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1

Effect of altered 'weight' upon animal tolerance to restraint.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of altered weight upon animal tolerance to restraint was determined by simulating various accelerative forces with directed lead weights using restrained and nonrestrained domestic fowl (chickens). Weighting (increased weight) and conterweighting (reduced weight) produced a stressed condition - reduced relative lymphocyte counts, loss of body mass, and/or the development of a disorientation syndrome - in both restrained and nonrestrained (caged only) birds. The animal's tolerance to altered weight appeared to be a function of its body weight. Unrestrained birds were stressed by counterweighting (mean plus or minus standard error) 58.3 plus or minus 41% of their body weight, whereas restrained birds tolerated only 32.2 plus or minus 2.6% reduction in body weight. A training regimen for restrained birds was not effective in improving their tolerance to a reduced weight environment. It was concluded that domestic fowl living in a weightless (space) environment should be restrained minimally and supported by ventrally directed tension equivalent to approximately 50% of their body mass (their weight in a 1 G environment).

Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.; Beljan, J. R.

1971-01-01

2

Alienation, recovered animism and altered states of consciousness.  

PubMed

Alienation is the feeling that life is 'meaningless', that we do not belong in the world. But alienation is not an inevitable part of the human condition: some people do feel at one with the world as a consequence of the animistic way of thinking which is shared by children and hunter-gatherers. Animism considers all significant entities to have 'minds', to be 'alive', to be sentient agents. The animistic thinker inhabits a world populated by personal powers including not just other human beings, but also important animals and plants, and significant aspects of physical landscape. Humans belong in this world because it is a web of social relationships. Animism is therefore spontaneous, the 'natural' way of thinking for humans: all humans began as animistic children and for most of human evolutionary history would have grown into animistic adults. It requires sustained, prolonged and pervasive formal education to 'overwrite' animistic thinking with the rationalistic objectivity typical of the modern world. It is this learned abstraction that creates alienation--humans are no longer embedded in a world of social relations but become estranged, adrift in a world of indifferent things. Methods used to cure alienation and recover animistic modes of thinking involve detachment from the social systems that tend to maintain objectivity and rationality: for example, solitude, leisure, unstructured time and direct contact with nature. Many people also achieve similar results by deliberately inducing altered states of consciousness. Animistic thinking may emerge in meditation or contemplation, lucid dreaming, from self-hypnosis, when drowsy, in 'trance states' induced by repetitious rhythm or light, or when delirious due to illness, brain injury, psychoses, or intoxication with 'entheogenic' drugs--which is probably one reason for the perennial popularity of inducing intoxicated states. However, intoxication will typically damage memory processes making it harder to learn from any spiritual experiences; and even mild states of cognitive impairment may be dangerous in situations where skilled or responsible behaviour is required. Despite these constraints and limitations, recovering animism through seeking altered states of consciousness could already be considered a major world spiritual practice. PMID:17141965

Charlton, Bruce G

2007-01-01

3

Molecular Orbital Animations for Organic Chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses our approach to teaching organic chemistry and introduces the application of highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs and LUMOs) in animated form. This teaching approach allows students to (i) picture the reaction process in three dimensions, (ii) better understand why a reaction occurs by noting electron-rich and electron-poor centers, (iii) see steric arguments in competing reactions, (iv) observe electron flow from the nucleophile into the electrophile, (v) gain a better understanding of resonance and hyperconjugation, and (vi) gain an appreciation for semiempirical and ab initio calculations.

Fleming, Steven A.; Hart, Greg R.; Savage, Paul B.

2000-06-01

4

Altered egos: antibiotic effects on food animal microbiomes.  

PubMed

The human food chain begins with upwards of 1,000 species of bacteria that inhabit the intestinal tracts of poultry and livestock. These intestinal denizens are responsible for the health and safety of a major protein source for humans. The use of antibiotics to treat animal diseases was followed by the surprising discovery that antibiotics enhanced food animal growth, and both led to six decades of antibiotic use that has shaped food animal management practices. Perhaps the greatest impact of antibiotic feeding in food animals has been as a selective force in the evolution of their intestinal bacteria, particularly by increasing the prevalence and diversity of antibiotic resistance genes. Future antibiotic use will likely be limited to prudent applications in both human and veterinary medicine. Improved knowledge of antibiotic effects, particularly of growth-promoting antibiotics, will help overcome the challenges of managing animal health and food safety. PMID:25002091

Allen, Heather K; Stanton, Thad B

2014-01-01

5

A novel animal model linking adiposity to altered circadian rhythms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Researchers have provided evidence for a link between obesity and altered circadian rhythms (e.g., shift work, disrupted sleep), but the mechanism for this association is still unknown. Adipocytes possess an intrinsic circadian clock, and circadian rhythms in adipocytokines and adipose tissue metab...

6

Altered egos: antibiotic effects on food animal microbiomes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The human food chain begins with upwards of 1000 species of bacteria that inhabit the intestinal tracts of poultry and livestock. These intestinal denizens are responsible for the health and safety of a major protein source for humans. The use of antibiotics to treat animal diseases was followed b...

7

Early Alteration of Retinal Neurons in Aipl1?/? Animals  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Mutations in the photoreceptor cell-specific gene encoding aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein-like 1 (AIPL1) lead to Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA4), retinitis pigmentosa, and cone–rod dystrophy. Gene therapy appears to be promising in the treatment for AIPL1-mediated vision loss in humans. Prior to initiating these treatments, however, it is crucial to understand how the retinal neurons remodel themselves in response to photoreceptor cell degeneration. In this study, using an animal model for AIPL1-LCA, Aipl1?/? mice, we investigate the changes in postreceptoral retinal neurons during the course of photoreceptor cell loss. Methods. Morphology of the Aipl1?/? retina from postnatal day 8 to 150 was compared to that of age-matched, wild-type C57Bl6/J retina (WT) by immunocytochemistry using cell-specific markers. Results. Expression of postsynaptic proteins in bipolar cells is reduced prior to photoreceptor cell degeneration at postnatal day 8. Bipolar and horizontal cells retract their dendrites. Cell bodies and axons of bipolar and horizontal cells are disorganized during the course of degeneration. Müller cell processes become hypertrophic and form a dense fibrotic layer outside the inner nuclear layer. Conclusions. An early defect in photoreceptor cells in the AIPL1-LCA mouse model affects the expression of postsynaptic markers, suggesting abnormal development of bipolar synapses. Once degeneration of photoreceptor cells is initiated, remodeling of retinal neurons in the Aipl1?/? animal is rapid. PMID:24736053

Singh, Ratnesh Kumar; Kolandaivelu, Saravanan; Ramamurthy, Visvanathan

2014-01-01

8

Soil animals alter plant litter diversity effects on decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the terrestrial net primary production enters the decomposer system as dead organic matter, and the subsequent recycling of C and nutrients are key processes for the functioning of ecosystems and the delivery of ecosystem goods and services. Although climatic and substrate quality controls are reasonably well understood, the functional role of biodiversity for biogeochemical cycles remains elusive. Here

Stephan Hättenschwiler; Patrick Gasser

2005-01-01

9

Liver autofluorescence properties in animal model under altered nutritional conditions.  

PubMed

Autofluorescence spectroscopy is a promising and powerful approach for an in vivo, real time characterization of liver functional properties. In this work, preliminary results on the dependence of liver autofluorescence parameters on the nutritional status are reported, with particular attention to vitamin A and lipid accumulation in liver tissue. Normally fed and 24 h starving rats were used as animal models. Histochemical and autofluorescence analysis showed that lipids and vitamin A colocalize in the liver parenchyma. Fasting condition results in a parallel increase in both lipids and vitamin A. Autofluorescence imaging and microspectrofluorometric analysis carried out on unfixed, unstained tissue sections under 366 nm excitation, evidenced differences in both spectral shape and response to continuous irradiation between liver biopsies from fed and starving rats. As to photobleaching, in particular, fitting analysis evidenced a reduction of about 85% of the signal attributable solely to vitamin A during the first 10 s of irradiation. The tissue whole emission measured in fed and starving rat livers exhibited reductions of about 35% and 52%, respectively, that are closely related to vitamin A contents. The findings open interesting perspectives for the set up of an in situ, real time diagnostic procedure for the assessment of liver lipid accumulation, exploiting the photophysical properties of vitamin A. PMID:18754051

Croce, Anna Cleta; De Simone, Uliana; Vairetti, Mariapia; Ferrigno, Andrea; Boncompagni, Eleonora; Freitas, Isabel; Bottiroli, Giovanni

2008-09-01

10

Animal health in organic livestock production systems: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic livestock production is a means of food production with a large number of rules directed towards a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs and the production of a healthy product without residues (pesticides or medical drugs). The intentions of organic livestock production have been formulated by the International Federation of Organic

A. Kijlstra; I. A. J. M. Eijck

2006-01-01

11

Learning about Skeletons and Other Organ Systems of Vertebrate Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes students' (n=175) understandings of the structure of animal (including human) skeletons and the internal organs found in them. Finds that older students have a better knowledge of animals' internal anatomies, although knowledge of human internal structure is significantly better than knowledge of rat, bird, and fish internal structure.…

Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael

1999-01-01

12

Immunosenescence is associated with altered gene expression and epigenetic regulation in primary and secondary immune organs  

PubMed Central

Deterioration of the immune system (immunosenescence) with age is associated with an increased susceptibility to infection, autoimmune disease and cancer, and reduced responsiveness to vaccination. Immunosenescence entails a reduced supply of naïve T cells from the thymus and increased specialization of peripheral T cell clones. Both thymic involution and peripheral T cell homeostasis are thought to involve cellular senescence. In order to analyze this at the molecular level, we studied gene expression profiles, epigenetic status, and genome stability in the thymus and spleen of 1-, 4-, and 18-month-old Long Evans rats. In the thymus, altered gene expression, DNA and histone H3K9 hypomethylation, increased genome instability, and apoptosis were observed in 18-month-old animals compared to 1- and 4-month-old animals. In the spleen, alterations in gene expression and epigenetic regulation occurred already by the age of 4 months compared to 1 month and persisted in 18-month-old compared to 1-month-old rats. In both organs, these changes were accompanied by the altered composition of resident T cell populations. Our study suggests that both senescence and apoptosis may be involved in altered organ function. PMID:24151501

Sidler, Corinne; Wóycicki, Rafa?; Ilnytskyy, Yaroslav; Metz, Gerlinde; Kovalchuk, Igor; Kovalchuk, Olga

2013-01-01

13

Genetically Modified Animal Organs for Human Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The major barrier to successful discordant xenogeneic organ transplantation is the phenomenon of hyperacute rejection\\u000a (HAR). Hyperacute rejection results from the deposition of high-titer preformed antibodies that activate serum complement\\u000a on the luminal surface of the vascular endothelium, leading to vessel occlusion and graft failure within minutes to hours.\\u000a Here we describe our strategy to overcome HAR in the

Stephen P. Squinto

1997-01-01

14

Animal models of female pelvic organ prolapse: lessons learned  

PubMed Central

Pelvic organ prolapse is a vaginal protrusion of female pelvic organs. It has high prevalence worldwide and represents a great burden to the economy. The pathophysiology of pelvic organ prolapse is multifactorial and includes genetic predisposition, aberrant connective tissue, obesity, advancing age, vaginal delivery and other risk factors. Owing to the long course prior to patients becoming symptomatic and ethical questions surrounding human studies, animal models are necessary and useful. These models can mimic different human characteristics – histological, anatomical or hormonal, but none present all of the characteristics at the same time. Major animal models include knockout mice, rats, sheep, rabbits and nonhuman primates. In this article we discuss different animal models and their utility for investigating the natural progression of pelvic organ prolapse pathophysiology and novel treatment approaches. PMID:22707980

Couri, Bruna M; Lenis, Andrew T; Borazjani, Ali; Paraiso, Marie Fidela R; Damaser, Margot S

2012-01-01

15

Dynamics of behavioral organization and its alteration in major depression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the nature of human behavioral organization, specifically how resting and active periods are interwoven throughout daily life. Active period durations with physical activity counts successively above a predefined threshold follow a stretched exponential (gamma-type) cumulative distribution with characteristic time, both in healthy individuals and in patients with major depressive disorder. On the contrary, resting period durations below the threshold for both groups obey a scale free power law cumulative distribution over two decades, with significantly lower scaling exponents in the patients. We thus find underlying robust laws governing human behavioral organization, with a parameter altered in depression.

Nakamura, Toru; Kiyono, Ken; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Nakahara, Rika; Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

2007-07-01

16

Organic matter alteration at active and relict sedimentary oxidation fronts  

SciTech Connect

Sedimentary oxidation fronts, generated by downward diffusion of O{sub 2} into previously reducing sediments, provide an opportunity to study the effects of O{sub 2} exposure on organic matter preservation, where other factors are invariant. Oxidation fronts have now been identified in a number of environments, including turbidities found on the Madeira abyssal plain (NE Atlantic) and in sapropels from the Mediterranean. A multifaceted study is being carried out on a series of relict fronts in turbidities of varied origin and composition, recovered from the Madeira abyssal plain on ODP Leg 157. A similar study is being made on an active front in the most recent, S1 sapropel, from the central Mediterranean. In both cases, the relatively organic-rich turbidities and sapropels are intercalated with typical, organic-poor pelagic marts. Analyses include major and minor inorganic elements, stable and N isotopes, palynomorphs, surface areas and a comprehensive suite of biochemicals. Although the extent of alteration varies, striking changes in organic content and composition occur across many of the oxidation fronts, and the oxidized horizons resemble the interclated marls. A common trend is that organic C contents drop from {open_quotes}monolayer equivalent{close_quotes} sorptive loadings in the unoxidized horizons (typical of continental mar in sediments) to submonolayer loadings, typical of the pelagic marls. Shifts are also observed in redox-sensitive trace metals and in stable C and N isotopic compositions, although the patterns and extent are not uniform. The results clearly indicate that in these pelagic settings, where O{sub 2} exposure is typically long, organic material deposited and then preserved for extended periods under anomalous reducing conditions, can be extensively altered on relatively short-term exposure to O{sub 2} Implications of these findings will be discussed.

Cowie, G.L.; Calvert, S.E. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Hedges, J.I. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

17

Organic matter alteration at active and relict sedimentary oxidation fronts  

SciTech Connect

Sedimentary oxidation fronts, generated by downward diffusion of O[sub 2] into previously reducing sediments, provide an opportunity to study the effects of O[sub 2] exposure on organic matter preservation, where other factors are invariant. Oxidation fronts have now been identified in a number of environments, including turbidities found on the Madeira abyssal plain (NE Atlantic) and in sapropels from the Mediterranean. A multifaceted study is being carried out on a series of relict fronts in turbidities of varied origin and composition, recovered from the Madeira abyssal plain on ODP Leg 157. A similar study is being made on an active front in the most recent, S1 sapropel, from the central Mediterranean. In both cases, the relatively organic-rich turbidities and sapropels are intercalated with typical, organic-poor pelagic marts. Analyses include major and minor inorganic elements, stable and N isotopes, palynomorphs, surface areas and a comprehensive suite of biochemicals. Although the extent of alteration varies, striking changes in organic content and composition occur across many of the oxidation fronts, and the oxidized horizons resemble the interclated marls. A common trend is that organic C contents drop from [open quotes]monolayer equivalent[close quotes] sorptive loadings in the unoxidized horizons (typical of continental mar in sediments) to submonolayer loadings, typical of the pelagic marls. Shifts are also observed in redox-sensitive trace metals and in stable C and N isotopic compositions, although the patterns and extent are not uniform. The results clearly indicate that in these pelagic settings, where O[sub 2] exposure is typically long, organic material deposited and then preserved for extended periods under anomalous reducing conditions, can be extensively altered on relatively short-term exposure to O[sub 2] Implications of these findings will be discussed.

Cowie, G.L.; Calvert, S.E. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)); Hedges, J.I. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)) (and others)

1996-01-01

18

Aging and Injury: Alterations in Cellular Energetics and Organ Function  

PubMed Central

Aging is characterized by increased oxidative stress, heightened inflammatory response, accelerated cellular senescence and progressive organ dysfunction. The homeostatic imbalance with aging significantly alters cellular responses to injury. Though it is unclear whether cellular energetic imbalance is a cause or effect of the aging process, preservation of mitochondrial function has been reported to be important in organ function restoration following severe injury. Unintentional injuries are ranked among the top 10 causes of death in adults of both sexes, 65 years and older. Aging associated decline in mitochondrial function has been shown to enhance the vulnerability of heart, lung, liver and kidney to ischemia/reperfusion injury. Studies have identified alterations in the level or activity of factors such as SIRT1, PGC-1?, HIF-1? and c-MYC involved in key regulatory processes in the maintenance of mitochondrial structural integrity, biogenesis and function. Studies using experimental models of hemorrhagic injury and burn have demonstrated significant influence of aging in metabolic regulation and organ function. Understanding the age-associated molecular mechanisms regulating mitochondrial dysfunction following injury is important towards identifying novel targets and therapeutic strategies to improve the outcome after injury in the elderly. PMID:24729935

Poulose, Ninu; Raju, Raghavan

2014-01-01

19

Genetically modified animal models recapitulating molecular events altered in human hepatocarcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

New advancements have been made in recent years in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern human liver tumorigenesis.\\u000a Experimental animal models have been widely used, especially mouse models. In this review we highlight some of the genetically\\u000a engineered mouse models that have proved to be excellent tools to study the intracellular signalling pathways altered in hepatocarcinogenesis\\u000a and establish

Aránzazu Sánchez; Isabel Fabregat

2009-01-01

20

Integrin organization: linking adhesion ligand nanopatterns with altered cell responses.  

PubMed

Integrin receptors bind to adhesion ligand (e.g. arginine-glycine-aspartic acid or RGD containing peptides) on extracellular matrix and organize into high-density complexes which mediate many cell behaviors. Biomaterials with RGD nanopatterned into multivalent "islands" (?30-70 nm diameter) have been shown to alter cell responses, although the length scale of pattern features is orders of magnitude smaller than adhesion complexes. In this work, we employ together for the first time an extensive data set on osteoblast responses as a function of ligand nanopatterns, a computational model of integrin binding to ligand nanopatterns, and new measures of integrin organization on the cell surface. We quantify, at multiple length scales, integrin organization generated in silico as a function of RGD nanopattern parameters. We develop a correlative model relating these measures of in silico integrin organization and in vitro MC3T3 preosteoblast cell responses as functions of the same RGD nanopatterns: cell spreading correlates with the number of bound integrins, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation correlates with small, homogeneously distributed clusters of integrins, and osteogenic differentiation correlates with large, heterogeneously distributed integrin clusters. These findings highlight the significance of engineering biomaterials at the nanolevel and suggest new approaches to understanding the mechanisms linking integrin organization to cell responses. PMID:21255586

Comisar, W A; Mooney, D J; Linderman, J J

2011-04-01

21

Cortical Bone Mechanical Properties Are Altered in an Animal Model of Progressive Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Chronic kidney disease (CKD), which leads tocortical bone loss and increasedporosity,increases therisk of fracture. Animal models have confirmed that these changes compromise whole bone mechanical properties. Estimates from whole bone testing suggest that material properties are negatively affected, though tissue-level assessmentshavenot been conducted. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to examine changes in cortical bone at different length scales using a rat model with theprogressive development of CKD. At 30 weeks of age (?75% reduction in kidney function), skeletally mature male Cy/+ rats were compared to their normal littermates. Cortical bone material propertieswere assessed with reference point indentation (RPI), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy,and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Bones from animals with CKD had higher (+18%) indentation distance increase and first cycle energy dissipation (+8%) as measured by RPI.AFM indentation revealed a broader distribution of elastic modulus values in CKD animals witha greater proportion of both higher and lower modulus values compared to normal controls. Yet, tissue composition, collagen morphology, and collagen cross-linking fail to account for these differences. Though the specific skeletal tissue alterations responsible for these mechanical differences remain unclear, these results indicate that cortical bone material properties are altered in these animals and may contribute to the increased fracture risk associated with CKD. PMID:24911162

Newman, Christopher L.; Moe, Sharon M.; Chen, Neal X.; Hammond, Max A.; Wallace, Joseph M.; Nyman, Jeffry S.; Allen, Matthew R.

2014-01-01

22

Withaferin A Alters Intermediate Filament Organization, Cell Shape and Behavior  

PubMed Central

Withaferin A (WFA) is a steroidal lactone present in Withania somnifera which has been shown in vitro to bind to the intermediate filament protein, vimentin. Based upon its affinity for vimentin, it has been proposed that WFA can be used as an anti-tumor agent to target metastatic cells which up-regulate vimentin expression. We show that WFA treatment of human fibroblasts rapidly reorganizes vimentin intermediate filaments (VIF) into a perinuclear aggregate. This reorganization is dose dependent and is accompanied by a change in cell shape, decreased motility and an increase in vimentin phosphorylation at serine-38. Furthermore, vimentin lacking cysteine-328, the proposed WFA binding site, remains sensitive to WFA demonstrating that this site is not required for its cellular effects. Using analytical ultracentrifugation, viscometry, electron microscopy and sedimentation assays we show that WFA has no effect on VIF assembly in vitro. Furthermore, WFA is not specific for vimentin as it disrupts the cellular organization and induces perinuclear aggregates of several other IF networks comprised of peripherin, neurofilament-triplet protein, and keratin. In cells co-expressing keratin IF and VIF, the former are significantly less sensitive to WFA with respect to inducing perinuclear aggregates. The organization of microtubules and actin/microfilaments is also affected by WFA. Microtubules become wavier and sparser and the number of stress fibers appears to increase. Following 24 hrs of exposure to doses of WFA that alter VIF organization and motility, cells undergo apoptosis. Lower doses of the drug do not kill cells but cause them to senesce. In light of our findings that WFA affects multiple IF systems, which are expressed in many tissues of the body, caution is warranted in its use as an anti-cancer agent, since it may have debilitating organism-wide effects. PMID:22720028

Grin, Boris; Mahammad, Saleemulla; Wedig, Tatjana; Cleland, Megan M.; Tsai, Lester; Herrmann, Harald; Goldman, Robert D.

2012-01-01

23

White Matter Abnormalities and Animal Models Examining a Putative Role of Altered White Matter in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder affecting about 1% of the population worldwide. Although the dopamine (DA) hypothesis is still keeping a dominant position in schizophrenia research, new advances have been emerging in recent years, which suggest the implication of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. In this paper, we will briefly review some of recent human studies showing white matter abnormalities in schizophrenic brains and altered oligodendrocyte-(OL-) and myelin-related genes in patients with schizophrenia and will consider abnormal behaviors reported in patients with white matter diseases. Following these, we will selectively introduce some animal models examining a putative role of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. The emphasis will be put on the cuprizone (CPZ) model. CPZ-fed mice show demyelination and OLs loss, display schizophrenia-related behaviors, and have higher DA levels in the prefrontal cortex. These features suggest that the CPZ model is a novel animal model of schizophrenia. PMID:22937274

Xu, Haiyun; Li, Xin-Min

2011-01-01

24

Development of Gravity-Sensing Organs in Altered Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments are described in which the development of the gravity-sensing organs was studied in newt larvae reared in micro-g on the IML-2 mission and in Aplysia embryos and larvae reared on a centrifuge at 1 to 5 g. In Aplysia embryos, the statolith (single dense mass on which gravity and linear acceleration act) was reduced in size in a graded fashion at increasing g. In early post-metamorphic Aplysia or even in isolated statocysts from such animals, the number of statoconia produced is reduced at high gravity Newt larvae launched before any of the otoconia were formed and reared for 15 days in micro-gravity had nearly adult labyrinths at the end of the IML-2 mission. The otoliths of the saccule and utricle were the same size in flight and ground-reared larvae. However, the system of aragonitic otoconia produced in the endolymphatic sac in amphibians was much larger and developed earlier in the flight-reared larvae. At later developmental stages, the aragonitic otoconia enter and fill the saccule. One flight-reared larva was maintained for nine months post-flight and the size of the saccular otolith, as well as the volume of otoconia within the endolymphatic sac, were considerably larger than in age-matched, ground-reared newts. This suggests that rearing in micro-gravity initiates a process that continues for several months after introduction to 1-g, which greatly increases the volume of otoconia. The flight-reared animal had abnormal posture, pointing its head upward, whereas normal ground-reared newts always keep their head horizontal. This suggests that rearing for even a short period in micro-gravity can have lasting functional consequences in an animal subsequently reared in 1-g conditions on Earth.

Wiederhold, M. L.; Gao, W. Y.; Harrison, J. L.; Hejl, R.

1996-01-01

25

Development of gravity-sensing organs in altered gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments are described in which the development of the gravity-sensing organs was studied in newt larvae reared in microgravity on the IML-2 mission and in Aplysia embryos and larvae reared on a centrifuge at 1 to 5 g. In Aplysia embryos, the statolith (single dense mass on which gravity and linear acceleration act) was reduced in size in a graded fashion at increasing g. In early post-metamorphic Aplysia or even in isolated statocysts from such animals, the number of statoconia produced is reduced at high g. Newt larvae launched before any of the otoconia were formed and reared for 15 days in microgravity had nearly adult labyrinths at the end of the IML-2 mission. The otoliths of the saccule and utricle were the same size in flight and ground-reared larvae. However, the system of aragonitic otoconia produced in the endolymphatic sac in amphibians was much larger and developed earlier in the flight-reared larvae. At later developmental stages, the aragonitic otoconia enter and fill the saccule. One flight-reared larva was maintained for nine months post-flight and the size of the saccular otolith, as well as the volume of otoconia within the endolymphatic sac, were considerably larger than in age-matched, ground-reared newts. This suggests that rearing in microgravity initiates a process that continues for several months after introduction to 1-g, which greatly increases the volume of otoconia. The flight-reared animal had abnormal posture, pointing its head upward, whereas normal ground-reared newts always keep their head horizontal. This suggests that rearing for even a short period in microgravity can have lasting functional consequences in an animal subsequently reared in 1-g conditions on Earth.

Wiederhold, M. L.; Gao, W. Y.; Harrison, J. L.; Hejl, R.

1997-01-01

26

14 CFR 121.365 - Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...preventive maintenance, and alteration organization. 121.365 Section 121.365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 121.365 Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and...

2011-01-01

27

14 CFR 121.365 - Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization.  

...preventive maintenance, and alteration organization. 121.365 Section 121.365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 121.365 Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and...

2014-01-01

28

14 CFR 121.365 - Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...preventive maintenance, and alteration organization. 121.365 Section 121.365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 121.365 Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and...

2012-01-01

29

14 CFR 121.365 - Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...preventive maintenance, and alteration organization. 121.365 Section 121.365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 121.365 Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and...

2010-01-01

30

Imatinib mesylate alters the expression of genes related to disease progression in an animal model of uveal melanoma.  

PubMed

Imatinib mesylate (IM) is a compound that inhibits both BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase and c-kit receptors. Tyrosine kinases are important in cellular signaling and mediate major cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, attachment, and migration. Twenty-six albino rabbits were injected with 1 × 10(6) human uveal melanoma (UM) cells (92.1) into the suprachoroidal space. Animals were immunosuppressed (cyclosporin A) over the course of the 12-week experiment and divided into two groups (n = 13). The experimental group received IM once daily by gavage while the control group received a placebo. One animal per group was sacrificed every week after the 2nd week. Upon necropsy, organs were harvested for histopathological examination. Cells from the primary tumors were recultured and tested in proliferation and invasion assays. A PCR array was used to investigate the differences in expression of 84 genes related to tumor metastasis. In the treated group, 4 rabbits developed intraocular tumors, with an average largest tumor dimension (LTD) of 2.5 mm and 5 animals reported metastatic disease. Whereas 6 rabbits in the control group developed intraocular tumors, with an average LTD of 5.8 mm and 6 animals reported metastatic disease. The recultured cells from the treated group demonstrated lower proliferation rates and were less invasive (p < 0.001). The PCR array showed differences in expression of genes related to metastasis. Notably, there was 290-fold increase in SERPINB5, a tumor suppressor gene, and a 10-fold higher expression of KISS1, a metastasis suppressor gene, in the treated group. Proangiogenic genes such as VEGFA, PDGFA and PDGFB were downregulated in the treated group. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report detailing the altered expression of specific genes in UM cells after treatment with IM. PMID:21606571

Fernandes, Bruno F; Di Cesare, Sebastian; Neto Belfort, Rubens; Maloney, Shawn; Martins, Claudia; Castiglione, Enzo; Isenberg, Jordan; Abourbih, Daniel; Antecka, Emilia; Burnier, Miguel N

2011-01-01

31

Connectomics and neuroticism: an altered functional network organization.  

PubMed

The personality trait neuroticism is a potent risk marker for psychopathology. Although the neurobiological basis remains unclear, studies have suggested that alterations in connectivity may underlie it. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to shed more light on the functional network organization in neuroticism. To this end, we applied graph theory on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in 120 women selected based on their neuroticism score. Binary and weighted brain-wide graphs were constructed to examine changes in the functional network structure and functional connectivity strength. Furthermore, graphs were partitioned into modules to specifically investigate connectivity within and between functional subnetworks related to emotion processing and cognitive control. Subsequently, complex network measures (ie, efficiency and modularity) were calculated on the brain-wide graphs and modules, and correlated with neuroticism scores. Compared with low neurotic individuals, high neurotic individuals exhibited a whole-brain network structure resembling more that of a random network and had overall weaker functional connections. Furthermore, in these high neurotic individuals, functional subnetworks could be delineated less clearly and the majority of these subnetworks showed lower efficiency, while the affective subnetwork showed higher efficiency. In addition, the cingulo-operculum subnetwork demonstrated more ties with other functional subnetworks in association with neuroticism. In conclusion, the 'neurotic brain' has a less than optimal functional network organization and shows signs of functional disconnectivity. Moreover, in high compared with low neurotic individuals, emotion and salience subnetworks have a more prominent role in the information exchange, while sensory(-motor) and cognitive control subnetworks have a less prominent role. PMID:25005250

Servaas, Michelle N; Geerligs, Linda; Renken, Remco J; Marsman, Jan-Bernard C; Ormel, Johan; Riese, Harriëtte; Aleman, André

2015-01-01

32

Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals 2013: Experimentation continues to rise - the reliance on genetically-altered animals must be addressed.  

PubMed

The 2013 Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals reveal that the level of animal experimentation in Great Britain continues to rise, with 4.12 million procedures being conducted. The figures indicate that this is almost exclusively a result of the breeding and use of genetically-altered (GA) animals (i.e. genetically-modified animals, plus those with harmful genetic defects). The breeding of GA animals increased to over half (51%) of all the procedures, and GA animals were involved in 61% of all the procedures. Indeed, if these animals were removed from the statistics, the number of procedures would actually have declined by 4%. It is argued that the Coalition Government has failed to address this issue, and, as a consequence, will not be able to deliver its pledge to reduce animal use in science. Recent publications supporting the need to reassess the dominance of genetic alteration are also discussed, as well as the need to move away from the use of dogs as the default second species in safety testing. The general trends in the species used, and the numbers and types of procedures, are also reviewed. Finally, forthcoming changes to the statistics are discussed. PMID:25290946

Hudson-Shore, Michelle

2014-09-01

33

New animal model to study epigenetic mechanisms mediating altered gravity effects upon cell growth and morphogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gravitational field and its variations act as a major environmental factor that can impact morphogenesis developing through epigenetic molecular mechanisms. The mechanisms can be thoroughly investigated by using adequate animal models that reveal changes in the morpho-genesis of a growing organ as a function of gravitational effects. Two cooperative US/Russian experiments on Foton-M2 (2005) and Foton-M3 (2007) were the first to demonstrate differences in the shape of regenerating tails of space-flown and ground control newts. The space-flown and aquarium (simulated microgravity) animals developed lancet-shaped tails whereas 1 g con-trols (kept in space-type habitats) showed hook-like regenerates. These visual observations were supported by computer-aided processing of the images and statistical analysis of the results. Morphological examinations and cell proliferation measurements using BrdU demon-strated dorsal-ventral asymmetry as well as enhanced epithelial growth on the dorsal area of regenerating tails in 1 g newts. These findings were reproduced in laboratory tests on newts kept at 1 g and in large water tanks at cut g. The 1 g animals showed statistically significant deviations of the lancet-like tail shape typically seen in aquarium animals. Such modifications were found as early as regeneration stages III-IV and proved irreversible. The authors believe that the above phenomenon detected in newts used in many space experiments can serve as an adequate model for studying molecular mechanisms underlying gravitational effects upon animal morphogenesis.

Grigoryan, Eleonora N.; Dvorochkin, Natasha; Radugina, Elena A.; Poplinskaya, Valentina; Novikova, Julia; Almeida, Eduardo

34

Chronic Ankle Instability Alters Central Organization of Movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Chronic ankle instability alters spinal level sensorimotor function and is hypothesized to alter supraspinal motor control mechanisms. Gait initiation is a functional task modulated by supraspinal pathways, but the effect of chronic ankle instability, a peripheral musculoskeletal impairment, on gait initiation and thus supraspinal motor control mechanisms remains unknown.Purpose: This study was conducted to determine if supraspinal aspects of

Chris J. Hass; Mark D. Bishop; Douglas Doidge; Erik A. Wikstrom

2010-01-01

35

Stress-Related Alterations of Visceral Sensation: Animal Models for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Study  

PubMed Central

Stressors of different psychological, physical or immune origin play a critical role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome participating in symptoms onset, clinical presentation as well as treatment outcome. Experimental stress models applying a variety of acute and chronic exteroceptive or interoceptive stressors have been developed to target different periods throughout the lifespan of animals to assess the vulnerability, the trigger and perpetuating factors determining stress influence on visceral sensitivity and interactions within the brain-gut axis. Recent evidence points towards adequate construct and face validity of experimental models developed with respect to animals' age, sex, strain differences and specific methodological aspects such as non-invasive monitoring of visceromotor response to colorectal distension as being essential in successful identification and evaluation of novel therapeutic targets aimed at reducing stress-related alterations in visceral sensitivity. Underlying mechanisms of stress-induced modulation of visceral pain involve a combination of peripheral, spinal and supraspinal sensitization based on the nature of the stressors and dysregulation of descending pathways that modulate nociceptive transmission or stress-related analgesic response. PMID:21860814

Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette

2011-01-01

36

Climate impacts on bird and plant communities from altered animal-plant interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of climate change to declining populations of organisms remains a question of outstanding concern. Much attention to declining populations has focused on how changing climate drives phenological mismatches between animals and their food. Effects of climate on plant communities may provide an alternative, but particularly powerful, influence on animal populations because plants provide their habitats. Here, we show that abundances of deciduous trees and associated songbirds have declined with decreasing snowfall over 22 years of study in montane Arizona, USA. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that declining snowfall indirectly influences plants and associated birds by allowing greater over-winter herbivory by elk (Cervus canadensis). We excluded elk from one of two paired snowmelt drainages (10 ha per drainage), and replicated this paired experiment across three distant canyons. Over six years, we reversed multi-decade declines in plant and bird populations by experimentally inhibiting heavy winter herbivory associated with declining snowfall. Moreover, predation rates on songbird nests decreased in exclosures, despite higher abundances of nest predators, demonstrating the over-riding importance of habitat quality to avian recruitment. Thus, our results suggest that climate impacts on plant-animal interactions can have forceful ramifying effects on plants, birds, and ecological interactions.

Martin, Thomas E.; Maron, John L.

2012-03-01

37

Climate impacts on bird and plant communities from altered animal-plant interactions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The contribution of climate change to declining populations of organisms remains a question of outstanding concern. Much attention to declining populations has focused on how changing climate drives phenological mismatches between animals and their food. Effects of climate on plant communities may provide an alternative, but particularly powerful, influence on animal populations because plants provide their habitats. Here, we show that abundances of deciduous trees and associated songbirds have declined with decreasing snowfall over 22 years of study in montane Arizona, USA. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that declining snowfall indirectly influences plants and associated birds by allowing greater over-winter herbivory by elk (Cervus canadensis). We excluded elk from one of two paired snowmelt drainages (10 ha per drainage), and replicated this paired experiment across three distant canyons. Over six years, we reversed multi-decade declines in plant and bird populations by experimentally inhibiting heavy winter herbivory associated with declining snowfall. Moreover, predation rates on songbird nests decreased in exclosures, despite higher abundances of nest predators, demonstrating the over-riding importance of habitat quality to avian recruitment. Thus, our results suggest that climate impacts on plant–animal interactions can have forceful ramifying effects on plants, birds, and ecological interactions.

Martin, Thomas E.; Maron, John L.

2012-01-01

38

Ultrastructural alterations of atrial myocardium induced by adriamycin in chronically treated animals.  

PubMed

The clinical use of adriamycin (AM) is limited by a possible dose-dependent myocardiopathy. Severe lesions of ventricular myocardium widely described by electron microscopy have been correlated to irreversible congestive heart failure. On the other hand, the atrial contractile elements which differ from the ventricular ones because of the presence of the so-called specific granules have rarely been considered. In the work described in this paper, adriamycin was injected into rabbits and mice according to schedules of chronic toxicity. At the end of the treatment the atrial myocells presented diffuse ultrastructural lesions of mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum and myofibrillar bundles. These alterations might be caused by the ribonucleoprotein synthesis inhibition, by a direct drug toxicity or by an energetic crisis due to early mitochondrial lesions. Besides, adriamycin produces a decrease of the specific atrial granules that play a hypothetic role in the metabolism of myocardial cells. However, lack of information about the contents and the exact function of atrial granules does not allow us to conclude that their decrease in treated animals has a pathogenetic significance in myocardiopathy induced by adriamycin. PMID:565963

Lambertenghi-Deliliers, G; Zanon, P L; Pozzoli, E F; Bellini, O; Praga, C

1978-02-28

39

Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the wonderful world of animals Listen to the animal sound. See if you can identify the animal.Animal sounds. Explore and find out about different animals.Kids Planet Create a animal report using one of the animals found in the web site.Kids Planet,SeaWorld/animals Create a picture of your animal examples are found...Your big backyard ...

Mrs. Unsworth

2005-03-31

40

Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) invasion alters organic matter dynamics in a desert stream  

E-print Network

Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) invasion alters organic matter dynamics in a desert stream THEODORE, decomposition, Tamarix Introduction Although anthropogenic biological invasions are one of the most pervasive management and restor- ation of invaded habitat requires such understand- ing, however. Saltcedar [Tamarix

Lovich, Jeffrey E.

41

AN ENVIRONMENTAL ANTIANDROGEN, VINCLOZOLIN, ALTERS THE ORGANIZATION OF PLAY BEHAVIOR  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT During mammalian sexual differentiation, the androgens, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone are critical for the organization of the male phenotype. In rats, play behavior is sexually dimorphic. Administration of exogenous androgens during the perinatal period r...

42

PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS -ORIGINAL PAPER Invasive plant species alters consumer behavior by providing  

E-print Network

effects. In a factorial experiment, we manipulated cover and food provided by the invasive shrub Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) to evaluate whether this plant alters the foraging activity of native mammals

Orrock, John

43

PLANT-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS -ORIGINAL PAPER Invasive plant architecture alters trophic interactions by changing  

E-print Network

(Centaurea maculosa), has fundamentally altered the architecture of native grassland vegetation. Here, I use Sciences, University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812, USA 123 Oecologia (2009) 159:549­558 DOI 10.1007/s

44

Animal health organizations: roles to mitigate the impact of ecologic change on animal health in the tropics.  

PubMed

Production of livestock across North and South America is extensive. The opportunities for production, commerce, and thriving economies related to animal agriculture are balanced against the devastating threats of disease. Commitment by livestock and poultry producers in exporting countries to production methods, herd health management, and biosecurity in their operations must be coupled with an animal health and marketing infrastructure that allows the industries to thrive and offers assurances to trading partners that their livestock industries will not be jeopardized. National and international animal health organizations play a key role in providing this infrastructure to the industries that they serve. The incentive for the successful World agricultural production economies to provide direction and support for improving animal health and conveying principles for competitive and safe production to lesser developed nations is the assurance that the expanding economies of these nations offer an eager and hungry market for the products of the other industries of an export-dependent economy. The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established after the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The WTO provides the permanent international multilateral institutional framework for implementing dispute resolution agreements and the agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures. The SPS agreements allow for the protection of animal and plant health. PMID:15604467

Acord, Bobby R; Walton, Thomas E

2004-10-01

45

Revisiting the flight of Icarus: making human organs from PSCs with large animal chimeras.  

PubMed

While cell therapies hold great potential for treating many conditions, their utility for treating patients that require whole organ replacement is unclear. To address this challenge, we propose using genetically engineered "organ niches" in large animals to generate human organs from pluripotent stem cells and discuss the hurdles facing such strategies. PMID:25280216

Rashid, Tamir; Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

2014-10-01

46

Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animation is making a splash with the recent box office hit, Shrek 2. This Topic in Depth explores how animation works, it's history and the entertaining as well as academic applications of animation. The first website provides a basic overview of digital cinema (1). More information on animation can be found on the second website (2). Digital Media FX provides this history (3 ) of animation. The Library of Congress has also put together a nice website (4 ) with some historical artifacts that for demonstrating a "a variety of elements that go into the creative process of developing and interpreting animated motion pictures." The fourth website provides an extensive list of online resources and academic uses for animation such as Chemistry, Evolution, Genetics, and Physics. (5 ). This fifth website posts the winners of the 2004 Character Animation Technologies competition (6 ). And finally, Slashdot has a nice expose on the Mathematics of Futurama (7).

47

Anatomical Ontologies for Model Organisms: The Fungi and Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter reviews how the richness of animal and fungal anatomy can be incorporated into formal ontologies so that knowledge\\u000a of tissue organisation can be made accessible both to biologists and to other computational resources. The first part of the\\u000a chapter focuses on the anatomical and bioinformatics principles behind making these ontologies and the problems that have\\u000a to be solved

Jonathan Bard

48

Qualitative Assessment of a 3D Simulation Program: Faculty, Students, and Bio-Organic Reaction Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that computer-based simulations and animations are especially helpful in fields such as chemistry where concepts are abstract and cannot be directly observed. Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA) is a freely available 3D visualization software program developed to help students understand the chemistry of biomolecular events.…

Günersel, Adalet B.; Fleming, Steven A.

2013-01-01

49

Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA): Student Performance, Student Perceptions, and Instructor Feedback  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that computer animations are especially helpful in fields such as chemistry and in this mixed-methods study, we investigate the educational effectiveness of Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA), a 3-D software, in four undergraduate biochemistry classes at different universities. Statistically significant findings indicate that…

Gunersel, Adalet Baris; Fleming, Steven

2014-01-01

50

Massive Apoptosis in Lymphoid Organs in Animal Models for Primary and Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

The mechanism(s) responsible for generating the different forms of multiple sclerosis, primary progressive (PP) and secondary progressive (SP) versus relapsing-remitting (RR), is not well understood. Using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)92-106, we have established animal models that mimic the different types of multiple sclerosis. A.SW mice develop PP or SP-experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) with large areas of demyelination and high titers of MOG antibody whereas SJL/J mice develop RR-EAE with perivascular T cells and mild demyelination. In A.SW progressive EAE, we found atrophy of the thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes with depletion of T and B cells and massive apoptosis, as demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, terminal dUTP nick-end labeling, and DNA agarose gel electrophoresis. To test whether lymphoid apoptosis itself contributes to disease progression, we injected SJL/J mice with apoptotic thymocytes. Injection of apoptotic cells resulted in greater than 20% of mice developing SP-EAE with ataxia. SJL/J mice with SP-EAE had large areas of demyelination, high MOG antibody titers and atrophic lymphoid organs. Spleen cells from mice with progressive EAE produced less interferon-? than those from RR-EAE when stimulated with mitogen. We suggest that induction of lymphoid apoptosis alters the balance of Th1 versus Th2 immune responses and increases MOG antibody production, leading to exacerbation of demyelination and subsequent disease progression. PMID:16314476

Tsunoda, Ikuo; Libbey, Jane E.; Kuang, Li-Qing; Terry, Emily Jane; Fujinami, Robert S.

2005-01-01

51

An 85 ns 16 Mb CMOS EPROM with alterable word organization  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 85-ns, 16-Mb CMOS EPROM which features alterable word organization and can be configured as either 1 M*16 b or 2 M*8 b by controlling an input signal is described. The redundancy circuit consists of an erasable PROM cell and an unerasable PROM cell for the storage of a nonfunctional address. Divided bit lines and tungsten polycide word lines are

M. Higuchi; M. Koike; K. Ninomiya; T. Watanabe; S. Koyama; T. Jinbo; T. Okazawa

1990-01-01

52

Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ah, animation! Where would we be without the likes of Disney, Warner Bros., Walter Lanz, Hanna-Barbera, and dozens more like\\u000a them? For many people, animation is the reason to get involved with Flash as a creative outlet. This makes perfect sense, because Flash began life more than a decade ago\\u000a as an animation tool. Supplemental features like ActionScript, XML parsing,

Tom Green; David Stiller

53

Excitability of A? sensory neurons is altered in an animal model of peripheral neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Background Causes of neuropathic pain following nerve injury remain unclear, limiting the development of mechanism-based therapeutic approaches. Animal models have provided some directions, but little is known about the specific sensory neurons that undergo changes in such a way as to induce and maintain activation of sensory pain pathways. Our previous studies implicated changes in the A?, normally non-nociceptive neurons in activating spinal nociceptive neurons in a cuff-induced animal model of neuropathic pain and the present study was directed specifically at determining any change in excitability of these neurons. Thus, the present study aimed at recording intracellularly from A?-fiber dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and determining excitability of the peripheral receptive field, of the cell body and of the dorsal roots. Methods A peripheral neuropathy was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by inserting two thin polyethylene cuffs around the right sciatic nerve. All animals were confirmed to exhibit tactile hypersensitivity to von Frey filaments three weeks later, before the acute electrophysiological experiments. Under stable intracellular recording conditions neurons were classified functionally on the basis of their response to natural activation of their peripheral receptive field. In addition, conduction velocity of the dorsal roots, configuration of the action potential and rate of adaptation to stimulation were also criteria for classification. Excitability was measured as the threshold to activation of the peripheral receptive field, the response to intracellular injection of depolarizing current into the soma and the response to electrical stimulation of the dorsal roots. Results In control animals mechanical thresholds of all neurons were within normal ranges. A? DRG neurons in neuropathic rats demonstrated a mean mechanical threshold to receptive field stimulation that were significantly lower than in control rats, a prolonged discharge following this stimulation, a decreased activation threshold and a greater response to depolarizing current injection into the soma, as well as a longer refractory interval and delayed response to paired pulse electrical stimulation of the dorsal roots. Conclusions The present study has demonstrated changes in functionally classified A? low threshold and high threshold DRG neurons in a nerve intact animal model of peripheral neuropathy that demonstrates nociceptive responses to normally innocuous cutaneous stimuli, much the same as is observed in humans with neuropathic pain. We demonstrate further that the peripheral receptive fields of these neurons are more excitable, as are the somata. However, the dorsal roots exhibit a decrease in excitability. Thus, if these neurons participate in neuropathic pain this differential change in excitability may have implications in the peripheral drive that induces central sensitization, at least in animal models of peripheral neuropathic pain, and A? sensory neurons may thus contribute to allodynia and spontaneous pain following peripheral nerve injury in humans. PMID:22289651

2012-01-01

54

Ethical Issues of Transplanting Organs from Transgenic Animals into Human Beings  

PubMed Central

One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human’s body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal’s organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334

Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

2014-01-01

55

An altered spinal serotonergic system contributes to increased thermal nociception in an animal model of depression.  

PubMed

The olfactory bulbectomized (OB) rat, an animal model of chronic depression with comorbid anxiety, exhibits a profound dysregulation of the brain serotonergic signalling, a neurotransmission system involved in pain transmission and modulation. We here report an increased nociceptive response of OB rats in the tail flick test which is reverted after chronic, but not acute, administration of fluoxetine. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated down-regulation of 5-HT transporters ([(3)H]citalopram binding) and decreased functionality of 5-HT1A receptors (8-OH-DPAT-stimulated [(35)S]GTP?S binding) in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord in OB rats. Acute administration of fluoxetine (5-40 mg/kg i.p.) did not modify tail flick latencies in OB rats. However, chronic fluoxetine (10 mg/kg/day s.c., 14 days; osmotic minipumps) progressively attenuated OB-associated thermal hyperalgesia, and a total normalization of the nociceptive response was achieved at the end of the treatment with the antidepressant. In these animals, autoradiographic studies revealed further down-regulation of 5-HT transporters and normalization in the functionality of 5-HT1A receptors on the spinal cord. On the other hand, acute morphine (0.5-10 mg/kg s.c.) produced a similar analgesic effect in OB and sham and OB rats, and no changes were detected in the density ([(3)H]DAMGO binding) and functionality (DAMGO-stimulated [(35)S]GTP?S binding) of spinal ?-opioid receptors in OB rats before and after chronic fluoxetine. Our findings demonstrate the participation of the spinal serotonergic system in the increased thermal nociception exhibited by the OB rat and the antinociceptive effect of chronic fluoxetine in this animal model of depression. PMID:24584836

Rodríguez-Gaztelumendi, Antonio; Rojo, María Luisa; Pazos, Angel; Díaz, Alvaro

2014-06-01

56

Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection contains animations of a nuclear chain reaction, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. It also showcases interactive models of the first atomic bombs and simulation of the "Nuclear Winter" effect.

