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1

Quality of organic animal products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have seen a sharp rise in demand for organic animal products. There is no evidence of consistent differences in flavour or nutritional qualities between organic products and conventional ones. However, organic animal products have lower levels of veterinary drugs and pesticides. There is no clear evidence to indicate that organic food is more prone to mycotoxin contamination than

Maryline Kouba

2003-01-01

2

Transgenic plants and animals: Altered organisms from recombinant DNA technology. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and use of transgenic plants and animals. Transgenic plants and animals are organisms with foreign genes inserted into their cells. Topics include methods of induction of new genes and transgenetic expression in the organism, development of animal models of human diseases, and design of insect tolerant plants. Examples of transgenic organisms include mice, fish, chickens, pigs, rye, maize, tobacco, tomatoes, lettuce, and cotton. This information is of value for the increased production of food from animals by producing animal carcasses with reduced fat content. The information is also valuable for production of herbicide tolerant, virus resistant, and insect resistant crop plants, as well as the rapid production of transgenic plants with flowers and seeds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-06-01

3

Transgenic plants and animals: Altered organisms from recombinant DNA technology. July 1982-July 1989 (Citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for July 1982-July 1989  

SciTech Connect

This bibliography contains citations concerning the development and use of transgenic plants and animals. Topics include methods of induction of new genes and transgenetic expression in the organism, development of animal models of human diseases, and design of insect tolerant plants. Examples of transgenic organisms include mice, fish, chicken, pigs, rye, maize, tobacco, tomatoes, lettuce, and cotton. This information is of value for the increased production of food from animals by producing animal carcasses with reduced fat content. The information is also valuable for production of herbicide tolerant, virus resistant, and insect resistant crop plants, as well as the rapid production of transgenic plants with flowers and seeds. (Contains 383 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

Not Available

1990-01-01

4

Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in humans and animals.  

PubMed

Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), defined as the presence of altered organ function in an acutely ill patient such that homeostasis cannot be maintained without intervention, is a cause of high morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. Many advances have been made in understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of this syndrome in human medicine, but much still is unknown. This comparative review will provide information regarding the history and pathophysiology of MODS in humans and discuss how MODS affects each major organ system in animals. PMID:24773159

Osterbur, K; Mann, F A; Kuroki, K; DeClue, A

2014-01-01

5

Effect of altered 'weight' upon animal tolerance to restraint.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of altered weight upon animal tolerance to restraint was determined by simulating various accelerative forces with directed lead weights using restrained and nonrestrained domestic fowl (chickens). Weighting (increased weight) and conterweighting (reduced weight) produced a stressed condition - reduced relative lymphocyte counts, loss of body mass, and/or the development of a disorientation syndrome - in both restrained and nonrestrained (caged only) birds. The animal's tolerance to altered weight appeared to be a function of its body weight. Unrestrained birds were stressed by counterweighting (mean plus or minus standard error) 58.3 plus or minus 41% of their body weight, whereas restrained birds tolerated only 32.2 plus or minus 2.6% reduction in body weight. A training regimen for restrained birds was not effective in improving their tolerance to a reduced weight environment. It was concluded that domestic fowl living in a weightless (space) environment should be restrained minimally and supported by ventrally directed tension equivalent to approximately 50% of their body mass (their weight in a 1 G environment).

Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.; Beljan, J. R.

1971-01-01

6

How land condition alters plant-animal relationships in Australia's tropical rangelands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in vegetation composition and land condition that occur in response to grazing in natural grassland systems may alter plant and animal production, but the relationships are poorly understood. This study examined the effect of a change in land condition on herbage and animal production in two tropical tallgrass regions of northern Australia. The contrasting land condition classes, selected along

A. J. Ash; J. G. McIvor; J. P. Corfield; W. H. Winter

1995-01-01

7

Consumer perception of organic food production and farm animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is derived from a larger scale project investigating consumer attitudes towards organic food in the UK. Presents focus group results on consumer perceptions, attitudes and behaviour in relation to two key interrelated food trends: organic food and animal welfare. The results indicate that consumers often confuse organic and free-range products because they believe that “organic” is equivalent to

Gemma C. Harper; Aikaterini Makatouni

2002-01-01

8

Organic Compounds Used in Animal Husbandry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although in general, the same drugs are used by humans as for animal husbandry, some compounds are unique to CAFOs. In raising\\u000a and fattening steers, anabolic steroids are widely used in the US. In the cattle industry, large use is made of the acaricides,\\u000a avermectins, and the cypermethrins as well as juvenile growth hormone inhibitor for fly and tick control

Laurence Shore; Robert Wershaw

9

Animal health in organic livestock production systems: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic livestock production is a means of food production with a large number of rules directed towards a high status of animal welfare, care for the environment, restricted use of medical drugs and the production of a healthy product without residues (pesticides or medical drugs). The intentions of organic livestock production have been formulated by the International Federation of Organic

A. Kijlstra; I. A. J. M. Eijck

2006-01-01

10

Lattice animal model of chromosome organization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymer models tied together by constraints of looping and confinement have been used to explain many of the observed organizational characteristics of interphase chromosomes. Here we introduce a simple lattice animal representation of interphase chromosomes that combines the features of looping and confinement constraints into a single framework. We show through Monte Carlo simulations that this model qualitatively captures both the leveling off in the spatial distance between genomic markers observed in fluorescent in situ hybridization experiments and the inverse decay in the looping probability as a function of genomic separation observed in chromosome conformation capture experiments. The model also suggests that the collapsed state of chromosomes and their segregation into territories with distinct looping activities might be a natural consequence of confinement.

Iyer, Balaji V. S.; Arya, Gaurav

2012-07-01

11

Animal models of female pelvic organ prolapse: lessons learned  

PubMed Central

Pelvic organ prolapse is a vaginal protrusion of female pelvic organs. It has high prevalence worldwide and represents a great burden to the economy. The pathophysiology of pelvic organ prolapse is multifactorial and includes genetic predisposition, aberrant connective tissue, obesity, advancing age, vaginal delivery and other risk factors. Owing to the long course prior to patients becoming symptomatic and ethical questions surrounding human studies, animal models are necessary and useful. These models can mimic different human characteristics – histological, anatomical or hormonal, but none present all of the characteristics at the same time. Major animal models include knockout mice, rats, sheep, rabbits and nonhuman primates. In this article we discuss different animal models and their utility for investigating the natural progression of pelvic organ prolapse pathophysiology and novel treatment approaches. PMID:22707980

Couri, Bruna M; Lenis, Andrew T; Borazjani, Ali; Paraiso, Marie Fidela R; Damaser, Margot S

2012-01-01

12

Animal models of female pelvic organ prolapse: lessons learned.  

PubMed

Pelvic organ prolapse is a vaginal protrusion of female pelvic organs. It has high prevalence worldwide and represents a great burden to the economy. The pathophysiology of pelvic organ prolapse is multifactorial and includes genetic predisposition, aberrant connective tissue, obesity, advancing age, vaginal delivery and other risk factors. Owing to the long course prior to patients becoming symptomatic and ethical questions surrounding human studies, animal models are necessary and useful. These models can mimic different human characteristics - histological, anatomical or hormonal, but none present all of the characteristics at the same time. Major animal models include knockout mice, rats, sheep, rabbits and nonhuman primates. In this article we discuss different animal models and their utility for investigating the natural progression of pelvic organ prolapse pathophysiology and novel treatment approaches. PMID:22707980

Couri, Bruna M; Lenis, Andrew T; Borazjani, Ali; Paraiso, Marie Fidela R; Damaser, Margot S

2012-05-01

13

Concepts of Animal Health and Welfare in Organic Livestock Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2005, The International Federation of Organic Agricultural Movements (IFOAM) developed four new ethical principles of organic\\u000a agriculture to guide its future development: the principles of health, ecology, care, and fairness. The key distinctive concept\\u000a of animal welfare in organic agriculture combines naturalness and human care, and can be linked meaningfully with these principles.\\u000a In practice, a number of challenges

Mette VaarstHugo; Hugo F. Alrøe

14

14 CFR 121.365 - Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization. 121.365...DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations...

2010-01-01

15

Aging and Injury: Alterations in Cellular Energetics and Organ Function  

PubMed Central

Aging is characterized by increased oxidative stress, heightened inflammatory response, accelerated cellular senescence and progressive organ dysfunction. The homeostatic imbalance with aging significantly alters cellular responses to injury. Though it is unclear whether cellular energetic imbalance is a cause or effect of the aging process, preservation of mitochondrial function has been reported to be important in organ function restoration following severe injury. Unintentional injuries are ranked among the top 10 causes of death in adults of both sexes, 65 years and older. Aging associated decline in mitochondrial function has been shown to enhance the vulnerability of heart, lung, liver and kidney to ischemia/reperfusion injury. Studies have identified alterations in the level or activity of factors such as SIRT1, PGC-1?, HIF-1? and c-MYC involved in key regulatory processes in the maintenance of mitochondrial structural integrity, biogenesis and function. Studies using experimental models of hemorrhagic injury and burn have demonstrated significant influence of aging in metabolic regulation and organ function. Understanding the age-associated molecular mechanisms regulating mitochondrial dysfunction following injury is important towards identifying novel targets and therapeutic strategies to improve the outcome after injury in the elderly. PMID:24729935

Poulose, Ninu; Raju, Raghavan

2014-01-01

16

Disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis in organic acidurias: insights from human and animal studies.  

PubMed

Organic acidurias or organic acidemias constitute a group of inherited disorders caused by deficient activity of specific enzymes of amino acids, carbohydrates or lipids catabolism, leading to large accumulation and excretion of one or more carboxylic (organic) acids. Affected patients usually present neurologic symptoms and abnormalities, sometimes accompanied by cardiac and skeletal muscle alterations, whose pathogenesis is poorly known. However, in recent years growing evidence has emerged indicating that mitochondrial dysfunction is directly or indirectly involved in the pathology of various organic acidemias. Mitochondrial impairment in some of these diseases are generally due to mutations in nuclear genes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle or oxidative phosphorylation, while in others it seems to result from toxic influences of the endogenous organic acids to the mitochondrion. In this minireview, we will briefly summarize the present knowledge obtained from human and animal studies showing that disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis may represent a relevant pathomechanism of tissue damage in selective organic acidemias. The discussion will focus on mitochondrial alterations found in patients affected by organic acidemias and by the deleterious effects of the accumulating organic acids on mitochondrial pathways that are crucial for ATP formation and transfer. The elucidation of the mechanisms of toxicity of these acidic compounds offers new perspectives for potential novel adjuvant therapeutic strategies in selected disorders of this group. PMID:21249436

Wajner, Moacir; Goodman, Stephen I

2011-02-01

17

Alterations in cognitive and psychological functioning after organic solvent exposure  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to organic solvents has been linked repeatedly to alterations in both personality and cognitive functioning. To assess the nature and extent of these changes more thoroughly, 32 workers with a history of exposure to mixtures of organic solvents and 32 age- and education-matched blue-collar workers with no history of exposure were assessed with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Although both groups were comparable on measures of general intelligence, significant differences were found in virtually all other cognitive domains tested (Learning and Memory, Visuospatial, Attention and Mental Flexibility, Psychomotor Speed). In addition, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories of exposed workers indicated clinically significant levels of depression, anxiety, somatic concerns and disturbances in thinking. The reported psychological distress was unrelated to degree of cognitive deficit. Finally, several exposure-related variables were associated with poorer performance on tests of memory and visuospatial ability.

Morrow, L.A.; Ryan, C.M.; Hodgson, M.J.; Robin, N. (Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (USA))

1990-05-01

18

White Matter Abnormalities and Animal Models Examining a Putative Role of Altered White Matter in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder affecting about 1% of the population worldwide. Although the dopamine (DA) hypothesis is still keeping a dominant position in schizophrenia research, new advances have been emerging in recent years, which suggest the implication of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. In this paper, we will briefly review some of recent human studies showing white matter abnormalities in schizophrenic brains and altered oligodendrocyte-(OL-) and myelin-related genes in patients with schizophrenia and will consider abnormal behaviors reported in patients with white matter diseases. Following these, we will selectively introduce some animal models examining a putative role of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. The emphasis will be put on the cuprizone (CPZ) model. CPZ-fed mice show demyelination and OLs loss, display schizophrenia-related behaviors, and have higher DA levels in the prefrontal cortex. These features suggest that the CPZ model is a novel animal model of schizophrenia. PMID:22937274

Xu, Haiyun; Li, Xin-Min

2011-01-01

19

Development of gravity-sensing organs in altered gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments are described in which the development of the gravity-sensing organs was studied in newt larvae reared in microgravity on the IML-2 mission and in Aplysia embryos and larvae reared on a centrifuge at 1 to 5 g. In Aplysia embryos, the statolith (single dense mass on which gravity and linear acceleration act) was reduced in size in a graded fashion at increasing g. In early post-metamorphic Aplysia or even in isolated statocysts from such animals, the number of statoconia produced is reduced at high g. Newt larvae launched before any of the otoconia were formed and reared for 15 days in microgravity had nearly adult labyrinths at the end of the IML-2 mission. The otoliths of the saccule and utricle were the same size in flight and ground-reared larvae. However, the system of aragonitic otoconia produced in the endolymphatic sac in amphibians was much larger and developed earlier in the flight-reared larvae. At later developmental stages, the aragonitic otoconia enter and fill the saccule. One flight-reared larva was maintained for nine months post-flight and the size of the saccular otolith, as well as the volume of otoconia within the endolymphatic sac, were considerably larger than in age-matched, ground-reared newts. This suggests that rearing in microgravity initiates a process that continues for several months after introduction to 1-g, which greatly increases the volume of otoconia. The flight-reared animal had abnormal posture, pointing its head upward, whereas normal ground-reared newts always keep their head horizontal. This suggests that rearing for even a short period in microgravity can have lasting functional consequences in an animal subsequently reared in 1-g conditions on Earth.

Wiederhold, M. L.; Gao, W. Y.; Harrison, J. L.; Hejl, R.

1997-01-01

20

Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals 2013: Experimentation continues to rise - the reliance on genetically-altered animals must be addressed.  

PubMed

The 2013 Statistics of Scientific Procedures on Living Animals reveal that the level of animal experimentation in Great Britain continues to rise, with 4.12 million procedures being conducted. The figures indicate that this is almost exclusively a result of the breeding and use of genetically-altered (GA) animals (i.e. genetically-modified animals, plus those with harmful genetic defects). The breeding of GA animals increased to over half (51%) of all the procedures, and GA animals were involved in 61% of all the procedures. Indeed, if these animals were removed from the statistics, the number of procedures would actually have declined by 4%. It is argued that the Coalition Government has failed to address this issue, and, as a consequence, will not be able to deliver its pledge to reduce animal use in science. Recent publications supporting the need to reassess the dominance of genetic alteration are also discussed, as well as the need to move away from the use of dogs as the default second species in safety testing. The general trends in the species used, and the numbers and types of procedures, are also reviewed. Finally, forthcoming changes to the statistics are discussed. PMID:25290946

Hudson-Shore, Michelle

2014-09-01

21

14 CFR 135.423 - Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization. 135.423...RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations...

2010-01-01

22

Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the wonderful world of animals Listen to the animal sound. See if you can identify the animal.Animal sounds. Explore and find out about different animals.Kids Planet Create a animal report using one of the animals found in the web site.Kids Planet,SeaWorld/animals Create a picture of your animal examples are found...Your big backyard ...

Unsworth, Mrs.

2005-03-31

23

14 CFR 125.245 - Organization required to perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration.  

... false Organization required to perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration. 125.245 Section...AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Maintenance § 125.245 Organization required...

2014-01-01

24

14 CFR 125.245 - Organization required to perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Organization required to perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration. 125.245 Section...AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Maintenance § 125.245 Organization required...

2011-01-01

25

14 CFR 125.245 - Organization required to perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Organization required to perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration. 125.245 Section...AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Maintenance § 125.245 Organization required...

2012-01-01

26

14 CFR 125.245 - Organization required to perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Organization required to perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration. 125.245 Section...AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Maintenance § 125.245 Organization required...

2013-01-01

27

14 CFR 125.245 - Organization required to perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Organization required to perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration. 125.245 Section 125...RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Maintenance § 125.245 Organization required to...

2010-01-01

28

Natural Behavior, Animal Rights, or Making Money – A Study of Swedish Organic Farmers' View of Animal Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

A questionnaire study was performed among Swedish organic livestock farmers to determine their view of animal welfare and other ethical issues in animal production. The questionnaire was sent to 56.5% of the target group and the response rate was 75.6%. A principal components analysis (exploratory factor analysis) was performed to get a more manageable data set. A matrix of intercorrelations

Vonne Lund; Sven Hemlin; James White

2004-01-01

29

Doxorubicin alters the mitochondrial dynamics machinery and mitophagy in the liver of treated animals.  

PubMed

Doxorubicin (Dox) is an effective chemotherapeutic agent, but known to cause cardiac and hepatic toxicity. Mechanisms of toxicity have not been clearly identified, but shown to involve oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. However, antioxidant supplementation has only shown modest protection from Dox-induced toxicity in clinical trials. Therefore, further research is required to discern alternative mechanisms that may also play an important role in Dox-induced toxicity. Thus, we aimed to investigate the role of mitochondrial fusion and fission in Dox-induced hepatic toxicity, which has not yet been investigated. Six-week-old male F344 rats were injected IP with 20 mg/kg of Dox or saline. Once administered, both groups of animals were fasted with no food or water until sacrifice 24 h later. Dox decreased content of primary regulators of mitochondrial fusion (OPA1, MFN1, and MFN2) with no effect on regulators of fission (DRP1 and FIS1), thus shifting the balance favoring mitochondrial fission. Moreover, it was determined that mitochondrial fission was likely not coupled to cell proliferation or cytochrome c release leading to the activation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic signaling. Rather, mitochondrial fission may be coupled to mitophagy and may be an adaptive response to protect against Dox-induced hepatic toxicity. This is the first study to report the role of altered mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy machinery in Dox-induced hepatic injury. PMID:24666153

Dirks-Naylor, Amie J; Kouzi, Samir A; Bero, Joseph D; Phan, Diep T; Taylor, Heather N; Whitt, Stephanie D; Mabolo, Raean

2014-12-01

30

Proteomic Identification of Altered Cerebral Proteins in the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Animal Model  

PubMed Central

Background. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder. Although the exact pathophysiology of CRPS is not fully understood, central and peripheral mechanisms might be involved in the development of this disorder. To reveal the central mechanism of CRPS, we conducted a proteomic analysis of rat cerebrum using the chronic postischemia pain (CPIP) model, a novel experimental model of CRPS. Materials and Methods. After generating the CPIP animal model, we performed a proteomic analysis of the rat cerebrum using a multidimensional protein identification technology, and screened the proteins differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups. Results. A total of 155 proteins were differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups: 125 increased and 30 decreased; expressions of proteins related to cell signaling, synaptic plasticity, regulation of cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal formation were increased in the CPIP group. However, proenkephalin A, cereblon, and neuroserpin were decreased in CPIP group. Conclusion. Altered expression of cerebral proteins in the CPIP model indicates cerebral involvement in the pathogenesis of CRPS. Further study is required to elucidate the roles of these proteins in the development and maintenance of CRPS.

Nahm, Francis Sahngun; Park, Zee-Yong; Kim, Yong Chul

2014-01-01

31

Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) invasion alters organic matter dynamics in a desert stream  

E-print Network

Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) invasion alters organic matter dynamics in a desert stream THEODORE, decomposition, Tamarix Introduction Although anthropogenic biological invasions are one of the most pervasive management and restor- ation of invaded habitat requires such understand- ing, however. Saltcedar [Tamarix

Lovich, Jeffrey E.

32

14 CFR 135.423 - Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization. 135.423...AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and...

2014-01-01

33

14 CFR 135.423 - Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization. 135.423...AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and...

2012-01-01

34

14 CFR 135.423 - Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization. 135.423...AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and...

2011-01-01

35

14 CFR 135.423 - Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization. 135.423...AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and...

2013-01-01

36

Effectiveness of animal-assisted therapy interventions in altering childhood aggressive behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to better understand the human-animal bond and how that unique relationship can be helpful to clinicians. Specifically, this study looked at how forming a relationship with an animal can help decrease aggressive behaviors in children and adolescents. Of the 210 participants, by gender, 57 were identified as female and 153 as male. By grade

Lucinda Long

2009-01-01

37

Polymethyleneamine Alkaloids of Animal Origin: I. Metabolites of Marine and Microbial Organisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review, issued in two parts, describes the information on the structure and biological activity of animal alkaloids derived from polymethyleneamines and produced by marine organisms, wasps, spiders, and microorganisms. Animal alkaloids are outstanding models for developing methods and drugs for the treatment of many human diseases. In the first part, we consider compounds produced by marine and microbial organisms.

L. N. Rogosa; N. F. Salakhutdinov; G. A. Tolstikov

2005-01-01

38

Research on animal health and welfare in organic farming—a literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic standards aim at good livestock health and welfare. A literature search on organic animal health and welfare was performed in October–November 2001 to investigate how well these aims compare with reality, and to see what areas have been researched. The search also made it apparent that national and historical differences in organic standards and in the way organic farming

Vonne Lund; Bo Algers

2003-01-01

39

Effects of Vaccination with Altered Peptide Ligand on Chronic Pain in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis, an Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Neuropathic pain is a chronic symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS) and affects nearly half of all MS sufferers. A key instigator of this pain is the pro-inflammatory response in MS. We investigated the behavioral effects of immunization with a mutant peptide of myelin basic protein (MBP), termed altered peptide ligand (APL), known to initiate immune deviation from a pro-inflammatory state to an anti-inflammatory response in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Male and female Lewis rats were injected with vehicle control or with varying doses of 50 or 100??g guinea pig MBP in combination with or without APL. APL-treated animals established significantly lower disease severity compared to encephalitogenic MBP-treated animals. Animals with EAE developed mechanical, but not thermal pain hypersensitivity. Mechanical pain sensitivities were either improved or normalized during periods of clinical disease in male and female APL-treated animals as compared to the encephalitogenic group. No significant changes to thermal latency were observed upon co-immunization with APL. Together these data indicate that APL ameliorates disease states and selectively mediates an analgesic effect on EAE animals. PMID:24194728

Tian, David H.; Perera, Chamini J.; Apostolopoulos, Vasso; Moalem-Taylor, Gila

2013-01-01

40

Transport of organic environmental contaminants to animal products.  

PubMed

A large number of chemical contaminants potentially may be present in agricultural environments, leading to exposure of animals and potential residues in animal products. The contamination may be either widespread, as a result of aerial transport of industrial emissions, or localized, as a result of accidental emissions and spills, improper waste disposal, contaminants in useful products, and areas of past use of products now banned. The halogenated hydrocarbons, including the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and persistent organochlorine insecticides remaining from past use, are the contaminants of most concern. Depending on the degree and pattern of chlorine substitution, these compounds are resistant to degradation and tend to accumulate in the fat of animals and their products. Other classes of environmental contaminants as exemplified by the PAHs, phthalate esters, acid phenolics, and nitrosamines also may occur widely in the environment. These compounds are unlikely to be transported to animal products because the compounds are water-soluble or can be metabolized to water-soluble products, which are excreted in the urine and thus do not bioaccumulate in products such as milk and meat. The points of entry of environmental contaminants into agricultural environments usually are plants and soils. Lipophilic compounds such as the halogenated hydrocarbons are not taken up and translocated by plants. Contamination of plants is mainly a surface phenomenon resulting from aerial deposition of emissions or deposition of compounds volatilized from the surface of contaminated soil. Thus, fibrous roughages used primarily in feeding cattle and other ruminants will be the most important pathway of animal exposure and transport to human foods. The second pathway of animal exposure is by ingestion of contaminated soil while grazing or when confined to unpaved facilities. As in the case of feed sources, cattle is the species most vulnerable to exposure by the soil ingestion pathway under most commercial management systems, but poultry and swine are more vulnerable in those infrequent situations in which these species have access to contaminated soil. PMID:7886255

Fries, G F

1995-01-01

41

Altered functional and structural brain network organization in autism.  

PubMed

Structural and functional underconnectivity have been reported for multiple brain regions, functional systems, and white matter tracts in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Although recent developments in complex network analysis have established that the brain is a modular network exhibiting small-world properties, network level organization has not been carefully examined in ASD. Here we used resting-state functional MRI (n = 42 ASD, n = 37 typically developing; TD) to show that children and adolescents with ASD display reduced short and long-range connectivity within functional systems (i.e., reduced functional integration) and stronger connectivity between functional systems (i.e., reduced functional segregation), particularly in default and higher-order visual regions. Using graph theoretical methods, we show that pairwise group differences in functional connectivity are reflected in network level reductions in modularity and clustering (local efficiency), but shorter characteristic path lengths (higher global efficiency). Structural networks, generated from diffusion tensor MRI derived fiber tracts (n = 51 ASD, n = 43 TD), displayed lower levels of white matter integrity yet higher numbers of fibers. TD and ASD individuals exhibited similar levels of correlation between raw measures of structural and functional connectivity (n = 35 ASD, n = 35 TD). However, a principal component analysis combining structural and functional network properties revealed that the balance of local and global efficiency between structural and functional networks was reduced in ASD, positively correlated with age, and inversely correlated with ASD symptom severity. Overall, our findings suggest that modeling the brain as a complex network will be highly informative in unraveling the biological basis of ASD and other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24179761

Rudie, J D; Brown, J A; Beck-Pancer, D; Hernandez, L M; Dennis, E L; Thompson, P M; Bookheimer, S Y; Dapretto, M

2012-01-01

42

Revisiting the Flight of Icarus: Making Human Organs from PSCs with Large Animal Chimeras.  

PubMed

While cell therapies hold great potential for treating many conditions, their utility for treating patients that require whole organ replacement is unclear. To address this challenge, we propose using genetically engineered "organ niches" in large animals to generate human organs from pluripotent stem cells and discuss the hurdles facing such strategies. PMID:25280216

Rashid, Tamir; Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

2014-10-01

43

Effects of lithium on oxidative stress and behavioral alterations induced by lisdexamfetamine dimesylate: relevance as an animal model of mania.  

PubMed

Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a prodrug that requires conversion to d-amphetamine (d-AMPH) for bioactivity. Treatment with d-AMPH induces hyperlocomotion and is regarded as a putative animal model of bipolar mania. Therefore, we sought to determine the behavioral and oxidative stress alterations induced by sub-chronic LDX administration as well as their reversal and prevention by lithium in rats. A significant increment in locomotor behavior was induced by LDX (10 and 30 mg/kg). To determine Li effects against LDX-induced alterations, in the reversal protocol rats received LDX (10 or 30 mg/kg) or saline for 14 days. Between days 8 and 14 animals received Li (47.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline. In the prevention paradigm, rats were pretreated with Li or saline prior to LDX administration. Glutathione (GSH) levels and lipid peroxidation was determined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HC) and striatum (ST) of rats. Lithium prevented LDX-induced hyperlocomotion at the doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg, but only reversed LDX-induced hyperlocomotion at dose of 10mg/kg. In addition, both doses of LDX decreased GSH content (in ST and PFC), while Li was able to reverse and prevent these alterations mainly in the PFC. LDX (10 and 30 mg/kg) increased lipid peroxidation which was reversed and prevented by Li. In conclusion, LDX-induced hyperlocomotion along with associated increments in oxidative stress show promise as an alternative animal model of mania. PMID:23333378

Macêdo, Danielle S; de Lucena, David F; Queiroz, Ana Isabelle G; Cordeiro, Rafaela C; Araújo, Maíra M; Sousa, Francisca Cléa; Vasconcelos, Silvânia M; Hyphantis, Thomas N; Quevedo, João; McIntyre, Roger S; Carvalho, André F

2013-06-01

44

Experimentally increased snow accumulation alters soil moisture and animal community structure in a polar desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snow accumulation can influence soil properties in arctic and alpine tundra, boreal and temperate forests, and temperate grasslands.\\u000a However, snow may be even more influential in arid ecosystems, which by definition are water limited, such as the hyper-arid\\u000a polar desert of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Moreover, snow accumulation may be altered by climate change in the future.\\u000a In order

Edward Ayres; Johnson N. Nkem; Diana H. Wall; Byron J. Adams; J. E. Barrett; Breana L. Simmons; Ross A. Virginia; Andrew G. Fountain

2010-01-01

45

Excitability of A? sensory neurons is altered in an animal model of peripheral neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Background Causes of neuropathic pain following nerve injury remain unclear, limiting the development of mechanism-based therapeutic approaches. Animal models have provided some directions, but little is known about the specific sensory neurons that undergo changes in such a way as to induce and maintain activation of sensory pain pathways. Our previous studies implicated changes in the A?, normally non-nociceptive neurons in activating spinal nociceptive neurons in a cuff-induced animal model of neuropathic pain and the present study was directed specifically at determining any change in excitability of these neurons. Thus, the present study aimed at recording intracellularly from A?-fiber dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and determining excitability of the peripheral receptive field, of the cell body and of the dorsal roots. Methods A peripheral neuropathy was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by inserting two thin polyethylene cuffs around the right sciatic nerve. All animals were confirmed to exhibit tactile hypersensitivity to von Frey filaments three weeks later, before the acute electrophysiological experiments. Under stable intracellular recording conditions neurons were classified functionally on the basis of their response to natural activation of their peripheral receptive field. In addition, conduction velocity of the dorsal roots, configuration of the action potential and rate of adaptation to stimulation were also criteria for classification. Excitability was measured as the threshold to activation of the peripheral receptive field, the response to intracellular injection of depolarizing current into the soma and the response to electrical stimulation of the dorsal roots. Results In control animals mechanical thresholds of all neurons were within normal ranges. A? DRG neurons in neuropathic rats demonstrated a mean mechanical threshold to receptive field stimulation that were significantly lower than in control rats, a prolonged discharge following this stimulation, a decreased activation threshold and a greater response to depolarizing current injection into the soma, as well as a longer refractory interval and delayed response to paired pulse electrical stimulation of the dorsal roots. Conclusions The present study has demonstrated changes in functionally classified A? low threshold and high threshold DRG neurons in a nerve intact animal model of peripheral neuropathy that demonstrates nociceptive responses to normally innocuous cutaneous stimuli, much the same as is observed in humans with neuropathic pain. We demonstrate further that the peripheral receptive fields of these neurons are more excitable, as are the somata. However, the dorsal roots exhibit a decrease in excitability. Thus, if these neurons participate in neuropathic pain this differential change in excitability may have implications in the peripheral drive that induces central sensitization, at least in animal models of peripheral neuropathic pain, and A? sensory neurons may thus contribute to allodynia and spontaneous pain following peripheral nerve injury in humans. PMID:22289651

2012-01-01

46

Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection contains animations of a nuclear chain reaction, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. It also showcases interactive models of the first atomic bombs and simulation of the "Nuclear Winter" effect.

Griffith, Christopher

47

An altered spinal serotonergic system contributes to increased thermal nociception in an animal model of depression.  

PubMed

The olfactory bulbectomized (OB) rat, an animal model of chronic depression with comorbid anxiety, exhibits a profound dysregulation of the brain serotonergic signalling, a neurotransmission system involved in pain transmission and modulation. We here report an increased nociceptive response of OB rats in the tail flick test which is reverted after chronic, but not acute, administration of fluoxetine. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated down-regulation of 5-HT transporters ([(3)H]citalopram binding) and decreased functionality of 5-HT1A receptors (8-OH-DPAT-stimulated [(35)S]GTP?S binding) in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord in OB rats. Acute administration of fluoxetine (5-40 mg/kg i.p.) did not modify tail flick latencies in OB rats. However, chronic fluoxetine (10 mg/kg/day s.c., 14 days; osmotic minipumps) progressively attenuated OB-associated thermal hyperalgesia, and a total normalization of the nociceptive response was achieved at the end of the treatment with the antidepressant. In these animals, autoradiographic studies revealed further down-regulation of 5-HT transporters and normalization in the functionality of 5-HT1A receptors on the spinal cord. On the other hand, acute morphine (0.5-10 mg/kg s.c.) produced a similar analgesic effect in OB and sham and OB rats, and no changes were detected in the density ([(3)H]DAMGO binding) and functionality (DAMGO-stimulated [(35)S]GTP?S binding) of spinal ?-opioid receptors in OB rats before and after chronic fluoxetine. Our findings demonstrate the participation of the spinal serotonergic system in the increased thermal nociception exhibited by the OB rat and the antinociceptive effect of chronic fluoxetine in this animal model of depression. PMID:24584836

Rodríguez-Gaztelumendi, Antonio; Rojo, María Luisa; Pazos, Angel; Díaz, Alvaro

2014-06-01

48

Pulmonary reactions to organic dust exposures: development of an animal model.  

PubMed

Acute inhalation of organic dusts such as cotton, hay, silage, grain, animal confinement, or compost dust can result in illness characterized by fever, pulmonary inflammation, chest tightness, and airway obstruction. These agricultural materials are complex mixtures of plant, bacterial, and fungal products. Elucidation of the time course of disease onset, the mechanisms of disease progression, and the identity of etiologic agents is essential for effective prevention and treatment. Toward this end, animal models for acute organic dust-induced reactions have been developed and characterized. Information concerning the applicability of various animal models to humans and progress toward elucidation of causative agents and mechanisms of action is presented. PMID:8722109

Castranova, V; Robinson, V A; Frazer, D G

1996-03-01

49

Ethical Issues of Transplanting Organs from Transgenic Animals into Human Beings  

PubMed Central

One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human’s body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal’s organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334

Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

2014-01-01

50

Animal Toxins Can Alter the Function of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9  

PubMed Central

Human voltage-activated sodium (Nav) channels are adept at rapidly transmitting electrical signals across long distances in various excitable tissues. As such, they are amongst the most widely targeted ion channels by drugs and animal toxins. Of the nine isoforms, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are preferentially expressed in DRG neurons where they are thought to play an important role in pain signaling. Although the functional properties of Nav1.8 have been relatively well characterized, difficulties with expressing Nav1.9 in established heterologous systems limit our understanding of the gating properties and toxin pharmacology of this particular isoform. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the role of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 in pain perception and elaborates on the approaches used to identify molecules capable of influencing their function. PMID:23012651

Gilchrist, John; Bosmans, Frank

2012-01-01

51

Effect of organic acid vapors on the alteration of soda silicate glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic acids were previously shown to be involved in the alteration of historic soda silicate glasses in humid atmospheres under museum storage conditions. The present study investigates the role of these pollutants on the visual, compositional and structural modification of soda silicate glasses. Replica glasses aged in humid or humid\\/acidic atmospheres under accelerated conditions were examined and compared using light

Laurianne Robinet; Katherine Eremin; Claude Coupry; Christopher Hall; Nelly Lacome

2007-01-01

52

Substrate Dependent Alterations of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3)  

E-print Network

Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are multispecific transporters that mediate the uptake of numerous drugs and xenobiotics into cells. Alterations in the function of the liver–specific OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 have been shown to affect...

Roth, Megan Elizabeth

2011-12-31

53

Lymphatic Territories (Lymphosomes) in a Canine: An Animal Model for Investigation of Postoperative Lymphatic Alterations  

PubMed Central

Background Lymph node dissection is often performed as a part of surgical treatment for breast cancer and malignant melanoma to prevent malignant cells from traveling via the lymphatic system. Currently little is known about postoperative lymphatic drainage pattern alterations. This knowledge may be useful for management of recurrent cancer and prevention of breast cancer related lymphedema. We mapped the complete superficial lymphatic system of a dog and used this canine model to perform preliminary studies of lymphatic architectural changes in postoperative condition. Methods Lymphatic territories (lymphosomes) were mapped with 4 female mongrel carcasses using an indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent lymphography and a radiographic microinjection technique. Two live dogs were then subjected to unilateral lymph node dissection of lymph basins of the forelimb, and ICG lymphography and lymphangiogram were performed 6 months after the surgery to investigate lymphatic changes. Lymphatic patterns in the carcass were then compared with postoperative lymphatic patterns in the live dogs. Results Ten lymphosomes were identified, corresponding with ten lymphatic basins. Postoperative fluorescent lymphographic images and lymphangiograms in the live dogs revealed small caliber lymphatic network fulfilling gaps in the surgical area and collateral lymphatic vessels arising from the network connecting to lymph nodes in the contralateral and ipsilateral neck in one dog and the ipsilateral subclavicular vein in another dog. Conclusion Our canine lymphosome map allowed us to observe lymphatic collateral formations after lymph node dissection in live dogs. This canine model may help clarify our understanding of postoperative lymphatic changes in humans in future studies. PMID:23894435

Suami, Hiroo; Yamashita, Shuji; Soto-Miranda, Miguel A.; Chang, David W.

2013-01-01

54

Plasticity in animal personality traits: does prior experience alter the degree of boldness?  

PubMed Central

Theoreticians predict that animal ‘personality’ traits may be maladaptive if fixed throughout different contexts, so the present study aimed to test whether these traits are fixed or plastic. Rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss) were given emboldening or negative experiences in the forms of watching bold or shy individuals responding to novelty or winning or losing fights to examine whether prior experience affected boldness. Bold individuals that lost fights or watched shy demonstrators became more shy by increasing their latency to approach a novel object, whereas shy observers that watched bold demonstrators remained cautious and did not modify their responses to novelty. Shy winners became bolder and decreased their latency to approach a novel object, but shy losers also displayed this shift. In comparison, control groups showed no change in behaviour. Bold fishes given negative experiences reduced their boldness which may be an adaptive response; however, shy fishes may base their strategic decisions upon self-assessment of their relative competitive ability and increase their boldness in situations where getting to resources more quickly ensures they outcompete better competitors. PMID:17164196

Frost, Ashley J; Winrow-Giffen, Alexandria; Ashley, Paul J; Sneddon, Lynne U

2006-01-01

55

Ethical issues of transplanting organs from transgenic animals into human beings.  

PubMed

One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human's body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal's organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334

Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

2014-01-01

56

Altered expression of hypoxia-Inducible factor-1? participates in the epileptogenesis in animal models.  

PubMed

Although epilepsy is a common neurological disorder, its mechanism(s) are still not completely understood. Hypoxia can lead to neuronal cell death and angiogenesis, and the same mechanisms were also found in epilepsy. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) is an important transcription protein that regulates gene expression in the brain and other tissues in response to decreases in oxygen availability. However, little is known regarding the expression of HIF-1? in the epileptic brain and whether HIF-1? interventions affect the epileptic process. The aims of this study are to investigate the expression profile of HIF-1? in rat models and to explore the role of HIF-1? in epilepsy. We performed Western blots and immunofluorescence in a lithium-pilocarpine rat epilepsy model. To determine the role of HIF-1? in epilepsy, we used the HIF-1? agonist DMOG and inhibitor KC7F2 to detect changes in the animal behavior in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and lithium-pilocarpine epilepsy models. The expression of HIF-1? was significantly increased after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. DMOG significantly prolonged the latent period in the PTZ kindling model and decreased the rate of spontaneous recurrent seizures during the chronic stage in the lithium-pilocarpine model. Conversely, the inhibitor KC7F2 produced an opposite behavioral change. Interestingly, both KC7F2 and DMOG had no effect on the acute stage of pilocarpine model and PTZ convulsive model. Our study suggests that upregulated HIF-1? may be involved in the process of epileptogenesis but not in the acute stage of epilepsy. The modulation of HIF-1? may offer a novel therapeutic target in epilepsy. PMID:24889205

Li, Jie; Jiang, Guohui; Chen, Yalan; Chen, Ling; Li, Zengyou; Wang, Zhihua; Wang, Xuefeng

2014-09-01

57

Mechanisms underlying altered mood and cardiovascular dysfunction: the value of neurobiological and behavioral research with animal models.  

PubMed

A bidirectional association between mood disorders and cardiovascular diseases has been described in humans, yet the precise neurobiological mechanisms that underlie this association are not fully understood. This article is focused on neurobiological processes and mediators in mood and cardiovascular disorders, with an emphasis on common mechanisms including stressor reactivity, neuroendocrine and neurohumoral changes, immune alterations, autonomic and cardiovascular dysregulation, and central neurotransmitter and neuropeptide dysfunction. A discussion of the utility of experimental investigations with rodent models, including those in rats and prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), is presented. Specific studies using these models are reviewed, focusing on the analysis of behavioral, physiological and neural mechanisms underlying depressive disorders and cardiovascular disease. Considered in combination with studies using human samples, the investigation of mechanisms underlying depressive behaviors and cardiovascular regulation using animal models will enhance our understanding of the association of depression and cardiovascular disease, and will promote the development of improved interventions for individuals with these detrimental disorders. PMID:18703084

Grippo, Angela J

2009-02-01

58

Thermal alterations of organic matter in coal wastes from Upper Silesia, Poland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Self-heating and self-combustion are currently taking place in some coal waste dumps in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland, e.g. the dumps at Rymer Cones, Starzykowiec, and the Marcel Coal Mine, all in the Rybnik area. These dumps are of similar age and self-heating and combustion have been occurring in all three for many years. The tools of organic petrography (maceral composition, rank, etc.), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and proximate and ultimate analysis are used to investigate the wastes. Organic matter occurs in quantities up to 85 vol.%, typically a few to several vol.%, in the wastes. All three maceral groups (vitrinite, liptinite, and inertinite) are present as unaltered and variously-altered constituents associated with newly-formed petrographic components (bitumen expulsions, pyrolytic carbon). The predominant maceral group is vitrinite with alterations reflected in the presence of irregular cracks, oxidation rims and, rarely, devolatilisation pores. In altered wastes, paler grey-vitrinite and/or coke dominates. The lack of plasticity, the presence of paler-coloured particles, isotropic massive coke, dispersed coked organic matter, and expulsions of bitumens all indicate that heating was slow and extended over a long time. Macerals belonging to other groups are present in unaltered form or with colours paler than the colours of the parent macerals. Based on the relative contents of organic compounds, the most important groups of these identified in the wastes are n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, hopanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives, phenol and its derivatives. These compounds occur in all wastes except those most highly altered where they were probably destroyed by high temperatures. These compounds were generated mainly from liptinite-group macerals. Driven by evaporation and leaching, they migrated within and out of the dump. Their presence in some wastes in which microscopically visible organic matter is lacking suggests that they originated elsewhere and subsequently migrated through the dump piles. During their migration, the compounds fractionated, were adsorbed on minerals and/or interacted. The absence of alkenes, and of other unsaturated organic compounds, may reflect primary diagenetic processes that occurred in coals and coal shales during burial and/or organic matter type. Their absence may also be a consequence of heating that lasted many years, hydropyrolysis, and/or the participation of minerals in the reactions occurring within the dumps. The wastes contain compounds typical of organic matter of unaltered kerogen III type and the products of pyrolytic processes, and mixtures of both. In some wastes, organic compounds are completely absent having been destroyed by severe heating. The distributions of n-alkanes in many samples are typical of pyrolysates. In some wastes, narrow n-alkane distributions reflect their generation over small temperature ranges. In others, wider distributions point to greater temperature ranges. Other wastes contain n-alkane distributions typical of unaltered coal and high pristane content or mixtures of pyrolysates and unaltered waste material. The wastes also contain significant amounts of final ?? hopanes. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are represented only by two- to five-ring compounds as is typical of the thermal alteration of hard coal. Correlations between the degree of organic matter alteration and the relative contents of individual PAHs and hopanes and geochemical indicators of thermal alteration are generally poor. The properties of the organic matter (its composition and rank), temperature fluctuations within the dumps, migration of organic compounds and mineral involvement are probably responsible for this. The processes taking place in coal waste dumps undergoing self-heating and self-combustion are complicated; they are very difficult to estimate and define. The methods of org

Misz-Kennan, Magdalena

2010-01-01

59

Pulmonary reactions to organic dust exposures: development of an animal model.  

PubMed Central

Acute inhalation of organic dusts such as cotton, hay, silage, grain, animal confinement, or compost dust can result in illness characterized by fever, pulmonary inflammation, chest tightness, and airway obstruction. These agricultural materials are complex mixtures of plant, bacterial, and fungal products. Elucidation of the time course of disease onset, the mechanisms of disease progression, and the identity of etiologic agents is essential for effective prevention and treatment. Toward this end, animal models for acute organic dust-induced reactions have been developed and characterized. Information concerning the applicability of various animal models to humans and progress toward elucidation of causative agents and mechanisms of action is presented. Images Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C PMID:8722109

Castranova, V; Robinson, V A; Frazer, D G

1996-01-01

60

Short Animation Movies as Advance Organizers in Physics Teaching: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Advance organizers are instructional materials that help students use previous knowledge to make links with new information. Short animation movies are a possible format and are well suited for physics, as they can portray dynamic phenomena and represent abstract concepts. Purpose: The study aimed to determine guidelines for the…

Koscianski, Andre; Ribeiro, Rafael Joao; da Silva, Sani Carvalho Rutz

2012-01-01

61

Anim. Behav., 1996, 51, 327344 Social organization in the aboriginal house mouse, Mus spretus Lataste  

E-print Network

Anim. Behav., 1996, 51, 327­344 Social organization in the aboriginal house mouse, Mus spretus Lataste: behavioural mechanisms underlying the spatial dispersion of competitors JANE L. HURST, SUSAN HALL, and static defensive postures, rather than persistent pursuit and flight. Intruders were strongly attracted

Nottingham, University of

62

Ultrastructural alterations in Phacus brachykentron (Euglenophyta) due to excess of organic matter in the culture medium.  

