Science.gov

Sample records for animals altered organisms

  1. Transgenic plants and animals: Altered organisms from recombinant DNA technology. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the development and use of transgenic plants and animals. Transgenic plants and animals are organisms with foreign genes inserted into their cells. Topics include methods of induction of new genes and transgenetic expression in the organism, development of animal models of human diseases, and design of insect tolerant plants. Examples of transgenic organisms include mice, fish, chickens, pigs, rye, maize, tobacco, tomatoes, lettuce, and cotton. This information is of value for the increased production of food from animals by producing animal carcasses with reduced fat content. The information is also valuable for production of herbicide tolerant, virus resistant, and insect resistant crop plants, as well as the rapid production of transgenic plants with flowers and seeds. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Transgenic plants and animals: Altered organisms from recombinant DNA technology. July 1982-July 1989 (Citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for July 1982-July 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the development and use of transgenic plants and animals. Topics include methods of induction of new genes and transgenetic expression in the organism, development of animal models of human diseases, and design of insect tolerant plants. Examples of transgenic organisms include mice, fish, chicken, pigs, rye, maize, tobacco, tomatoes, lettuce, and cotton. This information is of value for the increased production of food from animals by producing animal carcasses with reduced fat content. The information is also valuable for production of herbicide tolerant, virus resistant, and insect resistant crop plants, as well as the rapid production of transgenic plants with flowers and seeds. (Contains 383 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  3. Effect of altered 'weight' upon animal tolerance to restraint.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.; Beljan, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The effect of altered weight upon animal tolerance to restraint was determined by simulating various accelerative forces with directed lead weights using restrained and nonrestrained domestic fowl (chickens). Weighting (increased weight) and conterweighting (reduced weight) produced a stressed condition - reduced relative lymphocyte counts, loss of body mass, and/or the development of a disorientation syndrome - in both restrained and nonrestrained (caged only) birds. The animal's tolerance to altered weight appeared to be a function of its body weight. Unrestrained birds were stressed by counterweighting (mean plus or minus standard error) 58.3 plus or minus 41% of their body weight, whereas restrained birds tolerated only 32.2 plus or minus 2.6% reduction in body weight. A training regimen for restrained birds was not effective in improving their tolerance to a reduced weight environment. It was concluded that domestic fowl living in a weightless (space) environment should be restrained minimally and supported by ventrally directed tension equivalent to approximately 50% of their body mass (their weight in a 1 G environment).

  4. Alienation, recovered animism and altered states of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    Alienation is the feeling that life is 'meaningless', that we do not belong in the world. But alienation is not an inevitable part of the human condition: some people do feel at one with the world as a consequence of the animistic way of thinking which is shared by children and hunter-gatherers. Animism considers all significant entities to have 'minds', to be 'alive', to be sentient agents. The animistic thinker inhabits a world populated by personal powers including not just other human beings, but also important animals and plants, and significant aspects of physical landscape. Humans belong in this world because it is a web of social relationships. Animism is therefore spontaneous, the 'natural' way of thinking for humans: all humans began as animistic children and for most of human evolutionary history would have grown into animistic adults. It requires sustained, prolonged and pervasive formal education to 'overwrite' animistic thinking with the rationalistic objectivity typical of the modern world. It is this learned abstraction that creates alienation--humans are no longer embedded in a world of social relations but become estranged, adrift in a world of indifferent things. Methods used to cure alienation and recover animistic modes of thinking involve detachment from the social systems that tend to maintain objectivity and rationality: for example, solitude, leisure, unstructured time and direct contact with nature. Many people also achieve similar results by deliberately inducing altered states of consciousness. Animistic thinking may emerge in meditation or contemplation, lucid dreaming, from self-hypnosis, when drowsy, in 'trance states' induced by repetitious rhythm or light, or when delirious due to illness, brain injury, psychoses, or intoxication with 'entheogenic' drugs--which is probably one reason for the perennial popularity of inducing intoxicated states. However, intoxication will typically damage memory processes making it harder to learn

  5. The Use of Animal Models to Decipher Physiological and Neurobiological Alterations of Anorexia Nervosa Patients

    PubMed Central

    Méquinion, Mathieu; Chauveau, Christophe; Viltart, Odile

    2015-01-01

    Extensive studies were performed to decipher the mechanisms regulating feeding due to the worldwide obesity pandemy and its complications. The data obtained might be adapted to another disorder related to alteration of food intake, the restrictive anorexia nervosa. This multifactorial disease with a complex and unknown etiology is considered as an awful eating disorder since the chronic refusal to eat leads to severe, and sometimes, irreversible complications for the whole organism, until death. There is an urgent need to better understand the different aspects of the disease to develop novel approaches complementary to the usual psychological therapies. For this purpose, the use of pertinent animal models becomes a necessity. We present here the various rodent models described in the literature that might be used to dissect central and peripheral mechanisms involved in the adaptation to deficient energy supplies and/or the maintenance of physiological alterations on the long term. Data obtained from the spontaneous or engineered genetic models permit to better apprehend the implication of one signaling system (hormone, neuropeptide, neurotransmitter) in the development of several symptoms observed in anorexia nervosa. As example, mutations in the ghrelin, serotonin, dopamine pathways lead to alterations that mimic the phenotype, but compensatory mechanisms often occur rendering necessary the use of more selective gene strategies. Until now, environmental animal models based on one or several inducing factors like diet restriction, stress, or physical activity mimicked more extensively central and peripheral alterations decribed in anorexia nervosa. They bring significant data on feeding behavior, energy expenditure, and central circuit alterations. Animal models are described and criticized on the basis of the criteria of validity for anorexia nervosa. PMID:26042085

  6. The use of animal models to decipher physiological and neurobiological alterations of anorexia nervosa patients.

    PubMed

    Méquinion, Mathieu; Chauveau, Christophe; Viltart, Odile

    2015-01-01

    Extensive studies were performed to decipher the mechanisms regulating feeding due to the worldwide obesity pandemy and its complications. The data obtained might be adapted to another disorder related to alteration of food intake, the restrictive anorexia nervosa. This multifactorial disease with a complex and unknown etiology is considered as an awful eating disorder since the chronic refusal to eat leads to severe, and sometimes, irreversible complications for the whole organism, until death. There is an urgent need to better understand the different aspects of the disease to develop novel approaches complementary to the usual psychological therapies. For this purpose, the use of pertinent animal models becomes a necessity. We present here the various rodent models described in the literature that might be used to dissect central and peripheral mechanisms involved in the adaptation to deficient energy supplies and/or the maintenance of physiological alterations on the long term. Data obtained from the spontaneous or engineered genetic models permit to better apprehend the implication of one signaling system (hormone, neuropeptide, neurotransmitter) in the development of several symptoms observed in anorexia nervosa. As example, mutations in the ghrelin, serotonin, dopamine pathways lead to alterations that mimic the phenotype, but compensatory mechanisms often occur rendering necessary the use of more selective gene strategies. Until now, environmental animal models based on one or several inducing factors like diet restriction, stress, or physical activity mimicked more extensively central and peripheral alterations decribed in anorexia nervosa. They bring significant data on feeding behavior, energy expenditure, and central circuit alterations. Animal models are described and criticized on the basis of the criteria of validity for anorexia nervosa. PMID:26042085

  7. Pyrogenic organic matter can alter microbial communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiello, Caroline; Gao, Xiaodong; Cheng, Hsiao-Ying; Silberg, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Soil microbes communicate with each other to manage a large range of processes that occur more efficiently when microbes are able to act simultaneously. This coordination occurs through the continuous production of signaling compounds that are easily diffused into and out of cells. As the number of microbes in a localized environment increases, the internal cellular concentration of these signaling compounds increases, and when a threshold concentration is reached, gene expression shifts, leading to altered (and coordinated) microbial behaviors. Many of these coordinated behaviors have biogeochemically important outcomes. For example, methanogenesis, denitrification, biofilm formation, and the development of plant-rhizobial symbioses are all regulated by a simple class of cell-cell signaling molecules known as acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). Pyrogenic organic matter in soils can act to disrupt microbial communication through multiple pathways. In the case of AHLs, charcoal's very high surface area can sorb these signaling compounds, preventing microbes from detecting each others' presence (Masiello et al., 2014). In addition, the lactone ring in AHLs is vulnerable to pH increases accompanying PyOM inputs, with soil pH values higher than 7-8 leading to ring opening and compound destabilization. Different microbes use different classes of signaling compounds, and not all microbial signaling compounds are pH-vulnerable. This implies that PyOM-driven pH increases may trigger differential outcomes for Gram negative bacteria vs fungi, for example. A charcoal-driven reduction in microbes' ability to detect cell-cell communication compounds may lead to a shift in the ability of microbes to participate in key steps of C and N cycling. For example, an increase in an archaeon-specific AHL has been shown to lead to a cascade of metabolic processes that eventually results in the upregulation of CH4 production (Zhang et al., 2012). Alterations in similar AHL compounds leads to

  8. Animal Health and Welfare Issues Facing Organic Production Systems

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Mhairi A.; Webster, Jim; Sutherland, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The demand for organically grown, animal derived produce is increasing due to a growing desire for consumer products that have minimal chemical inputs and high animal welfare standards. Evaluation of the scientific literature suggests that a major challenge facing organic animal production systems is the management and treatment of health-related issues. However, implementation of effective management practices can help organic animal producers achieve and maintain high standards of health and welfare, which is necessary to assure consumers that organic animal-based food and fibre has not only been produced with minimal or no chemical input, but under high standards of animal welfare. Abstract The demand for organically-grown produce is increasing worldwide, with one of the drivers being an expectation among consumers that animals have been farmed to a high standard of animal welfare. This review evaluates whether this expectation is in fact being met, by describing the current level of science-based knowledge of animal health and welfare in organic systems. The primary welfare risk in organic production systems appears to be related to animal health. Organic farms use a combination of management practices, alternative and complementary remedies and convenional medicines to manage the health of their animals and in many cases these are at least as effective as management practices employed by non-organic producers. However, in contrast to non-organic systems, there is still a lack of scientifically evaluated, organically acceptable therapeutic treatments that organic animal producers can use when current management practices are not sufficient to maintain the health of their animals. The development of such treatments are necessary to assure consumers that organic animal-based food and fibre has not only been produced with minimal or no chemical input, but under high standards of animal welfare. PMID:26479750

  9. A novel animal model linking adiposity to altered circadian rhythms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers have provided evidence for a link between obesity and altered circadian rhythms (e.g., shift work, disrupted sleep), but the mechanism for this association is still unknown. Adipocytes possess an intrinsic circadian clock, and circadian rhythms in adipocytokines and adipose tissue metab...

  10. Altered egos: antibiotic effects on food animal microbiomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The human food chain begins with upwards of 1000 species of bacteria that inhabit the intestinal tracts of poultry and livestock. These intestinal denizens are responsible for the health and safety of a major protein source for humans. The use of antibiotics to treat animal diseases was followed b...

  11. Collagen alteration in an animal model of colonic diverticulosis.

    PubMed Central

    Wess, L; Eastwood, M A; Edwards, C A; Busuttil, A; Miller, A

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Changes in the structure and integrity of the colon dependent on collagen content and crosslinkage occur with age. AIMS--This study using an animal model examines colonic collagen content and crosslinkage over the lifetime of rats on fibre deficient and higher fibre diets. METHODS--Two groups of 20 rats were fed either a fibre deficient diet (1.7 g NSP (non-starch polysaccharide)/100 g) or a higher fibre diet (13.3 g NSP/100 g) for 18 months. Diverticula were identified by postmortem examination. Caecal and colonic contents were weighed and assayed for short chain fatty acids. Collagen solubility in weak acid was measured to give an indication of the nature and amount of crosslinks in the collagen of the bowel wall. RESULTS--The incidence of colonic diverticula was greater (42.1% fibre deficient rats; 0% higher fibre rats). Colonic collagen solubility index in fibre deficient rats was significantly lower than higher fibre diet fed rats (p < 0.001 in all four sections of the large bowel). Rats with diverticula had the lowest solubility index (p < 0.001 in all four sections of the large bowel). Higher fibre diet rats had increased caecal and colonic contents, caecal and colonic tissue wet weights, and greater caecal short chain fatty acids. Fibre deficient diet fed rats had more pathological abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS--This animal model permits a study of the relation between collagen crosslinkage and the development of colonic diverticulosis. A higher fibre diet protects against collagen crosslinking and this is related to a decreased incidence of diverticula. PMID:8707115

  12. Altered Basolateral Amygdala Encoding in an Animal Model of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Alex; Burton, Amanda C.; O'Donnell, Patricio; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that schizophrenia results, in part, from the inappropriate or spurious attribution of salience to cues in the environment. We have recently reported neural correlates of salience in the basolateral amygdala (ABL) of rats during learning in an odor-guided discrimination task. Here we tested whether this dopamine-dependent salience signal is altered in rats with neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions (NVHLs), a rodent model of schizophrenia. We found that ABL signals related to violations in reward prediction were only mildly affected by NVHL; however, neurons in rats with NVHLs showed significantly stronger selectivity during odor sampling, particularly for the more salient large-reward cue. The elevated cue-evoked activity in NVHL rats was correlated with heightened orienting behavior and also with changes in firing to the shifts in reward, suggesting that it reflected abnormal signaling of the large reward-predicting cue's salience. These results are broadly consistent with the proposal that schizophrenics suffer from enhanced signaling of salience. PMID:25904791

  13. Lattice animal model of chromosome organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Balaji V. S.; Arya, Gaurav

    2012-07-01

    Polymer models tied together by constraints of looping and confinement have been used to explain many of the observed organizational characteristics of interphase chromosomes. Here we introduce a simple lattice animal representation of interphase chromosomes that combines the features of looping and confinement constraints into a single framework. We show through Monte Carlo simulations that this model qualitatively captures both the leveling off in the spatial distance between genomic markers observed in fluorescent in situ hybridization experiments and the inverse decay in the looping probability as a function of genomic separation observed in chromosome conformation capture experiments. The model also suggests that the collapsed state of chromosomes and their segregation into territories with distinct looping activities might be a natural consequence of confinement.

  14. Learning about Skeletons and Other Organ Systems of Vertebrate Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes students' (n=175) understandings of the structure of animal (including human) skeletons and the internal organs found in them. Finds that older students have a better knowledge of animals' internal anatomies, although knowledge of human internal structure is significantly better than knowledge of rat, bird, and fish internal structure.…

  15. Animal organs for human transplantation: how close are we?

    PubMed Central

    2000-01-01

    Solid organ transplantation has been, by most measures, a phenomenal success. Nonetheless, the field is plagued by extreme shortages of available organs from a very limited number of donors. One potential solution to this organ availability crisis is the use of animals as organ donors for humans (xenotransplantation). Though the concept remains theoretical, significant advances are being made in the field of genetics and in our understanding of the immunological barriers to xenotransplantation. With these advances also comes increased knowledge about the potential risks of xenotransplants, especially disease transmission. The eventual clinical application of animal-to-human transplants will require a careful, balanced appraisal of these issues. PMID:16389317

  16. Fungal alteration of organic coatings on sand grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothhardt, S.; Gleixner, G.; Benzerara, K.; Fischer, C.; Gaupp, R.

    2012-04-01

    We studied the fungal alteration of organically coated sand particles, sampled in Eocene sediments in the open cast mining Profen, near Leipzig (Germany). These organic coatings were formed on sand grains after their sedimentation owing to mobilization of organic matter from younger coal layers. The organic coatings formed non-continuous layers on quartz grains, measuring few micrometers up to 30 µm in thickness. It has been shown that organic coatings on sand grains retain efficiently dissolved metals by adsorption from groundwaters. They consequently might be used as adsorbent to purify low heavy metal contaminated water. However, their stability has not been assessed yet especially in the oxic environment and, more specifically, in the presence of microorganisms. This is important in order to evaluate whether coated sands could act as a reliable tool in remediation. In order to address this question we characterized the fungal alteration of organic coatings on sand grains using several techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and vertical scanning interferometry (VSI). Sand grains coated with organics were incubated on complex yeast medium with and without Schizophyllum commune to estimate changes in heavy metal retention. Formation of biominerals and etch pits is induced by fungal colonization as shown by SEM. Surface topography analysis was performed using VSI technique. Etch pit depth ranges from 0.5 to 1 µm. Pit formation is limited to the organic coating; dissolution of quartz grains was not detected. Using STXM we measured near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra at the C K-edge, N-edge, and O K-edge to characterize the different organic compartments (fungi, genuine organic coatings, altered organic coatings) down to the 25-nm scale. We observed in the spectra measured at the C K-edge on the altered organic coatings a decrease in aromatic and phenolic groups as well as an

  17. Animal welfare in relation to standards in organic farming.

    PubMed

    Hammarberg, K E

    2001-01-01

    The new EU-regulations on organic farming (1804/1999) are also influencing the animal welfare. A lot of positive regulations is to find, but also regulations that seen to mind more about the general public and customer and their view on organic farming, than the health and welfare of the animals. The paper specially focus on the impact of the regulations and the recommendations that phytotherapeutic essences and homeopathic products take precedence over the so called chemically-synthesised allopatic veterinary medical products, and that the use of the same is prohibited for preventive treatments. Key questions here are the lack of scientific evidence concerning homeopathy in animals, and that Swedish veterinarians are not allowed to work with homeopathy. Differences in interpretation of the regulations between animal owners and veterinarians will also be discussed. What is a disease that needs treatment? Who is to decide about the treatment? Parasitic infections are discussed as an illustrative example. Other consequences of the regulations concerning the animal welfare are problems in certain geographical zones, for instance subarctic areas where necessary crops are impossible to grow. Animal transports and splitting mother-offspring are briefly discussed as future problems to be handled in the regulations, and the paper ends by presenting the need of regulated herd health control programs in organic husbandry, which can detect and focus on welfare and production problems. The organic movement is not static, and must not be so. PMID:11995386

