are not clear. Here, we report that perinatal exposure of mice during gestation and lactation to low levels of dieldrin (0.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg every 3 days) alters dopaminergic neurochemistry in their offspring and exacerbates MPTP toxicity. At 12 wk of age, protein and mRNA levels of the dopamine transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) were increased by perinatal dieldrin exposure in a dose-related manner. We then administered MPTP (2 x 10 mg/kg s.c) at 12 wk of age and observed a greater reduction of striatal dopamine in dieldrin-exposed offspring, which was associated with a greater DAT:VMAT2 ratio. Additionally, dieldrin exposure during development potentiated the increase in GFAP and alpha-synuclein levels induced by MPTP, indicating increased neurotoxicity. In all cases there were greater effects observed in the male offspring than the female, similar to that observed in human cases of PD. These data suggest that developmental exposure to dieldrin leads to persistent alterations of the developing dopaminergic system and that these alterations induce a "silent" state of dopamine dysfunction, thereby rendering dopamine neurons more vulnerable later in life. PMID:16809432

Richardson, Jason R; Caudle, W Michael; Wang, Minzheng; Dean, E Danielle; Pennell, Kurt D; Miller, Gary W

2006-08-01

117

Exposure of animals to artificial gravity conditions leads to the alteration of the glutamate release from rat cerebral hemispheres nerve terminals.  

PubMed

The biochemical basis underlying the effects of altered gravity on the process of nervous signal transmission is not clear. We have investigated the effect of hypergravity stress (created by centrifugation of rats at l0 g for 1 h) on the basal and stimulated release of L-[14C]glutamate (a chemical transmitter of excitatory signals) from isolated rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes). It has been shown that the hypergravity stress exerted a different influence on the Ca(2+)-dependent and the Ca(2+)-independent component of neurotransmitter release. The Ca(2+)-dependent L-[14C]glutamate release evoked by potassium chloride was equal to 14.4 +/- 0.7% of total synaptosomal label for control animals and 6.2 +/- 1.9% for animals, exposed to hypergravity (P < or = 0.05) and was more than twice decreased as a result of the hypergravity stress. We observed no statistically significant difference in the Ca(2+)-independent component of L-[14C]glutamate release. For control group and animals exposed to the hypergravity stress it was equal to 7.7 +/- 2.8% and 12.9 +/- 2.0%, respectively. We have also investigated the effect of the hypergravity stress on the activity of high-affinity Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporters. Km and Vmax of L-[14C]glutamate uptake have been determined. The maximal velocity of glutamate uptake was decreased as a result of hypergravity loading, but no difference in the Km values between control rats and hypergravity exposed animals was observed. These findings indicate that hypergravity stress alters neurotransmitter reuptake and exocytotic neurotransmitter release processes. PMID:15803628

Borisova, T; Krisanova, N; Himmelreich, N

2004-01-01

118

The effects of natural variation in background radioactivity on humans, animals and other organisms.  

PubMed

Natural levels of radioactivity on the Earth vary by more than a thousand-fold; this spatial heterogeneity may suffice to create heterogeneous effects on physiology, mutation and selection. We review the literature on the relationship between variation in natural levels of radioactivity and evolution. First, we consider the effects of natural levels of radiation on mutations, DNA repair and genetics. A total of 46 studies with 373 effect size estimates revealed a small, but highly significant mean effect that was independent of adjustment for publication bias. Second, we found different mean effect sizes when studies were based on broad categories like physiology, immunology and disease frequency; mean weighted effect sizes were larger for studies of plants than animals, and larger in studies conducted in areas with higher levels of radiation. Third, these negative effects of radiation on mutations, immunology and life history are inconsistent with a general role of hormetic positive effects of radiation on living organisms. Fourth, we reviewed studies of radiation resistance among taxa. These studies suggest that current levels of natural radioactivity may affect mutational input and thereby the genetic constitution and composition of natural populations. Susceptibility to radiation varied among taxa, and several studies provided evidence of differences in susceptibility among populations or strains. Crucially, however, these studies are few and scattered, suggesting that a concerted effort to address this lack of research should be made. PMID:23136873

Møller, Anders P; Mousseau, Timothy A

2013-02-01

119

Using 18O as a Tracer of Oxygen in the Photochemical Alteration of Dissolved Organic Matter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biogeochemical cycling of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters is affected by numerous processes, including photochemical alteration. Photochemical processes result in the net oxidation and mineralization of DOM concomitant with dissolved oxygen consumption and production of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC; principally CO2). The photochemical oxygen budget is not well constrained while DIC production accounts for nearly all the dissolved oxygen consumed, conflicting data suggests that more than half of the oxygen consumed is required to account for observed DOM oxidation and hydrogen peroxide production. An alternate source of oxygen is required to balance this budget; water itself may provide the answer. In order to determine the source of oxygen, a number of time series irradiations were performed using Great Dismal Swamp water (southeast Virginia) with 18O enrichments as either dissolved oxygen or water. Early results, upon irradiation in a UV solar simulator, show significant incorporation of 18O-enriched oxygen into high molecular weight (HMW) DOM from both sources. While the majority of the incorporated oxygen originated from the dissolved oxygen, at least 5 percent originated from water. Data will be presented showing the rate and degree of incorporation of 18O-enriched oxygen from both sources as well as the production of 18O-enriched carbon dioxide. The movement of 18O label will be discussed in relation to shifts in spectral qualities, including photobleaching and spectral slope, of the irradiated samples and selective incorporation as detailed by FT-ICRMS.

Davis, J. A.; Stubbins, A.; Helms, J.; Dias, R. F.; Mopper, K.

2006-12-01

120

Animal welfare versus food quality: factors influencing organic consumers' preferences for alternatives to piglet castration without anaesthesia.  

PubMed

Surgical piglet castration without pain relief has been banned in organic farming in the EU since the beginning of 2012. Alternative methods therefore need to be implemented that improve animal welfare and solve the underlying problem of boar taint. This paper explores German organic consumers' preferences for piglet castration without pain relief and three alternative methods. In an innovative approach using a multi-criteria decision making procedure, qualitative data from focus group discussions were compared with quantitative results from Vickrey auctions. Overall, participants preferred all alternatives to castration without pain relief. Different aspects influenced willingness-to-pay for the methods. Animal welfare was important for the evaluation of castration without pain relief and castration with anaesthesia. Food safety played a major role for willingness-to-pay for immunocastration, while taste and, to some extent, animal welfare were dominant factors for fattening of boars. These differences should be considered when communicating the alternatives. PMID:23743030

Heid, Astrid; Hamm, Ulrich

2013-10-01

121

Characterizing reduced sulfur compounds and non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become a potential environmental and human health concern. Both RSCs and NMVOCs contribute to odor. In addition, RSCs also have the potential to form fine particulate matter (PMfine) and NMVOCs the potential to form ozone. Measurements of RSCs and NMVOCs emissions were

Ian Cooper Rumsey

2010-01-01

122

Characterizing non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) were determined from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) in North Carolina. NMVOCs were measured in air samples collected in SUMMA and fused-silica lined (FSL) canisters and were analyzed using a gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID) system. Measurements were made from both an anaerobic lagoon and barn in each of the four seasonal sampling periods during the period June 2007 through April 2008. In each sampling period, nine to eleven canister samples were taken from both the anaerobic lagoon and barn over a minimum of four different days during a period of ˜1 week. Measurements of meteorological and physiochemical parameters were also made during the sampling period. In lagoon samples, six NMVOCs were identified that had significantly larger emissions in comparison to other NMVOCs. This included three alcohols (ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, and methanol), two ketones (acetone and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)) and an aldehyde (acetaldehyde). The overall average fluxes for these NMVOCs, ranged from 0.18 ?g m -2 min -1 for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol to 2.11 ?g m -2 min -1 for acetone, with seasonal fluxes highest in the summer for four (acetone, acetaldehyde, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and MEK) of the six compounds In barn samples, there were six NMVOCs that had significantly larger concentrations and emissions in comparison to other NMVOCs. These consisted of two alcohols (methanol and ethanol), an aldehyde (acetaldehyde), two ketones (acetone and 2,3-butanedione), and a phenol (4-methylphenol). Overall average barn concentration ranged from 2.87 ppb for 4-methylphenol to 16.12 ppb for ethanol. Overall average normalized barn emission rates ranged from 0.10 g day -1 AU -1 (1 AU (animal unit) = 500 kg of live animal weight) for acetaldehyde to 0.45 g day -1 AU -1 for ethanol. The NMVOCs, 4-methylphenol and 2,3-butanedione, which have low odor thresholds (odor thresholds = 1.86 ppb and 0.068-0.264 ppb for 4-methylphenol, and = 4.37 ppb and 1.42-7.39 ppb for 2-3-butanedione) and an offensive odor were identified in canister samples. Both 4-methylphenol and 2,3-butanedione barn concentrations exceeded their odor thresholds frequently. HAPs were identified in lagoon samples (methanol, acetaldehyde and MEK) and barn samples (methanol, acetaldehyde and 4-methylphenol) that were also classified as NMVOCs with significantly larger lagoon and barn emissions in comparison with other NMVOCs. The overall average lagoon fluxes and overall average normalized barn emissions for NMVOCs reported in this paper were used to estimate their North Carolina swine CAFO emissions. Of the NMVOCs, ethanol was estimated to have the largest North Carolina swine CAFO emission at 206,367 kg yr -1. The barns were found to have higher emissions than the lagoons for all NMVOCs, contributing between 68.6 to ˜100% of individual compounds estimated North Carolina swine CAFO emissions.

Rumsey, Ian C.; Aneja, Viney P.; Lonneman, William A.

2012-02-01

123

Integration of organic animal production into land use with special reference to swine and poultry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development in organic livestock production can be attributed to an increased consumer interest in organic products while, at the same time, increased farmers' interest in converting to organic production methods—often stimulated by governmental support or subsidies. It is important that organic production systems can fulfil the expectations of each of these stakeholders if organic livestock production is to increase

J. E. Hermansen; Karin Strudsholm; Klaus Horsted

2004-01-01

124

The Protein 4.1 family: hub proteins in animals for organizing membrane proteins.  

PubMed

Proteins of the 4.1 family are characteristic of eumetazoan organisms. Invertebrates contain single 4.1 genes and the Drosophila model suggests that 4.1 is essential for animal life. Vertebrates have four paralogues, known as 4.1R, 4.1N, 4.1G and 4.1B, which are additionally duplicated in the ray-finned fish. Protein 4.1R was the first to be discovered: it is a major mammalian erythrocyte cytoskeletal protein, essential to the mechanochemical properties of red cell membranes because it promotes the interaction between spectrin and actin in the membrane cytoskeleton. 4.1R also binds certain phospholipids and is required for the stable cell surface accumulation of a number of erythrocyte transmembrane proteins that span multiple functional classes; these include cell adhesion molecules, transporters and a chemokine receptor. The vertebrate 4.1 proteins are expressed in most tissues, and they are required for the correct cell surface accumulation of a very wide variety of membrane proteins including G-Protein coupled receptors, voltage-gated and ligand-gated channels, as well as the classes identified in erythrocytes. Indeed, such large numbers of protein interactions have been mapped for mammalian 4.1 proteins, most especially 4.1R, that it appears that they can act as hubs for membrane protein organization. The range of critical interactions of 4.1 proteins is reflected in disease relationships that include hereditary anaemias, tumour suppression, control of heartbeat and nervous system function. The 4.1 proteins are defined by their domain structure: apart from the spectrin/actin-binding domain they have FERM and FERM-adjacent domains and a unique C-terminal domain. Both the FERM and C-terminal domains can bind transmembrane proteins, thus they have the potential to be cross-linkers for membrane proteins. The activity of the FERM domain is subject to multiple modes of regulation via binding of regulatory ligands, phosphorylation of the FERM associated domain and differential mRNA splicing. Finally, the spectrum of interactions of the 4.1 proteins overlaps with that of another membrane-cytoskeleton linker, ankyrin. Both ankyrin and 4.1 link to the actin cytoskeleton via spectrin, and we hypothesize that differential regulation of 4.1 proteins and ankyrins allows highly selective control of cell surface protein accumulation and, hence, function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Reciprocal influences between cell cytoskeleton and membrane channels, receptors and transporters. Guest Editor: Jean Claude Hervé PMID:23747363

Baines, Anthony J; Lu, Hui-Chun; Bennett, Pauline M

2014-02-01

125

Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) Preference and Behavioral Response to Animated Images of Conspecifics Altered in Their Color, Aspect Ratio, and Swimming Depth  

PubMed Central

Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) is an example of a freshwater fish species whose remarkable diffusion outside its native range has led to it being placed on the list of the world’s hundred worst invasive alien species (International Union for Conservation of Nature). Here, we investigate mosquitofish shoaling tendency using a dichotomous choice test in which computer-animated images of their conspecifics are altered in color, aspect ratio, and swimming level in the water column. Pairs of virtual stimuli are systematically presented to focal subjects to evaluate their attractiveness and the effect on fish behavior. Mosquitofish respond differentially to some of these stimuli showing preference for conspecifics with enhanced yellow pigmentation while exhibiting highly varying locomotory patterns. Our results suggest that computer-animated images can be used to understand the factors that regulate the social dynamics of shoals of Gambusia affinis. Such knowledge may inform the design of control plans and open new avenues in conservation and protection of endangered animal species.

Polverino, Giovanni; Liao, Jian Cong; Porfiri, Maurizio

2013-01-01

126

Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) preference and behavioral response to animated images of conspecifics altered in their color, aspect ratio, and swimming depth.  

PubMed

Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) is an example of a freshwater fish species whose remarkable diffusion outside its native range has led to it being placed on the list of the world's hundred worst invasive alien species (International Union for Conservation of Nature). Here, we investigate mosquitofish shoaling tendency using a dichotomous choice test in which computer-animated images of their conspecifics are altered in color, aspect ratio, and swimming level in the water column. Pairs of virtual stimuli are systematically presented to focal subjects to evaluate their attractiveness and the effect on fish behavior. Mosquitofish respond differentially to some of these stimuli showing preference for conspecifics with enhanced yellow pigmentation while exhibiting highly varying locomotory patterns. Our results suggest that computer-animated images can be used to understand the factors that regulate the social dynamics of shoals of Gambusia affinis. Such knowledge may inform the design of control plans and open new avenues in conservation and protection of endangered animal species. PMID:23342131

Polverino, Giovanni; Liao, Jian Cong; Porfiri, Maurizio

2013-01-01

127

Non-Invasive in vivo Mapping and Long-Term Monitoring of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Different Organs of Animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative detection of magnetic nanoparticles (MP) in vivo is very important for various biomedical applications. Our original detection method based on non-linear MP magnetization has been modified for non-invasive in vivo mapping of the MP distribution among different organs of rats. A novel highly sensitive room-temperature device equipped with an external probe has been designed and tested for quantification of MP within 20-mm depth from the animal skin. Results obtained by external in vivo scanning of rats by the probe and ex vivo MP quantification in different organs of rats well correlated. The method allows long-term in vivo study of MP evolution, clearance and redistribution among different organs of the animal. Experiments showed that dynamics in vivo strongly depend on MP characteristics (size, material, coatings, etc.), site of injection and dose. The developed detection method combined with the magnetic nanolabels can substitute the radioactive labeling in many applications.

Nikitin, Maxim; Yuriev, Mikhail; Brusentsov, Nikolai; Vetoshko, Petr; Nikitin, Petr

2010-12-01

128

Altered temporal organization of plasma insulin oscillations in chronic renal failure.  

PubMed

Chronic renal failure (CRF) is associated with mechanistically unexplained impaired insulin sensitivity. Erratic insulin secretory patterns typify other states of insulin resistance. We sought to investigate possible alterations of plasma insulin oscillations in CRF. We assessed high- and low-frequency insulin and glucose oscillations in 7 male CRF patients and 11 controls by multiparametric deconvolution analysis and cluster analysis, approximate entropy (ApEn) statistic, and cross-ApEn statistics. Insulin sensitivity was appraised by euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps. Despite impaired glucose disappearance rates in CRF, fasting and 24-h mean insulin and glucose concentrations did not differ between patients and controls. However, patients showed a 2.5-fold increase of insulin elimination half-life, reduced frequency of both rapid (6.1 +/- 0.4 vs. 7.1 +/- 0.2 h(-1), P < 0.001) and slow oscillations of insulin release (0.54 +/- 0.11 vs. 0.71 +/- 0.1 h(-1), P < 0.001), lack of acceleration and paradoxically more orderly slow insulin and glucose pulses after meals, and increased temporal coupling between insulin and glucose patterns (cross-ApEn: 0.58 +/- 0.13 vs. 1.37 +/- 0.23, P < 0.001). Postprandial glucose intolerance was inferable by prolonged and amplified blood glucose excursions despite exaggerated insulin bursts of almost 3-fold higher area. In summary, CRF is associated with a complex disruption of the temporal organization of insulin release, which differs from abnormalities observed to date in other states of insulin resistance. PMID:11994326

Feneberg, Reinhard; Sparber, Monika; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Mehls, Otto; Ritz, Eberhard; Schaefer, Franz

2002-05-01

129

Predators alter community organization of coral reef cryptofauna and reduce abundance of coral mutualists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reefs are the most diverse marine systems in the world, yet our understanding of the processes that maintain such extraordinary diversity remains limited and taxonomically biased toward the most conspicuous species. Cryptofauna that live deeply embedded within the interstitial spaces of coral reefs make up the majority of reef diversity, and many of these species provide important protective services to their coral hosts. However, we know very little about the processes governing the diversity and composition of these less conspicuous but functionally important species. Here, we experimentally quantify the role of predation in driving the community organization of small fishes and decapods that live embedded within Pocillopora eydouxi, a structurally complex, reef-building coral found widely across the Indo-Pacific. We use surveys to describe the natural distribution of predators, and then, factorially manipulate two focal predator species to quantify the independent and combined effects of predator density and identity on P. eydouxi-dwelling cryptofauna. Predators reduced abundance (34 %), species richness (20 %), and modified species composition. Rarefaction revealed that observed reductions in species richness were primarily driven by changes in abundance. Additionally, the two predator species uniquely affected the beta diversity and composition of the prey assemblage. Predators reduced the abundance and modified the composition of a number of mutualist fishes and decapods, whose benefit to the coral is known to be both diversity- and density-dependent. We predict that the density and identity of predators present within P. eydouxi may substantially alter coral performance in the face of an increased frequency and intensity of natural and anthropogenic stressors.

Stier, A. C.; Leray, M.

2014-03-01

130

Morphology of the internal organs in the adaptation of animals to high-altitude conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disruption of metabolic processes in the walls of the blood vessels as well as changes in the functional activity of the endocrine glands play an important role in the process of an animal's accommodation to a combination of stress factors. Preliminary training of animals for stays at high-altitude markedly reduces the severity of the morphological picture.

Rakhimov, Y. A.; Belkin, V. S.; Usmanov, M. U.

1975-01-01

131

Development of a vessel organ culture system: characterisation of the method and implications for the reduction of animal experiments.  

PubMed

In the field of cardiovascular research, the pig is considered to be an excellent animal model of human diseases. It is well-known that primary cultures of endothelial cells (ECs) are a powerful tool for the study of vascular physiology and pathology, and, according to the principles of the Three Rs, their use results in a substantial reduction in the numbers of experimental animals required. However, a limitation of EC culture is that the cells are not in their physiological context. Here, we describe and characterise a method for the culture of porcine vessels that overcomes the limitation of EC cultures, with the advantage of reducing the number of animals used for research purposes. The organ cultures were set-up by using an aortic cylinder obtained from the arteries of control pigs sacrificed for other experimental purposes. In order to characterise the method, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation and the vessel's structural features were evaluated during organ culture. These analyses confirm that the culture of aortic cylinder lumen, in a medium specific for ECs, results in a stable system in terms of VEGF and MMP secretion. The ECs do not undergo cell division during the organ culture, which is also the case in vivo, if no stimulation occurs. Overall, we show that this novel system closely resembles the in vivo context. Importantly, porcine aortas can be collected from either veterinary surgeries or slaughterhouses, without having to sacrifice animals specifically for the purposes of this type of research. PMID:24168133

Zaniboni, Andrea; Zannoni, Augusta; Bernardini, Chiara; De Cecco, Marco; Bombardi, Cristiano; Seren, Eraldo; Forni, Monica; Bacci, Maria Laura

2013-09-01

132

Age-related alterations in the modular organization of structural cortical network by using cortical thickness from MRI.  

PubMed

Normal aging is accompanied by various cognitive functional declines. Recent studies have revealed disruptions in the coordination of large-scale functional brain networks such as the default mode network in advanced aging. However, organizational alterations of the structural brain network at the system level in aging are still poorly understood. Here, using cortical thickness, we investigated the modular organization of the cortical structural networks in 102 young and 97 normal aging adults. Brain networks for both cohorts displayed a modular organization overlapping with functional domains such as executive and auditory/language processing. However, compared with the modular organization of young adults, the aging group demonstrated a significantly reduced modularity that might be indicative of reduced functional segregation in the aging brain. More importantly, the aging brain network exhibited reduced intra-/inter-module connectivity in modules corresponding to the executive function and the default mode network of young adults, which might be associated with the decline of cognitive functions in aging. Finally, we observed age-associated alterations in the regional characterization in terms of their intra/inter-module connectivity. Our results indicate that aging is associated with an altered modular organization in the structural brain networks and provide new evidence for disrupted integrity in the large-scale brain networks that underlie cognition. PMID:21238595

Chen, Zhang J; He, Yong; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Gong, Gaolang; Evans, Alan C

2011-05-01

133

The biochemical and morphological alterations following administration of melatonin, retinoic acid and Nigella sativa in mammary carcinoma: an animal model  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women and the third most common cancer. Although our understanding of the molecular basis of this fatal disease has improved, this malignancy remains elusive. Melatonin (Mel), retinoic acid (RA) and Nigella sativa (NS) are substances with anticancer effects. To date, our understanding of the mechanisms of therapeutic effects of these products in mammary cancer is still marginal. To look at the preventive and therapeutic values of these products, we carried out this investigation. An animal model formed of 80 rats was established. The animals were divided into eight groups of 10 animals each: (a) control group injected with the same vehicle used for treatments in the relevant dosages and routes; (b) carcinogen group injected with the known carcinogenic substance 7,12-di-methylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) that induces mammary carcinoma; (c) three prophylactic (Pro) groups (Mel-Pro, RA-Pro and NS-Pro) injected with test substances (Mel, RA and NS, respectively) 14 days before the intake of the carcinogenic substance DMBA and then continued until the end of the experiments; and (d) three treated (Tr) groups (Mel-Tr, RA-Tr and NS-Tr) injected with the vehicles after the intake of DMBA. In both the Pro and Tr groups, the drugs were daily administered for 3 months. The animals were killed, and their serum and tissues were evaluated for (a) markers of tumorigenicity [serum levels of total sialic acid (TSA) and lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA)], (b) markers of endocrine derangement (serum prolactin, estradiol and progesterone levels), (c) apoptotic changes [serum tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, tissue caspase-3 activity, percentage of DNA fragmentation and ultrastructural features of apoptosis] and (d) markers of oxidative stress (tissue levels of lipid peroxides and nitric oxide). Carcinoma was absent both in the control and in the NS-Pro groups. Mammary carcinoma occurred in DMBA and other Pro and Tr groups. The frequency of mammary carcinoma was high in the carcinogen DMBA group (60%), followed by the Tr (56%) and finally the Pro groups (33%). These tumours included papillary, comedo and cribriform carcinomas. As compared with the control group, the development of carcinoma in the carcinogen DMBA group was associated with increased levels of (a) markers of tumorigenicity (77.0 ± 3.3 vs. 209.0 ± 5.6 and P < 0.05 for TSA; 28.7 ± 1.7 vs. 41.8 ± 1.2 and P < 0.01 for LSA), (b) markers of endocrine derangement (2.5 ± 0.1 vs. 3.6 ± 0.3 and P < 0.05 for prolactin; 39.6 ± 1.3 vs. 24.8 ± 2.1 and P < 0.01 for progesterone and 31.0 ± 0.7 vs. 51.1 ± 3.4 and P < 0.01 for estradiol) and (c) markers of oxidative stress (2.3 ± 0.2 vs. 5.2 ± 0.7 and P < 0.01 for lipid peroxides and 4.4 ± 0.2 vs. 7.6 ± 0.8 and P < 0.01 for nitric oxide). Also, it was associated with decreased levels of markers of apoptotic activity (20.8 ± 1.1 vs. 13.4 ± 0.7 and P < 0.01 for caspase-3; 29.0 ± 1.7 vs. 20.9 ± 1.3 and P < 0.05 for percentage of DNA fragmentation; and 9.4 ± 0.8 vs. 52.1 ± 3.3 and P < 0.01 for TNF-?). When compared with the carcinogen DMBA group, the development of carcinoma in the Pro and Tr groups was associated with decreased levels of (a) markers of tumorigenicity, (b) markers of endocrine derangement and (c) markers of oxidative stress. Alternatively, carcinogenicity was associated with statistically significant (P < 0.01) increased levels of markers of apoptotic activity. To conclude, the administration of Mel, RA and NS reduced the carcinogenic effects of DMBA, suggesting a protective role. The possible underlying mechanisms of these effects await further investigations.

El-Aziz, Mohamad A Abd; Hassan, Hosny A; Mohamed, Mahmoud H; Meki, Abdel-Raheim M A; Abdel-Ghaffar, Sary K H; Hussein, Mahmoud R

2005-01-01

134

Effects of Biochemical Alteration in Animal Model after Short-Term Exposure of Jatropha curcas (Linn) Leaf Extract  

PubMed Central

This study aims to evaluate potential toxic effect of Jatropha curcas leaves methanol extract on laboratory rats as well as determine its LD50. A total of 80 male Wistar rats were used as the experimental animals, 40 for LD50 determination and the other 40 for toxicity study. Based on the pretest that was done in order to establish a range of toxicity, 4 dosages (86.00, 58.00, 46.00, and 34.0?kg/body weight) were chosen. The rats were randomly assigned into four groups with 10 rats in each group. Rats in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were given 0?mg/kg, 500?mg/kg, 1000?mg/kg, and 2000?mg/kg body weight of Jatropha curcas extract, respectively, by oral intubation for 21 days. Thereafter, clinical signs, change in body weight, toxicity symptoms, and biochemical parameters were obtained. The LD50 at 95% confidence limits for rats was 46.0?mg/kg body weight (44.95–52.69?mg/kg body mass). There was no clinical and biochemical signs of toxicity when the extract was administered at 500, 1000, and 2000?mg/kg body weight, respectively (P > 0.05). Results obtained from this study suggest that liver, kidney, and haematological system of rats tolerated methanolic leave extract of Jatropha curcas at a certain concentration.

Igbinosa, Osamuyimen O.; Oviasogie, Efosa F.; Igbinosa, Etinosa O.; Igene, Otibhor; Igbinosa, Isoken H.; Idemudia, Omoruyi G.

2013-01-01

135

NMR studies on the chemical alteration of soil organic matter precursors during controlled charring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beside the production of volatiles, vegetation fire transforms various amounts of labile organic components into recalcitrant dark colored and highly aromatic structures. They are incorporated into soils and are assumed to represent an important sink within the global carbon cycle. In order to elucidate the real importance of PyOM as a C-sink, a good understanding of its chemistry is crucial. Although several 'Black Carbon' (BC) models are reported, a commonly accepted view of the chemistry involved in its formation is still missing. Its biogeochemical recalcitrance is commonly associated with a highly condensed aromatic structure. However, recent studies indicated that this view may be oversimplified for PyOM derived from vegetation fire. In order to bring some more light on the structural properties of PyOM produced during vegetation fire, charred plant residues and model chars derived from typical plant macromolecules (casein, cellulose, lignin and condensed tannins) were subjected to controlled charring under oxic conditions (350°C and 450°C) and then characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Subsequently, the chemical features of the PyOM were related to its chemical recalcitrance as determined by chemical oxidation with acid potassium dichromate. Charring cellulose (350°C, 8 min) yielded in a low C-recovery (11%). Treating casein in the same way resulted in a survival of 62% of its C and 46% of its N. Comparable high C-recoveries are reported for lignin. After charring Lolium perenne, 34% of its N and C were recovered. NMR-spectroscopic studies revealed that for this sample most of the charred N and C occurred in pyrrole-type structures. Our studies further indicate that the aromatic skeleton of char accumulating after a vegetation fire must contain remains of the lignin backbone and considerable contributions of furans and anhydrosugars from thermally altered cellulose. Enhancing the temperature during the charring of casein to 450°C decreased the C and N recovery to 30% and 23%, respectively. Comparably the C, O and H recovery were also reduced in the cellulose char, but to a considerably higher extent. These changes went along with a further augmentation of the relative contribution of aromatic C. Increased C, H and O losses were also observed for charring of lignin at higher temperature, although they were smaller than those observed for casein and cellulose. The higher temperature considerably altered the chemistry of the lignin char. The atomic H/C ratio, however, remained above 0.5 showing that in average at least every second C is protonated. Subjecting the produced chars to chemical oxidation with acid potassium dichromate clearly demonstrated that the resistance of the casein chars against heat is not necessarily related to chemical recalcitrance. For the char produced at 350°C, only 13% of the C and N remained in the oxidation residues, whereas for that produced at 450°C this value increased to 80%. In contrast, both cellulose chars showed high chemical resistance with a C-survival of more than 80%. Comparatively, the C and N recalcitrance in the grass chars increased with temperature, whereas, the burned wood residues (350°C) suffered an almost complete oxidation. The chars from condensed tannins, on the other hand showed a high chemical resistance independently from the production temperature. In summary, this study confirmed that the thermal, chemical and biological recalcitrance of biochars is related to their chemical structures and N-contents, which on the other hand depend on the source and the respective charring conditions. The resulting high chemical variability of biochars is in accordance with the concept of BC as a continuum and explains the high discrepancy among BC quantifications obtained with common approaches assuming BC as a highly condensed polyaromatic network.

Knicker, Heike

2010-05-01

136

Nicotine pharmacokinetics in rats is altered as a function of age, impacting the interpretation of animal model data.  

PubMed

Several behavioral studies report that adolescent rats display a preference for nicotine compared with adults. However, age-related pharmacokinetic differences may confound the interpretation of these findings. Thus, differences in pharmacokinetic analyses of nicotine were investigated. Nicotine was administered via acute s.c. (1.0 mg base/kg) or i.v. (0.2 mg base/kg) injection to early adolescent (EA; postnatal day 25) and adult (AD; postnatal day 71) male Wistar rats. Nicotine and its primary metabolite, cotinine, and additional metabolites nornicotine, nicotine-1'-N-oxide, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, and norcotinine were sampled from 10 minutes to 8 hours (plasma) and 2 to 8 hours (brain) post nicotine and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Following s.c. nicotine, the EA cohort had lower levels of plasma nicotine, cotinine, and nicotine-1'-N-oxide at multiple time points, resulting in a lower area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for nicotine (P < 0.001), cotinine (P < 0.01), and nicotine-1'-N-oxide (P < 0.001). Brain levels were also lower for these compounds. In contrast, the EA cohort had higher plasma and brain AUCs (P < 0.001) for the minor metabolite nornicotine. Brain-to-plasma ratios varied for nicotine and its metabolites, and by age. Following i.v. nicotine administration, similar age-related differences were observed, and this route allowed detection of a 1.6-fold-larger volume of distribution and 2-fold higher plasma clearance in the EA cohort compared with the AD cohort. Thus, unlike in humans, there are substantial age differences in nicotine pharmacokinetics such that for a given nicotine dose, adolescent rats will have lower plasma and brain nicotine compared with adults, suggesting that this should be considered when interpreting animal model data. PMID:24980255

Craig, Evelyn L; Zhao, Bin; Cui, Jason Z; Novalen, Maria; Miksys, Sharon; Tyndale, Rachel F

2014-09-01

137

Approaches to extrapolating animal toxicity data on organic solvents to public health  

EPA Science Inventory

Developing predictive relationships between exposure and toxicity in humans is difficult because 1) available data are usually derived from experimental animals whose sensitivity to the chemical relative to humans is unknown; 2) the specific neurotoxic endpoints measured in labor...

138

Welfare of animal production in intensive and organic systems with special reference to Danish organic pig production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although organic meat production is only a small proportion of the total meat production in the EU, it is increasing in size to take the demands of certain market segments into account. Organic production standards vary according to organisation within countries but all must as a minimum fulfil EU legislative requirements. There is a greater potential for optimal welfare in

Patricia Barton Gade

2002-01-01

139

Alteration of cancer pain-related signals by radiation: Proteomic analysis in an animal model with cancer bone invasion  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Although radiotherapy is highly effective in relieving bone pain due to cancer invasion, its mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore this mechanism in an animal model system. Methods and Materials: A hind paw model of cancer pain was developed by transplanting a murine hepatocarcinoma, HCa-1, into the periosteal membrane of the foot dorsum of C3H/HeJ mice. Bone invasion from HCa-1 was histopathologically confirmed from sequential tumor sampling. For three experimental groups, a control (N), tumor without radiation (T), and tumor with radiation (TR), the development and level of pain were objectively examined in mice with a growing tumor by assessing pain-associated behavior. The differential expression of pain-related signals in the spinal cord was analyzed by proteomic analysis using high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry, and those of proteins by Western blotting. The pain-mediating neurotransmitters in the spinal cord were also examined by immunohistochemical staining for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P. Results: In the histopathologic examinations, bone invasion from HCa-1 was seen from Day 7 and was evident at Day 14 after transplantation, and measurable pain-associated behaviors were developed from Day 7. After 25 Gy of radiation to the tumors, the objective level of pain in the TR group decreased, with higher thresholds to mechanical and thermal stimulation than in the T group. From the 2-DE of spinal cord, 107 spots were identified; 12 proteins were changed more than fivefold because of tumor formation but then reversed after radiation in the tumor-bearing mice. The proteins involved included secretagogin, syntenin, P2X purinoreceptor 6 (P2X6), and Ca{sup 2+}/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1 (CaM kinase 1), the functions of which have been known to be involved in the Ca{sup 2+}-signaling cascade, ATP-mediated fast synaptic transmission, or control of vesicular trafficking. Validations using Western blotting were successful for the CaM kinase and P2X6. In immunohistochemical staining of the spinal cord, a significant decrease after irradiation was shown in the expression of CGRP, but not in substance P. Conclusions: We developed a novel model for bone pain due to cancer invasion, which was confirmed by histopathologic examination and measurable pain-associated behaviors. Radiotherapy decreased the objective level of pain. The underlying mechanism seems to be related to the Ca{sup 2+}-signaling cascade or control of vesicular trafficking.

Park, Hee Chul [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Jinsil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jsseong@yumc.yonsei.ac.kr; An, Jung Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiyoung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Un Jung [Yonsei Medical Research Center, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bae Whan [Yonsei Medical Research Center, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2005-04-01

140

Influence of Microwave Radiation on the Organism of Man and Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of the microwave field on the organism were studied. The biological bases of the action of microwave electromagnetic radiation on the organism are considered with experimental material on the influence of high and low microwave intensities on t...