Christopher Griffith

57

Development of Gravity-Sensing Organs in Altered Gravity Conditions: Opposite Conclusions From an Amphibian and a Molluscan Preparation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several components of the systems animals use to orient to gravity might develop differently in micrograms. If the growth of the "test masses" on which gravity acts (otoliths, in vertebrates, statoliths or statoconia in most invertebrates) is controlled on the basis of their weight, larger otoliths (or their analogs) would be expected to develop in micrograms. The vestibular systems in animals reared in altered gravity have been studied in several species, with varied results being reported. Early Russian reports of Xenopus larvae reared in space indicated no qualitative differences in the vestibular organs, compared to ground-reared controls. A similar lack of differences in Xenopus were reported. The ultricular otolith was 30% larger in space-reared Xenopus. No differences in saccular otolith volume between centrifuged and control adult rats were found. A delay in otoconial development in chick embryos reared at 2 grams on a centrifuge was reported but in a later report, no differences in otolith weight between 2 grams and control chicks were found. Increased optokinetic responses in flight-reared Xenopus tadpoles, suggesting that the animals reared in the absence of gravity made greater relative use of their visual system, rather than the vestibular system, in orienting to a moving stimulus was reported. To test early Japanese newt, CYnops pyrrhogaster, were maintained in orbit for 15 days on the IML-2 mission in 1994. All specimens reached orbit before any otoconia were formed and all major components of the inner ear were formed by the end of the flight. In ground-based studies of he Aplysia statocyst, the volume of the statolith in embryos and the number statoconia in post-metamorphic animals were compared between 1-gram controls and specimens reared at 2 to 5.7 grams.

Wiederhold, Michael L.; Pedrozo, Hugo A.; Harrison, Jeffrey L.; Hejl, Robert; Gao, Wenyuan

1997-01-01

58

Animal Toxins Can Alter the Function of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9  

PubMed Central

Human voltage-activated sodium (Nav) channels are adept at rapidly transmitting electrical signals across long distances in various excitable tissues. As such, they are amongst the most widely targeted ion channels by drugs and animal toxins. Of the nine isoforms, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are preferentially expressed in DRG neurons where they are thought to play an important role in pain signaling. Although the functional properties of Nav1.8 have been relatively well characterized, difficulties with expressing Nav1.9 in established heterologous systems limit our understanding of the gating properties and toxin pharmacology of this particular isoform. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the role of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 in pain perception and elaborates on the approaches used to identify molecules capable of influencing their function. PMID:23012651

Gilchrist, John; Bosmans, Frank

2012-01-01

59

Differential regulation of tropomyosin isoform organization and gene expression in response to altered actin gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotypically altered C2 myoblast cells, generated by the stable transfection of human nonmus- cle actin genes (Schevzov, G., C. Lloyd, and P. Gun- ning. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 117:775-786), exhibit a dif- ferential pattern of tropomyosin cellular organization and isoform gene expression. The\\/~-actin transfectants displaying a threefold increase in the cell surface area, showed no significant changes in the pattern

Galina Schevzov; Catriona Lloyd; Deborah Hailstones; Peter Gunning

1993-01-01

60

Mechanisms underlying altered mood and cardiovascular dysfunction: the value of neurobiological and behavioral research with animal models.  

PubMed

A bidirectional association between mood disorders and cardiovascular diseases has been described in humans, yet the precise neurobiological mechanisms that underlie this association are not fully understood. This article is focused on neurobiological processes and mediators in mood and cardiovascular disorders, with an emphasis on common mechanisms including stressor reactivity, neuroendocrine and neurohumoral changes, immune alterations, autonomic and cardiovascular dysregulation, and central neurotransmitter and neuropeptide dysfunction. A discussion of the utility of experimental investigations with rodent models, including those in rats and prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), is presented. Specific studies using these models are reviewed, focusing on the analysis of behavioral, physiological and neural mechanisms underlying depressive disorders and cardiovascular disease. Considered in combination with studies using human samples, the investigation of mechanisms underlying depressive behaviors and cardiovascular regulation using animal models will enhance our understanding of the association of depression and cardiovascular disease, and will promote the development of improved interventions for individuals with these detrimental disorders. PMID:18703084

Grippo, Angela J

2009-02-01

61

17?-Estradiol alters the response of subfornical organ neurons that project to supraoptic nucleus to plasma angiotensin II and hypernatremia.  

PubMed

This study was done in urethane anesthetized, ovariectomized (OVX) female rats that were either implanted or not implanted with silastic capsules containing17?-estradiol (E2) to investigate the effect of systemic changes in E2 on the discharge rate of subfornical organ (SFO) neurons that projected to supraoptic nucleus (SON) and responded to changes in plasma levels of angiotensin II (ANG II) or hypernatremia. Extracellular single unit recordings were made from 146 histologically verified single units in SFO. Intra-carotid infusions of ANG II excited ~57% of these neurons, whereas ~23% were excited by hypertonic NaCl. Basal discharge rate of neurons excited by ANG II or hypertonic NaCl was significantly lower in OVX+E2 rats compared to OVX only animals. The response of SFO neurons antidromically activated by SON stimulation to intra-carotid injections of ANG II or hypertonic NaCl was greater in the OVX only compared to the OVX+E2 rats. Intra-carotid injections of E2 in either group attenuated not only the basal discharge of these neurons, but also their response to ANG II or hypertonic NaCl. In all cases this inhibitory effect of E2 was blocked by an intra-carotid injection of the E2 receptor antagonist ICI-182780, although ICI-182780 did not alter the neuron's response to ANG II or hypertonic NaCl. Additionally, ICI-182780 in the OVX+E2 animals significantly raised the basal discharge of SFO neurons and their response to ANG II or hypertonic NaCl. These data indicate that E2 alters the response of SFO neurons to ANG II or NaCl that project to SON, and suggest that E2 functions in the female to regulate neurohypophyseal function in response to circulating ANG II and plasma hypernatremia. PMID:23830850

Ciriello, John; Roder, Stefanie

2013-08-14

62

Pulmonary reactions to organic dust exposures: development of an animal model.  

PubMed Central

Acute inhalation of organic dusts such as cotton, hay, silage, grain, animal confinement, or compost dust can result in illness characterized by fever, pulmonary inflammation, chest tightness, and airway obstruction. These agricultural materials are complex mixtures of plant, bacterial, and fungal products. Elucidation of the time course of disease onset, the mechanisms of disease progression, and the identity of etiologic agents is essential for effective prevention and treatment. Toward this end, animal models for acute organic dust-induced reactions have been developed and characterized. Information concerning the applicability of various animal models to humans and progress toward elucidation of causative agents and mechanisms of action is presented. Images Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C PMID:8722109

Castranova, V; Robinson, V A; Frazer, D G

1996-01-01

63

What's Inside Bodies? Learning about Skeletons and Other Organ Systems of Vertebrate Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a study of young children's understanding of what is on the inside of animals--skeletons and other organ systems. The study uses 2-D drawings based on the idea that a drawing is the representational model and is the outward expression of the mental model. The 617 drawings made by participants in the study were awarded one of…

Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael

64

Short Animation Movies as Advance Organizers in Physics Teaching: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Advance organizers are instructional materials that help students use previous knowledge to make links with new information. Short animation movies are a possible format and are well suited for physics, as they can portray dynamic phenomena and represent abstract concepts. Purpose: The study aimed to determine guidelines for the…

Koscianski, Andre; Ribeiro, Rafael Joao; da Silva, Sani Carvalho Rutz

2012-01-01

65

Phytoestrogens alter the reproductive organ development in the mink (Mustela vison)  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the present study was to examine the reproductive effects of two perorally applied phytoestrogens, genistein (8 mg/kg/day) and {beta}-sitosterol (50 mg/kg/day), on the mink (Mustela vison) at human dietary exposure levels. Parental generations were exposed over 9 months to these phytoestrogens and their offspring were exposed via gestation and lactation. Parents and their offspring were sampled 21 days after the birth of the kits. Sex hormone levels, sperm quality, organ weights, and development of the kits were examined. The exposed females were heavier than the control females at the 1st postnatal day (PND). The control kits were heavier than the exposed kits from the 1st to the 21st PND. Phytoestrogens did not affect the organ weights of the adult minks, but the relative testicular weight of the exposed kits was higher than in the control kits. The relative prostate weight was higher and the relative uterine weight lower in the {beta}-sitosterol-exposed kits than in the control kits. Moreover, the plasma dihydrotestosterone levels were lower in the genistein-exposed male kits compared to the control male kits. This study could not explain the mechanisms behind these alterations. The results indicate that perinatal phytoestrogen exposures cause alterations in the weight of the reproductive organs of the mink kits.

Ryoekkynen, Ari [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland)]. E-mail: ryokkyne@cc.joensuu.fi; Nieminen, Petteri [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Mustonen, Anne-Mari [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Pyykoenen, Teija [Institute of Applied Biotechnology, University of Kuopio, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Asikainen, Juha [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Haenninen, Sari [Institute of Applied Biotechnology, University of Kuopio, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Mononen, Jaakko [Institute of Applied Biotechnology, University of Kuopio, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kukkonen, Jussi V.K. [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland)

2005-01-15

66

Tracing organic compounds in aerobically altered methane-derived carbonate pipes (Gulf of Cadiz, SW Iberia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary geochemical process at methane seeps is anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), performed by methanotrophic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The molecular fingerprints (biomarkers) of these chemosynthetic microorganisms can be preserved in carbonates formed through AOM. However, thermal maturity and aerobic degradation can change the original preserved compounds, making it difficult to establish the relation between AOM and carbonate precipitation. Here we report a study of amino acid and lipid abundances in carbonate matrices of aerobically altered pipes recovered from the seafloor of the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberian Peninsula). This area is characterized by a complex tectonic regime that supports numerous cold seeps. Studies so far have not determined whether the precipitation of carbonate pipes in the Gulf of Cadiz is a purely chemical process or whether microbial communities are involved. Samples from this site show signs of exposure to oxygenated waters and of aerobic alteration, such as oxidation of authigenic iron sulfides. In addition, the degradation index, calculated from the relative abundance of preserved amino acids, indicates aerobic degradation of organic matter. Although crocetane was the only lipid identified from methanotrophic archaea, the organic compounds detected (n-alkanes, regular isoprenoids and alcohols) are compatible with an origin from AOM coupled with bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) and subsequent aerobic degradation. We establish a relation among AOM, BSR and pipe formation in the Gulf of Cadiz through three types of analysis: (1) stable carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of carbonate minerals; (2) carbonate microfabrics; and (3) mineralogical composition. Our results suggest that carbonate pipes may form through a process similar to the precipitation of vast amounts of carbonate pavements often found at cold seeps. Our approach suggests that some organic compound patterns, in combination with additional evidence of AOM and BSR, may help indicate the source of altered methane-derived carbonates commonly occurring in ancient and modern deposits.

Merinero, Raúl; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Menor-Salván, César; Lunar, Rosario; Martínez-Frías, Jesús

2012-07-01

67

PHOTOCHEMICALLY-INDUCED ALTERATION OF STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE RATIOS (DELTA C-13) IN TERRIGENOUS DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

Exposure of riverine waters to natural sunlight initiated alterations in stable carbon isotope ratios (delta C-13) of the associated dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Water samples were collected from two compositionally distinct coastal river systems in the southeastern United Sta...

68

Varying responses of insect herbivores to altered plant chemistry under organic and conventional treatments  

PubMed Central

The hypothesis that plants supplied with organic fertilizers are better defended against insect herbivores than those supplied with synthetic fertilizers was tested over two field seasons. Organic and synthetic fertilizer treatments at two nitrogen concentrations were supplied to Brassica plants, and their effects on the abundance of herbivore species and plant chemistry were assessed. The organic treatments also differed in fertilizer type: a green manure was used for the low-nitrogen treatment, while the high-nitrogen treatment contained green and animal manures. Two aphid species showed different responses to fertilizers: the Brassica specialist Brevicoryne brassicae was more abundant on organically fertilized plants, while the generalist Myzus persicae had higher populations on synthetically fertilized plants. The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella (a crucifer specialist) was more abundant on synthetically fertilized plants and preferred to oviposit on these plants. Glucosinolate concentrations were up to three times greater on plants grown in the organic treatments, while foliar nitrogen was maximized on plants under the higher of the synthetic fertilizer treatments. The varying response of herbivore species to these strong differences in plant chemistry demonstrates that hypotheses on defence in organically grown crops have over-simplified the response of phytophagous insects. PMID:19906673

Staley, Joanna T.; Stewart-Jones, Alex; Pope, Tom W.; Wright, Denis J.; Leather, Simon R.; Hadley, Paul; Rossiter, John T.; van Emden, Helmut F.; Poppy, Guy M.

2010-01-01

69

Type IV kerogens as analogues for organic macromolecular materials in aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites.  

PubMed

Understanding the processes involved in the evolution of organic matter in the early Solar System requires extensive experimental work. The scientifically valuable carbonaceous chondrites are principal targets for organic analyses, but these meteorites are rare. Meteoritic analog materials available in larger quantities, on which experiments can be performed, would be highly beneficial. The bulk of the organic inventory of carbonaceous chondrites is made up of solvent-insoluble macromolecular material. This high-molecular-weight entity provides a record of thermal and aqueous parent-body alteration of precursor organic structures present at the birth of the Solar System. To identify an effective analogue for this macromolecular material, we analyzed a series of terrestrial kerogens by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Type I and II kerogens are unsuitable analogues owing to their highly aliphatic nature. Type III kerogens show some similarities to meteoritic macromolecular materials but display a substantial biological heritage. Type IV kerogens, in this study derived from Mesozoic paleosols and produced by the reworking and oxidation of organic matter, represent an effective analogue. Some isomeric differences exist between meteoritic macromolecular materials and type IV kerogens, and stepped pyrolysis indicates variations in thermal stability. In addition to being a suitable material for novel experimentation, type IV kerogens also have the potential to aid in the optimization of instruments for deployment on Mars. PMID:23551239

Matthewman, Richard; Martins, Zita; Sephton, Mark A

2013-04-01

70

Thermal alteration experiments on organic matter from recent marine sediments in relation to petroleum genesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three fractions of organic matter: lipid (benzene:methanol-extractable), humic acid (alkali-extractable) and kerogen (residue) were extracted from a young marine sediment (Tanner Basin, offshore southern California) and heated for different times (5-116 hr) and temperatures (150-410 C). The volatile (gases) and liquid products, as well as residual material, were then analyzed. On a weight basis, the lipid fraction produced 58% of the total identified n-alkanes, the kerogen fraction 41%, and the humic acid less than 1%. The volatiles produced by heating the lipid and humic acid fractions were largely CO2 and water, whereas those produced from heated kerogen also included methane, hydrogen gas and small amounts of C2-C4 hydrocarbons. A mechanism for hydrocarbon production due to the thermal alteration of organic constituents of marine sediment is discussed.

Ishiwatari, R.; Ishiwatari, M.; Rohrback, B. G.; Kaplan, I. R.

1977-01-01

71

Metabolomic analysis of long-term spontaneous exercise in mice suggests increased lipolysis and altered glucose metabolism when animals are at rest.  

PubMed

Exercise has been associated with several beneficial effects and is one of the major modulators of metabolism. The working muscle produces and releases substances during exercise that mediate the adaptation of the muscle but also improve the metabolic flexibility of the complete organism, leading to adjustable substrate utilization. Metabolomic studies on physical exercise are scarce and most of them have been focused on the effects of intense exercise in professional sportsmen. The aim of our study was to determine plasma metabolomic adaptations in mice after a long-term spontaneous exercise intervention study (18 mo). The metabolic changes induced by long-term spontaneous exercise were sufficient to achieve complete discrimination between groups in the principal component analysis scores plot. We identified plasma indicators of an increase in lipolysis (elevated unsaturated fatty acids and glycerol), a decrease in glucose and insulin plasma levels and in heart glucose consumption (by PET), and altered glucose metabolism (decreased alanine and lactate) in the wheel running group. Collectively these data are compatible with an increase in skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in the active mice. We also found an increase in amino acids involved in catecholamine synthesis (tyrosine and phenylalanine), in the skeletal muscle pool of creatine phosphate and taurine, and changes in phospholipid metabolism (phosphocholine and choline in lipids) between the sedentary and the active mice. In conclusion, long-term spontaneous wheel running induces significant plasma and tissue (heart) metabolic responses that remain even when the animal is at rest. PMID:25190738

Monleon, Daniel; Garcia-Valles, Rebeca; Morales, Jose Manuel; Brioche, Thomas; Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria; Lopez-Grueso, Raul; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Viña, Jose

2014-11-15

72

Examining the effect of altered redox conditions on deep soil organic matter stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since subsoil horizons contribute significantly to terrestrial carbon (C) budgets, understanding the influence of disturbances such as forest harvesting on subsoil C stability is critical. Clearcut harvesting leads to changes in the soil physico-chemical environment, including altering redox conditions arising from changes in soil hydrology that increase soil saturation, soil temperature, and pH. These physico-chemical changes have the potential to alter the adsorption of soil organic matter (SOM) to minerals, particularly at depth where SOM is primarily associated with mineral phases. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of differing redox states (aerobic vs. anaerobic) and temperature upon SOM stability of forested soils representative of the Acadian Forest Region of Eastern North America. Composite soil samples through depth (0-10, 10-20, 20-35, and 35-50 cm) from a mature red spruce forest (110 years) were incubated under optimum (aerobic) or saturated (anaerobic) conditions for 1 or 4 months at two temperatures (5 and 15 C). Following incubation, soil leachate was analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV-vis absorbance in order to determine soil C losses and its optical character. Specific UV-vis absorbance SUVA (254 nm) and spectral slope ratios were calculated in order to assess the composition of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Preliminary results from the 1 month incubation indicate that under anaerobic conditions, all depths released DOC with a higher SUVA than under aerobic conditions, with the largest change observed in the 0-10 cm depth increment. Soil incubated at 5 C produced leachate with significantly less DOC and with a lower absorbance compared to 15 C under both redox conditions. These results suggest that both temperature and redox state are important in determining the aromaticity of DOC released from soils. Spectral slope ratios revealed that a greater proportion of CDOM of lower molecular weight (MW) compounds were released from deep mineral podzolic soils when saturated (high SUVA, low spectral slope), while higher MW CDOM were released from shallow soil strata (low SUVA, high spectral slope). This is consistent with research that indicates plant-derived SOM and microbial products each dominate in shallow and deep mineral soils, respectively. These preliminary results suggest that alterations to the redox state of a forested podzolic soil may have the potential to alter the mobilization of SOM, its composition and associated soil carbon stores.

Gabriel, C.; Kellman, L. M.; Ziegler, S. E.

2013-12-01

73

Microcystin-LR and cylindrospermopsin induced alterations in chromatin organization of plant cells.  

PubMed

Cyanobacteria produce metabolites with diverse bioactivities, structures and pharmacological properties. The effects of microcystins (MCYs), a family of peptide type protein-phosphatase inhibitors and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), an alkaloid type of protein synthesis blocker will be discussed in this review. We are focusing mainly on cyanotoxin-induced changes of chromatin organization and their possible cellular mechanisms. The particularities of plant cells explain the importance of such studies. Preprophase bands (PPBs) are premitotic cytoskeletal structures important in the determination of plant cell division plane. Phragmoplasts are cytoskeletal structures involved in plant cytokinesis. Both cyanotoxins induce the formation of multipolar spindles and disrupted phragmoplasts, leading to abnormal sister chromatid segregation during mitosis. Thus, MCY and CYN are probably inducing alterations of chromosome number. MCY induces programmed cell death: chromatin condensation, nucleus fragmentation, necrosis, alterations of nuclease and protease enzyme activities and patterns. The above effects may be related to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or disfunctioning of microtubule associated proteins. Specific effects: MCY-LR induces histone H3 hyperphosphorylation leading to incomplete chromatid segregation and the formation of micronuclei. CYN induces the formation of split or double PPB directly related to protein synthesis inhibition. Cyanotoxins are powerful tools in the study of plant cell organization. PMID:24084787

Máthé, Csaba; M-Hamvas, Márta; Vasas, Gábor

2013-10-01

74

Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) invasion alters organic matter dynamics in a desert stream  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. We investigated the impacts of saltcedar invasion on organic matter dynamics in a spring-fed stream (Jackrabbit Spring) in the Mojave Desert of southern Nevada, U.S.A., by experimentally manipulating saltcedar abundance. 2. Saltcedar heavily shaded Jackrabbit Spring and shifted the dominant organic matter inputs from autochthonous production that was available throughout the year to allochthonous saltcedar leaf litter that was strongly pulsed in the autumn. Specifically, reaches dominated by saltcedar had allochthonous litter inputs of 299 g ash free dry mass (AFDM) m-2 year-1, macrophyte production of 15 g AFDM m-2 year-1 and algal production of 400 g AFDM m-2 year-1, while reaches dominated by native riparian vegetation or where saltcedar had been experimentally removed had allochthonous litter inputs of 7-34 g AFDM m -2 year-1, macrophyte production of 118-425 g AFDM m -2 year-1 and algal production of 640-900 g AFDM m -2 year-1. 3. A leaf litter breakdown study indicated that saltcedar also altered decomposition in Jackrabbit Spring, mainly through its influence on litter quality rather than by altering the environment for decomposition. Decomposition rates for saltcedar were lower than for ash (Fraxinus velutina), the dominant native allochthonous litter type, but faster than for bulrush (Scirpus americanus), the dominant macrophyte in this system.

Kennedy, T.A.; Hobbie, S.E.

2004-01-01

75

The concept of animal welfare at the interface between producers and scientists: the example of organic pig farming.  

PubMed

In organic farming animal welfare is one important aspect included in the internationally agreed organic principles of health, ecology, fairness and care (IFOAM 2006), reflecting expectation of consumers and farmers. The definition of organic animal welfare includes-besides traditional terms of animal welfare-'regeneration' and 'naturalness'. Organic animal welfare assessment needs to reflect this and use complex parameters, include natural behaviour and a systemic view. Furthermore, various parties with seemingly conflicting interests are involved, causing ethical dilemmas, such as the use of nose rings for outdoor sows (impaired animal welfare vs. destruction of humus). Solutions can only be found when foundational concepts are translated and applied to practical situations. On-farm animal welfare assessment and implementation of improvement strategies are increasingly relevant scientific areas. They combine on-farm welfare assessment, identification of key problem areas and connected risk factors. Constant communication between all parties is crucial for success. Animal health and welfare planning is one application of this approach, which was carried out on Austrian organic pig farms as well as organic dairy farms in seven European countries. The projects included welfare assessment, feedback and benchmarking as a tool for communication between farmers, advisors and scientists. Finally goals were set by the farmer and improvement strategies applicable to organic farming were implemented. This included prevention of disease by management strategies instead of routine treatment with pharmaceutical products. It appeared that next to problem structuring, multidisciplinary problem solving demands good communications skills to relate animal welfare science to value reflections. PMID:21559784

Leeb, Christine

2011-06-01

76

Alteration of Organic Compounds in Small Bodies and Cosmic Dusts by Cosmic Rays and Solar Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide variety of complex organic compounds have been detected in extraterrestrial bodies like carbonaceous chondrites and comets, and their roles in the generation of terrestrial life are discussed. It was suggested that organics in small bodies were originally formed in ice mantles of interstellar dusts in dense cloud. Irradiation of frozen mixture of possible interstellar molecules including CO (or CH _{3}OH), NH _{3} and H _{2}O with high-energy particles gave complex amino acid precursors with high molecular weights [1]. Such complex organic molecules were taken in planetesimals or comets in the early solar system. In prior to the generation of the terrestrial life, extraterrestrial organics were delivered to the primitive Earth by such small bodies as meteorites, comets and space dusts. These organics would have been altered by cosmic rays and solar radiation (UV, X-rays) before the delivery to the Earth. We examined possible alteration of amino acids, their precursors and nucleic acid bases in interplanetary space by irradiation with high energy photons and heavy ions. A mixture of CO, NH _{3} and H _{2}O was irradiated with high-energy protons from a van de Graaff accelerator (TIT, Japan). The resulting products (hereafter referred to as CAW) are complex precursors of amino acids. CAW, amino acids (dl-Isovaline, glycine), hydantoins (amino acid precursors) and nucleic acid bases were irradiated with continuous emission (soft X-rays to IR; hereafter referred to as soft X-rays irradiation) from BL-6 of NewSUBARU synchrotron radiation facility (Univ. Hyogo). They were also irradiated with heavy ions (eg., 290 MeV/u C ^{6+}) from HIMAC accelerator (NIRS, Japan). After soft X-rays irradiation, water insoluble materials were formed. After irradiation with soft X-rays or heavy ions, amino acid precursors (CAW and hydantoins) gave higher ratio of amino acids were recovered after hydrolysis than free amino acids. Nucleic acid bases showed higher stability than free amino acids. Complex amino acid precursors with high molecular weights could be formed in simulated dense cloud environments. They would have been altered in the early solar system by irradiation with soft X-rays from the young Sun, which caused increase of hydrophobicity of the organics of interstellar origin. They were taken up by parent bodies of meteorites or comets, and could have been delivered to the Earth by meteorites, comets and cosmic dusts. Cosmic dusts were so small that they were directly exposed to the solar radiation, which might be critical for the survivability of organics in them. In order to evaluate the roles of space dusts as carriers of bioorganic compounds to the primitive Earth, we are planning the Tanpopo Mission, where collection of cosmic dusts by using ultra low-density aerogel, and exposure of amino acids and their precursors for years are planned by utilizing the Japan Experimental Module / Exposed Facility of the ISS [2]. The mission is now scheduled to start in 2013. We thank Dr. Katsunori Kawasaki of Tokyo Institute of Technology, and Dr. Satoshi Yoshida of National Institute of Radiological Sciences for their help in particles irradiation. We also thank to the members of JAXA Tanpopo Working Group (PI: Prof. Akihiko Yamagishi) for their helpful discussion. [1] K. Kobayashi, et al., in ``Astrobiology: from Simple Molecules to Primitive Life,'' ed. by V. Basiuk, American Scientific Publishers, Valencia, CA, (2010), pp. 175-186. [2] K. Kobayashi, et al., Trans. Jpn. Soc. Aero. Space Sci., in press (2012).

Kobayashi, Kensei; Kaneko, Takeo; Mita, Hajime; Obayashi, Yumiko; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Sarker, Palash K.; Kawamoto, Yukinori; Okabe, Takuto; Eto, Midori; Kanda, Kazuhiro

2012-07-01

77

Altered expression patterns of lipid metabolism genes in an animal model of HCV core-related, nonobese, modest hepatic steatosis  

PubMed Central

Background Because the gene expression patterns of nonobese hepatic steatosis in affected patients remain unclear, we sought to explore these patterns using an animal model of nonobese hepatic steatosis. Methods We developed mice that conditionally express the hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein regulated by the tetracycline transactivator (tTA). Microarray analyses and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction were performed using liver samples of both the double transgenic mice (DTM), which express both the HCV core and tTA, and single transgenic mice (STM), which express tTA alone, at 2 months of age. Functional categories of genes with altered expression were classified using gene ontology programs. Serum glucose, lipid levels, and systemic blood pressure were also measured. Results Approximately 20–30% of hepatocytes from the DTM were steatotic. No significant differences were observed in the serum glucose, lipid content, or blood pressure levels between the DTM and STM. Gene expression analyses revealed Sterol-regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) pathway activation and dysregulation of the following genes involved in lipid metabolism: 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase 1, Apolipoprotein AII, Apolipoprotein CI, acyl-CoA thioesterase I, and fatty acid binding protein 1; in mitochondrial function: solute carrier family 25 member 25 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II; in immune reaction: complement component 3, lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus A, lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus C, lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus D, and lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus E. Conclusion Some genes of lipid metabolism, mitochondrial function, and immune reaction and the SREBP pathway are involved in HCV core-related, nonobese, modest hepatic steatosis. PMID:18307821

Chang, Ming-Ling; Yeh, Chau-Ting; Chen, Jeng-Chang; Huang, Chau-Chun; Lin, Shi-Ming; Sheen, I-Shyan; Tai, Dar-In; Chu, Chia-Ming; Lin, Wei-Pin; Chang, Ming-Yu; Liang, Chun-Kai; Chiu, Cheng-Tang; Lin, Deng-Yn

2008-01-01

78

Microbial response to the effect of quantity and quality soil organic matter alteration after laboratory heating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire-induced soil changes influence indirectly on soil microbial response, mainly due to pH increases and organic matter alterations. Partial carbon combustion can originate both, an increase in microbial activity due to dissolved organic carbon increases (Bárcenas-Moreno and Bååth, 2099, Bárcenas-Moreno et al., 2011), as well as limitation of microbial growth, either due to diminution of some fractions of organic matter (Fernández et al., 1997) or due to the formation of toxic compounds (Widden and Parkinson, 1975; Diaz-Raviña et al., 1996). The magnitude or direction of these changes is conditioned mainly by fire intensity and plant species, so forest with different vegetation could promote different quantity and quality alterations of soil organic matter after fire which leads to different soil microbial response. The objective of this work was to differentiate between the effect of reduction of carbon content and the presence of substances with inhibitory effect on soil microorganisms, inoculating microorganisms from an unaltered forest area on heated soil extract-based culture media. Soil collected from two different vegetation forest, pine (P) and oak (O) forests, with similar soil characteristics was sieved and heated at 450 °C in a muffle furnace. Heated and unheated soil was used to prepare culture media resulting in different treatments: pine unheated (PUH), pine heated at 450 °C (P450), Oak unheated (OUH) and oak heated at 450 °C (O450). To isolate inhibition of microbial proliferation and nutrient limitation, different nutritive supplements were added to the media, obtaining two levels of nutrient status for each media described above: no nutrients added (-) and nutrients added (+). Colony forming units (CFU) were enumerated as estimation of viable and cultivable microbial abundance and soil parameters characterization was also realized. Significant differences were found between CFU isolated using heated and unheated soil extract-based media, independent of the nutrients status, evidencing the existence of some inhibitory factor in heated soil. Culture media made with soil extract from heated pine forest soil showed most marked decrease from microbial abundance than oak forest soil-based media, with and without nutrients. This preliminary study evidences that not only carbon content diminution limits microbial proliferation after fire, but pyrogenic compounds could be inducing negative effect on soil microorganisms. In addition, the identification of plant species which promote more intense inhibitory effect can involve an important tool after a wildfire for possible human decision related to forest management.

Bárcenas-Moreno, G.; Escalante, E.; Pérez-Bejarano, A.; Zavala, L. M.; Jordán, A.

2012-04-01

79

Alteration of neuronal cytoskeletal organization in dorsal root ganglia associated with pyridoxine neurotoxicity.  

PubMed

The pathogenesis of the sensory neurotoxicity arising from high doses of pyridoxine is obscure. Beagle dogs were fed 200 mg pyridoxine/kg per day and killed at 4, 10, 14 and 16 days. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and their processes were processed for electron microscopy and teased-fiber preparation following perfusion of anesthetized animals with heparinized saline and a fixative solution of 3% paraformaldehyde, 1% glutaraldehyde. Four days after initiation of treatment a striking accumulation of neurofilament (NF) in proximal unmyelinated axons of the DRG was observed. Domains of altered NF cytoskeleton consisting of well-demarcated zones of higher packing density and anomalous orientation were observed, mainly in the myelinated part of the DRG segment. In addition, aggregates of microtubules (MT) were noted. In the cyton the Golgi complexes were abundant and the Nissl bodies together with the NF appeared increased in numbers. At 10 days NF and MT aggregations were readily apparent in both perikarya and proximal cell processes. This phenomena was diminished in the 14- and 16-day-treated animals and retrogressive histological features appeared in the soma and in axons. Degeneration of NF with subsequent reduction in size of the axonal swellings and axonal breakdown with phagocytosis were prominent in central and peripheral processes of DRG. Cytons distended by NF were less prominent. Necrotizing changes, evidenced by disruption of the soma with the proliferation of satellite cells, were present. These results indicate that an early morphological correlate of pyridoxine neurotoxicity is the accumulation of NF with MT-NF dissociation in the unipolar process of the DRG in the absence of extensive vacuolization, and that the observed cytoskeletal disruption may be related to an increased rate of NF protein synthesis together with mechanical obstruction of transport phenomena. PMID:3394495

Montpetit, V J; Clapin, D F; Tryphonas, L; Dancea, S

1988-01-01

80

Evaluation of organic, conventional and intensive beef farm systems: health, management and animal production.  

PubMed

The overall aim of the present study was to analyse and compare organic beef cattle farming in Spain with intensive and conventional systems. An on-farm study comparing farm management practices and animal health was carried out. The study also focussed on a slaughterhouse analysis by comparing impacts on the safety and quality of the cattle products. Twenty-four organic and 26 conventional farms were inspected, and farmers responded to a questionnaire that covered all basic data on their husbandry practices, farm management, veterinary treatments and reproductive performance during 2007. Furthermore, data on the hygiene and quality of 244, 2596 and 3021 carcasses of calves from organic, intensive and conventional farms, respectively, were retrieved from the official yearbook (2007) of a slaughterhouse. Differences found between organic and conventional farms across the farm analysis did not substantially reflect differences between both farm types in the predominant diseases that usually occur on beef cattle farms. However, calves reared organically presented fewer condemnations at slaughter compared with intensive and to a lesser extent with conventionally reared calves. Carcass performance also reflected differences between farm type and breed and was not necessarily better in organic farms. PMID:23031524

Blanco-Penedo, I; López-Alonso, M; Shore, R F; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L

2012-09-01

81

Diagenetic alterations of amino acids and organic matter in the upper Pearl River Estuary surface sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to investigate the diagenetic alteration of sediment organic matter (OM) in the upper Pearl River Estuary. Sediment analyses were conducted for three size fractions of OM, including coarse particulate OM (CPOM), fine particulate OM (FPOM), and ultrafiltered dissolved OM (UDOM). Results showed that the highest and lowest carbon (C): nitrogen (N) ratios were in CPOM and UDOM, respectively, indicating that CPOM was relatively enriched in organic C. The highest average total N content in the FPOM fraction showed that FPOM was enriched in N-containing molecules. Our study showed that the "size-reactivity continuum" model was applicable to sediment particulate and dissolved OM. Distributions of amino acids and their D-isomers among the sediment fractions indicated that the amino acid-based diagenetic index, C:N ratio, and percentage of total N represented by total hydrolysable amino acids could be used as diagenetic indicators. Furthermore, the diagenetic state of sediment OM could also be characterized by C- and N-normalized yields of total D-amino acids, and C- and N-normalized yields of D-alanine, D-glutamic acid, and D-serine.

Zhang, J.; Zhang, R.; Wu, Q.; Xu, N.

2012-01-01

82

Alteration of organic matter during infaunal polychaete gut passage and links to sediment organic geochemistry. Part I: Amino acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of the factors which control the quantity and composition of organic matter (OM) buried in marine sediments, the links between infaunal ingestion and gut passage and sediment geochemistry have received relatively little attention. This study aimed to use feeding experiments and novel isotope tracing techniques to quantify amino acid net accumulation and loss during polychaete gut passage, and to link this to patterns of selective preservation and decay in sediments. Microcosms containing either Arenicolamarina or Hediste (formerly Nereis) diversicolor were constructed from defaunated sediment and filtered estuarine water, and maintained under natural temperature and light conditions. They were fed with 13C-labelled diatoms daily for 8 days, and animals were transferred into fresh, un-labelled sediment after ?20 days. Samples of fauna, microcosm sediment and faecal matter were collected after 8, ?20 and ?40 days, and analysed for their bulk isotopic signatures and 13C-labelled amino acid compositions. Bulk isotopic data showed that, consistent with their feeding modes, Hediste assimilated added 13C more quickly, and attained a higher labelling level than Arenicola. Both species retained the added 13C in their biomass even after removal from the food. A principal component analysis of 13C-labelled amino acid mole percentages showed clear differences in composition between the algae, faunal tissues, and sediment plus faecal matter. Further, the two species of polychaete showed different compositions in their tissues. The amino acids phenylalanine, valine, leucine, iso-leucine, threonine and proline showed net accumulation in polychaete tissues. Serine, methionine, lysine, aspartic and glutamic acids and tyrosine were rapidly lost through metabolism, consistent with their presence in easily digestible cell components (as opposed to cell walls which offer physical protection). All sample types (polychaete tissues, sediments and faecal matter) were enriched in labelled glycine. Possible mechanisms for this enrichment include accumulation through inclusion in tissues with long residence times, preferential preservation (i.e. selection against) during metabolism, production from other labelled amino acids during varied metabolic processes, and accumulation in refractory by-products of secondary bacterial production. Overall, similarities were observed between amino-acid decay patterns in faunated microcosms, afaunal controls, and those previously reported in marine sediments. Thus, while polychaete gut passage did produce compound-selective accumulation and losses of certain amino acids in polychaete tissues and faecal matter, the impact of polychaete gut passage on sediment organic geochemistry was difficult to deconvolve from microbial decay. Despite processing large volumes of organic matter, polychaetes may not have distinctive influence on sediment compositions, possibly because metabolic processes concerning amino acids may be broadly similar across a wide range of organisms.

Woulds, Clare; Middelburg, Jack J.; Cowie, Greg L.

2012-01-01

83

Ethanol alters gene expression and cell organization during optic vesicle evagination  

PubMed Central

Ethanol has been described as a teratogen in vertebrate development. During early stages of brain formation, ethanol affects the evagination of the optic vesicles, resulting in synophthalmia or cyclopia, phenotypes where the optic vesicles partially or totally fuse. The mechanisms by which ethanol affects the morphogenesis of the optic vesicles are however largely unknown. In this study we make use of in situ hybridization, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry to show that ethanol has profound effects on cell organization and gene expression during the evagination of the optic vesicles. Exposure to ethanol during early eye development alters the expression patterns of some genes known to be important for eye morphogenesis, such as rx3/1 and six3a. Furthermore, exposure to ethanol interferes with the acquisition of neuroepithelial features by the eye field cells, which is clear at ultrastructual level. Indeed, ethanol disrupts the acquisition of fusiform cellular shapes within the eye field. In addition, tight junctions do not form and retinal progenitors do not properly polarize, as suggested by the mis-localization and down-regulation of zo1. We also show that the ethanol-induced cyclopic phenotype is significantly different to that observed in cyclopic mutants, suggesting a complex effect of ethanol on a variety of targets. Our results show that ethanol not only disrupts the expression pattern of genes involved in retinal morphogenesis, such as rx3 and rx1, but also disrupts the changes in cell polarity that normally occur during eye field splitting. Thus, ethylic teratology seems to be related not only to modifications in gene expression and cell death but also to alterations in cell morphology. PMID:23892006

Santos-Ledo, A.; Cavodeassi, F.; Carreño, H.; Aijón, J.; Arévalo, R.

2013-01-01

84

Maternal dietary intake alters organ mass and endocrine and metabolic profiles in pregnant ewe lambs.  

PubMed

To determine the impacts of Se supply and maternal dietary intake on ewe organ mass and endocrine and metabolic changes throughout gestation, pregnant first parity ewes (n=77) were allocated to 6 treatments in a 2×3 factorial array. Factors included Se [adequate Se (ASe; 9.5?g/kg BW) vs. high Se (HSe; 81.8?g/kg BW)] initiated at breeding and dietary intake [60% (RES), 100% (CON), or 140% (EXC) of requirements] initiated on d 50 of gestation. Ewes were individually fed and blood samples from the jugular vein were obtained approximately every 14 d from d 50 until parturition. Maternal Se supply did not impact endocrine or metabolic status. There was a nutritional intake by day interaction for NEFA, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), insulin, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), progesterone (P4), and estradiol-17? (E2). As expected, with increased maternal intake, NEFA concentrations were reduced. During the last weeks of gestation, BUN and insulin were elevated in EXC compared with RES ewes. Although the pattern of T3 and T4 differed throughout gestation within a treatment group, as maternal intake increased, circulating T3 and T4 were increased. For P4 and E2, as maternal dietary intake increased, there was a reduction in the steroid concentrations in jugular blood. There was only a main effect of maternal nutrition (P<0.001) for cortisol concentrations with EXC ewes having greater concentrations than RES and CON ewes, which did not differ. Although Se is known to influence thyroid hormone metabolism, supranutritional levels during pregnancy did not alter circulating T3 and T4 concentrations. Alterations in maternal endocrine status may have influenced placental transport of nutrients to the developing fetus, which we have shown previously is affected by maternal dietary Se and intake. In addition, the alterations in mammary gland weight that we observed may explain the impact of maternal nutrition on mammary gland function and colostrum production, thereby further impairing growth of developing neonates. PMID:23981299

Vonnahme, K A; Neville, T L; Perry, G A; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S

2013-10-01

85

Templates of food–habitat resources for the organization of soil animals in temperate and tropical forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functioning and structure of terrestrial ecosystems are shaped and maintained by plant–decomposer interactions. The food and habitat of animal populations are biogenic and are mainly of plant origin (plant litter) in terrestrial ecosystems. Primary resources of the food-habitat template for the organization of soil animals are provided by the primary production of plants, and are then modified through decomposition

Hiroshi Takeda; Takuya Abe

2001-01-01

86

Altered microbiota associated with abnormal humoral immune responses to commensal organisms in enthesitis-related arthritis.  

PubMed

IntroductionPrior studies have established altered microbiota and immunologic reactivity to enteric commensal organisms in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Since intestinal inflammation is present in a subset of patients with both pediatric and adult spondyloarthritis (SpA), we hypothesized that SpA patients may also have altered microbiota and immune responsiveness to enteric organisms.MethodsStool and blood specimens were collected from children with enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA) and non-inflammatory controls. DNA purified from stool was subject to PCR amplification and sequencing of the variable IV region from the 16S rDNA gene. IgA and IgG Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) were performed on select species of bacteria in most subjects.ResultsTwenty-five children with ERA and 13 controls were included. The ERA patients had less Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (3.8% versus 10%, P =0.008) and lachnospiraceae family (12 versus 7.0%, P =0.020), a statistically significant increase in bifidobacterium (1.8% versus 0%, P =0.032) and a non-statistically significant increase in Bacteroides (21% versus 11%, P =0.150). Akkermansia muciniphila was abundant (>2%) in 7/27 ERA patients but none of the controls (P =0.072.) Cluster analysis revealed two clusters of ERA patients: Cluster one (n =8) was characterized by high levels of Bacteroides genus, while a second (n =15) cluster had similar levels as the controls. Seven of 17 (41%) of the ERA subjects in Cluster 2 compared to 0/8 of the subjects in Cluster 1 had abundant Akkermansia muciniphila (P =0.057). Serum IgA and IgG antibody levels against F. prausnitzii and B. fragilis were similar between patients and controls, whereas the two groups showed divergent responses when the fecal relative abundances of F. prausnitzii and Bacteroides were compared individually against IgA antibody levels recognizing F. prausnitzii and B. fragilis, respectively.ConclusionThe abundance of F. prausnitzii in the stool among patients with ERA is reduced compared to controls, and Bacteroides and A. muciniphila are identified as associative agents in subsets of ERA patients. Differences in the humoral responses to these bacteria may contribute to disease. PMID:25434931

Stoll, Matthew L; Kumar, Ranjit; Morrow, Casey D; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Cui, Xiangqin; Genin, Anna; Cron, Randy Q; Elson, Charles O

2014-11-30

87

Habitat Alteration  

E-print Network

Habitat alteration is a change in land use or land cover that has an impact on local ecosystems. Plants and animals live in specific places that have the conditions of climate and food resources needed for survival. Habitats

unknown authors

88

Solid sampling in analysis of animal organs by two-jet plasma atomic emission spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of high-power two-jet plasma capabilities for the direct multi-elemental analysis of animal organs was undertaken. The experimental conditions chosen allow the direct analysis of different animal organs after drying and grinding to powder (particle size 20-200 ?m). It was found that evaporation efficiency of the samples depends on the particle size and thermal stability of tissues and can be improved by reduction of a carrier gas flow. Calibration samples based on graphite powder and a tenfold dilution of powdered samples with buffer (graphite powder containing 15% NaCl) were used. 5-10 mg of the sample was quite enough to get the detection limits of elements at the level of 0.1-10 ?g g - 1 . A prior carbonization procedure (not ashing) makes it possible to decrease the detection limits of elements by an order of magnitude. The validation of the techniques was confirmed by the analysis of certified reference materials NIST 8414, BCR 278R and NCS ZC 81001 as well as by using different sample preparation procedures.

Zaksas, Natalia P.; Nevinsky, Georgy A.

2011-11-01

89

Congenital foot deformation alters the topographic organization in the primate somatosensory system.  

PubMed

Limbs may fail to grow properly during fetal development, but the extent to which such growth alters the nervous system has not been extensively explored. Here we describe the organization of the somatosensory system in a 6-year-old monkey (Macaca radiata) born with a deformed left foot in comparison to the results from a normal monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Toes 1, 3, and 5 were missing, but the proximal parts of toes 2 and 4 were present. We used anatomical tracers to characterize the patterns of peripheral input to the spinal cord and brainstem, as well as between thalamus and cortex. We also determined the somatotopic organization of primary somatosensory area 3b of both hemispheres using multiunit electrophysiological recording. Tracers were subcutaneously injected into matching locations of each foot to reveal their representations within the lumbar spinal cord, and the gracile nucleus (GrN) of the brainstem. Tracers injected into the representations of the toes and plantar pads of cortical area 3b labeled neurons in the ventroposterior lateral nucleus (VPL) of the thalamus. Contrary to the orderly arrangement of the foot representation throughout the lemniscal pathway in the normal monkey, the plantar representation of the deformed foot was significantly expanded and intruded into the expected representations of toes in the spinal cord, GrN, VPL, and area 3b. We also observed abnormal representation of the intact foot in the ipsilateral spinal cord and contralateral area 3b. Thus, congenital malformation influences the somatotopic representation of the deformed as well as the intact foot. PMID:25326245

Liao, Chia-Chi; Qi, Hui-Xin; Reed, Jamie L; Miller, Daniel J; Kaas, Jon H

2014-10-18

90

Stable carbon isotope compositions during the thermal alteration of organic matter  

SciTech Connect

The use of the amount and carbon isotopic composition of methane as a maturation index was tested by pyrolysis of sedimentary organic carbon (kerogen) at 600 C. The parameters used to describe the maturity are CMR (CH{sub 4}-C/kerogen carbon) and the {Delta}{sup 13}C ({delta}{sup 13}C{sub CH4-} {delta}{sup 13}C{sub OC}). With increasing maturities, smaller amounts of methane are generated and there is a decrease in the fraction between methane and the parent carbon. The pyrolysis of Bakken shale samples, with varying maturities, show high correlation coefficients between the CMR and {Delta}{sup 13}C vs. the atomic H/C ratios (r = +0.91 and {minus}0.89 respectively) which indicates that each of these parameters, independently, can be used as a maturity index. The Bakken shale pyrolysis experiments also show that methane generated from the most thermally altered samples is up to 2% heavier than the parent carbon. In addition, methane-CO{sub 2} exchange experiments, at 600 C, show a shift toward heavier methane values after heating of CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} for 504 hrs. The isotopic composition of methane formed under high temperature regimes may be determined by exchange reactions if any CO{sub 2} is present. For these reasons, it becomes difficult to use carbon isotope compositions of methane to distinguish between thermogenic and mantle methane without any other supporting evidence. The effect of metagenesis on the isotopic composition of organic carbon was determined for a suite kerogen samples from the Cape Verde Rise, DSDP Leg 41, Site 386. With increasing maturities, the {delta}{sup 13}C-OC values are heavier due to a loss of lighter carbon in the form of methane. This is shown by a decrease in the carbon mole ratio, with increasing maturities.

Conkright, M.E.