  18. Common behaviors alterations after extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field exposure in rat animal model.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Seyed Mohammad; Sahraei, Hedayat; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Najafi Abedi, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Naturally, the presence of electromagnetic waves in our living environment affects all components of organisms, particularly humans and animals, as the large part of their body consists of water. In the present study, we tried to investigate the relation between exposure to the extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) and common behaviors such as body weight, food and water intake, anorexia (poor appetite), plasma glucose concentration, movement, rearing and sniffing in rats. For this purpose, rats were exposed to 40  Hz ELF-EMF once a day for 21 days, then at days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 after exposure, any changes in the above-mentioned items were assessed in the exposed rats and compared to the non-exposed group as control. Body weight of irradiated rats significantly increased only a week after exposure and decreased after that. No significant change was observed in food and water intake of irradiated rats compared to the control, and the anorexia parameter in the group exposed to ELF-EMF was significantly decreased at one and two weeks after irradiation. A week after exposure, the level of glucose was significantly increased but at other days these changes were not significant. Movements, rearing and sniffing of rats at day 1 after exposure were significantly decreased and other days these changes did not follow any particular pattern. However, the result of this study demonstrated that exposure to ELF-EMF can alter the normal condition of animals and may represent a harmful impact on behavior. PMID:26182237

  19. Preterm birth alters neonatal, functional rich club organization.

    PubMed

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Shen, Xilin; Lacadie, Cheryl; Schneider, Karen C; Dai, Feng; Ment, Laura R; Constable, R Todd

    2016-07-01

    Alterations in neural networks are associated with the cognitive difficulties of the prematurely born. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we analyzed functional connectivity for preterm (PT) and term neonates at term equivalent age. Specifically, we constructed whole-brain networks and examined rich club (RC) organization, a common construct among complex systems where important (or "rich") nodes connect preferentially to other important nodes. Both PT and term neonates showed RC organization with PT neonates exhibiting significantly reduced connections between these RC nodes. Additionally, PT neonates showed evidence of weaker functional segregation. Our results suggest that PT birth is associated with fundamental changes of functional organization in the developing brain. PMID:26341628

  20. Human-animal chimeras: ethical issues about farming chimeric animals bearing human organs.

    PubMed

    Bourret, Rodolphe; Martinez, Eric; Vialla, François; Giquel, Chloé; Thonnat-Marin, Aurélie; De Vos, John

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in stem cells and gene engineering have paved the way for the generation of interspecies chimeras, such as animals bearing an organ from another species. The production of a rat pancreas by a mouse has demonstrated the feasibility of this approach. The next step will be the generation of larger chimeric animals, such as pigs bearing human organs. Because of the dramatic organ shortage for transplantation, the medical needs for such a transgressive practice are indisputable. However, there are serious technical barriers and complex ethical issues that must be discussed and solved before producing human organs in animals. The main ethical issues are the risks of consciousness and of human features in the chimeric animal due to a too high contribution of human cells to the brain, in the first case, or for instance to limbs, in the second. Another critical point concerns the production of human gametes by such chimeric animals. These worst-case scenarios are obviously unacceptable and must be strictly monitored by careful risk assessment, and, if necessary, technically prevented. The public must be associated with this ethical debate. Scientists and physicians have a critical role in explaining the medical needs, the advantages and limits of this potential medical procedure, and the ethical boundaries that must not be trespassed. If these prerequisites are met, acceptance of such a new, borderline medical procedure may prevail, as happened before for in-vitro fertilization or preimplantation genetic diagnosis. PMID:27356872

  1. Detection of alterations in testicular and epididymal function in laboratory animals

    SciTech Connect

    Amann, R.P.

    1986-12-01

    The potential impact of an agent altering male reproductive function is greater for humans than for animals. Consequently, it is essential that sensitive criteria be used to look for effects on a multiplicity of target sites when an agent is evaluated using an animal model. No animal model has reproductive characteristics similar to those of humans, but this does not negate the validity of using animal models. Classic methodologies for reproductive toxicology are limited by the approaches used for subjective evaluation of testicular histology and use of natural mating for fertility tests. After dosing for an interval at least equal to six times the duration of one cycle of the seminiferous epithelium, sperm from ejaculated semen or the cauda epididymidis can be evaluated for normalacy of morphology or function and should be used for artificial insemination of females to critically evaluate fertility. Normal males of animals models ejaculate a great excess of sperm. Artificial insemination of a critical number of sperm, selected to result in slightly less than maximal fertility for control animals, will maximize the probability of detecting a decrease in fertility if the same critical number of sperm is inseminated for treated animals as for control animals. Testicular function should be evaluated by objective, rather than subjective, criteria. Among the more sensitive criteria of testicular function are the minor diameter of essentially round seminiferous tubules, the ratio of leptotene spermatocytes to Sertoli cells, the corrected numbers of germ cells per seminiferous tubule cross section, and the number of homogenization-resistant spermatids per testis.

  2. Prenatal immune activation alters hippocampal place cell firing characteristics in adult animals.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Amy R; Bilkey, David K

    2015-08-01

    Prenatal maternal immune activation (MIA) is a risk factor for several developmental neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Adults with these disorders display alterations in memory function that may result from changes in the structure and function of the hippocampus. In the present study we use an animal model to investigate the effect that a transient prenatal maternal immune activation episode has on the spatially-modulated firing activity of hippocampal neurons in adult animals. MIA was induced in pregnant rat dams with a single injection of the synthetic cytokine inducer polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) on gestational day 15. Control dams were given a saline equivalent. Firing activity and local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded from the CA1 region of the adult male offspring of these dams as they moved freely in an open arena. Most neurons displayed characteristic spatially-modulated 'place cell' firing activity and while there was no between-group difference in mean firing rate between groups, place cells had smaller place fields in MIA-exposed animals when compared to control-group cells. Cells recorded in MIA-group animals also displayed an altered firing-phase synchrony relationship to simultaneously recorded LFPs. When the floor of the arena was rotated, the place fields of MIA-group cells were more likely to shift in the same direction as the floor rotation, suggesting that local cues may have been more salient for these animals. In contrast, place fields in control group cells were more likely to shift firing position to novel spatial locations suggesting an altered response to contextual cues. These findings show that a single MIA intervention is sufficient to change several important characteristics of hippocampal place cell activity in adult offspring. These changes could contribute to the memory dysfunction that is associated with MIA, by altering the encoding of spatial context and by

  3. Immunosenescence is associated with altered gene expression and epigenetic regulation in primary and secondary immune organs

    PubMed Central

    Sidler, Corinne; Wóycicki, Rafał; Ilnytskyy, Yaroslav; Metz, Gerlinde; Kovalchuk, Igor; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Deterioration of the immune system (immunosenescence) with age is associated with an increased susceptibility to infection, autoimmune disease and cancer, and reduced responsiveness to vaccination. Immunosenescence entails a reduced supply of naïve T cells from the thymus and increased specialization of peripheral T cell clones. Both thymic involution and peripheral T cell homeostasis are thought to involve cellular senescence. In order to analyze this at the molecular level, we studied gene expression profiles, epigenetic status, and genome stability in the thymus and spleen of 1-, 4-, and 18-month-old Long Evans rats. In the thymus, altered gene expression, DNA and histone H3K9 hypomethylation, increased genome instability, and apoptosis were observed in 18-month-old animals compared to 1- and 4-month-old animals. In the spleen, alterations in gene expression and epigenetic regulation occurred already by the age of 4 months compared to 1 month and persisted in 18-month-old compared to 1-month-old rats. In both organs, these changes were accompanied by the altered composition of resident T cell populations. Our study suggests that both senescence and apoptosis may be involved in altered organ function. PMID:24151501

  4. Fulminant infection by uncommon organisms in animal bite wounds.

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, J. K.

    1998-01-01

    In 1995 and 1996, 215 patients exposed to different species of animals were treated at the Amarnath Polyclinic, Balasore, in India. Among them were two children infected by uncommon organisms, i.e., Capnocytophaga canimorsus and Pasteurella multocida; the patients recovered with appropriate antibiotic therapy. PMID:10211359

  5. Can orchards help connect Mediterranean ecosystems? Animal movement data alter conservation priorities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nogeire, Theresa M.; Davis, Frank W.; Crooks, Kevin R.; McRae, Brad H.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Boydston, Erin E.

    2015-01-01

    As natural habitats become fragmented by human activities, animals must increasingly move through human-dominated systems, particularly agricultural landscapes. Mapping areas important for animal movement has therefore become a key part of conservation planning. Models of landscape connectivity are often parameterized using expert opinion and seldom distinguish between the risks and barriers presented by different crop types. Recent research, however, suggests different crop types, such as row crops and orchards, differ in the degree to which they facilitate or impede species movements. Like many mammalian carnivores, bobcats (Lynx rufus) are sensitive to fragmentation and loss of connectivity between habitat patches. We investigated how distinguishing between different agricultural land covers might change conclusions about the relative conservation importance of different land uses in a Mediterranean ecosystem. Bobcats moved relatively quickly in row crops but relatively slowly in orchards, at rates similar to those in natural habitats of woodlands and scrub. We found that parameterizing a connectivity model using empirical data on bobcat movements in agricultural lands and other land covers, instead of parameterizing the model using habitat suitability indices based on expert opinion, altered locations of predicted animal movement routes. These results emphasize that differentiating between types of agriculture can alter conservation planning outcomes.

  6. Alterations in cognitive and psychological functioning after organic solvent exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, L.A.; Ryan, C.M.; Hodgson, M.J.; Robin, N. )

    1990-05-01

    Exposure to organic solvents has been linked repeatedly to alterations in both personality and cognitive functioning. To assess the nature and extent of these changes more thoroughly, 32 workers with a history of exposure to mixtures of organic solvents and 32 age- and education-matched blue-collar workers with no history of exposure were assessed with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Although both groups were comparable on measures of general intelligence, significant differences were found in virtually all other cognitive domains tested (Learning and Memory, Visuospatial, Attention and Mental Flexibility, Psychomotor Speed). In addition, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories of exposed workers indicated clinically significant levels of depression, anxiety, somatic concerns and disturbances in thinking. The reported psychological distress was unrelated to degree of cognitive deficit. Finally, several exposure-related variables were associated with poorer performance on tests of memory and visuospatial ability.

  7. Postnatal fate of prenatal-induced fetal alterations in laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Thomas; Buesen, Roland; Schneider, Steffen; van Ravenzwaay, Bennard

    2016-06-01

    Currently it is common practice to evaluate the developmental toxicity hazard of chemicals or pharmaceuticals by evaluation of fetuses after administration of the compound to pregnant animals. These studies are designed to provide possible compound-related fetal changes near term, which are usually classified into malformations or variations. Malformations, but not variations are expected to adversely affect the survival or health. Therefore, classification has striking different regulatory consequences. For categorization as variation reversibility is an important criterion, but it is usually not examined in a standard guideline study. Although this issue has already been recognized long time ago, data dealing with the postnatal reversibility of fetal alterations are still rare. In the current review, literature data, regulatory documents as well as in-house data were compiled. Beside skeletal alterations of skull, vertebral column, ribs, shoulder and pelvic girdle, and extremities, kidney and heart defects are discussed and assessed. PMID:27094378

  8. Environmental lighting alters the infection process in an animal model of AIDS.

    PubMed

    McEachron, D L; Tumas, K M; Blank, K J; Prystowsky, M B

    1995-08-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of altered environmental lighting on the infection process of a murine leukemia virus, E-55(+), which induces a thymic lymphoma/leukemia in 100% of BALB.K mice inoculated as adults. One to two weeks after inoculation, high levels of proviral DNA are usually found. This is followed by an asymptomatic period of many weeks during which proviral DNA becomes essentially undetectable. Leukemia develops approximately 28 weeks postinoculation. In this experiment, one group of mice was exposed a consistent 10L: 14D cycle while a second was maintained in constant light (LL). A third group was exposed to a rotating cycle characterized by phase shifting a 10L: 14D cycle every three 24-h days (rLD). All cycles began 2 weeks prior to inoculation and were maintained thereafter. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 5, 10, and 15 weeks, and hematopoietic tissue was examined for proviral DNA content. At 1 week, LL- and rLD-exposed animals showed considerably less proviral DNA in bone marrow and spleen compared with controls. At 15 weeks, thymuses from controls were showing signs of infection whereas tissue from LL and rLD mice remained at background levels. We conclude that environmental lighting does alter the infective pattern displayed by this retrovirus, although whether this effect is mediated by changes in the target stem cells or through immunoenhancement has not yet been determined. PMID:7675882

  9. Pak2 restrains endomitosis during megakaryopoiesis and alters cytoskeleton organization

    PubMed Central

    Kosoff, Rachelle E.; Aslan, Joseph E.; Kostyak, John C.; Dulaimi, Essel; Chow, Hoi Yee; Prudnikova, Tatiana Y.; Radu, Maria; Kunapuli, Satya P.; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2015-01-01

    Megakaryocyte maturation and polyploidization are critical for platelet production; abnormalities in these processes are associated with myeloproliferative disorders, including thrombocytopenia. Megakaryocyte maturation signals through cascades that involve p21-activated kinase (Pak) function; however, the specific role for Pak kinases in megakaryocyte biology remains elusive. Here, we identify Pak2 as an essential effector of megakaryocyte maturation, polyploidization, and proplatelet formation. Genetic deletion of Pak2 in murine bone marrow is associated with macrothrombocytopenia, altered megakaryocyte ultrastructure, increased bone marrow megakaryocyte precursors, and an elevation of mature CD41+ megakaryocytes, as well as an increased number of polyploid cells. In Pak2−/− mice, platelet clearance rate was increased, as was production of newly synthesized, reticulated platelets. In vitro, Pak2−/− megakaryocytes demonstrate increased polyploidization associated with alterations in β1-tubulin expression and organization, decreased proplatelet extensions, and reduced phosphorylation of the endomitosis regulators LIM domain kinase 1, cofilin, and Aurora A/B/C. Together, these data establish a novel role for Pak2 as an important regulator of megakaryopoiesis, polyploidization, and cytoskeletal dynamics in developing megakaryocytes. PMID:25824689

  10. Conventionally altered organisms: Database on survival, dispersal, fate, and pathogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kuklinski, D.M.; King, K.H.; Addison, J.T.; Travis, C.C.

    1990-03-29

    Although increases in development and sales of biotechnology are projected, research on the risks associated with deliberate releases of biotechnology products lags behind. Thus, there is an urgent need to provide investigators and regulators with guidelines for classifying and evaluating risks associated with the release of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs). If the release of GEMs into the environmental poses risks similar to that of releasing conventionally altered organisms (CAOs), then a study evaluating the hazards associated with environmentally released CAOs would be most useful. This paper provides a survey of the available data on survival, dispersal, pathogenicity, and other characteristics which affect the fate of microbes after release. Although the present study is not exhaustive, it does provide an indication of the type and amount of data available on CAOs. 350 refs.

  11. [Animals (Animalia) in system of organisms. 2. Phylogenetic understanding of animals].

    PubMed

    Shatalkin, A I

    2005-01-01

    The development of systematics in last decade has shown that typological classifications of five-six Kingdoms is not adequate for describing the diversity of organisms. Information from the sequences of small subunit rRNA is not sufficient to reconstruct the position of eukaryotes on the phylogenetic tree due to the effect of long branches. Totally new reconstruction of eukaryotic phylogeny was built upon the analysis of many new molecular markers. Evolution of eukaryotes had two mainstreams. One has been connected with diversification of ancestral biciliate forms (Bikonta). Sister-group of Bikonta (Unikonta) includes some originally uniciliate amoebae and moulds (Amoebozoa), and uniciliate eukaryotes with posterior cilium (Opisthokonta). The taxon Opisthokonta unites Fungi, Nuclearimorpha, Mesomycetozoa, Choanozoa and Metazoa. The latter three groups or only Metazoa are attributes to animals. The following differentiation of the groups used in systematic for the description of diversity of organisms is proposed. (1) Taxon is a group which is defined on the basis of ancestry: taxon includes all species descended from one ancestor. Taxon differs from logic classes of typology at an ontologic level. Taxon arises and exists, and its composition and occupied niches can constantly change; taxon can flourish or, on the contrary, fade up to full disappearance. Thus, the predicative characteristic of taxon, including characters which are considered significant, are not absolute. It is significant only at the moment of consideration. But characters (synapomorphies) are important as the practical tool for discerning taxa at given time period. Taxa unite species into unique classification. This understanding of taxon corresponds to monophyletic group sensu Willi Hennig. (2) Class of organisms is a group which is defined on the basis of characters: class includes all species having the given character. The class is only a logic object. Unlike taxa grouping species into classes

  12. Withaferin a alters intermediate filament organization, cell shape and behavior.

    PubMed

    Grin, Boris; Mahammad, Saleemulla; Wedig, Tatjana; Cleland, Megan M; Tsai, Lester; Herrmann, Harald; Goldman, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    Withaferin A (WFA) is a steroidal lactone present in Withania somnifera which has been shown in vitro to bind to the intermediate filament protein, vimentin. Based upon its affinity for vimentin, it has been proposed that WFA can be used as an anti-tumor agent to target metastatic cells which up-regulate vimentin expression. We show that WFA treatment of human fibroblasts rapidly reorganizes vimentin intermediate filaments (VIF) into a perinuclear aggregate. This reorganization is dose dependent and is accompanied by a change in cell shape, decreased motility and an increase in vimentin phosphorylation at serine-38. Furthermore, vimentin lacking cysteine-328, the proposed WFA binding site, remains sensitive to WFA demonstrating that this site is not required for its cellular effects. Using analytical ultracentrifugation, viscometry, electron microscopy and sedimentation assays we show that WFA has no effect on VIF assembly in vitro. Furthermore, WFA is not specific for vimentin as it disrupts the cellular organization and induces perinuclear aggregates of several other IF networks comprised of peripherin, neurofilament-triplet protein, and keratin. In cells co-expressing keratin IF and VIF, the former are significantly less sensitive to WFA with respect to inducing perinuclear aggregates. The organization of microtubules and actin/microfilaments is also affected by WFA. Microtubules become wavier and sparser and the number of stress fibers appears to increase. Following 24 hrs of exposure to doses of WFA that alter VIF organization and motility, cells undergo apoptosis. Lower doses of the drug do not kill cells but cause them to senesce. In light of our findings that WFA affects multiple IF systems, which are expressed in many tissues of the body, caution is warranted in its use as an anti-cancer agent, since it may have debilitating organism-wide effects. PMID:22720028

  13. Development of gravity-sensing organs in altered gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiederhold, M. L.; Gao, W. Y.; Harrison, J. L.; Hejl, R.