PubMed

Morphological and ultrastructural changes induced by exposure to excess of organic matter were analyzed in Phacus brachykentron (Pochm.). The cells were isolated from sites in Matanza River, Buenos Aires, Argentina, which have a high degree of organic matter contamination coming from waste waters discharges of the meat industry. Master strains were cultured on soil water medium and a toxicity bioassay was performed. As a result of the enriched medium, several morphological and ultrastructural cellular alterations were observed by optical, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. Among these, we can point out changes in cell dimensions, remarkable widening of some pellicle bands, increased number and volume of paramylon grains, displacement of the nucleus from the central to the lateral position, some chloroplasts with their thylakoids disordered, and cell lysis. The response to organic enrichment was very fast, i.e. during the 48h of the bioassay. Therefore, any significant increase of organic matter would rapidly affect wild euglenoids. Our results suggest that the alterations observed, such as the presence of large intracellular paramylon bodies or the deformation of euglenoid cells in natural samples, have the potential to be used as environmental bioindicators. PMID:24507124

Nannavecchia, Paula; Tolivia, Analia; Conforti, Visitación

2014-03-01

63

Altered Modular Organization of Structural Cortical Networks in Children with Autism  

PubMed Central

Autism is a complex developmental disability that characterized by deficits in social interaction, language skills, repetitive stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests. Although great heterogeneity exists, previous findings suggest that autism has atypical brain connectivity patterns and disrupted small-world network properties. However, the organizational alterations in the autistic brain network are still poorly understood. We explored possible organizational alterations of 49 autistic children and 51 typically developing controls, by investigating their brain network metrics that are constructed upon cortical thickness correlations. Three modules were identified in controls, including cortical regions associated with brain functions of executive strategic, spatial/auditory/visual, and self-reference/episodic memory. There are also three modules found in autistic children with similar patterns. Compared with controls, autism demonstrates significantly reduced gross network modularity, and a larger number of inter-module connections. However, the autistic brain network demonstrates increased intra- and inter-module connectivity in brain regions including middle frontal gyrus, inferior parietal gyrus, and cingulate, suggesting one underlying compensatory mechanism associated with brain functions of self-reference and episodic memory. Results also show that there is increased correlation strength between regions inside frontal lobe, as well as impaired correlation strength between frontotemporal and frontoparietal regions. This alteration of correlation strength may contribute to the organization alteration of network structures in autistic brains. PMID:23675456

Shi, Feng; Wang, Li; Peng, Ziwen; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Shen, Dinggang

2013-01-01

64

Alteration of bacterial communities and organic matter in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) supplied with soil and organic fertilizer.  

PubMed

The alteration of the organic matter (OM) and the composition of bacterial community in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) supplied with soil (S) and a composted organic fertilizer (A) was examined at the beginning and at the end of 3 weeks of incubation under current-producing as well as no-current-producing conditions. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed a significant alteration of the microbial community structure in MFCs generating electricity as compared with no-current-producing MFCs. The genetic diversity of cultivable bacterial communities was assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis of 106 bacterial isolates obtained by using both generic and elective media. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of the more representative RAPD groups indicated that over 50.4% of the isolates from MFCs fed with S were Proteobacteria, 25.1% Firmicutes, and 24.5% Actinobacteria, whereas in MFCs supplied with A 100% of the dominant species belonged to ?-Proteobacteria. The chemical analysis performed by fractioning the OM and using thermal analysis showed that the amount of total organic carbon contained in the soluble phase of the electrochemically active chambers significantly decreased as compared to the no-current-producing systems, whereas the OM of the solid phase became more humified and aromatic along with electricity generation, suggesting a significant stimulation of a humification process of the OM. These findings demonstrated that electroactive bacteria are commonly present in aerobic organic substrates such as soil or a fertilizer and that MFCs could represent a powerful tool for exploring the mineralization and humification processes of the soil OM. PMID:22290652

Mocali, Stefano; Galeffi, Carlo; Perrin, Elena; Florio, Alessandro; Migliore, Melania; Canganella, Francesco; Bianconi, Giovanna; Di Mattia, Elena; Dell'Abate, Maria Teresa; Fani, Renato; Benedetti, Anna

2013-02-01

65

Phytoestrogens alter the reproductive organ development in the mink (Mustela vison)  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the present study was to examine the reproductive effects of two perorally applied phytoestrogens, genistein (8 mg/kg/day) and {beta}-sitosterol (50 mg/kg/day), on the mink (Mustela vison) at human dietary exposure levels. Parental generations were exposed over 9 months to these phytoestrogens and their offspring were exposed via gestation and lactation. Parents and their offspring were sampled 21 days after the birth of the kits. Sex hormone levels, sperm quality, organ weights, and development of the kits were examined. The exposed females were heavier than the control females at the 1st postnatal day (PND). The control kits were heavier than the exposed kits from the 1st to the 21st PND. Phytoestrogens did not affect the organ weights of the adult minks, but the relative testicular weight of the exposed kits was higher than in the control kits. The relative prostate weight was higher and the relative uterine weight lower in the {beta}-sitosterol-exposed kits than in the control kits. Moreover, the plasma dihydrotestosterone levels were lower in the genistein-exposed male kits compared to the control male kits. This study could not explain the mechanisms behind these alterations. The results indicate that perinatal phytoestrogen exposures cause alterations in the weight of the reproductive organs of the mink kits.

Ryoekkynen, Ari [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland)]. E-mail: ryokkyne@cc.joensuu.fi; Nieminen, Petteri [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Mustonen, Anne-Mari [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Pyykoenen, Teija [Institute of Applied Biotechnology, University of Kuopio, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Asikainen, Juha [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland); Haenninen, Sari [Institute of Applied Biotechnology, University of Kuopio, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Mononen, Jaakko [Institute of Applied Biotechnology, University of Kuopio, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kukkonen, Jussi V.K. [Department of Biology, University of Joensuu, FIN-80101 Joensuu (Finland)

2005-01-15

66

Microtopography alters self-organized vegetation patterns in water-limited ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In terrestrial systems limited by water availability the spatial distribution of vegetation can self-organize into a mosaic of vegetated patches and bare soil. Spatially extensive competition for water and short-range facilitation underpin many models that describe the process of vegetation pattern formation. Earlier studies investigating this self-organized patchiness have largely considered smooth landscapes. However, topographic variations can significantly alter the redistribution of surface water flow and therefore the pattern-forming process. Here, we consider how microtopographic variations, at the scale of individual plants, alters self-organized vegetation patterns with the use of a simple ecohydrological model. We show that increasing microtopography can induce a change from banded vegetation, oriented across the slope, to irregular drainage patterns, oriented in the downslope direction. The mechanism responsible is shown to be a change in the spatial redistribution of infiltration around plants and plant patches. Only small increases in microtopography are required to cause banded systems with weak facilitation to change to downslope-oriented patterns. When non-periodic boundary conditions were considered, band orientation tended to become oblique to the topographic contour and in some circumstances their migration upslope ceased. These results suggest that diffusive sediment transport processes may be essential for the maintenance of regular periodic vegetation patterns, which implies that erosion may be critical for understanding the susceptibility of these ecosystems to catastrophic shifts.

McGrath, Gavan S.; Paik, Kyungrock; Hinz, Christoph

2012-09-01

67

Metabolomic analysis of long-term spontaneous exercise in mice suggests increased lipolysis and altered glucose metabolism when animals are at rest.  

PubMed

Exercise has been associated with several beneficial effects and is one of the major modulators of metabolism. The working muscle produces and releases substances during exercise that mediate the adaptation of the muscle but also improve the metabolic flexibility of the complete organism, leading to adjustable substrate utilization. Metabolomic studies on physical exercise are scarce and most of them have been focused on the effects of intense exercise in professional sportsmen. The aim of our study was to determine plasma metabolomic adaptations in mice after a long-term spontaneous exercise intervention study (18 mo). The metabolic changes induced by long-term spontaneous exercise were sufficient to achieve complete discrimination between groups in the principal component analysis scores plot. We identified plasma indicators of an increase in lipolysis (elevated unsaturated fatty acids and glycerol), a decrease in glucose and insulin plasma levels and in heart glucose consumption (by PET), and altered glucose metabolism (decreased alanine and lactate) in the wheel running group. Collectively these data are compatible with an increase in skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in the active mice. We also found an increase in amino acids involved in catecholamine synthesis (tyrosine and phenylalanine), in the skeletal muscle pool of creatine phosphate and taurine, and changes in phospholipid metabolism (phosphocholine and choline in lipids) between the sedentary and the active mice. In conclusion, long-term spontaneous wheel running induces significant plasma and tissue (heart) metabolic responses that remain even when the animal is at rest. PMID:25190738

Monleon, Daniel; Garcia-Valles, Rebeca; Morales, Jose Manuel; Brioche, Thomas; Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria; Lopez-Grueso, Raul; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Viña, Jose

2014-11-15

68

Tracing organic compounds in aerobically altered methane-derived carbonate pipes (Gulf of Cadiz, SW Iberia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary geochemical process at methane seeps is anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), performed by methanotrophic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The molecular fingerprints (biomarkers) of these chemosynthetic microorganisms can be preserved in carbonates formed through AOM. However, thermal maturity and aerobic degradation can change the original preserved compounds, making it difficult to establish the relation between AOM and carbonate precipitation. Here we report a study of amino acid and lipid abundances in carbonate matrices of aerobically altered pipes recovered from the seafloor of the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberian Peninsula). This area is characterized by a complex tectonic regime that supports numerous cold seeps. Studies so far have not determined whether the precipitation of carbonate pipes in the Gulf of Cadiz is a purely chemical process or whether microbial communities are involved. Samples from this site show signs of exposure to oxygenated waters and of aerobic alteration, such as oxidation of authigenic iron sulfides. In addition, the degradation index, calculated from the relative abundance of preserved amino acids, indicates aerobic degradation of organic matter. Although crocetane was the only lipid identified from methanotrophic archaea, the organic compounds detected (n-alkanes, regular isoprenoids and alcohols) are compatible with an origin from AOM coupled with bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) and subsequent aerobic degradation. We establish a relation among AOM, BSR and pipe formation in the Gulf of Cadiz through three types of analysis: (1) stable carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of carbonate minerals; (2) carbonate microfabrics; and (3) mineralogical composition. Our results suggest that carbonate pipes may form through a process similar to the precipitation of vast amounts of carbonate pavements often found at cold seeps. Our approach suggests that some organic compound patterns, in combination with additional evidence of AOM and BSR, may help indicate the source of altered methane-derived carbonates commonly occurring in ancient and modern deposits.

Merinero, Raúl; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Menor-Salván, César; Lunar, Rosario; Martínez-Frías, Jesús

2012-07-01

69

Ineffective delivery of diet-derived microRNAs to recipient animal organisms  

PubMed Central

Cross-kingdom delivery of specific microRNAs to recipient organisms via food ingestion has been reported recently. However, it is unclear if such delivery of microRNAs occurs frequently in animal organisms after typical dietary intake. We found substantial levels of specific microRNAs in diets commonly consumed orally by humans, mice, and honey bees. Yet, after ingestion of fruit replete with plant microRNAs (MIR156a, MIR159a, and MIR169a), a cohort of healthy athletes did not carry detectable plasma levels of those molecules. Similarly, despite consumption of a diet with animal fat replete in endogenous miR-21, negligible expression of miR-21 in plasma or organ tissue was observed in miR-21 ?/? recipient mice. Correspondingly, when fed vegetarian diets containing the above plant microRNAs, wild-type recipient mice expressed insignificant levels of these microRNAs. Finally, despite oral uptake of pollen containing these plant microRNAs, negligible delivery of these molecules was observed in recipient honeybees. Therefore, we conclude that horizontal delivery of microRNAs via typical dietary ingestion is neither a robust nor a frequent mechanism to maintain steady-state microRNA levels in a variety of model animal organisms, thus defining the biological limits of these molecules in vivo. PMID:23669076

Snow, Jonathan W.; Hale, Andrew E.; Isaacs, Stephanie K.; Baggish, Aaron L.; Chan, Stephen Y.

2013-01-01

70

Type IV kerogens as analogues for organic macromolecular materials in aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites.  

PubMed

Understanding the processes involved in the evolution of organic matter in the early Solar System requires extensive experimental work. The scientifically valuable carbonaceous chondrites are principal targets for organic analyses, but these meteorites are rare. Meteoritic analog materials available in larger quantities, on which experiments can be performed, would be highly beneficial. The bulk of the organic inventory of carbonaceous chondrites is made up of solvent-insoluble macromolecular material. This high-molecular-weight entity provides a record of thermal and aqueous parent-body alteration of precursor organic structures present at the birth of the Solar System. To identify an effective analogue for this macromolecular material, we analyzed a series of terrestrial kerogens by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Type I and II kerogens are unsuitable analogues owing to their highly aliphatic nature. Type III kerogens show some similarities to meteoritic macromolecular materials but display a substantial biological heritage. Type IV kerogens, in this study derived from Mesozoic paleosols and produced by the reworking and oxidation of organic matter, represent an effective analogue. Some isomeric differences exist between meteoritic macromolecular materials and type IV kerogens, and stepped pyrolysis indicates variations in thermal stability. In addition to being a suitable material for novel experimentation, type IV kerogens also have the potential to aid in the optimization of instruments for deployment on Mars. PMID:23551239

Matthewman, Richard; Martins, Zita; Sephton, Mark A

2013-04-01

71

Thermal alteration experiments on organic matter from recent marine sediments in relation to petroleum genesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three fractions of organic matter: lipid (benzene:methanol-extractable), humic acid (alkali-extractable) and kerogen (residue) were extracted from a young marine sediment (Tanner Basin, offshore southern California) and heated for different times (5-116 hr) and temperatures (150-410 C). The volatile (gases) and liquid products, as well as residual material, were then analyzed. On a weight basis, the lipid fraction produced 58% of the total identified n-alkanes, the kerogen fraction 41%, and the humic acid less than 1%. The volatiles produced by heating the lipid and humic acid fractions were largely CO2 and water, whereas those produced from heated kerogen also included methane, hydrogen gas and small amounts of C2-C4 hydrocarbons. A mechanism for hydrocarbon production due to the thermal alteration of organic constituents of marine sediment is discussed.

Ishiwatari, R.; Ishiwatari, M.; Rohrback, B. G.; Kaplan, I. R.

1977-01-01

72

Modeling self-organization in pedestrians and animal groups from macroscopic and microscopic viewpoints  

E-print Network

This paper is concerned with mathematical modeling of intelligent systems, such as human crowds and animal groups. In particular, the focus is on the emergence of different self-organized patterns from non-locality and anisotropy of the interactions among individuals. A mathematical technique by time-evolving measures is introduced to deal with both macroscopic and microscopic scales within a unified modeling framework. Then self-organization issues are investigated and numerically reproduced at the proper scale, according to the kind of agents under consideration.

Emiliano Cristiani; Benedetto Piccoli; Andrea Tosin

2009-06-25

73

A comparative study of production performance and animal health practices in organic and conventional dairy systems.  

PubMed

Health and production management strategies influence environmental impacts of dairies. The objective of this paper was to measure risk factors on health and production parameters on six organic and conventional bovine, caprine, and ovine dairy herds in southeastern Brazil over six consecutive years (2006-2011). The organic operations had lower milk production per animal (P???0.05), lower calf mortality (P???0.05), less incidence of mastitis (P???0.05), fewer rates of spontaneous abortions (P???0.05), and reduced ectoparasite loads (P???0.05) compared to conventional herds and flocks. Organic herds, however, had greater prevalence of internal parasitism (P???0.05) than conventional herds. In all management systems, calves, kids, and lambs had greater oocyte counts than adults. However, calves in the organic group showed lower prevalence of coccidiosis. In addition, animals in the organic system exhibited lower parasitic resistance to anthelmintics. Herd genetic potential, nutritive value of forage, feed intake, and pasture parasite loads, however, may have influenced productive and health parameters. Thus, although conventional herds showed greater milk production and less disease prevalence, future research might quantify the potential implications of these unreported factors. PMID:25015183

Silva, Jenevaldo B; Fagundes, Gisele M; Soares, João P G; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Muir, James P

2014-10-01

74

Examining the effect of altered redox conditions on deep soil organic matter stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since subsoil horizons contribute significantly to terrestrial carbon (C) budgets, understanding the influence of disturbances such as forest harvesting on subsoil C stability is critical. Clearcut harvesting leads to changes in the soil physico-chemical environment, including altering redox conditions arising from changes in soil hydrology that increase soil saturation, soil temperature, and pH. These physico-chemical changes have the potential to alter the adsorption of soil organic matter (SOM) to minerals, particularly at depth where SOM is primarily associated with mineral phases. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of differing redox states (aerobic vs. anaerobic) and temperature upon SOM stability of forested soils representative of the Acadian Forest Region of Eastern North America. Composite soil samples through depth (0-10, 10-20, 20-35, and 35-50 cm) from a mature red spruce forest (110 years) were incubated under optimum (aerobic) or saturated (anaerobic) conditions for 1 or 4 months at two temperatures (5 and 15 C). Following incubation, soil leachate was analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV-vis absorbance in order to determine soil C losses and its optical character. Specific UV-vis absorbance SUVA (254 nm) and spectral slope ratios were calculated in order to assess the composition of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Preliminary results from the 1 month incubation indicate that under anaerobic conditions, all depths released DOC with a higher SUVA than under aerobic conditions, with the largest change observed in the 0-10 cm depth increment. Soil incubated at 5 C produced leachate with significantly less DOC and with a lower absorbance compared to 15 C under both redox conditions. These results suggest that both temperature and redox state are important in determining the aromaticity of DOC released from soils. Spectral slope ratios revealed that a greater proportion of CDOM of lower molecular weight (MW) compounds were released from deep mineral podzolic soils when saturated (high SUVA, low spectral slope), while higher MW CDOM were released from shallow soil strata (low SUVA, high spectral slope). This is consistent with research that indicates plant-derived SOM and microbial products each dominate in shallow and deep mineral soils, respectively. These preliminary results suggest that alterations to the redox state of a forested podzolic soil may have the potential to alter the mobilization of SOM, its composition and associated soil carbon stores.

Gabriel, C.; Kellman, L. M.; Ziegler, S. E.

2013-12-01

75

Microcystin-LR and Cylindrospermopsin Induced Alterations in Chromatin Organization of Plant Cells  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria produce metabolites with diverse bioactivities, structures and pharmacological properties. The effects of microcystins (MCYs), a family of peptide type protein-phosphatase inhibitors and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), an alkaloid type of protein synthesis blocker will be discussed in this review. We are focusing mainly on cyanotoxin-induced changes of chromatin organization and their possible cellular mechanisms. The particularities of plant cells explain the importance of such studies. Preprophase bands (PPBs) are premitotic cytoskeletal structures important in the determination of plant cell division plane. Phragmoplasts are cytoskeletal structures involved in plant cytokinesis. Both cyanotoxins induce the formation of multipolar spindles and disrupted phragmoplasts, leading to abnormal sister chromatid segregation during mitosis. Thus, MCY and CYN are probably inducing alterations of chromosome number. MCY induces programmed cell death: chromatin condensation, nucleus fragmentation, necrosis, alterations of nuclease and protease enzyme activities and patterns. The above effects may be related to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or disfunctioning of microtubule associated proteins. Specific effects: MCY-LR induces histone H3 hyperphosphorylation leading to incomplete chromatid segregation and the formation of micronuclei. CYN induces the formation of split or double PPB directly related to protein synthesis inhibition. Cyanotoxins are powerful tools in the study of plant cell organization. PMID:24084787

Mathe, Csaba; M-Hamvas, Marta; Vasas, Gabor

2013-01-01

76

Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) invasion alters organic matter dynamics in a desert stream  

USGS Publications Warehouse

1. We investigated the impacts of saltcedar invasion on organic matter dynamics in a spring-fed stream (Jackrabbit Spring) in the Mojave Desert of southern Nevada, U.S.A., by experimentally manipulating saltcedar abundance. 2. Saltcedar heavily shaded Jackrabbit Spring and shifted the dominant organic matter inputs from autochthonous production that was available throughout the year to allochthonous saltcedar leaf litter that was strongly pulsed in the autumn. Specifically, reaches dominated by saltcedar had allochthonous litter inputs of 299 g ash free dry mass (AFDM) m-2 year-1, macrophyte production of 15 g AFDM m-2 year-1 and algal production of 400 g AFDM m-2 year-1, while reaches dominated by native riparian vegetation or where saltcedar had been experimentally removed had allochthonous litter inputs of 7-34 g AFDM m -2 year-1, macrophyte production of 118-425 g AFDM m -2 year-1 and algal production of 640-900 g AFDM m -2 year-1. 3. A leaf litter breakdown study indicated that saltcedar also altered decomposition in Jackrabbit Spring, mainly through its influence on litter quality rather than by altering the environment for decomposition. Decomposition rates for saltcedar were lower than for ash (Fraxinus velutina), the dominant native allochthonous litter type, but faster than for bulrush (Scirpus americanus), the dominant macrophyte in this system.

Kennedy, T. A.; Hobbie, S. E.

2004-01-01

77

Alteration of organic matter during infaunal polychaete gut passage and links to sediment organic geochemistry. Part II: Fatty acids and aldoses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The activities of sediment-dwelling fauna are known to influence the rates of and pathways through which organic matter is cycled in marine sediments, and thus to influence eventual organic carbon burial or decay. However, due to methodological constraints, the role of faunal gut passage in determining the subsequent composition and thus degradability of organic matter is relatively little studied. Previous studies of organic matter digestion by benthic fauna have been unable to detect uptake and retention of specific biochemicals in faunal tissues, and have been of durations too short to fit digestion into the context of longer-term sedimentary degradation processes. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the aldose and fatty acid compositional alterations occurring to organic matter during gut passage by the abundant and ubiquitous polychaetes Hediste diversicolor and Arenicola marina, and to link these to longer-term changes typically observed during organic matter decay. This aim was approached through microcosm experiments in which selected polychaetes were fed with 13C-labelled algal detritus, and organisms, sediments, and faecal pellets were sampled at three timepoints over ?6 weeks. Samples were analysed for their 13C-labelled aldose and fatty acid contents using GC-MS and GC-IRMS. Compound-selective net accumulation of biochemicals in polychaete tissues was observed for both aldoses and fatty acids, and the patterns of this were taxon-specific. The dominant patterns included an overall loss of glucose and polyunsaturated fatty acids; and preferential preservation or production of arabinose, microbial compounds (rhamnose, fucose and microbial fatty acids), and animal-synthesised fatty acids. These patterns may have been driven by fatty acid essentiality, preferential metabolism of glucose, and A. marina grazing on bacteria. Fatty acid suites in sediments from faunated microcosms showed greater proportions of saturated fatty acids and bacterial markers than those from afaunal controls. Aldose suite alterations were similar in faunated microcosms and afaunal controls, however the impact of faunal gut passage on sedimentary aldose compositions may be observable over longer timescales. Therefore this study provides direct evidence that polychaete gut passage influences OM composition both through taxon-specific selective assimilation and retention in polychaete tissues, and also through interactions with the microbial community. Polychaete gut passage will result in selective loss, preservation, and retention in polychaete tissues of specific aldoses and fatty acids. The pattern of selectivity will be taxon specific. Changes observed during gut passage will align with those commonly observed during OM decay, thus indicating that macrofaunal gut passage is one of the factors controlling sedimentary OM composition. Together with a previous publication reporting amino acid data from the same experiments (Woulds et al., 2012), this study represents the most complete description of OM alteration during gut passage that is available to date.

Woulds, Clare; Middelburg, Jack J.; Cowie, Greg L.

2014-07-01

78

Alteration of Organic Compounds in Small Bodies and Cosmic Dusts by Cosmic Rays and Solar Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wide variety of complex organic compounds have been detected in extraterrestrial bodies like carbonaceous chondrites and comets, and their roles in the generation of terrestrial life are discussed. It was suggested that organics in small bodies were originally formed in ice mantles of interstellar dusts in dense cloud. Irradiation of frozen mixture of possible interstellar molecules including CO (or CH _{3}OH), NH _{3} and H _{2}O with high-energy particles gave complex amino acid precursors with high molecular weights [1]. Such complex organic molecules were taken in planetesimals or comets in the early solar system. In prior to the generation of the terrestrial life, extraterrestrial organics were delivered to the primitive Earth by such small bodies as meteorites, comets and space dusts. These organics would have been altered by cosmic rays and solar radiation (UV, X-rays) before the delivery to the Earth. We examined possible alteration of amino acids, their precursors and nucleic acid bases in interplanetary space by irradiation with high energy photons and heavy ions. A mixture of CO, NH _{3} and H _{2}O was irradiated with high-energy protons from a van de Graaff accelerator (TIT, Japan). The resulting products (hereafter referred to as CAW) are complex precursors of amino acids. CAW, amino acids (dl-Isovaline, glycine), hydantoins (amino acid precursors) and nucleic acid bases were irradiated with continuous emission (soft X-rays to IR; hereafter referred to as soft X-rays irradiation) from BL-6 of NewSUBARU synchrotron radiation facility (Univ. Hyogo). They were also irradiated with heavy ions (eg., 290 MeV/u C ^{6+}) from HIMAC accelerator (NIRS, Japan). After soft X-rays irradiation, water insoluble materials were formed. After irradiation with soft X-rays or heavy ions, amino acid precursors (CAW and hydantoins) gave higher ratio of amino acids were recovered after hydrolysis than free amino acids. Nucleic acid bases showed higher stability than free amino acids. Complex amino acid precursors with high molecular weights could be formed in simulated dense cloud environments. They would have been altered in the early solar system by irradiation with soft X-rays from the young Sun, which caused increase of hydrophobicity of the organics of interstellar origin. They were taken up by parent bodies of meteorites or comets, and could have been delivered to the Earth by meteorites, comets and cosmic dusts. Cosmic dusts were so small that they were directly exposed to the solar radiation, which might be critical for the survivability of organics in them. In order to evaluate the roles of space dusts as carriers of bioorganic compounds to the primitive Earth, we are planning the Tanpopo Mission, where collection of cosmic dusts by using ultra low-density aerogel, and exposure of amino acids and their precursors for years are planned by utilizing the Japan Experimental Module / Exposed Facility of the ISS [2]. The mission is now scheduled to start in 2013. We thank Dr. Katsunori Kawasaki of Tokyo Institute of Technology, and Dr. Satoshi Yoshida of National Institute of Radiological Sciences for their help in particles irradiation. We also thank to the members of JAXA Tanpopo Working Group (PI: Prof. Akihiko Yamagishi) for their helpful discussion. [1] K. Kobayashi, et al., in ``Astrobiology: from Simple Molecules to Primitive Life,'' ed. by V. Basiuk, American Scientific Publishers, Valencia, CA, (2010), pp. 175-186. [2] K. Kobayashi, et al., Trans. Jpn. Soc. Aero. Space Sci., in press (2012).

Kobayashi, Kensei; Kaneko, Takeo; Mita, Hajime; Obayashi, Yumiko; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Sarker, Palash K.; Kawamoto, Yukinori; Okabe, Takuto; Eto, Midori; Kanda, Kazuhiro

2012-07-01

79

[The biological effects in animals in relation to the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station. 9. The morphofunctional indices of the immunocompetent organs in mice].  

PubMed

The permanent action of small doses of low-intensity radiation on the immune status of 2.5-3.5 month CC57W mice has been investigated. Total doses of internal and external irradiation were about few cGy. The permanent action of low-level radiation on the experimental animals of the first and fourth generations was shown to change spleen and lymph nodes weights and the count of lymphocytes isolated from these organs. Cellularity and DNA synthesis in the lymph-node lymphocytes and their proliferative response to polyclonal mitogens also changed. The alterations in the parameters that characterized T-lymphocyte population were statistically significant. PMID:1745756

Savtsova, Z D; Kovbasiuk, S A; Iudina, O Iu; Zaritskaia, M Iu; Voe?kova, I M; Indyk, V M; Serkiz, Ia I

1991-01-01

80

Single amino acid change alters the ability to specify male or female organ identity  

PubMed Central

The molecular mechanisms underlying the developmental processes that shape living organisms provide a basis to understand the evolution of biological complexity. Gene duplication allows biological functions to become separated, leading to increased complexity through subfunctionalization. Recently, the relative contributions to morphological evolution of changes to the regulatory and/or coding regions of duplicated genes have been the subject of debate. Duplication generated multiple copies of the MADS-box transcription factor genes that play essential roles in specifying organ identity in the flower, making this evolutionary novelty a good model to investigate the nature of the changes necessary to drive subfunctionalization. Here, we show that naturally occurring variation at a single amino acid in a MADS-box transcription factor switches its ability to specify male and female reproductive organs by altering its repertoire of protein–protein interactions. However, these different developmental fates are only manifest because of an underlying variation in the expression pattern of interacting proteins. This shows that the morphological outcomes of changes to protein sequence and gene expression must be interpreted in the context of the wider regulatory network. It also suggests an explanation for the surprisingly widespread duplications of some of the floral transcription factors. PMID:20956314

Airoldi, Chiara A.; Bergonzi, Sara; Davies, Brendan

2010-01-01

81

Evolution of organic matter in Orgueil, Murchison and Renazzo during parent body aqueous alteration: In situ investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chondrites accreted the oldest solid materials in the solar system including dust processed in the protoplanetary disk and diverse organic compounds. After accretion, asteroidal alteration may have impacted organic particles in various ways. To constrain these processes, we conducted a comprehensive study of organics disseminated within the matrices of the three carbonaceous chondrite falls, Renazzo (CR2), Murchison (CM2) and Orgueil (CI). By combining synchrotron-based STXM and TEM analyses on FIB sections of samples previously characterized by NanoSIMS, we investigated the influence of aqueous alteration on the morphology, isotopic signature, molecular structure, spatial distribution, and mineralogical environment of the organic matter within the matrices. Two different populations of materials are distinguishable: sub-micrometric individual grains, likely dominated by insoluble compounds and diffuse organic matter, finely interspersed within phyllosilicates and/or (amorphous) nanocarbonates at the nanometer scale. We suggest that this latter component, which is depleted in aromatics and enriched in carboxylic functional groups, may be dominated by soluble compounds. Organic matter in Renazzo (CR) mainly consists of chemically-homogeneous individual grains surrounded by amorphous and nanocrystalline phyllosilicates. Evidence of connectivity between organic grains and fractures indicates that redistribution has occurred: some areas containing diffuse organic matter can be observed. This diffuse organic component is more abundant in Murchison (CM) and Orgueil (CI). This is interpreted as resulting from fluid transport at the micrometer scale and encapsulation within recrystallized alteration phases. In contrast to Renazzo, organic grains in Murchison and Orgueil display strong chemical heterogeneities, likely related to chemical evolution during aqueous alteration. The observations suggest that the altering fluid was a brine with elevated concentrations of both organic and inorganic soluble components. Ultimately, when water was consumed by aqueous alteration reactions or lost from the system, soluble organic compounds accumulated in the immediate vicinity of the precipitated carbonates and phosphates. Additionally, the nanometer scale organic/phyllosilicate relationships provide a petrological environment where some of the initially accreted organic matter could have been modified through clay-mediated reactions.

Le Guillou, Corentin; Bernard, Sylvain; Brearley, Adrian J.; Remusat, Laurent

2014-04-01

82

Diagenetic alterations of amino acids and organic matter in the upper Pearl River Estuary surface sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to investigate the sources, diagenetic alterations of, and bacterial contributions to sediment organic matter (OM) in the upper Pearl River Estuary. Sediment analyses were conducted for three size fractions of OM, including coarse particulate OM (CPOM), fine particulate OM (FPOM), and ultrafiltered dissolved OM (UDOM). Results showed that the highest and lowest carbon (C): nitrogen (N) ratios were in CPOM and UDOM, respectively, indicating CPOM was relatively enriched in organic C, whereas FPOM was enriched in N-containing molecules. Distributions of amino acids and their D-isomers among the sediment fractions indicated that the percentage of total N represented by total hydrolysable amino acids, C- and N-normalized yields of total D-amino acids, and C- and N-normalized yields of D-alanine, D-glutamic acid, D-serine could be used as diagenetic indicators of sediment OM. Correlations between the N yields in total D-amino acids and total hydrolysable amino acids, and total N yields suggested that the bacterial N in general reflected the bulk N changes in CPOM, FPOM, and UDOM. Our results demonstrate the crucial role of bacteria as a N source in the terrestrial (soil and vascular plant debris) OM transported by the river.

Zhang, J.; Zhang, R.; Wu, Q.; Xu, N.

2011-03-01

83

Diagenetic alterations of amino acids and organic matter in the upper Pearl River Estuary surface sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to investigate the diagenetic alteration of sediment organic matter (OM) in the upper Pearl River Estuary. Sediment analyses were conducted for three size fractions of OM, including coarse particulate OM (CPOM), fine particulate OM (FPOM), and ultrafiltered dissolved OM (UDOM). Results showed that the highest and lowest carbon (C): nitrogen (N) ratios were in CPOM and UDOM, respectively, indicating that CPOM was relatively enriched in organic C. The highest average total N content in the FPOM fraction showed that FPOM was enriched in N-containing molecules. Our study showed that the "size-reactivity continuum" model was applicable to sediment particulate and dissolved OM. Distributions of amino acids and their D-isomers among the sediment fractions indicated that the amino acid-based diagenetic index, C:N ratio, and percentage of total N represented by total hydrolysable amino acids could be used as diagenetic indicators. Furthermore, the diagenetic state of sediment OM could also be characterized by C- and N-normalized yields of total D-amino acids, and C- and N-normalized yields of D-alanine, D-glutamic acid, and D-serine.

Zhang, J.; Zhang, R.; Wu, Q.; Xu, N.

2012-01-01

84

Alteration of organic matter during infaunal polychaete gut passage and links to sediment organic geochemistry. Part I: Amino acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of the factors which control the quantity and composition of organic matter (OM) buried in marine sediments, the links between infaunal ingestion and gut passage and sediment geochemistry have received relatively little attention. This study aimed to use feeding experiments and novel isotope tracing techniques to quantify amino acid net accumulation and loss during polychaete gut passage, and to link this to patterns of selective preservation and decay in sediments. Microcosms containing either Arenicolamarina or Hediste (formerly Nereis) diversicolor were constructed from defaunated sediment and filtered estuarine water, and maintained under natural temperature and light conditions. They were fed with 13C-labelled diatoms daily for 8 days, and animals were transferred into fresh, un-labelled sediment after ?20 days. Samples of fauna, microcosm sediment and faecal matter were collected after 8, ?20 and ?40 days, and analysed for their bulk isotopic signatures and 13C-labelled amino acid compositions. Bulk isotopic data showed that, consistent with their feeding modes, Hediste assimilated added 13C more quickly, and attained a higher labelling level than Arenicola. Both species retained the added 13C in their biomass even after removal from the food. A principal component analysis of 13C-labelled amino acid mole percentages showed clear differences in composition between the algae, faunal tissues, and sediment plus faecal matter. Further, the two species of polychaete showed different compositions in their tissues. The amino acids phenylalanine, valine, leucine, iso-leucine, threonine and proline showed net accumulation in polychaete tissues. Serine, methionine, lysine, aspartic and glutamic acids and tyrosine were rapidly lost through metabolism, consistent with their presence in easily digestible cell components (as opposed to cell walls which offer physical protection). All sample types (polychaete tissues, sediments and faecal matter) were enriched in labelled glycine. Possible mechanisms for this enrichment include accumulation through inclusion in tissues with long residence times, preferential preservation (i.e. selection against) during metabolism, production from other labelled amino acids during varied metabolic processes, and accumulation in refractory by-products of secondary bacterial production. Overall, similarities were observed between amino-acid decay patterns in faunated microcosms, afaunal controls, and those previously reported in marine sediments. Thus, while polychaete gut passage did produce compound-selective accumulation and losses of certain amino acids in polychaete tissues and faecal matter, the impact of polychaete gut passage on sediment organic geochemistry was difficult to deconvolve from microbial decay. Despite processing large volumes of organic matter, polychaetes may not have distinctive influence on sediment compositions, possibly because metabolic processes concerning amino acids may be broadly similar across a wide range of organisms.

Woulds, Clare; Middelburg, Jack J.; Cowie, Greg L.

2012-01-01

85

Altered Topological Organization of White Matter Structural Networks in Patients with Neuromyelitis Optica  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the topological alterations of the whole-brain white-matter (WM) structural networks in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Methods The present study involved 26 NMO patients and 26 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. WM structural connectivity in each participant was imaged with diffusion-weighted MRI and represented in terms of a connectivity matrix using deterministic tractography method. Graph theory-based analyses were then performed for the characterization of brain network properties. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed on each network metric between the NMO and control groups. Results The NMO patients exhibited abnormal small-world network properties, as indicated by increased normalized characteristic path length, increased normalized clustering and increased small-worldness. Furthermore, largely similar hub distributions of the WM structural networks were observed between NMO patients and healthy controls. However, regional efficiency in several brain areas of NMO patients was significantly reduced, which were mainly distributed in the default-mode, sensorimotor and visual systems. Furthermore, we have observed increased regional efficiency in a few brain regions such as the orbital parts of the superior and middle frontal and fusiform gyri. Conclusion Although the NMO patients in this study had no discernible white matter T2 lesions in the brain, we hypothesize that the disrupted topological organization of WM networks provides additional evidence for subtle, widespread cerebral WM pathology in NMO. PMID:23144994

Liu, Yaou; Duan, Yunyun; He, Yong; Wang, Jun; Xia, Mingrui; Yu, Chunshui; Dong, Huiqing; Ye, Jing; Butzkueven, Helmut; Li, Kuncheng; Shu, Ni

2012-01-01

86

Animals, Animals, Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Third grade students may use this page for additional resources for their animal research. Use these links as part of your animal research: Desert Biome What Swims Beneath: Creatures of the Sea Scaly Surprises (ScienceWorld) Manatees AnimalPlanet.com: Mammal Guide Endangered Species Picture Book MIKIDS!: Mammals ZOOM MAMMALS - EnchantedLearning.com Smithsonian National Zoological Park Enchanted Learning: Zoom Sharks Shark School Sharks: Did You Know? Sharks: Myth and Mystery The Secret World of Sharks and Rays ...

Laz, Mrs.

2006-12-16

87

Transgenic Mice Expressing an Altered Murine Superoxide Dismutase Gene Provide an Animal Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis isaprogres- sive neurodegenerative disorder primarily involving motoneu- rons. A subset ofindividuals withfamilial autosomal domi- nantformsofthedisease havemutations ofthecopper\\/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu\\/ZnSOD,SOD-1)gene, which encodes aubiquitously expressed enzyme that plays akeyrole inoxygen free radical scavenging. Thisobservation suggests that altered orreduced SOD-1activity mayplayarole inthe neurodegenerative process. Toexplore this possibility further, wehaveintroduced amutation intothemouseSOD-1gene thatcorresponds tooneofthechanges foundinthehuman geneinfamilial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Integration

MICHAEL E. RIPps; PATRICK R. HOFt

1995-01-01

88

Assessment of tissue concentrations of metals and volatile organic chemicals in farm animal products  

SciTech Connect

An Army site in Pennsylvania is included on the National Priorities List. Site-related chemicals such as volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) and metals have been released to the groundwater from the industrial sewer which have now been repaired. VOCs are also present in groundwater in off post residential wells. The purpose of this study was to address the possible effects of groundwater and surface water chemicals to livestock and humans via the food chain pathway in the off post areas. Sampling of off post farm animal tissues was performed to confirm or revise the conclusion (based on modeled results) that this exposure pathway does not pose significant risk to human or animal health. Objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the potential presence of study constituents in the components of the food chain, and (2) develop data for use in the future risk assessment. Samples collected from the study area and reference (background) areas include beef (4 cuts), poultry, eggs, pork (5 cuts), and cow`s milk. The analyses were performed using published EPA methodologies modified as appropriate for sample (tissue) preparation. VOCs were analyzed using the EPA GC/MS purge and trap method SW846-8240. Metals were analyzed using the EPA inductively coupled/mass spectrometer (ICP/MS) method SW846-6020. Metals were found ubiquitously in samples from both areas. VOCs were only sporadically found. Statistical analyses were performed to identify chemicals in specific tissues where concentrations differed significantly between study area and reference areas.

Stone, P.R. III; Shortelle, A.B.; Charna, R.; Maxwell, J.

1995-12-31

89

Novel Threadlike Structures May Be Present on the Large Animal Organ Surface: Evidence in Swine Model  

PubMed Central

Background. The types of embryonic development probably provoke different paths of novel threadlike structure (NTS) development. The authors hypothesized that NTS may be easily observed on the surface of swine intestines by using trypan blue staining method and visualization under an optical microscope. Methods. General anesthesia was administered to 2 Yorkshire pigs. The abdominal walls of the pigs were carefully dissected along the medial alba. NTSs were identified on organ surfaces under a stereoscopic microscope after trypan blue staining. Isolated NTS specimens obtained from the large intestine were subjected to 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and observed using the polarized light microscopy to confirm whether the obtained structure fits the definition of NTS. Results. We found elastic, semitransparent threadlike structures (forming a network structure) that had a milky-white color in situ and in vivo in swine large intestines. The samples showed distinct extinction of polarized light at every 90 degrees, and nucleus was shown to be rod shaped by DAPI staining, indicating that they meet the criteria of NTS. Conclusion. We used a swine model to demonstrate that NTS may be present on large animal organ surfaces. Our results may permit similar studies by using human specimens. PMID:23762159

Bae, Kyoung-Hee; Park, Sang Hyun; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Nam, Min-Ho; Yoon, Ji Woong; Kwon, Hee-Min; Yoon, Seung Zhoo

2013-01-01

90

Melittin Ameliorates the Inflammation of Organs in an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Animal Model  

PubMed Central

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a selective loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brainstem, and motor cortex, leading to weakness of the limb and bulbar muscles. Although the immediate cause of death in ALS is the destruction of motor neurons, ALS is a multi-organ disease that also affects the lungs, spleen, and liver. Melittin is one of components of bee venom and has anti-neuroinflammatory effects in the spinal cord, as shown in an ALS animal model. To investigate the effects of melittin on inflammation in the lungs and spleen, we used hSOD1G93A transgenic mice that are mimic for ALS. Melittin treatment reduced the expression of inflammatory proteins, including Iba-1 and CD14 by 1.9- and 1.3-fold (p<0.05), respectively, in the lungs of symptomatic hSOD1G93A transgenic mice. In the spleen, the expression of CD14 and COX2 that are related to inflammation were decreased by 1.4 fold (p<0.05) and cell survival proteins such as pERK and Bcl2 were increased by 1.3- and 1.5-fold (p<0.05) in the melittin-treated hSOD1G93A transgenic mice. These findings suggest that melittin could be a candidate to regulate the immune system in organs affected by ALS. PMID:24737943

Lee, Sun-Hwa; Choi, Sun-Mi

2014-01-01

91

Predators alter community organization of coral reef cryptofauna and reduce abundance of coral mutualists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coral reefs are the most diverse marine systems in the world, yet our understanding of the processes that maintain such extraordinary diversity remains limited and taxonomically biased toward the most conspicuous species. Cryptofauna that live deeply embedded within the interstitial spaces of coral reefs make up the majority of reef diversity, and many of these species provide important protective services to their coral hosts. However, we know very little about the processes governing the diversity and composition of these less conspicuous but functionally important species. Here, we experimentally quantify the role of predation in driving the community organization of small fishes and decapods that live embedded within Pocillopora eydouxi, a structurally complex, reef-building coral found widely across the Indo-Pacific. We use surveys to describe the natural distribution of predators, and then, factorially manipulate two focal predator species to quantify the independent and combined effects of predator density and identity on P. eydouxi-dwelling cryptofauna. Predators reduced abundance (34 %), species richness (20 %), and modified species composition. Rarefaction revealed that observed reductions in species richness were primarily driven by changes in abundance. Additionally, the two predator species uniquely affected the beta diversity and composition of the prey assemblage. Predators reduced the abundance and modified the composition of a number of mutualist fishes and decapods, whose benefit to the coral is known to be both diversity- and density-dependent. We predict that the density and identity of predators present within P. eydouxi may substantially alter coral performance in the face of an increased frequency and intensity of natural and anthropogenic stressors.

Stier, A. C.; Leray, M.

2014-03-01

92

Animal manure application and soil organic carbon stocks: a meta-analysis.  

PubMed

The impact of animal manure application on soil organic carbon (SOC) stock changes is of interest for both agronomic and environmental purposes. There is a specific need to quantify SOC change for use in national greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventories. We quantified the response of SOC stocks to manure application from a large worldwide pool of individual studies and determined the impact of explanatory factors such as climate, soil properties, land use and manure characteristics. Our study is based on a meta-analysis of 42 research articles totaling 49 sites and 130 observations in the world. A dominant effect of cumulative manure-C input on SOC response was observed as this factor explained at least 53% of the variability in SOC stock differences compared to mineral fertilized or unfertilized reference treatments. However, the effects of other determining factors were not evident from our data set. From the linear regression relating cumulative C inputs and SOC stock difference, a global manure-C retention coefficient of 12% ± 4 (95% Confidence Interval, CI) could be estimated for an average study duration of 18 years. Following an approach comparable to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, we estimated a relative SOC change factor of 1.26 ± 0.14 (95% CI) which was also related to cumulative manure-C input. Our results offer some scope for the refinement of manure retention coefficients used in crop management guidelines and for the improvement of SOC change factors for national GHG inventories by taking into account manure-C input. Finally, this study emphasizes the need to further document the long-term impact of manure characteristics such as animal species, especially pig and poultry, and manure management systems, in particular liquid vs. solid storage. PMID:24132954

Maillard, Émilie; Angers, Denis A

2014-02-01

93

Improved diagnosis for nine viral diseases considered as notifiable by the world organization for animal health.  

