Sample records for animals altered organisms

  1. Quality of organic animal products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maryline Kouba

    2003-01-01

    Recent years have seen a sharp rise in demand for organic animal products. There is no evidence of consistent differences in flavour or nutritional qualities between organic products and conventional ones. However, organic animal products have lower levels of veterinary drugs and pesticides. There is no clear evidence to indicate that organic food is more prone to mycotoxin contamination than

  2. Transgenic plants and animals: Altered organisms from recombinant DNA technology. July 1982-July 1989 (Citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for July 1982-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the development and use of transgenic plants and animals. Topics include methods of induction of new genes and transgenetic expression in the organism, development of animal models of human diseases, and design of insect tolerant plants. Examples of transgenic organisms include mice, fish, chicken, pigs, rye, maize, tobacco, tomatoes, lettuce, and cotton. This information is of value for the increased production of food from animals by producing animal carcasses with reduced fat content. The information is also valuable for production of herbicide tolerant, virus resistant, and insect resistant crop plants, as well as the rapid production of transgenic plants with flowers and seeds. (Contains 383 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  3. Social Stress Alters the Severity of an Animal Model of

    E-print Network

    Meagher, Mary

    11 Social Stress Alters the Severity of an Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis Mary W. Meagher, Robin R. Johnson, Elisabeth Good, and C. Jane Welsh 1. Introduction Multiple sclerosis (MS the course of an animal model for MS, Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection. 2. Multiple

  4. Alteration of glasses by micro-organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallien, Jean-Paul; Gouget, Barbara; Carrot, Francine; Orial, Geneviève; Brunet, Anne

    2001-07-01

    Micro-organisms are suspected to play a basic part in materials alteration. Obviously, they will be present in nuclear waste repositories, either introduced by technological activity or laid by fluids circulation. Their metabolism may induce chemical modifications to the surrounding media and then affect the durability of storage materials. Biodegradation of glasses is studied in the Pierre Süe Laboratory. In the frame of a collaboration with microbiologists interested in stained glasses alteration, leaching experiments with various species of bacteria and fungi are carried out. Ion beam analysis techniques are performed to quantify surface modification of glasses and elemental incorporation in micro-organisms. Analyses of the solutions will lead to a complete assessment of elemental exchanges between glass sample, culture media and micro-organisms. In this paper, preliminary results on characterisation of glasses and micro-organisms and the first results of leaching experiments are presented.

  5. Dietary animal proteins alter monoamine metabolism in the brain.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Mao; Murakami, Tatsuro; Sato, Mikako; Takahata, Yoshihisa; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2012-06-01

    Several amino acids have effects on mental function, including sedative, antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effects. However, the influence of integrated amino acid nutrition as protein constituents on mental function remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to compare the influence of chicken, pork and beef protein extracts on brain monoamine metabolism in mice. Changes in monoamine levels and their turnover rates in the brain were induced by different protein sources. In particular, chicken protein group showed the highest norepinephrine levels in the hippocampus and hypothalamus, and beef protein extract caused an activation of the serotonergic system in the hypothalamus, although there were no significant differences in amino acid compositions of these protein extracts. Therefore, it was revealed that amino acid compositions in dietary protein did not induce alteration in monoamine metabolism. However, there were differences in small molecular peptides, such as creatine, carnosine and anserine levels in animal protein extracts. In conclusion, monoamine metabolism was altered by dietary protein sources. However, it was indicated that the alteration in monoamine metabolism may be independent from amino acid compositions in dietary protein. In addition, alteration in monoamine metabolism depending on the dietary protein sources may be induced by small molecular peptides. PMID:22694334

  6. Effect of altered 'weight' upon animal tolerance to restraint.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.; Beljan, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The effect of altered weight upon animal tolerance to restraint was determined by simulating various accelerative forces with directed lead weights using restrained and nonrestrained domestic fowl (chickens). Weighting (increased weight) and conterweighting (reduced weight) produced a stressed condition - reduced relative lymphocyte counts, loss of body mass, and/or the development of a disorientation syndrome - in both restrained and nonrestrained (caged only) birds. The animal's tolerance to altered weight appeared to be a function of its body weight. Unrestrained birds were stressed by counterweighting (mean plus or minus standard error) 58.3 plus or minus 41% of their body weight, whereas restrained birds tolerated only 32.2 plus or minus 2.6% reduction in body weight. A training regimen for restrained birds was not effective in improving their tolerance to a reduced weight environment. It was concluded that domestic fowl living in a weightless (space) environment should be restrained minimally and supported by ventrally directed tension equivalent to approximately 50% of their body mass (their weight in a 1 G environment).

  7. A novel animal model linking adiposity to altered circadian rhythms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers have provided evidence for a link between obesity and altered circadian rhythms (e.g., shift work, disrupted sleep), but the mechanism for this association is still unknown. Adipocytes possess an intrinsic circadian clock, and circadian rhythms in adipocytokines and adipose tissue metab...

  8. Integrin Organization: Linking Adhesion Ligand Nanopatterns with Altered Cell Responses

    E-print Network

    Kirschner, Denise

    Integrin Organization: Linking Adhesion Ligand Nanopatterns with Altered Cell Responses W. A 48109, USA Abstract Integrin receptors bind to adhesion ligand (e.g. arginine-glycine-aspartic acid of integrin binding to ligand nanopatterns, and new measures of integrin organization on the cell surface. We

  9. Altered egos: antibiotic effects on food animal microbiomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The human food chain begins with upwards of 1000 species of bacteria that inhabit the intestinal tracts of poultry and livestock. These intestinal denizens are responsible for the health and safety of a major protein source for humans. The use of antibiotics to treat animal diseases was followed b...

  10. Outlining a Conception of Animal Welfare for Organic Farming Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vonne Lund; Helena Röcklinsberg

    2001-01-01

    The concept of animal welfare refersto the animal's quality of life. The choice ofdefinition always reflects some basicvaluation. This makes a particular conceptionof welfare value-dependent. Also, the animalhusbandry system reflects certain values oraims. The values reflected in the chosenconception of animal welfare ought tocorrespond to values aimed for in the husbandrysystem. The IFOAM Basic Standards and otherwritings dealing with organic

  11. Urotensin II alters vascular reactivity in animals subjected to volume overload

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory S. Harris; Robert M. Lust; Laxmansa C. Katwa; Christopher J. Wingard

    2010-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) alters vascular reactivity and up regulates in urotensin II (UTII), a potent vasoactive peptide. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between CHF and UTII in altering vascular reactivity in a rat model of volume overload heart failure. Animals were divided into 4 groups: control, UTII infused (UTII), volume overload only (VO) or

  12. Consumer perception of organic food production and farm animal welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gemma C. Harper; Aikaterini Makatouni

    2002-01-01

    This paper is derived from a larger scale project investigating consumer attitudes towards organic food in the UK. Presents focus group results on consumer perceptions, attitudes and behaviour in relation to two key interrelated food trends: organic food and animal welfare. The results indicate that consumers often confuse organic and free-range products because they believe that “organic” is equivalent to

  13. How land condition alters plant-animal relationships in Australia's tropical rangelands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Ash; J. G. McIvor; J. P. Corfield; W. H. Winter

    1995-01-01

    Changes in vegetation composition and land condition that occur in response to grazing in natural grassland systems may alter plant and animal production, but the relationships are poorly understood. This study examined the effect of a change in land condition on herbage and animal production in two tropical tallgrass regions of northern Australia. The contrasting land condition classes, selected along

  14. Fungal alteration of organic coatings on sand grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothhardt, S.; Gleixner, G.; Benzerara, K.; Fischer, C.; Gaupp, R.

    2012-04-01

    We studied the fungal alteration of organically coated sand particles, sampled in Eocene sediments in the open cast mining Profen, near Leipzig (Germany). These organic coatings were formed on sand grains after their sedimentation owing to mobilization of organic matter from younger coal layers. The organic coatings formed non-continuous layers on quartz grains, measuring few micrometers up to 30 µm in thickness. It has been shown that organic coatings on sand grains retain efficiently dissolved metals by adsorption from groundwaters. They consequently might be used as adsorbent to purify low heavy metal contaminated water. However, their stability has not been assessed yet especially in the oxic environment and, more specifically, in the presence of microorganisms. This is important in order to evaluate whether coated sands could act as a reliable tool in remediation. In order to address this question we characterized the fungal alteration of organic coatings on sand grains using several techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and vertical scanning interferometry (VSI). Sand grains coated with organics were incubated on complex yeast medium with and without Schizophyllum commune to estimate changes in heavy metal retention. Formation of biominerals and etch pits is induced by fungal colonization as shown by SEM. Surface topography analysis was performed using VSI technique. Etch pit depth ranges from 0.5 to 1 µm. Pit formation is limited to the organic coating; dissolution of quartz grains was not detected. Using STXM we measured near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra at the C K-edge, N-edge, and O K-edge to characterize the different organic compartments (fungi, genuine organic coatings, altered organic coatings) down to the 25-nm scale. We observed in the spectra measured at the C K-edge on the altered organic coatings a decrease in aromatic and phenolic groups as well as an enrichment in amide-rich molecules compared to the genuine organic coatings. Our results suggest heterogeneous biodegradation of organic coatings on sand grains by fungal exudation. An important implication might be the overall decrease in metal retention potential of organically coated sand grains owing to the alteration processes by S. commune.

  15. Early Alteration of Retinal Neurons in Aipl1?/? Animals

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ratnesh Kumar; Kolandaivelu, Saravanan; Ramamurthy, Visvanathan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Mutations in the photoreceptor cell-specific gene encoding aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein-like 1 (AIPL1) lead to Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA4), retinitis pigmentosa, and cone–rod dystrophy. Gene therapy appears to be promising in the treatment for AIPL1-mediated vision loss in humans. Prior to initiating these treatments, however, it is crucial to understand how the retinal neurons remodel themselves in response to photoreceptor cell degeneration. In this study, using an animal model for AIPL1-LCA, Aipl1?/? mice, we investigate the changes in postreceptoral retinal neurons during the course of photoreceptor cell loss. Methods. Morphology of the Aipl1?/? retina from postnatal day 8 to 150 was compared to that of age-matched, wild-type C57Bl6/J retina (WT) by immunocytochemistry using cell-specific markers. Results. Expression of postsynaptic proteins in bipolar cells is reduced prior to photoreceptor cell degeneration at postnatal day 8. Bipolar and horizontal cells retract their dendrites. Cell bodies and axons of bipolar and horizontal cells are disorganized during the course of degeneration. Müller cell processes become hypertrophic and form a dense fibrotic layer outside the inner nuclear layer. Conclusions. An early defect in photoreceptor cells in the AIPL1-LCA mouse model affects the expression of postsynaptic markers, suggesting abnormal development of bipolar synapses. Once degeneration of photoreceptor cells is initiated, remodeling of retinal neurons in the Aipl1?/? animal is rapid. PMID:24736053

  16. Soil animals alter plant litter diversity effects on decomposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Hättenschwiler; Patrick Gasser

    2005-01-01

    Most of the terrestrial net primary production enters the decomposer system as dead organic matter, and the subsequent recycling of C and nutrients are key processes for the functioning of ecosystems and the delivery of ecosystem goods and services. Although climatic and substrate quality controls are reasonably well understood, the functional role of biodiversity for biogeochemical cycles remains elusive. Here

  17. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  18. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  19. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  20. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  1. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  2. Growth Animation of Human Organs Roman Durikovic Silvester Czanner

    E-print Network

    Durikovic, Roman

    Growth Animation of Human Organs Roman Durikovic Silvester Czanner , Hirofumi Inoue Computer The growth of the organs of human embryo is chang- ing significantly over a short period of time in the mother body. The shape of the human organs is or- ganic and has many folds that are difficult to model

  3. Learning about Skeletons and Other Organ Systems of Vertebrate Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes students' (n=175) understandings of the structure of animal (including human) skeletons and the internal organs found in them. Finds that older students have a better knowledge of animals' internal anatomies, although knowledge of human internal structure is significantly better than knowledge of rat, bird, and fish internal structure.…

  4. Immunosenescence is associated with altered gene expression and epigenetic regulation in primary and secondary immune organs

    PubMed Central

    Sidler, Corinne; Wóycicki, Rafa?; Ilnytskyy, Yaroslav; Metz, Gerlinde; Kovalchuk, Igor; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Deterioration of the immune system (immunosenescence) with age is associated with an increased susceptibility to infection, autoimmune disease and cancer, and reduced responsiveness to vaccination. Immunosenescence entails a reduced supply of naïve T cells from the thymus and increased specialization of peripheral T cell clones. Both thymic involution and peripheral T cell homeostasis are thought to involve cellular senescence. In order to analyze this at the molecular level, we studied gene expression profiles, epigenetic status, and genome stability in the thymus and spleen of 1-, 4-, and 18-month-old Long Evans rats. In the thymus, altered gene expression, DNA and histone H3K9 hypomethylation, increased genome instability, and apoptosis were observed in 18-month-old animals compared to 1- and 4-month-old animals. In the spleen, alterations in gene expression and epigenetic regulation occurred already by the age of 4 months compared to 1 month and persisted in 18-month-old compared to 1-month-old rats. In both organs, these changes were accompanied by the altered composition of resident T cell populations. Our study suggests that both senescence and apoptosis may be involved in altered organ function. PMID:24151501

  5. Lattice animal model of chromosome organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Balaji V. S.; Arya, Gaurav

    2012-07-01

    Polymer models tied together by constraints of looping and confinement have been used to explain many of the observed organizational characteristics of interphase chromosomes. Here we introduce a simple lattice animal representation of interphase chromosomes that combines the features of looping and confinement constraints into a single framework. We show through Monte Carlo simulations that this model qualitatively captures both the leveling off in the spatial distance between genomic markers observed in fluorescent in situ hybridization experiments and the inverse decay in the looping probability as a function of genomic separation observed in chromosome conformation capture experiments. The model also suggests that the collapsed state of chromosomes and their segregation into territories with distinct looping activities might be a natural consequence of confinement.

  6. Dynamics of behavioral organization and its alteration in major depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Toru; Kiyono, Ken; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Nakahara, Rika; Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2007-07-01

    We describe the nature of human behavioral organization, specifically how resting and active periods are interwoven throughout daily life. Active period durations with physical activity counts successively above a predefined threshold follow a stretched exponential (gamma-type) cumulative distribution with characteristic time, both in healthy individuals and in patients with major depressive disorder. On the contrary, resting period durations below the threshold for both groups obey a scale free power law cumulative distribution over two decades, with significantly lower scaling exponents in the patients. We thus find underlying robust laws governing human behavioral organization, with a parameter altered in depression.

  7. Animal models of female pelvic organ prolapse: lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Couri, Bruna M; Lenis, Andrew T; Borazjani, Ali; Paraiso, Marie Fidela R; Damaser, Margot S

    2012-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse is a vaginal protrusion of female pelvic organs. It has high prevalence worldwide and represents a great burden to the economy. The pathophysiology of pelvic organ prolapse is multifactorial and includes genetic predisposition, aberrant connective tissue, obesity, advancing age, vaginal delivery and other risk factors. Owing to the long course prior to patients becoming symptomatic and ethical questions surrounding human studies, animal models are necessary and useful. These models can mimic different human characteristics – histological, anatomical or hormonal, but none present all of the characteristics at the same time. Major animal models include knockout mice, rats, sheep, rabbits and nonhuman primates. In this article we discuss different animal models and their utility for investigating the natural progression of pelvic organ prolapse pathophysiology and novel treatment approaches. PMID:22707980

  8. Detection of alterations in testicular and epididymal function in laboratory animals

    SciTech Connect

    Amann, R.P.

    1986-12-01

    The potential impact of an agent altering male reproductive function is greater for humans than for animals. Consequently, it is essential that sensitive criteria be used to look for effects on a multiplicity of target sites when an agent is evaluated using an animal model. No animal model has reproductive characteristics similar to those of humans, but this does not negate the validity of using animal models. Classic methodologies for reproductive toxicology are limited by the approaches used for subjective evaluation of testicular histology and use of natural mating for fertility tests. After dosing for an interval at least equal to six times the duration of one cycle of the seminiferous epithelium, sperm from ejaculated semen or the cauda epididymidis can be evaluated for normalacy of morphology or function and should be used for artificial insemination of females to critically evaluate fertility. Normal males of animals models ejaculate a great excess of sperm. Artificial insemination of a critical number of sperm, selected to result in slightly less than maximal fertility for control animals, will maximize the probability of detecting a decrease in fertility if the same critical number of sperm is inseminated for treated animals as for control animals. Testicular function should be evaluated by objective, rather than subjective, criteria. Among the more sensitive criteria of testicular function are the minor diameter of essentially round seminiferous tubules, the ratio of leptotene spermatocytes to Sertoli cells, the corrected numbers of germ cells per seminiferous tubule cross section, and the number of homogenization-resistant spermatids per testis.

  9. Organic matter alteration at active and relict sedimentary oxidation fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Cowie, G.L.; Calvert, S.E. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Hedges, J.I. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Sedimentary oxidation fronts, generated by downward diffusion of O{sub 2} into previously reducing sediments, provide an opportunity to study the effects of O{sub 2} exposure on organic matter preservation, where other factors are invariant. Oxidation fronts have now been identified in a number of environments, including turbidities found on the Madeira abyssal plain (NE Atlantic) and in sapropels from the Mediterranean. A multifaceted study is being carried out on a series of relict fronts in turbidities of varied origin and composition, recovered from the Madeira abyssal plain on ODP Leg 157. A similar study is being made on an active front in the most recent, S1 sapropel, from the central Mediterranean. In both cases, the relatively organic-rich turbidities and sapropels are intercalated with typical, organic-poor pelagic marts. Analyses include major and minor inorganic elements, stable and N isotopes, palynomorphs, surface areas and a comprehensive suite of biochemicals. Although the extent of alteration varies, striking changes in organic content and composition occur across many of the oxidation fronts, and the oxidized horizons resemble the interclated marls. A common trend is that organic C contents drop from {open_quotes}monolayer equivalent{close_quotes} sorptive loadings in the unoxidized horizons (typical of continental mar in sediments) to submonolayer loadings, typical of the pelagic marls. Shifts are also observed in redox-sensitive trace metals and in stable C and N isotopic compositions, although the patterns and extent are not uniform. The results clearly indicate that in these pelagic settings, where O{sub 2} exposure is typically long, organic material deposited and then preserved for extended periods under anomalous reducing conditions, can be extensively altered on relatively short-term exposure to O{sub 2} Implications of these findings will be discussed.

  10. Organic matter alteration at active and relict sedimentary oxidation fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Cowie, G.L.; Calvert, S.E. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)); Hedges, J.I. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)) (and others)

    1996-01-01

    Sedimentary oxidation fronts, generated by downward diffusion of O[sub 2] into previously reducing sediments, provide an opportunity to study the effects of O[sub 2] exposure on organic matter preservation, where other factors are invariant. Oxidation fronts have now been identified in a number of environments, including turbidities found on the Madeira abyssal plain (NE Atlantic) and in sapropels from the Mediterranean. A multifaceted study is being carried out on a series of relict fronts in turbidities of varied origin and composition, recovered from the Madeira abyssal plain on ODP Leg 157. A similar study is being made on an active front in the most recent, S1 sapropel, from the central Mediterranean. In both cases, the relatively organic-rich turbidities and sapropels are intercalated with typical, organic-poor pelagic marts. Analyses include major and minor inorganic elements, stable and N isotopes, palynomorphs, surface areas and a comprehensive suite of biochemicals. Although the extent of alteration varies, striking changes in organic content and composition occur across many of the oxidation fronts, and the oxidized horizons resemble the interclated marls. A common trend is that organic C contents drop from [open quotes]monolayer equivalent[close quotes] sorptive loadings in the unoxidized horizons (typical of continental mar in sediments) to submonolayer loadings, typical of the pelagic marls. Shifts are also observed in redox-sensitive trace metals and in stable C and N isotopic compositions, although the patterns and extent are not uniform. The results clearly indicate that in these pelagic settings, where O[sub 2] exposure is typically long, organic material deposited and then preserved for extended periods under anomalous reducing conditions, can be extensively altered on relatively short-term exposure to O[sub 2] Implications of these findings will be discussed.

  11. Aging and Injury: Alterations in Cellular Energetics and Organ Function

    PubMed Central

    Poulose, Ninu; Raju, Raghavan

    2014-01-01

    Aging is characterized by increased oxidative stress, heightened inflammatory response, accelerated cellular senescence and progressive organ dysfunction. The homeostatic imbalance with aging significantly alters cellular responses to injury. Though it is unclear whether cellular energetic imbalance is a cause or effect of the aging process, preservation of mitochondrial function has been reported to be important in organ function restoration following severe injury. Unintentional injuries are ranked among the top 10 causes of death in adults of both sexes, 65 years and older. Aging associated decline in mitochondrial function has been shown to enhance the vulnerability of heart, lung, liver and kidney to ischemia/reperfusion injury. Studies have identified alterations in the level or activity of factors such as SIRT1, PGC-1?, HIF-1? and c-MYC involved in key regulatory processes in the maintenance of mitochondrial structural integrity, biogenesis and function. Studies using experimental models of hemorrhagic injury and burn have demonstrated significant influence of aging in metabolic regulation and organ function. Understanding the age-associated molecular mechanisms regulating mitochondrial dysfunction following injury is important towards identifying novel targets and therapeutic strategies to improve the outcome after injury in the elderly. PMID:24729935

  12. Alterations in cognitive and psychological functioning after organic solvent exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, L.A.; Ryan, C.M.; Hodgson, M.J.; Robin, N. (Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Exposure to organic solvents has been linked repeatedly to alterations in both personality and cognitive functioning. To assess the nature and extent of these changes more thoroughly, 32 workers with a history of exposure to mixtures of organic solvents and 32 age- and education-matched blue-collar workers with no history of exposure were assessed with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Although both groups were comparable on measures of general intelligence, significant differences were found in virtually all other cognitive domains tested (Learning and Memory, Visuospatial, Attention and Mental Flexibility, Psychomotor Speed). In addition, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories of exposed workers indicated clinically significant levels of depression, anxiety, somatic concerns and disturbances in thinking. The reported psychological distress was unrelated to degree of cognitive deficit. Finally, several exposure-related variables were associated with poorer performance on tests of memory and visuospatial ability.

  13. Cortical Bone Mechanical Properties Are Altered in an Animal Model of Progressive Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Christopher L.; Moe, Sharon M.; Chen, Neal X.; Hammond, Max A.; Wallace, Joseph M.; Nyman, Jeffry S.; Allen, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD), which leads tocortical bone loss and increasedporosity,increases therisk of fracture. Animal models have confirmed that these changes compromise whole bone mechanical properties. Estimates from whole bone testing suggest that material properties are negatively affected, though tissue-level assessmentshavenot been conducted. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to examine changes in cortical bone at different length scales using a rat model with theprogressive development of CKD. At 30 weeks of age (?75% reduction in kidney function), skeletally mature male Cy/+ rats were compared to their normal littermates. Cortical bone material propertieswere assessed with reference point indentation (RPI), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy,and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Bones from animals with CKD had higher (+18%) indentation distance increase and first cycle energy dissipation (+8%) as measured by RPI.AFM indentation revealed a broader distribution of elastic modulus values in CKD animals witha greater proportion of both higher and lower modulus values compared to normal controls. Yet, tissue composition, collagen morphology, and collagen cross-linking fail to account for these differences. Though the specific skeletal tissue alterations responsible for these mechanical differences remain unclear, these results indicate that cortical bone material properties are altered in these animals and may contribute to the increased fracture risk associated with CKD. PMID:24911162

  14. Withaferin a alters intermediate filament organization, cell shape and behavior.

    PubMed

    Grin, Boris; Mahammad, Saleemulla; Wedig, Tatjana; Cleland, Megan M; Tsai, Lester; Herrmann, Harald; Goldman, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    Withaferin A (WFA) is a steroidal lactone present in Withania somnifera which has been shown in vitro to bind to the intermediate filament protein, vimentin. Based upon its affinity for vimentin, it has been proposed that WFA can be used as an anti-tumor agent to target metastatic cells which up-regulate vimentin expression. We show that WFA treatment of human fibroblasts rapidly reorganizes vimentin intermediate filaments (VIF) into a perinuclear aggregate. This reorganization is dose dependent and is accompanied by a change in cell shape, decreased motility and an increase in vimentin phosphorylation at serine-38. Furthermore, vimentin lacking cysteine-328, the proposed WFA binding site, remains sensitive to WFA demonstrating that this site is not required for its cellular effects. Using analytical ultracentrifugation, viscometry, electron microscopy and sedimentation assays we show that WFA has no effect on VIF assembly in vitro. Furthermore, WFA is not specific for vimentin as it disrupts the cellular organization and induces perinuclear aggregates of several other IF networks comprised of peripherin, neurofilament-triplet protein, and keratin. In cells co-expressing keratin IF and VIF, the former are significantly less sensitive to WFA with respect to inducing perinuclear aggregates. The organization of microtubules and actin/microfilaments is also affected by WFA. Microtubules become wavier and sparser and the number of stress fibers appears to increase. Following 24 hrs of exposure to doses of WFA that alter VIF organization and motility, cells undergo apoptosis. Lower doses of the drug do not kill cells but cause them to senesce. In light of our findings that WFA affects multiple IF systems, which are expressed in many tissues of the body, caution is warranted in its use as an anti-cancer agent, since it may have debilitating organism-wide effects. PMID:22720028

  15. Development of Gravity-Sensing Organs in Altered Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiederhold, M. L.; Gao, W. Y.; Harrison, J. L.; Hejl, R.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments are described in which the development of the gravity-sensing organs was studied in newt larvae reared in micro-g on the IML-2 mission and in Aplysia embryos and larvae reared on a centrifuge at 1 to 5 g. In Aplysia embryos, the statolith (single dense mass on which gravity and linear acceleration act) was reduced in size in a graded fashion at increasing g. In early post-metamorphic Aplysia or even in isolated statocysts from such animals, the number of statoconia produced is reduced at high gravity Newt larvae launched before any of the otoconia were formed and reared for 15 days in micro-gravity had nearly adult labyrinths at the end of the IML-2 mission. The otoliths of the saccule and utricle were the same size in flight and ground-reared larvae. However, the system of aragonitic otoconia produced in the endolymphatic sac in amphibians was much larger and developed earlier in the flight-reared larvae. At later developmental stages, the aragonitic otoconia enter and fill the saccule. One flight-reared larva was maintained for nine months post-flight and the size of the saccular otolith, as well as the volume of otoconia within the endolymphatic sac, were considerably larger than in age-matched, ground-reared newts. This suggests that rearing in micro-gravity initiates a process that continues for several months after introduction to 1-g, which greatly increases the volume of otoconia. The flight-reared animal had abnormal posture, pointing its head upward, whereas normal ground-reared newts always keep their head horizontal. This suggests that rearing for even a short period in micro-gravity can have lasting functional consequences in an animal subsequently reared in 1-g conditions on Earth.

  16. Castanospermine inhibits alpha-glucosidase activities and alters glycogen distribution in animals.

    PubMed Central

    Saul, R; Ghidoni, J J; Molyneux, R J; Elbein, A D

    1985-01-01

    Castanospermine, an inhibitor of alpha-glucosidase activity, was injected into rats to determine its effects in vivo. Daily injections of alkaloid, at levels of 0.5 mg/g of body weight, or higher, for 3 days decreased hepatic alpha-glucosidase to 40% of control values, whereas alpha-glucosidase in brain was reduced to 25% of control values and that in spleen and kidney was reduced to about 40%. In liver, both the neutral (pH 6.5) and the acidic (pH 4.5) alpha-glucosidase activities were inhibited, but the former was more susceptible. On the other hand, beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase activity was elevated in the livers of treated animals, whereas beta-galactosidase activity was unchanged and alpha-mannosidase activity was somewhat inhibited. Livers of treated animals were examined by light and electron microscopy and compared to control animals to determine whether changes in morphology had occurred. In treated animals fed normal rat chow, the hepatocytes were smaller in size and simplified in structure, whereas the high-glucose diet lessened these alterations. Furthermore, in those animals receiving castanospermine at 1.0 mg or higher per g of body weight for 3 days, there was a marked decrease in the amount of glycogen in the cytoplasm, while a large number of lysosomes were observed that were full of dense, granular material. That this dense material was indeed glycogen was shown by the fact that it disappeared when blocks of fixed tissue were pretreated with alpha-amylase. Glycogen levels in liver, as measured either colorimetrically or enzymatically, were somewhat depressed at the higher levels of castanospermine. Images PMID:3881759

  17. Alterations in the Proteome of the Euprymna scolopes Light Organ in Response to Symbiotic Vibrio fischeri

    PubMed Central

    Doino Lemus, Judith; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J.

    2000-01-01

    During the onset of the cooperative association between the Hawaiian sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes and the marine luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the anatomy and morphology of the host's symbiotic organ undergo dramatic changes that require interaction with the bacteria. This morphogenetic process involves an array of tissues, including those in direct contact with, as well as those remote from, the symbiotic bacteria. The bacteria induce the developmental program soon after colonization of the organ, although complete morphogenesis requires 96 h. In this study, to determine critical time points, we examined the biochemistry underlying bacterium-induced host development using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Specifically, V. fischeri-induced changes in the soluble proteome of the symbiotic organ during the first 96 h of symbiosis were identified by comparing the protein profiles of symbiont-colonized and uncolonized organs. Both symbiosis-related changes and age-related changes were analyzed to determine what proportion of the differences in the proteomes was the result of specific responses to interaction with bacteria. Although no differences were detected over the first 24 h, numerous symbiosis-related changes became apparent at 48 and 96 h and were more abundant than age-related changes. In addition, many age-related protein changes occurred 48 h sooner in symbiotic animals, suggesting that the interaction of squid tissue with V. fischeri cells accelerates certain developmental processes of the symbiotic organ. These data suggest that V. fischeri-induced modifications in host tissues that occur in the first 24 h of the symbiosis are independent of marked alterations in the patterns of abundant proteins but that the full 4-day morphogenetic program requires significant alteration of the host soluble proteome. PMID:10966433

  18. [Animals (Animalia) in system of organisms. 2. Phylogenetic understanding of animals].

    PubMed

    Shatalkin, A I

    2005-01-01

    The development of systematics in last decade has shown that typological classifications of five-six Kingdoms is not adequate for describing the diversity of organisms. Information from the sequences of small subunit rRNA is not sufficient to reconstruct the position of eukaryotes on the phylogenetic tree due to the effect of long branches. Totally new reconstruction of eukaryotic phylogeny was built upon the analysis of many new molecular markers. Evolution of eukaryotes had two mainstreams. One has been connected with diversification of ancestral biciliate forms (Bikonta). Sister-group of Bikonta (Unikonta) includes some originally uniciliate amoebae and moulds (Amoebozoa), and uniciliate eukaryotes with posterior cilium (Opisthokonta). The taxon Opisthokonta unites Fungi, Nuclearimorpha, Mesomycetozoa, Choanozoa and Metazoa. The latter three groups or only Metazoa are attributes to animals. The following differentiation of the groups used in systematic for the description of diversity of organisms is proposed. (1) Taxon is a group which is defined on the basis of ancestry: taxon includes all species descended from one ancestor. Taxon differs from logic classes of typology at an ontologic level. Taxon arises and exists, and its composition and occupied niches can constantly change; taxon can flourish or, on the contrary, fade up to full disappearance. Thus, the predicative characteristic of taxon, including characters which are considered significant, are not absolute. It is significant only at the moment of consideration. But characters (synapomorphies) are important as the practical tool for discerning taxa at given time period. Taxa unite species into unique classification. This understanding of taxon corresponds to monophyletic group sensu Willi Hennig. (2) Class of organisms is a group which is defined on the basis of characters: class includes all species having the given character. The class is only a logic object. Unlike taxa grouping species into classes may be through different and crossed classifications. Inside the given category of groups it is possible to distinguish: (2.1) Level of the organization (grade) described by the differences on the levels of organization: for example prokaryotic and eukaryotic levels of the organization. Eukaryotes can be divided into unicellular (Protoctista, Protista) and multicelluar (tissue-specific-Histonia) forms. (2.2) Types of the organization distinguishing groups of one level: for example, amoedoid type (Sarcodina), naked (Gymnamoebia), and testate (Testacea) amoebas. (2.3) Taxonomic groups as set-theoretical approximations of taxa. (2.4) Groups of the mixed nature. For example, Haeckel has recognized Protophyta and Protozoa describing the unicellular level of the organization inside plants and animals accordingly. Protozoa in Cavalier-Smith's system (2002, 2004) is also an example of groups of the mixed nature. PMID:16245570

  19. Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals 2013: Experimentation continues to rise - the reliance on genetically-altered animals must be addressed.

    PubMed

    Hudson-Shore, Michelle

    2014-09-01

    The 2013 Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals reveal that the level of animal experimentation in Great Britain continues to rise, with 4.12 million procedures being conducted. The figures indicate that this is almost exclusively a result of the breeding and use of genetically-altered (GA) animals (i.e. genetically-modified animals, plus those with harmful genetic defects). The breeding of GA animals increased to over half (51%) of all the procedures, and GA animals were involved in 61% of all the procedures. Indeed, if these animals were removed from the statistics, the number of procedures would actually have declined by 4%. It is argued that the Coalition Government has failed to address this issue, and, as a consequence, will not be able to deliver its pledge to reduce animal use in science. Recent publications supporting the need to reassess the dominance of genetic alteration are also discussed, as well as the need to move away from the use of dogs as the default second species in safety testing. The general trends in the species used, and the numbers and types of procedures, are also reviewed. Finally, forthcoming changes to the statistics are discussed. PMID:25290946

  20. Stress-Related Alterations of Visceral Sensation: Animal Models for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Study

    PubMed Central

    Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Stressors of different psychological, physical or immune origin play a critical role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome participating in symptoms onset, clinical presentation as well as treatment outcome. Experimental stress models applying a variety of acute and chronic exteroceptive or interoceptive stressors have been developed to target different periods throughout the lifespan of animals to assess the vulnerability, the trigger and perpetuating factors determining stress influence on visceral sensitivity and interactions within the brain-gut axis. Recent evidence points towards adequate construct and face validity of experimental models developed with respect to animals' age, sex, strain differences and specific methodological aspects such as non-invasive monitoring of visceromotor response to colorectal distension as being essential in successful identification and evaluation of novel therapeutic targets aimed at reducing stress-related alterations in visceral sensitivity. Underlying mechanisms of stress-induced modulation of visceral pain involve a combination of peripheral, spinal and supraspinal sensitization based on the nature of the stressors and dysregulation of descending pathways that modulate nociceptive transmission or stress-related analgesic response. PMID:21860814

  1. Climate impacts on bird and plant communities from altered animal-plant interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Maron, John L.

    2012-03-01

    The contribution of climate change to declining populations of organisms remains a question of outstanding concern. Much attention to declining populations has focused on how changing climate drives phenological mismatches between animals and their food. Effects of climate on plant communities may provide an alternative, but particularly powerful, influence on animal populations because plants provide their habitats. Here, we show that abundances of deciduous trees and associated songbirds have declined with decreasing snowfall over 22 years of study in montane Arizona, USA. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that declining snowfall indirectly influences plants and associated birds by allowing greater over-winter herbivory by elk (Cervus canadensis). We excluded elk from one of two paired snowmelt drainages (10 ha per drainage), and replicated this paired experiment across three distant canyons. Over six years, we reversed multi-decade declines in plant and bird populations by experimentally inhibiting heavy winter herbivory associated with declining snowfall. Moreover, predation rates on songbird nests decreased in exclosures, despite higher abundances of nest predators, demonstrating the over-riding importance of habitat quality to avian recruitment. Thus, our results suggest that climate impacts on plant-animal interactions can have forceful ramifying effects on plants, birds, and ecological interactions.

  2. Climate impacts on bird and plant communities from altered animal-plant interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Thomas E.; Maron, John L.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of climate change to declining populations of organisms remains a question of outstanding concern. Much attention to declining populations has focused on how changing climate drives phenological mismatches between animals and their food. Effects of climate on plant communities may provide an alternative, but particularly powerful, influence on animal populations because plants provide their habitats. Here, we show that abundances of deciduous trees and associated songbirds have declined with decreasing snowfall over 22 years of study in montane Arizona, USA. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that declining snowfall indirectly influences plants and associated birds by allowing greater over-winter herbivory by elk (Cervus canadensis). We excluded elk from one of two paired snowmelt drainages (10 ha per drainage), and replicated this paired experiment across three distant canyons. Over six years, we reversed multi-decade declines in plant and bird populations by experimentally inhibiting heavy winter herbivory associated with declining snowfall. Moreover, predation rates on songbird nests decreased in exclosures, despite higher abundances of nest predators, demonstrating the over-riding importance of habitat quality to avian recruitment. Thus, our results suggest that climate impacts on plant–animal interactions can have forceful ramifying effects on plants, birds, and ecological interactions.

  3. Alterations of hippocampal and prefrontal GABAergic interneurons in an animal model of psychosis induced by NMDA receptor antagonism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabella Braun; Just Genius; Heinz Grunze; Andreas Bender; Hans-Jürgen Möller; Dan Rujescu

    2007-01-01

    Some behavioral symptoms and neuropathological features of schizophrenia, like alterations of local GABAergic interneurons, could be emulated in an animal model of psychosis based on prolonged low-dose exposure to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, e.g. MK-801. Employing this model, we examined distinct subpopulations of GABAergic interneurons within the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Compared to saline control, animals receiving MK-801 exhibited a

  4. Position paper Natural living—a precondition for animal welfare in organic farming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vonne Lund

    This article discusses animal welfare in organic farming systems in relation to values and aims in organic farming. It sums up experiences from a 4-year interdisciplinary project. An important finding is that animal welfare is understood somewhat differently in organic farming from what is common in conventional agriculture. It is interpreted in terms of natural living, which includes the possibility

  5. Proteomic Identification of Altered Cerebral Proteins in the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Nahm, Francis Sahngun; Park, Zee-Yong; Kim, Yong Chul

    2014-01-01

    Background. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder. Although the exact pathophysiology of CRPS is not fully understood, central and peripheral mechanisms might be involved in the development of this disorder. To reveal the central mechanism of CRPS, we conducted a proteomic analysis of rat cerebrum using the chronic postischemia pain (CPIP) model, a novel experimental model of CRPS. Materials and Methods. After generating the CPIP animal model, we performed a proteomic analysis of the rat cerebrum using a multidimensional protein identification technology, and screened the proteins differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups. Results. A total of 155 proteins were differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups: 125 increased and 30 decreased; expressions of proteins related to cell signaling, synaptic plasticity, regulation of cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal formation were increased in the CPIP group. However, proenkephalin A, cereblon, and neuroserpin were decreased in CPIP group. Conclusion. Altered expression of cerebral proteins in the CPIP model indicates cerebral involvement in the pathogenesis of CRPS. Further study is required to elucidate the roles of these proteins in the development and maintenance of CRPS. PMID:25313364

  6. Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Unsworth

    2005-03-31

    Explore the wonderful world of animals Listen to the animal sound. See if you can identify the animal.Animal sounds. Explore and find out about different animals.Kids Planet Create a animal report using one of the animals found in the web site.Kids Planet,SeaWorld/animals Create a picture of your animal examples are found...Your big backyard ...

  7. AN ENVIRONMENTAL ANTIANDROGEN, VINCLOZOLIN, ALTERS THE ORGANIZATION OF PLAY BEHAVIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT During mammalian sexual differentiation, the androgens, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone are critical for the organization of the male phenotype. In rats, play behavior is sexually dimorphic. Administration of exogenous androgens during the perinatal period r...

  8. Research on animal health and welfare in organic farming—a literature review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vonne Lund; Bo Algers

    2003-01-01

    Organic standards aim at good livestock health and welfare. A literature search on organic animal health and welfare was performed in October–November 2001 to investigate how well these aims compare with reality, and to see what areas have been researched. The search also made it apparent that national and historical differences in organic standards and in the way organic farming

  9. Altering molecular photophysics by merging organic and inorganic chromophores.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Felix N

    2015-03-17

    Photofunctional molecules and assemblies lie at the heart of many important fundamental processes in nature, and researchers have generated multitudes of artificial chromophores intended to mimic these naturally occurring systems. As dynamic spectroscopic techniques are becoming more widely available, ultrafast techniques in particular, substantial insight continues to be gleaned from the initial photon stimulation event through internal conversion, structural rearrangements, intersystem crossing, energy migration, electron transfer events, and ultimately regeneration of the ground state chromophores in both naturally occurring and inspired chromophores. This Account details research endeavors motivated by the concept that merging organic and inorganic chromophores can lead to new molecules exhibiting novel excited state properties. Moreover, these excited state properties can be fundamentally understood using combinations of static and dynamic spectroscopic tools, yielding systematic improvements to molecules poised for application in diverse research areas including light-harvesting, lifetime engineering, photocatalysis, and photochemical upconversion. Initial explorations focused on utilizing Förster energy transfer processes in Ru(II)-based metal-organic chromophores for solar light-harvesting while maintaining long excited state lifetimes. This eventually led to molecules exhibiting triplet-triplet energy transfer between energetically proximate triplet states featuring thermally activated photoluminescence from the upper charge transfer excited state with markedly extended lifetimes. Interest in systematically producing long-lived excited states with concomitant large Stokes shifts inspired the development of numerous Pt(II) bipyridyl and terpyridyl acetylide charge transfer chromophores featuring ultrafast intramolecular energy migration, high quantum yield ligand-localized phosphorescence at room temperature, and synthetically tunable excited state absorption properties. This structural motif also made it possible to access the triplet excited states of perylenediimide chromophores, permitting quantitative examination of internal conversion and intersystem crossing processes in these complex molecules. The generation of new metal-organic structures featuring unique photophysics appears limitless and simply requires the continued ingenuity of researchers. PMID:25646710

  10. Furosemide fails to alter plasma active or inactive renin in conscious sheep but does so in anaesthetized animals.

    PubMed Central

    Lush, D J; Munday, K A; Noble, A R

    1983-01-01

    Regulation of plasma levels of active and inactive renin was investigated using sheep with indwelling artery, vein and bladder catheters. Control and experimental studies were carried out in the same animals on different days. Volume depletion during any single experiment was limited to a maximum of 50 ml. Despite large changes in sodium and water excretion, the diuretic furosemide at two dose levels, 1 and 10 mg/kg, failed to alter plasma levels of either active or inactive renin in conscious sheep. Induction of pentobarbitone anaesthesia in the sheep did not, per se, alter either plasma active or inactive renin. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) in anaesthetized animals produced a similar diuresis and natriuresis response to conscious sheep, but plasma active renin increased by 270% and inactive renin decreased to zero. In conscious sheep given an infusion of papaverine, furosemide also produced an increase in plasma active renin and a concurrent decrease in the inactive form. In both anaesthetized animals and in conscious sheep infused with papaverine, furosemide-induced intrarenal vasodilation, as evidenced by changes in clearance of p-aminohippuric acid, was much reduced in comparison to the conscious animals. This may be significant in relation to the control of renin secretion. It appears that the macula densa sodium receptor, which is considered to regulate renin release, will only function after it has been primed by other intra- or extrarenal factors. This is discussed, particularly in relation to the possible role played by the prostaglandin system. PMID:6350561

  11. Effectiveness of animal-assisted therapy interventions in altering childhood aggressive behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucinda Long

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to better understand the human-animal bond and how that unique relationship can be helpful to clinicians. Specifically, this study looked at how forming a relationship with an animal can help decrease aggressive behaviors in children and adolescents. Of the 210 participants, by gender, 57 were identified as female and 153 as male. By grade

  12. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Organics and Alteration in Carbonaceous Chondrites: Goop and Crud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Organics and Alteration in Carbonaceous Chondrites: Goop and Crud" included the following reports:Organics on Fe-Silicate Grains: Potential Mimicry of Meteoritic Processes?; Molecular and Compound-Specific Isotopic Study of Monocarboxylic Acids in Murchison and Antarctic Meteorites; Nanoglobules, Macromolecular Materials, and Carbon Sulfides in Carbonaceous Chondrites; Evidence for Terrestrial Organic Contamination of the Tagish Lake Meteorite; Nitrogen Isotopic Imaging of Tagish Lake Carbon Globules; Microscale Distribution of Hydrogen Isotopes in Two Carbonaceous Chondrites; The Nature and Origin of Aromatic Organic Matter in the Tagish Lake Meteorite; Terrestrial Alteration of CM Chondritic Carbonate; Serpentine Nanotubes in CM Chondrites; Experimental Study of Serpentinization Reactions; Chondrule Glass Alteration in Type IIA Chondrules in the CR2 Chondrites EET 87770 and EET 92105: Insights into Elemental Exchange Between Chondrules and Matrices; Aqueous Alteration of Carbonaceous Chondrites: New Insights from Comparative Studies of Two Unbrecciated CM2 Chondrites, Y 791198 and ALH 81002 ;and A Unique Style of Alteration of Iron-Nickel Metal in WIS91600, an Unusual C2 Carbonaceous Chondrite.

  13. Animal health organizations: roles to mitigate the impact of ecologic change on animal health in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Acord, Bobby R; Walton, Thomas E

    2004-10-01

    Production of livestock across North and South America is extensive. The opportunities for production, commerce, and thriving economies related to animal agriculture are balanced against the devastating threats of disease. Commitment by livestock and poultry producers in exporting countries to production methods, herd health management, and biosecurity in their operations must be coupled with an animal health and marketing infrastructure that allows the industries to thrive and offers assurances to trading partners that their livestock industries will not be jeopardized. National and international animal health organizations play a key role in providing this infrastructure to the industries that they serve. The incentive for the successful World agricultural production economies to provide direction and support for improving animal health and conveying principles for competitive and safe production to lesser developed nations is the assurance that the expanding economies of these nations offer an eager and hungry market for the products of the other industries of an export-dependent economy. The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established after the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The WTO provides the permanent international multilateral institutional framework for implementing dispute resolution agreements and the agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures. The SPS agreements allow for the protection of animal and plant health. PMID:15604467

  14. Animal and Dairy Sciences Organizations Hiring Students in Animal and Dairy Sciences

    E-print Network

    -NASS USDA-ODA VCA Animal Hospital Vermeer Corporation Wallace Pork Systems Walt Disney World Wilbur Ellis Corporation Indiana University Medical Iowa Veterinary Specialties J.H. Routh Packing Company James Cashbaugh Research KM Cattle Company Kraft/Oscar Mayer Land O'Lakes Laura Maxwell Legacy Farms LifeLine Stem Cell

  15. Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Animation is making a splash with the recent box office hit, Shrek 2. This Topic in Depth explores how animation works, it's history and the entertaining as well as academic applications of animation. The first website provides a basic overview of digital cinema (1). More information on animation can be found on the second website (2). Digital Media FX provides this history (3 ) of animation. The Library of Congress has also put together a nice website (4 ) with some historical artifacts that for demonstrating a "a variety of elements that go into the creative process of developing and interpreting animated motion pictures." The fourth website provides an extensive list of online resources and academic uses for animation such as Chemistry, Evolution, Genetics, and Physics. (5 ). This fifth website posts the winners of the 2004 Character Animation Technologies competition (6 ). And finally, Slashdot has a nice expose on the Mathematics of Futurama (7).

  16. Using 18O as a Tracer of Oxygen in the Photochemical Alteration of Dissolved Organic Matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Davis; A. Stubbins; J. Helms; R. F. Dias; K. Mopper

    2006-01-01

    The biogeochemical cycling of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in natural waters is affected by numerous processes, including photochemical alteration. Photochemical processes result in the net oxidation and mineralization of DOM concomitant with dissolved oxygen consumption and production of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC; principally CO2). The photochemical oxygen budget is not well constrained while DIC production accounts for nearly all the

  17. Alterations in glucose and protein metabolism in animals subjected to simulated microgravity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. E. Mondon; K. J. Rodnick; C. B. Dolkas; S. Azhar; G. M. Reaven

    1992-01-01

    Reduction of physical activity due to disease or environmental restraints, such as total bed rest or exposure to spaceflight, leads to atrophy of skeletal muscle and is frequently accompanied by alterations in food intake and the concentration of metabolic regulatory hormones such as insulin. Hindlimb suspension of laboratory rats, as a model for microgravity, also shows marked atrophy of gravity

  18. Qualitative Assessment of a 3D Simulation Program: Faculty, Students, and Bio-Organic Reaction Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Günersel, Adalet B.; Fleming, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that computer-based simulations and animations are especially helpful in fields such as chemistry where concepts are abstract and cannot be directly observed. Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA) is a freely available 3D visualization software program developed to help students understand the chemistry of biomolecular events.…

  19. Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA): Student Performance, Student Perceptions, and Instructor Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunersel, Adalet Baris; Fleming, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that computer animations are especially helpful in fields such as chemistry and in this mixed-methods study, we investigate the educational effectiveness of Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA), a 3-D software, in four undergraduate biochemistry classes at different universities. Statistically significant findings indicate that…

  20. Vision of Dutch organic dairy farmers on animal health and welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. A. Smolders; M. W. P. Bestman; I. A. J. M. Eijck

    2009-01-01

    Dutch organic dairy farmers expressed their opinions on animal health and welfare in order to be able to communicate it internally (within the dairy sector) and externally (to consumers). A healthy animal in their opinion is free of physical and psychological discomfort, survives in a herd, takes enough food and behaves naturally. Disease resistance, both innate and achieved, plays a

  1. Aposymbiotic culture of the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes: role of the symbiotic bacterium Vibrio fischeri in host animal growth, development, and light organ morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Claes, M F; Dunlap, P V

    2000-02-15

    The sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes forms a bioluminescent mutualism with the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri, harboring V. fischeri cells in a complex ventral light organ and using the bacterial light in predator avoidance. To characterize the contribution of V. fischeri to the growth and development of E. scolopes and to define the long-term effects of bacterial colonization on light organ morphogenesis, we developed a mariculture system for the culture of E. scolopes from hatching to adulthood, employing artificial seawater, lighting that mimicked that of the natural environment, and provision of prey sized to match the developmental stage of E. scolopes. Animals colonized by V. fischeri and animals cultured in the absence of V. fischeri (aposymbiotic) grew and survived equally well, developed similarly, and reached sexual maturity at a similar age. Development of the light organ accessory tissues (lens, reflectors, and ink sac) was similar in colonized and aposymbiotic animals with no obvious morphometric or histological differences. Colonization by V. fischeri influenced regression of the ciliated epithelial appendages (CEAs), the long-term growth of the light organ epithelial tubules, and the appearance of the cells composing the ciliated ducts, which exhibit characteristics of secretory tissue. In certain cases, aposymbiotic animals retained the CEAs in a partially regressed state and remained competent to initiate symbiosis with V. fischeri into adulthood. In other cases, the CEAs regressed fully in aposymbiotic animals, and these animals were not colonizable. The results demonstrate that V. fischeri is not required for normal growth and development of the animal or for development of the accessory light organ tissues and that morphogenesis of only those tissues coming in contact with the bacteria (CEAs, ciliated ducts, and light organ epithelium) is altered by bacterial colonization of the light organ. Therefore, V. fischeri apparently makes no major metabolic contribution to E. scolopes beyond light production, and post-embryonic development of the light organ is essentially symbiont independent. J. Exp. Zool. 286:280-296, 2000. PMID:10653967

  2. Ethical Issues of Transplanting Organs from Transgenic Animals into Human Beings

    PubMed Central

    Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human’s body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal’s organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334

  3. HYBRID MODES OF ORGANIZATION Alliances, Joint Ventures, Networks, and other `strange' animals.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 HYBRID MODES OF ORGANIZATION Alliances, Joint Ventures, Networks, and other `strange' animals version: December 2010) halshs-00624291,version1-16Sep2011 #12;2 HYBRID MODES OF ORGANIZATION Alliances of these arrangements, hereafter identified as "hybrids", remains difficult to quantify, they play a major role

  4. Thermal alterations of organic matter in coal wastes from Upper Silesia, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misz-Kennan, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    Self-heating and self-combustion are currently taking place in some coal waste dumps in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland, e.g. the dumps at Rymer Cones, Starzykowiec, and the Marcel Coal Mine, all in the Rybnik area. These dumps are of similar age and self-heating and combustion have been occurring in all three for many years. The tools of organic petrography (maceral composition, rank, etc.), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and proximate and ultimate analysis are used to investigate the wastes. Organic matter occurs in quantities up to 85 vol.%, typically a few to several vol.%, in the wastes. All three maceral groups (vitrinite, liptinite, and inertinite) are present as unaltered and variously-altered constituents associated with newly-formed petrographic components (bitumen expulsions, pyrolytic carbon). The predominant maceral group is vitrinite with alterations reflected in the presence of irregular cracks, oxidation rims and, rarely, devolatilisation pores. In altered wastes, paler grey-vitrinite and/or coke dominates. The lack of plasticity, the presence of paler-coloured particles, isotropic massive coke, dispersed coked organic matter, and expulsions of bitumens all indicate that heating was slow and extended over a long time. Macerals belonging to other groups are present in unaltered form or with colours paler than the colours of the parent macerals. Based on the relative contents of organic compounds, the most important groups of these identified in the wastes are n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, hopanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives, phenol and its derivatives. These compounds occur in all wastes except those most highly altered where they were probably destroyed by high temperatures. These compounds were generated mainly from liptinite-group macerals. Driven by evaporation and leaching, they migrated within and out of the dump. Their presence in some wastes in which microscopically visible organic matter is lacking suggests that they originated elsewhere and subsequently migrated through the dump piles. During their migration, the compounds fractionated, were adsorbed on minerals and/or interacted. The absence of alkenes, and of other unsaturated organic compounds, may reflect primary diagenetic processes that occurred in coals and coal shales during burial and/or organic matter type. Their absence may also be a consequence of heating that lasted many years, hydropyrolysis, and/or the participation of minerals in the reactions occurring within the dumps. The wastes contain compounds typical of organic matter of unaltered kerogen III type and the products of pyrolytic processes, and mixtures of both. In some wastes, organic compounds are completely absent having been destroyed by severe heating. The distributions of n-alkanes in many samples are typical of pyrolysates. In some wastes, narrow n-alkane distributions reflect their generation over small temperature ranges. In others, wider distributions point to greater temperature ranges. Other wastes contain n-alkane distributions typical of unaltered coal and high pristane content or mixtures of pyrolysates and unaltered waste material. The wastes also contain significant amounts of final ?? hopanes. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are represented only by two- to five-ring compounds as is typical of the thermal alteration of hard coal. Correlations between the degree of organic matter alteration and the relative contents of individual PAHs and hopanes and geochemical indicators of thermal alteration are generally poor. The properties of the organic matter (its composition and rank), temperature fluctuations within the dumps, migration of organic compounds and mineral involvement are probably responsible for this. The processes taking place in coal waste dumps undergoing self-heating and self-combustion are complicated; they are very difficult to estimate and define. The methods of org

  5. This list includes a sampling of volunteer opportunities and organizations working with animals or animal advocacy work. These opportunities may be suitable for students majoring or interested in

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    This list includes a sampling of volunteer opportunities and organizations working with animals or animal advocacy work. These opportunities may be suitable for students majoring or interested's needs so that you can make a big difference in the lives of animals in need. Step 1: Submit a VOLUNTEER

  6. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  7. Alteration of protein profile in rat liver of animals exposed to subacute diazinon: a proteomic approach.

    PubMed

    Lari, Parisa; Rashedinia, Marzieh; Abnous, Khalil; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-05-01

    Diazinon, an organophosphorus insecticide, is employed to control pests in agriculture. Diazinon may contaminate the environment during the manufacturing process or agricultural application. Previous studies have revealed that diazinon may induce alteration in the protein profile of the liver. Here, a proteomics approach was used to investigate the effects on the protein profile in the liver of rats of subacute oral exposures at 15 mg/kg of diazinon. Liver proteins were separated using 2D-PAGE, and stained by MS-compatible silver staining and/or the fluorescent SYPRO® Ruby protein gel stain. Gels were scanned and analyzed using the Image Master software. Differentially displayed protein species were identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF and MASCOT software. Significantly altered protein species were identified to be involved in apoptosis, cell metabolism, transport, and antioxidant systems. Exposure to diazinon decreased levels of some species of catalase, peroxiredoxin-6, 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, and glucose regulated protein78, whereas the level of protein disulfide-isomerase A3 increased. Our results suggested that diazinon may induce hepatotoxicity through oxidative stress, apoptosis, and metabolic disorders in rat liver. PMID:24478057

  8. Ethical issues of transplanting organs from transgenic animals into human beings.

    PubMed

    Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human's body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal's organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334

  9. Development of Gravity-Sensing Organs in Altered Gravity Conditions: Opposite Conclusions From an Amphibian and a Molluscan Preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiederhold, Michael L.; Pedrozo, Hugo A.; Harrison, Jeffrey L.; Hejl, Robert; Gao, Wenyuan

    1997-01-01

    Several components of the systems animals use to orient to gravity might develop differently in micrograms. If the growth of the "test masses" on which gravity acts (otoliths, in vertebrates, statoliths or statoconia in most invertebrates) is controlled on the basis of their weight, larger otoliths (or their analogs) would be expected to develop in micrograms. The vestibular systems in animals reared in altered gravity have been studied in several species, with varied results being reported. Early Russian reports of Xenopus larvae reared in space indicated no qualitative differences in the vestibular organs, compared to ground-reared controls. A similar lack of differences in Xenopus were reported. The ultricular otolith was 30% larger in space-reared Xenopus. No differences in saccular otolith volume between centrifuged and control adult rats were found. A delay in otoconial development in chick embryos reared at 2 grams on a centrifuge was reported but in a later report, no differences in otolith weight between 2 grams and control chicks were found. Increased optokinetic responses in flight-reared Xenopus tadpoles, suggesting that the animals reared in the absence of gravity made greater relative use of their visual system, rather than the vestibular system, in orienting to a moving stimulus was reported. To test early Japanese newt, CYnops pyrrhogaster, were maintained in orbit for 15 days on the IML-2 mission in 1994. All specimens reached orbit before any otoconia were formed and all major components of the inner ear were formed by the end of the flight. In ground-based studies of he Aplysia statocyst, the volume of the statolith in embryos and the number statoconia in post-metamorphic animals were compared between 1-gram controls and specimens reared at 2 to 5.7 grams.