I. R. Petrov

1972-01-01

141

Thermal alteration of spores and pollen and maturity of organic matter of the Cretaceous system, Songliao Basin, Northeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between sporo-pollen color and the degree of maturation of organic matter is discussed with regard to oil\\u000a generation and evolution, as typified by the Cretaceous system in the Daqing Oil Field, central Songliao Basin, Northeast\\u000a China. Color variation of spores and pollen is considered as a function of sedimentary environment and thermal alteration.\\u000a Sporo-pollen color is classified into

Chuanben Zhao

1984-01-01

142

Laboratory simulated hydrothermal alteration of sedimentary organic matter from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. Ph.D. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High temperature alteration of sedimentary organic matter associated with marine hydrothermal systems involves complex physical and chemical processes that are not easily measured in most natural systems. Many of these processes can be evaluated indirectly by examining the geochemistry of the hydrothermal system in the laboratory. In this investigation, an experimental organic geochemical approach to studying pyrolysis of sedimentary organic matter is applied to the hydrothermal system in the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. A general survey of hydrothermal oils and extractable organic matter (bitumen) in hydrothermally altered sediments identified several homologous series of alkanones associated with a high temperature hydrothermal origin. The alkanones range in carbon number from C11 to C30 with no carbon number preference. Alkan-2-ones are in highest concentrations, with lower amounts of 3-, 4-, 5- (and higher) homologs. The alkanones appear to be pyrolysis products synthesized under extreme hydrothermal conditions. Hydrous pyrolysis and confinement pyrolysis experiments were performed to simulate thermally enhanced diagenetic and catagenetic changes in the immature sedimentary organic matter. The extent of alteration was measured by monitoring the n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, steroid and triterpenoid biomarkers, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanones. The results were compared to bitumen extracts from sediments which have been naturally altered by a sill intrusion and accompanied hydrothermal fluid flow. These pyrolysis experiments duplicated many of the organic matter transformations observed in the natural system. Full hopane and sterane maturation occurred after 48 hr in experiments at 330 deg C with low water/rock mass ratios (0.29). A variety of radical and ionic reactions are responsible for the organic compound conversions which occur under extreme hydrothermal conditions. Short duration pyrolysis experiments revealed that a portion of the hydrocarbons generated from kerogen was observed to go through alkene intermediates, and the rate of alkene isomerization was influenced by the ionic strength and catalytic mineral phases. Confinement of the organic pyrolysate to the bulk sediment accelerated the rates of the biomarker epimerization reactions, suggesting that these reactions are influenced strongly by the association of the inorganic matrix, and that the relative rates of some ionic and radical reactions can be influenced by the water/rock ratio during the pyrolysis experiments.

Leif, Roald N.

1993-01-01

143

Altered Network Topologies and Hub Organization in Adults with Autism: A Resting-State fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies on autism spectrum condition (ASC) have identified dysfunctions in specific brain networks involved in social and non-social cognition that persist into adulthood. Although increasing numbers of fMRI studies have revealed atypical functional connectivity in the adult ASC brain, such functional alterations at the network level have not yet been fully characterized within the recently developed graph-theoretical framework. Here, we applied a graph-theoretical analysis to resting-state fMRI data acquired from 46 adults with ASC and 46 age- and gender-matched controls, to investigate the topological properties and organization of autistic brain network. Analyses of global metrics revealed that, relative to the controls, participants with ASC exhibited significant decreases in clustering coefficient and characteristic path length, indicating a shift towards randomized organization. Furthermore, analyses of local metrics revealed a significantly altered organization of the hub nodes in ASC, as shown by analyses of hub disruption indices using multiple local metrics and by a loss of “hubness” in several nodes (e.g., the bilateral superior temporal sulcus, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and precuneus) that are critical for social and non-social cognitive functions. In particular, local metrics of the anterior cingulate cortex consistently showed significant negative correlations with the Autism-Spectrum Quotient score. Our results demonstrate altered patterns of global and local topological properties that may underlie impaired social and non-social cognition in ASC.

Itahashi, Takashi; Yamada, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiromi; Nakamura, Motoaki; Jimbo, Daiki; Shioda, Seiji; Toriizuka, Kazuo; Kato, Nobumasa; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro

2014-01-01

144

Animal Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces students to the concept of animal ecology. The first section explains the different ways animals use camouflage. There is also a discussion of how the process of decay breaks organic matter down into nutrients, and how simple aquatic organisms (algae, zooplankton) provide a food source for larger organisms. The concept of food chains is introduced, and land-based and aquatic examples are described. A quiz and glossary are included.

145

Microfabricated Mammalian Organ Systems and Their Integration into Models of Whole Animals and Humans  

PubMed Central

While in vitro cell based systems have been an invaluable tool in biology, they often suffer from a lack of physiological relevance. The discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo systems has been a bottleneck in drug development process and biological sciences. The recent progress in microtechnology has enabled manipulation of cellular environment at a physiologically relevant length scale, which has led to the development of novel in vitro organ systems, often termed ‘organ-on-a-chip’ systems. By mimicking the cellular environment of in vivo tissues, various organ-on-a-chip systems have been reported to reproduce target organ functions better than conventional in vitro model systems. Ultimately, these organ-on-a-chip systems will converge into multi-organ ‘body-on-a-chip’ systems composed of functional tissues that reproduce the dynamics of the whole-body response. Such microscale in vitro systems will open up new possibilities in medical science and in the pharmaceutical industry.

Sung, Jong H; Esch, Mandy B; Prot, Jean-Matthieu; Long, Christopher J; Smith, Alec; Hickman, James; Shuler, Michael L

2013-01-01

146

Endoplasmic reticulum of animal cells and its organization into structural and functional domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in animal cells is an extensive, morphologically continuous network of membrane tubules and flattened cisternae. The ER is a multifunctional organelle; the synthesis of membrane lipids, membrane and secretory proteins, and the regulation of intracellular calcium are prominent among its array of functions. Many of these functions are not homogeneously distributed throughout the ER but rather

Otto Baumann; Bernd Walz

2001-01-01

147

Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals  

PubMed Central

Intravital fluorescence microscopy has emerged as a powerful technique to visualize cellular processes in vivo. However, the size of the objective lenses has limited physical accessibility to various tissue sites in the internal organs of small animals. The use of small-diameter probes using graded-index (GRIN) lenses expands the capabilities of conventional intravital microscopes into minimally invasive internal organs imaging. In this protocol, we describe the detailed steps for the fabrication of front- and side-view GRIN probes and the integration and operation of the probes in a confocal microscope for visualizing fluorescent cells and microvasculature in various murine organs. We further present longitudinal imaging of immune cells in renal allografts and the tumor development in the colon. The fabrication and integration can be completed in 5–7 hours, and a typical in vivo imaging session takes 1–2 hours.

Kim, Jun Ki; Lee, Woei Ming; Kim, Pilhan; Choi, Myunghwan; Jung, Keehoon; Kim, Seonghoon; Yun, Seok Hyun

2013-01-01

148

Structural atrial remodeling alters the substrate and spatiotemporal organization of atrial fibrillation: a comparison in canine models of structural and electrical atrial remodeling  

PubMed Central

Several animal models of atrial fibrillation (AF) have been developed that demonstrate either atrial structural remodeling or atrial electrical remodeling, but the characteristics and spatiotemporal organization of the AF between the models have not been compared. Thirty-nine dogs were divided into five groups: rapid atrial pacing (RAP), chronic mitral regurgitation (MR), congestive heart failure (CHF), methylcholine (Meth), and control. Right and left atria (RA and LA, respectively) were simultaneously mapped during episodes of AF in each animal using high-density (240 electrodes) epicardial arrays. Multiple 30-s AF epochs were recorded in each dog. Fast Fourier transform was calculated every 1 s over a sliding 2-s window, and dominant frequency (DF) was determined. Stable, discrete, high-frequency areas were seen in none of the RAP or control dogs, four of nine MR dogs, four of six CHF dogs, and seven of nine Meth dogs in either the RA or LA or both. Average DFs in the Meth model were significantly greater than in all other models in both LA and RA except LA DFs in the RAP model. The RAP model was the only one with a consistent LA-to-RA DF gradient (9.5 ± 0.2 vs. 8.3 ± 0.3 Hz, P < 0.00005). The Meth model had a higher spatial and temporal variance of DFs and lower measured organization levels compared with the other AF models, and it was the only model to show a linear relationship between the highest DF and dispersion (R2 = 0.86). These data indicate that structural remodeling of atria (models known to have predominantly altered conduction) leads to an AF characterized by a stable high-frequency area, whereas electrical remodeling of atria (models known to have predominantly shortened refractoriness without significant conduction abnormalities) leads to an AF characterized by multiple high-frequency areas and multiple wavelets.

Everett, Thomas H.; Wilson, Emily E.; Verheule, Sander; Guerra, Jose M.; Foreman, Scott; Olgin, Jeffrey E.

2007-01-01

149

Microbial alteration of stable nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions of organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

An understanding of the interaction between microbes and organic matter can help elucidate the diagenesis of organic materials in sediments. Vibrio harveyi, a marine, aerobic, heterotrophic bacterium, was cultured on individual compounds each containing carbon and nitrogen, i.e. amino acids or amino sugars. When grown on different substrates, the bacteria fractionated the isotopes uniquely. These fractionations were related to the

STEPHEN A. MACKO; MARILYN L. F. ESTEP

1984-01-01

150

Renal and hepatotoxic alterations in adult mice on inhalation of specific mixture of organic solvents.  

PubMed

This study was aimed at investigating alterations in renal and hepatic toxicity induced by exposing to a combination of three solvents, namely, benzene, toluene and xylene in adult mice. The mice were divided into three groups (control, low-dose-treated (450 ppm) and high-dose (675 ppm) groups) using randomization methods. The treated groups were exposed to vapours of a mixture of benzene, toluene and xylene at doses of 450 and 675 ppm, for 6 h day(-1) for a short-term of 7-day exposure period. The study revealed that the solvent exposure resulted in an increase in the weight of liver and kidney as compared to the control. Biochemical analyses indicated a significant decline in the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in both the treated groups, with concomitant increase in lipid peroxidation. Liver aminotransferases (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) were elevated with significant alterations in the levels of protein, creatinine and cholesterol in these tissues upon solvent exposure. Correlated with these changes, serum thyroid hormones T3 and T4 were also significantly altered. This study, therefore, demonstrates that inhalation of vapours from the solvent mixture resulted in significant dose-dependent biochemical and functional changes in the vital tissues (liver and kidney) studied. The study has specific relevance since humans are increasingly being exposed to such solvents due to increased industrial use in such combinations. PMID:23637306

Vaghasia, Ketan K; Bhavyata, Kalariya; Linzbuoy, George; Hyacinth, Highland N

2013-05-01

151

Prenatal poly I:C age-dependently alters cannabinoid type 1 receptors in offspring: A longitudinal small animal PET study using [(18)F]MK-9470.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that there is a link between the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and neuropsychiatric illnesses, including schizophrenia. Whilst the ECS has been shown to be involved in immune system regulation in various ways, it is known that infections during pregnancy can modulate the immune system of the mother and increase the risk for schizophrenia in offspring. In animal studies, maternal immune activation following administration of viral or bacterial mimics has been shown to reproduce many key structural, behavioural, and pharmacological abnormalities in offspring that resemble schizophrenia. In the present study, we used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and [(18)F]MK-9470, a selective high-affinity inverse agonist radioligand for cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1R), to longitudinally assess CB1R expression in the progeny of female rats exposed to the viral mimic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (poly I:C) (4mg/kg i.v.) or vehicle at gestational day 15 (GD 15). PET scans were performed in offspring at postnatal days (PND) 32-42 (adolescence) and in the same animals again at PNDs 75-79 (adulthood). Sixteen regions of interest were assessed, encompassing the whole rat brain. At adolescence, offspring exposed prenatally to poly I:C had significantly lower CB1R relative Standard Uptake Values (rSUV) compared to controls in the globus pallidus (p=0.046). In adulthood, however, poly I:C exposed offspring had higher levels of CB1R rSUV in sensory cortex (p=0.034) and hypothalamus (p=0.032) compared to controls. Our results suggest that prenatal poly I:C leads to long term alterations in the integrity of the ECS that are age and region-specific. The increased CB1R expression in adulthood following poly I:C mirrors the increased CB1R observed in patients with schizophrenia in post-mortem and in vivo PET studies. PMID:24825369

Verdurand, Mathieu; Dalton, Victoria S; Nguyen, Vu; Grégoire, Marie-Claude; Zahra, David; Wyatt, Naomi; Burgess, Leena; Greguric, Ivan; Zavitsanou, Katerina

2014-07-01

152

Plant Surface MicroOrganisms as Sources of Compounds Toxic for Humans and Domestic Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

At first sight this topic may evoke a variety of expectations, or even cause surprise that toxinogenic micro-organisms might\\u000a be of any consequence on the surface of plants. Generally most non-senescent plant surfaces do not support populations of\\u000a potentially saprophytic micro-organisms that are significant in the local generation of toxins. Sometimes pathogenic fungi\\u000a may establish sub-cuticular, or deeper, infections in

Peter G. Mantle

153

Are there structural alterations in the enamel organ of offspring of rats with alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus?  

PubMed

Enamel hypoplasia is the most common developmental defect of human teeth that may be seen in deciduous teeth of babies born to diabetic women. In the present experimental study, we analyzed the enamel organ of the mandibular incisors of the offspring of rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. By light microscopy, no alterations could be found in the enamel organ of rats born to diabetic mothers compared to normal ones, except in one case. In contrast, significant differences were detected with computer-aided morphometry. In the rats born to treated and untreated diabetic mothers, there was thinning of the enamel matrix and of the ameloblasts and the nuclear area of the latter was smaller. In the rats born to treated diabetic mothers, the nuclei of the ameloblasts were more elliptical and there was enlargement of the interstitial area of the stellate reticulum. These results indicate that there are structural defects in the enamel organ of rats born to mothers with alloxan-induced diabetes which could induce the enamel hypoplasia observed by scanning electron microscopy and which may reflect the metabolic alterations seen in this condition. Future studies are needed to determine whether these effects are transitory or permanent. PMID:15057390

Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Corrêa; Peres, Luiz Cesar; Foss, Milton César

2003-01-01

154

Can education alter attitudes, behaviour and knowledge about organ donation? A pretest-post-test study  

PubMed Central

Objective The emergence of evidence suggests that student nurses commonly exhibit concerns about their lack of knowledge of organ donation and transplantation. Formal training about organ donation has been shown to positively influence attitude, encourage communication and registration behaviours and improve knowledge about donor eligibility and brain death. The focus of this study was to determine the attitude and behaviour of student nurses and to assess their level of knowledge about organ donation after a programme of study. Design A quantitative questionnaire was completed before and after participation in a programme of study using a pretest–post-test design. Setting Participants were recruited from a University based in Northern Ireland during the period from February to April 2011. Participants 100 preregistration nurses (female?:?male=96?:?4) aged 18–50?years (mean (SD) 24.3 (6.0)?years) were recruited. Results Participants’ knowledge improved over the programme of study with regard to the suitability of organs that can be donated after death, methods available to register organ donation intentions, organ donation laws, concept of brain death and the likelihood of recovery after brain death. Changes in attitude postintervention were also observed in relation to participants’ willingness to accept an informed system of consent and with regard to participants’ actual discussion behaviour. Conclusions The results provide support for the introduction of a programme that helps inform student nurses about important aspects of organ donation.

McGlade, Donal; Pierscionek, Barbara

2013-01-01

155

Escherichia coli isolates from extraintestinal organs of livestock animals harbour diverse virulence genes and belong to multiple genetic lineages.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli, the most common cause of bacteraemia in humans in the UK, can also cause serious diseases in animals. However the population structure, virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes of those from extraintestinal organs of livestock animals are poorly characterised. The aims of this study were to investigate the diversity of these isolates from livestock animals and to understand if there was any correlation between the virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes and the genetic backbone of the bacteria and if these isolates were similar to those isolated from humans. Here 39 E. coli isolates from liver (n=31), spleen (n=5) and blood (n=3) of cattle (n=34), sheep (n=3), chicken (n=1) and pig (n=1) were assigned to 19 serogroups with O8 being the most common (n=7), followed by O101, O20 (both n=3) and O153 (n=2). They belong to 29 multi-locus sequence types, 20 clonal complexes with ST23 (n=7), ST10 (n=6), ST117 and ST155 (both n=3) being most common and were distributed among phylogenetic group A (n=16), B1 (n=12), B2 (n=2) and D (n=9). The pattern of a subset of putative virulence genes was different in almost all isolates. No correlation between serogroups, animal hosts, MLST types, virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes was identified. The distributions of clonal complexes and virulence genes were similar to other extraintestinal or commensal E. coli from humans and other animals, suggesting a zoonotic potential. The diverse and various combinations of virulence genes implied that the infections were caused by different mechanisms and infection control will be challenging. PMID:22766078

Wu, Guanghui; Ehricht, Ralf; Mafura, Muriel; Stokes, Matthew; Smith, Noel; Pritchard, Geoff C; Woodward, Martin J

2012-11-01

156

Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted\\u000a in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical\\u000a agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nutrient cycling, and soil organic matter pools. The objective of this experiment\\u000a was to assess the affect

Hollie Hall; Yuncong Li; Nicholas Comerford; Enrique Arévalo Gardini; Luis Zuniga Cernades; Virupax Baligar; Hugh Popenoe

2010-01-01

157

Comparative characteristic of mitochondria ultrastructural organization in Chlorella cells under altered gravity conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from experiments that used cells from the unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris (strain Larg-1) grown on a clinostat, demonstrated the occurrence of rearrangements in cellular organelles, including changes in the mitochondrial ultrastructure compared to controls. Changes in mitochondrial structure were observed in auto- and heterotrophic regimes of cells grown in altered gravity conditions, especially in long-term experiments. The mitochondrial rearrangements become apparent during cell proliferation, which resulted in an increase in the relative volume of mitochondria per cell: up to 2.7±0.3% in short-term clino-rotation (2.2±0.1% in the control) and up to 5.3±0.4% and 5.1±0.4% in long-term clino-rotation (2.3±0.2% in the control). The size of the mitochondria and their cristae increased in cells grown under long-time clino-rotation. In addition, hypertrophied organelles, not typical for this strain, were observed. These changes in the cells were accompanied by increased electron density of the matrix and a well-ordered topography of the cristae. To examine the separation of oxidative phosphorylation and respiration, an inhibitory agent 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) was applied to cells which resulted in insignificant volume changes of the mitochondria (2.5±0.4% versus 2.1±0.2% in the control). The increase of mitochondrial size with regularly arranged cristae, with more condensed matrix and extension of cristae areas of clino-rotated cells, may demonstrate higher functional activity of the mitochondria under altered gravity conditions. Changes observed early in clino-rotated cells, in particular the increased level of respiration, adenylate content (especially ATP) and more intensive electron-cytochemical reactions of Mg 2+-ATPase and succinat dehydrogenase (SDH) in mitochondria (including hypertrophic organelles), also suggest increased activity of mitochondria from cells grown under altered gravity conditions compared to controls.

Popova, A. F.

2003-05-01

158

Electron-beam-induced alteration of the dielectric properties of sandwiched self-assembled organic monolayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical transport through octadecyltrichlorosilane self-assembled monolayers sandwiched between a silicon substrate and an aluminum film was altered using electron-beams (e-beams) with different energies and doses. Under certain e-beam conditions, improvement of the dielectric performance was observed compared with the unmodified monolayers. This was ascribed to partial ``healing'' of the gauche defects within the alkyl chains under the electron flux. It was also possible to vary the barrier height between 2 and 2.35 eV, an effect attributed to the creation of amorphous carbon under prolonged exposure times. Factors that influenced these effects were identified and discussed.

Balaur, Eugeniu; Peele, Andrew G.

2010-04-01

159

Postdiagenetic Alteration of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Rock of the Greater caucasus and the Caucasus Piedmont (Based on Studies of Organic matter)  

SciTech Connect

Based on the study of the metamorphism of scattered organic matter (vitrinite), maps have been compiled of the postdiagenetic alteration of the Lower Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous, and Upper Paleogene rocks.

Chichua, B.K.; Agulov, A.P.; Kilasoniva, Z.N.; Zhgenti, T.G.

1986-03-01

160

Model organisms, 2D animationSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each model organism has its own advantages and disadvantages. Choosing an appropriate model depends on the question being asked. Many laboratories find it useful to perform parallel experiments in two or more model systems to understand different aspects of a biochemical process.

2008-10-06

161

Pyrolysis of organic compounds in the presence of ammonia The Viking Mars lander site alteration experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of ammonia on the pyrolysis pattern of selected organic substances sorbed on an inorganic phase was investigated. The thermal degradation products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The feasibility of this technique was tested on a meteoritic sample. All substances examined react with ammonia at the pyrolysis temperature of 500 C, the major products being nitriles and heterocyclic compounds in which nitrogen was incorporated. Based on these results, a model for the non-equilibrium production of organic compounds on Jupiter is discussed. The investigation was performed in connection with the Viking lander molecular analysis. The results obtained indicate that the concentrations of ammonia in the retrorocket fuel exhaust would have been probably too small to produce significant changes in the Martian soil organic compounds if any were found.

Holzer, G.; Oro, J.

1977-01-01

162

Automated rodent in situ muscle contraction assay and myofiber organization analysis in sarcopenia animal models.  

PubMed

Age-related sarcopenia results in frailty and decreased mobility, which are associated with increased falls and long-term disability in the elderly. Given the global increase in lifespan, sarcopenia is a growing, unmet medical need. This report aims to systematically characterize muscle aging in preclinical models, which may facilitate the development of sarcopenia therapies. Naïve rats and mice were subjected to noninvasive micro X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging, terminal in situ muscle function characterizations, and ATPase-based myofiber analysis. We developed a Definiens (Parsippany, NJ)-based algorithm to automate micro-CT image analysis, which facilitates longitudinal in vivo muscle mass analysis. We report development and characterization of translational in situ skeletal muscle performance assay systems in rat and mouse. The systems incorporate a custom-designed animal assay stage, resulting in enhanced force measurement precision, and LabVIEW (National Instruments, Austin, TX)-based algorithms to support automated data acquisition and data analysis. We used ATPase-staining techniques for myofibers to characterize fiber subtypes and distribution. Major parameters contributing to muscle performance were identified using data mining and integration, enabled by Labmatrix (BioFortis, Columbia, MD). These technologies enabled the systemic and accurate monitoring of muscle aging from a large number of animals. The data indicated that longitudinal muscle cross-sectional area measurement effectively monitors change of muscle mass and function during aging. Furthermore, the data showed that muscle performance during aging is also modulated by myofiber remodeling factors, such as changes in myofiber distribution patterns and changes in fiber shape, which affect myofiber interaction. This in vivo muscle assay platform has been applied to support identification and validation of novel targets for the treatment of sarcopenia. PMID:22461442

Weber, H; Rauch, A; Adamski, S; Chakravarthy, K; Kulkarni, A; Dogdas, B; Bendtsen, C; Kath, G; Alves, S E; Wilkinson, H A; Chiu, C-S

2012-06-01

163

Linking diagenetic alteration of amino acids and bulk organic matter reactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of amino acids in particulate samples from a variety of marine environments (fresh phytoplankton to deep-sea sediments) revealed systematic compositional changes upon progressive degradation. These consistent trends have been used to derive a quantitative degradation index (DI) that is directly related to the reactivity of the organic material, as indicated by its lability to enzymatic decay and its first-

Birgit Dauwe; Jack J. Middelburg; Peter M. J. Herman; Carlo H. R. Heip

1999-01-01

164

NMR studies on the chemical alteration of soil organic matter precursors during controlled charring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beside the production of volatiles, vegetation fire transforms various amounts of labile organic components into recalcitrant dark colored and highly aromatic structures. They are incorporated into soils and are assumed to represent an important sink within the global carbon cycle. In order to elucidate the real importance of PyOM as a C-sink, a good understanding of its chemistry is crucial.

Heike Knicker

2010-01-01

165

The effect of dynamic factors of space flight on animal organisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physiological, biochemical and morphological studies made on the Cosmos-782 biosatellite are presented. Rats, which were exposed on the biosatellite for 19.5 days, were examined immediately after completion of the flight and also during the 25 day period of readaptation to earth's conditions. The effect of factors of space flight, primarily weightlessness, on the organism was investigated for all systems of the body.

Genin, A. M. (editor)

1979-01-01

166

Enzymic hydrolysis of animal fats in organic solvents at temperatures below their melting points  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipase fromCandida rugosa catalyzed the hydrolysis of inedible beef tallow and pork lard (edible and inedible) in the presence of organic solvents\\u000a at temperatures below the melting point of the fat. Reactions were carried out at 50% substrate with 180 lipase units per\\u000a gram of fat in a two-liter reactor. In the presence of isooctane (5-10%) beef tallow yielded 94%

M. D. Virto; Jose Miguel Lascaray; Rodolfo Solozabal; Mertxe de Renobales

1991-01-01

167

Characterizing Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from a Swine Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission of NMVOCs from swine concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in North Carolina is of concern, due to their contribution to odor. In addition, of the 188 listed hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), 162 are classified as NMVOCs. NMVOCs emissions were determined over four seasonal sampling periods from an anaerobic lagoon and barn at a swine CAFO in North Carolina. Sampling was conducted during the period June 2007 through April 2008. Air samples were collected using SUMMA and fused-silca lined (FSL) canisters and were analyzed for NMVOCs using a gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID) system. Nine to eleven canister samples were collected from both the anaerobic lagoon and the barn over a ~1 week sampling period, with samples collected on a minimum of four different days. Measurements of meteorological and physiochemical parameters were made during the lagoon and barn sampling. Six NMVOCs (acetone, acetaldehyde, ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, methanol and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)) were identified in lagoon samples, that were classified as having significantly larger emissions in comparison to other NMVOCs. Overall average lagoon fluxes of these NMVOCs ranged from 0.18 ug m-2 min-1 for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol to 2.11 ug m-2 min-1 for acetone. In barn samples there were also six NMVOCs (acetaldehyde, acetone, 2,3-butanedione, ethanol, methanol and 4-methylphenol) that were classified as having significantly larger emissions in comparison to other compounds. Overall average concentrations for these six compounds ranged from 2.87 ppb for 4-methylphenol to 16.12 ppb for ethanol. The overall average normalized emissions ranged from 0.10 g day-1 AU-1 (AU = one animal unit, representing 500 kg of live animal weight) for acetaldehyde to 0.45 g day-1 AU-1 for ethanol. Eight odorous compounds were identified in lagoon and barn samples. These were 2,3-butanedione, decanal, ethylbenzene, heptanal, hexanal, 4-methylphenol, nonanal, and octanal. Of the eight compounds, 4-methylphenol and 2,3-butanedione were the compounds that exceeded their odor thresholds the most frequently. Four HAPs were identified in lagoon and barn samples that were also classified as having significantly larger lagoon and barn emissions in comparison to other NMVOCs. These were methanol, 4-methylphenol, acetaldehyde and MEK. The overall average lagoon fluxes and the overall average normalized barn emissions for the reported NMVOCs were used to estimate their swine CAFO emissions for North Carolina. Three NMVOCs were estimated to have considerably larger North Carolina swine CAFO emissions than the other NMVOCs. These were ethanol, acetone and methanol, with emissions of 206,367 kg yr-1, 134,765 kg yr-1 and 134,732 kg yr-1, respectively. The majority of individual compounds' North Carolina swine CAFO emissions were from barns, with barns contributing between 68.6% to ~ 100%.

Aneja, V. P.; Rumsey, I. C.; Lonneman, W. A.

2011-12-01

168

Tillage Management Alters Surface Soil Organic Matter Composition: A Pyrolysis Mass Spectroscopy Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of 10 yr of reduced tillage (RT) management, compared with con- ventional tillage (CT), on the chemical composition of soil organic matter (SOM) using a combination of physical fractionation and pyrolysis-fi eld ionization mass spectroscopy (Py-FIMS). Surface soil samples (0-10 cm), which were collected from two adjacent CT and RT managed fi elds, were separated into

Steven Sleutel; Mohammed Abdul Kader; Peter Leinweber; Karoline D'Haene; Stefaan De Neve

2007-01-01

169

Exogenous phosphorus inputs alter complexity of soil-dissolved organic carbon in agricultural riparian wetlands.  

PubMed

High-strengthened farmland fertilization leads to mass inputs of nutrients and elements to agricultural riparian wetlands. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of such wetland sediments is an important intermediate in global carbon (C) cycling due to its role in connecting soil C pools with atmospheric CO2. But the impact of phosphorus (P) on sediment DOC is still largely unknown, despite increasing investigations to emphasize P interception by riparian wetlands. Here, we simulated the temporal influences of exogenous P on sediment DOC of riparian wetlands by integrating gradient P loading at rates of 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 60% relative to the initial total phosphorus content of the sediment with the purpose of illustrating the role of external P on the complexity of soil DOC in terms of its amount and composition. After incubating for nine months, a dramatic linear correlation between Olsen-P and fluorescent and ultraviolet spectral indices considered DOC skeleton was observed. Together with a more microbial-derived origin of DOC and a reduction of DOC aromaticity or humicity, the excitation-emission matrix had shown a blue shift reflecting a trend towards a simpler molecular structure of sediment DOC after P addition. Meanwhile, the content of soil DOC and its ratio with total organic carbon (TOC) were also increased by P loading, coupled with enhanced values of highly labile organic carbon and two C-related enzymes. While TOC and recalcitrant organic carbon decreased significantly. Such implications of DOC amounts and composition stimulated by external P loading may enhance its bioavailability, thereby inducing an accelerated effect on soil C cycling and a potential C loss in response to global climate change. PMID:24182404

Liu, Meng; Zhang, Zhijian; He, Qiang; Wang, Hang; Li, Xia; Schoer, Jonathan

2014-01-01

170

Soil enzyme activities as affected by anthropogenic alterations: intensive agricultural practices and organic pollution.  

PubMed

The activity of a range of enzymes related to the cycling of the main biologically important nutrients C, N, P and S was investigated in cultivated and non-cultivated soils from various parts of Europe. Two agricultural sites from North Italy under continuous corn (Zea mays L.) with and without organic fertilization were compared. Two other agricultural sites from South Italy under hazel (Corylus avellana L.) never flooded or repeatedly flooded over by uncontrolled urban and industrial wastes were investigated. The non-cultivated soils were from Middle and South Europe with different pollution history such as no-pollution and pollution with organic contaminants, which is phenanthrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Agricultural soils showed significant differences in some of physical-chemical properties (i.e. organic C, total and labile phosphate contents, available Ca and Mg) between the two sites studied. Enzyme activities of hazel sites periodically flooded by wastes were mainly higher than in the hazel sites never flooded. Sites under many years of continuous corn showed dehydrogenase, invertase, arylsulphatase and beta-glucosidase activities generally lower than the soils under hazel either flooded or not by wastes. As compared to agricultural soils, non-cultivated soils heavily or moderately polluted by organic contaminants displayed much lower values or complete absence of enzymatic activities. Dissimilar, contradictory correlations between soil enzyme activities and the majority of soil properties were observed separately in the two groups of soils. When the whole set of enzyme activities and soil properties were considered, all significant correlations found separately for the groups of soils were lost. The overall results seem to confirm that no direct cause-effect relationships can be derived between the changes of a soil in response to a given factor and both the variations of the activity and the behaviour of the enzymes in soil. PMID:15833257

Gianfreda, Liliana; Antonietta Rao, Maria; Piotrowska, Anna; Palumbo, Giuseppe; Colombo, Claudio

2005-04-01

171

Stable carbon isotope compositions during the thermal alteration of organic matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the amount and carbon isotopic composition of methane as a maturation index was tested by pyrolysis of sedimentary organic carbon (kerogen) at 600 C. The parameters used to describe the maturity are CMR (CHâ-C\\/kerogen carbon) and the ι³C (δ¹³C{sub CH4-} δ¹³C{sub OC}). With increasing maturities, smaller amounts of methane are generated and there is a decrease in

Conkright

1989-01-01

172

Thermal alterations of organic matter in coal wastes from Upper Silesia, Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-heating and self-combustion are currently taking place in some coal waste dumps in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland, e.g. the dumps at Rymer Cones, Starzykowiec, and the Marcel Coal Mine, all in the Rybnik area. These dumps are of similar age and self-heating and combustion have been occurring in all three for many years. The tools of organic petrography

Magdalena Misz-Kennan

2010-01-01

173

Volatile organic compounds from the combustion of human and animal tissue.  

PubMed

The volatile by-products of the combustion of ordinary fuels such as wood, polystyrene, polyethylene, urethane foam, PVC and the like are well known to the forensic fire debris examiner. When a fire involves a human body, volatile species are produced that are not so well known, including various alkenes and aldehydes. These have sometimes been mistaken for the residues of unusual accelerants. In an attempt to document what volatiles are produced by the combustion of animal fat and human fat, the authors have used an open-tube pyrolysis probe as a microfurnace to burn small samples of unembalmed subcutaneous fat from human, avian and porcine sources, and collect volatiles by charcoal strip adsorption. The volatile products were analyzed by GC/MS. Predominant species included aldehydes in the C6-C10 range, homologous series of alkenes and alkanes, and other hydrocarbon products. These results were compared to those obtained by free-burning (open flame in air) of similar specimens and to the volatiles detected in debris from beneath a human cadaver in a test fire. Differences between the volatile profiles produced by human fat as compared to pork and chicken fat and adventitious sources of such volatiles are discussed. PMID:15527185

DeHaan, J D; Brien, D J; Large, R

2004-01-01

174

Butenolide inhibits marine fouling by altering the primary metabolism of three target organisms.  