PubMed

Nine viral diseases included in the World Organization for Animal Health list of notifiable diseases (former list A) were chosen for their contagiousness and high capacity of spreading to improve their diagnosis using new and emerging technologies. All the selected diseases--foot-and-mouth disease, swine vesicular disease, vesicular stomatitis, classical swine fever, African swine fever, bluetongue, African horse sickness, Newcastle disease and highly pathogenic avian influenza--are considered as transboundary diseases, which detection causes the prohibition of livestock exportation, and, thus, it leads to high economical losses. The applied diagnostic techniques can fall into two categories: (i) nucleic-acid detection, including padlock probes, real-time PCR with TaqMan, minor groove binding probes and fluorescence energy transfer reaction probes, isothermal amplification like the Cleavase/Invader assay or the loop-mediated amplification technology and the development of rapid kits for 'mobile' PCR and (ii) antigen-antibody detection systems like simplified and more sensitive ELISA tests. Besides, internal controls have been improved for nucleic acid-detecting methods by using an RNA plant virus--Cowpea Mosaic Virus--to ensure the stability of the RNA used as a positive control in diagnostic real-time RT-PCR assays. The development of these diagnosis techniques has required the joint efforts of a European consortium in which nine diagnostic laboratories and an SME who have collaborated since 2004 within the European Union-funded Lab-on-site project. The results obtained are shown in this paper. PMID:18666965

Rodriguez-Sanchez, B; Sanchez-Vizcaino, J M; Uttenthal, A; Rasmussen, T B; Hakhverdyan, M; King, D P; Ferris, N P; Ebert, K; Reid, S M; Kiss, I; Brocchi, E; Cordioli, P; Hjerner, B; McMenamy, M; McKillen, J; Ahmed, J S; Belak, S

2008-08-01

94

Effects of Biochemical Alteration in Animal Model after Short-Term Exposure of Jatropha curcas (Linn) Leaf Extract  

PubMed Central

This study aims to evaluate potential toxic effect of Jatropha curcas leaves methanol extract on laboratory rats as well as determine its LD50. A total of 80 male Wistar rats were used as the experimental animals, 40 for LD50 determination and the other 40 for toxicity study. Based on the pretest that was done in order to establish a range of toxicity, 4 dosages (86.00, 58.00, 46.00, and 34.0?kg/body weight) were chosen. The rats were randomly assigned into four groups with 10 rats in each group. Rats in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were given 0?mg/kg, 500?mg/kg, 1000?mg/kg, and 2000?mg/kg body weight of Jatropha curcas extract, respectively, by oral intubation for 21 days. Thereafter, clinical signs, change in body weight, toxicity symptoms, and biochemical parameters were obtained. The LD50 at 95% confidence limits for rats was 46.0?mg/kg body weight (44.95–52.69?mg/kg body mass). There was no clinical and biochemical signs of toxicity when the extract was administered at 500, 1000, and 2000?mg/kg body weight, respectively (P > 0.05). Results obtained from this study suggest that liver, kidney, and haematological system of rats tolerated methanolic leave extract of Jatropha curcas at a certain concentration. PMID:23781161

Igbinosa, Osamuyimen O.; Oviasogie, Efosa F.; Igbinosa, Etinosa O.; Igene, Otibhor; Igbinosa, Isoken H.; Idemudia, Omoruyi G.

2013-01-01

95

Repeated exposure to chlorpyrifos alters the performance of adolescent male rats in animal models of depression and anxiety.  

PubMed

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a broad spectrum, highly effective organophosphorus (OP) pesticide that has been largely used worldwide. Over the past decades, numerous studies have assessed the potential neurotoxic effects of either acute or chronic exposure to CPF on developing brain. Despite being an acetylcholinersterase inhibitor, the effects of CPF are not only confined to cholinergic system, but are involved in a wide variety of neurotransmitter systems, especially the serotonin (5-HT) system, which leads to long-lasting changes in 5-HT-related emotional behaviors. In our present study, 4-week-old adolescent male Sprague-Dawley rats were repeatedly exposed to CPF at daily doses of 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg/day (s.c., 7 days), and then subjected to a battery of emotional behavioral tests that related to serotonergic function in order to determine CPF effects in adolescent rats. Results in behavioral tests demonstrated CPF significantly increased the entries to and time spent in the open arms in the elevated plus-maze test at the dose of 40-160 mg/kg, the number of shocks in the Vogel's conflict test at the dose of 20-160 mg/kg, and significantly decreased the latency to feed in the novelty-suppressed feeding test in both dose range. Interestingly, in the forced swimming test, at the dose of 10mg/kg, CPF significantly increased the immobility time, whereas it significantly decreased the immobility time at the dose of 160 mg/kg. Our data suggest that repeated exposure to CPF elicits alterations of the emotional behaviors related to serotonergic nervous system in adolescent male rats. However, the underlying mechanism needs further investigations. PMID:21453723

Chen, Wen-Qiang; Yuan, Li; Xue, Rui; Li, Yun-Feng; Su, Rui-Bin; Zhang, You-Zhi; Li, Jin

2011-08-01

96

Alterations of the synapse of the inner retinal layers after chronic intraocular pressure elevation in glaucoma animal model  

PubMed Central

Background Dendrites of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) synapse with axon terminals of bipolar cells in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). Changes in RGC dendrites and synapses between bipolar cells in the inner retinal layer may critically alter the function of RGCs in glaucoma. Recently, synaptic plasticity has been observed in the adult central nervous system, including the outer retinal layers. However, few studies have focused on changes in the synapses between RGCs and bipolar cells in glaucoma. In the present study, we used a rat model of ocular hypertension induced by episcleral vein cauterization to investigate changes in synaptic structure and protein expression in the inner retinal layer at various time points after moderate intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation. Results Synaptophysin, a presynaptic vesicle protein, increased throughout the IPL, outer plexiform layer, and outer nuclear layer after IOP elevation. Increased synaptophysin after IOP elevation was expressed in bipolar cells in the innermost IPL. The RGC marker, SMI-32, co-localized with synaptophysin in RGC dendrites and were significantly increased at 1 week and 4 weeks after IOP elevation. Both synaptophysin and postsynaptic vesicle protein, PSD-95, were increased after IOP elevation by western blot analysis. Ribbon synapses in the IPL were quantified and structurally evaluated in retinal sections by transmission electron microscopy. After IOP elevation the total number of ribbon synapses decreased. There were increases in synapse diameter and synaptic vesicle number and decreases in active zone length and the number of docked vesicles after IOP elevation. Conclusions Although the total number of synapses decreased as RGCs were lost after IOP elevation, there are attempts to increase synaptic vesicle proteins and immature synapse formation between RGCs and bipolar cells in the inner retinal layers after glaucoma induction. PMID:25116810

2014-01-01

97

Nicotine pharmacokinetics in rats is altered as a function of age, impacting the interpretation of animal model data.  

PubMed

Several behavioral studies report that adolescent rats display a preference for nicotine compared with adults. However, age-related pharmacokinetic differences may confound the interpretation of these findings. Thus, differences in pharmacokinetic analyses of nicotine were investigated. Nicotine was administered via acute s.c. (1.0 mg base/kg) or i.v. (0.2 mg base/kg) injection to early adolescent (EA; postnatal day 25) and adult (AD; postnatal day 71) male Wistar rats. Nicotine and its primary metabolite, cotinine, and additional metabolites nornicotine, nicotine-1'-N-oxide, trans-3'-hydroxycotinine, and norcotinine were sampled from 10 minutes to 8 hours (plasma) and 2 to 8 hours (brain) post nicotine and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Following s.c. nicotine, the EA cohort had lower levels of plasma nicotine, cotinine, and nicotine-1'-N-oxide at multiple time points, resulting in a lower area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for nicotine (P < 0.001), cotinine (P < 0.01), and nicotine-1'-N-oxide (P < 0.001). Brain levels were also lower for these compounds. In contrast, the EA cohort had higher plasma and brain AUCs (P < 0.001) for the minor metabolite nornicotine. Brain-to-plasma ratios varied for nicotine and its metabolites, and by age. Following i.v. nicotine administration, similar age-related differences were observed, and this route allowed detection of a 1.6-fold-larger volume of distribution and 2-fold higher plasma clearance in the EA cohort compared with the AD cohort. Thus, unlike in humans, there are substantial age differences in nicotine pharmacokinetics such that for a given nicotine dose, adolescent rats will have lower plasma and brain nicotine compared with adults, suggesting that this should be considered when interpreting animal model data. PMID:24980255

Craig, Evelyn L; Zhao, Bin; Cui, Jason Z; Novalen, Maria; Miksys, Sharon; Tyndale, Rachel F

2014-09-01

98

Characterizing reduced sulfur compounds and non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become a potential environmental and human health concern. Both RSCs and NMVOCs contribute to odor. In addition, RSCs also have the potential to form fine particulate matter (PMfine) and NMVOCs the potential to form ozone. Measurements of RSCs and NMVOCs emissions were

Ian Cooper Rumsey

2010-01-01

99

Organic solvent alteration of hydraulic properties of sedimentary rocks of low permeability: a review  

SciTech Connect

A review of the current literature on hydrophysical interactions of organic solutes with sedimentary rocks of low permeability is presented. The motivation was the premise that low permeability rocks may act as secondary (aquifer) barriers for the containment of hazardous organic wastes, thus preventing these wastes from contaminating the groundwater. However, this premise may be incorrect if organic wastes can affect the hydraulic conductivity of these rocks. The results indicate that very little work has been done concerning interactions of organics with consolidated subsurface materials. Available information on three related topics was summarized: the effect of organic compounds on the hydrophysical properties of clays, case studies concerning the interactions of organic compounds with clays and sedimentary rocks, and the effect of shales on inorganic transport. These studies give an indication of some research areas that need to be explored with regard to the effect of organic compounds on the hydrophysical properties of sedimentary rocks; these research needs are briefly summarized. 42 refs.

Sklarew, D.S.

1985-05-01

100

Alteration of cancer pain-related signals by radiation: Proteomic analysis in an animal model with cancer bone invasion  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Although radiotherapy is highly effective in relieving bone pain due to cancer invasion, its mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore this mechanism in an animal model system. Methods and Materials: A hind paw model of cancer pain was developed by transplanting a murine hepatocarcinoma, HCa-1, into the periosteal membrane of the foot dorsum of C3H/HeJ mice. Bone invasion from HCa-1 was histopathologically confirmed from sequential tumor sampling. For three experimental groups, a control (N), tumor without radiation (T), and tumor with radiation (TR), the development and level of pain were objectively examined in mice with a growing tumor by assessing pain-associated behavior. The differential expression of pain-related signals in the spinal cord was analyzed by proteomic analysis using high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry, and those of proteins by Western blotting. The pain-mediating neurotransmitters in the spinal cord were also examined by immunohistochemical staining for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P. Results: In the histopathologic examinations, bone invasion from HCa-1 was seen from Day 7 and was evident at Day 14 after transplantation, and measurable pain-associated behaviors were developed from Day 7. After 25 Gy of radiation to the tumors, the objective level of pain in the TR group decreased, with higher thresholds to mechanical and thermal stimulation than in the T group. From the 2-DE of spinal cord, 107 spots were identified; 12 proteins were changed more than fivefold because of tumor formation but then reversed after radiation in the tumor-bearing mice. The proteins involved included secretagogin, syntenin, P2X purinoreceptor 6 (P2X6), and Ca{sup 2+}/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1 (CaM kinase 1), the functions of which have been known to be involved in the Ca{sup 2+}-signaling cascade, ATP-mediated fast synaptic transmission, or control of vesicular trafficking. Validations using Western blotting were successful for the CaM kinase and P2X6. In immunohistochemical staining of the spinal cord, a significant decrease after irradiation was shown in the expression of CGRP, but not in substance P. Conclusions: We developed a novel model for bone pain due to cancer invasion, which was confirmed by histopathologic examination and measurable pain-associated behaviors. Radiotherapy decreased the objective level of pain. The underlying mechanism seems to be related to the Ca{sup 2+}-signaling cascade or control of vesicular trafficking.

Park, Hee Chul [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Jinsil [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jsseong@yumc.yonsei.ac.kr; An, Jung Hee [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jiyoung [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Un Jung [Yonsei Medical Research Center, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bae Whan [Yonsei Medical Research Center, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2005-04-01

101

Cheatgrass Invasion Alters Soil Morphology and Organic Matter Dynamics in Big Sagebrush Steppe Rangelands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is an invasive annual grass that increases wildfire frequency, degrades native ecosys- tems, and threatens agriculture across vast areas of the Western United States. This research examines how cheatgrass invasion may alter physical and biological properties of soils. Proliferation of very fine roots and high production of low-quality litter by cheat- grass increases porosity and near-surface

Jay B. Norton; Thomas A. Monaco; Jeanette M. Norton; Douglas A. Johnson; Thomas A. Jones

102

The Protein 4.1 family: hub proteins in animals for organizing membrane proteins.  

PubMed

Proteins of the 4.1 family are characteristic of eumetazoan organisms. Invertebrates contain single 4.1 genes and the Drosophila model suggests that 4.1 is essential for animal life. Vertebrates have four paralogues, known as 4.1R, 4.1N, 4.1G and 4.1B, which are additionally duplicated in the ray-finned fish. Protein 4.1R was the first to be discovered: it is a major mammalian erythrocyte cytoskeletal protein, essential to the mechanochemical properties of red cell membranes because it promotes the interaction between spectrin and actin in the membrane cytoskeleton. 4.1R also binds certain phospholipids and is required for the stable cell surface accumulation of a number of erythrocyte transmembrane proteins that span multiple functional classes; these include cell adhesion molecules, transporters and a chemokine receptor. The vertebrate 4.1 proteins are expressed in most tissues, and they are required for the correct cell surface accumulation of a very wide variety of membrane proteins including G-Protein coupled receptors, voltage-gated and ligand-gated channels, as well as the classes identified in erythrocytes. Indeed, such large numbers of protein interactions have been mapped for mammalian 4.1 proteins, most especially 4.1R, that it appears that they can act as hubs for membrane protein organization. The range of critical interactions of 4.1 proteins is reflected in disease relationships that include hereditary anaemias, tumour suppression, control of heartbeat and nervous system function. The 4.1 proteins are defined by their domain structure: apart from the spectrin/actin-binding domain they have FERM and FERM-adjacent domains and a unique C-terminal domain. Both the FERM and C-terminal domains can bind transmembrane proteins, thus they have the potential to be cross-linkers for membrane proteins. The activity of the FERM domain is subject to multiple modes of regulation via binding of regulatory ligands, phosphorylation of the FERM associated domain and differential mRNA splicing. Finally, the spectrum of interactions of the 4.1 proteins overlaps with that of another membrane-cytoskeleton linker, ankyrin. Both ankyrin and 4.1 link to the actin cytoskeleton via spectrin, and we hypothesize that differential regulation of 4.1 proteins and ankyrins allows highly selective control of cell surface protein accumulation and, hence, function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Reciprocal influences between cell cytoskeleton and membrane channels, receptors and transporters. Guest Editor: Jean Claude Hervé PMID:23747363

Baines, Anthony J; Lu, Hui-Chun; Bennett, Pauline M

2014-02-01

103

Altered white matter connectivity and network organization in polymicrogyria revealed by individual gyral topology-based analysis.  

PubMed

Polymicrogyria (PMG) is a cortical malformation characterized by multiple small gyri and altered cortical lamination, which may be associated with disrupted white matter connectivity. However, little is known about the topological patterns of white matter networks in PMG. We examined structural connectivity and network topology using individual primary gyral pattern-based nodes in PMG patients, overcoming the limitations of an atlas-based approach. Structural networks were constructed from structural and diffusion magnetic resonance images in 25 typically developing and 14 PMG subjects. The connectivity analysis for different fiber groups divided based on gyral topology revealed severely reduced connectivity between neighboring primary gyri (short U-fibers) in PMG, which was highly correlated with the regional involvement and extent of abnormal gyral folding. The patients also showed significantly reduced connectivity between distant gyri (long association fibers) and between the two cortical hemispheres. In relation to these results, gyral node-based graph theoretical analysis revealed significantly altered topological organization of the network (lower clustering and higher modularity) and disrupted network hub architecture in cortical association areas involved in cognitive and language functions in PMG patients. Furthermore, the network segregation in PMG patients decreased with the extent of PMG and the degree of language impairment. Our approach provides the first detailed findings and interpretations on altered cortical network topology in PMG related to abnormal cortical structure and brain function, and shows the potential for an individualized method to characterize network properties and alterations in connections that are associated with malformations of cortical development. PMID:23954485

Im, Kiho; Paldino, Michael J; Poduri, Annapurna; Sporns, Olaf; Grant, P Ellen

2014-02-01

104

Morphology of the internal organs in the adaptation of animals to high-altitude conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disruption of metabolic processes in the walls of the blood vessels as well as changes in the functional activity of the endocrine glands play an important role in the process of an animal's accommodation to a combination of stress factors. Preliminary training of animals for stays at high-altitude markedly reduces the severity of the morphological picture.

Rakhimov, Y. A.; Belkin, V. S.; Usmanov, M. U.

1975-01-01

105

Environmental concentration of nonylphenol alters the development of urogenital and visceral organs in avian model.  

E-print Network

ethoxylates (NPEO) that is used in several industrial and agricultural processes. In this paper, we examined of industrial and agricultural processes and as cleaning agents (Tolls et al., 1994)), has been identified, crustaceans, algae), in rat and in mouse models. The effect on animal reproduction (Yang et al., 2006; Zha et

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

106

Development of a vessel organ culture system: characterisation of the method and implications for the reduction of animal experiments.  

PubMed

In the field of cardiovascular research, the pig is considered to be an excellent animal model of human diseases. It is well-known that primary cultures of endothelial cells (ECs) are a powerful tool for the study of vascular physiology and pathology, and, according to the principles of the Three Rs, their use results in a substantial reduction in the numbers of experimental animals required. However, a limitation of EC culture is that the cells are not in their physiological context. Here, we describe and characterise a method for the culture of porcine vessels that overcomes the limitation of EC cultures, with the advantage of reducing the number of animals used for research purposes. The organ cultures were set-up by using an aortic cylinder obtained from the arteries of control pigs sacrificed for other experimental purposes. In order to characterise the method, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation and the vessel's structural features were evaluated during organ culture. These analyses confirm that the culture of aortic cylinder lumen, in a medium specific for ECs, results in a stable system in terms of VEGF and MMP secretion. The ECs do not undergo cell division during the organ culture, which is also the case in vivo, if no stimulation occurs. Overall, we show that this novel system closely resembles the in vivo context. Importantly, porcine aortas can be collected from either veterinary surgeries or slaughterhouses, without having to sacrifice animals specifically for the purposes of this type of research. PMID:24168133

Zaniboni, Andrea; Zannoni, Augusta; Bernardini, Chiara; De Cecco, Marco; Bombardi, Cristiano; Seren, Eraldo; Forni, Monica; Bacci, Maria Laura

2013-09-01

107

Age-associated alterations in sympathetic noradrenergic innervation of primary and secondary lymphoid organs in female Fischer 344 rats.  

PubMed

Normal aging processes, as well as, psychological stress affect the immune system; each can act alone, or interact with each other, to cause dysregulation of immune function substantially altering physical and mental health. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS), a major mediator of stress effects on immune function, is significantly affected by normal aging process, and stress can affect aging of the SNS. Previously, we have shown age-associated changes in sympathetic noradrenergic (NA) innervation of lymphoid organs in male rodents that affect immune regulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate sympathetic innervation of lymphoid organs and associated alterations in immune responses in young and aging female Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Histofluorescence and immunocytochemistry for NA innervation, and neurochemistry for norepinephrine (NE) levels were performed in the thymus, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) isolated from 3-month-old young (normal estrous cycle), 8- to 9-month-old (onset of irregular estrous cycling), and 24-25 month, and 30-31 month female F344 rats (acyclic) at diestrus based on vaginal smears. Age-related alterations in natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-? (IFN-?) production, T and B lymphocyte proliferation were examined in splenocytes. Sympathetic NA innervation and NE levels increased with aging in the thymus, declined in spleen and MLN, and was accompanied by significant reductions in NK cell activity, IL-2 and IFN-? production, and T and B cell proliferation in old female rats. In 8-9 mo rats, NE levels in the hilar region of the spleen and IFN-? production were unaltered, while NE levels in the end region of the spleen and IL-2 production were reduced. Collectively, these results suggest that aging is characterized by significant alterations in sympathetic NA innervation in the thymus, spleen, and MLN associated with immunosuppression, and that there is a marked shift in NA activity and immune reactivity occurring during middle-aged female rats. PMID:21186063

ThyagaRajan, Srinivasan; Madden, Kelley S; Teruya, Brian; Stevens, Suzanne Y; Felten, David L; Bellinger, Denise L

2011-04-01

108

AGE-ASSOCIATED ALTERATIONS IN SYMPATHETIC NORADRENERGIC INNERVATION OF PRIMARY AND SECONDARY LYMPHOID ORGANS IN FEMALE FISCHER 344 RATS  

PubMed Central

Normal aging processes, as well as, psychological stress affect the immune system; each can act alone, or interact with each other, to cause dysregulation of immune function substantially altering physical and mental health. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS), a major mediator of stress effects on immune function, is significantly affected by normal aging process, and stress can affect aging of the SNS. Previously, we have shown age-associated changes in sympathetic noradrenergic (NA) innervation of lymphoid organs in male rodents that affect immune regulation. The purpose of this study was to investigate sympathetic innervation of lymphoid organs and associated alterations in immune responses in young and aging female Fischer 344 (F344) rats. Histofluorescence and immunocytochemistry for NA innervation, and neurochemistry for norepinephrine (NE) levels were performed in the thymus, spleen, and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) isolated from 3-month-old young (normal estrous cycle), 8- to 9-month-old (onset of irregular estrous cycling), and 24–25 month, and 30–31 month female F344 rats (acyclic) at diestrus based on vaginal smears. Age-related alterations in natural killer (NK) cell activity, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-? (IFN-?) production, T and B lymphocyte proliferation were examined in splenocytes. Sympathetic NA innervation and NE levels increased with aging in the thymus, declined in spleen and MLN, and was accompanied by significant reductions in NK cell activity, IL-2 and IFN-? production, and T and B cell proliferation in old female rats. In 8–9 mo rats, NE levels in the hilar region of the spleen and IFN-? production were unaltered, while NE levels in the end region of the spleen and IL-2 production were reduced. Collectively, these results suggest that aging is characterized by significant alterations in sympathetic NA innervation in the thymus, spleen, and MLN associated with immunosuppression, and that there is a marked shift in NA activity and immune reactivity occurring during middle-aged female rats. PMID:21186063

ThyagaRajan, Srinivasan; Madden, Kelley S.; Teruya, Brian; Stevens, Suzanne Y.; Felten, David L.; Bellinger, Denise L.

2011-01-01

109

Can education alter attitudes, behaviour and knowledge about organ donation? A pretest-post-test study  

PubMed Central

Objective The emergence of evidence suggests that student nurses commonly exhibit concerns about their lack of knowledge of organ donation and transplantation. Formal training about organ donation has been shown to positively influence attitude, encourage communication and registration behaviours and improve knowledge about donor eligibility and brain death. The focus of this study was to determine the attitude and behaviour of student nurses and to assess their level of knowledge about organ donation after a programme of study. Design A quantitative questionnaire was completed before and after participation in a programme of study using a pretest–post-test design. Setting Participants were recruited from a University based in Northern Ireland during the period from February to April 2011. Participants 100 preregistration nurses (female?:?male=96?:?4) aged 18–50?years (mean (SD) 24.3 (6.0)?years) were recruited. Results Participants’ knowledge improved over the programme of study with regard to the suitability of organs that can be donated after death, methods available to register organ donation intentions, organ donation laws, concept of brain death and the likelihood of recovery after brain death. Changes in attitude postintervention were also observed in relation to participants’ willingness to accept an informed system of consent and with regard to participants’ actual discussion behaviour. Conclusions The results provide support for the introduction of a programme that helps inform student nurses about important aspects of organ donation. PMID:24381257

McGlade, Donal; Pierscionek, Barbara

2013-01-01

110

Approaches to extrapolating animal toxicity data on organic solvents to public health  

EPA Science Inventory

Developing predictive relationships between exposure and toxicity in humans is difficult because 1) available data are usually derived from experimental animals whose sensitivity to the chemical relative to humans is unknown; 2) the specific neurotoxic endpoints measured in labor...

111

Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted\\u000a in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical\\u000a agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nutrient cycling, and soil organic matter pools. The objective of this experiment\\u000a was to assess the affect

Hollie Hall; Yuncong Li; Nicholas Comerford; Enrique Arévalo Gardini; Luis Zuniga Cernades; Virupax Baligar; Hugh Popenoe

2010-01-01

112

Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) invasion alters organic matter dynamics in a desert stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY 1. We investigated the impacts of saltcedar invasion on organic matter dynamics in a spring-fed stream (Jackrabbit Spring) in the Mojave Desert of southern Nevada, U.S.A., by experimentally manipulating saltcedar abundance. 2. Saltcedar heavily shaded Jackrabbit Spring and shifted the dominant organic matter inputs from autochthonous production that was available throughout the year to allochthonous saltcedar leaf litter that

THEODORE A. K ENNEDY; S ARAH E. H OBBIE

113

Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation  

E-print Network

Animation Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward/Inverse Kinematics Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward/Inverse Kinematics #12;Overview · Animation techniques ­Performance-based (motion capture) ­Traditional animation (frame

Treuille, Adrien

114

Research, values and ethics in organic agriculture - examples from sustainability, precaution, nature quality and animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural systems are characterised by involving both natural and social systems. Organic farming, in particular, has developed as part of a wider organic movement incorporating producers, manufacturers and consumers. The organic movement is based on explicit rules as well as broader formulated principles and goals for farming and manufacturing, which are connected to underlying values and perceptions of the relationship

Hugo Fjelsted Alrøe; Erik Steen Kristensen

2000-01-01

115

Postdiagenetic Alteration of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Rock of the Greater caucasus and the Caucasus Piedmont (Based on Studies of Organic matter)  

SciTech Connect

Based on the study of the metamorphism of scattered organic matter (vitrinite), maps have been compiled of the postdiagenetic alteration of the Lower Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous, and Upper Paleogene rocks.

Chichua, B.K.; Agulov, A.P.; Kilasoniva, Z.N.; Zhgenti, T.G.

1986-03-01

116

Mice Long-Term High-Fat Diet Feeding Recapitulates Human Cardiovascular Alterations: An Animal Model to Study the Early Phases of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim Hypercaloric diet ingestion and sedentary lifestyle result in obesity. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of clinical features secondary to obesity, considered as a pre-diabetic condition and recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. To better understand the relationship between obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease as well as for the development of novel therapeutic strategies, animal models that reproduce the etiology, course and outcomes of these pathologies are required. The aim of this work was to characterize the long-term effects of high-fat diet-induced obesity on the mice cardiovascular system, in order to make available a new animal model for diabetic cardiomyopathy. Methods/Results Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with a standardized high-fat diet (obese) or regular diet (normal) for 16 months. Metabolic syndrome was evaluated testing plasma glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, and glucose tolerance. Arterial pressure was measured using a sphygmomanometer (non invasive method) and by hemodynamic parameters (invasive method). Cardiac anatomy was described based on echocardiography and histological studies. Cardiac function was assessed by cardiac catheterization under a stress test. Cardiac remodelling and metabolic biomarkers were assessed by RT-qPCR and immunoblotting. As of month eight, the obese mice were overweight, hyperglycaemic, insulin resistant, hyperinsulinemic and hypercholesterolemic. At month 16, they also presented normal arterial pressure but altered vascular reactivity (vasoconstriction), and cardiac contractility reserve reduction, heart mass increase, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, and heart metabolic compensations. By contrast, the normal mice remained healthy throughout the study. Conclusions Mice fed with a high-fat diet for prolonged time recapitulates the etiology, course and outcomes of the early phases of human diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:23593350

Calligaris, Sebastian D.; Lecanda, Manuel; Solis, Felipe; Ezquer, Marcelo; Gutierrez, Jaime; Brandan, Enrique; Leiva, Andrea; Sobrevia, Luis; Conget, Paulette

2013-01-01

117

Pyrolysis of organic compounds in the presence of ammonia The Viking Mars lander site alteration experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The influence of ammonia on the pyrolysis pattern of selected organic substances sorbed on an inorganic phase was investigated. The thermal degradation products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The feasibility of this technique was tested on a meteoritic sample. All substances examined react with ammonia at the pyrolysis temperature of 500 C, the major products being nitriles and heterocyclic compounds in which nitrogen was incorporated. Based on these results, a model for the non-equilibrium production of organic compounds on Jupiter is discussed. The investigation was performed in connection with the Viking lander molecular analysis. The results obtained indicate that the concentrations of ammonia in the retrorocket fuel exhaust would have been probably too small to produce significant changes in the Martian soil organic compounds if any were found.

Holzer, G.; Oro, J.

1977-01-01

118

Simulating climate change-induced alterations in bioaccumulation of organic contaminants in an Arctic marine food web.  

PubMed

Climate change is expected to alter environmental distribution of contaminants and their bioaccumulation due to changes in transport, partitioning, carbon pathways, and bioaccumulation process rates. Magnitude and direction of these changes and resulting overall bioaccumulation in food webs is currently not known. The present study investigates and quantifies the effect of climate change in terms of increased temperature and primary production (i.e., concentrations of particulate organic carbon, C(POC)), on bioaccumulation of organic contaminants in biota at various trophic levels. The present study covers only parts of the contaminant behavior that is influenced by climate change, and it was assumed that there were no changes in food web structure and in total air and water concentrations of organic contaminants. Therefore, other climate change-induced effects on net bioaccumulation, such as altered contaminant transport and food web structure, should be addressed in future studies. To determine the effect of climate change, a bioaccumulation model was used on the pelagic marine food web of the Arctic, where climate change is expected to occur fastest and to the largest magnitude. The effect of climate change on model parameters and processes, and on net bioaccumulation, were quantified for three modeling substances (gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane [HCH], polychlorinated biphenyl [PCB]-52, and PCB-153) for two possible climate scenarios. In conclusion, increased temperature and C(POC) reduced the overall bioaccumulation of organic contaminants in the Arctic marine food web, with the largest change being for PCB-52 and PCB-153. Reduced bioavailability, due to increased C(POC), was the most influential parameter for the less water soluble compounds. Increase in temperature resulted in an overall reduction in net bioaccumulation. PMID:20821579

Borgå, Katrine; Saloranta, Tuomo M; Ruus, Anders

2010-06-01

119

Grazer exclusion alters plant spatial organization at multiple scales, increasing diversity  

PubMed Central

Grazing is one of the most important factors influencing community structure and productivity in natural grasslands. Understanding why and how grazing pressure changes species diversity is essential for the preservation and restoration of biodiversity in grasslands. We use heavily grazed subalpine meadows in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau to test the hypothesis that grazer exclusion alters plant diversity by changing inter- and intraspecific species distributions. Using recently developed spatial analyses combined with detailed ramet mapping of entire plant communities (91 species), we show striking differences between grazed and fenced areas that emerged at scales of just one meter. Species richness was similar at very small scales (0.0625 m2), but at larger scales diversity in grazed areas fell below 75% of corresponding fenced areas. These differences were explained by differences in spatial distributions; intra- and interspecific associations changed from aggregated at small scales to overdispersed in the fenced plots, but were consistently aggregated in the grazed ones. We conclude that grazing enhanced inter- and intraspecific aggregations and maintained high diversity at small scales, but caused decreased turnover in species at larger scales, resulting in lower species richness. Our study provides strong support to the theoretical prediction that inter- and intraspecific aggregation produces local spatial patterns that scale-up to affect species diversity in a community. It also demonstrates that the impacts of grazing can manifest through this mechanism, lowering diversity by reducing spatial turnover in species. Finally, it highlights the ecological and physiological plant processes that are likely responding to grazing and thereby altering aggregation patterns, providing new insights for monitoring, and mediating the impacts of grazing. PMID:24223294

Zhang, Hui; Gilbert, Benjamin; Wang, Wenbin; Liu, Junjie; Zhou, Shurong

2013-01-01

120

Biogeochemical alteration of dissolved organic material in the Cape Fear River Estuary as a function of freshwater discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the first extensive examination of the controls on optical properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) within the Cape Fear River Estuary (CFRE) utilizing spectral slope ratios (SR). The application of SUVA254 values, absorption spectral slopes (S) and SR values has presented a distinct opportunity to observe compositional changes in CDOM in the CFRE that was not possible using bulk DOC and aCDOM(350) values alone. By comparing estuarine trends in CDOM spectral shape during both normal and historically low flow conditions, we found that diagenetic processing of CDOM in the CFRE is controlled primarily by riverine discharge rates. These findings suggest that the chromophoric fraction of DOM is altered during estuarine transport under low flow regimes but reaches the coastal ocean relatively unaltered under higher flow conditions. This highlights the tendency for autochthonous sources of DOC to offset photochemical losses and indicates that in situ DOC production can significantly contribute to the overall carbon load if discharge is low or sufficient biogeochemical alteration of the terrestrial DOM end-member occurs. This provides new insight into the usefulness of these optical properties into understanding the cycling, fate and transport of CDOM to the coastal ocean. SR values provide a simple but potentially powerful tool in understanding the flux, transport and impact of terrestrially derived organic material deposited in the coastal ocean.

Dixon, Jennifer L.; Helms, John R.; Kieber, Robert J.; Avery, G. Brooks

2014-08-01

121

Alterations in the Proteome of the Euprymna scolopes Light Organ in Response to Symbiotic Vibrio fischeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the onset of the cooperative association between the Hawaiian sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes and the marine luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the anatomy and morphology of the host's symbiotic organ undergo dramatic changes that require interaction with the bacteria. This morphogenetic process involves an array of tissues, including those in direct contact with, as well as those remote from, the

JUDITH DOINO LEMUS; MARGARET J. MCFALL-NGAI

2000-01-01

122

Saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes alters the biogeochemical processing of organic carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental perturbations in wetlands affect the integrated plant-microbial-soil system, causing biogeochemical responses that can manifest at local to global scales. The objective of this study was to determine how saltwater intrusion affects carbon mineralization and greenhouse gas production in coastal wetlands. Working with tidal freshwater marsh soils that had experienced roughly 3.5 yr of in situ saltwater additions, we quantified changes in soil properties, measured extracellular enzyme activity associated with organic matter breakdown, and determined potential rates of anaerobic carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) production. Soils from the field plots treated with brackish water had lower carbon content and higher C : N ratios than soils from freshwater plots, indicating that saltwater intrusion reduced carbon availability and increased organic matter recalcitrance. This was reflected in reduced activities of enzymes associated with the hydrolysis of cellulose and the oxidation of lignin, leading to reduced rates of soil CO2 and CH4 production. The effects of long-term saltwater additions contrasted with the effects of short-term exposure to brackish water during three-day laboratory incubations, which increased rates of CO2 production but lowered rates of CH4 production. Collectively, our data suggest that the long-term effect of saltwater intrusion on soil CO2 production is indirect, mediated through the effects of elevated salinity on the quantity and quality of autochthonous organic matter inputs to the soil. In contrast, salinity, organic matter content, and enzyme activities directly influence CH4 production. Our analyses demonstrate that saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes affects the entire process of carbon mineralization, from the availability of organic carbon through its terminal metabolism to CO2 and/or CH4, and illustrate that long-term shifts in biogeochemical functioning are not necessarily consistent with short-term disturbance-type responses.

Neubauer, S. C.; Franklin, R. B.; Berrier, D. J.

2013-07-01

123

Saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes alters the biogeochemical processing of organic carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental perturbations in wetlands affect the integrated plant-microbial-soil system, causing biogeochemical responses that can manifest at local to global scales. The objective of this study was to determine how saltwater intrusion affects carbon mineralization and greenhouse gas production in coastal wetlands. Working with tidal freshwater marsh soils that had experienced ~ 3.5 yr of in situ saltwater additions, we quantified changes in soil properties, measured extracellular enzyme activity associated with organic matter breakdown, and determined potential rates of anaerobic carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) production. Soils from the field plots treated with brackish water had lower carbon content and higher C : N ratios than soils from freshwater plots, indicating that saltwater intrusion reduced carbon availability and increased organic matter recalcitrance. This was reflected in reduced activities of enzymes associated with the hydrolysis of cellulose and the oxidation of lignin, leading to reduced rates of soil CO2 and CH4 production. The effects of long-term saltwater additions contrasted with the effects of short-term exposure to brackish water during three-day laboratory incubations, which increased rates of CO2 production but lowered rates of CH4 production. Collectively, our data suggest that the long-term effect of saltwater intrusion on soil CO2 production is indirect, mediated through the effects of elevated salinity on the quantity and quality of autochthonous organic matter inputs to the soil. In contrast, salinity, organic matter content, and enzyme activities directly influence CH4 production. Our analyses demonstrate that saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes affects the entire process of carbon mineralization, from the availability of organic carbon through its terminal metabolism to CO2 and/or CH4, and illustrate that long-term shifts in biogeochemical functioning are not necessarily consistent with short-term disturbance-type responses.

Neubauer, S. C.; Franklin, R. B.; Berrier, D. J.

2013-12-01

124

Beagle: an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating the organ distribution pattern of Th in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations and the organ distribution patterns of 228Th, 230Th and 232Th in two 9-y-old dogs of our beagle colony were determined. The dogs were exposed only to background environmental levels of Th isotopes through ingestion (food and water) and inhalation as are humans. The organ distribution patterns of the isotopes in the beagles were compared to the organ distribution

Narayani P. Singh; Carol J. Zimmerman; Glenn N. Taylor; McDonald E. Wrenn

1988-01-01

125

Trends in the organization and financing of livestock and animal health services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The world wide avalanche of change related to new political and economic paradigms has also affected animal agriculture. Changing views and objectives with respect to government support for agriculture in OECD countries, economic changes in Latin American and Africa countries, the GATT process and outcome, and interest in an ecosystems approach towards agriculture, are leading to a rethinking of the

Tjaart W. Schillhorn van Veen; Cees de Haan

1995-01-01

126

Animal Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces students to the concept of animal ecology. The first section explains the different ways animals use camouflage. There is also a discussion of how the process of decay breaks organic matter down into nutrients, and how simple aquatic organisms (algae, zooplankton) provide a food source for larger organisms. The concept of food chains is introduced, and land-based and aquatic examples are described. A quiz and glossary are included.

127

Role of minerals in thermal alteration of organic matter. II. A material balance  

SciTech Connect

Pyrolysis experiments were performed on Green River and Monterey Formation kerogens (Types I and II, respectively) with and without calcite, illite, or montmorillonite at 300/sup 0/C for 2 to 1000 hours under dry and hydrous conditions. Pyrolysis products were identified and quantified, and a material balance of product and reactants resulted. Applying the results to maturation of organic matter in natural environments, they suggest that a given type of organic matter associated with different minerals in source rocks will yield different products. Furthermore, the different adsorption capacities of minerals exert a significant influence on the migration of polar and high molecular weight compounds generated from the breakdown of kerogen. Therefore, the overall accumulated products from carbonate source rocks are mainly heavy oils with some gas, whereas light oils and gases are the main products from source rocks that contain expandable clays with catalytic and adsorptive properties. 8 figures, 2 tables.

Tannenbaum, E.; Huizinga, B.J.; Kaplan, I.R.

1986-09-01

128

Exogenous phosphorus inputs alter complexity of soil-dissolved organic carbon in agricultural riparian wetlands.  

PubMed

High-strengthened farmland fertilization leads to mass inputs of nutrients and elements to agricultural riparian wetlands. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of such wetland sediments is an important intermediate in global carbon (C) cycling due to its role in connecting soil C pools with atmospheric CO2. But the impact of phosphorus (P) on sediment DOC is still largely unknown, despite increasing investigations to emphasize P interception by riparian wetlands. Here, we simulated the temporal influences of exogenous P on sediment DOC of riparian wetlands by integrating gradient P loading at rates of 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 60% relative to the initial total phosphorus content of the sediment with the purpose of illustrating the role of external P on the complexity of soil DOC in terms of its amount and composition. After incubating for nine months, a dramatic linear correlation between Olsen-P and fluorescent and ultraviolet spectral indices considered DOC skeleton was observed. Together with a more microbial-derived origin of DOC and a reduction of DOC aromaticity or humicity, the excitation-emission matrix had shown a blue shift reflecting a trend towards a simpler molecular structure of sediment DOC after P addition. Meanwhile, the content of soil DOC and its ratio with total organic carbon (TOC) were also increased by P loading, coupled with enhanced values of highly labile organic carbon and two C-related enzymes. While TOC and recalcitrant organic carbon decreased significantly. Such implications of DOC amounts and composition stimulated by external P loading may enhance its bioavailability, thereby inducing an accelerated effect on soil C cycling and a potential C loss in response to global climate change. PMID:24182404

Liu, Meng; Zhang, Zhijian; He, Qiang; Wang, Hang; Li, Xia; Schoer, Jonathan

2014-01-01

129

Recent Alterations of Aerosol Concentration, Mercury Distribution and Organic Matter Deposition in the Arctic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Material fluxes in the Arctic and Antarctic have been, in several respects, strongly affected recently. For example, atmospheric turbidity conditions are frequently subject to strong changes due to haze and dust transport episodes, which can cause considerable perturbations in the radiation balance of the atmosphere beyond regional scale. This, directly or indirectly, contributes to the increased mercury deposition and organic matter fluxes to sediments. The results show that local emissions are not always the most important factors influencing the composition of aerosol in the atmosphere of the west Spitsbergen region. The direct radiative impact of polar aerosols on the surface and at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) need to be studied more closely through both theoretical studies on the aerosol radiative properties and measurements of the surface reflectance characteristics. Mercury dissolved/solid partitioning, both in the unconsolidated, fluffy layer of suspended matter covering the sediments, and the uppermost sediment layer, indicate that the influence of the athmospheric mercury deposition event (AMDE) can prolong well into summer (July/August), and can provide a pathway to the food chain for mercury contained in sediments. Since terrigenous supplies of organic carbon to the Barents Sea are minor (~5%) compared to the marine supply, modern sediment deposits in this region sequester on average 6.0 g/m2year organic carbon, or 5.8% of the annual integrated pelagic primary production. This burial fraction exceeds, by a factor of 3, the burial fraction derived for the Holocene.

Pempkowiak, Janusz; Zieli?ski, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Be?dowski, Agata Zaborska Jacek

2011-01-01

130

Assessment of environmental effects, animal welfare and milk quality among organic dairy farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the organic dairy farming sector in Germany, traditional mixed farms with relatively low yearly milk yields of around 6000kg per cow exist beside highly specialised grassland based farms with more than 9000kg milk yield per cow and year. Specialisation and intensification are discussed critically within the organic sector as negative environmental effects are expected. In this study the potential

Maria Müller-Lindenlauf; Christine Deittert; Ulrich Köpke

2010-01-01

131

Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals  

PubMed Central

Intravital fluorescence microscopy has emerged as a powerful technique to visualize cellular processes in vivo. However, the size of the objective lenses has limited physical accessibility to various tissue sites in the internal organs of small animals. The use of small-diameter probes using graded-index (GRIN) lenses expands the capabilities of conventional intravital microscopes into minimally invasive internal organs imaging. In this protocol, we describe the detailed steps for the fabrication of front- and side-view GRIN probes and the integration and operation of the probes in a confocal microscope for visualizing fluorescent cells and microvasculature in various murine organs. We further present longitudinal imaging of immune cells in renal allografts and the tumor development in the colon. The fabrication and integration can be completed in 5–7 hours, and a typical in vivo imaging session takes 1–2 hours. PMID:22767088

Kim, Jun Ki; Lee, Woei Ming; Kim, Pilhan; Choi, Myunghwan; Jung, Keehoon; Kim, Seonghoon; Yun, Seok Hyun

2013-01-01

132

Self-assembly and alterable relaxivity of an organic cation-encapsulated gadolinium-containing polyoxometalate.  

PubMed

A new amphiphilic molecule bearing poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and quaternary ammonium group, was designed and synthesized to encapsulate paramagnetic Gd(III)-containing polyoxometalate (Gd-POM) through electrostatic interaction for obtaining a water-soluble organic-inorganic hybrid building block based on POM. The yielding organic cation-encapsulated Gd-POM (OCEP-Gd) complex exhibited water-solubility and amphiphility, leading to the spontaneous self-assembly into a regular vesicular structure with PEO chains towards water phase and POM units locating at the middle. The vesicular aggregate which has a regular monolayer structure, was further studied by means of dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Due to the synergy of different building units, the self-assembly of the complexes was demonstrated to be efficient to adjust the ability of Gd-POM to accelerate relaxation of water-proton, which results from the paramagnetic property of Gd-POM, to a large extent. The present work provides a new methodology to obtain water-soluble hybrid building blocks based on POM, which may generate more hybrid self-assembly structures in aqueous solution and further direct POM-based materials towards biomedical applications. PMID:22660525

Wang, Yinglin; Zhou, Shengyan; Kong, Daliang; Yang, Haishan; Chai, Wenqiang; Kortz, Ulrich; Wu, Lixin

2012-09-01

133

Altered postural control strategies and sensory organization in children with developmental coordination disorder.  

PubMed

The postural control of children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD) was compared under conditions of reduced or conflicting sensory input. Twenty-two children with DCD (16 males, 6 females; mean age 7 years 6 months, SD 1 year 5 months) and 19 children with normal motor development were tested (13 males, 6 females; mean age 6 years 11 months, SD 1 year 1 month). Standing balance, sensory organization and motor control strategy were evaluated using the sensory organization test (SOT). The results revealed that children with DCD had lower composite equilibrium scores (p<.001), visual ratios (p=.005) and vestibular ratios (p=.002) than normal children in the control group. No significant between-group difference in their average somatosensory ratio was observed. Additionally, children with DCD had lower motor strategy scores (swayed more on their hips) than the normal children when forced to depend on vestibular cues alone to balance (p<.05). We conclude that children with DCD had deficits in standing balance control in conditions that included reduced or conflicting sensory signals. The visual and vestibular systems tended to be more involved in contributing to the balance deficits than the somatosensory system. Moreover, children with DCD tended to use hip strategy excessively when forced to rely primarily on vestibular signals to maintain postural stability. PMID:22221468

Fong, Shirley S M; Tsang, William W N; Ng, Gabriel Y F

2012-10-01

134

Role of minerals in thermal alteration of organic matter--II: a material balance.  