    1997-01-01

    Experiments are described in which the development of the gravity-sensing organs was studied in newt larvae reared in microgravity on the IML-2 mission and in Aplysia embryos and larvae reared on a centrifuge at 1 to 5 g. In Aplysia embryos, the statolith (single dense mass on which gravity and linear acceleration act) was reduced in size in a graded fashion at increasing g. In early post-metamorphic Aplysia or even in isolated statocysts from such animals, the number of statoconia produced is reduced at high g. Newt larvae launched before any of the otoconia were formed and reared for 15 days in microgravity had nearly adult labyrinths at the end of the IML-2 mission. The otoliths of the saccule and utricle were the same size in flight and ground-reared larvae. However, the system of aragonitic otoconia produced in the endolymphatic sac in amphibians was much larger and developed earlier in the flight-reared larvae. At later developmental stages, the aragonitic otoconia enter and fill the saccule. One flight-reared larva was maintained for nine months post-flight and the size of the saccular otolith, as well as the volume of otoconia within the endolymphatic sac, were considerably larger than in age-matched, ground-reared newts. This suggests that rearing in microgravity initiates a process that continues for several months after introduction to 1-g, which greatly increases the volume of otoconia. The flight-reared animal had abnormal posture, pointing its head upward, whereas normal ground-reared newts always keep their head horizontal. This suggests that rearing for even a short period in microgravity can have lasting functional consequences in an animal subsequently reared in 1-g conditions on Earth.

  14. Development of Gravity-Sensing Organs in Altered Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiederhold, M. L.; Gao, W. Y.; Harrison, J. L.; Hejl, R.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments are described in which the development of the gravity-sensing organs was studied in newt larvae reared in micro-g on the IML-2 mission and in Aplysia embryos and larvae reared on a centrifuge at 1 to 5 g. In Aplysia embryos, the statolith (single dense mass on which gravity and linear acceleration act) was reduced in size in a graded fashion at increasing g. In early post-metamorphic Aplysia or even in isolated statocysts from such animals, the number of statoconia produced is reduced at high gravity Newt larvae launched before any of the otoconia were formed and reared for 15 days in micro-gravity had nearly adult labyrinths at the end of the IML-2 mission. The otoliths of the saccule and utricle were the same size in flight and ground-reared larvae. However, the system of aragonitic otoconia produced in the endolymphatic sac in amphibians was much larger and developed earlier in the flight-reared larvae. At later developmental stages, the aragonitic otoconia enter and fill the saccule. One flight-reared larva was maintained for nine months post-flight and the size of the saccular otolith, as well as the volume of otoconia within the endolymphatic sac, were considerably larger than in age-matched, ground-reared newts. This suggests that rearing in micro-gravity initiates a process that continues for several months after introduction to 1-g, which greatly increases the volume of otoconia. The flight-reared animal had abnormal posture, pointing its head upward, whereas normal ground-reared newts always keep their head horizontal. This suggests that rearing for even a short period in micro-gravity can have lasting functional consequences in an animal subsequently reared in 1-g conditions on Earth.

  15. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS PRIOR TO LICENSING § 103.2 Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products...

  16. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS PRIOR TO LICENSING § 103.2 Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products...

  17. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... experimental biological products or live organisms. 103.2 Section 103.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND... PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS EXPERIMENTAL PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND EVALUATION OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS PRIOR TO LICENSING § 103.2 Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products...

  18. New animal model to study epigenetic mechanisms mediating altered gravity effects upon cell growth and morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, Eleonora N.; Dvorochkin, Natasha; Radugina, Elena A.; Poplinskaya, Valentina; Novikova, Julia; Almeida, Eduardo

    The gravitational field and its variations act as a major environmental factor that can impact morphogenesis developing through epigenetic molecular mechanisms. The mechanisms can be thoroughly investigated by using adequate animal models that reveal changes in the morpho-genesis of a growing organ as a function of gravitational effects. Two cooperative US/Russian experiments on Foton-M2 (2005) and Foton-M3 (2007) were the first to demonstrate differences in the shape of regenerating tails of space-flown and ground control newts. The space-flown and aquarium (simulated microgravity) animals developed lancet-shaped tails whereas 1 g con-trols (kept in space-type habitats) showed hook-like regenerates. These visual observations were supported by computer-aided processing of the images and statistical analysis of the results. Morphological examinations and cell proliferation measurements using BrdU demon-strated dorsal-ventral asymmetry as well as enhanced epithelial growth on the dorsal area of regenerating tails in 1 g newts. These findings were reproduced in laboratory tests on newts kept at 1 g and in large water tanks at cut g. The 1 g animals showed statistically significant deviations of the lancet-like tail shape typically seen in aquarium animals. Such modifications were found as early as regeneration stages III-IV and proved irreversible. The authors believe that the above phenomenon detected in newts used in many space experiments can serve as an adequate model for studying molecular mechanisms underlying gravitational effects upon animal morphogenesis.

  19. Clinicopatho-Biochemical Alterations Associated with Subclinical Babesiosis in Dairy Animals

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amrita; Singla, Lachhman Das; Ashuma; Batth, Balvinder Kaur; Kaur, Paramjit

    2016-01-01

    Background: Present investigation is based on the clinicopatho-biochemical alteration related to natural tick borne bovine babesiosis in Punjab state. Methods: Blood samples from jugular vein of 542 bovines (cattle 466 and buffaloes 76) having history of tick infestation, fever, hemoglobinurea or anemia were collected and tested for Babesia bigemina by blood smear examination and PCR targeting 18S rRNA gene to distinguish clinically and subclinically infected groups. Further the hemato-biochemical parameters were correlated with the status of infection. Results: Overall, of the 542 samples tested 16.42 % were positive by PCR while only 1.66 % by blood smear examination. The trend of molecular prevalence was found to decrease from north-eastern towards western Punjab. Analysis of the hematobiochemical alterations showed significant decrease in the levels of RBC, Hb, PCV, and MCV with significant increase in TBIL, MCH and MCHC levels. Conclusion: As the transmission of B. bigemina is transovarian, presence of even few infected Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks on a subclinically infection can be the nidus of infection for whole herd, causing severe economic losses, at the same time significantly affecting the physiology of carrier animal. PMID:27308284

  20. Stress-Related Alterations of Visceral Sensation: Animal Models for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Study

    PubMed Central

    Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Stressors of different psychological, physical or immune origin play a critical role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome participating in symptoms onset, clinical presentation as well as treatment outcome. Experimental stress models applying a variety of acute and chronic exteroceptive or interoceptive stressors have been developed to target different periods throughout the lifespan of animals to assess the vulnerability, the trigger and perpetuating factors determining stress influence on visceral sensitivity and interactions within the brain-gut axis. Recent evidence points towards adequate construct and face validity of experimental models developed with respect to animals' age, sex, strain differences and specific methodological aspects such as non-invasive monitoring of visceromotor response to colorectal distension as being essential in successful identification and evaluation of novel therapeutic targets aimed at reducing stress-related alterations in visceral sensitivity. Underlying mechanisms of stress-induced modulation of visceral pain involve a combination of peripheral, spinal and supraspinal sensitization based on the nature of the stressors and dysregulation of descending pathways that modulate nociceptive transmission or stress-related analgesic response. PMID:21860814

  1. Connectomics and neuroticism: an altered functional network organization.

    PubMed

    Servaas, Michelle N; Geerligs, Linda; Renken, Remco J; Marsman, Jan-Bernard C; Ormel, Johan; Riese, Harriëtte; Aleman, André

    2015-01-01

    The personality trait neuroticism is a potent risk marker for psychopathology. Although the neurobiological basis remains unclear, studies have suggested that alterations in connectivity may underlie it. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to shed more light on the functional network organization in neuroticism. To this end, we applied graph theory on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in 120 women selected based on their neuroticism score. Binary and weighted brain-wide graphs were constructed to examine changes in the functional network structure and functional connectivity strength. Furthermore, graphs were partitioned into modules to specifically investigate connectivity within and between functional subnetworks related to emotion processing and cognitive control. Subsequently, complex network measures (ie, efficiency and modularity) were calculated on the brain-wide graphs and modules, and correlated with neuroticism scores. Compared with low neurotic individuals, high neurotic individuals exhibited a whole-brain network structure resembling more that of a random network and had overall weaker functional connections. Furthermore, in these high neurotic individuals, functional subnetworks could be delineated less clearly and the majority of these subnetworks showed lower efficiency, while the affective subnetwork showed higher efficiency. In addition, the cingulo-operculum subnetwork demonstrated more ties with other functional subnetworks in association with neuroticism. In conclusion, the 'neurotic brain' has a less than optimal functional network organization and shows signs of functional disconnectivity. Moreover, in high compared with low neurotic individuals, emotion and salience subnetworks have a more prominent role in the information exchange, while sensory(-motor) and cognitive control subnetworks have a less prominent role. PMID:25005250

  2. Connectomics and Neuroticism: An Altered Functional Network Organization

    PubMed Central

    Servaas, Michelle N; Geerligs, Linda; Renken, Remco J; Marsman, Jan-Bernard C; Ormel, Johan; Riese, Harriëtte; Aleman, André

    2015-01-01

    The personality trait neuroticism is a potent risk marker for psychopathology. Although the neurobiological basis remains unclear, studies have suggested that alterations in connectivity may underlie it. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to shed more light on the functional network organization in neuroticism. To this end, we applied graph theory on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data in 120 women selected based on their neuroticism score. Binary and weighted brain-wide graphs were constructed to examine changes in the functional network structure and functional connectivity strength. Furthermore, graphs were partitioned into modules to specifically investigate connectivity within and between functional subnetworks related to emotion processing and cognitive control. Subsequently, complex network measures (ie, efficiency and modularity) were calculated on the brain-wide graphs and modules, and correlated with neuroticism scores. Compared with low neurotic individuals, high neurotic individuals exhibited a whole-brain network structure resembling more that of a random network and had overall weaker functional connections. Furthermore, in these high neurotic individuals, functional subnetworks could be delineated less clearly and the majority of these subnetworks showed lower efficiency, while the affective subnetwork showed higher efficiency. In addition, the cingulo-operculum subnetwork demonstrated more ties with other functional subnetworks in association with neuroticism. In conclusion, the ‘neurotic brain' has a less than optimal functional network organization and shows signs of functional disconnectivity. Moreover, in high compared with low neurotic individuals, emotion and salience subnetworks have a more prominent role in the information exchange, while sensory(-motor) and cognitive control subnetworks have a less prominent role. PMID:25005250

  3. 14 CFR 135.423 - Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... alteration organization. 135.423 Section 135.423 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., preventive maintenance, and alteration organization. (a) Each certificate holder that performs any of its... whom it arranges for the performance of that work, must have an organization adequate to perform...

  4. 14 CFR 135.423 - Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... alteration organization. 135.423 Section 135.423 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., preventive maintenance, and alteration organization. (a) Each certificate holder that performs any of its... whom it arranges for the performance of that work, must have an organization adequate to perform...

  5. 14 CFR 135.423 - Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... alteration organization. 135.423 Section 135.423 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., preventive maintenance, and alteration organization. (a) Each certificate holder that performs any of its... whom it arranges for the performance of that work, must have an organization adequate to perform...

  6. 14 CFR 135.423 - Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... alteration organization. 135.423 Section 135.423 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., preventive maintenance, and alteration organization. (a) Each certificate holder that performs any of its... whom it arranges for the performance of that work, must have an organization adequate to perform...

  7. 14 CFR 135.423 - Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... alteration organization. 135.423 Section 135.423 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., preventive maintenance, and alteration organization. (a) Each certificate holder that performs any of its... whom it arranges for the performance of that work, must have an organization adequate to perform...

  8. Climate impacts on bird and plant communities from altered animal-plant interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Thomas E.; Maron, John L.

    2012-01-01

    The contribution of climate change to declining populations of organisms remains a question of outstanding concern. Much attention to declining populations has focused on how changing climate drives phenological mismatches between animals and their food. Effects of climate on plant communities may provide an alternative, but particularly powerful, influence on animal populations because plants provide their habitats. Here, we show that abundances of deciduous trees and associated songbirds have declined with decreasing snowfall over 22 years of study in montane Arizona, USA. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that declining snowfall indirectly influences plants and associated birds by allowing greater over-winter herbivory by elk (Cervus canadensis). We excluded elk from one of two paired snowmelt drainages (10 ha per drainage), and replicated this paired experiment across three distant canyons. Over six years, we reversed multi-decade declines in plant and bird populations by experimentally inhibiting heavy winter herbivory associated with declining snowfall. Moreover, predation rates on songbird nests decreased in exclosures, despite higher abundances of nest predators, demonstrating the over-riding importance of habitat quality to avian recruitment. Thus, our results suggest that climate impacts on plant–animal interactions can have forceful ramifying effects on plants, birds, and ecological interactions.

  9. Climate impacts on bird and plant communities from altered animal-plant interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Maron, John L.

    2012-03-01

    The contribution of climate change to declining populations of organisms remains a question of outstanding concern. Much attention to declining populations has focused on how changing climate drives phenological mismatches between animals and their food. Effects of climate on plant communities may provide an alternative, but particularly powerful, influence on animal populations because plants provide their habitats. Here, we show that abundances of deciduous trees and associated songbirds have declined with decreasing snowfall over 22 years of study in montane Arizona, USA. We experimentally tested the hypothesis that declining snowfall indirectly influences plants and associated birds by allowing greater over-winter herbivory by elk (Cervus canadensis). We excluded elk from one of two paired snowmelt drainages (10 ha per drainage), and replicated this paired experiment across three distant canyons. Over six years, we reversed multi-decade declines in plant and bird populations by experimentally inhibiting heavy winter herbivory associated with declining snowfall. Moreover, predation rates on songbird nests decreased in exclosures, despite higher abundances of nest predators, demonstrating the over-riding importance of habitat quality to avian recruitment. Thus, our results suggest that climate impacts on plant-animal interactions can have forceful ramifying effects on plants, birds, and ecological interactions.

  10. Proteomic Identification of Altered Cerebral Proteins in the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Nahm, Francis Sahngun; Park, Zee-Yong; Kim, Yong Chul

    2014-01-01

    Background. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a rare but debilitating pain disorder. Although the exact pathophysiology of CRPS is not fully understood, central and peripheral mechanisms might be involved in the development of this disorder. To reveal the central mechanism of CRPS, we conducted a proteomic analysis of rat cerebrum using the chronic postischemia pain (CPIP) model, a novel experimental model of CRPS. Materials and Methods. After generating the CPIP animal model, we performed a proteomic analysis of the rat cerebrum using a multidimensional protein identification technology, and screened the proteins differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups. Results. A total of 155 proteins were differentially expressed between the CPIP and control groups: 125 increased and 30 decreased; expressions of proteins related to cell signaling, synaptic plasticity, regulation of cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal formation were increased in the CPIP group. However, proenkephalin A, cereblon, and neuroserpin were decreased in CPIP group. Conclusion. Altered expression of cerebral proteins in the CPIP model indicates cerebral involvement in the pathogenesis of CRPS. Further study is required to elucidate the roles of these proteins in the development and maintenance of CRPS. PMID:25313364

  11. Role of neuroinflammation in the emotional and cognitive alterations displayed by animal models of obesity

    PubMed Central

    Castanon, Nathalie; Luheshi, Giamal; Layé, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a high prevalence of mood disorders and cognitive dysfunctions in addition to being a significant risk factor for important health complications such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Identifying the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these health issues is a major public health challenge. Based on recent findings, from studies conducted on animal models of obesity, it has been proposed that inflammatory processes may participate in both the peripheral and brain disorders associated with the obesity condition including the development of emotional and cognitive alterations. This is supported by the fact that obesity is characterized by peripheral low-grade inflammation, originating from increased adipose tissue mass and/or dysbiosis (changes in gut microbiota environment), both of which contribute to increased susceptibility to immune-mediated diseases. In this review, we provide converging evidence showing that obesity is associated with exacerbated neuroinflammation leading to dysfunction in vulnerable brain regions associated with mood regulation, learning, and memory such as the hippocampus. These findings give new insights to the pathophysiological mechanisms contributing to the development of brain disorders in the context of obesity and provide valuable data for introducing new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of neuropsychiatric complications often reported in obese patients. PMID:26190966

  12. Thiopalmitoylation of altered peptide ligands enhances their protective effects in an animal model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cloake, Nancy C; Beaino, Wissam; Trifilieff, Elisabeth; Greer, Judith M

    2014-03-01

    Previously, we have shown that conjugation of a palmitic chain via a thioester bond to a cysteine residue in weakly or nonencephalitogenic or neuritogenic peptides markedly enhances their ability to induce autoimmune disease in an MHC class II-restricted manner. From those studies, however, it was not clear whether thiopalmitoylation of the peptides was merely enhancing their disease-inducing potential or whether the lipid was itself playing a pathogenic role. To investigate this further, we have now tested the effects of thiopalmitoylation on MHC class II-restricted altered peptide ligands (APLs), which are normally protective in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, the animal model of multiple sclerosis. We hypothesized that if thiopalmitoylation of a peptide merely enhances its innate potential, then thiopalmitoylated APLs (S-palmAPLs) should show enhanced protective effects. Alternatively, if thiopalmitoylation itself can make a peptide pathogenic, then S-palmAPLs should have decreased therapeutic potential. We synthesized APLs and corresponding S-palmAPLs and showed that the S-palmAPLs were much more effective than the nonconjugated APL at inhibiting the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. This was due to several features of the S-palmAPL:S-palmAPL-primed cells show an enhanced ability to proliferate and produce the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, in vitro. Furthermore, the bioavailability of S-palmAPL was greatly enhanced, compared with the nonpalmitoylated APL, and S-palm APL was taken up more rapidly into dendritic cells and channeled into the MHC class II processing pathway. These results show that thiopalmitoylation of MHC class II-restricted peptides is a simple way to enhance their effects in vivo and could have wide therapeutic application. PMID:24489099

  13. Alterations in glutamate cysteine ligase content in the retina of two retinitis pigmentosa animal models.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Vallejo, Violeta; Benlloch-Navarro, Soledad; Trachsel-Moncho, Laura; López-Pedrajas, Rosa; Almansa, Inmaculada; Romero, Francisco Javier; Miranda, María

    2016-07-01

    retinas, but no significant changes were observed between them. BSO administration decreases GSH retinal concentration in control and rd1 mice, while paraquat administration induced an increase in GSH retinal concentration in control mice and a decrease in GSH in rd1 mice retina. Retinal GCLC was significantly increased in rd10 mice at P21 as well as GSSG. Our results suggest alterations in retinal GCLC content and GSH and/or its precursors in these two RP animal models. Regulation of the enzymes related to GSH metabolism and the retinal concentration of glutamate may be a possible target to delay especially cone death in RP. PMID:27140233

  14. AN ENVIRONMENTAL ANTIANDROGEN, VINCLOZOLIN, ALTERS THE ORGANIZATION OF PLAY BEHAVIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    During mammalian sexual differentiation, the androgens, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone are critical for the organization of the male phenotype. In rats, play behavior is sexually dimorphic. Administration of exogenous androgens during the perinatal period r...