PubMed

Butenolide is a very promising antifouling compound that inhibits ship hull fouling by a variety of marine organisms, but its antifouling mechanism was previously unknown. Here we report the first study of butenolide's molecular targets in three representative fouling organisms. In the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite, butenolide bound to acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1), which is involved in ketone body metabolism. Both the substrate and the product of ACAT1 increased larval settlement under butenolide treatment, suggesting its functional involvement. In the bryozoan Bugula neritina, butenolide bound to very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADVL), actin, and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). ACADVL is the first enzyme in the very long chain fatty acid ?-oxidation pathway. The inhibition of this primary pathway for energy production in larvae by butenolide was supported by the finding that alternative energy sources (acetoacetate and pyruvate) increased larval attachment under butenolide treatment. In marine bacterium Vibrio sp. UST020129-010, butenolide bound to succinyl-CoA synthetase ? subunit (SCS?) and inhibited bacterial growth. ACAT1, ACADVL, and SCS? are all involved in primary metabolism for energy production. These findings suggest that butenolide inhibits fouling by influencing the primary metabolism of target organisms. PMID:22458453

Zhang, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Huoming; He, Lisheng; Liu, Changdong; Xu, Ying; Qian, Pei-Yuan

2012-06-15

175

Therapeutic effect of an altered peptide ligand derived from heat-shock protein 60 by suppressing of inflammatory cytokines secretion in two animal models of rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disease mediated by T cells. Productive engagement of T cell receptors by major histocompatibility complex-peptide leads to proliferation, differentiation and the definition of effector functions. Altered peptide ligands (APL) generated by amino acid substitutions in the antigenic peptide have diverse effects on T cell response. We predicted a novel T cell epitope from human heat-shock protein 60, an autoantigen involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Three APLs were designed from this epitope and it was demonstrated that these peptides induce the activation of T cells through their ability to modify cell cycle phase's distribution of CD4+T cells from RA patients. Also, IL-17, TNF-? and IL-10 levels were determined in PBMC from these patients. Unlike the wild-type peptide and the other two APLs, APL2 increased the IL-10 level and suppressed IL-17 secretion in these assays. Therapeutic effect of this APL in adjuvant arthritis (AA) and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) models was also evaluated. Clinical score, histopathology, inflammatory and regulatory cytokine concentration were monitored in the animals. APL2 efficiently inhibited the progression of AA and CIA with a significant reduction of the clinical and histopathologic score. Therapeutic effect of APL2 on CIA was similar to that obtained with MTX; the standard treatment for RA. This effect was associated with a decrease of TNF-? and IL-17 levels. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of APL2 is mediated in part by down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and support the potential use of APL2 as a therapeutic drug in RA patients. PMID:22686732

Lorenzo, N; Barberá, A; Domínguez, M C; Torres, A M; Hernandez, M V; Hernandez, I; Gil, R; Ancizar, J; Garay, H; Reyes, O; Altruda, F; Silengo, L; Padrón, G

2012-09-01

176

Hydrothermal alteration of organic matter in uranium ores, Elliot Lake, Canada: Implications for selected organic-rich deposits  

SciTech Connect

Organic matter in the uraniferous Matinenda Formation, Elliot Lake, is preserved in the forms of syngenetic kerogen and solid bitumen as it is in many of the Oklo uranium deposits and in the Witwatersrand gold-uranium ores. The Elliot Lake kerogen is a vitrinite-like material considered to be remnants of the Precambrian cyanobacterial mats. The kerogen at Elliot Lake has reflectances (in oil) ranging from 2.63-7.31% RO{sub max}, high aromaticity, relatively low (0.41-0.60) atomic H/C ratios, and it contains cryptocrystalline graphite. Bitumen, present primarily as dispersed globules (up to 0.5 mm dia.), has reflectances from 0.72-1.32% RO{sub max}, atomic H/C ratios of 0.71-0.81, and is somewhat less aromatic than the kerogen. Overall similarity in molecular compositions indicates that liquid bitumen was derived from kerogen by processes similar to hydrous pyrolysis. The carbon isotopic composition of kerogen ({minus}15.62 to {minus}24.72%), and the now solid bitumen ({minus}25.91 to {minus}33.00%) are compatible with these processes. Despite having been subjected to several thermal episodes, ca. 2.45 Ga old kerogen of microbiological origin here survived as testimony of the antiquity of life on Earth. U-Pb isotopic data from discrete kerogen grains at Elliot Lake form a scattered array intersecting concordia at 2130 {+-} 100 Ma, correspond to the Nipissing event. U-Pb systems were totally reset by this event. Uranium and lead show subsequently partial mobility, the average of which is indicated by the lower concordia intersect of 550 {+-} 260 Ma. The migrated bitumen contains virtually no uranium and thorium but has a large excess of {sup 206}Pb, which indicates that the once liquid bitumen must have acted as a sink for mobile intermediate decay products of {sup 238}U. Emplacement of the Nipissing diabase may have been responsible for producing the bitumen and, indirectly, for its enrichment in {sup 206}Pb as a result of outgassing of {sup 222}Rn.

Mossman, D.J. [Mount Allison Univ., Sackville (Canada)] [Mount Allison Univ., Sackville (Canada); Nagy, B. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States)] [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States); Davis, D.W. [Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

1993-07-01

177

Impact cratering on Titan II. Global melt, escaping ejecta, and aqueous alteration of surface organics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of hypervelocity impacts into the crust of Titan were undertaken to determine the fraction of liquid water generated on the surface of Saturn's largest moon over its history and, hence, the potential for surface—modification of hydrocarbons and nitriles by exposure to liquid water. We model in detail an individual impact event in terms of ejecta produced and melt generated, and use this to estimate melt production over Titan's history, taking into account the total flux of the impactors and its decay over time. Our estimates show that a global melt layer at any time after the very beginning of Titan's history is improbable; but transient melting local to newly formed craters has occurred over large parts of the surface. Local maxima of the melt are connected with the largest impact events. We also calculate the amount of volatiles delivered at the impact with various impact velocities (from 3 km/s for possible Hyperion fragments to 11 km/s for Jupiter family comets) and their retention as a possible source of Titan's atmosphere. We find the probability of impact ejecta escaping Titan with its modern dense and thick atmosphere is rather low, and dispersal of Titan organics throughout the rest of the Solar System requires impactors tens of kilometers in diameter. Water ice melting and exposure of organics to liquid water has been widespread because of impacts, but burial or obscuration of craters by organic deposits or cryovolcanism is aided by viscous relaxation. The largest impactors may breach an ammonia-water mantle layer, creating a circular albedo contrast rather than a crater.

Artemieva, Natalia; Lunine, Jonathan I.

2005-06-01

178

THE DUAL EFFECT OF THE PARTICULATE AND ORGANIC COMPONENTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ON THE ALTERATION OF PULMONARY IMMUNE\\/INFLAMMATORY RESPONSES AND METABOLIC ENZYMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) is an environmental and occupational health concern. This review examines the cellular actions of the organic and the particulate components of DEP in the development of various lung diseases. Both the organic and the particulate components cause oxidant lung injury. The particulate component is known to induce alveolar epithelial damage, alter thiol levels in

Jane Y. C. Ma; Joseph K. H. Ma

2002-01-01

179

Mutations in M2 alter the selectivity of the mouse nicotinic acetylcholine receptor for organic and alkali metal cations  

PubMed Central

We measured the permeability ratios (PX/PNa) of 3 wild-type, 1 hybrid, 2 subunit-deficient, and 22 mutant nicotinic receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes for alkali metal and organic cations using shifts in the bi-ionic reversal potential of the macroscopic current. Mutations at three positions (2', 6', 10') in M2 affected ion selectivity. Mutations at position 2' (alpha Thr244, beta Gly255, gamma Thr253, delta Ser258) near the intracellular end of M2 changed the organic cation permeability ratios as much as twofold and reduced PCs/PNa and PK/PNa by 16-18%. Mutations at positions 6' and 10' increased the glycine ethyl ester/Na+ and glycine methyl ester/Na+ permeability ratios. Two subunit alterations also affected selectivity: omission of the delta subunit reduced PCs/PNa by 16%, and substitution of Xenopus delta for mouse delta increased Pguanidinium/PNa more than twofold and reduced PCs/PNa by 34% and PLi/PNa by 20%. The wild-type mouse receptor displayed a surprising interaction with the primary ammonium cations; relative permeability peaked at a chain length equal to four carbons. Analysis of the organic permeability ratios for the wild-type mouse receptor shows that (a) the diameter of the narrowest part of the pore is 8.4 A; (b) the mouse receptor departs significantly from size selectivity for monovalent organic cations; and (c) lowering the temperature reduces Pguanidinium/PNa by 38% and Pbutylammonium/PNa more than twofold. The results reinforce present views that positions -1' and 2' are the narrowest part of the pore and suggest that positions 6' and 10' align some permeant organic cations in the pore in an interaction similar to that with channel blocker, QX-222.

1992-01-01

180

Parenteral nutrition induces organ specific alterations in polymeric immunoglobulin receptor levels  

PubMed Central

Background Secretory IgA prevents pathogen adherence at mucosal surfaces to prevent infection. Polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), located on the basolateral surface of mucosal cells, binds dimeric IgA produced by B cells with the cooperation of T cells in the lamina propria. This IgA-pIgR complex is transported apically, where it is exocytosed as secretory IgA to the mucosal surface. Our prior work shows that parenteral nutrition (PN) impairs both airway and small intestine mucosal immunity by reducing T & B cells and IgA levels. This work examines intestinal and respiratory tissue-specific pIgR responses to PN. Methods Cannulated male ICR mice were randomized to Chow (n=10) or PN (n=10). After 5 days animals were sacrificed and lavages obtained from the small intestine (SIL), lung (BAL=bronchoalveolar lavage), and nasal airways (NAL). Small intestine, lung and nasal passage tissues were also collected. Lavage and tissue homogenate IgA levels were quantified by ELISA and pIgR by Western blot. Results PN group SIL and NAL IgA levels dropped significantly compared to Chow. PN significantly reduced pIgR levels in the SI while no pIgR change was noted in nasal passages and lung pIgR actually increased with PN. Tissue homogenate IgA levels did not change with PN in the SI while levels in the nasal passage and lung decreased. Conclusions PN impairs airway mucosal immunity by reduction in IgA available for transport rather than via a reduction in pIgR levels. In the small intestine diminished pIgR is implicated in the deterioration of antibody-mediated mucosal immunity.

Sano, Yoshifumi; Gomez, F. Enrique; Hermsen, Joshua L.; Kang, Woodae; Lan, Jinggang; Maeshima, Yoshinori; Kudsk, Kenneth A.

2008-01-01

181

Photochemical and microbial alteration of dissolved organic matter in temperate headwater streams associated with different land use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

and microbial transformations of DOM were evaluated in headwater streams draining forested and human-modified lands (pasture, cropland, and urban development) by laboratory incubations. Changes in DOC concentrations, DOC isotopic signatures, and DOM fluorescence properties were measured to assess the amounts, sources, ages, and properties of reactive and refractory DOM under the influence of photochemistry and/or bacteria. DOC in streams draining forest-dominated watersheds was more photoreactive than in streams draining mostly human-modified watersheds, possibly due to greater contributions of terrestrial plant-derived DOC and lower amounts of prior light exposure in forested streams. Overall, the percentage of photoreactive DOC in stream waters was best predicted by the relative content of terrestrial fluorophores. The bioreactivity of DOC was similar in forested and human-modified streams, but variations were correlated with temperature and may be further controlled by the diagenetic status of organic matter. Alterations to DOC isotopes and DOM fluorescence properties during photochemical and microbial incubations were similar between forested and human-modified streams and included (1) negligible effects of microbial alteration on DOC isotopes and DOM fluorescence properties, (2) selective removal of 13C-depleted and 14C-enriched DOC under the combined influence of photochemical and microbial processes, and (3) photochemical alteration of DOM resulting in a preferential loss of terrestrial humic fluorescence components relative to microbial fluorescence components. This study provides a unique comparison of DOC reactivity in a regional group of streams draining forested and human-modified watersheds and indicates the importance of land use on the photoreactivity of DOC exported from upstream watersheds.

Lu, Yuehan; Bauer, James E.; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Yamashita, Youhei; Chambers, R. M.; Jaffé, Rudolf

2013-06-01

182

Dysfunction of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 alters intestinal bacteria and bile acid metabolism in mice.  

PubMed

Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1) is predominantly expressed in liver and is able to transport bile acids (BAs) in vitro. Male Oatp1a1-null mice have increased concentrations of taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA), a secondary BA generated by intestinal bacteria, in both serum and livers. Therefore, in the present study, BA concentrations and intestinal bacteria in wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice were quantified to investigate whether the increase of secondary BAs in Oatp1a1-null mice is due to alterations in intestinal bacteria. The data demonstrate that Oatp1a1-null mice : (1) have similar bile flow and BA concentrations in bile as WT mice; (2) have a markedly different BA composition in the intestinal contents, with a decrease in conjugated BAs and an increase in unconjugated BAs; (3) have BAs in the feces that are more deconjugated, desulfated, 7-dehydroxylated, 3-epimerized, and oxidized, but less 7-epimerized; (4) have 10-fold more bacteria in the small intestine, and 2-fold more bacteria in the large intestine which is majorly due to a 200% increase in Bacteroides and a 30% reduction in Firmicutes; and (5) have a different urinary excretion of bacteria-related metabolites than WT mice. In conclusion, the present study for the first time established that lack of a liver transporter (Oatp1a1) markedly alters the intestinal environment in mice, namely the bacteria composition. PMID:22496825

Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D; Klaassen, Curtis D

2012-01-01

183

Thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fate of naturally occurring lipids and pigments in a marine sediment exposed to elevated temperatures was studied. Samples of a young marine sediment from Tanner Basin, California, were heated to a series of temperatures (65-200 C) for varying periods of time (7-64 days). The sediment was analyzed prior to and after heating for pigments, isoprenoid compounds, alcohols, fatty acids, and hydrocarbons. Structural changes caused by heating unextractable organic material (kerogen) were also studied, and the significance of the results for understanding petroleum genesis is considered. Among other results, fatty acids and hydrocarbons increased in abundance although there appeared to be no obvious precursor-to-product relationship via simple decarboxylation reactions. Chlorins were partially converted into porphyrins. The phytyl side chain of pheophytin was initially preserved intact by reduction of the phytyl double bond, but later converted to a variety of isoprenoid compounds including alkanes. Thermal grafting of components onto kerogen occurred as well as structural changes caused by heat.

Baedecker, M. J.; Ikan, R.; Ishiwatari, R.; Kaplan, I. R.

1977-01-01

184

N isotope fractionation and measures of organic matter alteration during decomposition across a climate-chrono sequence in Hawaii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most soil organic matter (SOM) derives from plant material but there are substantial gaps in our understanding of its transformation mechanisms. Alterations that occur as SOM decays and is stabilized have proven difficult to study owing largely to its diverse initial chemical composition and stable isotope values. We are studying the forms of soil organic matter (SOM) that accumulate across a range of temperate and tropical soils. NMR spectra (300 MHz 13C CPMAS, Bruker, Rheinstetten) were obtained for solid-state samples from fresh source materials and from sequentially deeper organic and mineral-soil horizons, which were physically fractionated based on particle density (1.65 g/cm3 Na polytungstate) at the University of Washington. For heavy fractions we could only obtain reliable NMR spectra (high signal:noise ratio) for a few samples with high C content. Aliphaticity was defined as the ratio of unsubstituted aliphatic carbon [0 to 45 parts per million (ppm)] to oxygenated carbon (carbohydrates) (45-110 ppm). Samples were analyzed for Del 15N and Del 13C with a 20/20 ANCA GSL continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (PDZ Europa, Cheshire, UK) at the Rosenstiel School of Marine Science, University of Miami. We then examined relations between stable isotope ratios and SOM composition (13C NMR) in sequentially deeper organic and mineral horizon soil horizons from tropical soils collected in Hawaii. We found that the tropical soils studied were more limited, both in terms of the extent of N isotope fractionation found in soils and the abundance of aliphatic compounds, when compared to temperate forest soils previously studied. However in select, wet (4000mm rainfall) Hawaiian soils, the NMR spectra resembled previously studied illuviated soil horizons found in coastal temperate rainforests of southeast Alaska, suggesting comparable processes may have been responsible for their formation.

Kramer, M. G.; Chadwick, O.; Sletten, R.; Sollins, P.; Swart, P. K.

2006-12-01

185

Genetic variants of human organic anion transporter 4 demonstrate altered transport of endogenous substrates  

PubMed Central

Apical reabsorption from the urine has been shown to be important for such processes as the maintenance of critical metabolites in the blood and the excretion of nephrotoxic compounds. The solute carrier (SLC) transporter OAT4 (SLC22A11) is expressed on the apical membrane of renal proximal tubule cells and is known to mediate the transport of a variety of xenobiotic and endogenous organic anions. Functional characterization of genetic variants of apical transporters thought to mediate reabsorption, such as OAT4, may provide insight into the genetic factors influencing the complex pathways involved in drug elimination and metabolite reclamation occurring in the kidney. Naturally occurring genetic variants of OAT4 were identified in public databases and by resequencing DNA samples from 272 individuals comprising 4 distinct ethnic groups. Nine total nonsynonymous variants were identified and functionally assessed using uptake of three radiolabeled substrates. A nonsense variant, R48Stop, and three other variants (R121C, V155G, and V155M) were found at frequencies of at least 2% in an ethnic group specific fashion. The L29P, R48Stop, and H469R variants displayed a complete loss of function, and kinetic analysis identified a reduced Vmax in the common nonsynonymous variants. Plasma membrane levels of OAT4 protein were absent or reduced in the nonfunctional variants, providing a mechanistic reason for the observed loss of function. Characterization of the genetic variants of reabsorptive transporters such as OAT4 is an important step in understanding variability in tubular reabsorption with important implications in innate homeostatic processes and drug disposition.

Shima, James E.; Komori, Takafumi; Taylor, Travis R.; Stryke, Doug; Kawamoto, Michiko; Johns, Susan J.; Carlson, Elaine J.; Ferrin, Thomas E.

2010-01-01

186

Altered interhemispheric and temporal lobe white matter microstructural organization in severe chronic schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Diffusion MRI investigations in schizophrenia provide evidence of abnormal white matter (WM) microstructural organization as indicated by reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) primarily in interhemispheric, left frontal and temporal WM. Using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), we examined diffusion parameters in a sample of patients with severe chronic schizophrenia. Diffusion MRI data were acquired on 19 patients with chronic severe schizophrenia and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using a 64 gradient direction sequence, (b=1300 s/mm(2)) collected on a Siemens 1.5T MRI scanner. Diagnosis of schizophrenia was determined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders 4th Edition (DSM-IV) Structured Clinical Interview for DSM disorder (SCID). Patients were treatment resistance, having failed to respond to at least two antipsychotic medications, and had prolonged periods of moderate to severe positive or negative symptoms. Analysis of diffusion parameters was carried out using TBSS. Individuals with chronic severe schizophrenia had significantly reduced FA with corresponding increased radial diffusivity in the genu, body, and splenium of the corpus callosum, the right posterior limb of the internal capsule, right external capsule, and the right temporal inferior longitudinal fasciculus. There were no voxels of significantly increased FA in patients compared with controls. A decrease in splenium FA was shown to be related to a longer illness duration. We detected widespread abnormal diffusivity properties in the callosal and temporal lobe WM regions in individuals with severe chronic schizophrenia who have not previously been exposed to clozapine. These deficits can be driven by a number of factors that are indistinguishable using in vivo diffusion-weighted imaging, but may be related to reduced axonal number or packing density, abnormal glial cell arrangement or function, and reduced myelin. PMID:24150571

Holleran, Laurena; Ahmed, Mohamed; Anderson-Schmidt, Heike; McFarland, John; Emsell, Louise; Leemans, Alexander; Scanlon, Cathy; Dockery, Peter; McCarthy, Peter; Barker, Gareth J; McDonald, Colm; Cannon, Dara M

2014-03-01

187

Substrate quality alters microbial mineralization of added substrate and soil organic carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate and extent of decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is dependent on substrate chemistry and microbial dynamics. Our objectives were to understand the influence of substrate chemistry on microbial processing of carbon (C), and to use model fitting to quantify differences in pool sizes and mineralization rates. We conducted an incubation experiment for 270 days using four uniformly-labeled 14C substrates (glucose, starch, cinnamic acid and stearic acid) on four different soils (a temperate Mollisol, a tropical Ultisol, a sub-arctic Andisol, and an arctic Gelisol). The 14C labeling enabled us to separate CO2 respired from added substrates and from native SOC. Microbial gene copy numbers were quantified at days 4, 30 and 270 using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Substrate C respiration was always higher for glucose than other substrates. Soils with cinnamic and stearic acid lost more native SOC than glucose- and starch-amended soils, despite an initial delay in respiration. Cinnamic and stearic acid amendments also exhibited higher fungal gene copy numbers at the end of incubation compared to unamended soils. We found that 270 days was sufficient to model decomposition of simple substrates (glucose and starch) with three pools, but was insufficient for more complex substrates (cinnamic and stearic acid) and native SOC. This study reveals that substrate quality imparts considerable control on microbial decomposition of newly added and native SOC, and demonstrates the need for multi-year incubation experiments to constrain decomposition parameters for the most recalcitrant fractions of SOC and added substrates.

Jagadamma, S.; Mayes, M. A.; Steinweg, J. M.; Schaeffer, S. M.

2014-03-01

188

Animal Cell Mitosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation demonstrates the stages of mitosis in an animal cell. Use the control buttons in the upper left to run the complete animation. Click on any intermediate stage (for example, Anaphase), and see a representative still frame.

2010-01-01

189

In Situ Alteration of Isotopic and Molecular Compositions of Organic Matter in Lake Erie Sediment Over a Two-Decade Interval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The organic matter in lake sediments provides a variety of proxies to reconstruct paleoenvironmental histories. Total organic carbon concentrations reflect past productivity in and around the lake. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios similarly record past productivity and also remineralization and recycling processes. Biomarker molecules are particularly informative as "geochemical fossils" in that they are good indicators of sedimentary biological sources and depositional environments. However, organic matter compositions are potentially altered by early diagenesis and may thus bias paleoenvironmental interpretations. To assess the impacts of diagenesis on organic geochemical proxies, we collected two cores in 1982 and 2003 from the same location in Lake Erie, and we compared proxies from same-age sediment horizons that had been preserved for two decades by freezing with those that had remained at in situ conditions in the lake bottom. Organic carbon concentrations are lower and both organic d13C and total d15N values are higher in the sediment that had experienced in situ diagenesis. Three classes of biomarker molecules (n-alkanes, n-alcohols and fatty acids) that have different susceptibilities to alteration were studied in these two cores to better understand the nature of the diagenetic impacts evident in the bulk organic matter. Because the diagenetic alterations of the organic matter proxies are modest, the environmental impacts of industrialization and urbanization are preserved in both cores.

Lu, Y.; Meyers, P. A.; Eadie, B. J.; Robbins, J. A.

2006-12-01

190

Performance assessment of the single photon emission microscope: high spatial resolution SPECT imaging of small animal organs  

PubMed Central

The single photon emission microscope (SPEM) is an instrument developed to obtain high spatial resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of small structures inside the mouse brain. SPEM consists of two independent imaging devices, which combine a multipinhole collimator, a high-resolution, thallium-doped cesium iodide [CsI(Tl)] columnar scintillator, a demagnifying/intensifier tube, and an electron-multiplying charge-coupling device (CCD). Collimators have 300- and 450-µm diameter pinholes on tungsten slabs, in hexagonal arrays of 19 and 7 holes. Projection data are acquired in a photon-counting strategy, where CCD frames are stored at 50 frames per second, with a radius of rotation of 35 mm and magnification factor of one. The image reconstruction software tool is based on the maximum likelihood algorithm. Our aim was to evaluate the spatial resolution and sensitivity attainable with the seven-pinhole imaging device, together with the linearity for quantification on the tomographic images, and to test the instrument in obtaining tomographic images of different mouse organs. A spatial resolution better than 500 µm and a sensitivity of 21.6 counts·s-1·MBq-1 were reached, as well as a correlation coefficient between activity and intensity better than 0.99, when imaging 99mTc sources. Images of the thyroid, heart, lungs, and bones of mice were registered using 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals in times appropriate for routine preclinical experimentation of <1 h per projection data set. Detailed experimental protocols and images of the aforementioned organs are shown. We plan to extend the instrument's field of view to fix larger animals and to combine data from both detectors to reduce the acquisition time or applied activity.

Mejia, J.; Reis, M.A.; Miranda, A.C.C.; Batista, I.R.; Barboza, M.R.F.; Shih, M.C.; Fu, G.; Chen, C.T.; Meng, L.J.; Bressan, R.A.; Amaro, E.

2013-01-01

191

DNA ALTERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The exposure of an organism to genotoxic chemicals may induce a cascade of genetic events. nitially, structural alterations to DNA are formed. ext, the DNA damage is processed and subsequently expressed in mutant gene products. inally, diseases result from the genetic damage. he ...

192

Physiologic Aspects of porcine Hemorrhage. II. Alterations in Heart Rate and Arterial Pressure during Fifty Percent Blood Volume Loss in the Conscious Animal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A porcine animal model, designed to simulate physiologic characteristics of the combat casualty, was used to assess the effects of severe blood loss on the heart rate and arterial pressures in the absence of anesthesia or other interventions. Chronic cath...

J. P. Hannon P. B. Jennings R. S. Dixon

1981-01-01

193

Organized Tissue Alteration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The pathology in certain of the more radiation responsive tissues is distinctly biphasic with the principal cell compartment exhibiting characteristic early and often dramatic degenerative and regnerative effects. This is succeeded by a variable latent pe...

D. C. White

1972-01-01

194

Transgenic Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to introduce foreign genes into the germ line and the successful expression of the inserted gene in the organism have allowed the genetic manipulation of animals on an unprecedented scale. The information gained from the use of the transgenic technology is relevant to almost any aspect of modern biology including developmental gene regulation, the action of oncogenes, the

Rudolf Jaenisch

1988-01-01

195

Use of mutant 125I-Perfringolysin O to probe transport and organization of cholesterol in membranes of animal cells  

PubMed Central

Animal cells strictly control the distribution of cholesterol in their organelle membranes. This regulation requires an efficient machinery to transport insoluble cholesterol between organelles. In the present study, we generate an 125I-labeled mutant version of Perfringolysin O (PFO), a cholesterol-binding protein, and use it to measure cholesterol in the plasma membrane of intact cells. We also purify plasma membranes from the same cells, which allows us to directly relate cholesterol concentration to 125I-PFO binding. We show that cholesterol is organized in the plasma membrane in a manner that makes it inaccessible to PFO until its concentration exceeds a threshold of 35 mol% of total lipids. This 35% threshold is in striking contrast to the 5% threshold previously found for PFO binding to endoplasmic reticulum membranes. The 125I-PFO probe also proved useful in monitoring the movement of LDL-derived cholesterol from lysosomes to plasma membranes. Using three different mutant cell lines, we show that this transport requires receptor-mediated uptake of LDL, hydrolysis of LDL-cholesteryl esters in lysosomes, and transfer of the liberated cholesterol to the plasma membrane.

Das, Akash; Goldstein, Joseph L.; Anderson, Donald D.; Brown, Michael S.; Radhakrishnan, Arun

2013-01-01

196

Collagen Content in Skin and Internal Organs of the Tight Skin Mouse: An Animal Model of Scleroderma  

PubMed Central

The Tight Skin mouse is a genetically induced animal model of tissue fibrosis caused by a large in-frame mutation in the gene encoding fibrillin-1 (Fbn-1). We examined the influence of gender on the collagen content of tissues in C57BL/6J wild type (+/+) and mutant Tight Skin (Tsk/+) mice employing hydroxyproline assays. Tissue sections were stained with Masson's trichrome to identify collagen in situ. Adult Tsk/+ mice skin contains ~15% more collagen, on average, than skin from +/+ mice of the same gender. The heart of Tsk/+ males had significantly more collagen than that of +/+ males. No significant gender differences were found in lungs and kidney collagen content. Overall, the collagen content of Tsk/+ males and +/+ males was higher than that of their Tsk/+ and +/+ female counterparts, respectively. Our data confirm increased deposition of collagen in skin and hearts of Tsk/+ mice; however, the effects of the Tsk mutation on collagen content are both tissue specific and gender specific. These results indicate that comparative studies of collagen content between normal and Tsk/+ mice skin and internal organs must take into account gender differences caused by expression of the androgen receptor.

Markova, Marina; Siracusa, Linda D.; Jimenez, Sergio A.

2013-01-01

197

Altered Expression of PERK Receptor Kinases in Arabidopsis Leads to Changes in Growth and Floral Organ Formation  

PubMed Central

The proline-rich, extensin-like receptor kinase (PERK) family is characterized by a putative extracellular domain related to cell wall proteins, followed by a transmembrane domain and kinase domain. The original member, PERK1, was isolated from Brassica napus (BnPERK1) and 15 PERK1-related members were subsequently identified in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. Ectopic expression and antisense suppression studies were performed using the BnPERK1 cDNA under the control of the 35S CaMV constitutive promoter and introduced into Arabidopsis. In the case of antisense suppression, the BnPERK1 cDNA shared sufficient sequence similarity to suppress several members of the At PERK family. In both sets of transgenic Arabidopsis, several heritable changes in growth and development were observed. Antisense BnPERK1 transgenic Arabidopsis showed various growth defects including loss of apical dominance, increased secondary branching, and floral organ defects. In contrast, Arabidopsis plants ectopically expressing BnPERK1 displayed a prolonged lifespan with increased lateral shoot production and seed set. Along with these phenotypic changes, aberrant deposits of callose and cellulose were also observed, suggestive of cell wall changes as a consequence of altered PERK expression.

Haffani, Yosr Z; Silva-Gagliardi, Nancy F; Sewter, Sarah K; Grace Aldea, May; Zhao, Zhiying; Nakhamchik, Alina; Cameron, Robin K

2006-01-01

198

Furosemide Alters Organ of Corti Mechanics: Evidence for Feedback of Outer Hair Cells upon the Basilar Membrane  

PubMed Central

A widely held hypothesis of mammalian cochlear function is that the mechanical responses to sound of the basilar membrane depend on transduction by the outer hair cells. We have tested this hypothesis by studying the effect upon basilar membrane vibrations (measured by means of either the Mössbauer technique or Doppler-shift laser velocimetry) of systemic injection of furosemide, a loop diuretic that decreases transduction currents in hair cells. Furosemide reversibly altered the responses to tones and clicks of the chinchilla basilar membrane, causing response-magnitude reductions that were largest (up to 61 dB, averaging 25-30 dB) at low stimulus intensities at the characteristic frequency (CF) and small or nonexistent at high intensities and at frequencies far removed from CF. Furosemide also induced response-phase lags that were largest at low stimulus intensities (averaging 77°) and were confined to frequencies close to CF. These results constitute the most definitive demonstration to date that mechanical responses of the basilar membrane are dependent on the normal function of the organ of Corti and strongly implicate the outer hair cells as being responsible for the high sensitivity and frequency selectivity of basilar membrane responses. A corollary of these findings is that sensorineural hearing deficits in humans due to outer hair cell loss reflect pathologically diminished vibrations of the basilar membrane.

Ruggero, Mario A.; Rich, Nola C.

2013-01-01

199

Animal Algorithm Animation Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Guido RöÃÂling, who works for the Rechnerbetriebsgruppe (Computer Support Center) of the Department of Computer Science at the Darmstadt University of Technology, has created this website about ANIMAL. ANIMAL is a general-purpose animation tool with a current focus on algorithm animation. Posted on this website are the animations, including screenshots, classification and description, a user guide, other instructions, and research papers. A section with examples provides an overview and screen shots of the animations, such as one that shows how LZW compression (an algorithm created in 1984 by Lempel, Ziv and Welch) works.

200

Forest management, litter dynamics and the altered energetic properties of soil organic matter (SOM) - Quantifying anthropogenic change with thermal analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils are an open thermodynamic system, far from equilibrium, sustained by primary productivity and the interaction between mineralogy and soil organic matter (SOM). Quantifying the effect of anthropogenic alteration of inputs (litter/roots and fertilizer) on SOM energetic properties is a valuable missing piece of C and energy cycles in all terrestrial ecosystems. Thermal analysis (TA) applied to the study of SOM has received limited attention but provides a thermodynamic framework to quantify mass and energy dynamics in soils and unify the assessment of resource flux, attenuation and use in natural and managed systems across temporal scales. Managed forests are a critical and extensive land-use across the globe and in many cases provide model conditions to develop quantitative linkage between direct anthropogenic 'disturbance' - i.e. treatment - and soil change. Our research investigated the effects of litter and fertilizer inputs on SOM energetic properties in two experimental forest plantations in Northern California. Thermogravimetry-Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TG-DSC) was used to quantify soils across the upper profiles of these two forested Ultisols (0-30 cm) and assess energy density in three primary thermal 'fractions', corresponding to the oxidation of carbohydrates and lipids (150-350 C - Exo-1), aromatic and condensed polymers (400-460 C - Exo-2) and refractory/mineral associated C (500-550 C - Exo-3). We developed model distributions of SOM thermal stability, with replicate soil samples (n=6), representing three depths (0-10, 10-20, & 20-30 cm) that received simple (pine - S) and diverse (pine+shrub - D) litter inputs with and without fertilization (F) to assess if contrasting inputs qualities and mineral properties alter SOM energetics. In surface soils (0-10 cm), SOM energetic properties are consistent across sites and treatments displaying relative thermal symmetry with proportional energy densities (percent of total energy) of Exo-1 ~ 26%, Exo-2 ~ 20% and Exo-3 ~ 12%. Treatments differ in SOM quantity which translated into more or less energy stored in each thermal fraction. This illustrates surface soils are not C limited and that the turnover and stability of biomolecules is in equilibrium irrespectively of input quality. Conditions change rapidly with increasing profile depth and decreasing soil C illustrating how human alteration can affect SOM over decadal time scales. Soils that receive D + fertilization (DF) significantly increased energy density, compared to unfertilized treatments (P & D) with equivalent SOM, storing ~ 2x more energy in Exo-1 & 2. Considering 12 years passed between the last application and sample collection, this represents a strong fertilizer legacy not detected by traditional mass balance alone. The interaction between P and mineral crystallinity produced contrasting results in the recalcitrant Exo-3 region. Soils with poorly crystalline minerals experienced energetic enrichment (highest energy density) while energetic depletion (lowest energy density) occurred in more crystalline soils. Although the implication of these results is not clear today they show the utility of TA as a powerful tool to detect anthropogenic soil change.

Liles, G. C.; Horwath, W. R.

2012-12-01

201

Animal Ears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior and communication. Groups of learners will fashion a headband with fake ears, similar in shape to those of the animal they are going to observe. Then, they record observations of the animalâs reactions when a learner, wearing the ears in different positions, brings it a snack. Learners develop categories of behavior to organize and evaluate the results. Safety Note: an adult handler must be present if working with a horse or even a large dog. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Horse Ears.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

202

Performance of commercial nonmethane hydrocarbon analyzers in monitoring oxygenated volatile organic compounds emitted from animal feeding operations.  

PubMed

Quantifying non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) from animal feeding operations (AFOs) is challenging due to the broad spectrum of compounds and the polar nature of the most abundant compounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of commercial NMHC analyzers for measuring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) commonly emitted from AFOs. Three different NMHC analyzers were tested for response to laboratory generated VOCs, and two were tested in the field at a commercial poultry facility. The NMHC analyzers tested included gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID), photoacoustic infrared (PA-IR) and photoionization detector (PID). The GC/FID NHHC analyzer was linear in response to nonpolar compounds, but detector response to polar oxygenated compounds were lower than expected due to poor peak shape on the column. The PA-IR NMHC instrument responded well to the calibration standard (propane), methanol, and acetone, but it performed poorly with larger alcohols and ketones and acetonitrile. The PA-IR response varied between compounds in similar compound classes. The PID responded poorly to many of the most abundant VOCs at AFOs, and it underreported alcohols by > 70%. In the field monitoring study, total NMHC concentrations were calculated from sum total of VOC determined using EPA Methods TO-15 and TO-17 with GC-MS compared to results from NMHC analyzers. NMHC GC/FID values were greater than the values calculated from the individual compound measurements. This indicated the presence of small hydrocarbons not measured with TO-15 or TO-17 such as propane. The PA-IR response was variable, but it was always lower than the GC/FID response. Results suggest that improved approaches are needed to accurately determine the VOC profile and NMHC emission rates from AFOs. PMID:24282968

Trabue, Steven; Scoggin, Kenwood; McConnell, Laura L; Li, Hong; Turner, Andrew; Burns, Robert; Xin, Hongwei; Gates, Richard S; Hasson, Alam; Ogunjemiyo, Segun; Maghirang, Ronaldo; Hatfield, Jerry

2013-10-01

203

Computational and bioengineered lungs as alternatives to whole animal, isolated organ, and cell-based lung models.  