  10. Differential regulation of tropomyosin isoform organization and gene expression in response to altered actin gene expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Galina Schevzov; Catriona Lloyd; Deborah Hailstones; Peter Gunning

    1993-01-01

    Phenotypically altered C2 myoblast cells, generated by the stable transfection of human nonmus- cle actin genes (Schevzov, G., C. Lloyd, and P. Gun- ning. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 117:775-786), exhibit a dif- ferential pattern of tropomyosin cellular organization and isoform gene expression. The\\/~-actin transfectants displaying a threefold increase in the cell surface area, showed no significant changes in the pattern

  11. Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christopher Griffith

    This collection contains animations of a nuclear chain reaction, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. It also showcases interactive models of the first atomic bombs and simulation of the "Nuclear Winter" effect.

  12. Lymphatic Territories (Lymphosomes) in a Canine: An Animal Model for Investigation of Postoperative Lymphatic Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Suami, Hiroo; Yamashita, Shuji; Soto-Miranda, Miguel A.; Chang, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lymph node dissection is often performed as a part of surgical treatment for breast cancer and malignant melanoma to prevent malignant cells from traveling via the lymphatic system. Currently little is known about postoperative lymphatic drainage pattern alterations. This knowledge may be useful for management of recurrent cancer and prevention of breast cancer related lymphedema. We mapped the complete superficial lymphatic system of a dog and used this canine model to perform preliminary studies of lymphatic architectural changes in postoperative condition. Methods Lymphatic territories (lymphosomes) were mapped with 4 female mongrel carcasses using an indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent lymphography and a radiographic microinjection technique. Two live dogs were then subjected to unilateral lymph node dissection of lymph basins of the forelimb, and ICG lymphography and lymphangiogram were performed 6 months after the surgery to investigate lymphatic changes. Lymphatic patterns in the carcass were then compared with postoperative lymphatic patterns in the live dogs. Results Ten lymphosomes were identified, corresponding with ten lymphatic basins. Postoperative fluorescent lymphographic images and lymphangiograms in the live dogs revealed small caliber lymphatic network fulfilling gaps in the surgical area and collateral lymphatic vessels arising from the network connecting to lymph nodes in the contralateral and ipsilateral neck in one dog and the ipsilateral subclavicular vein in another dog. Conclusion Our canine lymphosome map allowed us to observe lymphatic collateral formations after lymph node dissection in live dogs. This canine model may help clarify our understanding of postoperative lymphatic changes in humans in future studies. PMID:23894435

  13. Alterations in glucose and protein metabolism in animals subjected to simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondon, C. E.; Rodnick, K. J.; Dolkas, C. B.; Azhar, S.; Reaven, G. M.

    1992-09-01

    Reduction of physical activity due to disease or environmental restraints, such as total bed rest or exposure to spaceflight, leads to atrophy of skeletal muscle and is frequently accompanied by alterations in food intake and the concentration of metabolic regulatory hormones such as insulin. Hindlimb suspension of laboratory rats, as a model for microgravity, also shows marked atrophy of gravity dependent muscles along with a reduced gain in body weight. Suspended rats exhibit enhanced sensitivity to insulin-induced glucose uptake when compared with normal control rats and resistance to insulin action when compared with control rats matched similarly for reduced body weight gain. These changes are accompanied by decreased insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activity in soleus but not plantaris muscle, unchanged glucose uptake by perfused hindlimb and decreased sensitivity but not responsiveness to insulin-induced suppression of net proteolysis in hindlimb skeletal muscle. These findings suggest that loss of insulin sensitivity during muscle atrophy is associated with decreased insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activity in atrophied soleus muscle along with decreased sensitivity to the effects of insulin on suppressing net protein breakdown but not on enhancing glucose uptake by perfused hindlimb.

  14. Alterations in glucose and protein metabolism in animals subjected to simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondon, C. E.; Rodnick, K. J.; Azhar, S.; Reaven, G. M.; Dolkas, C. B.

    1992-01-01

    Reduction of physical activity due to disease or environmental restraints, such as total bed rest or exposure to spaceflight, leads to atrophy of skeletal muscle and is frequently accompanied by alterations in food intake and the concentration of metabolic regulatory hormones such as insulin. Hindlimb suspension of laboratory rats, as a model for microgravity, also shows marked atrophy of gravity-dependent muscles along with a reduced gain in body weight. Suspended rats exhibit enhanced sensitivity to insulin-induced glucose uptake when compared with normal control rats and resistance to insulin action when compared with control rats matched similarly for reduced body weight gain. These changes are accompanied by decreased insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activity in soleus but not plantaris muscle, unchanged glucose uptake by perfused hindlimb and decreased sensitivity but not responsiveness to insulin-induced suppression of net proteolysis in hindlimb skeletal muscle. These findings suggest that loss of insulin sensitivity during muscle atrophy is associated with decreased insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activity in atrophied soleus muscle along with decreased sensitivity to the effects of insulin on suppressing net protein breakdown but not on enhancing glucose uptake by perfused hindlimb.

  15. 17?-Estradiol alters the response of subfornical organ neurons that project to supraoptic nucleus to plasma angiotensin II and hypernatremia.

    PubMed

    Ciriello, John; Roder, Stefanie

    2013-08-14

    This study was done in urethane anesthetized, ovariectomized (OVX) female rats that were either implanted or not implanted with silastic capsules containing17?-estradiol (E2) to investigate the effect of systemic changes in E2 on the discharge rate of subfornical organ (SFO) neurons that projected to supraoptic nucleus (SON) and responded to changes in plasma levels of angiotensin II (ANG II) or hypernatremia. Extracellular single unit recordings were made from 146 histologically verified single units in SFO. Intra-carotid infusions of ANG II excited ~57% of these neurons, whereas ~23% were excited by hypertonic NaCl. Basal discharge rate of neurons excited by ANG II or hypertonic NaCl was significantly lower in OVX+E2 rats compared to OVX only animals. The response of SFO neurons antidromically activated by SON stimulation to intra-carotid injections of ANG II or hypertonic NaCl was greater in the OVX only compared to the OVX+E2 rats. Intra-carotid injections of E2 in either group attenuated not only the basal discharge of these neurons, but also their response to ANG II or hypertonic NaCl. In all cases this inhibitory effect of E2 was blocked by an intra-carotid injection of the E2 receptor antagonist ICI-182780, although ICI-182780 did not alter the neuron's response to ANG II or hypertonic NaCl. Additionally, ICI-182780 in the OVX+E2 animals significantly raised the basal discharge of SFO neurons and their response to ANG II or hypertonic NaCl. These data indicate that E2 alters the response of SFO neurons to ANG II or NaCl that project to SON, and suggest that E2 functions in the female to regulate neurohypophyseal function in response to circulating ANG II and plasma hypernatremia. PMID:23830850

  16. Plasticity in animal personality traits: does prior experience alter the degree of boldness?

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Ashley J; Winrow-Giffen, Alexandria; Ashley, Paul J; Sneddon, Lynne U

    2006-01-01

    Theoreticians predict that animal ‘personality’ traits may be maladaptive if fixed throughout different contexts, so the present study aimed to test whether these traits are fixed or plastic. Rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss) were given emboldening or negative experiences in the forms of watching bold or shy individuals responding to novelty or winning or losing fights to examine whether prior experience affected boldness. Bold individuals that lost fights or watched shy demonstrators became more shy by increasing their latency to approach a novel object, whereas shy observers that watched bold demonstrators remained cautious and did not modify their responses to novelty. Shy winners became bolder and decreased their latency to approach a novel object, but shy losers also displayed this shift. In comparison, control groups showed no change in behaviour. Bold fishes given negative experiences reduced their boldness which may be an adaptive response; however, shy fishes may base their strategic decisions upon self-assessment of their relative competitive ability and increase their boldness in situations where getting to resources more quickly ensures they outcompete better competitors. PMID:17164196

  17. Altered Fate of Tendon-Derived Stem Cells Isolated from a Failed Tendon-Healing Animal Model of Tendinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Rui, Yun Feng; Wong, Yin Mei; Tan, Qi; Chan, Kai Ming

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that altered fate of tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) might contribute to chondro-ossification and failed healing in the collagenase-induced (CI) tendon injury model. This study aimed to compare the yield, proliferative capacity, immunophenotypes, senescence, and differentiation potential of TDSCs isolated from healthy (HT) and CI tendons. TDSCs were isolated from CI and healthy Sprague-Dawley rat patellar tendons. The yield, proliferative capacity, immunophenotypes, and senescence of TDSCs (CI) and TDSCs (HT) were compared by colony-forming unit assay, BrdU assay, flow cytometry, and ?-galactosidase activity assay, respectively. Their osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potentials and mRNA expression of tendon-related markers were compared using standard assays. More TDSCs, which showed a lower proliferative potential and a higher cellular senescence were present in the CI patellar tendons compared to HT tendons. There was a higher alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization in TDSCs (CI) in both basal and osteogenic media. More chondrocyte-like cells and higher proteoglycan deposition, Sox9 and collagen type II expression were observed in TDSCs (CI) pellets upon chondrogenic induction. There was a higher protein expression of Sox9, but a lower mRNA expression of Col1a1, Scx, and Tnmd in TDSCs (CI) in a basal medium. In conclusion, TDSCs (CI) showed altered fate, a higher cellular senescence, but a lower proliferative capacity compared to TDSCs (HT), which might contribute to pathological chondro-ossification and failed tendon healing in this animal model. PMID:23106341

  18. Ultrastructural alterations in Phacus brachykentron (Euglenophyta) due to excess of organic matter in the culture medium.

    PubMed

    Nannavecchia, Paula; Tolivia, Analia; Conforti, Visitación

    2014-03-01

    Morphological and ultrastructural changes induced by exposure to excess of organic matter were analyzed in Phacus brachykentron (Pochm.). The cells were isolated from sites in Matanza River, Buenos Aires, Argentina, which have a high degree of organic matter contamination coming from waste waters discharges of the meat industry. Master strains were cultured on soil water medium and a toxicity bioassay was performed. As a result of the enriched medium, several morphological and ultrastructural cellular alterations were observed by optical, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Among these, we can point out changes in cell dimensions, remarkable widening of some pellicle bands, increased number and volume of paramylon grains, displacement of the nucleus from the central to the lateral position, some chloroplasts with their thylakoids disordered, and cell lysis. The response to organic enrichment was very fast, i.e. during the 48h of the bioassay. Therefore, any significant increase of organic matter would rapidly affect wild euglenoids. Our results suggest that the alterations observed, such as the presence of large intracellular paramylon bodies or the deformation of euglenoid cells in natural samples, have the potential to be used as environmental bioindicators. PMID:24507124

  19. Sex-specific alterations in behavioral and cognitive functions in a "three hit" animal model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kekesi, G; Petrovszki, Z; Benedek, G; Horvath, G

    2015-05-01

    Whereas schizophrenia affects both human sexes, there are known sex-dependent disparities. We developed a chronic animal model that shows some schizophrenia-related deficits in rats by applying selective breeding after subchronic ketamine administration connected with postweaning social isolation (complex treatment). Our aim was to determine the sex-specific effects of these interventions on several processes. Sensory gating to acoustic stimulation, pain sensitivity, motor behavior, spatial learning and memory deficits on the hole-board test were assessed in the 17th generation of selectively bred Wistar rats compared to their naive counterparts with or without complex treatment. We found differences between the sexes: selectively bred males with complex treatment showed the lowest pain sensitivity; however, the results of the prepulse inhibition test indicated that female rats showed enhanced impairment of sensory gating and increased acoustic startle reaction. The cognitive performance, working and reference memory ratios were significantly decreased by selective breeding and showed sex-specific alterations, with the smallest value in male rats of the new substrain. Based on these results, the animals of the new substrain could be classified into the high-risk for schizophreniform phenotype with the highest sensitivity of males with complex treatment. Decreased cognitive performance highlighted spatial learning deficits in the selectively bred and treated rats that escalate the validity of our new and complex rat model of schizophrenia. The results indicate the same sex selectivity as observed in humans, with increased incidence of risk ratios for men to develop schizophrenia relative to women. PMID:25698594

  20. Inhaled hydrogen sulfide induces suspended animation, but does not alter the inflammatory response after blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Daniel H; Fröba, Janine S; Niesler, Ulrike; Palmer, Annette; Veltkamp, Heinrich A; Braumüller, Sonja T; Wagner, Florian; Wagner, Katja; Bäder, Stefan; Wachter, Ulrich; Calzia, Enrico; Radermacher, Peter; Huber-Lang, Markus S; Zhou, Shaoxia; Gebhard, Florian; Knöferl, Markus W

    2012-02-01

    The treatment of acute lung injury and septic complications after blunt chest trauma remains a challenge. Inhaled hydrogen sulfide (H?S) may cause a hibernation-like metabolic state, which refers to an attenuated systemic inflammatory response. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that inhaled H?S-induced suspended animation may attenuate the inflammation after pulmonary contusion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to blunt chest trauma (blast wave) or sham procedure and subsequently exposed to a continuous flow of H?S (100 ppm) or control gas for 6 h. Body temperature and activity were measured by an implanted transmitter. At 6, 24, or 48 h after trauma, animals were killed, and the cellular contents of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) as well as cytokine concentrations in BAL, plasma, and culture supernatants of blood mononuclear cells, Kupffer cells, splenic macrophages, and splenocytes were determined. Hydrogen sulfide inhalation caused a significant reduction in body temperature and activity. The trauma-induced increase in alveolar macrophage counts was abrogated 48 h after trauma when animals received H?S, whereas the trauma-induced increase in neutrophil counts was unaltered. Furthermore, H?S inhalation partially attenuated the mediator release in BAL and culture supernatants of Kupffer cells as well as splenic cells; it altered plasma cytokine concentrations but did not affect the trauma-induced changes in mononuclear cell culture supernatants. These findings indicate that inhaled H?S induced a reduced metabolic expenditure and partially attenuated inflammation after trauma. Nevertheless, in contrast to hypoxic- or pathogen-induced lung injury, H?S treatment appears to have no protective effect after blunt chest trauma. PMID:22089191

  1. Evaluation of organic phosphorus in animal manure by orthophosphate releasing enzymatic hydrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chemical composition of phosphorus in manure significantly impacts its transport and potential bioavailability. As much as 50% of the phosphorus in animal manure is present in organic forms (Po). We explored the possibility of using phosphatase enzymes for characterizing manure Po. We applied ac...

  2. Short Animation Movies as Advance Organizers in Physics Teaching: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koscianski, Andre; Ribeiro, Rafael Joao; da Silva, Sani Carvalho Rutz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Advance organizers are instructional materials that help students use previous knowledge to make links with new information. Short animation movies are a possible format and are well suited for physics, as they can portray dynamic phenomena and represent abstract concepts. Purpose: The study aimed to determine guidelines for the…

  3. What's Inside Bodies? Learning about Skeletons and Other Organ Systems of Vertebrate Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael

    This paper describes a study of young children's understanding of what is on the inside of animals--skeletons and other organ systems. The study uses 2-D drawings based on the idea that a drawing is the representational model and is the outward expression of the mental model. The 617 drawings made by participants in the study were awarded one of…

  4. Phytoestrogens alter the reproductive organ development in the mink (Mustela vison)

    SciTech Connect

    Ryoekkynen, Ari [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland)]. E-mail: ryokkyne@cc.joensuu.fi; Nieminen, Petteri [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Mustonen, Anne-Mari [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Pyykoenen, Teija [Institute of Applied Biotechnology, University of Kuopio, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Asikainen, Juha [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Haenninen, Sari [Institute of Applied Biotechnology, University of Kuopio, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Mononen, Jaakko [Institute of Applied Biotechnology, University of Kuopio, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kukkonen, Jussi V.K. [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland)

    2005-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the reproductive effects of two perorally applied phytoestrogens, genistein (8 mg/kg/day) and {beta}-sitosterol (50 mg/kg/day), on the mink (Mustela vison) at human dietary exposure levels. Parental generations were exposed over 9 months to these phytoestrogens and their offspring were exposed via gestation and lactation. Parents and their offspring were sampled 21 days after the birth of the kits. Sex hormone levels, sperm quality, organ weights, and development of the kits were examined. The exposed females were heavier than the control females at the 1st postnatal day (PND). The control kits were heavier than the exposed kits from the 1st to the 21st PND. Phytoestrogens did not affect the organ weights of the adult minks, but the relative testicular weight of the exposed kits was higher than in the control kits. The relative prostate weight was higher and the relative uterine weight lower in the {beta}-sitosterol-exposed kits than in the control kits. Moreover, the plasma dihydrotestosterone levels were lower in the genistein-exposed male kits compared to the control male kits. This study could not explain the mechanisms behind these alterations. The results indicate that perinatal phytoestrogen exposures cause alterations in the weight of the reproductive organs of the mink kits.

  5. PHOTOCHEMICALLY-INDUCED ALTERATION OF STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE RATIOS (DELTA C-13) IN TERRIGENOUS DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of riverine waters to natural sunlight initiated alterations in stable carbon isotope ratios (delta C-13) of the associated dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Water samples were collected from two compositionally distinct coastal river systems in the southeastern United Sta...

  6. Varying responses of insect herbivores to altered plant chemistry under organic and conventional treatments.

    PubMed

    Staley, Joanna T; Stewart-Jones, Alex; Pope, Tom W; Wright, Denis J; Leather, Simon R; Hadley, Paul; Rossiter, John T; van Emden, Helmut F; Poppy, Guy M

    2010-03-01

    The hypothesis that plants supplied with organic fertilizers are better defended against insect herbivores than those supplied with synthetic fertilizers was tested over two field seasons. Organic and synthetic fertilizer treatments at two nitrogen concentrations were supplied to Brassica plants, and their effects on the abundance of herbivore species and plant chemistry were assessed. The organic treatments also differed in fertilizer type: a green manure was used for the low-nitrogen treatment, while the high-nitrogen treatment contained green and animal manures. Two aphid species showed different responses to fertilizers: the Brassica specialist Brevicoryne brassicae was more abundant on organically fertilized plants, while the generalist Myzus persicae had higher populations on synthetically fertilized plants. The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (a crucifer specialist) was more abundant on synthetically fertilized plants and preferred to oviposit on these plants. Glucosinolate concentrations were up to three times greater on plants grown in the organic treatments, while foliar nitrogen was maximized on plants under the higher of the synthetic fertilizer treatments. The varying response of herbivore species to these strong differences in plant chemistry demonstrates that hypotheses on defence in organically grown crops have over-simplified the response of phytophagous insects. PMID:19906673

  7. Metabonomic analysis reveals the CCl4-induced systems alterations for multiple rat organs.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Limiao; Huang, Jing; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2012-07-01

    CCl(4)-induced metabonomic changes have been extensively studied for mammalian liver, and such changes have not been reported for other organs. To investigate the CCl(4) effects on other organs, we analyzed the CCl(4)-induced metabonomic changes in rat kidney, lung, and spleen using (1)H NMR-based metabonomics approaches with complementary information on serum clinical chemistry and histopathology. We found that acute CCl(4) exposure caused significant level elevation for creatine and decline for glucose, taurine, trimethylamine, uridine, and adenosine in rat kidney. CCl(4)-treatment also induced elevation of amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, valine, threonine, alanine, lysine, ornithine, methionine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and histidine), creatine, and betaine in rat lung together with depletion of glycogen, glucose, taurine, glycine, and hypoxanthine. Furthermore, CCl(4) caused elevation of lactate, alanine, betaine, and uracil in rat spleen accompanied with decline for glucose, choline, and hypoxanthine. These observations indicated that CCl(4) caused oxidative stresses to multiple rat organs and alterations of their functions including renal osmotic regulations, accelerated glycolysis, and protein and nucleotide catabolism. These findings provide essential information on CCl(4) toxicity to multiple rat organs and suggest that systems toxicological views are required for metabonomic studies of toxins by taking many other organs into consideration apart from so-called targeted ones. PMID:22612988

  8. Type IV kerogens as analogues for organic macromolecular materials in aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites.

    PubMed

    Matthewman, Richard; Martins, Zita; Sephton, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the processes involved in the evolution of organic matter in the early Solar System requires extensive experimental work. The scientifically valuable carbonaceous chondrites are principal targets for organic analyses, but these meteorites are rare. Meteoritic analog materials available in larger quantities, on which experiments can be performed, would be highly beneficial. The bulk of the organic inventory of carbonaceous chondrites is made up of solvent-insoluble macromolecular material. This high-molecular-weight entity provides a record of thermal and aqueous parent-body alteration of precursor organic structures present at the birth of the Solar System. To identify an effective analogue for this macromolecular material, we analyzed a series of terrestrial kerogens by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Type I and II kerogens are unsuitable analogues owing to their highly aliphatic nature. Type III kerogens show some similarities to meteoritic macromolecular materials but display a substantial biological heritage. Type IV kerogens, in this study derived from Mesozoic paleosols and produced by the reworking and oxidation of organic matter, represent an effective analogue. Some isomeric differences exist between meteoritic macromolecular materials and type IV kerogens, and stepped pyrolysis indicates variations in thermal stability. In addition to being a suitable material for novel experimentation, type IV kerogens also have the potential to aid in the optimization of instruments for deployment on Mars. PMID:23551239

  9. Alteration of organic matter during infaunal polychaete gut passage and links to sediment organic geochemistry. Part II: Fatty acids and aldoses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woulds, Clare; Middelburg, Jack J.; Cowie, Greg L.

    2014-07-01

    The activities of sediment-dwelling fauna are known to influence the rates of and pathways through which organic matter is cycled in marine sediments, and thus to influence eventual organic carbon burial or decay. However, due to methodological constraints, the role of faunal gut passage in determining the subsequent composition and thus degradability of organic matter is relatively little studied. Previous studies of organic matter digestion by benthic fauna have been unable to detect uptake and retention of specific biochemicals in faunal tissues, and have been of durations too short to fit digestion into the context of longer-term sedimentary degradation processes. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the aldose and fatty acid compositional alterations occurring to organic matter during gut passage by the abundant and ubiquitous polychaetes Hediste diversicolor and Arenicola marina, and to link these to longer-term changes typically observed during organic matter decay. This aim was approached through microcosm experiments in which selected polychaetes were fed with 13C-labelled algal detritus, and organisms, sediments, and faecal pellets were sampled at three timepoints over ?6 weeks. Samples were analysed for their 13C-labelled aldose and fatty acid contents using GC-MS and GC-IRMS. Compound-selective net accumulation of biochemicals in polychaete tissues was observed for both aldoses and fatty acids, and the patterns of this were taxon-specific. The dominant patterns included an overall loss of glucose and polyunsaturated fatty acids; and preferential preservation or production of arabinose, microbial compounds (rhamnose, fucose and microbial fatty acids), and animal-synthesised fatty acids. These patterns may have been driven by fatty acid essentiality, preferential metabolism of glucose, and A. marina grazing on bacteria. Fatty acid suites in sediments from faunated microcosms showed greater proportions of saturated fatty acids and bacterial markers than those from afaunal controls. Aldose suite alterations were similar in faunated microcosms and afaunal controls, however the impact of faunal gut passage on sedimentary aldose compositions may be observable over longer timescales. Therefore this study provides direct evidence that polychaete gut passage influences OM composition both through taxon-specific selective assimilation and retention in polychaete tissues, and also through interactions with the microbial community. Polychaete gut passage will result in selective loss, preservation, and retention in polychaete tissues of specific aldoses and fatty acids. The pattern of selectivity will be taxon specific. Changes observed during gut passage will align with those commonly observed during OM decay, thus indicating that macrofaunal gut passage is one of the factors controlling sedimentary OM composition. Together with a previous publication reporting amino acid data from the same experiments (Woulds et al., 2012), this study represents the most complete description of OM alteration during gut passage that is available to date.

  10. Thermal alteration experiments on organic matter from recent marine sediments in relation to petroleum genesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishiwatari, R.; Ishiwatari, M.; Rohrback, B. G.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1977-01-01

    Three fractions of organic matter: lipid (benzene:methanol-extractable), humic acid (alkali-extractable) and kerogen (residue) were extracted from a young marine sediment (Tanner Basin, offshore southern California) and heated for different times (5-116 hr) and temperatures (150-410 C). The volatile (gases) and liquid products, as well as residual material, were then analyzed. On a weight basis, the lipid fraction produced 58% of the total identified n-alkanes, the kerogen fraction 41%, and the humic acid less than 1%. The volatiles produced by heating the lipid and humic acid fractions were largely CO2 and water, whereas those produced from heated kerogen also included methane, hydrogen gas and small amounts of C2-C4 hydrocarbons. A mechanism for hydrocarbon production due to the thermal alteration of organic constituents of marine sediment is discussed.

  11. Microcystin-LR and Cylindrospermopsin Induced Alterations in Chromatin Organization of Plant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Máthé, Csaba; M-Hamvas, Márta; Vasas, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria produce metabolites with diverse bioactivities, structures and pharmacological properties. The effects of microcystins (MCYs), a family of peptide type protein-phosphatase inhibitors and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), an alkaloid type of protein synthesis blocker will be discussed in this review. We are focusing mainly on cyanotoxin-induced changes of chromatin organization and their possible cellular mechanisms. The particularities of plant cells explain the importance of such studies. Preprophase bands (PPBs) are premitotic cytoskeletal structures important in the determination of plant cell division plane. Phragmoplasts are cytoskeletal structures involved in plant cytokinesis. Both cyanotoxins induce the formation of multipolar spindles and disrupted phragmoplasts, leading to abnormal sister chromatid segregation during mitosis. Thus, MCY and CYN are probably inducing alterations of chromosome number. MCY induces programmed cell death: chromatin condensation, nucleus fragmentation, necrosis, alterations of nuclease and protease enzyme activities and patterns. The above effects may be related to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or disfunctioning of microtubule associated proteins. Specific effects: MCY-LR induces histone H3 hyperphosphorylation leading to incomplete chromatid segregation and the formation of micronuclei. CYN induces the formation of split or double PPB directly related to protein synthesis inhibition. Cyanotoxins are powerful tools in the study of plant cell organization. PMID:24084787

  12. Fear induced neuronal alterations in a genetic model of depression: an fMRI study on awake animals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Heffernan, Meghan E; Li, Zhixin; Zhang, Nanyin; Overstreet, David H; King, Jean A

    2011-02-01

    Previous human imaging studies used facial stimuli to explore the potential association between depression and fear. This study aimed at investigating brain alterations in a rodent model of depression when innate fear was induced in the form of the predator odor trimethylthiazoline (TMT). Flinders sensitive line (FSL) rats, a genetic animal model of depression, and their control counterpart Flinders resistant line (FRL), were used in this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) assessment. Compared to FRL, FSL rats exhibited greater BOLD activation in the cortical amygdala and hypoactivation in the prefrontal cortex in response to TMT, suggesting cortico-amygdalar dysfunction in the depressed strain. In addition, the hyperactivation in the insular cortex in FSL rats may be the basis for enhanced neuronal responses to fear and aversion in depression. These results are evidence for the value of translational models of depression in expanding understanding of the neural circuitries sub-serving common human co-morbidities like depression and fear. PMID:21134416

  13. Ineffective delivery of diet-derived microRNAs to recipient animal organisms

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Jonathan W.; Hale, Andrew E.; Isaacs, Stephanie K.; Baggish, Aaron L.; Chan, Stephen Y.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-kingdom delivery of specific microRNAs to recipient organisms via food ingestion has been reported recently. However, it is unclear if such delivery of microRNAs occurs frequently in animal organisms after typical dietary intake. We found substantial levels of specific microRNAs in diets commonly consumed orally by humans, mice, and honey bees. Yet, after ingestion of fruit replete with plant microRNAs (MIR156a, MIR159a, and MIR169a), a cohort of healthy athletes did not carry detectable plasma levels of those molecules. Similarly, despite consumption of a diet with animal fat replete in endogenous miR-21, negligible expression of miR-21 in plasma or organ tissue was observed in miR-21 ?/? recipient mice. Correspondingly, when fed vegetarian diets containing the above plant microRNAs, wild-type recipient mice expressed insignificant levels of these microRNAs. Finally, despite oral uptake of pollen containing these plant microRNAs, negligible delivery of these molecules was observed in recipient honeybees. Therefore, we conclude that horizontal delivery of microRNAs via typical dietary ingestion is neither a robust nor a frequent mechanism to maintain steady-state microRNA levels in a variety of model animal organisms, thus defining the biological limits of these molecules in vivo. PMID:23669076

  14. A comparative study of production performance and animal health practices in organic and conventional dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jenevaldo B; Fagundes, Gisele M; Soares, João P G; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Muir, James P

    2014-10-01

    Health and production management strategies influence environmental impacts of dairies. The objective of this paper was to measure risk factors on health and production parameters on six organic and conventional bovine, caprine, and ovine dairy herds in southeastern Brazil over six consecutive years (2006-2011). The organic operations had lower milk production per animal (P???0.05), lower calf mortality (P???0.05), less incidence of mastitis (P???0.05), fewer rates of spontaneous abortions (P???0.05), and reduced ectoparasite loads (P???0.05) compared to conventional herds and flocks. Organic herds, however, had greater prevalence of internal parasitism (P???0.05) than conventional herds. In all management systems, calves, kids, and lambs had greater oocyte counts than adults. However, calves in the organic group showed lower prevalence of coccidiosis. In addition, animals in the organic system exhibited lower parasitic resistance to anthelmintics. Herd genetic potential, nutritive value of forage, feed intake, and pasture parasite loads, however, may have influenced productive and health parameters. Thus, although conventional herds showed greater milk production and less disease prevalence, future research might quantify the potential implications of these unreported factors. PMID:25015183

  15. Dominance orders in animal societies: The self-organization hypothesis revisited

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Bonabeau; Guy Theraulaz; Jean-Louis Deneubourg

    1999-01-01

    In previous papers (Theraulaz et al., 1995; Bonabeau et al., 1996) we suggested, following Hogeweg and Hesper (1983, 1985), that the formation of dominance orders in animal societies\\u000a could result from a self-organizing process involving a double reinforcement mechanism: winners reinforce their probability\\u000a of winning and losers reinforce their probability of losing. This assumption, and subsequent models relying on it,

  16. Alteration of Organic Compounds in Small Bodies and Cosmic Dusts by Cosmic Rays and Solar Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; Kaneko, Takeo; Mita, Hajime; Obayashi, Yumiko; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Sarker, Palash K.; Kawamoto, Yukinori; Okabe, Takuto; Eto, Midori; Kanda, Kazuhiro

    2012-07-01

    A wide variety of complex organic compounds have been detected in extraterrestrial bodies like carbonaceous chondrites and comets, and their roles in the generation of terrestrial life are discussed. It was suggested that organics in small bodies were originally formed in ice mantles of interstellar dusts in dense cloud. Irradiation of frozen mixture of possible interstellar molecules including CO (or CH _{3}OH), NH _{3} and H _{2}O with high-energy particles gave complex amino acid precursors with high molecular weights [1]. Such complex organic molecules were taken in planetesimals or comets in the early solar system. In prior to the generation of the terrestrial life, extraterrestrial organics were delivered to the primitive Earth by such small bodies as meteorites, comets and space dusts. These organics would have been altered by cosmic rays and solar radiation (UV, X-rays) before the delivery to the Earth. We examined possible alteration of amino acids, their precursors and nucleic acid bases in interplanetary space by irradiation with high energy photons and heavy ions. A mixture of CO, NH _{3} and H _{2}O was irradiated with high-energy protons from a van de Graaff accelerator (TIT, Japan). The resulting products (hereafter referred to as CAW) are complex precursors of amino acids. CAW, amino acids (dl-Isovaline, glycine), hydantoins (amino acid precursors) and nucleic acid bases were irradiated with continuous emission (soft X-rays to IR; hereafter referred to as soft X-rays irradiation) from BL-6 of NewSUBARU synchrotron radiation facility (Univ. Hyogo). They were also irradiated with heavy ions (eg., 290 MeV/u C ^{6+}) from HIMAC accelerator (NIRS, Japan). After soft X-rays irradiation, water insoluble materials were formed. After irradiation with soft X-rays or heavy ions, amino acid precursors (CAW and hydantoins) gave higher ratio of amino acids were recovered after hydrolysis than free amino acids. Nucleic acid bases showed higher stability than free amino acids. Complex amino acid precursors with high molecular weights could be formed in simulated dense cloud environments. They would have been altered in the early solar system by irradiation with soft X-rays from the young Sun, which caused increase of hydrophobicity of the organics of interstellar origin. They were taken up by parent bodies of meteorites or comets, and could have been delivered to the Earth by meteorites, comets and cosmic dusts. Cosmic dusts were so small that they were directly exposed to the solar radiation, which might be critical for the survivability of organics in them. In order to evaluate the roles of space dusts as carriers of bioorganic compounds to the primitive Earth, we are planning the Tanpopo Mission, where collection of cosmic dusts by using ultra low-density aerogel, and exposure of amino acids and their precursors for years are planned by utilizing the Japan Experimental Module / Exposed Facility of the ISS [2]. The mission is now scheduled to start in 2013. We thank Dr. Katsunori Kawasaki of Tokyo Institute of Technology, and Dr. Satoshi Yoshida of National Institute of Radiological Sciences for their help in particles irradiation. We also thank to the members of JAXA Tanpopo Working Group (PI: Prof. Akihiko Yamagishi) for their helpful discussion. [1] K. Kobayashi, et al., in ``Astrobiology: from Simple Molecules to Primitive Life,'' ed. by V. Basiuk, American Scientific Publishers, Valencia, CA, (2010), pp. 175-186. [2] K. Kobayashi, et al., Trans. Jpn. Soc. Aero. Space Sci., in press (2012).

  17. The concept of animal welfare at the interface between producers and scientists: the example of organic pig farming.

    PubMed

    Leeb, Christine

    2011-06-01

    In organic farming animal welfare is one important aspect included in the internationally agreed organic principles of health, ecology, fairness and care (IFOAM 2006), reflecting expectation of consumers and farmers. The definition of organic animal welfare includes-besides traditional terms of animal welfare-'regeneration' and 'naturalness'. Organic animal welfare assessment needs to reflect this and use complex parameters, include natural behaviour and a systemic view. Furthermore, various parties with seemingly conflicting interests are involved, causing ethical dilemmas, such as the use of nose rings for outdoor sows (impaired animal welfare vs. destruction of humus). Solutions can only be found when foundational concepts are translated and applied to practical situations. On-farm animal welfare assessment and implementation of improvement strategies are increasingly relevant scientific areas. They combine on-farm welfare assessment, identification of key problem areas and connected risk factors. Constant communication between all parties is crucial for success. Animal health and welfare planning is one application of this approach, which was carried out on Austrian organic pig farms as well as organic dairy farms in seven European countries. The projects included welfare assessment, feedback and benchmarking as a tool for communication between farmers, advisors and scientists. Finally goals were set by the farmer and improvement strategies applicable to organic farming were implemented. This included prevention of disease by management strategies instead of routine treatment with pharmaceutical products. It appeared that next to problem structuring, multidisciplinary problem solving demands good communications skills to relate animal welfare science to value reflections. PMID:21559784

  18. Alteration in membrane lipid packing/organization induced by chronic ethanol ingestion

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbs, C.D.; Williams, B.W.; McCall, S.M.; Rubin, E.

    1987-05-01

    The effect of chronic ethanol on lipid packing and organization was investigated using exogenous phospholipase A/sub 2/ (Crotalus durissus terrificus). Liver microsomal membrane lipids from chronic ethanol fed rats were found to be hydrolyzed at a significantly reduced rate compared to the control although fluorescent probes did not show a difference in lipid order. The reduced activity was also found against liposomes made from extracted phospholipids although to a lesser extent. Thus, although the key component causing the resistance to hydrolysis is a phospholipid, the organization of the membrane is also important. Endogenous phospholipase A/sub 2/ activity was also determined and in contrast to the exogenous phospholipase A/sub 2/, the ethanol altered membranes had a higher level of activity compared to the control. These results suggest that the activity of the exogenous and endogenous phospholipases A/sub 2/ are controlled by different mechanisms. It appears that the exogenous phospholipase A/sub 2/ detects bilayer packing and organizational changes caused by the chronic ethanol whereas the endogenous enzyme itself appears to be modified by the ethanol treatment in a manner which overcomes or is independent of the influence of the lipid bilayer packing and organization.

  19. Carbofuran alters centrosome and spindle organization, and delays cell division in oocytes and mitotic cells.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Ozgur; Semiz, Olcay; Can, Alp

    2015-04-01

    Although many countries banned of its usage, carbofuran (CF) is still one of the most commonly used carbamate derivative insecticides against insects and nematodes in agriculture and household, threatening the human and animal health by contaminating air, water, and food. Our goal was to evaluate the potential toxic effects of CF on mammalian oocytes besides mitotic cells. Caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway was assessed by immunofluorescence and western blot techniques. Alterations in the meiotic spindle formation after CF exposure throughout the in vitro maturation of mice oocyte-cumulus complexes (COCs) were analyzed by using a 3D confocal laser microscope. Maturation efficiency and kinetics were assessed by direct observation of the COCs. Results indicated that the number of TUNEL-positive cells increased in CF-exposed groups, particularly higher doses (>250?µM) in a dose-dependent fashion. The ratio of anticleaved caspase-3 labeled cells in those groups positively correlated with TUNEL-positivity. Western blot analysis confirmed a significant increase in active caspase-3 activity. CF caused a dose-dependent accumulation of oocytes at prometaphase-I (PM-I) of meiosis. Partial loss of spindle microtubules (MTs) was noted, which consequently gave rise to a diamond shape spindle. Aberrant pericentrin foci were noted particularly in PM-I and metaphase-I (M-I) stages. Conclusively, CF (1) induces programmed cell death in a dose-dependent manner, and (2) alters spindle morphology most likely through a mechanism that interacts with MT assembly and/or disorientation of pericentriolar proteins. Overall, data suggest that CF could give rise to aneuploidy or cell death in higher doses, therefore reduce fertilization and implantation rates. PMID:25564422

  20. Altered expression patterns of lipid metabolism genes in an animal model of HCV core-related, nonobese, modest hepatic steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ming-Ling; Yeh, Chau-Ting; Chen, Jeng-Chang; Huang, Chau-Chun; Lin, Shi-Ming; Sheen, I-Shyan; Tai, Dar-In; Chu, Chia-Ming; Lin, Wei-Pin; Chang, Ming-Yu; Liang, Chun-Kai; Chiu, Cheng-Tang; Lin, Deng-Yn

    2008-01-01

    Background Because the gene expression patterns of nonobese hepatic steatosis in affected patients remain unclear, we sought to explore these patterns using an animal model of nonobese hepatic steatosis. Methods We developed mice that conditionally express the hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein regulated by the tetracycline transactivator (tTA). Microarray analyses and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction were performed using liver samples of both the double transgenic mice (DTM), which express both the HCV core and tTA, and single transgenic mice (STM), which express tTA alone, at 2 months of age. Functional categories of genes with altered expression were classified using gene ontology programs. Serum glucose, lipid levels, and systemic blood pressure were also measured. Results Approximately 20–30% of hepatocytes from the DTM were steatotic. No significant differences were observed in the serum glucose, lipid content, or blood pressure levels between the DTM and STM. Gene expression analyses revealed Sterol-regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) pathway activation and dysregulation of the following genes involved in lipid metabolism: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 1, Apolipoprotein AII, Apolipoprotein CI, acyl-CoA thioesterase I, and fatty acid binding protein 1; in mitochondrial function: solute carrier family 25 member 25 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II; in immune reaction: complement component 3, lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus A, lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus C, lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus D, and lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus E. Conclusion Some genes of lipid metabolism, mitochondrial function, and immune reaction and the SREBP pathway are involved in HCV core-related, nonobese, modest hepatic steatosis. PMID:18307821

  1. Increased metal bioavailability following alteration of freshwater dissolved organic carbon by ultraviolet B radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Winch, Susan; Ridal, Jeffrey; Lean, David

    2002-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is critically important in the chemistry of freshwater. It complexes heavy metals, making them less bioavailable to aquatic organisms, and absorbs and attenuates UVB radiation, undergoing degradation and alteration in the process. This study examined changes in metal toxicity to the freshwater green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata in high- and low-DOC natural water samples after exposure to UVB radiation. Brown-water and clear-water samples were irradiated for 0, 5, and 10 days. The DOC concentrations of the samples were measured, and they were subsequently spiked with Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Co, and Pb and used in algal bioassays to measure changes in metal toxicity following irradiation. DOC concentrations declined only 20% with UVB irradiation in both samples, although DOC concentration was much higher in the brown-water sample than in the clear-water sample. In the brown-water sample metal toxicity increased up to 78% after 10 days of UVB irradiation for Cu, Zn, Co and Pb, but not for Ni and Cd. Changes were less evident in the clear-water sample. The differences observed between IC(50) values for relatively fresh, high-DOC water from the headwaters of the Raisin River and much "older," low-DOC water from Lake Simcoe point to the likelihood of the effects observed in this study being many times greater in the natural environment because of very long exposure to solar radiation. Alteration of DOC by UVB irradiation may influence primary productivity and species composition, especially in waters in which metal concentrations are high. PMID:12112635

  2. Microbial response to the effect of quantity and quality soil organic matter alteration after laboratory heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bárcenas-Moreno, G.; Escalante, E.; Pérez-Bejarano, A.; Zavala, L. M.; Jordán, A.

    2012-04-01

    Fire-induced soil changes influence indirectly on soil microbial response, mainly due to pH increases and organic matter alterations. Partial carbon combustion can originate both, an increase in microbial activity due to dissolved organic carbon increases (Bárcenas-Moreno and Bååth, 2099, Bárcenas-Moreno et al., 2011), as well as limitation of microbial growth, either due to diminution of some fractions of organic matter (Fernández et al., 1997) or due to the formation of toxic compounds (Widden and Parkinson, 1975; Diaz-Raviña et al., 1996). The magnitude or direction of these changes is conditioned mainly by fire intensity and plant species, so forest with different vegetation could promote different quantity and quality alterations of soil organic matter after fire which leads to different soil microbial response. The objective of this work was to differentiate between the effect of reduction of carbon content and the presence of substances with inhibitory effect on soil microorganisms, inoculating microorganisms from an unaltered forest area on heated soil extract-based culture media. Soil collected from two different vegetation forest, pine (P) and oak (O) forests, with similar soil characteristics was sieved and heated at 450 °C in a muffle furnace. Heated and unheated soil was used to prepare culture media resulting in different treatments: pine unheated (PUH), pine heated at 450 °C (P450), Oak unheated (OUH) and oak heated at 450 °C (O450). To isolate inhibition of microbial proliferation and nutrient limitation, different nutritive supplements were added to the media, obtaining two levels of nutrient status for each media described above: no nutrients added (-) and nutrients added (+). Colony forming units (CFU) were enumerated as estimation of viable and cultivable microbial abundance and soil parameters characterization was also realized. Significant differences were found between CFU isolated using heated and unheated soil extract-based media, independent of the nutrients status, evidencing the existence of some inhibitory factor in heated soil. Culture media made with soil extract from heated pine forest soil showed most marked decrease from microbial abundance than oak forest soil-based media, with and without nutrients. This preliminary study evidences that not only carbon content diminution limits microbial proliferation after fire, but pyrogenic compounds could be inducing negative effect on soil microorganisms. In addition, the identification of plant species which promote more intense inhibitory effect can involve an important tool after a wildfire for possible human decision related to forest management.

  3. Recent advances in the analysis of behavioural organization and interpretation as indicators of animal welfare

    PubMed Central

    Asher, Lucy; Collins, Lisa M.; Ortiz-Pelaez, Angel; Drewe, Julian A.; Nicol, Christine J.; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.

    2009-01-01

    While the incorporation of mathematical and engineering methods has greatly advanced in other areas of the life sciences, they have been under-utilized in the field of animal welfare. Exceptions are beginning to emerge and share a common motivation to quantify ‘hidden’ aspects in the structure of the behaviour of an individual, or group of animals. Such analyses have the potential to quantify behavioural markers of pain and stress and quantify abnormal behaviour objectively. This review seeks to explore the scope of such analytical methods as behavioural indicators of welfare. We outline four classes of analyses that can be used to quantify aspects of behavioural organization. The underlying principles, possible applications and limitations are described for: fractal analysis, temporal methods, social network analysis, and agent-based modelling and simulation. We hope to encourage further application of analyses of behavioural organization by highlighting potential applications in the assessment of animal welfare, and increasing awareness of the scope for the development of new mathematical methods in this area. PMID:19740922

  4. Iron Deficiency Anemia in Infancy Is Associated with Altered Temporal Organization of Sleep States in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    PEIRANO, PATRICIO D.; ALGARÍN, CECILIA R.; GARRIDO, MARCELO I.; LOZOFF, BETSY

    2008-01-01

    The highest prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy coincides with a time of rapid changes in sleep organization. Since IDA in infancy is associated with long-lasting neurofunctional effects despite iron treatment, the normal development of sleep patterns might be affected. Night polysomnographic recordings were performed in 55 healthy 4-y-old children (former IDA = 27, nonanemic controls = 28). Both groups were followed from infancy and were similar in background characteristics. The duration of each waking episode was measured, as was the duration of each episode of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep stages 1 (NREM1), 2 (NREM2), and 3–4 (SWS), and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The data were analyzed according to the successive thirds of the total sleep time (TST). Relative to controls, former IDA children showed: a) longer duration of REM sleep episodes in the first third and shorter in the last third; b) more REM sleep episodes in the first third and fewer in the second third; and c) shorter latency to the first REM sleep episode and shorter NREM stage 2 and SWS episodes within the first sleep cycle. The results show that early IDA is associated with long-lasting alterations in the temporal organization of sleep patterns. PMID:17957147

  5. Alteration of organic matter during infaunal polychaete gut passage and links to sediment organic geochemistry. Part I: Amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woulds, Clare; Middelburg, Jack J.; Cowie, Greg L.

    2012-01-01

    Of the factors which control the quantity and composition of organic matter (OM) buried in marine sediments, the links between infaunal ingestion and gut passage and sediment geochemistry have received relatively little attention. This study aimed to use feeding experiments and novel isotope tracing techniques to quantify amino acid net accumulation and loss during polychaete gut passage, and to link this to patterns of selective preservation and decay in sediments. Microcosms containing either Arenicolamarina or Hediste (formerly Nereis) diversicolor were constructed from defaunated sediment and filtered estuarine water, and maintained under natural temperature and light conditions. They were fed with 13C-labelled diatoms daily for 8 days, and animals were transferred into fresh, un-labelled sediment after ?20 days. Samples of fauna, microcosm sediment and faecal matter were collected after 8, ?20 and ?40 days, and analysed for their bulk isotopic signatures and 13C-labelled amino acid compositions. Bulk isotopic data showed that, consistent with their feeding modes, Hediste assimilated added 13C more quickly, and attained a higher labelling level than Arenicola. Both species retained the added 13C in their biomass even after removal from the food. A principal component analysis of 13C-labelled amino acid mole percentages showed clear differences in composition between the algae, faunal tissues, and sediment plus faecal matter. Further, the two species of polychaete showed different compositions in their tissues. The amino acids phenylalanine, valine, leucine, iso-leucine, threonine and proline showed net accumulation in polychaete tissues. Serine, methionine, lysine, aspartic and glutamic acids and tyrosine were rapidly lost through metabolism, consistent with their presence in easily digestible cell components (as opposed to cell walls which offer physical protection). All sample types (polychaete tissues, sediments and faecal matter) were enriched in labelled glycine. Possible mechanisms for this enrichment include accumulation through inclusion in tissues with long residence times, preferential preservation (i.e. selection against) during metabolism, production from other labelled amino acids during varied metabolic processes, and accumulation in refractory by-products of secondary bacterial production. Overall, similarities were observed between amino-acid decay patterns in faunated microcosms, afaunal controls, and those previously reported in marine sediments. Thus, while polychaete gut passage did produce compound-selective accumulation and losses of certain amino acids in polychaete tissues and faecal matter, the impact of polychaete gut passage on sediment organic geochemistry was difficult to deconvolve from microbial decay. Despite processing large volumes of organic matter, polychaetes may not have distinctive influence on sediment compositions, possibly because metabolic processes concerning amino acids may be broadly similar across a wide range of organisms.

  6. Altered topological organization of brain structural network in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Shi, Lin; Chen, Feiyan; Waye, Mary M Y; Lim, Cadmon K P; Cheng, Pui-Wan; Luk, Sarah S H; Mok, Vincent C T; Chu, Winnie C W; Wang, Defeng

    2015-03-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that developmental dyslexia (DD) is a "disconnection syndrome", and new probes of connectome were applied to investigate the "disconnection" in DD. However, there is a lack of brain connectome studies of Chinese dyslexics, who may have a different neural impairment pattern due to the logographic nature of Chinese. The aim of this study was to investigate the topological organization characteristics of the DD brain using a structural network based analysis on the volumetric covariance, which is a method with the advantage of reflecting brain developmental changes. Twenty-five children diagnosed with DD and twenty-five typically developing controls were included. The structural networks based on the pair-wise correlation of gray matter volume from 90 brain regions were constructed for the two groups and compared. Compared to controls, the structural network of dyslexic children exhibited significantly increased local efficiency combined with a tendency of decreased global efficiency and prolonged characteristic path length, thus reflecting a more locally specialized topological organization. Two brain areas showed significantly altered local regional network properties: the left precentral gyrus with increased bi, and the right Heschl's gyrus with decreased bi and ki. Moreover, a series of hub regions (especially the right fronto-temporal regions) identified in the network of typically developing children were not presented in the brain of DD. To our knowledge, this is the first whole-brain structural network study on Chinese dyslexics. This study provides evidence of brain topological organization changes in Chinese children with DD, and thus may help shed light on its neurobiological basis. PMID:25597882

  7. Ethanol alters gene expression and cell organization during optic vesicle evagination

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Ledo, A.; Cavodeassi, F.; Carreño, H.; Aijón, J.; Arévalo, R.

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol has been described as a teratogen in vertebrate development. During early stages of brain formation, ethanol affects the evagination of the optic vesicles, resulting in synophthalmia or cyclopia, phenotypes where the optic vesicles partially or totally fuse. The mechanisms by which ethanol affects the morphogenesis of the optic vesicles are however largely unknown. In this study we make use of in situ hybridization, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry to show that ethanol has profound effects on cell organization and gene expression during the evagination of the optic vesicles. Exposure to ethanol during early eye development alters the expression patterns of some genes known to be important for eye morphogenesis, such as rx3/1 and six3a. Furthermore, exposure to ethanol interferes with the acquisition of neuroepithelial features by the eye field cells, which is clear at ultrastructual level. Indeed, ethanol disrupts the acquisition of fusiform cellular shapes within the eye field. In addition, tight junctions do not form and retinal progenitors do not properly polarize, as suggested by the mis-localization and down-regulation of zo1. We also show that the ethanol-induced cyclopic phenotype is significantly different to that observed in cyclopic mutants, suggesting a complex effect of ethanol on a variety of targets. Our results show that ethanol not only disrupts the expression pattern of genes involved in retinal morphogenesis, such as rx3 and rx1, but also disrupts the changes in cell polarity that normally occur during eye field splitting. Thus, ethylic teratology seems to be related not only to modifications in gene expression and cell death but also to alterations in cell morphology. PMID:23892006

  8. Larval body patterning and apical organs are conserved in animal evolution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Planktonic ciliated larvae are characteristic for the life cycle of marine invertebrates. Their most prominent feature is the apical organ harboring sensory cells and neurons of largely undetermined function. An elucidation of the relationships between various forms of primary larvae and apical organs is key to understanding the evolution of animal life cycles. These relationships have remained enigmatic due to the scarcity of comparative molecular data. Results To compare apical organs and larval body patterning, we have studied regionalization of the episphere, the upper hemisphere of the trochophore larva of the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii. We examined the spatial distribution of transcription factors and of Wnt signaling components previously implicated in anterior neural development. Pharmacological activation of Wnt signaling with Gsk3? antagonists abolishes expression of apical markers, consistent with a repressive role of Wnt signaling in the specification of apical tissue. We refer to this Wnt-sensitive, six3- and foxq2-expressing part of the episphere as the ‘apical plate’. We also unraveled a molecular signature of the apical organ - devoid of six3 but expressing foxj, irx, nkx3 and hox - that is shared with other marine phyla including cnidarians. Finally, we characterized the cell types that form part of the apical organ by profiling by image registration, which allows parallel expression profiling of multiple cells. Besides the hox-expressing apical tuft cells, this revealed the presence of putative light- and mechanosensory as well as multiple peptidergic cell types that we compared to apical organ cell types of other animal phyla. Conclusions The similar formation of a six3+, foxq2+ apical plate, sensitive to Wnt activity and with an apical tuft in its six3-free center, is most parsimoniously explained by evolutionary conservation. We propose that a simple apical organ - comprising an apical tuft and a basal plexus innervated by sensory-neurosecretory apical plate cells - was present in the last common ancestors of cnidarians and bilaterians. One of its ancient functions would have been the control of metamorphosis. Various types of apical plate cells would then have subsequently been added to the apical organ in the divergent bilaterian lineages. Our findings support an ancient and common origin of primary ciliated larvae. PMID:24476105

  9. Thyrocyte-specific dicer1 deficiency alters thyroid follicular organization and prevents goiter development.

    PubMed

    Undeutsch, H; Löf, C; Pakarinen, P; Poutanen, M; Kero, J

    2015-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of posttranscriptional gene expression and involved in embryonic development, regulation of cell differentiation, and growth. Dicer1 is a key enzyme in the maturation process of functional miRNAs. However, miRNA-mediated regulation of normal thyroid function and growth is largely unknown. To understand the role of miRNAs in the thyroid, we generated constitutive and tamoxifen-inducible, thyrocyte-specific Dicer1 knockout mice. The mice with perinatal Dicer1 deletion (cTgDcrKO) showed impaired follicular organization, increased fibrosis, and accumulation of adipocytes in the thyroid. Similar histological changes were observed in tamoxifen-induced adult Dicer1-deficient mice (iTgDcrKO). The thyroid phenotype in both knockout (KO) lines was associated with significantly down-regulated mRNA expression of thyroid transcription factor 1 (Ttf-1/Nkx2-1), thyroid peroxidase, and thyroglobulin (Tg) and up-regulated expression of genes involved in Tgf-? signaling. Furthermore, in cTgDcrKO mice, which developed mild hypothyroidism, the protein expression of Nkx2-1, thyroglobulin, Paired box 8, and TSH receptor were clearly down-regulated compared with controls. Despite similar down-regulation of Dicer1 in cTgDcrKO and iTgDcrKO compared with controls, Dicer1 deletion in adult mice thyrocytes did not lead to acute hypothyroidism. No significant differences in thyroid weights between cTgDcrKO, iTgDcrKO, and controls were observed. However, a goitrogenic diet induced a 4-fold increase in thyroid weight in control animals, whereas it had no effect on iTgDcrKO thyroids. In summary, Dicer1 deficiency in thyrocytes is associated with intrathyroid fibrosis, adipogenesis, and enhanced expression of Tgf-? signaling genes. Furthermore, our data indicate that Dicer1 is required for thyroid follicular organization, thyrocyte differentiation, and goiter development. PMID:25594698

  10. Relationships between organics, water and early stages of aqueous alteration in the pristine CR3.0 chondrite MET 00426

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Guillou, Corentin; Brearley, Adrian

    2014-04-01

    In order to investigate the nature of organics at the time of their accretion into chondrite parent bodies, as well as their subsequent evolution with aqueous alteration, we have conducted a study of the morphologies, spatial distribution and relationships between organic particles and the surrounding matrix phases in one of the most pristine carbonaceous chondrites currently known (MET 00426, CR), which is therefore likely to contain the best preserved record of pre-accretion features. Focused ion beam sections were extracted for transmission electron microscope observations from its matrix. Organic matter (OM) shows a heterogeneous population of grains, most of them smaller than 1 ?m. Diverse morphologies are observed, such as compact, rounded aggregates, individual and aggregated nanoglobules, and micron- to nanometer-sized veins. A common feature is the systematic presence of cracks connected to the grains and filled with OM. The surrounding matrix groundmass consists of amorphous iron-rich silicate particles intimately mixed with phyllosilicates, sulfides and occasional tochilinite, with sizes ranging from several hundreds of nanometers to below 10 nm. A close spatial relationship is commonly observed between some of the organic matter particles and alteration phases, such as tochilinite and phyllosilicates. Phyllosilicates sometimes occur intimately intercalated with organic matter at a scale below 10 nm. We used TEM/EDS techniques to quantify the water concentration in the matrix amorphous silicate material and the phyllosilicates. The water contents of both materials are identical at 10 (±6) wt.% H2O and demonstrate, that the amorphous silicate material in this meteorite is hydrated. Therefore, even though these CR3.0 chondrites are the least altered objects from a mineralogical point of view, their matrices contain significant amounts of water in the amorphous silicate. This coupled in situ study of organics and aqueous alteration suggests that a significant population of the OM accreted as a mixture of soluble and insoluble molecules together with water ice grains and that the OM was mobile at the micrometer scale. The spatial distribution of the OM grains can therefore, in part, be attributed to parent body processes. We suggest that as accreted ice melted, hydration of the amorphous silicates and formation of tochilinite and phyllosilicates occurred in the immediate vicinity of the composite water ice/organic matter grains. The water-soluble component of the organics was likely transported and redistributed in the surrounding porosity (cracks, grain boundaries) as water circulated. The textural settings suggest that some of the OM material could have been polymerized during aqueous alteration and transformed into insoluble molecules, perhaps during the last stages of alteration as water was consumed by silicate hydration reactions.