  15. Chemical alteration of extraterrestrial organics during atmospheric entry of micrometeorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, M.; Brownlee, D.

    Most of the extraterrestrial carbon accreted by Earth is carried by the 40,000 tons of ~0.2 mm micrometeorites that enter the atmosphere every year. Particles in this size range would have supplied an enormous amount of carbon to the inchoate biosphere since the exogenous influx at ~4 Ga would have been much higher than today. However, these particles undergo strong drag heating to ~1500 K for several seconds upon atmospheric entry, ostensibly burning away all the organics as CO. Ironically, particles of this size seemed to contribute no organic carbon to Earth despite the fact that they constitute the bulk of the total incoming mass. Conventional wisdom has thus held that organics survive only in smaller cosmic dust grains and in >~cm-sized meteorites, which account for only a tiny fraction of the total exogenous mass flux. However, carbon has been found in several smaller, yet still strongly-heated particles in the form of a refractory, char-like material imbedded with tiny FeNi metal beads, motivating us to study the pyrolysis of complex organic matter. We will present results from experiments and chemical models of the transient drag heating of micrometeorites. We predict that small aromatics, light hydrocarbons, and other organics, as well as CO and char, are formed, indicating that strongly-heated micrometeorites may have indeed been a significant source of organic carbon during the origin of life on Earth.

  16. 14 CFR 121.365 - Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... alteration organization. 121.365 Section 121.365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... organization. (a) Each certificate holder that performs any of its maintenance (other than required inspections... work must have an organization adequate to perform the work. (b) Each certificate holder that...

  17. 14 CFR 121.365 - Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... alteration organization. 121.365 Section 121.365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... organization. (a) Each certificate holder that performs any of its maintenance (other than required inspections... work must have an organization adequate to perform the work. (b) Each certificate holder that...

  18. 14 CFR 121.365 - Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... alteration organization. 121.365 Section 121.365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... organization. (a) Each certificate holder that performs any of its maintenance (other than required inspections... work must have an organization adequate to perform the work. (b) Each certificate holder that...

  19. 14 CFR 121.365 - Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... alteration organization. 121.365 Section 121.365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... organization. (a) Each certificate holder that performs any of its maintenance (other than required inspections... work must have an organization adequate to perform the work. (b) Each certificate holder that...

  20. 14 CFR 121.365 - Maintenance, preventive maintenance, and alteration organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... alteration organization. 121.365 Section 121.365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... organization. (a) Each certificate holder that performs any of its maintenance (other than required inspections... work must have an organization adequate to perform the work. (b) Each certificate holder that...

  1. Animal health organizations: roles to mitigate the impact of ecologic change on animal health in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Acord, Bobby R; Walton, Thomas E

    2004-10-01

    Production of livestock across North and South America is extensive. The opportunities for production, commerce, and thriving economies related to animal agriculture are balanced against the devastating threats of disease. Commitment by livestock and poultry producers in exporting countries to production methods, herd health management, and biosecurity in their operations must be coupled with an animal health and marketing infrastructure that allows the industries to thrive and offers assurances to trading partners that their livestock industries will not be jeopardized. National and international animal health organizations play a key role in providing this infrastructure to the industries that they serve. The incentive for the successful World agricultural production economies to provide direction and support for improving animal health and conveying principles for competitive and safe production to lesser developed nations is the assurance that the expanding economies of these nations offer an eager and hungry market for the products of the other industries of an export-dependent economy. The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established after the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The WTO provides the permanent international multilateral institutional framework for implementing dispute resolution agreements and the agreement on the application of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures. The SPS agreements allow for the protection of animal and plant health. PMID:15604467

  2. Sources, Ages, and Alteration of Organic Matter in Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Hardison, Amber K.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes influencing the sources and fate of organic matter (OM) in estuaries is important for quantifying the contributions of carbon from land and rivers to the global carbon budget of the coastal ocean. Estuaries are sites of high OM production and processing, and understanding biogeochemical processes within these regions is key to quantifying organic carbon (Corg) budgets at the land-ocean margin. These regions provide vital ecological services, including nutrient filtration and protection from floods and storm surge, and provide habitat and nursery areas for numerous commercially important species. Human activities have modified estuarine systems over time, resulting in changes in the production, respiration, burial, and export of Corg. Corg in estuaries is derived from aquatic, terrigenous, and anthropogenic sources, with each source exhibiting a spectrum of ages and lability. The complex source and age characteristics of Corg in estuaries complicate our ability to trace OM along the river-estuary-coastal ocean continuum. This review focuses on the application of organic biomarkers and compound-specific isotope analyses to estuarine environments and on how these tools have enhanced our ability to discern natural sources of OM, trace their incorporation into food webs, and enhance understanding of the fate of Corg within estuaries and their adjacent waters.

  3. Sources, Ages, and Alteration of Organic Matter in Estuaries.

    PubMed

    Canuel, Elizabeth A; Hardison, Amber K

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes influencing the sources and fate of organic matter (OM) in estuaries is important for quantifying the contributions of carbon from land and rivers to the global carbon budget of the coastal ocean. Estuaries are sites of high OM production and processing, and understanding biogeochemical processes within these regions is key to quantifying organic carbon (Corg) budgets at the land-ocean margin. These regions provide vital ecological services, including nutrient filtration and protection from floods and storm surge, and provide habitat and nursery areas for numerous commercially important species. Human activities have modified estuarine systems over time, resulting in changes in the production, respiration, burial, and export of Corg. Corg in estuaries is derived from aquatic, terrigenous, and anthropogenic sources, with each source exhibiting a spectrum of ages and lability. The complex source and age characteristics of Corg in estuaries complicate our ability to trace OM along the river-estuary-coastal ocean continuum. This review focuses on the application of organic biomarkers and compound-specific isotope analyses to estuarine environments and on how these tools have enhanced our ability to discern natural sources of OM, trace their incorporation into food webs, and enhance understanding of the fate of Corg within estuaries and their adjacent waters. PMID:26407145

  4. Effects of lectin ingestion on animal growth and internal organs.

    PubMed

    Pusztai, A

    1998-01-01

    Lectins are essential and omnipresent plant constituents. As many foods are of plant origin, the daily ingestion of lectins by both humans and animals is appreciable. For example, in an ad hoc survey, 53 edible plants were shown to contain lectins and approx 30% of fresh and processed food regularly consumed by humans had significant hemagglutinating activity (1). The situation is potentially even more acute in animal nutrition because animal diet is less diverse than that of humans, and in most instances foodstuffs are not thoroughly heat-treated. This is particularly significant in the light of our finding a correlation between lectin activity and antinutritional effects (2). As in evolution, the mammalian gut has been regularly exposed to lectins, they must have played an important part in the development of the digestive system. Although based on experience, most overtly toxic plants have been eliminated from the diet, many plants with appreciable lectin content are still consumed because it has not been easy to relate growth retardation and antinutritional, mild allergic or other subclinical symptoms to the food consumed or a particular component of it. As some lectins are at least partially heat stable and most survive the passage through the gut in functionally and immunologically intact form, their interaction with the gut surface epithelium (3) can damage the gut at high dietary intakes and this may lead to digestive disorders/diseases in some instances. However, it is not generally appreciated that not all lectins are antinutrients and indeed some may have beneficial effects and be of potential value in nutritional practice. Accordingly, it is of considerable importance to establish whether a lectin has deleterious or potentially beneficial effects for mammals. Unfortunately at present there are no adequate in vitro methods to do this reliably and it is usually necessary to carry out in vivo animal feeding studies, despite their relatively cumbersome

  5. Complex organic chemical balms of Pharaonic animal mummies.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Stephen A; Clark, Katherine A; Evershed, Richard P

    2004-09-16

    Millions of votive mummies of mammals, birds and reptiles were produced throughout ancient Egypt, with their popularity increasing during the reign of Amenhotep III (1400 bc) and thereafter. The scale of production has been taken to indicate that relatively little care and expense was involved in their preparation compared with human mummies. The accepted view is that animals were merely wrapped in coarse linen bandages and/or dipped in 'resin' before death. However, as with human mummification there was a range of qualities of treatments, and visual inspection of animal mummies suggests that the procedures used were often as complex as those used in humans (for example, evisceration and elaborate bandaging). Moreover, the ancient Egyptians treated animals with great respect, regarding them both as domestic pets and representatives of the gods; for example, the cat symbolized the goddess Bastet; the hawk, Horus; the ibis, Thoth, and so on. We report here the results of chemical investigations of tissues and wrappings from Pharaonic cat, hawk and ibis mummies using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The analyses reveal the presence of highly complex mixtures of n-alkyl and cyclic biomarker components characteristic of fats, oils, beeswax, sugar gum, petroleum bitumen, and coniferous, Pistacia and possibly cedar resins. The mixture of balms is of comparable complexity to those used to mummify humans from the same period. PMID:15372029

  6. Gold nanoparticles alter parameters of oxidative stress and energy metabolism in organs of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriela Kozuchovski; Cardoso, Eria; Vuolo, Francieli Silva; Michels, Monique; Zanoni, Elton Torres; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gomes, Lara Mezari; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Rezin, Gislaine Tezza; Streck, Emilio L; Paula, Marcos Marques da Silva

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the parameters of oxidative stress and energy metabolism after the acute and long-term administration of gold nanoparticles (GNPs, 10 and 30 nm in diameter) in different organs of rats. Adult male Wistar rats received a single intraperitoneal injection or repeated injections (once daily for 28 days) of saline solution, GNPs-10 or GNPs-30. Twenty-four hours after the last administration, the animals were killed, and the liver, kidney, and heart were isolated for biochemical analysis. We demonstrated that acute administration of GNPs-30 increased the TBARS levels, and that GNPs-10 increased the carbonyl protein levels. The long-term administration of GNPs-10 increased the TBARS levels, and the carbonyl protein levels were increased by GNPs-30. Acute administration of GNPs-10 and GNPs-30 increased SOD activity. Long-term administration of GNPs-30 increased SOD activity. Acute administration of GNPs-10 decreased the activity of CAT, whereas long-term administration of GNP-10 and GNP-30 altered CAT activity randomly. Our results also demonstrated that acute GNPs-30 administration decreased energy metabolism, especially in the liver and heart. Long-term GNPs-10 administration increased energy metabolism in the liver and decreased energy metabolism in the kidney and heart, whereas long-term GNPs-30 administration increased energy metabolism in the heart. The results of our study are consistent with other studies conducted in our research group and reinforce the fact that GNPs can lead to oxidative damage, which is responsible for DNA damage and alterations in energy metabolism. PMID:26583437

  7. Growing Algae Alter Spectroscopic Characteristics and Chlorine Reactivity of Dissolved Organic Matter from Thermally-Altered Forest Litters.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kuo-Pei; Chow, Alex T

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that wildfires alter spectroscopic characteristics of terrestrial dissolved organic matter (DOM) and increase specific disinfection byproduct formation potential (SDBP-FP). However, it is unclear whether characteristics of thermally altered DOM (TA-DOM) are altered by biogeochemical processes (e.g., transformed by growing algae) before entering water treatment facilities. The freshwater green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and blue-green algae Microcystis aeruginosa were separately incubated in the mixture of cultural medium and pine (Pinus palustris) litter-derived TA-DOMs (50 °C, 250 °C, and 400 °C) over 7 days to demonstrate the effects of algal growth on alterations in SDBP-FP. TA-DOM optical characteristics and SDBP-FP were quantified by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and chlorination-based DBP-FP experiments. After the inoculation with P. subcapitata, TA-DOM aromaticity (indicated by SUVA254) increased from 1.19 to 1.90 L/mg/m for 50 °C-extract but decreased from 4.95 to 3.75 L/mg/m for 400 °C-extract. The fraction of tyrosine-like components decreased from 25.9 to 9.3% for 50 °C-extract but increased from 0.9 to 1.3% for 400 °C-extract. Same patterns were also observed for M. aeruginosa. Growing algae generally increased chlorine reactivities and formations of trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, chloral hydrate, and haloketones. Our data suggest that the biodegradable dissolved organic carbon in TA-DOM decreases as fire intensity (i.e., temperature) increases. Postfire algal blooms can increase chlorine reactivity of fire-affected terrestrial DOM for DBP formation. PMID:27366813

  8. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  9. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... live organisms. Safeguards as herein provided shall be established by the research investigator or research sponsor to control disposition of all animals administered experimental biological products or... Regulations). (c) Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, the research investigator or...

  10. 9 CFR 103.2 - Disposition of animals administered experimental biological products or live organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... live organisms. Safeguards as herein provided shall be established by the research investigator or research sponsor to control disposition of all animals administered experimental biological products or... Regulations). (c) Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, the research investigator or...

  11. Effects of lithium on oxidative stress and behavioral alterations induced by lisdexamfetamine dimesylate: relevance as an animal model of mania.

    PubMed

    Macêdo, Danielle S; de Lucena, David F; Queiroz, Ana Isabelle G; Cordeiro, Rafaela C; Araújo, Maíra M; Sousa, Francisca Cléa; Vasconcelos, Silvânia M; Hyphantis, Thomas N; Quevedo, João; McIntyre, Roger S; Carvalho, André F

    2013-06-01

    Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a prodrug that requires conversion to d-amphetamine (d-AMPH) for bioactivity. Treatment with d-AMPH induces hyperlocomotion and is regarded as a putative animal model of bipolar mania. Therefore, we sought to determine the behavioral and oxidative stress alterations induced by sub-chronic LDX administration as well as their reversal and prevention by lithium in rats. A significant increment in locomotor behavior was induced by LDX (10 and 30 mg/kg). To determine Li effects against LDX-induced alterations, in the reversal protocol rats received LDX (10 or 30 mg/kg) or saline for 14 days. Between days 8 and 14 animals received Li (47.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline. In the prevention paradigm, rats were pretreated with Li or saline prior to LDX administration. Glutathione (GSH) levels and lipid peroxidation was determined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HC) and striatum (ST) of rats. Lithium prevented LDX-induced hyperlocomotion at the doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg, but only reversed LDX-induced hyperlocomotion at dose of 10mg/kg. In addition, both doses of LDX decreased GSH content (in ST and PFC), while Li was able to reverse and prevent these alterations mainly in the PFC. LDX (10 and 30 mg/kg) increased lipid peroxidation which was reversed and prevented by Li. In conclusion, LDX-induced hyperlocomotion along with associated increments in oxidative stress show promise as an alternative animal model of mania. PMID:23333378

  12. Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA): Student Performance, Student Perceptions, and Instructor Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunersel, Adalet Baris; Fleming, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that computer animations are especially helpful in fields such as chemistry and in this mixed-methods study, we investigate the educational effectiveness of Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA), a 3-D software, in four undergraduate biochemistry classes at different universities. Statistically significant findings indicate that…

  13. Qualitative Assessment of a 3D Simulation Program: Faculty, Students, and Bio-Organic Reaction Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Günersel, Adalet B.; Fleming, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that computer-based simulations and animations are especially helpful in fields such as chemistry where concepts are abstract and cannot be directly observed. Bio-Organic Reaction Animations (BioORA) is a freely available 3D visualization software program developed to help students understand the chemistry of biomolecular events.…

  14. Hydrothermal alteration experiments: tracking the path from interstellar to chondrites organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradoff, V.; Bernard, S.; Le Guillou, C.; Jaber, M.; Remusat, L.

    2015-10-01

    Organic molecules are detected in primitive carbonaceous chondrites. The origin of these organics, whether formed prior the accretion phase, or in-situ on the parent body, is still a matter of debate. We have investigated experimentally the chemical evolution of interstellar organic molecules submitted to hydrothermal conditions, mimicking asteroidal alteration (T<200°C). In particular, we want to assess the potential catalytic role of clays minerals in the polymerization/degradation of organics. Hexamethylenetetramine (HMT, compound of C-N bonds) is used as a plausible interstellar precursors from icy grains. Experimental products reveal a large diversity of molecules, including nitrogen organic molecules similar to those found in chondrites.

  15. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Organics and Alteration in Carbonaceous Chondrites: Goop and Crud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Organics and Alteration in Carbonaceous Chondrites: Goop and Crud" included the following reports:Organics on Fe-Silicate Grains: Potential Mimicry of Meteoritic Processes?; Molecular and Compound-Specific Isotopic Study of Monocarboxylic Acids in Murchison and Antarctic Meteorites; Nanoglobules, Macromolecular Materials, and Carbon Sulfides in Carbonaceous Chondrites; Evidence for Terrestrial Organic Contamination of the Tagish Lake Meteorite; Nitrogen Isotopic Imaging of Tagish Lake Carbon Globules; Microscale Distribution of Hydrogen Isotopes in Two Carbonaceous Chondrites; The Nature and Origin of Aromatic Organic Matter in the Tagish Lake Meteorite; Terrestrial Alteration of CM Chondritic Carbonate; Serpentine Nanotubes in CM Chondrites; Experimental Study of Serpentinization Reactions; Chondrule Glass Alteration in Type IIA Chondrules in the CR2 Chondrites EET 87770 and EET 92105: Insights into Elemental Exchange Between Chondrules and Matrices; Aqueous Alteration of Carbonaceous Chondrites: New Insights from Comparative Studies of Two Unbrecciated CM2 Chondrites, Y 791198 and ALH 81002 ;and A Unique Style of Alteration of Iron-Nickel Metal in WIS91600, an Unusual C2 Carbonaceous Chondrite.