PubMed

Development of lung models for testing a drug substance or delivery system has been an intensive area of research. However, a model that mimics physiological and anatomical features of human lungs is yet to be established. Although in vitro lung models, developed and fine-tuned over the past few decades, were instrumental for the development of many commercially available drugs, they are suboptimal in reproducing the physiological microenvironment and complex anatomy of human lungs. Similarly, intersubject variability and high costs have been major limitations of using animals in the development and discovery of drugs used in the treatment of respiratory disorders. To address the complexity and limitations associated with in vivo and in vitro models, attempts have been made to develop in silico and tissue-engineered lung models that allow incorporation of various mechanical and biological factors that are otherwise difficult to reproduce in conventional cell or organ-based systems. The in silico models utilize the information obtained from in vitro and in vivo models and apply computational algorithms to incorporate multiple physiological parameters that can affect drug deposition, distribution, and disposition upon administration via the lungs. Bioengineered lungs, on the other hand, exhibit significant promise due to recent advances in stem or progenitor cell technologies. However, bioengineered approaches have met with limited success in terms of development of various components of the human respiratory system. In this review, we summarize the approaches used and advancements made toward the development of in silico and tissue-engineered lung models and discuss potential challenges associated with the development and efficacy of these models. PMID:22886505

Patel, Brijeshkumar; Gauvin, Robert; Absar, Shahriar; Gupta, Vivek; Gupta, Nilesh; Nahar, Kamrun; Khademhosseini, Ali; Ahsan, Fakhrul

2012-11-01

204

Time Course of Alterations in Myocardial Glucose Utilization in the Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rat with Correlation to Gene Expression of Glucose Transporters: A Small-Animal PET Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diabetic cardiomyopathy is associated with abnormalities in glucose metabolism. We evaluated myocardial glucose me- tabolism in a rodent model of type 2 diabetes, namely the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat, and validated PET measure- ments of glucose uptake against gene and protein expression of glucose transporters (GLUTs). Methods: Six lean and ZDF rats underwent small-animal PET at the age of

Kooresh I. Shoghi; Robert J. Gropler; Terry Sharp; Pilar Herrero; Nicole Fettig; Mayurranjan S. Mitra; Attila Kovacs; Brian N. Finck; Michael J. Welch

205

Increased Serum Concentrations of Persistent Organic Pollutants among Prediabetic Individuals: Potential Role of Altered Substrate Oxidation Patterns  

PubMed Central

Context: There is a need for a better understanding of the potential role of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. Objective: Our objective was to determine the association of serum concentrations of POPs with early signs of type 2 diabetes in regard to glucose and lipid metabolism. Research Design and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we used recent studies of 148 Danish middle-aged normoglycemic, prediabetic, and diabetic individuals examined by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp technique with indirect calorimetry; 66 of these individuals also had an iv glucose tolerance test. Concentrations of POPs were analyzed in banked serum from the participants. Associations with basal and insulin-stimulated glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed after adjustment for age, sex, and body fat percentage. Results: Individuals with prediabetes and diabetes had higher serum concentrations of several POPs compared with normoglycemic individuals. In the nondiabetic population, higher POPs levels were associated with elevated fasting plasma glucose concentrations as well as reduced glucose oxidation, elevated lipid oxidation, and elevated serum concentrations of free fatty acids (P < 0.05). We found no associations of POPs with first-phase insulin secretion, hepatic or peripheral insulin sensitivity, or nonoxidative glucose metabolism. Conclusions: Diabetic and prediabetic individuals have elevated serum concentrations of POPs. In nondiabetic individuals, POPs exposure is related to altered substrate oxidation patterns with lower glucose oxidation and higher lipid oxidation rates. These findings indicate that POPs may affect peripheral glucose metabolism by modifying pathways involved in substrate partitioning rather than decreasing insulin-dependent glucose uptake.

H?jlund, Kurt; Vind, Birgitte F.; Vaag, Allan; Dalgard, Christine; Nielsen, Flemming; Grandjean, Philippe

2012-01-01

206

Expression of extracellular matrix-remodeling proteins is altered in vaginal tissue of premenopausal women with severe pelvic organ prolapse.  

PubMed

Aim: The molecular etiology of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is complex and not well understood. We compared the expression/activity of extracellular matrix (ECM)-processing (procollagen I N-proteinase/ a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs [ADAMTS]-2,-3,-14) and ECM-degrading (matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-1, -2, -7, -8, -9, -12) enzymes and their natural tissue inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase [TIMP]-1,-2,-3,-4) in vaginal tissues from premenopausal women with advanced POP (POP-Q stage ? 3) and asymptomatic controls (POP-Q = 0). Study Design: We sampled the anterior vaginal wall of 36 premenopausal women (17 patients with POP and 19 controls) undergoing total hysterectomy. Exclusion criteria include steroid therapy, malignancy, previous pelvic surgery, and connective tissue diseases. Total RNAs and proteins were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and Luminex assay; MMPs activity was analyzed by zymography and tissue localization by immunohistochemistry. Results: The MMP-2 gelatinase activity as well as expression of 58-kDa isoform of ADAMTS-2 was upregulated in patients with POP, irrespective of menstrual phase status, secretory or proliferative, when compared to controls (P < .05). The TIMP-1-4 gene and TIMP-1 protein expression were significantly (P < .05) reduced, whereas protein expression of MMP-12 (pro and active forms) was significantly increased in vaginal biopsies of patients with POP in the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle compared to corresponding controls. Analyses of MMP-12, TIMP-1, and ADAMTS-2 tissue immunostaining indicate similar localization in the vaginal specimens from control and patients with POP. Conclusion: Expression of ECM-remodeling proteins is altered in the vagina of premenopausal patients with severe POP. We speculate that dysregulation of MMP/TIMP complexes and ADAMTS-2 proteins may cause connective tissue defects, which result in weakened vaginal wall support and POP development. PMID:24343133

Alarab, May; Kufaishi, Hala; Lye, Stephen; Drutz, Harold; Shynlova, Oksana

2014-06-01

207

Expression of a Dominant Negative CELF Protein In Vivo Leads to Altered Muscle Organization, Fiber Size, and Subtype  

PubMed Central

Background CUG-BP and ETR-3-like factor (CELF) proteins regulate tissue- and developmental stage-specific alternative splicing in striated muscle. We previously demonstrated that heart muscle-specific expression of a nuclear dominant negative CELF protein in transgenic mice (MHC-CELF?) effectively disrupts endogenous CELF activity in the heart in vivo, resulting in impaired cardiac function. In this study, transgenic mice that express the dominant negative protein under a skeletal muscle-specific promoter (Myo-CELF?) were generated to investigate the role of CELF-mediated alternative splicing programs in normal skeletal muscle. Methodology/Principal Findings Myo-CELF? mice exhibit modest changes in CELF-mediated alternative splicing in skeletal muscle, accompanied by a reduction of endomysial and perimysial spaces, an increase in fiber size variability, and an increase in slow twitch muscle fibers. Weight gain and mean body weight, total number of muscle fibers, and overall muscle strength were not affected. Conclusions/Significance Although these findings demonstrate that CELF activity contributes to the normal alternative splicing of a subset of muscle transcripts in vivo, the mildness of the effects in Myo-CELF? muscles compared to those in MHC-CELF? hearts suggests CELF activity may be less determinative for alternative splicing in skeletal muscle than in heart muscle. Nonetheless, even these small changes in CELF-mediated splicing regulation were sufficient to alter muscle organization and muscle fiber properties affected in myotonic dystrophy. This lends further evidence to the hypothesis that dysregulation of CELF-mediated alternative splicing programs may be responsible for the disruption of these properties during muscle pathogenesis.

Berger, Dara S.; Moyer, Michelle; Kliment, Gregory M.; van Lunteren, Erik; Ladd, Andrea N.

2011-01-01

208

Nocturnal Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over time, human beings have blazed their way into the night with fire and artificial light, but we are not true creatures of the night. This Topic in Depth explores the world of nocturnal animals. From Island Discovery & Training, the first site allows visitors to listen to the sounds of several nocturnal animals. After guessing who made the sound, visitors can link to information pages for all but one of the mystery animals (1). Next is an information sheet (2) from BioMedia that answers the question: How Do Animals See In the Dark? The third site, from Enchanted Learning, provides coloring sheets and brief profiles for many nocturnal animals including the Amur Tiger, Badger, Crocodile, and Kinkajou-just to name a few (3). From the Fairbanks Museum & Planetarium in Vermont, the fourth website contains a six-page lesson plan (for students in grades one to eight) emphasizing different senses; and the roles and adaptations of nocturnal species (4). The fifth site, from Science News Online, contains an article addressing research on the ecological impact of artificial nighttime light on nocturnal animals (5). From Wild Asia, the next site contains an article by travel writer and environmental educator David Bowden, that describes his experience watching a marine turtle lay her eggs on Malaysia's Turtle Island (6). The seventh site, from PBS-Nova Online, briefly describes the work of zoologists who study nocturnal and burrowing animals of the Kalahari (7). From this site visitors can also link to a section that discusses how several different animals see at night. The final site, from the University of Utah-John Moran Eye Center, contains information about the role of photoreceptors in vision (8). This Photoreceptors section is part of a comprehensive electronic tutorial regarding neural organization of the mammalian retina.

209

Is It an Animal?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about animals. The probe specifically seeks to find out what characteristics students use to determine whether an organism is classified as an animal.

Eberle, Francis; Farrin, Lynn; Keeley, Page

2005-01-01

210

Early alcohol exposure induces persistent alteration of cortical columnar organization and reduced orientation selectivity in the visual cortex.  

PubMed

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a major cause of learning and sensory deficits in children. The visual system in particular is markedly affected, with an elevated prevalence of poor visual perceptual skills. Developmental problems involving the neocortex are likely to make a major contribution to some of these abnormalities. Neuronal selectivity to stimulus orientation, a functional property thought to be crucial for normal vision, may be especially vulnerable to alcohol exposure because it starts developing even before eye opening. To address this issue, we examined the effects of early alcohol exposure on development of cortical neuron orientation selectivity and organization of cortical orientation columns. Ferrets were exposed to ethanol starting at postnatal day (P) 10, when the functional properties and connectivity of neocortical neurons start to develop. Alcohol exposure ended at P30, just before eye opening at P32. Following a prolonged alcohol-free period (15-35 days), long-term effects of early alcohol exposure on cortical orientation selectivity were examined at P48-P65, when orientation selectivity in normal ferret cortex has reached a mature state. Optical imaging of intrinsic signals revealed decreased contrast of orientation maps in alcohol- but not saline-treated animals. Moreover, single-unit recordings revealed that early alcohol treatment weakened neuronal orientation selectivity while preserving robust visual responses. These findings indicate that alcohol exposure during a brief period of development disrupts cortical processing of sensory information at a later age and suggest a neurobiological substrate for some types of sensory deficits in FAS. PMID:15483067

Medina, Alexandre E; Krahe, Thomas E; Ramoa, Ary S

2005-03-01

211

Dairy animal welfare. Introduction.  

PubMed

Organizations devoted to proper animal care have focused the attention of society on humane animal treatment. In recent years, some groups have raised questions as to what constitutes proper animal care on the farm and in the research laboratory. Philosophical questions about animal rights have been raised. Several groups are active in the animal welfare, animal rights arena and they vary widely in their objectives and methods of operation. Many of these groups are well-funded. Some resort to civil disobedience to achieve their ends. Farm animal commodity groups, animal-oriented research agencies, and animal-related industry groups have become increasingly aware of the public interest in animal welfare and are organizing programs and groups to better understand and educate the public on the issues. PMID:3448117

Blosser, T H

1987-12-01

212

Fenproporex increases locomotor activity and alters energy metabolism, and mood stabilizers reverse these changes: a proposal for a new animal model of mania.  

PubMed

Fenproporex (Fen) is converted in vivo into amphetamine, which is used to induce mania-like behaviors in animals. In the present study, we intend to present a new animal model of mania. In order to prove through face, construct, and predictive validities, we evaluated behavioral parameters (locomotor activity, stereotypy activity, and fecal boli amount) and brain energy metabolism (enzymes citrate synthase; malate dehydrogenase; succinate dehydrogenase; complexes I, II, II-III, and IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain; and creatine kinase) in rats submitted to acute and chronic administration of fenproporex, treated with lithium (Li) and valproate (VPA). The administration of Fen increased locomotor activity and decreased the activity of Krebs cycle enzymes, mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, and creatine kinase, in most brain structures evaluated. In addition, treatment with mood stabilizers prevented and reversed this effect. Our results are consistent with the literature that demonstrates behavioral changes and mitochondrial dysfunction caused by psychostimulants. These findings suggest that chronic administration of Fen may be a potential animal model of mania. PMID:24126971

Rezin, Gislaine T; Furlanetto, Camila B; Scaini, Giselli; Valvassori, Samira S; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Jeremias, Isabela C; Resende, Wilson R; Cardoso, Mariane R; Varela, Roger B; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

2014-04-01

213

Characterizing reduced sulfur compounds and non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become a potential environmental and human health concern. Both RSCs and NMVOCs contribute to odor. In addition, RSCs also have the potential to form fine particulate matter (PMfine) and NMVOCs the potential to form ozone. Measurements of RSCs and NMVOCs emissions were made from both an anaerobic lagoon and barn at a swine CAFO in North Carolina. Emission measurements were made over all four seasonal periods. In each seasonal period, measurements were made from both the anaerobic lagoon and barn for ˜1 week. RSC and NMVOCs samples were collected using passivated canisters. Nine to eleven canister samples were taken from both the lagoon and barn over each sampling period. The canisters were analyzed ex-situ using gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) measurements were made in-situ using a pulsed fluorescence H2S/SO2 analyzer. During sampling, measurements of meteorological and physiochemical parameters were made. H2S had the largest RSC flux, with an overall average lagoon flux of 1.33 mug m-2 min-1. The two main RSCs identified by the GC-FID, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), had overall average lagoon fluxes an order of magnitude lower, 0.12 and 0.09 mug m-2 min-1, respectively. Twelve significant NMVOCs were identified in lagoon samples (ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, decanal, heptanal, hexanal, nonanal, octanal, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and 4-methylphenol). The overall average fluxes for these NMVOCs, ranged from 0.08 mug m-2 min-1 (4-methylphenol) to 2.11 mug m-2 min-1 (acetone). Seasonal H2S barn concentrations ranged from 72-631 ppb. DMS and DMDS seasonal concentrations were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower. There were six significant NMVOCs identified in barn samples (methanol, ethanol, acetone 2-3 butanedione, acetaldehyde and 4-methylphenol). Their overall average NMVOCs concentrations ranged from 2.87 ppb (4-methylphenol) to 16.21 ppb (ethanol). The overall average barn normalized emissions were 3.3 g day-1 AU-1 (AU (animal unit) = 500 kg) for H2S, 0.018 g day-1 AU-1 for DMS and 0.037 g day -1 AU-1 for DMDS. Normalized overall average NMVOC emissions ranged from 0.45 g day-1 AU-1 for ethanol to 0.16 g day-1 AU-1 for acetaldehyde. Barn H2S concentrations were generally one to two orders of magnitude above their odor thresholds. DMDS concentrations also regularly exceeded the lower limit of an odor threshold. Four NMVOCs (2-3 butanedione, decanal, 4-methylphenol and nonanal) had barn concentrations exceeding an odor threshold. Using overall average lagoon and barn emissions, the emissions from swine CAFOs in North Carolina were estimated. H2S had the largest RSC emission with an estimated North Carolina emission of 1.46 million kg yr -1, which was ˜21% of total North Carolina H2S emissions. Ethanol was the NMVOC with the largest North Carolina emission with an emission of 206,367 kg yr-1.

Rumsey, Ian Cooper

214

Animal cellulases  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Previous dogma has maintained that cellulose, ingested by xylophagous or herbivorous animals, is digested by cellulolytic\\u000a symbiotes. The first evidence in conflict with this contention involved the demonstration of cellulolytic activities in symbiote-free\\u000a secreting organs (e.g., the salivary glands of termites) or defaunated guts. Following these demonstrations, possible endogenous\\u000a cellulase components were purified from several cellulose-digesting invertebrates, but this

H. Watanabe; G. Tokuda

2001-01-01

215

Animal Abduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Many animals – traditionally considered “mindless” organisms – make up a series of signs and are engaged in making,\\u000a manifesting or reacting to a series of signs: through this semiotic activity – which is fundamentally model-based – they are at the same time engaged in “being cognitive agents” and therefore in thinking intelligently. An important effect\\u000a of this semiotic

Lorenzo Magnani

2007-01-01

216

Observations on the Subcellular Organization of Hepatic Parenchymal Cells. II. Evolution of Reversible Alterations Induced by Hypoxia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The investigation was undertaken with the aim of studying the dynamics of structure-function relationships between subcellular organelles through observations of the sequences of alterations during reversible sublethal cell injury. For this purpose, rats ...

W. H. Glinsmann

1965-01-01

217

Animal Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those of us living in Northern climates, when winter snow covers the landscape it provides great conditions to search for animal tracks. The following websites provide an abundance of information and resources about the ancient art of animal tracking.The first site(1 ), Beartracker's Animal Tracks Den, is an excellent comprehensive "online field guide to tracks and tracking." The site includes animal track images, photos, as well as information about mammals, reptiles, birds, insects, amphibians, and other tracking resources. The second site (2), is an article by Jon C. Boren, Extension Wildlife Specialist and Byron D. Wright, Agricultural Specialist both from the University of New Mexico entitled Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks. The third site (3), on Tracking and Stalking Wildlife, comes from The Virtual Cub Scout Leader's Handbook and provides short information pages on a variety on animals including photos and images of tracks. The fourth site (4) is a well-organized lesson plan with activities on Animal Signs from Eagle Bluff Environmental Learning Center. The fifth site (5) is the Outdoor Action Guide to Animal Tracking by Rick Curtis of Princeton University. This website provides solid and detailed information on many aspects of animal tracking including parts of a track, pattern classification, aging tracks, and more. The sixth site (6) is an article by veteran tracker Jim Halfpenny, Ph.D. about how to determine the accurate track size for an animal. Site visitors can link from this article to the homepage for A Naturalist's World which has information about tracking classes offered in various North American locations. For anyone interested in developing their animal tracking skills, the final two websites also offer courses from very experienced trackers in different regions of North America. The seventh site (7), Tom Brown's Tracker School is the largest school of its kind with locations in New Jersey, California, and Florida. The eighth site, (8) Wilderness Awareness School is located in Washington but offers courses in other regions as well. This website also provides an extensive list of links for many other tracking resources.

218

Gravity as a factor in the animal environment.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Review of current knowledge, research, and research planning on the influence of gravity upon living organisms. Discussed factors affecting the adaptability of animals to increased acceleration fields include age, sex, posture, and body size. Affected functions and aspects reviewed cover growth and mature body size, body composition, maintenance feed requirements, and feed utilization efficiency. It is expected that research involving the exposure of animals to altered gravity states will lead to new biological concepts of very broad importance.

Smith, A. H.

1972-01-01

219

Methods for study of cardiovascular adaptation of small laboratory animals during exposure to altered gravity. [hypothermia for cardiovascular control and cancer therapy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several new techniques are reported for studying cardiovascular circulation in small laboratory animals kept in metabolic chambers. Chronical cannulation, miniaturized membrane type heart-lung machines, a prototype walking chamber, and a fluorocarbon immersion method to simulate weightlessness are outlined. Differential hypothermia work on rat cancers provides localized embedding of radionuclides and other chemotherapeutical agents in tumors and increases at the same time blood circulation through the warmed tumor as compared to the rest of the cold body. Some successful clinical applications of combined chemotherapy and differential hypothermia in skin cancer, mammary tumors, and brain gliomas are described.

Popovic, V.

1973-01-01

220

Molecular multiproxy analysis of ancient root systems suggests strong alteration of deep subsoil organic matter by rhizomicrobial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roots have a high potential capacity to store large amounts of CO2 in the subsoil. However, associated with rooting, microorganisms enter the subsoil and might contribute to priming effects of carbon mineralisation in the microbial hotspot rhizosphere. Although these processes are well known for recent surface soils, it remains questionable, if and how microorganisms contribute to priming effects in the subsoil and if these effects can be traced after the roots' lifetime. The current study implies several state-of-the-art techniques like DNA and lipid molecular proxies to trace remains of microbial biomass in ancient root systems. These can provide valuable information if parts of the root and rhizomicrobial biomass are preserved, e.g. by encrustation with secondary carbonate during the root's lifespan or shortly thereafter. At the Late Pleistocene loess-paleosol sequence near Nussloch (SW Germany), rhizoliths (calcified roots) occur highly abundant in the deep subsoil from 1 to 9 m depth and below. They were formed by Holocene woody vegetation. Their size can account for up to several cm in diameter and up to > 1 m length. Rhizoliths and surrounding sediment with increasing distances of up to 10 cm, as well as reference loess without visible root remains were collected at several depth intervals. Samples were analysed for n-fatty acids (FAs) and glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs; membrane lipids from Archaea and some Bacteria), as well as structural diversity based on the RNA gene of the prokaryotic ribosome subunit 16S (16S rRNA). GDGT represent organic remains from microbial biomass, whereas FA comprise both microbial remains and degradation products. 16S rRNA indicates the presence of both living cells and/or cell fragments. Despite the general low RNA contents in the sample set, results pointed to a much higher abundance of bacterial compared to archaeal RNA. The latter occured in notable amounts only in some rhizoliths. This was in part enforced by decreasing contents of archeal GDGTs from rhizolith via rhizosphere towards root-free loess. Furthermore, the bacterial fingerprint revealed - similar to modern root systems - higher taxonomic diversity in rhizosphere compared to rhizoliths and reference loess. This argues for microorganisms benefiting from root deposits and exudates. Highest concentrations of branched GDGTs in rhizoliths suggest that their source organisms feed on root remains. Incorporation of rhizomicrobial remains as represented by RNA and GDGTs usually affected the sediment at maximum to a distance of 2-3 cm from the former root. FA contents in rhizosphere showed strong scatter and were in part depleted compared to reference loess or, especially in deeper transects, enriched. This indicates the presence of degradation products originating from former rhizosphere processes. Especially at larger depth not affected by modern pedogenic processes, portions of mainly microbial derived C16 homologues were higher in rhizosphere loess up to distances of 10 cm, revealing that the possible extension of the rhizosphere was underestimated so far. In Corg poor subsoil, the occurence of diverse rhizosphere microorganisms and degradation processes even in several centimeters distant from roots point to a strong alteration of OM, possibly contributing to carbon mineralisation.

Gocke, Martina; Huguet, Arnaud; Derenne, Sylvie; Kolb, Steffen; Wiesenberg, Guido L. B.

2013-04-01

221

Pollution biomarkers in estuarine animals: Critical review and new perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review, recent developments in monitoring toxicological responses in estuarine animals are analyzed, considering the biomarker responses to different classes of pollutants. The estuarine environment imposes stressful conditions to the organisms that inhabit it, and this situation can alter their sensitivity to many pollutants. The specificity of some biomarkers like metallothionein tissue concentration is discussed in virtue of its

José M. Monserrat; Pablo E. Martínez; Laura A. Geracitano; Lílian Lund Amado; Camila Martinez Gaspar Martins; Grasiela Lopes Leães Pinho; Isabel Soares Chaves; Marlize Ferreira-Cravo; Juliane Ventura-Lima; Adalto Bianchini

2007-01-01

222

What can we learn from the toughest animals of the Earth? Water bears (tardigrades) as multicellular model organisms in order to perform scientific preparations for lunar exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space missions of long duration required a series of preliminary experiments on living organisms, validated by a substantial phase of ground simulation experiments, in the field of micro- and inter-mediate gravities, radiobiology, and, for planetary explorations, related to risks deriving from regolith and dust exposure. In this review, we present the tardigrades, whose characteristics that recommend them as an emerging model for space biology. They are microscopic animals but are characterized by a complex structural organization similar to that of larger animals; they can be cultured in lab in small facilities, having small size; they are able to produce clonal lineages by means of parthenogenesis; they can completely suspend their metabolism when entering in dormant states (anhydrobiosis induced by dehydration and cryobiosis induced by freezing); desiccated anhydrobiotic tardigrades are able to withstand chemical and physical extremes, but a large tolerance is showed also by active animals; they can be stored in dry state for many years without loss of viability. Tardigrades have already been exposed to space stressors on Low Earth Orbit several times. The relevance of ground-based and space studies on tardigrades rests on the presumption that results could suggest strategies to protect organisms, also humans, when exposed to the space and lunar environments.

Guidetti, Roberto; Rizzo, Angela Maria; Altiero, Tiziana; Rebecchi, Lorena

2012-12-01

223

Animal Cell Meiosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Meiosis is important in assuring genetic diversity in sexual reproduction. Use this interactive animation to follow Meiosis I (reduction division) and Meiosis II in a continuous sequence or stop at any stage and review critical events.

2010-01-01

224

Morris Animal Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... We are a global leader in animal health science, and our funding helps more species in more places than that of any other organization in the world. Morris Animal Foundation News “Golden” Leader Nominated for National Veterinary Technician Award Morris Animal Foundation’s Erin Searfoss ...

225

Schistosoma mansoni infection causes oxidative stress and alters receptor for advanced glycation endproduct (RAGE) and tau levels in multiple organs in mice.  

PubMed

Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by trematode worms from the Schistosoma genus and is characterized by high rates of morbidity. The main organs affected in this pathology, such as liver, kidneys and spleen, are shifted to a pro-oxidant state in the course of the infection. Here, we compared oxidative stress parameters of liver, kidney and spleen with other organs affected by schistosomiasis - heart, brain cortex and lungs. The results demonstrated that mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni had altered non-enzymatic antioxidant status in lungs and brain, increased carbonyl levels in lungs, and a moderate level of oxidative stress in heart. A severe redox imbalance in liver and kidneys and decreased non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity in spleen were also observed. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were differently modulated in liver, kidney and heart, and we found that differences in Superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase protein content may be responsible for these differences. Lungs had decreased receptor for advanced glycation endproduct expression and the brain cortex presented altered tau expression and phosphorylation levels, suggesting important molecular changes in these tissues, as homeostasis of these proteins is widely associated with the normal function of their respective organs. We believe that these results demonstrate for the first time that changes in the redox profile and expression of tissue-specific proteins of organs such as heart, lungs and brain are observed in early stages of S. mansoni infection. PMID:23369670

de Oliveira, Ramatis Birnfeld; Senger, Mario Roberto; Vasques, Laura Milan; Gasparotto, Juciano; dos Santos, João Paulo Almeida; Pasquali, Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt; Moreira, José Claudio Fonseca; Silva, Floriano Paes; Gelain, Daniel Pens

2013-04-01

226

Animal and Animal Products Trade in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Africa has the potential for increasing livestock production and exports but faces several production and international trade constraints. To promote international trade, new rules and regulations have been established under the Agriculture Agreements of the World Trade Organization that African countries can take advantage of to expand their export trade. This paper reviews African trade in animal and animal products

E. N. Tambi; O. W. Maina; R. Bessin

2004-01-01

227

Altered food web structure and C-flux pathways associated with mineralisation of organic amendments to agricultural soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of organic materials to agricultural soils offers the potential to divert these from conventional waste streams and to reduce the use of mineral fertilisers for crop production. In addition to direct impacts of organic materials on soil physico-chemical conditions, such amendments may also affect the structure and functioning of soil food webs and the coupling of plant- and soil

Eric Paterson; Roy Neilson; Andrew J. Midwood; Shona M. Osborne; Allan Sim; Barry Thornton; Pete Millard

2011-01-01

228

Animal Hats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this arts and crafts activity about animals and animal characteristics, learners will design animal hats and role-play as animals. Through this dramatic play, learners will practice and develop problem solving, cooperation, symbolic thinking, language and personal expression skills. Use the suggested open-ended questions to encourage learner reflection about their animal hat and animals in general.

Omsi

2004-01-01

229

Time-Course of Alterations in Myocardial Glucose Utilization in the Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) Rat with Correlation to Gene Expression of Glucose Transporters: A Small Animal PET Investigation  

PubMed Central

Objective Diabetic cardiomyopathy is associated with abnormalities in glucose metabolism. We evaluated myocardial glucose metabolism in a rodent model of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), namely the Zucker Diabetic Rat (ZDF), and validated PET measures of glucose uptake against gene and protein expression of glucose transporters. Methods Six lean and ZDF rat underwent small animal PET imaging at the age of 14 weeks and at the age of 19 weeks. The imaging protocol consisted of a 60-minute dynamic acquisition with 18FDG (0.5–0.8mCi). Dynamic images were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP) with a 2.5 zoom on the heart and 40 frames per imaging session. PET measures of myocardial glucose uptake rate (MGUp) and utilization were determined with an input function derived by the Hybrid Image- Blood Sampling (HIBS) algorithm on recovery-corrected anterolateral myocardial regions of interest. Following the PET imaging session at week 19, hearts were extracted for gene and protein expression analysis of GLUT1 and GLUT4. The dependence of MGUp on gene expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 was characterized by multiple-regression analysis. Results Compared to lean littermate control rats, MGUp was significantly depressed in ZDF rats at both week 14 and week 19 (P<0.006). Moreover, lean rats at week 19 displayed significantly higher MGUp than week 14 (P=0.007). Consistent with diminished MGUp, gene expression of GLUT4 was significantly (P=0.004) lower in ZDF rats. Finally, MGUp significantly (P=0.0003) correlated with gene expression of GLUT4. Conclusions Using small animal PET, we confirmed alterations in myocardial glucose utilization and validated PET measure of MGUp against gene and protein expression of glucose transporters in the diabetic heart of an animal model of T2D.

Shoghi, Kooresh I.; Gropler, Robert J.; Sharp, Terry; Herrero, Pilar; Fettig, Nicole; Su, Yi; Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Kovacs, Attila; Finck, Brian N.; Welch, Michael J.

2010-01-01

230

[Application of the ferrocin containing waste of wine-making for reduction of 137Cs tansit from forage to laboratory animal organisms and cow milk].  

PubMed

Addition to rat ration of ferrocin containing wastes of wine-making formed during the process of wine demetalization in the amount of 0.2 g per animal per day reduces the 137Cs content in organs and tissues in 1.5-7 times. Addition of the above-mentioned substance to the ration of milk cows in the amount of 10-16 g per day reduces the radionuclide content in milk 1.5-2 times in two weeks and more than 3 times in four weeks. PMID:22384725

Gudkov, I N; Lazarev, N M; Vechtomov, Iu V

2011-01-01

231

Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth takes a look at organizations and educational websites concerned with reproduction in humans and other animals. The Society for the Study of Reproduction (SSR) "is an association of scientists and physicians interested in research in reproduction. Some members are engaged in basic or applied research, while others perform clinical practice." The SSR website (1) contains downloadable copies of the SSR Newsletter; position statements; and information about meetings, awards, and the organization. The Society for Reproduction and Fertility (SRF) "is open to scientists and students worldwide, who work on any aspect of reproductive biology or fertility in man and animals." The SRF website (2) contains sections regarding News, Events, Jobs, Honours, and Grants. SRF makes downloadable copies of its newsletter available as well. The primary aim of the European Society of Human Reproduction & Embryology (ESHRE) "is to promote interest in, and understanding of, reproductive biology and medicine. It does this through facilitating research and subsequent dissemination of research findings in human reproduction and embryology to the general public, scientists, clinicians and patient associations; it also works to inform politicians and policy makers throughout Europe." The ESHRE site (3) contains information about activities, membership, publications, special interest groups, and jobs. The primary function of the Centre for Reproductive Biology in Uppsala (CRU) "is to increase the knowledge about reproduction in animals and humans by applying a more comprehensive view on reproductive biology." CRU is composed of scientists from both Uppsala University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Science. The CRU site (4) contains information about a number of publications, and contact information for CRU members. The Population Council is a nonprofit "organization that conducts biomedical, social science, and public health research." The "Council's reproductive biology and immunology program undertakes fundamental research in the reproductive sciences and immunological processes related to sexually transmitted infections, particularly HIV." This website (5) provides information about different aspects of the research program including Germ Cell Dynamics, Sperm Maturation, and Physiology of Sertoli Cells. From Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College, the next site (6) is a concise overview of animal reproduction which addresses important aspects of sexual reproduction, and male and female reproductive systems. The final site (7) contains lecture notes regarding avian reproduction from Dr. Gary Ritchison's Ornithology course at Eastern Kentucky University. The lecture notes are interspersed with some especially nice images and diagrams.

232

Organ-specific alterations in tobacco transcriptome caused by the PVX-derived P25 silencing suppressor transgene  

PubMed Central

Background RNA silencing affects a broad range of regulatory processes in all eukaryotes ranging from chromatin structure maintenance to transcriptional and translational regulation and longevity of the mRNAs. Particularly in plants, it functions as the major defense mechanism against viruses. To counter-act this defense, plant viruses produce suppressors of RNA silencing (Viral suppressors of RNA silencing, VSRSs), which are essential for viruses to invade their specific host plants. Interactions of these VSRSs with the hosts’ silencing pathways, and their direct and indirect interference with different cellular regulatory networks constitute one of the main lines of the molecular virus-host interactions. Here we have used a microarray approach to study the effects of the Potato virus X Potexvirus (PVX)-specific P25 VSRS protein on the transcript profile of tobacco plants, when expressed as a transgene in these plants. Results The expression of the PVX-specific P25 silencing suppressor in transgenic tobacco plants caused significant up-regulation of 1350 transcripts, but down-regulation of only five transcripts in the leaves, and up- and down-regulation of 51 and 13 transcripts, respectively, in the flowers of these plants, as compared to the wild type control plants. Most of the changes occurred in the transcripts related to biotic and abiotic stresses, transcription regulation, signaling, metabolic pathways and cell wall modifications, and many of them appeared to be induced through up-regulation of the signaling pathways regulated by ethylene, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. Correlations of these alterations with the protein profile and related biological functions were analyzed. Surprisingly, they did not cause significant alterations in the protein profile, and caused only very mild alteration in the phenotype of the P25-expressing transgenic plants. Conclusion Expression of the PVX-specific P25 VSRS protein causes major alterations in the transcriptome of the leaves of transgenic tobacco plants, but very little of any effects in the young flowers of the same plants. The fairly stable protein profile in the leaves and lack of any major changes in the plant phenotype indicate that the complicated interplay and interactions between different regulatory levels are able to maintain homeostasis in the plants.

2013-01-01

233

Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants Expressing a Fungal Cutinase Show Alterations in the Structure and Properties of the Cuticle and Postgenital Organ Fusions  

PubMed Central

A major structural component of the cuticle of plants is cutin. Analysis of the function of cutin in vivo has been limited because no mutants with specific defects in cutin have been characterized. Therefore, transgenic Arabidopsis plants were generated that express and secrete a cutinase from Fusarium solani f sp pisi. Arabidopsis plants expressing the cutinase in the extracellular space showed an altered ultrastructure of the cuticle and an enhanced permeability of the cuticle to solutes. In addition, pollen could germinate on fully differentiated leaves of cutinase-expressing plants but not on control leaves. These differences coincided with strong postgenital organ fusions. The junctions of the fusions contained pectic polysaccharides. As fused organs grew apart from each other, organ deformations and protrusions of epidermal cells developed at positions with high mechanical stress. These results demonstrate that an intact cutin layer not only is important for plant–environment interactions but also prevents fusions between different plant organs and is therefore necessary for normal epidermal differentiation and organ formation.