PubMed

Pyrolysis experiments were performed on Green River and Monterey Formation kerogens (Types I and II, respectively) with and without calcite, illite, or montmorillonite at 300 degrees C for 2 to 1,000 hours under dry and hydrous conditions. Pyrolysis products were identified and quantified, and a material balance of product and reactants resulted. Significant differences were found in the products generated by pyrolysis of kerogens with and without minerals. Both illite and montmorillonite adsorb a considerable portion (up to 80%) of the generated bitumen. The adsorbed bitumen is almost exclusively composed of polar compounds and asphaltenes that crack to yield low molecular weight compounds and insoluble pyrobitumen during prolonged heating. Montmorillonite shows the most pronounced adsorptive and catalytic effects. With calcite however, the pyrolysis products are similar to those from kerogen heated alone, and bitumen adsorption is negligible. Applying these results to maturation of organic matter in natural environments, we suggest that a given type of organic matter associated with different minerals in source rocks will yield different products. Furthermore, the different adsorption capacities of minerals exert a significant influence on the migration of polar and high molecular weight compounds generated from the breakdown of kerogen. Therefore, the overall accumulated products from carbonate source rocks are mainly heavy oils with some gas, whereas light oils and gases are the main products from source rocks that contain expandable clays with catalytic and adsorptive properties. PMID:11542070

Tannenbaum, E; Huizinga, B J; Kaplan, I R

1986-09-01

135

Microfabricated Mammalian Organ Systems and Their Integration into Models of Whole Animals and Humans  

PubMed Central

While in vitro cell based systems have been an invaluable tool in biology, they often suffer from a lack of physiological relevance. The discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo systems has been a bottleneck in drug development process and biological sciences. The recent progress in microtechnology has enabled manipulation of cellular environment at a physiologically relevant length scale, which has led to the development of novel in vitro organ systems, often termed ‘organ-on-a-chip’ systems. By mimicking the cellular environment of in vivo tissues, various organ-on-a-chip systems have been reported to reproduce target organ functions better than conventional in vitro model systems. Ultimately, these organ-on-a-chip systems will converge into multi-organ ‘body-on-a-chip’ systems composed of functional tissues that reproduce the dynamics of the whole-body response. Such microscale in vitro systems will open up new possibilities in medical science and in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:23388858

Sung, Jong H; Esch, Mandy B; Prot, Jean-Matthieu; Long, Christopher J; Smith, Alec; Hickman, James; Shuler, Michael L

2013-01-01

136

Photochemical and microbial alteration of dissolved organic matter in temperate headwater streams associated with different land use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

and microbial transformations of DOM were evaluated in headwater streams draining forested and human-modified lands (pasture, cropland, and urban development) by laboratory incubations. Changes in DOC concentrations, DOC isotopic signatures, and DOM fluorescence properties were measured to assess the amounts, sources, ages, and properties of reactive and refractory DOM under the influence of photochemistry and/or bacteria. DOC in streams draining forest-dominated watersheds was more photoreactive than in streams draining mostly human-modified watersheds, possibly due to greater contributions of terrestrial plant-derived DOC and lower amounts of prior light exposure in forested streams. Overall, the percentage of photoreactive DOC in stream waters was best predicted by the relative content of terrestrial fluorophores. The bioreactivity of DOC was similar in forested and human-modified streams, but variations were correlated with temperature and may be further controlled by the diagenetic status of organic matter. Alterations to DOC isotopes and DOM fluorescence properties during photochemical and microbial incubations were similar between forested and human-modified streams and included (1) negligible effects of microbial alteration on DOC isotopes and DOM fluorescence properties, (2) selective removal of 13C-depleted and 14C-enriched DOC under the combined influence of photochemical and microbial processes, and (3) photochemical alteration of DOM resulting in a preferential loss of terrestrial humic fluorescence components relative to microbial fluorescence components. This study provides a unique comparison of DOC reactivity in a regional group of streams draining forested and human-modified watersheds and indicates the importance of land use on the photoreactivity of DOC exported from upstream watersheds.

Lu, Yuehan; Bauer, James E.; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Yamashita, Youhei; Chambers, R. M.; Jaffé, Rudolf

2013-06-01

137

How reservoirs alter drinking water quality: Organic matter sources, sinks, and transformations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Within reservoirs, production, transformation, and loss of dissolved organic matter (DOM) occur simultaneously. While the balance between production and loss determines whether a reservoir is a net sink or source of DOM, changes in chemical composition are also important because they affect DOM reactivity with respect to disinfection by-product (DBP) formation. The composition of the DOM pool also provides insight into DOM sources and processing, which can inform reservoir management. We examined the concentration and composition of DOM in San Luis Reservoir, a large off-stream impoundment of the California State Water Project. We used a wide array of DOM chemical tracers including dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, trihalomethane and haloacetic acid formation potentials (THMFP and HAAFP, respectively), absorbance properties, isotopic composition, lignin phenol content, and structural groupings determined by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). There were periods when the reservoir was a net source of DOC due to the predominance of algal production (summer), a net sink due to the predominance of degradation (fall–winter), and balanced between production and consumption (spring). Despite only moderate variation in bulk DOC concentration (3.0–3.6 mg C/L), changes in DOM composition indicated that terrestrial-derived material entering the reservoir was being degraded and replaced by aquatic-derived DOM produced within the reservoir. Substantial changes in the propensity of the DOM pool to form THMs and HAAs illustrate that the DBP precursor pool was not directly coupled to bulk DOC concentration and indicate that algal production is an important source of DBP precursors. Results suggest reservoirs have the potential to attenuate DOM amount and reactivity with respect to DBP precursors via degradative processes; however, these benefits can be decreased or even negated by the production of algal-derived DOM.

Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Hernes, Peter J.; Doctor, Daniel H.; Kendall, Carol; Downing, Bryan D.; Losee, Richard F.

2011-01-01

138

Biochemical and physiological alterations in female reproductive organs of cyclic rats treated with aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera Lam.  

PubMed

Biochemical and physiological alterations have been observed in the genital tract of female cyclic rats treated with aqueous extract of M. oleifera Lam. Its administration caused a significant increase in the glycogen contents, protein concentration, activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase and the level of total cholesterol in all the organs at initial days of treatment. However, at longer days of treatment the values revealed a significant depletion. Initially its administration stimulated the uterine structures, caused metaplastic changes in the cervical epithelium and provoked considerable cornification in the vaginal epithelium. At later durations significant inhibition in the histoarchitecture was observed. Biochemical observations supplemented with the histological findings have been correlated with the anti-implantation action of the aqueous extract in the light of its hormonal properties. PMID:3227756

Shukla, S; Mathur, R; Prakash, A O

1988-01-01

139

Vanilloid Receptors in Hearing: Altered Cochlear Sensitivity by Vanilloids and Expression of TRPV1 in the Organ of Corti  

PubMed Central

Capsaicin, the vanilloid that selectively activates vanilloid receptors (VRs) on sensory neurons for noxious perception, has been reported to increase cochlear blood flow (CBF). VR-related receptors have also been found in the inner ear. This study aims to address the question as to whether VRs exist in the organ of Corti and play a role in cochlear physiology. Capsaicin or the more potent VR agonist, resiniferatoxin (RTX), was infused into the scala tympani of guinea pig cochlea, and their effects on cochlear sensitivity were investigated. Capsaicin (20 µM) elevated the threshold of auditory nerve compound action potential and reduced the magnitude of cochlear microphonic and electrically evoked otoacoustic emissions. These effects were reversible and could be blocked by a competitive antagonist, capsazepine. Application of 2 µM RTX resulted in cochlear sensitivity alterations similar to that by capsaicin, which could also be blocked by capsazepine. A desensitization phenomenon was observed in the case of prolonged perfusion with either capsaicin or RTX. Brief increase of CBF by capsaicin was confirmed, and the endocochlear potential was not decreased. Basilar membrane velocity (BM) growth functions near the best frequency and BM tuning were altered by capsaicin. Immunohistochemistry study revealed the presence of vanilloid receptor type 1 of the transient receptor potential channel family in the hair cells and supporting cells of the organ of Corti and the spiral ganglion cells of the cochlea. The results indicate that the main action of capsaicin is on outer hair cells and suggest that VRs in the cochlea play a role in cochlear homeostasis. PMID:12660354

Zheng, Jiefu; Dai, Chunfu; Steyger, Peter S.; Kim, Youngki; Vass, Zoltan; Ren, Tianying; Nuttall, Alfred L.

2013-01-01

140

Thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fate of naturally occurring lipids and pigments in a marine sediment exposed to elevated temperatures was studied. Samples of a young marine sediment from Tanner Basin, California, were heated to a series of temperatures (65-200 C) for varying periods of time (7-64 days). The sediment was analyzed prior to and after heating for pigments, isoprenoid compounds, alcohols, fatty acids, and hydrocarbons. Structural changes caused by heating unextractable organic material (kerogen) were also studied, and the significance of the results for understanding petroleum genesis is considered. Among other results, fatty acids and hydrocarbons increased in abundance although there appeared to be no obvious precursor-to-product relationship via simple decarboxylation reactions. Chlorins were partially converted into porphyrins. The phytyl side chain of pheophytin was initially preserved intact by reduction of the phytyl double bond, but later converted to a variety of isoprenoid compounds including alkanes. Thermal grafting of components onto kerogen occurred as well as structural changes caused by heat.

Baedecker, M. J.; Ikan, R.; Ishiwatari, R.; Kaplan, I. R.

1977-01-01

141

Egg storage alters weight of supply and demand organs of broiler chicken embryos.  

PubMed

Storage of fertilized eggs for more than 10 d prior to incubation decreases embryonic viability. The hypothesis was tested that embryos may grow differently following egg storage. Eggs from which embryos survived following storage (ST) were compared to eggs from a second line that did not (NOST). Three identical, independent trials were conducted using fertile eggs from both lines at two ages (peak lay and > 53 wk). Eggs were stored for 1 or 14 d prior to setting in the incubator. At 3-d intervals during development, embryos were carefully removed from the eggs, the yolks were excised and carcasses were weighed. Beginning at 12 d of incubation whole body, heart, liver and thigh tissues were weighed to assess allometric growth of supply (heart and liver) and demand (thigh muscle) tissues. Storage of eggs from both lines and from hens of both ages decreased BW differently throughout incubation. Line, Age and Storage interacted to affect embryonic BW and organ weights. Embryo weights were consistently heavier in NOST line eggs from older breeder flocks stored for 14 d than those from ST line eggs. It was concluded that extended storage of fertile eggs prior to setting affects embryonic growth to enhance survival. PMID:12455603

Christensen, V L; Wineland, M J; Fasenko, G M; Donaldson, W E

2002-11-01

142

Proceeding with clinical trials of animal to human organ transplantation: a way out of the dilemma  

PubMed Central

The transplantation of porcine organs to humans could in the future be a solution to the worldwide organ shortage, but is to date still highly experimental. Further research on the potential effects of crossing the species barrier is essential before clinical application is acceptable. However, many crucial questions on efficacy and safety will ultimately only be answered by well designed and controlled solid organ xenotransplantation trials on humans. This paper is concerned with the question under which conditions, given the risks involved and the ethical issues raised, such clinical trials should be resumed. An alternative means of overcoming the safety and ethical issues is suggested: willed body donation for scientific research in the case of permanent vegetative status. This paper argues that conducting trials on such bodies with prior consent is preferable to the use of human subjects without lack of brain function. PMID:14872084

Ravelingien, A; Mortier, F; Mortier, E; Kerremans, I; Braeckman, J

2004-01-01

143

Altered interhemispheric and temporal lobe white matter microstructural organization in severe chronic schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Diffusion MRI investigations in schizophrenia provide evidence of abnormal white matter (WM) microstructural organization as indicated by reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) primarily in interhemispheric, left frontal and temporal WM. Using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), we examined diffusion parameters in a sample of patients with severe chronic schizophrenia. Diffusion MRI data were acquired on 19 patients with chronic severe schizophrenia and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using a 64 gradient direction sequence, (b=1300 s/mm(2)) collected on a Siemens 1.5T MRI scanner. Diagnosis of schizophrenia was determined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders 4th Edition (DSM-IV) Structured Clinical Interview for DSM disorder (SCID). Patients were treatment resistance, having failed to respond to at least two antipsychotic medications, and had prolonged periods of moderate to severe positive or negative symptoms. Analysis of diffusion parameters was carried out using TBSS. Individuals with chronic severe schizophrenia had significantly reduced FA with corresponding increased radial diffusivity in the genu, body, and splenium of the corpus callosum, the right posterior limb of the internal capsule, right external capsule, and the right temporal inferior longitudinal fasciculus. There were no voxels of significantly increased FA in patients compared with controls. A decrease in splenium FA was shown to be related to a longer illness duration. We detected widespread abnormal diffusivity properties in the callosal and temporal lobe WM regions in individuals with severe chronic schizophrenia who have not previously been exposed to clozapine. These deficits can be driven by a number of factors that are indistinguishable using in vivo diffusion-weighted imaging, but may be related to reduced axonal number or packing density, abnormal glial cell arrangement or function, and reduced myelin. PMID:24150571

Holleran, Laurena; Ahmed, Mohamed; Anderson-Schmidt, Heike; McFarland, John; Emsell, Louise; Leemans, Alexander; Scanlon, Cathy; Dockery, Peter; McCarthy, Peter; Barker, Gareth J; McDonald, Colm; Cannon, Dara M

2014-03-01

144

Substrate quality alters microbial mineralization of added substrate and soil organic carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate and extent of decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is dependent on substrate chemistry and microbial dynamics. Our objectives were to understand the influence of substrate chemistry on microbial processing of carbon (C), and to use model fitting to quantify differences in pool sizes and mineralization rates. We conducted an incubation experiment for 270 days using four uniformly-labeled 14C substrates (glucose, starch, cinnamic acid and stearic acid) on four different soils (a temperate Mollisol, a tropical Ultisol, a sub-arctic Andisol, and an arctic Gelisol). The 14C labeling enabled us to separate CO2 respired from added substrates and from native SOC. Microbial gene copy numbers were quantified at days 4, 30 and 270 using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Substrate C respiration was always higher for glucose than other substrates. Soils with cinnamic and stearic acid lost more native SOC than glucose- and starch-amended soils, despite an initial delay in respiration. Cinnamic and stearic acid amendments also exhibited higher fungal gene copy numbers at the end of incubation compared to unamended soils. We found that 270 days was sufficient to model decomposition of simple substrates (glucose and starch) with three pools, but was insufficient for more complex substrates (cinnamic and stearic acid) and native SOC. This study reveals that substrate quality imparts considerable control on microbial decomposition of newly added and native SOC, and demonstrates the need for multi-year incubation experiments to constrain decomposition parameters for the most recalcitrant fractions of SOC and added substrates.

Jagadamma, S.; Mayes, M. A.; Steinweg, J. M.; Schaeffer, S. M.

2014-03-01

145

Substrate quality alters the microbial mineralization of added substrate and soil organic carbon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate and extent of decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is dependent, among other factors, on substrate chemistry and microbial dynamics. Our objectives were to understand the influence of substrate chemistry on microbial decomposition of carbon (C), and to use model fitting to quantify differences in pool sizes and mineralization rates. We conducted an incubation experiment for 270 days using four uniformly labeled 14C substrates (glucose, starch, cinnamic acid and stearic acid) on four different soils (a temperate Mollisol, a tropical Ultisol, a sub-arctic Andisol, and an arctic Gelisol). The 14C labeling enabled us to separate CO2 respired from added substrates and from native SOC. Microbial gene copy numbers were quantified at days 4, 30 and 270 using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Substrate C respiration was always higher for glucose than other substrates. Soils with cinnamic and stearic acid lost more native SOC than glucose- and starch-amended soils. Cinnamic and stearic acid amendments also exhibited higher fungal gene copy numbers at the end of incubation compared to unamended soils. We found that 270 days were sufficient to model the decomposition of simple substrates (glucose and starch) with three pools, but were insufficient for more complex substrates (cinnamic and stearic acid) and native SOC. This study reveals that substrate quality exerts considerable control on the microbial decomposition of newly added and native SOC, and demonstrates the need for multi-year incubation experiments to constrain decomposition parameters for the most recalcitrant fractions of SOC and complex substrates.

Jagadamma, S.; Mayes, M. A.; Steinweg, J. M.; Schaeffer, S. M.

2014-09-01

146

Ifenprodil and arcaine alter amygdala-kindling development 1 Intramural research was funded by U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command. Research was conducted in compliance with the Animal Welfare Act, and other Federal statutes and regulations relating to animals and experiments involving animals and adheres to principles stated in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, NIH publication 85-23. The views of the authors do not purport to reflect the position of the Department of the Army or the Department of Defense, (para 4-3), AR 360-5. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NMDA receptor complex is thought to be altered in kindling, an animal model for complex partial epilepsy. This receptor complex has several modulatory sites including those for glutamate, glycine and polyamines with activation resulting in altered cation channel opening. Two NMDA receptor effectors, ifenprodil and arcaine, were evaluated for effects on the acquisition of electrical kindling of the amygdala.

Debra L Yourick; Ronald T Repasi; W. Bradley Rittase; Latonia D Staten; James L Meyerhoff

1999-01-01

147

The effect of dynamic factors of space flight on animal organisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physiological, biochemical and morphological studies made on the Cosmos-782 biosatellite are presented. Rats, which were exposed on the biosatellite for 19.5 days, were examined immediately after completion of the flight and also during the 25 day period of readaptation to earth's conditions. The effect of factors of space flight, primarily weightlessness, on the organism was investigated for all systems of the body.

Genin, A. M. (editor)

1979-01-01

148

Interactions between seagrass complexity, hydrodynamic flow and biomixing alter food availability for associated filter-feeding organisms.  

PubMed

Seagrass shoots interact with hydrodynamic forces and thereby a positively or negatively influence the survival of associated species. The modification of these forces indirectly alters the physical transport and flux of edible particles within seagrass meadows, which will influence the growth and survivorship of associated filter-feeding organisms. The present work contributes to gaining insight into the mechanisms controlling the availability of resources for filter feeders inhabiting seagrass canopies, both from physical (influenced by seagrass density and patchiness) and biological (regulated by filter feeder density) perspectives. A factorial experiment was conducted in a large racetrack flume, which combined changes in hydrodynamic conditions, chlorophyll a concentration in the water and food intake rate (FIR) in a model active filter-feeding organism (the cockle). Results showed that seagrass density and patchiness modified both hydrodynamic forces and availability of resources for filter feeders. Chlorophyll a water content decreased to 50% of the initial value when densities of both seagrass shoots and cockles were high. Also, filter feeder density controlled resource availability within seagrass patches, depending on its spatial position within the racetrack flume. Under high density of filter-feeding organisms, chlorophyll a levels were lower between patches. This suggests that the pumping activity of cockles (i.e. biomixing) is an emergent key factor affecting both resource availability and FIR for filter feeders in dense canopies. Applying our results to natural conditions, we suggest the existence of a direct correlation between habitat complexity (i.e. shoot density and degree of patchiness) and filter feeders density. Fragmented and low-density patches seem to offer both greater protection from hydrodynamic forces and higher resource availability. In denser patches, however, resources are allocated mostly within the canopy, which would benefit filter feeders if they occurred at low densities, but would be limiting when filter feeder were at high densities. PMID:25162510

González-Ortiz, Vanessa; Egea, Luis G; Jiménez-Ramos, Rocio; Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Pérez-Lloréns, José L; Bouma, Tjeed J; Brun, Fernando G

2014-01-01

149

DNA ALTERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The exposure of an organism to genotoxic chemicals may induce a cascade of genetic events. nitially, structural alterations to DNA are formed. ext, the DNA damage is processed and subsequently expressed in mutant gene products. inally, diseases result from the genetic damage. he ...

150

Volatile organic compounds from the combustion of human and animal tissue.  

PubMed

The volatile by-products of the combustion of ordinary fuels such as wood, polystyrene, polyethylene, urethane foam, PVC and the like are well known to the forensic fire debris examiner. When a fire involves a human body, volatile species are produced that are not so well known, including various alkenes and aldehydes. These have sometimes been mistaken for the residues of unusual accelerants. In an attempt to document what volatiles are produced by the combustion of animal fat and human fat, the authors have used an open-tube pyrolysis probe as a microfurnace to burn small samples of unembalmed subcutaneous fat from human, avian and porcine sources, and collect volatiles by charcoal strip adsorption. The volatile products were analyzed by GC/MS. Predominant species included aldehydes in the C6-C10 range, homologous series of alkenes and alkanes, and other hydrocarbon products. These results were compared to those obtained by free-burning (open flame in air) of similar specimens and to the volatiles detected in debris from beneath a human cadaver in a test fire. Differences between the volatile profiles produced by human fat as compared to pork and chicken fat and adventitious sources of such volatiles are discussed. PMID:15527185

DeHaan, J D; Brien, D J; Large, R

2004-01-01

151

A distributed reactivity model for sorption by soils and sediments. 12: Effects of subcritical water extraction and alterations of soil organic matter on sorption equilibria  

SciTech Connect

Subcritical water extraction was used as a tool to remove the carboxylic, aliphatic, and carbohydrate types of organic carbon from a humic soil. The rates and extents of soil organic carbon removal were quantified as functions of superheated water temperature, phase, and exposure time. The experimental data suggest that superheated water effects deoxygenation/aromatization reactions of soil organic matter that mimic those of geologically slow, natural diagenesis processes. Phenanthrene sorption and desorption equilibrium isotherms for the altered soils were measured. The sorption isotherms were characterized by increasing capacity and nonlinearity with increasing degree of polar functionality removal and simulated diagenesis of the soil organic matter.

Johnson, M.D.; Weber, W.J. Jr. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Huang, W. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). School of Environmental Science, Engineering, and Policy] [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). School of Environmental Science, Engineering, and Policy; Dang, Z. [Chinese Academy of Science, Guiyang, Guizhou (China). National Key Lab. of Environmental Geochemistry] [Chinese Academy of Science, Guiyang, Guizhou (China). National Key Lab. of Environmental Geochemistry

1999-05-15

152

Intron-exon organization of the gene for the multifunctional animal fatty acid synthase.  

PubMed Central

The complete intron-exon organization of the gene encoding a multifunctional mammalian fatty acid synthase has been elucidated, and specific exons have been assigned to coding sequences for the component domains of the protein. The rat gene is interrupted by 42 introns and the sequences bordering the splice-site junctions universally follow the GT/AG rule. However, of the 41 introns that interrupt the coding region of the gene, 23 split the reading frame in phase I, 14 split the reading frame in phase 0, and only 4 split the reading frame in phase II. Remarkably, 46% of the introns interrupt codons for glycine. With only one exception, boundaries between the constituent enzymes of the multifunctional polypeptide coincide with the location of introns in the gene. The significance of the predominance of phase I introns, the almost uniformly short length of the 42 introns and the overall small size of the gene, is discussed in relation to the evolution of multifunctional proteins. Images PMID:1736293

Amy, C M; Williams-Ahlf, B; Naggert, J; Smith, S

1992-01-01

153

Chloral hydrate alters the organization of the ciliary basal apparatus and cell organelles in sea urchin embryos  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mitotic inhibitor, chloral hydrate, induces ciliary loss in the early embryo phase of Lytechinus pictus. It causes a breakdown of cilia at the junction of the cilium and the basal body known as the basal plate. This leaves the plasma membrane temporarily unsealed. The basal apparatus accessory structures, consisting of the basal body, basal foot, basal foot cap, striated side arm, and striated rootlet, are either misaligned or disintegrated by treatment with chloral hydrate. Furthermore, microtubules which are associated with the basal apparatus are disassembled. Mitochondria accumulate at the base of cilia - underneath the plasma membrane - and show alterations in their structural organization. The accumulation of mitochondria is observed in 40% of all electron micrograph sections while 60% show the areas mostly devoid of mitochondria. The microvilli surrounding a cilium and striated rootlet remain intact in the presence of chloral hydrate. These results suggest that deciliation in early sea urchin embryos by chloral hydrate is caused by combined effects on the ciliary membrane and on microtubules in the cilia. Furthermore, it is suggested that chloral hydrate can serve as a tool to explore the cytoskeletal mechanisms that are involved in cilia motility in the developing sea urchin embryo.

Chakrabarti, A.; Schatten, H.; Mitchell, K. D.; Crosser, M.; Taylor, M.

1998-01-01

154

Beta-Actin Deficiency with Oxidative Posttranslational Modifications in Rett Syndrome Erythrocytes: Insights into an Altered Cytoskeletal Organization  

PubMed Central

Beta-actin, a critical player in cellular functions ranging from cell motility and the maintenance of cell shape to transcription regulation, was evaluated in the erythrocyte membranes from patients with typical Rett syndrome (RTT) and methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene mutations. RTT, affecting almost exclusively females with an average frequency of 1?10,000 female live births, is considered the second commonest cause of severe cognitive impairment in the female gender. Evaluation of beta-actin was carried out in a comparative cohort study on red blood cells (RBCs), drawn from healthy control subjects and RTT patients using mass spectrometry-based quantitative analysis. We observed a decreased expression of the beta-actin isoforms (relative fold changes for spots 1, 2 and 3: ?1.82±0.15, ?2.15±0.06, and ?2.59±0.48, respectively) in pathological RBCs. The results were validated by western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, beta-actin from RTT patients also showed a dramatic increase in oxidative posttranslational modifications (PTMs) as the result of its binding with the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE). Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, a beta-actin down-regulation and oxidative PTMs for RBCs of RTT patients, thus indicating an altered cytoskeletal organization. PMID:24671107

Pecorelli, Alessandra; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Signorini, Cinzia; Leoncini, Silvia; Zollo, Gloria; Capone, Antonietta; Giovampaola, Cinzia Della; Sticozzi, Claudia; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Ciccoli, Lucia; Guerranti, Roberto; Hayek, Joussef

2014-01-01

155

Beta-actin deficiency with oxidative posttranslational modifications in Rett syndrome erythrocytes: insights into an altered cytoskeletal organization.  

PubMed

Beta-actin, a critical player in cellular functions ranging from cell motility and the maintenance of cell shape to transcription regulation, was evaluated in the erythrocyte membranes from patients with typical Rett syndrome (RTT) and methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene mutations. RTT, affecting almost exclusively females with an average frequency of 1?10,000 female live births, is considered the second commonest cause of severe cognitive impairment in the female gender. Evaluation of beta-actin was carried out in a comparative cohort study on red blood cells (RBCs), drawn from healthy control subjects and RTT patients using mass spectrometry-based quantitative analysis. We observed a decreased expression of the beta-actin isoforms (relative fold changes for spots 1, 2 and 3: -1.82±0.15, -2.15±0.06, and -2.59±0.48, respectively) in pathological RBCs. The results were validated by western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, beta-actin from RTT patients also showed a dramatic increase in oxidative posttranslational modifications (PTMs) as the result of its binding with the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE). Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, a beta-actin down-regulation and oxidative PTMs for RBCs of RTT patients, thus indicating an altered cytoskeletal organization. PMID:24671107

Cortelazzo, Alessio; De Felice, Claudio; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Signorini, Cinzia; Leoncini, Silvia; Zollo, Gloria; Capone, Antonietta; Giovampaola, Cinzia Della; Sticozzi, Claudia; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Ciccoli, Lucia; Guerranti, Roberto; Hayek, Joussef

2014-01-01

156

Animal and Plant Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the similarities and differences between plant cells and animal cells? Use the graphic organizer. Graphic Organizer Go here and look at the diagram. Make notes about the anatomy of an animal cell in your graphic organizer. Anatomy of an Animal Cell Go to this website and explore the typical animal cell. Press start and interact with the model. Typical Animal Cell Take the plant cell tutorial with this link. Interact ...

Wlcounts

2012-04-04

157

Altered soil organic carbon stability in eastern deciduous forest: interplay between forest successional Stage and invasive earthworm activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detritivore -mediated decomposition and incorporation of aboveground litter is an important processes in soil carbon cycle of forest ecosystems that can be a major control on the proportion of stable and unstable soil carbon pools. We investigated how earthworm activity interacts with litter type to alter the stability of soil organic carbon (SOC) in an eastern deciduous successional forest within at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC). Soil C and N content and chemistry (lignin and fatty acids) among particulate and mineral-bound fractions was shifted after 5 years of litter (wood and leaf) addition but with significant differences among the forest successional stages and with earthworm activity. Results from a 6 month laboratory incubation (25°C and 15°C) of bulk soil samples taken from the treatments and incubated at 25°C and 15°C demonstrate that litter addition type and earthworm activity interacted to control the proportion of labile and stable carbon. Specifically, the labile C pools in double wood and control treatments were highest in young successional forest with higher earthworm activity. However, in the double leaf treatment, the labile C pool was higher in old successional forests with less worm activity. In general, the stable C pool, released after one month, was higher in old successional forests for all three treatments. The difference of the stable pool between young and old successional forest was the largest with double wood treatment, followed by control treatment and the lowest with double leaf treatment. In summary, wood treatment shifted SOC pool to relatively more stable pool in old successional forests decreasing labile C pool but not the young sites. While double leaf treatment increased the labile pool in old forests but in young successional forests, SOC shifted to relatively more stable pool by decreasing the labile pool and increasing the stable pool. This result indicates that the type of aboveground litter input interact with earthworm activity will largely influence SOC stability and soil C cycling in deciduous forests at different successional stages.

Ma, Y.; Filley, T. R.; McCormick, M.; Szlavecz, K. A.

2012-12-01

158

This list includes a sampling of volunteer opportunities and organizations working with animals or animal advocacy work. These opportunities may be suitable for students majoring or interested in  

E-print Network

APPLICATION. Step 2: Attend a VOLUNTEER ORIENTATION for new volunteers. Step 3: Attend TRAINING for your or animal advocacy work. These opportunities may be suitable for students majoring or interested Enclosure Fundraising Adoption Fairs Deliver New Cats Contact: volunteer@daneferals.org Dane County

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

159

Animal Cell Mitosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation demonstrates the stages of mitosis in an animal cell. Use the control buttons in the upper left to run the complete animation. Click on any intermediate stage (for example, Anaphase), and see a representative still frame.

2010-01-01

160

Effects of condensed organic matter on PCBs bioavailability in juvenile swine, an animal model for young children.  

PubMed

The exposure assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated soils is a critical issue in terms of human health, especially since little reliable information on transfer of PCBs to humans via involuntary soil ingestion is available. Indeed, young children with their hand-to-mouth activity may be exposed to contaminated soils. The current study addresses the impact of soil organic matter (OM) condensation on bioavailability of sequestrated NDL-PCBs. Three artificial soils (ASs) were prepared according to OECD guideline 207. One standard soil (SS), devoid of OM, and two amended versions of this SS with fulvic acid (FA) or activated carbon (AC) were prepared to obtain 1% organic mass. This study involved fourteen juvenile male swine as a digestive physiology model of young children. Animals were randomly distributed into 4 contaminated groups (3 replicates) and a control one (2 replicates). During 10d, the piglets were fed AS or a corn oil spiked with 19200 ng of Aroclor 1254 per g of dry matter (6000 ng g(-1) of NDL-PCBs) to achieve an exposure dose of 1200 ng NDL-PCBskg(-1) of body weight per day. After 10d of oral exposure, NDL-PCBs in adipose tissue, liver and muscles were analyzed by GC-MS, after extraction and purification. Two distinct groups of treatments were found: on the one hand oil, SS and FA, on the other hand C and AC. This study highlights that condensed OM (AC) strongly reduces bioavailability whereas the less condensed one (FA) does not seem to have a significant effect. This result has to be considered as a first major step for further relative bioavailability studies involving mixture of different humic substances. PMID:24289980

Delannoy, Matthieu; Rychen, Guido; Fournier, Agnès; Jondreville, Catherine; Feidt, Cyril

2014-06-01

161

Collagen Content in Skin and Internal Organs of the Tight Skin Mouse: An Animal Model of Scleroderma  

PubMed Central

The Tight Skin mouse is a genetically induced animal model of tissue fibrosis caused by a large in-frame mutation in the gene encoding fibrillin-1 (Fbn-1). We examined the influence of gender on the collagen content of tissues in C57BL/6J wild type (+/+) and mutant Tight Skin (Tsk/+) mice employing hydroxyproline assays. Tissue sections were stained with Masson's trichrome to identify collagen in situ. Adult Tsk/+ mice skin contains ~15% more collagen, on average, than skin from +/+ mice of the same gender. The heart of Tsk/+ males had significantly more collagen than that of +/+ males. No significant gender differences were found in lungs and kidney collagen content. Overall, the collagen content of Tsk/+ males and +/+ males was higher than that of their Tsk/+ and +/+ female counterparts, respectively. Our data confirm increased deposition of collagen in skin and hearts of Tsk/+ mice; however, the effects of the Tsk mutation on collagen content are both tissue specific and gender specific. These results indicate that comparative studies of collagen content between normal and Tsk/+ mice skin and internal organs must take into account gender differences caused by expression of the androgen receptor. PMID:24260716

Markova, Marina; Siracusa, Linda D.; Jimenez, Sergio A.

2013-01-01

162

Molecular multiproxy analysis of ancient root systems suggests strong alteration of deep subsoil organic matter by rhizomicrobial activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roots have a high potential capacity to store large amounts of CO2 in the subsoil. However, associated with rooting, microorganisms enter the subsoil and might contribute to priming effects of carbon mineralisation in the microbial hotspot rhizosphere. Although these processes are well known for recent surface soils, it remains questionable, if and how microorganisms contribute to priming effects in the subsoil and if these effects can be traced after the roots' lifetime. The current study implies several state-of-the-art techniques like DNA and lipid molecular proxies to trace remains of microbial biomass in ancient root systems. These can provide valuable information if parts of the root and rhizomicrobial biomass are preserved, e.g. by encrustation with secondary carbonate during the root's lifespan or shortly thereafter. At the Late Pleistocene loess-paleosol sequence near Nussloch (SW Germany), rhizoliths (calcified roots) occur highly abundant in the deep subsoil from 1 to 9 m depth and below. They were formed by Holocene woody vegetation. Their size can account for up to several cm in diameter and up to > 1 m length. Rhizoliths and surrounding sediment with increasing distances of up to 10 cm, as well as reference loess without visible root remains were collected at several depth intervals. Samples were analysed for n-fatty acids (FAs) and glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs; membrane lipids from Archaea and some Bacteria), as well as structural diversity based on the RNA gene of the prokaryotic ribosome subunit 16S (16S rRNA). GDGT represent organic remains from microbial biomass, whereas FA comprise both microbial remains and degradation products. 16S rRNA indicates the presence of both living cells and/or cell fragments. Despite the general low RNA contents in the sample set, results pointed to a much higher abundance of bacterial compared to archaeal RNA. The latter occured in notable amounts only in some rhizoliths. This was in part enforced by decreasing contents of archeal GDGTs from rhizolith via rhizosphere towards root-free loess. Furthermore, the bacterial fingerprint revealed - similar to modern root systems - higher taxonomic diversity in rhizosphere compared to rhizoliths and reference loess. This argues for microorganisms benefiting from root deposits and exudates. Highest concentrations of branched GDGTs in rhizoliths suggest that their source organisms feed on root remains. Incorporation of rhizomicrobial remains as represented by RNA and GDGTs usually affected the sediment at maximum to a distance of 2-3 cm from the former root. FA contents in rhizosphere showed strong scatter and were in part depleted compared to reference loess or, especially in deeper transects, enriched. This indicates the presence of degradation products originating from former rhizosphere processes. Especially at larger depth not affected by modern pedogenic processes, portions of mainly microbial derived C16 homologues were higher in rhizosphere loess up to distances of 10 cm, revealing that the possible extension of the rhizosphere was underestimated so far. In Corg poor subsoil, the occurence of diverse rhizosphere microorganisms and degradation processes even in several centimeters distant from roots point to a strong alteration of OM, possibly contributing to carbon mineralisation.

Gocke, Martina; Huguet, Arnaud; Derenne, Sylvie; Kolb, Steffen; Wiesenberg, Guido L. B.

2013-04-01

163

Histomorphological alterations in organs of the plaice Pleuronectes obscurus from a polluted part of Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of a histological study of the internal organs of the plaicePleuronectes obscurus from a polluted part of Amurskii Bay, Sea of Japan. A variety of histomorphological alterations were found in the gills and\\u000a liver, while the kidney and spleen were affected to a lesser degree. The most frequent lesions in gills were edemas of gill

I. G. Syasina; L. L. Arbuzova; E. A. Zhad'ko; A. S. Sokolovskii

2000-01-01

164

Dietary Energy and Protein for Growing Pigs: 2. Protein and Fat Accretion and Organ Weights of Animals Slaughtered at 20, 50, 80 and 110 kg Live Weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation was performed to study the effects of restricted versus ad libitum feeding on carcass composition, on protein and fat accretion and on body development and organ weights. The carcass composition was evaluated on 168 pigs by serial slaughter at 20, 50, 80 and 110 kg LW. The chemical composition was examined in only 62 of these animals. The

Sigvard Thomke; Timo Alaviuhkola; Arne Madsen; Frik Sundstøl; Hans Peder Mortensen; Odd Vangen; Kristina Andersson

1995-01-01

165

Animal Algorithm Animation Tool  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Guido RöÃÂling, who works for the Rechnerbetriebsgruppe (Computer Support Center) of the Department of Computer Science at the Darmstadt University of Technology, has created this website about ANIMAL. ANIMAL is a general-purpose animation tool with a current focus on algorithm animation. Posted on this website are the animations, including screenshots, classification and description, a user guide, other instructions, and research papers. A section with examples provides an overview and screen shots of the animations, such as one that shows how LZW compression (an algorithm created in 1984 by Lempel, Ziv and Welch) works.

166

Methods for study of cardiovascular adaptation of small laboratory animals during exposure to altered gravity. [hypothermia for cardiovascular control and cancer therapy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several new techniques are reported for studying cardiovascular circulation in small laboratory animals kept in metabolic chambers. Chronical cannulation, miniaturized membrane type heart-lung machines, a prototype walking chamber, and a fluorocarbon immersion method to simulate weightlessness are outlined. Differential hypothermia work on rat cancers provides localized embedding of radionuclides and other chemotherapeutical agents in tumors and increases at the same time blood circulation through the warmed tumor as compared to the rest of the cold body. Some successful clinical applications of combined chemotherapy and differential hypothermia in skin cancer, mammary tumors, and brain gliomas are described.

Popovic, V.

1973-01-01

167

Animal Ears  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (page 2 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior and communication. Groups of learners will fashion a headband with fake ears, similar in shape to those of the animal they are going to observe. Then, they record observations of the animalâs reactions when a learner, wearing the ears in different positions, brings it a snack. Learners develop categories of behavior to organize and evaluate the results. Safety Note: an adult handler must be present if working with a horse or even a large dog. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV: Horse Ears.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

168

Aquatic Animal Skeleton - Ribcage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The main purpose of an aquatic animal's ribcage is to protect its inner organs, such as the heart, from damage or injury. The ribcage is connected to the backbone of the animal and is made of mostly bone.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;)

2007-07-15

169

Nocturnal Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over time, human beings have blazed their way into the night with fire and artificial light, but we are not true creatures of the night. This Topic in Depth explores the world of nocturnal animals. From Island Discovery & Training, the first site allows visitors to listen to the sounds of several nocturnal animals. After guessing who made the sound, visitors can link to information pages for all but one of the mystery animals (1). Next is an information sheet (2) from BioMedia that answers the question: How Do Animals See In the Dark? The third site, from Enchanted Learning, provides coloring sheets and brief profiles for many nocturnal animals including the Amur Tiger, Badger, Crocodile, and Kinkajou-just to name a few (3). From the Fairbanks Museum & Planetarium in Vermont, the fourth website contains a six-page lesson plan (for students in grades one to eight) emphasizing different senses; and the roles and adaptations of nocturnal species (4). The fifth site, from Science News Online, contains an article addressing research on the ecological impact of artificial nighttime light on nocturnal animals (5). From Wild Asia, the next site contains an article by travel writer and environmental educator David Bowden, that describes his experience watching a marine turtle lay her eggs on Malaysia's Turtle Island (6). The seventh site, from PBS-Nova Online, briefly describes the work of zoologists who study nocturnal and burrowing animals of the Kalahari (7). From this site visitors can also link to a section that discusses how several different animals see at night. The final site, from the University of Utah-John Moran Eye Center, contains information about the role of photoreceptors in vision (8). This Photoreceptors section is part of a comprehensive electronic tutorial regarding neural organization of the mammalian retina.

170

Characterizing reduced sulfur compounds and non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become a potential environmental and human health concern. Both RSCs and NMVOCs contribute to odor. In addition, RSCs also have the potential to form fine particulate matter (PMfine) and NMVOCs the potential to form ozone. Measurements of RSCs and NMVOCs emissions were made from both an anaerobic lagoon and barn at a swine CAFO in North Carolina. Emission measurements were made over all four seasonal periods. In each seasonal period, measurements were made from both the anaerobic lagoon and barn for ˜1 week. RSC and NMVOCs samples were collected using passivated canisters. Nine to eleven canister samples were taken from both the lagoon and barn over each sampling period. The canisters were analyzed ex-situ using gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) measurements were made in-situ using a pulsed fluorescence H2S/SO2 analyzer. During sampling, measurements of meteorological and physiochemical parameters were made. H2S had the largest RSC flux, with an overall average lagoon flux of 1.33 mug m-2 min-1. The two main RSCs identified by the GC-FID, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), had overall average lagoon fluxes an order of magnitude lower, 0.12 and 0.09 mug m-2 min-1, respectively. Twelve significant NMVOCs were identified in lagoon samples (ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, decanal, heptanal, hexanal, nonanal, octanal, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and 4-methylphenol). The overall average fluxes for these NMVOCs, ranged from 0.08 mug m-2 min-1 (4-methylphenol) to 2.11 mug m-2 min-1 (acetone). Seasonal H2S barn concentrations ranged from 72-631 ppb. DMS and DMDS seasonal concentrations were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower. There were six significant NMVOCs identified in barn samples (methanol, ethanol, acetone 2-3 butanedione, acetaldehyde and 4-methylphenol). Their overall average NMVOCs concentrations ranged from 2.87 ppb (4-methylphenol) to 16.21 ppb (ethanol). The overall average barn normalized emissions were 3.3 g day-1 AU-1 (AU (animal unit) = 500 kg) for H2S, 0.018 g day-1 AU-1 for DMS and 0.037 g day -1 AU-1 for DMDS. Normalized overall average NMVOC emissions ranged from 0.45 g day-1 AU-1 for ethanol to 0.16 g day-1 AU-1 for acetaldehyde. Barn H2S concentrations were generally one to two orders of magnitude above their odor thresholds. DMDS concentrations also regularly exceeded the lower limit of an odor threshold. Four NMVOCs (2-3 butanedione, decanal, 4-methylphenol and nonanal) had barn concentrations exceeding an odor threshold. Using overall average lagoon and barn emissions, the emissions from swine CAFOs in North Carolina were estimated. H2S had the largest RSC emission with an estimated North Carolina emission of 1.46 million kg yr -1, which was ˜21% of total North Carolina H2S emissions. Ethanol was the NMVOC with the largest North Carolina emission with an emission of 206,367 kg yr-1.

Rumsey, Ian Cooper

171

Early diagenetic alteration of organic matter by sulfate reduction in Quaternary sediments from the northeastern Arabian Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemipelagic sediments from the northeastern Arabian Sea off Pakistan were analyzed by geochemical and microscopical methods to study the importance of bacterial degradation processes on the quantity and composition of sedimentary organic matter (OM). On the basis of elemental analysis of total organic carbon (TOC) and total sulfur (TS), the decay of OM by sulfate-reducing bacteria were calculated. Concentrations of

A. Lückge; M. Ercegovac; H. Strauss; R. Littke

1999-01-01

172

Altered food web structure and C-flux pathways associated with mineralisation of organic amendments to agricultural soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of organic materials to agricultural soils offers the potential to divert these from conventional waste streams and to reduce the use of mineral fertilisers for crop production. In addition to direct impacts of organic materials on soil physico-chemical conditions, such amendments may also affect the structure and functioning of soil food webs and the coupling of plant- and soil

Eric Paterson; Roy Neilson; Andrew J. Midwood; Shona M. Osborne; Allan Sim; Barry Thornton; Pete Millard

2011-01-01

173

Plant and Animal Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compare and contrast animal cells and plant cells. Use this graphic organizer diagram to help you organize your thoughts while you are looking at each webpage. First go to this link interactive animal and plant cell model and look at both the plant and animal cell models. After you get done with that site go to this site inside a plant and animal cell and take some more ...

Montgomery, Ms.