  16. Human Direct Actions May Alter Animal Welfare, a Study on Horses (Equus caballus)

    PubMed Central

    Lesimple, Clémence; Fureix, Carole; Menguy, Hervé; Hausberger, Martine

    2010-01-01

    Background Back pain is the cause of bad welfare in humans and animals. Although vertebral problems are regularly reported on riding horses, these problems are not always identified nor noticed enough to prevent these horses to be used for work. Methodology/Principal Findings Nineteen horses from two riding centres were submitted to chiropractic examinations performed by an experienced chiropractor and both horses' and riders' postures were observed during a riding lesson. The results show that 74% of horses were severely affected by vertebral problems, while only 26% were mildly or not affected. The degree of vertebral problems identified at rest was statistically correlated with horses' attitudes at work (neck height and curve), and horses' attitudes at work were clearly correlated with riders' positions. Clear differences appeared between schools concerning both riders' and horses' postures, and the analysis of the teachers' speech content and duration highlighted differences in the attention devoted to the riders' position. Conclusion/Significance These findings are to our knowledge the first to underline the impact of riding on horses' back problems and the importance of teaching proper balance to beginner riders in order to increase animals' welfare. PMID:20442766

  17. Soil-foraging animals alter the composition and co-occurrence of microbial communities in a desert shrubland.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, David J; Woodhouse, Jason N; Curlevski, Nathalie J A; Hayward, Matthew; Brown, Mark V; Neilan, Brett A

    2015-12-01

    Animals that modify their physical environment by foraging in the soil can have dramatic effects on ecosystem functions and processes. We compared bacterial and fungal communities in the foraging pits created by bilbies and burrowing bettongs with undisturbed surface soils dominated by biocrusts. Bacterial communities were characterized by Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria, and fungal communities by Lecanoromycetes and Archaeosporomycetes. The composition of bacterial or fungal communities was not observed to vary between loamy or sandy soils. There were no differences in richness of either bacterial or fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the soil of young or old foraging pits, or undisturbed soils. Although the bacterial assemblage did not vary among the three microsites, the composition of fungi in undisturbed soils was significantly different from that in old or young foraging pits. Network analysis indicated that a greater number of correlations between bacterial OTUs occurred in undisturbed soils and old pits, whereas a greater number of correlations between fungal OTUs occurred in undisturbed soils. Our study suggests that digging by soil-disturbing animals is likely to create successional shifts in soil microbial and fungal communities, leading to functional shifts associated with the decomposition of organic matter and the fixation of nitrogen. Given the primacy of organic matter decomposition in arid and semi-arid environments, the loss of native soil-foraging animals is likely to impair the ability of these systems to maintain key ecosystem processes such as the mineralization of nitrogen and the breakdown of organic matter, and to recover from disturbance. PMID:25932616

  18. Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from Common Mobile Phone Jammers Alters the Pattern of Muscle Contractions: an Animal Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Rafati, A.; Rahimi, S.; Talebi, A.; Soleimani, A.; Haghani, M.; Mortazavi, S. M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The rapid growth of wireless communication technologies has caused public concerns regarding the biological effects of electromagnetic radiations on human health. Some early reports indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians such as the alterations of the pattern of muscle extractions. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted from mobile phone jammers on the pulse height of contractions, the time interval between two subsequent contractions and the latency period of frog’s isolated gastrocnemius muscle after stimulation with single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz). Materials and Methods Frogs were kept in plastic containers in a room. Animals in the jammer group were exposed to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted from a common Jammer at a distance of 1m from the jammer’s antenna for 2 hours while the control frogs were only sham exposed. Then animals were sacrificed and isolated gastrocnemius muscles were exposed to on/off jammer radiation for 3 subsequent 10 minute intervals. Isolated gastrocnemius muscles were attached to the force transducer with a string. Using a PowerLab device (26-T), the pattern of muscular contractions was monitored after applying single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz) as stimuli. Results The findings of this study showed that the pulse height of muscle contractions could not be affected by the exposure to electromagnetic fields. However, the latency period was effectively altered in RF-exposed samples. However, none of the experiments could show an alteration in the time interval between two subsequent contractions after exposure to electromagnetic fields. Conclusion These findings support early reports which indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians including the effects on the pattern of muscle extractions. PMID:26396969

  19. Animal Toxins Can Alter the Function of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9

    PubMed Central

    Gilchrist, John; Bosmans, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Human voltage-activated sodium (Nav) channels are adept at rapidly transmitting electrical signals across long distances in various excitable tissues. As such, they are amongst the most widely targeted ion channels by drugs and animal toxins. Of the nine isoforms, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 are preferentially expressed in DRG neurons where they are thought to play an important role in pain signaling. Although the functional properties of Nav1.8 have been relatively well characterized, difficulties with expressing Nav1.9 in established heterologous systems limit our understanding of the gating properties and toxin pharmacology of this particular isoform. This review summarizes our current knowledge of the role of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 in pain perception and elaborates on the approaches used to identify molecules capable of influencing their function. PMID:23012651

  20. Ethical issues of transplanting organs from transgenic animals into human beings.

    PubMed

    Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human's body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal's organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334

  1. Alterations in glucose and protein metabolism in animals subjected to simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondon, C. E.; Rodnick, K. J.; Dolkas, C. B.; Azhar, S.; Reaven, G. M.

    1992-09-01

    Reduction of physical activity due to disease or environmental restraints, such as total bed rest or exposure to spaceflight, leads to atrophy of skeletal muscle and is frequently accompanied by alterations in food intake and the concentration of metabolic regulatory hormones such as insulin. Hindlimb suspension of laboratory rats, as a model for microgravity, also shows marked atrophy of gravity dependent muscles along with a reduced gain in body weight. Suspended rats exhibit enhanced sensitivity to insulin-induced glucose uptake when compared with normal control rats and resistance to insulin action when compared with control rats matched similarly for reduced body weight gain. These changes are accompanied by decreased insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activity in soleus but not plantaris muscle, unchanged glucose uptake by perfused hindlimb and decreased sensitivity but not responsiveness to insulin-induced suppression of net proteolysis in hindlimb skeletal muscle. These findings suggest that loss of insulin sensitivity during muscle atrophy is associated with decreased insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activity in atrophied soleus muscle along with decreased sensitivity to the effects of insulin on suppressing net protein breakdown but not on enhancing glucose uptake by perfused hindlimb.

  2. Alterations in glucose and protein metabolism in animals subjected to simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondon, C. E.; Rodnick, K. J.; Azhar, S.; Reaven, G. M.; Dolkas, C. B.

    1992-01-01

    Reduction of physical activity due to disease or environmental restraints, such as total bed rest or exposure to spaceflight, leads to atrophy of skeletal muscle and is frequently accompanied by alterations in food intake and the concentration of metabolic regulatory hormones such as insulin. Hindlimb suspension of laboratory rats, as a model for microgravity, also shows marked atrophy of gravity-dependent muscles along with a reduced gain in body weight. Suspended rats exhibit enhanced sensitivity to insulin-induced glucose uptake when compared with normal control rats and resistance to insulin action when compared with control rats matched similarly for reduced body weight gain. These changes are accompanied by decreased insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activity in soleus but not plantaris muscle, unchanged glucose uptake by perfused hindlimb and decreased sensitivity but not responsiveness to insulin-induced suppression of net proteolysis in hindlimb skeletal muscle. These findings suggest that loss of insulin sensitivity during muscle atrophy is associated with decreased insulin binding and tyrosine kinase activity in atrophied soleus muscle along with decreased sensitivity to the effects of insulin on suppressing net protein breakdown but not on enhancing glucose uptake by perfused hindlimb.

  3. Molecular alterations in areas generating fast ripples in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Winden, Kellen D; Bragin, Anatol; Engel, Jerome; Geschwind, Dan H

    2015-06-01

    The molecular basis of epileptogenesis is poorly characterized. Studies in humans and animal models have identified an electrophysiological signature that precedes the onset of epilepsy, which has been termed fast ripples (FRs) based on its frequency. Multiple lines of evidence implicate regions generating FRs in epileptogenesis, and FRs appear to demarcate the seizure onset zone, suggesting a role in ictogenesis as well. We performed gene expression analysis comparing areas of the dentate gyrus that generate FRs to those that do not generate FRs in a well-characterized rat model of epilepsy. We identified a small cohort of genes that are differentially expressed in FR versus non-FR brain tissue and used quantitative PCR to validate some of those that modulate neuronal excitability. Gene expression network analysis demonstrated conservation of gene co-expression between non-FR and FR samples, but examination of gene connectivity revealed changes that were most pronounced in the cm-40 module, which contains several genes associated with synaptic function and the differentially expressed genes Kcna4, Kcnv1, and Npy1r that are down-regulated in FRs. We then demonstrate that the genes within the cm-40 module are regulated by seizure activity and enriched for the targets of the RNA binding protein Elavl4. Our data suggest that seizure activity induces co-expression of genes associated with synaptic transmission and that this pattern is attenuated in areas displaying FRs, implicating the failure of this mechanism in the generation of FRs. PMID:25818007

  4. Molecular alterations in areas generating fast ripples in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Winden, Kellen D.; Bragin, Anatol; Engel, Jerome; Geschwind, Dan H.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular basis of epileptogenesis is poorly characterized. Studies in humans and animal models have identified an electrophysiological signature that precedes the onset of epilepsy, which has been termed fast ripples (FRs) based on its frequency. Multiple lines of evidence implicate regions generating FRs in epileptogenesis, and FRs appear to demarcate the seizure onset zone, suggesting a role in ictogenesis as well. We performed gene expression analysis comparing areas of the dentate gyrus that generate FRs to those that do not generate FRs in a well-characterized rat model of epilepsy. We identified a small cohort of genes that are differentially expressed in FR versus non-FR brain tissue and used quantitative PCR to validate some of those that modulate neuronal excitability. Gene expression network analysis demonstrated conservation of gene co-expression between non-FR and FR samples, but examination of gene connectivity revealed changes that were most pronounced in the cm-40 module, which contains several genes associated with synaptic function and the differentially expressed genes Kcna4, Kcnv1, and Npy1r that are down-regulated in FRs. We then demonstrate that the genes within the cm-40 module are regulated by seizure activity and enriched for the targets of the RNA binding protein Elavl4. Our data suggest that seizure activity induces co-expression of genes associated with synaptic transmission and that this pattern is attenuated in areas displaying FRs, implicating the failure of this mechanism in the generation of FRs. PMID:25818007

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids alter behavioral and oxidative stress parameters in animals subjected to fenproporex administration.

    PubMed

    Model, Camila S; Gomes, Lara M; Scaini, Giselli; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Rezin, Gislaine T; Steckert, Amanda V; Valvassori, Samira S; Varela, Roger B; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

    2014-03-01

    Studies have consistently reported the participation of oxidative stress in bipolar disorder (BD). Evidences indicate that omega-3 (ω3) fatty acids play several important roles in brain development and functioning. Moreover, preclinical and clinical evidence suggests roles for ω3 fatty acids in BD. Considering these evidences, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of ω3 fatty acids on locomotor behavior and oxidative stress parameters (TBARS and protein carbonyl content) in brain of rats subjected to an animal model of mania induced by fenproporex. The fenproporex treatment increased locomotor behavior in saline-treated rats under reversion and prevention model, and ω3 fatty acids prevented fenproporex-related hyperactivity. Moreover, fenproporex increased protein carbonyls in the prefrontal cortex and cerebral cortex, and the administration of ω3 fatty acids reversed this effect. Lipid peroxidation products also are increased in prefrontal cortex, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral after fenproporex administration, but ω3 fatty acids reversed this damage only in the hippocampus. On the other hand, in the prevention model, fenproporex increased carbonyl content only in the cerebral cortex, and administration of ω3 fatty acids prevented this damage. Additionally, the administration of fenproporex resulted in a marked increased of TBARS in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebral cortex, and prevent this damage in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. In conclusion, we are able to demonstrate that fenproporex-induced hyperlocomotion and damage through oxidative stress were prevented by ω3 fatty acids. Thus, the ω3 fatty acids may be important adjuvant therapy of bipolar disorder. PMID:24385143

  6. Altered expression of hypoxia-Inducible factor-1α participates in the epileptogenesis in animal models.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Jiang, Guohui; Chen, Yalan; Chen, Ling; Li, Zengyou; Wang, Zhihua; Wang, Xuefeng

    2014-09-01

    Although epilepsy is a common neurological disorder, its mechanism(s) are still not completely understood. Hypoxia can lead to neuronal cell death and angiogenesis, and the same mechanisms were also found in epilepsy. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is an important transcription protein that regulates gene expression in the brain and other tissues in response to decreases in oxygen availability. However, little is known regarding the expression of HIF-1α in the epileptic brain and whether HIF-1α interventions affect the epileptic process. The aims of this study are to investigate the expression profile of HIF-1α in rat models and to explore the role of HIF-1α in epilepsy. We performed Western blots and immunofluorescence in a lithium-pilocarpine rat epilepsy model. To determine the role of HIF-1α in epilepsy, we used the HIF-1α agonist DMOG and inhibitor KC7F2 to detect changes in the animal behavior in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and lithium-pilocarpine epilepsy models. The expression of HIF-1α was significantly increased after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. DMOG significantly prolonged the latent period in the PTZ kindling model and decreased the rate of spontaneous recurrent seizures during the chronic stage in the lithium-pilocarpine model. Conversely, the inhibitor KC7F2 produced an opposite behavioral change. Interestingly, both KC7F2 and DMOG had no effect on the acute stage of pilocarpine model and PTZ convulsive model. Our study suggests that upregulated HIF-1α may be involved in the process of epileptogenesis but not in the acute stage of epilepsy. The modulation of HIF-1α may offer a novel therapeutic target in epilepsy. PMID:24889205

  7. Farm Animal Models of Organic Dust Exposure and Toxicity: Insights and Implications for Respiratory Health

    PubMed Central

    McClendon, Chakia J.; Gerald, Carresse L.; Waterman, Jenora T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Modern food animal production is a major contributor to the global economy, owing to advanced intensive indoor production facilities aimed at increasing market readiness and profit. Consequences of these advances are accumulation of dusts, gases and microbial products that diminish air quality within production facilities. Chronic inhalation exposure contributes to onset and exacerbation of respiratory symptoms and diseases in animals and workers. This article reviews literature regarding constituents of farm animal production facility dusts; animal responses to production building and organic dust exposure, and the effect of chronic inhalation exposure on pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation. Recent findings –Porcine models of production facility and organic dust exposures reveal striking similarities to observations of human cells, tissues and clinical data. Oxidative stress plays a key role in mediating respiratory diseases in animals and humans, and enhancement of antioxidant levels through nutritional supplements can improve respiratory health. Summary – Pigs are well adapted to the exposures common to swine production buildings and thus serve as excellent models for facility workers. Insight for understanding mechanisms governing organic dust associated respiratory diseases may come from parallel comparisons between farmers and the animals they raise. PMID:25636160

  8. Ethical Issues of Transplanting Organs from Transgenic Animals into Human Beings

    PubMed Central

    Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human’s body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal’s organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334

  9. Roles of the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) and International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) in the Global Organization and Support of 3Rs Advances in Laboratory Animal Science

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Patricia V; Pekow, Cynthia; Clark, Judy MacArthur; Vergara, Patri; Bayne, Kathryn; White, William J; Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baneux, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Practical implementation of the 3Rs at national and regional levels around the world requires long-term commitment, backing, and coordinated efforts by international associations for laboratory animal medicine and science, including the International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). Together these organizations support the efforts of regional organization and communities of laboratory animal science professionals as well as the development of local associations and professional colleges that promote the training and continuing education of research facility personnel and veterinary specialists. The recent formation of a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Collaborating Center for Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare emphasizes the need for research into initiatives promoting laboratory animal welfare, particularly in emerging economies and regions with nascent associations of laboratory animal science. PMID:25836964

  10. Roles of the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS) and International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) in the Global Organization and Support of 3Rs Advances in Laboratory Animal Science.

    PubMed

    Turner, Patricia V; Pekow, Cynthia; Clark, Judy MacArthur; Vergara, Patri; Bayne, Kathryn; White, William J; Kurosawa, Tsutomu Miki; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Baneux, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Practical implementation of the 3Rs at national and regional levels around the world requires long-term commitment, backing, and coordinated efforts by international associations for laboratory animal medicine and science, including the International Association of Colleges of Laboratory Animal Medicine (IACLAM) and the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). Together these organizations support the efforts of regional organization and communities of laboratory animal science professionals as well as the development of local associations and professional colleges that promote the training and continuing education of research facility personnel and veterinary specialists. The recent formation of a World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Collaborating Center for Laboratory Animal Science and Welfare emphasizes the need for research into initiatives promoting laboratory animal welfare, particularly in emerging economies and regions with nascent associations of laboratory animal science. PMID:25836964

  11. Sex-specific alterations in behavioral and cognitive functions in a "three hit" animal model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kekesi, G; Petrovszki, Z; Benedek, G; Horvath, G

    2015-05-01

    Whereas schizophrenia affects both human sexes, there are known sex-dependent disparities. We developed a chronic animal model that shows some schizophrenia-related deficits in rats by applying selective breeding after subchronic ketamine administration connected with postweaning social isolation (complex treatment). Our aim was to determine the sex-specific effects of these interventions on several processes. Sensory gating to acoustic stimulation, pain sensitivity, motor behavior, spatial learning and memory deficits on the hole-board test were assessed in the 17th generation of selectively bred Wistar rats compared to their naive counterparts with or without complex treatment. We found differences between the sexes: selectively bred males with complex treatment showed the lowest pain sensitivity; however, the results of the prepulse inhibition test indicated that female rats showed enhanced impairment of sensory gating and increased acoustic startle reaction. The cognitive performance, working and reference memory ratios were significantly decreased by selective breeding and showed sex-specific alterations, with the smallest value in male rats of the new substrain. Based on these results, the animals of the new substrain could be classified into the high-risk for schizophreniform phenotype with the highest sensitivity of males with complex treatment. Decreased cognitive performance highlighted spatial learning deficits in the selectively bred and treated rats that escalate the validity of our new and complex rat model of schizophrenia. The results indicate the same sex selectivity as observed in humans, with increased incidence of risk ratios for men to develop schizophrenia relative to women. PMID:25698594

  12. Thermal alterations of organic matter in coal wastes from Upper Silesia, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misz-Kennan, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    Self-heating and self-combustion are currently taking place in some coal waste dumps in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland, e.g. the dumps at Rymer Cones, Starzykowiec, and the Marcel Coal Mine, all in the Rybnik area. These dumps are of similar age and self-heating and combustion have been occurring in all three for many years. The tools of organic petrography (maceral composition, rank, etc.), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and proximate and ultimate analysis are used to investigate the wastes. Organic matter occurs in quantities up to 85 vol.%, typically a few to several vol.%, in the wastes. All three maceral groups (vitrinite, liptinite, and inertinite) are present as unaltered and variously-altered constituents associated with newly-formed petrographic components (bitumen expulsions, pyrolytic carbon). The predominant maceral group is vitrinite with alterations reflected in the presence of irregular cracks, oxidation rims and, rarely, devolatilisation pores. In altered wastes, paler grey-vitrinite and/or coke dominates. The lack of plasticity, the presence of paler-coloured particles, isotropic massive coke, dispersed coked organic matter, and expulsions of bitumens all indicate that heating was slow and extended over a long time. Macerals belonging to other groups are present in unaltered form or with colours paler than the colours of the parent macerals. Based on the relative contents of organic compounds, the most important groups of these identified in the wastes are n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, hopanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives, phenol and its derivatives. These compounds occur in all wastes except those most highly altered where they were probably destroyed by high temperatures. These compounds were generated mainly from liptinite-group macerals. Driven by evaporation and leaching, they migrated within and out of the dump. Their presence in some wastes in which microscopically visible