Sieber, Patrick; Schorderet, Martine; Ryser, Ulrich; Buchala, Antony; Kolattukudy, Pappachan; Metraux, Jean-Pierre; Nawrath, Christiane

2000-01-01

234

Animal lifespan and human influence  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lifespan differs radically among organisms ever lived on earth, even among those roughly similar in size, shape, form, and physiology; Yet, in general, there exists a strong positive relationship between lifespan and body size. Although lifespans of humans and human-related (domestic) animals are becoming increasingly longer than that of other animals of similar sizes, the slope of the regression (lifespan-body size) line and the intercepts have been surprisingly stable over the course of the dramatic human population growth, indicating substantial depression in lifespans of many other animals probably due to shrunk and fragmented natural habitats. This article addresses two questions related to the lifespan-size relationship: (1) what caused the exceptions (e.g., a few remote human-related animals are also located above the regression line with great residuals) and why (e.g., could brain size or intelligence be a covariate in addition to body size in predicting lifespan?), and (2) whether continued human activities can eventually alter the ' natural' regression line in the future, and if so, how much. We also suggest similar research efforts to be extended to the plant world as well.

Guo, Q.; Yang, S.

2002-01-01

235

Location of nucleolar organizers in animal and plant chromosomes by means of an improved N-banding technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

With an improved N-banding technique, the location of nucleolar organizing region was determined in 27 kinds of material including mammals, a marsupial, birds, amphibians, fishes, an insect and plants. In most cases the N-bands were clearly located on certain specific regions of chromosomes, such as the secondary constriction, satellite, centromere, telomere and heterochromatic segment, while in some species they were

Kenji Funaki; Sei-ichi Matsui; Motomichi Sasaki

1975-01-01

236

The cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter sequence alters the level and patterns of activity of adjacent tissue- and organ-specific gene promoters.  

PubMed

Here we report the effect of the 35S promoter sequence on activities of the tissue- and organ-specific gene promoters in tobacco plants. In the absence of the 35S promoter sequence the AAP2 promoter is active only in vascular tissues as indicated by expression of the AAP2:GUS gene. With the 35S promoter sequence in the same T-plasmid, transgenic plants exhibit twofold to fivefold increase in AAP2 promoter activity and the promoter becomes active in all tissue types. Transgenic plants hosting the ovary-specific AGL5:iaaM gene (iaaM coding an auxin biosynthetic gene) showed a wild-type phenotype except production of seedless fruits, whereas plants hosting the AGL5:iaaM gene along with the 35S promoter sequence showed drastic morphological alterations. RT-PCR analysis confirms that the phenotype was caused by activation of the AGL5:iaaM gene in non-ovary organs including roots, stems and flowers. When the pollen-, ovule- and early embryo-specific PAB5:barnase gene (barnase coding a RNase gene) was transformed, the presence of 35S promoter sequence drastically reduced transformation efficiencies. However, the transformation efficiencies were restored in the absence of 35S promoter, indicating that the 35S promoter might activate the expression of PAB5:barnase in non-reproductive organs such as calli and shoot primordia. Furthermore, if the 35S promoter sequence was replaced with the NOS promoter sequence, no alteration in AAP2, AGL5 or PAB5 promoter activities was observed. Our results demonstrate that the 35S promoter sequence can convert an adjacent tissue- and organ-specific gene promoter into a globally active promoter. PMID:17340093

Zheng, Xuelian; Deng, Wei; Luo, Keming; Duan, Hui; Chen, Yongqin; McAvoy, Richard; Song, Shuiqing; Pei, Yan; Li, Yi

2007-08-01

237

Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.  

PubMed

Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded. PMID:16446412

Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

2006-02-01

238

Preparation techniques alter the mineral and organic fractions of fish otoliths: insights using Raman micro-spectrometry.  

PubMed

The high spatial resolution analysis of the mineral and organic composition of otoliths using Raman micro-spectrometry involves rigorous protocols for sample preparation previously established for microchemistry and trace elements analyses. These protocols often include otolith embedding in chemically neutral resin (i.e., resins which do not contain, in detectable concentration, elements usually sought in the otoliths). Such embedding may however induce organic contamination. In this paper, Raman micro-spectrometry reveals the presence of organic contamination onto the surface obtained from the use of epoxy resin, specifically Araldite. This contamination level varies depending on otolith structures. Core and checks, known as structural discontinuities, exhibit the most important level of contaminations. Our results suggest that otolith embedding with resin affects the organic matrix of the otolith, probably through an infiltration of the resin in the crystalline structure. The interpretation of chemical otolith signatures, especially Raman otolith signatures, and stable isotope analyses should then be revised in light of these results. In this respect, we propose a method for the correction of Raman otolith signatures for contamination effects. PMID:23508582

Jolivet, Aurélie; Fablet, Ronan; Bardeau, Jean-François; de Pontual, Hélène

2013-05-01

239

Animal models of endocrine\\/organ-specific autoimmune diseases: do they really help us to understand human autoimmunity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Organ-specific or endocrine autoimmune diseases are complex, polygenic afflictions the penetrance of which is heavily dependent\\u000a on various environmental influences. Important target tissues are the thyroid, the islets of Langerhans, gastric parietal\\u000a cells and steroid-producing cells in the adrenal and ovary. The etiology of these diseases remains to be clarified. The pathogenesis\\u000a is strongly associated with autoimmune phenomena. None

W. K. Lam-Tse; A. Lernmark; H. A. Drexhage

2002-01-01

240

Alterations induced by chronic stress in lymphocyte subsets of blood and primary and secondary immune organs of mice  

PubMed Central

Background The immune system is particularly sensitive to stress. Although acute stress generally has positive effects, chronic stress typically provokes immunosuppression. The elucidation of the mechanisms involved in immunosuppression are of interest for the design of therapeutic approaches to avoid the appearance of stress disorders. This study aimed to investigate chronic stress-induced alterations on lymphocyte subset distribution and percentages. The experiments were performed with C57BL/6 mice subjected to chronic immobilization stress. Results Stress caused a marked increase in apoptosis inside the thymus, and a reduction in the total number of thymocytes. Furthermore, the proportion of immature thymocytes declined significantly suggesting that the increased apoptosis mainly affected cells of immature phenotype. In blood, the total number of lymphocytes diminished but not all lymphocyte populations showed the same tendency: while the relative proportion of B cells declined slightly, the relative proportion of circulating CD3+ cells, and particularly some T cell subsets showing an immature phenotype (CD3+PNA+), increased under stress. The spleen and lymph nodes show a marked reduction in cellularity, but the relative proportion of T cells increased, while no change or only a slight reduction was observed in the relative proportion of B cells. Similarly, the relative proportion of T cells increased in bone marrow. Conclusions Detailed data on the alterations of lymphoid cell subsets occurring under immobilization stress, both in the bloodstream and in different lymphoid tissues, are obtained. In general, T cells are more affected than B cells and, in particular, a marked increase in the percentage of a subset of circulating PNA+CD3+ T cells is observed.

Dominguez-Gerpe, Lourdes; Rey-Mendez, Manuel

2001-01-01

241

PHOTOCHEMICAL ALTERATION OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER: EFFECTS ON THE CONCENTRATION AND ACIDITIES OF IONIZABLE SITES IN DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN THE SATILLA RIVER OF GEORGIA, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

The acid-base properties of humic substances, the major component of dissolved organic matter (DOM), area major control on the alkalinity, or acid neutralizing capacity of freshwater systems. Alkalinity is one of the fundamental parameters measured in aquatic sciences, and is an ...

242

Formation, Alteration and Delivery of Exogenous High Molecular Weight Organic Compounds: Objectives of the Tanpopo Mission from the Point of View of Chemical Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide variety of organic compounds have been detected in such extraterrestrial bodies as carbonaceous chondrites and comets. Amino acids have been confirmed in extracts from carbonaceous chondrites and cometary dusts. It was suggested that these organics were formed in quite cold environments. We irradiated possible interstellar media, such as a frozen mixture of methanol, ammonia and water, with high-energy particles. Amino acid precursors with high molecular weights were detected in the irradiated products. Such complex amino acid precursors are much more stable than free amino acids against radiation, and heat. It is suggested that interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) brought much more organics than meteorites and comets. However, characteristics of organic compounds in IDPs are little known, since they have been collected only in terrestrial biosphere. We are planning the Tanpopo Mission, where IDPs would be collected in aerogel equipped on the Exposure Facility of the International Space Station. In addition, amino acids and their relating compounds would be exposed to space environments to see their possible alteration processes.

Kobayashi, Kensei; K. Sarker, Palash; Ono, Keisuke; Kawamoto, Yukinori; Obayashi, Yumiko; Kaneko, Takeo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Mita, Hajime; Yabuta, Hikaru; Yamagishi, Akihiko

243

A(1) and A(3) adenosine receptors alter glutathione status in an organ-specific manner and influence the changes after inhibition of gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase.  

PubMed

Adenosine levels are increased in stress and act as anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory mediators by binding to 4 G-protein-coupled receptors. Using genetically modified mice lacking A(1) and A(3) adenosine receptors, treated with ip buthionine-[S,R]-sulphoximine injections to inhibit gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase, the question was addressed whether these receptors modulate the responses to the stress related to altered glutathione levels. This study determined organ glutathione levels and expression of two sub-units of gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase and the cationic x(c)-transporter and found that deletion of one or both adenosine receptors influenced the responses in an organ-specific manner. The lack of A(1) and A(3) adenosine receptors is related to decreased basal glutathione content and down-regulation of gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase sub-units in several organs. Moreover, responses to buthionine-[S,R]-sulphoximine were different. For example, the lack of A(3) adenosine receptors, or their blockade of A(3) by MRS 1191, caused a marked increase in gene expression, which was not observed in mice lacking both A(1) and A(3) receptors. The results indicate that A(1) and A(3) adenosine receptors play a role in antioxidant responses and their role differs in an organ-specific way. PMID:19229670

Conte, Carmela; Grottelli, Silvia; Prudenzi, Elvira; Bellezza, Ilaria; Fredholm, Bertil B; Minelli, Alba

2009-03-01

244

[Altered gut bacterial flora and organic acids in feces of patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation with quinolone-based antibacterial prophylaxis].  

PubMed

Gastrointestinal toxicity and various infections are serious problems associated with high-dose chemotherapy. Antibacterial chemoprophylaxis reduces the incidence of gram-negative bacterial infection; however, it may affect the normal intestinal flora and induce drug resistance in organisms. We evaluated the chronological changes in fecal bacteria and organic acids in 6 patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation with quinolone-based chemoprophylaxis. All patients developed grade 2-3 diarrhea. Four patients developed grade 3 febrile neutropenia. The total count of obligatory anaerobic bacteria was significantly decreased on Day 7, but total facultative anaerobic bacterial count did not change throughout transplantation. However, Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacillus were decreased on Day 7 and Staphylococcus was increased after transplantation. Total organic acid concentration and short-chain fatty acids were decreased on Day 7. The bacterial flora and organic acids in the gut were significantly altered in patients who underwent autologous stem cell transplantation with quinolonebased chemoprophylaxis. These changes may contribute to gastrointestinal toxicity and infections. PMID:20567111

Hagiwara, Shotaro; Hagiwara, Shotaro; Asahara, Takashi; Nomoto, Koji; Morotomi, Masami; Ishizuka, Naoki; Miwa, Akiyoshi; O Yoshida, Takato

2010-06-01

245

Animal Bites  

MedlinePLUS

... Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate ... pants when you are in areas with venomous snakes If an animal bites you, clean the wound ...

246

Injury-elicited stressors alter endogenous retrovirus expression in lymphocytes depending on cell type and source lymphoid organ  

PubMed Central

Background Murine leukemia virus-type endogenous retroviruses (MuLV-ERVs) constitute ~10% of the mouse genome and are associated with various pathophysiologic processes. In this study, we examined whether MuLV-ERVs’ response to burn-elicited stressors is specific for certain lymphocyte populations and/or locations of lymphoid organ. Results B- and T-cells, which were sorted from nine lymphoid organs of C57BL/6J mice after burn, were subjected to MuLV-ERV expression analyses. Overall, the post-burn MuLV-ERV expression pattern was dependent on lymphocyte type, time after injury, location of lymphoid organ, and MuLV-ERV type. For instance, the MuLV-ERV expression in T-cells from the thymus and three cervical lymph nodes decreased at 3 hours post-burn while the expression of some MuLV-ERVs was augmented in B-cells derived from the mesenteric lymph node. The MuLV-ERV U3 sequences population of the burn-24 hours group was less diverse in comparison to the no burn and burn-3 hours groups. In addition, it was apparent that at the 24 hours time point, the U3 populations of B-cells from both no burn and burn groups were less heterogeneous than the T-cells’ U3 populations. Using the U3 sequences, some of which were isolated only from specific experimental groups (B- vs. T-cells; no burn vs. burn), as probes, 51 putative MuLV-ERVs, including 16 full-length proviruses, were mapped followed by characterization of their biologic properties. Conclusion MuLV-ERVs’ response to burn-elicited stressors may be differentially controlled depending on lymphocyte type, location of lymphoid organ, MuLV-ERV type, and stress duration.

2013-01-01

247

Exploring Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each group will be given one of the following categories of animals to explore further and answer questions about. Mammals Invertebrates Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Explore your category of animals and answer these questions: 1. What makes an animal belong to this category? Do you think that an animal can only belong to one category? Why or why not? 2. Explain why these animals live where they do? 3. Does your category of animals have any interesting ...

Emily, Miss

2009-03-02

248

Evaluation of Novel Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates against Human and Animal Gammaherpesviruses Revealed an Altered Metabolism of Cyclic Prodrugs upon Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation in P3HR-1 Cells  

PubMed Central

Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs), such as (S)-1-[(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonomethoxy)propyl)]cytosine (HPMPC), are an important group of broad-spectrum antiviral agents with activity against DNA viruses. In this report, we present the in vitro potencies of novel ANPs against gammaherpesviruses, including Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and three animal gammaherpesviruses. 1-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-5-azacytosine (HPMP-5-azaC), (S)-9-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-3-deazaadenine (3-deaza-HPMPA), and their cyclic derivatives have emerged as highly potent antigammaherpesvirus agents. Interestingly, cyclic prodrugs of ANPs exhibited reduced activities against EBV strain P3HR-1, but not against EBV strain Akata. Cell culture metabolism studies with HPMPC and cyclic HPMPC revealed that these differences were attributable to an altered drug metabolism in P3HR-1 cells after EBV reactivation and, more specifically, to a reduced hydrolysis of cyclic HPMPC by cyclic CMP phosphodiesterase. We did not correlate this effect with phosphodiesterase downregulation, or to functional mutations. Instead, altered cyclic AMP levels in P3HR-1 cells indicated a competitive inhibition of the phosphodiesterase by this cyclic nucleotide. Finally, both HPMPC and HPMP-5-azaC emerged as highly effective inhibitors in vivo through significant inhibition of murine gammaherpesvirus replication and dissemination. With the current need for potent antigammaherpesvirus agents, our findings underline the requirement of appropriate surrogate viruses for antiviral susceptibility testing and highlight HPMP-5-azaC as a promising compound for future clinical development.

Coen, Natacha; Duraffour, Sophie; Naesens, Lieve; Krecmerova, Marcela; Van den Oord, Joost; Snoeck, Robert

2013-01-01

249

Universal Pacemaker of Genome Evolution in Animals and Fungi and Variation of Evolutionary Rates in Diverse Organisms  

PubMed Central

Gene evolution is traditionally considered within the framework of the molecular clock (MC) model whereby each gene is characterized by an approximately constant rate of evolution. Recent comparative analysis of numerous phylogenies of prokaryotic genes has shown that a different model of evolution, denoted the Universal PaceMaker (UPM), which postulates conservation of relative, rather than absolute evolutionary rates, yields a better fit to the phylogenetic data. Here, we show that the UPM model is a better fit than the MC for genome wide sets of phylogenetic trees from six species of Drosophila and nine species of yeast, with extremely high statistical significance. Unlike the prokaryotic phylogenies that include distant organisms and multiple horizontal gene transfers, these are simple data sets that cover groups of closely related organisms and consist of gene trees with the same topology as the species tree. The results indicate that both lineage-specific and gene-specific rates are important in genome evolution but the lineage-specific contribution is greater. Similar to the MC, the gene evolution rates under the UPM are strongly overdispersed, approximately 2-fold compared with the expectation from sampling error alone. However, we show that neither Drosophila nor yeast genes form distinct clusters in the tree space. Thus, the gene-specific deviations from the UPM, although substantial, are uncorrelated and most likely depend on selective factors that are largely unique to individual genes. Thus, the UPM appears to be a key feature of genome evolution across the history of cellular life.

Snir, Sagi; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.

2014-01-01

250

Alterations of nucleolar organizer regions of smooth muscle cells in bile duct following biliary ligation in rat.  

PubMed

Clinical experience indicates that bile duct dilatation is often associated with patients presenting with cholestasis. The purpose of this study is to propose a hypothesis that such a biliary dilatation, resulting from extra-hepatic obstruction, partially contributes to the rapidly occurring hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the smooth muscle cells in the bile duct; and that such an alteration could possibly lead to the development of neoplastic tissue. Twenty seven male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: Control Group (n = 7) with sham operation, Day 4 Group (n = 6) with common bile duct ligated for 4 days, Day 7 Group (n = 7) with common bile duct ligated for 7 days, and Day 14 Group (n = 7) with common bile duct ligated for 14 days. Complete extrahepatic biliary obstruction was induced in Wistar rats by distal ligation of the common bile duct (CBD). The CBD specimens were stained by H & E and argyrophilic techniques (AgNOR method), and the smooth muscle cells were identified and studied with light microscopy and an image analyzer. To determine maximum width of cell size, the widths of smooth muscle cells were found to be 2.82 +/- 0.07 microns, 3.05 +/- 0.06 microns, 4.53 +/- 0.10 microns, and 4.89 +/- 0.12 microns (Mean +/- S.E.) for the Control Group, Day 4 Group, Day 7 Group and Day 14 Group, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7853425

Shih, R H; Ker, C G

1994-12-01

251

Animal Cloning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The past few years have seen many changes in the field of genetics, including the ability to genetically clone mammals, first achieved in 1997 with a sheep named Dolly. Still a relatively new phenomenon, news stories are continually detailing new advances in cloning, reasons why cloning is important, and concerns about the safety and ethics of cloning. This week's Topic In Depth highlights some recent news articles and Web sites that address the topic of animal cloning. The first site is a recent article from the Washington Post about the sheep named Dolly, the world's first cloned mammal, who has developed arthritis at a relatively young age and has caused some to question whether cloning can have adverse health effects. An ABC news.com article details the recent birth of five cloned piglets whose parent had been genetically engineered to remove a gene that causes human bodies to reject transplanted animal organs. An Associated Press article discusses some concerns raised by scientists and ethicists surrounding the idea of xenotransplantation (animal to human transplantation). For users who need a primer on what exactly cloning means and why it is done, check out the Cloning Fact Sheet. Developed by the Human Genome Project, it provides short, non-technical explanations of the different types of cloning and some links to other cloning related Web sites. Those users looking for more detailed information about cloning technology will find the next two sites interesting. PPL Therapeutics, which created the five piglets and collaborated with the Roslin Institute to clone Dolly, provides news articles and technical descriptions of cloning and related genetic technology. The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America's Web site provides links to a tremendous amount of information surrounding all aspects of cloning, including recent congressional activity, news, and general resources. Although focused more heavily on human cloning, The American Journal of Bioethics Online has a Web page with links to various articles relating to the ethical issues involved with cloning and genetics.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

252

A gain-of-function mutation in IAA8 alters Arabidopsis floral organ development by change of jasmonic acid level.  

PubMed

Auxin regulates a variety of physiological processes via its downstream factors included Aux/IAAs. In this study, one of these Aux/IAAs, IAA8 is shown to play its role in Arabidopsis development with transgenic plants expressing GFP-mIAA8 under the control of IAA8 promoter, in which IAA8 protein was mutated by changing Pro170 to Leu170 in its conserved domain II. These transgenic dwarfed plants had more lateral branches, short primary inflorescence stems, decreased shoot apical dominance, curled leaves and abnormal flower organs (short petal and stamen, and bent stigmas). Further experiments revealed that IAA8::GFP-mIAA8 plants functioned as gain-of-function mutation to increase GFP-mIAA8 amount probably by stabilizing IAA8 protein against proteasome-mediated protein degradation with IAA8::GFP-IAA8 plants as control. The searching for its downstream factors indicated its interaction with both ARF6 and ARF8, suggesting that IAA8 may involve in flower organ development. This was further evidenced by analyzing the expression of jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthetic genes and JA levels because ARF6 and ARF8 are required for normal JA production. These results indicated that in IAA8::GFP-mIAA8 plants, JA biosynthetic genes including DAD1 (AT2G44810), AOS (AT5G42650) and ORP3 (AT2G06050) were dramatically down-regulated and JA level in the flowers was reduced to 70 % of that in wild-type. Furthermore, exogenous JA application can partially rescue short petal and stamen observed IAA8::GFP-mIAA8 plants. Thus, IAA8 plays its role in floral organ development by changes in JA levels probably via its interaction with ARF6/8 proteins. PMID:23483289

Wang, Jing; Yan, Da-Wei; Yuan, Ting-Ting; Gao, Xiang; Lu, Ying-Tang

2013-05-01

253

Animal papillomaviruses.  

PubMed

We provide an overview of the host range, taxonomic classification and genomic diversity of animal papillomaviruses. The complete genomes of 112 non-human papillomavirus types, recovered from 54 different host species, are currently available in GenBank. The recent characterizations of reptilian papillomaviruses extend the host range of the Papillomaviridae to include all amniotes. Although the genetically diverse papillomaviruses have a highly conserved genomic lay-out, deviations from this prototypic genome organization are observed in several animal papillomaviruses, and only the core ORFs E1, E2, L2 and L1 are present in all characterized papillomavirus genomes. The discovery of papilloma-polyoma hybrids BPCV1 and BPCV2, containing a papillomaviral late region but an early region encoding typical polyomaviral nonstructural proteins, and the detection of recombination breakpoints between the early and late coding regions of cetacean papillomaviruses, could indicate that early and late gene cassettes of papillomaviruses are relatively independent entities that can be interchanged by recombination. PMID:23711385

Rector, Annabel; Van Ranst, Marc

2013-10-01

254

Hybrid Shell Engineering of Animal Cells for Immune Protections and Regulation of Drug Delivery: Towards the Design of "Artificial Organs"  

PubMed Central

Background With the progress in medicine, the average human life expectancy is continuously increasing. At the same time, the number of patients who require full organ transplantations is augmenting. Consequently, new strategies for cell transplantation are the subject of great interest. Methodology/Principal Findings This work reports the design, the synthesis and the characterisation of robust and biocompatible mineralised beads composed of two layers: an alginate-silica composite core and a Ca-alginate layer. The adequate choice of materials was achieved through cytotoxicity LDH release measurement and in vitro inflammatory assay (IL-8) to meet the biocompatibility requirements for medical purpose. The results obtained following this strategy provide a direct proof of the total innocuity of silica and alginate networks for human cells as underscored by the non-activation of immune defenders (THP-1 monocytes). The accessible pore size diameter of the mineralised beads synthesized was estimated between 22 and 30 nm, as required for efficient immuno-isolation without preventing the diffusion of nutrients and metabolites. The model human cells, HepG2, entrapped within these hybrid beads display a high survival rate over more than six weeks according to the measurements of intracellular enzymatic activity, respiration rate, as well as the “de novo” biosynthesis and secretion of albumin out of the beads. Conclusions/Significance The current study shows that active mammalian cells can be protected by a silica-alginate hybrid shell-like system. The functionality of the cell strain can be maintained. Consequently, cells coated with an artificial and a biocompatible mineral shell could respond physiologically within the human body in order to deliver therapeutic agents in a controlled fashion (i.e. insulin), substituting the declining organ functions of the patient.

Dandoy, Philippe; Meunier, Christophe F.; Michiels, Carine; Su, Bao-Lian

2011-01-01

255

Character Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of the creation and animation of characters in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional character animation techniques, such as those developed by the Disney animators, and also human modelling. The section includes html pages, images and several videos.

2007-01-20

256

Animal Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners find, count and compare as many different kinds of animals as they can find in two different areas: a managed lawn and a weedy area. Learners compare their animal finds, and also examine which plants in the different areas attracted the most animals. Learners consider how people have affected the diversity of animals in the lawn.

Science, Lawrence H.

1982-01-01

257

Alteration of plasma membrane organization by an anticancer lysophosphatidylcholine analogue induces intracellular acidification and internalization of plasma membrane transporters in yeast.  

PubMed

The lysophosphatidylcholine analogue edelfosine is a potent antitumor lipid that targets cellular membranes. The underlying mechanisms leading to cell death remain controversial, although two cellular membranes have emerged as primary targets of edelfosine, the plasma membrane (PM) and the endoplasmic reticulum. In an effort to identify conditions that enhance or prevent the cytotoxic effect of edelfosine, we have conducted genome-wide surveys of edelfosine sensitivity and resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae presented in this work and the accompanying paper (Cuesta-Marbán, Á., Botet, J., Czyz, O., Cacharro, L. M., Gajate, C., Hornillos, V., Delgado, J., Zhang, H., Amat-Guerri, F., Acuña, A. U., McMaster, C. R., Revuelta, J. L., Zaremberg, V., and Mollinedo, F. (January 23, 2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288,), respectively. Our results point to maintenance of pH homeostasis as a major player in modulating susceptibility to edelfosine with the PM proton pump Pma1p playing a main role. We demonstrate that edelfosine alters PM organization and induces intracellular acidification. Significantly, we show that edelfosine selectively reduces lateral segregation of PM proteins like Pma1p and nutrient H(+)-symporters inducing their ubiquitination and internalization. The biology associated to the mode of action of edelfosine we have unveiled includes selective modification of lipid raft integrity altering pH homeostasis, which in turn regulates cell growth. PMID:23344949

Czyz, Ola; Bitew, Teshager; Cuesta-Marbán, Alvaro; McMaster, Christopher R; Mollinedo, Faustino; Zaremberg, Vanina

2013-03-22

258

Alteration of Plasma Membrane Organization by an Anticancer Lysophosphatidylcholine Analogue Induces Intracellular Acidification and Internalization of Plasma Membrane Transporters in Yeast*  

PubMed Central

The lysophosphatidylcholine analogue edelfosine is a potent antitumor lipid that targets cellular membranes. The underlying mechanisms leading to cell death remain controversial, although two cellular membranes have emerged as primary targets of edelfosine, the plasma membrane (PM) and the endoplasmic reticulum. In an effort to identify conditions that enhance or prevent the cytotoxic effect of edelfosine, we have conducted genome-wide surveys of edelfosine sensitivity and resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae presented in this work and the accompanying paper (Cuesta-Marbán, Á., Botet, J., Czyz, O., Cacharro, L. M., Gajate, C., Hornillos, V., Delgado, J., Zhang, H., Amat-Guerri, F., Acuña, A. U., McMaster, C. R., Revuelta, J. L., Zaremberg, V., and Mollinedo, F. (January 23, 2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288,), respectively. Our results point to maintenance of pH homeostasis as a major player in modulating susceptibility to edelfosine with the PM proton pump Pma1p playing a main role. We demonstrate that edelfosine alters PM organization and induces intracellular acidification. Significantly, we show that edelfosine selectively reduces lateral segregation of PM proteins like Pma1p and nutrient H+-symporters inducing their ubiquitination and internalization. The biology associated to the mode of action of edelfosine we have unveiled includes selective modification of lipid raft integrity altering pH homeostasis, which in turn regulates cell growth.

Czyz, Ola; Bitew, Teshager; Cuesta-Marban, Alvaro; McMaster, Christopher R.; Mollinedo, Faustino; Zaremberg, Vanina

2013-01-01

259

Similarity in gene organization and homology between proteins of animal picornaviruses and a plant comovirus suggest common ancestry of these virus families.  

PubMed Central

The amino acid sequences deduced from the nucleic acid sequences of several animal picornaviruses and cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), a plant virus, were compared. Good homology was found between CPMV and the picornaviruses in the region of the picornavirus 2C (P2-X protein), VPg, 3C pro (proteinase) and 3D pol (RNA polymerase) regions. The CPMV B genome was found to have a similar gene organization to the picornaviruses. A comparison of the 3C pro (proteinase) regions of all of the available picornavirus sequences and CPMV allowed us to identify residues that are completely conserved; of these only two residues, Cys-147 and His-161 (poliovirus proteinase) could be the reactive residues of the active site of a proteinase with analogous mechanism to a known proteinase. We conclude that the proteinases encoded by these viruses are probably cysteine proteinases, mechanistically related, but not homologous to papain.

Argos, P; Kamer, G; Nicklin, M J; Wimmer, E

1984-01-01

260

Animal House  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this activity is to design, build and test a house or toy for an animal. Learners will research a particular animal and design a house or toy that will encourage that animal's specific behaviors. Each house or toy must fit into the animal's cage, support the animal's size and weight, and be constructed of non-toxic materials. Safety note: adult supervision recommended for cutting cardboard boxes.

Museum Of Science, Boston

2005-01-01

261

Comparative Genomics of Korean Infectious Bronchitis Viruses (IBVs) and an Animal Model to Evaluate Pathogenicity of IBVs to the Reproductive Organs  

PubMed Central

The K-I and nephropathogenic K-II genotypes of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) have been isolated since 1995 and 1990, respectively, in Korea and commercial inactivated oil-emulsion vaccines containing KM91 (K-II type) and Massachusetts 41 strains have been used in the field. To date, genomic analyses of Korean IBV strains and animal models to test the pathogenicity of Korean IBVs to the reproductive organs have been rare. In the present study, comparative genomics of SNU8067 (K-I type) and KM91 IBVs was performed, and an animal model to test the pathogenicity of SNU8067 was established and applied to vaccine efficacy test. The genome sizes of SNU8067 (27,708 nt) and KM91 (27,626 nt) were slightly different and the nucleotide and amino acid identities of the S1 (79%, 77%), 3a (65%, 52%), and 3b (81%, 72%) genes were lower than those of other genes (94%–97%, 92%–98%). A recombination analysis revealed that SNU8067 was a recombinant virus with a KM91-like backbone except S1, 3a, and 3b genes which might be from an unknown virus. An SNU8067 infection inhibited formation of hierarchal ovarian follicles (80%) and oviduct maturation (50%) in the control group, whereas 70% of vaccinated chickens were protected from lesions.

Hong, Seung-Min; Kwon, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Il-Hwan; Mo, Mei-Lan; Kim, Jae-Hong

2012-01-01

262

Isolated total lung perfusion as a means to deliver organ-specific chemotherapy: long-term studies in animals  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this study were to develop a surgical procedure that would allow for bilateral isolated lung perfusion in vivo as a means of delivering organ-specific chemotherapy and to evaluate the influence of the procedure on certain pulmonary physiologic parameters. The sterile surgical procedure that was carried out in dogs involved the setting up of two separate perfusion circuits. Once standard systemic cardiopulmonary bypass was established, a second circuit was devised to perfuse the lungs by placing an inflow cannula into the main pulmonary artery and collecting venous effluent in the left atrium. Cross-contamination between perfusion circuits was determined in acute studies with labeled plasma protein or red blood cells and was found to be in an acceptable range if the aorta was cross-clamped and the heart arrested. Only about 0.4 ml/min of pulmonary perfusate leaked into the systemic circulation, indicating that systemic toxicity should not be a major concern when chemotherapy agents are added to the pulmonary perfusate. Chronic studies demonstrated that hemodynamic parameters, lung water, pulmonary endothelial serotonin extraction, and histologic findings all showed minimal changes after 50 minutes of isolated lung perfusion. Five days after perfusion, lung dynamic compliance and peak serotonin extraction showed significant decreases. However, all of the measured parameters had returned toward baseline levels by the end of the 8-week postoperative study period. The procedure offers significant advantages over the previously described single lung perfusion and may provide a method of delivering immediate high-concentration adjuvant chemotherapy to coincide with resection of primary or metastatic lung tumors.

Johnston, M.R.; Christensen, C.W.; Minchin, R.F.; Rickaby, D.A.; Linehan, J.H.; Schuller, H.M.; Boyd, M.R.; Dawson, C.A.

1985-07-01

263

Inside Plant and Animal Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Identify the structures that make up plant and animal cells, then determine their function. Today, you will be comparing plant and animal cells. Identify the structures within each cell and determine the function it performs. First, open up the Cell Information Organizer worksheet. You will use this throughout this project to record and organize the cell information. Next, go to the Animal Cell Model. Begin the exercise by clicking Animal Cell. Observe ...

Ms.kimb

2012-04-04

264

Medullo-ponto-cerebellar white matter degeneration altered brain network organization and cortical morphology in multiple system atrophy.  

PubMed

The cerebellum involves diverse functions from motor coordination to higher cognitive functions. Impairment of the cerebellum can cause ataxia and cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome. Multiple system atrophy of the cerebellar type (MSA-C) is a neurodegenerative disorder with atrophy of medullo-ponto-cerebellar (MPC) white matter (WM). To understand the role of the cerebellum from the perspective of the local structure to the global function in the presence of MPC WM degeneration, we acquired T1-weighted and diffusion tensor images for 17 patients with MSA-C and 19 normal controls. We concurrently used the measures of local morphology, including MPC WM volume and inner surface area, and properties of global network organization based on graph theory for the MSA-C and control groups. The results showed that MPC WM degeneration caused the destruction of cerebello-ponto-cerebral loops, resulting in reduced communication efficiency between regions in the whole-brain network. In addition, the sulcal area of the inner cortical surface in the cerebellum decreased linearly with the MPC WM volume, and the inferoposterior lobe exhibited a steeper atrophy rate than that of vermis regions. We concluded that the integrity of MPC WM is critical in sustaining the local morphology and the global functions of the whole-brain fiber network. PMID:23636223

Lu, Chia-Feng; Wang, Po-Shan; Lao, Yuan-Lin; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Soong, Bing-Wen; Wu, Yu-Te

2013-05-01

265

Comparison of selected animal observations and management practices used to assess welfare of calves and adult dairy cows on organic and conventional dairy farms.  

PubMed

Differences in adoption of selected practices used in welfare assessment and audit programs were contrasted among organic (ORG; n=192) herds and similarly sized conventional grazing herds (CON-GR; n=36), and conventional nongrazing herds (CON-NG; n=64). Criteria from 3 programs were assessed: American Humane Association Animal Welfare Standards for Dairy Cattle, Farmers Assuring Responsible Management (FARM), and the Canadian Codes of Practice (CCP). Data were collected by trained study personnel during a herd visit and included information about neonatal care, dehorning, pain relief, calf nutrition, weaning, record keeping, use of veterinarians, and animal observations. Associations of management type (ORG, CON-GR, or CON-NG) with adoption of selected practice were assessed. Almost all farms (97%) met criteria suggested for age at weaning but fewer CON-NG farmers weaned calves at ?5wk of age compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Only 23% of farms met program requirements for use of pain relief during dehorning, and fewer CON-NG farmers used pain relief for calves after dehorning compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Calves on ORG farms were fed a greater volume of milk and were weaned at an older age than calves on CON-GR and CON-NG farms. Calves on CON-GR farms were dehorned at a younger age compared with calves on ORG and CON-NG farms. The calving area was shared with lactating cows for a larger proportion of ORG herds compared with conventional herds. About 30% of herds met welfare program criteria for body condition score but only about 20% met criteria for animal hygiene scores. The least proportion of cows with hock lesions was observed on ORG farms. Regular use of veterinarians was infrequent for ORG herds. Results of this study indicate that most of the organic and conventional farms enrolled in this study would have been unlikely to achieve many criteria of audit and assessment programs currently used in the US dairy industry. PMID:24819133

Bergman, M A; Richert, R M; Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Gamroth, M J; Schukken, Y H; Stiglbauer, K E; Ruegg, P L

2014-07-01

266

Mutations in NEK8 link multiple organ dysplasia with altered Hippo signalling and increased c-MYC expression.  