2012-04-04

174

Microcystin-LR, a protein phosphatase inhibitor, induces alterations in mitotic chromatin and microtubule organization leading to the formation of micronuclei in Vicia faba  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Microcystin-LR (MCY-LR) is a cyanobacterial toxin, a specific inhibitor of type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases (PP1 and PP2A) with significant impact on aquatic ecosystems. It has the potential to alter regulation of the plant cell cycle. The aim of this study was improved understanding of the mitotic alterations induced by cyanotoxin in Vicia faba, a model organism for plant cell biology studies. Methods Vicia faba seedlings were treated over the long and short term with MCY-LR purified in our laboratory. Short-term treatments were performed on root meristems synchronized with hydroxylurea. Sections of lateral root tips were labelled for chromatin, phosphorylated histone H3 and ?-tubulin via histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Mitotic activity and the occurrence of mitotic alterations were detected and analysed by fluorescence microscopy. The phosphorylation state of histone H3 was studied by Western blotting. Key Results Long-term MCY-LR exposure of lateral root tip meristems increased the percentage of either early or late mitosis in a concentration-dependent manner. We observed hypercondensed chromosomes and altered sister chromatid segregation (lagging chromosomes) leading to the formation of micronuclei, accompanied by the formation of disrupted, multipolar and monopolar spindles, disrupted phragmoplasts and the hyperphosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser10. Short-term MCY-LR treatment of synchronized cells showed that PP1 and PP2A inhibition delayed the onset of anaphase at 1 µg mL?1 MCY-LR, accelerated cell cycle at 10 µg mL?1 MCY-LR and induced the formation of lagging chromosomes. In this case mitotic microtubule alterations were not detected, but histone H3 was hyperphosphorylated. Conclusions MCY-LR delayed metaphase–anaphase transition. Consequently, it induced aberrant chromatid segregation and micronucleus formation that could be associated with both H3 hyperphosphorylation and altered microtubule organization. However, these two phenomena seemed to be independent. The toxin may be a useful tool in the study of plant cell cycle regulation. PMID:22819947

Beyer, Daniel; Tandor, Ildiko; Konya, Zoltan; Batori, Robert; Roszik, Janos; Vereb, Gyorgy; Erdodi, Ferenc; Vasas, Gabor; M-Hamvas, Marta; Jambrovics, Karoly; Mathe, Csaba

2012-01-01

175

Inorganic and organic N pools in soils burned or heated: immediate alterations and evolution after forest wildfires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in the inorganic and organic N contents and in the resistance of organic N to step-wise acid hydrolysis (four steps of increasing hydrolytic intensity) was analysed in burned soils sampled (0–5 and 5–10 cm depth) at different times after high severity forest wildfires, as well as in one soil heated in the laboratory at 150, 210 or 350 °C.Ammonium

Ángeles Prieto-Fernández; Modesto Carballas; Tarsy Carballas

2004-01-01

176

Complex assessment of toxicity, cyto-, and gentotoxicity of polyexamethyl guanidine concurrently with the use of plant and animal test-organisms and their cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the biotesting results of aqueous solutions of polyhexamethyl guanidine of grade Aquaton with a goal of\\u000a investigating the impact of toxic, genotoxic, and cytotoxic influence of the compounds of the guanidine series on plant and\\u000a animal test-organisms and their cells, i.e., assessments of their ecological safety. The given compound prepared on model\\u000a and natural waters at the

V. V. Arkhipchuk; V. V. Goncharuk

2007-01-01

177

Animal Tracks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For those of us living in Northern climates, when winter snow covers the landscape it provides great conditions to search for animal tracks. The following websites provide an abundance of information and resources about the ancient art of animal tracking.The first site(1 ), Beartracker's Animal Tracks Den, is an excellent comprehensive "online field guide to tracks and tracking." The site includes animal track images, photos, as well as information about mammals, reptiles, birds, insects, amphibians, and other tracking resources. The second site (2), is an article by Jon C. Boren, Extension Wildlife Specialist and Byron D. Wright, Agricultural Specialist both from the University of New Mexico entitled Identifying and Preserving Wildlife Tracks. The third site (3), on Tracking and Stalking Wildlife, comes from The Virtual Cub Scout Leader's Handbook and provides short information pages on a variety on animals including photos and images of tracks. The fourth site (4) is a well-organized lesson plan with activities on Animal Signs from Eagle Bluff Environmental Learning Center. The fifth site (5) is the Outdoor Action Guide to Animal Tracking by Rick Curtis of Princeton University. This website provides solid and detailed information on many aspects of animal tracking including parts of a track, pattern classification, aging tracks, and more. The sixth site (6) is an article by veteran tracker Jim Halfpenny, Ph.D. about how to determine the accurate track size for an animal. Site visitors can link from this article to the homepage for A Naturalist's World which has information about tracking classes offered in various North American locations. For anyone interested in developing their animal tracking skills, the final two websites also offer courses from very experienced trackers in different regions of North America. The seventh site (7), Tom Brown's Tracker School is the largest school of its kind with locations in New Jersey, California, and Florida. The eighth site, (8) Wilderness Awareness School is located in Washington but offers courses in other regions as well. This website also provides an extensive list of links for many other tracking resources.

178

BRG1/SMARCA4 Inactivation Promotes Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Aggressiveness by Altering Chromatin Organization.  

PubMed

SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes regulate critical cellular processes, including cell-cycle control, programmed cell death, differentiation, genomic instability, and DNA repair. Inactivation of this class of chromatin remodeling complex has been associated with a variety of malignancies, including lung, ovarian, renal, liver, and pediatric cancers. In particular, approximately 10% of primary human lung non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) display attenuations in the BRG1 ATPase, a core factor in SWI/SNF complexes. To evaluate the role of BRG1 attenuation in NSCLC development, we examined the effect of BRG1 silencing in primary and established human NSCLC cells. BRG1 loss altered cellular morphology and increased tumorigenic potential. Gene expression analyses showed reduced expression of genes known to be associated with progression of human NSCLC. We demonstrated that BRG1 losses in NSCLC cells were associated with variations in chromatin structure, including differences in nucleosome positioning and occupancy surrounding transcriptional start sites of disease-relevant genes. Our results offer direct evidence that BRG1 attenuation contributes to NSCLC aggressiveness by altering nucleosome positioning at a wide range of genes, including key cancer-associated genes. Cancer Res; 74(22); 6486-98. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25115300

Orvis, Tess; Hepperla, Austin; Walter, Vonn; Song, Shujie; Simon, Jeremy; Parker, Joel; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Desai, Nisarg; Major, Michael B; Hayes, D Neil; Davis, Ian J; Weissman, Bernard

2014-11-15

179

What can we learn from the toughest animals of the Earth? Water bears (tardigrades) as multicellular model organisms in order to perform scientific preparations for lunar exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space missions of long duration required a series of preliminary experiments on living organisms, validated by a substantial phase of ground simulation experiments, in the field of micro- and inter-mediate gravities, radiobiology, and, for planetary explorations, related to risks deriving from regolith and dust exposure. In this review, we present the tardigrades, whose characteristics that recommend them as an emerging model for space biology. They are microscopic animals but are characterized by a complex structural organization similar to that of larger animals; they can be cultured in lab in small facilities, having small size; they are able to produce clonal lineages by means of parthenogenesis; they can completely suspend their metabolism when entering in dormant states (anhydrobiosis induced by dehydration and cryobiosis induced by freezing); desiccated anhydrobiotic tardigrades are able to withstand chemical and physical extremes, but a large tolerance is showed also by active animals; they can be stored in dry state for many years without loss of viability. Tardigrades have already been exposed to space stressors on Low Earth Orbit several times. The relevance of ground-based and space studies on tardigrades rests on the presumption that results could suggest strategies to protect organisms, also humans, when exposed to the space and lunar environments.

Guidetti, Roberto; Rizzo, Angela Maria; Altiero, Tiziana; Rebecchi, Lorena

2012-12-01

180

ANIMAL COGNITION Animal cognition  

E-print Network

·Social learning #12;Social learning ·Possibly associative at least in some aspects. ·ObservingCHAPTER 9 ANIMAL COGNITION #12;Animal cognition ·Basic concepts ·Case study: incentive learning ·Rule learning ·Social learning #12;Rule learning ·A cognitive form of learning. ·Initial learning based

Cooper, Brenton G.

181

Alteration of steroidogenesis in H295R cells by organic sediment contaminants and relationships to other endocrine disrupting effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel bioassay with the human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R can be used to screen for endocrine disrupting chemicals that affect the expression of genes important in steroidogenesis. This assay was employed to study the effects of organic contaminants associated with the freshwater pond sediments collected in the Ostrava-Karvina region, Czech Republic. The modulation of ten major genes involved

Lud?k Bláha; Klára Hilscherová; Edita Mazurová; Markus Hecker; Paul D. Jones; John L. Newsted; Patrick W. Bradley; Tannia Gracia; Zdenek ?uriš; Ivona Horká; Ivan Holoubek; John P. Giesy

2006-01-01

182

Thermally-induced structural and chemical alteration of organic-walled microfossils: an experimental approach to understanding fossil preservation in metasediments.  

PubMed

The identification and confirmation of bona fide Archean-Paleoproterozoic microfossils can prove to be a challenging task, further compounded by diagenetic and metamorphic histories. While structures of likely biological origin are not uncommon in Precambrian rocks, the search for early fossil life has been disproportionately focused on lesser thermally altered rocks, typically greenschist or lower-grade metamorphism. Recently, however, an increasing number of inferred micro- and macrofossils have been reported from higher-grade metasediments, prompting us to experimentally test and quantify the preservability of organic-walled microfossils over varying durations of controlled heating and under two differing redox conditions. Because of their relatively low-intensity natural thermal alteration, acritarchs from the Mesoproterozoic Ruyang Group were chosen as subjects for experimental heating at approximately 500°C, with durations ranging from 1 to 250 days and in both oxic (normal present day conditions) and anoxic conditions. Upon extraction, the opacity, reflectivity, color, microchemistry, and microstructures of the heated acritarchs were characterized using optic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results differ for acritarchs prepared under oxic vs. anoxic conditions, with the anoxic replicates surviving experimental heating longer and retaining biological morphologies better, despite an increasing degree of carbonization with continuous heating. Conversely, the oxic replicates show aggressive degradation. In conjunction with fossils from high-grade metasediments, our data illustrate the preservational potential of organic-walled microfossils subjected to metamorphism in reducing conditions, offer insights into the search for microfossils in metasediments, and help to elucidate the influence of time on the carbonization/graphitization processes during thermal alteration. PMID:22607551

Schiffbauer, J D; Wallace, A F; Hunter, J L; Kowalewski, M; Bodnar, R J; Xiao, S

2012-09-01

183

Identification of nonsynonomous polymorphisms of human organic anion transporting polypeptide-A (OATP-A) associated with altered transport activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP) are a growing family of uptake transporters important to drug disposition. Studies from this laboratory have shown that OATP-A (SLC21A3) is selectively expressed in human intestine as well as kidney and brain. Accordingly, variability in the expression or function of this polyspecific drug uptake transporter may have important implications to bioavailability and tissue penetration of

W. Lee; L. H. Smith; G. Gervasini; B. F. Leake; R. B. Kim

2004-01-01

184

Animal Cell Meiosis Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Meiosis is important in assuring genetic diversity in sexual reproduction. Use this interactive animation to follow Meiosis I (reduction division) and Meiosis II in a continuous sequence or stop at any stage and review critical events.

2010-01-01

185

Influence of sill intrusions on the hydrology and thermal maturity of sediments - Modelling heat flow and organic geochemical alterations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a variaty of continetal margins worldwide, sill intrusions had a significant influence on the fluid flow and on the thermal alteration of the sediments. We present concepts of fluid and/or gas flow within the contact aureole of sills. Water exposed to the high temperatures at the contact will inadvertently be converted into the steam phase. This process is of explosive nature due to the enormous expansion of the specific density of the fluid. High temperatures in combination with the available fluid will build up high pressures around the aureole and lead to fluid or gas flow according to the pressure gradient. From the thermal point of view, the major effect of the steam formation is a drastic reduction of the contact temperature at the sill to near the steam point of the fluid. The temperature value depends primarily on the local hydraulic pressure, which is closely related to the depth of the contact below surface. One consequence of the high pressure regime will be the escape of the steam through fractures wherever available. Geologic evidence from known locations points to the creation of so-called pipes. Through such pipes, the fluids and gases will be carried away from the contact, and with it the thermal energy. Our concept is compatible with observations on hydrothermal vents in sedimentary basins, which are known to be associated with sill intrusions. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the above concept, we employ a derivate of BGR's heat flow model which has been used and proven as a robust analytic tool in a variety of published studies. Our calculations demonstrate the massive temperature depression caused by the steam production in comparison to the case of pure heat transfer by conduction. After sill emplacement steam generation will ensue until the latent heat for steam formation for the given water volume has been supplied by heat flow out of the sill. During this process, the contact temperature will be kept at the steam point of water for the given pressure at the sill depth. As soon as the latent heat is used up, the heat flow from the sill will drop below the capacity to heat the water to the steam point. The contact temperature will thereafter slowly drop, sediments and sill will proceed to cool jointly. To test our model with observations, we included routines of kinetic modelling of thermal vitrinite alteration, and compared the computational results to data from different settings worldwide. The comparison between modelled and observational data are in very good accordance.

Berner, Ulrich; Delisle, Georg

2010-05-01

186

Protein deficiency alters impact of intestinal nematode infection on intestinal, visceral and lymphoid organ histopathology in lactating mice.  

PubMed

Protein deficiency impairs local and systemic immune responses to Heligmosomoides bakeri infection but little is known about their individual and interactive impacts on tissue architecture of maternal lymphoid (thymus, spleen) and visceral (small intestine, kidney, liver, pancreas) organs during the demanding period of lactation. Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, pregnant CD1 mice were fed a 24% protein sufficient (PS) or a 6% protein deficient (PD) isoenergetic diet beginning on day 14 of pregnancy and were infected with 100 H. bakeri larvae four times or exposed to four sham infections. On day 20 of lactation, maternal organs were examined histologically and serum analytes were assayed as indicators of organ function. The absence of villus atrophy in response to infection was associated with increased crypt depth and infiltration of mast cells and eosinophils but only in lactating dams fed adequate protein. Infection-induced lobular liver inflammation was reduced in PD dams, however, abnormalities in the kidney caused by protein deficiency were absent in infected dams. Bilirubin and creatinine were highest in PD infected mice. Infection-induced splenomegaly was not due to an increase in the lymphoid compartment of the spleen. During lactation, infection and protein deficiency have interactive effects on extra-intestinal pathologies. PMID:24512671

Starr, Lisa M; Odiere, Maurice R; Koski, Kristine G; Scott, Marilyn E

2014-05-01

187

The G?ttingen minipig for assessment of retinoid efficacy in the skin: comparison of results from topically treated animals with results from organ-cultured skin  

PubMed Central

Göttingen minipigs were treated topically for 6 d with a novel retinoid (MDI 301) at concentrations ranging from 0.3% to 30% in cream vehicle. Treatment of the minipigs did not adversely affect their health (hematological and necropsy parameters) or produce changes in the skin suggestive of retinoid-induced skin irritation. After killing the animals, skin samples from each treatment site were excised and maintained in organ culture for 6 d. In addition, untreated skin was also maintained in organ culture and treated with MDI 301 (0.1–5 ?g/ml). After 3 d, the culture supernatants were collected and analyzed for levels of collagen type I and for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Both skin samples treated in vivo and skin samples exposed to MDI 301 in culture demonstrated increased collagen production. Only slight changes in levels of MMP-2 (gelatinase A) or MMP-9 (gelatinase B) were seen. After 6 d, the organ-cultured skin was fixed in formalin and prepared for histology. The organ-cultured skin was compared to skin that was fixed at killing after in vivo treatment. Epidermal hyperplasia was quantified at various MDI 301 concentrations. In vivo and in vitro treatments showed similar results—although the thickness was not substantially changed on average, there were focal areas of hyperplasia at higher retinoid concentrations. Taken together, these data suggest that MDI 301 enhances collagen production in minipig skin, without irritation. Furthermore, these studies suggest that minipig skin exposed to the retinoid in organ culture is equally predictive as topically treated skin. The in vitro organ culture approach may provide a cost-effective alternative model to that of the intact animal for skin retinoid testing. PMID:19536603

Paruchuri, Tejaswi; DaSilva, Marissa; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Ridder, William; Varani, James

2010-01-01

188

The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. III - Generation of bitumen in laboratory experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of pyrolysis experiments, utilizing two different immature kerogens (from the Monterey and Green River Formations) mixed with common sedimentary minerals (calcite, illite, or Na-montmorillonite), was conducted to study the impact of the mineral matrix on the bitumen that was generated. Calcite has no significant influence on the thermal evolution of bitumen and also shows virtually no adsorption capacity for any of the pyrolysate. In contrast, montmorillonite (M) and illite, to a lesser extent, alter bitumen during dry pyrolysis. M and illite also display strong adsorption capacities for the polar constituents of bitumen. By this process, hydrocarbons are substantially concentrated within the pyrolysate that is not strongly adsorbed on the clay matrices. The effects of the clay minerals are significantly reduced during hydrous pyrolysis. The strong adsorption capacities of M and illite, as well as their thermocatalytic properties, may in part explain why light oils and gases are generated from certain argillaceous source-rock assemblages, whereas heavy immature oils are often derived from carbonate source rocks.

Huizinga, Bradley J.; Tannenbaum, Eli; Kaplan, I. R.

1987-01-01

189

Warming Alters the Routing of Labile and Slower-Turnover Carbon Through Distinct Microbial Groups in Boreal Forest Organic Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased temperature has been linked to greater losses of soil organic carbon (SOC) via microbial respiration and potentially greater relative increases in mineralization of more complex, slow-turnover SOC pools. Though critical for predicting climate feedbacks, our mechanistic understanding of these temperature responses remains limited. Here we report results from a warming experiment using organic horizon soils from two mesic, boreal forest sites with contrasting climate regimes. We replaced extant Oi soil sub-horizons with another coniferous Oi possessing a distinct ?13C signature, and tracked incorporation of the replaced Oi-C and, by difference, the more humified Oea sub-horizon C into microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) following 120 day incubations at 15C and 20C. We demonstrate how regional climate (site effects) and experimental warming (temperature effects) influence microbial incorporation of Oi versus slower-turnover Oea SOC pools. Congruent with increased mineralization in these soils, the quantity of total PLFA, a proxy for microbial biomass, increased by 32-60% with experimental warming and was 20-42% higher within soils from the warmer versus cooler site. The proportion of Gram-positive bacterial PLFA-C derived from Oi-C more than doubled and coincided with a reduction in the incorporation of Oi-C into fungal relative to bacterial PLFA with laboratory warming and in soils from the warmer site. In conjunction with the relative decrease in fungal incorporation of Oi-C, warming led to an increase of 22-31% in the proportion of fungal PLFA-C derived from the Oea-C. This is consistent with site effects and an increased incorporation of this slower-turnover SOC pool in soils from the warmer site. The increase in microbial biomass and shift in routing of Oi and Oea pools through PLFA indicate that warming increases fungal mineralization of more slow-turnover C pools in these boreal organic soils. This increased exploitation of low C:N Oea by fungi with warming may also signify a source of N potentially supporting the enhanced microbial biomass and routing of the more labile, high C:N Oi through Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, the shifts in microbial substrate routing and biomass increases with warming observed here underscore the potential for changing proportions of microbial necromass components with warming and their contributions to SOC.

Ziegler, S. E.; Billings, S. A.; Lane, C. S.; Li, J.; Fogel, M. L.

2012-12-01

190

[Ethical challenges of genetic manipulation and research with animals].  

PubMed

Research with animals presents ethical questions both for being used as models of human diseases and for being a prerequisite for trials in humans, as in the introduction of genetic modifications. Some of these questions refer to the fact that, as models, they do not fully represent the human condition; that conducting toxicity tests causes great harm to animals; that their nature is altered by genetic modifications and that introducing genetically modified organisms is a risk. The use of animals in research for the benefit of humans imposes the moral responsibility to respect them, not making them suffer unnecessarily, since they are living beings capable of feeling. PMID:23338641

Rodríguez Yunta, Eduardo

2012-01-01

191

Alteration of steroidogenesis in H295R cells by organic sediment contaminants and relationships to other endocrine disrupting effects.  

PubMed

A novel bioassay with the human adrenocortical carcinoma cell line H295R can be used to screen for endocrine disrupting chemicals that affect the expression of genes important in steroidogenesis. This assay was employed to study the effects of organic contaminants associated with the freshwater pond sediments collected in the Ostrava-Karvina region, Czech Republic. The modulation of ten major genes involved in the synthesis of steroid hormones (CYP11A, CYP11B2, CYP17, CYP19, 17betaHSD1, 17betaHSD4, CYP21, 3betaHSD2, HMGR, StAR) after exposure of H295R cells to sediment extracts was investigated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Crude sediment extracts, containing high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and moderate amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) significantly stimulated expression of the CYP11B2 gene (up to 10-fold induction), and suppressed expression of 3betaHSD2 and CYP21 genes. A similar pattern was observed with the extracts after treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid to remove labile chemicals (including PAHs) leaving only persistent PCBs, OCPs and potentially PCDD/Fs. Comparison of the results with other mechanistically based bioassays (arylhydrocarbon receptor, AhR, mediated responses in H4IIE-luc cells, and estrogen receptor mediated effects in MVLN cells) revealed significant endocrine disrupting potencies of organic contaminants present in the sediments (most likely antiestrogenicity). Pronounced effects were observed particularly in sediment extracts from the Pilnok Pond which harbors an unusual intersexual population of the narrow-cawed crayfish Pontastacus leptodactylus (Decapoda, Crustacea). This pilot study provided the first experimental evidence of the wider application of the H295R bioassay for screening complex environmental samples, and the results support the hypothesis of chemical-induced endocrine disruption in intersexual crayfish. PMID:16650473

Bláha, Ludek; Hilscherová, Klára; Mazurová, Edita; Hecker, Markus; Jones, Paul D; Newsted, John L; Bradley, Patrick W; Gracia, Tannia; Duris, Zdenek; Horká, Ivona; Holoubek, Ivan; Giesy, John P

2006-08-01

192

Role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter--I: generation of gases and condensates under dry condition.  

PubMed

Pyrolysis experiments were carried out on Monterey formation kerogen and bitumen and Green River formation kerogen (Type II and I, respectively), in the presence and absence of montmorillonite, illite and calcite at 200 and 300 degrees C for 2-2000 hours. The pyrolysis products were identified and quantified and the results of the measurements on the gas and condensate range are reported here. A significant catalytic effect was observed for the pyrolysis of kerogen with montmorillonite, whereas small or no effects were observed with illite and calcite, respectively. Catalytic activity was evident by the production of up to five times higher C1-C6 hydrocarbons for kerogen with montmorillonite than for kerogen alone, and by the dominance of branched hydrocarbons in the C4-C6 range (up to 90% of the total amount at any single carbon number). This latter effect in the presence of montmorillonite is attributed to cracking via a carbonium-ion [carbocation] intermediate which forms on the acidic sites of the day. No catalytic effect, however, was observed for generation of methane and C2 hydrocarbons which form by thermal cracking. The catalysis of montmorillonite was significantly greater during pyrolysis of bitumen than for kerogen, which may point to the importance of the early formed bitumen as an intermediate in the production of low molecular weight hydrocarbons. Catalysis by minerals was also observed for the production of carbon dioxide. These results stress the importance of the mineral matrix in determining the type and amount of gases and condensates forming from the associated organic matter under thermal stress. The literature contains examples of gas distribution in the geologic column which can be accounted for by selective mineral catalysis, mainly during early stages of organic matter maturation. PMID:11539655

Tannenbaum, E; Kaplan, I R

1985-01-01

193

[Animal welfare aspects of biotechnology].  

PubMed

It's difficult to value the effects on animals caused by genetic engineering. Nowadays an enormous increase on animal tests is taken place. The detrimental alterations of small number of living born gene altered animals are in literature explained by deficiencies in method and the increased growth is described with deficient mechanisms on regulation. Not only the intention to increase productivity by genetic engineering but also the method to improve by fragments (genes) not facing the animals totality is against prevention of cruelty to animals. PMID:2351056

Idel, A

1990-04-01

194

Animal Hats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this arts and crafts activity about animals and animal characteristics, learners will design animal hats and role-play as animals. Through this dramatic play, learners will practice and develop problem solving, cooperation, symbolic thinking, language and personal expression skills. Use the suggested open-ended questions to encourage learner reflection about their animal hat and animals in general.

Omsi

2004-01-01

195

Targeted grazing to reduce tillage in organic dryland systems: Environmental, ecological, and economic assessment of reintegrating animal and crop production  

E-print Network

of management system on lamb performance, health and quality. The successful candidate will evaluate the impact networks. As part of this project, the successful candidate will assess insect diversity and impactTargeted grazing to reduce tillage in organic dryland systems: Environmental, ecological

Lawrence, Rick L.

196

Bdellovibrio and Like Organisms Enhanced Growth and Survival of Penaeus monodon and Altered Bacterial Community Structures in Its Rearing Water.  

PubMed

In this study, a 96-h laboratory reduction test was conducted with strain BDHSH06 (GenBank accession no. EF011103) as the test strain for Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) and 20 susceptible marine bacterial strains forming microcosms as the targets. The results showed that BDHSH06 reduced the levels of approximately 50% of prey bacterial strains within 96 h in the seawater microcosms. An 85-day black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) rearing experiment was performed. The shrimp survival rate, body length, and weight in the test tanks were 48.1% ± 1.2%, 99.8 ± 10.0 mm, and 6.36 ± 1.50 g, respectively, which were values significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those for the control, viz., 31.0% ± 2.1%, 86.0 ± 11.1 mm, and 4.21 ± 1.56 g, respectively. With the addition of BDHSH06, total bacterial and Vibrio numbers were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 1.3 to 4.5 log CFU · ml(-1) and CFU · g(-1) in both water and shrimp intestines, respectively, compared to those in the control. The effect of BDHSH06 on bacterial community structures in the rearing water was also examined using PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE profiles of rearing water samples from the control and test tanks revealed that the amounts of 44% of the bacterial species were reduced when BDHSH06 was added to the rearing water over the 85-day rearing period, and among these, approximately 57.1% were nonculturable. The results of this study demonstrated that BDHSH06 can be used as a biocontrol/probiotic agent in P. monodon culture. PMID:25107962

Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Qiuping; Liu, Renliang; Cai, Junpeng

2014-10-15

197

[Modulating effects of androgens on development adaptive-compensatory processes in organism of experimental animals-males].  

PubMed

The purpose of research is the definition of androgens role and myocardial androgen receptors and sex steroids in males under metabolic and hormonal "stress" induced by the experimental diabetes. Research was carried out on 60 rats-males, mass 180,0-200,0 g. The diabetes reproduced by single injection of alloxan (200mg/kg). Androgen receptors were revealed by the radiometric and radioautography methods. The content of glucose, immunoreactive insulin, testosteron, estradiol, corticosteron and somatotropin were defined in animals blood plasma. On the early terms of alloxan diabetes estradiol concentration increase against a background of testosteron decrease which causes the "feminization" of the sexual hormonal balance. On the other side the increase of androgen receptors expression by cardiomyocytes causes the intensification of myocardium tissue physiologic ability to androgens perception positively influencing on the metabolism. Consequently, androgens provoke stimulating effect on the myocard metabolism in males at early stages of the experimental diabetes. PMID:20972279

Didebulidze, N A; Sumbadze, Ts M; Melikadze, E B; Gvidani, S A; Kakabadze, M Sh

2010-09-01

198

Animal models of endocrine\\/organ-specific autoimmune diseases: do they really help us to understand human autoimmunity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Organ-specific or endocrine autoimmune diseases are complex, polygenic afflictions the penetrance of which is heavily dependent\\u000a on various environmental influences. Important target tissues are the thyroid, the islets of Langerhans, gastric parietal\\u000a cells and steroid-producing cells in the adrenal and ovary. The etiology of these diseases remains to be clarified. The pathogenesis\\u000a is strongly associated with autoimmune phenomena. None

W. K. Lam-Tse; A. Lernmark; H. A. Drexhage

2002-01-01

199

Hybrid Shell Engineering of Animal Cells for Immune Protections and Regulation of Drug Delivery: Towards the Design of ``Artificial Organs''  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundWith the progress in medicine, the average human life expectancy is continuously increasing. At the same time, the number of patients who require full organ transplantations is augmenting. Consequently, new strategies for cell transplantation are the subject of great interest.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThis work reports the design, the synthesis and the characterisation of robust and biocompatible mineralised beads composed of two layers:

Philippe Dandoy; Christophe F. Meunier; Carine Michiels; Bao-Lian Su; Richard Haverkamp

2011-01-01

200

Universal Pacemaker of Genome Evolution in Animals and Fungi and Variation of Evolutionary Rates in Diverse Organisms  

PubMed Central

Gene evolution is traditionally considered within the framework of the molecular clock (MC) model whereby each gene is characterized by an approximately constant rate of evolution. Recent comparative analysis of numerous phylogenies of prokaryotic genes has shown that a different model of evolution, denoted the Universal PaceMaker (UPM), which postulates conservation of relative, rather than absolute evolutionary rates, yields a better fit to the phylogenetic data. Here, we show that the UPM model is a better fit than the MC for genome wide sets of phylogenetic trees from six species of Drosophila and nine species of yeast, with extremely high statistical significance. Unlike the prokaryotic phylogenies that include distant organisms and multiple horizontal gene transfers, these are simple data sets that cover groups of closely related organisms and consist of gene trees with the same topology as the species tree. The results indicate that both lineage-specific and gene-specific rates are important in genome evolution but the lineage-specific contribution is greater. Similar to the MC, the gene evolution rates under the UPM are strongly overdispersed, approximately 2-fold compared with the expectation from sampling error alone. However, we show that neither Drosophila nor yeast genes form distinct clusters in the tree space. Thus, the gene-specific deviations from the UPM, although substantial, are uncorrelated and most likely depend on selective factors that are largely unique to individual genes. Thus, the UPM appears to be a key feature of genome evolution across the history of cellular life. PMID:24812293

Snir, Sagi; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.

2014-01-01

201

Exploring Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each group will be given one of the following categories of animals to explore further and answer questions about. Mammals Invertebrates Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Explore your category of animals and answer these questions: 1. What makes an animal belong to this category? Do you think that an animal can only belong to one category? Why or why not? 2. Explain why these animals live where they do? 3. Does your category of animals have any interesting ...

Emily, Miss

2009-03-02

202

Animal Cloning  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The past few years have seen many changes in the field of genetics, including the ability to genetically clone mammals, first achieved in 1997 with a sheep named Dolly. Still a relatively new phenomenon, news stories are continually detailing new advances in cloning, reasons why cloning is important, and concerns about the safety and ethics of cloning. This week's Topic In Depth highlights some recent news articles and Web sites that address the topic of animal cloning. The first site is a recent article from the Washington Post about the sheep named Dolly, the world's first cloned mammal, who has developed arthritis at a relatively young age and has caused some to question whether cloning can have adverse health effects. An ABC news.com article details the recent birth of five cloned piglets whose parent had been genetically engineered to remove a gene that causes human bodies to reject transplanted animal organs. An Associated Press article discusses some concerns raised by scientists and ethicists surrounding the idea of xenotransplantation (animal to human transplantation). For users who need a primer on what exactly cloning means and why it is done, check out the Cloning Fact Sheet. Developed by the Human Genome Project, it provides short, non-technical explanations of the different types of cloning and some links to other cloning related Web sites. Those users looking for more detailed information about cloning technology will find the next two sites interesting. PPL Therapeutics, which created the five piglets and collaborated with the Roslin Institute to clone Dolly, provides news articles and technical descriptions of cloning and related genetic technology. The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America's Web site provides links to a tremendous amount of information surrounding all aspects of cloning, including recent congressional activity, news, and general resources. Although focused more heavily on human cloning, The American Journal of Bioethics Online has a Web page with links to various articles relating to the ethical issues involved with cloning and genetics.

Lee, Amy.

2002-01-01

203

Animal Cloning 101  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers' Domain presents this interactive lesson with reading materials and animations to present information on what a clone is, how cloning live organisms is possible, and examples of animals that have been cloned in the past. The activity also illustrates how cloned animals may one day be used in enhancing human health. On the site, visitors will also find a supplemental background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment from Teachers' Domain.

2010-10-06

204

Plant or Animal?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents activities that use marine organisms with plant-like appearances to help students build classification skills and illustrate some of the less obvious differences between plants and animals. Compares mechanisms by which sessile plants and animals deal with common problems such as obtaining energy, defending themselves, successfully…

Bowman, Frank; Matthews, Catherine E.

1996-01-01

205

Genetically Modified Animals Nicole Edgar and Etienne Sibille  

E-print Network

Synonyms Transgenic Animal; Mutant Animal; Genetically Engineered Animal; Genetically Modified Organism a wide variety of genetically modified organisms have been created to date for numerous research purposesGenetically Modified Animals Nicole Edgar and Etienne Sibille Center for Neuroscience, Department

Sibille, Etienne

206

Character Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of the creation and animation of characters in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional character animation techniques, such as those developed by the Disney animators, and also human modelling. The section includes html pages, images and several videos.

2007-01-20

207

Animal Clues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this online activity (found under "Activities"), young learners match animals with either their tracks or sounds. The animals are all common wild North American species: raccoon, duck, bear, fox, deer, frog and beaver. The tracks and sounds are animated, so learners can visualize how the animal walks and examine the shape of its foot. The activity is in both English and Spanish.

Omsi

2006-01-01

208

Animal Diversity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson from Science NetLinks exposes children to a wide range of animals and guides them through observation of animal similarities, differences, and environmental adaptations. This lesson can be used as part of a study of plants and animals. Before doing the lesson, students should know the meanings of the terms: plant, animal, and living.

Science Netlinks;

2004-02-05

209

Comparison of selected animal observations and management practices used to assess welfare of calves and adult dairy cows on organic and conventional dairy farms.  

PubMed

Differences in adoption of selected practices used in welfare assessment and audit programs were contrasted among organic (ORG; n=192) herds and similarly sized conventional grazing herds (CON-GR; n=36), and conventional nongrazing herds (CON-NG; n=64). Criteria from 3 programs were assessed: American Humane Association Animal Welfare Standards for Dairy Cattle, Farmers Assuring Responsible Management (FARM), and the Canadian Codes of Practice (CCP). Data were collected by trained study personnel during a herd visit and included information about neonatal care, dehorning, pain relief, calf nutrition, weaning, record keeping, use of veterinarians, and animal observations. Associations of management type (ORG, CON-GR, or CON-NG) with adoption of selected practice were assessed. Almost all farms (97%) met criteria suggested for age at weaning but fewer CON-NG farmers weaned calves at ?5 wk of age compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Only 23% of farms met program requirements for use of pain relief during dehorning, and fewer CON-NG farmers used pain relief for calves after dehorning compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Calves on ORG farms were fed a greater volume of milk and were weaned at an older age than calves on CON-GR and CON-NG farms. Calves on CON-GR farms were dehorned at a younger age compared with calves on ORG and CON-NG farms. The calving area was shared with lactating cows for a larger proportion of ORG herds compared with conventional herds. About 30% of herds met welfare program criteria for body condition score but only about 20% met criteria for animal hygiene scores. The least proportion of cows with hock lesions was observed on ORG farms. Regular use of veterinarians was infrequent for ORG herds. Results of this study indicate that most of the organic and conventional farms enrolled in this study would have been unlikely to achieve many criteria of audit and assessment programs currently used in the US dairy industry. PMID:24819133

Bergman, M A; Richert, R M; Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Gamroth, M J; Schukken, Y H; Stiglbauer, K E; Ruegg, P L

2014-07-01

210

Animal House  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this activity is to design, build and test a house or toy for an animal. Learners will research a particular animal and design a house or toy that will encourage that animal's specific behaviors. Each house or toy must fit into the animal's cage, support the animal's size and weight, and be constructed of non-toxic materials. Safety note: adult supervision recommended for cutting cardboard boxes.

Museum Of Science, Boston

2005-01-01

211

Inside Plant and Animal Cells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Identify the structures that make up plant and animal cells, then determine their function. Today, you will be comparing plant and animal cells. Identify the structures within each cell and determine the function it performs. First, open up the Cell Information Organizer worksheet. You will use this throughout this project to record and organize the cell information. Next, go to the Animal Cell Model. Begin the exercise by clicking Animal Cell. Observe ...

Ms.kimb

2012-04-04

212

Organization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue on organization provides an annotated listing of Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and other resources related to organization to be used with K-8 students. Sidebars discuss being organized to be a good student, organizational identities, and organizing an election. Suggests student activities relating to…

Online-Offline, 1999

1999-01-01

213

Artificial Animals for Computer Animation  

E-print Network

animation. Animals in their natural habitats have presented a long­standing and difficult challenge in certain natural ecosystems, with minimal animator intervention. Our approach is to construct artificial the animator plays the role of a nature cinematographer, rather than the more conventional role of a graphical

Toronto, University of

214

Artificial Animals for Computer Animation  

E-print Network

animation. Animals in their natural habitats have presented a long-standing and difficult challenge in certain natural ecosystems, with minimal animator intervention. Our approach is to construct artificial the animator plays the role of a nature cinematographer, rather than the more conventional role of a graphical

Toronto, University of

215

Endangered Animals Webquest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, students will be defining what an endangered animal is. They will also be creating a poster with certain information about the particular animal they have chosen to focus on. The library media standard that is being focused on is the following: Standard 5 Students organize, synthesize, and present information. Objective 1 Organize information from multiple sources. Objective 2 Present information. INTRODUCTION In order to help familiarize you with the BIG6 model, you will complete the following webquest on Endangered Animals. Follow the directions at each step as each will guide you through the process of what you are to do. Good luck!! ...

Nielson, Mrs.

2009-11-17

216

CSC258 Computer Organization Lab 1 1 An animal lover a , a bird b , a cat c , and a dog d are all on the west bank of a river,  

E-print Network

CSC258 Computer Organization Lab 1 1 An animal lover a , a bird b , a cat c , and a dog d are all, and dog to the east bank, indicated by a=b=c=d= . The boat can carry the animal lover and at most one other thing (bird or cat or dog), so several trips are necessary. If the bird and cat are left together

Hehner, Eric C.R.

217

Endangered animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many animals that are in danger of becoming extinct. Humans are largely to blame for their endangerment. Over-hunting and habitat destruction are only a couple of ways that humans are endangering animals.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-05-26

218

Animal Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website contains links to 12 calendars (12 months). June contains seven activities that mix math with exploring animals. For instance, children conduct a survey about favorite animals, find an animal with paws bigger than their hands, and name as many spotted animals as they can in a minute. Works as a handout, take-home, or group activity. Available as a downloadable pdf and in Spanish.

Terc

2010-01-01

219

Ocean Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many types of Ocean Animals, today we wil be going to identify several Ocean Anumals through specific body parts that makeOcean Animals different from one another. To begin examine the links below to see what different types of ocean animals there are and what makes those animals different from one another Beluga Whales- National Geographic Kids Dolphins- Who lives in the sea? Puffer fish- National Geographic Stingrays- National Geographic Kids ...

2011-12-05

220

Computer Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of computer animation. This section includes principles of camera animation, character animation and special effects such as particle systems. There is also a discussion of artificial life techniques such as the flocking algorithm and the graphical simulation of different types of life. This section includes html pages, images and several videos.

2007-01-20

221

Animal Behaviour  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is written by a veterinarian and has separate pages for various classes of animals such as domesticated, farm, and exotic animals. There is also an online book available to the user in which they can find more information on some of the same plus some additional animal behaviors.

Mcgreevey, Paul

2010-01-01

222

Animal Scent  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on page 3 of the PDF) is a full inquiry investigation into animal behavior. Learners will create five or six scent blocks by rubbing wood blocks with different kitchen spices, foods, or animal scents. Then, learners let their pets investigate each block separately. Carefully observed behaviors are recorded for interpretation. Relates to linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Animal Scent.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

223

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation showing the Sun-Earth-Moon system. The sun is shown as a stationary body at the top of the screen, with a rotating Earth with a moon revolving around it. This representation includes a separate additional graphic in the animation that continuously shows the phase of the moon as they correspond to the revolving moon in the animation.

224

Small animal imaging with magnetic resonance microscopy.  

PubMed

Small animal magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) has evolved significantly from testing the boundaries of imaging physics to its expanding use today as a tool in noninvasive biomedical investigations. MRM now increasingly provides functional information about living animals, with images of the beating heart, breathing lung, and functioning brain. Unlike clinical MRI, where the focus is on diagnosis, MRM is used to reveal fundamental biology or to noninvasively measure subtle changes in the structure or function of organs during disease progression or in response to experimental therapies. High-resolution anatomical imaging reveals increasingly exquisite detail in healthy animals and subtle architectural aberrations that occur in genetically altered models. Resolution of 100 mum in all dimensions is now routinely attained in living animals, and (10 mum)(3) is feasible in fixed specimens. Such images almost rival conventional histology while allowing the object to be viewed interactively in any plane. In this review we describe the state of the art in MRM for scientists who may be unfamiliar with this modality but who want to apply its capabilities to their research. We include a brief review of MR concepts and methods of animal handling and support, before covering a range of MRM applications-including the heart, lung, and brain-and the emerging field of MR histology. The ability of MRM to provide a detailed functional and anatomical picture in rats and mice, and to track this picture over time, makes it a promising platform with broad applications in biomedical research. PMID:18172332

Driehuys, Bastiaan; Nouls, John; Badea, Alexandra; Bucholz, Elizabeth; Ghaghada, Ketan; Petiet, Alexandra; Hedlund, Laurence W

2008-01-01

225

Altered responses to androgen in diabetic male rats.  

PubMed

In male rats, experimentally induced diabetes mellitus has been reported to be associated with reduced serum levels of gonadotropins and testosterone as well as decreased sex accessory organ weights. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the decreased accessory organ weights and gonadotropin levels observed in diabetic animals result from alterations in the ability of target tissues to respond to testosterone. Adult, male, Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (STZ) and either maintained as untreated diabetics or treated with daily injections of insulin. Semi-starved animals were included to control for any effects on the reproductive system due to body weight change alone. These three groups, plus intact controls, were maintained for 30 days with one-half of the animals from each group receiving silastic tubing implants of testosterone of various lengths. It was determined that, in uncontrolled diabetic and semi-starved animals, the serum levels of LH, FSH, and testosterone were decreased, as were the weights of seminal vesicles and ventral prostate glands. Insulin treatment restored LH, FSH, and testosterone levels to normal. Sex accessory glands exhibited slight, but significant, recovery in diabetic animals treated with insulin. Implants of testosterone that resulted in physiologic serum levels of testosterone were effective in depressing serum LH and FSH levels as well as in maintaining normal seminal vesicle and ventral prostate weights in control and semi-starved animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6432609

Jackson, F L; Hutson, J C

1984-09-01

226

Animal prion diseases.  

PubMed

Prion diseases occur in many animal species, most notably in ruminants. While scrapie in sheep has been recognised for three centuries and goat scrapie has been recognised for decades, BSE in cattle is a relatively novel disease which was first diagnosed in the UK in the mid 1980s. BSE was most likely caused through dietary exposure to animal feed contaminated with prions and disease was subsequently transmitted to people. The BSE epidemic is almost at an end, but the recent identification of so called atypical forms of BSE and scrapie pose many questions about the possible spectrum of prion diseases in animals and their transmissibility to other species, including humans.The pathogenesis of animal prion diseases has been studied both in natural infections and in experimental animal models. Detection of infectivity is greatly helped by suitable rodent models, in particular transgenic mice. Clinically infected animals show characteristic neuropathology in the brain and spinal cord which is accompanied by the accumulation of a conformationally altered, protease-resistant host protein. The post-mortem diagnosis is based on the detection of this protein, PrP(Sc), but despite recent impressive developments a routine ante-mortem diagnostic test has proved elusive.There is no treatment for prion diseases in animals, but disease outbreaks are controlled through a mixture of movement restrictions on holdings, culling of affected animals and herds and, for classical scrapie in sheep, selective breeding for genetic resistance. Prions are very stable and can remain in the environment for prolonged periods. This poses serious practical questions with regard to the decontamination of infected premises. The control of BSE specifically through restrictions in animal feeding practises has been successful, but the changing spectrum of these diseases plus the economic pressures to relax feed bans and reduce levels of surveillance will require constant vigilance to safeguard animal and public health. PMID:23225014

Windl, Otto; Dawson, Mike

2012-01-01

227

Immunoassay Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Glasgow Department of Pathological Biochemistry has recently made available five immunoassay animations that draw on the interactivity of the FutureSplash plug-in (discussed in the December 20, 1996 issue of the Scout Report). The animations are "a learning resource for students, to show the wide application of the use of antibodies in a clinical biochemistry laboratory," and are "graphical representations of the immunoassay methodology used by a number of commercial manufacturers." Each immunoassay is presented as a series of animations, allowing the user to navigate forward and back in time. A key is provided, and animations can be viewed step by step (with explanations) and then replayed as a single continuous animation without explanations or navigation. Immunoassay Animations is a powerful visual teaching tool.

Chung, Kynwai.; Cowan, Bob.

1996-01-01

228

Animated statues  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present a layered framework for the animation of high-resolution human geometry captured using active 3D sensing technology. Commercial scanning systems can now acquire highly accurate surface data across the whole-body. However, the result is a dense, irregular, surface mesh without any structure for animation. We introduce a model-based approach to animating a scanned data-set by matching

Jonathan Starck; Gordon Collins; Raymond Smith; Adrian Hilton; John Illingworth

2003-01-01

229

Ocean Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What characteristics do animals have that help them to survive in the ocean? We have enjoyed learning about lots of different ocean animals in class, but there is still so much more to learn! Here are some websites with fun pictures and videos to teach us about the characteristics that help animals survive in the ocean. Beluga whales have been one of our favorite topics ...

Cole, Ms.

2011-04-07

230

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

231

Astronomy Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of animations introduces students to planetary motions, gravitational effects, and the scale of astronomical distances. Students can view visualizations of Earth's changing seasons, circumpolar motion, and the celestial equator and ecliptic plane. Animations on gravity explain how satellites orbit, the motions of comets and meteor storms, and gravitational 'warping'. Other animations explain how Earth's tides are produced, how astronomical distances are calculated, the use of spectra in astronomy, and the lifecycles of stars.