  11. Hippocampus/amygdala alterations, loss of heparan sulfates, fractones and ventricle wall reduction in adult BTBR T+ tf/J mice, animal model for autism.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Frederic; Kwon, Youngsu Cho; Douet, Vanessa

    2012-01-11

    Multiple studies converge to implicate alterations of the hippocampus and amygdala in the pathology of autism. We have previously reported anatomical alterations of the meninges, vasculature and fractones, the specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) of the subventricular zone, in the forebrain of adult BTBR T+ tf/J mice, animal model for autism. Here, we used bisbenzidine cell nucleus staining and dual immunofluorescence histochemistry for laminin and N-sulfated heparan sulfate proteoglycans (NS-HSPG) to examine a series of brain sections containing the amygdala and hippocampus in the adult BTBR T+ tf/j mouse. We observed an excessive separation of the two hippocampi, a modified trajectory of the meninges leading to a shrunken choroid plexus in the lateral ventricle, a shorter granular layer of the dentate gyrus, and a reduced size of the amygdala nuclei. The lateral ventricle near the amygdala, and the third ventricle were shrunken. The number and size of fractones, and their immunoreactivity for NS-HSPG, were reduced throughout the third and lateral ventricles walls. Enlarged blood vessels were found at the endopiriform cortex/amygdala interface. These results show anatomical alterations of the hippocampal/amygdala that are associated with defects of the choroid plexus/ventricular system and the ECM in the BTBR T+ TF/J mouse. Similar alterations of the hippocampus/amygdala axis in humans with autism to these observed in BTBR T+ tf/J mice make this animal model highly valuable for the study of autism. Moreover, the meningo/vascular and ECM alterations in BTBR T+ Tf/J mice suggest a possible role of the brain connective tissue in autism. PMID:22100909

  12. Alterations in the chaperone activity of HSP70 in aging organisms.

    PubMed

    Shpund, S; Gershon, D

    1997-01-01

    The reduced capacity to respond to stress is one of the major characteristics of senescent organisms. This decline is a major cause of morbidity and eventually has lethal consequences. Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) constitute a major defense system which allows recovery from adverse modes of stress such as elevated temperatures, alcohol, toxic heavy metals (e.g., cadmium), some forms of oxidative and post-ischemic stress and other forms of environmental insults. It is, therefore, important to investigate the functional capacity of HSPs as a function of organismal age at the molecular level. We chose to test the major stress-inducible form, HSP70. This protein was purified to homogeneity from livers of young (6 months) and old (27 months) rats. Its functional capacity was examined by the ability to protect the activity of creatine kinase (CPK) and aldolase A (Ald A) treated at 56 degrees C and 51 degrees C, respectively. We first established that when HSP70 is present during the heat treatment it protected CPK by 80-90% and Ald A by 50-60%. This protection was specific and was essentially dependent upon ATP and Mg(2+). Most important, HSP70 from old rats gave only 50% protection of CPK as compared to the protein of young animals. The significance of the results in terms of cellular physiology in aging is discussed. PMID:15374119

  13. Predators alter community organization of coral reef cryptofauna and reduce abundance of coral mutualists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stier, A. C.; Leray, M.

    2014-03-01

    Coral reefs are the most diverse marine systems in the world, yet our understanding of the processes that maintain such extraordinary diversity remains limited and taxonomically biased toward the most conspicuous species. Cryptofauna that live deeply embedded within the interstitial spaces of coral reefs make up the majority of reef diversity, and many of these species provide important protective services to their coral hosts. However, we know very little about the processes governing the diversity and composition of these less conspicuous but functionally important species. Here, we experimentally quantify the role of predation in driving the community organization of small fishes and decapods that live embedded within Pocillopora eydouxi, a structurally complex, reef-building coral found widely across the Indo-Pacific. We use surveys to describe the natural distribution of predators, and then, factorially manipulate two focal predator species to quantify the independent and combined effects of predator density and identity on P. eydouxi-dwelling cryptofauna. Predators reduced abundance (34 %), species richness (20 %), and modified species composition. Rarefaction revealed that observed reductions in species richness were primarily driven by changes in abundance. Additionally, the two predator species uniquely affected the beta diversity and composition of the prey assemblage. Predators reduced the abundance and modified the composition of a number of mutualist fishes and decapods, whose benefit to the coral is known to be both diversity- and density-dependent. We predict that the density and identity of predators present within P. eydouxi may substantially alter coral performance in the face of an increased frequency and intensity of natural and anthropogenic stressors.

  14. HHV-8 encoded LANA-1 alters the higher organization of the cell nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Stuber, György; Mattsson, Karin; Flaberg, Emilie; Kati, Emrah; Markasz, Laszlo; Sheldon, Julie A; Klein, George; Schulz, Thomas F; Szekely, Laszlo

    2007-01-01

    The latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA-1) of Human Herpes Virus 8 (HHV-8), alternatively called Kaposi Sarcoma Herpes Virus (KSHV) is constitutively expressed in all HHV-8 infected cells. LANA-1 accumulates in well-defined foci that co-localize with the viral episomes. We have previously shown that these foci are tightly associated with the borders of heterochromatin [1]. We have also shown that exogenously expressed LANA-1 causes an extensive re-organization of Hoechst 33248 DNA staining patterns of the nuclei in non-HHV-8 infected cells [2]. Here we show that this effect includes the release of the bulk of DNA from heterochromatic areas, in both human and mouse cells, without affecting the overall levels of heterochromatin associated histone H3 lysine 9 tri-methylation (3MK9H3). The release of DNA from the heterochromatic chromocenters in LANA-1 transfected mouse cells co-incides with the dispersion of the chromocenter associated methylcytosin binding protein 2 (MECP2). The localization of 3MK9H3 to the remnants of the chromocenters remains unaltered. Moreover, exogeneously expressed LANA-1 leads to the relocation of the chromocenters to the nuclear periphery, indicating extensive changes in the positioning of the chromosomal domains in the LANA-1 harboring interphase nucleus. Using a series of deletion mutants we have shown that the chromatin rearranging effects of LANA-1 require the presence of a short (57 amino acid) region that is located immediately upstream of the internal acidic repeats. This sequence lies within the previously mapped binding site to histone methyltransferase SUV39H1. We suggest that the highly concentrated LANA-1, anchored to the host genome in the nuclear foci of latently infected cells and replicated through each cell generation, may function as "epigenetic modifier". The induction of histone modification in adjacent host genes may lead to altered gene expression, thereby contributing to the viral oncogenesis. PMID:17433107

  15. Antibody to galactocerebroside alters organization of oligodendroglial membrane sheets in culture.

    PubMed

    Dyer, C A; Benjamins, J A

    1988-11-01

    Antibodies to galactocerebroside (GalC) cause major changes in the organization of the membrane sheets elaborated by murine oligodendroglia in culture. Exposure of oligodendroglia to rabbit anti-GalC IgG for 15 min followed by fluoresceinated second antibodies results in patches of surface GalC staining; when second antibodies are applied after 2 hr of anti-GalC, the pattern of staining on membrane sheets is solid and wrinkled. Anti-GalC exposure for 24 hr results in contracted membrane sheets. No membrane contraction is detected in cultures treated with anti-sulfatide IgM or anti-proteolipid protein IgG. In cultures exposed to anti-GalC continuously for 4-7 d, there is a marked decrease in numbers of extended membrane sheets with an accompanying increase in contracted sheets. This effect is reversible upon removal of anti-GalC from the culture media. By scanning electron microscopy, normally flat membrane sheets appear ruffled after 2 hr of anti-GalC treatment; by 24 hr, contracted membrane sheets consist entirely of bulbous protrusions. Oligodendrocyte membranes exposed to anti-sulfatide for 24 hr are not contracted but are covered with bulbous protrusions. The organization of underlying membrane structures was examined in relation to membrane patching and sheet contraction. In membranes with patching induced by exposure to anti-GalC for 15 min, the anti-GalC: GalC complexes are localized over cytoplasmic MBP domains, with the unstained areas located above cytoplasmic microtubular structures. Membrane sheets that are contracted in response to anti-GalC exposure for 6-24 hr show intense GalC staining over microtubular structures. Anti-GalC exposure does not change metabolism of GalC; in cultures incubated with 3H-galactose and anti-GalC for 24 hr, there are no alterations in GalC labeling compared with control cultures. In summary, these results provide direct evidence that interaction between surface glycolipids and external antibodies can initiate a sequence of events leading to dramatic changes within the oligodendrocyte. PMID:2460596

  16. Overview of structural and functional lesions in endocrine organs of animals.

    PubMed

    Capen, C C

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this review is to summarize the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for perturbations of endocrine function and development of structural lesions that result in important diseases in domestic and laboratory animals. For each major category, several specific disease problems have been selected to illustrate the functional and morphologic lesions that are characteristic for either a naturally occurring endocrinopathy or endocrine disturbances induced by the administration of large doses of xenobiotic chemicals. The major pathogenic mechanisms responsible for disruption of endocrine function include primary hyperfunction, secondary hyperfunction, primary hypofunction, secondary hypofunction, endocrine hyperactivity secondary to other conditions, hypersecretion of hormones by nonendocrine tumors, failure of target cells to respond to a hormone, failure of fetal endocrine function, abnormal degradation (increased or decreased rate) of hormone, and iatrogenic syndromes of hormone excess (direct and indirect). Disorders of the endocrine system are encountered in a wide variety of domestic and laboratory animal species and often present challenging diagnostic problems. The development of proliferative lesions, usually hyperplasia and benign tumors, in endocrine organs and hormone-responsive tissues are common findings in chronic studies with high doses of many nongenotoxic xenobiotic chemicals administered to sensitive rodent species and may have limited significance for human safety assessment. PMID:11215688

  17. Effect of Composting on Dissolved Organic Matter in Animal Manure and Its Binding with Cu

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengsong; Li, Yanxia; Xiong, Xiong; Yang, Ming; Li, Wei

    2012-01-01

    The agricultural application of raw animal manure introduces large amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into soil and would increase transport of heavy metals such as Cu which are widely present in animal manure. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the evolution of DOM from pig and cattle manures during composting through excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and the binding ability of DOM toward copper (Cu) ions with the aid of fluorescence quenching titration. The excitation-emission matrix spectra indicated that tyrosine-like, tryptophan-like, and soluble microbial byproduct-like fluorescence decreased significantly, while humic-like and fulvic-like fluorescence increased and became the main peaks in composted manure DOM. Fluorescence quenching titration showed that the complexing capacities of pig and cattle manure DOM decreased after composting. Correlation analysis confirmed that complexing capacity of DOM positively and significantly correlates with tyrosine-like and soluble microbial byproduct-like materials which mostly degraded after composting. These results would suggest that the ability of manure DOM to complex with Cu is inhibited as a result of reduced protein-like materials after composting. PMID:23125554

  18. Bio-organic reaction animations (BioORA): student performance, student perceptions, and instructor feedback.

    PubMed

    Gunersel, Adalet Baris; Fleming, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that computer animations are especially helpful in fields such as chemistry and in this mixed-methods study, we investigate the educational effectiveness of Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA), a 3-D software, in four undergraduate biochemistry classes at different universities. Statistically significant findings indicate that students performed better on a quiz completed after a lesson with BioORA than after a lesson with regular teaching methods in three out of four classes. Ratings on several survey items completed after experiencing BioORA, including items related to interest, value, and ability, were higher in two classes. Surveys and one-on-one interviews reveal instructor and student experiences with the software as well as the utility of various software features, which can be adopted in other programs. Instructors and students provide suggestions to maximize BioORA's benefits as an educational tool and findings suggest the importance of multiple forms of information to enhance student understanding and reach students with various learning preferences. PMID:24535982

  19. Influence of the respirator on volatile organic compounds: an animal study in rats over 24?hours.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, F W; Hüppe, T; Fink, T; Maurer, F; Wolf, A; Wolf, B; Volk, T; Baumbach, J I; Kreuer, S

    2015-03-01

    Long-term animal studies are needed to accomplish measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for medical diagnostics. In order to analyze the time course of VOCs, it is necessary to ventilate these animals. Therefore, a total of 10 male Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized and ventilated with synthetic air via tracheotomy for 24?h. An ion mobility spectrometry coupled to multi-capillary columns (MCC-IMS) was used to analyze the expired air. To identify background contaminations produced by the respirator itself, six comparative measurements were conducted with ventilators only. Overall, a number of 37 peaks could be detected within the positive mode. According to the ratio peak intensity rat/ peak intensity ventilator blank, 22 peaks with a ratio >1.5 were defined as expired VOCs, 12 peaks with a ratio between 0.5 and 1.5 as unaffected VOCs, and three peaks with a ratio <0.5 as resorbed VOCs. The peak intensity of 12 expired VOCs changed significantly during the 24?h measurement. These results represent the basis for future intervention studies. Notably, online VOC analysis with MCC-IMS is possible over 24?h in ventilated rats and allows different experimental approaches. PMID:25749729

  20. Exposure of animals to artificial gravity conditions leads to the alteration of the glutamate release from rat cerebral hemispheres nerve terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, T.; Krisanova, N.; Himmelreich, N.

    2004-01-01

    The biochemical basis underlying the effects of altered gravity on the process of nervous signal transmission is not clear. We have investigated the effect of hypergravity stress (created by centrifugation of rats at l0 g for 1 h) on the basal and stimulated release of l-[14C]glutamate (a chemical transmitter of excitatory signals) from isolated rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes). It has been shown that the hypergravity stress exerted a different influence on the Ca2+-dependent and the Ca2+-independent component of neurotransmitter release. The Ca2+-dependent l-[14C]glutamate release evoked by potassium chloride was equal to 14.4+/-0.7% of total synaptosomal label for control animals and 6.2+/-1.9% for animals, exposed to hypergravity (P<=0.05) and was more than twice decreased as a result of the hypergravity stress. We observed no statistically significant difference in the Ca2+-independent component of l-[14C]glutamate release. For control group and animals exposed to the hypergravity stress it was equal to 7.7+/-2.8% and 12.9+/-2.0%, respectively. We have also investigated the effect of the hypergravity stress on the activity of high-affinity Na+-dependent glutamate transporters. Km and Vmax of l-[14C]glutamate uptake have been determined. The maximal velocity of glutamate uptake was decreased as a result of hypergravity loading, but no difference in the Km values between control rats and hypergravity exposed animals was observed. These findings indicate that hypergravity stress alters neurotransmitter reuptake and exocytotic neurotransmitter release processes.

  1. Melittin Ameliorates the Inflammation of Organs in an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-Hwa; Choi, Sun-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a selective loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brainstem, and motor cortex, leading to weakness of the limb and bulbar muscles. Although the immediate cause of death in ALS is the destruction of motor neurons, ALS is a multi-organ disease that also affects the lungs, spleen, and liver. Melittin is one of components of bee venom and has anti-neuroinflammatory effects in the spinal cord, as shown in an ALS animal model. To investigate the effects of melittin on inflammation in the lungs and spleen, we used hSOD1G93A transgenic mice that are mimic for ALS. Melittin treatment reduced the expression of inflammatory proteins, including Iba-1 and CD14 by 1.9- and 1.3-fold (p<0.05), respectively, in the lungs of symptomatic hSOD1G93A transgenic mice. In the spleen, the expression of CD14 and COX2 that are related to inflammation were decreased by 1.4 fold (p<0.05) and cell survival proteins such as pERK and Bcl2 were increased by 1.3- and 1.5-fold (p<0.05) in the melittin-treated hSOD1G93A transgenic mice. These findings suggest that melittin could be a candidate to regulate the immune system in organs affected by ALS. PMID:24737943

  2. Novel Threadlike Structures May Be Present on the Large Animal Organ Surface: Evidence in Swine Model

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Kyoung-Hee; Park, Sang Hyun; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Nam, Min-Ho; Yoon, Ji Woong; Kwon, Hee-Min; Yoon, Seung Zhoo

    2013-01-01

    Background. The types of embryonic development probably provoke different paths of novel threadlike structure (NTS) development. The authors hypothesized that NTS may be easily observed on the surface of swine intestines by using trypan blue staining method and visualization under an optical microscope. Methods. General anesthesia was administered to 2 Yorkshire pigs. The abdominal walls of the pigs were carefully dissected along the medial alba. NTSs were identified on organ surfaces under a stereoscopic microscope after trypan blue staining. Isolated NTS specimens obtained from the large intestine were subjected to 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and observed using the polarized light microscopy to confirm whether the obtained structure fits the definition of NTS. Results. We found elastic, semitransparent threadlike structures (forming a network structure) that had a milky-white color in situ and in vivo in swine large intestines. The samples showed distinct extinction of polarized light at every 90 degrees, and nucleus was shown to be rod shaped by DAPI staining, indicating that they meet the criteria of NTS. Conclusion. We used a swine model to demonstrate that NTS may be present on large animal organ surfaces. Our results may permit similar studies by using human specimens. PMID:23762159

  3. Melittin ameliorates the inflammation of organs in an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis animal model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Hwa; Choi, Sun-Mi; Yang, Eun Jin

    2014-03-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a selective loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brainstem, and motor cortex, leading to weakness of the limb and bulbar muscles. Although the immediate cause of death in ALS is the destruction of motor neurons, ALS is a multi-organ disease that also affects the lungs, spleen, and liver. Melittin is one of components of bee venom and has anti-neuroinflammatory effects in the spinal cord, as shown in an ALS animal model. To investigate the effects of melittin on inflammation in the lungs and spleen, we used hSOD1(G93A) transgenic mice that are mimic for ALS. Melittin treatment reduced the expression of inflammatory proteins, including Iba-1 and CD14 by 1.9- and 1.3-fold (p<0.05), respectively, in the lungs of symptomatic hSOD1(G93A) transgenic mice. In the spleen, the expression of CD14 and COX2 that are related to inflammation were decreased by 1.4 fold (p<0.05) and cell survival proteins such as pERK and Bcl2 were increased by 1.3- and 1.5-fold (p<0.05) in the melittin-treated hSOD1G93A transgenic mice. These findings suggest that melittin could be a candidate to regulate the immune system in organs affected by ALS. PMID:24737943

  4. Laboratory simulated hydrothermal alteration of sedimentary organic matter from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leif, Roald N.

    1993-01-01

    High temperature alteration of sedimentary organic matter associated with marine hydrothermal systems involves complex physical and chemical processes that are not easily measured in most natural systems. Many of these processes can be evaluated indirectly by examining the geochemistry of the hydrothermal system in the laboratory. In this investigation, an experimental organic geochemical approach to studying pyrolysis of sedimentary organic matter is applied to the hydrothermal system in the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. A general survey of hydrothermal oils and extractable organic matter (bitumen) in hydrothermally altered sediments identified several homologous series of alkanones associated with a high temperature hydrothermal origin. The alkanones range in carbon number from C11 to C30 with no carbon number preference. Alkan-2-ones are in highest concentrations, with lower amounts of 3-, 4-, 5- (and higher) homologs. The alkanones appear to be pyrolysis products synthesized under extreme hydrothermal conditions. Hydrous pyrolysis and confinement pyrolysis experiments were performed to simulate thermally enhanced diagenetic and catagenetic changes in the immature sedimentary organic matter. The extent of alteration was measured by monitoring the n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, steroid and triterpenoid biomarkers, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanones. The results were compared to bitumen extracts from sediments which have been naturally altered by a sill intrusion and accompanied hydrothermal fluid flow. These pyrolysis experiments duplicated many of the organic matter transformations observed in the natural system. Full hopane and sterane maturation occurred after 48 hr in experiments at 330 deg C with low water/rock mass ratios (0.29). A variety of radical and ionic reactions are responsible for the organic compound conversions which occur under extreme hydrothermal conditions. Short duration pyrolysis experiments revealed that a portion of the hydrocarbons generated from kerogen was observed to go through alkene intermediates, and the rate of alkene isomerization was influenced by the ionic strength and catalytic mineral phases. Confinement of the organic pyrolysate to the bulk sediment accelerated the rates of the biomarker epimerization reactions, suggesting that these reactions are influenced strongly by the association of the inorganic matrix, and that the relative rates of some ionic and radical reactions can be influenced by the water/rock ratio during the pyrolysis experiments.

  5. [Experimental sensorineural loss of hearing of ototoxic origin in animals: apoptotic mechanism of cell death in the spiral organ].

    PubMed

    Zolotova, T V; Panchenko, S N

    2010-01-01

    This morphological study was carried out using white rats with experimental sensorineural loss of hearing. A method for simulation of ototoxic loss of hearing in laboratory animals is proposed. Investigations with the use of light microscopy revealed elements of the apoptotic mechanism of cell death in the spiral organ of rats with sensorineural loss of hearing. It was shown that application of methods designed to influence the mechanisms involved in regulation of apoptosis in animals with experimental sensorineural loss of hearing either prevents or decreases the death of neuroepithelial and auxiliary cells of the spiral organ. PMID:21105341

  6. Selective alterations in organ sizes in mice with a targeted disruption of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 gene.

    PubMed

    Wood, T L; Rogler, L E; Czick, M E; Schuller, A G; Pintar, J E

    2000-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) is one member of the family of IGF binding proteins believed to have both endocrine functions elicited by modulating serum IGF half-life and transport as well as autocrine/paracrine functions that result from blocking or enhancing the availability of IGFs to bind cell surface receptors. To clarify the in vivo role of IGFBP-2, we have used gene targeting to introduce a null IGFBP-2 allele into the mouse genome. Animals homozygous for the altered allele are viable and fertile, contain no IGFBP-2 mRNA, and have no detectable IGFBP-2 in the adult circulation. Heterozygous and homozygous animals showed no significant differences in prenatal or postnatal body growth. Analyses of organ weights in adult males, however, revealed that spleen weight was reduced and liver weight was increased in the absence of IGFBP-2. In addition, ligand blot analyses of sera from adult IGFBP-2 null males showed that IGFBP-1, IGFBP-3, and IGFBP-4 levels were increased relative to wild-type mice. These results demonstrate that up-regulation of multiple IGFBPs accompanies the absence of IGFBP-2 and that IGFBP-2 has a critical role, either directly or indirectly, in modulating spleen and liver size. PMID:10976924

  7. Animals, Animals, Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Laz

    2006-12-16

    Third grade students may use this page for additional resources for their animal research. Use these links as part of your animal research: Desert Biome What Swims Beneath: Creatures of the Sea Scaly Surprises (ScienceWorld) Manatees AnimalPlanet.com: Mammal Guide Endangered Species Picture Book MIKIDS!: Mammals ZOOM MAMMALS - EnchantedLearning.com Smithsonian National Zoological Park Enchanted Learning: Zoom Sharks Shark School Sharks: Did You Know? Sharks: Myth and Mystery The Secret World of Sharks and Rays ...

  8. Animal manure application and soil organic carbon stocks: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Maillard, Émilie; Angers, Denis A

    2014-02-01

    The impact of animal manure application on soil organic carbon (SOC) stock changes is of interest for both agronomic and environmental purposes. There is a specific need to quantify SOC change for use in national greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories. We quantified the response of SOC stocks to manure application from a large worldwide pool of individual studies and determined the impact of explanatory factors such as climate, soil properties, land use and manure characteristics. Our study is based on a meta-analysis of 42 research articles totaling 49 sites and 130 observations in the world. A dominant effect of cumulative manure-C input on SOC response was observed as this factor explained at least 53% of the variability in SOC stock differences compared to mineral fertilized or unfertilized reference treatments. However, the effects of other determining factors were not evident from our data set. From the linear regression relating cumulative C inputs and SOC stock difference, a global manure-C retention coefficient of 12% ± 4 (95% Confidence Interval, CI) could be estimated for an average study duration of 18 years. Following an approach comparable to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, we estimated a relative SOC change factor of 1.26 ± 0.14 (95% CI) which was also related to cumulative manure-C input. Our results offer some scope for the refinement of manure retention coefficients used in crop management guidelines and for the improvement of SOC change factors for national GHG inventories by taking into account manure-C input. Finally, this study emphasizes the need to further document the long-term impact of manure characteristics such as animal species, especially pig and poultry, and manure management systems, in particular liquid vs. solid storage. PMID:24132954

  9. Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) Preference and Behavioral Response to Animated Images of Conspecifics Altered in Their Color, Aspect Ratio, and Swimming Depth

    PubMed Central

    Polverino, Giovanni; Liao, Jian Cong; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) is an example of a freshwater fish species whose remarkable diffusion outside its native range has led to it being placed on the list of the world’s hundred worst invasive alien species (International Union for Conservation of Nature). Here, we investigate mosquitofish shoaling tendency using a dichotomous choice test in which computer-animated images of their conspecifics are altered in color, aspect ratio, and swimming level in the water column. Pairs of virtual stimuli are systematically presented to focal subjects to evaluate their attractiveness and the effect on fish behavior. Mosquitofish respond differentially to some of these stimuli showing preference for conspecifics with enhanced yellow pigmentation while exhibiting highly varying locomotory patterns. Our results suggest that computer-animated images can be used to understand the factors that regulate the social dynamics of shoals of Gambusia affinis. Such knowledge may inform the design of control plans and open new avenues in conservation and protection of endangered animal species. PMID:23342131

  10. Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) preference and behavioral response to animated images of conspecifics altered in their color, aspect ratio, and swimming depth.

    PubMed

    Polverino, Giovanni; Liao, Jian Cong; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) is an example of a freshwater fish species whose remarkable diffusion outside its native range has led to it being placed on the list of the world's hundred worst invasive alien species (International Union for Conservation of Nature). Here, we investigate mosquitofish shoaling tendency using a dichotomous choice test in which computer-animated images of their conspecifics are altered in color, aspect ratio, and swimming level in the water column. Pairs of virtual stimuli are systematically presented to focal subjects to evaluate their attractiveness and the effect on fish behavior. Mosquitofish respond differentially to some of these stimuli showing preference for conspecifics with enhanced yellow pigmentation while exhibiting highly varying locomotory patterns. Our results suggest that computer-animated images can be used to understand the factors that regulate the social dynamics of shoals of Gambusia affinis. Such knowledge may inform the design of control plans and open new avenues in conservation and protection of endangered animal species. PMID:23342131

  11. Organic solvent alteration of hydraulic properties of sedimentary rocks of low permeability: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Sklarew, D.S.

    1985-05-01

    A review of the current literature on hydrophysical interactions of organic solutes with sedimentary rocks of low permeability is presented. The motivation was the premise that low permeability rocks may act as secondary (aquifer) barriers for the containment of hazardous organic wastes, thus preventing these wastes from contaminating the groundwater. However, this premise may be incorrect if organic wastes can affect the hydraulic conductivity of these rocks. The results indicate that very little work has been done concerning interactions of organics with consolidated subsurface materials. Available information on three related topics was summarized: the effect of organic compounds on the hydrophysical properties of clays, case studies concerning the interactions of organic compounds with clays and sedimentary rocks, and the effect of shales on inorganic transport. These studies give an indication of some research areas that need to be explored with regard to the effect of organic compounds on the hydrophysical properties of sedimentary rocks; these research needs are briefly summarized. 42 refs.

  12. Altered white matter connectivity and network organization in polymicrogyria revealed by individual gyral topology-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Im, Kiho; Paldino, Michael J; Poduri, Annapurna; Sporns, Olaf; Grant, P Ellen

    2014-02-01

    Polymicrogyria (PMG) is a cortical malformation characterized by multiple small gyri and altered cortical lamination, which may be associated with disrupted white matter connectivity. However, little is known about the topological patterns of white matter networks in PMG. We examined structural connectivity and network topology using individual primary gyral pattern-based nodes in PMG patients, overcoming the limitations of an atlas-based approach. Structural networks were constructed from structural and diffusion magnetic resonance images in 25 typically developing and 14 PMG subjects. The connectivity analysis for different fiber groups divided based on gyral topology revealed severely reduced connectivity between neighboring primary gyri (short U-fibers) in PMG, which was highly correlated with the regional involvement and extent of abnormal gyral folding. The patients also showed significantly reduced connectivity between distant gyri (long association fibers) and between the two cortical hemispheres. In relation to these results, gyral node-based graph theoretical analysis revealed significantly altered topological organization of the network (lower clustering and higher modularity) and disrupted network hub architecture in cortical association areas involved in cognitive and language functions in PMG patients. Furthermore, the network segregation in PMG patients decreased with the extent of PMG and the degree of language impairment. Our approach provides the first detailed findings and interpretations on altered cortical network topology in PMG related to abnormal cortical structure and brain function, and shows the potential for an individualized method to characterize network properties and alterations in connections that are associated with malformations of cortical development. PMID:23954485

  13. Comparative characteristic of mitochondria ultrastructural organization in Chlorella cells under altered gravity conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Popova

    2003-01-01

    Results from experiments that used cells from the unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris (strain Larg-1) grown on a clinostat, demonstrated the occurrence of rearrangements in cellular organelles, including changes in the mitochondrial ultrastructure compared to controls. Changes in mitochondrial structure were observed in auto- and heterotrophic regimes of cells grown in altered gravity conditions, especially in long-term experiments. The mitochondrial rearrangements

  14. Cheatgrass Invasion Alters Soil Morphology and Organic Matter Dynamics in Big Sagebrush Steppe Rangelands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay B. Norton; Thomas A. Monaco; Jeanette M. Norton; Douglas A. Johnson; Thomas A. Jones

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is an invasive annual grass that increases wildfire frequency, degrades native ecosys- tems, and threatens agriculture across vast areas of the Western United States. This research examines how cheatgrass invasion may alter physical and biological properties of soils. Proliferation of very fine roots and high production of low-quality litter by cheat- grass increases porosity and near-surface

  15. Systems approach to studying animal sociality: individual position versus group organization in dynamic social network models.

    PubMed

    Hock, Karlo; Ng, Kah Loon; Fefferman, Nina H

    2010-01-01

    Social networks can be used to represent group structure as a network of interacting components, and also to quantify both the position of each individual and the global properties of a group. In a series of simulation experiments based on dynamic social networks, we test the prediction that social behaviors that help individuals reach prominence within their social group may conflict with their potential to benefit from their social environment. In addition to cases where individuals were able to benefit from improving both their personal relative importance and group organization, using only simple rules of social affiliation we were able to obtain results in which individuals would face a trade-off between these factors. While selection would favor (or work against) social behaviors that concordantly increase (or decrease, respectively) fitness at both individual and group level, when these factors conflict with each other the eventual selective pressure would depend on the relative returns individuals get from their social environment and their position within it. The presented results highlight the importance of a systems approach to studying animal sociality, in which the effects of social behaviors should be viewed not only through the benefits that those provide to individuals, but also in terms of how they affect broader social environment and how in turn this is reflected back on an individual's fitness. PMID:21203425

  16. The effects of natural variation in background radioactivity on humans, animals and other organisms.

    PubMed

    Møller, Anders P; Mousseau, Timothy A

    2013-02-01

    Natural levels of radioactivity on the Earth vary by more than a thousand-fold; this spatial heterogeneity may suffice to create heterogeneous effects on physiology, mutation and selection. We review the literature on the relationship between variation in natural levels of radioactivity and evolution. First, we consider the effects of natural levels of radiation on mutations, DNA repair and genetics. A total of 46 studies with 373 effect size estimates revealed a small, but highly significant mean effect that was independent of adjustment for publication bias. Second, we found different mean effect sizes when studies were based on broad categories like physiology, immunology and disease frequency; mean weighted effect sizes were larger for studies of plants than animals, and larger in studies conducted in areas with higher levels of radiation. Third, these negative effects of radiation on mutations, immunology and life history are inconsistent with a general role of hormetic positive effects of radiation on living organisms. Fourth, we reviewed studies of radiation resistance among taxa. These studies suggest that current levels of natural radioactivity may affect mutational input and thereby the genetic constitution and composition of natural populations. Susceptibility to radiation varied among taxa, and several studies provided evidence of differences in susceptibility among populations or strains. Crucially, however, these studies are few and scattered, suggesting that a concerted effort to address this lack of research should be made. PMID:23136873

  17. Speciation and quantification of volatile organic compounds sorbed to PM 10 fraction associated with confined animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) associated with confined animal feeding operations (CAFO) is of regulatory interested due to the potential emissions of both ozone precursors compounds and hazardous air pollutants. Emissions of VOC from CAFO occur in both gaseous phase and sorption onto particulate ...

  18. Impact Metamorphism of Subsurface Organic Matter on Mars: A Potential Source for Methane and Surface Alteration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, D. Z.; Allen, C. C.; McKay, D. S.

    2005-01-01

    Reports of methane in the Martian atmosphere have spurred speculation about sources for that methane [1-3]. Discussion has centered on cometary/ meteoritic delivery, magmatic/mantle processes, UV-breakdown of organics, serpentinization of basalts, and generation of methane by living organisms. This paper describes an additional possibility: that buried organic remains from past life on Mars may have been generating methane throughout Martian history as a result of heating associated with impact metamorphism.

  19. A strategy for trade monitoring and substitution of the organs of threatened animals

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jiao-yang; Yan, Dan; Song, Jing-yuan; Zhang, Da; Xing, Xiao-yan; Han, Yu-mei; Yang, Mei-hua; Dong, Xiao-ping; Peng, Cheng; Chen, Shi-lin; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2013-01-01

    The use of threatened animals as a source of traditional medicines is accelerating the extinction of such species and imposes great challenges to animal conservation. In this study, we propose a feasible strategy for the conservation of threatened medicinal animals that combines trade monitoring and the search for substitutes. First, DNA barcoding provides a powerful technique for monitoring the trade of animal species, which helps in restricting the excessive use and illegal trade of such species. Second, pharmacological tests have been adopted to evaluate the biological equivalence of threatened and domestic animals; based on such testing, potential substitutes are recommended. Based on a review of threatened animal species and their substitutes, we find that the search for substitutes deserves special attention; however, this work is far from complete. These results may be of great value for the conservation of threatened animals and maintaining the heritage of traditional medicine. PMID:24173429

  20. AGE-ASSOCIATED ALTERATIONS IN SYMPATHETIC NORADRENERGIC INNERVATION OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY LYMPHOID ORGANS IN FEMALE FISCHER 344 RATS

    PubMed Central

    ThyagaRajan, Srinivasan; Madden, Kelley S.; Teruya, Brian; Stevens, Suzanne Y.; Felten, David L.; Bellinger, Denise L.

    2011-01-01

    Normal aging processes, as well as, psychological stress affect the immune system; each can act alone, or interact with each other, to cause dysregulation of immune function substantially altering physical and mental health. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS), a major mediator of stress effects on immune function, is significantly affected by normal aging process, and stress can affect aging of the SNS. Previously, we have shown age-associated changes in sympathetic noradrenergic (NA) innervation of lymphoid organs in male rodents that affect immune regulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate sympathetic innervation of lymphoid organs and associated alterations in immune responses in young and aging female Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Histofluorescence and immunocytochemistry for NA innervation, and neurochemistry for norepinephrine (NE) levels were performed in the thymus, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) isolated from 3-month-old young (normal estrous cycle), 8- to 9-month-old (onset of irregular estrous cycling), and 24–25 month, and 30–31 month female F344 rats (acyclic) at diestrus based on vaginal smears. Age-related alterations in natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-? (IFN-?) production, T and B lymphocyte proliferation were examined in splenocytes. Sympathetic NA innervation and NE levels increased with aging in the thymus, declined in spleen and MLN, and was accompanied by significant reductions in NK cell activity, IL-2 and IFN-? production, and T and B cell proliferation in old female rats. In 8–9 mo rats, NE levels in the hilar region of the spleen and IFN-? production were unaltered, while NE levels in the end region of the spleen and IL-2 production were reduced. Collectively, these results suggest that aging is characterized by significant alterations in sympathetic NA innervation in the thymus, spleen, and MLN associated with immunosuppression, and that there is a marked shift in NA activity and immune reactivity occurring during middle-aged female rats. PMID:21186063

  1. Sodium cyanide induced alteration in the whole animal oxygen consumption and behavioural pattern of freshwater fish Labeo rohita.

    PubMed

    David, Muniswamy; Sangeetha, Jeyabalan; Harish, Etigemane R

    2015-03-01

    Sodium cyanide is a common environmental pollutant which is mainly used in many industries such as mining, electroplating, steel manufacturing, pharmaceutical production and other specialized applications including dyes and agricultural products. It enters aquatic environment through effluents from these industries. Static renewal bioassay test has been conducted to determine LC, of sodium cyanide on indigenous freshwater carp, Labeo rohita. The behavioural pattern and oxygen consumption were observed in fish at both lethal and sub lethal concentrations. Labeo rohita in toxic media exhibited irregular and erratic swimming movements, hyper excitability, loss of equilibrium and shrinking to the bottom, which may be due to inhibition of cytochrome C oxidase activity and decreased blood pH. The combination of cytotoxic hypoxia with lactate acidosis depresses the central nervous system resulting in respiratory arrest and death. Decrease in oxygen consumption was observed at both lethal and sub lethal concentrations of sodium cyanide. Mortality was insignificant at sub lethal concentration test when fishes were found under stress. Consequence of impaired oxidative metabolism and elevated physiological response by fish against sodium cyanide stress showed alteration in respiratory rate. PMID:25895263

  2. Non-Invasive in vivo Mapping and Long-Term Monitoring of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Different Organs of Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, Maxim; Yuriev, Mikhail; Brusentsov, Nikolai; Vetoshko, Petr; Nikitin, Petr

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative detection of magnetic nanoparticles (MP) in vivo is very important for various biomedical applications. Our original detection method based on non-linear MP magnetization has been modified for non-invasive in vivo mapping of the MP distribution among different organs of rats. A novel highly sensitive room-temperature device equipped with an external probe has been designed and tested for quantification of MP within 20-mm depth from the animal skin. Results obtained by external in vivo scanning of rats by the probe and ex vivo MP quantification in different organs of rats well correlated. The method allows long-term in vivo study of MP evolution, clearance and redistribution among different organs of the animal. Experiments showed that dynamics in vivo strongly depend on MP characteristics (size, material, coatings, etc.), site of injection and dose. The developed detection method combined with the magnetic nanolabels can substitute the radioactive labeling in many applications.

  3. Characterizing non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumsey, Ian C.; Aneja, Viney P.; Lonneman, William A.

    2012-02-01

    Emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) were determined from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) in North Carolina. NMVOCs were measured in air samples collected in SUMMA and fused-silica lined (FSL) canisters and were analyzed using a gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID) system. Measurements were made from both an anaerobic lagoon and barn in each of the four seasonal sampling periods during the period June 2007 through April 2008. In each sampling period, nine to eleven canister samples were taken from both the anaerobic lagoon and barn over a minimum of four different days during a period of ˜1 week. Measurements of meteorological and physiochemical parameters were also made during the sampling period. In lagoon samples, six NMVOCs were identified that had significantly larger emissions in comparison to other NMVOCs. This included three alcohols (ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, and methanol), two ketones (acetone and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)) and an aldehyde (acetaldehyde). The overall average fluxes for these NMVOCs, ranged from 0.18 ?g m -2 min -1 for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol to 2.11 ?g m -2 min -1 for acetone, with seasonal fluxes highest in the summer for four (acetone, acetaldehyde, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and MEK) of the six compounds In barn samples, there were six NMVOCs that had significantly larger concentrations and emissions in comparison to other NMVOCs. These consisted of two alcohols (methanol and ethanol), an aldehyde (acetaldehyde), two ketones (acetone and 2,3-butanedione), and a phenol (4-methylphenol). Overall average barn concentration ranged from 2.87 ppb for 4-methylphenol to 16.12 ppb for ethanol. Overall average normalized barn emission rates ranged from 0.10 g day -1 AU -1 (1 AU (animal unit) = 500 kg of live animal weight) for acetaldehyde to 0.45 g day -1 AU -1 for ethanol. The NMVOCs, 4-methylphenol and 2,3-butanedione, which have low odor thresholds (odor thresholds = 1.86 ppb and 0.068-0.264 ppb for 4-methylphenol, and = 4.37 ppb and 1.42-7.39 ppb for 2-3-butanedione) and an offensive odor were identified in canister samples. Both 4-methylphenol and 2,3-butanedione barn concentrations exceeded their odor thresholds frequently. HAPs were identified in lagoon samples (methanol, acetaldehyde and MEK) and barn samples (methanol, acetaldehyde and 4-methylphenol) that were also classified as NMVOCs with significantly larger lagoon and barn emissions in comparison with other NMVOCs. The overall average lagoon fluxes and overall average normalized barn emissions for NMVOCs reported in this paper were used to estimate their North Carolina swine CAFO emissions. Of the NMVOCs, ethanol was estimated to have the largest North Carolina swine CAFO emission at 206,367 kg yr -1. The barns were found to have higher emissions than the lagoons for all NMVOCs, contributing between 68.6 to ˜100% of individual compounds estimated North Carolina swine CAFO emissions.

  4. The biochemical and morphological alterations following administration of melatonin, retinoic acid and Nigella sativa in mammary carcinoma: an animal model

    PubMed Central

    El-Aziz, Mohamad A Abd; Hassan, Hosny A; Mohamed, Mahmoud H; Meki, Abdel-Raheim M A; Abdel-Ghaffar, Sary K H; Hussein, Mahmoud R

    2005-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women and the third most common cancer. Although our understanding of the molecular basis of this fatal disease has improved, this malignancy remains elusive. Melatonin (Mel), retinoic acid (RA) and Nigella sativa (NS) are substances with anticancer effects. To date, our understanding of the mechanisms of therapeutic effects of these products in mammary cancer is still marginal. To look at the preventive and therapeutic values of these products, we carried out this investigation. An animal model formed of 80 rats was established. The animals were divided into eight groups of 10 animals each: (a) control group injected with the same vehicle used for treatments in the relevant dosages and routes; (b) carcinogen group injected with the known carcinogenic substance 7,12-di-methylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) that induces mammary carcinoma; (c) three prophylactic (Pro) groups (Mel-Pro, RA-Pro and NS-Pro) injected with test substances (Mel, RA and NS, respectively) 14 days before the intake of the carcinogenic substance DMBA and then continued until the end of the experiments; and (d) three treated (Tr) groups (Mel-Tr, RA-Tr and NS-Tr) injected with the vehicles after the intake of DMBA. In both the Pro and Tr groups, the drugs were daily administered for 3 months. The animals were killed, and their serum and tissues were evaluated for (a) markers of tumorigenicity [serum levels of total sialic acid (TSA) and lipid-bound sialic acid (LSA)], (b) markers of endocrine derangement (serum prolactin, estradiol and progesterone levels), (c) apoptotic changes [serum tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-?, tissue caspase-3 activity, percentage of DNA fragmentation and ultrastructural features of apoptosis] and (d) markers of oxidative stress (tissue levels of lipid peroxides and nitric oxide). Carcinoma was absent both in the control and in the NS-Pro groups. Mammary carcinoma occurred in DMBA and other Pro and Tr groups. The frequency of mammary carcinoma was high in the carcinogen DMBA group (60%), followed by the Tr (56%) and finally the Pro groups (33%). These tumours included papillary, comedo and cribriform carcinomas. As compared with the control group, the development of carcinoma in the carcinogen DMBA group was associated with increased levels of (a) markers of tumorigenicity (77.0 ± 3.3 vs. 209.0 ± 5.6 and P < 0.05 for TSA; 28.7 ± 1.7 vs. 41.8 ± 1.2 and P < 0.01 for LSA), (b) markers of endocrine derangement (2.5 ± 0.1 vs. 3.6 ± 0.3 and P < 0.05 for prolactin; 39.6 ± 1.3 vs. 24.8 ± 2.1 and P < 0.01 for progesterone and 31.0 ± 0.7 vs. 51.1 ± 3.4 and P < 0.01 for estradiol) and (c) markers of oxidative stress (2.3 ± 0.2 vs. 5.2 ± 0.7 and P < 0.01 for lipid peroxides and 4.4 ± 0.2 vs. 7.6 ± 0.8 and P < 0.01 for nitric oxide). Also, it was associated with decreased levels of markers of apoptotic activity (20.8 ± 1.1 vs. 13.4 ± 0.7 and P < 0.01 for caspase-3; 29.0 ± 1.7 vs. 20.9 ± 1.3 and P < 0.05 for percentage of DNA fragmentation; and 9.4 ± 0.8 vs. 52.1 ± 3.3 and P < 0.01 for TNF-?). When compared with the carcinogen DMBA group, the development of carcinoma in the Pro and Tr groups was associated with decreased levels of (a) markers of tumorigenicity, (b) markers of endocrine derangement and (c) markers of oxidative stress. Alternatively, carcinogenicity was associated with statistically significant (P < 0.01) increased levels of markers of apoptotic activity. To conclude, the administration of Mel, RA and NS reduced the carcinogenic effects of DMBA, suggesting a protective role. The possible underlying mechanisms of these effects await further investigations. PMID:16309544

  5. Meningeal/vascular alterations and loss of extracellular matrix in the neurogenic zone of adult BTBR T+ tf/J mice, animal model for autism.

    PubMed

    Mercier, Frederic; Cho Kwon, Youngsu; Kodama, Rich

    2011-07-12

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by impaired social and communication skills and seem to result from altered neural development. We sought to determine whether the anatomy of the meninges and extracellular matrix (ECM) is altered in an animal model of autism, the BTBR T+ tf/J mouse. This mouse displays white matter tract anatomical defects and exhibits several symptoms of autism. Immunofluorescence cytochemistry for laminin, a major ECM marker, was performed on series of coronal sections of the adult BTBR T+ tf/J brain and the anatomy was analyzed in comparison to B6 wild type mice. Laminin immunoreactivity visualized meninges, blood vessels and the subventricular zone (SVZ) stem cell-associated ECM structures, which I have named fractones. All BTBR T+ tf/J mice observed showed the same forebrain defects. The lateral ventricle volume was severely reduced, the falx cerebri elongated, the arteries enlarged and the choroid plexus atrophied. Compared to B6 mice, fractone numbers in BTBR T+ tf/J mice were reduced by a factor three in the SVZ of the anterior portion of the lateral ventricle. This represents the primary neurogenic zone during adulthood. Fractones were reduced by a factor 1.5 in posterior portions of the lateral ventricle. Moreover, fractone size was reduced throughout the lateral ventricle SVZ. These results show hitherto unsuspected alterations in connective tissue/vasculature and associated ECM in the adult BTBR T+ tf/J mouse. The drastic changes of the connective tissue and ECM in the neurogenic zone of the lateral ventricle may contribute to incorrect neurogenesis during developmental and adult stages. PMID:21600960

  6. Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hollie Hall; Yuncong Li; Nicholas Comerford; Enrique Arévalo Gardini; Luis Zuniga Cernades; Virupax Baligar; Hugh Popenoe

    2010-01-01

    In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted\\u000a in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical\\u000a agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nutrient cycling, and soil organic matter pools. The objective of this experiment\\u000a was to assess the affect

  7. Comparative characteristic of mitochondria ultrastructural organization in Chlorella cells under altered gravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Popova, A F

    2003-01-01

    Results from experiments that used cells from the unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris (strain Larg-1) grown on a clinostat, demonstrated the occurrence of rearrangements in cellular organelles, including changes in the mitochondrial ultrastructure compared to controls. Changes in mitochondrial structure were observed in auto- and heterotrophic regimes of cells grown in altered gravity conditions, especially in long-term experiments. The mitochondrial rearrangements become apparent during cell proliferation, which resulted in an increase in the relative volume of mitochondria per cell: up to 2.7 +/- 0.3% in short-term clino-rotation (2.2 +/- 0.1% in the control) and up to 5.3 +/- 0.4% and 5.1 +/- 0.4% in long-term clinorotation (2.3 +/- 0.2% in the control). The size of the mitochondria and their cristae increased in cells grown under long-time clinorotation. In addition, hypertrophied organelles, not typical for this strain, were observed. These changes in the cells were accompanied by increased electron density of the matrix and a well-ordered topography of the cristae. To examine the separation of oxidative phosphorylation and respiration, an inhibitory agent 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) was applied to cells which resulted in insignificant volume changes of the mitochondria (2.5 +/- 0.4% versus 2.1 +/- 0.2% in the control). The increase of mitochondrial size with regularly arranged cristae, with more condensed matrix and extension of cristae areas of clino-rotated cells, may demonstrate higher functional activity of the mitochondria under altered gravity conditions. Changes observed early in clinorotated cells, in particular the increased level of respiration, adenylate content (especially ATP) and more intensive electron-cytochemical reactions of Mg2(+)-ATPase and succinate [correction of succinat] dehydrogenase (SDH) in mitochondria (including hypertrophic organelles), also suggest increased activity of mitochondria from cells grown under altered gravity conditions compared to controls. PMID:14686440

  8. Comparative characteristic of mitochondria ultrastructural organization in Chlorella cells under altered gravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, A. F.

    2003-05-01

    Results from experiments that used cells from the unicellular alga Chlorella vulgaris (strain Larg-1) grown on a clinostat, demonstrated the occurrence of rearrangements in cellular organelles, including changes in the mitochondrial ultrastructure compared to controls. Changes in mitochondrial structure were observed in auto- and heterotrophic regimes of cells grown in altered gravity conditions, especially in long-term experiments. The mitochondrial rearrangements become apparent during cell proliferation, which resulted in an increase in the relative volume of mitochondria per cell: up to 2.7±0.3% in short-term clino-rotation (2.2±0.1% in the control) and up to 5.3±0.4% and 5.1±0.4% in long-term clino-rotation (2.3±0.2% in the control). The size of the mitochondria and their cristae increased in cells grown under long-time clino-rotation. In addition, hypertrophied organelles, not typical for this strain, were observed. These changes in the cells were accompanied by increased electron density of the matrix and a well-ordered topography of the cristae. To examine the separation of oxidative phosphorylation and respiration, an inhibitory agent 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) was applied to cells which resulted in insignificant volume changes of the mitochondria (2.5±0.4% versus 2.1±0.2% in the control). The increase of mitochondrial size with regularly arranged cristae, with more condensed matrix and extension of cristae areas of clino-rotated cells, may demonstrate higher functional activity of the mitochondria under altered gravity conditions. Changes observed early in clino-rotated cells, in particular the increased level of respiration, adenylate content (especially ATP) and more intensive electron-cytochemical reactions of Mg 2+-ATPase and succinat dehydrogenase (SDH) in mitochondria (including hypertrophic organelles), also suggest increased activity of mitochondria from cells grown under altered gravity conditions compared to controls.

  9. Nicotine pharmacokinetics in rats is altered as a function of age, impacting the interpretation of animal model data.

    PubMed

    Craig, Evelyn L; Zhao, Bin; Cui, Jason Z; Novalen, Maria; Miksys, Sharon; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2014-09-01

    Several behavioral studies report that adolescent rats display a preference for nicotine compared with adults. However, age-related pharmacokinetic differences may confound the interpretation of these findings. Thus, differences in pharmacokinetic analyses of nicotine were investigated. Nicotine was administered via acute s.c. (1.0 mg base/kg) or i.v. (0.2 mg base/kg) injection to early adolescent (EA; postnatal day 25) and adult (AD; postnatal day 71) male Wistar rats. Nicotine and its primary metabolite, cotinine, and additional metabolites nornicotine, nicotine-1'-N-oxide, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, and norcotinine were sampled from 10 minutes to 8 hours (plasma) and 2 to 8 hours (brain) post nicotine and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Following s.c. nicotine, the EA cohort had lower levels of plasma nicotine, cotinine, and nicotine-1'-N-oxide at multiple time points, resulting in a lower area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for nicotine (P < 0.001), cotinine (P < 0.01), and nicotine-1'-N-oxide (P < 0.001). Brain levels were also lower for these compounds. In contrast, the EA cohort had higher plasma and brain AUCs (P < 0.001) for the minor metabolite nornicotine. Brain-to-plasma ratios varied for nicotine and its metabolites, and by age. Following i.v. nicotine administration, similar age-related differences were observed, and this route allowed detection of a 1.6-fold-larger volume of distribution and 2-fold higher plasma clearance in the EA cohort compared with the AD cohort. Thus, unlike in humans, there are substantial age differences in nicotine pharmacokinetics such that for a given nicotine dose, adolescent rats will have lower plasma and brain nicotine compared with adults, suggesting that this should be considered when interpreting animal model data. PMID:24980255

  10. Methodology and application of gc-ms to study altered organic binding media from objects of the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.

    PubMed

    Pitthard, Václav; Griesser, Martina; Stanek, Sabine

    2006-01-01

    Within the Kunsthistorisches Museum (KHM), Vienna, three off-line GC-MS analytical procedures for the identification of natural organic media have been refined, tested, and validated on a series of reference materials (partly artificially aged) to apply this knowledge for investigations of original, historic works of art from the museum's collections. At first, a set of artificially aged mockups has been prepared and a reference database has been built up for the identification of drying oils, resins, waxes, proteins and polysaccharides. Some interesting observations concerning the alteration of the composition of these organic media during different ageing steps are presented in the following text. In addition, some selected examples for the application of the refined techniques for the analysis of real samples from various museum objects are shown. PMID:17172209

  11. Matching plant and animal processes to alter nutrient supply in strip-grazed cattle: timing of herbage and fasting allocation.

    PubMed

    Gregorini, P; Gunter, S A; Beck, P A

    2008-04-01

    This work aimed to assess the impact of timing of herbage allocation and fasting on patterns of ingestive behavior, herbage intake, ruminal fermentation, nutrient flow to the duodenum, and site and extent of digestion. Treatments were daily herbage allocation in the afternoon (1500 h, AHA), morning (0800 h, MHA), AHA after 20 h of fasting (AHAF), and MHA after 20 h of fasting (MHAF). Four ruminally and duodenally fistulated heifers (279 +/- 99 kg of BW) individually strip-grazed wheat pastures in a Latin-square design. Eating, rumination, and idling behavior were recorded every 2 min, and bite and eating step rates were measured hourly while the heifers were grazing (11 h MHA and AHA; 4 h MHAF and AHAF). Ruminal DM pools were measured 4 times daily (0800, 1200, 1500, and 1900 h) to estimate daily herbage DMI and its pattern. Ruminal fluid was sampled at these same times and also at 2300 h. Duodenal digesta was sampled over 2 d to determine the site of herbage digestibility. Treatments did not affect daily herbage DMI (16.5 g/ kg of BW, SE = 0.0025; P > 0.05). However, they altered the eating pattern; the evening grazing bout of AHA and AHAF was greater (P < 0.05) and more intense (P < 0.05 for bite mass and rate, eating step, and intake rates). Ruminal nonglucogenic:glucogenic VFA ratio and pH were lower (P < 0.05) for AHA and AHAF during the evening. The flow of OM, N, microbial protein, and nonmicrobial OM to the duodenum did not vary (P > 0.05) among MHA, MHAF, and AHAF; however, it averaged 970, 40, 300, and 540 g/d, respectively, greater (P < 0.05) for AHA. Total tract digestibility did not differ (P > 0.05) for MHA, AHA, and AHAF, but was lower for MHAF (P < 0.05). Apparent ruminal digestion did not differ (P > 0.05) within fasted and nonfasted treatments; however, it was greater (P < 0.05) for fasted than nonfasted treatments. True OM ruminally digested did not differ (P > 0.05) among MHA, MHAF, and AHAF, but was greater (P < 0.05) for AHA. The results demonstrate the strong link between ingestion and digestion patterns, and its impact on nutrient supply. At the same amount of resource allocation, nutrient supply to grazing cattle can be modified through strategic grazing management. PMID:18192561

  12. INSOLUBLE Fe-RELATED INORGANIC AND ORGANIC PHOSPHATES IN ANIMAL MANURE AND SOIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identifying and quantifying insoluble and reducible P species in animal manure and soil are important issues in environmental P chemistry. We applied a joint dithionite-3-phytase incubation at pH 5.0 (100 mM acetate buffer) to investigate reducible P in animal manure and soil. After removal of solub...