  13. Inhaled hydrogen sulfide induces suspended animation, but does not alter the inflammatory response after blunt chest trauma.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Daniel H; Fröba, Janine S; Niesler, Ulrike; Palmer, Annette; Veltkamp, Heinrich A; Braumüller, Sonja T; Wagner, Florian; Wagner, Katja; Bäder, Stefan; Wachter, Ulrich; Calzia, Enrico; Radermacher, Peter; Huber-Lang, Markus S; Zhou, Shaoxia; Gebhard, Florian; Knöferl, Markus W

    2012-02-01

    The treatment of acute lung injury and septic complications after blunt chest trauma remains a challenge. Inhaled hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) may cause a hibernation-like metabolic state, which refers to an attenuated systemic inflammatory response. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that inhaled H₂S-induced suspended animation may attenuate the inflammation after pulmonary contusion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to blunt chest trauma (blast wave) or sham procedure and subsequently exposed to a continuous flow of H₂S (100 ppm) or control gas for 6 h. Body temperature and activity were measured by an implanted transmitter. At 6, 24, or 48 h after trauma, animals were killed, and the cellular contents of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) as well as cytokine concentrations in BAL, plasma, and culture supernatants of blood mononuclear cells, Kupffer cells, splenic macrophages, and splenocytes were determined. Hydrogen sulfide inhalation caused a significant reduction in body temperature and activity. The trauma-induced increase in alveolar macrophage counts was abrogated 48 h after trauma when animals received H₂S, whereas the trauma-induced increase in neutrophil counts was unaltered. Furthermore, H₂S inhalation partially attenuated the mediator release in BAL and culture supernatants of Kupffer cells as well as splenic cells; it altered plasma cytokine concentrations but did not affect the trauma-induced changes in mononuclear cell culture supernatants. These findings indicate that inhaled H₂S induced a reduced metabolic expenditure and partially attenuated inflammation after trauma. Nevertheless, in contrast to hypoxic- or pathogen-induced lung injury, H₂S treatment appears to have no protective effect after blunt chest trauma. PMID:22089191

  14. Endoderm induction by the organizer-secreted factors chordin and noggin in Xenopus animal caps.

    PubMed Central

    Sasai, Y; Lu, B; Piccolo, S; De Robertis, E M

    1996-01-01

    Spemann's organizer has potent neural inducing and mesoderm dorsalizing activities in the Xenopus gastrula. A third activity, the organizer's ability to induce a secondary gut, has been difficult to analyze experimentally due to the lack of early gene markers. Here we introduce endodermin, a pan-endodermal gene marker, and use it to demonstrate that chordin (Chd), a protein secreted by the organizer region, is able to induce endodermal differentiation in Xenopus. The ability of chd, as well as that of noggin, to induce endoderm in animal cap explants is repressed by the ventralizing factor BMP-4. When FGF signaling is blocked by a dominant-negative FGF receptor in chd-injected animal caps, neural induction is inhibited and most of the explant is induced to become endoderm. The results suggest that proteins secreted by the organizer, acting together with known peptide growth factors, regulate differentiation of the endodermal germ layer. Images PMID:8887546

  15. Development of Gravity-Sensing Organs in Altered Gravity Conditions: Opposite Conclusions From an Amphibian and a Molluscan Preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiederhold, Michael L.; Pedrozo, Hugo A.; Harrison, Jeffrey L.; Hejl, Robert; Gao, Wenyuan

    1997-01-01

    Several components of the systems animals use to orient to gravity might develop differently in micrograms. If the growth of the "test masses" on which gravity acts (otoliths, in vertebrates, statoliths or statoconia in most invertebrates) is controlled on the basis of their weight, larger otoliths (or their analogs) would be expected to develop in micrograms. The vestibular systems in animals reared in altered gravity have been studied in several species, with varied results being reported. Early Russian reports of Xenopus larvae reared in space indicated no qualitative differences in the vestibular organs, compared to ground-reared controls. A similar lack of differences in Xenopus were reported. The ultricular otolith was 30% larger in space-reared Xenopus. No differences in saccular otolith volume between centrifuged and control adult rats were found. A delay in otoconial development in chick embryos reared at 2 grams on a centrifuge was reported but in a later report, no differences in otolith weight between 2 grams and control chicks were found. Increased optokinetic responses in flight-reared Xenopus tadpoles, suggesting that the animals reared in the absence of gravity made greater relative use of their visual system, rather than the vestibular system, in orienting to a moving stimulus was reported. To test early Japanese newt, CYnops pyrrhogaster, were maintained in orbit for 15 days on the IML-2 mission in 1994. All specimens reached orbit before any otoconia were formed and all major components of the inner ear were formed by the end of the flight. In ground-based studies of he Aplysia statocyst, the volume of the statolith in embryos and the number statoconia in post-metamorphic animals were compared between 1-gram controls and specimens reared at 2 to 5.7 grams.

  16. Pulmonary reactions to organic dust exposures: development of an animal model.

    PubMed Central

    Castranova, V; Robinson, V A; Frazer, D G

    1996-01-01

    Acute inhalation of organic dusts such as cotton, hay, silage, grain, animal confinement, or compost dust can result in illness characterized by fever, pulmonary inflammation, chest tightness, and airway obstruction. These agricultural materials are complex mixtures of plant, bacterial, and fungal products. Elucidation of the time course of disease onset, the mechanisms of disease progression, and the identity of etiologic agents is essential for effective prevention and treatment. Toward this end, animal models for acute organic dust-induced reactions have been developed and characterized. Information concerning the applicability of various animal models to humans and progress toward elucidation of causative agents and mechanisms of action is presented. Images Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C PMID:8722109

  17. Short Animation Movies as Advance Organizers in Physics Teaching: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koscianski, Andre; Ribeiro, Rafael Joao; da Silva, Sani Carvalho Rutz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Advance organizers are instructional materials that help students use previous knowledge to make links with new information. Short animation movies are a possible format and are well suited for physics, as they can portray dynamic phenomena and represent abstract concepts. Purpose: The study aimed to determine guidelines for the…

  18. What's Inside Bodies? Learning about Skeletons and Other Organ Systems of Vertebrate Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael

    This paper describes a study of young children's understanding of what is on the inside of animals--skeletons and other organ systems. The study uses 2-D drawings based on the idea that a drawing is the representational model and is the outward expression of the mental model. The 617 drawings made by participants in the study were awarded one of…

  19. Characterizing and mitigating emissions of volatile organic compounds from animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from animal feeding operations negatively impact local and potentially regional air quality though the release of both odorous and ozone precursor molecules. Characterizing emissions of VOCs from AFOs is strongly influenced by both the method and location of ...

  20. Stage-dependent alterations of progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis in an animal model of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vetreno, Ryan P; Klintsova, Anna; Savage, Lisa M

    2011-05-19

    Alcohol-induced Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) culminates in bilateral diencephalic lesion and severe amnesia. Using the pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) animal paradigm of WKS, our laboratory has demonstrated hippocampal dysfunction in the absence of gross anatomical pathology. Extensive literature has revealed reduced hippocampal neurogenesis following a neuropathological insult, which might contribute to hippocampus-based learning and memory impairments. Thus, the current investigation was conducted to determine whether PTD treatment altered hippocampal neurogenesis in a stage-dependent fashion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of 4 stages of thiamine deficiency based on behavioral symptoms: pre-symptomatic stage, ataxic stage, early post-opisthotonus stage, or the late post-opisthotonus stage. The S-phase mitotic marker 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered at the conclusion of each stage following thiamine restoration and subjects were perfused 24 hours or 28 days after BrdU to assess cellular proliferation or neurogenesis and survival, respectively. Dorsal hippocampal sections were immunostained for BrdU (proliferating cell marker), NeuN (neurons), GFAP (astrocytes), Iba-1 (microglia), and O4 (oligodendrocytes). The PTD treatment increased progenitor cell proliferation and survival during the early post-opisthotonus stage. However, levels of neurogenesis were reduced during this stage as well as the late post-opisthotonus stage where there was also an increase in astrocytogenesis. The diminished numbers of newly generated neurons (BrdU/NeuN co-localization) was paralleled by increased BrdU cells that did not co-localize with any of the phenotypic markers during these later stages. These data demonstrate that long-term alterations in neurogenesis and gliogenesis might contribute to the observed hippocampal dysfunction in the PTD model and human WKS. PMID:21440532

  1. Stage-dependent alterations of progenitor cell proliferation and neurogenesis in an animal model of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Klintsova, Anna; Savage, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol-induced Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) culminates in bilateral diencephalic lesion and severe amnesia. Using the pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) animal paradigm of WKS, our laboratory has demonstrated hippocampal dysfunction in the absence of gross anatomical pathology. Extensive literature has revealed reduced hippocampal neurogenesis following a neuropathological insult, which might contribute to hippocampus-based learning and memory impairments. Thus, the current investigation was conducted to determine whether PTD treatment altered hippocampal neurogenesis in a stage-dependent fashion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of 4 stages of thiamine deficiency based on behavioral symptoms: pre-symptomatic stage, ataxic stage, early post-opisthotonus stage, or the late post-opisthotonus stage. The S-phase mitotic marker 5′-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered at the conclusion of each stage following thiamine restoration and subjects were perfused 24-hours or 28-days after BrdU to assess cellular proliferation or neurogenesis and survival, respectively. Dorsal hippocampal sections were immunostained for BrdU (proliferating cell marker), NeuN (neurons), GFAP (astrocytes), Iba-1 (microglia), and O4 (oligodendrocytes). The PTD treatment increased progenitor cell proliferation and survival during the early post-opisthotonus stage. However, levels of neurogenesis were reduced during this stage as well as the late post-opisthotonus stage where there was also an increase in astrocytogenesis. The diminished numbers of newly generated neurons (BrdU/NeuN co-localization) was paralleled by increased BrdU cells that did not co-localize with any of the phenotypic markers during these later stages. These data demonstrate that long-term alterations in neurogenesis and gliogenesis might contribute to the observed hippocampal dysfunction in the PTD model and human WKS. PMID:21440532

  2. Altered Modular Organization of Structural Cortical Networks in Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Feng; Wang, Li; Peng, Ziwen; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Shen, Dinggang

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a complex developmental disability that characterized by deficits in social interaction, language skills, repetitive stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests. Although great heterogeneity exists, previous findings suggest that autism has atypical brain connectivity patterns and disrupted small-world network properties. However, the organizational alterations in the autistic brain network are still poorly understood. We explored possible organizational alterations of 49 autistic children and 51 typically developing controls, by investigating their brain network metrics that are constructed upon cortical thickness correlations. Three modules were identified in controls, including cortical regions associated with brain functions of executive strategic, spatial/auditory/visual, and self-reference/episodic memory. There are also three modules found in autistic children with similar patterns. Compared with controls, autism demonstrates significantly reduced gross network modularity, and a larger number of inter-module connections. However, the autistic brain network demonstrates increased intra- and inter-module connectivity in brain regions including middle frontal gyrus, inferior parietal gyrus, and cingulate, suggesting one underlying compensatory mechanism associated with brain functions of self-reference and episodic memory. Results also show that there is increased correlation strength between regions inside frontal lobe, as well as impaired correlation strength between frontotemporal and frontoparietal regions. This alteration of correlation strength may contribute to the organization alteration of network structures in autistic brains. PMID:23675456

  3. Ineffective delivery of diet-derived microRNAs to recipient animal organisms

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Jonathan W.; Hale, Andrew E.; Isaacs, Stephanie K.; Baggish, Aaron L.; Chan, Stephen Y.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-kingdom delivery of specific microRNAs to recipient organisms via food ingestion has been reported recently. However, it is unclear if such delivery of microRNAs occurs frequently in animal organisms after typical dietary intake. We found substantial levels of specific microRNAs in diets commonly consumed orally by humans, mice, and honey bees. Yet, after ingestion of fruit replete with plant microRNAs (MIR156a, MIR159a, and MIR169a), a cohort of healthy athletes did not carry detectable plasma levels of those molecules. Similarly, despite consumption of a diet with animal fat replete in endogenous miR-21, negligible expression of miR-21 in plasma or organ tissue was observed in miR-21 −/− recipient mice. Correspondingly, when fed vegetarian diets containing the above plant microRNAs, wild-type recipient mice expressed insignificant levels of these microRNAs. Finally, despite oral uptake of pollen containing these plant microRNAs, negligible delivery of these molecules was observed in recipient honeybees. Therefore, we conclude that horizontal delivery of microRNAs via typical dietary ingestion is neither a robust nor a frequent mechanism to maintain steady-state microRNA levels in a variety of model animal organisms, thus defining the biological limits of these molecules in vivo. PMID:23669076

  4. Molecular alteration of marine dissolved organic matter under experimental hydrothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkes, Jeffrey A.; Hansen, Christian T.; Goldhammer, Tobias; Bach, Wolfgang; Dittmar, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a large (660 Pg) pool of reduced carbon that is subject to thermal alteration in hydrothermal systems and sedimentary basins. In natural high-temperature hydrothermal systems, DOM is almost completely removed, but the mechanism and temperature dependence of this removal have not been studied to date. We investigated molecular-level changes to DOM that was solid-phase extracted (SPE-DOM) from the deep ocean of the North Pacific Ocean. This complex molecular mixture was experimentally exposed to temperatures between 100 and 380 °C over the course of two weeks in artificial seawater, and was then characterised on a molecular level via ultrahigh-resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). Almost 93% of SPE-DOM was removed by the treatment at 380 °C, and this removal was accompanied by a consistent pattern of SPE-DOM alteration across the temperatures studied. Higher molecular weight and more oxygen rich compounds were preferentially removed, suggesting that decarboxylation and dehydration of carboxylic acid and alcohol groups are the most rapid degradation mechanisms. Nitrogen containing compounds followed the same overall trends as those containing just C, H and O up to 300 °C. Above this temperature, the most highly altered samples contained very little of the original character of marine DOM, instead being mainly composed of very low intensity N- and S- containing molecules with a high H/C ratio (>1.5). Our results suggest that abiotic hydrothermal alteration of SPE-DOM may already occur at temperatures above 68 °C. Our experiments were conducted without a sedimentary or mineral phase, and demonstrate that profound molecular alteration and almost complete removal of marine SPE-DOM requires nothing more than heating in a seawater matrix.

  5. Phytoestrogens alter the reproductive organ development in the mink (Mustela vison)

    SciTech Connect

    Ryoekkynen, Ari . E-mail: ryokkyne@cc.joensuu.fi; Nieminen, Petteri; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Pyykoenen, Teija; Asikainen, Juha; Haenninen, Sari; Mononen, Jaakko; Kukkonen, Jussi V.K.

    2005-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the reproductive effects of two perorally applied phytoestrogens, genistein (8 mg/kg/day) and {beta}-sitosterol (50 mg/kg/day), on the mink (Mustela vison) at human dietary exposure levels. Parental generations were exposed over 9 months to these phytoestrogens and their offspring were exposed via gestation and lactation. Parents and their offspring were sampled 21 days after the birth of the kits. Sex hormone levels, sperm quality, organ weights, and development of the kits were examined. The exposed females were heavier than the control females at the 1st postnatal day (PND). The control kits were heavier than the exposed kits from the 1st to the 21st PND. Phytoestrogens did not affect the organ weights of the adult minks, but the relative testicular weight of the exposed kits was higher than in the control kits. The relative prostate weight was higher and the relative uterine weight lower in the {beta}-sitosterol-exposed kits than in the control kits. Moreover, the plasma dihydrotestosterone levels were lower in the genistein-exposed male kits compared to the control male kits. This study could not explain the mechanisms behind these alterations. The results indicate that perinatal phytoestrogen exposures cause alterations in the weight of the reproductive organs of the mink kits.

  6. Evolution of an ancient protein function involved in organized multicellularity in animals.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Douglas P; Whitney, Dustin S; Hanson-Smith, Victor; Woznica, Arielle; Campodonico-Burnett, William; Volkman, Brian F; King, Nicole; Thornton, Joseph W; Prehoda, Kenneth E

    2016-01-01

    To form and maintain organized tissues, multicellular organisms orient their mitotic spindles relative to neighboring cells. A molecular complex scaffolded by the GK protein-interaction domain (GKPID) mediates spindle orientation in diverse animal taxa by linking microtubule motor proteins to a marker protein on the cell cortex localized by external cues. Here we illuminate how this complex evolved and commandeered control of spindle orientation from a more ancient mechanism. The complex was assembled through a series of molecular exploitation events, one of which - the evolution of GKPID's capacity to bind the cortical marker protein - can be recapitulated by reintroducing a single historical substitution into the reconstructed ancestral GKPID. This change revealed and repurposed an ancient molecular surface that previously had a radically different function. We show how the physical simplicity of this binding interface enabled the evolution of a new protein function now essential to the biological complexity of many animals. PMID:26740169

  7. Impact of Isolated Burns on Major Organs: A Large Animal Model Characterized.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, David M; McIntyre, Matthew K; Baker, Bryan A; Rizzo, Julie A; Brown, Ammon; Natesan, Shanmugasundaram; Chung, Kevin K; Christy, Robert J

    2016-09-01

    Severe burn results in systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ dysfunction (MOD). Currently, large-animal models of burn-induced SIRS/MOD mostly use secondary insults resulting in a paucity of knowledge on the effect of burn alone on different organ systems. The objective of the current study was to develop and characterize a large animal model of burn-induced SIRS over the course of 2 weeks. Yorkshire swine (n = 16) were randomized to sham controls (n = 4) or 40% total body surface area contact burns (n = 6 at 2 and 14 days post-burn). Blood chemistry and complete blood count analyses were performed at baseline and post-burn days 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, and 14. Upon euthanasia, tissue samples were taken for histopathology. Burns were found to be full thickness and did not re-epithelialize. SIRS was evidenced by increased body temperature, respiration rate, pulse, and white blood cell count for the duration of the experiment. Both acute liver injury and acute kidney injury were induced as determined biochemically and histologically. Histology also revealed atelectasis of the lungs which was associated with increased myeloperoxidase activity. Intestinal structure as well as enterocyte homeostasis was also disrupted. All of these organ abnormalities recovered to varying degrees by 14 days post-burn. We report a unique reproducible large animal model of burn-induced SIRS that can be tailored to specific organ systems for investigation into potential immunomodulatory interventions that prevent organ failure or promote organ recovery after burn injury. PMID:27380531

  8. Metabolomic analysis of long-term spontaneous exercise in mice suggests increased lipolysis and altered glucose metabolism when animals are at rest.