Barnbaum, Cecilia

2011-04-12

232

Space research on organs and tissues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of microgravity on various physiological systems are reviewed focusing on muscle, bone, cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurovestibular, liver, and endocrine systems. It is noted that certain alterations of organs and tissues caused by microgravity are not reproducible in earth-bound animal or human models. Thus space research on organs and tissues is essential for both validating the earth-bound models used in laboratories and studying the adaptations to weightlessness which cannot be mimicked on earth.

Tischler, Marc E.; Morey-Holton, Emily

1992-01-01

233

MEDLI Animation  

NASA Video Gallery

Animation of MEDLI, the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrument, which contains multiple sophisticated temperature sensors to measure atmospheric conditions and performance o...

234

Animal Omnibus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed with children in mind, the Animal Omnibus site is "a list of web sources indexed by the name of the animal." Users search by animal name to get returns in the form of hyperlinked resource lists. The resource lists contain sites ranging from simple color photographs of individual species to sites steeped in scientific classification to publicly targeted zoo sites. Animal Omnibus may also be browsed by generic name within each taxonomic category (amphibians, arthropods, birds, dinosaurs, fish, mammals, mollusks, and reptiles). Although depth of content varies widely, this unique and diverse collection of information types is at once unpredictable and refreshing.

235

Physics Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you would like a taste of classical mechanics in an animated form, this website is right up your alley. This site from the physics department at the University of Toronto offers up over 100 helpful animations that cover quantum mechanics, vectors, waves, relativity, and optics. Visitors can scroll through the topical headings to look for items of interest and should note the entire website is searchable as well. There are some great topical animations here, such as one on fluid mechanics that involves a theoretical dropping of a ball from the CN Tower in Toronto. Animations have also been translated into Catalan, Spanish, and Basque.

236

Animal Biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotechnology has taken two directions in efforts to speed up animal production above the rates achievable by selective breeding. Recombinant DNA methods have been used to engineer protein gene products for direct administration to livestock, as in recombinant growth hormone to stimulate lactation in dairy cows or yield faster-growing, leaner carcasses in meat animals. Cloned cellulolytic genes have been inserted

B. A. Cross

1989-01-01

237

Paper Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource contains ideas and brief instructions on how to build animals out of construction paper and other simple materials. Included are tips on how to roll, fold, and cut paper to make various animals parts. Learners may enjoy making a "frankenfish" that expands.

Minnesota, Science M.

2012-06-06

238

Immunoassay Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features animations showing the detailed steps involved in eight different immunoassay examples. The focus of the site is primarily on the biochemical aspects of the immunoassays, not on their analytical applications. The animations depict the following immunoassays: Dihydroxy Vitamin D, ACTH, Boneíspecific Alkaline Phosphatase, Cortisol, Deoxypyridinoline, Osteocalcin, Prolactin and Thyroxine.

Chung, Kyn W.

2011-05-24

239

Animal Allies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses young teenagers' adoption of animal personas in their creative writing classes, and the way these classroom activities follow Montessori principles. Considers both the role of imagination in the animal identification and the psychological and pedagogical significance of the underlying development of unconscious kinship with Earth and its…

Peterson, Brenda

1999-01-01

240

GPS Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features Flash animations that illustrate how the Global Positioning System (GPS) works. The animations depict how GPS signals are derived, compare geostationary and polar orbits, and explain satellites, ground control, and user segments, which comprise the three main GPS components. These resources are suitable for use in lectures, labs, or other teaching activities.

2008-09-12

241

The effects of tualang honey on female reproductive organs, tibia bone and hormonal profile in ovariectomised rats - animal model for menopause  

PubMed Central

Background Honey is a highly nutritional natural product that has been widely used in folk medicine for a number of therapeutic purposes. We evaluated whether Malaysian Tualang honey (AgroMas, Malaysia) was effective in reducing menopausal syndrome in ovariectomised female rats; an animal model for menopause. Methods The rats were divided into two control groups and three test groups. The control groups were sham-operated (SH) and ovariectomised (OVX) rats. The SH and OVX control rats were fed on 0.5 ml of distill water. The rats in the test groups were fed with low dose 0.2 g/kg (THL), medium dose, 1.0 g/kg (THM) and high dose 2.0 g/kg (THH) of Tualang honey in 0.5 ml of distill water. The administration was given by oral gavage once daily for 2 weeks. The reproductive organs (uterus and vagina), tibia bone and aorta were taken for histopathological examination while serum for hormonal assays. Results Administration of Tualang honey for 2 weeks to ovariectomised rats significantly increased the weight of the uterus and the thickness of vaginal epithelium, restored the morphology of the tibia bones and reduced the body weight compared to rats in the ovariectomised group. The levels of estradiol and progesterone, in honey treated groups were markedly lower than that in the OVX group. At low doses (0.2 g/kg; THL group) of Tualang honey there was an increased in serum free testosterone levels compared to OVX group (P < 0.01). Progesterone concentrations was significantly decreased in the OVX group as compared to SHAM group (P < 0.05). Conclusions Tualang honey was shown to have beneficial effects on menopausal (ovariectomised) rats by preventing uterine atrophy, increased bone density and suppression of increased body weight. Honey could be an alternative to HRT. PMID:21194469

2010-01-01

242

A distributed reactivity model for sorption by soils and sediments. 12: Effects of subcritical water extraction and alterations of soil organic matter on sorption equilibria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subcritical water extraction was used as a tool to remove the carboxylic, aliphatic, and carbohydrate types of organic carbon from a humic soil. The rates and extents of soil organic carbon removal were quantified as functions of superheated water temperature, phase, and exposure time. The experimental data suggest that superheated water effects deoxygenation\\/aromatization reactions of soil organic matter that mimic

Martin D. Johnson; W. J. Jr. Weber; W. Huang; Z. Dang

1999-01-01

243

Enamel biomineralization defects result from alterations to amelogenin self-assembly.  

PubMed

Enamel formation is a powerful model for the study of biomineralization. A key feature common to all biomineralizing systems is their dependency upon the biosynthesis of an extracellular organic matrix that is competent to direct the formation of the subsequent mineral phase. The major organic component of forming mouse enamel is the 180-amino-acid amelogenin protein (M180), whose ability to undergo self-assembly is believed to contribute to biomineralization of vertebrate enamel. Two recently defined domains (A and B) within amelogenin appear essential for this self-assembly. The significance of these two domains has been demonstrated previously by the yeast two-hybrid system, atomic force microscopy, and dynamic light scattering. Transgenic animals were used to test the hypothesis that the self-assembly domains identified with in vitro model systems also operate in vivo. Transgenic animals bearing either a domain-A-deleted or domain-B-deleted amelogenin transgene expressed the altered amelogenin exclusively in ameloblasts. This altered amelogenin participates in the formation an organic enamel extracellular matrix and, in turn, this matrix is defective in its ability to direct enamel mineralization. At the nanoscale level, the forming matrix adjacent to the secretory face of the ameloblast shows alteration in the size of the amelogenin nanospheres for either transgenic animal line. At the mesoscale level of enamel structural hierarchy, 6-week-old enamel exhibits defects in enamel rod organization due to perturbed organization of the precursor organic matrix. These studies reflect the critical dependency of amelogenin self-assembly in forming a competent enamel organic matrix and that alterations to the matrix are reflected as defects in the structural organization of enamel. PMID:11243888

Paine, M L; Zhu, D H; Luo, W; Bringas, P; Goldberg, M; White, S N; Lei, Y P; Sarikaya, M; Fong, H K; Snead, M L

2000-12-01

244

Science Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The use of a well-placed animation in a lecture can help illuminate any number of important concepts in the sciences. Educators seeking high-quality animations need look no further than this very useful site created by staff members at North Harris Community College. The animations are divided into a number of topics, including plants, ecology, astronomy, geology, anatomy, and biology. Each section contains links to a host of fascinating and helpful animations from institutions like Florida State University, Cambridge University Press, the University of Nebraska, and the University of Alberta. As a note, the astronomy and physics areas are particularly strong, and visitors would do well to take a look at the lunar and planetary time-lapse animations offered up by AntÃÂónio CidadÃÂão.

245

Microgravity alters the expression of salivary proteins.  

PubMed

Spaceflight provides a unique opportunity to study how physiologic responses are influenced by the external environment. Microgravity has been shown to alter the function of a number of tissues and organ systems. Very little, however, is known about how microgravity affects the oral cavity. The rodent model is useful for study in that their salivary gland morphology and physiology is similar to that of humans. Useful also is the fact that saliva, a product of the salivary glands with a major role in maintaining oral health, can be easily collected in humans whereas the glands can be studied in experimental animals. Our working hypothesis is that expression of secretory proteins in saliva will respond to microgravity and will be indicative of the nature of physiologic reactions to travel in space. This study was designed to determine which components of the salivary proteome are altered in mice flown on the US space shuttle missions and to determine if a subset with predictive value can be identified using microscopy and biochemistry methods. The results showed that the expression of secretory proteins associated with beta-adrenergic hormone regulated responses and mediated via the cyclic AMP pathway was significantly altered, whereas that of a number of unrelated proteins was not. The findings are potentially applicable to designing a biochemical test system whereby specific salivary proteins can be biomarkers for stress associated with travel in space and eventually for monitoring responses to conditions on earth. PMID:24984624

Mednieks, Maija; Khatri, Aditi; Rubenstein, Renee; Burleson, Joseph A; Hand, Arthur R

2014-06-01

246

Native and non-native pathogens, insects and animals continue to have serious negative impacts on forest ecosystems and planted forests worldwide. Climate change will alter host-pest relationships and may  

E-print Network

to combat the adverse impacts of pests. Resistance research programs, including resistance breeding international gathering of researchers and technical specialists on this topic in the past 30 years impacts on forest ecosystems and planted forests worldwide. Climate change will alter host-pest

Standiford, Richard B.

247

Characterization of Genetically Matched Isolates of Campylobacter jejuni Reveals that Mutations in Genes Involved in Flagellar Biosynthesis Alter the Organism's Virulence Potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenotypic and genotypic evidence suggests that not all Campylobacter jejuni isolates are pathogenic for humans. We hypothesized that differences in gene content or gene expression alter the degree of pathogenicity of C. jejuni isolates. A C. jejuni isolate (Turkey) recovered from a turkey and a second C. jejuni isolate (CS) recovered from a chicken differed in their degrees of in

Preeti Malik-Kale; Brian H. Raphael; Craig T. Parker; Lynn A. Joens; John D. Klena; Beatriz Quinones; Amy M. Keech; Michael E. Konkel

2007-01-01

248

Australian Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will be researching Australian animals in order to prepare a presentation for the class. The children will be divided into groups to research and present about Tasmanian devils, koala bears, kangaroos, or platypi. This IA will provide links for the children to research their animal. Introduction You are a wildlife biologist embarking on an exciting journey to Australia. Hogle Zoo is sending you to discover the most unique animal on the whole continent of Australia. You will be assigned to a team that will research either Tasmanian devils, koala bears, kangaroos, or platypuses. ...

Rusch, Mrs.

2007-12-04

249

Camera Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of the use of cameras in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional film techniques and suggestions for the use of a camera during an architectural walkthrough. This section includes html pages, images and one video.

2011-01-30

250

Digital Animators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Getting started in the world of digital animation isn't easy, and it can be useful to have a helpful resource to find out about the current trends in this dynamic field. Fortunately, there is the Digital Animators website which features career-development blogs, tutorials, new software releases, and opinion pieces. First-time visitors can get the flavor of the site by reading a few of the "Top Stories" on the homepage, and then move on to the "Tech News" or the "Company News" areas. Here they will find more detailed information on important developments that affect the business side of this type of animation. Most visitors will want to make a beeline for the "Tutorials" area. Here they will find video clips that talk about how to colorize black and white objects and how to manipulate animation layers with the Autodesk application.

251

Pulsar Animation  

NASA Video Gallery

Pulsars are thought to emit relatively narrow radio beams, shown as green in this animation. If these beams don't sweep toward Earth, astronomers cannot detect the radio signals. Pulsar gamma-ray e...

252

Making Animations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)

Robinson, James

2007-01-01

253

Animating Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson challenges students to apply their knowledge of object motion by animating sequences of hand-rendered pictures that model a set of physical conditions. The challenges include animating the orbital motion of planets and satellites, the effects of gravity on a falling body, and motions of objects in inertial (moving) frames of reference. The lesson was created by a high school physics teacher to help learners build quantitative reasoning skills in preparation for understanding kinematics.

Latham, Ted

2004-07-16

254

Screen Animals  

E-print Network

) and further elaborated by the ‘making of’ sequences featuring the expertise of scientific researchers. Mills contends that a reliance on scientific objectivity here recalls the ‘scientific racism’ (Stuart Hall) of ethnographic film – a logic... , 187. 16 Burt, Animals in Film, pp. 27, 29 (original emphasis). 17 Shukin, Animal Capital, p. 155. 18 Michael Renov, The Subject of Documentary (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004), p. 217; cited by Mills in this dossier. 19 Lawrence...

McMahon, Laura

2014-01-01

255

Animal Transfer Agreement -1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT  

E-print Network

intellectual property rights in the animal(s), the Government retains these rights. Additionally, to the extent in the animal(s), these rights are not transferred to the recipient. · Provider is transferring the animal(sAnimal Transfer Agreement - 1 ANIMAL TRANSFER AGREEMENT This Animal Transfer Agreement has been

Bandettini, Peter A.

256

Animal Magnetism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast looks at the mysterious way in which certain animals can travel vast distances around the planet, using the magnetic field of Earth to guide them. Migrating birds, fish, sea turtles, honey bees and even bacteria have all been found to navigate using the magnetic field of Earth, sometimes over quite enormous distances and reaching targets of only a few degrees in width. There is discussion about where magnetic receptors may be within animals and that particular cells in migratory creatures contain magnetite, a substance which humans used many hundreds of years ago to create the first compass. This radio broadcast discusses animal magnetism with researchers who have been working with sea turtles, to discover just how the turtles find their way back to the same beaches every year to lay their eggs. There is explanation of how the magnetic sense in animals has two components: acting as a compass to guide them and providing them with location; and how this seems to be possible since the magnetic field gets stronger in higher latitudes and inclination angle (the angle of the magnetic field to the surface of Earth) changes over different points on Earth. The broadcast also explains why creatures such as honey bees and even bacteria need to be in tune with the magnetic field of Earth, and how magnetic sense is prevalent in many animals with seemingly no need for it. The broadcast is 29 minutes in length.

257

Evolution Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Flash animation provides a tour of the history of the universe, the solar system, and Earth. Moving the slider allows viewers to progress from the Big Bang, almost 14 billion years ago, to the beginnings of life on Earth in the Proterozoic era, through the age of the dinosaurs and finally to the time of Homo sapiens. When the slider stops moving, animations and text appear, highlighting important events. Other animations accompany the time scale and show the movements of the continents, the advance and retreat of the polar ice caps, and changes in the oxygen content of the atmosphere. The length of the timeline helps reinforce the idea of the immense age of the universe. A French translation is available.

Kyrk, John

258

Targeted metabolomics in an intrusive weed, Rumex obtusifolius L., grown under different environmental conditions reveals alterations of organ related metabolite pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was intended to analyze the metabolic pathway of Rumex obtusifolius L. (Broad-leaved dock), destructive weeds worldwide, in relation to major environmental factors (light and temperature).\\u000a It was found that R. obtusifolius can be classified as plants in accumulating major organic acids such as oxalate in leaves and citrate in stems (Miyagi et\\u000a al., Metabolomics 6:146–155 2010). The organ

Atsuko Miyagi; Kentaro Takahara; Hideyuki Takahashi; Maki Kawai-Yamada; Hirofumi Uchimiya

2010-01-01

259

Animal models.  

PubMed

Epilepsy accounts for a significant portion of the dis-ease burden worldwide. Research in this field is fundamental and mandatory. Animal models have played, and still play, a substantial role in understanding the patho-physiology and treatment of human epilepsies. A large number and variety of approaches are available, and they have been applied to many animals. In this chapter the in vitro and in vivo animal models are discussed,with major emphasis on the in vivo studies. Models have used phylogenetically different animals - from worms to monkeys. Our attention has been dedicated mainly to rodents.In clinical practice, developmental aspects of epilepsy often differ from those in adults. Animal models have often helped to clarify these differences. In this chapter, developmental aspects have been emphasized.Electrical stimulation and chemical-induced models of seizures have been described first, as they represent the oldest and most common models. Among these models, kindling raised great interest, especially for the study of the epileptogenesis. Acquired focal models mimic seizures and occasionally epilepsies secondary to abnormal cortical development, hypoxia, trauma, and hemorrhage.Better knowledge of epileptic syndromes will help to create new animal models. To date, absence epilepsy is one of the most common and (often) benign forms of epilepsy. There are several models, including acute pharmacological models (PTZ, penicillin, THIP, GBL) and chronic models (GAERS, WAG/Rij). Although atypical absence seizures are less benign, thus needing more investigation, only two models are so far available (AY-9944,MAM-AY). Infantile spasms are an early childhood encephalopathy that is usually associated with a poor out-come. The investigation of this syndrome in animal models is recent and fascinating. Different approaches have been used including genetic (Down syndrome,ARX mutation) and acquired (multiple hit, TTX, CRH,betamethasone-NMDA) models.An entire section has been dedicated to genetic models, from the older models obtained with spontaneous mutations (GEPRs) to the new engineered knockout, knocking, and transgenic models. Some of these models have been created based on recently recognized patho-genesis such as benign familial neonatal epilepsy, early infantile encephalopathy with suppression bursts, severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy, the tuberous sclerosis model, and the progressive myoclonic epilepsy. The contribution of animal models to epilepsy re-search is unquestionable. The development of further strategies is necessary to find novel strategies to cure epileptic patients, and optimistically to allow scientists first and clinicians subsequently to prevent epilepsy and its consequences. PMID:22938964

Coppola, Antonietta; Moshé, Solomon L

2012-01-01

260

Animal products and selected human infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

e developing of close contacts of humans with animals that served humans for meat and as guardians brought among others the exchange of microflora in both organisms. By inhalation of aerosol from animal's hair and scales, and especially by consumption of animal meat, eggs and milk, men became a part of natural circulation of animal microorganisms. Many of originally zoopathogenic

M. KOLÁ?OVÁ; L. KOLÁ?OVÁ; A. PE?INA; P. CHALUPA

2002-01-01

261

Transient Limb Ischemia Alters Serum Protein Expression in Healthy Volunteers: Complement C3 and Vitronectin May Be Involved in Organ Protection Induced by Remote Ischemic Preconditioning  

PubMed Central

The protective mechanism underlying remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is unclear. This study aims to verify whether the protein expression profile in the serum could be altered by RIPC and to detect potential protein mediators. Transient limb ischemia consisting of three cycles of 5-min ischemia followed by 5-min reperfusion was performed on sixty healthy volunteers. Serum samples were collected at 30?min before transient limb ischemia and at 1 hour (h), 3?h, 8?h, 24?h, and 48?h after completion of three cycles. Changes in the serum protein profile were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Fourteen differentially expressed proteins were identified and, respectively, involved in immune system, lipid binding and metabolism, apoptosis, and blood coagulation. Complement C3, vitronectin, and apolipoprotein A-I were further confirmed by western blotting, and the results showed that their contents decreased significantly after transient limb ischemia. It is concluded that transient limb ischemia alters the serum protein expression profile in human being, and that reduction of serum contents of complement C3 and vitronectin may represent an important part of the mechanism whereby RIPC confers its protection. PMID:24363825

Pang, Ting; Zhang, Nan-Rong; Jin, San-Qing; Pan, San-Qiang

2013-01-01

262

Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Dr. Michael Gregory of Clinton Community College, this site is a concise overview of animal reproduction. The site addresses important aspects of sexual and asexual reproduction, the male and female reproductive systems, fertilization, and the importance of hormones. Visitors to the site will find diagrams outlining biological processes especially helpful.

Gregory, Michael

2007-12-14

263

Animation aerodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods based on aerodynamics are developed to simulate and control the motion of objects in fluid flows. To simplify the physics for animation, the problem is broken down into two parts: a fluid flow regime and an object boundary regime. With this simplification one can approximate the realistic behaviour of objects moving in liquids or air. It also enables a

Jakub Wejchert; David R. Haumann

1991-01-01

264

Altered Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This five-part feature includes reports and multimedia presentations that document what the authors term a crisis in the marine environment. Topics include the uncontrolled increase in primitive organisms, such as bacteria and algae, triggered by overfishing and nutrient runoff, effects on sentinel species such as marine mammals, and effects on humans, such as the irritating effects of toxins produced by red tides. There is also discussion of seaborne plastic debris and changes in chemistry of sea water. The site also includes a message board for discussions and a set of links to additional resources.

265

Small Animal Imaging with Magnetic Resonance Microscopy  

PubMed Central

Small animal magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) has evolved significantly from testing the boundaries of imaging physics to its expanding use today as a tool in non-invasive biomedical investigations. This review is intended to capture the state-of-the-art in MRM for scientists who may be unfamiliar with this modality, but who want to apply its capabilities to their research. We therefore include a brief review of MR concepts and methods of animal handling and support before covering a range of MRM applications including the heart, lung, brain, and the emerging field of MR histology. High-resolution anatomical imaging reveals increasingly exquisite detail in healthy animals and subtle architectural aberrations that occur in genetically altered models. Resolution of 100 µm in all dimensions is now routinely attained in living animals, and 10 µm3 is feasible in fixed specimens. Such images almost rival conventional histology while allowing the object to be viewed interactively in any plane. MRM is now increasingly used to provide functional information in living animals. Images of the beating heart, breathing lung, and functioning brain can be recorded. While clinical MRI focuses on diagnosis, MRM is used to reveal fundamental biology or to non-invasively measure subtle changes in the structure or function of organs during disease progression or in response to experimental therapies. The ability of MRM to provide a detailed functional and anatomical picture in rats and mice, and to track this picture over time, makes it a promising platform with broad applications in biomedical research. PMID:18172332

Driehuys, Bastiaan; Nouls, John; Badea, Alexandra; Bucholz, Elizabeth; Ghaghada, Ketan; Petiet, Alexandra; Hedlund, Laurence W.

2009-01-01

266

AQUATIC ANIMALS IN TOXICITY TESTING  

EPA Science Inventory

Aquatic animals serve as useful models for toxicological evaluations that bridge the gap between real world and laboratory problems. Selected aquatic organisms are adaptable to laboratory experimentation in areas such as toxicity testing and chronic sublethal risks evaluation inc...

267

Assessing Students' Ideas About Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is an interview protocol that you can use to gather information about your students' ideas about animals. Specifically, you will be able to determine which organisms your students think are animals and identify what students consider to be th

Barman, Charles R.; Berglund, Kay; Goldston, M. J.; Barman, Natalie S.

1999-09-01

268

The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. IV - Generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes in laboratory experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of common sedimentary minerals (illite, Na-montmorillonite, or calcite) under different water concentrations on the generation and release of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and select alkenes from oil-prone kerogens was investigated. Matrices containing Green River Formation kerogen or Monterey Formation kerogen, alone or in the presence of minerals, were heated at 200 or 300 C for periods of up to 1000 hours, and the pyrolysis products were analyzed. The influence of the first two clay minerals was found to be critically dependent on the water content. Under the dry pyrolysis conditions, both minerals significantly reduced alkene formation; the C12+ n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids were mostly destroyed by montmorillonite, but underwent only minor alteration with illite. Under hydrous conditions (mineral/water of 2/1), the effects of both minerals were substantially reduced. Calcite had no significant effect on the thermal evolution of the hydrocarbons.

Huizinga, Bradley J.; Tannenbaum, Eli; Kaplan, Isaac R.

1987-01-01

269

Growth inhibition and ultrastructural alterations induced by ?24(25)-sterol methyltransferase inhibitors in Candida spp. isolates, including non-albicans organisms  

PubMed Central

Background Although Candida species are commensal microorganisms, they can cause many invasive fungal infections. In addition, antifungal resistance can contribute to failure of treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of inhibitors of ?24(25)-sterol methyltransferase (24-SMTI), 20-piperidin-2-yl-5?-pregnan-3?-20(R)-diol (AZA), and 24(R,S),25-epiminolanosterol (EIL), against clinical isolates of Candida spp., analysing the ultrastructural changes. Results AZA and EIL were found to be potent growth inhibitors of Candida spp. isolates. The median MIC50 was 0.5 ?g.ml-1 for AZA and 2 ?g.ml-1 for EIL, and the MIC90 was 2 ?g.ml-1 for both compounds. All strains used in this study were susceptible to amphotericin B; however, some isolates were fluconazole- and itraconazole-resistant. Most of the azole-resistant isolates were Candida non-albicans (CNA) species, but several of them, such as C. guilliermondii, C. zeylanoides, and C. lipolytica, were susceptible to 24-SMTI, indicating a lack of cross-resistance. Reference strain C. krusei (ATCC 6258, FLC-resistant) was consistently susceptible to AZA, although not to EIL. The fungicidal activity of 24-SMTI was particularly high against CNA isolates. Treatment with sub-inhibitory concentrations of AZA and EIL induced several ultrastructural alterations, including changes in the cell-wall shape and thickness, a pronounced disconnection between the cell wall and cytoplasm with an electron-lucent zone between them, mitochondrial swelling, and the presence of electron-dense vacuoles. Fluorescence microscopy analyses indicated an accumulation of lipid bodies and alterations in the cell cycle of the yeasts. The selectivity of 24-SMTI for fungal cells versus mammalian cells was assessed by the sulforhodamine B viability assay. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that inhibition of 24-SMT may be a novel approach to control Candida spp. infections, including those caused by azole-resistant strains. PMID:19379501

2009-01-01

270

Flocculation and phytoplankton cell size can alter 234Th-based estimates of the vertical flux of particulate organic carbon in the sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deficit of 234Th relative to its radioactive parent 238U in the surface ocean can yield reliable estimates of vertical Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) fluxes to deeper waters, but only when coupled with an accurate ratio of POC concentration to activity of 234Th on sinking matter. Assuming a simple partitioning of suspended phytoplankton mass between single cells and flocs, we

Anya M. Waite; Paul S. Hill

2006-01-01

271

Regulation of Animal Use: Voluntary and Involuntary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The regulation (voluntary and involuntary) of animal care and use throughout history in research and teaching is reviewed. The role of several organizations concerned with various aspects of animal quality, care, and use is discussed. (BH)

Clark, J. Derrell

1979-01-01

272

Androgen and taxol cause cell type-specific alterations of centrosome and DNA organization in androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigated the effects of androgen and taxol on the androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer cell lines. Cells were treated for 48 and 72 h with 0.05-1 nM of the synthetic androgen R1881 and with 100 nM taxol. Treatment of LNCaP cells with 0.05 nM R1881 led to increased cell proliferation, whereas treatment with 1 nM R1881 resulted in inhibited cell division, DNA cycle arrest, and altered centrosome organization. After treatment with 1 nM R1881, chromatin became clustered, nuclear envelopes convoluted, and mitochondria accumulated around the nucleus. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies to centrosomes showed altered centrosome structure. Although centrosomes were closely associated with the nucleus in untreated cells, they dispersed into the cytoplasm after treatment with 1 nM R1881. Microtubules were only faintly detected in 1 nM R1881-treated LNCaP cells. The effects of taxol included microtubule bundling and altered mitochondria morphology, but not DNA organization. As expected, the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line DU145 was not affected by R1881. Treatment with taxol resulted in bundling of microtubules in both cell lines. Additional taxol effects were seen in DU145 cells with micronucleation of DNA, an indication of apoptosis. Simultaneous treatment with R1881 and taxol had no additional effects on LNCaP or DU145 cells. These results suggest that LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cells show differences not only in androgen responsiveness but in sensitivity to taxol as well. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Schatten, H.; Ripple, M.; Balczon, R.; Weindruch, R.; Chakrabarti, A.; Taylor, M.; Hueser, C. N.

2000-01-01

273

Animated Atlas  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A commercial site, Animated Atlas provides excellent audio-visual resources for teachers and students of European and American history. The resources combine maps and animation to create short video presentations on such subjects as the growth of the United States and the First World War. Though most of the videos must be ordered, the site provides free samples of its presentations, including a ten minute presentation on the westward expansion of the United States, the early history of the American Revolution, the European alliances before the First World War, and the beginnings of the Mexican American War. The site provides a timeline of American history that can be referred to during the American expansion video. Students and educators should also explore the site's listings of American history sites and primary source on the Web.

2002-01-01

274

Geoscience Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation is an animation that shows Earth's orbit around the sun and the tilt of Earth's axis relative to the sun in each month of the orbit. Students can move the cursor to a given month to see the position of Earth in its orbit at that time of year or can run a full animation of the yearly orbit. If one clicks on "Show Earth Profile" at the bottom, right corner of the resource, a small box pops up in the lower, right corner that shows the position of the Earth's axis in relation to the sun's rays at various points in the orbit. As such, it shows how the sun's rays directly strike different places on Earth during the orbit because of Earth's tilt. Accompanying text also points out number of daylight hours at the equator and at each pole during each solstice and equinox.

275

Animation Magazine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online magazine is all about animation and features regular articles, reviews of films and books, and profiles about people in the industry and tutorials. Articles in the current issue address topics such as "the impact of new technology on performance and the future roles of technology, new and old" and international perspectives on Bridging the Cultural Divide in Digital Entertainment. The tutorials cover topics such as how to make 3-D characters come to life and making molds. The Special Features articles report on gaming, production, technology and voice acting. Past issues are also available and can be searched by key word or sorted by category. Numerous other links are listed for more information on animation, resources for education, and listings of upcoming events and contests.

276

ANIMAL INTEGRITY, ANIMAL DIGNITY, AND GENETIC ENGINEERING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bernard Rollin argues that it is permissible to change an animal’s telos through genetic engineering, if it doesn’t harm the animal’s welfare. Recent attempts to undermine his argument rely either on the claim that diminishing certain capacities always harms an animal’s welfare or on the claim that it always violates an animal’s integrity. I argue that these fail. However, respect

SARA ELIZABETH; GAVRELL ORTIZ

2004-01-01

277

Downstream alterations in biodegradability and optical characteristics of dissolved and particulate organic carbon fractions exported during storm events in a mixed land-use watershed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although storm pulses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) can account for a significant C loss from the terrestrial sink of atmospheric CO2, there have been rare attempts to compare the biodegradation and chemical transformation of terrestrially derived DOC and POC in receiving waters. Short-term laboratory incubations were performed with water and sediment samples collected during intense monsoon rainfalls at four stream locations in a mountainous, mixed land-use watershed, Korea to compare biodegradation and optical properties of DOC and POC exported from different sources. Biodegradable DOC (BDOC) and fluorescence EEMs coupled with PARAFAC modeling in either bulk or flow field-flow fractionated samples were measured to track changes in biodegradation and optical characteristics of DOC and suspended sediment-derived DOC (SS-DOC). During a 30 day incubation at 25 °C, both DOC and POC from a forested headwater stream initially exhibited rapid biodegradation of labile components, whereas sediment-derived materials increased continuously not just DOC concentrations, but also fulvic- and humic-like fluorescent components. In the second 13-day incubation with DOC and POC samples from a forest stream, an agricultural stream, and two downstream rivers, the BDOC of filtered waters differed little between sites, whereas the BDOC of SS-DOC was higher in downstream rivers. Higher ratios of protein- to fuvic- or humic-like fluorescence in the SS-DOC from two downstream rivers compared to upstream measurements pointed to a higher contribution of labile organic components to the biodegradation of SS-DOC from the downstream rivers. Downstream increases in labile moieties of SS-DOC were also observed in fluorescence measurements of field-flow fractionated samples. The results suggest that storm pulses of POC contain labile organic components that are increasingly released from downstream sources and can rapidly change in optical properties during riverine transport.

Jung, Byung-Joon; Yang, Boram; Park, Ji-Hyung

2014-05-01

278

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin treatment alters eicosanoid levels in several organs of the mouse in an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent fashion  

SciTech Connect

2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) adversely affects many mammalian organs and tissues. These effects are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 are upregulated by the liganded AHR. These (and other) cytochromes P450 can metabolize arachidonic acid into a variety of bioactive eicosanoids. Towards investigating a potential role of eicosanoids in TCDD toxicity, arachidonic acid, two other unsaturated long-chain fatty acids, and up to twenty-five eicosanoids were measured in five organs/tissues of male and female wild-type and Ahr null mice treated or untreated with TCDD. TCDD generally increased the levels of the four dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) and (where measured) 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid and 18-, 19- and 20-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (HETEs) in the serum, liver, spleen and lungs, but not the heart, of both sexes, and increased the levels in the serum, liver and spleen of several metabolites that are usually considered products of lipoxygenase activity, but which may also be generated by cytochromes P450. TCDD also increased the levels of the esterified forms of these eicosanoids in the liver in parallel with the corresponding free forms. The levels of prostanoids were generally not affected by TCDD. The above changes did not occur in Ahr null mice, and are therefore mediated by the AHR. TCDD increased the mRNA levels of Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1 and the Pla2g12a form of phospholipase A{sub 2} to varying degrees in the different organs, and these increases correlated with some but not all the changes in eicosanoids levels in the organs, suggesting that other enzymes may also be involved. -- Highlights: ? TCDD treatment increases the levels of many eicosanoids in several mouse organs. ? Products of both the cytochrome P450 and classical lipoxygenase pathways are increased. ? These increases are dependent on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. ? Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2 and Cyp1b1 appear to be responsible for much but not all of the increases.

Bui, Peter; Solaimani, Parrisa [Molecular Toxicology Program, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States) [Molecular Toxicology Program, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Dept of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Wu, Xiaomeng [Dept of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States) [Dept of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hankinson, Oliver, E-mail: ohank@mednet.ucla.edu [Molecular Toxicology Program, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States) [Molecular Toxicology Program, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Dept of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

2012-03-01

279

Variations in the chemical and stable isotope composition of carbon and sulfur species during organic-rich sediment alteration: An experimental and theoretical study of hydrothermal activity at guaymas basin, gulf of california  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Organic-rich diatomaceous ooze was reacted with seawater and a Na-Ca-K-Cl fluid of seawater chlorinity at 325-400??C, 400-500 bars, and fluid/sediment mass ratios of 1.56-2.35 to constrain factors regulating the abundance and stable isotope composition of C and S species during hydrothermal alteration of sediment from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. Alteration of inorganic and organic sedimentary components resulted in extensive exchange reactions, the release of abundant H2S, CO2, CH4, and Corganic, to solution, and recrystallization of the sediment to an assemblage containing albitic plagioclase, quartz, pyrrhotite, and calcite. The ??34Scdt values of dissolved H2S varied from -10.9 to +4.3??? during seawater-sediment interaction at 325 and 400??C and from -16.5 to -9.0??? during Na-Ca-K-Cl fluid-sediment interaction at 325 and 375??C. In the absence of seawater SO4, H2S is derived from both the transformation of pyrite to pyrrhotite and S released during the degradation of organic matter. In the presence of seawater SO4, reduction of SO4 contributes directly to H2S production. Sedimentary organic matter acts as the reducing agent during pyrite and SO4 reduction. Requisite acidity for the reduction of SO4 is provided by Mg fixation during early-stage sediment alteration and by albite and calcite formation in Mg-free solutions. Organically derived CH4 was characterized by ??13Cpdb values ranging between -20.8 and -23.1???, whereas ??13Cpdb values for dissolved Corganic ranged between -14.8 and -17.7%. Mass balance calculations indicate that ??13C values for organically derived CO2 were ??? - 14.8%. Residual solid sedimentary organic C showed small (??? 0.7???) depletions in 13C relative to the starting sediment. The experimental results are consistent with the isotopic and chemical composition of natural hydrothermal fluids and minerals at Guaymas Basin and permit us to better constrain sources and sinks for C and S species in subseafloor hydrothermal systems at sediment-covered spreading centers. Our data show that the sulfur isotope composition of hydrothermal Sulfide minerals in Guaymas Basin can be explained by derivation of S from diagenetic sulfide and seawater sulfate. Basaltic S may also contribute to hydrothermal sulfide precipitates but is not required to explain their isotopic composition. Estimates of seawater/ sediment mass ratios based on sulfur isotopic composition of sulfide minerals and the abundance of dissolved NH3 in vent fluids range from 3-29 during hydrothermal circulation. Sources of C in Guaymas Basin hydrothermal fluids include thermal degradation of organic matter, bacteriogenic methane production, and dissolution of diagenetic carbonate. ?? 1994.

Seewald, J. S.; Seyfried, Jr. , W. E.; Shanks, III, W. C.

1994-01-01

280

[Pikamilon pharmacokinetics in animals].  

PubMed

Pycamilon was shown to be rapidly absorbed in the blood (tmax = 0.23 h), to penetrate well through the blood-brain barrier and to be intensively uptaken by the animal organs and tissues and to be eliminated mainly in the urine (t1/2 = 0.51 h). The drug bioavailability at oral administration to mice is 21.9%, and to rats from 53 to 78.9% (according to the urinary excretion data). PMID:1884802

Dorofeev, B F; Kholodov, L E

1991-01-01

281

Animal behavior and animal welfare.  

PubMed

The value of behavioral techniques in assessing animal welfare, and in particular assessing the psychological well being of animals, is reviewed. Using cats and horses as examples, 3 behavioral methods are presented: (1) comparison of behavior patterns and time budgets; (2) choice tests; and (3) operant conditioning. The behaviors of intact and declawed cats were compared in order to determine if declawing led to behavioral problems or to a change in personality. Apparently it did not. The behavior of free ranging horses was compared with that of stabled horses. Using two-choice preference tests, the preference of horses for visual contact with other horses and the preference for bedding were determined. Horses show no significant preference for locations from which they can make visual contact with other horses, but they do prefer bedding, especially when lying down. Horses will perform an operant response in order to obtain light in a darkened barn or heat in an outside shed. These same techniques can be used to answer a variety of questions about an animal's motivation for a particular attribute of its environment. PMID:2061151

Houpt, K A

1991-04-15

282

Dietary retinoic acid alters vitamin A kinetics in both the whole body and in specific organs of rats with low vitamin A status.  

PubMed

To study the effects of exogenous retinoic acid on vitamin A (VA) metabolism, we analyzed previously collected tracer kinetic data on VA dynamics in rats with low vitamin A (LA) status either with (LA+RA) or without (LA) retinoic acid supplementation. In spite of low VA intake ( approximately 7 nmol/d), the LA+RA rats were in a slight positive VA balance (0.325 nmol/d vs. -0.168 for LA) for 35 d after administration of [(3)H]retinol-labeled plasma. Using the Windows version of the Simulation, Analysis and Modeling software, we determined that the VA disposal rate was lower in LA+RA than in LA rats (3.98 vs. 5.00 nmol/d) as was the system fractional catabolic rate (0.0548 vs. 0.110 d(-1)). Model-predicted traced mass and residence times (the average time that a molecule of retinol spends in an organ before irreversible loss) were higher for liver (19.4 vs. 1.8 nmol; 5.0 vs. 0.36 d), kidneys (7.0 vs. 2.1 nmol; 1.4 vs. 0.42 d), small intestine (2.1 vs. 0.42 nmol; 0.43 vs. 0.084 d), and lungs (3.2 vs. 0.10 nmol; 1.6 vs. 0.021 d) in the LA+RA compared with the LA rats; there were no major differences for eyes, testes, adrenal glands, or remaining carcass. We conclude that RA supplementation of rats with low VA status affects VA metabolism at both the whole-body level and in specific organs. These organs (liver, kidneys, small intestine, and lungs) have the enzymatic capability and an appropriate cell type to store retinyl esters. PMID:15795428

Cifelli, Christopher J; Green, Joanne Balmer; Green, Michael H

2005-04-01

283

Animal Testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

284

The mTOR signaling pathway and neuronal stem/progenitor cell proliferation in the hippocampus are altered during the development of absence epilepsy in a genetic animal model.  

PubMed

Hyperactivation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway occurs after an epileptogenic insult and, its inhibition prevents the development of spontaneous seizures. We have recently demonstrated that mTOR's inhibition by rapamycin (started before seizure onset), permanently reduces the development of spontaneous absence seizures in WAG/Rij rats, an animal model of absence epilepsy; furthermore, mTOR phosphorylation was increased in adult WAG/Rij rats' cortex, but not other brain areas. However, it was not clear whether this hyperphosphorylation was a cause or a consequence of absence seizure. Here, we have addressed this issue by analyzing immunohistochemically: (1) the brain levels of total and phosphorylated mTOR in young (before seizures) and adult WAG/Rij rats; (2) the proliferation of hippocampal neuronal stem/progenitor cells assessed by BrdU analysis at different ages. WAG/Rij rats have higher levels of total mTOR in several brain areas than Wistar rats; phospho-mTOR staining is higher in young WAG/Rij rats than control and adult WAG/Rij rats. Finally, the age-related decline in hippocampal neural progenitor cell proliferation rate was slower in WAG/Rij than Wistar rats. Our results support a role for persistent mTOR activation and consequent change in hippocampal progenitor cell proliferation during the epileptogenic process leading to the development of absence seizures in WAG/Rij rats. PMID:24889758

Russo, Emilio; Follesa, Paolo; Citraro, Rita; Camastra, Caterina; Donato, Annalidia; Isola, Daniela; Constanti, Andrew; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Donato, Giuseppe

2014-11-01

285

The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter--IV. Generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes in laboratory experiments.  

PubMed

A series of pyrolysis experiments, utilizing two different immature oil-prone kerogens ("type I": Green River Formation kerogen; "Type II": Monterey Formation kerogen) mixed with common sedimentary minerals (calcite, illite, or Na-montmorillonite), was conducted to study the effects of minerals on the generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes during laboratory-simulated catagenesis of kerogen. The influence of clay minerals on the aliphatic hydrocarbons is critically dependent on the water concentration during laboratory thermal maturation. Under extremely low contents of water (i.e., dry pyrolysis, where only pyrolysate water is present), C12(+) -range n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids are mostly destroyed by montmorillonite but undergo only minor alteration with illite. Both clay minerals significantly reduce alkene formation during dry pyrolysis. Under hydrous conditions (mineral/water = 2:1), the effects of the clay minerals are substantially reduced. In addition, the dry pyrolysis experiments show that illite and montmorillonite preferentially retain large amounts of the polar constituents of bitumen, but not n-alkanes or acyclic isoprenoids. Therefore, bitumen fractionation according to polarity differences occurs in the presence of these clay minerals. By this process, n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids are concentrated in the bitumen fraction that is not strongly adsorbed on the clay matrices. The extent of these concentrations effects is greatly diminished during hydrous pyrolysis. In contrast, calcite has no significant influence on the thermal evolution of the hydrocarbons. In addition, calcite is incapable of retaining bitumen. Therefore, the fractionation of n-alkanes or acyclic isoprenoids relative to the polar constituents of bitumen is insignificant in the presence of calcite. PMID:11542080

Huizinga, B J; Tannenbaum, E; Kaplan, I R

1987-01-01

286

Polydextrose enrichment of infant formula demonstrates prebiotic characteristics by altering intestinal microbiota, organic acid concentrations, and cytokine expression in suckling piglets.  

PubMed

Oligosaccharides, the 3rd-most abundant component in human milk, are virtually absent from infant formulas and from the cow milk on which most are based. In breast-fed infants, human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) act as both receptor analogs, interfering with pathogen adhesion, and as prebiotics, stimulating the growth of certain commensal bacteria (e.g. bifidobacteria) and supporting the innate immunity. To further align the functional properties of infant formula with those of human milk, polydextrose (PDX) is proposed as a substitute for HMO. To determine the prebiotic functionality of PDX, 1-d-old pigs were fed a cow milk-based formula supplemented with increasing concentrations of PDX (0, 1.7, 4.3, 8.5, or 17 g/L) for 18 d (n = 13). Additional reference groups included pigs sampled at d 0 and sow-reared pigs sampled at d 18 (n = 12). Ileal Lactobacilli CFU, but not Bifidobacteria, increased linearly with increasing PDX (P = 0.02). The propionic acid concentration in digesta linearly increased with the PDX level (P = 0.045) and lactic acid increased linearly by 5-fold with increasing PDX (P = 0.001). Accordingly, digesta pH decreased linearly (P < 0.05) as PDX increased, with a maximal reduction approaching 0.5 pH units in pigs fed 17 g/L. Expression of TNF?, IL-1?, and IL-8 showed a negative quadratic pattern in response to PDX supplementation, declining at intermediate concentrations and rebounding at higher concentrations of PDX. In summary, PDX enrichment of infant formula resulted in a prebiotic effect by increasing ileal lactobacilli and propionic and lactic acid concentrations and decreasing pH with associated alterations in ileal cytokine expression. PMID:22013198

Herfel, Tina M; Jacobi, Sheila K; Lin, Xi; Fellner, Vivek; Walker, D Carey; Jouni, Zeina E; Odle, Jack

2011-12-01

287

Animal models of schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Developing reliable, predictive animal models for complex psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, is essential to increase our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for the development of novel drugs with improved therapeutic efficacy. All available animal models of schizophrenia fit into four different induction categories: developmental, drug-induced, lesion or genetic manipulation, and the best characterized examples of each type are reviewed herein. Most rodent models have behavioural phenotype changes that resemble ‘positive-like’ symptoms of schizophrenia, probably reflecting altered mesolimbic dopamine function, but fewer models also show altered social interaction, and learning and memory impairment, analogous to negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia respectively. The negative and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia are resistant to treatment with current antipsychotics, even after remission of the psychosis, which limits their therapeutic efficacy. The MATRICS initiative developed a consensus on the core cognitive deficits of schizophrenic patients, and recommended a standardized test battery to evaluate them. More recently, work has begun to identify specific rodent behavioural tasks with translational relevance to specific cognitive domains affected in schizophrenia, and where available this review focuses on reporting the effect of current and potential antipsychotics on these tasks. The review also highlights the need to develop more comprehensive animal models that more adequately replicate deficits in negative and cognitive symptoms. Increasing information on the neurochemical and structural CNS changes accompanying each model will also help assess treatments that prevent the development of schizophrenia rather than treating the symptoms, another pivotal change required to enable new more effective therapeutic strategies to be developed. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Translational Neuropharmacology. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.164.issue-4 PMID:21449915

Jones, CA; Watson, DJG; Fone, KCF

2011-01-01

288

Mercury induced time-dependent alterations in lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation in different body organs of cat-fish Heteropneustes fossilis  

SciTech Connect

The effects of mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/) on lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation in different body organs of fresh water cat-fish Heteropneustes fossilis were studied. The daily exposure of HgCl/sub 2/ 0.2 mg/L for 10, 20 and 30 days depleted the total lipids in brain. But the content of phospholipids enhanced significantly at 30 days. Significant diminution in C/P ratio was discernible with 30 days of exposure following mercury toxicosis. Liver exhibited elevated levels of total lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol and C/P ratio. Interestingly kidney showed marked decrease in the concentration of total lipids, cholesterol and C/P ratio at higher exposure. However, the phospholipid values increased during the longer exposure. The content of total lipids and phospholipids was high in muscle but the level of cholesterol and C/P ratio were depleted. Significant increment in lipid peroxidation was discernible in brain, liver and muscle. In kidney the rate of lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced. The results suggest that exposure of HgCl/sub 2/ enhances the peroxidation of endogenous lipids in brain, liver and muscle. Interestingly the lipid contents are affected differently in different body organs.