  13. Alteration of cancer pain-related signals by radiation: Proteomic analysis in an animal model with cancer bone invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hee Chul [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Jinsil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jsseong@yumc.yonsei.ac.kr; An, Jung Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiyoung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Un Jung [Yonsei Medical Research Center, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bae Whan [Yonsei Medical Research Center, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: Although radiotherapy is highly effective in relieving bone pain due to cancer invasion, its mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore this mechanism in an animal model system. Methods and Materials: A hind paw model of cancer pain was developed by transplanting a murine hepatocarcinoma, HCa-1, into the periosteal membrane of the foot dorsum of C3H/HeJ mice. Bone invasion from HCa-1 was histopathologically confirmed from sequential tumor sampling. For three experimental groups, a control (N), tumor without radiation (T), and tumor with radiation (TR), the development and level of pain were objectively examined in mice with a growing tumor by assessing pain-associated behavior. The differential expression of pain-related signals in the spinal cord was analyzed by proteomic analysis using high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry, and those of proteins by Western blotting. The pain-mediating neurotransmitters in the spinal cord were also examined by immunohistochemical staining for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P. Results: In the histopathologic examinations, bone invasion from HCa-1 was seen from Day 7 and was evident at Day 14 after transplantation, and measurable pain-associated behaviors were developed from Day 7. After 25 Gy of radiation to the tumors, the objective level of pain in the TR group decreased, with higher thresholds to mechanical and thermal stimulation than in the T group. From the 2-DE of spinal cord, 107 spots were identified; 12 proteins were changed more than fivefold because of tumor formation but then reversed after radiation in the tumor-bearing mice. The proteins involved included secretagogin, syntenin, P2X purinoreceptor 6 (P2X6), and Ca{sup 2+}/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1 (CaM kinase 1), the functions of which have been known to be involved in the Ca{sup 2+}-signaling cascade, ATP-mediated fast synaptic transmission, or control of vesicular trafficking. Validations using Western blotting were successful for the CaM kinase and P2X6. In immunohistochemical staining of the spinal cord, a significant decrease after irradiation was shown in the expression of CGRP, but not in substance P. Conclusions: We developed a novel model for bone pain due to cancer invasion, which was confirmed by histopathologic examination and measurable pain-associated behaviors. Radiotherapy decreased the objective level of pain. The underlying mechanism seems to be related to the Ca{sup 2+}-signaling cascade or control of vesicular trafficking.

  14. Programmed pyrolysis of organic matter from thermally altered Cretaceous black shales

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, K.E.; Hunt, J.M.; Tarafa, M.E.; Whelan, J.K.

    1983-11-01

    Organic-rich Cretaceous black shales from the Cape Verde Rise in the eastern Atlantic were penetrated by hot diabase sills during the Miocene. Programmed pyrolysis and pyrolysis-gas chromatography of organic matter from core samples taken at various distances from a major sill were used to show: the type of kerogen, its relative level of thermal maturity, the fraction of pyrolyzable organic compounds which are free, and the compositions of the bitumen and kerogen. The dominant factor affecting these sediments appears to be thermal maturity rather than differences in the quality of the organic matter. Systematic changes in the pyrolyzate resulted from thermal cracking of volatile organics from the oil-prone Type II kerogen. Generation of these products caused progressive aromatization of the residual kerogen closer to the sill. These conclusions are supported by changes in kerogen elemental compositions, quantity of bitumen extract, and vitrinite reflectance. Although the major sill is 15 m (about 50 ft) thick, solvent extraction and pyrolysis results show that hydrocarbon generation was restricted to within about 10 m (about 33 ft) of the shale/sill contacts. At equal distances, the maximum temperature reached by the shales was higher above than below the sill. The reflectance of vitrinite responds more rapidly than bitumen composition to high temperatures imposed over a short time.

  15. Biogeochemical alteration of dissolved organic material in the Cape Fear River Estuary as a function of freshwater discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Jennifer L.; Helms, John R.; Kieber, Robert J.; Avery, G. Brooks

    2014-08-01

    This study presents the first extensive examination of the controls on optical properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) within the Cape Fear River Estuary (CFRE) utilizing spectral slope ratios (SR). The application of SUVA254 values, absorption spectral slopes (S) and SR values has presented a distinct opportunity to observe compositional changes in CDOM in the CFRE that was not possible using bulk DOC and aCDOM(350) values alone. By comparing estuarine trends in CDOM spectral shape during both normal and historically low flow conditions, we found that diagenetic processing of CDOM in the CFRE is controlled primarily by riverine discharge rates. These findings suggest that the chromophoric fraction of DOM is altered during estuarine transport under low flow regimes but reaches the coastal ocean relatively unaltered under higher flow conditions. This highlights the tendency for autochthonous sources of DOC to offset photochemical losses and indicates that in situ DOC production can significantly contribute to the overall carbon load if discharge is low or sufficient biogeochemical alteration of the terrestrial DOM end-member occurs. This provides new insight into the usefulness of these optical properties into understanding the cycling, fate and transport of CDOM to the coastal ocean. SR values provide a simple but potentially powerful tool in understanding the flux, transport and impact of terrestrially derived organic material deposited in the coastal ocean.

  16. Estimation of the blood flow through a peripheral organ (kidney) using the technique of isotope dilution after i.v. injection in animal experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-D. Herrmann; H. Ludt; H. Palleske; G. Harbauer

    1973-01-01

    Summary Animal experiments were carried out to prove that it is possible to estimate the blood flow through peripheral organs with the isotope dilution technique after intravenous injection. It could be shown that the mathematical treatment of the dilution events in three mixing chambers in a row, presented in a foregoing paper, is valid also for the animal organism where

  17. Grazer exclusion alters plant spatial organization at multiple scales, increasing diversity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Gilbert, Benjamin; Wang, Wenbin; Liu, Junjie; Zhou, Shurong

    2013-01-01

    Grazing is one of the most important factors influencing community structure and productivity in natural grasslands. Understanding why and how grazing pressure changes species diversity is essential for the preservation and restoration of biodiversity in grasslands. We use heavily grazed subalpine meadows in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau to test the hypothesis that grazer exclusion alters plant diversity by changing inter- and intraspecific species distributions. Using recently developed spatial analyses combined with detailed ramet mapping of entire plant communities (91 species), we show striking differences between grazed and fenced areas that emerged at scales of just one meter. Species richness was similar at very small scales (0.0625 m2), but at larger scales diversity in grazed areas fell below 75% of corresponding fenced areas. These differences were explained by differences in spatial distributions; intra- and interspecific associations changed from aggregated at small scales to overdispersed in the fenced plots, but were consistently aggregated in the grazed ones. We conclude that grazing enhanced inter- and intraspecific aggregations and maintained high diversity at small scales, but caused decreased turnover in species at larger scales, resulting in lower species richness. Our study provides strong support to the theoretical prediction that inter- and intraspecific aggregation produces local spatial patterns that scale-up to affect species diversity in a community. It also demonstrates that the impacts of grazing can manifest through this mechanism, lowering diversity by reducing spatial turnover in species. Finally, it highlights the ecological and physiological plant processes that are likely responding to grazing and thereby altering aggregation patterns, providing new insights for monitoring, and mediating the impacts of grazing. PMID:24223294

  18. Saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes alters the biogeochemical processing of organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, S. C.; Franklin, R. B.; Berrier, D. J.

    2013-07-01

    Environmental perturbations in wetlands affect the integrated plant-microbial-soil system, causing biogeochemical responses that can manifest at local to global scales. The objective of this study was to determine how saltwater intrusion affects carbon mineralization and greenhouse gas production in coastal wetlands. Working with tidal freshwater marsh soils that had experienced roughly 3.5 yr of in situ saltwater additions, we quantified changes in soil properties, measured extracellular enzyme activity associated with organic matter breakdown, and determined potential rates of anaerobic carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) production. Soils from the field plots treated with brackish water had lower carbon content and higher C : N ratios than soils from freshwater plots, indicating that saltwater intrusion reduced carbon availability and increased organic matter recalcitrance. This was reflected in reduced activities of enzymes associated with the hydrolysis of cellulose and the oxidation of lignin, leading to reduced rates of soil CO2 and CH4 production. The effects of long-term saltwater additions contrasted with the effects of short-term exposure to brackish water during three-day laboratory incubations, which increased rates of CO2 production but lowered rates of CH4 production. Collectively, our data suggest that the long-term effect of saltwater intrusion on soil CO2 production is indirect, mediated through the effects of elevated salinity on the quantity and quality of autochthonous organic matter inputs to the soil. In contrast, salinity, organic matter content, and enzyme activities directly influence CH4 production. Our analyses demonstrate that saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes affects the entire process of carbon mineralization, from the availability of organic carbon through its terminal metabolism to CO2 and/or CH4, and illustrate that long-term shifts in biogeochemical functioning are not necessarily consistent with short-term disturbance-type responses.

  19. Saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes alters the biogeochemical processing of organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, S. C.; Franklin, R. B.; Berrier, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental perturbations in wetlands affect the integrated plant-microbial-soil system, causing biogeochemical responses that can manifest at local to global scales. The objective of this study was to determine how saltwater intrusion affects carbon mineralization and greenhouse gas production in coastal wetlands. Working with tidal freshwater marsh soils that had experienced ~ 3.5 yr of in situ saltwater additions, we quantified changes in soil properties, measured extracellular enzyme activity associated with organic matter breakdown, and determined potential rates of anaerobic carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) production. Soils from the field plots treated with brackish water had lower carbon content and higher C : N ratios than soils from freshwater plots, indicating that saltwater intrusion reduced carbon availability and increased organic matter recalcitrance. This was reflected in reduced activities of enzymes associated with the hydrolysis of cellulose and the oxidation of lignin, leading to reduced rates of soil CO2 and CH4 production. The effects of long-term saltwater additions contrasted with the effects of short-term exposure to brackish water during three-day laboratory incubations, which increased rates of CO2 production but lowered rates of CH4 production. Collectively, our data suggest that the long-term effect of saltwater intrusion on soil CO2 production is indirect, mediated through the effects of elevated salinity on the quantity and quality of autochthonous organic matter inputs to the soil. In contrast, salinity, organic matter content, and enzyme activities directly influence CH4 production. Our analyses demonstrate that saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes affects the entire process of carbon mineralization, from the availability of organic carbon through its terminal metabolism to CO2 and/or CH4, and illustrate that long-term shifts in biogeochemical functioning are not necessarily consistent with short-term disturbance-type responses.

  20. Real-Time Synthesis of 3D Animations by Learning Parametric Gaussians Using Self-Organizing Mixture Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Wang; Hujun Yin; Li-zhu Zhou; Zhi-qiang Liu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel real-time approach to synthesizing 3D character animations of required style by adjusting\\u000a a few parameters or scratching mouse cursor. Our approach regards learning captured 3D human motions as parametric Gaussians\\u000a by the self-organizing mixture network (SOMN). The learned model describes motions under the control of a vector variable\\u000a called the style variable, and

  1. Transport and Breakdown of Organic Matter in Urban and Forested Streams: The Effects of Altered Hydrology and Landscape Position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belt, K. T.; Swan, C. M.; Pouyat, R. V.; Kaushal, S.; Groffman, P. M.; Stack, W. P.; Fisher, G. T.

    2006-05-01

    A better understanding of how urbanization and trees interact to alter organic matter transport and cycling is needed to assess retention in catchments and streams, as well as to estimate the magnitude of carbon fluxes to the atmosphere and to downstream aquatic ecosystems. The influx of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM/DOC) to headwater streams normally originates within or near riparian areas, and is important to aquatic food webs in stream ecosystems. Urban catchments, however, have huge effective drainage densities (due to storm drainage infrastructure), which facilitate a POM/DOC "gutter subsidy" to streams that dwarfs riparian inputs and alters benthic litter quality (and represents a major short-circuit in the carbon vegetation-soil cycle.) We measured in-situ leaf litter breakdown rates, flows, DOC, BOD and nutrients in forested, suburban and urban streams of the BES LTER and Baltimore City DPW sampling networks, which encompassed a variety of urban and rural landscapes. Sycamore and Planetree leaf litter in-situ experiments revealed faster breakdown rates for suburban and urban landscape litter than for riparian litter, with rates being much faster than literature values for forested catchments. DOC, BOD and nutrient data (storm and dry weather) from BES/DPW stream sites showed much higher concentrations and loads in the more urbanized catchments and indicate the streams are likely heterotrophic and experience transient but high dissolved oxygen demands. High nutrient concentrations, faster litter breakdown rates, and substantially higher upland urban fluxes of organic matter (particulate and dissolved) in urban streams suggest that export rates are likely substantially higher than in forested systems and that carbon loads to both downstream aquatic systems and to the atmosphere (as CO2) are substantial.

  2. Approaches to extrapolating animal toxicity data on organic solvents to public health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing predictive relationships between exposure and toxicity in humans is difficult because 1) available data are usually derived from experimental animals whose sensitivity to the chemical relative to humans is unknown; 2) the specific neurotoxic endpoints measured in labor...

  3. Mathematical forecasting methods for predicting lead contents in animal organs on the basis of the environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Czech, Tomasz; Gambu?, Florian; Wieczorek, Jerzy

    2014-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine and describe the lead transfer in the soil-plant-animal system in areas polluted with this metal at varying degrees, with the use of mathematical forecasting methods and data mining tools contained in the Statistica 9.0 software programme. The starting point for the forecasting models comprised results derived from an analysis of different features of soil and plants, collected from 139 locations in an area covering 100km(2) around a lead-zinc ore mining and processing plant ('Boleslaw'), at Bukowno in southern Poland. In addition, the lead content was determined in the tissues and organs of 110 small rodents (mainly mice) caught in the same area. The prediction models, elaborated with the use of classification algorithms, forecasted with high probability the class (range) of pollution in animal tissues and organs with lead, based on various soil and plant properties of the study area. However, prediction models which use multilayer neural networks made it possible to calculate the content of lead (predicted versus measured) in animal tissues and organs with an excellent correlation coefficient. PMID:25262112

  4. Organic components of nuclear wastes and their potential for altering radionuclide distribution when released to soil

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, K.M.

    1980-08-01

    Normal waste processing at the Hanford operations requires the use of many organic materials, chiefly in the form of complexing agents and diluents. These organic materials and their chemical and radiolytic degradation products, have potential for complexing fission products and transuranium elements, both in the waste streams and upon infiltration into soil, perhaps influencing future sorption or migration of the nuclides. Particular complexation characteristics of various nuclides which constitute the major fission products, long-lived isotopes, and the most mobile in radioactive wastes are discussed briefly with regards to their anticipated sorption or mobility in soils. Included in the discussion are Am, Sb, Ce, Cs, Co, Cm, Eu, I, Np, Pm, Pu, Ra, Ru, Sr, Tc, U, and Zr. 107 references.

  5. Exogenous phosphorus inputs alter complexity of soil-dissolved organic carbon in agricultural riparian wetlands.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng; Zhang, Zhijian; He, Qiang; Wang, Hang; Li, Xia; Schoer, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    High-strengthened farmland fertilization leads to mass inputs of nutrients and elements to agricultural riparian wetlands. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of such wetland sediments is an important intermediate in global carbon (C) cycling due to its role in connecting soil C pools with atmospheric CO2. But the impact of phosphorus (P) on sediment DOC is still largely unknown, despite increasing investigations to emphasize P interception by riparian wetlands. Here, we simulated the temporal influences of exogenous P on sediment DOC of riparian wetlands by integrating gradient P loading at rates of 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 60% relative to the initial total phosphorus content of the sediment with the purpose of illustrating the role of external P on the complexity of soil DOC in terms of its amount and composition. After incubating for nine months, a dramatic linear correlation between Olsen-P and fluorescent and ultraviolet spectral indices considered DOC skeleton was observed. Together with a more microbial-derived origin of DOC and a reduction of DOC aromaticity or humicity, the excitation-emission matrix had shown a blue shift reflecting a trend towards a simpler molecular structure of sediment DOC after P addition. Meanwhile, the content of soil DOC and its ratio with total organic carbon (TOC) were also increased by P loading, coupled with enhanced values of highly labile organic carbon and two C-related enzymes. While TOC and recalcitrant organic carbon decreased significantly. Such implications of DOC amounts and composition stimulated by external P loading may enhance its bioavailability, thereby inducing an accelerated effect on soil C cycling and a potential C loss in response to global climate change. PMID:24182404

  6. Butenolide inhibits marine fouling by altering the primary metabolism of three target organisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Huoming; He, Lisheng; Liu, Changdong; Xu, Ying; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-06-15

    Butenolide is a very promising antifouling compound that inhibits ship hull fouling by a variety of marine organisms, but its antifouling mechanism was previously unknown. Here we report the first study of butenolide's molecular targets in three representative fouling organisms. In the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite, butenolide bound to acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1), which is involved in ketone body metabolism. Both the substrate and the product of ACAT1 increased larval settlement under butenolide treatment, suggesting its functional involvement. In the bryozoan Bugula neritina, butenolide bound to very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADVL), actin, and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). ACADVL is the first enzyme in the very long chain fatty acid ?-oxidation pathway. The inhibition of this primary pathway for energy production in larvae by butenolide was supported by the finding that alternative energy sources (acetoacetate and pyruvate) increased larval attachment under butenolide treatment. In marine bacterium Vibrio sp. UST020129-010, butenolide bound to succinyl-CoA synthetase ? subunit (SCS?) and inhibited bacterial growth. ACAT1, ACADVL, and SCS? are all involved in primary metabolism for energy production. These findings suggest that butenolide inhibits fouling by influencing the primary metabolism of target organisms. PMID:22458453

  7. Mutations in M2 alter the selectivity of the mouse nicotinic acetylcholine receptor for organic and alkali metal cations

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    We measured the permeability ratios (PX/PNa) of 3 wild-type, 1 hybrid, 2 subunit-deficient, and 22 mutant nicotinic receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes for alkali metal and organic cations using shifts in the bi-ionic reversal potential of the macroscopic current. Mutations at three positions (2', 6', 10') in M2 affected ion selectivity. Mutations at position 2' (alpha Thr244, beta Gly255, gamma Thr253, delta Ser258) near the intracellular end of M2 changed the organic cation permeability ratios as much as twofold and reduced PCs/PNa and PK/PNa by 16-18%. Mutations at positions 6' and 10' increased the glycine ethyl ester/Na+ and glycine methyl ester/Na+ permeability ratios. Two subunit alterations also affected selectivity: omission of the delta subunit reduced PCs/PNa by 16%, and substitution of Xenopus delta for mouse delta increased Pguanidinium/PNa more than twofold and reduced PCs/PNa by 34% and PLi/PNa by 20%. The wild-type mouse receptor displayed a surprising interaction with the primary ammonium cations; relative permeability peaked at a chain length equal to four carbons. Analysis of the organic permeability ratios for the wild-type mouse receptor shows that (a) the diameter of the narrowest part of the pore is 8.4 A; (b) the mouse receptor departs significantly from size selectivity for monovalent organic cations; and (c) lowering the temperature reduces Pguanidinium/PNa by 38% and Pbutylammonium/PNa more than twofold. The results reinforce present views that positions -1' and 2' are the narrowest part of the pore and suggest that positions 6' and 10' align some permeant organic cations in the pore in an interaction similar to that with channel blocker, QX-222. PMID:1431803

  8. Prenatal poly I:C age-dependently alters cannabinoid type 1 receptors in offspring: a longitudinal small animal PET study using [(18)F]MK-9470.

    PubMed

    Verdurand, Mathieu; Dalton, Victoria S; Nguyen, Vu; Grégoire, Marie-Claude; Zahra, David; Wyatt, Naomi; Burgess, Leena; Greguric, Ivan; Zavitsanou, Katerina

    2014-07-01

    Evidence suggests that there is a link between the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and neuropsychiatric illnesses, including schizophrenia. Whilst the ECS has been shown to be involved in immune system regulation in various ways, it is known that infections during pregnancy can modulate the immune system of the mother and increase the risk for schizophrenia in offspring. In animal studies, maternal immune activation following administration of viral or bacterial mimics has been shown to reproduce many key structural, behavioural, and pharmacological abnormalities in offspring that resemble schizophrenia. In the present study, we used Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and [(18)F]MK-9470, a selective high-affinity inverse agonist radioligand for cannabinoid type 1 receptors (CB1R), to longitudinally assess CB1R expression in the progeny of female rats exposed to the viral mimic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (poly I:C) (4mg/kg i.v.) or vehicle at gestational day 15 (GD 15). PET scans were performed in offspring at postnatal days (PND) 32-42 (adolescence) and in the same animals again at PNDs 75-79 (adulthood). Sixteen regions of interest were assessed, encompassing the whole rat brain. At adolescence, offspring exposed prenatally to poly I:C had significantly lower CB1R relative Standard Uptake Values (rSUV) compared to controls in the globus pallidus (p=0.046). In adulthood, however, poly I:C exposed offspring had higher levels of CB1R rSUV in sensory cortex (p=0.034) and hypothalamus (p=0.032) compared to controls. Our results suggest that prenatal poly I:C leads to long term alterations in the integrity of the ECS that are age and region-specific. The increased CB1R expression in adulthood following poly I:C mirrors the increased CB1R observed in patients with schizophrenia in post-mortem and in vivo PET studies. PMID:24825369

  9. Hydrothermal alteration of organic matter in uranium ores, Elliot Lake, Canada: Implications for selected organic-rich deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Mossman, D.J. [Mount Allison Univ., Sackville (Canada)] [Mount Allison Univ., Sackville (Canada); Nagy, B. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States)] [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States); Davis, D.W. [Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1993-07-01

    Organic matter in the uraniferous Matinenda Formation, Elliot Lake, is preserved in the forms of syngenetic kerogen and solid bitumen as it is in many of the Oklo uranium deposits and in the Witwatersrand gold-uranium ores. The Elliot Lake kerogen is a vitrinite-like material considered to be remnants of the Precambrian cyanobacterial mats. The kerogen at Elliot Lake has reflectances (in oil) ranging from 2.63-7.31% RO{sub max}, high aromaticity, relatively low (0.41-0.60) atomic H/C ratios, and it contains cryptocrystalline graphite. Bitumen, present primarily as dispersed globules (up to 0.5 mm dia.), has reflectances from 0.72-1.32% RO{sub max}, atomic H/C ratios of 0.71-0.81, and is somewhat less aromatic than the kerogen. Overall similarity in molecular compositions indicates that liquid bitumen was derived from kerogen by processes similar to hydrous pyrolysis. The carbon isotopic composition of kerogen ({minus}15.62 to {minus}24.72%), and the now solid bitumen ({minus}25.91 to {minus}33.00%) are compatible with these processes. Despite having been subjected to several thermal episodes, ca. 2.45 Ga old kerogen of microbiological origin here survived as testimony of the antiquity of life on Earth. U-Pb isotopic data from discrete kerogen grains at Elliot Lake form a scattered array intersecting concordia at 2130 {+-} 100 Ma, correspond to the Nipissing event. U-Pb systems were totally reset by this event. Uranium and lead show subsequently partial mobility, the average of which is indicated by the lower concordia intersect of 550 {+-} 260 Ma. The migrated bitumen contains virtually no uranium and thorium but has a large excess of {sup 206}Pb, which indicates that the once liquid bitumen must have acted as a sink for mobile intermediate decay products of {sup 238}U. Emplacement of the Nipissing diabase may have been responsible for producing the bitumen and, indirectly, for its enrichment in {sup 206}Pb as a result of outgassing of {sup 222}Rn.

  10. Elevated temperature alters proteomic responses of individual organisms within a biofilm community.

    PubMed

    Mosier, Annika C; Li, Zhou; Thomas, Brian C; Hettich, Robert L; Pan, Chongle; Banfield, Jillian F

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities that underpin global biogeochemical cycles will likely be influenced by elevated temperature associated with environmental change. Here, we test an approach to measure how elevated temperature impacts the physiology of individual microbial groups in a community context, using a model microbial-based ecosystem. The study is the first application of tandem mass tag (TMT)-based proteomics to a microbial community. We accurately, precisely and reproducibly quantified thousands of proteins in biofilms growing at 40, 43 and 46?°C. Elevated temperature led to upregulation of proteins involved in amino-acid metabolism at the level of individual organisms and the entire community. Proteins from related organisms differed in their relative abundance and functional responses to temperature. Elevated temperature repressed carbon fixation proteins from two Leptospirillum genotypes, whereas carbon fixation proteins were significantly upregulated at higher temperature by a third member of this genus. Leptospirillum group III bacteria may have been subject to viral stress at elevated temperature, which could lead to greater carbon turnover in the microbial food web through the release of viral lysate. Overall, these findings highlight the utility of proteomics-enabled community-based physiology studies, and provide a methodological framework for possible extension to additional mixed culture and environmental sample analyses. PMID:25050524

  11. Environmental concentration of nonylphenol alters the development of urogenital and visceral organs in avian model.

    PubMed

    Roig, Benoit; Cadiere, Axelle; Bressieux, Stephanie; Biau, Sandrine; Faure, Sandrine; de Santa Barbara, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) is an endocrine disruptor with harmful effects including feminization and carcinogenesis on various organisms. This substance is a degradation product of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEO) that is used in several industrial and agricultural processes. In this paper, we examined the assessment of NP exposure on chick embryo development, using a concentration consistent with the environmental concentrations of NP. With this aim, NP (between 0.1 and 50 ?g/egg) was injected into the yolk of egg through a small needle hole in the shell. We report the effect of NP on chick reproductive system development although the effect we observed is lower than those observed by exposition to other endocrine disruptors. However, histological analysis highlighted a decrease of intraluminal seminiferous surface area in 64.12% of case (P=0.0086) and an heterogeneous organization of the renal tubules when 10 ?g/egg were injected. Moreover, an impairment of liver development with an abnormal bile spillage was observed when higher concentration of NP was injected (50 ?g/egg). PMID:24184662

  12. Biochemical and physiological alterations in female reproductive organs of cyclic rats treated with aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera Lam.

    PubMed

    Shukla, S; Mathur, R; Prakash, A O

    1988-01-01

    Biochemical and physiological alterations have been observed in the genital tract of female cyclic rats treated with aqueous extract of M. oleifera Lam. Its administration caused a significant increase in the glycogen contents, protein concentration, activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase and the level of total cholesterol in all the organs at initial days of treatment. However, at longer days of treatment the values revealed a significant depletion. Initially its administration stimulated the uterine structures, caused metaplastic changes in the cervical epithelium and provoked considerable cornification in the vaginal epithelium. At later durations significant inhibition in the histoarchitecture was observed. Biochemical observations supplemented with the histological findings have been correlated with the anti-implantation action of the aqueous extract in the light of its hormonal properties. PMID:3227756

  13. Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Ki; Lee, Woei Ming; Kim, Pilhan; Choi, Myunghwan; Jung, Keehoon; Kim, Seonghoon; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Intravital fluorescence microscopy has emerged as a powerful technique to visualize cellular processes in vivo. However, the size of the objective lenses has limited physical accessibility to various tissue sites in the internal organs of small animals. The use of small-diameter probes using graded-index (GRIN) lenses expands the capabilities of conventional intravital microscopes into minimally invasive internal organs imaging. In this protocol, we describe the detailed steps for the fabrication of front- and side-view GRIN probes and the integration and operation of the probes in a confocal microscope for visualizing fluorescent cells and microvasculature in various murine organs. We further present longitudinal imaging of immune cells in renal allografts and the tumor development in the colon. The fabrication and integration can be completed in 5–7 hours, and a typical in vivo imaging session takes 1–2 hours. PMID:22767088

  14. How reservoirs alter drinking water quality: Organic matter sources, sinks, and transformations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Hernes, Peter J.; Doctor, Daniel H.; Kendall, Carol; Downing, Bryan D.; Losee, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Within reservoirs, production, transformation, and loss of dissolved organic matter (DOM) occur simultaneously. While the balance between production and loss determines whether a reservoir is a net sink or source of DOM, changes in chemical composition are also important because they affect DOM reactivity with respect to disinfection by-product (DBP) formation. The composition of the DOM pool also provides insight into DOM sources and processing, which can inform reservoir management. We examined the concentration and composition of DOM in San Luis Reservoir, a large off-stream impoundment of the California State Water Project. We used a wide array of DOM chemical tracers including dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, trihalomethane and haloacetic acid formation potentials (THMFP and HAAFP, respectively), absorbance properties, isotopic composition, lignin phenol content, and structural groupings determined by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). There were periods when the reservoir was a net source of DOC due to the predominance of algal production (summer), a net sink due to the predominance of degradation (fall–winter), and balanced between production and consumption (spring). Despite only moderate variation in bulk DOC concentration (3.0–3.6 mg C/L), changes in DOM composition indicated that terrestrial-derived material entering the reservoir was being degraded and replaced by aquatic-derived DOM produced within the reservoir. Substantial changes in the propensity of the DOM pool to form THMs and HAAs illustrate that the DBP precursor pool was not directly coupled to bulk DOC concentration and indicate that algal production is an important source of DBP precursors. Results suggest reservoirs have the potential to attenuate DOM amount and reactivity with respect to DBP precursors via degradative processes; however, these benefits can be decreased or even negated by the production of algal-derived DOM.

  15. Animal Ecology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This tutorial introduces students to the concept of animal ecology. The first section explains the different ways animals use camouflage. There is also a discussion of how the process of decay breaks organic matter down into nutrients, and how simple aquatic organisms (algae, zooplankton) provide a food source for larger organisms. The concept of food chains is introduced, and land-based and aquatic examples are described. A quiz and glossary are included.

  16. Self organized character animation based on learned synergies from full-body motion capture data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aee-Ni Park; Albert Mukovskiy; Lars Omlor; Martin A. Giese

    2008-01-01

    We present a learning-based method for the real- time synthesis of trajectories for character animation. The method is based on the approximation of complex move- ments by a small set of spatial movement primitives, or synergies. Applying kernel methods, such learned primitives are associated with nonlinear dynamical systems that, similar to central pattern generators in biological systems, produce highly complex

  17. Actions of adiponectin on the excitability of subfornical organ neurons are altered by food deprivation.

    PubMed

    Alim, Ishraq; Fry, W Mark; Walsh, Michael H; Ferguson, Alastair V

    2010-05-12

    Adiponectin (ADP) is a peptide produced by adipose tissue, which acts as an insulin sensitizing hormone. Recent studies have shown that adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) are present in the CNS, and although adiponectin does appear in both circulation and the cerebrospinal fluid there is still some debate as to whether or not ADP crosses the blood brain barrier (BBB). Circumventricular organs (CVO) are CNS sites which lack normal BBB, and thus represent sites at which circulating adiponectin may act to directly influence the CNS. The subfornical organ (SFO) is a CVO that has been implicated in the regulation of energy balance as a consequence of the ability of SFO neurons to respond to a number of different circulating satiety signals including amylin, CCK, PYY and ghrelin. Our recent microarray analysis suggested the presence of adiponectin receptors in the SFO. We report here that the SFO shows a high density of mRNA for both adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2), and that ADP influences the excitability of dissociated SFO neurons. Separate subpopulations of SFO neurons were either depolarized (8.9+/-0.9 mV, 21 of 97 cells), or hyperpolarized (-8.0+/-0.5 mV, 34 of 97 cells), by bath application of 10nM ADP, effects which were concentration dependent and reversible. Our microarray analysis also suggested that 48 h of food deprivation resulted in specific increases in AdipoR2 mRNA expression (no effect on AdipoR1 mRNA), observations which we confirm here using real-time PCR techniques. The effects of food deprivation also resulted in a change in the responsiveness of SFO neurons to adiponectin with 77% (8/11) of cells tested responding to adiponectin with depolarization, while no hyperpolarizations were observed. These observations support the concept that the SFO may be a key player in sensing circulating ADP and transmitting such information to critical CNS sites involved in the regulation of energy balance. PMID:20206611

  18. Thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baedecker, M. J.; Ikan, R.; Ishiwatari, R.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1977-01-01

    The fate of naturally occurring lipids and pigments in a marine sediment exposed to elevated temperatures was studied. Samples of a young marine sediment from Tanner Basin, California, were heated to a series of temperatures (65-200 C) for varying periods of time (7-64 days). The sediment was analyzed prior to and after heating for pigments, isoprenoid compounds, alcohols, fatty acids, and hydrocarbons. Structural changes caused by heating unextractable organic material (kerogen) were also studied, and the significance of the results for understanding petroleum genesis is considered. Among other results, fatty acids and hydrocarbons increased in abundance although there appeared to be no obvious precursor-to-product relationship via simple decarboxylation reactions. Chlorins were partially converted into porphyrins. The phytyl side chain of pheophytin was initially preserved intact by reduction of the phytyl double bond, but later converted to a variety of isoprenoid compounds including alkanes. Thermal grafting of components onto kerogen occurred as well as structural changes caused by heat.

  19. A variant of Rubus yellow net virus with altered genomic organization.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Lara, Alfredo; Mosier, Nola J; Keller, Karen E; Martin, Robert R

    2015-02-01

    Rubus yellow net virus (RYNV) is a member of the genus Badnavirus (family: Caulimoviridae). RYNV infects Rubus species causing chlorosis of the tissue along the leaf veins, giving an unevenly distributed netted symptom in some cultivars of red and black raspberry. Recently, a strain of RYNV was sequenced from a Rubus idaeus plant in Alberta, Canada, exhibiting such symptoms. The viral genome contained seven open reading frames (ORFs) with five of them in the sense-strand, including a large polyprotein. Here we describe a graft-transmissible strain of RYNV from Europe infecting cultivar 'Baumforth's Seedling A' (named RYNV-BS), which was sequenced using rolling circle amplification, enzymatic digestion, cloning and primer walking, and it was resequenced at a 5X coverage. This sequence was then compared with the RYNV-Ca genome and significant differences were observed. Genomic analysis identified differences in the arrangement of coding regions, promoter elements, and presence of motifs. The genomic organization of RYNV-BS consisted of five ORFs (four ORFs in the sense-strand and one ORF in the antisense-strand). ORFs 1, 2, and 3 showed a high degree of homology to RYNV-Ca, while ORFs 4 and 6 of RYNV-BS were quite distinct. Also, the predicted ORFs 5 and 7 in the RYNV-Ca were absent in the RYNV-BS sequence. These differences may account for the lack of aphid transmissibility of RYNV-BS. PMID:25480633

  20. In Situ Alteration of Isotopic and Molecular Compositions of Organic Matter in Lake Erie Sediment Over a Two-Decade Interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Y.; Meyers, P. A.; Eadie, B. J.; Robbins, J. A.

    2006-12-01

    The organic matter in lake sediments provides a variety of proxies to reconstruct paleoenvironmental histories. Total organic carbon concentrations reflect past productivity in and around the lake. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios similarly record past productivity and also remineralization and recycling processes. Biomarker molecules are particularly informative as "geochemical fossils" in that they are good indicators of sedimentary biological sources and depositional environments. However, organic matter compositions are potentially altered by early diagenesis and may thus bias paleoenvironmental interpretations. To assess the impacts of diagenesis on organic geochemical proxies, we collected two cores in 1982 and 2003 from the same location in Lake Erie, and we compared proxies from same-age sediment horizons that had been preserved for two decades by freezing with those that had remained at in situ conditions in the lake bottom. Organic carbon concentrations are lower and both organic d13C and total d15N values are higher in the sediment that had experienced in situ diagenesis. Three classes of biomarker molecules (n-alkanes, n-alcohols and fatty acids) that have different susceptibilities to alteration were studied in these two cores to better understand the nature of the diagenetic impacts evident in the bulk organic matter. Because the diagenetic alterations of the organic matter proxies are modest, the environmental impacts of industrialization and urbanization are preserved in both cores.

  1. Mutations in TUBGCP4 Alter Microtubule Organization via the ?-Tubulin Ring Complex in Autosomal-Recessive Microcephaly with Chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Scheidecker, Sophie; Etard, Christelle; Haren, Laurence; Stoetzel, Corinne; Hull, Sarah; Arno, Gavin; Plagnol, Vincent; Drunat, Séverine; Passemard, Sandrine; Toutain, Annick; Obringer, Cathy; Koob, Mériam; Geoffroy, Véronique; Marion, Vincent; Strähle, Uwe; Ostergaard, Pia; Verloes, Alain; Merdes, Andreas; Moore, Anthony T; Dollfus, Hélène

    2015-04-01

    We have identified TUBGCP4 variants in individuals with autosomal-recessive microcephaly and chorioretinopathy. Whole-exome sequencing performed on one family with two affected siblings and independently on another family with one affected child revealed compound-heterozygous mutations in TUBGCP4. Subsequent Sanger sequencing was performed on a panel of individuals from 12 French families affected by microcephaly and ophthalmic manifestations, and one other individual was identified with compound-heterozygous mutations in TUBGCP4. One synonymous variant was common to all three families and was shown to induce exon skipping; the other mutations were frameshift mutations and a deletion. TUBGCP4 encodes ?-tubulin complex protein 4, a component belonging to the ?-tubulin ring complex (?-TuRC) and known to regulate the nucleation and organization of microtubules. Functional analysis of individual fibroblasts disclosed reduced levels of the ?-TuRC, altered nucleation and organization of microtubules, abnormal nuclear shape, and aneuploidy. Moreover, zebrafish treated with morpholinos against tubgcp4 were found to have reduced head volume and eye developmental anomalies with chorioretinal dysplasia. In summary, the identification of TUBGCP4 mutations in individuals with microcephaly and a spectrum of anomalies in eye development, particularly photoreceptor anomalies, provides evidence of an important role for the ?-TuRC in brain and eye development. PMID:25817018

  2. Genetic variants of human organic anion transporter 4 demonstrate altered transport of endogenous substrates.

    PubMed

    Shima, James E; Komori, Takafumi; Taylor, Travis R; Stryke, Doug; Kawamoto, Michiko; Johns, Susan J; Carlson, Elaine J; Ferrin, Thomas E; Giacomini, Kathleen M

    2010-10-01

    Apical reabsorption from the urine has been shown to be important for such processes as the maintenance of critical metabolites in the blood and the excretion of nephrotoxic compounds. The solute carrier (SLC) transporter OAT4 (SLC22A11) is expressed on the apical membrane of renal proximal tubule cells and is known to mediate the transport of a variety of xenobiotic and endogenous organic anions. Functional characterization of genetic variants of apical transporters thought to mediate reabsorption, such as OAT4, may provide insight into the genetic factors influencing the complex pathways involved in drug elimination and metabolite reclamation occurring in the kidney. Naturally occurring genetic variants of OAT4 were identified in public databases and by resequencing DNA samples from 272 individuals comprising 4 distinct ethnic groups. Nine total nonsynonymous variants were identified and functionally assessed using uptake of three radiolabeled substrates. A nonsense variant, R48Stop, and three other variants (R121C, V155G, and V155M) were found at frequencies of at least 2% in an ethnic group specific fashion. The L29P, R48Stop, and H469R variants displayed a complete loss of function, and kinetic analysis identified a reduced V(max) in the common nonsynonymous variants. Plasma membrane levels of OAT4 protein were absent or reduced in the nonfunctional variants, providing a mechanistic reason for the observed loss of function. Characterization of the genetic variants of reabsorptive transporters such as OAT4 is an important step in understanding variability in tubular reabsorption with important implications in innate homeostatic processes and drug disposition. PMID:20668102

  3. Substrate quality alters microbial mineralization of added substrate and soil organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadamma, S.; Mayes, M. A.; Steinweg, J. M.; Schaeffer, S. M.

    2014-03-01

    The rate and extent of decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is dependent on substrate chemistry and microbial dynamics. Our objectives were to understand the influence of substrate chemistry on microbial processing of carbon (C), and to use model fitting to quantify differences in pool sizes and mineralization rates. We conducted an incubation experiment for 270 days using four uniformly-labeled 14C substrates (glucose, starch, cinnamic acid and stearic acid) on four different soils (a temperate Mollisol, a tropical Ultisol, a sub-arctic Andisol, and an arctic Gelisol). The 14C labeling enabled us to separate CO2 respired from added substrates and from native SOC. Microbial gene copy numbers were quantified at days 4, 30 and 270 using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Substrate C respiration was always higher for glucose than other substrates. Soils with cinnamic and stearic acid lost more native SOC than glucose- and starch-amended soils, despite an initial delay in respiration. Cinnamic and stearic acid amendments also exhibited higher fungal gene copy numbers at the end of incubation compared to unamended soils. We found that 270 days was sufficient to model decomposition of simple substrates (glucose and starch) with three pools, but was insufficient for more complex substrates (cinnamic and stearic acid) and native SOC. This study reveals that substrate quality imparts considerable control on microbial decomposition of newly added and native SOC, and demonstrates the need for multi-year incubation experiments to constrain decomposition parameters for the most recalcitrant fractions of SOC and added substrates.

  4. Substrate quality alters the microbial mineralization of added substrate and soil organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadamma, S.; Mayes, M. A.; Steinweg, J. M.; Schaeffer, S. M.

    2014-09-01

    The rate and extent of decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is dependent, among other factors, on substrate chemistry and microbial dynamics. Our objectives were to understand the influence of substrate chemistry on microbial decomposition of carbon (C), and to use model fitting to quantify differences in pool sizes and mineralization rates. We conducted an incubation experiment for 270 days using four uniformly labeled 14C substrates (glucose, starch, cinnamic acid and stearic acid) on four different soils (a temperate Mollisol, a tropical Ultisol, a sub-arctic Andisol, and an arctic Gelisol). The 14C labeling enabled us to separate CO2 respired from added substrates and from native SOC. Microbial gene copy numbers were quantified at days 4, 30 and 270 using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Substrate C respiration was always higher for glucose than other substrates. Soils with cinnamic and stearic acid lost more native SOC than glucose- and starch-amended soils. Cinnamic and stearic acid amendments also exhibited higher fungal gene copy numbers at the end of incubation compared to unamended soils. We found that 270 days were sufficient to model the decomposition of simple substrates (glucose and starch) with three pools, but were insufficient for more complex substrates (cinnamic and stearic acid) and native SOC. This study reveals that substrate quality exerts considerable control on the microbial decomposition of newly added and native SOC, and demonstrates the need for multi-year incubation experiments to constrain decomposition parameters for the most recalcitrant fractions of SOC and complex substrates.

  5. Microfabricated Mammalian Organ Systems and Their Integration into Models of Whole Animals and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jong H; Esch, Mandy B; Prot, Jean-Matthieu; Long, Christopher J; Smith, Alec; Hickman, James; Shuler, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    While in vitro cell based systems have been an invaluable tool in biology, they often suffer from a lack of physiological relevance. The discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo systems has been a bottleneck in drug development process and biological sciences. The recent progress in microtechnology has enabled manipulation of cellular environment at a physiologically relevant length scale, which has led to the development of novel in vitro organ systems, often termed ‘organ-on-a-chip’ systems. By mimicking the cellular environment of in vivo tissues, various organ-on-a-chip systems have been reported to reproduce target organ functions better than conventional in vitro model systems. Ultimately, these organ-on-a-chip systems will converge into multi-organ ‘body-on-a-chip’ systems composed of functional tissues that reproduce the dynamics of the whole-body response. Such microscale in vitro systems will open up new possibilities in medical science and in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:23388858

  6. Interactions between Seagrass Complexity, Hydrodynamic Flow and Biomixing Alter Food Availability for Associated Filter-Feeding Organisms

    PubMed Central

    González-Ortiz, Vanessa; Egea, Luis G.; Jiménez-Ramos, Rocio; Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Pérez-Lloréns, José L.; Bouma, Tjeed J.; Brun, Fernando G.

    2014-01-01

    Seagrass shoots interact with hydrodynamic forces and thereby a positively or negatively influence the survival of associated species. The modification of these forces indirectly alters the physical transport and flux of edible particles within seagrass meadows, which will influence the growth and survivorship of associated filter-feeding organisms. The present work contributes to gaining insight into the mechanisms controlling the availability of resources for filter feeders inhabiting seagrass canopies, both from physical (influenced by seagrass density and patchiness) and biological (regulated by filter feeder density) perspectives. A factorial experiment was conducted in a large racetrack flume, which combined changes in hydrodynamic conditions, chlorophyll a concentration in the water and food intake rate (FIR) in a model active filter-feeding organism (the cockle). Results showed that seagrass density and patchiness modified both hydrodynamic forces and availability of resources for filter feeders. Chlorophyll a water content decreased to 50% of the initial value when densities of both seagrass shoots and cockles were high. Also, filter feeder density controlled resource availability within seagrass patches, depending on its spatial position within the racetrack flume. Under high density of filter-feeding organisms, chlorophyll a levels were lower between patches. This suggests that the pumping activity of cockles (i.e. biomixing) is an emergent key factor affecting both resource availability and FIR for filter feeders in dense canopies. Applying our results to natural conditions, we suggest the existence of a direct correlation between habitat complexity (i.e. shoot density and degree of patchiness) and filter feeders density. Fragmented and low-density patches seem to offer both greater protection from hydrodynamic forces and higher resource availability. In denser patches, however, resources are allocated mostly within the canopy, which would benefit filter feeders if they occurred at low densities, but would be limiting when filter feeder were at high densities. PMID:25162510

  7. Interactions between seagrass complexity, hydrodynamic flow and biomixing alter food availability for associated filter-feeding organisms.

    PubMed

    González-Ortiz, Vanessa; Egea, Luis G; Jiménez-Ramos, Rocio; Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Pérez-Lloréns, José L; Bouma, Tjeed J; Brun, Fernando G

    2014-01-01

    Seagrass shoots interact with hydrodynamic forces and thereby a positively or negatively influence the survival of associated species. The modification of these forces indirectly alters the physical transport and flux of edible particles within seagrass meadows, which will influence the growth and survivorship of associated filter-feeding organisms. The present work contributes to gaining insight into the mechanisms controlling the availability of resources for filter feeders inhabiting seagrass canopies, both from physical (influenced by seagrass density and patchiness) and biological (regulated by filter feeder density) perspectives. A factorial experiment was conducted in a large racetrack flume, which combined changes in hydrodynamic conditions, chlorophyll a concentration in the water and food intake rate (FIR) in a model active filter-feeding organism (the cockle). Results showed that seagrass density and patchiness modified both hydrodynamic forces and availability of resources for filter feeders. Chlorophyll a water content decreased to 50% of the initial value when densities of both seagrass shoots and cockles were high. Also, filter feeder density controlled resource availability within seagrass patches, depending on its spatial position within the racetrack flume. Under high density of filter-feeding organisms, chlorophyll a levels were lower between patches. This suggests that the pumping activity of cockles (i.e. biomixing) is an emergent key factor affecting both resource availability and FIR for filter feeders in dense canopies. Applying our results to natural conditions, we suggest the existence of a direct correlation between habitat complexity (i.e. shoot density and degree of patchiness) and filter feeders density. Fragmented and low-density patches seem to offer both greater protection from hydrodynamic forces and higher resource availability. In denser patches, however, resources are allocated mostly within the canopy, which would benefit filter feeders if they occurred at low densities, but would be limiting when filter feeder were at high densities. PMID:25162510

  8. DNA ALTERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The exposure of an organism to genotoxic chemicals may induce a cascade of genetic events. nitially, structural alterations to DNA are formed. ext, the DNA damage is processed and subsequently expressed in mutant gene products. inally, diseases result from the genetic damage. he ...

  9. Proceeding with clinical trials of animal to human organ transplantation: a way out of the dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Ravelingien, A; Mortier, F; Mortier, E; Kerremans, I; Braeckman, J

    2004-01-01

    The transplantation of porcine organs to humans could in the future be a solution to the worldwide organ shortage, but is to date still highly experimental. Further research on the potential effects of crossing the species barrier is essential before clinical application is acceptable. However, many crucial questions on efficacy and safety will ultimately only be answered by well designed and controlled solid organ xenotransplantation trials on humans. This paper is concerned with the question under which conditions, given the risks involved and the ethical issues raised, such clinical trials should be resumed. An alternative means of overcoming the safety and ethical issues is suggested: willed body donation for scientific research in the case of permanent vegetative status. This paper argues that conducting trials on such bodies with prior consent is preferable to the use of human subjects without lack of brain function. PMID:14872084

  10. Development and Temporal Organization of Repetitive Behavior in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Tanimura, Yoko; Yang, Mark C.K.; Ottens, Andrew K.

    2013-01-01

    Despite repetitive behaviors being a common feature of a number of clinical disorders and ubiquitous in normative development, little attention has been given to their ontogeny or temporal dynamics. We characterized these features in a mouse model of repetitive behavior to identify discrete trajectories of development and developmental changes in temporal dynamics. Three qualitatively distinct trajectory groups were identified which allowed for an examination of the interaction between temporal organization and developmental trajectory. Significant differences in temporal dynamics were found across development and among trajectory groups. Significant interactions of trajectory group and developmental period on temporal organization were also found. The combination of group-based trajectory modeling and a novel method for analysis and graphic depiction of temporal organization allowed for the exploration of the interplay between these two fundamental behavioral processes. Such methods may be useful tools in the assessment and treatment of repetitive behavior in clinical populations. PMID:20607792

  11. Comparison of organ-specific toxicity of temafloxacin in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Krasula, R W; Pernet, A G

    1991-12-30

    This article summarizes animal studies conducted to determine the toxic and mutagenic potential of temafloxacin. The four target tissues of potential concern with fluoroquinolone use are the kidney, the eye, the weight-bearing joints of young animals, and the central nervous system. Based on the results of these studies in rats and dogs, it appears unlikely that crystalluria or nephrotoxicity will occur in humans who receive temafloxacin. Pre-marketing clinical trials in humans (n = 5,308) correlate well with chronic toxicity animal studies, reporting no crystalluria or clinically significant nephrotoxicity. Reversible electroretinographic (ERG) changes in dog studies were demonstrated only with the administration of high temafloxacin dosages. A Phase I study evaluating the safety of temafloxacin at 600 mg b.i.d. for 14 days in human subjects reported no significant changes in ophthalmologic parameters. Evidence of cartilaginous joint damage was observed in puppies receiving oral temafloxacin, in young dogs receiving intravenous temafloxacin, and in a single dog receiving a lethal dosage in a dose range-finding study. However, these toxic findings were not evident in any dogs in the subacute or chronic oral toxicity studies or in a longer duration intravenous study. Although limited evidence would suggest that young children may not be at risk, thorough clinical investigations of quinolones in these patients have only recently been initiated. Signs of central nervous system toxicity caused by temafloxacin were absent in two rodent studies, during which clonic convulsions were induced by concomitant use of fenbufen plus enoxacin or ciprofloxacin, and in human subjects evaluated by positron emission tomography. Temafloxacin, contrary to most other quinolones, was considered nonmutagenic in all mutagenicity tests conducted. In reproductive studies, temafloxacin was not uniquely toxic to the developing conceptus in the laboratory rat, mouse, rabbit, or primate. Based on these animal studies, temafloxacin appears to be non-mutagenic and to have a low potential for producing renal or ocular toxicity; however, like other quinolones, it should not be routinely used in children or pregnant women because of evidence of cartilage damage reported in young dogs. Premarketing clinical trials to date confirm the safety of temafloxacin use in adults. PMID:1662894

  12. Unintended Thermal Injuries from Radiofrequency Ablation: Organ Protection with an Angioplasty Balloon Catheter in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Knuttinen, Martha-Grace; Van Ha, Thuong G.; Reilly, Christopher; Montag, Anthony; Straus, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate a novel approach of using a balloon catheter as a protective device to separate liver from the diaphragm or nearby bowel during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of hepatic dome tumors in an animal model. Materials and Methods: All experimental procedures were approved by animal Institutional Review Board. Using a 3 cm RF needle electrode, 70 hepatic ablation zones were created using ultrasound in 7 pigs. 50 lesions were created using balloon interposition between liver and diaphragm; 20 lesions were created using the balloon device interposed posteriorly between liver and bowel. Additional 21 control lesions were performed. Animals were sacrificed immediately; diaphragm and bowel were then visually inspected and sectioned. Diaphragmatic and bowel injury was then classified according to the depth of thickness. Results: Control lesions caused full thickness injury, either to diaphragm or bowel. During ablation of lesions with balloon interposition, there was significantly less diaphragmatic injury, P < 0.001 and less bowel injury, P < 0.01. Conclusion: Using balloon interposition as a protective device has advantages over previous saline infusion or CO2 insufflation, providing a safe way to expand percutaneous RFA of liver tumors located on the undersurface of the diaphragm. In addition, this method may be used in protection of other organs adjacent to areas being ablated. PMID:24678433

  13. Animal-to-human organ transplants--a solution or a new problem?

    PubMed Central

    Daar, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Xenotransplantation is seen by some mainly as an opportunity and by others mainly as a danger. It could help overcome the shortage of organs from human donors, but it raises a number of questions, particularly about safety, ethics and human nature. This article reviews the progress of research, debate and decision-making in this area. PMID:10063663

  14. Model organisms, 2D animationSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-10-06

    Each model organism has its own advantages and disadvantages. Choosing an appropriate model depends on the question being asked. Many laboratories find it useful to perform parallel experiments in two or more model systems to understand different aspects of a biochemical process.

  15. Alteration of floral organ identity by over-expression of IbMADS3-1 in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mi-Rae; Seo, Sang-Gyu; Kim, Ji-Seoung; Joen, Seo-Bum; Kang, Seung-Won; Lee, Gung-Pyo; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Kim, Sun-Hyung

    2011-04-01

    The MADS-box genes have been studied mainly in flower development by researching flower homeotic mutants. Most of the MADS-box genes isolated from plants are expressed exclusively in floral tissues, and some of their transcripts have been found in various vegetative tissues. The genes in the STMADS subfamily are important in the development of whole plants including roots, stems, leaves, and the plant vascular system. IbMADS3-1, which is in the STMADS subfamily, and which has been cloned in Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., is expressed in all vegetative tissues of the plant, particularly in white fibrous roots. Sequence similarity, besides the spatial and temporal expression patterns, enabled the definition of a novel MADS-box subfamily comprising STMADS16 and the other MADS-box genes in STMADS subfamily expressed specifically in vegetative tissues. Expression of IbMADS3-1 was manifest by the appearance of chlorophyll-containing petals and production of characteristic changes in organ identity carpel structure alterations and sepaloidy of the petals. In reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis with a number of genes known to be key regulators of floral organ development, the flowering promoter NFL1 was clearly reduced at the RNA level compared with wild type in transgenic line backgrounds. Moreover, NtMADS5 showed slight down-regulation compared with wild-type plants in transgenic lines. These results suggest that IbMADS3-1 could be a repressor of NFL1 located upstream of NtMADS5. IbMADS3-1 ectopic expression is suggested as a possible means during vegetative development by which the IbMADS3-1 gene may interfere with the floral developmental pathway. PMID:20567900

  16. Chloral hydrate alters the organization of the ciliary basal apparatus and cell organelles in sea urchin embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, A.; Schatten, H.; Mitchell, K. D.; Crosser, M.; Taylor, M.

    1998-01-01

    The mitotic inhibitor, chloral hydrate, induces ciliary loss in the early embryo phase of Lytechinus pictus. It causes a breakdown of cilia at the junction of the cilium and the basal body known as the basal plate. This leaves the plasma membrane temporarily unsealed. The basal apparatus accessory structures, consisting of the basal body, basal foot, basal foot cap, striated side arm, and striated rootlet, are either misaligned or disintegrated by treatment with chloral hydrate. Furthermore, microtubules which are associated with the basal apparatus are disassembled. Mitochondria accumulate at the base of cilia - underneath the plasma membrane - and show alterations in their structural organization. The accumulation of mitochondria is observed in 40% of all electron micrograph sections while 60% show the areas mostly devoid of mitochondria. The microvilli surrounding a cilium and striated rootlet remain intact in the presence of chloral hydrate. These results suggest that deciliation in early sea urchin embryos by chloral hydrate is caused by combined effects on the ciliary membrane and on microtubules in the cilia. Furthermore, it is suggested that chloral hydrate can serve as a tool to explore the cytoskeletal mechanisms that are involved in cilia motility in the developing sea urchin embryo.

  17. Furosemide alters organ of corti mechanics: evidence for feedback of outer hair cells upon the basilar membrane.

    PubMed

    Ruggero, M A; Rich, N C

    1991-04-01

    A widely held hypothesis of mammalian cochlear function is that the mechanical responses to sound of the basilar membrane depend on transduction by the outer hair cells. We have tested this hypothesis by studying the effect upon basilar membrane vibrations (measured by means of either the Mössbauer technique or Doppler-shift laser velocimetry) of systemic injection of furosemide, a loop diuretic that decreases transduction currents in hair cells. Furosemide reversibly altered the responses to tones and clicks of the chinchilla basilar membrane, causing response-magnitude reductions that were largest (up to 61 dB, averaging 25-30 dB) at low stimulus intensities at the characteristic frequency (CF) and small or nonexistent at high intensities and at frequencies far removed from CF. Furosemide also induced response-phase lags that were largest at low stimulus intensities (averaging 77 degrees) and were confined to frequencies close to CF. These results constitute the most definitive demonstration to date that mechanical responses of the basilar membrane are dependent on the normal function of the organ of Corti and strongly implicate the outer hair cells as being responsible for the high sensitivity and frequency selectivity of basilar membrane responses. A corollary of these findings is that sensorineural hearing deficits in humans due to outer hair cell loss reflect pathologically diminished vibrations of the basilar membrane. PMID:2010805

  18. Increased susceptibility of experimental animals to infectious organisms as a consequence of ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Jerrells, T R; Slukvin, I; Sibley, D; Fuseler, J

    1994-01-01

    It has been shown by a number of studies that chronic alcohol abuse is associated with an increased incidence of infections. The mechanism of this increased susceptibility to infectious agents is multifactorial and certainly includes abuse of other drugs, smoking, malnutrition and other factors. Recently, it has become apparent that consumption of alcohol by human beings and experimental animals is associated with changes in the immune system. The increased incidence of tuberculosis and opportunistic bacterial and fungal infections described in alcoholics has led to the suggestion that alcohol affects the cell-mediated arm of the immune response. The present report will review the data that shows the effects of alcohol on the immune system. We will also review the data from our laboratory and other laboratories that show the effects of alcohol on host defense mechanisms to infectious agents. Where possible, mechanisms of increased susceptibility will be discussed or postulated. PMID:8974364

  19. [Introduction of dinitrosyl iron complexes with thiol-containing ligands into animal organism by inhalation method].