PubMed

Mutations affecting the integrity and function of cilia have been identified in various genes over the last decade accounting for a group of diseases called ciliopathies. Ciliopathies display a broad spectrum of phenotypes ranging from mild manifestations to lethal combinations of multiple severe symptoms and most of them share cystic kidneys as a common feature. Our starting point was a consanguineous pedigree with three affected fetuses showing an early embryonic phenotype with enlarged cystic kidneys, liver and pancreas and developmental heart disease. By genome-wide linkage analysis, we mapped the disease locus to chromosome 17q11 and identified a homozygous nonsense mutation in NEK8/NPHP9 that encodes a kinase involved in ciliary dynamics and cell cycle progression. Missense mutations in NEK8/NPHP9 have been identified in juvenile cystic kidney jck mice and in patients suffering from nephronophthisis (NPH), an autosomal-recessive cystic kidney disease. This work confirmed a complete loss of NEK8 expression in the affected fetuses due to nonsense-mediated decay. In cultured fibroblasts derived from these fetuses, the expression of prominent polycystic kidney disease genes (PKD1 and PKD2) was decreased, whereas the oncogene c-MYC was upregulated, providing potential explanations for the observed renal phenotype. We furthermore linked NEK8 with NPHP3, another NPH protein known to cause a very similar phenotype in case of null mutations. Both proteins interact and activate the Hippo effector TAZ. Taken together, our study demonstrates that NEK8 is essential for organ development and that the complete loss of NEK8 perturbs multiple signalling pathways resulting in a severe early embryonic phenotype. PMID:23418306

Frank, Valeska; Habbig, Sandra; Bartram, Malte P; Eisenberger, Tobias; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E; Decker, Christian; Boorsma, Reinder A C; Göbel, Heike; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Griessmann, Anabel; Franke, Mareike; Borgal, Lori; Kohli, Priyanka; Völker, Linus A; Dötsch, Jörg; Nürnberg, Peter; Benzing, Thomas; Bolz, Hanno J; Johnson, Colin; Gerkes, Erica H; Schermer, Bernhard; Bergmann, Carsten

2013-06-01

267

Organic  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Quiz questions from the organic chemistry question bank provide students with an excellent opportunity to review key concepts.. The Organic topic focuses on the basics of organic chemistry that are taught in general chemistry.

2007-12-07

268

Flash Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collections of Flash animations accompanies Chang's Essential Chemistry, 2/e, but is publically available. These animations are interactive and have voice-overs, thereby providing a multimedia presentation of basic chemical concepts.

269

Animal Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains links to 12 calendars (12 months). June contains seven activities that mix math with exploring animals. For instance, children conduct a survey about favorite animals, find an animal with paws bigger than their hands, and name as many spotted animals as they can in a minute. Works as a handout, take-home, or group activity. Available as a downloadable pdf and in Spanish.

Terc

2010-01-01

270

SCME Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Southwest Center for Microsystems Education is a Regional Advanced Technology Education Center funded in part by the National Science Foundation. This page contains all the animations created for the various learning modules. These include a cantilever array animation, backside pressure sensor etch animation, and pressure sensor process animation. Visitors are encouraged to create an account and login in order to access the full set of resources.

2011-10-11

271

Mascot animations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Computer Animation Festival issued a special call for short animations of our robot mascot character. Students and professionals around the world submitted many creative, entertaining animations. The largest group of submissions came from students at the Digital Hollywood school in Tokyo.

Shinji Ameda; Kumiko Arai; Tomonori Isogaya; Taiki Ito; Chihiro Iwamoto; Mari Kameyama; Haruki Kato; Yoshihiro Maruyama; Satoko Matsumaru; Hiroki Matsuoka; Takato Nakai; Moemi Nakano; Kumiko Obora; Naomi Ogura; Koichi Okamura; Yuko Sato; Tetsuro Satomi; Mio Sawaguchi; Nobuhiko Suzuki; Yugo Takahashi; Mai Takayanagi; Keigo Takeshige; Naomi Tanaka; Takeshi Tsuzaki; Yoshihumi Uehiro; Shuhei Yamada; Koji Yamamoto; Melanie Beisswenger; Toru Ogura; Takeshi Saito; Takayuki Sato; Atsushi Sugito; Seiichi Tsuji

2009-01-01

272

Animated Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes a variety of animations explaining the mechanical workings of a variety of steam, Stirling and internal combustion engines. The animations may be paused, slowed or sped up. The animations are accompanied by additional text explaining how each engine works.

Keveney, Matt

2011-09-22

273

Computer Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of computer animation. This section includes principles of camera animation, character animation and special effects such as particle systems. There is also a discussion of artificial life techniques such as the flocking algorithm and the graphical simulation of different types of life. This section includes html pages, images and several videos.

2007-01-20

274

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation showing the Sun-Earth-Moon system. The sun is shown as a stationary body at the top of the screen, with a rotating Earth with a moon revolving around it. This representation includes a separate additional graphic in the animation that continuously shows the phase of the moon as they correspond to the revolving moon in the animation.

275

Water Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do animals adapt to their environments? Use the chart Bottlenose Dolphin facts and photos record what you learn for each animal in the chart. The first animal you will learn about is a bottlenose dolphin. Watch Bottlenose Dolphin facts and photos Learn about Wild Bills. Watch wild bill video ...

Beardsley, Ms.

2011-10-26

276

Organization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue on organization provides an annotated listing of Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and other resources related to organization to be used with K-8 students. Sidebars discuss being organized to be a good student, organizational identities, and organizing an election. Suggests student activities relating to…

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

277

Fibrinolysis in the Animal Organism  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT is now known that the action of the fibrinolytic substance produced by certain streptococci is due to its properties as an activator for the transformation of a proenzyme present in blood serum and plasma into a proteolytic enzyme acting on the fibrin. This activation can also be carried out by treatment with chloroform (for references see Christensen1 and Kaplan2).

Tage Astrup; Per M. Permin

1947-01-01

278

Thermal alteration of terrestrial palynomorphs in mid-Cretaceous organic-rich mudstones intruded by an igneous sill (Newfoundland Margin, ODP Hole 1276A)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most approaches used to reconstruct thermal alteration of sediments necessitate advanced, relatively expensive analytical techniques. We have evaluated the fidelity of a less costly, relatively simple approach of visually assessing sporomorph colours to determine thermal alteration. The sporomorph-based thermal alteration estimates were compared to vitrinite reflectance data from the same samples. As study material, we selected a succession of mid-Cretaceous

Jörg Pross; Thomas Pletsch; Donna J. Shillington; Bertrand Ligouis; Franziska Schellenberg; Jolanta Kus

2007-01-01

279

Small animal imaging with magnetic resonance microscopy.  

PubMed

Small animal magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) has evolved significantly from testing the boundaries of imaging physics to its expanding use today as a tool in noninvasive biomedical investigations. MRM now increasingly provides functional information about living animals, with images of the beating heart, breathing lung, and functioning brain. Unlike clinical MRI, where the focus is on diagnosis, MRM is used to reveal fundamental biology or to noninvasively measure subtle changes in the structure or function of organs during disease progression or in response to experimental therapies. High-resolution anatomical imaging reveals increasingly exquisite detail in healthy animals and subtle architectural aberrations that occur in genetically altered models. Resolution of 100 mum in all dimensions is now routinely attained in living animals, and (10 mum)(3) is feasible in fixed specimens. Such images almost rival conventional histology while allowing the object to be viewed interactively in any plane. In this review we describe the state of the art in MRM for scientists who may be unfamiliar with this modality but who want to apply its capabilities to their research. We include a brief review of MR concepts and methods of animal handling and support, before covering a range of MRM applications-including the heart, lung, and brain-and the emerging field of MR histology. The ability of MRM to provide a detailed functional and anatomical picture in rats and mice, and to track this picture over time, makes it a promising platform with broad applications in biomedical research. PMID:18172332

Driehuys, Bastiaan; Nouls, John; Badea, Alexandra; Bucholz, Elizabeth; Ghaghada, Ketan; Petiet, Alexandra; Hedlund, Laurence W

2008-01-01

280

The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.  

PubMed

The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field. PMID:20919590

Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W

2010-08-01

281

Animations for Physics and Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations illustrates basic concepts in physics and astronomy. Topics include astronomy, mechanics, vectors, electricity and magnetism, waves, optics, and many others. The animations are organized by topic and may be downloaded or streamed from the website. The site also includes links to papers on the use of animations in physics education.

Gallis, Michael R.

282

Characterization of target mRNA reduction through in situ RNA hybridization in multiple organ systems following systemic antisense treatment in animals.  

PubMed

Advances in the medicinal chemistry of antisense oligonucleotide drugs have been instrumental in achieving and optimizing antisense activity in cell types other than hepatocytes, the cell type that is most sensitive to antisense effects following systemic treatment. To broadly characterize the effects of antisense drugs on target messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in different organs and cell types in animals, we have developed a sensitive RNA in situ hybridization technique using the noncoding RNA metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) as a surrogate target. We have used this technique to evaluate the effects of 2'-O-methoxy ethyl (MOE) and constrained ethyl bicyclic nucleic acid (cEt) gapmer antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs). ASO tissue distribution was also characterized using immunohistochemical techniques, and MALAT1 mRNA reductions were confirmed by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction. Our findings demonstrate that systemic antisense drug administration in both mice and non-human primates resulted in marked reductions in MALAT1 RNA in many tissues and cell types other than liver including kidney, muscle, lung, adipose, adrenal gland, and peripheral nerve tissue. As expected, ASOs with cEt chemistry were more efficacious than MOE ASO in all tissues examined. PMID:24161045

Hung, Gene; Xiao, Xiaokun; Peralta, Raechel; Bhattacharjee, Gourab; Murray, Sue; Norris, Dan; Guo, Shuling; Monia, Brett P

2013-12-01

283

Immunoassay Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Glasgow Department of Pathological Biochemistry has recently made available five immunoassay animations that draw on the interactivity of the FutureSplash plug-in (discussed in the December 20, 1996 issue of the Scout Report). The animations are "a learning resource for students, to show the wide application of the use of antibodies in a clinical biochemistry laboratory," and are "graphical representations of the immunoassay methodology used by a number of commercial manufacturers." Each immunoassay is presented as a series of animations, allowing the user to navigate forward and back in time. A key is provided, and animations can be viewed step by step (with explanations) and then replayed as a single continuous animation without explanations or navigation. Immunoassay Animations is a powerful visual teaching tool.

Chung, Kynwai.; Cowan, Bob.

1996-01-01

284

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

285

Animation Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides physics tutorials and other resources for animation artists and professionals working in the animation industry. There are three tutorials covering topics related to the graphical representation of linear and accelerated motion, rotations, and center of mass. The presentation is non-mathematical and focuses on the consequences of the laws of physics. The web site also provides other physics references for animators and has started a wiki for community building.

Garcia, Alejandro

2009-04-02

286

NMR Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features animated tutorials on NMR with sufficient depth to be useful to the non NMR savvy. The animations are accompanied by short descriptions so that the processes displayed can be understood by the viewer. This site goes beyond just showing precession. There are nice animations showing the effect of different pulses, including composite pulses on the magnetization, the effects of magnetic gradient pulses to measure diffusion and do coherence pathway selection.

2011-07-26

287

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

Barnbaum, Cecilia

2011-04-12

288

Water Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation provides a detailed explanation of the chemistry and properties of water. Animated diagrams accompanied by written explanations show the configuration of the water molecule, how water molecules link together, what the crystal structure of ice looks like, and how acids and bases are formed. There is also an animated diagram of the pH scale showing the range in which most cellular processes occur and the approximate pH of some common substances. A French translation is available.

Kyrk, John

289

Animal cytomegaloviruses.  

PubMed Central

Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovirus infections. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the study of many of the animal cytomegaloviruses in vitro. Consequently, animal cytomegaloviruses can be used as model systems for studying the pathogenesis, immunobiology, and molecular biology of cytomegalovirus-host and cytomegalovirus-cell interactions.

Staczek, J

1990-01-01

290

MEDLI Animation  

NASA Video Gallery

Animation of MEDLI, the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrument, which contains multiple sophisticated temperature sensors to measure atmospheric conditions and performance o...

291

The Early Years: Animal Adventures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children can have a new favorite animal every week or even every hour. The more familiar the children become with an animal, the more they will be able to understand how its body form and behavior allow it to survive. Learning about the characteristics of organisms and how organisms relate to their environment is part of the National Science…

Ashbrook, Peggy

2007-01-01

292

Biogaserzeugungspotenzial aus Gülle und Koppelprodukten in viehhaltenden und viehlosen Betriebssystemen des ökologischen Landbaus Potential of Biogas production by using slurry and coupled products in organic farming systems with and without animal husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two agricultural systems with and without animal husbandry the potential to produce renewable energy by digesting slurry and organic residues to biogas were assessed. In comparison to some other methods of energy production by biomass biogas pro- duction has the advantage of keeping the nutrients of the substrates within the agricul- tural system. They can be used as fertilisers.

K. Möller; W. Stinner; A. Deuker; G. Leithold

293

Collision Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This series of interactive Flash animation explores all aspects of the India-Eurasian continental collision. Animations show the motion of the two continents, the growth of the Himalayas, earthquakes resulting from their collision, and the incredible rate of erosion of the newly formed mountains.

Environment, University O.

294

Animal Halter  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This is one of many objects used by field scientists in the care of their animals. This type of halter was used to provide an easy way to hold on to animals that might otherwise become unruly or wander away. Object ID: USGS-000076...

2009-07-22

295

Computer Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animated images are almost magical in their ability to capture our imagination. By telling a compelling story, astounding with special eects, or mesmeriz- ing with abstract motion, animation can infuse a se- quence of inert images with the illusion of motion and life. Creating this illusion, either by hand or with the assistance of computer software, is not easy. Each

Jessica K. Hodgins; James F. O'Brien; Robert E. Bodenheimer

296

Excelsior Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art project where students used excelsior, shredded wood used for packing, to create animals. Explains that excelsior can be found at furniture and grocery stores. Discusses in detail the process of making the animals and includes learning objectives. (CMK)

Steinkamp, Mary J.

2001-01-01

297

Animal Restrainer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The animal restrainer is designed to restrain and move a dog from one place to another. The animal is suspended in a flexible structure made up of crossed straps. The legs protrude through openings in the straps. The device is suspended from a trolley rod...

W. S. Koon N. P. Musselman

1965-01-01

298

GPS Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features Flash animations that illustrate how the Global Positioning System (GPS) works. The animations depict how GPS signals are derived, compare geostationary and polar orbits, and explain satellites, ground control, and user segments, which comprise the three main GPS components. These resources are suitable for use in lectures, labs, or other teaching activities.

2008-09-12

299

Immunoassay Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features animations showing the detailed steps involved in eight different immunoassay examples. The focus of the site is primarily on the biochemical aspects of the immunoassays, not on their analytical applications. The animations depict the following immunoassays: Dihydroxy Vitamin D, ACTH, Boneíspecific Alkaline Phosphatase, Cortisol, Deoxypyridinoline, Osteocalcin, Prolactin and Thyroxine.

Chung, Kyn W.

2011-05-24

300

Paper Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains ideas and brief instructions on how to build animals out of construction paper and other simple materials. Included are tips on how to roll, fold, and cut paper to make various animals parts. Learners may enjoy making a "frankenfish" that expands.

Minnesota, Science M.

2012-06-06

301

Motor Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page contains links to animations of various types of motors, including stepper motors, brushless motors, and permanant magnet DC motors. Some of the animations are hosted on this site, and require shockwave to view. Others are provided by other websites.

2013-06-14

302

[Laboratory animal anaesthesia: influence of anaesthetic protocols on experimental models].  

PubMed

The use of experimental animals requires anaesthesia to provide immobility and analgesia. Animals require anaesthesia not only for ethical reasons but also because pain and stress can alter the quality of research results. Recognition of pain, and its treatment is important throughout the procedure. Before anaesthesia, animals are acclimated and rehydrated. Except in small rodents and in ruminants, in order to avoid vomiting, a fast of 8 to 12 hours before anaesthesia is recommended. In order to protect animals against suffering and distress during transfer, restraint and management, a premedication is administered. Most human anaesthetic products can be used in animals. There are some specific veterinary anaesthetics. Moreover, the anaesthetic effects could be different from specie to an other. In most big animals, induction is realized by intravenous administration. In small rodents, venous puncture and contention could be difficult, and anaesthetic agents may be injected via intraperitoneal or intramuscular way. The principal inconvenient of these administration routes is the impossibility to adjust dose to animal response. In large animals, human anaesthesia material can be used. Some technical adaptations could be necessary in smaller animals. In rodents or in neonatology, specific devices are recommended. ECG, arterial pressure, tidal volume, expired CO(2) and oxygen saturation monitoring assess quality of, and tolerance to anaesthesia. If animals are awaked after anaesthesia, postoperative management is closed to human clinical problems. During animal experimentations, anaesthesia may interact with results. All anaesthetic drugs alter normal physiology in some way and may confound physiologic results. In the literature, most publications do not mention this possible interaction. Investigators need to understand how animals are affected by anaesthetic drugs in order to formulate anaesthetic protocols with minimal effects on data. Extrapolation between different animal species and human and animals about the effects of anaesthetic agents are very hazardous. Great differences exist between the effects observed in vitro and in whole animals. The effects of the anaesthetics could be totally different if they are used alone or in association. The same anaesthetic could have opposite effects from an organ to another. For results validation, the anaesthesia side effects (hypoventilation, hypotension, cooling em leader ) have to be minimized. All new experimental models should require discussing the possible interferences between anaesthesia and results and to compare results obtained with different anaesthetic protocols. PMID:15345253

Bazin, J-E; Constantin, J-M; Gindre, G

2004-08-01

303

Standardization of flux chamber and wind tunnel flux measurements for quantifying volatile organic compound and ammonia emissions from area sources at animal feeding operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of portable wind tunnels and flux chambers have been used to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and ammonia (NH3) at animal feeding operations (AFO). However, there has been little regard to the extreme variation and potential inaccuracies caused by air velocity or sweep air flow rates that are either too low or too high to simulate field conditions. There is a need for correction factors to standardize flux chamber and wind tunnel measurements. In this manuscript, we present results of water evaporative flux and VOC flux measurements with the EPA flux chamber and a small wind tunnel. In the EPA flux chamber, water evaporative flux was positively correlated with sweep air flow rate (SAFR) between 1 and 20 L min-1 (r2 = 0.981-0.999) and negatively correlated with sweep air relative humidity between 0 and 80% (r2 = 0.982-0.992). Emissions of gas-film controlled compounds like NH3 and VOC at AFOs were positively correlated with evaporation rates between 0.6 and 2.8 mm d-1. We demonstrate a simple methodology for standardizing and comparing different chamber types by measuring water evaporation within the chamber using a gravimetric mass balance approach under controlled laboratory conditions. A water evaporative flux ratio correction factor (EFRCF) was used to improve the accuracy of field-measured VOC and NH3 chamber flux measurements. In a field study, both the EPA flux chamber (SAFR = 5 L min-1) and small wind tunnel (SAFR = 1 L min-1) underestimated the true field emissions of VOC, with EFRCFs of 2.42 and 3.84, respectively. EFRCFs are recommended for all but the driest of soil and manure conditions.

Parker, David; Ham, Jay; Woodbury, Bryan; Cai, Lingshuang; Spiehs, Mindy; Rhoades, Marty; Trabue, Steve; Casey, Ken; Todd, Rick; Cole, Andy

2013-02-01

304

Organics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

1978-01-01

305

Animal experimentation.  

PubMed

Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation. PMID:16501652

Kolar, Roman

2006-01-01

306

Late altered organ function in very long-term survivors after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a paired comparison with their HLA-identical sibling donor  

PubMed Central

Background Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has become an established procedure worldwide. Severe early and late complications are well described. Little is known about more subtle changes in general health status of very long-term survivors. The study objective was to assess health status of very long-term survivors in comparison with their respective human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling donors. Design and Methods Case matched comparison in a cross-sectional cohort was performed in a tertiary university hospital and referral center for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Forty-four pairs of recipients and their respective donors with a very long-term (17.5 years median; 11–26 years range) follow up after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were included. A comparative clinical evaluation and examination of routine clinical chemistry tests was carried out. Results Recipients more frequently had a lower Karnofsky score (P=0.05), hypertension (P=0.015) and dyslipidemia (P=0.002) but were less likely to be smokers (P=0.016). Recipients showed systematically lower glomerular filtration rates (P<0.0001), higher liver function tests (P=0.0004 for Aspartat-Amino-Transferase) and reduced thyroid function (P=0.002) despite normal or near normal values, and independent of presence or absence of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Indicators of inflammation were more frequent in recipients (9 of 44) with ongoing chronic graft-versus-host disease as measured by higher C-reactive protein (P=0.001) and higher von Willebrand factor (P=0.002). Conclusions Clinically very long-term survivors after an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation present more frequently with cardiovascular risk factors and with subtle signs of altered organ function compared to their sibling donors. Even minimal ongoing chronic graft-versus-host disease remains associated with elevated laboratory indicators of inflammation. The clinical significance of these findings needs to be defined.

Rovo, Alicia; Daikeler, Thomas; Halter, Jorg; Heim, Dominik; Tsakiris, Dimitrios A.; Stern, Martin; Waltimo, Tuomas; Studt, Jan Dirk; Tyndall, Alan; Gratwohl, Alois; Tichelli, Andre

2011-01-01

307

Australian Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will be researching Australian animals in order to prepare a presentation for the class. The children will be divided into groups to research and present about Tasmanian devils, koala bears, kangaroos, or platypi. This IA will provide links for the children to research their animal. Introduction You are a wildlife biologist embarking on an exciting journey to Australia. Hogle Zoo is sending you to discover the most unique animal on the whole continent of Australia. You will be assigned to a team that will research either Tasmanian devils, koala bears, kangaroos, or platypuses. ...

Rusch, Mrs.

2007-12-04

308

Space research on organs and tissues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of microgravity on various physiological systems are reviewed focusing on muscle, bone, cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurovestibular, liver, and endocrine systems. It is noted that certain alterations of organs and tissues caused by microgravity are not reproducible in earth-bound animal or human models. Thus space research on organs and tissues is essential for both validating the earth-bound models used in laboratories and studying the adaptations to weightlessness which cannot be mimicked on earth.

Tischler, Marc E.; Morey-Holton, Emily

1992-01-01

309

9 CFR 107.1 - Veterinary practitioners and animal owners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...107.1 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE...ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS EXEMPTIONS...Veterinary practitioners and animal owners. Products...shipment, or at any other time deemed...

2009-01-01

310

Reconciling scientific approaches for organic farming research. Part I. Reflection on research methods in organic grassland and animal production at the Louis Bolk Institute, The Netherlands. Part II. Effects of manure types and white clover (Trifolium repens) cultivars on the productivity of grass-clover mixtures on a humid sandy soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part I<\\/strong> : Reflection on research methods in organic grassland and animal production at the Louis Bolk Institute, The NetherlandsKey words: organic agriculture, anthroposophy, methodology, research strategy, experiential science, multidisciplinary science, Goethean scienceThis dissertation focuses on the research question: what is peculiar to agricultural research when its purpose is to support the conscious development of organic agriculture? What approaches, designs

T. Baars

2002-01-01

311

Camera Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of the use of cameras in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional film techniques and suggestions for the use of a camera during an architectural walkthrough. This section includes html pages, images and one video.

2011-01-30

312

Making Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)

Robinson, James

2007-01-01

313

Wild Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

Web Feet K-8, 2000

2000-01-01

314

Animal Bytes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This browsable database is designed to help learners quickly find information about some of the creatures found in the animal kingdom. Most species' records include scientific classification, basic physical traits, fun facts, and conservation/ecological value.

2012-01-01

315

Animating Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson challenges students to apply their knowledge of object motion by animating sequences of hand-rendered pictures that model a set of physical conditions. The challenges include animating the orbital motion of planets and satellites, the effects of gravity on a falling body, and motions of objects in inertial (moving) frames of reference. The lesson was created by a high school physics teacher to help learners build quantitative reasoning skills in preparation for understanding kinematics.

Latham, Ted

2004-07-16

316

Animated Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This remarkable Web site contains descriptions and animations of nineteen different kinds of engines. Engine types include internal combustion, steam, and sterling engines, and each page shows how the piston, crankshaft, and other components move together to generate power. The animations demonstrate the processes of intake, compression, and exhaust. Some of the featured engines have more detailed descriptions than others, and oftentimes, a brief account of the engine's history is included. One engine dates back to the early 1700s.

2000-01-01

317

Mathematics Animated  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Talman of the Metropolitan State College of Denver offers this site as a reference for both students and teachers of mathematics. It is an assortment of animations that demonstrate many mathematical concepts, which are often difficult to visualize. The only downside of the animations is the lack of explanation associated with them. Some have short descriptions, others are somewhat self explanatory, but the rest can initially be quite confusing.

Talman, Louis.

318

USGS Videos and Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of visual media produced by the U.S. Geological Survey provides a broad overview of research and activities carried out by the organization. The collection of recorded lectures, movies, animations, flyovers, Powerpoint presentations and other media covers biology, climate change, earthquakes, geology, plate tectonics, careers with USGS, and many other topics.

319

[Alternatives to animal testing].  

PubMed

The use of alternative methods to animal testing are an integral part of the 3Rs concept (refine, reduce, replace) defined by Russel & Burch in 1959. These approaches include in silico methods (databases and computer models), in vitro physicochemical analysis, biological methods using bacteria or isolated cells, reconstructed enzyme systems, and reconstructed tissues. Emerging "omic" methods used in integrated approaches further help to reduce animal use, while stem cells offer promising approaches to toxicologic and pathophysiologic studies, along with organotypic cultures and bio-artificial organs. Only a few alternative methods can so far be used in stand-alone tests as substitutes for animal testing. The best way to use these methods is to integrate them in tiered testing strategies (ITS), in which animals are only used as a last resort. PMID:20669543

Fabre, Isabelle

2009-11-01

320

[Spuriously unhealthy animal fats].  

PubMed

Animal fats are generally considered as a source of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, identified with arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (cardiovascular diseases with heart attack, stroke, cerebral claudication). The real reason of arteriosclerosis are inflammation states of blood vessel endothelium caused by oxidative stress, hiperhomocysteinemia, hipertrigliceridemia, presence of artificial trans isomers and excess of eicosanoids originated from poliunsaturated fatty acids n-6. Present status of science proves that both saturated fatty acids and cholesterol present in animal food can not cause inflammation state. Moreover, animal fats are source of antioxidants active both in food and in human organism. Due to high oxidative stability animal fats do not make threat to human health. Milk fat, though high content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, possesses comprehensive pro-health activity--against arteriosclerosis and cancerogenesis. PMID:22299537

Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

2011-11-01

321

Animal Skull Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This intriguing and impressive website of animal skull images and information was developed by DeLoy Roberts, a high school biology and zoology teacher in Idaho. The site is quite extensive with separate skull galleries for mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, crustaceans, and fish. Site visitors will find clear skull images of such animals as a badger, wolf, boa constrictor, golden eagle, salmon, great gray owl, and many more. The site also includes lists of Animal Skull Sizes (organized alphabetically by animal as well as by size) for mammal and bird skulls in the collection. For school groups that can make the trip, the actual skull collection is maintained by Mr. Roberts at his high school in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

Roberts, Deloy

2005-11-11

322

Animal Magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast looks at the mysterious way in which certain animals can travel vast distances around the planet, using the magnetic field of Earth to guide them. Migrating birds, fish, sea turtles, honey bees and even bacteria have all been found to navigate using the magnetic field of Earth, sometimes over quite enormous distances and reaching targets of only a few degrees in width. There is discussion about where magnetic receptors may be within animals and that particular cells in migratory creatures contain magnetite, a substance which humans used many hundreds of years ago to create the first compass. This radio broadcast discusses animal magnetism with researchers who have been working with sea turtles, to discover just how the turtles find their way back to the same beaches every year to lay their eggs. There is explanation of how the magnetic sense in animals has two components: acting as a compass to guide them and providing them with location; and how this seems to be possible since the magnetic field gets stronger in higher latitudes and inclination angle (the angle of the magnetic field to the surface of Earth) changes over different points on Earth. The broadcast also explains why creatures such as honey bees and even bacteria need to be in tune with the magnetic field of Earth, and how magnetic sense is prevalent in many animals with seemingly no need for it. The broadcast is 29 minutes in length.

323

Animal Safety Handling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are at least three things to remember when handling all animals? Use Graphic Organizer Take notes on handling all different types of livestock. Read about Livestock Handling Safety and Good Relationships Be sure to record facts in your organizer. Read and explore Recommended Basic Livestock Handling. Dr. Grandin s guidelines Be sure to click on each link and take notes in organizer. Watch Sheep and Cattle Handling Guidelines Video Observe sheep and cattle handling practices. Read the first five sections of Know your livestock and be safe ...

Hammond, Mr.

2012-04-11

324

Groundwater Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features Flash and QuickTime animations related to groundwater. They contrast the permeability of gravel, sand, silt, and clay, as well as the speed of groundwater movement in rivers, lakes, and aquifers. They also outline the hydrologic cycle, discussing infiltration, percolation, and the water table, exhibit groundwater overdraft and the resulting formation of a cone of depression, and show how groundwater entering fractured bedrock can become superheated and pushed to the surface, erupting as a geyser. The animations can be paused and rewound to stress important points. These resources are suitable for use in lectures, labs, or other teaching activities.

2011-02-28

325

Animating explosions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce techniques for animating explosions and their effects. The primary effect of an explosion is a disturbance that causes a shock wave to propagate through the surrounding medium. The disturbance determines the behavior of nearly all other secondary effects seen in explosion. We simulate the propagation of an explosion through the surrounding air using a computational

Gary D. Yngve; James F. O'Brien; Jessica K. Hodgins

2000-01-01

326

Computer animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive 3-D real-time computer animation system is based upon a broad range of research activities in the field of computer graphics. In many ways the requirements for such a system are more challenging and complex than for other graphics systems. This is particularly true if one builds a language and a system which is truly user oriented and which

Charles Csuri

1975-01-01

327

Animal Bioacoustics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

Fletcher, Neville

328

Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College, this site is a concise overview of animal reproduction. The site addresses important aspects of sexual and asexual reproduction, the male and female reproductive systems, fertilization, and the importance of hormones. Visitors to the site will find diagrams outlining biological processes especially helpful.

Gregory, Michael

2007-12-14

329

Animal Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

VanCleave, Janice

2001-01-01

330

Fusarium mycotoxins: effects on reproductive function in domestic animals--a review.  

PubMed

On a global scale, cereal grains and animal feed may be contaminated with trichothecenes, such as deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin, zearalenone (ZEA), and fumonisins, the major mycotoxins of Fusarium fungi. Of these mycotoxins, ZEA is unequivocally implicated in reproductive disorders of swine and other domestic animals. Experiments in vivo and in vitro indicate that ZEA and its metabolites exert estrogenic effects resulting in functional and morphological alterations in reproductive organs. Recently, the potential of trichothecenes and fumonisins to cause reproductive disorders in domestic animals has been investigated. The present review summarizes the toxicological data on the effects of Fusarium mycotoxins on ovarian function, testicular function, placenta and fetus, and puberty/sexual maturity of domestic animals. The results of in vivo animal studies and in vitro tests are reported and discussed. PMID:23916251

Cortinovis, Cristina; Pizzo, Fabiola; Spicer, Leon J; Caloni, Francesca

2013-10-01

331

AQUATIC ANIMALS IN TOXICITY TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

Aquatic animals serve as useful models for toxicological evaluations that bridge the gap between real world and laboratory problems. Selected aquatic organisms are adaptable to laboratory experimentation in areas such as toxicity testing and chronic sublethal risks evaluation inc...

332

Swimming in Small Laboratory Animals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forced swimming in small laboratory animals has been widely used for studying the physiology and capacity of the organism in response to stress. The following studies have been accomplished: Swimming as a test of performance; Factors affecting swimming; U...

C. A. Dawson S. M. Horvath

1969-01-01

333

Animated Atlas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A commercial site, Animated Atlas provides excellent audio-visual resources for teachers and students of European and American history. The resources combine maps and animation to create short video presentations on such subjects as the growth of the United States and the First World War. Though most of the videos must be ordered, the site provides free samples of its presentations, including a ten minute presentation on the westward expansion of the United States, the early history of the American Revolution, the European alliances before the First World War, and the beginnings of the Mexican American War. The site provides a timeline of American history that can be referred to during the American expansion video. Students and educators should also explore the site's listings of American history sites and primary source on the Web.

2002-01-01

334

[Dangerous animals].  

PubMed

As travellers seek ever more exotic destinations they are more likely to encounter dangerous animals. Compared to risks such as AIDS, traffic accidents and malaria, the risk is not so great; many travellers are, however, concerned about this and those who give pre-travel vaccines and advice should know something about it. This article is mainly based on medical and zoological textbooks. Venomous stings and bites may be prevented by adequate clothing and by keeping safe distance to the animals. Listening to those who live in the area is of course important. Travellers should not carry antisera with them, but antisera should be available at local hospitals. It should be borne in mind that plant eaters cause just as many deaths as large predators. In some cases it is necessary to carry a sufficiently powerful firearm. PMID:12555616

Hasle, Gunnar

2002-06-30

335

Animation Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online magazine is all about animation and features regular articles, reviews of films and books, and profiles about people in the industry and tutorials. Articles in the current issue address topics such as "the impact of new technology on performance and the future roles of technology, new and old" and international perspectives on Bridging the Cultural Divide in Digital Entertainment. The tutorials cover topics such as how to make 3-D characters come to life and making molds. The Special Features articles report on gaming, production, technology and voice acting. Past issues are also available and can be searched by key word or sorted by category. Numerous other links are listed for more information on animation, resources for education, and listings of upcoming events and contests.

336

Microgravity alters the expression of salivary proteins.  