1989-01-01

91

Role of the prefrontal cortex in altered hippocampal-accumbens synaptic plasticity in a developmental animal model of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is characterized by alterations in cortico-limbic processes believed to involve modifications in activity within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the hippocampus. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) integrates information from these 2 brain regions and is involved in cognitive and psychomotor functions that are disrupted in schizophrenia, indicating an important role for this structure in the pathophysiology of this disorder. In this study, we used in vivo electrophysiological recordings from the NAc and the PFC of adult rats and the MAM developmental disruption rodent model of schizophrenia to explore the influence of the medial PFC on the hippocampal-accumbens pathway. We found that, in MAM-treated rats, tetanization of hippocampal inputs to the NAc produce opposite synaptic plasticity compared with controls, which is a consequence of alterations in the hippocampal-mPFC pathway. Moreover, we show that administration of the D2-receptor-blocking antipsychotic drug sulpiride either systemically or directly into the mPFC reverses the alterations in the MAM rat. Therefore, specific disruptions in cortical and hippocampal inputs in the MAM-treated rat abnormally alter plasticity in subcortical structures. Moreover, our results suggest that, in the presence of antipsychotic drugs, the disrupted plasticities are normalized, supporting a role for this mechanism in antipsychotic drug action in schizophrenia. PMID:23236209

Belujon, Pauline; Patton, Mary H; Grace, Anthony A

2014-04-01

92

Bio-organic reaction animations (BioORA): student performance, student perceptions, and instructor feedback.  

PubMed

Research shows that computer animations are especially helpful in fields such as chemistry and in this mixed-methods study, we investigate the educational effectiveness of Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA), a 3-D software, in four undergraduate biochemistry classes at different universities. Statistically significant findings indicate that students performed better on a quiz completed after a lesson with BioORA than after a lesson with regular teaching methods in three out of four classes. Ratings on several survey items completed after experiencing BioORA, including items related to interest, value, and ability, were higher in two classes. Surveys and one-on-one interviews reveal instructor and student experiences with the software as well as the utility of various software features, which can be adopted in other programs. Instructors and students provide suggestions to maximize BioORA's benefits as an educational tool and findings suggest the importance of multiple forms of information to enhance student understanding and reach students with various learning preferences. PMID:24535982

Gunersel, Adalet Baris; Fleming, Steven

2014-01-01

93

Altered regulation of protein kinase a activity in the medial prefrontal cortex of normal and brain-injured animals actively engaged in a working memory task.  

PubMed

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) signaling is required for short- and long-term memory. In contrast, enhanced PKA activity has been shown to impair working memory, a prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent, transient form of memory critical for cognition and goal-directed behaviors. Working memory can be impaired after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the absence of overt damage to the PFC. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to this deficit are largely unknown. In the present study, we examined whether altered PKA signaling in the PFC as a result of TBI is a contributing mechanism. We measured PKA activity in medial PFC (mPFC) tissue homogenates prepared from sham and 14-day postinjury rats. PKA activity was measured both when animals were inactive and when actively engaged in a spatial working memory task. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that PKA activity in the mPFC is actively suppressed in uninjured animals performing a working memory task. By comparison, both basal and working memory-related PKA activity was elevated in TBI animals. Inhibition of PKA activity by intra-mPFC administration of Rp-cAMPS into TBI animals had no influence on working memory performance 30?min postinfusion, but significantly improved working memory when tested 24?h later. This improvement was associated with reduced glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 messenger RNA levels. Taken together, these results suggest that TBI-associated working memory dysfunction may result, in part, from enhanced PKA activity, possibly leading to altered expression of plasticity-related genes in the mPFC. PMID:25027811

Kobori, Nobuhide; Moore, Anthony N; Dash, Pramod K

2015-01-15

94

Transgenic Mice Expressing an Altered Murine Superoxide Dismutase Gene Provide an Animal Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis isaprogres- sive neurodegenerative disorder primarily involving motoneu- rons. A subset ofindividuals withfamilial autosomal domi- nantformsofthedisease havemutations ofthecopper\\/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu\\/ZnSOD,SOD-1)gene, which encodes aubiquitously expressed enzyme that plays akeyrole inoxygen free radical scavenging. Thisobservation suggests that altered orreduced SOD-1activity mayplayarole inthe neurodegenerative process. Toexplore this possibility further, wehaveintroduced amutation intothemouseSOD-1gene thatcorresponds tooneofthechanges foundinthehuman geneinfamilial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Integration

MICHAEL E. RIPps; PATRICK R. HOFt

1995-01-01

95

Transgenic mice expressing an altered murine superoxide dismutase gene provide an animal model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder primarily involving motoneurons. A subset of individuals with familial autosomal dominant forms of the disease have mutations of the copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD, SOD-1) gene, which encodes a ubiquitously expressed enzyme that plays a key role in oxygen free radical scavenging. This observation suggests that altered or reduced SOD-1 activity may play a role in the neurodegenerative process. To explore this possibility further, we have introduced a mutation into the mouse SOD-1 gene that corresponds to one of the changes found in the human gene in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Integration and expression of this mouse gene in transgenic mice was identified by the presence of a unique restriction enzyme site in the transgene coding sequence generated by introduction of the mutation. We report here that high expression of this altered gene in the central nervous systems of transgenic mice is associated with an age-related rapidly progressive decline of motor function accompanied by degenerative changes of motoneurons within the spinal cord, brain stem, and neocortex. These findings indicate a causative relationship between altered SOD activity and motoneuron degeneration. Moreover, biochemical studies indicate normal levels of total SOD activity in transgenic mouse tissues, results that indicate that the neurodegenerative disorder does not result from a diminution of activity and, as such, represents a dominant "gain of function" mutation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7846037

Ripps, M E; Huntley, G W; Hof, P R; Morrison, J H; Gordon, J W

1995-01-01

96

Melittin ameliorates the inflammation of organs in an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis animal model.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a selective loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brainstem, and motor cortex, leading to weakness of the limb and bulbar muscles. Although the immediate cause of death in ALS is the destruction of motor neurons, ALS is a multi-organ disease that also affects the lungs, spleen, and liver. Melittin is one of components of bee venom and has anti-neuroinflammatory effects in the spinal cord, as shown in an ALS animal model. To investigate the effects of melittin on inflammation in the lungs and spleen, we used hSOD1(G93A) transgenic mice that are mimic for ALS. Melittin treatment reduced the expression of inflammatory proteins, including Iba-1 and CD14 by 1.9- and 1.3-fold (p<0.05), respectively, in the lungs of symptomatic hSOD1(G93A) transgenic mice. In the spleen, the expression of CD14 and COX2 that are related to inflammation were decreased by 1.4 fold (p<0.05) and cell survival proteins such as pERK and Bcl2 were increased by 1.3- and 1.5-fold (p<0.05) in the melittin-treated hSOD1G93A transgenic mice. These findings suggest that melittin could be a candidate to regulate the immune system in organs affected by ALS. PMID:24737943

Lee, Sun-Hwa; Choi, Sun-Mi; Yang, Eun Jin

2014-03-01

97

Analysis of the oxyR-ahpC region in isoniazid-resistant and -susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms recovered from diseased humans and animals in diverse localities.  

PubMed Central

Automated DNA sequencing was used to analyze the oxyR-ahpC region in 229 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates recently recovered from diseased humans and animals. The entire 1,221-bp region was studied in 118 isolates, and 111 other isolates were sequenced for oxyR, ahpC, or the 105-bp oxyR-ahpC intergenic region. The sample included isoniazid (INH)-susceptible and -resistant organisms in which the katG gene and inhA locus had previously been sequenced in their entirety to identify polymorphisms. A total of 16 polymorphic sites was identified, including 5 located in oxyR, 2 in ahpC, and 9 in the 105-bp intergenic region. All polymorphic sites located in the intergenic region, and the two missense substitutions identified in ahpC, occurred in INH-resistant organisms. In contrast, there was no preferential association of polymorphisms in oxyR, a pseudogene, with INH-resistant organisms. Surprisingly, most INH-resistant strains with KatG codon 315 substitutions that substantially reduce catalase-peroxidase activity and confer high MICs of INH lacked alterations in the ahpC gene or oxyR-ahpC intervening region. Taken together, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that some polymorphisms located in the ahpC-oxyR intergenic region are selected for after reduction in catalase or peroxidase activity attributable to katG alterations arising with INH therapy. These mutations are uncommon in recently recovered clinically significant organisms, and hence, there is no strict association with INH-resistant patient isolates. The ahpC compensatory mutations are apparently uncommon because strains with a KatG null phenotype are relatively rare among epidemiologically independent INH-resistant organisms. PMID:9056000

Sreevatsan, S; Pan, X; Zhang, Y; Deretic, V; Musser, J M

1997-01-01

98

NMR studies on the chemical alteration of soil organic matter precursors during controlled charring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beside the production of volatiles, vegetation fire transforms various amounts of labile organic components into recalcitrant dark colored and highly aromatic structures. They are incorporated into soils and are assumed to represent an important sink within the global carbon cycle. In order to elucidate the real importance of PyOM as a C-sink, a good understanding of its chemistry is crucial. Although several 'Black Carbon' (BC) models are reported, a commonly accepted view of the chemistry involved in its formation is still missing. Its biogeochemical recalcitrance is commonly associated with a highly condensed aromatic structure. However, recent studies indicated that this view may be oversimplified for PyOM derived from vegetation fire. In order to bring some more light on the structural properties of PyOM produced during vegetation fire, charred plant residues and model chars derived from typical plant macromolecules (casein, cellulose, lignin and condensed tannins) were subjected to controlled charring under oxic conditions (350°C and 450°C) and then characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Subsequently, the chemical features of the PyOM were related to its chemical recalcitrance as determined by chemical oxidation with acid potassium dichromate. Charring cellulose (350°C, 8 min) yielded in a low C-recovery (11%). Treating casein in the same way resulted in a survival of 62% of its C and 46% of its N. Comparable high C-recoveries are reported for lignin. After charring Lolium perenne, 34% of its N and C were recovered. NMR-spectroscopic studies revealed that for this sample most of the charred N and C occurred in pyrrole-type structures. Our studies further indicate that the aromatic skeleton of char accumulating after a vegetation fire must contain remains of the lignin backbone and considerable contributions of furans and anhydrosugars from thermally altered cellulose. Enhancing the temperature during the charring of casein to 450°C decreased the C and N recovery to 30% and 23%, respectively. Comparably the C, O and H recovery were also reduced in the cellulose char, but to a considerably higher extent. These changes went along with a further augmentation of the relative contribution of aromatic C. Increased C, H and O losses were also observed for charring of lignin at higher temperature, although they were smaller than those observed for casein and cellulose. The higher temperature considerably altered the chemistry of the lignin char. The atomic H/C ratio, however, remained above 0.5 showing that in average at least every second C is protonated. Subjecting the produced chars to chemical oxidation with acid potassium dichromate clearly demonstrated that the resistance of the casein chars against heat is not necessarily related to chemical recalcitrance. For the char produced at 350°C, only 13% of the C and N remained in the oxidation residues, whereas for that produced at 450°C this value increased to 80%. In contrast, both cellulose chars showed high chemical resistance with a C-survival of more than 80%. Comparatively, the C and N recalcitrance in the grass chars increased with temperature, whereas, the burned wood residues (350°C) suffered an almost complete oxidation. The chars from condensed tannins, on the other hand showed a high chemical resistance independently from the production temperature. In summary, this study confirmed that the thermal, chemical and biological recalcitrance of biochars is related to their chemical structures and N-contents, which on the other hand depend on the source and the respective charring conditions. The resulting high chemical variability of biochars is in accordance with the concept of BC as a continuum and explains the high discrepancy among BC quantifications obtained with common approaches assuming BC as a highly condensed polyaromatic network.

Knicker, Heike

2010-05-01

99

Experimental snowpack reduction alters organic matter and net N mineralization potential of soil macroaggregates in a northern hardwood forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is predicted to reduce or delay annual wintertime snow pack formation in the forests of the northeastern US.\\u000a Any delay in snowpack formation could increase soil freezing in winter and, thereby, alter soil characteristics and processes.\\u000a We examined the hypothesis that delayed snowpack would disrupt soil structure and change organic matter bioavailability in\\u000a an experimental snow removal study

J. Megan Steinweg; Melany C. Fisk; Benjamin McAlexander; Peter M. Groffman; Janet P. Hardy

2008-01-01

100

Laboratory simulated hydrothermal alteration of sedimentary organic matter from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. Ph.D. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High temperature alteration of sedimentary organic matter associated with marine hydrothermal systems involves complex physical and chemical processes that are not easily measured in most natural systems. Many of these processes can be evaluated indirectly by examining the geochemistry of the hydrothermal system in the laboratory. In this investigation, an experimental organic geochemical approach to studying pyrolysis of sedimentary organic matter is applied to the hydrothermal system in the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. A general survey of hydrothermal oils and extractable organic matter (bitumen) in hydrothermally altered sediments identified several homologous series of alkanones associated with a high temperature hydrothermal origin. The alkanones range in carbon number from C11 to C30 with no carbon number preference. Alkan-2-ones are in highest concentrations, with lower amounts of 3-, 4-, 5- (and higher) homologs. The alkanones appear to be pyrolysis products synthesized under extreme hydrothermal conditions. Hydrous pyrolysis and confinement pyrolysis experiments were performed to simulate thermally enhanced diagenetic and catagenetic changes in the immature sedimentary organic matter. The extent of alteration was measured by monitoring the n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, steroid and triterpenoid biomarkers, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanones. The results were compared to bitumen extracts from sediments which have been naturally altered by a sill intrusion and accompanied hydrothermal fluid flow. These pyrolysis experiments duplicated many of the organic matter transformations observed in the natural system. Full hopane and sterane maturation occurred after 48 hr in experiments at 330 deg C with low water/rock mass ratios (0.29). A variety of radical and ionic reactions are responsible for the organic compound conversions which occur under extreme hydrothermal conditions. Short duration pyrolysis experiments revealed that a portion of the hydrocarbons generated from kerogen was observed to go through alkene intermediates, and the rate of alkene isomerization was influenced by the ionic strength and catalytic mineral phases. Confinement of the organic pyrolysate to the bulk sediment accelerated the rates of the biomarker epimerization reactions, suggesting that these reactions are influenced strongly by the association of the inorganic matrix, and that the relative rates of some ionic and radical reactions can be influenced by the water/rock ratio during the pyrolysis experiments.

Leif, Roald N.

1993-01-01

101

Altered voltage dependent calcium currents in a neuronal cell line derived from the cerebral cortex of a trisomy 16 fetal mouse, an animal model of Down syndrome.  

PubMed

Human Down syndrome (DS) is determined by the trisomy of autosome 21 and is expressed by multiple abnormalities, being mental retardation the most striking feature. The condition results in altered electrical membrane properties (EMPs) of fetal neurons, which are qualitatively identical to those of trisomy 16 fetal mice (Ts16), an animal model of the human condition. Ts16 hippocampal cultured neurons reportedly exhibit increased voltage-dependent calcium currents (I (Ca)) amplitude. Since Ts16 animals are unviable, we have established immortalized cell lines from the cerebral cortex of Ts16 (named CTb) and normal littermates (named CNh). Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we have now studied I (Ca) in CTb and CNh cells. Current activation occurs at -40 mV in both cell lines (V (holding) = -80 mV). Trisomic cells exhibited a 2.4 fold increase in the maximal Ca(2+) current density compared to normal cells (CNh = -6.3 ± 0.77 pA/pF, n = 18; CTb = -16.4 ± 2.423 pA/pF; P < 0.01, n = 13). Time dependent kinetics for activation and inactivation did not differ between the two cell types. However, steady state inactivation studies revealed a 15 mV shift toward more depolarized potentials in the trisomic condition, suggesting that altered voltage dependence of inactivation may underlie the increased current density. Further, the total charge movement across the membrane is increased in CTb cells, in agreement with that expected by the potential sensitivity shift. These results indicate that CTb cells present altered Ca(2+) currents, similar to those of Ts16 primary cultured central neurons. The CTb cell line represents a model for studying DS-related impairments of EMPs. PMID:22203612

Acuña, Mario A; Pérez-Nuñez, Ramón; Noriega, Jorge; Cárdenas, Ana María; Bacigalupo, Juan; Delgado, Ricardo; Arriagada, Christian; Segura-Aguilar, Juan; Caviedes, Raúl; Caviedes, Pablo

2012-07-01

102

Hyper-phosphorylation of GSK-3?: possible roles in chlorpyrifos-induced behavioral alterations in animal model of depression.  

PubMed

In recent years, the widespread use of chlorpyrifos (CPF) has aroused concerns regarding its potential neurotoxic effects, especially in developing individuals. One of the major consequences of CPF exposure is mood disorders such as depression. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated susceptibility to depression in populations with a history of CPF exposure. Our previous study indicated that repeated CPF exposure in doses from 10 to 160 mg/kg elicits depression- and anxiety-like alterations. However, whether this alteration is due to persistent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was not determined. In this study, we used lower doses of CPF to avoid evident inhibition of AChE to investigate other potential target systems that contribute to CPF's neurotoxic effect. Four-week-old adolescent male rats were repeatedly exposed to CPF at doses of 2.5, 5, or 10mg/kg (s.c., 10 days) and then were subjected to either neurobehavioral testing or immunoblot analysis. Depression-like behaviors as manifested by increased immobility time was observed in force swimming test, while immunoblot analysis revealed a dramatically increased phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) in the hippocampus and striatum, with no effect on the levels of Wnt2, GSK-3?, or ?-catenin. These results suggest a noncholinergic mechanism, the hyper-phosphorylation of GSK-3?, which may contribute to the cellular neurotoxicity of CPF, thus increasing the susceptibility to mood disorders. PMID:22985519

Chen, Wen-Qiang; Ma, Hao; Bian, Jia-Ming; Zhang, You-Zhi; Li, Jin

2012-10-24

103

9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.  

...be established by the research investigator or research sponsor to control disposition of all animals administered experimental...research investigator or research sponsor shall maintain...disposition of each animal administered...

2014-01-01

104

9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...be established by the research investigator or research sponsor to control disposition of all animals administered experimental...research investigator or research sponsor shall maintain...disposition of each animal administered...

2013-01-01

105

9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...be established by the research investigator or research sponsor to control disposition of all animals administered experimental...research investigator or research sponsor shall maintain...disposition of each animal administered...

2012-01-01

106

Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) Preference and Behavioral Response to Animated Images of Conspecifics Altered in Their Color, Aspect Ratio, and Swimming Depth  

PubMed Central

Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) is an example of a freshwater fish species whose remarkable diffusion outside its native range has led to it being placed on the list of the world’s hundred worst invasive alien species (International Union for Conservation of Nature). Here, we investigate mosquitofish shoaling tendency using a dichotomous choice test in which computer-animated images of their conspecifics are altered in color, aspect ratio, and swimming level in the water column. Pairs of virtual stimuli are systematically presented to focal subjects to evaluate their attractiveness and the effect on fish behavior. Mosquitofish respond differentially to some of these stimuli showing preference for conspecifics with enhanced yellow pigmentation while exhibiting highly varying locomotory patterns. Our results suggest that computer-animated images can be used to understand the factors that regulate the social dynamics of shoals of Gambusia affinis. Such knowledge may inform the design of control plans and open new avenues in conservation and protection of endangered animal species. PMID:23342131

Polverino, Giovanni; Liao, Jian Cong; Porfiri, Maurizio

2013-01-01

107

Speciation and quantification of volatile organic compounds sorbed to PM 10 fraction associated with confined animal feeding operations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Volatile organic compounds (VOC) associated with confined animal feeding operations (CAFO) is of regulatory interested due to the potential emissions of both ozone precursors compounds and hazardous air pollutants. Emissions of VOC from CAFO occur in both gaseous phase and sorption onto particulate ...

108

Cheatgrass Invasion Alters Soil Morphology and Organic Matter Dynamics in Big Sagebrush Steppe Rangelands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is an invasive annual grass that increases wildfire frequency, degrades native ecosys- tems, and threatens agriculture across vast areas of the Western United States. This research examines how cheatgrass invasion may alter physical and biological properties of soils. Proliferation of very fine roots and high production of low-quality litter by cheat- grass increases porosity and near-surface

Jay B. Norton; Thomas A. Monaco; Jeanette M. Norton; Douglas A. Johnson; Thomas A. Jones

109

Non-Invasive in vivo Mapping and Long-Term Monitoring of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Different Organs of Animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative detection of magnetic nanoparticles (MP) in vivo is very important for various biomedical applications. Our original detection method based on non-linear MP magnetization has been modified for non-invasive in vivo mapping of the MP distribution among different organs of rats. A novel highly sensitive room-temperature device equipped with an external probe has been designed and tested for quantification of MP within 20-mm depth from the animal skin. Results obtained by external in vivo scanning of rats by the probe and ex vivo MP quantification in different organs of rats well correlated. The method allows long-term in vivo study of MP evolution, clearance and redistribution among different organs of the animal. Experiments showed that dynamics in vivo strongly depend on MP characteristics (size, material, coatings, etc.), site of injection and dose. The developed detection method combined with the magnetic nanolabels can substitute the radioactive labeling in many applications.

Nikitin, Maxim; Yuriev, Mikhail; Brusentsov, Nikolai; Vetoshko, Petr; Nikitin, Petr

2010-12-01

110

Effects of biochemical alteration in animal model after short-term exposure of Jatropha curcas (Linn) leaf extract.  

PubMed

This study aims to evaluate potential toxic effect of Jatropha curcas leaves methanol extract on laboratory rats as well as determine its LD50. A total of 80 male Wistar rats were used as the experimental animals, 40 for LD50 determination and the other 40 for toxicity study. Based on the pretest that was done in order to establish a range of toxicity, 4 dosages (86.00, 58.00, 46.00, and 34.0?kg/body weight) were chosen. The rats were randomly assigned into four groups with 10 rats in each group. Rats in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were given 0?mg/kg, 500?mg/kg, 1000?mg/kg, and 2000?mg/kg body weight of Jatropha curcas extract, respectively, by oral intubation for 21 days. Thereafter, clinical signs, change in body weight, toxicity symptoms, and biochemical parameters were obtained. The LD50 at 95% confidence limits for rats was 46.0?mg/kg body weight (44.95-52.69?mg/kg body mass). There was no clinical and biochemical signs of toxicity when the extract was administered at 500, 1000, and 2000?mg/kg body weight, respectively (P > 0.05). Results obtained from this study suggest that liver, kidney, and haematological system of rats tolerated methanolic leave extract of Jatropha curcas at a certain concentration. PMID:23781161

Igbinosa, Osamuyimen O; Oviasogie, Efosa F; Igbinosa, Etinosa O; Igene, Otibhor; Igbinosa, Isoken H; Idemudia, Omoruyi G

2013-01-01

111

Effects of Biochemical Alteration in Animal Model after Short-Term Exposure of Jatropha curcas (Linn) Leaf Extract  

PubMed Central

This study aims to evaluate potential toxic effect of Jatropha curcas leaves methanol extract on laboratory rats as well as determine its LD50. A total of 80 male Wistar rats were used as the experimental animals, 40 for LD50 determination and the other 40 for toxicity study. Based on the pretest that was done in order to establish a range of toxicity, 4 dosages (86.00, 58.00, 46.00, and 34.0?kg/body weight) were chosen. The rats were randomly assigned into four groups with 10 rats in each group. Rats in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were given 0?mg/kg, 500?mg/kg, 1000?mg/kg, and 2000?mg/kg body weight of Jatropha curcas extract, respectively, by oral intubation for 21 days. Thereafter, clinical signs, change in body weight, toxicity symptoms, and biochemical parameters were obtained. The LD50 at 95% confidence limits for rats was 46.0?mg/kg body weight (44.95–52.69?mg/kg body mass). There was no clinical and biochemical signs of toxicity when the extract was administered at 500, 1000, and 2000?mg/kg body weight, respectively (P > 0.05). Results obtained from this study suggest that liver, kidney, and haematological system of rats tolerated methanolic leave extract of Jatropha curcas at a certain concentration. PMID:23781161

Igbinosa, Osamuyimen O.; Oviasogie, Efosa F.; Igbinosa, Etinosa O.; Igene, Otibhor; Igbinosa, Isoken H.; Idemudia, Omoruyi G.

2013-01-01

112

Postdiagenetic Alteration of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Rock of the Greater caucasus and the Caucasus Piedmont (Based on Studies of Organic matter)  

SciTech Connect

Based on the study of the metamorphism of scattered organic matter (vitrinite), maps have been compiled of the postdiagenetic alteration of the Lower Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous, and Upper Paleogene rocks.

Chichua, B.K.; Agulov, A.P.; Kilasoniva, Z.N.; Zhgenti, T.G.

1986-03-01

113

Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) invasion alters organic matter dynamics in a desert stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. We investigated the impacts of saltcedar invasion on organic matter dynamics in a spring-fed stream (Jackrabbit Spring) in the Mojave Desert of southern Nevada, U.S.A., by experimentally manipulating saltcedar abundance. 2. Saltcedar heavily shaded Jackrabbit Spring and shifted the dominant organic matter inputs from autochthonous production that was available throughout the year to allochthonous saltcedar leaf litter that

THEODORE A. K ENNEDY; S ARAH E. H OBBIE

114

Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted\\u000a in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical\\u000a agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nutrient cycling, and soil organic matter pools. The objective of this experiment\\u000a was to assess the affect

Hollie Hall; Yuncong Li; Nicholas Comerford; Enrique Arévalo Gardini; Luis Zuniga Cernades; Virupax Baligar; Hugh Popenoe

2010-01-01

115

Programmed pyrolysis of organic matter from thermally altered Cretaceous black shales  

SciTech Connect

Organic-rich Cretaceous black shales from the Cape Verde Rise in the eastern Atlantic were penetrated by hot diabase sills during the Miocene. Programmed pyrolysis and pyrolysis-gas chromatography of organic matter from core samples taken at various distances from a major sill were used to show: the type of kerogen, its relative level of thermal maturity, the fraction of pyrolyzable organic compounds which are free, and the compositions of the bitumen and kerogen. The dominant factor affecting these sediments appears to be thermal maturity rather than differences in the quality of the organic matter. Systematic changes in the pyrolyzate resulted from thermal cracking of volatile organics from the oil-prone Type II kerogen. Generation of these products caused progressive aromatization of the residual kerogen closer to the sill. These conclusions are supported by changes in kerogen elemental compositions, quantity of bitumen extract, and vitrinite reflectance. Although the major sill is 15 m (about 50 ft) thick, solvent extraction and pyrolysis results show that hydrocarbon generation was restricted to within about 10 m (about 33 ft) of the shale/sill contacts. At equal distances, the maximum temperature reached by the shales was higher above than below the sill. The reflectance of vitrinite responds more rapidly than bitumen composition to high temperatures imposed over a short time.

Peters, K.E.; Hunt, J.M.; Tarafa, M.E.; Whelan, J.K.

1983-11-01

116

Biogeochemical alteration of dissolved organic material in the Cape Fear River Estuary as a function of freshwater discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the first extensive examination of the controls on optical properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) within the Cape Fear River Estuary (CFRE) utilizing spectral slope ratios (SR). The application of SUVA254 values, absorption spectral slopes (S) and SR values has presented a distinct opportunity to observe compositional changes in CDOM in the CFRE that was not possible using bulk DOC and aCDOM(350) values alone. By comparing estuarine trends in CDOM spectral shape during both normal and historically low flow conditions, we found that diagenetic processing of CDOM in the CFRE is controlled primarily by riverine discharge rates. These findings suggest that the chromophoric fraction of DOM is altered during estuarine transport under low flow regimes but reaches the coastal ocean relatively unaltered under higher flow conditions. This highlights the tendency for autochthonous sources of DOC to offset photochemical losses and indicates that in situ DOC production can significantly contribute to the overall carbon load if discharge is low or sufficient biogeochemical alteration of the terrestrial DOM end-member occurs. This provides new insight into the usefulness of these optical properties into understanding the cycling, fate and transport of CDOM to the coastal ocean. SR values provide a simple but potentially powerful tool in understanding the flux, transport and impact of terrestrially derived organic material deposited in the coastal ocean.

Dixon, Jennifer L.; Helms, John R.; Kieber, Robert J.; Avery, G. Brooks

2014-08-01

117

Pyrolysis of organic compounds in the presence of ammonia The Viking Mars lander site alteration experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of ammonia on the pyrolysis pattern of selected organic substances sorbed on an inorganic phase was investigated. The thermal degradation products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The feasibility of this technique was tested on a meteoritic sample. All substances examined react with ammonia at the pyrolysis temperature of 500 C, the major products being nitriles and heterocyclic compounds in which nitrogen was incorporated. Based on these results, a model for the non-equilibrium production of organic compounds on Jupiter is discussed. The investigation was performed in connection with the Viking lander molecular analysis. The results obtained indicate that the concentrations of ammonia in the retrorocket fuel exhaust would have been probably too small to produce significant changes in the Martian soil organic compounds if any were found.

Holzer, G.; Oro, J.

1977-01-01

118

[The distribution of iodine-125 labeled alpha-fetoprotein in the animal organism and its accumulation in the tumor].  

PubMed

The distribution of iodine-125 labeled human alpha-fetoprotein in mice was studied after its intravenous injection. The maximal accumulation of alpha-fetoprotein in different tissues and organs of animals was observed mainly 5 hours after injection. Then the protein was gradually eliminated from the body. In the liver, intestine and blood of intact animals 125I-alpha-fetoprotein persists for at least three days. Accumulation of alpha-fetoprotein in various tissues and organs may determine the different biological effects of this protein. In the mice with transplanted lymphatic leukemia cells P388 the high level of alpha-fetoprotein accumulation was detected in the tumor tissue, reaching 6% of the injected amount per 1 g of tissue. This allows considering the radionuclide-labeled alpha-fetoprotein as a promising medical radionuclide marker for the radiological detection of malignant tumors. PMID:22834322

Severin, S E; Kulakov, V N; Moskaleva, E Iu; Severin, E S; Slobodianik, I I; Klimova, T P

2012-01-01

119

Tannins Alter Soil Organic Matter Extraction, Solubility of Metals, and Root Physiology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tannins are common plant-derived polyphenolic compounds that precipitate proteins and react with other biomolecules but knowledge of their effects on soil organic matter, the solubility of metals, and root physiology is incomplete. Soil from forest and pasture systems was treated with tannic acid (...

120

Saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes alters the biogeochemical processing of organic carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental perturbations in wetlands affect the integrated plant-microbial-soil system, causing biogeochemical responses that can manifest at local to global scales. The objective of this study was to determine how saltwater intrusion affects carbon mineralization and greenhouse gas production in coastal wetlands. Working with tidal freshwater marsh soils that had experienced roughly 3.5 yr of in situ saltwater additions, we quantified changes in soil properties, measured extracellular enzyme activity associated with organic matter breakdown, and determined potential rates of anaerobic carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) production. Soils from the field plots treated with brackish water had lower carbon content and higher C : N ratios than soils from freshwater plots, indicating that saltwater intrusion reduced carbon availability and increased organic matter recalcitrance. This was reflected in reduced activities of enzymes associated with the hydrolysis of cellulose and the oxidation of lignin, leading to reduced rates of soil CO2 and CH4 production. The effects of long-term saltwater additions contrasted with the effects of short-term exposure to brackish water during three-day laboratory incubations, which increased rates of CO2 production but lowered rates of CH4 production. Collectively, our data suggest that the long-term effect of saltwater intrusion on soil CO2 production is indirect, mediated through the effects of elevated salinity on the quantity and quality of autochthonous organic matter inputs to the soil. In contrast, salinity, organic matter content, and enzyme activities directly influence CH4 production. Our analyses demonstrate that saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes affects the entire process of carbon mineralization, from the availability of organic carbon through its terminal metabolism to CO2 and/or CH4, and illustrate that long-term shifts in biogeochemical functioning are not necessarily consistent with short-term disturbance-type responses.

Neubauer, S. C.; Franklin, R. B.; Berrier, D. J.

2013-07-01

121

Saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes alters the biogeochemical processing of organic carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental perturbations in wetlands affect the integrated plant-microbial-soil system, causing biogeochemical responses that can manifest at local to global scales. The objective of this study was to determine how saltwater intrusion affects carbon mineralization and greenhouse gas production in coastal wetlands. Working with tidal freshwater marsh soils that had experienced ~ 3.5 yr of in situ saltwater additions, we quantified changes in soil properties, measured extracellular enzyme activity associated with organic matter breakdown, and determined potential rates of anaerobic carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) production. Soils from the field plots treated with brackish water had lower carbon content and higher C : N ratios than soils from freshwater plots, indicating that saltwater intrusion reduced carbon availability and increased organic matter recalcitrance. This was reflected in reduced activities of enzymes associated with the hydrolysis of cellulose and the oxidation of lignin, leading to reduced rates of soil CO2 and CH4 production. The effects of long-term saltwater additions contrasted with the effects of short-term exposure to brackish water during three-day laboratory incubations, which increased rates of CO2 production but lowered rates of CH4 production. Collectively, our data suggest that the long-term effect of saltwater intrusion on soil CO2 production is indirect, mediated through the effects of elevated salinity on the quantity and quality of autochthonous organic matter inputs to the soil. In contrast, salinity, organic matter content, and enzyme activities directly influence CH4 production. Our analyses demonstrate that saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes affects the entire process of carbon mineralization, from the availability of organic carbon through its terminal metabolism to CO2 and/or CH4, and illustrate that long-term shifts in biogeochemical functioning are not necessarily consistent with short-term disturbance-type responses.

Neubauer, S. C.; Franklin, R. B.; Berrier, D. J.

2013-12-01

122

Mathematical forecasting methods for predicting lead contents in animal organs on the basis of the environmental conditions.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to determine and describe the lead transfer in the soil-plant-animal system in areas polluted with this metal at varying degrees, with the use of mathematical forecasting methods and data mining tools contained in the Statistica 9.0 software programme. The starting point for the forecasting models comprised results derived from an analysis of different features of soil and plants, collected from 139 locations in an area covering 100km(2) around a lead-zinc ore mining and processing plant ('Boleslaw'), at Bukowno in southern Poland. In addition, the lead content was determined in the tissues and organs of 110 small rodents (mainly mice) caught in the same area. The prediction models, elaborated with the use of classification algorithms, forecasted with high probability the class (range) of pollution in animal tissues and organs with lead, based on various soil and plant properties of the study area. However, prediction models which use multilayer neural networks made it possible to calculate the content of lead (predicted versus measured) in animal tissues and organs with an excellent correlation coefficient. PMID:25262112

Czech, Tomasz; Gambu?, Florian; Wieczorek, Jerzy

2014-12-01

123

Research, values and ethics in organic agriculture - examples from sustainability, precaution, nature quality and animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural systems are characterised by involving both natural and social systems. Organic farming, in particular, has developed as part of a wider organic movement incorporating producers, manufacturers and consumers. The organic movement is based on explicit rules as well as broader formulated principles and goals for farming and manufacturing, which are connected to underlying values and perceptions of the relationship

Hugo Fjelsted Alrøe; Erik Steen Kristensen

2000-01-01

124

Transport and Breakdown of Organic Matter in Urban and Forested Streams: The Effects of Altered Hydrology and Landscape Position  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A better understanding of how urbanization and trees interact to alter organic matter transport and cycling is needed to assess retention in catchments and streams, as well as to estimate the magnitude of carbon fluxes to the atmosphere and to downstream aquatic ecosystems. The influx of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM/DOC) to headwater streams normally originates within or near riparian areas, and is important to aquatic food webs in stream ecosystems. Urban catchments, however, have huge effective drainage densities (due to storm drainage infrastructure), which facilitate a POM/DOC "gutter subsidy" to streams that dwarfs riparian inputs and alters benthic litter quality (and represents a major short-circuit in the carbon vegetation-soil cycle.) We measured in-situ leaf litter breakdown rates, flows, DOC, BOD and nutrients in forested, suburban and urban streams of the BES LTER and Baltimore City DPW sampling networks, which encompassed a variety of urban and rural landscapes. Sycamore and Planetree leaf litter in-situ experiments revealed faster breakdown rates for suburban and urban landscape litter than for riparian litter, with rates being much faster than literature values for forested catchments. DOC, BOD and nutrient data (storm and dry weather) from BES/DPW stream sites showed much higher concentrations and loads in the more urbanized catchments and indicate the streams are likely heterotrophic and experience transient but high dissolved oxygen demands. High nutrient concentrations, faster litter breakdown rates, and substantially higher upland urban fluxes of organic matter (particulate and dissolved) in urban streams suggest that export rates are likely substantially higher than in forested systems and that carbon loads to both downstream aquatic systems and to the atmosphere (as CO2) are substantial.

Belt, K. T.; Swan, C. M.; Pouyat, R. V.; Kaushal, S.; Groffman, P. M.; Stack, W. P.; Fisher, G. T.

2006-05-01

125

An experimental study on cell dynamic alteration in digestive organs following total parenteral nutrition in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  To investigate the effects of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on the alimentary tract, liver and pancreas, dogs were kept\\u000a under TPN for 3 weeks, and changes in the cell dynamics of those organs and gastrointestinal hormones were evaluated. DNA\\u000a synthesis activity in the mucosa of the stomach, jejunum and ileum decreased after TPN, and these changes recovered after\\u000a oral refeeding.

Toyokazu Furumoto

1992-01-01

126

Recent Alterations of Aerosol Concentration, Mercury Distribution and Organic Matter Deposition in the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Material fluxes in the Arctic and Antarctic have been, in several respects, strongly affected recently. For example, atmospheric turbidity conditions are frequently subject to strong changes due to haze and dust transport episodes, which can cause considerable perturbations in the radiation balance of the atmosphere beyond regional scale. This, directly or indirectly, contributes to the increased mercury deposition and organic matter fluxes to sediments. The results show that local emissions are not always the most important factors influencing the composition of aerosol in the atmosphere of the west Spitsbergen region. The direct radiative impact of polar aerosols on the surface and at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) need to be studied more closely through both theoretical studies on the aerosol radiative properties and measurements of the surface reflectance characteristics. Mercury dissolved/solid partitioning, both in the unconsolidated, fluffy layer of suspended matter covering the sediments, and the uppermost sediment layer, indicate that the influence of the athmospheric mercury deposition event (AMDE) can prolong well into summer (July/August), and can provide a pathway to the food chain for mercury contained in sediments. Since terrigenous supplies of organic carbon to the Barents Sea are minor (~5%) compared to the marine supply, modern sediment deposits in this region sequester on average 6.0 g/m2year organic carbon, or 5.8% of the annual integrated pelagic primary production. This burial fraction exceeds, by a factor of 3, the burial fraction derived for the Holocene.

Pempkowiak, Janusz; Zieli?ski, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Be?dowski, Agata Zaborska Jacek

2011-01-01

127

Altered phenotype of the vestibular organ in GLAST-1 null mice.  

PubMed

Various studies point to a crucial role of the high-affinity sodium-coupled glutamate aspartate transporter GLAST-1 for modulation of excitatory transmission as shown in the retina and the CNS. While 2-4-month-old GLAST-1 null mice did not show any functional vestibular abnormality, we observed profound circling behavior in older (7 months) animals lacking GLAST-1. An unchanged total number of otoferlin-positive vestibular hair cells (VHCs), similar ribbon numbers in VHCs, and an unchanged VGLUT3 expression in type II VHCs were detected in GLAST-1 null compared to wild-type mice. A partial loss of supporting cells and an apparent decline of a voltage-gated channel potassium subunit (KCNQ4) was observed in postsynaptic calyceal afferents contacting type I VHCs, together with a reduction of neurofilament- (NF200-) and vesicular glutamate transporter 1- (VGLUT1-) positive calyces in GLAST-1 null mice. Taken together, GLAST-1 deletion appeared to preferentially affect the maintenance of a normal postsynaptic/neuronal phenotype, evident only with increasing age. PMID:22350511

Schraven, Sebastian P; Franz, Christoph; Rüttiger, Lukas; Löwenheim, Hubert; Lysakowski, Anna; Stoffel, Wilhelm; Knipper, Marlies

2012-06-01

128

Hydrothermal alteration of organic matter in uranium ores, Elliot Lake, Canada: Implications for selected organic-rich deposits  

SciTech Connect

Organic matter in the uraniferous Matinenda Formation, Elliot Lake, is preserved in the forms of syngenetic kerogen and solid bitumen as it is in many of the Oklo uranium deposits and in the Witwatersrand gold-uranium ores. The Elliot Lake kerogen is a vitrinite-like material considered to be remnants of the Precambrian cyanobacterial mats. The kerogen at Elliot Lake has reflectances (in oil) ranging from 2.63-7.31% RO{sub max}, high aromaticity, relatively low (0.41-0.60) atomic H/C ratios, and it contains cryptocrystalline graphite. Bitumen, present primarily as dispersed globules (up to 0.5 mm dia.), has reflectances from 0.72-1.32% RO{sub max}, atomic H/C ratios of 0.71-0.81, and is somewhat less aromatic than the kerogen. Overall similarity in molecular compositions indicates that liquid bitumen was derived from kerogen by processes similar to hydrous pyrolysis. The carbon isotopic composition of kerogen ({minus}15.62 to {minus}24.72%), and the now solid bitumen ({minus}25.91 to {minus}33.00%) are compatible with these processes. Despite having been subjected to several thermal episodes, ca. 2.45 Ga old kerogen of microbiological origin here survived as testimony of the antiquity of life on Earth. U-Pb isotopic data from discrete kerogen grains at Elliot Lake form a scattered array intersecting concordia at 2130 {+-} 100 Ma, correspond to the Nipissing event. U-Pb systems were totally reset by this event. Uranium and lead show subsequently partial mobility, the average of which is indicated by the lower concordia intersect of 550 {+-} 260 Ma. The migrated bitumen contains virtually no uranium and thorium but has a large excess of {sup 206}Pb, which indicates that the once liquid bitumen must have acted as a sink for mobile intermediate decay products of {sup 238}U. Emplacement of the Nipissing diabase may have been responsible for producing the bitumen and, indirectly, for its enrichment in {sup 206}Pb as a result of outgassing of {sup 222}Rn.

Mossman, D.J. [Mount Allison Univ., Sackville (Canada)] [Mount Allison Univ., Sackville (Canada); Nagy, B. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States)] [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States); Davis, D.W. [Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)] [Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

1993-07-01

129

Elevated temperature alters proteomic responses of individual organisms within a biofilm community.  

PubMed

Microbial communities that underpin global biogeochemical cycles will likely be influenced by elevated temperature associated with environmental change. Here, we test an approach to measure how elevated temperature impacts the physiology of individual microbial groups in a community context, using a model microbial-based ecosystem. The study is the first application of tandem mass tag (TMT)-based proteomics to a microbial community. We accurately, precisely and reproducibly quantified thousands of proteins in biofilms growing at 40, 43 and 46?°C. Elevated temperature led to upregulation of proteins involved in amino-acid metabolism at the level of individual organisms and the entire community. Proteins from related organisms differed in their relative abundance and functional responses to temperature. Elevated temperature repressed carbon fixation proteins from two Leptospirillum genotypes, whereas carbon fixation proteins were significantly upregulated at higher temperature by a third member of this genus. Leptospirillum group III bacteria may have been subject to viral stress at elevated temperature, which could lead to greater carbon turnover in the microbial food web through the release of viral lysate. Overall, these findings highlight the utility of proteomics-enabled community-based physiology studies, and provide a methodological framework for possible extension to additional mixed culture and environmental sample analyses. PMID:25050524

Mosier, Annika C; Li, Zhou; Thomas, Brian C; Hettich, Robert L; Pan, Chongle; Banfield, Jillian F

2015-01-01

130

Photochemical alterations of natural and anthropogenic dissolved organic nitrogen in the york river.  

PubMed

In the following study, we addressed the effects of photoirradiation on the turnover of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) from both natural and anthropogenic sources at the molecular level. Analysis of long-term photoirradiated samples via Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) identified both the photolabile and the photoproduced DON from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Although photoproduction of DON was prominent with natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) sources, even in a low nitrogen environment, the anthropogenic source shows a shift from photobleaching to photohumification denoted by an increase in the average molecular weight (MW) and the double bound equivalent (DBE) after 25 days of a continuous exposure to UV light, implying condensation of low MW molecules (LMW) to form high MW (HMW) molecules. Furthermore, the sharp increase in N/C molar ratio, in the anthropogenic source, substantiates the photoinduced dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) incorporation hypothesis. Hence, our findings suggest that anthropogenic input will drive substantial variation in riverine DOM and, thus, estuarine optics and photochemistry and bioavailability. Furthermore, we validate that photochemistry is one of the main processes that shapes the DON quality in aquatic systems regardless of its original source. PMID:25469724

Mesfioui, Rajaa; Abdulla, Hussain A N; Hatcher, Patrick G

2015-01-01

131

Dysfunction of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1a1 Alters Intestinal Bacteria and Bile Acid Metabolism in Mice  

PubMed Central

Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1) is predominantly expressed in liver and is able to transport bile acids (BAs) in vitro. Male Oatp1a1-null mice have increased concentrations of taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA), a secondary BA generated by intestinal bacteria, in both serum and livers. Therefore, in the present study, BA concentrations and intestinal bacteria in wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice were quantified to investigate whether the increase of secondary BAs in Oatp1a1-null mice is due to alterations in intestinal bacteria. The data demonstrate that Oatp1a1-null mice : (1) have similar bile flow and BA concentrations in bile as WT mice; (2) have a markedly different BA composition in the intestinal contents, with a decrease in conjugated BAs and an increase in unconjugated BAs; (3) have BAs in the feces that are more deconjugated, desulfated, 7-dehydroxylated, 3-epimerized, and oxidized, but less 7-epimerized; (4) have 10-fold more bacteria in the small intestine, and 2-fold more bacteria in the large intestine which is majorly due to a 200% increase in Bacteroides and a 30% reduction in Firmicutes; and (5) have a different urinary excretion of bacteria-related metabolites than WT mice. In conclusion, the present study for the first time established that lack of a liver transporter (Oatp1a1) markedly alters the intestinal environment in mice, namely the bacteria composition. PMID:22496825

Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B.; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

2012-01-01

132

Biochemical and physiological alterations in female reproductive organs of cyclic rats treated with aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera Lam.  

PubMed

Biochemical and physiological alterations have been observed in the genital tract of female cyclic rats treated with aqueous extract of M. oleifera Lam. Its administration caused a significant increase in the glycogen contents, protein concentration, activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase and the level of total cholesterol in all the organs at initial days of treatment. However, at longer days of treatment the values revealed a significant depletion. Initially its administration stimulated the uterine structures, caused metaplastic changes in the cervical epithelium and provoked considerable cornification in the vaginal epithelium. At later durations significant inhibition in the histoarchitecture was observed. Biochemical observations supplemented with the histological findings have been correlated with the anti-implantation action of the aqueous extract in the light of its hormonal properties. PMID:3227756

Shukla, S; Mathur, R; Prakash, A O

1988-01-01

133

Alterations in lung function due to mixtures of organic solvents used in floor laying.  

PubMed

To determine the short-term and long-term effects of organic solvents on the respiratory tract, 26 male floorlayers exposed to organic solvents were compared with 36 persons unexposed to such substances. The investigation primarily included a detailed history, determination of solvent concentration in the air inhaled by the workers, long-term ECG during the entire shift and lung-function test (vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, flow volume curve) as well as non-specific bronchial inhalation challenge using a 3% acetylcholine aerosol before and after the shift. The floorlayers were primarily subjected to inhalative exposure to adhesives containing mixtures of toluene, petroleum hydrocarbons, ethyl acetate, methanol and acetone or one of these substances alone. This frequently resulted in short-term value limit excesses, especially in the MAK value (standardised threshold concentration in Germany) for toluene, which is a prime component of neoprene glue. Of the 26 floorlayers, 6 complained of breathlessness and coughing, whereas 13 suffered from nasal discharge and blockage--symptoms closely related to work. The smokers in this group showed a decline in lung function during the shift--especially in the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)--as compared with the non-smokers in this group and the persons in the control group. This probably due to the combination of noxious substances. A strong correlation between occupational age and changes in lung function was observed: the occupationally youngest workers demonstrated the highest decrease in values during the course of the shift. There was no evidence of either obstructive or restrictive respiratory disorders or of marked deviation from the European Community for Coal and Steel (ECCS) references.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1856023

Angerer, P; Marstaller, H; Bahemann-Hoffmeister, A; Römmelt, H; Höppe, P; Kessel, R

1991-01-01

134

How reservoirs alter drinking water quality: Organic matter sources, sinks, and transformations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Within reservoirs, production, transformation, and loss of dissolved organic matter (DOM) occur simultaneously. While the balance between production and loss determines whether a reservoir is a net sink or source of DOM, changes in chemical composition are also important because they affect DOM reactivity with respect to disinfection by-product (DBP) formation. The composition of the DOM pool also provides insight into DOM sources and processing, which can inform reservoir management. We examined the concentration and composition of DOM in San Luis Reservoir, a large off-stream impoundment of the California State Water Project. We used a wide array of DOM chemical tracers including dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, trihalomethane and haloacetic acid formation potentials (THMFP and HAAFP, respectively), absorbance properties, isotopic composition, lignin phenol content, and structural groupings determined by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). There were periods when the reservoir was a net source of DOC due to the predominance of algal production (summer), a net sink due to the predominance of degradation (fall–winter), and balanced between production and consumption (spring). Despite only moderate variation in bulk DOC concentration (3.0–3.6 mg C/L), changes in DOM composition indicated that terrestrial-derived material entering the reservoir was being degraded and replaced by aquatic-derived DOM produced within the reservoir. Substantial changes in the propensity of the DOM pool to form THMs and HAAs illustrate that the DBP precursor pool was not directly coupled to bulk DOC concentration and indicate that algal production is an important source of DBP precursors. Results suggest reservoirs have the potential to attenuate DOM amount and reactivity with respect to DBP precursors via degradative processes; however, these benefits can be decreased or even negated by the production of algal-derived DOM.

Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Hernes, Peter J.; Doctor, Daniel H.; Kendall, Carol; Downing, Bryan D.; Losee, Richard F.

2011-01-01

135

Altered extracellular matrices influence cellular processes and nuclear matrix organizations of overlying human bladder urothelial cells.  

PubMed

A central issue in tumor biology is the understanding of the interactions between tumor cells and their environment. Using normal and ras oncogene transfected rat fibroblast cells, we now demonstrate that the transfected cells make altered extracellular matrices (ECM) and that their resulting ECM influence the proliferation and genetic regulation of human bladder cancer EJ cells. Using Western blot analyses, we observed that the ras transfected fibroblast cells lacked the ability to produce extracellular matrix component laminin whereas the normal parental fibroblast cells were able to produce intact laminin. Both transfected and nontransfected fibroblast cells were able to synthesize other extracellular matrix molecules such as type IV collagen and fibronectin. Human bladder tumor EJ cells were grown on ECM derived from normal and transfected rat fibroblast cells, and the proliferation rate and type IV collagen mRNA expression of EJ cells were determined. We observed that EJ cells, when grown on ECM derived from the ras transfected fibroblast cells, had a higher growth rate than when grown on ECM derived from the normal fibroblast cells (P < 0.037). Furthermore, EJ cells grown on ECM derived from transfected fibroblast cells showed up-regulation of type IV collagen mRNA expression when compared with EJ cells grown on ECM derived from nontransfected fibroblast cells. Finally EJ cells grown on purified laminin but not on collagen IV coated flasks showed the same level of type IV collagen mRNA expression as when grown on ECM derived from nontransfected parental fibroblast cells. Haptotactic/motility assays with EJ cells and ECM derived from ras transfected and nontransfected fibroblast cells demonstrated that ECM of ras transfected fibroblast cells, but not the parental fibroblast cells, provided a permissive or fertile soil for EJ tumor cell invasion. Finally, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of 35S-labeled nuclear matrix proteins of EJ cells cultured on ECM derived from ras transfected fibroblast cells revealed expression of proteins in the molecular weight range of M(r) 35,000-45,000 and isoelectric focusing pH range of 5.5 to 6.0. These proteins were not present in EJ cells cultured on ECM derived from parental nontransfected fibroblast cells. We conclude that extracellular matrices derived from transformed stroma producing cells may influence the proliferation, genetic regulation, and maintenance of the overlying urothelial tumor cells. The mechanism by which the ECM may influence cellular behavior and phenotype may be in their ability to modulate the nuclear matrix proteins of the overlying cell. PMID:8402687

Gordon, J N; Shu, W P; Schlussel, R N; Droller, M J; Liu, B C

1993-10-15

136

Actions of adiponectin on the excitability of subfornical organ neurons are altered by food deprivation.  

PubMed

Adiponectin (ADP) is a peptide produced by adipose tissue, which acts as an insulin sensitizing hormone. Recent studies have shown that adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2) are present in the CNS, and although adiponectin does appear in both circulation and the cerebrospinal fluid there is still some debate as to whether or not ADP crosses the blood brain barrier (BBB). Circumventricular organs (CVO) are CNS sites which lack normal BBB, and thus represent sites at which circulating adiponectin may act to directly influence the CNS. The subfornical organ (SFO) is a CVO that has been implicated in the regulation of energy balance as a consequence of the ability of SFO neurons to respond to a number of different circulating satiety signals including amylin, CCK, PYY and ghrelin. Our recent microarray analysis suggested the presence of adiponectin receptors in the SFO. We report here that the SFO shows a high density of mRNA for both adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2), and that ADP influences the excitability of dissociated SFO neurons. Separate subpopulations of SFO neurons were either depolarized (8.9+/-0.9 mV, 21 of 97 cells), or hyperpolarized (-8.0+/-0.5 mV, 34 of 97 cells), by bath application of 10nM ADP, effects which were concentration dependent and reversible. Our microarray analysis also suggested that 48 h of food deprivation resulted in specific increases in AdipoR2 mRNA expression (no effect on AdipoR1 mRNA), observations which we confirm here using real-time PCR techniques. The effects of food deprivation also resulted in a change in the responsiveness of SFO neurons to adiponectin with 77% (8/11) of cells tested responding to adiponectin with depolarization, while no hyperpolarizations were observed. These observations support the concept that the SFO may be a key player in sensing circulating ADP and transmitting such information to critical CNS sites involved in the regulation of energy balance. PMID:20206611

Alim, Ishraq; Fry, W Mark; Walsh, Michael H; Ferguson, Alastair V

2010-05-12

137

Thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fate of naturally occurring lipids and pigments in a marine sediment exposed to elevated temperatures was studied. Samples of a young marine sediment from Tanner Basin, California, were heated to a series of temperatures (65-200 C) for varying periods of time (7-64 days). The sediment was analyzed prior to and after heating for pigments, isoprenoid compounds, alcohols, fatty acids, and hydrocarbons. Structural changes caused by heating unextractable organic material (kerogen) were also studied, and the significance of the results for understanding petroleum genesis is considered. Among other results, fatty acids and hydrocarbons increased in abundance although there appeared to be no obvious precursor-to-product relationship via simple decarboxylation reactions. Chlorins were partially converted into porphyrins. The phytyl side chain of pheophytin was initially preserved intact by reduction of the phytyl double bond, but later converted to a variety of isoprenoid compounds including alkanes. Thermal grafting of components onto kerogen occurred as well as structural changes caused by heat.

Baedecker, M. J.; Ikan, R.; Ishiwatari, R.; Kaplan, I. R.

1977-01-01

138

Chronic peripheral nerve injuries alter the somatotopic organization of the cuneate nucleus in kittens.  

PubMed

The effect of chronic peripheral nerve injuries on the somatotopic organization of the cuneate nucleus was examined in kittens, using electrophysiological techniques. In normal kittens, most cells in the dorsal part of the nucleus possessed small receptive fields on the ipsilateral front paw. Several weeks after paw denervation in young kittens, however, many cells in the corresponding dorsal part of the nucleus responded to tactile stimulation of the wrist, forearm, or trunk. Consistent with this change in receptive fields, the neurons in the dorsal part of the nucleus were more responsive to electrical stimulation of the medial cutaneous nerve, which innervates part of the forearm, in kittens after paw denervation than in control kittens. These somatotopic changes were not an artifact of severe atrophy of the dorsal part of the nucleus. This experiment confirms that after chronic peripheral nerve injuries, central somatosensory neurons can begin to respond to ascending afferent volleys originating from other undamaged peripheral axons, which were previously incapable of exciting the cells. Moreover, this change in functional connectivity is evident at the first synapse central to the injury site. PMID:7066684

Kalaska, J; Pomeranz, B

1982-03-18

139

Alteration of bottom roughness by benthic organisms in a sandy coastal environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work deals with the potential influence of benthic communities on the sediment dynamics of the coastal zone, and specifically with the modifications to bottom roughness caused by communities and their effects on wave propagation across the coastal profile. Time-series of video observations of the sea bottom on the Ebro delta coast were analysed in order to estimate the bottom roughness associated with physical and biological morphological components and the sediment reworking rates caused by epifaunal organisms. Biological roughness was mainly caused by ophiuroids and tanatocenosis of bivalve and gastropod shells, which changed their abundance during the study period. The total biological roughness ( Kbio) ranged between 0.27 and 0.81 cm and represented a significant part (<20%) of the total form drag roughness. Flattening of ripples caused by bioturbation was observed under low-energy conditions. Surface sediment perturbation and bioturbation rates were also estimated. Based on these observations a wave propagation model was applied in order to carry out a sensitivity analysis of the significance of biological roughness on wave dissipation in the study area under different wave conditions.

Guillén, J.; Soriano, S.; Demestre, M.; Falqués, A.; Palanques, A.; Puig, P.

2008-10-01

140

A variant of Rubus yellow net virus with altered genomic organization.  

PubMed

Rubus yellow net virus (RYNV) is a member of the genus Badnavirus (family: Caulimoviridae). RYNV infects Rubus species causing chlorosis of the tissue along the leaf veins, giving an unevenly distributed netted symptom in some cultivars of red and black raspberry. Recently, a strain of RYNV was sequenced from a Rubus idaeus plant in Alberta, Canada, exhibiting such symptoms. The viral genome contained seven open reading frames (ORFs) with five of them in the sense-strand, including a large polyprotein. Here we describe a graft-transmissible strain of RYNV from Europe infecting cultivar 'Baumforth's Seedling A' (named RYNV-BS), which was sequenced using rolling circle amplification, enzymatic digestion, cloning and primer walking, and it was resequenced at a 5X coverage. This sequence was then compared with the RYNV-Ca genome and significant differences were observed. Genomic analysis identified differences in the arrangement of coding regions, promoter elements, and presence of motifs. The genomic organization of RYNV-BS consisted of five ORFs (four ORFs in the sense-strand and one ORF in the antisense-strand). ORFs 1, 2, and 3 showed a high degree of homology to RYNV-Ca, while ORFs 4 and 6 of RYNV-BS were quite distinct. Also, the predicted ORFs 5 and 7 in the RYNV-Ca were absent in the RYNV-BS sequence. These differences may account for the lack of aphid transmissibility of RYNV-BS. PMID:25480633

Diaz-Lara, Alfredo; Mosier, Nola J; Keller, Karen E; Martin, Robert R

2014-12-01

141

In Situ Alteration of Isotopic and Molecular Compositions of Organic Matter in Lake Erie Sediment Over a Two-Decade Interval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The organic matter in lake sediments provides a variety of proxies to reconstruct paleoenvironmental histories. Total organic carbon concentrations reflect past productivity in and around the lake. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios similarly record past productivity and also remineralization and recycling processes. Biomarker molecules are particularly informative as "geochemical fossils" in that they are good indicators of sedimentary biological sources and depositional environments. However, organic matter compositions are potentially altered by early diagenesis and may thus bias paleoenvironmental interpretations. To assess the impacts of diagenesis on organic geochemical proxies, we collected two cores in 1982 and 2003 from the same location in Lake Erie, and we compared proxies from same-age sediment horizons that had been preserved for two decades by freezing with those that had remained at in situ conditions in the lake bottom. Organic carbon concentrations are lower and both organic d13C and total d15N values are higher in the sediment that had experienced in situ diagenesis. Three classes of biomarker molecules (n-alkanes, n-alcohols and fatty acids) that have different susceptibilities to alteration were studied in these two cores to better understand the nature of the diagenetic impacts evident in the bulk organic matter. Because the diagenetic alterations of the organic matter proxies are modest, the environmental impacts of industrialization and urbanization are preserved in both cores.

Lu, Y.; Meyers, P. A.; Eadie, B. J.; Robbins, J. A.

2006-12-01

142

Alteration of chromophoric dissolved organic matter by solar UV radiation causes rapid changes in bacterial community composition†  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the effect of photochemical alterations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) on bacterial abundance, activity and community composition in a coastal lagoon of the Atlantic Ocean with high dissolved organic carbon concentration. On two occasions during the austral summer, bacteria-free water of the lagoon was exposed to different regions of the solar spectrum (full solar radiation, UV-A + PAR, PAR) or kept in the dark. Subsequently, dilution cultures were established with bacterioplankton from the lagoon that were incubated in the pre-exposed water for 5 h in the dark. Cell abundance, activity, and community composition of bacterioplankton were assessed before and after incubation in the different treatments. Changes in absorption, fluorescence, and DOC concentration were used as proxies for CDOM photoalteration. We found a significant CDOM photobleaching signal, DOC loss, as well as a stimulation of bacterial activity in the treatments pre-exposed to UV radiation, suggesting increased bioavailability of DOM. Bacterial community analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that this stimulation was mainly accompanied by the specific enrichment of Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria. Thus, our results suggest that CDOM photoalteration not only stimulates bacterioplankton growth, but also induces rapid changes in bacterioplankton composition, which can be of relevance for ecosystem functioning, particularly considering present and future changes in the input of terrestrial CDOM to aquatic systems. PMID:19707620

Piccini, Claudia; Conde, Daniel; Pernthaler, Jakob; Sommaruga, Ruben

2010-01-01

143

Microfabricated Mammalian Organ Systems and Their Integration into Models of Whole Animals and Humans  

PubMed Central

While in vitro cell based systems have been an invaluable tool in biology, they often suffer from a lack of physiological relevance. The discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo systems has been a bottleneck in drug development process and biological sciences. The recent progress in microtechnology has enabled manipulation of cellular environment at a physiologically relevant length scale, which has led to the development of novel in vitro organ systems, often termed ‘organ-on-a-chip’ systems. By mimicking the cellular environment of in vivo tissues, various organ-on-a-chip systems have been reported to reproduce target organ functions better than conventional in vitro model systems. Ultimately, these organ-on-a-chip systems will converge into multi-organ ‘body-on-a-chip’ systems composed of functional tissues that reproduce the dynamics of the whole-body response. Such microscale in vitro systems will open up new possibilities in medical science and in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:23388858

Sung, Jong H; Esch, Mandy B; Prot, Jean-Matthieu; Long, Christopher J; Smith, Alec; Hickman, James; Shuler, Michael L

2013-01-01

144

Interactions between Seagrass Complexity, Hydrodynamic Flow and Biomixing Alter Food Availability for Associated Filter-Feeding Organisms  

PubMed Central

Seagrass shoots interact with hydrodynamic forces and thereby a positively or negatively influence the survival of associated species. The modification of these forces indirectly alters the physical transport and flux of edible particles within seagrass meadows, which will influence the growth and survivorship of associated filter-feeding organisms. The present work contributes to gaining insight into the mechanisms controlling the availability of resources for filter feeders inhabiting seagrass canopies, both from physical (influenced by seagrass density and patchiness) and biological (regulated by filter feeder density) perspectives. A factorial experiment was conducted in a large racetrack flume, which combined changes in hydrodynamic conditions, chlorophyll a concentration in the water and food intake rate (FIR) in a model active filter-feeding organism (the cockle). Results showed that seagrass density and patchiness modified both hydrodynamic forces and availability of resources for filter feeders. Chlorophyll a water content decreased to 50% of the initial value when densities of both seagrass shoots and cockles were high. Also, filter feeder density controlled resource availability within seagrass patches, depending on its spatial position within the racetrack flume. Under high density of filter-feeding organisms, chlorophyll a levels were lower between patches. This suggests that the pumping activity of cockles (i.e. biomixing) is an emergent key factor affecting both resource availability and FIR for filter feeders in dense canopies. Applying our results to natural conditions, we suggest the existence of a direct correlation between habitat complexity (i.e. shoot density and degree of patchiness) and filter feeders density. Fragmented and low-density patches seem to offer both greater protection from hydrodynamic forces and higher resource availability. In denser patches, however, resources are allocated mostly within the canopy, which would benefit filter feeders if they occurred at low densities, but would be limiting when filter feeder were at high densities. PMID:25162510

González-Ortiz, Vanessa; Egea, Luis G.; Jiménez-Ramos, Rocio; Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Pérez-Lloréns, José L.; Bouma, Tjeed J.; Brun, Fernando G.

2014-01-01

145

Interactions between seagrass complexity, hydrodynamic flow and biomixing alter food availability for associated filter-feeding organisms.  

PubMed

Seagrass shoots interact with hydrodynamic forces and thereby a positively or negatively influence the survival of associated species. The modification of these forces indirectly alters the physical transport and flux of edible particles within seagrass meadows, which will influence the growth and survivorship of associated filter-feeding organisms. The present work contributes to gaining insight into the mechanisms controlling the availability of resources for filter feeders inhabiting seagrass canopies, both from physical (influenced by seagrass density and patchiness) and biological (regulated by filter feeder density) perspectives. A factorial experiment was conducted in a large racetrack flume, which combined changes in hydrodynamic conditions, chlorophyll a concentration in the water and food intake rate (FIR) in a model active filter-feeding organism (the cockle). Results showed that seagrass density and patchiness modified both hydrodynamic forces and availability of resources for filter feeders. Chlorophyll a water content decreased to 50% of the initial value when densities of both seagrass shoots and cockles were high. Also, filter feeder density controlled resource availability within seagrass patches, depending on its spatial position within the racetrack flume. Under high density of filter-feeding organisms, chlorophyll a levels were lower between patches. This suggests that the pumping activity of cockles (i.e. biomixing) is an emergent key factor affecting both resource availability and FIR for filter feeders in dense canopies. Applying our results to natural conditions, we suggest the existence of a direct correlation between habitat complexity (i.e. shoot density and degree of patchiness) and filter feeders density. Fragmented and low-density patches seem to offer both greater protection from hydrodynamic forces and higher resource availability. In denser patches, however, resources are allocated mostly within the canopy, which would benefit filter feeders if they occurred at low densities, but would be limiting when filter feeder were at high densities. PMID:25162510

González-Ortiz, Vanessa; Egea, Luis G; Jiménez-Ramos, Rocio; Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Pérez-Lloréns, José L; Bouma, Tjeed J; Brun, Fernando G

2014-01-01

146

Therapeutic effect of an altered peptide ligand derived from heat-shock protein 60 by suppressing of inflammatory cytokines secretion in two animal models of rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disease mediated by T cells. Productive engagement of T cell receptors by major histocompatibility complex-peptide leads to proliferation, differentiation and the definition of effector functions. Altered peptide ligands (APL) generated by amino acid substitutions in the antigenic peptide have diverse effects on T cell response. We predicted a novel T cell epitope from human heat-shock protein 60, an autoantigen involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Three APLs were designed from this epitope and it was demonstrated that these peptides induce the activation of T cells through their ability to modify cell cycle phase's distribution of CD4+T cells from RA patients. Also, IL-17, TNF-? and IL-10 levels were determined in PBMC from these patients. Unlike the wild-type peptide and the other two APLs, APL2 increased the IL-10 level and suppressed IL-17 secretion in these assays. Therapeutic effect of this APL in adjuvant arthritis (AA) and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) models was also evaluated. Clinical score, histopathology, inflammatory and regulatory cytokine concentration were monitored in the animals. APL2 efficiently inhibited the progression of AA and CIA with a significant reduction of the clinical and histopathologic score. Therapeutic effect of APL2 on CIA was similar to that obtained with MTX; the standard treatment for RA. This effect was associated with a decrease of TNF-? and IL-17 levels. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of APL2 is mediated in part by down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and support the potential use of APL2 as a therapeutic drug in RA patients. PMID:22686732

Lorenzo, N; Barberá, A; Domínguez, M C; Torres, A M; Hernandez, M V; Hernandez, I; Gil, R; Ancizar, J; Garay, H; Reyes, O; Altruda, F; Silengo, L; Padrón, G

2012-09-01

147

DNA ALTERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The exposure of an organism to genotoxic chemicals may induce a cascade of genetic events. nitially, structural alterations to DNA are formed. ext, the DNA damage is processed and subsequently expressed in mutant gene products. inally, diseases result from the genetic damage. he ...

148

Proceeding with clinical trials of animal to human organ transplantation: a way out of the dilemma  

PubMed Central

The transplantation of porcine organs to humans could in the future be a solution to the worldwide organ shortage, but is to date still highly experimental. Further research on the potential effects of crossing the species barrier is essential before clinical application is acceptable. However, many crucial questions on efficacy and safety will ultimately only be answered by well designed and controlled solid organ xenotransplantation trials on humans. This paper is concerned with the question under which conditions, given the risks involved and the ethical issues raised, such clinical trials should be resumed. An alternative means of overcoming the safety and ethical issues is suggested: willed body donation for scientific research in the case of permanent vegetative status. This paper argues that conducting trials on such bodies with prior consent is preferable to the use of human subjects without lack of brain function. PMID:14872084

Ravelingien, A; Mortier, F; Mortier, E; Kerremans, I; Braeckman, J

2004-01-01

149

Animal-to-human organ transplants--a solution or a new problem?  

PubMed Central

Xenotransplantation is seen by some mainly as an opportunity and by others mainly as a danger. It could help overcome the shortage of organs from human donors, but it raises a number of questions, particularly about safety, ethics and human nature. This article reviews the progress of research, debate and decision-making in this area. PMID:10063663

Daar, A. S.

1999-01-01

150

Model organisms, 2D animationSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each model organism has its own advantages and disadvantages. Choosing an appropriate model depends on the question being asked. Many laboratories find it useful to perform parallel experiments in two or more model systems to understand different aspects of a biochemical process.

2008-10-06

151

[Introduction of dinitrosyl iron complexes with thiol-containing ligands into animal organism by inhalation method].  

PubMed

The possibility of water-soluble dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC) with thiol-containing ligands introduction into lungs and other tissues of mice by free inhalation of little drops (2-3 microns diameter) of the solutions of these complexes was investigated. Little drops of 2-20 mM solutions of the complexes were obtained by using an inhalation apparatus (compressor nebulizer). A cloud of these little drops was then inhaled by animals in a closed chamber. A maximal amount of protein-bound DNICs formed in mouse lungs was 0.6 micromoles per kilogram of tissue weight. The amount of DNIC in lungs, liver and blood decreased to the undetected level within 2-3 hours after inhalation. No cytotoxic effect of DNIC formed in lungs on Mycobacterium tuberculosis was found in mice infected with these mycobacteria. PMID:23755557

Vanin, A F; Mozhokina, G N; Tkachev, N A; Mikoian, V D; Borodulin, R R; Elistratova, N A

2013-01-01

152

Enzymic hydrolysis of animal fats in organic solvents at temperatures below their melting points  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipase fromCandida rugosa catalyzed the hydrolysis of inedible beef tallow and pork lard (edible and inedible) in the presence of organic solvents\\u000a at temperatures below the melting point of the fat. Reactions were carried out at 50% substrate with 180 lipase units per\\u000a gram of fat in a two-liter reactor. In the presence of isooctane (5-10%) beef tallow yielded 94%

M. D. Virto; Jose Miguel Lascaray; Rodolfo Solozabal; Mertxe de Renobales

1991-01-01

153

The effect of dynamic factors of space flight on animal organisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physiological, biochemical and morphological studies made on the Cosmos-782 biosatellite are presented. Rats, which were exposed on the biosatellite for 19.5 days, were examined immediately after completion of the flight and also during the 25 day period of readaptation to earth's conditions. The effect of factors of space flight, primarily weightlessness, on the organism was investigated for all systems of the body.

Genin, A. M. (editor)

1979-01-01

154

Furosemide Alters Organ of Corti Mechanics: Evidence for Feedback of Outer Hair Cells upon the Basilar Membrane  

PubMed Central

A widely held hypothesis of mammalian cochlear function is that the mechanical responses to sound of the basilar membrane depend on transduction by the outer hair cells. We have tested this hypothesis by studying the effect upon basilar membrane vibrations (measured by means of either the Mössbauer technique or Doppler-shift laser velocimetry) of systemic injection of furosemide, a loop diuretic that decreases transduction currents in hair cells. Furosemide reversibly altered the responses to tones and clicks of the chinchilla basilar membrane, causing response-magnitude reductions that were largest (up to 61 dB, averaging 25-30 dB) at low stimulus intensities at the characteristic frequency (CF) and small or nonexistent at high intensities and at frequencies far removed from CF. Furosemide also induced response-phase lags that were largest at low stimulus intensities (averaging 77°) and were confined to frequencies close to CF. These results constitute the most definitive demonstration to date that mechanical responses of the basilar membrane are dependent on the normal function of the organ of Corti and strongly implicate the outer hair cells as being responsible for the high sensitivity and frequency selectivity of basilar membrane responses. A corollary of these findings is that sensorineural hearing deficits in humans due to outer hair cell loss reflect pathologically diminished vibrations of the basilar membrane. PMID:2010805

Ruggero, Mario A.; Rich, Nola C.

2013-01-01

155

Chloral hydrate alters the organization of the ciliary basal apparatus and cell organelles in sea urchin embryos  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mitotic inhibitor, chloral hydrate, induces ciliary loss in the early embryo phase of Lytechinus pictus. It causes a breakdown of cilia at the junction of the cilium and the basal body known as the basal plate. This leaves the plasma membrane temporarily unsealed. The basal apparatus accessory structures, consisting of the basal body, basal foot, basal foot cap, striated side arm, and striated rootlet, are either misaligned or disintegrated by treatment with chloral hydrate. Furthermore, microtubules which are associated with the basal apparatus are disassembled. Mitochondria accumulate at the base of cilia - underneath the plasma membrane - and show alterations in their structural organization. The accumulation of mitochondria is observed in 40% of all electron micrograph sections while 60% show the areas mostly devoid of mitochondria. The microvilli surrounding a cilium and striated rootlet remain intact in the presence of chloral hydrate. These results suggest that deciliation in early sea urchin embryos by chloral hydrate is caused by combined effects on the ciliary membrane and on microtubules in the cilia. Furthermore, it is suggested that chloral hydrate can serve as a tool to explore the cytoskeletal mechanisms that are involved in cilia motility in the developing sea urchin embryo.

Chakrabarti, A.; Schatten, H.; Mitchell, K. D.; Crosser, M.; Taylor, M.

1998-01-01

156

Animal Ears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior and communication. Groups of learners will fashion a headband with fake ears, similar in shape to those of the animal they are going to observe. Then, they record observations of the animal’s reactions when a learner, wearing the ears in different positions, brings it a snack. Learners develop categories of behavior to organize and evaluate the results. Safety Note: an adult handler must be present if working with a horse or even a large dog. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Horse Ears.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

157

Effect of K-diformate in starter diets on acidity, microbiota, and the amount of organic acids in the digestive tract of piglets, and on gastric alterations.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to study the effect of K-diformate on the intraluminal pH, microbial composition in digesta and feces, organic acids along the digestive tract, and alterations of the gastric epithelium of pigs. Pigs (n = 36) weaned at 28 d of age were allotted to two groups and fed without (control diet) or with 1.8% supplemental K-diformate. Fecal samples were taken from the rectum on d 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 postweaning. Half of the animals from each group were killed on d 7 and the other half on d 29 postweaning. Growth performance was not different for both groups (P > or = 0.73). The gastric epithelium was not negatively affected by K-diformate (P = 0.25). Potassium-diformate decreased (P < or = 0.04) or tended to decrease (P < or = 0.10) the counts of total anaerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts in feces and digesta samples from the stomach, distal small intestine, cecum, and middle segment of the colon. The pH along the gastrointestinal tract of piglets was not affected by K-diformate (P > or = 0.30). On d 7, the concentration of lactic acid along the gastrointestinal tract was similar with both diets (P = 0.15). On d 29, the concentrations of lactic acid tended to be lower along the small intestine (P < or = 0.08) and the stomach (P = 0.11) of the pigs fed K-diformate. Formic acid in digesta was detected at significant levels only in the distal segment of the small intestine of the control pigs (from 4 to 11 mmol/kg of wet digesta), whereas considerable amounts were measured in the stomach (from 23 to 40 mmol/kg of wet digesta) and all segments of the small intestine (from 7 to 25 mmol/kg of wet digesta) in the K-diformate-fed pigs on both days. On d 7, pigs fed the K-diformate diet had a tendency (P < or = 0.08) to have higher concentrations of organic acids (acetic + propionic + butyric) in the digesta of the distal small intestine, cecum, and proximal colon. On d 29, both groups had similar concentrations of these acids, irrespective of the segment of the gastrointestinal tract (P = 0.95). Our study showed that the addition of K-diformate to a starter diet for piglets decreased total anaerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, coliforms, and yeasts in feces and in digesta from various segments of the gastrointestinal tract, without affecting the gastric or intestinal pH. PMID:11518221

Canibe, N; Steien, S H; Overland, M; Jensen, B B

2001-08-01

158

Altered soil organic carbon stability in eastern deciduous forest: interplay between forest successional Stage and invasive earthworm activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detritivore -mediated decomposition and incorporation of aboveground litter is an important processes in soil carbon cycle of forest ecosystems that can be a major control on the proportion of stable and unstable soil carbon pools. We investigated how earthworm activity interacts with litter type to alter the stability of soil organic carbon (SOC) in an eastern deciduous successional forest within at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC). Soil C and N content and chemistry (lignin and fatty acids) among particulate and mineral-bound fractions was shifted after 5 years of litter (wood and leaf) addition but with significant differences among the forest successional stages and with earthworm activity. Results from a 6 month laboratory incubation (25°C and 15°C) of bulk soil samples taken from the treatments and incubated at 25°C and 15°C demonstrate that litter addition type and earthworm activity interacted to control the proportion of labile and stable carbon. Specifically, the labile C pools in double wood and control treatments were highest in young successional forest with higher earthworm activity. However, in the double leaf treatment, the labile C pool was higher in old successional forests with less worm activity. In general, the stable C pool, released after one month, was higher in old successional forests for all three treatments. The difference of the stable pool between young and old successional forest was the largest with double wood treatment, followed by control treatment and the lowest with double leaf treatment. In summary, wood treatment shifted SOC pool to relatively more stable pool in old successional forests decreasing labile C pool but not the young sites. While double leaf treatment increased the labile pool in old forests but in young successional forests, SOC shifted to relatively more stable pool by decreasing the labile pool and increasing the stable pool. This result indicates that the type of aboveground litter input interact with earthworm activity will largely influence SOC stability and soil C cycling in deciduous forests at different successional stages.

Ma, Y.; Filley, T. R.; McCormick, M.; Szlavecz, K. A.

2012-12-01

159

Molecular multiproxy analysis of ancient root systems suggests strong alteration of deep subsoil organic matter by rhizomicrobial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roots have a high potential capacity to store large amounts of CO2 in the subsoil. However, associated with rooting, microorganisms enter the subsoil and might contribute to priming effects of carbon mineralisation in the microbial hotspot rhizosphere. Although these processes are well known for recent surface soils, it remains questionable, if and how microorganisms contribute to priming effects in the subsoil and if these effects can be traced after the roots' lifetime. The current study implies several state-of-the-art techniques like DNA and lipid molecular proxies to trace remains of microbial biomass in ancient root systems. These can provide valuable information if parts of the root and rhizomicrobial biomass are preserved, e.g. by encrustation with secondary carbonate during the root's lifespan or shortly thereafter. At the Late Pleistocene loess-paleosol sequence near Nussloch (SW Germany), rhizoliths (calcified roots) occur highly abundant in the deep subsoil from 1 to 9 m depth and below. They were formed by Holocene woody vegetation. Their size can account for up to several cm in diameter and up to > 1 m length. Rhizoliths and surrounding sediment with increasing distances of up to 10 cm, as well as reference loess without visible root remains were collected at several depth intervals. Samples were analysed for n-fatty acids (FAs) and glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs; membrane lipids from Archaea and some Bacteria), as well as structural diversity based on the RNA gene of the prokaryotic ribosome subunit 16S (16S rRNA). GDGT represent organic remains from microbial biomass, whereas FA comprise both microbial remains and degradation products. 16S rRNA indicates the presence of both living cells and/or cell fragments. Despite the general low RNA contents in the sample set, results pointed to a much higher abundance of bacterial compared to archaeal RNA. The latter occured in notable amounts only in some rhizoliths. This was in part enforced by decreasing contents of archeal GDGTs from rhizolith via rhizosphere towards root-free loess. Furthermore, the bacterial fingerprint revealed - similar to modern root systems - higher taxonomic diversity in rhizosphere compared to rhizoliths and reference loess. This argues for microorganisms benefiting from root deposits and exudates. Highest concentrations of branched GDGTs in rhizoliths suggest that their source organisms feed on root remains. Incorporation of rhizomicrobial remains as represented by RNA and GDGTs usually affected the sediment at maximum to a distance of 2-3 cm from the former root. FA contents in rhizosphere showed strong scatter and were in part depleted compared to reference loess or, especially in deeper transects, enriched. This indicates the presence of degradation products originating from former rhizosphere processes. Especially at larger depth not affected by modern pedogenic processes, portions of mainly microbial derived C16 homologues were higher in rhizosphere loess up to distances of 10 cm, revealing that the possible extension of the rhizosphere was underestimated so far. In Corg poor subsoil, the occurence of diverse rhizosphere microorganisms and degradation processes even in several centimeters distant from roots point to a strong alteration of OM, possibly contributing to carbon mineralisation.

Gocke, Martina; Huguet, Arnaud; Derenne, Sylvie; Kolb, Steffen; Wiesenberg, Guido L. B.

2013-04-01

160

Effects of condensed organic matter on PCBs bioavailability in juvenile swine, an animal model for young children.  

PubMed

The exposure assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated soils is a critical issue in terms of human health, especially since little reliable information on transfer of PCBs to humans via involuntary soil ingestion is available. Indeed, young children with their hand-to-mouth activity may be exposed to contaminated soils. The current study addresses the impact of soil organic matter (OM) condensation on bioavailability of sequestrated NDL-PCBs. Three artificial soils (ASs) were prepared according to OECD guideline 207. One standard soil (SS), devoid of OM, and two amended versions of this SS with fulvic acid (FA) or activated carbon (AC) were prepared to obtain 1% organic mass. This study involved fourteen juvenile male swine as a digestive physiology model of young children. Animals were randomly distributed into 4 contaminated groups (3 replicates) and a control one (2 replicates). During 10d, the piglets were fed AS or a corn oil spiked with 19200 ng of Aroclor 1254 per g of dry matter (6000 ng g(-1) of NDL-PCBs) to achieve an exposure dose of 1200 ng NDL-PCBskg(-1) of body weight per day. After 10d of oral exposure, NDL-PCBs in adipose tissue, liver and muscles were analyzed by GC-MS, after extraction and purification. Two distinct groups of treatments were found: on the one hand oil, SS and FA, on the other hand C and AC. This study highlights that condensed OM (AC) strongly reduces bioavailability whereas the less condensed one (FA) does not seem to have a significant effect. This result has to be considered as a first major step for further relative bioavailability studies involving mixture of different humic substances. PMID:24289980

Delannoy, Matthieu; Rychen, Guido; Fournier, Agnès; Jondreville, Catherine; Feidt, Cyril

2014-06-01

161

Performance assessment of the single photon emission microscope: high spatial resolution SPECT imaging of small animal organs  

PubMed Central

The single photon emission microscope (SPEM) is an instrument developed to obtain high spatial resolution single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of small structures inside the mouse brain. SPEM consists of two independent imaging devices, which combine a multipinhole collimator, a high-resolution, thallium-doped cesium iodide [CsI(Tl)] columnar scintillator, a demagnifying/intensifier tube, and an electron-multiplying charge-coupling device (CCD). Collimators have 300- and 450-µm diameter pinholes on tungsten slabs, in hexagonal arrays of 19 and 7 holes. Projection data are acquired in a photon-counting strategy, where CCD frames are stored at 50 frames per second, with a radius of rotation of 35 mm and magnification factor of one. The image reconstruction software tool is based on the maximum likelihood algorithm. Our aim was to evaluate the spatial resolution and sensitivity attainable with the seven-pinhole imaging device, together with the linearity for quantification on the tomographic images, and to test the instrument in obtaining tomographic images of different mouse organs. A spatial resolution better than 500 µm and a sensitivity of 21.6 counts·s-1·MBq-1 were reached, as well as a correlation coefficient between activity and intensity better than 0.99, when imaging 99mTc sources. Images of the thyroid, heart, lungs, and bones of mice were registered using 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals in times appropriate for routine preclinical experimentation of <1 h per projection data set. Detailed experimental protocols and images of the aforementioned organs are shown. We plan to extend the instrument's field of view to fix larger animals and to combine data from both detectors to reduce the acquisition time or applied activity. PMID:24270908

Mejia, J.; Reis, M.A.; Miranda, A.C.C.; Batista, I.R.; Barboza, M.R.F.; Shih, M.C.; Fu, G.; Chen, C.T.; Meng, L.J.; Bressan, R.A.; Amaro, E.

2013-01-01

162

Collagen content in skin and internal organs of the tight skin mouse: an animal model of scleroderma.  

PubMed

The Tight Skin mouse is a genetically induced animal model of tissue fibrosis caused by a large in-frame mutation in the gene encoding fibrillin-1 (Fbn-1). We examined the influence of gender on the collagen content of tissues in C57BL/6J wild type (+/+) and mutant Tight Skin (Tsk/+) mice employing hydroxyproline assays. Tissue sections were stained with Masson's trichrome to identify collagen in situ. Adult Tsk/+ mice skin contains ~15% more collagen, on average, than skin from +/+ mice of the same gender. The heart of Tsk/+ males had significantly more collagen than that of +/+ males. No significant gender differences were found in lungs and kidney collagen content. Overall, the collagen content of Tsk/+ males and +/+ males was higher than that of their Tsk/+ and +/+ female counterparts, respectively. Our data confirm increased deposition of collagen in skin and hearts of Tsk/+ mice; however, the effects of the Tsk mutation on collagen content are both tissue specific and gender specific. These results indicate that comparative studies of collagen content between normal and Tsk/+ mice skin and internal organs must take into account gender differences caused by expression of the androgen receptor. PMID:24260716

Manne, Jayanthi; Markova, Marina; Siracusa, Linda D; Jimenez, Sergio A

2013-01-01

163

Animal Cell Mitosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation demonstrates the stages of mitosis in an animal cell. Use the control buttons in the upper left to run the complete animation. Click on any intermediate stage (for example, Anaphase), and see a representative still frame.

2010-01-01

164

Standardization of flux chamber and wind tunnel flux measurements for quantifying volatile organic compound and ammonia emissions from area sources at animal feeding operations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A variety of wind tunnels and flux chambers have been used to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and ammonia (NH3) at animal feeding operations (AFO). However, there has been little regard to the extreme variation and potential inaccuracies caused by inappropriate air velocity or sw...

165

[Determination of trace element silver in animal serum, tissues and organs by microwave digestion-ICP-MS].  

PubMed

Nowadays, the silver is widely used in the biological field and its biological safety catches great attention. It is important to know the distribution of silver ions within the biological organism and the toxic threshold concentration in the tissue. Therefore, a highly sensitive method for measurement of trace amount of silver ion in the medical biological samples is needed. With its high sensitivity for detection of metal ions, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method is well suited for quantification of trace amount of silver ion in such samples, but method development is still in its infancy. Consequently, a simple and convenient method for determination of trace amount of silver in the animal serum, tissues or organs was developed, in which the samples were subjected to the microwave digestion, followed by the ICP-MS analysis. To begin with, the samples of serum, muscle, bone marrow, bone, heart, liver, spleen, and kidney were sequently processed in 5 mL of HNO3 and 2 mL of H2O2 solution. Then the samples were completely digested by microwave with the power of 2 000 watts. The temperature was raised gradually by 3-step program. Moreover, the data achieved were reproducible and the method was time saving and especially for large amounts of sample processing. Then the digested solutions were diluted to constant volume. Finally, the concentration of 107Ag in the samples was analyzed by the method of ICP-MS under the optimized conditions. Element yttrium (Y) was used as the internal standard to compensate for matrix suppression effect and improve the accuracy of measurement. For one thing, the analytical results showed that the detection limit of the trace element 107Ag was 0.98 ?g · kg(-1), and furthermore, the correlation coefficient of standard curve was 0.999 9. For another thing, the recovery rate of the silver element ranged from 98% to 107%, which was calculated according to measured quantity before adding standard, adding standard and measured quantity after adding standard. At the same time, the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the method was in the range of 2.0%-4.3%. The concentrations of element silver in animal serum, tissues and organs were determined by the aboved method. The obtained results showed that silver ions were mainly accumulated in the liver after they were intaken into the body. The results suggested that the microwave digestion-ICP-MS method could accurately determine the trace element Ag in the body. The method developed has good feasibility and is suitable for the determination of trace element Ag in various types of medical and biological samples, especially for large quantities of biological samples. The process has the advantages of easysample processing and it is simple and convenient. In addition, the accurate results could be obtained in a short time with high sensitivity. Last but not least, the method provides the guidance for the determination of trace elements in other biological samples. PMID:25532359

Yuan, Jun-Jie; Xie, You-Zhuan; Han, Chen; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Jie; Lu, Xiao; Lu, Jian-Xi; Ren, Wei

2014-09-01

166

Gravity as a factor in the animal environment.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Review of current knowledge, research, and research planning on the influence of gravity upon living organisms. Discussed factors affecting the adaptability of animals to increased acceleration fields include age, sex, posture, and body size. Affected functions and aspects reviewed cover growth and mature body size, body composition, maintenance feed requirements, and feed utilization efficiency. It is expected that research involving the exposure of animals to altered gravity states will lead to new biological concepts of very broad importance.

Smith, A. H.

1972-01-01

167

Cardiovascular Physiology Teaching: Computer Simulations vs. Animal Demonstrations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the introductory level, the computer provides an effective alternative to using animals for laboratory teaching. Computer software can simulate the operation of multiple organ systems. Advantages of software include alteration of variables that are not easily changed in vivo, repeated interventions, and cost-effective hands-on student access.…

Samsel, Richard W.; And Others

1994-01-01

168

Fenproporex increases locomotor activity and alters energy metabolism, and mood stabilizers reverse these changes: a proposal for a new animal model of mania.  

PubMed

Fenproporex (Fen) is converted in vivo into amphetamine, which is used to induce mania-like behaviors in animals. In the present study, we intend to present a new animal model of mania. In order to prove through face, construct, and predictive validities, we evaluated behavioral parameters (locomotor activity, stereotypy activity, and fecal boli amount) and brain energy metabolism (enzymes citrate synthase; malate dehydrogenase; succinate dehydrogenase; complexes I, II, II-III, and IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain; and creatine kinase) in rats submitted to acute and chronic administration of fenproporex, treated with lithium (Li) and valproate (VPA). The administration of Fen increased locomotor activity and decreased the activity of Krebs cycle enzymes, mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, and creatine kinase, in most brain structures evaluated. In addition, treatment with mood stabilizers prevented and reversed this effect. Our results are consistent with the literature that demonstrates behavioral changes and mitochondrial dysfunction caused by psychostimulants. These findings suggest that chronic administration of Fen may be a potential animal model of mania. PMID:24126971

Rezin, Gislaine T; Furlanetto, Camila B; Scaini, Giselli; Valvassori, Samira S; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Jeremias, Isabela C; Resende, Wilson R; Cardoso, Mariane R; Varela, Roger B; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

2014-04-01

169

Performance of commercial nonmethane hydrocarbon analyzers in monitoring oxygenated volatile organic compounds emitted from animal feeding operations.  

PubMed

Quantifying non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) from animal feeding operations (AFOs) is challenging due to the broad spectrum of compounds and the polar nature of the most abundant compounds. The purpose of this study was to determine the performance of commercial NMHC analyzers for measuring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) commonly emitted from AFOs. Three different NMHC analyzers were tested for response to laboratory generated VOCs, and two were tested in the field at a commercial poultry facility. The NMHC analyzers tested included gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID), photoacoustic infrared (PA-IR) and photoionization detector (PID). The GC/FID NHHC analyzer was linear in response to nonpolar compounds, but detector response to polar oxygenated compounds were lower than expected due to poor peak shape on the column. The PA-IR NMHC instrument responded well to the calibration standard (propane), methanol, and acetone, but it performed poorly with larger alcohols and ketones and acetonitrile. The PA-IR response varied between compounds in similar compound classes. The PID responded poorly to many of the most abundant VOCs at AFOs, and it underreported alcohols by > 70%. In the field monitoring study, total NMHC concentrations were calculated from sum total of VOC determined using EPA Methods TO-15 and TO-17 with GC-MS compared to results from NMHC analyzers. NMHC GC/FID values were greater than the values calculated from the individual compound measurements. This indicated the presence of small hydrocarbons not measured with TO-15 or TO-17 such as propane. The PA-IR response was variable, but it was always lower than the GC/FID response. Results suggest that improved approaches are needed to accurately determine the VOC profile and NMHC emission rates from AFOs. PMID:24282968

Trabue, Steven; Scoggin, Kenwood; McConnell, Laura L; Li, Hong; Turner, Andrew; Burns, Robert; Xin, Hongwei; Gates, Richard S; Hasson, Alam; Ogunjemiyo, Segun; Maghirang, Ronaldo; Hatfield, Jerry

2013-10-01

170

Microcystin-LR, a protein phosphatase inhibitor, induces alterations in mitotic chromatin and microtubule organization leading to the formation of micronuclei in Vicia faba  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Microcystin-LR (MCY-LR) is a cyanobacterial toxin, a specific inhibitor of type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases (PP1 and PP2A) with significant impact on aquatic ecosystems. It has the potential to alter regulation of the plant cell cycle. The aim of this study was improved understanding of the mitotic alterations induced by cyanotoxin in Vicia faba, a model organism for plant cell biology studies. Methods Vicia faba seedlings were treated over the long and short term with MCY-LR purified in our laboratory. Short-term treatments were performed on root meristems synchronized with hydroxylurea. Sections of lateral root tips were labelled for chromatin, phosphorylated histone H3 and ?-tubulin via histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Mitotic activity and the occurrence of mitotic alterations were detected and analysed by fluorescence microscopy. The phosphorylation state of histone H3 was studied by Western blotting. Key Results Long-term MCY-LR exposure of lateral root tip meristems increased the percentage of either early or late mitosis in a concentration-dependent manner. We observed hypercondensed chromosomes and altered sister chromatid segregation (lagging chromosomes) leading to the formation of micronuclei, accompanied by the formation of disrupted, multipolar and monopolar spindles, disrupted phragmoplasts and the hyperphosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser10. Short-term MCY-LR treatment of synchronized cells showed that PP1 and PP2A inhibition delayed the onset of anaphase at 1 µg mL?1 MCY-LR, accelerated cell cycle at 10 µg mL?1 MCY-LR and induced the formation of lagging chromosomes. In this case mitotic microtubule alterations were not detected, but histone H3 was hyperphosphorylated. Conclusions MCY-LR delayed metaphase–anaphase transition. Consequently, it induced aberrant chromatid segregation and micronucleus formation that could be associated with both H3 hyperphosphorylation and altered microtubule organization. However, these two phenomena seemed to be independent. The toxin may be a useful tool in the study of plant cell cycle regulation. PMID:22819947

Beyer, Dániel; Tándor, Ildikó; Kónya, Zoltán; Bátori, Róbert; Roszik, Janos; Vereb, György; Erd?di, Ferenc; Vasas, Gábor; M-Hamvas, Márta; Jambrovics, Károly; Máthé, Csaba

2012-01-01

171

Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) augmentation early in life alters hippocampal development and rescues the anxiety phenotype in vulnerable animals  

PubMed Central

Individuals with mood disorders exhibit alterations in the fibroblast growth factor system, including reduced hippocampal fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2). It is difficult, however, to pinpoint whether these alterations are a cause or consequence of the disorder. The present study asks whether FGF2 administered the day after birth has long-lasting effects on hippocampal development and emotionality. We show that early-life FGF2 shifts the pace of neurogenesis, with an early acceleration around weaning followed by a deceleration in adulthood. This, in turn, results in a denser dentate gyrus with more neurons. To assess the impact of early-life FGF2 on emotionality, we use rats selectively bred for differences in locomotor response to novelty. Selectively bred low-responder (bLR) rats show low levels of novelty-induced locomotion and exhibit high levels of anxiety- and depression-like behavior compared with their selectively bred high-responder counterparts. Early-life FGF2 decreased anxiety-like behavior in highly anxious bLRs without altering other behaviors and without affecting high-responder rats. Laser capture microscopy of the dentate gyrus followed by microarray analysis revealed genes that were differentially expressed in bLRs exposed to early-life FGF2 vs. vehicle-treated bLRs. Some of the differentially expressed genes that have been positively associated with anxiety were down-regulated, whereas genes that promote cell survival were up-regulated. Overall, these results show a key role for FGF2 in the developmental trajectory of the hippocampus as well as the modulation of anxiety-like behavior in adulthood, and they point to potential downstream targets for the treatment of anxiety disorders. PMID:21518861

Turner, Cortney A.; Clinton, Sarah M.; Thompson, Robert C.; Watson, Stanley J.; Akil, Huda

2011-01-01

172

PURDUE EXTENSION Animal Damage Management  

E-print Network

blindness, paralysis, unusual behavior, and death. Altered behaviors of infected animals may include inability to walk or climb, loss of fear (of humans or other animals), rolling on the ground, falling over

Ginzel, Matthew

173

Dairy animal welfare. Introduction.  