    PubMed

    Vanin, A F; Mozhokina, G N; Tkachev, N A; Mikoian, V D; Borodulin, R R; Elistratova, N A

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of water-soluble dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC) with thiol-containing ligands introduction into lungs and other tissues of mice by free inhalation of little drops (2-3 microns diameter) of the solutions of these complexes was investigated. Little drops of 2-20 mM solutions of the complexes were obtained by using an inhalation apparatus (compressor nebulizer). A cloud of these little drops was then inhaled by animals in a closed chamber. A maximal amount of protein-bound DNICs formed in mouse lungs was 0.6 micromoles per kilogram of tissue weight. The amount of DNIC in lungs, liver and blood decreased to the undetected level within 2-3 hours after inhalation. No cytotoxic effect of DNIC formed in lungs on Mycobacterium tuberculosis was found in mice infected with these mycobacteria. PMID:23755557

  20. Building films for business: Jamison Handy and the industrial animation of the Jam Handy Organization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Oakes

    2010-01-01

    For over forty years, Henry Jamison Handy (1886–1983) operated one of the leading industrial film studios in the United States, the Jam Handy Organization. Based in Detroit, Handy’s studio was conveniently located in America’s industrial heartland, and produced hundreds of advertising, training, and informational films for National Cash Register, General Motors, RCA, and other growing industries looking to take advantage

  1. Building films for business: Jamison Handy and the industrial animation of the Jam Handy Organization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Oakes

    2010-01-01

    : For over forty years, Henry Jamison Handy (1886–1983) operated one of the leading industrial film studios in the United States, the Jam Handy Organization. Based in Detroit, Handy’s studio was conveniently located in America’s industrial heartland, and produced hundreds of advertising, training, and informational films for National Cash Register, General Motors, RCA, and other growing industries looking to take

  2. The effect of dynamic factors of space flight on animal organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genin, A. M. (editor)

    1979-01-01

    Physiological, biochemical and morphological studies made on the Cosmos-782 biosatellite are presented. Rats, which were exposed on the biosatellite for 19.5 days, were examined immediately after completion of the flight and also during the 25 day period of readaptation to earth's conditions. The effect of factors of space flight, primarily weightlessness, on the organism was investigated for all systems of the body.

  3. Hypertensive Cardiovascular and Renal Disease and Target Organ Damage: Lessons from Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Susic, Dinko; Frohlich, Edward D

    2011-01-01

    This brief review discusses some aspects of hypertensive damage to the kidneys and cardiovascular system. A comparison of renal and cardiac manifestations of hypertensive disease between results of clinical and experimental studies was made, with a major focus on the possible role of salt and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in inducing target organ damage. Thus, some degree of renal impairment is often present in patients with essential hypertension, varying from microalbuminuria to end-stage renal disease, whereas in rats with spontaneous hypertension only slight renal damage is seen in old rats with little evidence of renal failure. Since renal damage in hypertensive rats is induced when they are exposed to increased salt intake, we suggested that salt may also account for kidney injury in hypertensive patients. Similarly, cardiac damage is aggravated in hypertensive human beings and rats when given salt excess. We further presented evidence that the RAS may mediate adverse cardiac and renal effects of excessive salt intake. Finally, we also discussed some aspects of the cardiovascular physiology in the giraffe, the only mammal that in comparison with the human being has extremely high pressure at the level of the heart and kidneys but no target organ damage. PMID:22258536

  4. Animal Ears

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2006-01-01

    This activity (page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior and communication. Groups of learners will fashion a headband with fake ears, similar in shape to those of the animal they are going to observe. Then, they record observations of the animal’s reactions when a learner, wearing the ears in different positions, brings it a snack. Learners develop categories of behavior to organize and evaluate the results. Safety Note: an adult handler must be present if working with a horse or even a large dog. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Horse Ears.

  5. Animal and Plant Cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    wlcounts

    2012-04-04

    What are the similarities and differences between plant cells and animal cells? Use the graphic organizer. Graphic Organizer Go here and look at the diagram. Make notes about the anatomy of an animal cell in your graphic organizer. Anatomy of an Animal Cell Go to this website and explore the typical animal cell. Press start and interact with the model. Typical Animal Cell Take the plant cell tutorial with this link. Interact ...

  6. Expression of a Dominant Negative CELF Protein In Vivo Leads to Altered Muscle Organization, Fiber Size, and Subtype

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Dara S.; Moyer, Michelle; Kliment, Gregory M.; van Lunteren, Erik; Ladd, Andrea N.

    2011-01-01

    Background CUG-BP and ETR-3-like factor (CELF) proteins regulate tissue- and developmental stage-specific alternative splicing in striated muscle. We previously demonstrated that heart muscle-specific expression of a nuclear dominant negative CELF protein in transgenic mice (MHC-CELF?) effectively disrupts endogenous CELF activity in the heart in vivo, resulting in impaired cardiac function. In this study, transgenic mice that express the dominant negative protein under a skeletal muscle-specific promoter (Myo-CELF?) were generated to investigate the role of CELF-mediated alternative splicing programs in normal skeletal muscle. Methodology/Principal Findings Myo-CELF? mice exhibit modest changes in CELF-mediated alternative splicing in skeletal muscle, accompanied by a reduction of endomysial and perimysial spaces, an increase in fiber size variability, and an increase in slow twitch muscle fibers. Weight gain and mean body weight, total number of muscle fibers, and overall muscle strength were not affected. Conclusions/Significance Although these findings demonstrate that CELF activity contributes to the normal alternative splicing of a subset of muscle transcripts in vivo, the mildness of the effects in Myo-CELF? muscles compared to those in MHC-CELF? hearts suggests CELF activity may be less determinative for alternative splicing in skeletal muscle than in heart muscle. Nonetheless, even these small changes in CELF-mediated splicing regulation were sufficient to alter muscle organization and muscle fiber properties affected in myotonic dystrophy. This lends further evidence to the hypothesis that dysregulation of CELF-mediated alternative splicing programs may be responsible for the disruption of these properties during muscle pathogenesis. PMID:21541285

  7. Intron-exon organization of the gene for the multifunctional animal fatty acid synthase.

    PubMed Central

    Amy, C M; Williams-Ahlf, B; Naggert, J; Smith, S

    1992-01-01

    The complete intron-exon organization of the gene encoding a multifunctional mammalian fatty acid synthase has been elucidated, and specific exons have been assigned to coding sequences for the component domains of the protein. The rat gene is interrupted by 42 introns and the sequences bordering the splice-site junctions universally follow the GT/AG rule. However, of the 41 introns that interrupt the coding region of the gene, 23 split the reading frame in phase I, 14 split the reading frame in phase 0, and only 4 split the reading frame in phase II. Remarkably, 46% of the introns interrupt codons for glycine. With only one exception, boundaries between the constituent enzymes of the multifunctional polypeptide coincide with the location of introns in the gene. The significance of the predominance of phase I introns, the almost uniformly short length of the 42 introns and the overall small size of the gene, is discussed in relation to the evolution of multifunctional proteins. Images PMID:1736293

  8. The power of NGS technologies to delineate the genome organization in cancer: from mutations to structural variations and epigenetic alterations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michal R. Schweiger; Martin Kerick; Bernd Timmermann; Melanie Isau

    2011-01-01

    The development of cancer is characterized by the joined occurrence of alterations on different levels—from single nucleotide\\u000a changes via structural and copy number variations to epigenetic alterations. With the advent of advanced technologies such\\u000a as next generation sequencing, we have now the tools in hands to put some light on complex processes and recognize systematic\\u000a patterns that develop throughout cancer

  9. Performance assessment of the single photon emission microscope: high spatial resolution SPECT imaging of small animal organs

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, J.; Reis, M.A.; Miranda, A.C.C.; Batista, I.R.; Barboza, M.R.F.; Shih, M.C.; Fu, G.; Chen, C.T.; Meng, L.J.; Bressan, R.A.; Amaro, E.

    2013-01-01

    The single photon emission microscope (SPEM) is an instrument developed to obtain high spatial resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of small structures inside the mouse brain. SPEM consists of two independent imaging devices, which combine a multipinhole collimator, a high-resolution, thallium-doped cesium iodide [CsI(Tl)] columnar scintillator, a demagnifying/intensifier tube, and an electron-multiplying charge-coupling device (CCD). Collimators have 300- and 450-µm diameter pinholes on tungsten slabs, in hexagonal arrays of 19 and 7 holes. Projection data are acquired in a photon-counting strategy, where CCD frames are stored at 50 frames per second, with a radius of rotation of 35 mm and magnification factor of one. The image reconstruction software tool is based on the maximum likelihood algorithm. Our aim was to evaluate the spatial resolution and sensitivity attainable with the seven-pinhole imaging device, together with the linearity for quantification on the tomographic images, and to test the instrument in obtaining tomographic images of different mouse organs. A spatial resolution better than 500 µm and a sensitivity of 21.6 counts·s-1·MBq-1 were reached, as well as a correlation coefficient between activity and intensity better than 0.99, when imaging 99mTc sources. Images of the thyroid, heart, lungs, and bones of mice were registered using 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals in times appropriate for routine preclinical experimentation of <1 h per projection data set. Detailed experimental protocols and images of the aforementioned organs are shown. We plan to extend the instrument's field of view to fix larger animals and to combine data from both detectors to reduce the acquisition time or applied activity. PMID:24270908

  10. Effects of condensed organic matter on PCBs bioavailability in juvenile swine, an animal model for young children.

    PubMed

    Delannoy, Matthieu; Rychen, Guido; Fournier, Agnès; Jondreville, Catherine; Feidt, Cyril

    2014-06-01

    The exposure assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated soils is a critical issue in terms of human health, especially since little reliable information on transfer of PCBs to humans via involuntary soil ingestion is available. Indeed, young children with their hand-to-mouth activity may be exposed to contaminated soils. The current study addresses the impact of soil organic matter (OM) condensation on bioavailability of sequestrated NDL-PCBs. Three artificial soils (ASs) were prepared according to OECD guideline 207. One standard soil (SS), devoid of OM, and two amended versions of this SS with fulvic acid (FA) or activated carbon (AC) were prepared to obtain 1% organic mass. This study involved fourteen juvenile male swine as a digestive physiology model of young children. Animals were randomly distributed into 4 contaminated groups (3 replicates) and a control one (2 replicates). During 10d, the piglets were fed AS or a corn oil spiked with 19200 ng of Aroclor 1254 per g of dry matter (6000 ng g(-1) of NDL-PCBs) to achieve an exposure dose of 1200 ng NDL-PCBskg(-1) of body weight per day. After 10d of oral exposure, NDL-PCBs in adipose tissue, liver and muscles were analyzed by GC-MS, after extraction and purification. Two distinct groups of treatments were found: on the one hand oil, SS and FA, on the other hand C and AC. This study highlights that condensed OM (AC) strongly reduces bioavailability whereas the less condensed one (FA) does not seem to have a significant effect. This result has to be considered as a first major step for further relative bioavailability studies involving mixture of different humic substances. PMID:24289980

  11. Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation

    E-print Network

    Treuille, Adrien

    next class #12;Traditional Cel Animation · Film runs at 24 frames per second (fps) ­ That's 1440 stand - Transfer onto film by taking a photograph of the stack #12;Principles of Traditional AnimationAnimation Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward

  12. The altered rationale for the choice of a standard animal in experimental psychology: Henry H. Donaldson, Adolf Meyer, and "the" albino rat.

    PubMed

    Logan, C A

    1999-02-01

    The mid 20th-century dominance of albino rats in nonhuman experimental psychology research often presumed that the animal embodied fundamental psychological processes that could generalize to a wide range of vertebrates. The author describes the conceptual basis for the original choice of white rats by the 2 individuals most responsible for establishing rats as a prominent animal model in the life sciences at the turn of the century: Henry H. Donaldson and Adolf Meyer. The author stresses the comparative rationale that justified their choice and argues that they sought generality through attention to diversity and species differences. Their approach contrasts sharply with the later view of the rat as a generic animal model that could represent similarities shared by all vertebrates. It is suggested that the change resulted from an emphasis on standardization produced by the growing industrialization of the life sciences in America. PMID:11623618

  13. Standardization of flux chamber and wind tunnel flux measurements for quantifying volatile organic compound and ammonia emissions from area sources at animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of wind tunnels and flux chambers have been used to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and ammonia (NH3) at animal feeding operations (AFO). However, there has been little regard to the extreme variation and potential inaccuracies caused by inappropriate air velocity or sw...

  14. Inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis alters extracellular matrix deposition, proliferation, and cytoskeletal organization of rat aortic smooth muscle cells in culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Husam E Hamati; Eric L. Britton; David J. Carey

    1989-01-01

    Arterial proteoglycans have been implicated in several important physiological processes ranging from lipid metabolism to regulation of smooth muscle cell growth. Vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells are the major producers of proteoglycans in the medial layer of blood vessels. To study functional conse- quences of alterations in VSM proteoglycan metabo- lism we used 4-methylumbelliferyl-~-D-xyloside to in- hibit proteoglycan synthesis in

  15. Animal Cell Mitosis Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    This animation demonstrates the stages of mitosis in an animal cell. Use the control buttons in the upper left to run the complete animation. Click on any intermediate stage (for example, Anaphase), and see a representative still frame.

  16. [Determination of trace element silver in animal serum, tissues and organs by microwave digestion-ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jun-Jie; Xie, You-Zhuan; Han, Chen; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Jie; Lu, Xiao; Lu, Jian-Xi; Ren, Wei

    2014-09-01

    Nowadays, the silver is widely used in the biological field and its biological safety catches great attention. It is important to know the distribution of silver ions within the biological organism and the toxic threshold concentration in the tissue. Therefore, a highly sensitive method for measurement of trace amount of silver ion in the medical biological samples is needed. With its high sensitivity for detection of metal ions, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method is well suited for quantification of trace amount of silver ion in such samples, but method development is still in its infancy. Consequently, a simple and convenient method for determination of trace amount of silver in the animal serum, tissues or organs was developed, in which the samples were subjected to the microwave digestion, followed by the ICP-MS analysis. To begin with, the samples of serum, muscle, bone marrow, bone, heart, liver, spleen, and kidney were sequently processed in 5 mL of HNO3 and 2 mL of H2O2 solution. Then the samples were completely digested by microwave with the power of 2 000 watts. The temperature was raised gradually by 3-step program. Moreover, the data achieved were reproducible and the method was time saving and especially for large amounts of sample processing. Then the digested solutions were diluted to constant volume. Finally, the concentration of 107Ag in the samples was analyzed by the method of ICP-MS under the optimized conditions. Element yttrium (Y) was used as the internal standard to compensate for matrix suppression effect and improve the accuracy of measurement. For one thing, the analytical results showed that the detection limit of the trace element 107Ag was 0.98 ?g · kg(-1), and furthermore, the correlation coefficient of standard curve was 0.999 9. For another thing, the recovery rate of the silver element ranged from 98% to 107%, which was calculated according to measured quantity before adding standard, adding standard and measured quantity after adding standard. At the same time, the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the method was in the range of 2.0%-4.3%. The concentrations of element silver in animal serum, tissues and organs were determined by the aboved method. The obtained results showed that silver ions were mainly accumulated in the liver after they were intaken into the body. The results suggested that the microwave digestion-ICP-MS method could accurately determine the trace element Ag in the body. The method developed has good feasibility and is suitable for the determination of trace element Ag in various types of medical and biological samples, especially for large quantities of biological samples. The process has the advantages of easysample processing and it is simple and convenient. In addition, the accurate results could be obtained in a short time with high sensitivity. Last but not least, the method provides the guidance for the determination of trace elements in other biological samples. PMID:25532359

  17. Dietary supplementation of selenium in inorganic and organic forms differentially and commonly alters blood and liver selenium concentrations and liver gene expression profiles of growing beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shengfa F; Brown, Kelly R; Stromberg, Arnold J; Burris, Walter R; Boling, James A; Matthews, James C

    2011-05-01

    In geographic regions where selenium (Se) soil concentrations are naturally low, the addition of Se to animal feed is necessary. Even though it is known that Se in grass and forage crops is primarily present in organic forms (especially as L-selenomethionine, L-selenocystine, and L-selenocystathionine), the feeding of Se in the naturally occurring organic selenium (OSe) compounds produces higher blood and tissue Se levels than the inorganic Se (ISe) salts, and that animal metabolism of OSe and ISe is fundamentally different. Se is commonly added in inorganic form as sodium selenite to cattle feeds because it is a less expensive source of supplemental Se then are OSe forms. A trial was conducted with growing cattle to determine if the addition of OSe versus ISe forms of Se in beef cattle feed produces differences in hepatic gene expression, thereby gaining insight into the metabolic consequence of feeding OSe versus ISe. Thirty maturing Angus heifers (261?±?6 days) were fed a corn silage-based diet with no Se supplementation for 75 days. Heifers (body weight?=?393?±?9 kg) then were randomly assigned (n?=?10) and fed Se supplements that contained none (control) or 3 mg Se/day in ISe (sodium selenite) or OSe (Sel-Plex®) form and enough of a common cracked corn/cottonseed hull-based diet (0.48 mg Se/day) to support 0.5 kg/day growth for 105 or 106 days. More Se was found in jugular whole blood and red blood cells and biopsied liver tissue of ISe and OSe treatment animals than control animals, and OSe animals contained more Se in these tissues than did ISe. Microarray and bioinformatic analyses of liver tissue gene expression revealed that the content of at least 80 mRNA were affected by ISe or OSe treatments, including mRNA associated with nutrient metabolism; cellular growth, proliferation, and immune response; cell communication or signaling; and tissue/organ development and function. Overall, three Se supplement-dependent gene groups were identified: ISe-dependent, OSe-dependent, and Se form-independent. More specifically, both forms of supplementation appeared to upregulate mitochondrial gene expression capacity, whereas gene expression of a protein involved in antiviral capacity was downregulated in ISe-supplemented animals, and OSe-supplemented animals had reduced levels of mRNA encoding proteins known to be upregulated during oxidative stress and cancerous states. PMID:20387001

  18. Time Course of Alterations in Myocardial Glucose Utilization in the Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rat with Correlation to Gene Expression of Glucose Transporters: A Small-Animal PET Investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kooresh I. Shoghi; Robert J. Gropler; Terry Sharp; Pilar Herrero; Nicole Fettig; Mayurranjan S. Mitra; Attila Kovacs; Brian N. Finck; Michael J. Welch

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is associated with abnormalities in glucose metabolism. We evaluated myocardial glucose me- tabolism in a rodent model of type 2 diabetes, namely the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat, and validated PET measure- ments of glucose uptake against gene and protein expression of glucose transporters (GLUTs). Methods: Six lean and ZDF rats underwent small-animal PET at the age of

  19. Microcystin-LR, a protein phosphatase inhibitor, induces alterations in mitotic chromatin and microtubule organization leading to the formation of micronuclei in Vicia faba

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Dániel; Tándor, Ildikó; Kónya, Zoltán; Bátori, Róbert; Roszik, Janos; Vereb, György; Erd?di, Ferenc; Vasas, Gábor; M-Hamvas, Márta; Jambrovics, Károly; Máthé, Csaba

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Microcystin-LR (MCY-LR) is a cyanobacterial toxin, a specific inhibitor of type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases (PP1 and PP2A) with significant impact on aquatic ecosystems. It has the potential to alter regulation of the plant cell cycle. The aim of this study was improved understanding of the mitotic alterations induced by cyanotoxin in Vicia faba, a model organism for plant cell biology studies. Methods Vicia faba seedlings were treated over the long and short term with MCY-LR purified in our laboratory. Short-term treatments were performed on root meristems synchronized with hydroxylurea. Sections of lateral root tips were labelled for chromatin, phosphorylated histone H3 and ?-tubulin via histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Mitotic activity and the occurrence of mitotic alterations were detected and analysed by fluorescence microscopy. The phosphorylation state of histone H3 was studied by Western blotting. Key Results Long-term MCY-LR exposure of lateral root tip meristems increased the percentage of either early or late mitosis in a concentration-dependent manner. We observed hypercondensed chromosomes and altered sister chromatid segregation (lagging chromosomes) leading to the formation of micronuclei, accompanied by the formation of disrupted, multipolar and monopolar spindles, disrupted phragmoplasts and the hyperphosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser10. Short-term MCY-LR treatment of synchronized cells showed that PP1 and PP2A inhibition delayed the onset of anaphase at 1 µg mL?1 MCY-LR, accelerated cell cycle at 10 µg mL?1 MCY-LR and induced the formation of lagging chromosomes. In this case mitotic microtubule alterations were not detected, but histone H3 was hyperphosphorylated. Conclusions MCY-LR delayed metaphase–anaphase transition. Consequently, it induced aberrant chromatid segregation and micronucleus formation that could be associated with both H3 hyperphosphorylation and altered microtubule organization. However, these two phenomena seemed to be independent. The toxin may be a useful tool in the study of plant cell cycle regulation. PMID:22819947

  20. Cardiovascular Physiology Teaching: Computer Simulations vs. Animal Demonstrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samsel, Richard W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    At the introductory level, the computer provides an effective alternative to using animals for laboratory teaching. Computer software can simulate the operation of multiple organ systems. Advantages of software include alteration of variables that are not easily changed in vivo, repeated interventions, and cost-effective hands-on student access.…

  1. Hydrothermal alterations of modern organic sediments at the Ashadze-1 hydrothermal field, Mid-Atlantic Ridge, 13° N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gablina, I. F.; Popova, E. A.; Sadchikova, T. A.; Khusid, T. A.; Os'kina, N. S.; Bel'Tenev, V. E.; Shilov, V. V.

    2010-08-01

    For the first time detailed investigations of hydrothermal alterations on microbiota of ore-bearing sediments of the Ashadze-1 field (13° N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge) were carried out and local mineral-geochemical zoning was established. For the first time for the region, enriching of Mg sediments related with hydrothermal activity was revealed. It was concluded that hydrotherms affecting sediments are characterized with a high Mg content.

  2. The Effects of Radionuclides on Animal Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatrice Gagnaire; Christelle Adam-Guillermin; Alexandre Bouron; Philippe Lestaevel

    \\u000a Behavior refers to the observable or measurable actions or reactions of an organism (movements, physiological alterations,\\u000a verbal expression, etc.) in response to a stimulus originating from its environment (Bone and Moore 2008). Animals express\\u000a several types of behavior including sexual, reproductive, social (aggression, maternal relationship, etc.), activity (locomotion,\\u000a feeding, defence and avoidance responses) and cognitive behaviors (attention, learning, memory) (Zala

  3. Methods for study of cardiovascular adaptation of small laboratory animals during exposure to altered gravity. [hypothermia for cardiovascular control and cancer therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popovic, V.

    1973-01-01

    Several new techniques are reported for studying cardiovascular circulation in small laboratory animals kept in metabolic chambers. Chronical cannulation, miniaturized membrane type heart-lung machines, a prototype walking chamber, and a fluorocarbon immersion method to simulate weightlessness are outlined. Differential hypothermia work on rat cancers provides localized embedding of radionuclides and other chemotherapeutical agents in tumors and increases at the same time blood circulation through the warmed tumor as compared to the rest of the cold body. Some successful clinical applications of combined chemotherapy and differential hypothermia in skin cancer, mammary tumors, and brain gliomas are described.

  4. Organ-specific alterations in tobacco transcriptome caused by the PVX-derived P25 silencing suppressor transgene

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background RNA silencing affects a broad range of regulatory processes in all eukaryotes ranging from chromatin structure maintenance to transcriptional and translational regulation and longevity of the mRNAs. Particularly in plants, it functions as the major defense mechanism against viruses. To counter-act this defense, plant viruses produce suppressors of RNA silencing (Viral suppressors of RNA silencing, VSRSs), which are essential for viruses to invade their specific host plants. Interactions of these VSRSs with the hosts’ silencing pathways, and their direct and indirect interference with different cellular regulatory networks constitute one of the main lines of the molecular virus-host interactions. Here we have used a microarray approach to study the effects of the Potato virus X Potexvirus (PVX)-specific P25 VSRS protein on the transcript profile of tobacco plants, when expressed as a transgene in these plants. Results The expression of the PVX-specific P25 silencing suppressor in transgenic tobacco plants caused significant up-regulation of 1350 transcripts, but down-regulation of only five transcripts in the leaves, and up- and down-regulation of 51 and 13 transcripts, respectively, in the flowers of these plants, as compared to the wild type control plants. Most of the changes occurred in the transcripts related to biotic and abiotic stresses, transcription regulation, signaling, metabolic pathways and cell wall modifications, and many of them appeared to be induced through up-regulation of the signaling pathways regulated by ethylene, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. Correlations of these alterations with the protein profile and related biological functions were analyzed. Surprisingly, they did not cause significant alterations in the protein profile, and caused only very mild alteration in the phenotype of the P25-expressing transgenic plants. Conclusion Expression of the PVX-specific P25 VSRS protein causes major alterations in the transcriptome of the leaves of transgenic tobacco plants, but very little of any effects in the young flowers of the same plants. The fairly stable protein profile in the leaves and lack of any major changes in the plant phenotype indicate that the complicated interplay and interactions between different regulatory levels are able to maintain homeostasis in the plants. PMID:23297695

  5. Plant and Animal Cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Montgomery

    2012-04-04

    Compare and contrast animal cells and plant cells. Use this graphic organizer diagram to help you organize your thoughts while you are looking at each webpage. First go to this link interactive animal and plant cell model and look at both the plant and animal cell models. After you get done with that site go to this site inside a plant and animal cell and take some more ...

  6. BRG1/SMARCA4 inactivation promotes non-small cell lung cancer aggressiveness by altering chromatin organization.

    PubMed

    Orvis, Tess; Hepperla, Austin; Walter, Vonn; Song, Shujie; Simon, Jeremy; Parker, Joel; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Desai, Nisarg; Major, Michael B; Hayes, D Neil; Davis, Ian J; Weissman, Bernard

    2014-11-15

    SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes regulate critical cellular processes, including cell-cycle control, programmed cell death, differentiation, genomic instability, and DNA repair. Inactivation of this class of chromatin remodeling complex has been associated with a variety of malignancies, including lung, ovarian, renal, liver, and pediatric cancers. In particular, approximately 10% of primary human lung non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) display attenuations in the BRG1 ATPase, a core factor in SWI/SNF complexes. To evaluate the role of BRG1 attenuation in NSCLC development, we examined the effect of BRG1 silencing in primary and established human NSCLC cells. BRG1 loss altered cellular morphology and increased tumorigenic potential. Gene expression analyses showed reduced expression of genes known to be associated with progression of human NSCLC. We demonstrated that BRG1 losses in NSCLC cells were associated with variations in chromatin structure, including differences in nucleosome positioning and occupancy surrounding transcriptional start sites of disease-relevant genes. Our results offer direct evidence that BRG1 attenuation contributes to NSCLC aggressiveness by altering nucleosome positioning at a wide range of genes, including key cancer-associated genes. PMID:25115300

  7. Animal Algorithm Animation Tool

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Guido Rö�ling, who works for the Rechnerbetriebsgruppe (Computer Support Center) of the Department of Computer Science at the Darmstadt University of Technology, has created this website about ANIMAL. ANIMAL is a general-purpose animation tool with a current focus on algorithm animation. Posted on this website are the animations, including screenshots, classification and description, a user guide, other instructions, and research papers. A section with examples provides an overview and screen shots of the animations, such as one that shows how LZW compression (an algorithm created in 1984 by Lempel, Ziv and Welch) works.

  8. Thermally-induced structural and chemical alteration of organic-walled microfossils: an experimental approach to understanding fossil preservation in metasediments.

    PubMed

    Schiffbauer, J D; Wallace, A F; Hunter, J L; Kowalewski, M; Bodnar, R J; Xiao, S

    2012-09-01

    The identification and confirmation of bona fide Archean-Paleoproterozoic microfossils can prove to be a challenging task, further compounded by diagenetic and metamorphic histories. While structures of likely biological origin are not uncommon in Precambrian rocks, the search for early fossil life has been disproportionately focused on lesser thermally altered rocks, typically greenschist or lower-grade metamorphism. Recently, however, an increasing number of inferred micro- and macrofossils have been reported from higher-grade metasediments, prompting us to experimentally test and quantify the preservability of organic-walled microfossils over varying durations of controlled heating and under two differing redox conditions. Because of their relatively low-intensity natural thermal alteration, acritarchs from the Mesoproterozoic Ruyang Group were chosen as subjects for experimental heating at approximately 500°C, with durations ranging from 1 to 250 days and in both oxic (normal present day conditions) and anoxic conditions. Upon extraction, the opacity, reflectivity, color, microchemistry, and microstructures of the heated acritarchs were characterized using optic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results differ for acritarchs prepared under oxic vs. anoxic conditions, with the anoxic replicates surviving experimental heating longer and retaining biological morphologies better, despite an increasing degree of carbonization with continuous heating. Conversely, the oxic replicates show aggressive degradation. In conjunction with fossils from high-grade metasediments, our data illustrate the preservational potential of organic-walled microfossils subjected to metamorphism in reducing conditions, offer insights into the search for microfossils in metasediments, and help to elucidate the influence of time on the carbonization/graphitization processes during thermal alteration. PMID:22607551

  9. Sensory Characteristics and Consumer Preference for Cooked Chicken Breasts from Organic, Corn-fed, Free-range and Conventionally Reared Animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2003-01-01

    The sensory characteristics of cooked chicken breasts from organic (n=4), corn-fed (n=1), free range (n=5) and conventionally (n=5) reared animals from conventional origins were determined. Twelve trained assessors described the sensory characteristics of all samples using twenty-one attributes. One-way analysis of variance showed significant (P<0.05) differences between samples for all appearance, one odour, one flavour, and all texture attributes. Principal

  10. Nocturnal Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Over time, human beings have blazed their way into the night with fire and artificial light, but we are not true creatures of the night. This Topic in Depth explores the world of nocturnal animals. From Island Discovery & Training, the first site allows visitors to listen to the sounds of several nocturnal animals. After guessing who made the sound, visitors can link to information pages for all but one of the mystery animals (1). Next is an information sheet (2) from BioMedia that answers the question: How Do Animals See In the Dark? The third site, from Enchanted Learning, provides coloring sheets and brief profiles for many nocturnal animals including the Amur Tiger, Badger, Crocodile, and Kinkajou-just to name a few (3). From the Fairbanks Museum & Planetarium in Vermont, the fourth website contains a six-page lesson plan (for students in grades one to eight) emphasizing different senses; and the roles and adaptations of nocturnal species (4). The fifth site, from Science News Online, contains an article addressing research on the ecological impact of artificial nighttime light on nocturnal animals (5). From Wild Asia, the next site contains an article by travel writer and environmental educator David Bowden, that describes his experience watching a marine turtle lay her eggs on Malaysia's Turtle Island (6). The seventh site, from PBS-Nova Online, briefly describes the work of zoologists who study nocturnal and burrowing animals of the Kalahari (7). From this site visitors can also link to a section that discusses how several different animals see at night. The final site, from the University of Utah-John Moran Eye Center, contains information about the role of photoreceptors in vision (8). This Photoreceptors section is part of a comprehensive electronic tutorial regarding neural organization of the mammalian retina.

  11. Earthworm Effects without Earthworms: Inoculation of Raw Organic Matter with Worm-Worked Substrates Alters Microbial Community Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Aira, Manuel; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Background Earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with soil microorganisms. They enhance decomposition rates through the joint action of direct effects (i.e. effects due to direct earthworm activity such as digestion, burrowing, etc) and indirect effects (i.e. effects derived from earthworm activities such as cast ageing). Here we test whether indirect earthworm effects affect microbial community functioning in the substrate, as when earthworms are present (i. e., direct effects). Methodology/Principal Findings To address these questions we inoculated fresh organic matter (pig manure) with worm-worked substrates (vermicompost) produced by three different earthworm species. Two doses of each vermicompost were used (2.5 and 10%). We hypothesized that the presence of worm-worked material in the fresh organic matter will result in an inoculum of different microorganisms and nutrients. This inoculum should interact with microbial communities in fresh organic matter, thus promoting modifications similar to those found when earthworms are present. Inoculation of worm-worked substrates provoked significant increases in microbial biomass and enzyme activities (?-glucosidase, cellulase, phosphatase and protease). These indirect effects were similar to, although lower than, those obtained in pig manure with earthworms (direct and indirect earthworm effects). In general, the effects were not dose-dependent, suggesting the existence of a threshold at which they were triggered. Conclusion/Significance Our data reveal that the relationships between earthworms and microorganisms are far from being understood, and suggest the existence of several positive feedbacks during earthworm activity as a result of the interactions between direct and indirect effects, since their combination produces stronger modifications to microbial biomass and enzyme activity. PMID:21298016

  12. Alteration of Endothelins: A Common Pathogenetic Mechanism in Chronic Diabetic Complications

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zia Ali; Cukiernik, Mark; Fukuda, Gen; Chen, Shali; Mukherjee, Suranjana

    2002-01-01

    Endothelin (ET) peptides perform several physiological, vascular, and nonvascular functions and are widely distributed in a number of tissues. They are altered in several disease processes including diabetes. Alteration of ETs have been demonstrated in organs of chronic diabetic complications in both experimental and clinical studies. The majority of the effects of ET alteration in diabetes are due to altered vascular function. Furthermore, ET antagonists have been shown to prevent structural and functional changes induced by diabetes in animal models. This review discusses the contribution of ETs in the pathogenesis and the potential role of ET antagonism in the treatment of chronic diabetic complications. PMID:12546275

  13. PHOTOCHEMICAL ALTERATION OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER: EFFECTS ON THE CONCENTRATION AND ACIDITIES OF IONIZABLE SITES IN DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN THE SATILLA RIVER OF GEORGIA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acid-base properties of humic substances, the major component of dissolved organic matter (DOM), area major control on the alkalinity, or acid neutralizing capacity of freshwater systems. Alkalinity is one of the fundamental parameters measured in aquatic sciences, and is an ...

  14. Zearalenone Altered the Serum Hormones, Morphologic and Apoptotic Measurements of Genital Organs in Post-weaning Gilts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X. X.; Yang, C. W.; Huang, L. B.; Niu, Q. S.; Jiang, S. Z.; Chi, F.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the adverse effects of dietary zearalenone (ZEA) (1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg diet) on serum hormones, morphologic and apoptotic measurements of genital organs in post-weaning gilts. A total of twenty gilts (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc) weaned at 21 d with an average body weight of 10.36±1.21 kg were used in the study. Gilts were fed a basal diet with an addition of 0, 1.1, 2.0, or 3.2 mg/kg purified ZEA for 18 d ad libitum. Results showed that 3.2 mg/kg ZEA challenged gilts decreased (p<0.05) the serum levels of luteinizing hormone, however, serum levels of prolactin in gilts fed the diet containing 2.0 mg/kg ZEA or more were increased (p<0.05) compared to those in the control. Linear effects on all tested serum hormones except progesterone were observed as dietary ZEA levels increased (p<0.05). Gilts fed ZEA-contaminated diet showed increase (p<0.05) in genital organs size, hyperplasia of submucosal smooth muscles in the corpus uteri in a dose-dependent manner. However, the decreased numbers of follicles in the cortex and apoptotic cells in the ovarian were observed in gilts treated with ZEA in a dose-dependent manner. Degeneration and structural abnormalities of genital organs tissues were also observed in the gilts fed diet containing 1.1 mg/kg ZEA or more. Results suggested that dietary ZEA at 1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg can induce endocrine disturbance and damage genital organs in post-weaning gilts. PMID:25557812

  15. Dysfunction of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1a1 Alters Intestinal Bacteria and Bile Acid Metabolism in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youcai Zhang; Pallavi B. Limaye; Lois D. Lehman-McKeeman; Curtis D. Klaassen

    2012-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1) is predominantly expressed in liver and is able to transport bile acids (BAs) in vitro. Male Oatp1a1-null mice have increased concentrations of taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA), a secondary BA generated by intestinal bacteria, in both serum and livers. Therefore, in the present study, BA concentrations and intestinal bacteria in wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice were

  16. Alterations in the mantle epithelium during transition from hatching gland to adhesive organ of Idiosepius pygmaeus (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Cyran, Norbert; Klepal, Waltraud; Städler, Yannick; Schönenberger, Jürg; von Byern, Janek

    2015-02-01

    Epithelial gland systems play an important role in marine molluscs in fabricating lubricants, repellents, fragrances, adhesives or enzymes. In cephalopods the typically single layered epithelium provides a highly dynamic variability and affords a rapid rebuilding of gland cells. While the digestive hatching gland (also named Hoyle organ) is obligatory for most cephalopods, only four genera (Nautilus, Sepia, Euprymna and Idiosepius) produce adhesive secretions by means of glandular cells in an adhesive area on the mantle or tentacles. In Idiosepius this adhesive organ is restricted to the posterior part of the fin region on the dorsal mantle side and well developed in the adult stage. Two gland cell types could be distinguished, which produce different contents of the adhesive. During the embryonic development the same body area is occupied by the temporary hatching gland. The question arises, in which way the hatching gland degrades and is replaced by the adhesive gland. Ultrastructural analyses as well as computer tomography scans were performed to monitor the successive post hatching transformation in the mantle epithelium from hatching gland degradation to the formation of the adhesive organ. According to our investigations the hatching gland cells degrade within about 1 day after hatching by a type of programmed cell death and leave behind a temporary cellular gap in this area. First glandular cells of the adhesive gland arise 7 days after hatching and proceed evenly over the posterior mantle epithelium. In contrast, the accompanying reduction of a part of the dorsal mantle musculature is already established before hatching. The results demonstrate a distinct independence between the two gland systems and illustrate the early development of the adhesive organ as well as the corresponding modifications within the mantle. PMID:25483816

  17. Zearalenone Altered the Serum Hormones, Morphologic and Apoptotic Measurements of Genital Organs in Post-weaning Gilts.

    PubMed

    Chen, X X; Yang, C W; Huang, L B; Niu, Q S; Jiang, S Z; Chi, F

    2015-02-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the adverse effects of dietary zearalenone (ZEA) (1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg diet) on serum hormones, morphologic and apoptotic measurements of genital organs in post-weaning gilts. A total of twenty gilts (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc) weaned at 21 d with an average body weight of 10.36±1.21 kg were used in the study. Gilts were fed a basal diet with an addition of 0, 1.1, 2.0, or 3.2 mg/kg purified ZEA for 18 d ad libitum. Results showed that 3.2 mg/kg ZEA challenged gilts decreased (p<0.05) the serum levels of luteinizing hormone, however, serum levels of prolactin in gilts fed the diet containing 2.0 mg/kg ZEA or more were increased (p<0.05) compared to those in the control. Linear effects on all tested serum hormones except progesterone were observed as dietary ZEA levels increased (p<0.05). Gilts fed ZEA-contaminated diet showed increase (p<0.05) in genital organs size, hyperplasia of submucosal smooth muscles in the corpus uteri in a dose-dependent manner. However, the decreased numbers of follicles in the cortex and apoptotic cells in the ovarian were observed in gilts treated with ZEA in a dose-dependent manner. Degeneration and structural abnormalities of genital organs tissues were also observed in the gilts fed diet containing 1.1 mg/kg ZEA or more. Results suggested that dietary ZEA at 1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg can induce endocrine disturbance and damage genital organs in post-weaning gilts. PMID:25557812

  18. Protein deficiency alters impact of intestinal nematode infection on intestinal, visceral and lymphoid organ histopathology in lactating mice.

    PubMed

    Starr, Lisa M; Odiere, Maurice R; Koski, Kristine G; Scott, Marilyn E

    2014-05-01

    Protein deficiency impairs local and systemic immune responses to Heligmosomoides bakeri infection but little is known about their individual and interactive impacts on tissue architecture of maternal lymphoid (thymus, spleen) and visceral (small intestine, kidney, liver, pancreas) organs during the demanding period of lactation. Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, pregnant CD1 mice were fed a 24% protein sufficient (PS) or a 6% protein deficient (PD) isoenergetic diet beginning on day 14 of pregnancy and were infected with 100 H. bakeri larvae four times or exposed to four sham infections. On day 20 of lactation, maternal organs were examined histologically and serum analytes were assayed as indicators of organ function. The absence of villus atrophy in response to infection was associated with increased crypt depth and infiltration of mast cells and eosinophils but only in lactating dams fed adequate protein. Infection-induced lobular liver inflammation was reduced in PD dams, however, abnormalities in the kidney caused by protein deficiency were absent in infected dams. Bilirubin and creatinine were highest in PD infected mice. Infection-induced splenomegaly was not due to an increase in the lymphoid compartment of the spleen. During lactation, infection and protein deficiency have interactive effects on extra-intestinal pathologies. PMID:24512671

  19. Influence of sill intrusions on the hydrology and thermal maturity of sediments - Modelling heat flow and organic geochemical alterations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, Ulrich; Delisle, Georg

    2010-05-01

    In a variaty of continetal margins worldwide, sill intrusions had a significant influence on the fluid flow and on the thermal alteration of the sediments. We present concepts of fluid and/or gas flow within the contact aureole of sills. Water exposed to the high temperatures at the contact will inadvertently be converted into the steam phase. This process is of explosive nature due to the enormous expansion of the specific density of the fluid. High temperatures in combination with the available fluid will build up high pressures around the aureole and lead to fluid or gas flow according to the pressure gradient. From the thermal point of view, the major effect of the steam formation is a drastic reduction of the contact temperature at the sill to near the steam point of the fluid. The temperature value depends primarily on the local hydraulic pressure, which is closely related to the depth of the contact below surface. One consequence of the high pressure regime will be the escape of the steam through fractures wherever available. Geologic evidence from known locations points to the creation of so-called pipes. Through such pipes, the fluids and gases will be carried away from the contact, and with it the thermal energy. Our concept is compatible with observations on hydrothermal vents in sedimentary basins, which are known to be associated with sill intrusions. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the above concept, we employ a derivate of BGR's heat flow model which has been used and proven as a robust analytic tool in a variety of published studies. Our calculations demonstrate the massive temperature depression caused by the steam production in comparison to the case of pure heat transfer by conduction. After sill emplacement steam generation will ensue until the latent heat for steam formation for the given water volume has been supplied by heat flow out of the sill. During this process, the contact temperature will be kept at the steam point of water for the given pressure at the sill depth. As soon as the latent heat is used up, the heat flow from the sill will drop below the capacity to heat the water to the steam point. The contact temperature will thereafter slowly drop, sediments and sill will proceed to cool jointly. To test our model with observations, we included routines of kinetic modelling of thermal vitrinite alteration, and compared the computational results to data from different settings worldwide. The comparison between modelled and observational data are in very good accordance.

  20. Artificial Animals for Computer Animation

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Artificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics, Locomotion, Perception, and Behavior Xiaoyuan Tu 1996 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12; Artificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics animation. Animals in their natural habitats have presented a long­standing and difficult challenge

  1. The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. III - Generation of bitumen in laboratory experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huizinga, Bradley J.; Tannenbaum, Eli; Kaplan, I. R.

    1987-01-01

    A series of pyrolysis experiments, utilizing two different immature kerogens (from the Monterey and Green River Formations) mixed with common sedimentary minerals (calcite, illite, or Na-montmorillonite), was conducted to study the impact of the mineral matrix on the bitumen that was generated. Calcite has no significant influence on the thermal evolution of bitumen and also shows virtually no adsorption capacity for any of the pyrolysate. In contrast, montmorillonite (M) and illite, to a lesser extent, alter bitumen during dry pyrolysis. M and illite also display strong adsorption capacities for the polar constituents of bitumen. By this process, hydrocarbons are substantially concentrated within the pyrolysate that is not strongly adsorbed on the clay matrices. The effects of the clay minerals are significantly reduced during hydrous pyrolysis. The strong adsorption capacities of M and illite, as well as their thermocatalytic properties, may in part explain why light oils and gases are generated from certain argillaceous source-rock assemblages, whereas heavy immature oils are often derived from carbonate source rocks.

  2. A gain-of-function mutation in IAA8 alters Arabidopsis floral organ development by change of jasmonic acid level.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Yan, Da-Wei; Yuan, Ting-Ting; Gao, Xiang; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2013-05-01

    Auxin regulates a variety of physiological processes via its downstream factors included Aux/IAAs. In this study, one of these Aux/IAAs, IAA8 is shown to play its role in Arabidopsis development with transgenic plants expressing GFP-mIAA8 under the control of IAA8 promoter, in which IAA8 protein was mutated by changing Pro170 to Leu170 in its conserved domain II. These transgenic dwarfed plants had more lateral branches, short primary inflorescence stems, decreased shoot apical dominance, curled leaves and abnormal flower organs (short petal and stamen, and bent stigmas). Further experiments revealed that IAA8::GFP-mIAA8 plants functioned as gain-of-function mutation to increase GFP-mIAA8 amount probably by stabilizing IAA8 protein against proteasome-mediated protein degradation with IAA8::GFP-IAA8 plants as control. The searching for its downstream factors indicated its interaction with both ARF6 and ARF8, suggesting that IAA8 may involve in flower organ development. This was further evidenced by analyzing the expression of jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthetic genes and JA levels because ARF6 and ARF8 are required for normal JA production. These results indicated that in IAA8::GFP-mIAA8 plants, JA biosynthetic genes including DAD1 (AT2G44810), AOS (AT5G42650) and ORP3 (AT2G06050) were dramatically down-regulated and JA level in the flowers was reduced to 70 % of that in wild-type. Furthermore, exogenous JA application can partially rescue short petal and stamen observed IAA8::GFP-mIAA8 plants. Thus, IAA8 plays its role in floral organ development by changes in JA levels probably via its interaction with ARF6/8 proteins. PMID:23483289

  3. Animal Tracks

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For those of us living in Northern climates, when winter snow covers the landscape it provides great conditions to search for animal tracks. The following websites provide an abundance of information and resources about the ancient art of animal tracking.The first site(1 ), Beartracker's Animal Tracks Den, is an excellent comprehensive "online field guide to tracks and tracking." The site includes animal track images, photos, as well as information about mammals, reptiles, birds, insects, amphibians, and other tracking resources. The second site (2), is an article by Jon C. Boren, Extension Wildlife Specialist and Byron D. Wright, Agricultural Specialist both from the University of New Mexico entitled Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks. The third site (3), on Tracking and Stalking Wildlife, comes from The Virtual Cub Scout Leader's Handbook and provides short information pages on a variety on animals including photos and images of tracks. The fourth site (4) is a well-organized lesson plan with activities on Animal Signs from Eagle Bluff Environmental Learning Center. The fifth site (5) is the Outdoor Action Guide to Animal Tracking by Rick Curtis of Princeton University. This website provides solid and detailed information on many aspects of animal tracking including parts of a track, pattern classification, aging tracks, and more. The sixth site (6) is an article by veteran tracker Jim Halfpenny, Ph.D. about how to determine the accurate track size for an animal. Site visitors can link from this article to the homepage for A Naturalist's World which has information about tracking classes offered in various North American locations. For anyone interested in developing their animal tracking skills, the final two websites also offer courses from very experienced trackers in different regions of North America. The seventh site (7), Tom Brown's Tracker School is the largest school of its kind with locations in New Jersey, California, and Florida. The eighth site, (8) Wilderness Awareness School is located in Washington but offers courses in other regions as well. This website also provides an extensive list of links for many other tracking resources.

  4. Alteration of Plasma Membrane Organization by an Anticancer Lysophosphatidylcholine Analogue Induces Intracellular Acidification and Internalization of Plasma Membrane Transporters in Yeast*

    PubMed Central

    Czyz, Ola; Bitew, Teshager; Cuesta-Marbán, Alvaro; McMaster, Christopher R.; Mollinedo, Faustino; Zaremberg, Vanina

    2013-01-01

    The lysophosphatidylcholine analogue edelfosine is a potent antitumor lipid that targets cellular membranes. The underlying mechanisms leading to cell death remain controversial, although two cellular membranes have emerged as primary targets of edelfosine, the plasma membrane (PM) and the endoplasmic reticulum. In an effort to identify conditions that enhance or prevent the cytotoxic effect of edelfosine, we have conducted genome-wide surveys of edelfosine sensitivity and resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae presented in this work and the accompanying paper (Cuesta-Marbán, Á., Botet, J., Czyz, O., Cacharro, L. M., Gajate, C., Hornillos, V., Delgado, J., Zhang, H., Amat-Guerri, F., Acuña, A. U., McMaster, C. R., Revuelta, J. L., Zaremberg, V., and Mollinedo, F. (January 23, 2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288,), respectively. Our results point to maintenance of pH homeostasis as a major player in modulating susceptibility to edelfosine with the PM proton pump Pma1p playing a main role. We demonstrate that edelfosine alters PM organization and induces intracellular acidification. Significantly, we show that edelfosine selectively reduces lateral segregation of PM proteins like Pma1p and nutrient H+-symporters inducing their ubiquitination and internalization. The biology associated to the mode of action of edelfosine we have unveiled includes selective modification of lipid raft integrity altering pH homeostasis, which in turn regulates cell growth. PMID:23344949

  5. Alterations of myelin-specific proteins and sphingolipids characterize the brains of acid sphingomyelinase-deficient mice, an animal model of Niemann-Pick disease type A.

    PubMed

    Buccinnà, Barbara; Piccinini, Marco; Prinetti, Alessandro; Scandroglio, Federica; Prioni, Simona; Valsecchi, Manuela; Votta, Barbara; Grifoni, Silvia; Lupino, Elisa; Ramondetti, Cristina; Schuchman, Edward H; Giordana, Maria Teresa; Sonnino, Sandro; Rinaudo, Maria Teresa

    2009-04-01

    Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by sphingomyelin (SM) accumulation in lysosomes relying on reduced or absent acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) activity. NPD-A patients develop progressive neurodegeneration including cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, relevant Purkinje cell and myelin deficiency with death within 3 years. ASM'knock-out' (ASMKO) mice, an animal model of NPD-A, develop a phenotype largely mimicking that of NPD-A. The mechanisms underlying myelin formation are poorly documented in ASMKO mice. In this study we determined the content of four myelin-specific proteins, myelin basic protein (MBP), 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP), myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) and proteolipid protein (PLP), and that of myelin-enriched sphingolipids in the brains of ASMKO and wild-type mice in early stages of post-natal (pn) life. Protein and mRNA analysis revealed that in ASMKO mice beginning from 4 post-natal weeks (wk-pn), the expression levels of MAG, CNP, and MBP were below those observed in wild-type mice and the same applied to PLP at 10 wk-pn. Moreover, at 4 wk-pn the expression of SOX10, one of the transcription factors involved in oligodendrocyte development and maintenance was lower in ASMKO mice. Lipid analysis showed that SM and the gangliosides GM3 and GM2 accumulated in the brains of ASMKO mice, as opposed to galactocerebroside and galactosulfocerebroside that, in parallel with the mRNAs of UDP-galactose ceramide galactosyltransferase and galactose-3-O-sulfotransferase 1, the two transferases involved in their synthesis, decreased. Myelin lipid analysis showed a progressive sphingomyelin accumulation in ASMKO mice; noteworthy, of the two sphingomyelin species known to be resolved by TLC, only that with the lower Rf accumulated. The immunohistochemical analysis showed that the reduced expression of myelin specific proteins in ASMKO mice at 10 wk-pn was not restricted to the Purkinje layer of the cerebellar cortex but involved the cerebral cortex as well. In conclusion, reduced oligodendrocyte metabolic activity is likely to be the chief cause of myelin deficiency in ASMKO mice, thus shedding light on the molecular dysfunctions underlying neurodegeneration in NPD-A. PMID:19187445

  6. Two amphibian diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, are now globally notifiable to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE): an assessment.

    PubMed

    Schloegel, Lisa M; Daszak, Peter; Cunningham, Andrew A; Speare, Richard; Hill, Barry

    2010-11-01

    The global trade in amphibians entails the transport of tens of millions of live animals each year. In addition to the impact harvesting wild animals can have on amphibian populations, there is mounting evidence that the emerging pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and ranaviruses, the aetiological agents of chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, respectively, are spread through this trade. The link between these pathogens and amphibian declines and extinctions suggests that the epidemiological impact of the trade is significant and may negatively affect conservation and trade economics. Here we present a brief assessment of the volume of the global trade in live amphibians, the risk of individuals harboring infection, and information on the recent listing by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) of chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease in the OIE Aquatic Animal Health Code. This listing made chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease internationally notifiable diseases and thus subject to OIE standards, which aim to assure the sanitary safety of international trade in live amphibians and their products. PMID:21268971

  7. Animation. Factfile No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsas, Diana, Ed.; And Others

    The following sections are included in this guide: (1) organizations, (2) training programs, (3) animation courses and programs, (4) distributors of animation, (5) services and equipment useful to animators, and (6) U.S. and foreign film festivals. Descriptive information is included for each listing. The annotated bibliography deals with making…

  8. A Nutrient-Driven tRNA Modification Alters Translational Fidelity and Genome-wide Protein Coding across an Animal Genus

    PubMed Central

    Zaborske, John M.; Bauer DuMont, Vanessa L.; Wallace, Edward W. J.; Pan, Tao; Aquadro, Charles F.; Drummond, D. Allan

    2014-01-01

    Natural selection favors efficient expression of encoded proteins, but the causes, mechanisms, and fitness consequences of evolved coding changes remain an area of aggressive inquiry. We report a large-scale reversal in the relative translational accuracy of codons across 12 fly species in the Drosophila/Sophophora genus. Because the reversal involves pairs of codons that are read by the same genomically encoded tRNAs, we hypothesize, and show by direct measurement, that a tRNA anticodon modification from guanosine to queuosine has coevolved with these genomic changes. Queuosine modification is present in most organisms but its function remains unclear. Modification levels vary across developmental stages in D. melanogaster, and, consistent with a causal effect, genes maximally expressed at each stage display selection for codons that are most accurate given stage-specific queuosine modification levels. In a kinetic model, the known increased affinity of queuosine-modified tRNA for ribosomes increases the accuracy of cognate codons while reducing the accuracy of near-cognate codons. Levels of queuosine modification in D. melanogaster reflect bioavailability of the precursor queuine, which eukaryotes scavenge from the tRNAs of bacteria and absorb in the gut. These results reveal a strikingly direct mechanism by which recoding of entire genomes results from changes in utilization of a nutrient. PMID:25489848

  9. Prayer animal release in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucia Liu Severinghaus; Li Chi

    1999-01-01

    In east Asia, people believe that one can accrue merits by freeing captive animals into the wild as a form of prayer to the gods. This practice is called “prayer animal release.” When organized by temples, normally a large number of animals are involved and are referred to as “ceremonial animal releases”. Prayer animals are supplied by pet stores which

  10. Role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. I - Generation of gases and condensates under dry condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tannenbaum, E.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1985-01-01

    Pyrolysis experiments conducted at 200 and 300 C on kerogen and bitumen from the Monterey formation and on the Green River Formation kerogen with montmorillonite, illite, and calcite added are described. The pyrolysis products are identified and gas and condensate analyses are performed. A catalytic effect is detected in the pyrolysis of kerogen with montmorillonite; however, illite and calcite display no catalytic activity. The increased production of C1-C6 hydrocarbons and the dominance of branched hydrocarbons in the C4-C6 range reveals a catalytic influence. It is observed that the catalysis of montmorillonite is greater during bitumen pyrolysis than for kerogen, and catalysis with minerals affects the production of CO2. It is concluded that a mineral matrix is important in determining the type and amount of gases and condensates forming from organic matter under thermal stress.

  11. Alterations in pelvic floor muscles and pelvic organ support by pregnancy and vaginal delivery in squirrel monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Michelle; Gendron, Jilene M.; Pierce, Lisa M.; Runge, Val M.; Kuehl, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis The objective of this study was to measure the effects of pregnancy and parturition on pelvic floor muscles and pelvic organ support. Methods Levator ani, obturator internus, and coccygeus (COC) muscle volumes and contrast uptake were assessed by MRI of seven females prior to pregnancy, 3 days, and 4 months postpartum. Bladder neck and cervix position were measured dynamically with abdominal squeezing. Results The sides of three paired muscles were similar (p>0.66). COC volumes were greater (p<0.004) after parturition than before pregnancy or after recovery. COC contrast uptake increased (p<0.02) immediately after delivery. Bladder neck position both in the relaxed state and abdominal pressure descended (p<0.04) after delivery and descended further (p<0.001) after recovery. Cervical position in the relaxed state before delivery was higher (p<0.001) than postpartum but was unchanged (p=0.50) with abdominal pressure relative to delivery. Conclusion In squirrel monkeys, coccygeus muscles demonstrate the greatest change related to parturition, and parturition-related bladder neck descent seems permanent. PMID:21567260

  12. Bdellovibrio and like organisms enhanced growth and survival of Penaeus monodon and altered bacterial community structures in its rearing water.