PubMed

Spaceflight provides a unique opportunity to study how physiologic responses are influenced by the external environment. Microgravity has been shown to alter the function of a number of tissues and organ systems. Very little, however, is known about how microgravity affects the oral cavity. The rodent model is useful for study in that their salivary gland morphology and physiology is similar to that of humans. Useful also is the fact that saliva, a product of the salivary glands with a major role in maintaining oral health, can be easily collected in humans whereas the glands can be studied in experimental animals. Our working hypothesis is that expression of secretory proteins in saliva will respond to microgravity and will be indicative of the nature of physiologic reactions to travel in space. This study was designed to determine which components of the salivary proteome are altered in mice flown on the US space shuttle missions and to determine if a subset with predictive value can be identified using microscopy and biochemistry methods. The results showed that the expression of secretory proteins associated with beta-adrenergic hormone regulated responses and mediated via the cyclic AMP pathway was significantly altered, whereas that of a number of unrelated proteins was not. The findings are potentially applicable to designing a biochemical test system whereby specific salivary proteins can be biomarkers for stress associated with travel in space and eventually for monitoring responses to conditions on earth. PMID:24984624

Mednieks, Maija; Khatri, Aditi; Rubenstein, Renee; Burleson, Joseph A; Hand, Arthur R

2014-06-01

337

Characterization of Genetically Matched Isolates of Campylobacter jejuni Reveals that Mutations in Genes Involved in Flagellar Biosynthesis Alter the Organism's Virulence Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotypic and genotypic evidence suggests that not all Campylobacter jejuni isolates are pathogenic for humans. We hypothesized that differences in gene content or gene expression alter the degree of pathogenicity of C. jejuni isolates. A C. jejuni isolate (Turkey) recovered from a turkey and a second C. jejuni isolate (CS) recovered from a chicken differed in their degrees of in

Preeti Malik-Kale; Brian H. Raphael; Craig T. Parker; Lynn A. Joens; John D. Klena; Beatriz Quinones; Amy M. Keech; Michael E. Konkel

2007-01-01

338

Mutation of SAC1, an Arabidopsis SAC Domain Phosphoinositide Phosphatase, Causes Alterations in Cell Morphogenesis, Cell Wall Synthesis, and Actin Organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

SAC (for suppressor of actin) domain proteins in yeast and animals have been shown to modulate the levels of phosphoinositides, thereby regulating several cellular activities such as signal transduction, actin cytoskeleton organiza- tion, and vesicle trafficking. Nine genes encoding SAC domain-containing proteins are present in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, but their roles in plant cellular functions and plant growth and

Ruiqin Zhong; David H. Burk; C. Joseph Nairn; Alicia Wood-Jones; W. Herbert Morrison III; Zheng-Hua Yea

2005-01-01

339

Fossilization modes in the Chengjiang Lagerstätte (Cambrian of China): testing the roles of organic preservation and diagenetic alteration in exceptional preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

One important, and poorly understood, issue concerning the taphonomy of nonmineralizing organisms in Cambrian Burgess Shale-type deposits is the diagenetic pathways by which organisms have become exceptionally preserved. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses of exceptionally preserved fossils from the lower Cambrian Chengjiang deposit of China demonstrate that nonmineralized tissue is preserved in a variety of ways, and further suggest that

Maoyan Zhu; Loren E. Babcock; Michael Steiner

2005-01-01

340

Desert Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the DiscoverySchool.com lesson plan library for grades 6-8. It focuses on adaptations that desert animals must make in order to survive in the harsh desert environment. Each student studies a certain creature and reports on specific adaptations it has made, and then a game is played to introduce students to these concepts. Included are objectives, materials, procedures, discussion questions, evaluation ideas, suggested readings, and vocabulary. There are videos available to order which complement this lesson, and links to teaching tools for making custom quizzes, worksheets, puzzles and lesson plans.

341

Animal Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

342

Correlated alterations in genome organization, histone methylation, and DNA-lamin A/C interactions in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome  

PubMed Central

Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a premature aging disease that is frequently caused by a de novo point mutation at position 1824 in LMNA. This mutation activates a cryptic splice donor site in exon 11, and leads to an in-frame deletion within the prelamin A mRNA and the production of a dominant-negative lamin A protein, known as progerin. Here we show that primary HGPS skin fibroblasts experience genome-wide correlated alterations in patterns of H3K27me3 deposition, DNA-lamin A/C associations, and, at late passages, genome-wide loss of spatial compartmentalization of active and inactive chromatin domains. We further demonstrate that the H3K27me3 changes associate with gene expression alterations in HGPS cells. Our results support a model that the accumulation of progerin in the nuclear lamina leads to altered H3K27me3 marks in heterochromatin, possibly through the down-regulation of EZH2, and disrupts heterochromatin–lamina interactions. These changes may result in transcriptional misregulation and eventually trigger the global loss of spatial chromatin compartmentalization in late passage HGPS fibroblasts.

McCord, Rachel Patton; Nazario-Toole, Ashley; Zhang, Haoyue; Chines, Peter S.; Zhan, Ye; Erdos, Michael R.; Collins, Francis S.; Dekker, Job; Cao, Kan

2013-01-01

343

Correlated alterations in genome organization, histone methylation, and DNA-lamin A/C interactions in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.  

PubMed

Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a premature aging disease that is frequently caused by a de novo point mutation at position 1824 in LMNA. This mutation activates a cryptic splice donor site in exon 11, and leads to an in-frame deletion within the prelamin A mRNA and the production of a dominant-negative lamin A protein, known as progerin. Here we show that primary HGPS skin fibroblasts experience genome-wide correlated alterations in patterns of H3K27me3 deposition, DNA-lamin A/C associations, and, at late passages, genome-wide loss of spatial compartmentalization of active and inactive chromatin domains. We further demonstrate that the H3K27me3 changes associate with gene expression alterations in HGPS cells. Our results support a model that the accumulation of progerin in the nuclear lamina leads to altered H3K27me3 marks in heterochromatin, possibly through the down-regulation of EZH2, and disrupts heterochromatin-lamina interactions. These changes may result in transcriptional misregulation and eventually trigger the global loss of spatial chromatin compartmentalization in late passage HGPS fibroblasts. PMID:23152449

McCord, Rachel Patton; Nazario-Toole, Ashley; Zhang, Haoyue; Chines, Peter S; Zhan, Ye; Erdos, Michael R; Collins, Francis S; Dekker, Job; Cao, Kan

2013-02-01

344

NCI at Frederick: IBC Using Biological Materials in Animals  

Cancer.gov

The NIH Guidelines require IBC review of experiments involving whole animals in which the animal's genome has been altered by stable introduction of recombinant DNA, or DNA derived therefrom, into the germ-line (transgenic animals) and experiments involving viable recombinant DNA-modified microorganisms tested on whole animals.

345

9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...  

...scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals...Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals...scrapie-positive animal, high-risk animal, exposed animal,...

2014-01-01

346

ANIMAL COMMUNICATION.  

PubMed

Semiotics and ethology have converged in a new behavioral science, zoosemiotics. Those who are interested in the theoretical analysis of the complex problems of non-verbal behavior that arise where these two disciplines interact aim to treat comprehensively animal communication systems by the aid of representations that have proved illuminating in the study of sentences of human language. Students of zoosemiotics are concerned with codes and messages much as linguists are concerned with competence, or language, and performance, or speech. They thus face the twin tasks of constructing a model for the addresser to specify how a message is encoded and transformed into a signal carried by a variety of channels to the addressee; and of constructing a model for the addressee to specify the ways in which animals utilize their knowledge of their code to recognize the messages they receive. Finally, they assess the context of the communicative event in the hope of dissecting that which is relevant to the selection process from the rest of the background, a program for which there is as yet neither a procedural eliciting technique nor a satisfactory theoretical solution in sight. PMID:14245775

SEBEOK, T A

1965-02-26

347

Extreme Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online news article discusses the ability of tardigrades to withstand harsh conditions. The article covers the history, biology and significance of tardigrades, as well as the different types of cryptobiosis. It includes detailed images of the organisms and links to related web pages.

Mullen, Leslie; Magazine, Astrobiology

348

Extreme Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online news article discusses the ability of tardigrades to withstand harsh conditions. The article covers the history, biology and significance of tardigrades, as well as the different types of cryptobiosis. It includes detailed images of the organisms and links to related web pages.

2002-09-01

349

Cell proliferation, cell shape, and microtubule and cellulose microfibril organization of tobacco BY2 cells are not altered by exposure to near weightlessness in space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microtubule cytoskeleton and the cell wall both play key roles in plant cell growth and division, determining the plant’s\\u000a final stature. At near weightlessness, tubulin polymerizes into microtubules in vitro, but these microtubules do not self-organize\\u000a in the ordered patterns observed at 1g. Likewise, at near weightlessness cortical microtubules in protoplasts have difficulty organizing into parallel arrays, which\\u000a are

Björn J. Sieberer; Henk Kieft; Tiny Franssen-Verheijen; Anne Mie C. Emons; Jan W. Vos

2009-01-01

350

Overexpression of a pectin methylesterase inhibitor in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to altered growth morphology of the stem and defective organ separation.  

PubMed

The methylesterification status of cell wall pectins, mediated through the interplay of pectin methylesterases (PMEs) and pectin methylesterase inhibitors (PMEIs), influences the biophysical properties of plant cell walls. We found that the overexpression of a PMEI gene in Arabidopsis thaliana plants caused the stems to develop twists and loops, most strongly around points on the stem where leaves or inflorescences failed to separate from the main stem. Altered elasticity of the stem, underdevelopment of the leaf cuticle, and changes in the sugar composition of the cell walls of stems were evident in the PMEI overexpression lines. We discuss the mechanisms that potentially underlie the aberrant growth phenotypes. PMID:24675171

Müller, Kerstin; Levesque-Tremblay, Gabriel; Fernandes, Anwesha; Wormit, Alexandra; Bartels, Sebastian; Usadel, Bjoern; Kermode, Allison

2013-12-01

351

Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

March, B. E.

1984-01-01

352

Gene organization of oryzacystatin-II, a new cystatin superfamily member of plant origin, is closely related to that of oryzacystatin-I but different from those of animal cystatins.  

PubMed

The gene structure of oryzacystatin-II, a new cystatin superfamily member of rice seed origin, was determined. It spans approximately 2.5 kbp and comprises 3 exons. The number of exons and the intron-breakpoints coincide with those of oryzacystatin-I, the first well-defined plant cystatin. However, no similar sequences were observed between the two oryzacystatin genes in 5'-upstream regulatory regions, even though both are expressed specifically during the ripening stage of rice seeds. The gene organization of these two plant cystatins is generally different from that of animal cystatins. PMID:1993479

Kondo, H; Abe, K; Emori, Y; Arai, S

1991-01-14

353

Transient Limb Ischemia Alters Serum Protein Expression in Healthy Volunteers: Complement C3 and Vitronectin May Be Involved in Organ Protection Induced by Remote Ischemic Preconditioning  

PubMed Central

The protective mechanism underlying remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is unclear. This study aims to verify whether the protein expression profile in the serum could be altered by RIPC and to detect potential protein mediators. Transient limb ischemia consisting of three cycles of 5-min ischemia followed by 5-min reperfusion was performed on sixty healthy volunteers. Serum samples were collected at 30?min before transient limb ischemia and at 1 hour (h), 3?h, 8?h, 24?h, and 48?h after completion of three cycles. Changes in the serum protein profile were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Fourteen differentially expressed proteins were identified and, respectively, involved in immune system, lipid binding and metabolism, apoptosis, and blood coagulation. Complement C3, vitronectin, and apolipoprotein A-I were further confirmed by western blotting, and the results showed that their contents decreased significantly after transient limb ischemia. It is concluded that transient limb ischemia alters the serum protein expression profile in human being, and that reduction of serum contents of complement C3 and vitronectin may represent an important part of the mechanism whereby RIPC confers its protection.

Pang, Ting; Zhang, Nan-Rong; Jin, San-Qing; Pan, San-Qiang

2013-01-01

354

Red sludge-induced mRNA and miRNA expression alterations in vital organs of CBA/Ca mice.  

PubMed

Several studies have investigated the ecological and genotoxic effects of the red mud accident in 2010 in Ajka, Hungary, but none was designed to reveal the early biological effects of red mud exposure at the level of early-responding gene expression. To address relevant questions, in the present study expression alterations of oncogenes (c-myc, K-ras), tumor suppressor genes (Bcl2, p53) and apoptosis-regulatory micro(mi) RNAs (miR-21, miR-27a, miR-93, miR-221) were analized 1, 3, 6 and 24 h after a single intraperitoneal injection of red mud to CBA/Ca mice. We observed changes in the expression of all investigated mRNAs, miR-21 and miR-221 in the liver, spleen, lung, kidney and lymph nodes of mice. An overexpression of the investigated genes was observed, but the level and the peak of the alteration differed according to examined tissue. PMID:24425836

Tibold, Antal; Juhász, Krisztina; Gombos, Katalin; Gocze, Katalin; Ember, István

2014-01-01

355

Characterization of Genetically Matched Isolates of Campylobacter jejuni Reveals that Mutations in Genes Involved in Flagellar Biosynthesis Alter the Organism's Virulence Potential?  

PubMed Central

Phenotypic and genotypic evidence suggests that not all Campylobacter jejuni isolates are pathogenic for humans. We hypothesized that differences in gene content or gene expression alter the degree of pathogenicity of C. jejuni isolates. A C. jejuni isolate (Turkey) recovered from a turkey and a second C. jejuni isolate (CS) recovered from a chicken differed in their degrees of in vitro and in vivo virulence. The C. jejuni Turkey isolate invaded INT 407 human epithelial cells and secreted the Cia (Campylobacter invasion antigen) proteins, while the C. jejuni CS isolate was noninvasive for human epithelial cells and did not secrete the Cia proteins. Newborn piglets inoculated with the C. jejuni Turkey isolate developed more severe clinical signs of campylobacteriosis than piglets inoculated with the C. jejuni CS isolate. Additional work revealed that flagellin was not expressed in the C. jejuni CS isolate. Microarray and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses revealed that all flagellar class II genes were significantly downregulated in the C. jejuni CS isolate compared to the C. jejuni Turkey isolate. Finally, nucleotide sequencing of the flgR gene revealed the presence of a single residue that was different in the FlgR proteins of the C. jejuni Turkey and CS isolates. Complementation of the C. jejuni CS isolate with a wild-type copy of the flgR gene restored the isolate's motility. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that critical differences in gene content or gene expression can alter the pathogenic potential of C. jejuni isolates.

Malik-Kale, Preeti; Raphael, Brian H.; Parker, Craig T.; Joens, Lynn A.; Klena, John D.; Quinones, Beatriz; Keech, Amy M.; Konkel, Michael E.

2007-01-01

356

Molecular evolution of cyclin proteins in animals and fungi  

PubMed Central

Background The passage through the cell cycle is controlled by complexes of cyclins, the regulatory units, with cyclin-dependent kinases, the catalytic units. It is also known that cyclins form several families, which differ considerably in primary structure from one eukaryotic organism to another. Despite these lines of evidence, the relationship between the evolution of cyclins and their function is an open issue. Here we present the results of our study on the molecular evolution of A-, B-, D-, E-type cyclin proteins in animals and fungi. Results We constructed phylogenetic trees for these proteins, their ancestral sequences and analyzed patterns of amino acid replacements. The analysis of infrequently fixed atypical amino acid replacements in cyclins evidenced that accelerated evolution proceeded predominantly during paralog duplication or after it in animals and fungi and that it was related to aromorphic changes in animals. It was shown also that evolutionary flexibility of cyclin function may be provided by consequential reorganization of regions on protein surface remote from CDK binding sites in animal and fungal cyclins and by functional differentiation of paralogous cyclins formed in animal evolution. Conclusions The results suggested that changes in the number and/or nature of cyclin-binding proteins may underlie the evolutionary role of the alterations in the molecular structure of cyclins and their involvement in diverse molecular-genetic events.

2011-01-01

357

Animal welfare: an animal science approach.  

PubMed

Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. PMID:23664009

Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

2013-12-01

358

Animal Tails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Call it tail envy. With only a vestigial nub to show for ourselves, perhaps it's no wonder that animal tails capture our attention. The following Web sites present some of the more interesting tails to be found in the animal kingdom. The first Web site contains a recent article from Discovery News describing new findings that at least one species of scorpion produces two distinct types of tail venom, which have completely different effects on their victims (1). The next site from Singapore Zoological Gardens introduces the cebids (our New World monkey cousins), some of which have amazing prehensile tails that are used like a fifth limb (2). The rattlesnake is another famously-tailed creature, highlighted in the following site from the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (3). The site covers the main aspects of rattlesnake natural history, including a section on how the rattle forms. The Great Plains Nature Center in Wichita, Kansas, offers a Web page devoted to the beaver, including tail trivia and an audio clip of a resident beaver surprised in his den at the Kansas Wildlife Exhibit (4). Anyone who has witnessed the freakishly fascinating spectacle of a gecko leaving its tail behind to distract a would-be predator will appreciate this brief bio of the Tokay gecko, presented by ReptileCenter.com, the Herpetologist's Portal (5). Stacy's Wag'N'Train -- offering dog-training classes in San Jose, California -- provides this online guide to dog body language, which would have a very limited vocabulary without the tail (6). So, how did the peacock get its tail? It's a simple question that has driven zoologists crazy for over a century. The next Web site (7) contains an in-depth article on the subject from the Independent (London), offered through National Geographic News. And finally, the bizarre gulper eel -- able to tie its tail in several knots -- gets is own Web page on Pangea, the Web server for the Department of Educational Leadership and Technology at Southeastern Louisiana University (8). This deep-sea curiosity uses its bioluminescent tail tip to lure hapless prey into its impossibly gigantic mouth.

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

359

Air pollution by concentrated animal feeding operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

With large concentrations of animals at individual facilities, animal production may be accompanied by environmental problems. One concern is whether adverse health effects may occur due to the emission of contaminants into the air. Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) emit ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, and other hazardous air pollutants. Under current environmental regulations in the United

Parag Patel; Terence J. Centner

2010-01-01

360

Androgen and taxol cause cell type-specific alterations of centrosome and DNA organization in androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigated the effects of androgen and taxol on the androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer cell lines. Cells were treated for 48 and 72 h with 0.05-1 nM of the synthetic androgen R1881 and with 100 nM taxol. Treatment of LNCaP cells with 0.05 nM R1881 led to increased cell proliferation, whereas treatment with 1 nM R1881 resulted in inhibited cell division, DNA cycle arrest, and altered centrosome organization. After treatment with 1 nM R1881, chromatin became clustered, nuclear envelopes convoluted, and mitochondria accumulated around the nucleus. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies to centrosomes showed altered centrosome structure. Although centrosomes were closely associated with the nucleus in untreated cells, they dispersed into the cytoplasm after treatment with 1 nM R1881. Microtubules were only faintly detected in 1 nM R1881-treated LNCaP cells. The effects of taxol included microtubule bundling and altered mitochondria morphology, but not DNA organization. As expected, the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line DU145 was not affected by R1881. Treatment with taxol resulted in bundling of microtubules in both cell lines. Additional taxol effects were seen in DU145 cells with micronucleation of DNA, an indication of apoptosis. Simultaneous treatment with R1881 and taxol had no additional effects on LNCaP or DU145 cells. These results suggest that LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cells show differences not only in androgen responsiveness but in sensitivity to taxol as well. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Schatten, H.; Ripple, M.; Balczon, R.; Weindruch, R.; Chakrabarti, A.; Taylor, M.; Hueser, C. N.

2000-01-01

361

Characterization of genetically matched isolates of Campylobacter jejuni reveals that mutations in genes involved in flagellar biosynthesis alter the organism's virulence potential.  

PubMed

Phenotypic and genotypic evidence suggests that not all Campylobacter jejuni isolates are pathogenic for humans. We hypothesized that differences in gene content or gene expression alter the degree of pathogenicity of C. jejuni isolates. A C. jejuni isolate (Turkey) recovered from a turkey and a second C. jejuni isolate (CS) recovered from a chicken differed in their degrees of in vitro and in vivo virulence. The C. jejuni Turkey isolate invaded INT 407 human epithelial cells and secreted the Cia (Campylobacter invasion antigen) proteins, while the C. jejuni CS isolate was noninvasive for human epithelial cells and did not secrete the Cia proteins. Newborn piglets inoculated with the C. jejuni Turkey isolate developed more severe clinical signs of campylobacteriosis than piglets inoculated with the C. jejuni CS isolate. Additional work revealed that flagellin was not expressed in the C. jejuni CS isolate. Microarray and real-time reverse transcription-PCR analyses revealed that all flagellar class II genes were significantly downregulated in the C. jejuni CS isolate compared to the C. jejuni Turkey isolate. Finally, nucleotide sequencing of the flgR gene revealed the presence of a single residue that was different in the FlgR proteins of the C. jejuni Turkey and CS isolates. Complementation of the C. jejuni CS isolate with a wild-type copy of the flgR gene restored the isolate's motility. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that critical differences in gene content or gene expression can alter the pathogenic potential of C. jejuni isolates. PMID:17369342

Malik-Kale, Preeti; Raphael, Brian H; Parker, Craig T; Joens, Lynn A; Klena, John D; Quiñones, Beatriz; Keech, Amy M; Konkel, Michael E

2007-05-01

362

The cartilage collagens: a review of their structure, organization, and role in the pathogenesis of experimental arthritis in animals and in human rheumatic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution reviews the structure and organization of collagen molecules found in cartilage and the roles that they\\u000a may play in rheumatic diseases. Cartilage is unique in its physical properties and molecular composition, and contains sufficient\\u000a amounts of types II, IX, X, and XI collagen to deem these molecules as ”cartilage-specific.” The vitreous body of the eye,\\u000a a ”cartilagelike” tissue

Michael A. Cremer; Edward F. Rosloniec; Andrew H. Kang

1998-01-01

363

DNA is organized into 46 chromosomes including sex chromosomes, 3D animation with no audioSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The millions of bases, which make up the human genome are organized into structures called chromosomes. These are arranged into 22 matching pairs plus 1 pair of sex chromosomes consisting of 2 X's in women and an X and a Y in men. So humans have a total of 46 chromosomes in each cell, known collectively as a karyotype. This set of chromosomes has a Y, so it must belong to a male.

2008-10-06

364

International Fund for Animal Welfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the past few years, a finely nuanced sensibility about the shared interests and coexistence of human and animals has emerged as a number of international organizations have begun work and advocacy efforts in this area. The work of the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) began three decades ago when a group of individuals decided to come together to stop a hunt for white-coat harp seals on the eastern coast of Canada. Since that time, the IFAW has expanded its work across the world, and this site affords visitors the opportunity to learn about the organization's work, read its annual reports from the past several years, and find out more about its different campaigns across different regions. Visitors can click on different parts of an interactive world map to look at this information or browse a list of animals in the "Save Animals" section of the site.

365

Animal Models of Preeclampsia  

PubMed Central

There have been many attempts to produce animal models that mimic the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, especially preeclampsia, but most are incomplete when compared to the full spectrum of the human disease. This review assesses a number of these models, organized according to the investigators attempt to focus on a specific pathogenic mechanism believed to play a role in the human disease. These mechanisms include uterine ischemia, impairments in the nitric oxide system, insulin resistance, overactivity of the autonomic nervous and/or renin-angiotensin systems, activation of a systemic inflammatory response, and most recently, activation of circulating proteins that interfere with angiogenesis. In addition a model of renal disease that mimics superimposed preeclampsia is discussed. Defining these animal models should help in our quest to understand the cause, as well as to test preventative and therapeutic strategies in the management of these hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

Podjarny, Eduardo; Losonczy, Gyorgy; Baylis, Chris

2009-01-01

366

Drug metabolism alterations in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.  

PubMed

Drug-metabolizing enzymes play a vital role in the elimination of the majority of therapeutic drugs. The major organ involved in drug metabolism is the liver. Chronic liver diseases have been identified as a potential source of significant interindividual variation in metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the United States, affecting between 60 and 90 million Americans, yet the vast majority of NAFLD patients are undiagnosed. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of pathologies, ranging from steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Numerous animal studies have investigated the effects of NAFLD on hepatic gene expression, observing significant alterations in mRNA, protein, and activity levels. Information on the effects of NAFLD in human patients is limited, though several significant investigations have recently been published. Significant alterations in the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes may affect the clearance of therapeutic drugs, with the potential to result in adverse drug reactions. With the enormous prevalence of NAFLD, it is conceivable that every drug currently on the market is being given to patients with NAFLD. The current review is intended to present the results from both animal models and human patients, summarizing the observed alterations in the expression and activity of the phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:21612324

Merrell, Matthew D; Cherrington, Nathan J

2011-08-01

367

Drug metabolism alterations in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

Drug-metabolizing enzymes play a vital role in the elimination of the majority of therapeutic drugs. The major organ involved in drug metabolism is the liver. Chronic liver diseases have been identified as a potential source of significant interindividual variation in metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the United States, affecting between 60 and 90 million Americans, yet the vast majority of NAFLD patients are undiagnosed. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of pathologies, ranging from steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Numerous animal studies have investigated the effects of NAFLD on hepatic gene expression, observing significant alterations in mRNA, protein, and activity levels. Information on the effects of NAFLD in human patients is limited, though several significant investigations have recently been published. Significant alterations in the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes may affect the clearance of therapeutic drugs, with the potential to result in adverse drug reactions. With the enormous prevalence of NAFLD, it is conceivable that every drug currently on the market is being given to patients with NAFLD. The current review is intended to present the results from both animal models and human patients, summarizing the observed alterations in the expression and activity of the phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes.

Merrell, Matthew D.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

2013-01-01

368

Developing animal models for polymicrobial diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymicrobial diseases involve two or more microorganisms that act synergistically, or in succession, to mediate complex disease processes. Although polymicrobial diseases in animals and humans can be caused by similar organisms, these diseases are often also caused by organisms from different kingdoms, genera, species, strains, substrains and even by phenotypic variants of a single species. Animal models are often required

Lauren O. Bakaletz

2004-01-01

369

Altered Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This five-part feature includes reports and multimedia presentations that document what the authors term a crisis in the marine environment. Topics include the uncontrolled increase in primitive organisms, such as bacteria and algae, triggered by overfishing and nutrient runoff, effects on sentinel species such as marine mammals, and effects on humans, such as the irritating effects of toxins produced by red tides. There is also discussion of seaborne plastic debris and changes in chemistry of sea water. The site also includes a message board for discussions and a set of links to additional resources.

370

Downstream alterations in biodegradability and optical characteristics of dissolved and particulate organic carbon fractions exported during storm events in a mixed land-use watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although storm pulses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) can account for a significant C loss from the terrestrial sink of atmospheric CO2, there have been rare attempts to compare the biodegradation and chemical transformation of terrestrially derived DOC and POC in receiving waters. Short-term laboratory incubations were performed with water and sediment samples collected during intense monsoon rainfalls at four stream locations in a mountainous, mixed land-use watershed, Korea to compare biodegradation and optical properties of DOC and POC exported from different sources. Biodegradable DOC (BDOC) and fluorescence EEMs coupled with PARAFAC modeling in either bulk or flow field-flow fractionated samples were measured to track changes in biodegradation and optical characteristics of DOC and suspended sediment-derived DOC (SS-DOC). During a 30 day incubation at 25 °C, both DOC and POC from a forested headwater stream initially exhibited rapid biodegradation of labile components, whereas sediment-derived materials increased continuously not just DOC concentrations, but also fulvic- and humic-like fluorescent components. In the second 13-day incubation with DOC and POC samples from a forest stream, an agricultural stream, and two downstream rivers, the BDOC of filtered waters differed little between sites, whereas the BDOC of SS-DOC was higher in downstream rivers. Higher ratios of protein- to fuvic- or humic-like fluorescence in the SS-DOC from two downstream rivers compared to upstream measurements pointed to a higher contribution of labile organic components to the biodegradation of SS-DOC from the downstream rivers. Downstream increases in labile moieties of SS-DOC were also observed in fluorescence measurements of field-flow fractionated samples. The results suggest that storm pulses of POC contain labile organic components that are increasingly released from downstream sources and can rapidly change in optical properties during riverine transport.

Jung, Byung-Joon; Yang, Boram; Park, Ji-Hyung

2014-05-01

371

The cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter sequence alters the level and patterns of activity of adjacent tissue- and organ-specific gene promoters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we report the effect of the 35S promoter sequence on activities of the tissue- and organ-specific gene promoters in tobacco\\u000a plants. In the absence of the 35S promoter sequence the AAP2 promoter is active only in vascular tissues as indicated by expression of the AAP2:GUS gene. With the 35S promoter sequence in the same T-plasmid, transgenic plants exhibit twofold

Xuelian Zheng; Wei Deng; Keming Luo; Hui Duan; Yongqin Chen; Richard McAvoy; Shuiqing Song; Yan Pei; Yi Li

2007-01-01

372

A Mutation in g-Tubulin Alters Microtubule Dynamics and Organization and Is Synthetically Lethal with the Kinesin-like Protein Pkl1ph V  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitotic segregation of chromosomes requires spindle pole functions for microtubule nucleation, minus end organization, and regulation of dynamics. g-Tubulin is essential for nucleation, and we now extend its role to these latter processes. We have characterized a mutation in g-tubulin that results in cold-sensitive mitotic arrest with an elongated bipolar spindle but impaired anaphase A. At 30°C cytoplasmic microtubule arrays

Janet L. Paluh; Eva Nogales; Berl R. Oakley; Kent McDonald; Alison L. Pidoux; W. Z. Cande

2000-01-01

373

Fibrin-genipin adhesive hydrogel for annulus fibrosus repair: performance evaluation with large animal organ culture, in situ biomechanics, and in vivo degradation tests.  

PubMed

Annulus fibrosus (AF) defects from annular tears, herniation, and discectomy procedures are associated with painful conditions and accelerated intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Currently, no effective treatments exist to repair AF damage, restore IVD biomechanics and promote tissue regeneration. An injectable fibrin-genipin adhesive hydrogel (Fib-Gen) was evaluated for its performance repairing large AF defects in a bovine caudal IVD model using ex vivo organ culture and biomechanical testing of motion segments, and for its in vivo longevity and biocompatibility in a rat model by subcutaneous implantation. Fib-Gen sealed AF defects, prevented IVD height loss, and remained well-integrated with native AF tissue following approximately 14,000 cycles of compression in 6-day organ culture experiments. Fib-Gen repair also retained high viability of native AF cells near the repair site, reduced nitric oxide released to the media, and showed evidence of AF cell migration into the gel. Biomechanically, Fib-Gen fully restored compressive stiffness to intact levels validating organ culture findings. However, only partial restoration of tensile and torsional stiffness was obtained, suggesting opportunities to enhance this formulation. Subcutaneous implantation results, when compared with the literature, suggested Fib-Gen exhibited similar biocompatibility behaviour to fibrin alone but degraded much more slowly. We conclude that injectable Fib-Gen successfully sealed large AF defects, promoted functional restoration with improved motion segment biomechanics, and served as a biocompatible adhesive biomaterial that had greatly enhanced in vivo longevity compared to fibrin. Fib-Gen offers promise for AF repairs that may prevent painful conditions and accelerated degeneration of the IVD, and warrants further material development and evaluation. PMID:25036053

Likhitpanichkul, M; Dreischarf, M; Illien-Junger, S; Walter, B A; Nukaga, T; Long, R G; Sakai, D; Hecht, A C; Iatridis, J C

2014-01-01

374

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin treatment alters eicosanoid levels in several organs of the mouse in an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent fashion  

SciTech Connect

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) adversely affects many mammalian organs and tissues. These effects are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 are upregulated by the liganded AHR. These (and other) cytochromes P450 can metabolize arachidonic acid into a variety of bioactive eicosanoids. Towards investigating a potential role of eicosanoids in TCDD toxicity, arachidonic acid, two other unsaturated long-chain fatty acids, and up to twenty-five eicosanoids were measured in five organs/tissues of male and female wild-type and Ahr null mice treated or untreated with TCDD. TCDD generally increased the levels of the four dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) and (where measured) 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid and 18-, 19- and 20-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (HETEs) in the serum, liver, spleen and lungs, but not the heart, of both sexes, and increased the levels in the serum, liver and spleen of several metabolites that are usually considered products of lipoxygenase activity, but which may also be generated by cytochromes P450. TCDD also increased the levels of the esterified forms of these eicosanoids in the liver in parallel with the corresponding free forms. The levels of prostanoids were generally not affected by TCDD. The above changes did not occur in Ahr null mice, and are therefore mediated by the AHR. TCDD increased the mRNA levels of Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1 and the Pla2g12a form of phospholipase A{sub 2} to varying degrees in the different organs, and these increases correlated with some but not all the changes in eicosanoids levels in the organs, suggesting that other enzymes may also be involved. -- Highlights: ? TCDD treatment increases the levels of many eicosanoids in several mouse organs. ? Products of both the cytochrome P450 and classical lipoxygenase pathways are increased. ? These increases are dependent on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. ? Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2 and Cyp1b1 appear to be responsible for much but not all of the increases.

Bui, Peter; Solaimani, Parrisa [Molecular Toxicology Program, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States) [Molecular Toxicology Program, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Dept of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Wu, Xiaomeng [Dept of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States) [Dept of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hankinson, Oliver, E-mail: ohank@mednet.ucla.edu [Molecular Toxicology Program, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States) [Molecular Toxicology Program, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Dept of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

2012-03-01

375

Grassroots opposition to animal exploitation.  

PubMed

The director of Trans-Species Unlimited (TSU) describes his radical organization's philosophy and controversial methods of working to end what its members view as the exploitation of animals. TSU advocates a grassroots approach to achieve its main goals, facilitating effective outreach, and acting directly at the local and national levels on issues such as animal experimentation. Siegel describes the objectives and stages of the animal rights movement, and defends his group's aggressive use of confrontational tactics and the potential use of civil disobedience to end "an evil without equal." PMID:2606662

Siegel, S

1989-01-01

376

What Animal Models Teach Humans about Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Animal models have become,standard tools for the study of a wide array of human infectious diseases. Although there are no true animal reservoirs for M. tuberculosis, many,different animal species are susceptible to infection with this organism and have served as valuable tools for the study of TB. The most commonly,used experimental animal models of TB are the mouse, rabbit,

Ashwin S. Dharmadhikari; Edward A. Nardell

2008-01-01

377

New Frontiers in Animal Research of Psychiatric Illness  

PubMed Central

Alterations in neurodevelopment are thought to modify risk of numerous psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, autism, ADHD, mood and anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. However, little is known about the cellular and molecular changes that guide these neurodevelopmental changes and how they contribute to mental illness. In this review, we suggest that elucidating this process in humans requires the use of model organisms. Furthermore, we advocate that such translational work should focus on the role that genes and/or environmental factors play in the development of circuits that regulate specific physiological and behavioral outcomes in adulthood. This emphasis on circuit development, as a fundamental unit for understanding behavior, is distinct from current approaches of modeling psychiatric illnesses in animals in two important ways. First, it proposes to replace the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM) diagnostic system with measurable endophenotypes as the basis for modeling human psychopathology in animals. We argue that a major difficulty in establishing valid animal models lies in their reliance on the DSM/International Classification of Diseases conceptual framework, and suggest that the Research Domain Criteria project, recently proposed by the NIMH, provides a more suitable system to model human psychopathology in animals. Second, this proposal emphasizes the developmental origin of many (though clearly not all) psychiatric illnesses, an issue that is often glossed over in current animal models of mental illness. We suggest that animal models are essential to elucidate the mechanisms by which neurodevelopmental changes program complex behavior in adulthood. A better understanding of this issue, in animals, is the key for defining human psychopathology, and the development of earlier and more effective interventions for mental illness.

Kaffman, Arie; Krystal, John H.