PubMed

Organizations devoted to proper animal care have focused the attention of society on humane animal treatment. In recent years, some groups have raised questions as to what constitutes proper animal care on the farm and in the research laboratory. Philosophical questions about animal rights have been raised. Several groups are active in the animal welfare, animal rights arena and they vary widely in their objectives and methods of operation. Many of these groups are well-funded. Some resort to civil disobedience to achieve their ends. Farm animal commodity groups, animal-oriented research agencies, and animal-related industry groups have become increasingly aware of the public interest in animal welfare and are organizing programs and groups to better understand and educate the public on the issues. PMID:3448117

Blosser, T H

1987-12-01

174

Characterizing reduced sulfur compounds and non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become a potential environmental and human health concern. Both RSCs and NMVOCs contribute to odor. In addition, RSCs also have the potential to form fine particulate matter (PMfine) and NMVOCs the potential to form ozone. Measurements of RSCs and NMVOCs emissions were made from both an anaerobic lagoon and barn at a swine CAFO in North Carolina. Emission measurements were made over all four seasonal periods. In each seasonal period, measurements were made from both the anaerobic lagoon and barn for ˜1 week. RSC and NMVOCs samples were collected using passivated canisters. Nine to eleven canister samples were taken from both the lagoon and barn over each sampling period. The canisters were analyzed ex-situ using gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) measurements were made in-situ using a pulsed fluorescence H2S/SO2 analyzer. During sampling, measurements of meteorological and physiochemical parameters were made. H2S had the largest RSC flux, with an overall average lagoon flux of 1.33 mug m-2 min-1. The two main RSCs identified by the GC-FID, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), had overall average lagoon fluxes an order of magnitude lower, 0.12 and 0.09 mug m-2 min-1, respectively. Twelve significant NMVOCs were identified in lagoon samples (ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, decanal, heptanal, hexanal, nonanal, octanal, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and 4-methylphenol). The overall average fluxes for these NMVOCs, ranged from 0.08 mug m-2 min-1 (4-methylphenol) to 2.11 mug m-2 min-1 (acetone). Seasonal H2S barn concentrations ranged from 72-631 ppb. DMS and DMDS seasonal concentrations were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower. There were six significant NMVOCs identified in barn samples (methanol, ethanol, acetone 2-3 butanedione, acetaldehyde and 4-methylphenol). Their overall average NMVOCs concentrations ranged from 2.87 ppb (4-methylphenol) to 16.21 ppb (ethanol). The overall average barn normalized emissions were 3.3 g day-1 AU-1 (AU (animal unit) = 500 kg) for H2S, 0.018 g day-1 AU-1 for DMS and 0.037 g day -1 AU-1 for DMDS. Normalized overall average NMVOC emissions ranged from 0.45 g day-1 AU-1 for ethanol to 0.16 g day-1 AU-1 for acetaldehyde. Barn H2S concentrations were generally one to two orders of magnitude above their odor thresholds. DMDS concentrations also regularly exceeded the lower limit of an odor threshold. Four NMVOCs (2-3 butanedione, decanal, 4-methylphenol and nonanal) had barn concentrations exceeding an odor threshold. Using overall average lagoon and barn emissions, the emissions from swine CAFOs in North Carolina were estimated. H2S had the largest RSC emission with an estimated North Carolina emission of 1.46 million kg yr -1, which was ˜21% of total North Carolina H2S emissions. Ethanol was the NMVOC with the largest North Carolina emission with an emission of 206,367 kg yr-1.

Rumsey, Ian Cooper

175

Acute dextro-amphetamine administration does not alter brain myo-inositol levels in humans and animals: MRS investigations at 3 and 18.8 T.  

PubMed

The pathophysiological underpinnings of bipolar disorder are not fully understood. However, they may be due in part to changes in the phosphatidylinositol second messenger system (PI-cycle) generally, or changes in myo-inositol concentrations more specifically. Dextro-amphetamine has been used as a model for mania in several human studies as it causes similar subjective and physiological symptoms. We wanted to determine if dextro-amphetamine altered myo-inositol concentrations in vivo as it would clearly define a mechanism linking putative changes in the PI-cycle to the subjective psychological changes seen with dextro-amphetamine administration. Fifteen healthy human volunteers received a baseline scan, followed by second scan 75 min after receiving a 25 mg oral dose of dextro-amphetamine. Stimulated echo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) scans were preformed at 3.0 Tesla (T) in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC). Metabolite data were adjusted for tissue composition and analyzed using LCModel. Twelve adult male rats were treated acutely with a 5-mg/kg intraperitoneal dose of dextro-amphetamine. After 1 h rats were decapitated and the brains were rapidly removed and frozen until dissection. Rat brains were dissected into frontal, temporal, and occipital cortical areas, as well as hippocampus. Tissue was analyzed using a Varian 18.8 T spectrometer. Metabolites were identified and quantified using Chenomx Profiler software. The main finding in the present study was that myo-inositol concentrations in the DMPFC of human volunteers and in the four rat brain regions were not altered by acute dextro-amphetamine. While it remains possible that the PI-cycle may be involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, it is not likely that the subjective and physiological of dextro-amphetamine are mediated, directly or indirectly, via alternations in myo-inositol concentrations. PMID:18508145

McGrath, Brent M; McKay, Ryan; Dave, Sanjay; Seres, Peter; Weljie, Aalim M; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Hanstock, Chris C; Greenshaw, Andrew J; Silverstone, Peter H

2008-08-01

176

Alterations of the cerebrospinal fluid proteins and subcommissural organ secretion in the arterial hypertension and ventricular dilatation. A study in SHR rats.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to analyze the proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of spontaneously hypertensive rats, to study their possible role in the relationship between hydrocephalus, arterial hypertension and alterations in the subcommissural organ. Brains from control Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) sacrificed with chloral hydrate were used. Antiserums against some cerebrospinal fluid protein bands and Reissner's fiber (RF) were used for immunohistochemical study of the SCO. Ventricular dilation was observed in the lateral and third ventricle of the SHR. Third ventricle ependyma showed immunoreactive material (IRM) for antibody against 141 kDa protein band anti-B1 and 117 protein band anti-B2 and the SCO of the SHR showed a decrease of the IRM when compared with WKY rats. An alteration in the expression of anti-RF was found to compare the SCO of the WKY and SHR groups. Our results demonstrate that hydrocephalus and hypertension are interconnected in this kind of rat which produce alterations in SCO secretions and some proteins of the CSF. PMID:16329042

Martínez-Peña y Valenzuela, I; Carmona-Calero, E M; Pérez-González, H; Ormazabal-Ramos, C; Fernández-Rodríguez, P; González-Marrero, I; Castañeyra-Perdomo, A; Ferres-Torres, R

2006-02-01

177

Nocturnal Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over time, human beings have blazed their way into the night with fire and artificial light, but we are not true creatures of the night. This Topic in Depth explores the world of nocturnal animals. From Island Discovery & Training, the first site allows visitors to listen to the sounds of several nocturnal animals. After guessing who made the sound, visitors can link to information pages for all but one of the mystery animals (1). Next is an information sheet (2) from BioMedia that answers the question: How Do Animals See In the Dark? The third site, from Enchanted Learning, provides coloring sheets and brief profiles for many nocturnal animals including the Amur Tiger, Badger, Crocodile, and Kinkajou-just to name a few (3). From the Fairbanks Museum & Planetarium in Vermont, the fourth website contains a six-page lesson plan (for students in grades one to eight) emphasizing different senses; and the roles and adaptations of nocturnal species (4). The fifth site, from Science News Online, contains an article addressing research on the ecological impact of artificial nighttime light on nocturnal animals (5). From Wild Asia, the next site contains an article by travel writer and environmental educator David Bowden, that describes his experience watching a marine turtle lay her eggs on Malaysia's Turtle Island (6). The seventh site, from PBS-Nova Online, briefly describes the work of zoologists who study nocturnal and burrowing animals of the Kalahari (7). From this site visitors can also link to a section that discusses how several different animals see at night. The final site, from the University of Utah-John Moran Eye Center, contains information about the role of photoreceptors in vision (8). This Photoreceptors section is part of a comprehensive electronic tutorial regarding neural organization of the mammalian retina.

178

BRG1/SMARCA4 inactivation promotes non-small cell lung cancer aggressiveness by altering chromatin organization.  

PubMed

SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes regulate critical cellular processes, including cell-cycle control, programmed cell death, differentiation, genomic instability, and DNA repair. Inactivation of this class of chromatin remodeling complex has been associated with a variety of malignancies, including lung, ovarian, renal, liver, and pediatric cancers. In particular, approximately 10% of primary human lung non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) display attenuations in the BRG1 ATPase, a core factor in SWI/SNF complexes. To evaluate the role of BRG1 attenuation in NSCLC development, we examined the effect of BRG1 silencing in primary and established human NSCLC cells. BRG1 loss altered cellular morphology and increased tumorigenic potential. Gene expression analyses showed reduced expression of genes known to be associated with progression of human NSCLC. We demonstrated that BRG1 losses in NSCLC cells were associated with variations in chromatin structure, including differences in nucleosome positioning and occupancy surrounding transcriptional start sites of disease-relevant genes. Our results offer direct evidence that BRG1 attenuation contributes to NSCLC aggressiveness by altering nucleosome positioning at a wide range of genes, including key cancer-associated genes. PMID:25115300

Orvis, Tess; Hepperla, Austin; Walter, Vonn; Song, Shujie; Simon, Jeremy; Parker, Joel; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Desai, Nisarg; Major, Michael B; Hayes, D Neil; Davis, Ian J; Weissman, Bernard

2014-11-15

179

Neuropeptide S alters anxiety, but not depression-like behaviour in Flinders Sensitive Line rats: a genetic animal model of depression.  

PubMed

Neuropeptide S (NPS) and its receptor (NPSR) have been implicated in the mediation of anxiolytic-like behaviour in rodents. However, little knowledge is available regarding the NPS system in depression-related behaviours, and whether NPS also exerts anxiolytic effects in an animal model of psychopathology. Therefore, the aim of this work was to characterize the effects of NPS on depression- and anxiety-related parameters, using male and female rats in a well-validated animal model of depression: the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL), their controls, the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL), and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. We found that FSL showed greater immobility in the forced swim test (FST) than FRL, confirming their phenotype. However, NPS did not affect depression-related behaviour in any rat line. No significant differences in baseline anxiety levels between the FSL and FRL strains were observed, but FSL and FRL rats displayed less anxiety-like behaviour compared to SD rats. NPS decreased anxiety-like behaviour on the elevated plus-maze in all strains. The expression of the NPSR in the amygdala, periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, and hippocampus was equal in all male strains, although a trend towards reduced expression within the amygdala was observed in FSL rats compared to SD rats. In conclusion, NPS had a marked anxiolytic effect in FSL, FRL and SD rats, but did not modify the depression-related behaviour in any strain, in spite of the significant differences in innate level between the strains. These findings suggest that NPS specifically modifies anxiety behaviour but cannot overcome/reverse a genetically mediated depression phenotype. PMID:21708052

Wegener, Gregers; Finger, Beate C; Elfving, Betina; Keller, Kirsten; Liebenberg, Nico; Fischer, Christina W; Singewald, Nicolas; Slattery, David A; Neumann, Inga D; Mathé, Aleksander A

2012-04-01

180

Thermally-induced structural and chemical alteration of organic-walled microfossils: an experimental approach to understanding fossil preservation in metasediments.  

PubMed

The identification and confirmation of bona fide Archean-Paleoproterozoic microfossils can prove to be a challenging task, further compounded by diagenetic and metamorphic histories. While structures of likely biological origin are not uncommon in Precambrian rocks, the search for early fossil life has been disproportionately focused on lesser thermally altered rocks, typically greenschist or lower-grade metamorphism. Recently, however, an increasing number of inferred micro- and macrofossils have been reported from higher-grade metasediments, prompting us to experimentally test and quantify the preservability of organic-walled microfossils over varying durations of controlled heating and under two differing redox conditions. Because of their relatively low-intensity natural thermal alteration, acritarchs from the Mesoproterozoic Ruyang Group were chosen as subjects for experimental heating at approximately 500°C, with durations ranging from 1 to 250 days and in both oxic (normal present day conditions) and anoxic conditions. Upon extraction, the opacity, reflectivity, color, microchemistry, and microstructures of the heated acritarchs were characterized using optic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results differ for acritarchs prepared under oxic vs. anoxic conditions, with the anoxic replicates surviving experimental heating longer and retaining biological morphologies better, despite an increasing degree of carbonization with continuous heating. Conversely, the oxic replicates show aggressive degradation. In conjunction with fossils from high-grade metasediments, our data illustrate the preservational potential of organic-walled microfossils subjected to metamorphism in reducing conditions, offer insights into the search for microfossils in metasediments, and help to elucidate the influence of time on the carbonization/graphitization processes during thermal alteration. PMID:22607551

Schiffbauer, J D; Wallace, A F; Hunter, J L; Kowalewski, M; Bodnar, R J; Xiao, S

2012-09-01

181

What can we learn from the toughest animals of the Earth? Water bears (tardigrades) as multicellular model organisms in order to perform scientific preparations for lunar exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space missions of long duration required a series of preliminary experiments on living organisms, validated by a substantial phase of ground simulation experiments, in the field of micro- and inter-mediate gravities, radiobiology, and, for planetary explorations, related to risks deriving from regolith and dust exposure. In this review, we present the tardigrades, whose characteristics that recommend them as an emerging model for space biology. They are microscopic animals but are characterized by a complex structural organization similar to that of larger animals; they can be cultured in lab in small facilities, having small size; they are able to produce clonal lineages by means of parthenogenesis; they can completely suspend their metabolism when entering in dormant states (anhydrobiosis induced by dehydration and cryobiosis induced by freezing); desiccated anhydrobiotic tardigrades are able to withstand chemical and physical extremes, but a large tolerance is showed also by active animals; they can be stored in dry state for many years without loss of viability. Tardigrades have already been exposed to space stressors on Low Earth Orbit several times. The relevance of ground-based and space studies on tardigrades rests on the presumption that results could suggest strategies to protect organisms, also humans, when exposed to the space and lunar environments.

Guidetti, Roberto; Rizzo, Angela Maria; Altiero, Tiziana; Rebecchi, Lorena

2012-12-01

182

Earthworm Effects without Earthworms: Inoculation of Raw Organic Matter with Worm-Worked Substrates Alters Microbial Community Functioning  

PubMed Central

Background Earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with soil microorganisms. They enhance decomposition rates through the joint action of direct effects (i.e. effects due to direct earthworm activity such as digestion, burrowing, etc) and indirect effects (i.e. effects derived from earthworm activities such as cast ageing). Here we test whether indirect earthworm effects affect microbial community functioning in the substrate, as when earthworms are present (i. e., direct effects). Methodology/Principal Findings To address these questions we inoculated fresh organic matter (pig manure) with worm-worked substrates (vermicompost) produced by three different earthworm species. Two doses of each vermicompost were used (2.5 and 10%). We hypothesized that the presence of worm-worked material in the fresh organic matter will result in an inoculum of different microorganisms and nutrients. This inoculum should interact with microbial communities in fresh organic matter, thus promoting modifications similar to those found when earthworms are present. Inoculation of worm-worked substrates provoked significant increases in microbial biomass and enzyme activities (?-glucosidase, cellulase, phosphatase and protease). These indirect effects were similar to, although lower than, those obtained in pig manure with earthworms (direct and indirect earthworm effects). In general, the effects were not dose-dependent, suggesting the existence of a threshold at which they were triggered. Conclusion/Significance Our data reveal that the relationships between earthworms and microorganisms are far from being understood, and suggest the existence of several positive feedbacks during earthworm activity as a result of the interactions between direct and indirect effects, since their combination produces stronger modifications to microbial biomass and enzyme activity. PMID:21298016

Aira, Manuel; Domínguez, Jorge

2011-01-01

183

Alteration of Endothelins: A Common Pathogenetic Mechanism in Chronic Diabetic Complications  

PubMed Central

Endothelin (ET) peptides perform several physiological, vascular, and nonvascular functions and are widely distributed in a number of tissues. They are altered in several disease processes including diabetes. Alteration of ETs have been demonstrated in organs of chronic diabetic complications in both experimental and clinical studies. The majority of the effects of ET alteration in diabetes are due to altered vascular function. Furthermore, ET antagonists have been shown to prevent structural and functional changes induced by diabetes in animal models. This review discusses the contribution of ETs in the pathogenesis and the potential role of ET antagonism in the treatment of chronic diabetic complications. PMID:12546275

Khan, Zia Ali; Cukiernik, Mark; Fukuda, Gen; Chen, Shali; Mukherjee, Suranjana

2002-01-01

184

Animal cellulases  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Previous dogma has maintained that cellulose, ingested by xylophagous or herbivorous animals, is digested by cellulolytic\\u000a symbiotes. The first evidence in conflict with this contention involved the demonstration of cellulolytic activities in symbiote-free\\u000a secreting organs (e.g., the salivary glands of termites) or defaunated guts. Following these demonstrations, possible endogenous\\u000a cellulase components were purified from several cellulose-digesting invertebrates, but this

H. Watanabe; G. Tokuda

2001-01-01

185

PHOTOCHEMICAL ALTERATION OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER: EFFECTS ON THE CONCENTRATION AND ACIDITIES OF IONIZABLE SITES IN DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN THE SATILLA RIVER OF GEORGIA, USA  

EPA Science Inventory

The acid-base properties of humic substances, the major component of dissolved organic matter (DOM), area major control on the alkalinity, or acid neutralizing capacity of freshwater systems. Alkalinity is one of the fundamental parameters measured in aquatic sciences, and is an ...

186

Zearalenone Altered the Serum Hormones, Morphologic and Apoptotic Measurements of Genital Organs in Post-weaning Gilts  

PubMed Central

The present study was aimed at investigating the adverse effects of dietary zearalenone (ZEA) (1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg diet) on serum hormones, morphologic and apoptotic measurements of genital organs in post-weaning gilts. A total of twenty gilts (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc) weaned at 21 d with an average body weight of 10.36±1.21 kg were used in the study. Gilts were fed a basal diet with an addition of 0, 1.1, 2.0, or 3.2 mg/kg purified ZEA for 18 d ad libitum. Results showed that 3.2 mg/kg ZEA challenged gilts decreased (p<0.05) the serum levels of luteinizing hormone, however, serum levels of prolactin in gilts fed the diet containing 2.0 mg/kg ZEA or more were increased (p<0.05) compared to those in the control. Linear effects on all tested serum hormones except progesterone were observed as dietary ZEA levels increased (p<0.05). Gilts fed ZEA-contaminated diet showed increase (p<0.05) in genital organs size, hyperplasia of submucosal smooth muscles in the corpus uteri in a dose-dependent manner. However, the decreased numbers of follicles in the cortex and apoptotic cells in the ovarian were observed in gilts treated with ZEA in a dose-dependent manner. Degeneration and structural abnormalities of genital organs tissues were also observed in the gilts fed diet containing 1.1 mg/kg ZEA or more. Results suggested that dietary ZEA at 1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg can induce endocrine disturbance and damage genital organs in post-weaning gilts. PMID:25557812

Chen, X. X.; Yang, C. W.; Huang, L. B.; Niu, Q. S.; Jiang, S. Z.; Chi, F.

2015-01-01

187

Alterations in the mantle epithelium during transition from hatching gland to adhesive organ of Idiosepius pygmaeus (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).  

PubMed

Epithelial gland systems play an important role in marine molluscs in fabricating lubricants, repellents, fragrances, adhesives or enzymes. In cephalopods the typically single layered epithelium provides a highly dynamic variability and affords a rapid rebuilding of gland cells. While the digestive hatching gland (also named Hoyle organ) is obligatory for most cephalopods, only four genera (Nautilus, Sepia, Euprymna and Idiosepius) produce adhesive secretions by means of glandular cells in an adhesive area on the mantle or tentacles. In Idiosepius this adhesive organ is restricted to the posterior part of the fin region on the dorsal mantle side and well developed in the adult stage. Two gland cell types could be distinguished, which produce different contents of the adhesive. During the embryonic development the same body area is occupied by the temporary hatching gland. The question arises, in which way the hatching gland degrades and is replaced by the adhesive gland. Ultrastructural analyses as well as computer tomography scans were performed to monitor the successive post hatching transformation in the mantle epithelium from hatching gland degradation to the formation of the adhesive organ. According to our investigations the hatching gland cells degrade within about 1 day after hatching by a type of programmed cell death and leave behind a temporary cellular gap in this area. First glandular cells of the adhesive gland arise 7 days after hatching and proceed evenly over the posterior mantle epithelium. In contrast, the accompanying reduction of a part of the dorsal mantle musculature is already established before hatching. The results demonstrate a distinct independence between the two gland systems and illustrate the early development of the adhesive organ as well as the corresponding modifications within the mantle. PMID:25483816

Cyran, Norbert; Klepal, Waltraud; Städler, Yannick; Schönenberger, Jürg; von Byern, Janek

2015-02-01

188

Animal Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those of us living in Northern climates, when winter snow covers the landscape it provides great conditions to search for animal tracks. The following websites provide an abundance of information and resources about the ancient art of animal tracking.The first site(1 ), Beartracker's Animal Tracks Den, is an excellent comprehensive "online field guide to tracks and tracking." The site includes animal track images, photos, as well as information about mammals, reptiles, birds, insects, amphibians, and other tracking resources. The second site (2), is an article by Jon C. Boren, Extension Wildlife Specialist and Byron D. Wright, Agricultural Specialist both from the University of New Mexico entitled Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks. The third site (3), on Tracking and Stalking Wildlife, comes from The Virtual Cub Scout Leader's Handbook and provides short information pages on a variety on animals including photos and images of tracks. The fourth site (4) is a well-organized lesson plan with activities on Animal Signs from Eagle Bluff Environmental Learning Center. The fifth site (5) is the Outdoor Action Guide to Animal Tracking by Rick Curtis of Princeton University. This website provides solid and detailed information on many aspects of animal tracking including parts of a track, pattern classification, aging tracks, and more. The sixth site (6) is an article by veteran tracker Jim Halfpenny, Ph.D. about how to determine the accurate track size for an animal. Site visitors can link from this article to the homepage for A Naturalist's World which has information about tracking classes offered in various North American locations. For anyone interested in developing their animal tracking skills, the final two websites also offer courses from very experienced trackers in different regions of North America. The seventh site (7), Tom Brown's Tracker School is the largest school of its kind with locations in New Jersey, California, and Florida. The eighth site, (8) Wilderness Awareness School is located in Washington but offers courses in other regions as well. This website also provides an extensive list of links for many other tracking resources.

189

Influence of sill intrusions on the hydrology and thermal maturity of sediments - Modelling heat flow and organic geochemical alterations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a variaty of continetal margins worldwide, sill intrusions had a significant influence on the fluid flow and on the thermal alteration of the sediments. We present concepts of fluid and/or gas flow within the contact aureole of sills. Water exposed to the high temperatures at the contact will inadvertently be converted into the steam phase. This process is of explosive nature due to the enormous expansion of the specific density of the fluid. High temperatures in combination with the available fluid will build up high pressures around the aureole and lead to fluid or gas flow according to the pressure gradient. From the thermal point of view, the major effect of the steam formation is a drastic reduction of the contact temperature at the sill to near the steam point of the fluid. The temperature value depends primarily on the local hydraulic pressure, which is closely related to the depth of the contact below surface. One consequence of the high pressure regime will be the escape of the steam through fractures wherever available. Geologic evidence from known locations points to the creation of so-called pipes. Through such pipes, the fluids and gases will be carried away from the contact, and with it the thermal energy. Our concept is compatible with observations on hydrothermal vents in sedimentary basins, which are known to be associated with sill intrusions. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the above concept, we employ a derivate of BGR's heat flow model which has been used and proven as a robust analytic tool in a variety of published studies. Our calculations demonstrate the massive temperature depression caused by the steam production in comparison to the case of pure heat transfer by conduction. After sill emplacement steam generation will ensue until the latent heat for steam formation for the given water volume has been supplied by heat flow out of the sill. During this process, the contact temperature will be kept at the steam point of water for the given pressure at the sill depth. As soon as the latent heat is used up, the heat flow from the sill will drop below the capacity to heat the water to the steam point. The contact temperature will thereafter slowly drop, sediments and sill will proceed to cool jointly. To test our model with observations, we included routines of kinetic modelling of thermal vitrinite alteration, and compared the computational results to data from different settings worldwide. The comparison between modelled and observational data are in very good accordance.

Berner, Ulrich; Delisle, Georg

2010-05-01

190

Two amphibian diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, are now globally notifiable to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE): an assessment.  

PubMed

The global trade in amphibians entails the transport of tens of millions of live animals each year. In addition to the impact harvesting wild animals can have on amphibian populations, there is mounting evidence that the emerging pathogens Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and ranaviruses, the aetiological agents of chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, respectively, are spread through this trade. The link between these pathogens and amphibian declines and extinctions suggests that the epidemiological impact of the trade is significant and may negatively affect conservation and trade economics. Here we present a brief assessment of the volume of the global trade in live amphibians, the risk of individuals harboring infection, and information on the recent listing by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) of chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease in the OIE Aquatic Animal Health Code. This listing made chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease internationally notifiable diseases and thus subject to OIE standards, which aim to assure the sanitary safety of international trade in live amphibians and their products. PMID:21268971

Schloegel, Lisa M; Daszak, Peter; Cunningham, Andrew A; Speare, Richard; Hill, Barry

2010-11-01

191

A nutrient-driven tRNA modification alters translational fidelity and genome-wide protein coding across an animal genus.  

PubMed

Natural selection favors efficient expression of encoded proteins, but the causes, mechanisms, and fitness consequences of evolved coding changes remain an area of aggressive inquiry. We report a large-scale reversal in the relative translational accuracy of codons across 12 fly species in the Drosophila/Sophophora genus. Because the reversal involves pairs of codons that are read by the same genomically encoded tRNAs, we hypothesize, and show by direct measurement, that a tRNA anticodon modification from guanosine to queuosine has coevolved with these genomic changes. Queuosine modification is present in most organisms but its function remains unclear. Modification levels vary across developmental stages in D. melanogaster, and, consistent with a causal effect, genes maximally expressed at each stage display selection for codons that are most accurate given stage-specific queuosine modification levels. In a kinetic model, the known increased affinity of queuosine-modified tRNA for ribosomes increases the accuracy of cognate codons while reducing the accuracy of near-cognate codons. Levels of queuosine modification in D. melanogaster reflect bioavailability of the precursor queuine, which eukaryotes scavenge from the tRNAs of bacteria and absorb in the gut. These results reveal a strikingly direct mechanism by which recoding of entire genomes results from changes in utilization of a nutrient. PMID:25489848

Zaborske, John M; DuMont, Vanessa L Bauer; Wallace, Edward W J; Pan, Tao; Aquadro, Charles F; Drummond, D Allan

2014-12-01

192

Variation in langur social organization in relation to the socioecological model, human habitat alteration, and phylogenetic constraints.  

PubMed

The socioecological model is to date the best evolutionary model to explain variation in primate behaviour. Some species or populations, however, deviate from the predictions. These deviations may be due to a disequilibrium between evolutionary causes and behavioural adaptations, caused by recent human changes of the environment. The relationship between human habitat alteration and primate social behaviour is reviewed and investigated for langurs. Provisioning affects the spatial distribution of food. In these areas, but also in areas with natural monopolizable food sources, female dominance relationships are linear, but not nepotistic. This does not fit into the evolutionary model. Provisioning also affects the temporal distribution of food. This reduces the seasonality of mating, increases female monopolizability and gives rise to more one-male groups than in undisturbed areas. A human reduction of the number of predators leads to fewer males per group. It also results in female philopatry. Infanticide risk was higher in disturbed than in undisturbed areas. This was not caused by the lower proportion of one-male groups in disturbed areas, but by the lack of female dispersal. Thus, female behaviour was affected by human habitat disturbance in a way that does not fit the socioecological model. However, the extension of habitat disturbance does not explain all results. We could say that the model is refuted. Phylogenetic constraints, however, do explain the behaviour of despotic Hanuman langurs. Such phylogenetic constraints complement the socioecological model. To understand the evolutionary history of a current set of features, these two approaches should be studied simultaneously. PMID:23179541

Sterck, E H

1999-01-01

193

Alteration of Plasma Membrane Organization by an Anticancer Lysophosphatidylcholine Analogue Induces Intracellular Acidification and Internalization of Plasma Membrane Transporters in Yeast*  

PubMed Central

The lysophosphatidylcholine analogue edelfosine is a potent antitumor lipid that targets cellular membranes. The underlying mechanisms leading to cell death remain controversial, although two cellular membranes have emerged as primary targets of edelfosine, the plasma membrane (PM) and the endoplasmic reticulum. In an effort to identify conditions that enhance or prevent the cytotoxic effect of edelfosine, we have conducted genome-wide surveys of edelfosine sensitivity and resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae presented in this work and the accompanying paper (Cuesta-Marbán, Á., Botet, J., Czyz, O., Cacharro, L. M., Gajate, C., Hornillos, V., Delgado, J., Zhang, H., Amat-Guerri, F., Acuña, A. U., McMaster, C. R., Revuelta, J. L., Zaremberg, V., and Mollinedo, F. (January 23, 2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288,), respectively. Our results point to maintenance of pH homeostasis as a major player in modulating susceptibility to edelfosine with the PM proton pump Pma1p playing a main role. We demonstrate that edelfosine alters PM organization and induces intracellular acidification. Significantly, we show that edelfosine selectively reduces lateral segregation of PM proteins like Pma1p and nutrient H+-symporters inducing their ubiquitination and internalization. The biology associated to the mode of action of edelfosine we have unveiled includes selective modification of lipid raft integrity altering pH homeostasis, which in turn regulates cell growth. PMID:23344949

Czyz, Ola; Bitew, Teshager; Cuesta-Marbán, Alvaro; McMaster, Christopher R.; Mollinedo, Faustino; Zaremberg, Vanina

2013-01-01

194

SERVICE ANIMAL PROTOCOL Service animals are animals trained to assist people with disabilities in the  

E-print Network

the admittance of service animals for the following reasons: Research laboratories whereby the natural organisms carried by animals may negatively affect the outcome of the research. Mechanical Rooms/Custodial ClosetsSERVICE ANIMAL PROTOCOL Service animals are animals trained to assist people with disabilities

Maxwell, Bruce D.

195

Animal lifespan and human influence  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lifespan differs radically among organisms ever lived on earth, even among those roughly similar in size, shape, form, and physiology; Yet, in general, there exists a strong positive relationship between lifespan and body size. Although lifespans of humans and human-related (domestic) animals are becoming increasingly longer than that of other animals of similar sizes, the slope of the regression (lifespan-body size) line and the intercepts have been surprisingly stable over the course of the dramatic human population growth, indicating substantial depression in lifespans of many other animals probably due to shrunk and fragmented natural habitats. This article addresses two questions related to the lifespan-size relationship: (1) what caused the exceptions (e.g., a few remote human-related animals are also located above the regression line with great residuals) and why (e.g., could brain size or intelligence be a covariate in addition to body size in predicting lifespan?), and (2) whether continued human activities can eventually alter the ' natural' regression line in the future, and if so, how much. We also suggest similar research efforts to be extended to the plant world as well.

Guo, Q.; Yang, S.

2002-01-01

196

Progressive alterations in microstructural organization and biomechanical response in the ApoE mouse model of aneurysm  

PubMed Central

AAA is a complex disease that leads to a localized dilation of the infrarenal aorta that develops over years. Longitudinal information in humans has been difficult to obtain for this disease, therefore mouse models have become increasingly used to study the development of AAAs. The objective of this study was to determine any changes that occur in the biomechanical response and fiber microstructure in the ApoE?/? AngII mouse model of aneurysm during disease progression. Adult ApoE?/? AngII infused mice along with wild-type controls were taken at 14 and 28 d. Aortas were excised and tested simultaneously for biaxial mechanical response and ECM organization. Data sets were fit to a Fung-type constitutive model to give peak strains and stiffness values. Images from two photon microscopy were quantified in order to assess the preferred fiber alignment and degree of fiber orientation. Biomechanical results found significant differences that were present at 14 d had returned to normal by 28 d along with significant changes in fiber orientation and dispersion indicating remodeling occurring within the aneurysmal wall. This return of some of the normal biomechanical function, in addition the continuing changes that occur in the microstructure suggest a restorative response that occurs in the ApoE?/? AngII infused model after the initial aneurysm formation. PMID:23628871

Haskett, Darren; Azhar, Mohamad; Utzinger, Urs; Vande Geest, Jonathan P.

2013-01-01

197

Bdellovibrio and like organisms enhanced growth and survival of Penaeus monodon and altered bacterial community structures in its rearing water.  

PubMed

In this study, a 96-h laboratory reduction test was conducted with strain BDHSH06 (GenBank accession no. EF011103) as the test strain for Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) and 20 susceptible marine bacterial strains forming microcosms as the targets. The results showed that BDHSH06 reduced the levels of approximately 50% of prey bacterial strains within 96 h in the seawater microcosms. An 85-day black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) rearing experiment was performed. The shrimp survival rate, body length, and weight in the test tanks were 48.1% ± 1.2%, 99.8 ± 10.0 mm, and 6.36 ± 1.50 g, respectively, which were values significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those for the control, viz., 31.0% ± 2.1%, 86.0 ± 11.1 mm, and 4.21 ± 1.56 g, respectively. With the addition of BDHSH06, total bacterial and Vibrio numbers were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 1.3 to 4.5 log CFU · ml(-1) and CFU · g(-1) in both water and shrimp intestines, respectively, compared to those in the control. The effect of BDHSH06 on bacterial community structures in the rearing water was also examined using PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE profiles of rearing water samples from the control and test tanks revealed that the amounts of 44% of the bacterial species were reduced when BDHSH06 was added to the rearing water over the 85-day rearing period, and among these, approximately 57.1% were nonculturable. The results of this study demonstrated that BDHSH06 can be used as a biocontrol/probiotic agent in P. monodon culture. PMID:25107962

Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Qiuping; Liu, Renliang; Cai, Junpeng

2014-10-01

198

Evaluation of Novel Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates against Human and Animal Gammaherpesviruses Revealed an Altered Metabolism of Cyclic Prodrugs upon Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation in P3HR-1 Cells  

PubMed Central

Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs), such as (S)-1-[(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonomethoxy)propyl)]cytosine (HPMPC), are an important group of broad-spectrum antiviral agents with activity against DNA viruses. In this report, we present the in vitro potencies of novel ANPs against gammaherpesviruses, including Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and three animal gammaherpesviruses. 1-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-5-azacytosine (HPMP-5-azaC), (S)-9-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-3-deazaadenine (3-deaza-HPMPA), and their cyclic derivatives have emerged as highly potent antigammaherpesvirus agents. Interestingly, cyclic prodrugs of ANPs exhibited reduced activities against EBV strain P3HR-1, but not against EBV strain Akata. Cell culture metabolism studies with HPMPC and cyclic HPMPC revealed that these differences were attributable to an altered drug metabolism in P3HR-1 cells after EBV reactivation and, more specifically, to a reduced hydrolysis of cyclic HPMPC by cyclic CMP phosphodiesterase. We did not correlate this effect with phosphodiesterase downregulation, or to functional mutations. Instead, altered cyclic AMP levels in P3HR-1 cells indicated a competitive inhibition of the phosphodiesterase by this cyclic nucleotide. Finally, both HPMPC and HPMP-5-azaC emerged as highly effective inhibitors in vivo through significant inhibition of murine gammaherpesvirus replication and dissemination. With the current need for potent antigammaherpesvirus agents, our findings underline the requirement of appropriate surrogate viruses for antiviral susceptibility testing and highlight HPMP-5-azaC as a promising compound for future clinical development. PMID:24027315

Coen, Natacha; Duraffour, Sophie; Naesens, Lieve; Kre?merová, Marcela; Van den Oord, Joost; Snoeck, Robert

2013-01-01

199

Animal Cell Meiosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Meiosis is important in assuring genetic diversity in sexual reproduction. Use this interactive animation to follow Meiosis I (reduction division) and Meiosis II in a continuous sequence or stop at any stage and review critical events.

2010-01-01

200

The evolution of infectious agents in relation to sex in animals and humans: brief discussions of some individual organisms  

PubMed Central

The following series of concise summaries addresses the evolution of infectious agents in relation to sex in animals and humans from the perspective of three specific questions: (1) what have we learned about the likely origin and phylogeny, up to the establishment of the infectious agent in the genital econiche, including the relative frequency of its sexual transmission; (2) what further research is needed to provide additional knowledge on some of these evolutionary aspects; and (3) what evolutionary considerations might aid in providing novel approaches to the more practical clinical and public health issues facing us currently and in the future? PMID:21824167

Reed, David L.; Currier, Russell W.; Walton, Shelley F.; Conrad, Melissa; Sullivan, Steven A.; Carlton, Jane M.; Read, Timothy D.; Severini, Alberto; Tyler, Shaun; Eberle, R.; Johnson, Welkin E.; Silvestri, Guido; Clarke, Ian N.; Lagergård, Teresa; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Unemo, Magnus; Shafer, William M.; Beasley, R. Palmer; Bergström, Tomas; Norberg, Peter; Davison, Andrew J.; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Blomberg, Jonas

2013-01-01

201

Animal Hats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this arts and crafts activity about animals and animal characteristics, learners will design animal hats and role-play as animals. Through this dramatic play, learners will practice and develop problem solving, cooperation, symbolic thinking, language and personal expression skills. Use the suggested open-ended questions to encourage learner reflection about their animal hat and animals in general.

2012-06-26

202

Biogas production from vietnamese animal manure, plant residues and organic waste: influence of biomass composition on methane yield.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam. PMID:25557826

Cu, T T T; Nguyen, T X; Triolo, J M; Pedersen, L; Le, V D; Le, P D; Sommer, S G

2015-02-01

203

Biogas Production from Vietnamese Animal Manure, Plant Residues and Organic Waste: Influence of Biomass Composition on Methane Yield  

PubMed Central

Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg?1 volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg?1 VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam. PMID:25557826

Cu, T. T. T.; Nguyen, T. X.; Triolo, J. M.; Pedersen, L.; Le, V. D.; Le, P. D.; Sommer, S. G.

2015-01-01

204

Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth takes a look at organizations and educational websites concerned with reproduction in humans and other animals. The Society for the Study of Reproduction (SSR) "is an association of scientists and physicians interested in research in reproduction. Some members are engaged in basic or applied research, while others perform clinical practice." The SSR website (1) contains downloadable copies of the SSR Newsletter; position statements; and information about meetings, awards, and the organization. The Society for Reproduction and Fertility (SRF) "is open to scientists and students worldwide, who work on any aspect of reproductive biology or fertility in man and animals." The SRF website (2) contains sections regarding News, Events, Jobs, Honours, and Grants. SRF makes downloadable copies of its newsletter available as well. The primary aim of the European Society of Human Reproduction & Embryology (ESHRE) "is to promote interest in, and understanding of, reproductive biology and medicine. It does this through facilitating research and subsequent dissemination of research findings in human reproduction and embryology to the general public, scientists, clinicians and patient associations; it also works to inform politicians and policy makers throughout Europe." The ESHRE site (3) contains information about activities, membership, publications, special interest groups, and jobs. The primary function of the Centre for Reproductive Biology in Uppsala (CRU) "is to increase the knowledge about reproduction in animals and humans by applying a more comprehensive view on reproductive biology." CRU is composed of scientists from both Uppsala University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Science. The CRU site (4) contains information about a number of publications, and contact information for CRU members. The Population Council is a nonprofit "organization that conducts biomedical, social science, and public health research." The "Council's reproductive biology and immunology program undertakes fundamental research in the reproductive sciences and immunological processes related to sexually transmitted infections, particularly HIV." This website (5) provides information about different aspects of the research program including Germ Cell Dynamics, Sperm Maturation, and Physiology of Sertoli Cells. From Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College, the next site (6) is a concise overview of animal reproduction which addresses important aspects of sexual reproduction, and male and female reproductive systems. The final site (7) contains lecture notes regarding avian reproduction from Dr. Gary Ritchison's Ornithology course at Eastern Kentucky University. The lecture notes are interspersed with some especially nice images and diagrams.

205

Artificial Animals for Computer Animation  

E-print Network

Artificial Animals for Computer Animation: Biomechanics, Locomotion, Perception, and Behavior to animators. We propose a framework for achieving the intricacy of animal motion and behavior evident, and behavior of individual animals, as well as the patterns of social behavior evident in groups of animals

Toronto, University of

206

ANIMAL COGNITION Animal cognition  

E-print Network

Ns&feature=player_embedded#at=74 Animal cognition? Does the dog know what she is talking about? Video #12;Imitation in quail Demonstrator Observer Pecking Stepping Akins & Zentall, 1996, J Comp Psychol, 110, 316-320. #12;Imitation in quail: Results #12;http://www.ted.com/talks/lang/eng/susan_savage_rumbaugh_on_apes_that_write

Cooper, Brenton G.

207

Animism inside Japanese animations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animism and the Nature-friendly ideology are something like the air that exists naturally for the Japanese. The common values such as a sacredness of the Nature and the sweetness of the Nature for human beings also work as important themes in today\\

Hayao Miyazaki; Mikyung Bak

208

A procedure for implanting organized arrays of microwires for single-unit recordings in awake, behaving animals.  

PubMed

In vivo electrophysiological recordings in the awake, behaving animal provide a powerful method for understanding neural signaling at the single-cell level. The technique allows experimenters to examine temporally and regionally specific firing patterns in order to correlate recorded action potentials with ongoing behavior. Moreover, single-unit recordings can be combined with a plethora of other techniques in order to produce comprehensive explanations of neural function. In this article, we describe the anesthesia and preparation for microwire implantation. Subsequently, we enumerate the necessary equipment and surgical steps to accurately insert a microwire array into a target structure. Lastly, we briefly describe the equipment used to record from each individual electrode in the array. The fixed microwire arrays described are well-suited for chronic implantation and allow for longitudinal recordings of neural data in almost any behavioral preparation. We discuss tracing electrode tracks to triangulate microwire positions as well as ways to combine microwire implantation with immunohistochemical techniques in order to increase the anatomical specificity of recorded results. PMID:24561332

Barker, David J; Root, David H; Coffey, Kevin R; Ma, Sisi; West, Mark O

2014-01-01

209

Universal Pacemaker of Genome Evolution in Animals and Fungi and Variation of Evolutionary Rates in Diverse Organisms  

PubMed Central

Gene evolution is traditionally considered within the framework of the molecular clock (MC) model whereby each gene is characterized by an approximately constant rate of evolution. Recent comparative analysis of numerous phylogenies of prokaryotic genes has shown that a different model of evolution, denoted the Universal PaceMaker (UPM), which postulates conservation of relative, rather than absolute evolutionary rates, yields a better fit to the phylogenetic data. Here, we show that the UPM model is a better fit than the MC for genome wide sets of phylogenetic trees from six species of Drosophila and nine species of yeast, with extremely high statistical significance. Unlike the prokaryotic phylogenies that include distant organisms and multiple horizontal gene transfers, these are simple data sets that cover groups of closely related organisms and consist of gene trees with the same topology as the species tree. The results indicate that both lineage-specific and gene-specific rates are important in genome evolution but the lineage-specific contribution is greater. Similar to the MC, the gene evolution rates under the UPM are strongly overdispersed, approximately 2-fold compared with the expectation from sampling error alone. However, we show that neither Drosophila nor yeast genes form distinct clusters in the tree space. Thus, the gene-specific deviations from the UPM, although substantial, are uncorrelated and most likely depend on selective factors that are largely unique to individual genes. Thus, the UPM appears to be a key feature of genome evolution across the history of cellular life. PMID:24812293

Snir, Sagi; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.

2014-01-01

210

Hybrid Shell Engineering of Animal Cells for Immune Protections and Regulation of Drug Delivery: Towards the Design of “Artificial Organs  

PubMed Central

Background With the progress in medicine, the average human life expectancy is continuously increasing. At the same time, the number of patients who require full organ transplantations is augmenting. Consequently, new strategies for cell transplantation are the subject of great interest. Methodology/Principal Findings This work reports the design, the synthesis and the characterisation of robust and biocompatible mineralised beads composed of two layers: an alginate-silica composite core and a Ca-alginate layer. The adequate choice of materials was achieved through cytotoxicity LDH release measurement and in vitro inflammatory assay (IL-8) to meet the biocompatibility requirements for medical purpose. The results obtained following this strategy provide a direct proof of the total innocuity of silica and alginate networks for human cells as underscored by the non-activation of immune defenders (THP-1 monocytes). The accessible pore size diameter of the mineralised beads synthesized was estimated between 22 and 30 nm, as required for efficient immuno-isolation without preventing the diffusion of nutrients and metabolites. The model human cells, HepG2, entrapped within these hybrid beads display a high survival rate over more than six weeks according to the measurements of intracellular enzymatic activity, respiration rate, as well as the “de novo” biosynthesis and secretion of albumin out of the beads. Conclusions/Significance The current study shows that active mammalian cells can be protected by a silica-alginate hybrid shell-like system. The functionality of the cell strain can be maintained. Consequently, cells coated with an artificial and a biocompatible mineral shell could respond physiologically within the human body in order to deliver therapeutic agents in a controlled fashion (i.e. insulin), substituting the declining organ functions of the patient. PMID:21731637

Dandoy, Philippe; Meunier, Christophe F.; Michiels, Carine; Su, Bao-Lian

2011-01-01

211

Animal Cloning 101  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers' Domain presents this interactive lesson with reading materials and animations to present information on what a clone is, how cloning live organisms is possible, and examples of animals that have been cloned in the past. The activity also illustrates how cloned animals may one day be used in enhancing human health. On the site, visitors will also find a supplemental background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment from Teachers' Domain.

212

Animal Bites  

MedlinePLUS

... Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate ... pants when you are in areas with venomous snakes If an animal bites you, clean the wound ...

213

Primary organization of nucleosomal core particles is invariable in repressed and active nuclei from animal, plant and yeast cells.  

PubMed

A refined map for the linear arrangement of histones along DNA in nucleosomal core particles has been determined by DNA-protein crosslinking. On one strand of 145-bp core DNA, histones are aligned in the following order: (5') H2B25,35-H455,65-H375,85,95/H488-H2B105,11 5-H2A118-H3135,145/H2A145 (3') (the subscripts give approximate distance in nucleotides of the main histone contacts from the 5'-end). Hence, the histone tetramer (H3,H4)2 and two dimers (H2A-H2B) are arranged on double-stranded core DNA in a symmetrical and rather autonomous way: H2A/H3-(H2A-H2B)-(H3,H4)2-(H2B-H2A)-H3/H2A. The primary organization was found to be very similar in core particles isolated from repressed nuclei of sea urchin sperm and chicken erythrocytes, from active in replication and transcription nuclei of Drosophila embryos and yeast and from somatic cells of lily. These data show that (i) the core structure is highly conserved in evolution and (ii) the overall inactivation of chromatin does not affect the arrangement of histones along DNA and thus does not seem to be regulated on this level of the core structure. PMID:4011430

Bavykin, S G; Usachenko, S I; Lishanskaya, A I; Shick, V V; Belyavsky, A V; Undritsov, I M; Strokov, A A; Zalenskaya, I A; Mirzabekov, A D

1985-05-24

214

Primary organization of nucleosomal core particles is invariable in repressed and active nuclei from animal, plant and yeast cells.  

PubMed Central

A refined map for the linear arrangement of histones along DNA in nucleosomal core particles has been determined by DNA-protein crosslinking. On one strand of 145-bp core DNA, histones are aligned in the following order: (5') H2B25,35-H455,65-H375,85,95/H488-H2B105,11 5-H2A118-H3135,145/H2A145 (3') (the subscripts give approximate distance in nucleotides of the main histone contacts from the 5'-end). Hence, the histone tetramer (H3,H4)2 and two dimers (H2A-H2B) are arranged on double-stranded core DNA in a symmetrical and rather autonomous way: H2A/H3-(H2A-H2B)-(H3,H4)2-(H2B-H2A)-H3/H2A. The primary organization was found to be very similar in core particles isolated from repressed nuclei of sea urchin sperm and chicken erythrocytes, from active in replication and transcription nuclei of Drosophila embryos and yeast and from somatic cells of lily. These data show that (i) the core structure is highly conserved in evolution and (ii) the overall inactivation of chromatin does not affect the arrangement of histones along DNA and thus does not seem to be regulated on this level of the core structure. Images PMID:4011430

Bavykin, S G; Usachenko, S I; Lishanskaya, A I; Shick, V V; Belyavsky, A V; Undritsov, I M; Strokov, A A; Zalenskaya, I A; Mirzabekov, A D

1985-01-01

215

Disease-resistant genetically modified animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Infectious disease adversely affects livestock production and animal welfare, and has impacts upon both human health and public perception of livestock production. The authors argue that the combination of new methodology that enables the efficient production of genetically-modified (GM) animals with exciting new tools to alter gene activity makes the applications of transgenic animals for the benefit of animal

C. B. A. Whitelaw; H. M. Sang

2005-01-01

216

Computer Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CSC 320. (ART 320) (FST 320) Computer Animation (3) Prerequisite: CSC 220 (ART 220) (FST 220) or permission of instructor. Basic principles of animation using 3-D computer-generated animation and basic processes for animating synthetic objects through structured exercises. Principles of designing and producing 3-D computer-generated animation through the creation of advanced motion studies. Projects focus on developing higher-level skills in model building, animation and color, and lighting.