    PubMed

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Qiuping; Liu, Renliang; Cai, Junpeng

    2014-10-01

    In this study, a 96-h laboratory reduction test was conducted with strain BDHSH06 (GenBank accession no. EF011103) as the test strain for Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) and 20 susceptible marine bacterial strains forming microcosms as the targets. The results showed that BDHSH06 reduced the levels of approximately 50% of prey bacterial strains within 96 h in the seawater microcosms. An 85-day black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) rearing experiment was performed. The shrimp survival rate, body length, and weight in the test tanks were 48.1% ± 1.2%, 99.8 ± 10.0 mm, and 6.36 ± 1.50 g, respectively, which were values significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those for the control, viz., 31.0% ± 2.1%, 86.0 ± 11.1 mm, and 4.21 ± 1.56 g, respectively. With the addition of BDHSH06, total bacterial and Vibrio numbers were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 1.3 to 4.5 log CFU · ml(-1) and CFU · g(-1) in both water and shrimp intestines, respectively, compared to those in the control. The effect of BDHSH06 on bacterial community structures in the rearing water was also examined using PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE profiles of rearing water samples from the control and test tanks revealed that the amounts of 44% of the bacterial species were reduced when BDHSH06 was added to the rearing water over the 85-day rearing period, and among these, approximately 57.1% were nonculturable. The results of this study demonstrated that BDHSH06 can be used as a biocontrol/probiotic agent in P. monodon culture. PMID:25107962

  13. Bdellovibrio and Like Organisms Enhanced Growth and Survival of Penaeus monodon and Altered Bacterial Community Structures in Its Rearing Water

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Qiuping; Liu, Renliang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a 96-h laboratory reduction test was conducted with strain BDHSH06 (GenBank accession no. EF011103) as the test strain for Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) and 20 susceptible marine bacterial strains forming microcosms as the targets. The results showed that BDHSH06 reduced the levels of approximately 50% of prey bacterial strains within 96 h in the seawater microcosms. An 85-day black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) rearing experiment was performed. The shrimp survival rate, body length, and weight in the test tanks were 48.1% ± 1.2%, 99.8 ± 10.0 mm, and 6.36 ± 1.50 g, respectively, which were values significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those for the control, viz., 31.0% ± 2.1%, 86.0 ± 11.1 mm, and 4.21 ± 1.56 g, respectively. With the addition of BDHSH06, total bacterial and Vibrio numbers were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 1.3 to 4.5 log CFU · ml?1 and CFU · g?1 in both water and shrimp intestines, respectively, compared to those in the control. The effect of BDHSH06 on bacterial community structures in the rearing water was also examined using PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE profiles of rearing water samples from the control and test tanks revealed that the amounts of 44% of the bacterial species were reduced when BDHSH06 was added to the rearing water over the 85-day rearing period, and among these, approximately 57.1% were nonculturable. The results of this study demonstrated that BDHSH06 can be used as a biocontrol/probiotic agent in P. monodon culture. PMID:25107962

  14. Stromal Edema in Klf4 Conditional Null Mouse Cornea is Associated with Altered Collagen Fibril Organization and Reduced Proteoglycans

    PubMed Central

    Young, Robert D.; Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K.; Boote, Craig; Mann, Mary; Quantock, Andrew J.; Piatigorsky, Joram; Funderburgh, James L.; Meek, Keith M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Klf4, one of the highly expressed transcription factors in mouse cornea, plays an important role in maturation and maintenance of the ocular surface. Here, the authors examined the structure and proteoglycan composition of the Klf4 conditional null (Klf4CN) corneal stroma, to further characterize the previously reported Klf4CN stromal edema. Methods Collagen fibril spacing and diameter were calculated from scattering intensity profiles from small angle synchrotron X-ray scattering patterns obtained across the cornea along a vertical meridian at 0.5mm intervals. Collagen fibril organization and proteoglycans were visualised by electron microscopy (EM) with or without the cationic dye Cuprolinic blue. Proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans were further analyzed by fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis (FACE) and immunoblots. Q-RT-PCR was used to measure the transcript levels. Results In the central cornea the average collagen interfibrillar Bragg spacing increased from 44.5nm (SD +/-1.8nm) in wild type to 66.5nm (SD +/-2.3nm) in Klf4CN, as measured by X-ray scattering and confirmed by EM. Mean collagen fibril diameter increased from 32nm (SD+/-0.4nm) in wild type to 42.3nm (SD+/-4.8nm) in Klf4CN corneal stroma. Downregulation of proteoglycans detected by EM in the Klf4CN stroma was confirmed by FACE and immunoblots. Q-RT-PCR showed that while the Klf4CN corneal proteoglycan transcript levels remained unchanged, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) transcript levels were significantly upregulated. Conclusions The Klf4CN corneal stromal edema is characterized by increased collagen interfibrillar spacing and increased diameter of individual fibrils. The stroma also exhibits reduced interfibrillar proteoglycans throughout the corneal stroma, which is possibly caused by increased expression of MMPs. PMID:19387067

  15. Animal lifespan and human influence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.; Yang, S.

    2002-01-01

    Lifespan differs radically among organisms ever lived on earth, even among those roughly similar in size, shape, form, and physiology; Yet, in general, there exists a strong positive relationship between lifespan and body size. Although lifespans of humans and human-related (domestic) animals are becoming increasingly longer than that of other animals of similar sizes, the slope of the regression (lifespan-body size) line and the intercepts have been surprisingly stable over the course of the dramatic human population growth, indicating substantial depression in lifespans of many other animals probably due to shrunk and fragmented natural habitats. This article addresses two questions related to the lifespan-size relationship: (1) what caused the exceptions (e.g., a few remote human-related animals are also located above the regression line with great residuals) and why (e.g., could brain size or intelligence be a covariate in addition to body size in predicting lifespan?), and (2) whether continued human activities can eventually alter the ' natural' regression line in the future, and if so, how much. We also suggest similar research efforts to be extended to the plant world as well.

  16. Animal Cell Meiosis Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Meiosis is important in assuring genetic diversity in sexual reproduction. Use this interactive animation to follow Meiosis I (reduction division) and Meiosis II in a continuous sequence or stop at any stage and review critical events.

  17. Location of nucleolar organizers in animal and plant chromosomes by means of an improved N-banding technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Funaki; Sei-ichi Matsui; Motomichi Sasaki

    1975-01-01

    With an improved N-banding technique, the location of nucleolar organizing region was determined in 27 kinds of material including mammals, a marsupial, birds, amphibians, fishes, an insect and plants. In most cases the N-bands were clearly located on certain specific regions of chromosomes, such as the secondary constriction, satellite, centromere, telomere and heterochromatic segment, while in some species they were

  18. Major causes of organ/carcass condemnation and financial loss estimation in animals slaughtered at two abattoirs in Bursa Province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yibar, Artun; Selcuk, Ozgur; Senlik, Bayram

    2015-01-01

    An abattoir survey was conducted from July 2012 to December 2012 to determine the major causes of organ and carcass condemnation and to estimate the associated direct financial loss at two abattoirs in Bursa Province in Turkey. A total of 22,872 sheeps and 5363 cattle were examined by postmortem inspection using standard inspection procedures. The total economic loss in two abattoirs was estimated from the summation of organ and carcass condemnation in six-month period. The retail prices of offal (lung, liver, kidney, heart, and spleen) and kg price of cattle and sheep carcasses were obtained from local markets. The results of postmortem examination indicated that a total of 658 (2.33%) offals and 93 (0.32%) carcasses were condemned. While the main causes of organ condemnation were hydatidosis and fasciolosis, carcasses were condemned mainly due to tuberculosis and jaundice. The total revenue in 2012 for all animals (164,080 sheeps and 56,035 cattle) slaughtered in 15 abattoirs in Bursa Province was 144,401,765 USD. This study showed that financial loss due to organ and carcass condemnations at two abattoirs in six-month period was 245,483 USD (0.17% of the total annual revenue of all slaughtered animals at 15 abattoirs). In sheep, six-month financial loss was estimated at 3281 USD and 4015 USD from organ condemnation due to fasciolosis and hydatidosis, respectively. In cattle, total loss was calculated as 4042 USD and 12,321 USD due to fasciolosis and hydatidosis, respectively. A common cause of carcass condemnation in cattle was tuberculosis, totalling 214,995 USD in losses, whereas condemnation due to tuberculosis was not determined in sheep. The current study also showed that six-month monetary losses from carcass condemnation of sheep and cattle due to jaundice were 8099 USD and 6026 USD, respectively. From the data obtained in this study, it can be concluded that bacterial and parasitic diseases remain common and cause considerable economic loss in Bursa Province, Turkey. The result of this abattoir study provided regional information on major causes of organ and carcass condemnation in sheep and cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs as well as giving an estimation of the direct financial losses. PMID:25481623

  19. Biogas Production from Vietnamese Animal Manure, Plant Residues and Organic Waste: Influence of Biomass Composition on Methane Yield

    PubMed Central

    Cu, T. T. T.; Nguyen, T. X.; Triolo, J. M.; Pedersen, L.; Le, V. D.; Le, P. D.; Sommer, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg?1 volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg?1 VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam. PMID:25557826

  20. Biogas production from vietnamese animal manure, plant residues and organic waste: influence of biomass composition on methane yield.

    PubMed

    Cu, T T T; Nguyen, T X; Triolo, J M; Pedersen, L; Le, V D; Le, P D; Sommer, S G

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam. PMID:25557826

  1. Animal Reproduction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Topic in Depth takes a look at organizations and educational websites concerned with reproduction in humans and other animals. The Society for the Study of Reproduction (SSR) "is an association of scientists and physicians interested in research in reproduction. Some members are engaged in basic or applied research, while others perform clinical practice." The SSR website (1) contains downloadable copies of the SSR Newsletter; position statements; and information about meetings, awards, and the organization. The Society for Reproduction and Fertility (SRF) "is open to scientists and students worldwide, who work on any aspect of reproductive biology or fertility in man and animals." The SRF website (2) contains sections regarding News, Events, Jobs, Honours, and Grants. SRF makes downloadable copies of its newsletter available as well. The primary aim of the European Society of Human Reproduction & Embryology (ESHRE) "is to promote interest in, and understanding of, reproductive biology and medicine. It does this through facilitating research and subsequent dissemination of research findings in human reproduction and embryology to the general public, scientists, clinicians and patient associations; it also works to inform politicians and policy makers throughout Europe." The ESHRE site (3) contains information about activities, membership, publications, special interest groups, and jobs. The primary function of the Centre for Reproductive Biology in Uppsala (CRU) "is to increase the knowledge about reproduction in animals and humans by applying a more comprehensive view on reproductive biology." CRU is composed of scientists from both Uppsala University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Science. The CRU site (4) contains information about a number of publications, and contact information for CRU members. The Population Council is a nonprofit "organization that conducts biomedical, social science, and public health research." The "Council's reproductive biology and immunology program undertakes fundamental research in the reproductive sciences and immunological processes related to sexually transmitted infections, particularly HIV." This website (5) provides information about different aspects of the research program including Germ Cell Dynamics, Sperm Maturation, and Physiology of Sertoli Cells. From Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College, the next site (6) is a concise overview of animal reproduction which addresses important aspects of sexual reproduction, and male and female reproductive systems. The final site (7) contains lecture notes regarding avian reproduction from Dr. Gary Ritchison's Ornithology course at Eastern Kentucky University. The lecture notes are interspersed with some especially nice images and diagrams.

  2. Universal Pacemaker of Genome Evolution in Animals and Fungi and Variation of Evolutionary Rates in Diverse Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Snir, Sagi; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2014-01-01

    Gene evolution is traditionally considered within the framework of the molecular clock (MC) model whereby each gene is characterized by an approximately constant rate of evolution. Recent comparative analysis of numerous phylogenies of prokaryotic genes has shown that a different model of evolution, denoted the Universal PaceMaker (UPM), which postulates conservation of relative, rather than absolute evolutionary rates, yields a better fit to the phylogenetic data. Here, we show that the UPM model is a better fit than the MC for genome wide sets of phylogenetic trees from six species of Drosophila and nine species of yeast, with extremely high statistical significance. Unlike the prokaryotic phylogenies that include distant organisms and multiple horizontal gene transfers, these are simple data sets that cover groups of closely related organisms and consist of gene trees with the same topology as the species tree. The results indicate that both lineage-specific and gene-specific rates are important in genome evolution but the lineage-specific contribution is greater. Similar to the MC, the gene evolution rates under the UPM are strongly overdispersed, approximately 2-fold compared with the expectation from sampling error alone. However, we show that neither Drosophila nor yeast genes form distinct clusters in the tree space. Thus, the gene-specific deviations from the UPM, although substantial, are uncorrelated and most likely depend on selective factors that are largely unique to individual genes. Thus, the UPM appears to be a key feature of genome evolution across the history of cellular life. PMID:24812293

  3. Hybrid Shell Engineering of Animal Cells for Immune Protections and Regulation of Drug Delivery: Towards the Design of “Artificial Organs

    PubMed Central

    Dandoy, Philippe; Meunier, Christophe F.; Michiels, Carine; Su, Bao-Lian

    2011-01-01

    Background With the progress in medicine, the average human life expectancy is continuously increasing. At the same time, the number of patients who require full organ transplantations is augmenting. Consequently, new strategies for cell transplantation are the subject of great interest. Methodology/Principal Findings This work reports the design, the synthesis and the characterisation of robust and biocompatible mineralised beads composed of two layers: an alginate-silica composite core and a Ca-alginate layer. The adequate choice of materials was achieved through cytotoxicity LDH release measurement and in vitro inflammatory assay (IL-8) to meet the biocompatibility requirements for medical purpose. The results obtained following this strategy provide a direct proof of the total innocuity of silica and alginate networks for human cells as underscored by the non-activation of immune defenders (THP-1 monocytes). The accessible pore size diameter of the mineralised beads synthesized was estimated between 22 and 30 nm, as required for efficient immuno-isolation without preventing the diffusion of nutrients and metabolites. The model human cells, HepG2, entrapped within these hybrid beads display a high survival rate over more than six weeks according to the measurements of intracellular enzymatic activity, respiration rate, as well as the “de novo” biosynthesis and secretion of albumin out of the beads. Conclusions/Significance The current study shows that active mammalian cells can be protected by a silica-alginate hybrid shell-like system. The functionality of the cell strain can be maintained. Consequently, cells coated with an artificial and a biocompatible mineral shell could respond physiologically within the human body in order to deliver therapeutic agents in a controlled fashion (i.e. insulin), substituting the declining organ functions of the patient. PMID:21731637

  4. Genetically Modified Animals Nicole Edgar and Etienne Sibille

    E-print Network

    Sibille, Etienne

    Genetically Modified Animals Nicole Edgar and Etienne Sibille Center for Neuroscience, Department Synonyms Transgenic Animal; Mutant Animal; Genetically Engineered Animal; Genetically Modified Organism or recombinant DNA technology. In biomedical sciences, genetically modified animals are typically generated

  5. Animation collage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Theobalt; Christian Rössl; Edilson De Aguiar; Hans-peter Seidel

    2007-01-01

    We propose a method to automatically transform mesh animations into animation collages, i.e. moving assemblies of shape primitives from a database given by an artist. An animation collage is a complete reassembly of the original animation in a new abstract visual style that imitates the spatio-temporal shape and deformation of the input. Our algorithm automatically decomposes input animations into plausible

  6. Animal Cloning 101

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Teachers' Domain presents this interactive lesson with reading materials and animations to present information on what a clone is, how cloning live organisms is possible, and examples of animals that have been cloned in the past. The activity also illustrates how cloned animals may one day be used in enhancing human health. On the site, visitors will also find a supplemental background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment from Teachers' Domain.

  7. Space research on organs and tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Marc E.; Morey-Holton, Emily

    1992-01-01

    The effects of microgravity on various physiological systems are reviewed focusing on muscle, bone, cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurovestibular, liver, and endocrine systems. It is noted that certain alterations of organs and tissues caused by microgravity are not reproducible in earth-bound animal or human models. Thus space research on organs and tissues is essential for both validating the earth-bound models used in laboratories and studying the adaptations to weightlessness which cannot be mimicked on earth.

  8. Animal Diversity Web

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    Thousands of accounts about individual animal species. These may include text, pictures of living animals, photographs and movies of specimens, and/or recordings of sounds. Descriptions of levels of organization above the species level, especially phyla, classes, and in some cases, orders and families. Hundreds of hyperlinked pages and images illustrate the traits and general biology of these groups.

  9. Algae in Animal Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Chowdhury; K. S. Huque; M. Khatun

    Summary • In the context of threats to fragile environments, there is a need in animal production to identify alternative feed resources, which are environmentally friendly, but at the same time utilize natural resources efficiently. Algae are autotrophic organisms, which have potentia as food and feed for man and animals. They are rich in protein (50-60%), lipids (2-22%), vitamins and

  10. Inside Plant and Animal Cells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms.Kimb

    2012-04-04

    Identify the structures that make up plant and animal cells, then determine their function. Today, you will be comparing plant and animal cells. Identify the structures within each cell and determine the function it performs. First, open up the Cell Information Organizer worksheet. You will use this throughout this project to record and organize the cell information. Next, go to the Animal Cell Model. Begin the exercise by clicking Animal Cell. Observe ...

  11. Comparison of selected animal observations and management practices used to assess welfare of calves and adult dairy cows on organic and conventional dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Bergman, M A; Richert, R M; Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Gamroth, M J; Schukken, Y H; Stiglbauer, K E; Ruegg, P L

    2014-07-01

    Differences in adoption of selected practices used in welfare assessment and audit programs were contrasted among organic (ORG; n=192) herds and similarly sized conventional grazing herds (CON-GR; n=36), and conventional nongrazing herds (CON-NG; n=64). Criteria from 3 programs were assessed: American Humane Association Animal Welfare Standards for Dairy Cattle, Farmers Assuring Responsible Management (FARM), and the Canadian Codes of Practice (CCP). Data were collected by trained study personnel during a herd visit and included information about neonatal care, dehorning, pain relief, calf nutrition, weaning, record keeping, use of veterinarians, and animal observations. Associations of management type (ORG, CON-GR, or CON-NG) with adoption of selected practice were assessed. Almost all farms (97%) met criteria suggested for age at weaning but fewer CON-NG farmers weaned calves at ?5 wk of age compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Only 23% of farms met program requirements for use of pain relief during dehorning, and fewer CON-NG farmers used pain relief for calves after dehorning compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Calves on ORG farms were fed a greater volume of milk and were weaned at an older age than calves on CON-GR and CON-NG farms. Calves on CON-GR farms were dehorned at a younger age compared with calves on ORG and CON-NG farms. The calving area was shared with lactating cows for a larger proportion of ORG herds compared with conventional herds. About 30% of herds met welfare program criteria for body condition score but only about 20% met criteria for animal hygiene scores. The least proportion of cows with hock lesions was observed on ORG farms. Regular use of veterinarians was infrequent for ORG herds. Results of this study indicate that most of the organic and conventional farms enrolled in this study would have been unlikely to achieve many criteria of audit and assessment programs currently used in the US dairy industry. PMID:24819133

  12. Exploring Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Emily

    2009-03-02

    Each group will be given one of the following categories of animals to explore further and answer questions about. Mammals Invertebrates Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Explore your category of animals and answer these questions: 1. What makes an animal belong to this category? Do you think that an animal can only belong to one category? Why or why not? 2. Explain why these animals live where they do? 3. Does your category of animals have any interesting ...

  13. CSC258 Computer Organization Lab 1 1 An animal lover a , a bird b , a cat c , and a dog d are all on the west bank of a river,

    E-print Network

    Hehner, Eric C.R.

    CSC258 Computer Organization Lab 1 1 An animal lover a , a bird b , a cat c , and a dog d are all on the west bank of a river, indicated by a=b=c=d= . The animal lover needs to transport the bird, cat other thing (bird or cat or dog), so several trips are necessary. If the bird and cat are left together

  14. Animal Cloning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lee, Amy.

    2002-01-01

    The past few years have seen many changes in the field of genetics, including the ability to genetically clone mammals, first achieved in 1997 with a sheep named Dolly. Still a relatively new phenomenon, news stories are continually detailing new advances in cloning, reasons why cloning is important, and concerns about the safety and ethics of cloning. This week's Topic In Depth highlights some recent news articles and Web sites that address the topic of animal cloning. The first site is a recent article from the Washington Post about the sheep named Dolly, the world's first cloned mammal, who has developed arthritis at a relatively young age and has caused some to question whether cloning can have adverse health effects. An ABC news.com article details the recent birth of five cloned piglets whose parent had been genetically engineered to remove a gene that causes human bodies to reject transplanted animal organs. An Associated Press article discusses some concerns raised by scientists and ethicists surrounding the idea of xenotransplantation (animal to human transplantation). For users who need a primer on what exactly cloning means and why it is done, check out the Cloning Fact Sheet. Developed by the Human Genome Project, it provides short, non-technical explanations of the different types of cloning and some links to other cloning related Web sites. Those users looking for more detailed information about cloning technology will find the next two sites interesting. PPL Therapeutics, which created the five piglets and collaborated with the Roslin Institute to clone Dolly, provides news articles and technical descriptions of cloning and related genetic technology. The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America's Web site provides links to a tremendous amount of information surrounding all aspects of cloning, including recent congressional activity, news, and general resources. Although focused more heavily on human cloning, The American Journal of Bioethics Online has a Web page with links to various articles relating to the ethical issues involved with cloning and genetics.

  15. The Early Years: Animal Adventures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Peggy Ashbrook

    2007-09-01

    Children can have a new favorite animal every week or even every hour. The more familiar the children become with an animal, the more they will be able to understand how its body form and behavior allow it to survive. Learning about the characteristics of organisms and how organisms relate to their environment is part of the National Science EducationContent Standard C. Looking at and drawing animals and talking and reading about the way animals live and what they need to survive pulls together art and science while introducing children to animal diversity and the idea of animal adaptation.

  16. Organics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. Endangered Animals Webquest

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Nielson

    2009-11-17

    In this project, students will be defining what an endangered animal is. They will also be creating a poster with certain information about the particular animal they have chosen to focus on. The library media standard that is being focused on is the following: Standard 5 Students organize, synthesize, and present information. Objective 1 Organize information from multiple sources. Objective 2 Present information. INTRODUCTION In order to help familiarize you with the BIG6 model, you will complete the following webquest on Endangered Animals. Follow the directions at each step as each will guide you through the process of what you are to do. Good luck!! ...

  18. Animal Diversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    1982-01-01

    In this outdoor activity, learners find, count and compare as many different kinds of animals as they can find in two different areas: a managed lawn and a weedy area. Learners compare their animal finds, and also examine which plants in the different areas attracted the most animals. Learners consider how people have affected the diversity of animals in the lawn.

  19. Character Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A general discussion of the creation and animation of characters in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional character animation techniques, such as those developed by the Disney animators, and also human modelling. The section includes html pages, images and several videos.

  20. Animal Diversity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2004-02-05

    This lesson from Science NetLinks exposes children to a wide range of animals and guides them through observation of animal similarities, differences, and environmental adaptations. This lesson can be used as part of a study of plants and animals. Before doing the lesson, students should know the meanings of the terms: plant, animal, and living.

  1. The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W

    2010-08-01

    The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field. PMID:20919590

  2. Animal House

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-03-10

    The goal of this activity is to design, build and test a house or toy for an animal. Learners will research a particular animal and design a house or toy that will encourage that animal's specific behaviors. Each house or toy must fit into the animal's cage, support the animal's size and weight, and be constructed of non-toxic materials. Safety note: adult supervision recommended for cutting cardboard boxes.

  3. Animal Reproduction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Joggerst

    2008-03-30

    What animals abandon their offspring? Find out this and more as you explore reproduction in the animal world. Did you know that all animals must reproduce to survive? In this project you will be learning some interesting facts about reproduction in animals. After you have some background information you will have a chance to select 3 animals and complete a chart on reproduction. TASK: Day 1 ...

  4. Development of the Gecko (Pachydactylus turneri) Animal Model during Foton M-2 to Study Comparative Effects of Microgravity in Terrestrial and Aquatic Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almeida, E. A.; Roden, C.; Phillips, J. A.; Globus, R. K.; Searby, N.; Vercoutere, W.; Morey-Holton, E.; Gulimova, V.; Saveliev, S.; Tairbekov, M.; Iwaniec, U. T.; McNamra, A. J.; Turner, R. T.

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial organisms exposed to microgravity during spaceflight experience degeneration in bone, muscle, and possibly other tissues that require gravity-mediated mechanical stimulation for normal regenerative growth. In the Gecko experiment aboard Foton M-2, we flew for the first time, five terrestrial Pachydactylus turneri specimens to develop a model of microgravity effects comparable to the newt Pleurodeles waltl, a well-established model organism for spaceflight. These lower vertebrate species have similar body plans and size, are poikilothermic, have tissue regenerative ability, and are adapted to moderate periods of fasting. Furthermore the gecko (Pachydactylus) can also survive prolonged periods without water. In pre-flight control experiments and after a 16-day Foton M-2 spaceflight without food or water, the geckos were recovered and showed no apparent negative health effects. However, detailed analysis of bone mass and architecture by micro Computed Tomography { pCT), showed that both synchronous control and spaceflight animals lost significant amounts of cancellous bone in the distal femur and humerus relative to basal controls. In addition, cell cycle analysis of 30h post-flight liver tissue reveals a shift of DNA content from G2 and S to G1, both in spaceflight and synchronous controls. Together, these results suggest that housing conditions alone induce rapid catabolism of cancellous bone and reduced normal tissue regeneration. Further use of the gecko Puchydactylus turneri as a spaceflight model requires modification of housing conditions, possibly by including water and food, or changing other factors such as eliminating housing stresses to obtain stable bone structure and tissue regeneration during spaceflight experiments.

  5. Organs from Animals for Man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Hammer; R. Linke; F. Wagner; M. Diefenbeck

    1998-01-01

    In the following review some of the problems of xenotransplantation shall be discussed, based on the few experimental data available so far and on reports in the literature describing investigations which may be of importance for xenotransplantation. The impact of gravity on the upright posture of man versus almost all other mammals, the dysfunction between enzymes and hormones in different

  6. Microgravity alters the expression of salivary proteins.

    PubMed

    Mednieks, Maija; Khatri, Aditi; Rubenstein, Renee; Burleson, Joseph A; Hand, Arthur R

    2014-06-01

    Spaceflight provides a unique opportunity to study how physiologic responses are influenced by the external environment. Microgravity has been shown to alter the function of a number of tissues and organ systems. Very little, however, is known about how microgravity affects the oral cavity. The rodent model is useful for study in that their salivary gland morphology and physiology is similar to that of humans. Useful also is the fact that saliva, a product of the salivary glands with a major role in maintaining oral health, can be easily collected in humans whereas the glands can be studied in experimental animals. Our working hypothesis is that expression of secretory proteins in saliva will respond to microgravity and will be indicative of the nature of physiologic reactions to travel in space. This study was designed to determine which components of the salivary proteome are altered in mice flown on the US space shuttle missions and to determine if a subset with predictive value can be identified using microscopy and biochemistry methods. The results showed that the expression of secretory proteins associated with beta-adrenergic hormone regulated responses and mediated via the cyclic AMP pathway was significantly altered, whereas that of a number of unrelated proteins was not. The findings are potentially applicable to designing a biochemical test system whereby specific salivary proteins can be biomarkers for stress associated with travel in space and eventually for monitoring responses to conditions on earth. PMID:24984624

  7. Animations for Physics and Astronomy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Michael R. Gallis

    This collection of animations illustrates basic concepts in physics and astronomy. Topics include astronomy, mechanics, vectors, electricity and magnetism, waves, optics, and many others. The animations are organized by topic and may be downloaded or streamed from the website. The site also includes links to papers on the use of animations in physics education.

  8. Animal Matters Fall 2014 Seminar Series from

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    Animal Matters Fall 2014 Seminar Series from Tufts Center for Animals and Public Policy with the American Society for Lab Animal Practitioners Organs-on-Chips as Potential Alternatives to Animal Testing Lecture Hall (VLH) behind the Hospital for Large Animals Members of the public are invited to this free

  9. Animal Bites

    MedlinePLUS

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  10. Flash Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This collections of Flash animations accompanies Chang's Essential Chemistry, 2/e, but is publically available. These animations are interactive and have voice-overs, thereby providing a multimedia presentation of basic chemical concepts.

  11. Among Animals

    E-print Network

    Ritvo, Harriet

    The tendency to see humans as special and separate influences even practices like scientific taxonomy which explicitly place them among other animals. The animal-related scholarship that has emerged throughout the humanities ...

  12. Endangered animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-05-26

    There are many animals that are in danger of becoming extinct. Humans are largely to blame for their endangerment. Over-hunting and habitat destruction are only a couple of ways that humans are endangering animals.

  13. The Early Years: Animal Adventures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Children can have a new favorite animal every week or even every hour. The more familiar the children become with an animal, the more they will be able to understand how its body form and behavior allow it to survive. Learning about the characteristics of organisms and how organisms relate to their environment is part of the National Science…

  14. Animal Calendar

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    TERC

    2010-01-01

    This website contains links to 12 calendars (12 months). June contains seven activities that mix math with exploring animals. For instance, children conduct a survey about favorite animals, find an animal with paws bigger than their hands, and name as many spotted animals as they can in a minute. Works as a handout, take-home, or group activity. Available as a downloadable pdf and in Spanish.

  15. Ocean Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-12-05

    There are many types of Ocean Animals, today we wil be going to identify several Ocean Anumals through specific body parts that makeOcean Animals different from one another. To begin examine the links below to see what different types of ocean animals there are and what makes those animals different from one another Beluga Whales- National Geographic Kids Dolphins- Who lives in the sea? Puffer fish- National Geographic Stingrays- National Geographic Kids ...

  16. Reconciling scientific approaches for organic farming research. Part I. Reflection on research methods in organic grassland and animal production at the Louis Bolk Institute, The Netherlands. Part II. Effects of manure types and white clover (Trifolium repens) cultivars on the productivity of grass-clover mixtures on a humid sandy soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Baars

    2002-01-01

    Part I<\\/strong> : Reflection on research methods in organic grassland and animal production at the Louis Bolk Institute, The NetherlandsKey words: organic agriculture, anthroposophy, methodology, research strategy, experiential science, multidisciplinary science, Goethean scienceThis dissertation focuses on the research question: what is peculiar to agricultural research when its purpose is to support the conscious development of organic agriculture? What approaches, designs

  17. Animal Behaviour

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Paul McGreevey

    2010-01-01

    This site is written by a veterinarian and has separate pages for various classes of animals such as domesticated, farm, and exotic animals. There is also an online book available to the user in which they can find more information on some of the same plus some additional animal behaviors.

  18. Water Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Beardsley

    2011-10-26

    How do animals adapt to their environments? Use the chart Bottlenose Dolphin facts and photos record what you learn for each animal in the chart. The first animal you will learn about is a bottlenose dolphin. Watch Bottlenose Dolphin facts and photos Learn about Wild Bills. Watch wild bill video ...

  19. Computer Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A general discussion of computer animation. This section includes principles of camera animation, character animation and special effects such as particle systems. There is also a discussion of artificial life techniques such as the flocking algorithm and the graphical simulation of different types of life. This section includes html pages, images and several videos.

  20. Animated Engines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Keveney, Matt

    This website includes a variety of animations explaining the mechanical workings of a variety of steam, Stirling and internal combustion engines. The animations may be paused, slowed or sped up. The animations are accompanied by additional text explaining how each engine works.

  1. Astronomy Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The representation is an animation showing the Sun-Earth-Moon system. The sun is shown as a stationary body at the top of the screen, with a rotating Earth with a moon revolving around it. This representation includes a separate additional graphic in the animation that continuously shows the phase of the moon as they correspond to the revolving moon in the animation.

  2. Animal Scent

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2006-01-01

    This activity (on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior. Learners will create five or six scent blocks by rubbing wood blocks with different kitchen spices, foods, or animal scents. Then, learners let their pets investigate each block separately. Carefully observed behaviors are recorded for interpretation. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Animal Scent.

  3. Animal Alert

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    This Web site from Animal Planet offers visitors the very latest news about animals around the globe. Scroll along the map of the world, and then click on an icon. A pop-up window will appear with a synopsis of a news story, a link to the full story, and a list of related features on the Animal Planet Web site. A key to the map icons is provided. The full news story page also provides general information and trivia about each animal. This is a great resource for anyone wishing to keep informed about animal-related current events without having to register for an email newsletter.

  4. Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation

    This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

  5. Animation Studies - Animated Dialogues, 2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lienors Torre

    There is need for a recorded history - perhaps more than one is necessary to fully reveal the multi-layered identity of animation in Australia. With animation's becoming an accepted discipline for study and source for critical writing, it becomes important to define each country's history of its foundations and growth, whatever the significance, to identify each national animation in its

  6. Immunoassay Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chung, KynWai.

    1996-01-01

    The University of Glasgow Department of Pathological Biochemistry has recently made available five immunoassay animations that draw on the interactivity of the FutureSplash plug-in (discussed in the December 20, 1996 issue of the Scout Report). The animations are "a learning resource for students, to show the wide application of the use of antibodies in a clinical biochemistry laboratory," and are "graphical representations of the immunoassay methodology used by a number of commercial manufacturers." Each immunoassay is presented as a series of animations, allowing the user to navigate forward and back in time. A key is provided, and animations can be viewed step by step (with explanations) and then replayed as a single continuous animation without explanations or navigation. Immunoassay Animations is a powerful visual teaching tool.

  7. Ocean Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Cole

    2011-04-07

    What characteristics do animals have that help them to survive in the ocean? We have enjoyed learning about lots of different ocean animals in class, but there is still so much more to learn! Here are some websites with fun pictures and videos to teach us about the characteristics that help animals survive in the ocean. Beluga whales have been one of our favorite topics ...

  8. Astronomy Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Barnbaum, Cecilia

    2011-04-12

    This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

  9. NMR Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site features animated tutorials on NMR with sufficient depth to be useful to the non NMR savvy. The animations are accompanied by short descriptions so that the processes displayed can be understood by the viewer. This site goes beyond just showing precession. There are nice animations showing the effect of different pulses, including composite pulses on the magnetization, the effects of magnetic gradient pulses to measure diffusion and do coherence pathway selection.

  10. Astronomy Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

  11. Physics Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    If you would like a taste of classical mechanics in an animated form, this website is right up your alley. This site from the physics department at the University of Toronto offers up over 100 helpful animations that cover quantum mechanics, vectors, waves, relativity, and optics. Visitors can scroll through the topical headings to look for items of interest and should note the entire website is searchable as well. There are some great topical animations here, such as one on fluid mechanics that involves a theoretical dropping of a ball from the CN Tower in Toronto. Animations have also been translated into Catalan, Spanish, and Basque.

  12. Animal Omnibus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Designed with children in mind, the Animal Omnibus site is "a list of web sources indexed by the name of the animal." Users search by animal name to get returns in the form of hyperlinked resource lists. The resource lists contain sites ranging from simple color photographs of individual species to sites steeped in scientific classification to publicly targeted zoo sites. Animal Omnibus may also be browsed by generic name within each taxonomic category (amphibians, arthropods, birds, dinosaurs, fish, mammals, mollusks, and reptiles). Although depth of content varies widely, this unique and diverse collection of information types is at once unpredictable and refreshing.

  13. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Staczek, J

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovirus infections. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the study of many of the animal cytomegaloviruses in vitro. Consequently, animal cytomegaloviruses can be used as model systems for studying the pathogenesis, immunobiology, and molecular biology of cytomegalovirus-host and cytomegalovirus-cell interactions. PMID:2170830

  14. Targeted metabolomics in an intrusive weed, Rumex obtusifolius L., grown under different environmental conditions reveals alterations of organ related metabolite pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsuko Miyagi; Kentaro Takahara; Hideyuki Takahashi; Maki Kawai-Yamada; Hirofumi Uchimiya

    2010-01-01

    This study was intended to analyze the metabolic pathway of Rumex obtusifolius L. (Broad-leaved dock), destructive weeds worldwide, in relation to major environmental factors (light and temperature).\\u000a It was found that R. obtusifolius can be classified as plants in accumulating major organic acids such as oxalate in leaves and citrate in stems (Miyagi et\\u000a al., Metabolomics 6:146–155 2010). The organ

  15. Impact of Anthropogenic Environmental Alterations on Vector-Borne Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Neil

    2008-01-01

    The spread of infectious vector-borne diseases involves at least 3 organisms: a parasite, a vector, and a host. Alterations to the natural environment may change the context within which these entities interact, thus potentially affecting vector-borne disease epidemiology. In this review, examples are presented in which human-driven ecological changes may be contributing to the spread of vector-borne diseases. Such changes include deforestation, agriculture and animal husbandry, water control projects, urbanization, loss of biodiversity, introduction of alien species, and climate change. The global environment is currently being degraded at an alarming pace, potentially placing human populations at increasing risk for unnecessary and preventable outbreaks of vector-borne diseases. Further research is needed to improve our ability to predict and prevent emergence and reemergence of vector-borne diseases from environmental alterations. PMID:19099032

  16. Animal Genome Size Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gregory, T. Ryan.

    T. Ryan Gregory, doctoral candidate at the University of Guelph (Canada), provides this comprehensive data catalog of animal genome size. Included on site are haploid genome sizes (C-values) for approximately 2,100 species or subspecies of vertebrates and 800 species of invertebrates. Organized by taxa, this Website-in-progress will be of direct use to those researchers whose study organisms are represented here. Continual additions are planned as more data become available.

  17. Immunoassay Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Chung, Kyn Wai

    This site features animations showing the detailed steps involved in eight different immunoassay examples. The focus of the site is primarily on the biochemical aspects of the immunoassays, not on their analytical applications. The animations depict the following immunoassays: Dihydroxy Vitamin D, ACTH, Bone­specific Alkaline Phosphatase, Cortisol, Deoxypyridinoline, Osteocalcin, Prolactin and Thyroxine.

  18. Screen Animals

    E-print Network

    McMahon, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Screen animals – Introduction Laura McMahon From the protocinematic sequencing of Eadweard Muybridge’s horse and Etienne-Jules Marey’s cat to the proliferation of animal images on video-sharing platforms such as YouTube, the ontologies...

  19. Kindergarten Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  20. Paper Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Museum of Minnesota

    2012-06-06

    This resource contains ideas and brief instructions on how to build animals out of construction paper and other simple materials. Included are tips on how to roll, fold, and cut paper to make various animals parts. Learners may enjoy making a "frankenfish" that expands.

  1. Motor Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This page contains links to animations of various types of motors, including stepper motors, brushless motors, and permanant magnet DC motors. Some of the animations are hosted on this site, and require shockwave to view. Others are provided by other websites.

  2. GPS Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site features Flash animations that illustrate how the Global Positioning System (GPS) works. The animations depict how GPS signals are derived, compare geostationary and polar orbits, and explain satellites, ground control, and user segments, which comprise the three main GPS components. These resources are suitable for use in lectures, labs, or other teaching activities.

  3. Collision Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Leeds School of Earth and Environment

    This series of interactive Flash animation explores all aspects of the India-Eurasian continental collision. Animations show the motion of the two continents, the growth of the Himalayas, earthquakes resulting from their collision, and the incredible rate of erosion of the newly formed mountains.

  4. Animal Halter

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This is one of many objects used by field scientists in the care of their animals. This type of halter was used to provide an easy way to hold on to animals that might otherwise become unruly or wander away. Object ID: USGS-000076...

  5. Histopathological alterations after a growth promoter boldenone injection in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Tousson, Ehab

    2013-10-01

    Boldenone (BOL) is a derivative of the testosterone that has dual effects on humans, both directly and indirectly; directly as injection to build muscles and indirectly as through consuming meat of animals that where treated with BOL. However, the action of these steroids on different body organs structures is still unclear; therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the intramuscular injection of BOL undecylenate on the different organ structures. A total of 10 adult New Zealand rabbits were divided into two main groups, the first group was the control group, which includes animals that were injected intramuscularly with olive oil and the second group included animals that received two intramuscular injections of 5 mg/kg body weight BOL dissected after 6 weeks. Our results showed that intramuscular injection of rabbits with BOL showed hypertrophy in both skeletal and cardiac muscles, disturbances of the hepatocytes radially arranged cords with multifocal hepatocellular vacuolations in the liver, glomerulus mass reduction with multifocal glomerular injury in the kidney, disturbances of the cycle of spermatogenesis in the testes. In conclusion, using BOL, while preparing for a young bodybuilding contest, may cause an alteration in the histological structure of most of the body organs; these findings suggested that especially young people who misuse anablic androgenic steroids should be careful if they want to use such steroids to enhance their strength and endurance. PMID:24097356

  6. Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal-Interactions The module Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal-Interactions deals with various aspects of

    E-print Network

    Pfeifer, Holger

    Bio III Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal-Interactions SS 2014 The module Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal is taught: · Lecture: o Animal-plant interactions, e.g. mutualistic interactions (pollination, floral, tritrophic interactions, deception and others). o Furthermore, applied aspects of animal-plant interactions

  7. Altered Genes, Altered Metabolism - Longer Life?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Institutes of Health (U.S.). National Institute on Aging.

    1997-01-01

    Studying a tiny worm, Caenorhabditis elegans, scientists discovered that a gene which regulates glucose (sugar) metabolism may also enhance longevity. The principle investigator, Dr. David Finkelstein, says, "this finding suggests that altering glucose metabolism could be a key to slowing aging in higher organisms, even perhaps in humans." Working with a variety of taxa from mice to monkeys, scientists interested in the causes of aging have recently made significant advances in scientists' understanding of the aging process. Researchers have long realized that aging and the pathologies associated with it have evolutionary, physiological and genetic causes, although the relative influence of each of these has been debated. By testing hypotheses in diverse fields, and with a variety of species (from short-lived to long-lived), researchers are growing closer to building an understanding of the mechanisms underlying the aging process.

  8. USGS Videos and Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This collection of visual media produced by the U.S. Geological Survey provides a broad overview of research and activities carried out by the organization. The collection of recorded lectures, movies, animations, flyovers, Powerpoint presentations and other media covers biology, climate change, earthquakes, geology, plate tectonics, careers with USGS, and many other topics.

  9. Androgen and taxol cause cell type-specific alterations of centrosome and DNA organization in androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, H.; Ripple, M.; Balczon, R.; Weindruch, R.; Chakrabarti, A.; Taylor, M.; Hueser, C. N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effects of androgen and taxol on the androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer cell lines. Cells were treated for 48 and 72 h with 0.05-1 nM of the synthetic androgen R1881 and with 100 nM taxol. Treatment of LNCaP cells with 0.05 nM R1881 led to increased cell proliferation, whereas treatment with 1 nM R1881 resulted in inhibited cell division, DNA cycle arrest, and altered centrosome organization. After treatment with 1 nM R1881, chromatin became clustered, nuclear envelopes convoluted, and mitochondria accumulated around the nucleus. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies to centrosomes showed altered centrosome structure. Although centrosomes were closely associated with the nucleus in untreated cells, they dispersed into the cytoplasm after treatment with 1 nM R1881. Microtubules were only faintly detected in 1 nM R1881-treated LNCaP cells. The effects of taxol included microtubule bundling and altered mitochondria morphology, but not DNA organization. As expected, the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line DU145 was not affected by R1881. Treatment with taxol resulted in bundling of microtubules in both cell lines. Additional taxol effects were seen in DU145 cells with micronucleation of DNA, an indication of apoptosis. Simultaneous treatment with R1881 and taxol had no additional effects on LNCaP or DU145 cells. These results suggest that LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cells show differences not only in androgen responsiveness but in sensitivity to taxol as well. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Animal Skull Collection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberts, DeLoy

    This intriguing and impressive website of animal skull images and information was developed by DeLoy Roberts, a high school biology and zoology teacher in Idaho. The site is quite extensive with separate skull galleries for mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, crustaceans, and fish. Site visitors will find clear skull images of such animals as a badger, wolf, boa constrictor, golden eagle, salmon, great gray owl, and many more. The site also includes lists of Animal Skull Sizes (organized alphabetically by animal as well as by size) for mammal and bird skulls in the collection. For school groups that can make the trip, the actual skull collection is maintained by Mr. Roberts at his high school in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

  11. The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. IV - Generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes in laboratory experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huizinga, Bradley J.; Tannenbaum, Eli; Kaplan, Isaac R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of common sedimentary minerals (illite, Na-montmorillonite, or calcite) under different water concentrations on the generation and release of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and select alkenes from oil-prone kerogens was investigated. Matrices containing Green River Formation kerogen or Monterey Formation kerogen, alone or in the presence of minerals, were heated at 200 or 300 C for periods of up to 1000 hours, and the pyrolysis products were analyzed. The influence of the first two clay minerals was found to be critically dependent on the water content. Under the dry pyrolysis conditions, both minerals significantly reduced alkene formation; the C12+ n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids were mostly destroyed by montmorillonite, but underwent only minor alteration with illite. Under hydrous conditions (mineral/water of 2/1), the effects of both minerals were substantially reduced. Calcite had no significant effect on the thermal evolution of the hydrocarbons.

  12. Australian Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Rusch

    2007-12-04

    Students will be researching Australian animals in order to prepare a presentation for the class. The children will be divided into groups to research and present about Tasmanian devils, koala bears, kangaroos, or platypi. This IA will provide links for the children to research their animal. Introduction You are a wildlife biologist embarking on an exciting journey to Australia. Hogle Zoo is sending you to discover the most unique animal on the whole continent of Australia. You will be assigned to a team that will research either Tasmanian devils, koala bears, kangaroos, or platypuses. ...

  13. Animal Presentations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kelly Godwin

    2009-10-05

    Students will pick an animal and create a presentation for the class about that animal. They will learn about research and PowerPoint while learning about animals. Also, students will build presentation skills. Kelly Godwin Instructional Architect 09/19/09 ASSURE Lesson Plan Analyze the learner The students are all in 4th grade so they are approximately 10 years old. Their academic abilities are that of a 10-year-old give or take 1 or 1.5 years. The students are mostly from the middle class suburbs. They have more than ...

  14. Cell proliferation, cell shape, and microtubule and cellulose microfibril organization of tobacco BY-2 cells are not altered by exposure to near weightlessness in space.

    PubMed

    Sieberer, Björn J; Kieft, Henk; Franssen-Verheijen, Tiny; Emons, Anne Mie C; Vos, Jan W

    2009-11-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton and the cell wall both play key roles in plant cell growth and division, determining the plant's final stature. At near weightlessness, tubulin polymerizes into microtubules in vitro, but these microtubules do not self-organize in the ordered patterns observed at 1g. Likewise, at near weightlessness cortical microtubules in protoplasts have difficulty organizing into parallel arrays, which are required for proper plant cell elongation. However, intact plants do grow in space and therefore should have a normally functioning microtubule cytoskeleton. Since the main difference between protoplasts and plant cells in a tissue is the presence of a cell wall, we studied single, but walled, tobacco BY-2 suspension-cultured cells during an 8-day space-flight experiment on board of the Soyuz capsule and the International Space Station during the 12S mission (March-April 2006). We show that the cortical microtubule density, ordering and orientation in isolated walled plant cells are unaffected by near weightlessness, as are the orientation of the cellulose microfibrils, cell proliferation, and cell shape. Likely, tissue organization is not essential for the organization of these structures in space. When combined with the fact that many recovering protoplasts have an aberrant cortical microtubule cytoskeleton, the results suggest a role for the cell wall, or its production machinery, in structuring the microtubule cytoskeleton. PMID:19756725

  15. Altered Oceans

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This five-part feature includes reports and multimedia presentations that document what the authors term a crisis in the marine environment. Topics include the uncontrolled increase in primitive organisms, such as bacteria and algae, triggered by overfishing and nutrient runoff, effects on sentinel species such as marine mammals, and effects on humans, such as the irritating effects of toxins produced by red tides. There is also discussion of seaborne plastic debris and changes in chemistry of sea water. The site also includes a message board for discussions and a set of links to additional resources.

  16. Animal Safety Handling

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Hammond

    2012-04-11

    What are at least three things to remember when handling all animals? Use Graphic Organizer Take notes on handling all different types of livestock. Read about Livestock Handling Safety and Good Relationships Be sure to record facts in your organizer. Read and explore Recommended Basic Livestock Handling. Dr. Grandin s guidelines Be sure to click on each link and take notes in organizer. Watch Sheep and Cattle Handling Guidelines Video Observe sheep and cattle handling practices. Read the first five sections of Know your livestock and be safe ...

  17. Metacognition in Animals Metacognition in animals

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    Metacognition in Animals Metacognition in animals Jonathon D. Crystal & Allison L. Foote animal models of metacognition to provide insight about the evolution of mind and a basis). Consequently, a fundamental question in comparative cognition is whether nonhuman animals (henceforth animals

  18. Small Animal Imaging with Magnetic Resonance Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Driehuys, Bastiaan; Nouls, John; Badea, Alexandra; Bucholz, Elizabeth; Ghaghada, Ketan; Petiet, Alexandra; Hedlund, Laurence W.

    2009-01-01

    Small animal magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) has evolved significantly from testing the boundaries of imaging physics to its expanding use today as a tool in non-invasive biomedical investigations. This review is intended to capture the state-of-the-art in MRM for scientists who may be unfamiliar with this modality, but who want to apply its capabilities to their research. We therefore include a brief review of MR concepts and methods of animal handling and support before covering a range of MRM applications including the heart, lung, brain, and the emerging field of MR histology. High-resolution anatomical imaging reveals increasingly exquisite detail in healthy animals and subtle architectural aberrations that occur in genetically altered models. Resolution of 100 µm in all dimensions is now routinely attained in living animals, and 10 µm3 is feasible in fixed specimens. Such images almost rival conventional histology while allowing the object to be viewed interactively in any plane. MRM is now increasingly used to provide functional information in living animals. Images of the beating heart, breathing lung, and functioning brain can be recorded. While clinical MRI focuses on diagnosis, MRM is used to reveal fundamental biology or to non-invasively measure subtle changes in the structure or function of organs during disease progression or in response to experimental therapies. The ability of MRM to provide a detailed functional and anatomical picture in rats and mice, and to track this picture over time, makes it a promising platform with broad applications in biomedical research. PMID:18172332

  19. Farm Animals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tweet Share Compartir Farm animals including cows, sheep, pigs, chickens and goats, can pass diseases to people. ... failure due to E. coli O157:H7 infection. Pigs can carry the bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica (yer-SIN- ...

  20. Wild Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

  1. Animal Bytes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    This browsable database is designed to help learners quickly find information about some of the creatures found in the animal kingdom. Most species' records include scientific classification, basic physical traits, fun facts, and conservation/ecological value.

  2. Making Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, James

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)

  3. Camera Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A general discussion of the use of cameras in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional film techniques and suggestions for the use of a camera during an architectural walkthrough. This section includes html pages, images and one video.

  4. Animate Projects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Based in the United Kingdom, the Animate Projects site is designed to "explore the relationship between art and animation, and the place of animation and its concepts in contemporary art practice." With support from the Arts Council England and Channel 4, they have created this delightful site featuring over 100 films that "explore ideas around animation." On the homepage, visitors can view a rotating selection of these projects, and they are also encouraged to click on the "Films" section to browse through films dating back to 1991. Moving on, visitors can click on the "Events" section to learn about relevant screenings around Britain, lectures, and workshops. Cineastes will want to delve into the "Writing" area, which includes critical responses to some of the works which can be viewed elsewhere on the site. To get a taste of the offerings here, first-time users may wish to view "Amnesia" by Cordelia Swann or Alex Schady's work, "Everything Must Go".

  5. Animated Engines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This remarkable Web site contains descriptions and animations of nineteen different kinds of engines. Engine types include internal combustion, steam, and sterling engines, and each page shows how the piston, crankshaft, and other components move together to generate power. The animations demonstrate the processes of intake, compression, and exhaust. Some of the featured engines have more detailed descriptions than others, and oftentimes, a brief account of the engine's history is included. One engine dates back to the early 1700s.

  6. Coupler for surgery on small animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. E., Jr.; Swartz, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    Minicoupler simplifies exchange of fluids with organs of laboratory animals enabling one person to perform surgery on experimental animals such as rats and mice. Innovation eliminates obstructing hands and instruments from areas of surgery.

  7. Dexamethasone protects organ of corti explants against tumor necrosis factor-alpha–induced loss of auditory hair cells and alters the expression levels of apoptosis-related genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. T. Dinh; S. Haake; S. Chen; K. Hoang; E. Nong; A. A. Eshraghi; T. J. Balkany; T. R. Van De Water

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Determine the molecular mechanism(s) behind tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF?)–induced loss of auditory hair cells and the ability of dexamethasone base (DXMb) to protect against TNF? ototoxicity.Methods: Hair cell counts: Three-day-old rat organ of Corti explants were cultured under three different conditions: 1) untreated-control; 2) TNF? (2 ?g\\/ml); and 3) TNF? (2 ?g\\/ml)+DXMb (70 ?g\\/ml) for 4 days, fixed, and

  8. Downstream alterations in biodegradability and optical characteristics of dissolved and particulate organic carbon fractions exported during storm events in a mixed land-use watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Byung-Joon; Yang, Boram; Park, Ji-Hyung

    2014-05-01

    Although storm pulses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) can account for a significant C loss from the terrestrial sink of atmospheric CO2, there have been rare attempts to compare the biodegradation and chemical transformation of terrestrially derived DOC and POC in receiving waters. Short-term laboratory incubations were performed with water and sediment samples collected during intense monsoon rainfalls at four stream locations in a mountainous, mixed land-use watershed, Korea to compare biodegradation and optical properties of DOC and POC exported from different sources. Biodegradable DOC (BDOC) and fluorescence EEMs coupled with PARAFAC modeling in either bulk or flow field-flow fractionated samples were measured to track changes in biodegradation and optical characteristics of DOC and suspended sediment-derived DOC (SS-DOC). During a 30 day incubation at 25 °C, both DOC and POC from a forested headwater stream initially exhibited rapid biodegradation of labile components, whereas sediment-derived materials increased continuously not just DOC concentrations, but also fulvic- and humic-like fluorescent components. In the second 13-day incubation with DOC and POC samples from a forest stream, an agricultural stream, and two downstream rivers, the BDOC of filtered waters differed little between sites, whereas the BDOC of SS-DOC was higher in downstream rivers. Higher ratios of protein- to fuvic- or humic-like fluorescence in the SS-DOC from two downstream rivers compared to upstream measurements pointed to a higher contribution of labile organic components to the biodegradation of SS-DOC from the downstream rivers. Downstream increases in labile moieties of SS-DOC were also observed in fluorescence measurements of field-flow fractionated samples. The results suggest that storm pulses of POC contain labile organic components that are increasingly released from downstream sources and can rapidly change in optical properties during riverine transport.

  9. Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal-Interactions The module Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal-Interactions deals with various aspects of

    E-print Network

    Pfeifer, Holger

    Bio III Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal-Interactions SS 2014 The module Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal and furthermore a practical part in which small groups of students will work on a research project. It will start is taught: · Lecture: o Animal-plant interactions, e.g. mutualistic interactions (pollination, floral

  10. Animal Models of Memory Impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michela Gallagher

    1997-01-01

    Memory impairment in the elderly resembles a mild temporal lobe dysfunction. Alterations in the hippocampal formation are also a probable basis for cognitive deficits in some animal models of ageing. For example, aged rats are impaired in hippocampal-dependent tests of spatial memory. Recent studies have revealed considerable structural integrity in the aged hippocampus, even in aged rats with the most

  11. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin treatment alters eicosanoid levels in several organs of the mouse in an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent fashion

    SciTech Connect

    Bui, Peter; Solaimani, Parrisa [Molecular Toxicology Program, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States) [Molecular Toxicology Program, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Dept of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Wu, Xiaomeng [Dept of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States) [Dept of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hankinson, Oliver, E-mail: ohank@mednet.ucla.edu [Molecular Toxicology Program, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States) [Molecular Toxicology Program, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Dept of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) adversely affects many mammalian organs and tissues. These effects are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 are upregulated by the liganded AHR. These (and other) cytochromes P450 can metabolize arachidonic acid into a variety of bioactive eicosanoids. Towards investigating a potential role of eicosanoids in TCDD toxicity, arachidonic acid, two other unsaturated long-chain fatty acids, and up to twenty-five eicosanoids were measured in five organs/tissues of male and female wild-type and Ahr null mice treated or untreated with TCDD. TCDD generally increased the levels of the four dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) and (where measured) 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid and 18-, 19- and 20-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (HETEs) in the serum, liver, spleen and lungs, but not the heart, of both sexes, and increased the levels in the serum, liver and spleen of several metabolites that are usually considered products of lipoxygenase activity, but which may also be generated by cytochromes P450. TCDD also increased the levels of the esterified forms of these eicosanoids in the liver in parallel with the corresponding free forms. The levels of prostanoids were generally not affected by TCDD. The above changes did not occur in Ahr null mice, and are therefore mediated by the AHR. TCDD increased the mRNA levels of Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1 and the Pla2g12a form of phospholipase A{sub 2} to varying degrees in the different organs, and these increases correlated with some but not all the changes in eicosanoids levels in the organs, suggesting that other enzymes may also be involved. -- Highlights: ? TCDD treatment increases the levels of many eicosanoids in several mouse organs. ? Products of both the cytochrome P450 and classical lipoxygenase pathways are increased. ? These increases are dependent on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. ? Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2 and Cyp1b1 appear to be responsible for much but not all of the increases.

  12. Public perceptions of transgenic animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. Einsiedel

    2005-01-01

    Summary The field of animal biotechnology has been rapidly expanding and the development of transgenic animals has been part of this research expansion. How the public perceives such developments is an important component of policy considerations. In general, biotechnology applications have been judged with evident hierarchies of acceptability. There appear to be hierarchies in terms of the type of organism

  13. Small Animal PET Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. A.; Rouze, N. C.; Hutchins, G. D.

    2004-07-01

    As the methods and technology of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging have advanced, they have been applied not only to human clinical imaging, but to small research animals as well. Imaging small objects pushes the spatial resolution and sensitivity limits of current PET technology. We summarize the challenges presented in pushing these resolution limits without giving up sensitivity. Detector size is the current practical factor limiting resolution. Sensitivity is limited by detector characteristics and acquisition rate limits. Current scanners are capable of imaging small animals at the whole organ level. Very high resolution images can only be reached with large tracer doses and long data acquisition times.