2012-01-01

378

Bethesda Animal Technical Services  

Cancer.gov

Animal Holding and Technical Support Program - Bethesda Campus Animal Holding and Technical Support This service is designed to provide the highest quality of care and support services for animal research activities conducted at the NCI-Bethesda campus Animal

379

Gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric and stable carbon isotopic investigations of organic residues of plant oils and animal fats employed as illuminants in archaeological lamps from Egypt.  

PubMed

Man's use of illuminants in lamps or as torches to extend the working day and range of environments accessible to him would have been a major technological advance in human civilisation. The most obvious evidence for this in the archaeological record comes from pottery and stone vessels showing sooting due to the use of a wick in conjunction with a lipid-based fuel or illuminant. A wide range of potential fuels would have been exploited depending upon availability and burning requirements. Reported herein are the results of chemical investigations of a number of lamps recovered from excavations of the site of Qasr Ibrim, Egypt. Gas chromatographic, mass spectrometric and stable carbon isotopic analyses of both free (solvent extractable) and 'bound'(released from solvent extracted pottery by base treatment) lipids have revealed a wide range of saturated fatty acids, hydroxy fatty acids and alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acids. Examination of the distributions of compounds and comparisons with the fatty acid compositions of modern plant oils have allowed a range of fats and oils to be recognised. Specific illuminants identified include Brassicaceae (Cruciferae) seed oil (most likely radish oil, Raphanus sativus), castor oil (from Ricinus communis), animal fat, with less diagnostic distributions and delta(13)C values being consistent with low stearic acid plant oils, such as linseed (Linum usitatissimum) or sesame (Sesamum indicum) oils. The identifications of the various oils and fats are supported by parallel investigations of illuminant residues produced by burning various oils in replica pottery lamps. The findings are entirely consistent with the classical writers including Strabo, Pliny and Theophrastrus. PMID:15912234

Copley, M S; Bland, H A; Rose, P; Horton, M; Evershed, R P

2005-06-01

380

Testing the biocompatibility of a glutathione-containing intra-ocular irrigation solution by using an isolated perfused bovine retina organ culture model - an alternative to animal testing.  

PubMed

The effects of a glutathione-containing intra-ocular irrigation solution, BSS Plus©, on retinal function and on the survival of ganglion cells in whole-mount retinal explants were studied. Evidence is provided that the perfused ex vivo bovine retina can serve as an alternative to in vivo animal testing. Isolated bovine retinas were prepared and perfused with an oxygen-saturated standard irrigation solution, and an electroretinogram was recorded to assess retinal function. After stable b-waves were detected, the isolated retinas were perfused with BSS Plus for 45 minutes. To investigate the effects of BSS Plus on photoreceptor function, 1mM aspartate was added to the irrigation solution in order to obtain a-waves, and the ERG trace was monitored for 75 minutes. For histological analysis, isolated whole retinal mounts were stored for 24 hours at 4°C, in the dark. The percentages of cell death in the retinal ganglion cell layer and in the outer and inner nuclear layers were estimated by using an ethidium homodimer-1 stain and the TUNEL assay. General swelling of the retina was examined with high-resolution optical coherence tomography. During perfusion with BSS Plus, no significant changes in a-wave and b-wave amplitudes were recorded. Retinas stored for 24 hours in BSS Plus showed a statistically significant smaller percentage (52.6%, standard deviation [SD] = 16.1%) of cell death in the retinal ganglion cell layer compared to the control group (69.6%, SD = 3.9, p = 0.0031). BSS Plus did not seem to affect short-term retinal function, and had a beneficial effect on the survival of retinal ganglion cells. This method for analysing the isolated perfused retina represents a valuable alternative for testing substances for their retinal biocompatibility and toxicity. PMID:22558975

Januschowski, Kai; Zhour, Ahmad; Lee, Albert; Maddani, Ramin; Mueller, Sebastien; Spitzer, Martin S; Schnichels, Sven; Schultheiss, Maximilian; Doycheva, Deshka; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl-Ulrich; Szurman, Peter

2012-03-01

381

Mercury induced time-dependent alterations in lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation in different body organs of cat-fish Heteropneustes fossilis  

SciTech Connect

The effects of mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/) on lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation in different body organs of fresh water cat-fish Heteropneustes fossilis were studied. The daily exposure of HgCl/sub 2/ 0.2 mg/L for 10, 20 and 30 days depleted the total lipids in brain. But the content of phospholipids enhanced significantly at 30 days. Significant diminution in C/P ratio was discernible with 30 days of exposure following mercury toxicosis. Liver exhibited elevated levels of total lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol and C/P ratio. Interestingly kidney showed marked decrease in the concentration of total lipids, cholesterol and C/P ratio at higher exposure. However, the phospholipid values increased during the longer exposure. The content of total lipids and phospholipids was high in muscle but the level of cholesterol and C/P ratio were depleted. Significant increment in lipid peroxidation was discernible in brain, liver and muscle. In kidney the rate of lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced. The results suggest that exposure of HgCl/sub 2/ enhances the peroxidation of endogenous lipids in brain, liver and muscle. Interestingly the lipid contents are affected differently in different body organs.

Bano, Y.; Hasan, M.

1989-04-01

382

Ustilago maydis Infection Strongly Alters Organic Nitrogen Allocation in Maize and Stimulates Productivity of Systemic Source Leaves1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis is the causal agent of corn smut disease and induces tumor formation during biotrophic growth in its host maize (Zea mays). We have conducted a combined metabolome and transcriptome survey of infected leaves between 1 d post infection (dpi) and 8 dpi, representing infected leaf primordia and fully developed tumors, respectively. At 4 and 8 dpi, we observed a substantial increase in contents of the nitrogen-rich amino acids glutamine and asparagine, while the activities of enzymes involved in primary nitrogen assimilation and the content of ammonia and nitrate were reduced by 50% in tumors compared with mock controls. Employing stable isotope labeling, we could demonstrate that U. maydis-induced tumors show a reduced assimilation of soil-derived 15NO3? and represent strong sinks for nitrogen. Specific labeling of the free amino acid pool of systemic source leaves with [15N]urea revealed an increased import of organic nitrogen from systemic leaves to tumor tissue, indicating that organic nitrogen provision supports the formation of U. maydis-induced tumors. In turn, amino acid export from systemic source leaves was doubled in infected plants. The analysis of the phloem amino acid pool revealed that glutamine and asparagine are not transported to the tumor tissue, although these two amino acids were found to accumulate within the tumor. Photosynthesis was increased and senescence was delayed in systemic source leaves upon tumor development on infected plants, indicating that the elevated sink demand for nitrogen could determine photosynthetic rates in source leaves.

Horst, Robin J.; Doehlemann, Gunther; Wahl, Ramon; Hofmann, Jorg; Schmiedl, Alfred; Kahmann, Regine; Kamper, Jorg; Sonnewald, Uwe; Voll, Lars M.

2010-01-01

383

Mild cognitive impairment: animal models  

PubMed Central

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an aspect of cognitive aging that is considered to be a transitional state between normal aging and the dementia into which it may convert. Appropriate animal models are necessary in order to understand the pathogenic mechanisms of MCI and develop drugs for its treatment. In this review, we identify the features that should characterize an animal model of MCI, namely old age, subtle memory impairment, mild neuropathological changes, and changes in the cholinergic system, and the age at which these features can be detected in laboratory animals. These features should occur in aging animals with normal motor activity and feeding behavior. The animal models may be middle-aged rats and mice, rats with brain ischemia, transgenic mice overexpressing amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1 (tested at an early stage), or aging monkeys. Memory deficits can be detected by selecting appropriately difficult behavioral tasks, and the deficits can be associated with neuropathological alterations. The reviewed literature demonstrates that, under certain conditions, these animal species can be considered to be MCI models, and that cognitive impairment in these models responds to drug treatment.

Pepeu, Giancarlo

2004-01-01

384

Altered distribution of copper (64Cu) in tumor-bearing mice and rats.  

PubMed

64Cu was injected in the form of CuCl2 either by subcutaneous or by intraperitoneal route, and its distribution inside different organs was analyzed in 5 different tumor models, 4 in mice and 1 in rats. In all organs tested (blood, liver, kidneys, spleen, intestine, muscle, and tumor) no significant differences were observed in the results obtained after either injection route. All tumors analyzed (Krebs ascite, intestinal Leiomyo sarcoma, human tumor, mammary adenocarcinoma, either spontaneous or chemically induced) contained a relatively high concentration of 64Cu. For all tumor models tested, the 64Cu distribution was altered as compared with that of the corresponding control animals. PMID:3707051

Apelgot, S; Coppey, J; Fromentin, A; Guille, E; Poupon, M F; Roussel, A

1986-01-01

385

Animal care guidelines and future directions.  

PubMed

Two notions broadly accepted in developed western societies have made animal care guidelines inevitable. These are that domestic animals are sentient and that humans are responsible to ensure the proper care of domestic animals. Despite these common views, people have differing moral understandings of the human-animal relationship, and there are sharp divisions over how these views should be applied to domestic animal care. Animal care guidelines have been developed by different nations at several organizational levels to represent a compromise that is acceptable to most people. These organizational levels include individual poultry companies, national poultry associations, individual customers of the poultry industry, national associations of customer companies, national governments, and international organizations. Animal care guideline development has typically included input from producers and scientists and, depending on the sponsoring organization, animal advocates and government representatives as well. Animal advocacy groups have also sought to influence domestic animal care by campaigning against animal production practices or by offering their preferred guidelines for producers to adopt in the hope that the endorsement of the welfare group would add value to the product. Originally, animal care guidelines were only recommended, with little or no requirement for compliance. In recent years, the need for retail companies to assure certain welfare standards has led to animal welfare auditing of production facilities. Animal care guidelines primarily have sought to establish standards for handling and husbandry in existing production systems. Future guidelines may put increasing emphasis on adoption of alternative management practices or housing systems. International animal care guidelines are being developed on 2 levels (i.e., among national governments to create a common standard for trade in animal products and within international retail companies to create company-wide animal care standards). These initiatives should tend to unify farm animal care standards worldwide but perhaps at a level some nations might consider lower than preferable. PMID:17495102

Webster, A B

2007-06-01

386

Effects of altered groundwater chemistry upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial attachment during transport within an organically contaminated sandy aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of a dilute (ionic strength = 5 ?? 10-3 M) plume of treated sewage, with elevated levels (3.9 mg/L) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial transport through an iron-laden, quartz sand aquifer (Cape Cod, MA) were evaluated using sets of replicate, static minicolumns. Compared with uncontaminated groundwater, the plume chemistry diminished bacterial attachment under mildly acidic (pH 5.0-6.5) in-situ conditions, in spite of the 5-fold increase in ionic strength and substantively enhanced attachment under more alkaline conditions. The effects of the hydrophobic neutral and total fractions of the plume DOC; modest concentrations of fulvic and humic acids (1.5 mg/L); linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) (25 mg/L); Imbentin (200 ??g/L), a model nonionic surfactant; sulfate (28 mg/L); and calcium (20 mg/L) varied sharply in response to relatively small changes in pH, although the plume constituents collectively decreased the pH-dependency of bacterial attachment. LAS and other hydrophobic neutrals (collectively representing only ???3% of the plume DOC) had a disproportionately large effect upon bacterial attachment, as did the elevated concentrations of sulfate within the plume. The findings further suggest that the roles of organic plume constituents in transport or bacteria through acidic aquifer sediments can be very different than would be predicted from column studies performed at circumneutral pH and that the inorganic constituents within the plume cannot be ignored.

Harvey, R. W.; Metge, D. W.; Barber, L. B.; Aiken, G. R.

2010-01-01

387

Effects of altered groundwater chemistry upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial attachment during transport within an organically contaminated sandy aquifer.  

PubMed

The effects of a dilute (ionic strength=5x10(-3)M) plume of treated sewage, with elevated levels (3.9 mg/L) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial transport through an iron-laden, quartz sand aquifer (Cape Cod, MA) were evaluated using sets of replicate, static minicolumns. Compared with uncontaminated groundwater, the plume chemistry diminished bacterial attachment under mildly acidic (pH 5.0-6.5) in-situ conditions, in spite of the 5-fold increase in ionic strength and substantively enhanced attachment under more alkaline conditions. The effects of the hydrophobic neutral and total fractions of the plume DOC; modest concentrations of fulvic and humic acids (1.5 mg/L); linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) (25 mg/L); Imbentin (200 microg/L), a model nonionic surfactant; sulfate (28 mg/L); and calcium (20 mg/L) varied sharply in response to relatively small changes in pH, although the plume constituents collectively decreased the pH-dependency of bacterial attachment. LAS and other hydrophobic neutrals (collectively representing only approximately 3% of the plume DOC) had a disproportionately large effect upon bacterial attachment, as did the elevated concentrations of sulfate within the plume. The findings further suggest that the roles of organic plume constituents in transport or bacteria through acidic aquifer sediments can be very different than would be predicted from column studies performed at circumneutral pH and that the inorganic constituents within the plume cannot be ignored. PMID:19822342

Harvey, Ronald W; Metge, David W; Barber, L B; Aiken, George R

2010-02-01

388

The potential for behavioral thermoregulation to buffer "cold-blooded" animals against climate warming  

PubMed Central

Increasing concern about the impacts of global warming on biodiversity has stimulated extensive discussion, but methods to translate broad-scale shifts in climate into direct impacts on living animals remain simplistic. A key missing element from models of climatic change impacts on animals is the buffering influence of behavioral thermoregulation. Here, we show how behavioral and mass/energy balance models can be combined with spatial data on climate, topography, and vegetation to predict impacts of increased air temperature on thermoregulating ectotherms such as reptiles and insects (a large portion of global biodiversity). We show that for most “cold-blooded” terrestrial animals, the primary thermal challenge is not to attain high body temperatures (although this is important in temperate environments) but to stay cool (particularly in tropical and desert areas, where ectotherm biodiversity is greatest). The impact of climate warming on thermoregulating ectotherms will depend critically on how changes in vegetation cover alter the availability of shade as well as the animals' capacities to alter their seasonal timing of activity and reproduction. Warmer environments also may increase maintenance energy costs while simultaneously constraining activity time, putting pressure on mass and energy budgets. Energy- and mass-balance models provide a general method to integrate the complexity of these direct interactions between organisms and climate into spatial predictions of the impact of climate change on biodiversity. This methodology allows quantitative organism- and habitat-specific assessments of climate change impacts.

Kearney, Michael; Shine, Richard; Porter, Warren P.

2009-01-01

389

Connective tissue disorders in domestic animals.  

PubMed

Though soft tissue disorders have been recognized and described to some detail in several types of domestic animals and small mammals for some years, not much progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical basis and pathogenesis of these diseases in animals. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome described in dogs already in 1943 and later in cats affects mainly skin in these animals. The involved skin is thin and hyperextensible with easily inflicted injuries resulting in hemorrhagic wounds and atrophic scars. Joint laxity and dislocation common in people are less frequently found in dogs. No systemic complications, such as organ rupture or cardiovascular problems which have devastating consequences in people have been described in cats and dogs. The diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and on light or electron microscopic features of disorganized and fragmented collagen fibrils. Several cases of bovine and ovine dermatosparaxis analogous to human Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIIC were found to be caused by mutations in the procollagen I N-proteinase (pnPI) or ADAMTS2 gene, though mutations in other sites are likely responsible for other types of dermatosparaxis. Cattle suffering from a form of Marfan syndrome were described to have aortic dilatation and aneurysm together with ocular abnormalities and skeletal involvement. As in people mutations at different sites of bovine FBN1 may be responsible for Marfan phenotype. Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA), or hyperelastosis cutis, has been recognized in several horse breeds as affecting primarily skin, and, occasionally, tendons. A mutation in cyclophilin B, a chaperon involved in proper folding of collagens, has been identified in some cases. Degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis (DSLD) affects primarily tendons and ligaments of certain horse breeds. New data from our laboratory showed excessive accumulation of proteoglycans in organs with high content of connective tissues. We have identified an abnormal form of decorin with altered biological activity in these proteoglycan deposits, and more recently changes in processing of aggrecan were found by us and other investigators.The naturally occurring diseases of soft tissues in domestic animals described here have a potential to serve as good models for analogous human diseases. This is the case particularly relevant to dogs as a half out of the more than 400 naturally occurring hereditary canine diseases has the potential to serve as a model for human disease. PMID:24443030

Halper, Jaroslava

2014-01-01

390

Two polymorphic variants of ABCC1 selectively alter drug resistance and inhibitor sensitivity of the multidrug and organic anion transporter multidrug resistance protein 1.  

PubMed

In this study we compared the in silico predictions of the effect of ABCC1 nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) with experimental data on MRP1 transport function and response to chemotherapeutics and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) inhibitors. Vectors encoding seven ABCC1 nsSNPs were stably expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells, and levels and localization of the mutant MRP1 proteins were determined by confocal microscopy and immunoblotting. The function of five of the mutant proteins was determined using cell-based drug and inhibitor sensitivity and efflux assays, and membrane-based organic anion transport assays. Predicted consequences of the mutations were determined by multiple bioinformatic methods. Mutants C43S and S92F were correctly routed to the HEK cell plasma membrane, but the levels were too low to permit functional characterization. In contrast, levels and membrane trafficking of R633Q, G671V, R723Q, A989T, and C1047S were similar to wild-type MRP1. In cell-based assays, all five mutants were equally effective at effluxing calcein, but only two exhibited reduced resistance to etoposide (C1047S) and vincristine (A989T; C1047S). The GSH-dependent inhibitor LY465803 (LY465803 [N-[3-(9-chloro-3-methyl-4-oxo-4H-isoxazolo-[4,3-c]quinolin-5-yl)-cyclohexylmethyl]-benzamide)] was less effective at blocking calcein efflux by A989T, but in a membrane-based assay, organic anion transport by A989T and C1047S was inhibited by MRP1 modulators as well as wild-type MRP1. GSH accumulation assays suggest cellular GSH efflux by A989T and C1047S may be impaired. In conclusion, although six in silico analyses consistently predict deleterious consequences of ABCC1 nsSNPs G671V, changes in drug resistance and inhibitor sensitivity were only observed for A989T and C1047S, which may relate to GSH transport differences. PMID:24080162

Conseil, Gwenaëlle; Cole, Susan P C

2013-12-01

391

Chronic aluminum intoxication in rat induced both serotonin changes in the dorsal raphe nucleus and alteration of glycoprotein secretion in the subcommissural organ: Immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed

Aluminum (Al) causes multiple impairments in several body systems including the central nervous system. In fact, Al exposure has been mostly associated with neurological dysfunctions that occur in some brain diseases. The effect of Al neurotoxicity on the dopaminergic system is well documented, but this effect on the serotoninergic system is poorly studied. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of chronic Al intoxication (0.3% of aluminum chloride exposure from the intra-uterine age until 4 months of adult age) on dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) which is the main source of serotonin, and also on the glycoprotein secretion of subcomissural organ (SCO), receiving important serotoninergic innervation. This will be executed using immunohistochemistry procedure, with both the anti serotonin and the anti Reissner's fiber antibodies in the rat. Our results showed a significant increase of serotonin immunoreactivity in the DRN, accompanied by a noticeable decrease of RF immunoreactivity in the SCO ependymocytes. This study provides further evidence confirming the toxic effect of Al exposure on serotonin neurotransmission in the brain likely through increased synthesis or decreased release. Al exposure was also shown to decrease RF glycoprotein which is involved in the detoxification of cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:24931428

Laabbar, Wafaa; Elgot, Abdeljalil; Kissani, Najib; Gamrani, Halima

2014-08-01

392

Alterations of red blood cell sodium transport during malarial infection.  

PubMed

Previous studies have suggested that malaria induces changes in erythrocytic membrane permeability and susceptibility to osmotic lysis. The present study investigated erythrocytic transport of sodium with cells from Rhesus monkeys infected with Plasmodium knowlesi. Red blood cell sodium concentration was significantly elevated in 37 parasitized animals (21.8+/-1.2 mM; mean +/-SEM), as compared to 23 control animals (10.0+/-0.38 mM). The cellular sodium increased with the density of parasitemia and the cellular potassium decreased in proportion to the elevation of sodium. Nonparasitized as well as parasitized erythrocytes possessed this abnormality of cation metabolism. Effective chloroquine therapy reversed the changes over a period of 4 days. Active sodium outflux rate constants were depressed in animals with malaria (0.202+/-0.012), as compared to controls (0.325+/-0.027). Passive sodium influx rate constants were higher in infected monkeys (0.028+/-0.002) than in control animals (0.019+/-0.002). The cross incubation of malarial plasma with normal red blood cells induced a 22% diminution in active sodium outflux but no changes were observed in sodium influx. It is concluded that malaria alters erythrocytic sodium transport in all erythrocytes. The elevated intracellular sodium concentration is the net result of decreased sodium outflux and increased sodium influx. The plasmodium organism or the affected host may produce a circulating substance that is deleterious to erythrocytic membrane cation transport. PMID:4975361

Dunn, M J

1969-04-01

393

76 FR 60447 - Florigene Pty., Ltd.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Altered Color Roses  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...introduction of certain genetically engineered organisms. Our determination is based on our evaluation...7 CFR part 340, ``Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through...or release into the environment) of organisms and products altered or produced...

2011-09-29

394

The response of the Golgi complex to microtubule alterations: the roles of metabolic energy and membrane traffic in Golgi complex organization  

PubMed Central

A striking example of the interrelation between the Golgi complex (GC) and microtubules is the reversible fragmentation and dispersal of the GC which occurs upon microtubule depolymerization. We have characterized dispersal of the GC after nocodazole treatment as well as its recovery from the dispersed state by immunofluorescent localization of beta 1, 4-galactosyltransferase in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells. Immunofluorescent anti-tubulin staining allowed simultaneous examination of the microtubule array. Based on our results, dispersal can be divided into a three-step process: microtubule depolymerization, GC fragmentation, and fragment dispersal. In cells treated with metabolic inhibitors after microtubule depolymerization, neither fragmentation nor dispersal occur, despite the absence of assembled microtubules. Thus, fragmentation is energy dependent and not tightly linked to microtubule depolymerization. The slowing of fragmentation and dispersal by monensin or ammonium chloride, as well as progressive inhibition at less than 34 degrees C, suggest that ongoing membrane traffic is required for these processes. Similarly, recovery may be separated into four steps: microtubule depolymerization, GC fragment centralization, fragment coalescence, and polarization of the reticular GC network. Fragment centralization and coalescence were arrested by metabolic inhibitors, despite the presence of microtubules. Neither monensin nor ammonium choride inhibited GC recovery. Partial inhibition of recovery at reduced temperatures paralleled the extent of microtubule assembly. These data demonstrate that dispersal and recovery are multi-step operations, and that the individual steps differ in temperature dependence, energy dependence, and sensitivity to ionic perturbation. GC distribution and microtubule status have also been clearly dissociate, thereby proving that organization of the GC is an active process that is not simply determined by microtubule binding. Furthermore, the results indicate that ongoing intra-GC membrane traffic may participate in fragmentation and dispersal.

1989-01-01

395

Ablation of both organic cation transporter (OCT)1 and OCT2 alters metformin pharmacokinetics but has no effect on tissue drug exposure and pharmacodynamics.  

PubMed

Organic cation transporter (OCT)1 and OCT2 mediate hepatic uptake and secretory renal clearance of metformin, respectively. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) implications of simultaneous impairment of both transporters, such as by systemic pan-OCT inhibition, have not been studied directly. At present metformin PK/PD, distribution, and excretion were studied in Oct1/Oct2-knockout mice. Metformin clearance was reduced 4.5-fold from renal blood flow to unbound glomerular filtration rate, and volume of distribution was reduced 3.5-fold in Oct1/Oct2-knockout mice. Oral bioavailability was not affected (F = 64 ± 4 versus 59 ± 11; knockout versus wild type). Liver- and kidney-to-plasma concentration ratios were decreased in Oct1/Oct2-knockout mice 4.2- and 2.5-fold, respectively. The 2.9-fold increase in oral metformin exposure and reduced tissue partitioning yielded little to no net change in tissue drug concentrations. Absolute kidney exposure was unchanged (knockout/wild type = 1.1 ± 0.2), and liver exposure was only modestly decreased (knockout/wild type = 0.6 ± 0.1). Oral glucose area under the curve (AUC) lowering by metformin was not impaired in Oct1/Oct2-knockout mice at the five dose levels tested (ED50 = 151 versus 110 mg/kg; glucose lowering at highest dose = 42 ± 1 versus 39 ± 4%; knockout versus wild type); however, higher systemic metformin exposures were necessary in knockout mice to elicit the same effect (half-maximal efficacious AUC = 70 versus 26 ?g x h/ml). Despite major changes in metformin clearance and volume of distribution in Oct1/Oct2-knockout mice, tissue drug exposure and PD were not affected. These findings challenge the presumption that systemic OCT inhibition will affect metformin pharmacology. PMID:22407892

Higgins, J William; Bedwell, David W; Zamek-Gliszczynski, Maciej J

2012-06-01

396

Closely Related Plasmid Replicons Coexisting in the Phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae Show a Mosaic Organization of the Replication Region and Altered Incompatibility Behavior  

PubMed Central

Many Pseudomonas syringae strains contain native plasmids that are important for host-pathogen interactions, and most of them contain several coexisting plasmids (pPT23A-like plasmids) that cross-hybridize to replication sequences from pPT23A, which also carries a gene cluster coding for the phytotoxin coronatine in P. syringae pv. tomato PT23. In this study, three functional pPT23A-like replicons were cloned from P. syringae pv. glycinea race 6, suggesting that the compatibility of highly related replicons is a common feature of P. syringae strains. Hybridization experiments using three separate incompatibility determinants previously identified from pPT23A and the rulAB (UV radiation tolerance) genes showed that the organization of the replication region among pPT23A-like plasmids from several P. syringae pathovars is poorly conserved. The putative repA gene from four pPT23A-like replicons from P. syringae pv. glycinea race 6 was amplified by using specific primers. The restriction profiles of the resulting PCR products for the race 6 plasmids were more similar to each other than they were to that of pPT23A. These data, together with the existence of other cross-hybridizing DNA regions around the replicon among the race 6 pPT23A-like plasmids, suggest that some of these plasmids may have originated from duplication events. Our results also imply that modifications of the repA sequences and the poor conservation of putative maintenance determinants contribute to the suppression of incompatibility among members of the pPT23A-like family, thus enhancing the genomic plasticity of P. syringae.

Sesma, Ane; Sundin, George W.; Murillo, Jesus

1998-01-01

397

Increased size of solid organs in patients with Chuvash polycythemia and in mice with altered expression of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha.  

PubMed

Chuvash polycythemia, the first hereditary disease associated with dysregulated oxygen-sensing to be recognized, is characterized by a homozygous germ-line loss-of-function mutation of the VHL gene (VHL(R200W)) resulting in elevated hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha and HIF-2alpha levels, increased red cell mass and propensity to thrombosis. Organ volume is determined by the size and number of cells, and the underlying molecular control mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Work from several groups has demonstrated that the proliferation of cells is regulated in opposite directions by HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha. HIF-1alpha inhibits cell proliferation by displacing MYC from the promoter of the gene encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21(Cip1), thereby inducing its expression. In contrast, HIF-2alpha promotes MYC activity and cell proliferation. Here we report that the volumes of liver, spleen, and kidneys relative to body mass were larger in 30 individuals with Chuvash polycythemia than in 30 matched Chuvash controls. In Hif1a(+/-) mice, which are heterozygous for a null (knockout) allele at the locus encoding HIF-1alpha, hepatic HIF-2alpha mRNA was increased (2-fold) and the mass of the liver was increased, compared with wild-type littermates, without significant difference in cell volume. Hepatic p21(Cip1) mRNA levels were 9.5-fold lower in Hif1a(+/-) mice compared with wild-type littermates. These data suggest that, in addition to increased red cell mass, the sizes of liver, spleen, and kidneys are increased in Chuvash polycythemia. At least in the liver, this phenotype may result from increased HIF-2alpha and decreased p21(Cip1) levels leading to increased hepatocyte proliferation. PMID:20140661

Yoon, Donghoon; Okhotin, David V; Kim, Bumjun; Okhotina, Yulia; Okhotin, Daniel J; Miasnikova, Galina Y; Sergueeva, Adelina I; Polyakova, Lydia A; Maslow, Alexei; Lee, Yonggu; Semenza, Gregg L; Prchal, Josef T; Gordeuk, Victor R

2010-05-01

398

Increased size of solid organs in patients with Chuvash polycythemia and in mice with altered expression of HIF-1? and HIF-2?  

PubMed Central

Chuvash polycythemia, the first hereditary disease associated with dysregulated oxygen-sensing to be recognized, is characterized by a homozygous germ-line loss-of-function mutation of the VHL gene (VHLR200W) resulting in elevated hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1? and HIF-2? levels, increased red cell mass and propensity to thrombosis. Organ volume is determined by the size and number of cells, and the underlying molecular control mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Work from several groups has demonstrated that the proliferation of cells is regulated in opposite directions by HIF-1? and HIF-2?. HIF-1? inhibits cell proliferation by displacing MYC from the promoter of the gene encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21Cip1, thereby inducing its expression. In contrast, HIF-2? promotes MYC activity and cell proliferation. Here we report that the volumes of liver, spleen, and kidneys relative to body mass were larger in 30 individuals with Chuvash polycythemia than in 30 matched Chuvash controls. In Hif1a+/? mice, which are heterozygous for a null (knockout) allele at the locus encoding HIF-1?, hepatic HIF-2? mRNA was increased (2-fold) and the mass of the liver was increased, compared with wild-type littermates, without significant difference in cell volume. Hepatic p21Cip1 mRNA levels were 9.5-fold lower in Hif1a+/? mice compared with wild-type littermates. These data suggest that, in addition to increased red cell mass, the sizes of liver, spleen, and kidneys are increased in Chuvash polycythemia. At least in the liver, this phenotype may result from increased HIF-2? and decreased p21Cip1 levels leading to increased hepatocyte proliferation.

Yoon, Donghoon; Okhotin, David V.; Kim, Bumjun; Okhotina, Yulia; Okhotin, Daniel J.; Miasnikova, Galina Y.; Sergueeva, Adelina I.; Polyakova, Lydia A.; Maslow, Alexei; Lee, Yonggu; Semenza, Gregg L.; Prchal, Josef T.

2010-01-01

399

Topic in Depth - Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth takes a look at organizations and educational websites concerned with reproduction in humans and other animals. In this folder, you'll find information about fertility, embryology, reproductive biology, and immunology from a variety of societies and institutions.

2010-09-14

400

[Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].  

PubMed

Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

Tal, H

2013-10-01

401

Animals around the world  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What kinds of animals live in South Africa? Your teacher will give you KWL chart First, lets learn about Elephants Animals Record in your chart what you learn. Now lets learn about other animals Animals How is it similar or different from the Elephant? Project: Create a poster on one of the animals we discussed in this lesson. See the teacher ...

Carly, Ms.

2011-10-27

402

Altered phase precession and compression of temporal sequences by place cells in epileptic rats.  

PubMed

In the hippocampus, pyramidal cells encode information in two major ways: rate coding and temporal coding. Rate coding, in which information is coded through firing frequency, is exemplarily illustrated by place cells, characterized by their location-specific firing. In addition, the precise temporal organization of firing of multiple place cells provides information, in a compressed time window, about the temporal sequence of the locations visited by the animal. This encoding is accomplished through phase precession, a phenomenon whereby unit firing is linked to theta rhythm, one of the major hippocampal EEG oscillations. Although it is likely that this type of processing is critical for normal brain function, its involvement in pathologies associated with cognitive disorders is unknown. In this experiment, we determined whether the temporal organization of place cell firing is affected in an animal model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), a disease accompanied with cognitive impairment. We investigated hippocampal coding and its relationship to theta rhythm in rats after status epilepticus (SE), a condition that leads to MTLE. We found a great proportion of SE place cells had aberrant phase/precession pattern and temporal organization of firing among pairs of neurons, which constitutes the compression of temporal sequences, was altered in SE rats. The same animals were also markedly impaired in the water maze task, a measure of spatial memory. We propose that the synaptic and cellular alterations observed in MTLE induce aberrant temporal coding in the hippocampus, contributing in turn to cognitive dysfunction. PMID:18463258

Lenck-Santini, Pierre-Pascal; Holmes, Gregory L

2008-05-01

403

The globalisation of farm animal welfare.  

PubMed

Animal welfare has achieved significant global prominence for perhaps three reasons. First, several centuries of scientific research, especially in anatomy, evolutionary biology and animal behaviour, have led to a gradual narrowing of the gap that people perceive between humans and other species; this altered perception has prompted grass-roots attention to animals and their welfare, initially in Western countries but now more globally asthe influence of science has expanded. Second, scientific research on animal welfare has provided insights and methods for improving the handling, housing and management of animals; this 'animal welfare science' is increasingly seen as relevant to improving animal husbandry worldwide. Third, the development and use of explicit animal welfare standards has helped to integrate animal welfare as a component of national and international public policy, commerce and trade. To date, social debate about animal welfare has been dominated bythe industrialised nations. However, as the issue becomes increasingly global, it will be important for the non-industrialised countries to develop locally appropriate approaches to improving animal welfare, for example, by facilitating the provision of shelter, food, water and health care, and by improving basic handling, transportation and slaughter. PMID:25000775

Fraser, D

2014-04-01

404

Decreased arginine methylation and myelin alterations in arsenic exposed rats.  

PubMed

Methylation has an important role in the synthesis of myelin basic protein (MBP), an essential component that confers compactness to myelin, and the correct synthesis and assembling of myelin are fundamental in the development of the central nervous system. Since arsenic metabolism requires a high consumption of S-adenosylmethionine, the main donor of methyl groups in the organism, it has been proposed that arsenic exposure can lead to a demethylation status in the organism comprising DNA and protein hypomethylation. This study documents myelin alterations in brain and changes in levels of methylated arginines in brain and serum of adult female Wistar rats exposed to arsenic (3 and 36 ppm, drinking water) from gestation throughout lactation, development and until 1, 2, 3 and 4 months of age. Morphological characteristics were analyzed by means of light microscopy and methylated arginines were analyzed through HPLC. Arsenic intake resulted in myelin damage reflected as empty spaces in fiber tracts of the exposed animals. The low exposure group (approximately 0.4 mg/kg/day) did not present myelin damage during the first 2 months, only moderate alterations in the third and fourth months. By contrast, animals exposed to 36 ppm (approximately 4 mg/kg/day) showed moderate to severe damage to nerve tracts from the first month of age. These alterations were accompanied by significant lower levels of dimethyl arginine in both exposed groups, as compared with the controls, in the third and fourth months of age and exposure. These data demonstrate that myelin composition is a target of arsenic through interference with arginine methylation, and they suggest that disturbances in nervous transmission through myelinated fibers are an important component of arsenic neurotoxicity. PMID:19896975

Zarazúa, Sergio; Ríos, Rosalva; Delgado, Juan Manuel; Santoyo, Martha E; Ortiz-Pérez, Deogracias; Jiménez-Capdeville, María E

2010-01-01

405

Sources for Animal Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

As ecological and human pressures on animal populations increase, so does the discussion of the importance of animal biodiversity. This paper presents sources that can be used to research animal biodiversity and related topics.

Margaret A. Mellinger

2004-01-01

406

Natural and unnatural: activists' representations of animal biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social representations of animal biotechnology were examined with a total of 22 animal welfare and rights activists in five focu