Patterson, Eric

2003-04-21

217

Exploring Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each group will be given one of the following categories of animals to explore further and answer questions about. Mammals Invertebrates Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Explore your category of animals and answer these questions: 1. What makes an animal belong to this category? Do you think that an animal can only belong to one category? Why or why not? 2. Explain why these animals live where they do? 3. Does your category of animals have any interesting ...

Emily, Miss

2009-03-02

218

Comparison of selected animal observations and management practices used to assess welfare of calves and adult dairy cows on organic and conventional dairy farms.  

PubMed

Differences in adoption of selected practices used in welfare assessment and audit programs were contrasted among organic (ORG; n=192) herds and similarly sized conventional grazing herds (CON-GR; n=36), and conventional nongrazing herds (CON-NG; n=64). Criteria from 3 programs were assessed: American Humane Association Animal Welfare Standards for Dairy Cattle, Farmers Assuring Responsible Management (FARM), and the Canadian Codes of Practice (CCP). Data were collected by trained study personnel during a herd visit and included information about neonatal care, dehorning, pain relief, calf nutrition, weaning, record keeping, use of veterinarians, and animal observations. Associations of management type (ORG, CON-GR, or CON-NG) with adoption of selected practice were assessed. Almost all farms (97%) met criteria suggested for age at weaning but fewer CON-NG farmers weaned calves at ?5 wk of age compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Only 23% of farms met program requirements for use of pain relief during dehorning, and fewer CON-NG farmers used pain relief for calves after dehorning compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Calves on ORG farms were fed a greater volume of milk and were weaned at an older age than calves on CON-GR and CON-NG farms. Calves on CON-GR farms were dehorned at a younger age compared with calves on ORG and CON-NG farms. The calving area was shared with lactating cows for a larger proportion of ORG herds compared with conventional herds. About 30% of herds met welfare program criteria for body condition score but only about 20% met criteria for animal hygiene scores. The least proportion of cows with hock lesions was observed on ORG farms. Regular use of veterinarians was infrequent for ORG herds. Results of this study indicate that most of the organic and conventional farms enrolled in this study would have been unlikely to achieve many criteria of audit and assessment programs currently used in the US dairy industry. PMID:24819133

Bergman, M A; Richert, R M; Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Gamroth, M J; Schukken, Y H; Stiglbauer, K E; Ruegg, P L

2014-07-01

219

Animal Cloning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The past few years have seen many changes in the field of genetics, including the ability to genetically clone mammals, first achieved in 1997 with a sheep named Dolly. Still a relatively new phenomenon, news stories are continually detailing new advances in cloning, reasons why cloning is important, and concerns about the safety and ethics of cloning. This week's Topic In Depth highlights some recent news articles and Web sites that address the topic of animal cloning. The first site is a recent article from the Washington Post about the sheep named Dolly, the world's first cloned mammal, who has developed arthritis at a relatively young age and has caused some to question whether cloning can have adverse health effects. An ABC news.com article details the recent birth of five cloned piglets whose parent had been genetically engineered to remove a gene that causes human bodies to reject transplanted animal organs. An Associated Press article discusses some concerns raised by scientists and ethicists surrounding the idea of xenotransplantation (animal to human transplantation). For users who need a primer on what exactly cloning means and why it is done, check out the Cloning Fact Sheet. Developed by the Human Genome Project, it provides short, non-technical explanations of the different types of cloning and some links to other cloning related Web sites. Those users looking for more detailed information about cloning technology will find the next two sites interesting. PPL Therapeutics, which created the five piglets and collaborated with the Roslin Institute to clone Dolly, provides news articles and technical descriptions of cloning and related genetic technology. The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America's Web site provides links to a tremendous amount of information surrounding all aspects of cloning, including recent congressional activity, news, and general resources. Although focused more heavily on human cloning, The American Journal of Bioethics Online has a Web page with links to various articles relating to the ethical issues involved with cloning and genetics.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

220

Space research on organs and tissues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of microgravity on various physiological systems are reviewed focusing on muscle, bone, cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurovestibular, liver, and endocrine systems. It is noted that certain alterations of organs and tissues caused by microgravity are not reproducible in earth-bound animal or human models. Thus space research on organs and tissues is essential for both validating the earth-bound models used in laboratories and studying the adaptations to weightlessness which cannot be mimicked on earth.

Tischler, Marc E.; Morey-Holton, Emily

1992-01-01

221

The Early Years: Animal Adventures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children can have a new favorite animal every week or even every hour. The more familiar the children become with an animal, the more they will be able to understand how its body form and behavior allow it to survive. Learning about the characteristics of organisms and how organisms relate to their environment is part of the National Science EducationContent Standard C. Looking at and drawing animals and talking and reading about the way animals live and what they need to survive pulls together art and science while introducing children to animal diversity and the idea of animal adaptation.

Peggy Ashbrook

2007-09-01

222

CSC258 Computer Organization Lab 1 1 An animal lover a , a bird b , a cat c , and a dog d are all on the west bank of a river,  

E-print Network

CSC258 Computer Organization Lab 1 1 An animal lover a , a bird b , a cat c , and a dog d are all, and dog to the east bank, indicated by a=b=c=d= . The boat can carry the animal lover and at most one other thing (bird or cat or dog), so several trips are necessary. If the bird and cat are left together

Hehner, Eric C.R.

223

Animal Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson from Science NetLinks exposes children to a wide range of animals and guides them through observation of animal similarities, differences, and environmental adaptations. This lesson can be used as part of a study of plants and animals. Before doing the lesson, students should know the meanings of the terms: plant, animal, and living.

Science Netlinks;

2004-02-05

224

Character Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of the creation and animation of characters in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional character animation techniques, such as those developed by the Disney animators, and also human modelling. The section includes html pages, images and several videos.

225

Animal Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners find, count and compare as many different kinds of animals as they can find in two different areas: a managed lawn and a weedy area. Learners compare their animal finds, and also examine which plants in the different areas attracted the most animals. Learners consider how people have affected the diversity of animals in the lawn.

Science, Lawrence H.

1982-01-01

226

Anime perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In traditional hand-drawn animation, the perspective view is not geometrically correct, unlike 3DCG. However, this perspective, which we may call anime perspective, is more natural for human eyes, especially for children. In this article, we present two anime perspective projection methods for seamlessly merging 3D models and traditional 2D animation. One is a view dependent deformer, Anime-Pers deformer, which offers

Yosuke Katsura; Ken Anjyo

2007-01-01

227

Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What animals abandon their offspring? Find out this and more as you explore reproduction in the animal world. Did you know that all animals must reproduce to survive? In this project you will be learning some interesting facts about reproduction in animals. After you have some background information you will have a chance to select 3 animals and complete a chart on reproduction. TASK: Day 1 ...

Mrs. Joggerst

2008-03-30

228

Animal House  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this activity is to design, build and test a house or toy for an animal. Learners will research a particular animal and design a house or toy that will encourage that animal's specific behaviors. Each house or toy must fit into the animal's cage, support the animal's size and weight, and be constructed of non-toxic materials. Safety note: adult supervision recommended for cutting cardboard boxes.

Museum of Science, Boston

2005-01-01

229

The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.  

PubMed

The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field. PMID:20919590

Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W

2010-08-01

230

Maternal low-protein diet alters the expression of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction reference genes in an age-, sex-, and organ-dependent manner in rat offspring.  

PubMed

Altered perinatal environment, often manifested as low birth weight, is thought to contribute to greater susceptibility for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes as a result of epigenetic modifications and alteration of transcriptional activity for key genes. Real-time polymerase chain reaction is a useful technique for the quantitative determination of differences in transcriptional activity. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction data analyses require normalization of transcriptional activity of target genes to an endogenous control, usually a reference gene. In response to reports of altered expression of reference genes in various experimental models, we hypothesized that adverse perinatal environment alters reference gene expression. We examined the expression of the following reference genes in the offspring of a rodent maternal low-protein diet model: ?-actin, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1, TATA-box-binding protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glucuronidase-? in brain, heart, kidneys, and intestines. We found altered expression in brain, heart, and kidneys for each of the reference genes measured; these effects were age, organ, and sex dependent. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glucuronidase-? were found to be the least affected by these variables, whereas hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 was the most inconsistent. Our findings underscore the importance of empirical determination of a reliable reference gene for real-time polymerase chain reaction studies in the low-protein diet model. PMID:23507230

DuBois, Barent; Pearson, Jacob; Hastings, Bonnie; Mahmood, Tahir; Chan, Tammy; Alnakhli, Ali; Cherala, Ganesh

2013-03-01

231

Considerations in the selection and use of chemicals within the animal facility.  

PubMed

Chemicals are important and unavoidable parameters in the milieu of the laboratory animal used in biomedical research today. Examples of chemicals used include detergents and sanitizing agents. Detergents are used to remove dirt while sanitizing compounds, such as germicidal agents, decrease bacteria, fungi or viruses in the facility. The types used (that is, phenols, alcohols, oxidizing agents) depend upon the degree of cleanliness and the sanitizing properties desired and vary for germfree, specific pathogen-free and conventional animal facilities. Chemicals are routinely added to water to control bacteria in mouse facilities. Similarly, insecticides and pesticides are used to reduce the number of vermin in animal and feed rooms. Also, the bedding may contain chemicals (that is, cedrene and cedral in red cedar shavings). These and other chemicals in the vivarium may influence enzyme induction or inhibition, may result in increased or decreased toxicity, may alter the function or metabolism of organs and can thereby alter the outcome of animal experiments. PMID:6763111

Burek, J D; Schwetz, B A

1980-04-01

232

Development of the Gecko (Pachydactylus turneri) Animal Model during Foton M-2 to Study Comparative Effects of Microgravity in Terrestrial and Aquatic Organisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Terrestrial organisms exposed to microgravity during spaceflight experience degeneration in bone, muscle, and possibly other tissues that require gravity-mediated mechanical stimulation for normal regenerative growth. In the Gecko experiment aboard Foton M-2, we flew for the first time, five terrestrial Pachydactylus turneri specimens to develop a model of microgravity effects comparable to the newt Pleurodeles waltl, a well-established model organism for spaceflight. These lower vertebrate species have similar body plans and size, are poikilothermic, have tissue regenerative ability, and are adapted to moderate periods of fasting. Furthermore the gecko (Pachydactylus) can also survive prolonged periods without water. In pre-flight control experiments and after a 16-day Foton M-2 spaceflight without food or water, the geckos were recovered and showed no apparent negative health effects. However, detailed analysis of bone mass and architecture by micro Computed Tomography { pCT), showed that both synchronous control and spaceflight animals lost significant amounts of cancellous bone in the distal femur and humerus relative to basal controls. In addition, cell cycle analysis of 30h post-flight liver tissue reveals a shift of DNA content from G2 and S to G1, both in spaceflight and synchronous controls. Together, these results suggest that housing conditions alone induce rapid catabolism of cancellous bone and reduced normal tissue regeneration. Further use of the gecko Puchydactylus turneri as a spaceflight model requires modification of housing conditions, possibly by including water and food, or changing other factors such as eliminating housing stresses to obtain stable bone structure and tissue regeneration during spaceflight experiments.

Almeida, E. A.; Roden, C.; Phillips, J. A.; Globus, R. K.; Searby, N.; Vercoutere, W.; Morey-Holton, E.; Gulimova, V.; Saveliev, S.; Tairbekov, M.; Iwaniec, U. T.; McNamra, A. J.; Turner, R. T.

2006-01-01

233

Animations for Physics and Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations illustrates basic concepts in physics and astronomy. Topics include astronomy, mechanics, vectors, electricity and magnetism, waves, optics, and many others. The animations are organized by topic and may be downloaded or streamed from the website. The site also includes links to papers on the use of animations in physics education.

Gallis, Michael R.

234

Animal Matters Fall 2014 Seminar Series from  

E-print Network

Animal Matters Fall 2014 Seminar Series from Tufts Center for Animals and Public Policy with the American Society for Lab Animal Practitioners Organs-on-Chips as Potential Alternatives to Animal Testing Lecture Hall (VLH) behind the Hospital for Large Animals Members of the public are invited to this free

Dennett, Daniel

235

Flash Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collections of Flash animations accompanies Chang's Essential Chemistry, 2/e, but is publically available. These animations are interactive and have voice-overs, thereby providing a multimedia presentation of basic chemical concepts.

236

Farm Animals  

MedlinePLUS

... Animals Share Compartir Farm animals including cows, sheep, pigs, chickens and goats, can pass diseases to people. ... failure due to E. coli O157:H7 infection. Pigs can carry the bacterium Yersinia enterocolitica (yer-SIN- ...

237

Microgravity alters the expression of salivary proteins.  

PubMed

Spaceflight provides a unique opportunity to study how physiologic responses are influenced by the external environment. Microgravity has been shown to alter the function of a number of tissues and organ systems. Very little, however, is known about how microgravity affects the oral cavity. The rodent model is useful for study in that their salivary gland morphology and physiology is similar to that of humans. Useful also is the fact that saliva, a product of the salivary glands with a major role in maintaining oral health, can be easily collected in humans whereas the glands can be studied in experimental animals. Our working hypothesis is that expression of secretory proteins in saliva will respond to microgravity and will be indicative of the nature of physiologic reactions to travel in space. This study was designed to determine which components of the salivary proteome are altered in mice flown on the US space shuttle missions and to determine if a subset with predictive value can be identified using microscopy and biochemistry methods. The results showed that the expression of secretory proteins associated with beta-adrenergic hormone regulated responses and mediated via the cyclic AMP pathway was significantly altered, whereas that of a number of unrelated proteins was not. The findings are potentially applicable to designing a biochemical test system whereby specific salivary proteins can be biomarkers for stress associated with travel in space and eventually for monitoring responses to conditions on earth. PMID:24984624

Mednieks, Maija; Khatri, Aditi; Rubenstein, Renee; Burleson, Joseph A; Hand, Arthur R

2014-06-01

238

Animal Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains links to 12 calendars (12 months). June contains seven activities that mix math with exploring animals. For instance, children conduct a survey about favorite animals, find an animal with paws bigger than their hands, and name as many spotted animals as they can in a minute. Works as a handout, take-home, or group activity. Available as a downloadable pdf and in Spanish.

Terc

2010-01-01

239

The Early Years: Animal Adventures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children can have a new favorite animal every week or even every hour. The more familiar the children become with an animal, the more they will be able to understand how its body form and behavior allow it to survive. Learning about the characteristics of organisms and how organisms relate to their environment is part of the National Science…

Ashbrook, Peggy

2007-01-01

240

Quadruped Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Films like Shrek, Madagascar, The Chronicles of Narnia and Charlotte's web all have something in common: realistic quadruped animations. While the animation of animals has been popular for a long time, the technical challenges associated with creating highly realistic, computer generated creatures have been receiving increasing attention recently. The entertainment, education and medical industries have increased the demand for simulation

Ljiljana Skrba; Lionel Reveret; Franck Hétroy; Marie-Paule Cani; Carol O'Sullivan

2008-01-01

241

Animal Scent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior. Learners will create five or six scent blocks by rubbing wood blocks with different kitchen spices, foods, or animal scents. Then, learners let their pets investigate each block separately. Carefully observed behaviors are recorded for interpretation. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Animal Scent.

2012-05-09

242

Animal Behaviour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is written by a veterinarian and has separate pages for various classes of animals such as domesticated, farm, and exotic animals. There is also an online book available to the user in which they can find more information on some of the same plus some additional animal behaviors.

Dr. Paul McGreevey

2010-01-01

243

Animated Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website includes a variety of animations explaining the mechanical workings of a variety of steam, Stirling and internal combustion engines. The animations may be paused, slowed or sped up. The animations are accompanied by additional text explaining how each engine works.

Keveney, Matt

244

Water Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do animals adapt to their environments? Use the chart Bottlenose Dolphin facts and photos record what you learn for each animal in the chart. The first animal you will learn about is a bottlenose dolphin. Watch Bottlenose Dolphin facts and photos Learn about Wild Bills. Watch wild bill video ...

Beardsley, Ms.

2011-10-26

245

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation showing the Sun-Earth-Moon system. The sun is shown as a stationary body at the top of the screen, with a rotating Earth with a moon revolving around it. This representation includes a separate additional graphic in the animation that continuously shows the phase of the moon as they correspond to the revolving moon in the animation.

246

Entry, Descent, Landing Animation (Animation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Entry, Descent, Landing animation

This animation illustrates the path the Stardust return capsule will follow once it enters Earth's atmosphere.

2005-01-01

247

Standardization of flux chamber and wind tunnel flux measurements for quantifying volatile organic compound and ammonia emissions from area sources at animal feeding operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of portable wind tunnels and flux chambers have been used to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and ammonia (NH3) at animal feeding operations (AFO). However, there has been little regard to the extreme variation and potential inaccuracies caused by air velocity or sweep air flow rates that are either too low or too high to simulate field conditions. There is a need for correction factors to standardize flux chamber and wind tunnel measurements. In this manuscript, we present results of water evaporative flux and VOC flux measurements with the EPA flux chamber and a small wind tunnel. In the EPA flux chamber, water evaporative flux was positively correlated with sweep air flow rate (SAFR) between 1 and 20 L min-1 (r2 = 0.981-0.999) and negatively correlated with sweep air relative humidity between 0 and 80% (r2 = 0.982-0.992). Emissions of gas-film controlled compounds like NH3 and VOC at AFOs were positively correlated with evaporation rates between 0.6 and 2.8 mm d-1. We demonstrate a simple methodology for standardizing and comparing different chamber types by measuring water evaporation within the chamber using a gravimetric mass balance approach under controlled laboratory conditions. A water evaporative flux ratio correction factor (EFRCF) was used to improve the accuracy of field-measured VOC and NH3 chamber flux measurements. In a field study, both the EPA flux chamber (SAFR = 5 L min-1) and small wind tunnel (SAFR = 1 L min-1) underestimated the true field emissions of VOC, with EFRCFs of 2.42 and 3.84, respectively. EFRCFs are recommended for all but the driest of soil and manure conditions.

Parker, David; Ham, Jay; Woodbury, Bryan; Cai, Lingshuang; Spiehs, Mindy; Rhoades, Marty; Trabue, Steve; Casey, Ken; Todd, Rick; Cole, Andy

2013-02-01

248

The effects of tualang honey on female reproductive organs, tibia bone and hormonal profile in ovariectomised rats - animal model for menopause  

PubMed Central

Background Honey is a highly nutritional natural product that has been widely used in folk medicine for a number of therapeutic purposes. We evaluated whether Malaysian Tualang honey (AgroMas, Malaysia) was effective in reducing menopausal syndrome in ovariectomised female rats; an animal model for menopause. Methods The rats were divided into two control groups and three test groups. The control groups were sham-operated (SH) and ovariectomised (OVX) rats. The SH and OVX control rats were fed on 0.5 ml of distill water. The rats in the test groups were fed with low dose 0.2 g/kg (THL), medium dose, 1.0 g/kg (THM) and high dose 2.0 g/kg (THH) of Tualang honey in 0.5 ml of distill water. The administration was given by oral gavage once daily for 2 weeks. The reproductive organs (uterus and vagina), tibia bone and aorta were taken for histopathological examination while serum for hormonal assays. Results Administration of Tualang honey for 2 weeks to ovariectomised rats significantly increased the weight of the uterus and the thickness of vaginal epithelium, restored the morphology of the tibia bones and reduced the body weight compared to rats in the ovariectomised group. The levels of estradiol and progesterone, in honey treated groups were markedly lower than that in the OVX group. At low doses (0.2 g/kg; THL group) of Tualang honey there was an increased in serum free testosterone levels compared to OVX group (P < 0.01). Progesterone concentrations was significantly decreased in the OVX group as compared to SHAM group (P < 0.05). Conclusions Tualang honey was shown to have beneficial effects on menopausal (ovariectomised) rats by preventing uterine atrophy, increased bone density and suppression of increased body weight. Honey could be an alternative to HRT. PMID:21194469

2010-01-01

249

CHARACTERIZATION OF GENETICALLY-MATCHED ISOLATES OF CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI REVEALS MUTATIONS IN GENES INVOLVED IN FLAGELLAR BIOSYNTHESIS ALTER THE ORGANISM'S VIRULENCE POTENTIAL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. While C. jejuni isolates can be recovered from a variety of animals including chickens, phenotypic evidence suggests that not all isolates are pathogenic to humans. We defined pathogenic C. jejuni isolates as those capa...

250

Water Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation provides a detailed explanation of the chemistry and properties of water. Animated diagrams accompanied by written explanations show the configuration of the water molecule, how water molecules link together, what the crystal structure of ice looks like, and how acids and bases are formed. There is also an animated diagram of the pH scale showing the range in which most cellular processes occur and the approximate pH of some common substances. A French translation is available.

John Kyrk

251

Animation Physics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides physics tutorials and other resources for animation artists and professionals working in the animation industry. There are three tutorials covering topics related to the graphical representation of linear and accelerated motion, rotations, and center of mass. The presentation is non-mathematical and focuses on the consequences of the laws of physics. The web site also provides other physics references for animators and has started a wiki for community building.

Garcia, Alejandro

2009-04-02

252

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

253

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

Barnbaum, Cecilia

2011-04-12

254

Animal Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter discusses challenges and practical approaches to animal fMRI with respect to anesthetic regimens, conscious animal\\u000a studies, activation paradigms, optimal pulse sequence selection, and the rigor required for drug discovery applications. Examples\\u000a on the use of animal fMRI to support drug discovery are presented. The examples illustrate (1) technical development and qualification\\u000a of a quantitative assay for pain, (2)

Donald Williams; Alexandre Coimbra; Fuqiang Zhao

255

Physics Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you would like a taste of classical mechanics in an animated form, this website is right up your alley. This site from the physics department at the University of Toronto offers up over 100 helpful animations that cover quantum mechanics, vectors, waves, relativity, and optics. Visitors can scroll through the topical headings to look for items of interest and should note the entire website is searchable as well. There are some great topical animations here, such as one on fluid mechanics that involves a theoretical dropping of a ball from the CN Tower in Toronto. Animations have also been translated into Catalan, Spanish, and Basque.

256

Animal cytomegaloviruses.  

PubMed Central

Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovirus infections. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the study of many of the animal cytomegaloviruses in vitro. Consequently, animal cytomegaloviruses can be used as model systems for studying the pathogenesis, immunobiology, and molecular biology of cytomegalovirus-host and cytomegalovirus-cell interactions. PMID:2170830

Staczek, J

1990-01-01

257

Animal Omnibus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed with children in mind, the Animal Omnibus site is "a list of web sources indexed by the name of the animal." Users search by animal name to get returns in the form of hyperlinked resource lists. The resource lists contain sites ranging from simple color photographs of individual species to sites steeped in scientific classification to publicly targeted zoo sites. Animal Omnibus may also be browsed by generic name within each taxonomic category (amphibians, arthropods, birds, dinosaurs, fish, mammals, mollusks, and reptiles). Although depth of content varies widely, this unique and diverse collection of information types is at once unpredictable and refreshing.

258

Animal Genome Size Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

T. Ryan Gregory, doctoral candidate at the University of Guelph (Canada), provides this comprehensive data catalog of animal genome size. Included on site are haploid genome sizes (C-values) for approximately 2,100 species or subspecies of vertebrates and 800 species of invertebrates. Organized by taxa, this Website-in-progress will be of direct use to those researchers whose study organisms are represented here. Continual additions are planned as more data become available.

Gregory, T. Ryan.

259

Excelsior Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an art project where students used excelsior, shredded wood used for packing, to create animals. Explains that excelsior can be found at furniture and grocery stores. Discusses in detail the process of making the animals and includes learning objectives. (CMK)

Steinkamp, Mary J.

2001-01-01

260

GPS Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features Flash animations that illustrate how the Global Positioning System (GPS) works. The animations depict how GPS signals are derived, compare geostationary and polar orbits, and explain satellites, ground control, and user segments, which comprise the three main GPS components. These resources are suitable for use in lectures, labs, or other teaching activities.

2008-09-12

261

Kindergarten Animation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

Hinshaw, Craig

2012-01-01

262

``Animal Intelligence''  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN a review of my monograph on ``Animal Intelligence,'' in a recent number of NATURE, Mr. Lloyd Morgan credits me with upholding the theory that we have sensations caused by outgoing currents which innervate muscles, and with depending on that theory in some of my own statements about the nature of animals' consciousness. A careless and ambiguous sentence of mine

Edward L. Thorndike

1898-01-01

263

Science Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The use of a well-placed animation in a lecture can help illuminate any number of important concepts in the sciences. Educators seeking high-quality animations need look no further than this very useful site created by staff members at North Harris Community College. The animations are divided into a number of topics, including plants, ecology, astronomy, geology, anatomy, and biology. Each section contains links to a host of fascinating and helpful animations from institutions like Florida State University, Cambridge University Press, the University of Nebraska, and the University of Alberta. As a note, the astronomy and physics areas are particularly strong, and visitors would do well to take a look at the lunar and planetary time-lapse animations offered up by AntÃÂónio CidadÃÂão.

264

Targeted metabolomics in an intrusive weed, Rumex obtusifolius L., grown under different environmental conditions reveals alterations of organ related metabolite pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was intended to analyze the metabolic pathway of Rumex obtusifolius L. (Broad-leaved dock), destructive weeds worldwide, in relation to major environmental factors (light and temperature).\\u000a It was found that R. obtusifolius can be classified as plants in accumulating major organic acids such as oxalate in leaves and citrate in stems (Miyagi et\\u000a al., Metabolomics 6:146–155 2010). The organ

Atsuko Miyagi; Kentaro Takahara; Hideyuki Takahashi; Maki Kawai-Yamada; Hirofumi Uchimiya

2010-01-01

265

Altering the self-organization of dyes on titania with dyeing solvents to tune the charge-transfer dynamics of sensitized solar cells.  

PubMed

Herein we selected the model organic donor-acceptor dye C218 and modulated the self-organization of dye molecules on the surface of titania by changing the dyeing solvent from chlorobenzene to a mixture of acetonitrile and tert-butanol. We further unveiled the relationship between the microstructure of a dye layer and the multichannel charge-transfer dynamics that underlie the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells. PMID:24375950

Wang, Yinglin; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Jing; Li, Renzhi; Zhang, Min; Wang, Peng

2014-04-14

266

USGS Videos and Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of visual media produced by the U.S. Geological Survey provides a broad overview of research and activities carried out by the organization. The collection of recorded lectures, movies, animations, flyovers, Powerpoint presentations and other media covers biology, climate change, earthquakes, geology, plate tectonics, careers with USGS, and many other topics.

267

Animal Navigation A Synthesis  

E-print Network

Abstract Navigation, the ability to organize behavior adaptively to move from one place to an- other, stored, and used to generate behavior. From "Animal Thinking: Contemporary Issues in Comparative species and their associated environmental adaptations provides us with vital information about

Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

268

Overexpression of a pectin methylesterase inhibitor in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to altered growth morphology of the stem and defective organ separation  

PubMed Central

The methylesterification status of cell wall pectins, mediated through the interplay of pectin methylesterases (PMEs) and pectin methylesterase inhibitors (PMEIs), influences the biophysical properties of plant cell walls. We found that the overexpression of a PMEI gene in Arabidopsis thaliana plants caused the stems to develop twists and loops, most strongly around points on the stem where leaves or inflorescences failed to separate from the main stem. Altered elasticity of the stem, underdevelopment of the leaf cuticle, and changes in the sugar composition of the cell walls of stems were evident in the PMEI overexpression lines. We discuss the mechanisms that potentially underlie the aberrant growth phenotypes. PMID:24675171

Müller, Kerstin; Levesque-Tremblay, Gabriel; Fernandes, Anwesha; Wormit, Alexandra; Bartels, Sebastian; Usadel, Bjoern; Kermode, Allison

2013-01-01

269

Animal Skull Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This intriguing and impressive website of animal skull images and information was developed by DeLoy Roberts, a high school biology and zoology teacher in Idaho. The site is quite extensive with separate skull galleries for mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, crustaceans, and fish. Site visitors will find clear skull images of such animals as a badger, wolf, boa constrictor, golden eagle, salmon, great gray owl, and many more. The site also includes lists of Animal Skull Sizes (organized alphabetically by animal as well as by size) for mammal and bird skulls in the collection. For school groups that can make the trip, the actual skull collection is maintained by Mr. Roberts at his high school in Idaho Falls, Idaho.

Roberts, Deloy

2005-11-11

270

Drug metabolism alterations in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

PubMed Central

Drug-metabolizing enzymes play a vital role in the elimination of the majority of therapeutic drugs. The major organ involved in drug metabolism is the liver. Chronic liver diseases have been identified as a potential source of significant interindividual variation in metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the United States, affecting between 60 and 90 million Americans, yet the vast majority of NAFLD patients are undiagnosed. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of pathologies, ranging from steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Numerous animal studies have investigated the effects of NAFLD on hepatic gene expression, observing significant alterations in mRNA, protein, and activity levels. Information on the effects of NAFLD in human patients is limited, though several significant investigations have recently been published. Significant alterations in the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes may affect the clearance of therapeutic drugs, with the potential to result in adverse drug reactions. With the enormous prevalence of NAFLD, it is conceivable that every drug currently on the market is being given to patients with NAFLD. The current review is intended to present the results from both animal models and human patients, summarizing the observed alterations in the expression and activity of the phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:21612324

Merrell, Matthew D.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

2013-01-01

271

Australian Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will be researching Australian animals in order to prepare a presentation for the class. The children will be divided into groups to research and present about Tasmanian devils, koala bears, kangaroos, or platypi. This IA will provide links for the children to research their animal. Introduction You are a wildlife biologist embarking on an exciting journey to Australia. Hogle Zoo is sending you to discover the most unique animal on the whole continent of Australia. You will be assigned to a team that will research either Tasmanian devils, koala bears, kangaroos, or platypuses. ...

Rusch, Mrs.

2007-12-04

272

Androgen and taxol cause cell type-specific alterations of centrosome and DNA organization in androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigated the effects of androgen and taxol on the androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer cell lines. Cells were treated for 48 and 72 h with 0.05-1 nM of the synthetic androgen R1881 and with 100 nM taxol. Treatment of LNCaP cells with 0.05 nM R1881 led to increased cell proliferation, whereas treatment with 1 nM R1881 resulted in inhibited cell division, DNA cycle arrest, and altered centrosome organization. After treatment with 1 nM R1881, chromatin became clustered, nuclear envelopes convoluted, and mitochondria accumulated around the nucleus. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies to centrosomes showed altered centrosome structure. Although centrosomes were closely associated with the nucleus in untreated cells, they dispersed into the cytoplasm after treatment with 1 nM R1881. Microtubules were only faintly detected in 1 nM R1881-treated LNCaP cells. The effects of taxol included microtubule bundling and altered mitochondria morphology, but not DNA organization. As expected, the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line DU145 was not affected by R1881. Treatment with taxol resulted in bundling of microtubules in both cell lines. Additional taxol effects were seen in DU145 cells with micronucleation of DNA, an indication of apoptosis. Simultaneous treatment with R1881 and taxol had no additional effects on LNCaP or DU145 cells. These results suggest that LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cells show differences not only in androgen responsiveness but in sensitivity to taxol as well. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Schatten, H.; Ripple, M.; Balczon, R.; Weindruch, R.; Chakrabarti, A.; Taylor, M.; Hueser, C. N.

2000-01-01

273

Animal Safety Handling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are at least three things to remember when handling all animals? Use Graphic Organizer Take notes on handling all different types of livestock. Read about Livestock Handling Safety and Good Relationships Be sure to record facts in your organizer. Read and explore Recommended Basic Livestock Handling. Dr. Grandin s guidelines Be sure to click on each link and take notes in organizer. Watch Sheep and Cattle Handling Guidelines Video Observe sheep and cattle handling practices. Read the first five sections of Know your livestock and be safe ...

Hammond, Mr.

2012-04-11

274

Comparing Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As you complete this WebQuest I would like you to think about the story that you are going to be writing. You may choose to write a true animal story. This would be like the news article about the cat and the dog that we read in class. Or you may chose to write a pretend story about a pretend animal. This will be like the folktale we read about the frogs finding their music. Look for ideas and stories that you may want to write your story on. It is okay to change your mind, but you must write a story about an animal. Webquest Introduction: Think about something that you may want to write your story about. Ask yourself: -Do I want to write a true story? -Do I want to write a pretend story? -What kinds of animals ...

Ms. Broadhead

2007-12-05

275

Animal Bytes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This browsable database is designed to help learners quickly find information about some of the creatures found in the animal kingdom. Most species' records include scientific classification, basic physical traits, fun facts, and conservation/ecological value.

2012-01-01

276

Making Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)

Robinson, James

2007-01-01

277

Camera Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of the use of cameras in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional film techniques and suggestions for the use of a camera during an architectural walkthrough. This section includes html pages, images and one video.

278

Animate Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based in the United Kingdom, the Animate Projects site is designed to "explore the relationship between art and animation, and the place of animation and its concepts in contemporary art practice." With support from the Arts Council England and Channel 4, they have created this delightful site featuring over 100 films that "explore ideas around animation." On the homepage, visitors can view a rotating selection of these projects, and they are also encouraged to click on the "Films" section to browse through films dating back to 1991. Moving on, visitors can click on the "Events" section to learn about relevant screenings around Britain, lectures, and workshops. Cineastes will want to delve into the "Writing" area, which includes critical responses to some of the works which can be viewed elsewhere on the site. To get a taste of the offerings here, first-time users may wish to view "Amnesia" by Cordelia Swann or Alex Schady's work, "Everything Must Go".

279

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

HAVING frequently observed in your columns accounts of remarkable instances of reasoning power in animals, I am tempted to send you the following notes, which may perhaps be not without interest to the readers of NATURE.

R. J. Harvey Gibson

1884-01-01

280

Animated Engines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This remarkable Web site contains descriptions and animations of nineteen different kinds of engines. Engine types include internal combustion, steam, and sterling engines, and each page shows how the piston, crankshaft, and other components move together to generate power. The animations demonstrate the processes of intake, compression, and exhaust. Some of the featured engines have more detailed descriptions than others, and oftentimes, a brief account of the engine's history is included. One engine dates back to the early 1700s.

281

Small Animal Imaging with Magnetic Resonance Microscopy  

PubMed Central

Small animal magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) has evolved significantly from testing the boundaries of imaging physics to its expanding use today as a tool in non-invasive biomedical investigations. This review is intended to capture the state-of-the-art in MRM for scientists who may be unfamiliar with this modality, but who want to apply its capabilities to their research. We therefore include a brief review of MR concepts and methods of animal handling and support before covering a range of MRM applications including the heart, lung, brain, and the emerging field of MR histology. High-resolution anatomical imaging reveals increasingly exquisite detail in healthy animals and subtle architectural aberrations that occur in genetically altered models. Resolution of 100 µm in all dimensions is now routinely attained in living animals, and 10 µm3 is feasible in fixed specimens. Such images almost rival conventional histology while allowing the object to be viewed interactively in any plane. MRM is now increasingly used to provide functional information in living animals. Images of the beating heart, breathing lung, and functioning brain can be recorded. While clinical MRI focuses on diagnosis, MRM is used to reveal fundamental biology or to non-invasively measure subtle changes in the structure or function of organs during disease progression or in response to experimental therapies. The ability of MRM to provide a detailed functional and anatomical picture in rats and mice, and to track this picture over time, makes it a promising platform with broad applications in biomedical research. PMID:18172332

Driehuys, Bastiaan; Nouls, John; Badea, Alexandra; Bucholz, Elizabeth; Ghaghada, Ketan; Petiet, Alexandra; Hedlund, Laurence W.

2009-01-01

282

The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. IV - Generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes in laboratory experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of common sedimentary minerals (illite, Na-montmorillonite, or calcite) under different water concentrations on the generation and release of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and select alkenes from oil-prone kerogens was investigated. Matrices containing Green River Formation kerogen or Monterey Formation kerogen, alone or in the presence of minerals, were heated at 200 or 300 C for periods of up to 1000 hours, and the pyrolysis products were analyzed. The influence of the first two clay minerals was found to be critically dependent on the water content. Under the dry pyrolysis conditions, both minerals significantly reduced alkene formation; the C12+ n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids were mostly destroyed by montmorillonite, but underwent only minor alteration with illite. Under hydrous conditions (mineral/water of 2/1), the effects of both minerals were substantially reduced. Calcite had no significant effect on the thermal evolution of the hydrocarbons.

Huizinga, Bradley J.; Tannenbaum, Eli; Kaplan, Isaac R.

1987-05-01

283

The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. IV - Generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes in laboratory experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of common sedimentary minerals (illite, Na-montmorillonite, or calcite) under different water concentrations on the generation and release of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and select alkenes from oil-prone kerogens was investigated. Matrices containing Green River Formation kerogen or Monterey Formation kerogen, alone or in the presence of minerals, were heated at 200 or 300 C for periods of up to 1000 hours, and the pyrolysis products were analyzed. The influence of the first two clay minerals was found to be critically dependent on the water content. Under the dry pyrolysis conditions, both minerals significantly reduced alkene formation; the C12+ n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids were mostly destroyed by montmorillonite, but underwent only minor alteration with illite. Under hydrous conditions (mineral/water of 2/1), the effects of both minerals were substantially reduced. Calcite had no significant effect on the thermal evolution of the hydrocarbons.

Huizinga, Bradley J.; Tannenbaum, Eli; Kaplan, Isaac R.

1987-01-01

284

Altered Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This five-part feature includes reports and multimedia presentations that document what the authors term a crisis in the marine environment. Topics include the uncontrolled increase in primitive organisms, such as bacteria and algae, triggered by overfishing and nutrient runoff, effects on sentinel species such as marine mammals, and effects on humans, such as the irritating effects of toxins produced by red tides. There is also discussion of seaborne plastic debris and changes in chemistry of sea water. The site also includes a message board for discussions and a set of links to additional resources.

285

Regulation of Animal Use: Voluntary and Involuntary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The regulation (voluntary and involuntary) of animal care and use throughout history in research and teaching is reviewed. The role of several organizations concerned with various aspects of animal quality, care, and use is discussed. (BH)

Clark, J. Derrell

1979-01-01

286

Coupler for surgery on small animals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Minicoupler simplifies exchange of fluids with organs of laboratory animals enabling one person to perform surgery on experimental animals such as rats and mice. Innovation eliminates obstructing hands and instruments from areas of surgery.

Johnson, J. E., Jr.; Swartz, P. F.

1979-01-01

287

Variations in the chemical and stable isotope composition of carbon and sulfur species during organic-rich sediment alteration: An experimental and theoretical study of hydrothermal activity at guaymas basin, gulf of california  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organic-rich diatomaceous ooze was reacted with seawater and a Na-Ca-K-Cl fluid of seawater chlorinity at 325-400??C, 400-500 bars, and fluid/sediment mass ratios of 1.56-2.35 to constrain factors regulating the abundance and stable isotope composition of C and S species during hydrothermal alteration of sediment from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. Alteration of inorganic and organic sedimentary components resulted in extensive exchange reactions, the release of abundant H2S, CO2, CH4, and Corganic, to solution, and recrystallization of the sediment to an assemblage containing albitic plagioclase, quartz, pyrrhotite, and calcite. The ??34Scdt values of dissolved H2S varied from -10.9 to +4.3??? during seawater-sediment interaction at 325 and 400??C and from -16.5 to -9.0??? during Na-Ca-K-Cl fluid-sediment interaction at 325 and 375??C. In the absence of seawater SO4, H2S is derived from both the transformation of pyrite to pyrrhotite and S released during the degradation of organic matter. In the presence of seawater SO4, reduction of SO4 contributes directly to H2S production. Sedimentary organic matter acts as the reducing agent during pyrite and SO4 reduction. Requisite acidity for the reduction of SO4 is provided by Mg fixation during early-stage sediment alteration and by albite and calcite formation in Mg-free solutions. Organically derived CH4 was characterized by ??13Cpdb values ranging between -20.8 and -23.1???, whereas ??13Cpdb values for dissolved Corganic ranged between -14.8 and -17.7%. Mass balance calculations indicate that ??13C values for organically derived CO2 were ??? - 14.8%. Residual solid sedimentary organic C showed small (??? 0.7???) depletions in 13C relative to the starting sediment. The experimental results are consistent with the isotopic and chemical composition of natural hydrothermal fluids and minerals at Guaymas Basin and permit us to better constrain sources and sinks for C and S species in subseafloor hydrothermal systems at sediment-covered spreading centers. Our data show that the sulfur isotope composition of hydrothermal Sulfide minerals in Guaymas Basin can be explained by derivation of S from diagenetic sulfide and seawater sulfate. Basaltic S may also contribute to hydrothermal sulfide precipitates but is not required to explain their isotopic composition. Estimates of seawater/ sediment mass ratios based on sulfur isotopic composition of sulfide minerals and the abundance of dissolved NH3 in vent fluids range from 3-29 during hydrothermal circulation. Sources of C in Guaymas Basin hydrothermal fluids include thermal degradation of organic matter, bacteriogenic methane production, and dissolution of diagenetic carbonate. ?? 1994.

Seewald, J.S.; Seyfried, W.E., Jr.; Shanks, W. C., III

1994-01-01

288

Disposition of shelter companion animals from nonhuman animal control officers, citizen finders, and relinquished by caregivers.  

PubMed

Many private not-for-profit humane societies have contracts with their local government entities to provide nonhuman animal control services that the law commonly requires the government to provide to its residents. These services normally have the humane organization providing either the total animal control program (including field work to pick up stray animal companions, enforcing local animal ordinances, and the impounding of stray companion animals) or just the boarding of companion animals with no fieldwork or enforcement duties. Shelter companion animals normally come from three main sources: (a) stray or lost companion animals impounded by animal control field officers or animals impounded for violations of humane care regulations; (b) stray companion animals brought to the shelter by a resident who happens across, and catches, a lost companion animal and delivers the animal to the shelter; and (c) companion animals relinquished by their caregivers. PMID:15498725

Notaro, Stephen J

2004-01-01

289

2,3,7,8- Te trachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin treatment alters eicosanoid levels in several organs of the mouse in an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent fashion  

PubMed Central

2,3,7,8- Te trachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) adversely affects many mammalian organs and tissues. These effects are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 are upregulated by the liganded AHR. These (and other) cytochromes P450 can metabolize arachidonic acid into a variety of bioactive eicosanoids. Towards investigating a potential role of eicosanoids in TCDD toxicity, arachidonic acid, two other unsaturated long-chain fatty acids, and up to twenty-three eicosanoids were measured in five organs/tissues of male and female wild-type and Ahr null mice treated or untreated with TCDD. TCDD generally increased the levels of the four dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) and (where measured) 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid and 18-, 19- and 20-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (HETEs) in the serum, liver, spleen and lungs, but not the heart, of both sexes, and increased the levels in the serum, liver and spleen of several metabolites that are usually considered products of lipoxygenase activity, but which may also be generated by cytochromes P450. TCDD also increased the levels of the esterified forms of these eicosanoids in the liver in parallel with the corresponding free forms. The levels of prostanoids were generally not affected by TCDD. The above changes did not occur in Ahr null mice, and are therefore mediated by the AHR. TCDD increased the mRNA levels of Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1 and the Pla2g12a form of phospholipase A2 to varying degrees in the different organs, and these increases correlated with some but not all the changes in eicosanoids levels in the organs, suggesting that other enzymes may also be involved. PMID:22230337

Bui, Peter; Solaimani, Parrisa; Wu, Xiaomeng; Hankinson, Oliver

2012-01-01

290

Downstream alterations in biodegradability and optical characteristics of dissolved and particulate organic carbon fractions exported during storm events in a mixed land-use watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although storm pulses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) can account for a significant C loss from the terrestrial sink of atmospheric CO2, there have been rare attempts to compare the biodegradation and chemical transformation of terrestrially derived DOC and POC in receiving waters. Short-term laboratory incubations were performed with water and sediment samples collected during intense monsoon rainfalls at four stream locations in a mountainous, mixed land-use watershed, Korea to compare biodegradation and optical properties of DOC and POC exported from different sources. Biodegradable DOC (BDOC) and fluorescence EEMs coupled with PARAFAC modeling in either bulk or flow field-flow fractionated samples were measured to track changes in biodegradation and optical characteristics of DOC and suspended sediment-derived DOC (SS-DOC). During a 30 day incubation at 25 °C, both DOC and POC from a forested headwater stream initially exhibited rapid biodegradation of labile components, whereas sediment-derived materials increased continuously not just DOC concentrations, but also fulvic- and humic-like fluorescent components. In the second 13-day incubation with DOC and POC samples from a forest stream, an agricultural stream, and two downstream rivers, the BDOC of filtered waters differed little between sites, whereas the BDOC of SS-DOC was higher in downstream rivers. Higher ratios of protein- to fuvic- or humic-like fluorescence in the SS-DOC from two downstream rivers compared to upstream measurements pointed to a higher contribution of labile organic components to the biodegradation of SS-DOC from the downstream rivers. Downstream increases in labile moieties of SS-DOC were also observed in fluorescence measurements of field-flow fractionated samples. The results suggest that storm pulses of POC contain labile organic components that are increasingly released from downstream sources and can rapidly change in optical properties during riverine transport.

Jung, Byung-Joon; Yang, Boram; Park, Ji-Hyung

2014-05-01

291

Public Service Veterinarians Worldwide: a Quantitative Analysis V. KOUBA Former Chief, Animal Health Service, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and Editor-in-Chief, FAO\\/WHO\\/OIE Animal Health Yearbook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically the first global analysis of public service professional veterinary manpower (government veterinary officials at central and local levels) is based on available quantitative data reported by individual countries to international organizations. The analysis begins with a time series of reported number of public service veterinarians starting in 1983 (65,930). In 2003 the number reached 209,888 representing 27.96 % of

Václav Kouba

292

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin treatment alters eicosanoid levels in several organs of the mouse in an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent fashion  

SciTech Connect

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) adversely affects many mammalian organs and tissues. These effects are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 are upregulated by the liganded AHR. These (and other) cytochromes P450 can metabolize arachidonic acid into a variety of bioactive eicosanoids. Towards investigating a potential role of eicosanoids in TCDD toxicity, arachidonic acid, two other unsaturated long-chain fatty acids, and up to twenty-five eicosanoids were measured in five organs/tissues of male and female wild-type and Ahr null mice treated or untreated with TCDD. TCDD generally increased the levels of the four dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) and (where measured) 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid and 18-, 19- and 20-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (HETEs) in the serum, liver, spleen and lungs, but not the heart, of both sexes, and increased the levels in the serum, liver and spleen of several metabolites that are usually considered products of lipoxygenase activity, but which may also be generated by cytochromes P450. TCDD also increased the levels of the esterified forms of these eicosanoids in the liver in parallel with the corresponding free forms. The levels of prostanoids were generally not affected by TCDD. The above changes did not occur in Ahr null mice, and are therefore mediated by the AHR. TCDD increased the mRNA levels of Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1 and the Pla2g12a form of phospholipase A{sub 2} to varying degrees in the different organs, and these increases correlated with some but not all the changes in eicosanoids levels in the organs, suggesting that other enzymes may also be involved. -- Highlights: ? TCDD treatment increases the levels of many eicosanoids in several mouse organs. ? Products of both the cytochrome P450 and classical lipoxygenase pathways are increased. ? These increases are dependent on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. ? Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2 and Cyp1b1 appear to be responsible for much but not all of the increases.

Bui, Peter; Solaimani, Parrisa [Molecular Toxicology Program, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States) [Molecular Toxicology Program, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Dept of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Wu, Xiaomeng [Dept of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States) [Dept of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hankinson, Oliver, E-mail: ohank@mednet.ucla.edu [Molecular Toxicology Program, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States) [Molecular Toxicology Program, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Dept of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

2012-03-01

293

Animal leptospirosis.  