    PubMed

    Monleon, Daniel; Garcia-Valles, Rebeca; Morales, Jose Manuel; Brioche, Thomas; Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria; Lopez-Grueso, Raul; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Viña, Jose

    2014-11-15

    Exercise has been associated with several beneficial effects and is one of the major modulators of metabolism. The working muscle produces and releases substances during exercise that mediate the adaptation of the muscle but also improve the metabolic flexibility of the complete organism, leading to adjustable substrate utilization. Metabolomic studies on physical exercise are scarce and most of them have been focused on the effects of intense exercise in professional sportsmen. The aim of our study was to determine plasma metabolomic adaptations in mice after a long-term spontaneous exercise intervention study (18 mo). The metabolic changes induced by long-term spontaneous exercise were sufficient to achieve complete discrimination between groups in the principal component analysis scores plot. We identified plasma indicators of an increase in lipolysis (elevated unsaturated fatty acids and glycerol), a decrease in glucose and insulin plasma levels and in heart glucose consumption (by PET), and altered glucose metabolism (decreased alanine and lactate) in the wheel running group. Collectively these data are compatible with an increase in skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in the active mice. We also found an increase in amino acids involved in catecholamine synthesis (tyrosine and phenylalanine), in the skeletal muscle pool of creatine phosphate and taurine, and changes in phospholipid metabolism (phosphocholine and choline in lipids) between the sedentary and the active mice. In conclusion, long-term spontaneous wheel running induces significant plasma and tissue (heart) metabolic responses that remain even when the animal is at rest. PMID:25190738

  9. The soil organic carbon content of anthropogenically altered organic soils effects the dissolved organic matter quality, but not the dissolved organic carbon concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Stefan; Tiemeyer, Bärbel; Bechtold, Michel; Lücke, Andreas; Bol, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is an important link between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This is especially true for peatlands which usually show high concentrations of DOC due to the high stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC). Most previous studies found that DOC concentrations in the soil solution depend on the SOC content. Thus, one would expect low DOC concentrations in peatlands which have anthropogenically been altered by mixing with sand. Here, we want to show the effect of SOC and groundwater level on the quantity and quality of the dissolved organic matter (DOM). Three sampling sites were installed in a strongly disturbed bog. Two sites differ in SOC (Site A: 48%, Site B: 9%) but show the same mean annual groundwater level of 15 and 18 cm below ground, respectively. The SOC content of site C (11%) is similar to Site B, but the groundwater level is much lower (-31 cm) than at the other two sites. All sites have a similar depth of the organic horizon (30 cm) and the same land-use (low-intensity sheep grazing). Over two years, the soil solution was sampled bi-weekly in three depths (15, 30 and 60 cm) and three replicates. All samples were analyzed for DOC and selected samples for dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and delta-13C and delta-15N. Despite differences in SOC and groundwater level, DOC concentrations did not differ significantly (A: 192 ± 62 mg/L, B: 163 ± 55 mg/L and C: 191 ± 97 mg/L). At all sites, DOC concentrations exceed typical values for peatlands by far and emphasize the relevance even of strongly disturbed organic soils for DOC losses. Individual DOC concentrations were controlled by the temperature and the groundwater level over the preceding weeks. Differences in DOM quality were clearer. At site B with a low SOC content, the DOC:DON ratio of the soil solution equals the soil's C:N ratio, but the DOC:DON ratio is much higher than the C:N ratio at site A. In all cases, the DOC:DON ratio strongly correlates with delta-13C. There is no

  10. Tracing organic compounds in aerobically altered methane-derived carbonate pipes (Gulf of Cadiz, SW Iberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merinero, Raúl; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Menor-Salván, César; Lunar, Rosario; Martínez-Frías, Jesús

    2012-07-01

    The primary geochemical process at methane seeps is anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), performed by methanotrophic archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The molecular fingerprints (biomarkers) of these chemosynthetic microorganisms can be preserved in carbonates formed through AOM. However, thermal maturity and aerobic degradation can change the original preserved compounds, making it difficult to establish the relation between AOM and carbonate precipitation. Here we report a study of amino acid and lipid abundances in carbonate matrices of aerobically altered pipes recovered from the seafloor of the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Iberian Peninsula). This area is characterized by a complex tectonic regime that supports numerous cold seeps. Studies so far have not determined whether the precipitation of carbonate pipes in the Gulf of Cadiz is a purely chemical process or whether microbial communities are involved. Samples from this site show signs of exposure to oxygenated waters and of aerobic alteration, such as oxidation of authigenic iron sulfides. In addition, the degradation index, calculated from the relative abundance of preserved amino acids, indicates aerobic degradation of organic matter. Although crocetane was the only lipid identified from methanotrophic archaea, the organic compounds detected (n-alkanes, regular isoprenoids and alcohols) are compatible with an origin from AOM coupled with bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) and subsequent aerobic degradation. We establish a relation among AOM, BSR and pipe formation in the Gulf of Cadiz through three types of analysis: (1) stable carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of carbonate minerals; (2) carbonate microfabrics; and (3) mineralogical composition. Our results suggest that carbonate pipes may form through a process similar to the precipitation of vast amounts of carbonate pavements often found at cold seeps. Our approach suggests that some organic compound patterns, in combination with additional

  11. A comparative study of production performance and animal health practices in organic and conventional dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jenevaldo B; Fagundes, Gisele M; Soares, João P G; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Muir, James P

    2014-10-01

    Health and production management strategies influence environmental impacts of dairies. The objective of this paper was to measure risk factors on health and production parameters on six organic and conventional bovine, caprine, and ovine dairy herds in southeastern Brazil over six consecutive years (2006-2011). The organic operations had lower milk production per animal (P ≤ 0.05), lower calf mortality (P ≤ 0.05), less incidence of mastitis (P ≤ 0.05), fewer rates of spontaneous abortions (P ≤ 0.05), and reduced ectoparasite loads (P ≤ 0.05) compared to conventional herds and flocks. Organic herds, however, had greater prevalence of internal parasitism (P ≤ 0.05) than conventional herds. In all management systems, calves, kids, and lambs had greater oocyte counts than adults. However, calves in the organic group showed lower prevalence of coccidiosis. In addition, animals in the organic system exhibited lower parasitic resistance to anthelmintics. Herd genetic potential, nutritive value of forage, feed intake, and pasture parasite loads, however, may have influenced productive and health parameters. Thus, although conventional herds showed greater milk production and less disease prevalence, future research might quantify the potential implications of these unreported factors. PMID:25015183

  12. Experimental simulation of organic matter alteration in carbonaceous chondrites under an in situ micro FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebukawa, Y.; Nakashima, S.; Saiki, K.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2007-12-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites contain organic matter up to a few weight percents, most of which consists of kerogen- like macromolecular material. Chondritic organic matter preserves signatures of various evolutional steps from presolar materials, through aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism in the parent asteroid up to delivery to the Earth. The organic-mineral interactions during these processes are little known. We report here on the experimental simulation of organic matter alteration on carbonaceous chondrite parent body under micro FTIR spectroscopy with a heating stage. Leonardite humic acid (IHSS standard humic acid) and synthetic saponite or natural antigorite were used as the macromolecular organic matter and the matrix mineral. These powdered samples were dispersed by MilliQ water then dropped on a CaF2 plate and dried. They were heated in the heating stage from room temperature to 600 °C with a heating rate of 10 °C/min in air, Ar gas, and H2+CO2 gas mixture (mixing ratio 1:1). H2+CO2 gas mixture enables controls of not only oxygen fugacity but also water vapor fugacity, and aqueous processing on chondrite parent bodies can be partly simulated. IR spectra were collected at every 20 °C under the micro FTIR spectroscopy. Aliphatic C-H increased from room temperature to approximately 250 °C then decreased. Aromatic C-H increased from room temperature to around 400-450 °C then decreased. These aliphatic C-H decrease and aromatic C-H increase are faster in air than in Ar or H2+CO2. These CH changes of leonardite humic acid are slower with the presence of saponite. These results indicate that organic matter transformation might be prevented by the clay mineral (saponite). Some carbonaceous chondrite samples mixed with the organic material (leonardite humic acid) will also be investigated by the same way. These results will elucidate interactions of chondritic macromolecular organic matter with matrix minerals during parent body processes.

  13. PHOTOCHEMICALLY-INDUCED ALTERATION OF STABLE CARBON ISOTOPE RATIOS (DELTA C-13) IN TERRIGENOUS DISSOLVED ORGANIC CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of riverine waters to natural sunlight initiated alterations in stable carbon isotope ratios (delta C-13) of the associated dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Water samples were collected from two compositionally distinct coastal river systems in the southeastern United Sta...

  14. Thermal alteration experiments on organic matter from recent marine sediments in relation to petroleum genesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishiwatari, R.; Ishiwatari, M.; Rohrback, B. G.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1977-01-01

    Three fractions of organic matter: lipid (benzene:methanol-extractable), humic acid (alkali-extractable) and kerogen (residue) were extracted from a young marine sediment (Tanner Basin, offshore southern California) and heated for different times (5-116 hr) and temperatures (150-410 C). The volatile (gases) and liquid products, as well as residual material, were then analyzed. On a weight basis, the lipid fraction produced 58% of the total identified n-alkanes, the kerogen fraction 41%, and the humic acid less than 1%. The volatiles produced by heating the lipid and humic acid fractions were largely CO2 and water, whereas those produced from heated kerogen also included methane, hydrogen gas and small amounts of C2-C4 hydrocarbons. A mechanism for hydrocarbon production due to the thermal alteration of organic constituents of marine sediment is discussed.

  15. The concept of animal welfare at the interface between producers and scientists: the example of organic pig farming.

    PubMed

    Leeb, Christine

    2011-06-01

    In organic farming animal welfare is one important aspect included in the internationally agreed organic principles of health, ecology, fairness and care (IFOAM 2006), reflecting expectation of consumers and farmers. The definition of organic animal welfare includes-besides traditional terms of animal welfare-'regeneration' and 'naturalness'. Organic animal welfare assessment needs to reflect this and use complex parameters, include natural behaviour and a systemic view. Furthermore, various parties with seemingly conflicting interests are involved, causing ethical dilemmas, such as the use of nose rings for outdoor sows (impaired animal welfare vs. destruction of humus). Solutions can only be found when foundational concepts are translated and applied to practical situations. On-farm animal welfare assessment and implementation of improvement strategies are increasingly relevant scientific areas. They combine on-farm welfare assessment, identification of key problem areas and connected risk factors. Constant communication between all parties is crucial for success. Animal health and welfare planning is one application of this approach, which was carried out on Austrian organic pig farms as well as organic dairy farms in seven European countries. The projects included welfare assessment, feedback and benchmarking as a tool for communication between farmers, advisors and scientists. Finally goals were set by the farmer and improvement strategies applicable to organic farming were implemented. This included prevention of disease by management strategies instead of routine treatment with pharmaceutical products. It appeared that next to problem structuring, multidisciplinary problem solving demands good communications skills to relate animal welfare science to value reflections. PMID:21559784

  16. Elemental, stable isotopic and biochemical characterization of soil organic matter alteration across a natural peatland gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, G.; Mowbray, S.; Belyea, L.; Laing, C.; Allton, K.; Abbott, G.; Muhammad, A.

    2010-12-01

    Northern peatlands store around one third of global soil C and thus represent a key reservoir. To elucidate how these systems might respond to climate change, field- and laboratory-based experimental incubation studies are being conducted at sites across a natural peatland gradient in the boreonemoral zone of central Sweden (Ryggmossen). The site comprises four successional stages, from edge to centre; Swamp Forest (SF), Lagg Fen (LF), Bog Margin (BM) and Bog Plateau (BP). The well-preserved succession shows strong decreases in mineral cations and pH, and distinct changes in vegetation and water-table depth. As an underpinning to these experiments, comprehensive characterization of natural soil organic matter (SOM) alteration has been carried out through detailed analyses of vegetation and downcore profiles at contrasting topographic sites (hummock vs hollow) in each of the four locations. As illustrated in Figure 1, while some similarities occur in downcore trends, contrasts are observed in C and N elemental and stable isotopic compositions, between stages and, in some cases, between microtopographic settings. Downcore trends and intersite differences are also observed in biochemical yields and molecular composition (carbohydrates, amino acids, phenols, lipids and D/L amino acid ratios). These reflect SOM decay and alteration combined with the effects of contrasting hydrologic, redox and nutrient regimes and differing vegetation and microbial inputs at each of the study sites. Multivariate analysis is used to to elucidate compositional patterns that characterize and delineate progressive SOM decay, specific vegetation types, and the effects of contrasting environmental conditions at the different sites. Figure 1. A. Organic carbon content (wt %), B. Atomic ratio of organic C to total N, C. Stable C isotopic composition of organic C (d13Corg), and D. Stable N isotopic composition of total nitrogen (d15N), all for core profiles from contrasting settings (hummock and

  17. Examining the effect of altered redox conditions on deep soil organic matter stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, C.; Kellman, L. M.; Ziegler, S. E.

    2013-12-01

    Since subsoil horizons contribute significantly to terrestrial carbon (C) budgets, understanding the influence of disturbances such as forest harvesting on subsoil C stability is critical. Clearcut harvesting leads to changes in the soil physico-chemical environment, including altering redox conditions arising from changes in soil hydrology that increase soil saturation, soil temperature, and pH. These physico-chemical changes have the potential to alter the adsorption of soil organic matter (SOM) to minerals, particularly at depth where SOM is primarily associated with mineral phases. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of differing redox states (aerobic vs. anaerobic) and temperature upon SOM stability of forested soils representative of the Acadian Forest Region of Eastern North America. Composite soil samples through depth (0-10, 10-20, 20-35, and 35-50 cm) from a mature red spruce forest (110 years) were incubated under optimum (aerobic) or saturated (anaerobic) conditions for 1 or 4 months at two temperatures (5 and 15 C). Following incubation, soil leachate was analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV-vis absorbance in order to determine soil C losses and its optical character. Specific UV-vis absorbance SUVA (254 nm) and spectral slope ratios were calculated in order to assess the composition of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Preliminary results from the 1 month incubation indicate that under anaerobic conditions, all depths released DOC with a higher SUVA than under aerobic conditions, with the largest change observed in the 0-10 cm depth increment. Soil incubated at 5 C produced leachate with significantly less DOC and with a lower absorbance compared to 15 C under both redox conditions. These results suggest that both temperature and redox state are important in determining the aromaticity of DOC released from soils. Spectral slope ratios revealed that a greater proportion of CDOM of lower molecular weight

  18. Microcystin-LR and Cylindrospermopsin Induced Alterations in Chromatin Organization of Plant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Máthé, Csaba; M-Hamvas, Márta; Vasas, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria produce metabolites with diverse bioactivities, structures and pharmacological properties. The effects of microcystins (MCYs), a family of peptide type protein-phosphatase inhibitors and cylindrospermopsin (CYN), an alkaloid type of protein synthesis blocker will be discussed in this review. We are focusing mainly on cyanotoxin-induced changes of chromatin organization and their possible cellular mechanisms. The particularities of plant cells explain the importance of such studies. Preprophase bands (PPBs) are premitotic cytoskeletal structures important in the determination of plant cell division plane. Phragmoplasts are cytoskeletal structures involved in plant cytokinesis. Both cyanotoxins induce the formation of multipolar spindles and disrupted phragmoplasts, leading to abnormal sister chromatid segregation during mitosis. Thus, MCY and CYN are probably inducing alterations of chromosome number. MCY induces programmed cell death: chromatin condensation, nucleus fragmentation, necrosis, alterations of nuclease and protease enzyme activities and patterns. The above effects may be related to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or disfunctioning of microtubule associated proteins. Specific effects: MCY-LR induces histone H3 hyperphosphorylation leading to incomplete chromatid segregation and the formation of micronuclei. CYN induces the formation of split or double PPB directly related to protein synthesis inhibition. Cyanotoxins are powerful tools in the study of plant cell organization. PMID:24084787

  19. Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima) invasion alters organic matter dynamics in a desert stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, T.A.; Hobbie, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    1. We investigated the impacts of saltcedar invasion on organic matter dynamics in a spring-fed stream (Jackrabbit Spring) in the Mojave Desert of southern Nevada, U.S.A., by experimentally manipulating saltcedar abundance. 2. Saltcedar heavily shaded Jackrabbit Spring and shifted the dominant organic matter inputs from autochthonous production that was available throughout the year to allochthonous saltcedar leaf litter that was strongly pulsed in the autumn. Specifically, reaches dominated by saltcedar had allochthonous litter inputs of 299 g ash free dry mass (AFDM) m-2 year-1, macrophyte production of 15 g AFDM m-2 year-1 and algal production of 400 g AFDM m-2 year-1, while reaches dominated by native riparian vegetation or where saltcedar had been experimentally removed had allochthonous litter inputs of 7-34 g AFDM m -2 year-1, macrophyte production of 118-425 g AFDM m -2 year-1 and algal production of 640-900 g AFDM m -2 year-1. 3. A leaf litter breakdown study indicated that saltcedar also altered decomposition in Jackrabbit Spring, mainly through its influence on litter quality rather than by altering the environment for decomposition. Decomposition rates for saltcedar were lower than for ash (Fraxinus velutina), the dominant native allochthonous litter type, but faster than for bulrush (Scirpus americanus), the dominant macrophyte in this system.

  20. Alteration of organic matter during infaunal polychaete gut passage and links to sediment organic geochemistry. Part II: Fatty acids and aldoses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woulds, Clare; Middelburg, Jack J.; Cowie, Greg L.