  14. Inhibition of DNA Methylation Alters Chromatin Organization, Nuclear Positioning and Activity of 45S rDNA Loci in Cycling Cells of Q. robur

    PubMed Central

    Horvat, Tomislav; Maglica, Željka; Vojta, Aleksandar; Zoldoš, Vlatka

    2014-01-01

    Around 2200 copies of genes encoding ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in pedunculate oak, Quercus robur, are organized into two rDNA loci, the major (NOR-1) and the minor (NOR-2) locus. We present the first cytogenetic evidence indicating that the NOR-1 represents the active nucleolar organizer responsible for rRNA synthesis, while the NOR-2 probably stays transcriptionally silent and does not participate in the formation of the nucleolus in Q. robur, which is a situation resembling the well-known phenomenon of nucleolar dominance. rDNA chromatin topology analyses in cycling root tip cells by light and electron microscopy revealed the minor locus to be highly condensed and located away from the nucleolus, while the major locus was consistently associated with the nucleolus and often exhibited different levels of condensation. In addition, silver precipitation was confined exclusively to the NOR-1 locus. Also, NOR-2 was highly methylated at cytosines and rDNA chromatin was marked with histone modifications characteristic for repressive state. After treatment of the root cells with the methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine, we observed an increase in the total level of rRNA transcripts and a decrease in DNA methylation level at the NOR-2 locus. Also, NOR-2 sites relocalized with respect to the nuclear periphery/nucleolus, however, the relocation did not affect the contribution of this locus to nucleolar formation, nor did it affect rDNA chromatin decondensation, strongly suggesting that NOR-2 has lost the function of rRNA synthesis and nucleolar organization. PMID:25093501

  15. Animal Magnetism

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This radio broadcast looks at the mysterious way in which certain animals can travel vast distances around the planet, using the magnetic field of Earth to guide them. Migrating birds, fish, sea turtles, honey bees and even bacteria have all been found to navigate using the magnetic field of Earth, sometimes over quite enormous distances and reaching targets of only a few degrees in width. There is discussion about where magnetic receptors may be within animals and that particular cells in migratory creatures contain magnetite, a substance which humans used many hundreds of years ago to create the first compass. This radio broadcast discusses animal magnetism with researchers who have been working with sea turtles, to discover just how the turtles find their way back to the same beaches every year to lay their eggs. There is explanation of how the magnetic sense in animals has two components: acting as a compass to guide them and providing them with location; and how this seems to be possible since the magnetic field gets stronger in higher latitudes and inclination angle (the angle of the magnetic field to the surface of Earth) changes over different points on Earth. The broadcast also explains why creatures such as honey bees and even bacteria need to be in tune with the magnetic field of Earth, and how magnetic sense is prevalent in many animals with seemingly no need for it. The broadcast is 29 minutes in length.

  16. Mercury induced time-dependent alterations in lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation in different body organs of cat-fish Heteropneustes fossilis

    SciTech Connect

    Bano, Y.; Hasan, M.

    1989-04-01

    The effects of mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/) on lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation in different body organs of fresh water cat-fish Heteropneustes fossilis were studied. The daily exposure of HgCl/sub 2/ 0.2 mg/L for 10, 20 and 30 days depleted the total lipids in brain. But the content of phospholipids enhanced significantly at 30 days. Significant diminution in C/P ratio was discernible with 30 days of exposure following mercury toxicosis. Liver exhibited elevated levels of total lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol and C/P ratio. Interestingly kidney showed marked decrease in the concentration of total lipids, cholesterol and C/P ratio at higher exposure. However, the phospholipid values increased during the longer exposure. The content of total lipids and phospholipids was high in muscle but the level of cholesterol and C/P ratio were depleted. Significant increment in lipid peroxidation was discernible in brain, liver and muscle. In kidney the rate of lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced. The results suggest that exposure of HgCl/sub 2/ enhances the peroxidation of endogenous lipids in brain, liver and muscle. Interestingly the lipid contents are affected differently in different body organs.

  17. Alterations of heme metabolism in lymphocytes and metal content in blood plasma as markers of diesel fuels effects on human organism.

    PubMed

    Muzyka, V; Bogovski, S; Viitak, A; Veidebaum, T

    2002-03-01

    Workers in the diesel fuel distribution trade are intensively exposed to fuel vapours. Diesel fuel presents the main source of air pollution by benzene at a marine diesel fuel terminal. Levels of benzene are used to evaluate the external exposure to diesel fuel. Since benzene causes alterations in porphyrin metabolism, and some of these may lead to the generation of tumours, heme synthesis is proposed as a biomarker of early health effects of diesel fuel. A group of 20 workers exposed to diesel fuel and a group of 20 unexposed persons were examined and interviewed using structured questionnaires. The levels of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and protoporphyrin (PP), activities of ALA synthase and ferrochelatase, as well as levels of PP associated with DNA were determined in lymphocytes spectrophotometrically. Amounts of the metals Cd, Mn, Zn, Cu and Ca were measured in blood plasma by flame atomic absorption spectrometry method. Both ALA and PP levels were significantly increased in marine terminal workers: 3.0 +/- 0.4 vs. 0.8 +/- 0.2 nmol/10(6) lymphocytes: and 511 +/- 164 vs. 389 +/- 77 pmol/10(6) lymphocytes in exposed and control individuals, respectively. ALA-synthase activity was 2.5 fold higher in lymphocytes of workers exposed to diesel fuels (P < 0.01). At the same time ferrochelatase activity was decreased and protoporphyrin level was accordingly elevated. The amount of porphyrin associated with DNA increased 1.4 fold in exposed workers (P = 0.05). Among all investigated metals in blood plasma of exposed workers only zinc levels were statistically significantly increased (P < 0.05). The disturbances of heme metabolism in lymphocytes and zinc level in blood plasma caused by diesel fuel exposure seems to be a useful biomarkers for carcinogenic risk assessment. PMID:11886100

  18. Animating Motion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ted Latham

    This lesson challenges students to apply their knowledge of object motion by animating sequences of hand-rendered pictures that model a set of physical conditions. The challenges include animating the orbital motion of planets and satellites, the effects of gravity on a falling body, and motions of objects in inertial (moving) frames of reference. The lesson was created by a high school physics teacher to help learners build quantitative reasoning skills in preparation for understanding kinematics. Editor's Note: Modeling is a powerful way for students to relate the math formula to the physical process under study. This lesson allows learners to develop hand-crafted "flipbook" models of motion before they advance to computer modeling. In each challenge, data is provided so the animations can be computationally accurate.

  19. Evolution Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Kyrk

    This Flash animation provides a tour of the history of the universe, the solar system, and Earth. Moving the slider allows viewers to progress from the Big Bang, almost 14 billion years ago, to the beginnings of life on Earth in the Proterozoic era, through the age of the dinosaurs and finally to the time of Homo sapiens. When the slider stops moving, animations and text appear, highlighting important events. Other animations accompany the time scale and show the movements of the continents, the advance and retreat of the polar ice caps, and changes in the oxygen content of the atmosphere. The length of the timeline helps reinforce the idea of the immense age of the universe. A French translation is available.

  20. Groundwater Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site features Flash and QuickTime animations related to groundwater. They contrast the permeability of gravel, sand, silt, and clay, as well as the speed of groundwater movement in rivers, lakes, and aquifers. They also outline the hydrologic cycle, discussing infiltration, percolation, and the water table, exhibit groundwater overdraft and the resulting formation of a cone of depression, and show how groundwater entering fractured bedrock can become superheated and pushed to the surface, erupting as a geyser. The animations can be paused and rewound to stress important points. These resources are suitable for use in lectures, labs, or other teaching activities.

  1. Animal models.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Antonietta; Moshé, Solomon L

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy accounts for a significant portion of the dis-ease burden worldwide. Research in this field is fundamental and mandatory. Animal models have played, and still play, a substantial role in understanding the patho-physiology and treatment of human epilepsies. A large number and variety of approaches are available, and they have been applied to many animals. In this chapter the in vitro and in vivo animal models are discussed,with major emphasis on the in vivo studies. Models have used phylogenetically different animals - from worms to monkeys. Our attention has been dedicated mainly to rodents.In clinical practice, developmental aspects of epilepsy often differ from those in adults. Animal models have often helped to clarify these differences. In this chapter, developmental aspects have been emphasized.Electrical stimulation and chemical-induced models of seizures have been described first, as they represent the oldest and most common models. Among these models, kindling raised great interest, especially for the study of the epileptogenesis. Acquired focal models mimic seizures and occasionally epilepsies secondary to abnormal cortical development, hypoxia, trauma, and hemorrhage.Better knowledge of epileptic syndromes will help to create new animal models. To date, absence epilepsy is one of the most common and (often) benign forms of epilepsy. There are several models, including acute pharmacological models (PTZ, penicillin, THIP, GBL) and chronic models (GAERS, WAG/Rij). Although atypical absence seizures are less benign, thus needing more investigation, only two models are so far available (AY-9944,MAM-AY). Infantile spasms are an early childhood encephalopathy that is usually associated with a poor out-come. The investigation of this syndrome in animal models is recent and fascinating. Different approaches have been used including genetic (Down syndrome,ARX mutation) and acquired (multiple hit, TTX, CRH,betamethasone-NMDA) models.An entire section has been dedicated to genetic models, from the older models obtained with spontaneous mutations (GEPRs) to the new engineered knockout, knocking, and transgenic models. Some of these models have been created based on recently recognized patho-genesis such as benign familial neonatal epilepsy, early infantile encephalopathy with suppression bursts, severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy, the tuberous sclerosis model, and the progressive myoclonic epilepsy. The contribution of animal models to epilepsy re-search is unquestionable. The development of further strategies is necessary to find novel strategies to cure epileptic patients, and optimistically to allow scientists first and clinicians subsequently to prevent epilepsy and its consequences. PMID:22938964

  2. Lesions of area postrema and subfornical organ alter exendin-4-induced brain activation without preventing the hypophagic effect of the GLP-1 receptor agonist.

    PubMed

    Baraboi, Elena-Dana; Smith, Pauline; Ferguson, Alastair V; Richard, Denis

    2010-04-01

    The mechanism and route whereby glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, such as GLP-1 and exendin-4 (Ex-4), access the central nervous system (CNS) to exert their metabolic effects have yet to be clarified. The primary objective of the present study was to investigate the potential role of two circumventricular organs (CVOs), the area postrema (AP) and the subfornical organ (SFO), in mediating the metabolic and CNS-stimulating effects of Ex-4. We demonstrated that electrolytic ablation of the AP, SFO, or AP + SFO does not acutely prevent the anorectic effects of Ex-4. AP + SFO lesion chronically decreased food intake and body weight and also modulated the effect of Ex-4 on the neuronal activation of brain structures involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and glucose metabolism. The results of the study also showed that CVO lesions blunted Ex-4-induced expression of c-fos mRNA (a widely used neuronal activity marker) in 1) limbic structures (bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and central amygdala), 2) hypothalamus (paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, and arcuate nucleus), and 3) hindbrain (lateral and lateral-external parabrachial nucleus, medial nucleus of the solitary tract, and ventrolateral medulla). In conclusion, although the present results do not support a role for the CVOs in the anorectic effect induced by a single injection of Ex-4, they suggest that the CVOs play important roles in mediating the actions of Ex-4 in the activation of CNS structures involved in homeostatic control. PMID:20106992

  3. Ustilago maydis Infection Strongly Alters Organic Nitrogen Allocation in Maize and Stimulates Productivity of Systemic Source Leaves1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Horst, Robin J.; Doehlemann, Gunther; Wahl, Ramon; Hofmann, Jörg; Schmiedl, Alfred; Kahmann, Regine; Kämper, Jörg; Sonnewald, Uwe; Voll, Lars M.

    2010-01-01

    The basidiomycete Ustilago maydis is the causal agent of corn smut disease and induces tumor formation during biotrophic growth in its host maize (Zea mays). We have conducted a combined metabolome and transcriptome survey of infected leaves between 1 d post infection (dpi) and 8 dpi, representing infected leaf primordia and fully developed tumors, respectively. At 4 and 8 dpi, we observed a substantial increase in contents of the nitrogen-rich amino acids glutamine and asparagine, while the activities of enzymes involved in primary nitrogen assimilation and the content of ammonia and nitrate were reduced by 50% in tumors compared with mock controls. Employing stable isotope labeling, we could demonstrate that U. maydis-induced tumors show a reduced assimilation of soil-derived 15NO3? and represent strong sinks for nitrogen. Specific labeling of the free amino acid pool of systemic source leaves with [15N]urea revealed an increased import of organic nitrogen from systemic leaves to tumor tissue, indicating that organic nitrogen provision supports the formation of U. maydis-induced tumors. In turn, amino acid export from systemic source leaves was doubled in infected plants. The analysis of the phloem amino acid pool revealed that glutamine and asparagine are not transported to the tumor tissue, although these two amino acids were found to accumulate within the tumor. Photosynthesis was increased and senescence was delayed in systemic source leaves upon tumor development on infected plants, indicating that the elevated sink demand for nitrogen could determine photosynthetic rates in source leaves. PMID:19923237

  4. Epigenetic Case Studies in Agricultural Animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many biological processes, the regulation of gene expression involves epigenetic mechanisms. An altered pattern of epigenetic modification is central to many animal diseases. Using animal disease models, we have studied one of the major epigenetic components: DNA methylation. We characterized the...

  5. Thin Animals

    E-print Network

    D. Johnston

    1998-07-06

    Lattice animals provide a discretized model for the theta transition displayed by branched polymers in solvent. Exact graph enumeration studies have given some indications that the phase diagram of such lattice animals may contain two collapsed phases as well as an extended phase. This has not been confirmed by studies using other means. We use the exact correspondence between the q --> 1 limit of an extended Potts model and lattice animals to investigate the phase diagram of lattice animals on phi-cubed random graphs of arbitrary topology (``thin'' random graphs). We find that only a two phase structure exists -- there is no sign of a second collapsed phase. The random graph model is solved in the thermodynamic limit by saddle point methods. We observe that the ratio of these saddle point equations give precisely the fixed points of the recursion relations that appear in the solution of the model on the Bethe lattice by Henkel and Seno. This explains the equality of non-universal quantities such as the critical lines for the Bethe lattice and random graph ensembles.

  6. Anime News

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi; Boyd, David

    2011-06-15

    Broadcast Transcript: They say a picture is worth a thousand words. So, if there is no picture for a news story, just make something up! This is the premise a Hong Kong-based computer animation company has based its success on. No video footage...

  7. Animal Reproduction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Gregory, Michael

    From Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College, this site is a concise overview of animal reproduction. The site addresses important aspects of sexual and asexual reproduction, the male and female reproductive systems, fertilization, and the importance of hormones. Visitors to the site will find diagrams outlining biological processes especially helpful.

  8. Curriculum Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gose, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-five teachers with reputations for artistry in curriculum planning were interviewed about their "curriculum animation" plans or how they ensured their curriculum was brought to life. Their statements indicated that much of their planning is informal and intuitive, and that the criteria they use for their curriculum includes: (1) it is…

  9. Animals Eyes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sohmer, Rachel.

    2002-01-01

    The Web site from BioMedia (1) is a fascinating look (no pun intended) at the eyes of other animals. Various images of eyeballs link to essays that explain such questions as how animals can see underwater and how many times the eye independently evolved in the animal kingdom. The next site (2) is based on a PBS Nova documentary about nocturnal animals. Visitors can click on an image of an eye to learn more about the animal that uses it to see in the dark. The San Diego Natural History Museum provides the kid-friendly Web site, which does a terrific job of explaining the anatomy and function of different types of eyes (3). The next site, provided by Tufts University, offers photos of how squirrels, sharks, turtles, and bees might see the world compared with human vision (4). Andrew Giger, a neuroscientist working on bee vision at the Australian National University, wrote the program B-EYE for his research. Visitors to his Web site (5) can see what a selection of grey-scale images might look like from a bee's perspective. The next site (6) is provided by about.com, offering a detailed article about bird vision. Similarly, the next Web site from the North American Hunting Retriever Association contains an extensive review of an article that appeared in the Journal of the Veterinary Medical Association about dog vision (7). Finally, the last site is a page from Micscape - the online monthly magazine of Microscopy UK - showing how the eyes of various mollusks look under the microscope (8).

  10. Animal Models for Therapeutic Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, Patricia L.; An, Yuehuei H. [Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, CSB708, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, Orthopaedic Research Laboratories (United States)], E-mail: any@musc.edu

    2003-04-15

    Embolization techniques have been performed in different animals to accumulate basic data before a clinical trial.Choosing the right embolization model for a specific project is critical. However, there are several variables when defining the best model for embolization research such as the size of the animal to be used, the target organs, the route of introducing the embolization agent, and the feasible methods of evaluation. Commonly used research animals for endovascular embolization include rabbits, dogs, and rats. Frequently used target organs are the kidney and the liver. Most models use a transcatheter for introducing the embolus and occasionally open surgery and direct arterial injection are used. Basic methods of evaluation are straightforward, and commonly include macro observation of the embolized organs, angiogram, and histology. This article concisely reviews the available animal models and their evaluation for embolization research to help researchers to choose the appropriate model.

  11. Temporal Alterations in the Secretome of the Selective Ligninolytic Fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora during Growth on Aspen Wood Reveal This Organism's Strategy for Degrading Lignocellulose

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Chiaki; Gaskell, Jill; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Kersten, Phil; Mozuch, Michael; Samejima, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    The white-rot basidiomycetes efficiently degrade all wood cell wall polymers. Generally, these fungi simultaneously degrade cellulose and lignin, but certain organisms, such as Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, selectively remove lignin in advance of cellulose degradation. However, relatively little is known about the mechanism of selective ligninolysis. To address this issue, C. subvermispora was grown in liquid medium containing ball-milled aspen, and nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify and estimate extracellular protein abundance over time. Several manganese peroxidases and an aryl alcohol oxidase, both associated with lignin degradation, were identified after 3 days of incubation. A glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 51 arabinofuranosidase was also identified after 3 days but then successively decreased in later samples. Several enzymes related to cellulose and xylan degradation, such as GH10 endoxylanase, GH5_5 endoglucanase, and GH7 cellobiohydrolase, were detected after 5 days. Peptides corresponding to potential cellulose-degrading enzymes GH12, GH45, lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase, and cellobiose dehydrogenase were most abundant after 7 days. This sequential production of enzymes provides a mechanism consistent with selective ligninolysis by C. subvermispora. PMID:24441164

  12. Temporal alterations in the secretome of the selective ligninolytic fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora during growth on aspen wood reveal this organism's strategy for degrading lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Hori, Chiaki; Gaskell, Jill; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Kersten, Phil; Mozuch, Michael; Samejima, Masahiro; Cullen, Dan

    2014-04-01

    The white-rot basidiomycetes efficiently degrade all wood cell wall polymers. Generally, these fungi simultaneously degrade cellulose and lignin, but certain organisms, such as Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, selectively remove lignin in advance of cellulose degradation. However, relatively little is known about the mechanism of selective ligninolysis. To address this issue, C. subvermispora was grown in liquid medium containing ball-milled aspen, and nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify and estimate extracellular protein abundance over time. Several manganese peroxidases and an aryl alcohol oxidase, both associated with lignin degradation, were identified after 3 days of incubation. A glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 51 arabinofuranosidase was also identified after 3 days but then successively decreased in later samples. Several enzymes related to cellulose and xylan degradation, such as GH10 endoxylanase, GH5_5 endoglucanase, and GH7 cellobiohydrolase, were detected after 5 days. Peptides corresponding to potential cellulose-degrading enzymes GH12, GH45, lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase, and cellobiose dehydrogenase were most abundant after 7 days. This sequential production of enzymes provides a mechanism consistent with selective ligninolysis by C. subvermispora. PMID:24441164

  13. Animal Transfer Agreement -1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    Animal Transfer Agreement - 1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT This Animal Transfer Agreement has been adopted for use by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for use in transferring animals for research transferring the animal) Recipient: (name of laboratory/institution receiving the animal) The Provider agrees

  14. Subfornical organ disconnection alters Fos expression in the lamina terminalis, supraoptic nucleus, and area postrema after intragastric hypertonic NaCl.

    PubMed

    Freece, Julia A; Van Bebber, Julie E; Zierath, Dannielle K; Fitts, Douglas A

    2005-04-01

    The lamina terminalis was severed by a horizontal knife cut through the anterior commissure to determine the effects of a disconnection of the subfornical organ (SFO) on drinking and Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in the rat brain in response to an intragastric load of hypertonic saline (5 ml/kg of 1.5 M NaCl by gavage). After an initial load, knife-cut rats drank significantly less water than sham-cut rats, thus confirming a role for the SFO in osmotic drinking. After a second load at least 1 wk later, the rats were not allowed to drink after the gavage and were perfused for analysis of Fos-ir at 90 min. Compared with sham-cut rats, the knife-cut rats displayed significantly elevated Fos-ir in the main body of the SFO, in the dorsal cap of the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis, and in the ventral median preoptic nucleus after the hypertonic load. The knife cut significantly decreased Fos-ir in the supraoptic nucleus. Fos-ir was expressed mainly in the midcoronal and caudal parts of the area postrema of sham-cut rats, and this expression was greatly reduced in knife-cut rats. These findings strengthen the case for the presence of independently functioning osmoreceptors within the SFO and suggest that the structures of the lamina terminalis provide mutual inhibition during hypernatremia. They also demonstrate that the Fos-ir in the area postrema after intragastric osmotic loading is heavily dependent on the intact connectivity of the SFO. PMID:15576664

  15. Animation Magazine

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online magazine is all about animation and features regular articles, reviews of films and books, and profiles about people in the industry and tutorials. Articles in the current issue address topics such as "the impact of new technology on performance and the future roles of technology, new and old" and international perspectives on Bridging the Cultural Divide in Digital Entertainment. The tutorials cover topics such as how to make 3-D characters come to life and making molds. The Special Features articles report on gaming, production, technology and voice acting. Past issues are also available and can be searched by key word or sorted by category. Numerous other links are listed for more information on animation, resources for education, and listings of upcoming events and contests.

  16. Geoscience Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The representation is an animation that shows Earth's orbit around the sun and the tilt of Earth's axis relative to the sun in each month of the orbit. Students can move the cursor to a given month to see the position of Earth in its orbit at that time of year or can run a full animation of the yearly orbit. If one clicks on "Show Earth Profile" at the bottom, right corner of the resource, a small box pops up in the lower, right corner that shows the position of the Earth's axis in relation to the sun's rays at various points in the orbit. As such, it shows how the sun's rays directly strike different places on Earth during the orbit because of Earth's tilt. Accompanying text also points out number of daylight hours at the equator and at each pole during each solstice and equinox.

  17. Animal leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, William A

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a global disease of animals, which can have a major economic impact on livestock industries and is an important zoonosis. The current knowledge base is heavily biased towards the developed agricultural economies. The disease situation in the developing economies presents a major challenge as humans and animals frequently live in close association. The severity of disease varies with the infecting serovar and the affected species, but there are many common aspects across the species; for example, the acute phase of infection is mostly sub-clinical and the greatest economic losses arise from chronic infection causing reproductive wastage. The principles of, and tests for, diagnosis, treatment, control and surveillance are applicable across the species. PMID:25388134

  18. Animated Atlas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    A commercial site, Animated Atlas provides excellent audio-visual resources for teachers and students of European and American history. The resources combine maps and animation to create short video presentations on such subjects as the growth of the United States and the First World War. Though most of the videos must be ordered, the site provides free samples of its presentations, including a ten minute presentation on the westward expansion of the United States, the early history of the American Revolution, the European alliances before the First World War, and the beginnings of the Mexican American War. The site provides a timeline of American history that can be referred to during the American expansion video. Students and educators should also explore the site's listings of American history sites and primary source on the Web.

  19. Animal Studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John G. Webster

    \\u000a Because of the potential danger of ventricular fibrillation (VF), numerous TASER conducted electrical weapon (CEW) studies\\u000a have been performed on animals. Holden et al. [1] injected M26 and X26 TASER waveforms to an electrode on the ventricular\\u000a epicardial surface of guinea pig isolated hearts, but were unable to induce VF. However, it is known that inducing sustained\\u000a VF in very

  20. Animal Communication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2003-09-09

    The focus of this Science NetLinks lesson is threefold. First, to expose students to the fact that all species have a capacity for communication. Second, to enlighten students to the fact that communication abilities range from very simple to extremely complex, depending upon the species. Third, to realize that communication is influenced by a species' genetic makeup, its environment, and the numerous ways by which animals and humans respond to and adapt to their surroundings.

  1. Animated Space

    E-print Network

    Amin, Ash

    2014-01-01

    mingling with the public, and the commercial with the non-commercial; the rub of humans, technologies, buildings, infrastructures, animals and nature; the many human acts of preying, praying, lingering, passing through, watching and listening... ; the amplifications of intersecting bodies, objects, matter, symbols, smells and sounds; the rhythms set by callers, clocks, code, timetables, technologies, and official and unofficial guardians of a public space; and the asynchrony of repetition, emergence...

  2. Animal models of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Jones, CA; Watson, DJG; Fone, KCF

    2011-01-01

    Developing reliable, predictive animal models for complex psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, is essential to increase our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for the development of novel drugs with improved therapeutic efficacy. All available animal models of schizophrenia fit into four different induction categories: developmental, drug-induced, lesion or genetic manipulation, and the best characterized examples of each type are reviewed herein. Most rodent models have behavioural phenotype changes that resemble ‘positive-like’ symptoms of schizophrenia, probably reflecting altered mesolimbic dopamine function, but fewer models also show altered social interaction, and learning and memory impairment, analogous to negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia respectively. The negative and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia are resistant to treatment with current antipsychotics, even after remission of the psychosis, which limits their therapeutic efficacy. The MATRICS initiative developed a consensus on the core cognitive deficits of schizophrenic patients, and recommended a standardized test battery to evaluate them. More recently, work has begun to identify specific rodent behavioural tasks with translational relevance to specific cognitive domains affected in schizophrenia, and where available this review focuses on reporting the effect of current and potential antipsychotics on these tasks. The review also highlights the need to develop more comprehensive animal models that more adequately replicate deficits in negative and cognitive symptoms. Increasing information on the neurochemical and structural CNS changes accompanying each model will also help assess treatments that prevent the development of schizophrenia rather than treating the symptoms, another pivotal change required to enable new more effective therapeutic strategies to be developed. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Translational Neuropharmacology. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.164.issue-4 PMID:21449915

  3. The effects of radionuclides on animal behavior.

    PubMed

    Gagnaire, Beatrice; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Bouron, Alexandre; Lestaevel, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Concomitant with the expansion of the nuclear industry, the concentrations of several pollutants, radioactive or otherwise, including uranium, caesium, cadmium and cobalt, have increased over the last few decades. These elemental pollutants do exist in the environment and are a threat to many organisms. Behavior represents the integration of all the anatomical adaptations and physiological processes that occur within an organism. Compared to other biological endpoints, the effects of pollutants on animal behavior have been the focus of only a few studies. However, behavioral changes appear to be ideal for assessing the effects of pollutants on animal populations, because behavior links physiological functions with ecological processes. The alteration of behavioral responses can have severe implications for survival of individuals and of population of some species. Behavioral disruptions may derive from several underlying mechanisms: disruption of neuro-sensorial activity and of endocrines, or oxidative and metabolic disruptions. In this review, we presented an overview of the current literature in which the effects of radioactive pollutants on behavior in humans, rodents, fish and wildlife species are addressed. When possible, we have also indicated the potential underlying mechanisms of the behavioral alterations and parameters measured. In fried, chronic uranium contamination is associated with behavior alterations and mental disorders in humans, and cognitive deficits in rats. Comparative studies on depleted and enriched uranium effects in rats showed that chemical and radiological activities of this metal induced negative effects on several behavioral parameters and also produced brain oxidative stress. Uranium exposure also modifies feeding behavior of bivalves and reproductive behavior of fish. Studies of the effects of the Chernobyl accident shows that chronic irradiation to 137Cs induces both nervous system diseases and mental disorders in humans leading to increased suicides, as well as modification of preferred nesting sites, reduced hatching success and fecundity in birds that live in the Chernobyl zone. No significant effect from caesium exposure was shown in laboratory experiments with rats, but few studies were conducted. Data on radioactive cadmium are not available in the literature, but the effects of its metallic form have been well studied. Cadmium induces mental retardation and psychomotor alterations in exposed populations and increases anxiety in rats, leading to depression. Cadmium exposure also results in well-documented effects on feeding and burrowing behavior in several invertebrate species (crustaceans, gastropods, annelids, bivalves) and on different kinds of fish behavior (swimming activity, fast-start response, antipredatory behavior). Cobalt induces memory deficits in humans and may be involved in Alzheimer's disease; gamma irradiation by cobalt also decreases fecundity and alters mating behavior in insects. Collectively, data are lacking or are meagre on radionuclide pollutants, and a better knowledge of their actions on the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control animal behavior is needed. PMID:21170702

  4. Alteration of biochar characteristics through Post Production Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Kammann, Claudia; Glaser, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    The application of pure, untreated biochar to temperate soils does not lead to substantial increase in soil fertility and plant growth. Moreover, the application of 10 tonnes or more of biochar per hectare is not economically viable on most farms. To be more efficient in improving soil fertility, increasing SOM and ecosystem services, new methods of using biochar in farm settings need to be developed. To improve the effect of biochar on plant growth, biochar can be enhanced by (1) adding nutrients, (2) inoculating it with beneficial microorganisms, (3) improving its surface reactivity and thus its sorption dynamic, (4) increasing its porous volume, and/or (5) fostering the creation of biochar-mineral-organic complexes. These supplementary biochar enhancements can be achieved through different methods of feedstock blending and biochar post-production treatment which can be classified according to the resulting surface alteration of biochar: 1. Addition of nutrients, MOs, minerals in liquid solution which get soaked into the biochar pores without or with only slight surface alteration, resulting in enriched biochar. 2. Physico-chemical activation (treatment with acids, vapours, toasting with minerals …) resulting in alteration of the surface, pore volume and functional groups. 3. Bio-chemical activation through the interaction of biochar with organic compounds, minerals, nutrients and microorganisms in a biological very active environment, resulting in the complexation of biochar, minerals and organic compounds. Whereas physico-chemical activation is a highly technical process and has to be done by professional biochar producers, bio-chemical activation and enrichment can be done very efficiently by the farmer himself. On-farm enrichment and activation of biochar help to close the organic nutrient cycles of the farm, improving agronomic system efficiency and thus becoming economically viable. Adding biochar to highly labile organic matter like manure, sludge or compost improves decomposition and complexation, and helps to stabilize their nutrients and carbon. The combination of biochar and lacto-acid-bacteria in silage, feed, bedding and liquid manure treatment decreases methane and ammonia emissions, increases the feed-energy balance, and boosts animal health. On every step of this cascading use of biochar in animal husbandry, the biochar becomes more oxidized, more activated and more enriched with nutrients. When finally applied to the soil, biochar acts as carrier for nutrients and thus works to improve soil fertility. Much more research is needed in the field of biochar post-treatment and into each of the different possible farm uses. Nevertheless, sufficient serious research has already been done and published, enabling us to judge the importance of post-treating biochar to improve its agronomic performance and value.

  5. Animal welfare and international trade.

    PubMed

    Thiermann, A B; Babcock, S

    2005-08-01

    Globalisation is becoming a force that is revolutionising international trade, particularly that of animals and animal products. There is increasing interest in animal welfare worldwide, and as part of its 2001-2005 Strategic Plan the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) identified the development of international standards on animal welfare as a priority. The OIE's scientific approach to standard-setting provides the foundation for the development, and acceptance by all OIE Member Countries, of these animal welfare guidelines. The paper discusses how these guidelines on animal welfare can be implemented, both within the provisions of World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements and within the framework of voluntary codes of conduct. Even if animal welfare guidelines are not covered by any WTO agreements in the future, bi- and multilateral agreements, voluntary corporate codes, and transparent labelling of products should result in a progressive acceptance of OIE guidelines. Ultimately, consumer demands and demonstrable gains in animal production will result in an incremental evolution in animal welfare consciousness and adherence to international standards. PMID:16358524

  6. New Frontiers in Animal Research of Psychiatric Illness

    PubMed Central

    Kaffman, Arie; Krystal, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Alterations in neurodevelopment are thought to modify risk of numerous psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, autism, ADHD, mood and anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. However, little is known about the cellular and molecular changes that guide these neurodevelopmental changes and how they contribute to mental illness. In this review, we suggest that elucidating this process in humans requires the use of model organisms. Furthermore, we advocate that such translational work should focus on the role that genes and/or environmental factors play in the development of circuits that regulate specific physiological and behavioral outcomes in adulthood. This emphasis on circuit development, as a fundamental unit for understanding behavior, is distinct from current approaches of modeling psychiatric illnesses in animals in two important ways. First, it proposes to replace the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM) diagnostic system with measurable endophenotypes as the basis for modeling human psychopathology in animals. We argue that a major difficulty in establishing valid animal models lies in their reliance on the DSM/International Classification of Diseases conceptual framework, and suggest that the Research Domain Criteria project, recently proposed by the NIMH, provides a more suitable system to model human psychopathology in animals. Second, this proposal emphasizes the developmental origin of many (though clearly not all) psychiatric illnesses, an issue that is often glossed over in current animal models of mental illness. We suggest that animal models are essential to elucidate the mechanisms by which neurodevelopmental changes program complex behavior in adulthood. A better understanding of this issue, in animals, is the key for defining human psychopathology, and the development of earlier and more effective interventions for mental illness. PMID:22231804

  7. Decomposition of water-soluble mononitrosyl iron complexes with dithiocarbamates and of dinitrosyl iron complexes with thiol ligands in animal organisms.

    PubMed

    Serezhenkov, Vladimir A; Timoshin, Alexander A; Orlova, Tsvetina R; Mikoyan, Vasak D; Kubrina, Lioudmila N; Poltorakov, Alexander P; Ruuge, Enno K; Sanina, Natalia A; Vanin, Anatoly F

    2008-05-01

    EPR studies have shown that water-soluble mononitrosyl iron complexes with N-methyl-d-glucamine dithiocarbamate (MNIC-MGD) (3 micromol) injected to intact mice were decomposed virtually completely within 1h. The total content of MNIC-MGD in animal urine did not exceed 30 nmol/ml. In the liver, a small amount of MNIC-MGD were converted into dinitrosyl iron complexes (30 nmol/g of liver tissue). The same was observed in intact rabbits in which MNIC-MGD formation was induced by endogenous or exogenous NO binding to NO traps, viz., iron complexes with MGD. In mice, the content of MNIC-MGD in urine samples did not change after bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of iNOS. It was supposed that MNIC-MGD decomposition in intact animals was largely due to the release of NO from the complexes and its further transfer to other specific acceptors. In mice with iNOS expression, the main contribution to MNIC-MGD decomposition was made by superoxide ions whose destructive effect is mediated by an oxidative mechanism. This effect could fully compensate the augmented synthesis of MNIC-MGD involving endogenous NO whose production was supported by iNOS. Water-soluble dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC) with various thiol-containing ligands and thiosulfate injected to intact mice were also decomposed; however, in this case the effect was less pronounced than in the case of MNIC-MGD. It was concluded that DNIC decomposition was largely due to the oxidative effect of superoxide ions on these complexes. PMID:18222183

  8. Limb neurovascular control during altered otolithic input in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monahan, Kevin D.; Ray, Chester A.

    2002-01-01

    Head-down rotation (HDR), which activates the vestibulosympathetic reflex, increases leg muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and produces calf vasoconstriction with no change in either cardiac output or arterial blood pressure. Based on animal studies, it was hypothesized that differential control of arm and leg MSNA explains why HDR does not alter arterial blood pressure. Fifteen healthy subjects were studied. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, forearm and calf blood flow, and leg MSNA responses were measured during HDR in these subjects. Simultaneous recordings of arm and leg MSNA were obtained from five of the subjects. Forearm and calf blood flow, vascular conductances, and vascular resistances were similar before HDR, as were arm and leg MSNA. HDR elicited similar significant increases in leg (Delta 6 +/- 1 bursts min(-1); 59 +/- 16 % from baseline) and arm MSNA (Delta 5 +/- 1 bursts min(-1); 80 +/- 28 % from baseline). HDR significantly decreased calf (-19 +/- 2 %) and forearm vascular conductance (-12 +/- 2 %) and significantly increased calf (25 +/- 4 %) and forearm vascular resistance (15 +/- 2 %), with 60 % greater vasoconstriction in the calf than in the forearm. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate were not altered by HDR. These results indicate that there is no differential control of MSNA in the arm and leg during altered feedback from the otolith organs in humans, but that greater vasoconstriction occurs in the calf than in the forearm. These findings indicate that vasodilatation occurs in other vascular bed(s) to account for the lack of increase in arterial blood pressure during HDR.

  9. DNA is organized into 46 chromosomes including sex chromosomes, 3D animation with no audioSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-10-06

    The millions of bases, which make up the human genome are organized into structures called chromosomes. These are arranged into 22 matching pairs plus 1 pair of sex chromosomes consisting of 2 X's in women and an X and a Y in men. So humans have a total of 46 chromosomes in each cell, known collectively as a karyotype. This set of chromosomes has a Y, so it must belong to a male.

  10. Gondwana Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This animation is one result of a determined effort to use new information to better constrain the history of continental dispersal and create a more accurate geological map of reassembled Gondwana. All the continental movements are shown relative to a number of hotspots, the position of which is held fixed with respect to the earth's rotation axis. This gives results that agree overall with paleomagnetic and paleoclimatic information for the period. The site also provides a slide show presentation about historical events that formed the Indian Ocean.

  11. Endothelial injury in internal organs of University of California at Davis line 200 (UCD 200) chickens, an animal model for systemic sclerosis (Scleroderma).

    PubMed

    Nguyen, V A; Sgonc, R; Dietrich, H; Wick, G

    2000-03-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multisystem disorder characterized by mononuclear cell infiltration and fibrosis. Using skin samples from human SSc and UCD 200 chickens, which spontaneously develop a hereditary disease closely resembling human SSc, we have shown previously that endothelial cell apoptosis is a primary event in the pathogenesis of SSc. The aim of the present study was to investigate the initial disease stage in visceral organs of UCD 200 chickens with special emphasis on endothelial apoptosis, mononuclear cell infiltration and collagen deposition using tissue samples from oesophagus, lung, heart, kidney and liver. Apoptotic endothelial cells were detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated FITC-dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), mononuclear cell infiltrates were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and increased collagen deposition was demonstrated by Goldner staining. Apoptotic endothelial cells were detected in oesophagus, lung and kidney of UCD 200 chickens at the initial stage of the disease. No apoptotic endothelial cells were found in heart or liver of UCD 200 or in visceral organs of healthy normal UCD 058 control chickens. Oesophagus of UCD 200 chickens, which was the most affected internal organ, showed mononuclear cell infiltrations and increased deposition of collagen. Perivascular inflammatory infiltrates and collagen deposition appeared later than endothelial cell apoptosis. These data support the hypothesis that endothelial cell apoptosis initiates the disease process, followed by mononuclear cell infiltration and fibrosis. PMID:10677245

  12. Myocardial diseases of animals.

    PubMed Central

    Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1986-01-01

    In this review we have attempted a comprehensive compilation of the cardiac morphologic changes that occur in spontaneous and experimental myocardial diseases of animals. Our coverage addresses diseases of mammals and birds and includes these diseases found in both domesticated and wild animals. A similar review of the myocardial diseases in this broad range of animal species has not been attempted previously. We have summarized and illustrated the gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural alterations for these myocardial diseases; and, whenever possible, we have reviewed their biochemical pathogenesis. We have arranged the myocardial diseases for presentation and discussion according to an etiologic classification with seven categories. These include a group of idiopathic or primary cardiomyopathies recognized in man (hypertrophic, dilated, and restrictive types) and a large group of secondary cardiomyopathies with known causes, such as inherited tendency; nutritional deficiency; toxicity; physical injury and shock; endocrine disorders, and myocarditides of viral, bacterial, and protozoal causation. Considerable overlap exists between each of the etiologic groups in the spectrum of pathologic alterations seen in the myocardium. These include various degenerative changes, myocyte necrosis, and inflammatory lesions. However, some diseases show rather characteristic myocardial alterations such as vacuolar degeneration in anthracycline cardiotoxicity, myofibrillar lysis in furazolidone cardiotoxicity, calcification in calcinosis of mice, glycogen accumulation in the glycogenoses, lipofuscinosis in cattle, fatty degeneration in erucic acid cardiotoxicity, myofiber disarray in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and lymphocytic inflammation with inclusion bodies in canine parvoviral myocarditis. The myocardial diseases represent the largest group in the spectrum of spontaneous cardiac diseases of animals. Pericardial and endocardial diseases and congential cardiac diseases are seen less frequently; and, in contrast to man, coronary artery disease and myocardial ischemia are rather infrequent in animals. The present review shows clearly that the spectrum of myocardial diseases in animals is enlarging and that many newly recognized diseases are emerging and assuming considerable importance. For example, various heritable cardiomyopathies have recently been described in the KK mouse, cattle, and rats. Increasingly recognized myocardial diseases include cardiomyopathies in cats, dogs, and birds; anthracycline cardiotoxicity; furazolidone cardiotoxicity; ionophore cardiotoxicity; myocardial damage associated with central nervous system injuries; myocardial hypertrophy in Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 45 Figure 46 Figure 47 Figure 48 Figure 61 Figure 62 Figure 63 Figure 64 Figure 79 Figure 75 Figure 76 Figure 77 Figure 78 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 & 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 38 Figure 39 Figure 40 Figure 41 Figure 42 Figure 43 Figure 44 Figure 49 Figure 50 Figure 51 Figure 52 Figure 53 Figure 54 Figure 55 Figure 56 Figure 57 Figure 58 Figure 59 Figure 60 Figure 65 Figure 66 Figure 67 Figure 68 Figure 69 Figure 70 Figure 71 & 72 Figure 73 & 74 PMID:3524254

  13. Logic Animation and Logic Animation Platform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mao Chen; Qiang Ge; Qingtang Liu; Zhiguo Si

    2009-01-01

    Logic animation, a new style of animation, was first proposed in the application of dynamic geometry software. The concept, features, and possible application prospects of logic animation are further introduced in details in this paper, compared with the traditional style of animation-time-sequential animation. Based on the design ideas of dynamic geometry software, Flash and game engine, the design of a

  14. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  15. The Wild Animal as a Research Animal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jac. A. A. Swart

    2004-01-01

    Most discussions on animal experimentation refer to domesticated animals and regulations are tailored to this class of animals. However, wild animals are also used for research, e.g., in biological field research that is often directed to fundamental ecological-evolutionary questions or to conservation goals. There are several differences between domesticated and wild animals that are relevant for evaluation of the acceptability

  16. Character Animation Animation is a big topic

    E-print Network

    Stephenson, Ben

    Character Animation 1 #12;Overview · Animation is a big topic · We will concentrate on character animation as is used in many games today ­ humans, animals, monsters, robots, etc. #12;Character is called a pose ­ the state of a skeleton at a particular time of animation #12;Regular layout 2 (no arcade

  17. Extreme Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Leslie Mullen

    This online news article discusses the ability of tardigrades to withstand harsh conditions. The article covers the history, biology and significance of tardigrades, as well as the different types of cryptobiosis. It includes detailed images of the organisms and links to related web pages.

  18. Extreme Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-09-01

    This online news article discusses the ability of tardigrades to withstand harsh conditions. The article covers the history, biology and significance of tardigrades, as well as the different types of cryptobiosis. It includes detailed images of the organisms and links to related web pages.

  19. International Fund for Animal Welfare

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    During the past few years, a finely nuanced sensibility about the shared interests and coexistence of human and animals has emerged as a number of international organizations have begun work and advocacy efforts in this area. The work of the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) began three decades ago when a group of individuals decided to come together to stop a hunt for white-coat harp seals on the eastern coast of Canada. Since that time, the IFAW has expanded its work across the world, and this site affords visitors the opportunity to learn about the organization's work, read its annual reports from the past several years, and find out more about its different campaigns across different regions. Visitors can click on different parts of an interactive world map to look at this information or browse a list of animals in the "Save Animals" section of the site.

  20. Pattern Alteration: Special Alterations for Pants

    E-print Network

    2006-08-04

    circumference alterations. Make all crotch depth alterations on front and back pattern pieces. To shorten: 1. Fold the pattern by the amount you need along the lengthening and shortening line designated on the pattern at the hip line. 2. Tape the pattern... the pattern apart at the hip lengthening and shorten- ing line. Figure 1. 2 ................................................................................................................................................................................. 3...

  1. Fibrin-genipin adhesive hydrogel for annulus fibrosus repair: performance evaluation with large animal organ culture, in situ biomechanics, and in vivo degradation tests.

    PubMed

    Likhitpanichkul, M; Dreischarf, M; Illien-Junger, S; Walter, B A; Nukaga, T; Long, R G; Sakai, D; Hecht, A C; Iatridis, J C

    2014-01-01

    Annulus fibrosus (AF) defects from annular tears, herniation, and discectomy procedures are associated with painful conditions and accelerated intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Currently, no effective treatments exist to repair AF damage, restore IVD biomechanics and promote tissue regeneration. An injectable fibrin-genipin adhesive hydrogel (Fib-Gen) was evaluated for its performance repairing large AF defects in a bovine caudal IVD model using ex vivo organ culture and biomechanical testing of motion segments, and for its in vivo longevity and biocompatibility in a rat model by subcutaneous implantation. Fib-Gen sealed AF defects, prevented IVD height loss, and remained well-integrated with native AF tissue following approximately 14,000 cycles of compression in 6-day organ culture experiments. Fib-Gen repair also retained high viability of native AF cells near the repair site, reduced nitric oxide released to the media, and showed evidence of AF cell migration into the gel. Biomechanically, Fib-Gen fully restored compressive stiffness to intact levels validating organ culture findings. However, only partial restoration of tensile and torsional stiffness was obtained, suggesting opportunities to enhance this formulation. Subcutaneous implantation results, when compared with the literature, suggested Fib-Gen exhibited similar biocompatibility behaviour to fibrin alone but degraded much more slowly. We conclude that injectable Fib-Gen successfully sealed large AF defects, promoted functional restoration with improved motion segment biomechanics, and served as a biocompatible adhesive biomaterial that had greatly enhanced in vivo longevity compared to fibrin. Fib-Gen offers promise for AF repairs that may prevent painful conditions and accelerated degeneration of the IVD, and warrants further material development and evaluation. PMID:25036053

  2. What Animal Models Teach Humans about Tuberculosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashwin S. Dharmadhikari; Edward A. Nardell

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Animal models have become,standard tools for the study of a wide array of human infectious diseases. Although there are no true animal reservoirs for M. tuberculosis, many,different animal species are susceptible to infection with this organism and have served as valuable tools for the study of TB. The most commonly,used experimental animal models of TB are the mouse, rabbit,

  3. Conditioned deletion of ephrinB1 and/or ephrinB2 in either thymocytes or thymic epithelial cells alters the organization of thymic medulla and favors the appearance of thymic epithelial cysts.

    PubMed

    Cejalvo, Teresa; Munoz, Juan J; Tobajas, Esther; Alfaro, David; García-Ceca, Javier; Zapata, Agustín

    2015-05-01

    Our understanding about medullary compartment, its niches composition and formation is still limited. Previous studies using EphB2 and/or EphB3 knockout mice showed an abnormal thymic development that affects mainly to the epithelial component, including the cortex/medulla distribution, thymic epithelial cell (TEC) morphology and different epithelial-specific marker expression. We have already demonstrated that the lack of ephrinB1 and/or ephrinB2, either on thymocytes or on TECs, alters the cell intermingling processes necessary for thymus organization and affect cortical TEC subpopulations. In the present work, we have used the Cre-LoxP model to selectively delete ephrinB1 and/or ephrinB2 in thymocytes (EfnB1(thy/thy), EfnB2(thy/thy), EfnB1(thy/thy)EfnB2(thy/thy) mice) or TECs (EfnB1(tec/tec), EfnB2(tec/tec), EfnB1(tec/tec)EfnB2(tec/tec) mice) and have analyzed their role on the medullary compartment. In all the studied mutants, medullary areas are smaller and more compact than in the wt thymuses. In most of them, we observe abundant big cysts and a higher proportion of UEA(hi)MTS10(-) cells than in wt mice, which are often forming small cysts. On EfnB1(tec/tec)EfnB2(tec/tec), changes affecting organ size and medullary compartment start at perinatal stage. Our data shed some light on knowledge about wt medulla histological structure and cysts meaning and formation process and on the role played by ephrinB in them. PMID:25417117

  4. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    PubMed

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. PMID:23664009

  5. Future Directions in Human-Animal Bond Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan M. Beck; Aaron H. Katcher

    2003-01-01

    Human-animal contact can influence psychological and physiological parameters important to health and welfare; nevertheless, there has been relatively little research on the variables that influence or mediate those health consequences. In addition, little attention has been paid on how to create or alter the animal interactions for the betterment of people and their animals. The investigation can be guided by

  6. Pattern Alteration: Shoulder Slope

    E-print Network

    2006-05-05

    Determining the amount of alteration needed for square or sloping shoulders depends on observation and past experience in fitting home-sewn and purchased garments. This publication gives alteration instructions for basic bodices and kimono style...

  7. [Behavior of pet animals].

    PubMed

    Birmelin, I

    1990-06-01

    Severe mistakes in pet keeping are often the result of ignorance. Many animals suffer from the care of their owners. Industry provides food in the proper composition, but the importance of the cage's interior, its size and the number of animals of the same species kept in it is often neglected. The key to a better understanding of pets is the knowledge of the ecological environment of their species. Fish, amphibia and reptiles are capable of simple acts of learning, but their potential of adaptation to their environment is determined mainly genetically, which can be observed best during the phase of their youth. Most members of these animal groups are born with a perfect behaviour program. Thus aquaria and terraria should as far as possible correspond to the needs and requirements of the species in question to its ecological niche. An aquarium should be a model of the animals' biotope. The effect of the conditions under which a pet is kept on its wellbeing is discussed in detail for the budgerigar and the guinea pig. Experiments with budgerigars showing that too small cages and the missing company of animals of the same species lead to abnormal behaviour are described. Guinea pigs live in packs. The fact how important the group and its social organization is for the individual guinea pig is documented by experimentally verified data. Furthermore the effect of the guinea pig's ontogeny under experimental conditions on the structure of a pack is discussed. Already small changes in the size of the cage or in its interior encourage the guinea pig's exploration behaviour and its mobility. PMID:2387228

  8. [Altered states of consciousness].

    PubMed

    Gora, E P

    2005-01-01

    The review of modern ideas concerning the altered states of consciousness is presented in this article. Various methods of entry into the altered states of consciousness are looked over. It is shown that the altered states of consciousness are insufficiently known, but important aspects of human being existence. The role of investigation of the altered states of consciousness for the creation of integrative scientific conception base is discussed. PMID:15810684

  9. Symptomatic animal models for dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Bethany K.; Hess, Ellen J.

    2013-01-01

    Symptomatic animal models have clinical features consistent with human disorders and are often used to identify the anatomical and physiological processes involved in the expression of symptoms and to experimentally demonstrate causality where it would be infeasible in the patient population. Rodent and primate models of dystonia have identified basal ganglia abnormalities, including alterations in striatal GABAergic and dopaminergic transmission. Symptomatic animal models have also established the critical role of the cerebellum in dystonia, particularly abnormal glutamate signaling and aberrant Purkinje cell activity. Further, experiments suggest that the basal ganglia and cerebellum are nodes in an integrated network that is dysfunctional in dystonia. The knowledge gained from experiments in symptomatic animal models may serve as the foundation for the development of novel therapeutic interventions to treat dystonia. PMID:23893454

  10. Altered glucose metabolism and preserved energy charge and neuronal structures in the brain of mouse intermittently exposed to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Furong; Xie, Shengnan; Guo, Miao; Fang, Haixia; Li, Xin; Yin, Juanjuan; Lu, Guowei; Li, Yaohua; Ji, Xunming; Yu, Shun

    2011-09-01

    The key for an animal to survive prolonged hypoxia is to avoid rapid decline in ATP levels in vital organs such as the brain. This can be well achieved by a very few of hypoxia-tolerant animals such as freshwater turtles and newborn animals, since these animals can substantially suppress their metabolic levels by coordinated regulation of ATP-producing and ATP-demanding pathways. However, most animals, especially adult mammals, can only tolerate a short period of hypoxia since they are unable to maintain constant ATP levels and energy charge in vital organs during prolonged hypoxic exposure. Here, we described a special mouse model, in which a hypoxia intolerant adult mouse gradually built up an ability to survive prolonged hypoxia after intermittent hypoxic exposures. This increased ability was accompanied by reductions in body temperature and O(2) consumption as well as transient variations in blood pCO(2), pO(2) and pH. The glucose and energy metabolism in the brain of the mouse altered similarly to those reported in the brain of hypoxic turtles. Activities of phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase, the two rate-limiting enzymes controlling the rate of glycolysis decreased to baseline levels after a short period of increase. In contrast, the activity of complex I, the major enzyme complex controlling oxidative phosphorylation, was kept inhibited. These alterations in the ATP-producing pathway suggest the occurrence of reverse Pasteur effect, indicating that the animal had entered a hypometabolic state favoring maintenance of ATP level and energy charge in hypoxic conditions. In supporting this idea, the ATP levels and energy charge as well as neuronal structures in the brain were well preserved. This study provides evidence for a possibility that a hypoxic intolerant animal can build up an ability to survive prolonged hypoxia through regulation of its glucose and energy metabolism after an appropriate hypoxic training, which deserves further investigation. PMID:21718782

  11. Animal Diversity Web - Insects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    Part of the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology's Animal Diversity Web, this site gives a general overview of the class Insecta targeted at college students. The site is organized into five tabs: Information, Pictures, Specimens, Sounds and Classification. Resources include images of live insects and pinned specimens, and sound recordings. Some pictures are only labeled with scientific genus and species names, making it difficult for novice users to understand what Order they are looking at, but many also have common names. Photos and sound bytes are good quality and easy to view and download. A very good resource for teachers needing lecture materials.

  12. Blood volatile organic compounds as potential biomarkers for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: an animal study in the SOD1 G93A mouse.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hongquan; Wang, Changsong; Ren, Ming; Yin, Xiang; Chi, Chunjie; Guo, Lei; Ke, Chaofu; Feng, Honglin; Li, Enyou

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapid progressive motor neuron disease. Currently, there are no specific or reliable biomarkers for the diagnosis of this disease, and there are no effective medical treatments. The early diagnosis and treatment of this disease has the potential to prolong the survival of ALS patients, but typically, approximately 1 year passes between the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis of this disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find specific biomarkers to enable early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention in this disease. Analyzing the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the blood and exhaled breath is a useful and convenient approach for investigating potential biomarkers. In this study, we examined the VOCs present in blood samples from copper zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) glycine to alanine mutation at position 93 (G93A) mice to determine whether a specific biomarker pattern exists in these transgenic mice. Blood samples from ALS mice and their age-matched littermates were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 12 independent compounds associated with oxidative stress were identified at the early stage of disease. The data show that there is a specific pattern of blood VOCs in ALS mice that could potentially be used as biomarkers that could improve the diagnosis of this disease. Furthermore, these compounds could also potentially be used to monitor the response to neuroprotective agents and to help us better understand the underlying mechanisms of ALS. PMID:24715356

  13. Animal habitats for space experiments.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Keiji; Shimazu, Toru

    2004-11-01

    There has been little opportunity for flight experiments using small animals, due to delay of construction of the International Space Station. Therefore, proposals using small animals have been unfortunately excepted from International Space Life Sciences Experiment application opportunity since 2001. Moreover, NASA has changed their development plan of animal habitats for space experiments according to changes of the U.S. space policy and the outlook is not so bright. However, international researchers have been strongly requesting the opportunity for space experiments using small animals. It will be also important for Japanese researchers to make a request for the opportunity. At the same time, researchers have to make an advance in ground based studies toward space experiments and to respond future application opportunities immediately. In this symposium, we explain the AEM (Animal Enclosure Module), the RAHF (Research Animal Holding Facility), and the AAH (Advanced Animal Habitat). It will be helpful for investigators to have wide knowledge of what space experiment is technically possible. In addition, the sample share program will be introduced into our communities. The program will provide many researchers with the organs and tissues from space-flown animals. We will explain the technical aspect of sample share program. PMID:15858343

  14. Fantastic animals as an experimental model to teach animal adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Guidetti, Roberto; Baraldi, Laura; Calzolai, Caterina; Pini, Lorenza; Veronesi, Paola; Pederzoli, Aurora

    2007-01-01

    Background Science curricula and teachers should emphasize evolution in a manner commensurate with its importance as a unifying concept in science. The concept of adaptation represents a first step to understand the results of natural selection. We settled an experimental project of alternative didactic to improve knowledge of organism adaptation. Students were involved and stimulated in learning processes by creative activities. To set adaptation in a historic frame, fossil records as evidence of past life and evolution were considered. Results The experimental project is schematized in nine phases: review of previous knowledge; lesson on fossils; lesson on fantastic animals; planning an imaginary world; creation of an imaginary animal; revision of the imaginary animals; adaptations of real animals; adaptations of fossil animals; and public exposition. A rubric to evaluate the student's performances is reported. The project involved professors and students of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and of the "G. Marconi" Secondary School of First Degree (Modena, Italy). Conclusion The educational objectives of the project are in line with the National Indications of the Italian Ministry of Public Instruction: knowledge of the characteristics of living beings, the meanings of the term "adaptation", the meaning of fossils, the definition of ecosystem, and the particularity of the different biomes. At the end of the project, students will be able to grasp particular adaptations of real organisms and to deduce information about the environment in which the organism evolved. This project allows students to review previous knowledge and to form their personalities. PMID:17767729

  15. Animal Interdependency. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. No organism on Earth can exist independently. Students find out more about animal relationships such as predator/prey relationships and…

  16. Navigation in Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, G. V. T.

    This paper was first published in the Journal in 1969 (Vol. 22, p. 118). It is followed by comments from John Kemp.The last twenty-one years have seen some very striking advances in our knowledge of how animals can determine their location. In many cases we have learned that they have available a wider range of stimuli than ourselves for recognizing landmarks and for pilotage within their home area. Thus the associated senses of smell and taste are extraordinarily well developed in some species. The ability of the males of certain moths to detect the scent emitted by females at very considerable distances had long been known. More recently the extreme sensitivity, and selectivity, of fish to waterborne odours has led to an understanding of how they locate their home waters. As but one example, eels have shown reactions to concentrations of chemicals as low as 3 18, equivalent to but two or three molecules within the fish's olfactory sac. In other cases animals have developed sensitivities of which we have little or no conception. Ecolocation is employed by certain birds, by many marine animals and reaches a peak of efficiency in the case of bats. Not only do the latter detect sounds of much higher frequency than ourselves, they also respond to echoes of sounds they emitted but 0·001 seconds earlier. We have little appreciation of the sensations produced by the pressure-receptors in the lateral-line organs of fish.