PubMed

Leptospirosis is a global disease of animalsAnimals , which can have a major economic impact on livestock industries and is an important zoonosis. The current knowledge base is heavily biased towards the developed agricultural economies. The disease situation in the developing economies presents a major challenge as humans and animals frequently live in close association. The severity of disease varies with the infecting serovar and the affected species, but there are many common aspects across the species; for example, the acute phase of infection is mostly sub-clinical and the greatest economic losses arise from chronic infection causing reproductive wastage. The principles of, and tests for, diagnosisDiagnosis , treatmentTreatment , controlControl and surveillanceSurveillance are applicable across the species. PMID:25388134

Ellis, William A

2015-01-01

294

Evolution Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation provides a tour of the history of the universe, the solar system, and Earth. Moving the slider allows viewers to progress from the Big Bang, almost 14 billion years ago, to the beginnings of life on Earth in the Proterozoic era, through the age of the dinosaurs and finally to the time of Homo sapiens. When the slider stops moving, animations and text appear, highlighting important events. Other animations accompany the time scale and show the movements of the continents, the advance and retreat of the polar ice caps, and changes in the oxygen content of the atmosphere. The length of the timeline helps reinforce the idea of the immense age of the universe. A French translation is available.

John Kyrk

295

Groundwater Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features Flash and QuickTime animations related to groundwater. They contrast the permeability of gravel, sand, silt, and clay, as well as the speed of groundwater movement in rivers, lakes, and aquifers. They also outline the hydrologic cycle, discussing infiltration, percolation, and the water table, exhibit groundwater overdraft and the resulting formation of a cone of depression, and show how groundwater entering fractured bedrock can become superheated and pushed to the surface, erupting as a geyser. The animations can be paused and rewound to stress important points. These resources are suitable for use in lectures, labs, or other teaching activities.

296

Animal models.  

PubMed

Epilepsy accounts for a significant portion of the dis-ease burden worldwide. Research in this field is fundamental and mandatory. Animal models have played, and still play, a substantial role in understanding the patho-physiology and treatment of human epilepsies. A large number and variety of approaches are available, and they have been applied to many animals. In this chapter the in vitro and in vivo animal models are discussed,with major emphasis on the in vivo studies. Models have used phylogenetically different animals - from worms to monkeys. Our attention has been dedicated mainly to rodents.In clinical practice, developmental aspects of epilepsy often differ from those in adults. Animal models have often helped to clarify these differences. In this chapter, developmental aspects have been emphasized.Electrical stimulation and chemical-induced models of seizures have been described first, as they represent the oldest and most common models. Among these models, kindling raised great interest, especially for the study of the epileptogenesis. Acquired focal models mimic seizures and occasionally epilepsies secondary to abnormal cortical development, hypoxia, trauma, and hemorrhage.Better knowledge of epileptic syndromes will help to create new animal models. To date, absence epilepsy is one of the most common and (often) benign forms of epilepsy. There are several models, including acute pharmacological models (PTZ, penicillin, THIP, GBL) and chronic models (GAERS, WAG/Rij). Although atypical absence seizures are less benign, thus needing more investigation, only two models are so far available (AY-9944,MAM-AY). Infantile spasms are an early childhood encephalopathy that is usually associated with a poor out-come. The investigation of this syndrome in animal models is recent and fascinating. Different approaches have been used including genetic (Down syndrome,ARX mutation) and acquired (multiple hit, TTX, CRH,betamethasone-NMDA) models.An entire section has been dedicated to genetic models, from the older models obtained with spontaneous mutations (GEPRs) to the new engineered knockout, knocking, and transgenic models. Some of these models have been created based on recently recognized patho-genesis such as benign familial neonatal epilepsy, early infantile encephalopathy with suppression bursts, severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy, the tuberous sclerosis model, and the progressive myoclonic epilepsy. The contribution of animal models to epilepsy re-search is unquestionable. The development of further strategies is necessary to find novel strategies to cure epileptic patients, and optimistically to allow scientists first and clinicians subsequently to prevent epilepsy and its consequences. PMID:22938964

Coppola, Antonietta; Moshé, Solomon L

2012-01-01

297

MicroSPECT and MicroPET Imaging of Small Animals for Drug Development  

PubMed Central

The process of drug discovery and development requires substantial resources and time. The drug industry has tried to reduce costs by conducting appropriate animal studies together with molecular biological and genetic analyses. Basic science research has been limited to in vitro studies of cellular processes and ex vivo tissue examination using suitable animal models of disease. However, in the past two decades new technologies have been developed that permit the imaging of live animals using radiotracer emission, Xrays, magnetic resonance signals, fluorescence, and bioluminescence. The main objective of this review is to provide an overview of small animal molecular imaging, with a focus on nuclear imaging (single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography). These technologies permit visualization of toxicodynamics as well as toxicity to specific organs by directly monitoring drug accumulation and assessing physiological and/or molecular alterations. Nuclear imaging technology has great potential for improving the efficiency of the drug development process. PMID:24278622

2013-01-01

298

Mercury induced time-dependent alterations in lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation in different body organs of cat-fish Heteropneustes fossilis.  

PubMed

The effects of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) on lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation in different body organs of fresh water cat-fish Heteropneustes fossilis were studied. The daily exposure of HgCl2 0.2 mg/L for 10, 20 and 30 days depleted the total lipids in brain. But the content of phospholipids enhanced significantly at 30 days. Significant diminution in C/P ratio was discernible with 30 days of exposure following mercury toxicosis. Liver exhibited elevated levels of total lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol and C/P ratio. Interestingly kidney showed marked decrease in the concentration of total lipids, cholesterol and C/P ratio at higher exposure. However, the phospholipid values increased during the longer exposure. The content of total lipids and phospholipids was high in muscle but the level of cholesterol and C/P ratio were depleted. Significant increment in lipid peroxidation was discernible in brain, liver and muscle. In kidney the rate of lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced. The results suggest that exposure of HgCl2 enhances the peroxidation of endogenous lipids in brain, liver and muscle. Interestingly the lipid contents are affected differently in different body organs. PMID:2708789

Bano, Y; Hasan, M

1989-04-01

299

Anime News  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: They say a picture is worth a thousand words. So, if there is no picture for a news story, just make something up! This is the premise a Hong Kong-based computer animation company has based its success on. No video footage...

Hacker, Randi; Boyd, David

2011-06-15

300

Transgenic Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

Jaenisch, Rudolf

1988-01-01

301

Curriculum Animation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twenty-five teachers with reputations for artistry in curriculum planning were interviewed about their "curriculum animation" plans or how they ensured their curriculum was brought to life. Their statements indicated that much of their planning is informal and intuitive, and that the criteria they use for their curriculum includes: (1) it is…

Gose, Michael D.

2004-01-01

302

Shorelines Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation will help you to learn all about shorelines! You will learn how waves affect the coast, the sources of sediment, and how humans interfere in the whole scheme. There is also a model to learn more about groins, seawalls, and breakwater.

2002-01-01

303

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

As NATURE frequently contains notices of intelligence in animals, I have ventured to send you the inclosed note from the Reading local paper, as containing a remarkable fact regarding intelligence in a blind horse. The writer, Mr. Gostage, is quite trustworthy, and I have taken pains to verify the truth of his statements.

Joseph Stevens; S. Gostage

1883-01-01

304

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE columns of NATURE have sometimes been open to statements illustrating the practical sagacity of animals of the lower classes. Allow me to place before you the history of an occurrence which appears to prove the power of organisation in the common house-mouse.

G. A. B

1883-01-01

305

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

SEVERAL remarkable instances of intelligence in animals have been given in recent numbers of NATURE. Possibly the following instance of reasoning power in an elephant may not be without interest:-Some years ago I was ascending the lower part of the Darjeeling Hill Road, in the Himalaya Mountains, from Terai. At a certain part of the road, where we met a

F. R. Mallet

1883-01-01

306

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALTHOUGH the terms ``ass'' and, at any rate in Germany, ``ox'' (Ochs) are very generally applied to stupid persons, those who have observed the bovine and asinine genera know that this is an injustice to those animals; and the following instances of particular intelligence displayed by two of the thus maligned beasts seem worth recording.

L. C. Hurt

1902-01-01

307

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE following notes of facts observed in New Zealand may be thought of interest; in some way they may serve to illustrate Mr. Romanes' work on ``Animal Intelligence'' : they are submitted without making an attempt to distinguish where they may overlap the fine line between instinct and intelligence. Cases which may show apparent intelligence or the reverse are recorded

T. H. Potts

1884-01-01

308

Animal Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN an excellent paper on ``Animal Intelligence'' (NATURE, vol. xxvi. p. 523), Mr. C. Lloyd Morgan says that ``The brute has to be contented with the experience he inherits or individually acquires. Man, through language spoken or written, profits by the experience of his fellows. Even the most savage tribe has traditions extending back to the father's father. May there

Fritz Mueller; S. GOSTAGE

1883-01-01

309

Animals Eyes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Web site from BioMedia (1) is a fascinating look (no pun intended) at the eyes of other animals. Various images of eyeballs link to essays that explain such questions as how animals can see underwater and how many times the eye independently evolved in the animal kingdom. The next site (2) is based on a PBS Nova documentary about nocturnal animals. Visitors can click on an image of an eye to learn more about the animal that uses it to see in the dark. The San Diego Natural History Museum provides the kid-friendly Web site, which does a terrific job of explaining the anatomy and function of different types of eyes (3). The next site, provided by Tufts University, offers photos of how squirrels, sharks, turtles, and bees might see the world compared with human vision (4). Andrew Giger, a neuroscientist working on bee vision at the Australian National University, wrote the program B-EYE for his research. Visitors to his Web site (5) can see what a selection of grey-scale images might look like from a bee's perspective. The next site (6) is provided by about.com, offering a detailed article about bird vision. Similarly, the next Web site from the North American Hunting Retriever Association contains an extensive review of an article that appeared in the Journal of the Veterinary Medical Association about dog vision (7). Finally, the last site is a page from Micscape - the online monthly magazine of Microscopy UK - showing how the eyes of various mollusks look under the microscope (8).

Sohmer, Rachel.

2002-01-01

310

Molecular evolution of cyclin proteins in animals and fungi  

PubMed Central

Background The passage through the cell cycle is controlled by complexes of cyclins, the regulatory units, with cyclin-dependent kinases, the catalytic units. It is also known that cyclins form several families, which differ considerably in primary structure from one eukaryotic organism to another. Despite these lines of evidence, the relationship between the evolution of cyclins and their function is an open issue. Here we present the results of our study on the molecular evolution of A-, B-, D-, E-type cyclin proteins in animals and fungi. Results We constructed phylogenetic trees for these proteins, their ancestral sequences and analyzed patterns of amino acid replacements. The analysis of infrequently fixed atypical amino acid replacements in cyclins evidenced that accelerated evolution proceeded predominantly during paralog duplication or after it in animals and fungi and that it was related to aromorphic changes in animals. It was shown also that evolutionary flexibility of cyclin function may be provided by consequential reorganization of regions on protein surface remote from CDK binding sites in animal and fungal cyclins and by functional differentiation of paralogous cyclins formed in animal evolution. Conclusions The results suggested that changes in the number and/or nature of cyclin-binding proteins may underlie the evolutionary role of the alterations in the molecular structure of cyclins and their involvement in diverse molecular-genetic events. PMID:21798004

2011-01-01

311

Animal Models for Therapeutic Embolization  

SciTech Connect

Embolization techniques have been performed in different animals to accumulate basic data before a clinical trial.Choosing the right embolization model for a specific project is critical. However, there are several variables when defining the best model for embolization research such as the size of the animal to be used, the target organs, the route of introducing the embolization agent, and the feasible methods of evaluation. Commonly used research animals for endovascular embolization include rabbits, dogs, and rats. Frequently used target organs are the kidney and the liver. Most models use a transcatheter for introducing the embolus and occasionally open surgery and direct arterial injection are used. Basic methods of evaluation are straightforward, and commonly include macro observation of the embolized organs, angiogram, and histology. This article concisely reviews the available animal models and their evaluation for embolization research to help researchers to choose the appropriate model.

Moreira, Patricia L.; An, Yuehuei H. [Medical University of South Carolina, 96 Jonathan Lucas Street, CSB708, Charleston, South Carolina 29425, Orthopaedic Research Laboratories (United States)], E-mail: any@musc.edu

2003-04-15

312

Effects of altered groundwater chemistry upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial attachment during transport within an organically contaminated sandy aquifer  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of a dilute (ionic strength = 5 ?? 10-3 M) plume of treated sewage, with elevated levels (3.9 mg/L) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial transport through an iron-laden, quartz sand aquifer (Cape Cod, MA) were evaluated using sets of replicate, static minicolumns. Compared with uncontaminated groundwater, the plume chemistry diminished bacterial attachment under mildly acidic (pH 5.0-6.5) in-situ conditions, in spite of the 5-fold increase in ionic strength and substantively enhanced attachment under more alkaline conditions. The effects of the hydrophobic neutral and total fractions of the plume DOC; modest concentrations of fulvic and humic acids (1.5 mg/L); linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) (25 mg/L); Imbentin (200 ??g/L), a model nonionic surfactant; sulfate (28 mg/L); and calcium (20 mg/L) varied sharply in response to relatively small changes in pH, although the plume constituents collectively decreased the pH-dependency of bacterial attachment. LAS and other hydrophobic neutrals (collectively representing only ???3% of the plume DOC) had a disproportionately large effect upon bacterial attachment, as did the elevated concentrations of sulfate within the plume. The findings further suggest that the roles of organic plume constituents in transport or bacteria through acidic aquifer sediments can be very different than would be predicted from column studies performed at circumneutral pH and that the inorganic constituents within the plume cannot be ignored.

Harvey, R.W.; Metge, D.W.; Barber, L.B.; Aiken, G.R.

2010-01-01

313

Lesions of area postrema and subfornical organ alter exendin-4-induced brain activation without preventing the hypophagic effect of the GLP-1 receptor agonist.  

PubMed

The mechanism and route whereby glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, such as GLP-1 and exendin-4 (Ex-4), access the central nervous system (CNS) to exert their metabolic effects have yet to be clarified. The primary objective of the present study was to investigate the potential role of two circumventricular organs (CVOs), the area postrema (AP) and the subfornical organ (SFO), in mediating the metabolic and CNS-stimulating effects of Ex-4. We demonstrated that electrolytic ablation of the AP, SFO, or AP + SFO does not acutely prevent the anorectic effects of Ex-4. AP + SFO lesion chronically decreased food intake and body weight and also modulated the effect of Ex-4 on the neuronal activation of brain structures involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and glucose metabolism. The results of the study also showed that CVO lesions blunted Ex-4-induced expression of c-fos mRNA (a widely used neuronal activity marker) in 1) limbic structures (bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and central amygdala), 2) hypothalamus (paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, and arcuate nucleus), and 3) hindbrain (lateral and lateral-external parabrachial nucleus, medial nucleus of the solitary tract, and ventrolateral medulla). In conclusion, although the present results do not support a role for the CVOs in the anorectic effect induced by a single injection of Ex-4, they suggest that the CVOs play important roles in mediating the actions of Ex-4 in the activation of CNS structures involved in homeostatic control. PMID:20106992

Baraboi, Elena-Dana; Smith, Pauline; Ferguson, Alastair V; Richard, Denis

2010-04-01

314

Animal Transfer Agreement -1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT  

E-print Network

Animal Transfer Agreement - 1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT This Animal Transfer Agreement has been adopted for use by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for use in transferring animals for research transferring the animal) Recipient: (name of laboratory/institution receiving the animal) The Provider agrees

Bandettini, Peter A.

315

The Evolution of Multicellular Plants and Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the evolution of unicellular organisms to the multi-cellular plants and animals in existence today. Major events are depicted in a geologic timetable. Organisms, extinct and recent, are classified by taxonomic group. (MA)

Valentine, James W.

1978-01-01

316

Animated Atlas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A commercial site, Animated Atlas provides excellent audio-visual resources for teachers and students of European and American history. The resources combine maps and animation to create short video presentations on such subjects as the growth of the United States and the First World War. Though most of the videos must be ordered, the site provides free samples of its presentations, including a ten minute presentation on the westward expansion of the United States, the early history of the American Revolution, the European alliances before the First World War, and the beginnings of the Mexican American War. The site provides a timeline of American history that can be referred to during the American expansion video. Students and educators should also explore the site's listings of American history sites and primary source on the Web.

2002-01-01

317

Geoscience Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation that shows Earth's orbit around the sun and the tilt of Earth's axis relative to the sun in each month of the orbit. Students can move the cursor to a given month to see the position of Earth in its orbit at that time of year or can run a full animation of the yearly orbit. If one clicks on "Show Earth Profile" at the bottom, right corner of the resource, a small box pops up in the lower, right corner that shows the position of the Earth's axis in relation to the sun's rays at various points in the orbit. As such, it shows how the sun's rays directly strike different places on Earth during the orbit because of Earth's tilt. Accompanying text also points out number of daylight hours at the equator and at each pole during each solstice and equinox.

318

Animation Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online magazine is all about animation and features regular articles, reviews of films and books, and profiles about people in the industry and tutorials. Articles in the current issue address topics such as "the impact of new technology on performance and the future roles of technology, new and old" and international perspectives on Bridging the Cultural Divide in Digital Entertainment. The tutorials cover topics such as how to make 3-D characters come to life and making molds. The Special Features articles report on gaming, production, technology and voice acting. Past issues are also available and can be searched by key word or sorted by category. Numerous other links are listed for more information on animation, resources for education, and listings of upcoming events and contests.

319

Animal Communication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The focus of this Science NetLinks lesson is threefold. First, to expose students to the fact that all species have a capacity for communication. Second, to enlighten students to the fact that communication abilities range from very simple to extremely complex, depending upon the species. Third, to realize that communication is influenced by a species' genetic makeup, its environment, and the numerous ways by which animals and humans respond to and adapt to their surroundings.

Science Netlinks

2003-09-09

320

Histopathological alterations in immune organs of chickens and ducks after experimental infection with virulent 9a5b newcastle disease virus.  

PubMed

The chicken and duck are important hosts of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with distinctive responses to infection. NDV infection in ducks is often subclinical and chronic, while in chickens the infection is clinically apparent and transient. These differences may be due to in part to the host response to NDV infection. This study compares the histopathological changes in the spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius following infection with NDV in chickens and ducks. The 9a5b isolate of NDV was inoculated intranasally into specific pathogen-free chickens and Japanese commercial ducks. NDV nucleoprotein (NDV-NP) and interferon (IFN)-? were detected in tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC), apoptosis was detected by haematoxylin and eosin staining, caspase-3 IHC and the TUNEL assay. Labelling of NDV-NP and lymphoid depletion were most marked in chicken tissues. The pattern of apoptosis in the spleen differed between chickens and ducks. In chickens there were numerous apoptotic cells in the peri-ellipsoidal white pulp and the peri-ellipsoidal, peri-arteriolar and peri-venous lymphoid sheaths, while apoptosis in duck spleens was mainly within the germinal centres. Lymphoid depletion was the main feature in the bursal and thymic tissues of chickens, but apoptosis was marked in these organs in ducks. Expression of IFN-? appeared earlier and was more intense in the tissues from ducks compared with those from chickens. The differences in IFN-? and NDV-NP expression may reflect the relative clinical severity of the infection in the two avian species. PMID:23369809

Anis, Z; Morita, T; Azuma, K; Ito, H; Ito, T; Shimada, A

2013-07-01

321

Chronic aluminum intoxication in rat induced both serotonin changes in the dorsal raphe nucleus and alteration of glycoprotein secretion in the subcommissural organ: Immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed

Aluminum (Al) causes multiple impairments in several body systems including the central nervous system. In fact, Al exposure has been mostly associated with neurological dysfunctions that occur in some brain diseases. The effect of Al neurotoxicity on the dopaminergic system is well documented, but this effect on the serotoninergic system is poorly studied. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of chronic Al intoxication (0.3% of aluminum chloride exposure from the intra-uterine age until 4 months of adult age) on dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) which is the main source of serotonin, and also on the glycoprotein secretion of subcomissural organ (SCO), receiving important serotoninergic innervation. This will be executed using immunohistochemistry procedure, with both the anti serotonin and the anti Reissner's fiber antibodies in the rat. Our results showed a significant increase of serotonin immunoreactivity in the DRN, accompanied by a noticeable decrease of RF immunoreactivity in the SCO ependymocytes. This study provides further evidence confirming the toxic effect of Al exposure on serotonin neurotransmission in the brain likely through increased synthesis or decreased release. Al exposure was also shown to decrease RF glycoprotein which is involved in the detoxification of cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:24931428

Laabbar, Wafaa; Elgot, Abdeljalil; Kissani, Najib; Gamrani, Halima

2014-08-01

322

An altered peptide ligand corresponding to a novel epitope from heat-shock protein 60 induces regulatory T cells and suppresses pathogenic response in an animal model of adjuvant-induced arthritis.  

PubMed

Induction of immune tolerance as therapeutic approach for autoimmune diseases constitutes a current research focal point. In this sense, we aimed to evaluate an altered peptide ligand (APL) for induction of peripheral tolerance in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A novel T-cell epitope from human heat-shock protein 60 (Hsp60), an autoantigen involved in the pathogenesis of RA, was identified by bioinformatics tools and an APL was design starting from this epitope. We investigated the ability of this APL for inducing regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in mice and evaluated the therapeutic effect of this peptide in an adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) rat model. Clinical score, TNF? levels and histopathology were monitored, as well as the capacity of this APL for inducing Treg cells. Finally, the potentialities of the APL for inducing Treg cells were evaluated in ex vivo assays using mononuclear cells isolated from peripheral blood (PBMC). The APL induced an increase of the proportions of Treg cells in the draining lymph nodes of the injected site in mice. The APL efficiently inhibited the course of AA, with significant reduction of the clinical and histopathology score. This effect was associated with an increase of the proportions of Treg cells and a decrease of TNF? levels in spleen. Finally, stimulation of PBMCs from RA patients by the APL increases the proportions of the CD4(+)CD25(high)FoxP3(+) Treg cells. These results indicate a therapeutic potentiality of APL and support further investigation of this candidate drug for treatment of RA. PMID:21370936

Dominguez, Maria Del Carmen; Lorenzo, Noraylis; Barbera, Ariana; Darrasse-Jeze, Guillaume; Hernández, Maria Victoria; Torres, Ana; Hernández, Isabel; Gil, Rafael; Klatzmann, David; Padrón, Gabriel

2011-09-01

323

Increased size of solid organs in patients with Chuvash polycythemia and in mice with altered expression of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha.  

PubMed

Chuvash polycythemia, the first hereditary disease associated with dysregulated oxygen-sensing to be recognized, is characterized by a homozygous germ-line loss-of-function mutation of the VHL gene (VHL(R200W)) resulting in elevated hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha and HIF-2alpha levels, increased red cell mass and propensity to thrombosis. Organ volume is determined by the size and number of cells, and the underlying molecular control mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Work from several groups has demonstrated that the proliferation of cells is regulated in opposite directions by HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha. HIF-1alpha inhibits cell proliferation by displacing MYC from the promoter of the gene encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21(Cip1), thereby inducing its expression. In contrast, HIF-2alpha promotes MYC activity and cell proliferation. Here we report that the volumes of liver, spleen, and kidneys relative to body mass were larger in 30 individuals with Chuvash polycythemia than in 30 matched Chuvash controls. In Hif1a(+/-) mice, which are heterozygous for a null (knockout) allele at the locus encoding HIF-1alpha, hepatic HIF-2alpha mRNA was increased (2-fold) and the mass of the liver was increased, compared with wild-type littermates, without significant difference in cell volume. Hepatic p21(Cip1) mRNA levels were 9.5-fold lower in Hif1a(+/-) mice compared with wild-type littermates. These data suggest that, in addition to increased red cell mass, the sizes of liver, spleen, and kidneys are increased in Chuvash polycythemia. At least in the liver, this phenotype may result from increased HIF-2alpha and decreased p21(Cip1) levels leading to increased hepatocyte proliferation. PMID:20140661

Yoon, Donghoon; Okhotin, David V; Kim, Bumjun; Okhotina, Yulia; Okhotin, Daniel J; Miasnikova, Galina Y; Sergueeva, Adelina I; Polyakova, Lydia A; Maslow, Alexei; Lee, Yonggu; Semenza, Gregg L; Prchal, Josef T; Gordeuk, Victor R

2010-05-01

324

Closely Related Plasmid Replicons Coexisting in the Phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae Show a Mosaic Organization of the Replication Region and Altered Incompatibility Behavior  

PubMed Central

Many Pseudomonas syringae strains contain native plasmids that are important for host-pathogen interactions, and most of them contain several coexisting plasmids (pPT23A-like plasmids) that cross-hybridize to replication sequences from pPT23A, which also carries a gene cluster coding for the phytotoxin coronatine in P. syringae pv. tomato PT23. In this study, three functional pPT23A-like replicons were cloned from P. syringae pv. glycinea race 6, suggesting that the compatibility of highly related replicons is a common feature of P. syringae strains. Hybridization experiments using three separate incompatibility determinants previously identified from pPT23A and the rulAB (UV radiation tolerance) genes showed that the organization of the replication region among pPT23A-like plasmids from several P. syringae pathovars is poorly conserved. The putative repA gene from four pPT23A-like replicons from P. syringae pv. glycinea race 6 was amplified by using specific primers. The restriction profiles of the resulting PCR products for the race 6 plasmids were more similar to each other than they were to that of pPT23A. These data, together with the existence of other cross-hybridizing DNA regions around the replicon among the race 6 pPT23A-like plasmids, suggest that some of these plasmids may have originated from duplication events. Our results also imply that modifications of the repA sequences and the poor conservation of putative maintenance determinants contribute to the suppression of incompatibility among members of the pPT23A-like family, thus enhancing the genomic plasticity of P. syringae. PMID:9758824

Sesma, Ane; Sundin, George W.; Murillo, Jesús

1998-01-01

325

The effects of radionuclides on animal behavior.  

PubMed

Concomitant with the expansion of the nuclear industry, the concentrations of several pollutants, radioactive or otherwise, including uranium, caesium, cadmium and cobalt, have increased over the last few decades. These elemental pollutants do exist in the environment and are a threat to many organisms. Behavior represents the integration of all the anatomical adaptations and physiological processes that occur within an organism. Compared to other biological endpoints, the effects of pollutants on animal behavior have been the focus of only a few studies. However, behavioral changes appear to be ideal for assessing the effects of pollutants on animal populations, because behavior links physiological functions with ecological processes. The alteration of behavioral responses can have severe implications for survival of individuals and of population of some species. Behavioral disruptions may derive from several underlying mechanisms: disruption of neuro-sensorial activity and of endocrines, or oxidative and metabolic disruptions. In this review, we presented an overview of the current literature in which the effects of radioactive pollutants on behavior in humans, rodents, fish and wildlife species are addressed. When possible, we have also indicated the potential underlying mechanisms of the behavioral alterations and parameters measured. In fried, chronic uranium contamination is associated with behavior alterations and mental disorders in humans, and cognitive deficits in rats. Comparative studies on depleted and enriched uranium effects in rats showed that chemical and radiological activities of this metal induced negative effects on several behavioral parameters and also produced brain oxidative stress. Uranium exposure also modifies feeding behavior of bivalves and reproductive behavior of fish. Studies of the effects of the Chernobyl accident shows that chronic irradiation to 137Cs induces both nervous system diseases and mental disorders in humans leading to increased suicides, as well as modification of preferred nesting sites, reduced hatching success and fecundity in birds that live in the Chernobyl zone. No significant effect from caesium exposure was shown in laboratory experiments with rats, but few studies were conducted. Data on radioactive cadmium are not available in the literature, but the effects of its metallic form have been well studied. Cadmium induces mental retardation and psychomotor alterations in exposed populations and increases anxiety in rats, leading to depression. Cadmium exposure also results in well-documented effects on feeding and burrowing behavior in several invertebrate species (crustaceans, gastropods, annelids, bivalves) and on different kinds of fish behavior (swimming activity, fast-start response, antipredatory behavior). Cobalt induces memory deficits in humans and may be involved in Alzheimer's disease; gamma irradiation by cobalt also decreases fecundity and alters mating behavior in insects. Collectively, data are lacking or are meagre on radionuclide pollutants, and a better knowledge of their actions on the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control animal behavior is needed. PMID:21170702

Gagnaire, Beatrice; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Bouron, Alexandre; Lestaevel, Philippe

2011-01-01

326

Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal-Interactions The module Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal-Interactions deals with various aspects of  

E-print Network

Bio III Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal-Interactions SS 2014 The module Animal-Plant is taught: · Lecture: o Animal-plant interactions, e.g. mutualistic interactions (pollination, floral (herbivory and plant defensive substances) are introduced using various examples (ant-plant interactions

Pfeifer, Holger

327

Alteration of biochar characteristics through Post Production Treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of pure, untreated biochar to temperate soils does not lead to substantial increase in soil fertility and plant growth. Moreover, the application of 10 tonnes or more of biochar per hectare is not economically viable on most farms. To be more efficient in improving soil fertility, increasing SOM and ecosystem services, new methods of using biochar in farm settings need to be developed. To improve the effect of biochar on plant growth, biochar can be enhanced by (1) adding nutrients, (2) inoculating it with beneficial microorganisms, (3) improving its surface reactivity and thus its sorption dynamic, (4) increasing its porous volume, and/or (5) fostering the creation of biochar-mineral-organic complexes. These supplementary biochar enhancements can be achieved through different methods of feedstock blending and biochar post-production treatment which can be classified according to the resulting surface alteration of biochar: 1. Addition of nutrients, MOs, minerals in liquid solution which get soaked into the biochar pores without or with only slight surface alteration, resulting in enriched biochar. 2. Physico-chemical activation (treatment with acids, vapours, toasting with minerals …) resulting in alteration of the surface, pore volume and functional groups. 3. Bio-chemical activation through the interaction of biochar with organic compounds, minerals, nutrients and microorganisms in a biological very active environment, resulting in the complexation of biochar, minerals and organic compounds. Whereas physico-chemical activation is a highly technical process and has to be done by professional biochar producers, bio-chemical activation and enrichment can be done very efficiently by the farmer himself. On-farm enrichment and activation of biochar help to close the organic nutrient cycles of the farm, improving agronomic system efficiency and thus becoming economically viable. Adding biochar to highly labile organic matter like manure, sludge or compost improves decomposition and complexation, and helps to stabilize their nutrients and carbon. The combination of biochar and lacto-acid-bacteria in silage, feed, bedding and liquid manure treatment decreases methane and ammonia emissions, increases the feed-energy balance, and boosts animal health. On every step of this cascading use of biochar in animal husbandry, the biochar becomes more oxidized, more activated and more enriched with nutrients. When finally applied to the soil, biochar acts as carrier for nutrients and thus works to improve soil fertility. Much more research is needed in the field of biochar post-treatment and into each of the different possible farm uses. Nevertheless, sufficient serious research has already been done and published, enabling us to judge the importance of post-treating biochar to improve its agronomic performance and value.

Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Kammann, Claudia; Glaser, Bruno

2013-04-01

328

Animal Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

329

DNA is organized into 46 chromosomes including sex chromosomes, 3D animation with no audioSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The millions of bases, which make up the human genome are organized into structures called chromosomes. These are arranged into 22 matching pairs plus 1 pair of sex chromosomes consisting of 2 X's in women and an X and a Y in men. So humans have a total of 46 chromosomes in each cell, known collectively as a karyotype. This set of chromosomes has a Y, so it must belong to a male.

2008-10-06

330

Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

March, B. E.

1984-01-01

331

Character Animation Animation is a big topic  

E-print Network

Character Animation 1 #12;Overview · Animation is a big topic · We will concentrate on character animation as is used in many games today ­ humans, animals, monsters, robots, etc. #12;Character is called a pose ­ the state of a skeleton at a particular time of animation #12;Regular layout 2 (no arcade

Stephenson, Ben

332

Myocardial diseases of animals.  

PubMed Central

In this review we have attempted a comprehensive compilation of the cardiac morphologic changes that occur in spontaneous and experimental myocardial diseases of animals. Our coverage addresses diseases of mammals and birds and includes these diseases found in both domesticated and wild animals. A similar review of the myocardial diseases in this broad range of animal species has not been attempted previously. We have summarized and illustrated the gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural alterations for these myocardial diseases; and, whenever possible, we have reviewed their biochemical pathogenesis. We have arranged the myocardial diseases for presentation and discussion according to an etiologic classification with seven categories. These include a group of idiopathic or primary cardiomyopathies recognized in man (hypertrophic, dilated, and restrictive types) and a large group of secondary cardiomyopathies with known causes, such as inherited tendency; nutritional deficiency; toxicity; physical injury and shock; endocrine disorders, and myocarditides of viral, bacterial, and protozoal causation. Considerable overlap exists between each of the etiologic groups in the spectrum of pathologic alterations seen in the myocardium. These include various degenerative changes, myocyte necrosis, and inflammatory lesions. However, some diseases show rather characteristic myocardial alterations such as vacuolar degeneration in anthracycline cardiotoxicity, myofibrillar lysis in furazolidone cardiotoxicity, calcification in calcinosis of mice, glycogen accumulation in the glycogenoses, lipofuscinosis in cattle, fatty degeneration in erucic acid cardiotoxicity, myofiber disarray in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and lymphocytic inflammation with inclusion bodies in canine parvoviral myocarditis. The myocardial diseases represent the largest group in the spectrum of spontaneous cardiac diseases of animals. Pericardial and endocardial diseases and congential cardiac diseases are seen less frequently; and, in contrast to man, coronary artery disease and myocardial ischemia are rather infrequent in animals. The present review shows clearly that the spectrum of myocardial diseases in animals is enlarging and that many newly recognized diseases are emerging and assuming considerable importance. For example, various heritable cardiomyopathies have recently been described in the KK mouse, cattle, and rats. Increasingly recognized myocardial diseases include cardiomyopathies in cats, dogs, and birds; anthracycline cardiotoxicity; furazolidone cardiotoxicity; ionophore cardiotoxicity; myocardial damage associated with central nervous system injuries; myocardial hypertrophy in Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 45 Figure 46 Figure 47 Figure 48 Figure 61 Figure 62 Figure 63 Figure 64 Figure 79 Figure 75 Figure 76 Figure 77 Figure 78 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 & 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 38 Figure 39 Figure 40 Figure 41 Figure 42 Figure 43 Figure 44 Figure 49 Figure 50 Figure 51 Figure 52 Figure 53 Figure 54 Figure 55 Figure 56 Figure 57 Figure 58 Figure 59 Figure 60 Figure 65 Figure 66 Figure 67 Figure 68 Figure 69 Figure 70 Figure 71 & 72 Figure 73 & 74 PMID:3524254

Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.

1986-01-01

333

Extreme Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online news article discusses the ability of tardigrades to withstand harsh conditions. The article covers the history, biology and significance of tardigrades, as well as the different types of cryptobiosis. It includes detailed images of the organisms and links to related web pages.

2002-09-01

334

Extreme Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online news article discusses the ability of tardigrades to withstand harsh conditions. The article covers the history, biology and significance of tardigrades, as well as the different types of cryptobiosis. It includes detailed images of the organisms and links to related web pages.

Leslie Mullen

335

Limb neurovascular control during altered otolithic input in humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Head-down rotation (HDR), which activates the vestibulosympathetic reflex, increases leg muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and produces calf vasoconstriction with no change in either cardiac output or arterial blood pressure. Based on animal studies, it was hypothesized that differential control of arm and leg MSNA explains why HDR does not alter arterial blood pressure. Fifteen healthy subjects were studied. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, forearm and calf blood flow, and leg MSNA responses were measured during HDR in these subjects. Simultaneous recordings of arm and leg MSNA were obtained from five of the subjects. Forearm and calf blood flow, vascular conductances, and vascular resistances were similar before HDR, as were arm and leg MSNA. HDR elicited similar significant increases in leg (Delta 6 +/- 1 bursts min(-1); 59 +/- 16 % from baseline) and arm MSNA (Delta 5 +/- 1 bursts min(-1); 80 +/- 28 % from baseline). HDR significantly decreased calf (-19 +/- 2 %) and forearm vascular conductance (-12 +/- 2 %) and significantly increased calf (25 +/- 4 %) and forearm vascular resistance (15 +/- 2 %), with 60 % greater vasoconstriction in the calf than in the forearm. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate were not altered by HDR. These results indicate that there is no differential control of MSNA in the arm and leg during altered feedback from the otolith organs in humans, but that greater vasoconstriction occurs in the calf than in the forearm. These findings indicate that vasodilatation occurs in other vascular bed(s) to account for the lack of increase in arterial blood pressure during HDR.

Monahan, Kevin D.; Ray, Chester A.

2002-01-01

336

Animal welfare: an animal science approach.  

PubMed

Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. PMID:23664009

Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

2013-12-01

337

Future Directions in Human-Animal Bond Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human-animal contact can influence psychological and physiological parameters important to health and welfare; nevertheless, there has been relatively little research on the variables that influence or mediate those health consequences. In addition, little attention has been paid on how to create or alter the animal interactions for the betterment of people and their animals. The investigation can be guided by

Alan M. Beck; Aaron H. Katcher

2003-01-01

338

Animal Diversity Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animal Diversity Web (ADW) is an online database of animal natural history, distribution, classification, and conservation biology hosted by the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. It provides descriptions of levels of organization above the species level, especially phyla, classes, and in some cases orders and families. Hundreds of hyperlinked pages and images illustrate the traits and general biology of these groups. This component of ADW is prepared by professional biologists. It also offers thousands of species accounts that may include text, pictures, photographs, and movies of specimens and/or sound recordings. Student authorship of species accounts is an essential feature of ADW. A web-based template ensures a consistent format for species accounts, and instructors and ADW staff review and edit them before they are added to the site.

2004-02-16

339

Grassroots opposition to animal exploitation.  

PubMed

The director of Trans-Species Unlimited (TSU) describes his radical organization's philosophy and controversial methods of working to end what its members view as the exploitation of animals. TSU advocates a grassroots approach to achieve its main goals, facilitating effective outreach, and acting directly at the local and national levels on issues such as animal experimentation. Siegel describes the objectives and stages of the animal rights movement, and defends his group's aggressive use of confrontational tactics and the potential use of civil disobedience to end "an evil without equal." PMID:2606662

Siegel, S

1989-01-01

340

Conditioned deletion of ephrinB1 and/or ephrinB2 in either thymocytes or thymic epithelial cells alters the organization of thymic medulla and favors the appearance of thymic epithelial cysts.  

PubMed

Our understanding about medullary compartment, its niches composition and formation is still limited. Previous studies using EphB2 and/or EphB3 knockout mice showed an abnormal thymic development that affects mainly to the epithelial component, including the cortex/medulla distribution, thymic epithelial cell (TEC) morphology and different epithelial-specific marker expression. We have already demonstrated that the lack of ephrinB1 and/or ephrinB2, either on thymocytes or on TECs, alters the cell intermingling processes necessary for thymus organization and affect cortical TEC subpopulations. In the present work, we have used the Cre-LoxP model to selectively delete ephrinB1 and/or ephrinB2 in thymocytes (EfnB1(thy/thy), EfnB2(thy/thy), EfnB1(thy/thy)EfnB2(thy/thy) mice) or TECs (EfnB1(tec/tec), EfnB2(tec/tec), EfnB1(tec/tec)EfnB2(tec/tec) mice) and have analyzed their role on the medullary compartment. In all the studied mutants, medullary areas are smaller and more compact than in the wt thymuses. In most of them, we observe abundant big cysts and a higher proportion of UEA(hi)MTS10(-) cells than in wt mice, which are often forming small cysts. On EfnB1(tec/tec)EfnB2(tec/tec), changes affecting organ size and medullary compartment start at perinatal stage. Our data shed some light on knowledge about wt medulla histological structure and cysts meaning and formation process and on the role played by ephrinB in them. PMID:25417117

Cejalvo, Teresa; Munoz, Juan J; Tobajas, Esther; Alfaro, David; García-Ceca, Javier; Zapata, Agustín

2014-11-23

341

Animal Tails  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Call it tail envy. With only a vestigial nub to show for ourselves, perhaps it's no wonder that animal tails capture our attention. The following Web sites present some of the more interesting tails to be found in the animal kingdom. The first Web site contains a recent article from Discovery News describing new findings that at least one species of scorpion produces two distinct types of tail venom, which have completely different effects on their victims (1). The next site from Singapore Zoological Gardens introduces the cebids (our New World monkey cousins), some of which have amazing prehensile tails that are used like a fifth limb (2). The rattlesnake is another famously-tailed creature, highlighted in the following site from the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum (3). The site covers the main aspects of rattlesnake natural history, including a section on how the rattle forms. The Great Plains Nature Center in Wichita, Kansas, offers a Web page devoted to the beaver, including tail trivia and an audio clip of a resident beaver surprised in his den at the Kansas Wildlife Exhibit (4). Anyone who has witnessed the freakishly fascinating spectacle of a gecko leaving its tail behind to distract a would-be predator will appreciate this brief bio of the Tokay gecko, presented by ReptileCenter.com, the Herpetologist's Portal (5). Stacy's Wag'N'Train -- offering dog-training classes in San Jose, California -- provides this online guide to dog body language, which would have a very limited vocabulary without the tail (6). So, how did the peacock get its tail? It's a simple question that has driven zoologists crazy for over a century. The next Web site (7) contains an in-depth article on the subject from the Independent (London), offered through National Geographic News. And finally, the bizarre gulper eel -- able to tie its tail in several knots -- gets is own Web page on Pangea, the Web server for the Department of Educational Leadership and Technology at Southeastern Louisiana University (8). This deep-sea curiosity uses its bioluminescent tail tip to lure hapless prey into its impossibly gigantic mouth.

Sohmer, Rachel.

2003-01-01

342

Animal Diversity Web - Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology's Animal Diversity Web, this site gives a general overview of the class Insecta targeted at college students. The site is organized into five tabs: Information, Pictures, Specimens, Sounds and Classification. Resources include images of live insects and pinned specimens, and sound recordings. Some pictures are only labeled with scientific genus and species names, making it difficult for novice users to understand what Order they are looking at, but many also have common names. Photos and sound bytes are good quality and easy to view and download. A very good resource for teachers needing lecture materials.

0002-11-30

343

Symptomatic animal models for dystonia  

PubMed Central

Symptomatic animal models have clinical features consistent with human disorders and are often used to identify the anatomical and physiological processes involved in the expression of symptoms and to experimentally demonstrate causality where it would be infeasible in the patient population. Rodent and primate models of dystonia have identified basal ganglia abnormalities, including alterations in striatal GABAergic and dopaminergic transmission. Symptomatic animal models have also established the critical role of the cerebellum in dystonia, particularly abnormal glutamate signaling and aberrant Purkinje cell activity. Further, experiments suggest that the basal ganglia and cerebellum are nodes in an integrated network that is dysfunctional in dystonia. The knowledge gained from experiments in symptomatic animal models may serve as the foundation for the development of novel therapeutic interventions to treat dystonia. PMID:23893454

Wilson, Bethany K.; Hess, Ellen J.

2013-01-01

344

Pattern Alteration: Shoulder Slope  

E-print Network

Determining the amount of alteration needed for square or sloping shoulders depends on observation and past experience in fitting home-sewn and purchased garments. This publication gives alteration instructions for basic bodices and kimono style...

2006-05-05

345

Fantastic animals as an experimental model to teach animal adaptation  

PubMed Central

Background Science curricula and teachers should emphasize evolution in a manner commensurate with its importance as a unifying concept in science. The concept of adaptation represents a first step to understand the results of natural selection. We settled an experimental project of alternative didactic to improve knowledge of organism adaptation. Students were involved and stimulated in learning processes by creative activities. To set adaptation in a historic frame, fossil records as evidence of past life and evolution were considered. Results The experimental project is schematized in nine phases: review of previous knowledge; lesson on fossils; lesson on fantastic animals; planning an imaginary world; creation of an imaginary animal; revision of the imaginary animals; adaptations of real animals; adaptations of fossil animals; and public exposition. A rubric to evaluate the student's performances is reported. The project involved professors and students of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and of the "G. Marconi" Secondary School of First Degree (Modena, Italy). Conclusion The educational objectives of the project are in line with the National Indications of the Italian Ministry of Public Instruction: knowledge of the characteristics of living beings, the meanings of the term "adaptation", the meaning of fossils, the definition of ecosystem, and the particularity of the different biomes. At the end of the project, students will be able to grasp particular adaptations of real organisms and to deduce information about the environment in which the organism evolved. This project allows students to review previous knowledge and to form their personalities. PMID:17767729

Guidetti, Roberto; Baraldi, Laura; Calzolai, Caterina; Pini, Lorenza; Veronesi, Paola; Pederzoli, Aurora

2007-01-01

346

Blood Volatile Organic Compounds as Potential Biomarkers for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: an Animal Study in the SOD1 G93A Mouse.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapid progressive motor neuron disease. Currently, there are no specific or reliable biomarkers for the diagnosis of this disease, and there are no effective medical treatments. The early diagnosis and treatment of this disease has the potential to prolong the survival of ALS patients, but typically, approximately 1 year passes between the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis of this disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find specific biomarkers to enable early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention in this disease. Analyzing the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the blood and exhaled breath is a useful and convenient approach for investigating potential biomarkers. In this study, we examined the VOCs present in blood samples from copper zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) glycine to alanine mutation at position 93 (G93A) mice to determine whether a specific biomarker pattern exists in these transgenic mice. Blood samples from ALS mice and their age-matched littermates were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 12 independent compounds associated with oxidative stress were identified at the early stage of disease. The data show that there is a specific pattern of blood VOCs in ALS mice that could potentially be used as biomarkers that could improve the diagnosis of this disease. Furthermore, these compounds could also potentially be used to monitor the response to neuroprotective agents and to help us better understand the underlying mechanisms of ALS. PMID:24715356

Jiang, Hongquan; Wang, Changsong; Ren, Ming; Yin, Xiang; Chi, Chunjie; Guo, Lei; Ke, Chaofu; Feng, Honglin; Li, Enyou

2015-01-01

347

Animal Interdependency. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. No organism on Earth can exist independently. Students find out more about animal relationships such as predator/prey relationships and…

2000

348

Absence of structural or functional alterations in male and female reproductive organs of F1 and F2 generations derived from female mice exposed to 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine during pregnancy.  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of in utero exposure to 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) on male and female reproductive system development, pregnant CD-1 mice were given daily intragastric doses of 25.0 mg AZT during days 12 through 18 of gestation. The offspring were examined at birth, as well as at pubertal, young adult and adult stages of development, for reproductive organ endpoints including anogenital distance, onset of testicular descent, latency to vaginal opening, and proportion of time for each of the stages of estrous cycle. These reproductive endpoints remained mostly unchanged in AZT-treated offspring as compared to the controls. Males and females exposed in utero to AZT (F1 generation) were fertile when mated to untreated females and males, respectively, and their liveborn F2 offspring showed no adverse effects for any of the reproductive parameters tested. Thus, no evidence of developmental reproductive toxicity was noted either in the F1 mice exposed to AZT during the critical period of male and female reproductive system development, or in the F2 mice born of matings between the AZT-exposed F1 mice and unexposed animals. PMID:10817626

Diwan, B A; Olivero, O A; Poirier, M C

2000-04-10

349

Character Animation Tool \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Character animation toolkits are very essential tools for animators in computer graphics world. These tools can make the work of animators extremely easy. Each tool can be applied to different body parts of character or the whole character. The tool that is described in this paper helps animators for creating character hand's animation. Hands of character in animation play one

Hikmat Abdoollayev; Eunmi Choi; Dugki Min

2008-01-01

350

Ursodeoxycholic acid alleviates cholestasis-induced histophysiological alterations in the male reproductive system of bile duct-ligated rats.  

PubMed

Ursodeoxycholic acid is the most widely used drug for treating cholestatic liver diseases. However, its effect on the male reproductive system alterations associated with cholestasis has never been studied. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effect of ursodeoxycholic acid on cholestasis-induced alterations in the male reproductive system. Cholestasis was induced by bile duct ligation. Bile duct-ligated rats had higher cholestasis biomarkers and lower levels of testosterone, LH and FSH than did the Sham rats. They also had lower reproductive organs weights, and lower sperm motility, density and normal morphology than those of Sham rats. Histologically, these animals suffered from testicular tubular atrophy, interstitial edema, thickening of basement membranes, vacuolation, and depletion of germ cells. After ursodeoxycholic acid administration, cholestasis-induced structural and functional alterations were significantly ameliorated. In conclusion, ursodeoxycholic acid can ameliorate the reproductive complications of chronic cholestasis in male patients, which represents an additional benefit to this drug. PMID:25461907

Saad, Ramadan A; Mahmoud, Yomna I

2014-12-01

351

Navigation in Animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper was first published in the Journal in 1969 (Vol. 22, p. 118). It is followed by comments from John Kemp.The last twenty-one years have seen some very striking advances in our knowledge of how animals can determine their location. In many cases we have learned that they have available a wider range of stimuli than ourselves for recognizing landmarks and for pilotage within their home area. Thus the associated senses of smell and taste are extraordinarily well developed in some species. The ability of the males of certain moths to detect the scent emitted by females at very considerable distances had long been known. More recently the extreme sensitivity, and selectivity, of fish to waterborne odours has led to an understanding of how they locate their home waters. As but one example, eels have shown reactions to concentrations of chemicals as low as 3 18, equivalent to but two or three molecules within the fish's olfactory sac. In other cases animals have developed sensitivities of which we have little or no conception. Ecolocation is employed by certain birds, by many marine animals and reaches a peak of efficiency in the case of bats. Not only do the latter detect sounds of much higher frequency than ourselves, they also respond to echoes of sounds they emitted but 0·001 seconds earlier. We have little appreciation of the sensations produced by the pressure-receptors in the lateral-line organs of fish.