Bano, Y.; Hasan, M.

1989-04-01

289

Disposition of Shelter Companion Animals From Nonhuman Animal Control Officers, Citizen Finders, and Relinquished by Caregivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many private not-for-profit humane societies have contracts with their local govern- ment entities to provide nonhuman animal control services that the law commonly re- quires the government to provide to its residents. These services normally have the humane organization providing either the total animal control program (including field work to pick up stray animal companions, enforcing local animal ordinances, and

Stephen J. Notaro

2004-01-01

290

Plant and AnimalPlant and Animal Domestication as HumanDomestication as Human--  

E-print Network

and animal domestication and evolution and the genetic improvement of crops and animal breeds [... No doubt organs: e.g., · udders of cows and goats · seeds of domesticated plants ­ "Comparing the diversityEvidence for Origin and Dispersal of Domesticated Plants and AnimalsPlants and Animals (modified from Harlan and de

Gepts, Paul

291

Extreme Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online news article discusses the ability of tardigrades to withstand harsh conditions. The article covers the history, biology and significance of tardigrades, as well as the different types of cryptobiosis. It includes detailed images of the organisms and links to related web pages.

2002-09-01

292

Extreme Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online news article discusses the ability of tardigrades to withstand harsh conditions. The article covers the history, biology and significance of tardigrades, as well as the different types of cryptobiosis. It includes detailed images of the organisms and links to related web pages.

Mullen, Leslie; Magazine, Astrobiology

293

Effects of altered groundwater chemistry upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial attachment during transport within an organically contaminated sandy aquifer.  

PubMed

The effects of a dilute (ionic strength=5x10(-3)M) plume of treated sewage, with elevated levels (3.9 mg/L) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial transport through an iron-laden, quartz sand aquifer (Cape Cod, MA) were evaluated using sets of replicate, static minicolumns. Compared with uncontaminated groundwater, the plume chemistry diminished bacterial attachment under mildly acidic (pH 5.0-6.5) in-situ conditions, in spite of the 5-fold increase in ionic strength and substantively enhanced attachment under more alkaline conditions. The effects of the hydrophobic neutral and total fractions of the plume DOC; modest concentrations of fulvic and humic acids (1.5 mg/L); linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) (25 mg/L); Imbentin (200 microg/L), a model nonionic surfactant; sulfate (28 mg/L); and calcium (20 mg/L) varied sharply in response to relatively small changes in pH, although the plume constituents collectively decreased the pH-dependency of bacterial attachment. LAS and other hydrophobic neutrals (collectively representing only approximately 3% of the plume DOC) had a disproportionately large effect upon bacterial attachment, as did the elevated concentrations of sulfate within the plume. The findings further suggest that the roles of organic plume constituents in transport or bacteria through acidic aquifer sediments can be very different than would be predicted from column studies performed at circumneutral pH and that the inorganic constituents within the plume cannot be ignored. PMID:19822342

Harvey, Ronald W; Metge, David W; Barber, L B; Aiken, George R

2010-02-01

294

Fluxes of K, P, and Zn in a conventional and an organic dairy farming system through feed, animals, manure, and urine—a case study at Öjebyn, Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

One aim of this paper was to present flows and balances of K, P, and Zn at a barn level for an organic and a conventional farming system, and compare the systems with respect to agronomic sustainability. A second aim was to identify internal on-farm flows of major concern for the environment. We define barn balance as the balance between

Gunnela M Gustafson; Eva Salomon; Simon Jonsson; Staffan Steineck

2003-01-01

295

Chronic aluminum intoxication in rat induced both serotonin changes in the dorsal raphe nucleus and alteration of glycoprotein secretion in the subcommissural organ: Immunohistochemical study.  

PubMed

Aluminum (Al) causes multiple impairments in several body systems including the central nervous system. In fact, Al exposure has been mostly associated with neurological dysfunctions that occur in some brain diseases. The effect of Al neurotoxicity on the dopaminergic system is well documented, but this effect on the serotoninergic system is poorly studied. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of chronic Al intoxication (0.3% of aluminum chloride exposure from the intra-uterine age until 4 months of adult age) on dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) which is the main source of serotonin, and also on the glycoprotein secretion of subcomissural organ (SCO), receiving important serotoninergic innervation. This will be executed using immunohistochemistry procedure, with both the anti serotonin and the anti Reissner's fiber antibodies in the rat. Our results showed a significant increase of serotonin immunoreactivity in the DRN, accompanied by a noticeable decrease of RF immunoreactivity in the SCO ependymocytes. This study provides further evidence confirming the toxic effect of Al exposure on serotonin neurotransmission in the brain likely through increased synthesis or decreased release. Al exposure was also shown to decrease RF glycoprotein which is involved in the detoxification of cerebrospinal fluid. PMID:24931428

Laabbar, Wafaa; Elgot, Abdeljalil; Kissani, Najib; Gamrani, Halima

2014-08-01

296

Temporal Alterations in the Secretome of the Selective Ligninolytic Fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora during Growth on Aspen Wood Reveal This Organism's Strategy for Degrading Lignocellulose  

PubMed Central

The white-rot basidiomycetes efficiently degrade all wood cell wall polymers. Generally, these fungi simultaneously degrade cellulose and lignin, but certain organisms, such as Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, selectively remove lignin in advance of cellulose degradation. However, relatively little is known about the mechanism of selective ligninolysis. To address this issue, C. subvermispora was grown in liquid medium containing ball-milled aspen, and nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify and estimate extracellular protein abundance over time. Several manganese peroxidases and an aryl alcohol oxidase, both associated with lignin degradation, were identified after 3 days of incubation. A glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 51 arabinofuranosidase was also identified after 3 days but then successively decreased in later samples. Several enzymes related to cellulose and xylan degradation, such as GH10 endoxylanase, GH5_5 endoglucanase, and GH7 cellobiohydrolase, were detected after 5 days. Peptides corresponding to potential cellulose-degrading enzymes GH12, GH45, lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase, and cellobiose dehydrogenase were most abundant after 7 days. This sequential production of enzymes provides a mechanism consistent with selective ligninolysis by C. subvermispora. PMID:24441164

Hori, Chiaki; Gaskell, Jill; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Kersten, Phil; Mozuch, Michael; Samejima, Masahiro

2014-01-01

297

The Evolution of Multicellular Plants and Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the evolution of unicellular organisms to the multi-cellular plants and animals in existence today. Major events are depicted in a geologic timetable. Organisms, extinct and recent, are classified by taxonomic group. (MA)

Valentine, James W.

1978-01-01

298

Obese visceral adipose tissue grafted in lean mice can alter glucose homeostasis and energy efficiency.  

PubMed

Fat transplantation experiments have previously shown regulatory properties of lean adipose tissue on glucose homeostasis in the whole animal. In the current study, we addressed whether obese visceral white adipose tissue grafted in lean mice could alter glucose homeostasis. Obese visceral fat (VF) tissue was effective in increasing body weight gain and energy efficiency but not energy intake, when transplanted into the epididymal VF depot in lean recipient mice. These changes were accompanied by impaired glucose and insulin tolerance tests, showing altered glucose homeostasis. None of these effects were observed when transplants were grafted subcutaneously. These effects show that both physiologic state of donor VF (obese vs lean) and graft location (epididymal vs subcutaneous) in the recipient animal are critical to express deleterious effects of VF on glucose homeostasis in the whole organism. PMID:23034260

Barrera, C; Gatica, A; Morgan, C

2012-01-01

299

Increased size of solid organs in patients with Chuvash polycythemia and in mice with altered expression of HIF-1? and HIF-2?  

PubMed Central

Chuvash polycythemia, the first hereditary disease associated with dysregulated oxygen-sensing to be recognized, is characterized by a homozygous germ-line loss-of-function mutation of the VHL gene (VHLR200W) resulting in elevated hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1? and HIF-2? levels, increased red cell mass and propensity to thrombosis. Organ volume is determined by the size and number of cells, and the underlying molecular control mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Work from several groups has demonstrated that the proliferation of cells is regulated in opposite directions by HIF-1? and HIF-2?. HIF-1? inhibits cell proliferation by displacing MYC from the promoter of the gene encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21Cip1, thereby inducing its expression. In contrast, HIF-2? promotes MYC activity and cell proliferation. Here we report that the volumes of liver, spleen, and kidneys relative to body mass were larger in 30 individuals with Chuvash polycythemia than in 30 matched Chuvash controls. In Hif1a+/? mice, which are heterozygous for a null (knockout) allele at the locus encoding HIF-1?, hepatic HIF-2? mRNA was increased (2-fold) and the mass of the liver was increased, compared with wild-type littermates, without significant difference in cell volume. Hepatic p21Cip1 mRNA levels were 9.5-fold lower in Hif1a+/? mice compared with wild-type littermates. These data suggest that, in addition to increased red cell mass, the sizes of liver, spleen, and kidneys are increased in Chuvash polycythemia. At least in the liver, this phenotype may result from increased HIF-2? and decreased p21Cip1 levels leading to increased hepatocyte proliferation. PMID:20140661

Yoon, Donghoon; Okhotin, David V.; Kim, Bumjun; Okhotina, Yulia; Okhotin, Daniel J.; Miasnikova, Galina Y.; Sergueeva, Adelina I.; Polyakova, Lydia A.; Maslow, Alexei; Lee, Yonggu; Semenza, Gregg L.; Prchal, Josef T.

2010-01-01

300

Increased size of solid organs in patients with Chuvash polycythemia and in mice with altered expression of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha.  

PubMed

Chuvash polycythemia, the first hereditary disease associated with dysregulated oxygen-sensing to be recognized, is characterized by a homozygous germ-line loss-of-function mutation of the VHL gene (VHL(R200W)) resulting in elevated hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha and HIF-2alpha levels, increased red cell mass and propensity to thrombosis. Organ volume is determined by the size and number of cells, and the underlying molecular control mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Work from several groups has demonstrated that the proliferation of cells is regulated in opposite directions by HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha. HIF-1alpha inhibits cell proliferation by displacing MYC from the promoter of the gene encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21(Cip1), thereby inducing its expression. In contrast, HIF-2alpha promotes MYC activity and cell proliferation. Here we report that the volumes of liver, spleen, and kidneys relative to body mass were larger in 30 individuals with Chuvash polycythemia than in 30 matched Chuvash controls. In Hif1a(+/-) mice, which are heterozygous for a null (knockout) allele at the locus encoding HIF-1alpha, hepatic HIF-2alpha mRNA was increased (2-fold) and the mass of the liver was increased, compared with wild-type littermates, without significant difference in cell volume. Hepatic p21(Cip1) mRNA levels were 9.5-fold lower in Hif1a(+/-) mice compared with wild-type littermates. These data suggest that, in addition to increased red cell mass, the sizes of liver, spleen, and kidneys are increased in Chuvash polycythemia. At least in the liver, this phenotype may result from increased HIF-2alpha and decreased p21(Cip1) levels leading to increased hepatocyte proliferation. PMID:20140661

Yoon, Donghoon; Okhotin, David V; Kim, Bumjun; Okhotina, Yulia; Okhotin, Daniel J; Miasnikova, Galina Y; Sergueeva, Adelina I; Polyakova, Lydia A; Maslow, Alexei; Lee, Yonggu; Semenza, Gregg L; Prchal, Josef T; Gordeuk, Victor R

2010-05-01

301

DNA is organized into 46 chromosomes including sex chromosomes, 3D animation with no audioSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The millions of bases, which make up the human genome are organized into structures called chromosomes. These are arranged into 22 matching pairs plus 1 pair of sex chromosomes consisting of 2 X's in women and an X and a Y in men. So humans have a total of 46 chromosomes in each cell, known collectively as a karyotype. This set of chromosomes has a Y, so it must belong to a male.

2008-10-06

302

Left-Right Asymmetry in Animal Embryogenesis  

E-print Network

1 Left-Right Asymmetry in Animal Embryogenesis Michael Levin Cell Biology dept. Bldg. C1, rm. 403 of a given type) differences between the left and right sides of an animal's morphology. This specifically of an organism looking the same to some level of detail on either side of a symmetry line). Animal body- plans

Levin, Michael

303

Air pollution by concentrated animal feeding operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

With large concentrations of animals at individual facilities, animal production may be accompanied by environmental problems. One concern is whether adverse health effects may occur due to the emission of contaminants into the air. Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) emit ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, and other hazardous air pollutants. Under current environmental regulations in the United

Parag Patel; Terence J. Centner

2010-01-01

304

International Fund for Animal Welfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the past few years, a finely nuanced sensibility about the shared interests and coexistence of human and animals has emerged as a number of international organizations have begun work and advocacy efforts in this area. The work of the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) began three decades ago when a group of individuals decided to come together to stop a hunt for white-coat harp seals on the eastern coast of Canada. Since that time, the IFAW has expanded its work across the world, and this site affords visitors the opportunity to learn about the organization's work, read its annual reports from the past several years, and find out more about its different campaigns across different regions. Visitors can click on different parts of an interactive world map to look at this information or browse a list of animals in the "Save Animals" section of the site.

305

Reflections on animal selves.  

PubMed

Is self-cognizance a uniquely human attribute, or do other animals also have a sense of self? Although there is considerable interest in this question, answers remain elusive. Progress has been stymied by misunderstandings in terminology, a focus on a narrow range of species, and controversies over key concepts, experimental paradigms and interpretations of data. Here, we propose a new conceptual and terminological framework, emphasizing that degrees of self-cognizance differ among animals because of the cognitive demands that their species-specific social structures and life-history characteristics have placed upon them over evolutionary time. We suggest that the self-cognizance of an organism falls at a point on a continuum of social complexity and conscious involvement. PMID:16701251

Bekoff, Marc; Sherman, Paul W

2004-04-01

306

Animal Diversity Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animal Diversity Web (ADW) is an online database of animal natural history, distribution, classification, and conservation biology hosted by the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. It provides descriptions of levels of organization above the species level, especially phyla, classes, and in some cases orders and families. Hundreds of hyperlinked pages and images illustrate the traits and general biology of these groups. This component of ADW is prepared by professional biologists. It also offers thousands of species accounts that may include text, pictures, photographs, and movies of specimens and/or sound recordings. Student authorship of species accounts is an essential feature of ADW. A web-based template ensures a consistent format for species accounts, and instructors and ADW staff review and edit them before they are added to the site.

2004-02-16

307

[Mechanisms of changes in the mass of the organs central to immunity during adenovirus carcinogenesis].  

PubMed

The spleen cells transfer from mice CBA at the 25th day of the carcinogenesis latent period induced by adenovirus SA7(S8) to newborn syngeneic animals caused the graft versus host reaction in them. There was splenomegaly and progressive decrease in weight of the recipients' thymus. Analogous alterations of lymphoid organs were noted in the animals infected during the neonatal period by oncogenic adenovirus SA7(C8). Results showed that adenoviral carcinogenesis had some manifestations of autoimmune disease. PMID:29679

Ageenko, A I; Erkhov, V S; Sviridova, I K

1978-09-01

308

New Frontiers in Animal Research of Psychiatric Illness  

PubMed Central

Alterations in neurodevelopment are thought to modify risk of numerous psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, autism, ADHD, mood and anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. However, little is known about the cellular and molecular changes that guide these neurodevelopmental changes and how they contribute to mental illness. In this review, we suggest that elucidating this process in humans requires the use of model organisms. Furthermore, we advocate that such translational work should focus on the role that genes and/or environmental factors play in the development of circuits that regulate specific physiological and behavioral outcomes in adulthood. This emphasis on circuit development, as a fundamental unit for understanding behavior, is distinct from current approaches of modeling psychiatric illnesses in animals in two important ways. First, it proposes to replace the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM) diagnostic system with measurable endophenotypes as the basis for modeling human psychopathology in animals. We argue that a major difficulty in establishing valid animal models lies in their reliance on the DSM/International Classification of Diseases conceptual framework, and suggest that the Research Domain Criteria project, recently proposed by the NIMH, provides a more suitable system to model human psychopathology in animals. Second, this proposal emphasizes the developmental origin of many (though clearly not all) psychiatric illnesses, an issue that is often glossed over in current animal models of mental illness. We suggest that animal models are essential to elucidate the mechanisms by which neurodevelopmental changes program complex behavior in adulthood. A better understanding of this issue, in animals, is the key for defining human psychopathology, and the development of earlier and more effective interventions for mental illness. PMID:22231804

Kaffman, Arie; Krystal, John H.

2012-01-01

309

New frontiers in animal research of psychiatric illness.  

PubMed

Alterations in neurodevelopment are thought to modify risk of numerous psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, autism, ADHD, mood and anxiety disorders, and substance abuse. However, little is known about the cellular and molecular changes that guide these neurodevelopmental changes and how they contribute to mental illness. In this review, we suggest that elucidating this process in humans requires the use of model organisms. Furthermore, we advocate that such translational work should focus on the role that genes and/or environmental factors play in the development of circuits that regulate specific physiological and behavioral outcomes in adulthood. This emphasis on circuit development, as a fundamental unit for understanding behavior, is distinct from current approaches of modeling psychiatric illnesses in animals in two important ways. First, it proposes to replace the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM) diagnostic system with measurable endophenotypes as the basis for modeling human psychopathology in animals. We argue that a major difficulty in establishing valid animal models lies in their reliance on the DSM/International Classification of Diseases conceptual framework, and suggest that the Research Domain Criteria project, recently proposed by the NIMH, provides a more suitable system to model human psychopathology in animals. Second, this proposal emphasizes the developmental origin of many (though clearly not all) psychiatric illnesses, an issue that is often glossed over in current animal models of mental illness. We suggest that animal models are essential to elucidate the mechanisms by which neurodevelopmental changes program complex behavior in adulthood. A better understanding of this issue, in animals, is the key for defining human psychopathology, and the development of earlier and more effective interventions for mental illness. PMID:22231804

Kaffman, Arie; Krystal, John H; Krystal, John J

2012-01-01

310

[Expression of recombinant proteins in the milk of transgenic animals].  

PubMed

The bulky production of recombinant proteins can be achieved by procaryotes or eucaryotes cells. Cells from higher eucaryotes may be required when proteins have to be modified post-transcriptionally (glycosylation phosphorylation, cleavage, folding...). Cells from higher vertebrates in culture are used to prepare proteins like human factor VIII and erythropoietin. The use of transgenic organism has been suggested to reach the same goal. Indeed a whole living organism allows a very potent amplification, the number of cells involved in the biosynthesis of the recombinant proteins being very numerous and in the best metabolic conditions. Biological fluids (blood, milk, insect hemolymph, egg white...) and possibly organs from transgenic animals are a priori the best sources of recombinant proteins. Blood is abundant and it is a by-product of slaughter house. Its composition is relatively complex and the circulating recombinant proteins may heavily alter health of animals. Milk is very abundant, its composition is relatively simple, it is poor in proteolytic enzymes and it can be collected easily. Hemolymph from insects is relatively scarce. Egg white will be a possible source of recombinant proteins, when transgenesis has become more accessible in birds. Organs from transgenic animals should be solicited only when a particular cell type is required for the biosynthesis of the recombinant proteins. Milk appears therefore, presently, as the best source of recombinant proteins from transgenic animals. About 15 public and private laboratories try to use these techniques. They consist in preparing vectors containing regulatory regions of one of the milk proteins genes and the coding part (cDNA or gene) of the corresponding proteins to be produced. The transfer of these gene constructs to mouse, rabbit, sheep, goat, pig, shows that these techniques are indeed very promising. A single protein, human alpha 1-antitrypsin produced in milk of transgenic sheep, has presently reached the preparation at an industrial scale. This method has two theoretical limitations: 1) some of the proteins secreted in milk may be not matured as their native counterparts. Experiments carried out so far (about 20 proteins has been produced at an experimental scale) indicate that the mammary cell is able to achieve glycosylation in a correct way; 2) a significant proportion of the recombinant proteins migrate from the alveolar compartment of the mammary gland to blood circulation and they can alter health of lactating animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8476491

Houdebine, L M

1993-01-01

311

Digital character performance animation  

E-print Network

of teamwork. Thanks to animator's Tony Fucile, Andrew Gordon, John Kahrs, Dale MacBeath, Angus MacLane, Gleen McQueen, Victor Navone, Bobby Podesta, Rich Quade, Bob Scott, and Mark Walsh for taking the time to share your valuable knowledge. Thanks... of scripts. The Actors Studio is the organization that has been home to some of the most talented and successful actors: Marion Brando, Robert de Niro, Norman Mailer, Eli Wallach, Sidney Poitier, Edward Albee, Marilyn Monroe, James Dean). A new emphasis...

Gonzalez, Elizabeth

2012-06-07

312

Animal Diversity Web - Insects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Part of the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology's Animal Diversity Web, this site gives a general overview of the class Insecta targeted at college students. The site is organized into five tabs: Information, Pictures, Specimens, Sounds and Classification. Resources include images of live insects and pinned specimens, and sound recordings. Some pictures are only labeled with scientific genus and species names, making it difficult for novice users to understand what Order they are looking at, but many also have common names. Photos and sound bytes are good quality and easy to view and download. A very good resource for teachers needing lecture materials.

0002-11-30

313

Pattern Alteration: Special Alterations for Pants  

E-print Network

circumference alterations. Make all crotch depth alterations on front and back pattern pieces. To shorten: 1. Fold the pattern by the amount you need along the lengthening and shortening line designated on the pattern at the hip line. 2. Tape the pattern... the pattern apart at the hip lengthening and shorten- ing line. Figure 1. 2 ................................................................................................................................................................................. 3...

2006-08-04

314

Alteration of biochar characteristics through Post Production Treatments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of pure, untreated biochar to temperate soils does not lead to substantial increase in soil fertility and plant growth. Moreover, the application of 10 tonnes or more of biochar per hectare is not economically viable on most farms. To be more efficient in improving soil fertility, increasing SOM and ecosystem services, new methods of using biochar in farm settings need to be developed. To improve the effect of biochar on plant growth, biochar can be enhanced by (1) adding nutrients, (2) inoculating it with beneficial microorganisms, (3) improving its surface reactivity and thus its sorption dynamic, (4) increasing its porous volume, and/or (5) fostering the creation of biochar-mineral-organic complexes. These supplementary biochar enhancements can be achieved through different methods of feedstock blending and biochar post-production treatment which can be classified according to the resulting surface alteration of biochar: 1. Addition of nutrients, MOs, minerals in liquid solution which get soaked into the biochar pores without or with only slight surface alteration, resulting in enriched biochar. 2. Physico-chemical activation (treatment with acids, vapours, toasting with minerals …) resulting in alteration of the surface, pore volume and functional groups. 3. Bio-chemical activation through the interaction of biochar with organic compounds, minerals, nutrients and microorganisms in a biological very active environment, resulting in the complexation of biochar, minerals and organic compounds. Whereas physico-chemical activation is a highly technical process and has to be done by professional biochar producers, bio-chemical activation and enrichment can be done very efficiently by the farmer himself. On-farm enrichment and activation of biochar help to close the organic nutrient cycles of the farm, improving agronomic system efficiency and thus becoming economically viable. Adding biochar to highly labile organic matter like manure, sludge or compost improves decomposition and complexation, and helps to stabilize their nutrients and carbon. The combination of biochar and lacto-acid-bacteria in silage, feed, bedding and liquid manure treatment decreases methane and ammonia emissions, increases the feed-energy balance, and boosts animal health. On every step of this cascading use of biochar in animal husbandry, the biochar becomes more oxidized, more activated and more enriched with nutrients. When finally applied to the soil, biochar acts as carrier for nutrients and thus works to improve soil fertility. Much more research is needed in the field of biochar post-treatment and into each of the different possible farm uses. Nevertheless, sufficient serious research has already been done and published, enabling us to judge the importance of post-treating biochar to improve its agronomic performance and value.

Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Kammann, Claudia; Glaser, Bruno

2013-04-01

315

Transformational Heuristics for Animation -Towards Stepwise Validation of Specifications  

E-print Network

Transformational Heuristics for Animation - Towards Stepwise Validation of Specifications Atif. Likewise, the tech- nique of animation could be used during refinement process to break its validation into smaller assessments. Animating an abstract specification often requires to alter it in or- der to make

Boyer, Edmond

316

Future Directions in Human-Animal Bond Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human-animal contact can influence psychological and physiological parameters important to health and welfare; nevertheless, there has been relatively little research on the variables that influence or mediate those health consequences. In addition, little attention has been paid on how to create or alter the animal interactions for the betterment of people and their animals. The investigation can be guided by

Alan M. Beck; Aaron H. Katcher

2003-01-01

317

Navigation in Animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper was first published in the Journal in 1969 (Vol. 22, p. 118). It is followed by comments from John Kemp.The last twenty-one years have seen some very striking advances in our knowledge of how animals can determine their location. In many cases we have learned that they have available a wider range of stimuli than ourselves for recognizing landmarks and for pilotage within their home area. Thus the associated senses of smell and taste are extraordinarily well developed in some species. The ability of the males of certain moths to detect the scent emitted by females at very considerable distances had long been known. More recently the extreme sensitivity, and selectivity, of fish to waterborne odours has led to an understanding of how they locate their home waters. As but one example, eels have shown reactions to concentrations of chemicals as low as 3 18, equivalent to but two or three molecules within the fish's olfactory sac. In other cases animals have developed sensitivities of which we have little or no conception. Ecolocation is employed by certain birds, by many marine animals and reaches a peak of efficiency in the case of bats. Not only do the latter detect sounds of much higher frequency than ourselves, they also respond to echoes of sounds they emitted but 0·001 seconds earlier. We have little appreciation of the sensations produced by the pressure-receptors in the lateral-line organs of fish.

Matthews, G. V. T.

318

Fantastic animals as an experimental model to teach animal adaptation  

PubMed Central

Background Science curricula and teachers should emphasize evolution in a manner commensurate with its importance as a unifying concept in science. The concept of adaptation represents a first step to understand the results of natural selection. We settled an experimental project of alternative didactic to improve knowledge of organism adaptation. Students were involved and stimulated in learning processes by creative activities. To set adaptation in a historic frame, fossil records as evidence of past life and evolution were considered. Results The experimental project is schematized in nine phases: review of previous knowledge; lesson on fossils; lesson on fantastic animals; planning an imaginary world; creation of an imaginary animal; revision of the imaginary animals; adaptations of real animals; adaptations of fossil animals; and public exposition. A rubric to evaluate the student's performances is reported. The project involved professors and students of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and of the "G. Marconi" Secondary School of First Degree (Modena, Italy). Conclusion The educational objectives of the project are in line with the National Indications of the Italian Ministry of Public Instruction: knowledge of the characteristics of living beings, the meanings of the term "adaptation", the meaning of fossils, the definition of ecosystem, and the particularity of the different biomes. At the end of the project, students will be able to grasp particular adaptations of real organisms and to deduce information about the environment in which the organism evolved. This project allows students to review previous knowledge and to form their personalities. PMID:17767729

Guidetti, Roberto; Baraldi, Laura; Calzolai, Caterina; Pini, Lorenza; Veronesi, Paola; Pederzoli, Aurora

2007-01-01

319

Limb neurovascular control during altered otolithic input in humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Head-down rotation (HDR), which activates the vestibulosympathetic reflex, increases leg muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and produces calf vasoconstriction with no change in either cardiac output or arterial blood pressure. Based on animal studies, it was hypothesized that differential control of arm and leg MSNA explains why HDR does not alter arterial blood pressure. Fifteen healthy subjects were studied. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, forearm and calf blood flow, and leg MSNA responses were measured during HDR in these subjects. Simultaneous recordings of arm and leg MSNA were obtained from five of the subjects. Forearm and calf blood flow, vascular conductances, and vascular resistances were similar before HDR, as were arm and leg MSNA. HDR elicited similar significant increases in leg (Delta 6 +/- 1 bursts min(-1); 59 +/- 16 % from baseline) and arm MSNA (Delta 5 +/- 1 bursts min(-1); 80 +/- 28 % from baseline). HDR significantly decreased calf (-19 +/- 2 %) and forearm vascular conductance (-12 +/- 2 %) and significantly increased calf (25 +/- 4 %) and forearm vascular resistance (15 +/- 2 %), with 60 % greater vasoconstriction in the calf than in the forearm. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate were not altered by HDR. These results indicate that there is no differential control of MSNA in the arm and leg during altered feedback from the otolith organs in humans, but that greater vasoconstriction occurs in the calf than in the forearm. These findings indicate that vasodilatation occurs in other vascular bed(s) to account for the lack of increase in arterial blood pressure during HDR.

Monahan, Kevin D.; Ray, Chester A.

2002-01-01

320

Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal-Interactions The module Animal-Plant/Animal-Animal-Interactions deals with various aspects of  

E-print Network

(herbivory and plant defensive substances) are introduced using various examples (ant-plant interactions are discussed, e.g. pollination of commercially used plants. · Practical course: o Experiments on various aspects of animal-plant and animal-animal interactions. o Overview of the most important methods used

Pfeifer, Holger

321

Altered cell function in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper overviews published results from investigations of changes in basic biological parameters taking place as a result of spaceflight exposure. These include changes in the rates of the DNA, mRNA, and protein biosyntheses; changes in the growth rate of an organism; and alterations in the cytoskeleton structure, differentiation, hormone accumulation, and collagen matrix secretion. These results, obtained both in complex biological organisms and on cultured cells, suggest that a basic cellular function is influenced and changed by microgravity. Many of the above mentioned changes are also found to take place in aging cells.

Hughes-Fulford, Millie

1991-01-01

322

Altered Belowground Carbon Cycling Following Land-Use Change  

E-print Network

) were sub- stantially altered relative to row crop agriculture (corn-soy rotation); specifically; soil respiration; belowground carbon allocation; bio- energy/biofuels; soil organic carbon; perennial

DeLucia, Evan H.

323

Pattern Alteration: Shoulder Slope  

E-print Network

Determining the amount of alteration needed for square or sloping shoulders depends on observation and past experience in fitting home-sewn and purchased garments. This publication gives alteration instructions for basic bodices and kimono style...

2006-05-05

324

Public perceptions of transgenic animals.  

PubMed

The field of animal biotechnology has been rapidly expanding and the development of transgenic animals has been part of this research expansion. How the public perceives such developments is an important component of policy considerations. In general, biotechnology applications have been judged with evident hierarchies of acceptability. There appearto be hierarchies in terms of the type of organism being modified, the purpose of the application, the means to attain particular ends, and the nature of the benefits obtained. While general awareness of biotechnology and its specific applications remains low to moderate, this article presents data regarding public acceptance of a variety of applications. These range from the use of animals as disease models and as sources for tissues and organs, to the use of transgenic animals for disease control, for food, and for the production of pharmaceutical and industrial products. Case-by-case judgments are evident, but at the same time, the application of criteria such as the nature of the organism being modified, the animal welfare aspects and the ethical-moral concerns are additional criteria for public judgments. These findings are discussed in the context of their implications for public policy. PMID:16110885

Einsiedel, E F

2005-04-01

325

Animal models in burn research.  

PubMed

Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than 2 million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury, to elucidate the pathophysiology, and to explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research. PMID:24714880

Abdullahi, A; Amini-Nik, S; Jeschke, M G

2014-09-01

326

Topic in Depth - Animal Reproduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth takes a look at organizations and educational websites concerned with reproduction in humans and other animals. In this folder, you'll find information about fertility, embryology, reproductive biology, and immunology from a variety of societies and institutions.

2010-09-14

327

The globalisation of farm animal welfare.  

PubMed

Animal welfare has achieved significant global prominence for perhaps three reasons. First, several centuries of scientific research, especially in anatomy, evolutionary biology and animal behaviour, have led to a gradual narrowing of the gap that people perceive between humans and other species; this altered perception has prompted grass-roots attention to animals and their welfare, initially in Western countries but now more globally asthe influence of science has expanded. Second, scientific research on animal welfare has provided insights and methods for improving the handling, housing and management of animals; this 'animal welfare science' is increasingly seen as relevant to improving animal husbandry worldwide. Third, the development and use of explicit animal welfare standards has helped to integrate animal welfare as a component of national and international public policy, commerce and trade. To date, social debate about animal welfare has been dominated bythe industrialised nations. However, as the issue becomes increasingly global, it will be important for the non-industrialised countries to develop locally appropriate approaches to improving animal welfare, for example, by facilitating the provision of shelter, food, water and health care, and by improving basic handling, transportation and slaughter. PMID:25000775

Fraser, D

2014-04-01

328

Animal Intelligence Insights into the Animal Mind  

E-print Network

Animal Intelligence Insights into the Animal Mind Edited by R. J.Hoage and Larry Goldman Smithsonian Institution Press Washington, D.C., and London #12;Tradition and Social Learning in Animals of the prestigious Royal Society and a leading figure in the bio- logical establishment of his day. Romanes

Galef Jr., Bennett G.

329

Experimental Animal Models for Studying Lung Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality for both men and women worldwide. The use of animal models of\\u000a lung cancer is necessary to improve our understanding of lung tumor biology and facilitate novel therapies and diagnostics.\\u000a To this end, animal models should mimic both the genetic alterations found in human lung tumors and their histological characteristics.\\u000a Currently,

Jiang Liu; Michael R. Johnston

330

Animals around the world  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What kinds of animals live in South Africa? Your teacher will give you KWL chart First, lets learn about Elephants Animals Record in your chart what you learn. Now lets learn about other animals Animals How is it similar or different from the Elephant? Project: Create a poster on one of the animals we discussed in this lesson. See the teacher ...

Carly, Ms.

2011-10-27

331

Revealing alteration of membrane structures during ischema using impedance spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gheorghiu, M. and Gersing, E. Revealing alteration of membrane structures during ischema using impedance spectroscopy Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 2002, 24(Suppl.) : 777-784 Alterations of membrane structure and function are essential characteristics of cells undergoing ischemia. Noninvasive monitoring of tissue alterations during ischemia and the estimation of the reversibility domain (corresponding to organ capability to fully recover its functions after

Mihaela Gheorghiu; Eberhard Gersing

332

Vaccine delivery to animals.  

PubMed

For many years vaccination of animals has been practiced to prevent infectious diseases using inactivated organisms or modified live organisms. The live vaccines were effective but lacked safety. The vaccines made with inactivated organisms required an adjuvant to induce an immune response that was not as effective as either the clinical disease or live vaccines. An 'ideal' vaccine would induce effective immunity specific for the type of infection, have long duration, require minimal or no boosters, have impeccable safety, would not induce adverse reactions, and be easy to administer. The desire to meet these criteria, and especially safety, has resulted in the development of vaccines that do not depend on the use of the viable disease agent. The emphasis on subunit or inactivated vaccines that meet the desired criteria of a perfect vaccine has resulted in a critical need for better adjuvants and delivery systems. This has resulted in a technological innovation revolution with development of a wide array of different technologies to generate effective vaccines. This review will describe the historical relevance of adjuvants used for parenterally administered inactivated/subunit vaccines as well as describe some of the exciting technological advances including adjuvants (ISCOMS), delivery systems (recombinant vectors, microparticles), and novel approaches (transgenic plants, naked DNA) that are currently being, or will be used in the future, in the search for better, more effective vaccines that meet the current and future needs of veterinary medicine. PMID:10837755

Bowersock; Martin

1999-07-26

333

Bridge Rectifier Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an animation of a bridge rectifier circuit or diode bridge. Voltages and parts of the circuit of this 3-D animated gif are highlighted with different colors. Current is displayed by green arrows indicating directional flow. The animation requires a Web browser or other video player software capable of displaying gif animations. A link provides an optional Quicktime version of this same animation.Other 3-D Circuit Animations can be seen here.

2009-11-26

334

Autonomous animation of human figures using intelligent agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The task of animating human characters is complex and has many degrees of freedom. There is an obvious need to provide a consistent framework to organize the knowledge and tools required so that the creative, intelligent animator working together with a series of reasoning systems, can quickly develop a complex animation. We investigate an approach in which the animator works

Tom Calvert; Sang Mah; Simon Tang

1995-01-01

335

Hindlimb unloading alters ligament healing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigated the hypothesis that hindlimb unloading inhibits healing in fibrous connective tissue such as ligament. Male rats were assigned to 3- and 7-wk treatment groups with three subgroups each: sham control, ambulatory healing, and hindlimb-suspended healing. Ambulatory and suspended animals underwent surgical rupture of their medial collateral ligaments, whereas sham surgeries were performed on control animals. After 3 or 7 wk, mechanical and/or morphological properties were measured in ligament, muscle, and bone. During mechanical testing, most suspended ligaments failed in the scar region, indicating the greatest impairment was to ligament and not to bone-ligament insertion. Ligament testing revealed significant reductions in maximum force, ultimate stress, elastic modulus, and low-load properties in suspended animals. In addition, femoral mineral density, femoral strength, gastrocnemius mass, and tibialis anterior mass were significantly reduced. Microscopy revealed abnormal scar formation and cell distribution in suspended ligaments with extracellular matrix discontinuities and voids between misaligned, but well-formed, collagen fiber bundles. Hence, stress levels from ambulation appear unnecessary for formation of fiber bundles yet required for collagen to form structurally competent continuous fibers. Results support our hypothesis that hindlimb unloading impairs healing of fibrous connective tissue. In addition, this study provides compelling morphological evidence explaining the altered structure-function relationship in load-deprived healing connective tissue.

Provenzano, Paolo P.; Martinez, Daniel A.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Dwyer, Kelley W.; Turner, Joanne; Vailas, Arthur C.; Vanderby, Ray Jr

2003-01-01

336

Effects of exposure to calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1b and Mannheimia haemolytica challenge on animal performance, nitrogen balance, and visceral organ mass in beef steers.  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) have been isolated alone or in combination with other viral and bacterial pathogens in animals diagnosed with bovine respiratory disease (BRD), a disease causing major economic loss to the feedlot industry. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of Mannheimia haemolytica challenge after short-term exposure (72 h) to bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1b (BVDV1b) persistently infected (PI) calves on performance, N balance, and organ mass in finishing cattle. Treatments (6 steers/treatment; initial BW = 314 +/- 31 kg) were 1) steers not exposed to steers PI with BVDV nor challenged with M. haemolytica (control; CON); 2) steers exposed to 2 steers PI with BVDV1b (BVD) for 72 h; 3) steers intratracheally challenged with M. haemolytica (MH); or 4) steers exposed to 2 steers PI with BVDV1b for 72 h and challenged with M. haemolytica (BVD+MH). There were 12 h between exposure to PI steers and challenge with M. haemolytica. Steers were housed in metabolism stanchions during the first 5 d after the M. haemolytica challenge and on d 7 to 11, 28 to 32, and for 5 d before slaughter (average 119 d on feed) to determine N balance and were weighed every 28 d. At slaughter, carcass and organ mass data were collected. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, and steer was used as the experimental unit. From d -3 (beginning of PI steer exposure) to 4, steers challenged with M. haemolytica had less (P = 0.04) ADG than steers not challenged with M. haemolytica. In addition, steers exposed to steers PI with BVDV tended (P = 0.09) to have less ADG and G:F across the entire finishing period than steers not exposed to BVDV. Before slaughter, retained N expressed as grams per day (P = 0.03) and as a percentage of N intake (P = 0.04) was less in BVD steers compared with steers not exposed to BVDV. There were no effects (P > 0.10) of BVDV exposure or M. haemolytica challenge on empty BW (EBW) or carcass characteristics. Expressed as a percentage of EBW, HCW was less (P = 0.02) and total offal weight was greater (P = 0.02) for steers challenged with M. haemolytica compared with steers not challenged. Results are in agreement with those reported in larger scale finishing studies and suggest that acute exposure to BRD-related pathogens can have long-term effects on animal performance. PMID:20154160

Burciaga-Robles, L O; Krehbiel, C R; Step, D L; Holland, B P; Richards, C J; Montelongo, M A; Confer, A W; Fulton, R W

2010-06-01

337

Ann Yager, Animal Sciences Student Michael Neary, Extension Animal Scientist  

E-print Network

Ann Yager, Animal Sciences Student Michael Neary, Extension Animal Scientist Wayne Singleton, Extension Reproductive Physiologist Photo Credits: Wayne Singleton AS-559-W Estrus Detection in Farm Animals Purdue University Department of Animal Sciences Farm Animal Management @Purdue Farm Animal Management

338

[Applications of genetically modified animals].  

PubMed

The first transgenic animals, mice, were obtained in 1980. The techniques of gene transfer had to be adapted to obtain transgenic animals with an acceptable yield in about fifteen species. When the yield is low (low rate of random integration and targeted integration via homologous recombination), genetic modifications must be achieved in intermediate cells able to participate to the development of chimeric transgenic animals (ES cells, EG cells, iPS obtained by the dedifferentiation of somatic cells) or in somatic cells used as nuclear donor to generate transgenic clones. Various tools make possible a marked increase of homologous recombination efficiency (meganucleases and ZFN), or a gene inactivation at the genome level (direct or conditional knock out) or at the mRNA level (interfering RNAs). Vectors allow a more reliable transgene expression. Genetically modified animals are used mainly to obtain information on biological functions and human diseases. Transgenic animals produce recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in milk and soon in egg white. Pig organs adapted to be tolerated by patients might be tested in humans in five years. The projects based on the use of transgenesis to improve animal production are presently few. Transgenic salmon with accelerated growth might be on the market when their possible escape in oceans will be controlled. PMID:20122391

Houdebine, Louis-Marie

2009-01-01

339

Phenotypic plasticity in juvenile jellyfish medusae facilitates effective animal-fluid interaction  

PubMed Central

Locomotion and feeding in marine animals are intimately linked to the flow dynamics created by specialized body parts. This interaction is of particular importance during ontogeny, when changes in behaviour and scale challenge the organism with shifts in fluid regimes and altered functionality. Previous studies have indicated that Scyphozoan jellyfish ontogeny accommodates the changes in fluid dynamics associated with increasing body dimensions and velocities during development. However, in addition to scale and behaviour that—to a certain degree—underlie the control of the animal, flow dynamics are also dependent on external factors such as temperature. Here, we show phenotypic plasticity in juvenile Aurelia aurita medusae, where morphogenesis is adapted to altered fluid regimes imposed by changes in ambient temperature. In particular, differential proportional growth was found to compensate for temperature-dependent changes in viscous effects, enabling the animal to use adhering water boundary layers as ‘paddles’—and thus economize tissue—at low temperatures, while switching to tissue-dominated propulsion at higher temperatures where the boundary layer thickness is insufficient to serve for paddling. This effect was predicted by a model of animal–fluid interaction and confirmed empirically by flow-field visualization and assays of propulsion efficiency. PMID:20335200

Nawroth, J. C.; Feitl, K. E.; Colin, S. P.; Costello, J. H.; Dabiri, J. O.

2010-01-01

340

SYNOPSIS OF HISTOTECHNIQUES FOR AQUATIC ANIMALS  

EPA Science Inventory

This synopsis provides an overview of the necropsy, fixation, trimming, and processing of tissues from aquatic organisms for examination using light microscopy. The handling of animals, their tissues, uses of knives, and processing chemicals will be covered. Understanding the his...

341

Aquatic animals as indicators of environmental exposures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic animals are useful as indicators of many kinds of pollutants in the aquatic environment. The presence of pollutants in the general environments of air, land, and water is reflected in their accumulations in and effects on aquatic organisms because the aquatic portion of the biosphere is often the “sink”; for human?generated pollutants. Aquatic animals lend themselves particularly well to

John A. Couch

1982-01-01

342

Animal Health and Welfare – Pig Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

: Requirements of the organic pig farming create an opportunity to offer good life for animals. The space requirements give animals the possibility to exhibit species-specific behavior and provide them opportunity for more exercise. Bedding and roughage are important in helping to reduce production stress. The most difficult question in a veterinary point of view is how to manage the

Pirkko Hämeenoja

2002-01-01

343

Farm animal genomics and informatics: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farm animal genomics is of interest to a wide audi- ence of researchers because of the utility derived from understanding how genomics and proteomics func- tion in various organisms. Applications such as xeno- transplantation, increased livestock productivity, bioengineering new materials, products and even fab- rics are several reasons for thriving farm animal gen- ome activity. Currently mined in rapidly growing

Ahmed Fadiel; Ifeanyi Anidi; Kenneth D. Eichenbaum

2005-01-01

344

Animal Thinking An Introduction  

E-print Network

1 Animal Thinking An Introduction Randolf Menzel and Julia Fischer The topic of this Strüngmann Forum--animal thinking--was not formulated as a question--"Do animals think?--but rather as a statement species alone. The issue of whether animals experience conscious recollections in some similar way

Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

345

Animals in Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following books relate to the issues surrounding the use of animals for both food and clothing. Farmers may appreciate the increased productivity of factory farming, but the view of animals as production units and the sometimes questionable treatment of animals in some factory farms raises ethical concerns for those interested in animal welfare issues. Genetic engineering, of both plants

Beth Roberts

2004-01-01

346

Harvard U. Receives First U.S. Patent Issued on Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A patent awarded to Harvard University for the genetic alteration of mice in cancer research is the first ever issued on an animal, at the same time that legislation putting a moratorium on animal patents is pending in Congress. (MSE)

Wheeler, David L.