  17. Targeted Disruption of Murine Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptide 1b2 (oatp1b2/Slco1b2) Significantly Alters Disposition of Prototypical Drug Substrates Pravastatin and Rifampin

    PubMed Central

    Zaher, Hani; Schwabedissen, Henriette E. Meyer zu; Tirona, Rommel G.; Cox, Melissa L.; Obert, Leslie A.; Agrawal, Nidhi; Palandra, Joe; Stock, Jeffrey L.; Kim, Richard B.; Ware, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and 1B3 are widely acknowledged as important and rate-limiting to the hepatic uptake of many drugs in clinical use. Accordingly, to better understand the in vivo relevance of OATP1B transporters, targeted disruption of murine Slco1b2 gene was carried out. Interestingly, Slco1b2?/? mice were fertile, developed normally, and did not exhibit any overt phenotypic abnormalities. We confirmed the loss of Oatp1b2 expression in liver using real-time PCR, Western Blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Oatp1a4 and Oatp2b1, but not Oatp1a1 expression was greater in female Slco1b2?/? mice, but expression of other non-oatp transporters did not significantly differ between wildtype and Slco1b2?/? males. Total bilirubin level was elevated by 2-fold in the Slco1b2?/? mice despite that liver enzymes ALT and AST were normal. Pharmacological characterization was carried out using two prototypical substrates of human OATP1B1 and 1B3, rifampin and pravastatin. After a single intravenous dose of rifampin (1mg/kg), a 1.7-fold increase in plasma AUC was observed while the liver-to-plasma ratio was reduced by 5-fold, and nearly 8-fold when assessed at steady -state conditions after 24 hours of continuous subcutaneous (SC) infusion in Slco1b2?/? mice. Similarly, continuous SC-infusion at low dose rate (8 ?g/hr) or high dose rate (32 ?g/hr) pravastatin resulted in a 4-fold lower liver-plasma ratio in the in Slco1b2?/? mice. This is the first report of altered drug disposition profile in the Slco1b2 knockout mice and suggests the utility of this model for understanding the in vivo role of hepatic OATP transporters in drug disposition. PMID:18413659

  18. Animal models in burn research.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, A; Amini-Nik, S; Jeschke, M G

    2014-09-01

    Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than 2 million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury, to elucidate the pathophysiology, and to explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research. PMID:24714880

  19. The globalisation of farm animal welfare.

    PubMed

    Fraser, D

    2014-04-01

    Animal welfare has achieved significant global prominence for perhaps three reasons. First, several centuries of scientific research, especially in anatomy, evolutionary biology and animal behaviour, have led to a gradual narrowing of the gap that people perceive between humans and other species; this altered perception has prompted grass-roots attention to animals and their welfare, initially in Western countries but now more globally asthe influence of science has expanded. Second, scientific research on animal welfare has provided insights and methods for improving the handling, housing and management of animals; this 'animal welfare science' is increasingly seen as relevant to improving animal husbandry worldwide. Third, the development and use of explicit animal welfare standards has helped to integrate animal welfare as a component of national and international public policy, commerce and trade. To date, social debate about animal welfare has been dominated bythe industrialised nations. However, as the issue becomes increasingly global, it will be important for the non-industrialised countries to develop locally appropriate approaches to improving animal welfare, for example, by facilitating the provision of shelter, food, water and health care, and by improving basic handling, transportation and slaughter. PMID:25000775

  20. Vascular alterations underlie developmental problems manifested in cloned cattle before or after birth.

    PubMed

    Maiorka, Paulo Cesar; Favaron, Phelipe Oliveira; Mess, Andrea Maria; dos Santos, Caio Rodrigues; Alberto, Miryan Lanca; Meirelles, Flavio Vieira; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Although assisted reproductive techniques are commonly applied in humans and animals, they are frequently associated with major developmental deficits and reduced viability. To explore abnormalities associated with cloning or nuclear transfer (NT) as the most invasive of these methods, we used a bovine model to characterize abnormalities. Detailed necropsy examinations were done on 13 calves that died soon after birth; in addition, we included data from embryos and fetuses (produced by NT) that terminated prematurely. Bovine clones that survived until the neonatal period differed quantitatively and qualitatively from in-vivo-derived cattle. Although alterations affected a variety of organs (e.g. heart, lung and liver), there was a clear association with abberant vascular developmental during the early intrauterine phase. Therefore, we concluded that vascular problems were key alterations induced by cloning (presumably via epigenetic modifications). PMID:25584533

  1. Vascular Alterations Underlie Developmental Problems Manifested in Cloned Cattle before or after Birth

    PubMed Central

    Favaron, Phelipe Oliveira; dos Santos, Caio Rodrigues; Alberto, Miryan Lanca; Meirelles, Flavio Vieira; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Although assisted reproductive techniques are commonly applied in humans and animals, they are frequently associated with major developmental deficits and reduced viability. To explore abnormalities associated with cloning or nuclear transfer (NT) as the most invasive of these methods, we used a bovine model to characterize abnormalities. Detailed necropsy examinations were done on 13 calves that died soon after birth; in addition, we included data from embryos and fetuses (produced by NT) that terminated prematurely. Bovine clones that survived until the neonatal period differed quantitatively and qualitatively from in-vivo-derived cattle. Although alterations affected a variety of organs (e.g. heart, lung and liver), there was a clear association with abberant vascular developmental during the early intrauterine phase. Therefore, we concluded that vascular problems were key alterations induced by cloning (presumably via epigenetic modifications). PMID:25584533

  2. Topic in Depth - Animal Reproduction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Topic in Depth takes a look at organizations and educational websites concerned with reproduction in humans and other animals. In this folder, you'll find information about fertility, embryology, reproductive biology, and immunology from a variety of societies and institutions.

  3. Venomous Terrestrial Animals of Texas

    E-print Network

    Jackman, John A.

    2004-08-13

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Red Velvet Ant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Red Imported Fire Ant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Blister Beetles... (called an ovipositor) or with a separate stinging organ. Some venomous animals neither bite nor sting. Centipedes can drip toxin on an open wound. Blister beetles can rub a toxin on the skin. Common reactions to toxic substances are pain, itching...

  4. Hindlimb unloading alters ligament healing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Provenzano, Paolo P.; Martinez, Daniel A.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Dwyer, Kelley W.; Turner, Joanne; Vailas, Arthur C.; Vanderby, Ray Jr

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that hindlimb unloading inhibits healing in fibrous connective tissue such as ligament. Male rats were assigned to 3- and 7-wk treatment groups with three subgroups each: sham control, ambulatory healing, and hindlimb-suspended healing. Ambulatory and suspended animals underwent surgical rupture of their medial collateral ligaments, whereas sham surgeries were performed on control animals. After 3 or 7 wk, mechanical and/or morphological properties were measured in ligament, muscle, and bone. During mechanical testing, most suspended ligaments failed in the scar region, indicating the greatest impairment was to ligament and not to bone-ligament insertion. Ligament testing revealed significant reductions in maximum force, ultimate stress, elastic modulus, and low-load properties in suspended animals. In addition, femoral mineral density, femoral strength, gastrocnemius mass, and tibialis anterior mass were significantly reduced. Microscopy revealed abnormal scar formation and cell distribution in suspended ligaments with extracellular matrix discontinuities and voids between misaligned, but well-formed, collagen fiber bundles. Hence, stress levels from ambulation appear unnecessary for formation of fiber bundles yet required for collagen to form structurally competent continuous fibers. Results support our hypothesis that hindlimb unloading impairs healing of fibrous connective tissue. In addition, this study provides compelling morphological evidence explaining the altered structure-function relationship in load-deprived healing connective tissue.

  5. Review of human-animal interactions and their impact on animal productivity and welfare

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Humans and animals are in regular and at times close contact in modern intensive farming systems. The quality of human-animal interactions can have a profound impact on the productivity and welfare of farm animals. Interactions by humans may be neutral, positive or negative in nature. Regular pleasant contact with humans may result in desirable alterations in the physiology, behaviour, health and productivity of farm animals. On the contrary, animals that were subjected to aversive human contact were highly fearful of humans and their growth and reproductive performance could be compromised. Farm animals are particularly sensitive to human stimulation that occurs early in life, while many systems of the animals are still developing. This may have long-lasting impact and could possibly modify their genetic potential. The question as to how human contact can have a positive impact on responses to stressors, and productivity is not well understood. Recent work in our laboratory suggested that pleasant human contact may alter ability to tolerate various stressors through enhanced heat shock protein (hsp) 70 expression. The induction of hsp is often associated with increased tolerance to environmental stressors and disease resistance in animals. The attitude and consequent behaviour of stockpeople affect the animals’ fear of human which eventually influence animals’ productivity and welfare. Other than attitude and behaviour, technical skills, knowledge, job motivation, commitment and job satisfaction are prerequisites for high job performance. PMID:23855920

  6. History of deceased organ donation, transplantation, and organ procurement organizations.

    PubMed

    Howard, Richard J; Cornell, Danielle L; Cochran, Larry

    2012-03-01

    The historical development of deceased organ donation, transplantation, and organ procurement organizations is reviewed. The concept of transplantation, taking parts from one animal or person and putting them into another animal or person, is ancient. The development of organ transplantation brought on the need for a source of organs. Although many early kidney transplants used kidneys from living donors, these donors could not satisfy the ever-growing need for organs, and extrarenal organs were recovered only from deceased donors. This need for organs to satisfy the great demand led to specialized organizations to identify deceased donors, manage them until recovery occurred, and to notify transplant centers that organs were available for their patients. The functions of these organ procurement organizations expanded to include other required functions such as education, accounting, and compliance with state and federal requirements. Because of the shortage of organs relative to the demand, lack of a unified organ allocation system, the perception that organs are a national resource and should be governed by national regulations, and to improve results of organ procurement organizations and transplant centers, the federal government has regulated virtually all phases of organ procurement and transplantation. PMID:22489438

  7. Altered host resistance to Listeria monocytogenes in mice exposed to 1-chloroacetophenone (CN) vapours

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, P.; Kumar, P.; Zachariah, K.; Rai, G.P.; Vijayraghavan, R. (Defence Research and Development Establishment, Gwalior (India))

    1992-06-01

    Short term repeated exposure of 1-chloroacetophenone (CN) vapours at a concentration of 0.153 mg per litre for 15 minutes daily on 10 consecutive days in Swiss albino male mice resulted in increased mortality to Listeria monocytogenes. Significantly elevated bacterial growth was observed in the spleen and liver of the CN exposed animals. The increased bacterial count in these organs was evident within 4-6 days post challenge as compared to vehicle exposed infected and unexposed infected animals. Increased susceptibility to infection has been considered to be the function of immune alteration due to cumulative short term effects of CN vapour inhalation. This may be attributed to immunotoxic effects of CN on T-cells mediated macrophage functions.

  8. Harvard U. Receives First U.S. Patent Issued on Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, David L.

    1988-01-01

    A patent awarded to Harvard University for the genetic alteration of mice in cancer research is the first ever issued on an animal, at the same time that legislation putting a moratorium on animal patents is pending in Congress. (MSE)

  9. Effects of exposure to calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1b and Mannheimia haemolytica challenge on animal performance, nitrogen balance, and visceral organ mass in beef steers.

    PubMed

    Burciaga-Robles, L O; Krehbiel, C R; Step, D L; Holland, B P; Richards, C J; Montelongo, M A; Confer, A W; Fulton, R W

    2010-06-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) have been isolated alone or in combination with other viral and bacterial pathogens in animals diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD), a disease causing major economic loss to the feedlot industry. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of Mannheimia haemolytica challenge after short-term exposure (72 h) to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1b (BVDV1b) persistently infected (PI) calves on performance, N balance, and organ mass in finishing cattle. Treatments (6 steers/treatment; initial BW = 314 +/- 31 kg) were 1) steers not exposed to steers PI with BVDV nor challenged with M. haemolytica (control; CON); 2) steers exposed to 2 steers PI with BVDV1b (BVD) for 72 h; 3) steers intratracheally challenged with M. haemolytica (MH); or 4) steers exposed to 2 steers PI with BVDV1b for 72 h and challenged with M. haemolytica (BVD+MH). There were 12 h between exposure to PI steers and challenge with M. haemolytica. Steers were housed in metabolism stanchions during the first 5 d after the M. haemolytica challenge and on d 7 to 11, 28 to 32, and for 5 d before slaughter (average 119 d on feed) to determine N balance and were weighed every 28 d. At slaughter, carcass and organ mass data were collected. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, and steer was used as the experimental unit. From d -3 (beginning of PI steer exposure) to 4, steers challenged with M. haemolytica had less (P = 0.04) ADG than steers not challenged with M. haemolytica. In addition, steers exposed to steers PI with BVDV tended (P = 0.09) to have less ADG and G:F across the entire finishing period than steers not exposed to BVDV. Before slaughter, retained N expressed as grams per day (P = 0.03) and as a percentage of N intake (P = 0.04) was less in BVD steers compared with steers not exposed to BVDV. There were no effects (P > 0.10) of BVDV exposure or M. haemolytica challenge on empty BW (EBW) or carcass characteristics. Expressed as a percentage of EBW, HCW was less (P = 0.02) and total offal weight was greater (P = 0.02) for steers challenged with M. haemolytica compared with steers not challenged. Results are in agreement with those reported in larger scale finishing studies and suggest that acute exposure to BRD-related pathogens can have long-term effects on animal performance. PMID:20154160

  10. Animals around the world

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Carly

    2011-10-27

    What kinds of animals live in South Africa? Your teacher will give you KWL chart First, lets learn about Elephants Animals Record in your chart what you learn. Now lets learn about other animals Animals How is it similar or different from the Elephant? Project: Create a poster on one of the animals we discussed in this lesson. See the teacher ...

  11. Computer animation with CINEMA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. Kalasky; Deborah A. Davis

    1991-01-01

    CINEMA is a general-purpose animation system designed to animate models developed using the SIMAN simulation language. The CINEMA package consists of a module used to draw the graphical images used in the animation and a module to execute a SIMAN model and associated animation. Animation typically centers around the presentation of final modeling results. However, the simplicity of developing CINEMA

  12. Computer animation with CINEMA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacob P. Poorte; Deborah A. Davis

    1989-01-01

    Cinema is a general purpose animation system designed to animate models developed using the SIMAN simulation language. The Cinema package consists of two separate modules. With the first module, called CINEMA, users specify graphical images used in the animation. The second module, called CSIMAN, is used to execute a SIMAN simulation model and concurrently render the associated animation.Animation typically centers

  13. Microcirculatory alterations in shock states.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Shannan K; Parmley, C Lee; Hanneman, Sandra K

    2014-09-01

    Functional components of the microcirculation provide oxygen and nutrients and remove waste products from the tissue beds of the body's organs. Shock states overwhelmingly stress functional capacity of the microcirculation, resulting in microcirculatory failure. In septic shock, inflammatory mediators contribute to hemodynamic instability. In nonseptic shock states, the microcirculation is better able to compensate for alterations in vascular resistance, cardiac output, and blood pressure. Therefore, global hemodynamic and oxygen delivery parameters are appropriate for assessing, monitoring, and guiding therapy in hypovolemic and cardiogenic shock but, alone, are inadequate for septic shock. PMID:25169692

  14. 9 CFR 116.6 - Animal records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.6 Animal records... (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0013) [39 FR 16872, May 10, 1974,...

  15. 9 CFR 116.6 - Animal records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.6 Animal records... (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0013) [39 FR 16872, May 10, 1974,...

  16. 9 CFR 116.6 - Animal records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.6 Animal records... (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0013) [39 FR 16872, May 10, 1974,...

  17. 9 CFR 116.6 - Animal records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.6 Animal records... (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0579-0013) [39 FR 16872, May 10, 1974,...

  18. Expanding the Genetic Code of an Animal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Genetic code expansion, for the site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids into proteins, is currently limited to cultured cells and unicellular organisms. Here we expand the genetic code of a multicellular animal, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. PMID:21819153

  19. SYNOPSIS OF HISTOTECHNIQUES FOR AQUATIC ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This synopsis provides an overview of the necropsy, fixation, trimming, and processing of tissues from aquatic organisms for examination using light microscopy. The handling of animals, their tissues, uses of knives, and processing chemicals will be covered. Understanding the his...

  20. An even "newer" animal phylogeny.

    PubMed

    DeSalle, Rob; Schierwater, Bernd

    2008-11-01

    Metazoa are one of the great monophyletic groups of organisms. They comprise several major groups of organisms readily recognizable based on their anatomy. These major groups include the Bilateria (animals with bilateral symmetry), Cnidaria (jellyfish, corals and other closely related animals), Porifera (sponges), Ctenophores (comb jellies) and a phylum currently made up of a single species, the Placozoa. Attempts to systematize the relationships of these major groups as well as to determine relationships within the groups have been made for nearly two centuries. Many of the attempts have led to frustration, because of a lack of resolution between and within groups. Other attempts have led to "a new animal phylogeny". Now, a study by Dunn et al., using the expresssed sequence tag (EST) approach to obtaining high-throughput large phylogenetic matrices, presents an "even newer" animal phylogeny. There are two major aspects of this study that should be of interest to the general biological community. First, the methods used by the authors to generate their phylogenetic hypotheses call for close examination. Second, the relationships of animal taxa in their resultant trees also prompt further discussion. PMID:18937347

  1. The impact of aquatic animals on bedload transport in gravel-bed rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M.; Rice, S. P.

    2012-12-01

    Grain-scale processes are known to have large impacts on the transport of bed material in rivers. The structure, topography and distribution of grain sizes that make up a bed, all contribute to the mobility of fluvial substrates. Animals in rivers interact with the substrate in a multitude of ways, for example, when burrowing, moving and foraging for food. Alterations to the arrangement of grains that result from these activities have a demonstrable impact on particle stability and critical entrainment stresses. This raises the intriguing possibility that aquatic fauna have large, cumulative impacts on the structure of river bed material and, consequently, on the transport of bed material. The activities of signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus), a globally important invasive crustacean, alter the arrangement of surface grains in fluvial substrates. They also construct pits and mounds across surfaces within which they shelter. These structural and topographic alterations to surfaces were quantified using repeat laser scans to create Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) before and after crayfish activity. Crayfish moved grains up to 32 mm in diameter and with a submerged weight six times that of average adult crayfish. As a result of crayfish destroying grain-scale structures, 50% more material was entrained from disturbed fluvial substrates in comparison to control surfaces that had not been exposed to crayfish. Animals can also stabilise substrates. Hydropsychid caddisfly larvae bind grains together with silk, which is spun for a variety of purposes including the creation of nets to catch organic matter from the flow. Fine gravels (2-6 mm) that were colonised by natural densities of caddisfly, required 20% increases in shear stress to be mobilised in comparison to uncolonised, control gravels. Whilst these results demonstrate the potential for animals to affect grain-scale processes, their river-scale impact needs to be assessed in field environments, in the context of ecological and sedimentary complexity and in comparison to the hydraulic processes that bring about sediment transport. To achieve this, the spatial and temporal scales of animal impacts need to be understood. For example, the distribution of animals is patchy in space and their activity levels vary through time, while their impact is limited to patches with certain grain-size characteristics. It is only where both animals and susceptible substrate patches co-occur, in time and space, that an effect can be expected. Therefore, it is important to develop an understanding of what makes a substrate susceptible to biological modification, where these substrate types are likely to occur, and how often they co-occur with habitat-modifying organisms. Only with this information can the significance of substrate modifications by animals in rivers be properly assessed.

  2. Design of a small animal biopsy robot

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ozkan Bebek; Myun Joong Hwang; Baowei Fei; M. Cenk Cavusoglu

    2008-01-01

    Small animals are widely used in biomedical research studies. They have compact anatomy and small organs. Therefore it is difficult to perceive tumors or cells and perform biopsies manually. Robotics technology offers a convenient and reliable solution for accurate needle insertion. In this paper, a novel 5 degrees of freedom (DOF) robot design for inserting needles into small animal subjects

  3. Domestic animals in a changing world

    E-print Network

    efficient production of animal food products of good quality. In other words we need healthy animals the organic herds, that have certain standards to live up to and need to combine being "modern" and "natural affect the survival of different disease-causing agents in the environment (bacteria, parasites

  4. Amazing Altered Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieling, Linda W.

    2006-01-01

    Linda Kieling, an art teacher at Rosemont Ridge Middle school in West Linn, Oregon, describes an altered book art project she introduced to her students. Alteration of books is a form of recycling that started in the eleventh century when Italian monks recycled old manuscripts written on vellum by scraping off the ink and adding new text and…

  5. Asymmetry of Structural Changes in the Rabbit Hippocampus during “Animal Hypnosis”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. I. Artyukhina; E. V. Rusinova

    2002-01-01

    Animal hypnosis” is a state caused in animals by forced immobilization, as a rule, in an altered posture [4, 13]. The mechanisms of animal hypnosis and the cerebral structures that control it are still open questions [10, 12]. Animal hypnosis in rabbits is accompanied by changes in the bioelectric activity of both cerebral cortex and subcortex [1, 4, 6?8, 13].

  6. Tracing Water Sources of Terrestrial Animal Populations with Stable Isotopes: Laboratory Tests with Crickets and Spiders

    PubMed Central

    McCluney, Kevin E.; Sabo, John L.

    2010-01-01

    Fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water between ecosystem components and organisms have great impacts across levels of biological organization. Although much progress has been made in tracing carbon and nitrogen, difficulty remains in tracing water sources from the ecosystem to animals and among animals (the “water web”). Naturally occurring, non-radioactive isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water provide a potential method for tracing water sources. However, using this approach for terrestrial animals is complicated by a change in water isotopes within the body due to differences in activity of heavy and light isotopes during cuticular and transpiratory water losses. Here we present a technique to use stable water isotopes to estimate the mean mix of water sources in a population by sampling a group of sympatric animals over time. Strong correlations between H and O isotopes in the body water of animals collected over time provide linear patterns of enrichment that can be used to predict a mean mix of water sources useful in standard mixing models to determine relative source contribution. Multiple temperature and humidity treatment levels do not greatly alter these relationships, thus having little effect on our ability to estimate this population-level mix of water sources. We show evidence for the validity of using multiple samples of animal body water, collected across time, to estimate the isotopic mix of water sources in a population and more accurately trace water sources. The ability to use isotopes to document patterns of animal water use should be a great asset to biologists globally, especially those studying drylands, droughts, streamside areas, irrigated landscapes, and the effects of climate change. PMID:21209877

  7. Morris Animal Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Give Partners Become a Partner Meet Our Partners Animal Lovers Our Work Ways to Give Pet Health ... Research VetNews Canine Lifetime Health Project Researchers Small Animal Studies Large Animal Studies Wildlife Studies Vet Students ...

  8. Digital character performance animation

    E-print Network

    Gonzalez, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    This research is an analysis of past and present acting methods and techniques applicable to animation. Literature research and interviews with animators influence the development of guidelines explaining the process that prepares an animator...

  9. Animal Testing Medical Research

    E-print Network

    Bech, Claus

    Animal Testing In Medical Research Past, present and future. Marte Thomassen Ellen Trolid Tonje Arondsen Marit Gystøl #12;ZO-8091 Forsøksdyrlære Animal experiments in medical research NTNU ­ Norges.............................................................................................................................. 2 2. ETHICS IN ANIMAL TESTING

  10. Bridge Rectifier Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an animation of a bridge rectifier circuit or diode bridge. Voltages and parts of the circuit of this 3-D animated gif are highlighted with different colors. Current is displayed by green arrows indicating directional flow. The animation requires a Web browser or other video player software capable of displaying gif animations. A link provides an optional Quicktime version of this same animation.Other 3-D Circuit Animations can be seen here.

  11. Testicular alterations in the nonobese diabetic mouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guy W. Tarleton; Bernard Gondos; Brent Formby

    1990-01-01

    The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse was used as a model for evaluating alterations in testicutar structure. The NOD mouse exhibits\\u000a diabetic manifestations on an apparently autoimmune basis and thus resembles human type 1 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.\\u000a Testicular samples were obtained from animals with and without diabetic manifestations at various ages. The principal changes\\u000a noted on histological examination were in the

  12. [Applications of genetically modified animals].

    PubMed

    Houdebine, Louis-Marie

    2009-01-01

    The first transgenic animals, mice, were obtained in 1980. The techniques of gene transfer had to be adapted to obtain transgenic animals with an acceptable yield in about fifteen species. When the yield is low (low rate of random integration and targeted integration via homologous recombination), genetic modifications must be achieved in intermediate cells able to participate to the development of chimeric transgenic animals (ES cells, EG cells, iPS obtained by the dedifferentiation of somatic cells) or in somatic cells used as nuclear donor to generate transgenic clones. Various tools make possible a marked increase of homologous recombination efficiency (meganucleases and ZFN), or a gene inactivation at the genome level (direct or conditional knock out) or at the mRNA level (interfering RNAs). Vectors allow a more reliable transgene expression. Genetically modified animals are used mainly to obtain information on biological functions and human diseases. Transgenic animals produce recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in milk and soon in egg white. Pig organs adapted to be tolerated by patients might be tested in humans in five years. The projects based on the use of transgenesis to improve animal production are presently few. Transgenic salmon with accelerated growth might be on the market when their possible escape in oceans will be controlled. PMID:20122391

  13. Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation (Animation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation animation

    This animation shows the return capsule separating from the Stardust spacecraft.

  14. Pattern Alteration: Principles of Pattern Alteration

    E-print Network

    2006-02-09

    or more inches larger than the high bust measurement. Fit across the upper chest is a wiser choice because of the difficulty of altering the upper chest, neck and shoulder areas. 2... and then put back together, the original lengthwise grainline should be maintained whenever possible. Back waist length Shoulder length Back shoulder width High bust Bust Waist3 8 9 1 2 5 Bodice back Waist 3 High hip Hip Skirt length 12 4 13 Skirt back...

  15. Plant vegetative and animal cytoplasmic actins share functional competence for spatial development with protists.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Muthugapatti K; McKinney, Elizabeth C; Roy, Eileen; Meagher, Richard B

    2012-05-01

    Actin is an essential multifunctional protein encoded by two distinct ancient classes of genes in animals (cytoplasmic and muscle) and plants (vegetative and reproductive). The prevailing view is that each class of actin variants is functionally distinct. However, we propose that the vegetative plant and cytoplasmic animal variants have conserved functional competence for spatial development inherited from an ancestral protist actin sequence. To test this idea, we ectopically expressed animal and protist actins in Arabidopsis thaliana double vegetative actin mutants that are dramatically altered in cell and organ morphologies. We found that expression of cytoplasmic actins from humans and even a highly divergent invertebrate Ciona intestinalis qualitatively and quantitatively suppressed the root cell polarity and organ defects of act8 act7 mutants and moderately suppressed the root-hairless phenotype of act2 act8 mutants. By contrast, human muscle actins were unable to support prominently any aspect of plant development. Furthermore, actins from three protists representing Choanozoa, Archamoeba, and green algae efficiently suppressed all the phenotypes of both the plant mutants. Remarkably, these data imply that actin's competence to carry out a complex suite of processes essential for multicellular development was already fully developed in single-celled protists and evolved nonprogressively from protists to plants and animals. PMID:22589468

  16. Pattern Alteration: Lengthening & Shortening

    E-print Network

    2006-08-04

    , and E-373, Personal Measurement Chart, for basic alteration instructions. A garment needs lengthening if major fi tting points, such as the waist or hem line ride up evenly around the body or fall too short for comfort. You might also want... ................................................................................................................................................................................. Basic lengthening and shortening On the Personal Measurement Chart, determine the amount of alteration you need from line 7, shoulder to waist; line 13, skirt length; line 17, side length; and/or line 11-b, sleeve length. Do this alteration on front...

  17. Board-invited review: intrauterine growth retardation: implications for the animal sciences.

    PubMed

    Wu, G; Bazer, F W; Wallace, J M; Spencer, T E

    2006-09-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), defined as impaired growth and development of the mammalian embryo/fetus or its organs during pregnancy, is a major concern in domestic animal production. Fetal growth restriction reduces neonatal survival, has a permanent stunting effect on postnatal growth and the efficiency of feed/forage utilization in offspring, negatively affects whole body composition and meat quality, and impairs long-term health and athletic performance. Knowledge of the underlying mechanisms has important implications for the prevention of IUGR and is crucial for enhancing the efficiency of livestock production and animal health. Fetal growth within the uterus is a complex biological event influenced by genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors, as well as maternal maturity. These factors impact on the size and functional capacity of the placenta, uteroplacental blood flows, transfer of nutrients and oxygen from mother to fetus, conceptus nutrient availability, the endocrine milieu, and metabolic pathways. Alterations in fetal nutrition and endocrine status may result in developmental adaptations that permanently change the structure, physiology, metabolism, and postnatal growth of the offspring. Impaired placental syntheses of nitric oxide (a major vasodilator and angiogenic factor) and polyamines (key regulators of DNA and protein synthesis) may provide a unified explanation for the etiology of IUGR in response to maternal undernutrition and overnutrition. There is growing evidence that maternal nutritional status can alter the epigenetic state (stable alterations of gene expression through DNA methylation and histone modifications) of the fetal genome. This may provide a molecular mechanism for the role of maternal nutrition on fetal programming and genomic imprinting. Innovative interdisciplinary research in the areas of nutrition, reproductive physiology, and vascular biology will play an important role in designing the next generation of nutrient-balanced gestation diets and developing new tools for livestock management that will enhance the efficiency of animal production and improve animal well being. PMID:16908634

  18. Anime Creativity: Characters and Premises in the Quest for Cool Japan

    E-print Network

    Condry, Ian

    This article examines ethnographically the production of anime (Japanese animated films and TV shows) by focusing on how professional animators use characters and dramatic premises to organize their collaborative creativity. ...

  19. 21 CFR 500.35 - Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...meal, meat meal, tankage, and other animal byproducts intended for use in animal feed may be contaminated with Salmonella bacteria, an organism pathogenic to man and animals. Contamination of these products may occur through inadequate heat...

  20. 21 CFR 500.35 - Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...meal, meat meal, tankage, and other animal byproducts intended for use in animal feed may be contaminated with Salmonella bacteria, an organism pathogenic to man and animals. Contamination of these products may occur through inadequate heat...

  1. 21 CFR 500.35 - Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...meal, meat meal, tankage, and other animal byproducts intended for use in animal feed may be contaminated with Salmonella bacteria, an organism pathogenic to man and animals. Contamination of these products may occur through inadequate heat...

  2. Physics for Animation Artists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

    2011-01-01

    Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

  3. Exotic Animal Grief Packet

    E-print Network

    Exotic Animal Grief Packet 300 West Drake Road Fort Collins, CO 80523 (970) 491-4143 www.argusinstitute.colostate.edu #12;Grieving The Loss Of Your Exotic Pet When an animal enters our life, a distinct relationship is created. Animals provide a truly unique relationship we cannot replicate anywhere else. Exotic animals

  4. Animal Thinking An Introduction

    E-print Network

    Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

    1 Animal Thinking An Introduction Randolf Menzel and Julia Fischer The topic of this Strüngmann Forum--animal thinking--was not formulated as a question--"Do animals think?--but rather as a statement species alone. The issue of whether animals experience conscious recollections in some similar way

  5. Animal Related Arts & Culture

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    from high kill shelters on their last day of life. We take each animal to our vet immediately and make & Education We save most of our animals from high kill shelters on their last day of life. We take each animal-268-9424 All Paws Rescue, Rehabilitation & Education We save most of our animals from high kill shelters

  6. Antibiotic resistance in animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary D Barton; Rachael Pratt; Wendy S Hart

    There is currently no systematic surveillance or monitoring of antibiotic resistance in Australian animals. Registration of antibiotics for use in animals is tightly controlled and has been very conservative. Fluoroquinolones have not been registered for use in food producing animals and other products have been removed from the market because of human health concerns. In the late 1970s, the Animal

  7. Impact of simulated microgravity on the normal developmental time line of an animal-bacteria symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jamie S; Khodadad, Christina L M; Ahrendt, Steven R; Parrish, Mirina L

    2013-01-01

    The microgravity environment during space flight imposes numerous adverse effects on animal and microbial physiology. It is unclear, however, how microgravity impacts those cellular interactions between mutualistic microbes and their hosts. Here, we used the symbiosis between the host squid Euprymna scolopes and its luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri as a model system. We examined the impact of simulated microgravity on the timeline of bacteria-induced development in the host light organ, the site of the symbiosis. To simulate the microgravity environment, host squid and symbiosis-competent bacteria were incubated together in high-aspect ratio rotating wall vessel bioreactors and examined throughout the early stages of the bacteria-induced morphogenesis. The host innate immune response was suppressed under simulated microgravity; however, there was an acceleration of bacteria-induced apoptosis and regression in the host tissues. These results suggest that the space flight environment may alter the cellular interactions between animal hosts and their natural healthy microbiome. PMID:23439280

  8. Impact of simulated microgravity on the normal developmental time line of an animal-bacteria symbiosis

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Jamie S.; Khodadad, Christina L. M.; Ahrendt, Steven R.; Parrish, Mirina L.

    2013-01-01

    The microgravity environment during space flight imposes numerous adverse effects on animal and microbial physiology. It is unclear, however, how microgravity impacts those cellular interactions between mutualistic microbes and their hosts. Here, we used the symbiosis between the host squid Euprymna scolopes and its luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri as a model system. We examined the impact of simulated microgravity on the timeline of bacteria-induced development in the host light organ, the site of the symbiosis. To simulate the microgravity environment, host squid and symbiosis-competent bacteria were incubated together in high-aspect ratio rotating wall vessel bioreactors and examined throughout the early stages of the bacteria-induced morphogenesis. The host innate immune response was suppressed under simulated microgravity; however, there was an acceleration of bacteria-induced apoptosis and regression in the host tissues. These results suggest that the space flight environment may alter the cellular interactions between animal hosts and their natural healthy microbiome. PMID:23439280

  9. [Dangerous marine animals].

    PubMed

    Antensteiner, G

    1999-01-01

    Sea-biological basic knowledge for divers is offered only in special lessons for advanced scuba divers. According to statistics, however, five per cent of the deadly diving accidents are caused by underwater organisms. This number could be reduced to a fraction, by correct behaviour during the dive and after an accident. The most frequent accidents with sea animals during water sports are not by unprovoked shark attacks, which cause six deaths world-wide per year on the average, but turn out with usually well camouflaged sea inhabitants, that do not attack humans, rather by their inadvertence coincidentally get in contact with it. The various defense instruments of the often small, inconspicuous organisms reach from teeth over poison stings, pricks, spines, scalpelles, nettle injections and chemical weapons up to poison arrows. Due to that variety of the maritime life, the most important representatives of its type are explained including severity level of the caused injury or contamination. Both, diagnostic position and therapy possibility are described as follows: 1. Porifera (sponge), 2. Hydrozoa (white weed, yellow flower head), Actinaria (sea anemones), 3. Conidae (cone shells), Tridocna (giant clam), octopoda (octopus), 4. Acanthaster planci (crown of thorns), Echinodea (sea urchins), Holothurioidea (sea cucumber), 5. Selachoidei (shark), Batoidei (Ray), Muraenidae (moray), Plotosidae (barbel eels), Synanciidae (stonefish), Scorpaenidae (scorpionfish), Pterois (lion fish), Sphyraena Spec. (barracuda), Balistidae (triggerfish), Ostracionidae (puffer). PMID:11315406

  10. Altered Topography in the Geniculo-cortical Projection of the Golden Hamster Following Neonatal Monocular Enucleation.

    PubMed

    Trevelyan, A J; Thompson, I D

    1992-01-01

    The consequence of neonatal eye removal on the adult organization of the geniculo-cortical pathway was studied anatomically in hamsters. Separate discrete injections of rhodamine- and green-fluorescent latex microspheres were made into the primary visual cortex of adult hamsters. The distribution of labelling in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of normal animals was compared with that seen in animals monocularly enucleated at birth. In the normal animals, as expected, the projection has a precise topographic order. This is also true of the projection contralateral to the remaining eye in the enucleated animals. However, on the side ipsilateral to the remaining eye, the visual cortex appears to receive two convergent projections from the deafferented dLGN, one mirroring the other. A single injection made in very lateral cortex labels cells in two discrete regions of the dLGN. As the injection is made progressively more medial, the two patches of labelled cells converge. Eventually, the two patches are no longer discrete so that injections into central area 17 produce just one, extended patch of labelling. These results suggest that the altered retinal input to the dLGN may affect the subsequent development of ordered geniculo-cortical projections. PMID:12106416

  11. Incorporating Climate Variability into Precipitation Isoscapes for Interpreting Animal Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Zanden, H.; Hobson, K. A.; Wassenaar, L. I.; Wunder, M. B.; Welker, J. M.; Bowen, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale continental gradients in ?2H and ?18O values of precipitation lead to predictable isotopic patterns across the landscape. These light isotopes are thus useful endogenous markers in tracing long-distance movements of animals. Hydrogen in water is assimilated into tissues that are inert after synthesis, such as chitin or keratin, that are not altered when the animal moves so that the tissue reflects the environment or region from which it originated at the time when the tissue was synthesized. Models to predict the patters of ?2H in precipitation with the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) use long-term averages because models allowing estimation of isotopic values in more specific time periods have often not been available. Yet, inter-annual variation in precipitation and other climate variables may lead to large deviations from the mean values modeled over four decades, and particular regions may be more susceptible to higher departures from long-term average ?2H values. We examine whether incorporating such variation offers an improvement over static isoscapes to understand patterns of animal movement and geographic origin. Here we investigate the accuracy of Bayesian geographic assignments to predict the origin of two migratory species (monarch butterflies in the eastern United States and reed warblers in western Europe) using time-specific isoscapes. We use known-origin data from these organisms to provide calibration and validation datasets to compare the sensitivity of predictions from both year-specific and long-term isoscapes developed in IsoMAP, a freely available online workspace for modeling and predicting isotope ratio variation in precipitation. Determining how to incorporate climate and inter-annual variation into models that predict isotopic values of animal tissues can aid in improving geospatial assignments across a wide range of taxa.

  12. Animals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Angela

    1988-01-01

    Animals are indispensable to the space program. Their continued use could have many significant results. Those who are opposed to using animals in space should remember that space animals are treated humanely; they are necessary because results can be obtained from them that would be unobtainable from humans; and results from animal experiments can be applied to human systems. Therefore, NASA should continue to use animals in space research.

  13. Animal Information Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-01-01

    The Animal Information Database is an educational Web site from SeaWorld/Busch Gardens. The site contains a wide variety of information about many animals including fun facts, biological classification, habitat, and news about specific animals at the Sea World/Busch Gardens parks. A fun part of the site is the Animal Sounds Library where visitors can listen to the interesting sounds made by a number of animals.

  14. Histology. Notes for Students of Animal Husbandry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Charles J.; Reed, Josephine E.

    This document approaches the subject of Histology by way of simple independent unicellular organisms through the lower levels of cell organization and specialization to a detailed study of the highly complex tissues of vertebrate animals. Emphasis is placed on structure, but function is explained in some detail. The relationships between tissues…

  15. Organic Vegetable Organic Vegetable

    E-print Network

    Organic Vegetable Production Organic Vegetable Production Organic Vegetable Production ID-316 #12. #12;Organic Vegetable Production TABLE OF CONTENTS: Introduction ..........................................11 Organic Insect Management (Table 3) ............13 Organic Disease Management (Table 4

  16. AGGREGATION AND ORGANIC MATTER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil organic matter (SOM) consists of plant, animal and microbial residues, and organic decomposition products that are associated with the inorganic soil matrix. Soil organic mater turnover is coupled to the agradation/degradation of soil aggregates through the activity of soil microorganisms. This...

  17. Organ Harvesting and Transplants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baskette, Kimberly G.; Ritz, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Humans and animals need healthy organs to live. Due to medical conditions and accidents, some organs fail to function properly. For these reasons, the medical community has experimented and can now perform successful organ transplants, allowing patients to continue to live their lives. Many countries have medical programs where individuals can…

  18. The role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to facilitate the international trade in animals and animal products.

    PubMed

    Brückner, G K

    2009-03-01

    The international trade in animals and animal products has become a sensitive issue for both developed and developing countries by posing an important risk for the international spread of animal and human pathogens whilst at the same time being an essential activity to ensure world-wide food security and food safety. The OIE has since its founding in 1924, applied a democratic and transparent decision-making process to continuously develop and review international standards for animal health and zoonoses to facilitate trade in animals and animal products. The role of the OIE is also mandated by the World Trade Organization (WTO) as international reference point for standards related to animal health. In support of its overall objective of promoting animal health world-wide, the OIE has also launched several other initiatives such as the improvement of the governance of veterinary services within its member countries and territories and to enhance the availability of diagnostic and scientific expertise on a more even global geographical distribution. Several trade facilitating concepts such as country, zonal and compartment freedom from disease as well the trade in disease free commodities has been introduced to enhance the trade in animals and animal products for all its members including those from developing and transitional countries who are still in the process of enhancing to full compliance with international sanitary standards. PMID:19967940

  19. Alterations in immunologic mechanisms in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allen L. Ginsberg

    1971-01-01

    No disease of the gastrointestinal tract has clearly been shown to be of immune or autoimmune etiology, although many alterations in immunologic mechanisms have been observed. This progress report has attempted to review many of these alterations and to organize them, at times by use of speculation, into meaningful patterns. Future investigation will provide data on which to base a

  20. Evolution of the hormonal control of animal performance: insights from the seaward migration of salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.

    2009-01-01

    The endocrine system is the key mediator of environmental and developmental (internal) information, and is likely to be involved in altering the performance of animals when selection has favored phenotypic plasticity. The endocrine control of performance should be especially pronounced in animals that undergo a developmental shift in niche, such as occurs in migratory species. By way of example, I review the developmental and environmental control of the preparatory changes for seawater entry of juvenile salmon (known as smolting) and its hormonal regulation. There is a size threshold for smolt development in juvenile Atlantic salmon that results in greater sensitivity of the growth hormone and cortisol axes to changes in daylength. These hormones, in turn, have broad effects on survival, ion homeostasis, growth and swimming performance during entry into seawater. Migratory niche shifts and metamorphic events are extreme examples of the role of hormones in animal performance and represent one end of a continuum. A framework for predicting when hormones will be involved in performance of animals is presented. Endocrine involvement in performance will be more substantial when (1) selection differentials on traits underlying performance are high and temporally discontinuous over an animal's lifetime, (2) the energetic and fitness costs of maintaining performance plasticity are less than those of constant performance, (3) cues for altering performance are reliable indicators of critical environmental conditions, require neurosensory input, and minimize effects of lag, and (4) the need for coordination of organs, tissues and cells to achieve increased performance is greater. By examining these impacts of selection, endocrinologists have an opportunity to contribute to the understanding of performance, phenotypic plasticity, and the evolution of life-history traits.

  1. Laterality defects are influenced by timing of treatments and animal model.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, Laura N

    2012-01-01

    The timing of when the embryonic left-right (LR) axis is first established and the mechanisms driving this process are subjects of strong debate. While groups have focused on the role of cilia in establishing the LR axis during gastrula and neurula stages, many animals appear to orient the LR axis prior to the appearance of, or without the benefit of, motile cilia. Because of the large amount of data available in the published literature and the similarities in the type of data collected across laboratories, I have examined relationships between the studies that do and do not implicate cilia, the choice of animal model, the kinds of LR patterning defects observed, and the penetrance of LR phenotypes. I found that treatments affecting cilia structure and motility had a higher penetrance for both altered gene expression and improper organ placement compared to treatments that affect processes in early cleavage stage embryos. I also found differences in penetrance that could be attributed to the animal models used; the mouse is highly prone to LR randomization. Additionally, the data were examined to address whether gene expression can be used to predict randomized organ placement. Using regression analysis, gene expression was found to be predictive of organ placement in frogs, but much less so in the other animals examined. Together, these results challenge previous ideas about the conservation of LR mechanisms, with the mouse model being significantly different from fish, frogs, and chick in almost every aspect examined. Additionally, this analysis indicates that there may be missing pieces in the molecular pathways that dictate how genetic information becomes organ positional information in vertebrates; these gaps will be important for future studies to identify, as LR asymmetry is not only a fundamentally fascinating aspect of development but also of considerable biomedical importance. PMID:22099174

  2. Laterality defects are influenced by timing of treatments and animal model

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, Laura N.

    2011-01-01

    The timing of when the embryonic left-right (LR) axis is first established and the mechanisms driving this process are subjects of strong debate. While groups have focused on the role of cilia in establishing the LR axis during gastrula and neurula stages, many animals appear to orient the LR axis prior to the appearance of, or without the benefit of, motile cilia. Because of the large amount of data available in the published literature and the similarities in the type of data collected across labs, I have examined relationships between the studies that do and do not implicate cilia, the choice of animal model, the kinds of LR patterning defects observed, and the penetrance of LR phenotypes. I found that treatments affecting cilia structure and motility had a higher penetrance for both altered gene expression and improper organ placement compared to treatments that affect processes in early cleavage stage embryos. I also found differences in penetrance that could be attributed to the animal models used; the mouse is highly prone to LR randomization. Additionally, the data were examined to address whether gene expression can be used to predict randomized organ placement. Using regression analysis, gene expression was found to be predictive of organ placement in frogs, but much less so in the other animals examined. Together, these results challenge previous ideas about the conservation of LR mechanisms, with the mouse model being significantly different from fish, frogs and chick in almost every aspect examined. Additionally, this analysis indicates that there may be missing pieces in the molecular pathways that dictate how genetic information becomes organ positional information in vertebrates; these gaps will be important for future studies to identify, as LR asymmetry is not only a fundamentally fascinating aspect of development but also of considerable biomedical importance. PMID:22099174

  3. The Molecular Energetics of the Failing Heart from Animal Models—Large Animal Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianyi Zhang; Robert J. Bache

    1999-01-01

    Large animal models of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and cardiac failure are associated with alterations of myocardial high energy phosphate (HEP) content and abnormalities of oxidative phosphorylation regulation. Concentric LVH secondary to pressure overload can result in loss of myocardial ATP, a decrease of the phosphocreatine (PCr)\\/ATP ratio, and an increase of calculated free ADP; these changes are, at least

  4. Colonic microbiome is altered in alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Ece A.; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Rangwala, Huzefa; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Naqvi, Ammar; Engen, Phillip A.; Kwasny, Mary; Lau, Cynthia K.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies indicate the importance of colonic microbiota in metabolic and inflammatory disorders and importance of diet on microbiota composition. The effects of alcohol, one of the prominent components of diet, on colonic bacterial composition is largely unknown. Mounting evidence suggests that gut-derived bacterial endotoxins are cofactors for alcohol-induced tissue injury and organ failure like alcoholic liver disease (ALD) that only occur in a subset of alcoholics. We hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption results in alterations of the gut microbiome in a subgroup of alcoholics, and this may be responsible for the observed inflammatory state and endotoxemia in alcoholics. Thus we interrogated the mucosa-associated colonic microbiome in 48 alcoholics with and without ALD as well as 18 healthy subjects. Colonic biopsy samples from subjects were analyzed for microbiota composition using length heterogeneity PCR fingerprinting and multitag pyrosequencing. A subgroup of alcoholics have an altered colonic microbiome (dysbiosis). The alcoholics with dysbiosis had lower median abundances of Bacteroidetes and higher ones of Proteobacteria. The observed alterations appear to correlate with high levels of serum endotoxin in a subset of the samples. Network topology analysis indicated that alcohol use is correlated with decreased connectivity of the microbial network, and this alteration is seen even after an extended period of sobriety. We show that the colonic mucosa-associated bacterial microbiome is altered in a subset of alcoholics. The altered microbiota composition is persistent and correlates with endotoxemia in a subgroup of alcoholics. PMID:22241860

  5. Minutes of Southern Region Animal Waste Team: Southern Regional Water Quality Project Animal Waste Management Topic

    E-print Network

    with the Symposium on the State of the Science: Animal Manure and Waste Management Attended by: M. Risse (UGA), T. Doug Hamilton agreed to organize the workshop on "Management of Lagoons and liquid waste storage: Southern Animal and Waste Management Quarterly 2. Format & length: Electronic, pdf and MSWord (by request

  6. Beartracker's Animal Tracks Den

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Beartracker's Animal Tracks Den is an excellent comprehensive "online field guide to tracks and tracking." The site includes animal track images, photos, as well as information about mammals, reptiles, birds, insects, amphibians, and other tracking resources. Most of the animals featured on the site are inhabitants of North America. Images of animal tracks also contain descriptions to help users become familiar with the distinctive qualities of each animal's print. This is an excellent resource for nature enthusiasts, animal search and rescue trackers, and everyone in between.

  7. Animals in a Grassland

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this outdoor, warm weather activity, learners use sweepnets to search a grassy area such as a large lawn or field, collecting small animals to find as many different kinds of animals as possible. Learners observe and try to identify the animals they catch and observe how different animals interact with each other. Because some animals can't be caught easily with sweepnets, the Branching Out part of the activity involves making very small "pitfall traps" in the ground. At the end of the activity, learners release all the animals back into the grassy area.

  8. Basic research: Issues with animal experimentations

    PubMed Central

    Saraf, Shyam K; Kumaraswamy, Vinay

    2013-01-01

    In vivo studies using the animals are helpful in developing the treatment strategies as they are important link between the successful in vitro testing and safe human use. Various research projects in the field of fixation of fractures, development of newer biomaterials, chemotherapeutic drugs, use of stem cells in nonunion of fractures and cartilage defects etc., have hugely depended on animal experimentation. The employment of animals in experiments is both scientific and ethical issue. There must be reasonable reasons to show that it will significantly advance the present knowledge and lead to improvement in care. The regulatory bodies exist for humane use and care of animals used for experiments e.g., International Council for Laboratory Animal Science, Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, International Union of Biological Sciences, International Committee on Laboratory Animals. In India, Indian National Science Academy, Indian Council of Medical Research, National Centre for Laboratory Animal Sciences promote high standards of laboratory animal quality, care and health. The Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals guidelines are well defined and is a must read document for any one interested to carry out research with animal facilities. PMID:23532705

  9. Assessing the Permeability of Landscape Features to Animal Movement: Using Genetic Structure to Infer Functional Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Sara J.; Kierepka, Elizabeth M.; Swihart, Robert K.; Latch, Emily K.; Rhodes, Olin E.

    2015-01-01

    Human-altered environments often challenge native species with a complex spatial distribution of resources. Hostile landscape features can inhibit animal movement (i.e., genetic exchange), while other landscape attributes facilitate gene flow. The genetic attributes of organisms inhabiting such complex environments can reveal the legacy of their movements through the landscape. Thus, by evaluating landscape attributes within the context of genetic connectivity of organisms within the landscape, we can elucidate how a species has coped with the enhanced complexity of human altered environments. In this research, we utilized genetic data from eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) in conjunction with spatially explicit habitat attribute data to evaluate the realized permeability of various landscape elements in a fragmented agricultural ecosystem. To accomplish this we 1) used logistic regression to evaluate whether land cover attributes were most often associated with the matrix between or habitat within genetically identified populations across the landscape, and 2) utilized spatially explicit habitat attribute data to predict genetically-derived Bayesian probabilities of population membership of individual chipmunks in an agricultural ecosystem. Consistency between the results of the two approaches with regard to facilitators and inhibitors of gene flow in the landscape indicate that this is a promising new way to utilize both landscape and genetic data to gain a deeper understanding of human-altered ecosystems. PMID:25719366

  10. Introduction Animals exploit numerous sources of information while

    E-print Network

    Lohmann, Kenneth J.

    3697 Introduction Animals exploit numerous sources of information while migrating, homing that diverse organisms, ranging from bacteria to vertebrate animals (Wiltschko and Wiltschko, 1995), have evolved ways to exploit the geomagnetic field to guide their movements. The Earth's field provides animals

  11. My favorite animal, Trichoplax adhaerens.

    PubMed

    Schierwater, Bernd

    2005-12-01

    Trichoplax adhaerens is more simply organized than any other living metazoan. This tiny marine animal looks like a irregular "hairy plate" ("tricho plax") with a simple upper and lower epithelium and some loose cells in between. After its original description by F.E. Schulze 1883, it attracted particular attention as a potential candidate representing the basic and ancestral state of metazoan organization. The lack of any kind of symmetry, organs, nerve cells, muscle cells, basal lamina and extracellular matrix originally left little doubt about the basal position of T. adhaerens. Nevertheless, the interest of zoologists and evolutionary biologists suddenly vanished for more than half a century when Trichoplax was claimed to be an aberrant hydrozoan planula larva. Recently, Trichoplax has been rediscovered as a key species for unraveling early metazoan evolution. For example, research on regulatory genes and whole genome sequencing promise insights into the genetics underlying the origin and development of basal metazoan phyla. Trichoplax offers unique potential for understanding the minimal requirements of metazoan animal organization. PMID:16299758

  12. Epigenetic Alterations in Muscular Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lanzuolo, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms, acting via chromatin organization, fix in time and space different transcriptional programs and contribute to the quality, stability, and heritability of cell-specific transcription programs. In the last years, great advances have been made in our understanding of mechanisms by which this occurs in normal subjects. However, only a small part of the complete picture has been revealed. Abnormal gene expression patterns are often implicated in the development of different diseases, and thus epigenetic studies from patients promise to fill an important lack of knowledge, deciphering aberrant molecular mechanisms at the basis of pathogenesis and diseases progression. The identification of epigenetic modifications that could be used as targets for therapeutic interventions could be particularly timely in the light of pharmacologically reversion of pathological perturbations, avoiding changes in DNA sequences. Here I discuss the available information on epigenetic mechanisms that, altered in neuromuscular disorders, could contribute to the progression of the disease. PMID:22761545

  13. Precision editing of large animal genomes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenfang Spring; Carlson, Daniel F; Walton, Mark W; Fahrenkrug, Scott C; Hackett, Perry B

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic animals are an important source of protein and nutrition for most humans and will play key roles in satisfying the increasing demand for food in an ever-increasing world population. The past decade has experienced a revolution in the development of methods that permit the introduction of specific alterations to complex genomes. This precision will enhance genome-based improvement of farm animals for food production. Precision genetics also will enhance the development of therapeutic biomaterials and models of human disease as resources for the development of advanced patient therapies. PMID:23084873

  14. Precision Editing of Large Animal Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wenfang (Spring); Carlson, Daniel F.; Walton, Mark W.; Fahrenkrug, Scott C.; Hackett, Perry B.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic animals are an important source of protein and nutrition for most humans and will play key roles in satisfying the increasing demand for food in an ever-increasing world population. The past decade has experienced a revolution in the development of methods that permit the introduction of specific alterations to complex genomes. This precision will enhance genome-based improvement of farm animals for food production. Precision genetics also will enhance the development of therapeutic biomaterials and models of human disease as resources for the development of advanced patient therapies. PMID:23084873

  15. Immune changes in test animals during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesnyak, A. T.; Sonnenfeld, G.; Rykova, M. P.; Meshkov, D. O.; Mastro, A.; Konstantinova, I.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past two decades, it has become apparent that changes in immune parameters occur in cosmonauts and astronauts after spaceflight. Therefore, interest has been generated in the use of animal surrogates to better understand the nature and extent of these changes, the mechanism of these changes, and to allow the possible development of countermeasures. Among the changes noted in animals after spaceflight are alterations in lymphocytic blastogenesis, cytokine function, natural killer cell activity, and colony-stimulating factors. The nature and significance of spaceflight-induced changes in immune responses will be the focus of this review.

  16. Animal bites (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a clean cloth until bleeding subsides. If the animal is wild or domestic but not vaccinated there may be a concern about rabies. When possible the animal must be quarantined or autopsied to determine if ...

  17. First Aid: Animal Bites

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Printable Safety Guides > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size What's ...

  18. "Name" that Animal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  19. Working with Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Charles F., III; Hodge, Guy

    1978-01-01

    After discussing various job categories involving working with animals, the authors give more specific information about the occupations of humane agent, animal care attendant, conservation officer, veterinary technician, and zoo keeper. (MF)

  20. Peak Ring Crater Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Arizona

    An annotated animation taking the viewer through the sequence of events during an impact, in cross section view. The animation speed cannot be controlled, unfortunately, but the images are large and clear.