Matthews, G. V. T.

352

Animal models in burn research.  

PubMed

Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than 2 million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury, to elucidate the pathophysiology, and to explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research. PMID:24714880

Abdullahi, A; Amini-Nik, S; Jeschke, M G

2014-09-01

353

The globalisation of farm animal welfare.  

PubMed

Animal welfare has achieved significant global prominence for perhaps three reasons. First, several centuries of scientific research, especially in anatomy, evolutionary biology and animal behaviour, have led to a gradual narrowing of the gap that people perceive between humans and other species; this altered perception has prompted grass-roots attention to animals and their welfare, initially in Western countries but now more globally asthe influence of science has expanded. Second, scientific research on animal welfare has provided insights and methods for improving the handling, housing and management of animals; this 'animal welfare science' is increasingly seen as relevant to improving animal husbandry worldwide. Third, the development and use of explicit animal welfare standards has helped to integrate animal welfare as a component of national and international public policy, commerce and trade. To date, social debate about animal welfare has been dominated bythe industrialised nations. However, as the issue becomes increasingly global, it will be important for the non-industrialised countries to develop locally appropriate approaches to improving animal welfare, for example, by facilitating the provision of shelter, food, water and health care, and by improving basic handling, transportation and slaughter. PMID:25000775

Fraser, D

2014-04-01

354

Long-term outcomes of developmental exposure to fluoxetine: a review of the animal literature.  

PubMed

During and following pregnancy, women are at high risk of experiencing depression, for which fluoxetine (FLX; brand names Prozac, Sarafem, Rapiflux) is the most commonly prescribed treatment. An estimated 1.4-2.1% of pregnant women use this medication, which inhibits the reuptake of serotonin and thereby increases serotonergic activity at the synapse. Serotonin acts as a cue guiding numerous neurodevelopmental processes, and changes in the concentration of serotonin can disrupt normal in utero brain development and organization in humans and other animals, thus providing a mechanism by which maternal intake of FLX might alter neural development and ultimately behaviour. Despite this possibility, long-term alterations of behaviour and the brain have not been well studied in individuals exposed to FLX during pregnancy or soon after birth, perhaps because conducting such studies beyond infancy presents significant challenges. To remedy this problem, many researchers have turned to modelling the effects of developmental FLX exposure in non-human animals, primarily rodents. The body of literature on this topic has expanded considerably over the past several years, yet a comprehensive review is lacking. In order to fill this gap, we have summarized the findings of those studies describing the long-term behavioural and neurophysiological effects of FLX exposure in non-human animals in early development. We also discuss methodological considerations and common shortcomings of research in this area. The precise nature of the long-term effects of developmental FLX exposure remains difficult to specify, as these effects appear to be highly variable and dependent on numerous factors. Overall, however, it is clear that early FLX exposure in non-human animals can alter the development of the brain in ways that are relevant to behaviour in adulthood, decreasing exploration and social interaction, and in some cases altering anxiety- and depression-like behaviours.. PMID:24247012

Kiryanova, Veronika; McAllister, Brendan B; Dyck, Richard H

2013-01-01

355

Topic in Depth - Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth takes a look at organizations and educational websites concerned with reproduction in humans and other animals. In this folder, you'll find information about fertility, embryology, reproductive biology, and immunology from a variety of societies and institutions.

2010-09-14

356

Review of human-animal interactions and their impact on animal productivity and welfare  

PubMed Central

Humans and animals are in regular and at times close contact in modern intensive farming systems. The quality of human-animal interactions can have a profound impact on the productivity and welfare of farm animals. Interactions by humans may be neutral, positive or negative in nature. Regular pleasant contact with humans may result in desirable alterations in the physiology, behaviour, health and productivity of farm animals. On the contrary, animals that were subjected to aversive human contact were highly fearful of humans and their growth and reproductive performance could be compromised. Farm animals are particularly sensitive to human stimulation that occurs early in life, while many systems of the animals are still developing. This may have long-lasting impact and could possibly modify their genetic potential. The question as to how human contact can have a positive impact on responses to stressors, and productivity is not well understood. Recent work in our laboratory suggested that pleasant human contact may alter ability to tolerate various stressors through enhanced heat shock protein (hsp) 70 expression. The induction of hsp is often associated with increased tolerance to environmental stressors and disease resistance in animals. The attitude and consequent behaviour of stockpeople affect the animals’ fear of human which eventually influence animals’ productivity and welfare. Other than attitude and behaviour, technical skills, knowledge, job motivation, commitment and job satisfaction are prerequisites for high job performance. PMID:23855920

2013-01-01

357

Animal welfare concepts in India: Perceptions and reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

In India the concept of Animal Welfare is quite different from the concept of Animal Husbandry. There is paucity of precise information on the animal welfare activities being carried out in practice as compared to policy documents prepared by governmental and non-governmental organizations. During the past 10 years Animal Welfare Societies have been established to take up a number of

Ashok Rathore

358

SAN JOSE STATE UNIVERSITY INSTITUTIONAL ANIMAL CARE & USE COMMITTEE  

E-print Network

of laboratory animals. Among these, every effort must be made to reduce the number of animals used in a study be incorporated into the study. Examples of non-animal alternatives are isolated organ preparations, preserved model selected for a study and to reduce the number of animals to that, which is the minimum number

Su, Xiao

359

Vascular Alterations Underlie Developmental Problems Manifested in Cloned Cattle before or after Birth  

PubMed Central

Although assisted reproductive techniques are commonly applied in humans and animals, they are frequently associated with major developmental deficits and reduced viability. To explore abnormalities associated with cloning or nuclear transfer (NT) as the most invasive of these methods, we used a bovine model to characterize abnormalities. Detailed necropsy examinations were done on 13 calves that died soon after birth; in addition, we included data from embryos and fetuses (produced by NT) that terminated prematurely. Bovine clones that survived until the neonatal period differed quantitatively and qualitatively from in-vivo-derived cattle. Although alterations affected a variety of organs (e.g. heart, lung and liver), there was a clear association with abberant vascular developmental during the early intrauterine phase. Therefore, we concluded that vascular problems were key alterations induced by cloning (presumably via epigenetic modifications). PMID:25584533

Favaron, Phelipe Oliveira; dos Santos, Caio Rodrigues; Alberto, Miryan Lanca; Meirelles, Flavio Vieira; Miglino, Maria Angelica

2015-01-01

360

Hindlimb unloading alters ligament healing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigated the hypothesis that hindlimb unloading inhibits healing in fibrous connective tissue such as ligament. Male rats were assigned to 3- and 7-wk treatment groups with three subgroups each: sham control, ambulatory healing, and hindlimb-suspended healing. Ambulatory and suspended animals underwent surgical rupture of their medial collateral ligaments, whereas sham surgeries were performed on control animals. After 3 or 7 wk, mechanical and/or morphological properties were measured in ligament, muscle, and bone. During mechanical testing, most suspended ligaments failed in the scar region, indicating the greatest impairment was to ligament and not to bone-ligament insertion. Ligament testing revealed significant reductions in maximum force, ultimate stress, elastic modulus, and low-load properties in suspended animals. In addition, femoral mineral density, femoral strength, gastrocnemius mass, and tibialis anterior mass were significantly reduced. Microscopy revealed abnormal scar formation and cell distribution in suspended ligaments with extracellular matrix discontinuities and voids between misaligned, but well-formed, collagen fiber bundles. Hence, stress levels from ambulation appear unnecessary for formation of fiber bundles yet required for collagen to form structurally competent continuous fibers. Results support our hypothesis that hindlimb unloading impairs healing of fibrous connective tissue. In addition, this study provides compelling morphological evidence explaining the altered structure-function relationship in load-deprived healing connective tissue.

Provenzano, Paolo P.; Martinez, Daniel A.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Dwyer, Kelley W.; Turner, Joanne; Vailas, Arthur C.; Vanderby, Ray Jr

2003-01-01

361

Skeletal deformities of the gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata, L.): study of the subcommissural organ (SCO) and Reissner's fiber (RF).  

PubMed

A high incidence of lordotic curvatures has been detected in commercial cultures of Sparus aurata. We have studied juvenile and adult lordotic specimens to elucidate whether the subcommissural organ and its secretion, the Reissner's fiber, play any role in the development of this syndrome. Animals were X-radiographed and then the brain and spinal cord dissected out and processed for light microscopy. Adult lordotic fishes had a well developed swim-bladder whereas juvenile did not. The central canal of the spinal cord showed dramatic alterations, and an altered Reissner's fiber was always present. Our histochemical results suggested a hyperactivity of the subcommissural organ in lordotic fishes. PMID:8085662

Andrades, J A; Becerra, J; Fernández-Llebrez, P

1994-08-01

362

Effects of gastrointestinal surgery on ingestive behavior in animals.  

PubMed

Surgical manipulations of the gastrointestinal system can have a major impact on the ingestive behavior of animals. Particularly well-documented are the feeding and drinking effects of JIB and vagotomy. These two surgical procedures are similar in that they reduce the food intake and body weight of obese animals more than that of lean animals, and of hypothalamic obese rats more than that of genetically obese rats. Intermediate effects are obtained with other obesity models. Given the multiple etiologies of human obesity, it is not surprising that gastrointestinal surgery has variable effects in obese humans. The effects of gastric surgery on the ingestive behavior of animals have received relatively little attention. This is unfortunate because gastric bypass is now one of the most widely used methods for surgical treatment of human obesity. In light of recent developments in gastric surgical techniques and new findings concerning the gastric modulation of food intake, the effects of gastric surgery on the feeding behavior of animals should be further investigated. Much remains to be learned about the physiologic and behavioral mechanisms by which gastrointestinal surgery influences ingestive behavior and body weight. Surgical manipulations of the gastrointestinal system may affect ingestive behavior by directly altering the neural and hormonal feedback signals to the brain from the stomach, intestines, and other organs (liver, pancreas), or they may indirectly alter these feedback signals by modifying the preabsorptive and/or postabsorptive flow of nutrients. Seen from a functional perspective, the gut sends to the brain different types of messages that modulate ingestive behavior. Most attention has focused on gut satiety signals, but the gut can also be the source of painful sensations that suppress ingestive behavior. The distinction between satiety and discomfort is not always clear-cut. For example, gut distention may be satiating when it is moderate, but painful when it is extreme. Nevertheless, the distinction is an important one, and the nature of the feeding-inhibitory effects obtained in animal studies must be carefully evaluated. Ideally, obesity surgery should produce minimal aversive consequences, although whether it is possible to reduce food intake and body weight without producing any discomfort remains to be established. In addition to being a source of feeding-inhibitory cues, the gastrointestinal system may also provide excitatory cues that stimulate feeding and modify food preferences. For example, intestinal infusions of carbohydrates increase subsequent food intake under certain conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3325427

Sclafani, A

1987-09-01

363

[Animal experimentation, animal welfare and scientific research].  

PubMed

Hundreds of thousands of laboratory animals are being used every year for scientific experiments held in Israel, mostly mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and a few sheep, cattle, pigs, cats, dogs, and even a few dozen monkeys. In addition to the animals sacrificed to promote scientific research, millions of animals slain every year for other purposes such as meat and fine leather fashion industries. While opening a front against all is an impossible and perhaps an unjustified task, the state of Israel enacted the Animal Welfare (Animal Experimentation) Law (1994). The law aims to regulate scientific animal experiments and to find the appropriate balance between the need to continue to perform animal experiments for the advancement of research and medicine, and at the same time to avoid unnecessary trials and minimize animal suffering. Among other issues the law deals with the phylogenetic scale according to which experimental animals should be selected, experiments for teaching and practicing, and experiments for the cosmetic industry. This article discusses bioethics considerations in animal experiments as well as the criticism on the scientific validity of such experiments. It further deals with the vitality of animal studies and the moral and legal obligation to prevent suffering from laboratory animals. PMID:24660572

Tal, H

2013-10-01

364

Effects of exposure to calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1b and Mannheimia haemolytica challenge on animal performance, nitrogen balance, and visceral organ mass in beef steers.  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) have been isolated alone or in combination with other viral and bacterial pathogens in animals diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD), a disease causing major economic loss to the feedlot industry. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of Mannheimia haemolytica challenge after short-term exposure (72 h) to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1b (BVDV1b) persistently infected (PI) calves on performance, N balance, and organ mass in finishing cattle. Treatments (6 steers/treatment; initial BW = 314 +/- 31 kg) were 1) steers not exposed to steers PI with BVDV nor challenged with M. haemolytica (control; CON); 2) steers exposed to 2 steers PI with BVDV1b (BVD) for 72 h; 3) steers intratracheally challenged with M. haemolytica (MH); or 4) steers exposed to 2 steers PI with BVDV1b for 72 h and challenged with M. haemolytica (BVD+MH). There were 12 h between exposure to PI steers and challenge with M. haemolytica. Steers were housed in metabolism stanchions during the first 5 d after the M. haemolytica challenge and on d 7 to 11, 28 to 32, and for 5 d before slaughter (average 119 d on feed) to determine N balance and were weighed every 28 d. At slaughter, carcass and organ mass data were collected. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, and steer was used as the experimental unit. From d -3 (beginning of PI steer exposure) to 4, steers challenged with M. haemolytica had less (P = 0.04) ADG than steers not challenged with M. haemolytica. In addition, steers exposed to steers PI with BVDV tended (P = 0.09) to have less ADG and G:F across the entire finishing period than steers not exposed to BVDV. Before slaughter, retained N expressed as grams per day (P = 0.03) and as a percentage of N intake (P = 0.04) was less in BVD steers compared with steers not exposed to BVDV. There were no effects (P > 0.10) of BVDV exposure or M. haemolytica challenge on empty BW (EBW) or carcass characteristics. Expressed as a percentage of EBW, HCW was less (P = 0.02) and total offal weight was greater (P = 0.02) for steers challenged with M. haemolytica compared with steers not challenged. Results are in agreement with those reported in larger scale finishing studies and suggest that acute exposure to BRD-related pathogens can have long-term effects on animal performance. PMID:20154160

Burciaga-Robles, L O; Krehbiel, C R; Step, D L; Holland, B P; Richards, C J; Montelongo, M A; Confer, A W; Fulton, R W

2010-06-01

365

[Stapotomy with ultrasound? Animal experiment study of possible side effects].  

PubMed

Stapedectomy by ultrasound has been proposed as an alternative method for perforating the stapes footplate in surgery for otosclerosis. Possible functional adverse effects of ultrasound perforation of the otic capsule in guinea pigs were investigated in the present study by means of vestibular evoked potentials (VsEP). VsEP were elicited by pulsed linear accelerations applied to the animal's head following surgical removal of the middle ear, following intense ultrasound drilling around the otic capsule and after drilling a small hole in the anterior bony wall of the vestibule. All manipulations did not affect amplitudes and latencies of the early potential N1 (less than 1 msec after onset of acceleration). Significant alterations of N1 occurred following direct mechanical damage of the otolithic organs, indicating that VsEP can be used to detect lesions of these receptors and therefore may be used as a parameter of vestibular function in experimental animals. Findings indicate that perforation of the otic capsule by ultrasound is possible without inducing functional lesions of the otolithic organs. PMID:8125798

Böhmer, A

1993-12-01

366

An even "newer" animal phylogeny.  

PubMed

Metazoa are one of the great monophyletic groups of organisms. They comprise several major groups of organisms readily recognizable based on their anatomy. These major groups include the Bilateria (animals with bilateral symmetry), Cnidaria (jellyfish, corals and other closely related animals), Porifera (sponges), Ctenophores (comb jellies) and a phylum currently made up of a single species, the Placozoa. Attempts to systematize the relationships of these major groups as well as to determine relationships within the groups have been made for nearly two centuries. Many of the attempts have led to frustration, because of a lack of resolution between and within groups. Other attempts have led to "a new animal phylogeny". Now, a study by Dunn et al., using the expresssed sequence tag (EST) approach to obtaining high-throughput large phylogenetic matrices, presents an "even newer" animal phylogeny. There are two major aspects of this study that should be of interest to the general biological community. First, the methods used by the authors to generate their phylogenetic hypotheses call for close examination. Second, the relationships of animal taxa in their resultant trees also prompt further discussion. PMID:18937347

DeSalle, Rob; Schierwater, Bernd

2008-11-01

367

The impact of aquatic animals on bedload transport in gravel-bed rivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grain-scale processes are known to have large impacts on the transport of bed material in rivers. The structure, topography and distribution of grain sizes that make up a bed, all contribute to the mobility of fluvial substrates. Animals in rivers interact with the substrate in a multitude of ways, for example, when burrowing, moving and foraging for food. Alterations to the arrangement of grains that result from these activities have a demonstrable impact on particle stability and critical entrainment stresses. This raises the intriguing possibility that aquatic fauna have large, cumulative impacts on the structure of river bed material and, consequently, on the transport of bed material. The activities of signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus), a globally important invasive crustacean, alter the arrangement of surface grains in fluvial substrates. They also construct pits and mounds across surfaces within which they shelter. These structural and topographic alterations to surfaces were quantified using repeat laser scans to create Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) before and after crayfish activity. Crayfish moved grains up to 32 mm in diameter and with a submerged weight six times that of average adult crayfish. As a result of crayfish destroying grain-scale structures, 50% more material was entrained from disturbed fluvial substrates in comparison to control surfaces that had not been exposed to crayfish. Animals can also stabilise substrates. Hydropsychid caddisfly larvae bind grains together with silk, which is spun for a variety of purposes including the creation of nets to catch organic matter from the flow. Fine gravels (2-6 mm) that were colonised by natural densities of caddisfly, required 20% increases in shear stress to be mobilised in comparison to uncolonised, control gravels. Whilst these results demonstrate the potential for animals to affect grain-scale processes, their river-scale impact needs to be assessed in field environments, in the context of ecological and sedimentary complexity and in comparison to the hydraulic processes that bring about sediment transport. To achieve this, the spatial and temporal scales of animal impacts need to be understood. For example, the distribution of animals is patchy in space and their activity levels vary through time, while their impact is limited to patches with certain grain-size characteristics. It is only where both animals and susceptible substrate patches co-occur, in time and space, that an effect can be expected. Therefore, it is important to develop an understanding of what makes a substrate susceptible to biological modification, where these substrate types are likely to occur, and how often they co-occur with habitat-modifying organisms. Only with this information can the significance of substrate modifications by animals in rivers be properly assessed.

Johnson, M.; Rice, S. P.

2012-12-01

368

Game Animals of Colorado.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is intended to familiarize the reader with game animals typical of Colorado. Discussions in both English and Spanish are presented. Discussions cover the management of game animals, individual game species, and introduced species of game animals. (RE)

Colorado State Div. of Wildlife, Denver.

369

Digital character performance animation  

E-print Network

This research is an analysis of past and present acting methods and techniques applicable to animation. Literature research and interviews with animators influence the development of guidelines explaining the process that prepares an animator...

Gonzalez, Elizabeth

2002-01-01

370

[Hunting and animal protection].  

PubMed

In the Federal Republic of Germany the handling of animals during hunting is governed more by the animal protection law than by the corresponding hunting law. Points of the animal protection law which directly affect hunting are (1) the release of wild animals, (2) the training and examination of animals concerning attacking other animals, (3) the setting of animals on other animals, and (4) the killing of vertebrates. Guiding principles for killing wild animals during hunting according to the animal protection law are formulated and discussed in relation to the traditional German understanding of hunting ethics. It can be expected that hunting will increasingly become a topic of public discussion on animal protection, in which the ethics of hunting in relation to the wild animal will be dominant. PMID:8486093

Herling, A W

1993-04-01

371

Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... 08 Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (text version) Arabic Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) Chinese Translation - Animation of Antimicrobial Resistance (WMV - 19.2MB) French ...

372

Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation (Animation)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Spacecraft -- Capsule Separation animation

This animation shows the return capsule separating from the Stardust spacecraft.

2005-01-01

373

Epigenetic alterations and autoimmune disease.  

PubMed

Recent advances in epigenetics have enhanced our knowledge of how environmental factors (UV radiation, drugs, infections, etc.) contribute to the development of autoimmune diseases (AID) in genetically predisposed individuals. Studies conducted in monozygotic twins discordant for AID and spontaneous autoimmune animal models have highlighted the importance of DNA methylation changes and histone modifications. Alterations in the epigenetic pattern seem to be cell specific, as CD4+ T cells and B cells are dysregulated in systemic lupus erythematosus, synovial fibroblasts in rheumatoid arthritis and cerebral cells in multiple sclerosis. With regard to lymphocytes, the control of tolerance is affected, leading to the development of autoreactive cells. Other epigenetic processes, such as the newly described miRNAs, and post-translational protein modifications may also be suspected. Altogether, a conceptual revolution is in progress, in AID, with potential new therapeutic strategies targeting epigenetic patterns. PMID:25141262

Renaudineau, Y; Beauvillard, D; Padelli, M; Brooks, W H; Youinou, P

2011-10-01

374

Anime Creativity: Characters and Premises in the Quest for Cool Japan  

E-print Network

This article examines ethnographically the production of anime (Japanese animated films and TV shows) by focusing on how professional animators use characters and dramatic premises to organize their collaborative creativity. ...

Condry, Ian

375

21 CFR 500.35 - Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...meal, meat meal, tankage, and other animal byproducts intended for use in animal feed may be contaminated with Salmonella bacteria, an organism pathogenic to man and animals. Contamination of these products may occur through inadequate heat...

2012-04-01

376

21 CFR 500.35 - Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...meal, meat meal, tankage, and other animal byproducts intended for use in animal feed may be contaminated with Salmonella bacteria, an organism pathogenic to man and animals. Contamination of these products may occur through inadequate heat...

2013-04-01

377

Animal Thinking An Introduction  

E-print Network

into the proximate causes of animal behavior, awareness grew of the importance of taking a species1 Animal Thinking An Introduction Randolf Menzel and Julia Fischer The topic of this Strüngmann Forum--animal thinking--was not formulated as a question--"Do animals think?--but rather as a statement

Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

378

Physics for Animation Artists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Animation has become enormously popular in feature films, television, and video games. Art departments and film schools at universities as well as animation programs at high schools have expanded in recent years to meet the growing demands for animation artists. Professional animators identify the technological facet as the most rapidly advancing…

Chai, David; Garcia, Alejandro L.

2011-01-01

379

Growth and development symposium: Fetal programming in animal agriculture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fetal programming is the ability to improve animal production and well-being by altering the maternal environment and holds enormous challenges and great opportunities for researchers and the animal industry. A symposium was held to provide an overview of current knowledge of fetal programming in re...

380

ENDOCRINE REGULATION OF FETAL AND POSTNATAL MEAT ANIMAL GROWTH 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Evidence is discussed which indicates that nutrient partitioning between muscle and adipose tissue can be altered by growth hormone administration in meat animals. In the limited number of studies conducted with meat animals, growth rate, feed efficiency and carcass com- position were improved by growth hormone administration. When insulin was admin- istered to normally growing swine no improve- ment

Terry D. Etherton; Ronald S. Kensinger

2010-01-01

381

Carotenoids in Marine Animals  

PubMed Central

Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of ?-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

Maoka, Takashi

2011-01-01

382

Carotenoids in marine animals.  

PubMed

Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of ?-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

Maoka, Takashi

2011-01-01

383

[Dangerous marine animals].  

PubMed

Sea-biological basic knowledge for divers is offered only in special lessons for advanced scuba divers. According to statistics, however, five per cent of the deadly diving accidents are caused by underwater organisms. This number could be reduced to a fraction, by correct behaviour during the dive and after an accident. The most frequent accidents with sea animals during water sports are not by unprovoked shark attacks, which cause six deaths world-wide per year on the average, but turn out with usually well camouflaged sea inhabitants, that do not attack humans, rather by their inadvertence coincidentally get in contact with it. The various defense instruments of the often small, inconspicuous organisms reach from teeth over poison stings, pricks, spines, scalpelles, nettle injections and chemical weapons up to poison arrows. Due to that variety of the maritime life, the most important representatives of its type are explained including severity level of the caused injury or contamination. Both, diagnostic position and therapy possibility are described as follows: 1. Porifera (sponge), 2. Hydrozoa (white weed, yellow flower head), Actinaria (sea anemones), 3. Conidae (cone shells), Tridocna (giant clam), octopoda (octopus), 4. Acanthaster planci (crown of thorns), Echinodea (sea urchins), Holothurioidea (sea cucumber), 5. Selachoidei (shark), Batoidei (Ray), Muraenidae (moray), Plotosidae (barbel eels), Synanciidae (stonefish), Scorpaenidae (scorpionfish), Pterois (lion fish), Sphyraena Spec. (barracuda), Balistidae (triggerfish), Ostracionidae (puffer). PMID:11315406

Antensteiner, G

1999-01-01

384

Animal Information Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Animal Information Database is an educational Web site from SeaWorld/Busch Gardens. The site contains a wide variety of information about many animals including fun facts, biological classification, habitat, and news about specific animals at the Sea World/Busch Gardens parks. A fun part of the site is the Animal Sounds Library where visitors can listen to the interesting sounds made by a number of animals.

2002-01-01

385

Animals in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Animals are indispensable to the space program. Their continued use could have many significant results. Those who are opposed to using animals in space should remember that space animals are treated humanely; they are necessary because results can be obtained from them that would be unobtainable from humans; and results from animal experiments can be applied to human systems. Therefore, NASA should continue to use animals in space research.

White, Angela

1988-01-01

386

Corticosterone Regulates Synaptic Input Organization of POMC and NPY/AgRP Neurons in Adult Mice  

PubMed Central

Changes in circulating hormones, such as leptin and ghrelin, induce alterations in synaptic input organization and electrophysiological properties of neurons of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. To assess whether changes in circulating glucocorticoids also alter synaptic arrangement and membrane potential properties, we studied the effect of adrenalectomy (ADX) and corticosterone replacement in mice on the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. ADX reduced the number of symmetric, putative inhibitory synapses onto POMC neurons and the number of asymmetric, putative excitatory synapses onto NPY/AgRP neurons. Corticosterone replacement in ADX mice to levels similar to sham-operated animals restored the number of synapses onto POMC and NPY/AgRP neurons to that seen in sham-operated controls. The alterations in the synaptic arrangement in ADX mice were not due to their decrease in food intake as evidenced by the synaptic analysis of the pair-fed control animals. In line with the altered synaptic input organization, a depolarization of POMC membrane potential and a hyperpolarization of NPY/AgRP membrane potential were observed in ADX mice compared with their sham-operated controls. All of these changes reverted upon corticosterone replacement. These results reveal that the known orexigenic action of corticosteroids is mediated, at least in part, by synaptic changes and altered excitability of the melanocortin system. PMID:20843996

Gyengesi, Erika; Liu, Zhong-Wu; D'Agostino, Giuseppe; Gan, Geliang; Horvath, Tamas L.; Gao, Xiao-Bing; Diano, Sabrina

2010-01-01

387

Histology. Notes for Students of Animal Husbandry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document approaches the subject of Histology by way of simple independent unicellular organisms through the lower levels of cell organization and specialization to a detailed study of the highly complex tissues of vertebrate animals. Emphasis is placed on structure, but function is explained in some detail. The relationships between tissues…

Price, Charles J.; Reed, Josephine E.

388

Human-induced changes in animal populations and distributions, and the subsequent effects on fluvial systems  

E-print Network

of aquatic systems have altered animal populations and attendant zoogeomorphic processes. For example, dam for fish. Salmonid species, such as salmon and trout, directly Geomorphology 79 (2006) 448­459 www also profoundly alter native animal populations within and along riparian corridors, in turn affecting

389

The role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) to facilitate the international trade in animals and animal products.  

PubMed

The international trade in animals and animal products has become a sensitive issue for both developed and developing countries by posing an important risk for the international spread of animal and human pathogens whilst at the same time being an essential activity to ensure world-wide food security and food safety. The OIE has since its founding in 1924, applied a democratic and transparent decision-making process to continuously develop and review international standards for animal health and zoonoses to facilitate trade in animals and animal products. The role of the OIE is also mandated by the World Trade Organization (WTO) as international reference point for standards related to animal health. In support of its overall objective of promoting animal health world-wide, the OIE has also launched several other initiatives such as the improvement of the governance of veterinary services within its member countries and territories and to enhance the availability of diagnostic and scientific expertise on a more even global geographical distribution. Several trade facilitating concepts such as country, zonal and compartment freedom from disease as well the trade in disease free commodities has been introduced to enhance the trade in animals and animal products for all its members including those from developing and transitional countries who are still in the process of enhancing to full compliance with international sanitary standards. PMID:19967940

Brückner, G K

2009-03-01

390

Understanding Animal Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The public debate on animal research sometimes gets so heated that the facts can be overlooked. How many animals are used in research every year? Do people know that most of them are mice or rats? Why are animals genetically modified? How is animal research regulated? How are the animals cared for? What actually happens to research animals? How does the use of animals in research and testing compare with other uses of animals by society? This website aims to answer all of these questions as well as provide information on animal research and human health, policy issues, and latest news. This website also includes a learning center. Information is geared towards learners in the U.K.

Understanding Animal Research (Understanding Animal Research)

2009-01-01

391

Evolution of the hormonal control of animal performance: insights from the seaward migration of salmon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The endocrine system is the key mediator of environmental and developmental (internal) information, and is likely to be involved in altering the performance of animals when selection has favored phenotypic plasticity. The endocrine control of performance should be especially pronounced in animals that undergo a developmental shift in niche, such as occurs in migratory species. By way of example, I review the developmental and environmental control of the preparatory changes for seawater entry of juvenile salmon (known as smolting) and its hormonal regulation. There is a size threshold for smolt development in juvenile Atlantic salmon that results in greater sensitivity of the growth hormone and cortisol axes to changes in daylength. These hormones, in turn, have broad effects on survival, ion homeostasis, growth and swimming performance during entry into seawater. Migratory niche shifts and metamorphic events are extreme examples of the role of hormones in animal performance and represent one end of a continuum. A framework for predicting when hormones will be involved in performance of animals is presented. Endocrine involvement in performance will be more substantial when (1) selection differentials on traits underlying performance are high and temporally discontinuous over an animal's lifetime, (2) the energetic and fitness costs of maintaining performance plasticity are less than those of constant performance, (3) cues for altering performance are reliable indicators of critical environmental conditions, require neurosensory input, and minimize effects of lag, and (4) the need for coordination of organs, tissues and cells to achieve increased performance is greater. By examining these impacts of selection, endocrinologists have an opportunity to contribute to the understanding of performance, phenotypic plasticity, and the evolution of life-history traits.

McCormick, S.D.

2009-01-01

392

Organ Harvesting and Transplants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Humans and animals need healthy organs to live. Due to medical conditions and accidents, some organs fail to function properly. For these reasons, the medical community has experimented and can now perform successful organ transplants, allowing patients to continue to live their lives. Many countries have medical programs where individuals can…

Baskette, Kimberly G.; Ritz, John M.

2010-01-01

393

Basic research: Issues with animal experimentations.  

PubMed

In vivo studies using the animals are helpful in developing the treatment strategies as they are important link between the successful in vitro testing and safe human use. Various research projects in the field of fixation of fractures, development of newer biomaterials, chemotherapeutic drugs, use of stem cells in nonunion of fractures and cartilage defects etc., have hugely depended on animal experimentation. The employment of animals in experiments is both scientific and ethical issue. There must be reasonable reasons to show that it will significantly advance the present knowledge and lead to improvement in care. The regulatory bodies exist for humane use and care of animals used for experiments e.g., International Council for Laboratory Animal Science, Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, International Union of Biological Sciences, International Committee on Laboratory Animals. In India, Indian National Science Academy, Indian Council of Medical Research, National Centre for Laboratory Animal Sciences promote high standards of laboratory animal quality, care and health. The Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals guidelines are well defined and is a must read document for any one interested to carry out research with animal facilities. PMID:23532705

Saraf, Shyam K; Kumaraswamy, Vinay

2013-01-01

394

Acute brain death alters left ventricular myocardial gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The depressed myocardial function observed in brain dead organ donors has been attributed to massive sympathetic discharge and catecholamine cardiotoxicity. Because elevated catecholamines are associated with altered myocardial gene expression, we investigated whether acute brain death from increased intracranial pressure alters the expression of myocardial gene products important in contractility. Methods: A balloon expansion model was used to increase

Thomas Yeh; Andrew S. Wechsler; Laura J. Graham; Kathryn E. Loesser; Domenic A. Sica; Luke Wolfe; Emma R. Jakoi

1999-01-01

395

microRT: A Conformal Small Animal Irradiator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent development of small-animal imaging hardware has provided functional imaging researchers with extraordinary tools for preclinical studies. However, radiation oncology studies, either tumor response or normal organ response, have been hampered by the lack of a tool for the precise irradiation of small animals. A conformal small animal irradiator based on teletherapy is proposed. The irradiator is based on

Daniel Low; Sasa Mutic; Perry Grigsby; Milos Vicic; Joseph Deasy; Andrew Hope

2004-01-01

396

Colonic microbiome is altered in alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Several studies indicate the importance of colonic microbiota in metabolic and inflammatory disorders and importance of diet on microbiota composition. The effects of alcohol, one of the prominent components of diet, on colonic bacterial composition is largely unknown. Mounting evidence suggests that gut-derived bacterial endotoxins are cofactors for alcohol-induced tissue injury and organ failure like alcoholic liver disease (ALD) that only occur in a subset of alcoholics. We hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption results in alterations of the gut microbiome in a subgroup of alcoholics, and this may be responsible for the observed inflammatory state and endotoxemia in alcoholics. Thus we interrogated the mucosa-associated colonic microbiome in 48 alcoholics with and without ALD as well as 18 healthy subjects. Colonic biopsy samples from subjects were analyzed for microbiota composition using length heterogeneity PCR fingerprinting and multitag pyrosequencing. A subgroup of alcoholics have an altered colonic microbiome (dysbiosis). The alcoholics with dysbiosis had lower median abundances of Bacteroidetes and higher ones of Proteobacteria. The observed alterations appear to correlate with high levels of serum endotoxin in a subset of the samples. Network topology analysis indicated that alcohol use is correlated with decreased connectivity of the microbial network, and this alteration is seen even after an extended period of sobriety. We show that the colonic mucosa-associated bacterial microbiome is altered in a subset of alcoholics. The altered microbiota composition is persistent and correlates with endotoxemia in a subgroup of alcoholics. PMID:22241860

Mutlu, Ece A.; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Rangwala, Huzefa; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Naqvi, Ammar; Engen, Phillip A.; Kwasny, Mary; Lau, Cynthia K.

2012-01-01

397

9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.4 Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect...

2012-01-01

398

9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.4 Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect...

2011-01-01

399

9 CFR 79.4 - Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect animals...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.4 Designation of scrapie-positive animals, high-risk animals, exposed animals, suspect...

2013-01-01

400

Ethology and animal welfare.  

PubMed

Much scientific information concerning animal behaviour has become available only recently and it continues to increase rapidly. There is evidence indicating that the behavioural needs of animals have sometimes been neglected when natural life-style are replaced by artificially contrived ones. More attention to and study of animals' social and other behavioural requirements would be mutually beneficial to both man and beast. If those needs can be met more adequately, animals will be easier to handle, stress will be reduced and productivity improved. Animal welfare legislation in different countries is mentioned and ethological research as basis for new legislation discussed. The development in this critical field of Ethology and Animal Welfare is advancing fast and the South African Veterinarian must be aware of the new movement from Animal Science to Animal Rights. PMID:7341784

Osterhoff, D R

1981-12-01

401

Rock Cycle Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use this interactive rock cycle animation to help you with your schoolwork! This cutaway view of Earth shows where some common rock-forming processes occur. Embedded animations will illustrate the path of a rock moving through the rock cycle.

2010-01-01

402

Fuel Cell Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts. The animation consists of four parts - an introduction, fuel cell components, chemical process, and fuel cell stack.

US Department of Energy - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy - Energy Education and Workforce Development

403

DNA Replication Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is an animation to explain DNA replication. It is an interactive simulation activity for students. See also "Transcription and Translation Animation" to get all of the steps from DNA to protein.

Littell, Mcdougal

2012-07-19

404

Peak Ring Crater Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An annotated animation taking the viewer through the sequence of events during an impact, in cross section view. The animation speed cannot be controlled, unfortunately, but the images are large and clear.

Arizona, University O.

405

Animals Making a Living  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For most animals, finding food is a full-time job. This video segment explores the food-finding strategies of a variety of creatures, illustrating the idea that different animals have very different ways of getting enough to eat.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2003-09-26

406

Precision editing of large animal genomes.  

PubMed

Transgenic animals are an important source of protein and nutrition for most humans and will play key roles in satisfying the increasing demand for food in an ever-increasing world population. The past decade has experienced a revolution in the development of methods that permit the introduction of specific alterations to complex genomes. This precision will enhance genome-based improvement of farm animals for food production. Precision genetics also will enhance the development of therapeutic biomaterials and models of human disease as resources for the development of advanced patient therapies. PMID:23084873

Tan, Wenfang Spring; Carlson, Daniel F; Walton, Mark W; Fahrenkrug, Scott C; Hackett, Perry B

2012-01-01

407

Precision Editing of Large Animal Genomes  

PubMed Central

Transgenic animals are an important source of protein and nutrition for most humans and will play key roles in satisfying the increasing demand for food in an ever-increasing world population. The past decade has experienced a revolution in the development of methods that permit the introduction of specific alterations to complex genomes. This precision will enhance genome-based improvement of farm animals for food production. Precision genetics also will enhance the development of therapeutic biomaterials and models of human disease as resources for the development of advanced patient therapies. PMID:23084873

Tan, Wenfang (Spring); Carlson, Daniel F.; Walton, Mark W.; Fahrenkrug, Scott C.; Hackett, Perry B.

2013-01-01

408

Immune changes in test animals during spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past two decades, it has become apparent that changes in immune parameters occur in cosmonauts and astronauts after spaceflight. Therefore, interest has been generated in the use of animal surrogates to better understand the nature and extent of these changes, the mechanism of these changes, and to allow the possible development of countermeasures. Among the changes noted in animals after spaceflight are alterations in lymphocytic blastogenesis, cytokine function, natural killer cell activity, and colony-stimulating factors. The nature and significance of spaceflight-induced changes in immune responses will be the focus of this review.

Lesnyak, A. T.; Sonnenfeld, G.; Rykova, M. P.; Meshkov, D. O.; Mastro, A.; Konstantinova, I.

1993-01-01

409

Animals and Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the classification of animals and animal interactions. Students also learn why engineers need to know about animals and how they use that knowledge to design technologies that help other animals and/or humans. This lesson is part of a series of six lessons in which students use their growing understanding of various environments and the engineering design process, to design and create their own model biodome ecosystems.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

410

Animal Reflection Response  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (page 1 of the PDF), learners observe how an animal responds to its own reflection. First, learners will observe the behavior of a small animal in a cage or aquarium (e.g., goldfish, gerbil, bird) for five minutes, grading the animal’s activity level on a scale. Then, learners repeat the observation period after placing a mirror up to the cage or aquarium, comparing the results. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV: Horse Ears.

2012-06-26

411

Live like an Animal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students design an innovative human shelter that is inspired and informed by an animal structure. Each group is assigned an animal class, and they gather information about shelters used by the animals in that class. After researching the topic and brainstorming ideas, students build small prototypes (models) of the structures. Finally, they present their products, explaining what attribute of the animal structure influenced their design.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

412

Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

Davidoff, Donald J.

1989-01-01

413

ABC of animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the ABC of Animation is to create an entertaining infomercial without the angst and confusion surrounding high-end 3D animation. The ABC demonstrates that animation is not exclusive nor nerdy, but fun and beautiful. This infomercial showcases Cirkus as a talented company with a sense of humor.

Felicia Brunsting

2011-01-01

414

Purdue extension Animal Sciences  

E-print Network

, testing, quarantine, eradication, and recovery efforts prior to, during, and after the animal diseasePurdue extension AS-572-W Animal Sciences Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service, West. of Animal Sciences, Purdue University; P. Brennan, Indiana State Poultry Association; M. Kopp, DVM, and M

415

Invent an Animal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity and game, learners explore how animals adapt for survival through coloration, markings and camouflage. By inventing, designing and hiding their own animal models, and hunting for other learners' hidden animals, learners investigate how predators and prey also use shape and behavior to blend into their habitats, so they can succeessfully hunt for food or escape from being eaten.

2012-06-26

416

Animal Behavior Biology 350  

E-print Network

Animal Behavior Biology 350 Spring 2012 Course Description: This course is an introduction to the world of animal behavior, especially from an evolutionary and ecological perspective. Course content will focus around the discussion of the following questions: 1. How do animals use behavior to solve basic

Arévalo, Elisabeth

417

Ethics and animal experimentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questions related to the ethics of research with animals have received little attention, and this is a serious omission. The specialized vocabulary of experimental psychology is an important factor in creating and maintaining current attitudes toward laboratory animals. In most experiments in which pain is inflicted on animals, no significant human need is being met. Also, much of the literature

Alan D. Bowd

1980-01-01

418

Animated Texels Fabrice Neyret  

E-print Network

Animated Texels Fabrice Neyret INRIA, Syntim Project B.P. 105, 78153 Le Chesnay Cedex, France of animating complex repetitive geometries, like the effects produced by the wind in a wheat field, or fur], hypertextures [7], volumetric textures [4, 5]. Animating these objects is also a very important point

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

419

Pixel Palette: Palm Animation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project used with fifth-grade students in which they learned about animation. Explains that the students learned about animation used in art. States that they received a personal data assistant to create their own animation of a flower that was growing and pollinated by a butterfly. (CMK)

Hinshaw, Craig

2003-01-01

420

Animals in Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, learners use a Flash animation running in a browser to study how animals and humans move. Students examine images captured by Eadweard Muybridge in the late nineteenth century; by starting, slowing, and stopping the animation, learners gain valuable insights into biomechanics of bipeds and quadrupeds.

421

FORMULARY FOR LABORATORY ANIMALS  

E-print Network

, and safety. In many clinical situations, laboratory animal veterinarians do not have available approved drugs in the Department of Laboratory Animal Science, SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals Research and DevelopmentFORMULARY FOR LABORATORY ANIMALS SECOND EDITION Compiled by C. TERRANCE HAWK PhD, DVM, Dipl. ACLAM

Arnold, Jonathan

422

Required Signage for Animal Facilities and Animal Procedure Areas  

E-print Network

Required Signage for Animal Facilities and Animal Procedure Areas The intent of this standard operating procedure (SOP) is to identify the required signs that must be posted in animal facilities and animal procedure areas. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Animal Facility Entrances 2. Animal Holding Rooms 3. Animal

Manning, Sturt

423

Zoo Test: A Self-Testing Website for Animal Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site was developed by Rick Gillis and Roger Haro of the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Biology Department as a study guide for Animal Biology students. By navigating through the self tests that include images of animal cells, tissues, and structures, students can review or learn about the animal kingdom. Organisms ranging from protozoa to vertebrates are included in three self tests. Information is further organized into 9 laboratory sessions that are easy to access through the table of contents.

Gillis, Rick.; Haro, Roger J.

2001-01-01

424

Management of human and animal bite wound infection: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal and human bite wounds can lead to serious infections. The organisms recovered generally originate from the biter’s\\u000a oral cavity and the victim’s skin flora. Anaerobes were isolated from more than two thirds of human and animal bite infections.\\u000a Streptococcus pyogenes is often recovered in human bites, Pasteurella multocida in animal bites, Eikenella corrodens in animal and human, Capnocytophaga spp,

Itzhak Brook

2009-01-01

425

Oncogenic alterations of metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over seven decades ago, classical biochemical studies showed that tumors have altered metabolic profiles and display high rates of glucose uptake and glycolysis. Although these metabolic changes are not the fundamental defects that cause cancer, they might confer a common advantage on many different types of cancers, which allows the cells to survive and invade. Recent molecular studies have revealed

Chi V. Dang; Gregg L. Semenza

1999-01-01

426

Pattern Alteration: Shoulder Length  

E-print Network

Wide or broad shoulders will cause the armhole seam line at the shoulder to pull inward and the cap of set-in sleeves to pull and ride up. Sleeves will appear too short and not hang properly. This publication gives instructions for altering a basic...

2006-08-04

427

How Misinformation Alters Memories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that a multitude of studies have demonstrated that misleading postevent information affects people's memories. Contents that the fuzzy-trace theory is a positive step toward understanding the malleability of memory. Discusses fuzzy-trace theory in terms of three primary areas of study: altered response format, maximized misinformation…

Wright, Daniel B.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

1998-01-01

428

[Animals and environmentalist ethics].  

PubMed

While environmental ethics and animal ethics have a common source of inspiration, they do not agree on the question of the status of animals. Environmental ethicists criticise the narrowness of the reason, focused on pain, given by animal ethicists and their strictly individual point of view; they maintain that their ethical concept is less emotional and more informed by science, with a broad point of view taking natural networks into account. Animal ethicists respond critically, accusing the environmental ethicists of not having any ethical foundation. There are, however, prospects for reconciling the two approaches, provided that they recognise two different ethical stances for animals: one based on the integrity of wild animals and the other based on a model contract for tame animals. PMID:23516753

Guichet, Jean-Luc

2013-01-01

429

Impact of Tobacco Regulation on Animal Research: New Perspectives and Opportunities  

PubMed Central

Introduction: The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act in the United States and the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco or Health ratified by over 170 countries render scientific investigations into the abuse liability, harm, and effects of tobacco more critical than ever. A key area to explore relates to the potential regulation of nicotine content in cigarettes. Determining the nicotine content per cigarette below which smokers reliably reduce their consumption of and dependence on cigarettes, an idea proposed almost 20 years ago (Benowitz & Henningfield, 1994), could be a powerful approach to reduce the abuse liability and consequent harm from cigarettes. However, this approach is laden with potentially complex issues. Many of these complications can be studied using animal models, but they require a particular perspective. Methods: Herein, we review several challenges for animal researchers interested in nicotine reduction as examples of how this perspective dictates new approaches to animal research. These include defining the threshold nicotine dose for maintaining self-administration, evaluating the differential impact of various implementation strategies, assessing the factors that could interact with nicotine to alter the reinforcement threshold, describing the role of cues in maintaining low dose nicotine self-administration, and examining individual differences in response to nicotine reduction. Conclusions: Researchers who study tobacco using animal models have the opportunity to play a central role in the regulatory science of tobacco and conduct studies that directly inform policy decisions that could impact the lives of millions. PMID:22949581

2012-01-01

430

[Cutaneous mycoses in Japan originating from animals].  

PubMed

Human cases of dermatophytoses are occasionally transmitted from animals, and suffered from tinea corporis and sometimes Kerion celsi. The most frequent causative agent of these diseases is Microsporum canis. The other dermatophyte, Arthroderma benhamiae is now prevailing in rabbits, rodents and hedgehogs that are popular household pets in Japan. Therefore, some human cases of A. benhamiae infection were reported and the transmission of this infection from rabbits and rodents was confirmed.Cryptococcosis is regarded as dangerous zoonosis, but its transmission from animal to peoples has not been documented in Japan. Animal cases of cryptococcosis are possible to increase in number by developing immunosuppressive animals as well as by spreading of newly introduced C. gattii to Japan.Animal cases of sporotrichosis are rarely reported in Japan. However, feline sporotrichosis should be prevented and promptly treated since it easily transmitted to people from cat lesions and the exudates where copious numbers of organisms are found in tissues. PMID:22467127

Kano, Rui

2012-01-01

431

Introduction Animals must feed to survive, but foraging often involves a  

E-print Network

3547 Introduction Animals must feed to survive, but foraging often involves a delicate balance help to increase the foraging benefit-to-risk ratio, have evolved among animals. These include is less well defended. Other adaptations include altered metabolic or physiological traits. Some animals

Ahmad, Sajjad

432

Office of the Vice President for Research Guidelines for the Acclimation of Animals Utilized in Research  

E-print Network

Office of the Vice President for Research Guidelines for the Acclimation of Animals Utilized can confound research if animals are utilized before homeostasis is restored and physiological of the animals. Researchers should consider how the physiological alterations caused by transport could confound

Arnold, Jonathan