1988-01-01

347

Carotenoids in Marine Animals  

PubMed Central

Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of ?-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

Maoka, Takashi

2011-01-01

348

The Cell's View of Animal Body-Plan Evolution.  

PubMed

An adult animal's form is shaped by the collective behavior of cells during embryonic development. To understand the forces that drove the divergence of animal body-plans, evolutionary developmental biology has focused largely on studying genetic networks operating during development. However, it is less well understood how these networks modulate characteristics at the cellular level, such as the shape, polarity, or migration of cells. We organized the "Cell's view of animal body plan evolution" symposium for the 2014 The Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology meeting with the explicit goal of bringing together researchers studying the cell biology of embryonic development in diverse animal taxa. Using a broad range of established and emerging technologies, including live imaging, single-cell analysis, and mathematical modeling, symposium participants revealed mechanisms underlying cells' behavior, a few of which we highlight here. Shape, adhesion, and movements of cells can be modulated over the course of evolution to alter adult body-plans and a major theme explored during the symposium was the role of actomyosin in coordinating diverse behaviors of cells underlying morphogenesis in a myriad of contexts. Uncovering whether conserved or divergent genetic mechanisms guide the contractility of actomyosin in these systems will be crucial to understanding the evolution of the body-plans of animals from a cellular perspective. Many speakers presented research describing developmental phenomena in which cell division and tissue growth can control the form of the adult, and other presenters shared work on studying cell-fate specification, an important source of novelty in animal body-plans. Participants also presented studies of regeneration in annelids, flatworms, acoels, and cnidarians, and provided a unifying view of the regulation of cellular behavior during different life-history stages. Additionally, several presentations highlighted technological advances that glean mechanistic insights from new and emerging model systems, thereby providing the phylogenetic breadth so essential for studying animal evolution. Thus, we propose that an explicit study of cellular phenomena is now possible for a wide range of taxa, and that it will be highly informative for understanding the evolution of animal body-plans. PMID:25108284

Lyons, Deirdre C; Martindale, Mark Q; Srivastava, Mansi

2014-10-01

349

Animals and spaceflight: from survival to understanding.  

PubMed

Animals have been a critical component of the spaceflight program since its inception. The Russians orbited a dog one month after the Sputnik satellite was launched. The dog mission spurred U.S. interest in animal flights. The animal missions proved that individuals aboard a spacecraft not only could survive, but also could carry out tasks during launch, near-weightlessness, and re-entry; humans were launched into space only after the early animal flights demonstrated that spaceflight was safe and survivable. After these humble beginnings when animals preceded humans in space as pioneers, a dynamic research program was begun using animals as human surrogates aboard manned and unmanned space platforms to understand how the unique environment of space alters life. In this review article, the following questions have been addressed: How did animal research in space evolve? What happened to animal development when gravity decreased? How have animal experiments in space contributed to our understanding of musculoskeletal changes and fracture repair during exposure to reduced gravity? PMID:17396002

Morey-Holton, E R; Hill, E L; Souza, K A

2007-01-01

350

Amazing Altered Books  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Linda Kieling, an art teacher at Rosemont Ridge Middle school in West Linn, Oregon, describes an altered book art project she introduced to her students. Alteration of books is a form of recycling that started in the eleventh century when Italian monks recycled old manuscripts written on vellum by scraping off the ink and adding new text and…

Kieling, Linda W.

2006-01-01

351

Why Alter Milk Composition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are multiple reasons to alter milk composition. This paper delineates and discusses the processing, economic, regulatory, marketing, dietary, and future trends affecting alteration of milk compo- sition. The ability to divide milk into various components creates a multitude of products that can be used as ingredi- ents in both food and nonfood manufac- turing. In almost every use, there

David H. Hettinga

1989-01-01

352

Patents for genetically modified animals.  

PubMed

Should genetically engineered animals be patented? This issue has been one of the most contentious as lawmakers have grappled with how best to protect intellectual property. Since the 1980 case of Diamond v. Chakrabarty, in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a living microorganism is patentable, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office has determined that plants and nonhuman animals can be patented. These policy decisions have led to congressional debate on whether animals should be patentable subject matter. Patenting of living organisms is unique for three reasons: the invention itself is alive; the invention in some instances can reproduce itself; and the invention sometimes cannot be adequately described for patent specification purposes, leading to the need for deposit of the invention for patent purposes. PMID:8505268

O'Connor, K W

1993-01-01

353

Model Organisms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each model organism has its own advantages and disadvantages. Choosing an appropriate model depends on the question being asked. Many laboratories find it useful to perform parallel experiments in two or more model systems to understand different aspects of a biochemical process. This animation from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's Dolan DNA Learning Center presents Model Organisms through a series of illustrations of the processes involved.

2012-11-19

354

Understanding Animal Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The public debate on animal research sometimes gets so heated that the facts can be overlooked. How many animals are used in research every year? Do people know that most of them are mice or rats? Why are animals genetically modified? How is animal research regulated? How are the animals cared for? What actually happens to research animals? How does the use of animals in research and testing compare with other uses of animals by society? This website aims to answer all of these questions as well as provide information on animal research and human health, policy issues, and latest news. This website also includes a learning center. Information is geared towards learners in the U.K.

Understanding Animal Research (Understanding Animal Research)

2009-01-01

355

Tracing Water Sources of Terrestrial Animal Populations with Stable Isotopes: Laboratory Tests with Crickets and Spiders  

PubMed Central

Fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water between ecosystem components and organisms have great impacts across levels of biological organization. Although much progress has been made in tracing carbon and nitrogen, difficulty remains in tracing water sources from the ecosystem to animals and among animals (the “water web”). Naturally occurring, non-radioactive isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water provide a potential method for tracing water sources. However, using this approach for terrestrial animals is complicated by a change in water isotopes within the body due to differences in activity of heavy and light isotopes during cuticular and transpiratory water losses. Here we present a technique to use stable water isotopes to estimate the mean mix of water sources in a population by sampling a group of sympatric animals over time. Strong correlations between H and O isotopes in the body water of animals collected over time provide linear patterns of enrichment that can be used to predict a mean mix of water sources useful in standard mixing models to determine relative source contribution. Multiple temperature and humidity treatment levels do not greatly alter these relationships, thus having little effect on our ability to estimate this population-level mix of water sources. We show evidence for the validity of using multiple samples of animal body water, collected across time, to estimate the isotopic mix of water sources in a population and more accurately trace water sources. The ability to use isotopes to document patterns of animal water use should be a great asset to biologists globally, especially those studying drylands, droughts, streamside areas, irrigated landscapes, and the effects of climate change. PMID:21209877

McCluney, Kevin E.; Sabo, John L.

2010-01-01

356

Animals in a Grassland  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor, warm weather activity, learners use sweepnets to search a grassy area such as a large lawn or field, collecting small animals to find as many different kinds of animals as possible. Learners observe and try to identify the animals they catch and observe how different animals interact with each other. Because some animals can't be caught easily with sweepnets, the Branching Out part of the activity involves making very small "pitfall traps" in the ground. At the end of the activity, learners release all the animals back into the grassy area.

Science, Lawrence H.

1982-01-01

357

The Archaeological Record of Human Impacts on Animal Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent archaeological research has fundamentally altered our understanding of the scope of past human impacts on nondomesticated animal populations. Predictions derived from foraging theory concerning the abundance histories of high-return human prey and diet breadth have been met in many parts of the world. People are known to have introduced a broad variety of nondomesticated animals, from sponges to agoutis

Donald K. Grayson

2001-01-01

358

Cognitive Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of chemical pollutants including phthalates, alkylphenolic compounds, polychlo- rinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, organochlorine pesticides, bisphenol A, and metals including lead, mercury, and cadmium have the ability to disrupt endocrine function in animals. Some of these same chemicals have been shown to alter cognitive function in animals and humans. Because hormonally mediated events play a central role

Susan L. Schantz; John J. Widholm

2001-01-01

359

History of deceased organ donation, transplantation, and organ procurement organizations.  

PubMed

The historical development of deceased organ donation, transplantation, and organ procurement organizations is reviewed. The concept of transplantation, taking parts from one animal or person and putting them into another animal or person, is ancient. The development of organ transplantation brought on the need for a source of organs. Although many early kidney transplants used kidneys from living donors, these donors could not satisfy the ever-growing need for organs, and extrarenal organs were recovered only from deceased donors. This need for organs to satisfy the great demand led to specialized organizations to identify deceased donors, manage them until recovery occurred, and to notify transplant centers that organs were available for their patients. The functions of these organ procurement organizations expanded to include other required functions such as education, accounting, and compliance with state and federal requirements. Because of the shortage of organs relative to the demand, lack of a unified organ allocation system, the perception that organs are a national resource and should be governed by national regulations, and to improve results of organ procurement organizations and transplant centers, the federal government has regulated virtually all phases of organ procurement and transplantation. PMID:22489438

Howard, Richard J; Cornell, Danielle L; Cochran, Larry

2012-03-01

360

Phosphorylation alters tau distribution and elongates life span in Drosophila.  

PubMed

The microtubule-associated tau protein has long been considered an axon-specific protein. Although many articles describe the subcellular localization of tau as regulated by post-modification in cultured cells, the intracellular regulation of its distribution in living animals has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrate that phosphorylation alters tau polarity in Drosophila melanogaster. Interestingly, it was observed that expression of phosphorylation-incompetent tau impaired neurite growth more severely than either hyperphosphorylated or pseudophosphorylated tau. We also found that inducible expression of hyper- or pseudo-phosphorylated tau in adult flies strikingly prolonged their lifespan. This study offers an alternative tauopathic model by demonstrating that hyperphosphorylated tau has a beneficial effect on the nervous system. This is also corroborated by common effects seen in a variety of organisms in response to various stresses. We hope that this important animal model leads to a paradigm shift in thinking about hyperphosphorylated tau, which plays a protective role in nervous systems rather than the toxic role that many have historically been given to it. PMID:20555141

Yeh, Po-An; Chang, Ching-Jin; Tu, Pong-Hsien; Wilson, Harry Iain; Chien, Ju-Yi; Tang, Chiou-Yang; Su, Ming-Tsan

2010-01-01

361

Animals in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes viewpoints on the use of animals in science experiments in the biology classroom, including those of teachers, education researchers, biomedical scientists, science education administrators, and animal welfare advocates. (Author/CS)

Rowan, Andrew N.

1981-01-01

362

Animal Drug Safety FAQs  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Animal & ... market? Why can’t I find information on vaccines on CVM’s Website? Why does the veterinarian have ...

363

Fuel Cell Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts. The animation consists of four parts - an introduction, fuel cell components, chemical process, and fuel cell stack.

Development, Us D.

364

Aquatic Animal Appendages - Flippers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Several aquatic animals have appendages, such as flippers, that are used as a source of locomotion. Depending on the type of animal, flippers come in different sizes and are usually associated with the same type of bone joints.

Ketan Patel (California State University, Fullerton;Student, Biological Sciences)

2007-06-18

365

Metabolic alteration in tumorigenesis.  

PubMed

Altered metabolism in cancer was first discovered by Otto Warburg early last century. Although the Warburg Effect has been widely used in tumor detection, relatively little progress had been made in mechanistic understanding of cancer metabolism in the subsequent eight decades. Genetic studies have recently identified mutations in human cancer targeting multiple enzymes involved in intermediate metabolism. One emerging mechanism common to these mutant enzymes is the accumulation of a metabolite that alters the epigenetic control. PMID:24114443

Yang, Hui; Xiong, Yue; Guan, KunLiang

2013-12-01

366

Histology. Notes for Students of Animal Husbandry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document approaches the subject of Histology by way of simple independent unicellular organisms through the lower levels of cell organization and specialization to a detailed study of the highly complex tissues of vertebrate animals. Emphasis is placed on structure, but function is explained in some detail. The relationships between tissues…

Price, Charles J.; Reed, Josephine E.

367

Animals and Engineering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the classification of animals and animal interactions. Students also learn why engineers need to know about animals and how they use that knowledge to design technologies that help other animals and/or humans. This lesson is part of a series of six lessons in which students use their growing understanding of various environments and the engineering design process, to design and create their own model biodome ecosystems.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

368

Aestheticizing Animal Cruelty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal-standpoint criticism is a new vein in literary criticism that questions ideologically-driven representations of animals, their aesthetic exploitation, their absence or silence in literary texts, and the obliviousness of earlier critics to these issues. This article briefly summarizes the main tenets of animal-standpoint criticism to date. Its main focus is then on the question of aesthetic exploitation of animal cruelty,

Josephine Donovan

2011-01-01

369

Aestheticizing Animal Cruelty  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Animal-standpoint criticism is a new vein in literary criticism that questions ideologically-driven representations of animals, their aesthetic exploitation, their absence or silence in literary texts, and the obliviousness of earlier critics to these issues. This article briefly summarizes the main tenets of animal-standpoint criticism to date. Its main focus is then on the question of aesthetic exploitation of animal cruelty,

Josephine Donovan

2011-01-01

370

Training for Animal Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Laboratory Animal Welfare Act of 1985 mandates training for a wide spectrum of individuals. A profile of each group of individuals requiring training is presented. These groups include students, animal caretakers, research and animal technicians, investigators, and principal investigators. An educational profile is provided for each group. Their educational needs are described, with examples of available training materials. This

Jean Larson

1988-01-01

371

Undergraduate Animal Behaviour  

E-print Network

Undergraduate Animal Behaviour and Welfare Science Faculty of Medical and Veterinary Sciences #12 scientists. We are a large and active research group, and many of us work with industry, animal charities you with a scientific understanding of the biological principles underlying animal behaviour

Bristol, University of

372

Purdue extension Animal Sciences  

E-print Network

, testing, quarantine, eradication, and recovery efforts prior to, during, and after the animal diseasePurdue extension AS-572-W Animal Sciences Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service, West. of Animal Sciences, Purdue University; P. Brennan, Indiana State Poultry Association; M. Kopp, DVM, and M

373

Animal Testing Medical Research  

E-print Network

Animal Testing In Medical Research Past, present and future. Marte Thomassen Ellen Trolid Tonje.............................................................................................................................. 2 2. ETHICS IN ANIMAL TESTING Arondsen Marit Gystøl #12;ZO-8091 Forsøksdyrlære Animal experiments in medical research NTNU ­ Norges

Bech, Claus

374

Animals in Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, learners use a Flash animation running in a browser to study how animals and humans move. Students examine images captured by Eadweard Muybridge in the late nineteenth century; by starting, slowing, and stopping the animation, learners gain valuable insights into biomechanics of bipeds and quadrupeds.

375

Animals in Disguise.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity in which first grade students learn why camouflage is important to an animal's survival. Students see living examples of animals who use camouflage for protection, then create their own camouflaged animals and hide them around the classroom. For assessment, students write and illustrate five things they learned from the study…

Burke, Mary C.

2001-01-01

376

Animals of the Desert.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information and student activities on how desert animals have adapted to dryness and heat, how and when animals move on the desert, and nocturnal/diurnal animals. Each activity includes objective(s), recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. Ready-to-copy pages are included for a…

NatureScope, 1985

1985-01-01

377

Plants & Animals Insects (and  

E-print Network

APA MLA See also: Plants & Animals Insects (and Butterflies) Animals Mating and Breeding Earth worlds portrayed in the animated films Antz and Bee Movie, in which the characters live in rigidly of AAAS. Email or share this story: Need to cite this story in your essay, paper, or report? Use one

Gardner, Andy

378

Climate Change and Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climate change is already having adverse effects on animal life, and those effects are likely to prove devastating in the future. Nonetheless, the relevant harms to animals have yet to become a serious part of the analysis of climate change policy. Even if animals and species are valued solely by reference to human preferences, inclusion of their welfare dramatically increases

Wayne Hsiung; Cass R. Sunstein

379

Pestiviruses in wild animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pestiviruses are not strictly host-species specific and can infect not only domestic but also wild animals. The most important pestivirus, CSFV, infects domestic pigs and wild boars, which may cause a major problem for successful CSFV eradication programmes. Mainly BVDV specific antibodies have been reported in captive and free-living animals. Virus has been isolated from some of these animal species,

Š. Vil?ek; P. F. Nettleton

2006-01-01

380

Anime Creativity: Characters and Premises in the Quest for Cool Japan  

E-print Network

This article examines ethnographically the production of anime (Japanese animated films and TV shows) by focusing on how professional animators use characters and dramatic premises to organize their collaborative creativity. ...

Condry, Ian

381

Histological alterations and biochemical changes in the liver of sheep following Echis coloratus envenomation  

PubMed Central

Snake envenoming is a major problem in Al-Jouf Province of Saudi Arabia where most of these envenoming are caused by Echis coloratus which is the highest risk to human and animals in this Province. Little, if any, has been carried out on the histological alterations and biochemical changes in the liver of sheep following snake envenomation. Healthy adult male Ovis orientalis sheep were subjected to E. coloratus envenomation in an attempt to evaluate the histological alterations and biochemical changes in the liver. E. coloratus venom elevated glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triglyceride and total bilirubin while cholesterol was reduced. The histological alterations were mainly pyknosis, karyorrhexis, cytoplasmic vacuolation, necrosis, fatty changes and hepatocytes atrophy. Sinusoidal dilatation, Kupffer cell activation, amyloidosis, portal vein thrombosis, partial glycogen depletion and hepatic architecture distortion were also detected. The findings revealed that E. coloratus venom produced biochemical changes and histological alterations in the liver of the envenomated sheep that might affect the functions of this organ severely. PMID:23961120

Jarrar, Bashir M.

2010-01-01

382

Basic research: Issues with animal experimentations.  

PubMed

In vivo studies using the animals are helpful in developing the treatment strategies as they are important link between the successful in vitro testing and safe human use. Various research projects in the field of fixation of fractures, development of newer biomaterials, chemotherapeutic drugs, use of stem cells in nonunion of fractures and cartilage defects etc., have hugely depended on animal experimentation. The employment of animals in experiments is both scientific and ethical issue. There must be reasonable reasons to show that it will significantly advance the present knowledge and lead to improvement in care. The regulatory bodies exist for humane use and care of animals used for experiments e.g., International Council for Laboratory Animal Science, Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, International Union of Biological Sciences, International Committee on Laboratory Animals. In India, Indian National Science Academy, Indian Council of Medical Research, National Centre for Laboratory Animal Sciences promote high standards of laboratory animal quality, care and health. The Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals guidelines are well defined and is a must read document for any one interested to carry out research with animal facilities. PMID:23532705

Saraf, Shyam K; Kumaraswamy, Vinay

2013-01-01

383

Basic research: Issues with animal experimentations  

PubMed Central

In vivo studies using the animals are helpful in developing the treatment strategies as they are important link between the successful in vitro testing and safe human use. Various research projects in the field of fixation of fractures, development of newer biomaterials, chemotherapeutic drugs, use of stem cells in nonunion of fractures and cartilage defects etc., have hugely depended on animal experimentation. The employment of animals in experiments is both scientific and ethical issue. There must be reasonable reasons to show that it will significantly advance the present knowledge and lead to improvement in care. The regulatory bodies exist for humane use and care of animals used for experiments e.g., International Council for Laboratory Animal Science, Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences, International Union of Biological Sciences, International Committee on Laboratory Animals. In India, Indian National Science Academy, Indian Council of Medical Research, National Centre for Laboratory Animal Sciences promote high standards of laboratory animal quality, care and health. The Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision on Experiments on Animals guidelines are well defined and is a must read document for any one interested to carry out research with animal facilities. PMID:23532705

Saraf, Shyam K; Kumaraswamy, Vinay

2013-01-01

384

Required Signage for Animal Facilities and Animal Procedure Areas  

E-print Network

Required Signage for Animal Facilities and Animal Procedure Areas The intent of this standard operating procedure (SOP) is to identify the required signs that must be posted in animal facilities and animal procedure areas. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Animal Facility Entrances 2. Animal Holding Rooms 3. Animal

Manning, Sturt

385

14 CFR 91.1423 - CAMP: Maintenance organization.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...maintenance (other than required inspections), preventive maintenance, or alterations, and each person with...required inspections in addition to other maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations, must organize the...

2010-01-01

386

Precision Editing of Large Animal Genomes  

PubMed Central

Transgenic animals are an important source of protein and nutrition for most humans and will play key roles in satisfying the increasing demand for food in an ever-increasing world population. The past decade has experienced a revolution in the development of methods that permit the introduction of specific alterations to complex genomes. This precision will enhance genome-based improvement of farm animals for food production. Precision genetics also will enhance the development of therapeutic biomaterials and models of human disease as resources for the development of advanced patient therapies. PMID:23084873

Tan, Wenfang (Spring); Carlson, Daniel F.; Walton, Mark W.; Fahrenkrug, Scott C.; Hackett, Perry B.

2013-01-01

387

Immune changes in test animals during spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past two decades, it has become apparent that changes in immune parameters occur in cosmonauts and astronauts after spaceflight. Therefore, interest has been generated in the use of animal surrogates to better understand the nature and extent of these changes, the mechanism of these changes, and to allow the possible development of countermeasures. Among the changes noted in animals after spaceflight are alterations in lymphocytic blastogenesis, cytokine function, natural killer cell activity, and colony-stimulating factors. The nature and significance of spaceflight-induced changes in immune responses will be the focus of this review.

Lesnyak, A. T.; Sonnenfeld, G.; Rykova, M. P.; Meshkov, D. O.; Mastro, A.; Konstantinova, I.

1993-01-01

388

ANIMAL SCIENCE GRADUATE STUDENT DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL SCIENCE  

E-print Network

ANIMAL SCIENCE GRADUATE STUDENT HANDBOOK DEPARTMENT OF ANIMAL SCIENCE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURAL .................................................................................................................. 4 ANIMAL SCIENCE GRADUATE PROGRAM HISTORY..............................................................................................................................7 GRADUATE RESEARCH FACULTY

Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

389

Animal Models in Alcohol Re s e a rc h  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal models are important tools in the study of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence because they allow researchers to use methods that cannot be used with human subjects. Animal models have been developed to study various aspects of alcohol use and dependence, including alcohol-seeking behavior, alcohol-related organ damage, tolerance to alcohol, and physical dependence on alcohol. Because animal models can

Boris Tabakoff; Paula L. Hoffman

2000-01-01

390

76 FR 26927 - National Organic Program; Notice on the Ruminant Slaughter Stock Provision of the Access to...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...state government agencies, animal welfare organizations, consumer organizations...for all ruminants. Among the animal welfare and environmental organizations...Some comments received from animal welfare organizations suggested that...

2011-05-10

391

COMPARATIVE MEDICINE LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES  

E-print Network

.8.1 The veterinary technicians will submit the white card, animal removal card, and complete animal medical record2.C.2 COMPARATIVE MEDICINE LABORATORY ANIMAL FACILITIES STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR ANIMAL animal rooms and in the Laboratory Animal Facilities office, at all locations. 3.2 The animal removal

Krovi, Venkat

392

Animal models and conserved processes  

PubMed Central

Background The concept of conserved processes presents unique opportunities for using nonhuman animal models in biomedical research. However, the concept must be examined in the context that humans and nonhuman animals are evolved, complex, adaptive systems. Given that nonhuman animals are examples of living systems that are differently complex from humans, what does the existence of a conserved gene or process imply for inter-species extrapolation? Methods We surveyed the literature including philosophy of science, biological complexity, conserved processes, evolutionary biology, comparative medicine, anti-neoplastic agents, inhalational anesthetics, and drug development journals in order to determine the value of nonhuman animal models when studying conserved processes. Results Evolution through natural selection has employed components and processes both to produce the same outcomes among species but also to generate different functions and traits. Many genes and processes are conserved, but new combinations of these processes or different regulation of the genes involved in these processes have resulted in unique organisms. Further, there is a hierarchy of organization in complex living systems. At some levels, the components are simple systems that can be analyzed by mathematics or the physical sciences, while at other levels the system cannot be fully analyzed by reducing it to a physical system. The study of complex living systems must alternate between focusing on the parts and examining the intact whole organism while taking into account the connections between the two. Systems biology aims for this holism. We examined the actions of inhalational anesthetic agents and anti-neoplastic agents in order to address what the characteristics of complex living systems imply for inter-species extrapolation of traits and responses related to conserved processes. Conclusion We conclude that even the presence of conserved processes is insufficient for inter-species extrapolation when the trait or response being studied is located at higher levels of organization, is in a different module, or is influenced by other modules. However, when the examination of the conserved process occurs at the same level of organization or in the same module, and hence is subject to study solely by reductionism, then extrapolation is possible. PMID:22963674

2012-01-01

393

[Pigeon sport and animal rights].  

PubMed

To begin, a short overview of the organization and the realization of the racing pigeon sport. Some physiological facts, relevant to racing pigeons, will be touched on. Lastly, a focus on the flights, their completion and the problems involved with the, in some cases, high number of lost pigeons. The German Club of Pigeon Breeders, has made improvements but, it is certainly not enough. The topic of "City Pigeons" will be briefed. The final part deals with pertinent animal rights issues, causes of mishaps, and some rectifying possibilities, which are available to the government veterinarian. Special emphasis will be placed on the international uniformity of this issue. The lecture should prove that there is a need for every government veterinarian to become actively involved, because the described problematic has a major effect on a very large number of animals. PMID:17419544

Warzecha, M

2007-03-01

394

Pestiviruses in wild animals.  

PubMed

Pestiviruses are not strictly host-species specific and can infect not only domestic but also wild animals. The most important pestivirus, CSFV, infects domestic pigs and wild boars, which may cause a major problem for successful CSFV eradication programmes. Mainly BVDV specific antibodies have been reported in captive and free-living animals. Virus has been isolated from some of these animal species, but since BVDV can contaminate cell cultures and foetal calf serum, early reports of BVDV isolation have to be considered with caution. Genetic typing of early pestivirus isolates from wild species revealed that the majority were BVDV-1. Of the pestiviruses identified so far three species (CSFV, BVDV-1, giraffe pestivirus) and three genotypes (BDV-2, BDV-4, pronghorn) appear to circulate in wildlife animal populations. The potential for pestiviruses to spread between farm animals and free-living animals is discussed as are epidemiological and technical problems, and the future direction of research. PMID:16839713

Vilcek, S; Nettleton, P F

2006-08-25

395

Animal Models of Depression: Molecular Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Much of the current understanding about the pathogenesis of altered mood, impaired concentration and neurovegetative symptoms\\u000a in major depression has come from animal models. However, because of the unique and complex features of human depression,\\u000a the generation of valid and insightful depression models has been less straightforward than modeling other disabling diseases\\u000a like cancer or autoimmune conditions. Today’s popular depression

Vaishnav Krishnan; Eric J. Nestler

396

Animated tape dispenser  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A tape dispenser includes a housing having an outer surface and is configured to contain a roll of adhesive tape. Coupled to the outer surface of the housing includes features of an animal including at least one animal leg coupled to the housing and extending outwardly from the outer surface of the housing. The at least one animal leg moves relative to and along the outer surface of the housing upon adhesive tape being dispensed from the roll of adhesive tape.

2014-05-13

397

Fun with Animals!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animal Habitats Counting with Fish Count the swimming fish then match them by choosing the right number. Meerkat Grab-a-Snack Use your mouse to catch the meerkat's dinner, but look out for snakes! Save the sea creatures! Move the wonder pet's car by clicking the arrows. Collect all of the celery and salads to rescue the animals. Say What? Listen to the clue to match the animal ...

Crowell, Ms.

2012-10-06

398

Battle of Animal Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a brief summary of the animal models session held during the 12th Annual Meeting of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology,\\u000a Santa Fe, NM, USA. This session provided important information for participants on availability and utility of animal models\\u000a for the studies of HIV-1 central nervous system infection and drug abuse. It highlighted animal model relevance to human disease\\/condition,

Yuri Persidsky; Howard Fox

2007-01-01

399

Transgenic animal bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of recombinant proteins is one of the major successes of biotechnology. Animal cells are required to synthesize\\u000a proteins with the appropriate post-translational modifications. Transgenic animals are being used for this purpose. Milk,\\u000a egg white, blood, urine, seminal plasma and silk worm cocoon from transgenic animals are candidates to be the source of recombinant\\u000a proteins at an industrial scale.

Louis Marie Houdebine

2000-01-01

400

Discovery Collection: Marine Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Marine Animals is one of the AMNH Education Department's many collections of specimens and artifacts gathered the world over by explorers and scientists. In its online Discovery Collection form, Marine Animals includes photographs of 20 specimens with classification and distribution details, an interactive key that guides you through specimen identification, an activity where students select and identify a specimen photograph using the interactive identification key and an Educator's Guide with suggestions for how to use the Marine Animals Discovery Collection in the classroom.

Breslof, Lisa; Schiller, William

401

Colonic microbiome is altered in alcoholism  

PubMed Central

Several studies indicate the importance of colonic microbiota in metabolic and inflammatory disorders and importance of diet on microbiota composition. The effects of alcohol, one of the prominent components of diet, on colonic bacterial composition is largely unknown. Mounting evidence suggests that gut-derived bacterial endotoxins are cofactors for alcohol-induced tissue injury and organ failure like alcoholic liver disease (ALD) that only occur in a subset of alcoholics. We hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption results in alterations of the gut microbiome in a subgroup of alcoholics, and this may be responsible for the observed inflammatory state and endotoxemia in alcoholics. Thus we interrogated the mucosa-associated colonic microbiome in 48 alcoholics with and without ALD as well as 18 healthy subjects. Colonic biopsy samples from subjects were analyzed for microbiota composition using length heterogeneity PCR fingerprinting and multitag pyrosequencing. A subgroup of alcoholics have an altered colonic microbiome (dysbiosis). The alcoholics with dysbiosis had lower median abundances of Bacteroidetes and higher ones of Proteobacteria. The observed alterations appear to correlate with high levels of serum endotoxin in a subset of the samples. Network topology analysis indicated that alcohol use is correlated with decreased connectivity of the microbial network, and this alteration is seen even after an extended period of sobriety. We show that the colonic mucosa-associated bacterial microbiome is altered in a subset of alcoholics. The altered microbiota composition is persistent and correlates with endotoxemia in a subgroup of alcoholics. PMID:22241860

Mutlu, Ece A.; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Rangwala, Huzefa; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Naqvi, Ammar; Engen, Phillip A.; Kwasny, Mary; Lau, Cynthia K.

2012-01-01

402

Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

Davidoff, Donald J.

1989-01-01

403

The principles of collective animal behaviour  

PubMed Central

In recent years, the concept of self-organization has been used to understand collective behaviour of animals. The central tenet of self-organization is that simple repeated interactions between individuals can produce complex adaptive patterns at the level of the group. Inspiration comes from patterns seen in physical systems, such as spiralling chemical waves, which arise without complexity at the level of the individual units of which the system is composed. The suggestion is that biological structures such as termite mounds, ant trail networks and even human crowds can be explained in terms of repeated interactions between the animals and their environment, without invoking individual complexity. Here, I review cases in which the self-organization approach has been successful in explaining collective behaviour of animal groups and societies. Ant pheromone trail networks, aggregation of cockroaches, the applause of opera audiences and the migration of fish schools have all been accurately described in terms of individuals following simple sets of rules. Unlike the simple units composing physical systems, however, animals are themselves complex entities, and other examples of collective behaviour, such as honey bee foraging with its myriad of dance signals and behavioural cues, cannot be fully understood in terms of simple individuals alone. I argue that the key to understanding collective behaviour lies in identifying the principles of the behavioural algorithms followed by individual animals and of how information flows between the animals. These principles, such as positive feedback, response thresholds and individual integrity, are repeatedly observed in very different animal societies. The future of collective behaviour research lies in classifying these principles, establishing the properties they produce at a group level and asking why they have evolved in so many different and distinct natural systems. Ultimately, this research could inform not only our understanding of animal societies, but also the principles by which we organize our own society. PMID:16553306

Sumpter, D.J.T

2005-01-01

404

Inhalation exposure of animals.  

PubMed Central

Relative advantages and disadvantages and important design criteria for various exposure methods are presented. Five types of exposures are discussed: whole-body chambers, head-only exposures, nose or mouth-only methods, lung-only exposures, and partial-lung exposures. Design considerations covered include: air cleaning and conditioning; construction materials; losses of exposure materials; evenness of exposure; sampling biases; animal observation and care; noise and vibration control, safe exhausts, chamber loading, reliability, pressure fluctuations; neck seals, masks, animal restraint methods; and animal comfort. Ethical considerations in use of animals in inhalation experiments are also discussed. PMID:1017420

Phalen, R F

1976-01-01

405

Global Climate Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Global Climate Animations site contains animations of the Earth's climate system for educational and research purposes. The animations show the climatology of the seasonal cycle for selected climate variables for the time period 1959-1997, based on data from the NCEP/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project. The individual frames in each animation show the map pattern of the long-term monthly averages for a particular climate variable, and reveal the temporal and spatial variations in that variable over the seasonal cycle.

Shinker, Jacqueline; Bartlein, Patrick

1999-02-01

406

Gas Chromatography Coating Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is one in a series of sites with very good animations related to separations. This animation deals specifically with solute retention in GC. The animations are short (one to two minutes) and can easily be shown in class as part of a lecture. They are extremely helpful in illustrating key components and concepts of chromatographic systems. Users are encouraged to explore the site and the other brief animations as well. Separate links to other simulations by the same company (TRSL) are also listed on ASDL.

2011-05-11

407

Animal Model of Dermatophytosis  

PubMed Central

Dermatophytosis is superficial fungal infection caused by dermatophytes that invade the keratinized tissue of humans and animals. Lesions from dermatophytosis exhibit an inflammatory reaction induced to eliminate the invading fungi by using the host's normal immune function. Many scientists have attempted to establish an experimental animal model to elucidate the pathogenesis of human dermatophytosis and evaluate drug efficacy. However, current animal models have several issues. In the present paper, we surveyed reports about the methodology of the dermatophytosis animal model for tinea corporis, tinea pedis, and tinea unguium and discussed future prospects. PMID:22619489

Shimamura, Tsuyoshi; Kubota, Nobuo; Shibuya, Kazutoshi

2012-01-01

408

Science, Medicine, and Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science, Medicine, and Animals explains the role that animals play in biomedical research and the ways in which scientists, governments, and citizens have tried to balance the experimental use of animals with a concern for all living creatures. An accompanying Teacher s Guide is available to help teachers of middle and high school students use Science, Medicine, and Animals in the classroom. As students examine the issues in Science, Medicine, and Animals, they will gain a greater understanding of the goals of biomedical research and the real-world practice of the scientific method in general. Science, Medicine, and Animals and the Teacher's Guide were written by the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research and published by the National Research Council of the National Academies. The report was reviewed by a committee made up of experts and scholars with diverse perspectives, including members of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Institutes of Health, the Humane Society of the United States, and the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. The Teacher s Guide was reviewed by members of the National Academies Teacher Associates Network. Science, Medicine, and Animals is recommended by the National Science Teacher's Association.

National Research Council (National Research Council Committee on Scientific and Humane Issues in the Use of Random Source Dogs and Cats for Research; Na)

2004-01-01

409

Action Alters Shape Categories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments show that action alters the shape categories formed by 2-year-olds. Experiment 1 shows that moving an object horizontally (or vertically) defines the horizontal (or vertical) axis as the main axis of elongation and systematically changes the range of shapes seen as similar. Experiment 2 shows that moving an object symmetrically (or…

Smith, Linda B.

2005-01-01

410

Pattern Alteration: Shoulder Length  

E-print Network

Wide or broad shoulders will cause the armhole seam line at the shoulder to pull inward and the cap of set-in sleeves to pull and ride up. Sleeves will appear too short and not hang properly. This publication gives instructions for altering a basic...

2006-08-04

411

Regulation of Animal Health Products FDA/CVM: Animal drugs, animal  

E-print Network

Regulation of Animal Health Products FDA/CVM: Animal drugs, animal feeds USDA of effectiveness.) #12;Animal Health Literacy Campaign Go to the CVM page, http://www.fda.gov/AnimalVeterinary/, then Click on Animal Health Literacy Click on Animal Health Literacy Campaign Great general references

412

Plants and Animals-FOSS Modules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Plants and Animals Module provides experiences that heighten young studentsâ awareness of the different ways that plants and animals meet their needs. Students care for plants to learn what they need to grow and develop. They observe the structures of plants and discover ways to propagate new plants from mature plants (from seeds, bulbs, roots, and stem cuttings). They observe and describe changes that occur as plants grow, and organize their observations on a calendar and in a notebook. They build a terrarium and provide for the needs of both plants and animals living together in a classroom habitat. They read about and view photographs and videos of plants and animals living in different habitats. The site is currently being redesigned. Click on the link to the archived site: http://archive.fossweb.com/modulesK-2/PlantsandAnimals/index.html

Web, Foss

2011-12-14

413

Epigenetic Alterations in Muscular Disorders  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic mechanisms, acting via chromatin organization, fix in time and space different transcriptional programs and contribute to the quality, stability, and heritability of cell-specific transcription programs. In the last years, great advances have been made in our understanding of mechanisms by which this occurs in normal subjects. However, only a small part of the complete picture has been revealed. Abnormal gene expression patterns are often implicated in the development of different diseases, and thus epigenetic studies from patients promise to fill an important lack of knowledge, deciphering aberrant molecular mechanisms at the basis of pathogenesis and diseases progression. The identification of epigenetic modifications that could be used as targets for therapeutic interventions could be particularly timely in the light of pharmacologically reversion of pathological perturbations, avoiding changes in DNA sequences. Here I discuss the available information on epigenetic mechanisms that, altered in neuromuscular disorders, could contribute to the progression of the disease. PMID:22761545

Lanzuolo, Chiara

2012-01-01

414

ORIGINAL PAPER Introduced ungulate herbivore alters soil processes after fire  

E-print Network

on ecosystem processes by altering organic inputs of leaves and roots as well as changing soil physical and chemical properties. These effects may be especially important when the herbivore is an introduced species Introduction Ungulate herbivores can alter ecosystems by changing both abiotic and biotic factors that regulate

Tennessee, University of

415

Zoo Test: A Self-Testing Website for Animal Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site was developed by Rick Gillis and Roger Haro of the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse Biology Department as a study guide for Animal Biology students. By navigating through the self tests that include images of animal cells, tissues, and structures, students can review or learn about the animal kingdom. Organisms ranging from protozoa to vertebrates are included in three self tests. Information is further organized into 9 laboratory sessions that are easy to access through the table of contents.

Gillis, Rick.; Haro, Roger J.

2001-01-01

416

Management of human and animal bite wound infection: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal and human bite wounds can lead to serious infections. The organisms recovered generally originate from the biter’s\\u000a oral cavity and the victim’s skin flora. Anaerobes were isolated from more than two thirds of human and animal bite infections.\\u000a Streptococcus pyogenes is often recovered in human bites, Pasteurella multocida in animal bites, Eikenella corrodens in animal and human, Capnocytophaga spp,

Itzhak Brook

2009-01-01

417

Cloning pigs as organ donors for humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to overcome this shortage of organs, scientists have considered the possibility of using animals as a source of organs. Xenotransplantation, or xenografting, is the process of transplanting live organs between different species. ne choice of source animals will be of prime importance for xenotransplantation. Ideally, the donor animal would show immunological, anatomical, and physiological similarities to humans, possess

Liangxue Lai; RANDALL S. PRATHER

2004-01-01

418

Preventing Asthma in Animal Handlers  

E-print Network

ALERT Preventing Asthma in Animal Handlers January 1998 DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-116 Disclaimer ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Preventing Asthma in Animal Handlers WARNING! Exposure to animals or animal products in the workplace can cause asthma

Oliver, Douglas L.

419

Sea World Animal Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Comprehensive site that contains information on adventure camps, educational programs, career resources, conservation matters, and much more. Educators can access information on awards, teacher's guides, classroom activities, publications, workshops, etc. The "Animal Info" link unveils an extensive collection of animal fact sheets and info books, photo galleries, expedition journals, and the "Ask Shamu" FAQs.

2012-04-02

420

Animal Rights Without Controversy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many consumers would be willing to pay something to reduce the suffering of animals used as food. Unfortunately, they do not and cannot, because existing markets do not disclose the relevant treatment of animals, even though that treatment would trouble many consumers. Steps should be taken to promote disclosure so as to fortify market processes and to promote democratic discussion

Jeff Leslie; Cass R. Sunstein

2007-01-01

421

Animal Anti-Freeze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor winter activity, learners search for and create hibernation sites that will protect gelatin "animals" from freezing. Learners come to understand that hibernating animals need to take care in selecting a sleeping spot that will provide protection from the winter cold.

Science, Lawrence H.

1982-01-01

422

Animal Models of Anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal models for anxiety-related behavior are based on the assumption that anxiety in animals is comparable to anxiety in humans. Being anxious is an adaptive response to an unfamiliar environment, especially when confronted with danger or threat. However, pathological variants of anxiety can strongly impede the daily life of those affected. To unravel neurobiological mechanisms underlying normal anxiety as well

F. Ohl

423

Equivalent Crystal Planes Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a 3-D animation of equivalent crystal planes. It shows the Miller indices linking nodes as a corresponding binary family within braces. This animation is approximately 13 seconds in length and would be useful for understanding the conceptual/imaginary planes have on the crystal behavior.

2009-07-22

424

Sexual dimorphism in animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many animals show sexual dimorphism, or differences between the males and females of that species. These are mostly physical differences, but other differences like songs in male and female birds can also be thought of as sexual dimorphism. Generally, males are more decorated and larger than females, but there are several species of animals in which the females are larger than the males.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-05-23

425

Boost Converter Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation, created by faculty at Dartmouth University, is a boost converter. The resource features other animations such as buck and discontinuous converters. They also add simple diode, bridge and half-wave rectifiers. Although simple in design, this can still be a useful resource for those interested in electrical engineering.

2009-11-06

426

Animating human athletics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes algorithms for the animation of men and women performing three dynamic athletic behaviors: running, bicycling, and vaulting. We animate these behaviors using control algorithms that cause a physically realistic model to perform the desired maneuver. For example, control algorithms allow the simulated humans to maintain balance while moving their arms, to run or bicycle at a variety

Jessica K. Hodgins; Wayne L. Wooten; David C. Brogan; James F. O'Brien

1995-01-01

427

Immunocontraception in companion animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is real need worldwide to control the population growth of companion animals. Throughout the world and particularly in the United States, overpopulation of unwanted dogs and cats is a concern for many reasons. Feral populations pose risk to native species by spread of disease and predation. That unwanted animals are humanely eradicated is of concern to many persons. The

B. J. Purswell; Kara A. Kolster

2006-01-01

428

Visualization of animated information  

Microsoft Academic Search

As computers are incorporated into the daily decision making environment, the question of how to make their support to managers more effective is of concern. In this research, the fit of animation speed of multidimensional, graphical displays to data depiction techniques and human abilities is investigated. The experimental design consists of three animation speeds (slow, medium, fast), three styles of

Nancy Jo Lightner

1999-01-01

429

Practical animation of liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a general method for modeling and animating liquids. The system is specifically designed for computer animation and handles viscous liquids as they move in a 3D environment and interact with graphics primitives such as parametric curves and moving polygons. We combine an appropriately modified semi-Lagrangian method with a new approach to calculating fluid flow around objects. This allows

Nick Foster; Ronald Fedkiw

2001-01-01

430

Marketing Animal Facilitated Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal Facilitated Therapy (AFT) is the therapeutic use of the human-animal bond to improve a patient's physical and emotional health. It is an emerging treatment modality that is gaining acceptance among medical practitioners and healthcare administrators. Medical care has traditionally focused on the clinical well-being of the patient. But it is now widely recognized that emotional health is an integral

Kristine Howell-Newman; Robert L. Goldman

1994-01-01

431

Animal Diversity Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animal Diversity Web (ADW) is an online database of animal natural history, distribution, classification, and conservation biology, from the University of Michigan. It is a searchable encyclopedia, science learning tool and virtual museum. It has pages suggesting uses for the site in both undergraduate and K12 education.

Roger Espinosa (University of Michigan Museum of Zoology); PhD Cyndy Parr (University of Maryland Human Computer Interaction Lab); PhD Tricia Jones (University of Michigan Museum of Zoology); George Hammond (University of Michigan Museum of Zoology); PhD Tanya A Dewey (University of Michigan Museum of Zoology); PhD Phil Myers (University of Michigan Museum of Zoology)

2006-04-20

432

Companion Animals. [Information Packet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of articles reprinted from other National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) publications was compiled to educate the public on issues of importance to NAVS concerning companion animals. Topics covered include spaying and neutering, animal safety, pet theft, and the use of cats and dogs in research. The article on spaying and…

National Anti-Vivisection Society, Chicago, IL.

433

MECP2 Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows how the protein Methyl C-p-G binding protein 2 (MECP2), in conjuction with another protein complex, can act as an "on-off' switch for gene expression. Includes audio narration and teaching tips. This animation is from the HHMI 2003 Holiday Lectures.

Dennis Liu (Howard Hughes Medical Institute); Satoshi Amagai (Howard Hughes Medical Institute); Eric Keller (Howard Hughes Medical Institute)

2003-12-01

434

Humane Treatment of Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is designed to give teachers resource information about the humane treatment of and care for an