    2014-07-01

    The activities of sediment-dwelling fauna are known to influence the rates of and pathways through which organic matter is cycled in marine sediments, and thus to influence eventual organic carbon burial or decay. However, due to methodological constraints, the role of faunal gut passage in determining the subsequent composition and thus degradability of organic matter is relatively little studied. Previous studies of organic matter digestion by benthic fauna have been unable to detect uptake and retention of specific biochemicals in faunal tissues, and have been of durations too short to fit digestion into the context of longer-term sedimentary degradation processes. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the aldose and fatty acid compositional alterations occurring to organic matter during gut passage by the abundant and ubiquitous polychaetes Hediste diversicolor and Arenicola marina, and to link these to longer-term changes typically observed during organic matter decay. This aim was approached through microcosm experiments in which selected polychaetes were fed with 13C-labelled algal detritus, and organisms, sediments, and faecal pellets were sampled at three timepoints over ∼6 weeks. Samples were analysed for their 13C-labelled aldose and fatty acid contents using GC-MS and GC-IRMS. Compound-selective net accumulation of biochemicals in polychaete tissues was observed for both aldoses and fatty acids, and the patterns of this were taxon-specific. The dominant patterns included an overall loss of glucose and polyunsaturated fatty acids; and preferential preservation or production of arabinose, microbial compounds (rhamnose, fucose and microbial fatty acids), and animal-synthesised fatty acids. These patterns may have been driven by fatty acid essentiality, preferential metabolism of glucose, and A. marina grazing on bacteria. Fatty acid suites in sediments from faunated microcosms showed greater proportions of saturated fatty acids and bacterial markers

  1. Morphology Alters Fluid Transport and the Ability of Organisms to Mix Oceanic Waters.

    PubMed

    Katija, Kakani

    2015-10-01

    Mixing in the ocean is opposed by the stratification of fluid, such that density of seawater increases with greater depth. The mechanisms by which mixing occurs have been attributed largely to physical processes that include atmospheric forcing, tides, and internal waves. Biogenic mixing, another potential source of mixing in the ocean, may generate significant transport of fluid during diel vertical migrations of organisms. Biogenic mixing is not limited to the near-surface or to regions of rough bottom topography, as are other physical mixing processes, and may contribute significantly to the energy budget of mixing in mid-ocean. "Fluid drift", a mechanism first described by Charles Galton Darwin, has been identified as a mechanism that allows for long-distance, vertical transport of fluid by the smallest of swimming organisms. However, little is known about how fluid drift varies with morphology and behavior of swimming organisms. We conducted numerical simulations of theoretical and experimentally measured flows of swimming medusae (Phyllorhiza sp.), and compared the volume of the drift induced by these flows. Our numerical simulations of fluid drift showed that morphology coupled with swimming behavior alters the transport of fluid both spatially and temporally. Given empirical velocity field data, the methods presented here allow us to systematically compare fluid transport across taxa, and enable us to deduce the potential of swimming organisms to influence fluid transport. PMID:26117832

  2. Associations between membership of farm assurance and organic certification schemes and compliance with animal welfare legislation.

    PubMed

    KilBride, A L; Mason, S A; Honeyman, P C; Pritchard, D G; Hepple, S; Green, L E

    2012-02-11

    Animal health (AH) defines the outcome of their inspections of livestock holdings as full compliance with the legislation and welfare code (A), compliance with the legislation but not the code (B), non-compliance with legislation but no pain, distress or suffering obvious in the animals (C) or evidence of unnecessary pain or unnecessary distress (D). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether membership of farm assurance or organic certification schemes was associated with compliance with animal welfare legislation as inspected by AH. Participating schemes provided details of their members, past and present, and these records were matched against inspection data from AH. Multivariable multilevel logistic binomial models were built to investigate the association between compliance with legislation and membership of a farm assurance/organic scheme. The percentage of inspections coded A, B, C or D was 37.1, 35.6, 20.2 and 7.1 per cent, respectively. Once adjusted for year, country, enterprise, herd size and reason for inspection, there was a pattern of significantly reduced risk of codes C and D compared with A and B, in certified enterprises compared with the enterprises that were not known to be certified in all species. PMID:22331783

  3. Recent advances in the analysis of behavioural organization and interpretation as indicators of animal welfare

    PubMed Central

    Asher, Lucy; Collins, Lisa M.; Ortiz-Pelaez, Angel; Drewe, Julian A.; Nicol, Christine J.; Pfeiffer, Dirk U.

    2009-01-01

    While the incorporation of mathematical and engineering methods has greatly advanced in other areas of the life sciences, they have been under-utilized in the field of animal welfare. Exceptions are beginning to emerge and share a common motivation to quantify ‘hidden’ aspects in the structure of the behaviour of an individual, or group of animals. Such analyses have the potential to quantify behavioural markers of pain and stress and quantify abnormal behaviour objectively. This review seeks to explore the scope of such analytical methods as behavioural indicators of welfare. We outline four classes of analyses that can be used to quantify aspects of behavioural organization. The underlying principles, possible applications and limitations are described for: fractal analysis, temporal methods, social network analysis, and agent-based modelling and simulation. We hope to encourage further application of analyses of behavioural organization by highlighting potential applications in the assessment of animal welfare, and increasing awareness of the scope for the development of new mathematical methods in this area. PMID:19740922

  4. Alteration of Organic Compounds in Small Bodies and Cosmic Dusts by Cosmic Rays and Solar Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; Kaneko, Takeo; Mita, Hajime; Obayashi, Yumiko; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Sarker, Palash K.; Kawamoto, Yukinori; Okabe, Takuto; Eto, Midori; Kanda, Kazuhiro

    2012-07-01

    A wide variety of complex organic compounds have been detected in extraterrestrial bodies like carbonaceous chondrites and comets, and their roles in the generation of terrestrial life are discussed. It was suggested that organics in small bodies were originally formed in ice mantles of interstellar dusts in dense cloud. Irradiation of frozen mixture of possible interstellar molecules including CO (or CH _{3}OH), NH _{3} and H _{2}O with high-energy particles gave complex amino acid precursors with high molecular weights [1]. Such complex organic molecules were taken in planetesimals or comets in the early solar system. In prior to the generation of the terrestrial life, extraterrestrial organics were delivered to the primitive Earth by such small bodies as meteorites, comets and space dusts. These organics would have been altered by cosmic rays and solar radiation (UV, X-rays) before the delivery to the Earth. We examined possible alteration of amino acids, their precursors and nucleic acid bases in interplanetary space by irradiation with high energy photons and heavy ions. A mixture of CO, NH _{3} and H _{2}O was irradiated with high-energy protons from a van de Graaff accelerator (TIT, Japan). The resulting products (hereafter referred to as CAW) are complex precursors of amino acids. CAW, amino acids (dl-Isovaline, glycine), hydantoins (amino acid precursors) and nucleic acid bases were irradiated with continuous emission (soft X-rays to IR; hereafter referred to as soft X-rays irradiation) from BL-6 of NewSUBARU synchrotron radiation facility (Univ. Hyogo). They were also irradiated with heavy ions (eg., 290 MeV/u C ^{6+}) from HIMAC accelerator (NIRS, Japan). After soft X-rays irradiation, water insoluble materials were formed. After irradiation with soft X-rays or heavy ions, amino acid precursors (CAW and hydantoins) gave higher ratio of amino acids were recovered after hydrolysis than free amino acids. Nucleic acid bases showed higher stability than free

  5. Larval body patterning and apical organs are conserved in animal evolution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Planktonic ciliated larvae are characteristic for the life cycle of marine invertebrates. Their most prominent feature is the apical organ harboring sensory cells and neurons of largely undetermined function. An elucidation of the relationships between various forms of primary larvae and apical organs is key to understanding the evolution of animal life cycles. These relationships have remained enigmatic due to the scarcity of comparative molecular data. Results To compare apical organs and larval body patterning, we have studied regionalization of the episphere, the upper hemisphere of the trochophore larva of the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii. We examined the spatial distribution of transcription factors and of Wnt signaling components previously implicated in anterior neural development. Pharmacological activation of Wnt signaling with Gsk3β antagonists abolishes expression of apical markers, consistent with a repressive role of Wnt signaling in the specification of apical tissue. We refer to this Wnt-sensitive, six3- and foxq2-expressing part of the episphere as the ‘apical plate’. We also unraveled a molecular signature of the apical organ - devoid of six3 but expressing foxj, irx, nkx3 and hox - that is shared with other marine phyla including cnidarians. Finally, we characterized the cell types that form part of the apical organ by profiling by image registration, which allows parallel expression profiling of multiple cells. Besides the hox-expressing apical tuft cells, this revealed the presence of putative light- and mechanosensory as well as multiple peptidergic cell types that we compared to apical organ cell types of other animal phyla. Conclusions The similar formation of a six3+, foxq2+ apical plate, sensitive to Wnt activity and with an apical tuft in its six3-free center, is most parsimoniously explained by evolutionary conservation. We propose that a simple apical organ - comprising an apical tuft and a basal plexus

  6. Diet-induced and mono-genetic obesity alter volatile organic compound signature in mice.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Martin; Muntean, Andreea; Szymczak, Wilfried; Rink, Nadine; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Wurst, Wolfgang; Hoeschen, Christoph; Klingenspor, Martin; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Rozman, Jan

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity is still rising in many countries, resulting in an increased risk of associated metabolic diseases. In this study we aimed to describe the volatile organic compound (VOC) patterns symptomatic for obesity. We analyzed high fat diet (HFD) induced obese and mono-genetic obese mice (global knock-in mutation in melanocortin-4 receptor MC4R-ki). The source strengths of 208 VOCs were analyzed in ad libitum fed mice and after overnight food restriction. Volatiles relevant for a random forest-based separation of obese mice were detected (26 in MC4R-ki, 22 in HFD mice). Eight volatiles were found to be important in both obesity models. Interestingly, by creating a partial correlation network of the volatile metabolites, the chemical and metabolic origins of several volatiles were identified. HFD-induced obese mice showed an elevation in the ketone body acetone and acrolein, a marker of lipid peroxidation, and several unidentified volatiles. In MC4R-ki mice, several yet-unidentified VOCs were found to be altered. Remarkably, the pheromone (methylthio)methanethiol was found to be reduced, linking metabolic dysfunction and reproduction. The signature of volatile metabolites can be instrumental in identifying and monitoring metabolic disease states, as shown in the screening of the two obese mouse models in this study. Our findings show the potential of breath gas analysis to non-invasively assess metabolic alterations for personalized diagnosis. PMID:26860833

  7. Development of immune organs and functioning in humans and test animals: Implications for immune intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Kuper, C Frieke; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Cnossen, Hilde; Houben, Geert; Garthoff, Jossie; Wolterbeek, Andre

    2016-09-01

    A healthy immune status is mostly determined during early life stages and many immune-related diseases may find their origin in utero and the first years of life. Therefore, immune health optimization may be most effective during early life. This review is an inventory of immune organ maturation events in relation to developmental timeframes in minipig, rat, mouse and human. It is concluded that time windows of immune organ development in rodents can be translated to human, but minipig reflects the human timeframes better; however the lack of prenatal maternal-fetal immune interaction in minipig may cause less responsiveness to prenatal intervention. It is too early to conclude which immune parameters are most appropriate, because there are not enough comparative immune parameters. Filling these gaps will increase the predictability of results observed in experimental animals, and guide future intervention studies by assessing relevant parameters in the right corresponding developmental time frames. PMID:27282947

  8. Microbial response to the effect of quantity and quality soil organic matter alteration after laboratory heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bárcenas-Moreno, G.; Escalante, E.; Pérez-Bejarano, A.; Zavala, L. M.; Jordán, A.

    2012-04-01

    Fire-induced soil changes influence indirectly on soil microbial response, mainly due to pH increases and organic matter alterations. Partial carbon combustion can originate both, an increase in microbial activity due to dissolved organic carbon increases (Bárcenas-Moreno and Bååth, 2099, Bárcenas-Moreno et al., 2011), as well as limitation of microbial growth, either due to diminution of some fractions of organic matter (Fernández et al., 1997) or due to the formation of toxic compounds (Widden and Parkinson, 1975; Diaz-Raviña et al., 1996). The magnitude or direction of these changes is conditioned mainly by fire intensity and plant species, so forest with different vegetation could promote different quantity and quality alterations of soil organic matter after fire which leads to different soil microbial response. The objective of this work was to differentiate between the effect of reduction of carbon content and the presence of substances with inhibitory effect on soil microorganisms, inoculating microorganisms from an unaltered forest area on heated soil extract-based culture media. Soil collected from two different vegetation forest, pine (P) and oak (O) forests, with similar soil characteristics was sieved and heated at 450 °C in a muffle furnace. Heated and unheated soil was used to prepare culture media resulting in different treatments: pine unheated (PUH), pine heated at 450 °C (P450), Oak unheated (OUH) and oak heated at 450 °C (O450). To isolate inhibition of microbial proliferation and nutrient limitation, different nutritive supplements were added to the media, obtaining two levels of nutrient status for each media described above: no nutrients added (-) and nutrients added (+). Colony forming units (CFU) were enumerated as estimation of viable and cultivable microbial abundance and soil parameters characterization was also realized. Significant differences were found between CFU isolated using heated and unheated soil extract-based media

  9. Mineral-organic Dynamics During Export From Rivers to Oceans: Implications for Organic Matter Source and Diagenetic Alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, A.; Hernes, P. J.; Montanez, I.

    2007-12-01

    compositions used to infer the extent of diagenetic alteration, and thus the relative age of particulate organic matter, are subject to these desorptive processes. Sediment compositions may appear younger, less diagenetically altered than would be determined for the sediments prior to export. These subtle differences in behavior have significant implications for determining carbon budgets, characterizing vascular plant inputs to marine sediments, and assessing anthropogenic fingerprints from land use change. This work demonstrates a new approach where sorptive-desorptive mechanisms controlling the distribution and composition of vascular biomarkers are accounted for, providing a new lens through which biomarker trends in continental margin sediments should be viewed.

  10. Evolution of an ancient protein function involved in organized multicellularity in animals

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Douglas P; Whitney, Dustin S; Hanson-Smith, Victor; Woznica, Arielle; Campodonico-Burnett, William; Volkman, Brian F; King, Nicole; Thornton, Joseph W; Prehoda, Kenneth E

    2016-01-01

    To form and maintain organized tissues, multicellular organisms orient their mitotic spindles relative to neighboring cells. A molecular complex scaffolded by the GK protein-interaction domain (GKPID) mediates spindle orientation in diverse animal taxa by linking microtubule motor proteins to a marker protein on the cell cortex localized by external cues. Here we illuminate how this complex evolved and commandeered control of spindle orientation from a more ancient mechanism. The complex was assembled through a series of molecular exploitation events, one of which – the evolution of GKPID’s capacity to bind the cortical marker protein – can be recapitulated by reintroducing a single historical substitution into the reconstructed ancestral GKPID. This change revealed and repurposed an ancient molecular surface that previously had a radically different function. We show how the physical simplicity of this binding interface enabled the evolution of a new protein function now essential to the biological complexity of many animals. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10147.001 PMID:26740169

  11. Amino Acids Hydrolyzed from Animal Carcasses Are a Good Additive for the Production of Bio-organic Fertilizer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjun; Chen, Dandan; Zhang, Ruifu; Hang, Xinnan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    High-quality bio-organic fertilizers (BIOs) cannot be produced without the addition of some proteins. In this study, compound liquid amino acids (CLAA) from animal carcasses were utilized as additives into matured composts to create novel BIOs containing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The results showed that adding CLAA and inoculating bacteria meanwhile resulted in failed solid-state fermentation (SSF) due to the higher H+ contents. While after pre-compost for 4 days before PGPR inoculation, treatments of matured chicken or pig manure added with 0.2 ml g-1 of CLAA resulted in a maximum biomass of functional strains. Illumine-MiSeq sequencing and Real-Time PCR results showed that the CLAA addition decreased the bacterial abundance and richness, altered the bacterial community structure and changed the relative abundance of some microbial groups. This study offers a high value-added utilization of waste protein resources for producing economical, high-quality BIO. PMID:27574521

  12. Amino Acids Hydrolyzed from Animal Carcasses Are a Good Additive for the Production of Bio-organic Fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjun; Chen, Dandan; Zhang, Ruifu; Hang, Xinnan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    High-quality bio-organic fertilizers (BIOs) cannot be produced without the addition of some proteins. In this study, compound liquid amino acids (CLAA) from animal carcasses were utilized as additives into matured composts to create novel BIOs containing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The results showed that adding CLAA and inoculating bacteria meanwhile resulted in failed solid-state fermentation (SSF) due to the higher H(+) contents. While after pre-compost for 4 days before PGPR inoculation, treatments of matured chicken or pig manure added with 0.2 ml g(-1) of CLAA resulted in a maximum biomass of functional strains. Illumine-MiSeq sequencing and Real-Time PCR results showed that the CLAA addition decreased the bacterial abundance and richness, altered the bacterial community structure and changed the relative abundance of some microbial groups. This study offers a high value-added utilization of waste protein resources for producing economical, high-quality BIO. PMID:27574521

  13. Iron deficiency anemia in infancy is associated with altered temporal organization of sleep states in childhood.

    PubMed

    Peirano, Patricio D; Algarín, Cecilia R; Garrido, Marcelo I; Lozoff, Betsy

    2007-12-01

    The highest prevalence of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in infancy coincides with a time of rapid changes in sleep organization. Since IDA in infancy is associated with long-lasting neurofunctional effects despite iron treatment, the normal development of sleep patterns might be affected. Night polysomnographic recordings were performed in 55 healthy 4-y-old children (former IDA = 27, nonanemic controls = 28). Both groups were followed from infancy and were similar in background characteristics. The duration of each waking episode was measured, as was the duration of each episode of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep stages 1 (NREM1), 2 (NREM2), and 3-4 (SWS), and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The data were analyzed according to the successive thirds of the total sleep time (TST). Relative to controls, former IDA children showed: a) longer duration of REM sleep episodes in the first third and shorter in the last third; b) more REM sleep episodes in the first third and fewer in the second third; and c) shorter latency to the first REM sleep episode and shorter NREM stage 2 and SWS episodes within the first sleep cycle. The results show that early IDA is associated with long-lasting alterations in the temporal organization of sleep patterns. PMID:17957147

  14. Abnormal intermediate filament organization alters mitochondrial motility in giant axonal neuropathy fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Lowery, Jason; Jain, Nikhil; Kuczmarski, Edward R.; Mahammad, Saleemulla; Goldman, Anne; Gelfand, Vladimir I.; Opal, Puneet; Goldman, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is a rare disease caused by mutations in the GAN gene, which encodes gigaxonin, an E3 ligase adapter that targets intermediate filament (IF) proteins for degradation in numerous cell types, including neurons and fibroblasts. The cellular hallmark of GAN pathology is the formation of large aggregates and bundles of IFs. In this study, we show that both the distribution and motility of mitochondria are altered in GAN fibroblasts and this is attributable to their association with vimentin IF aggregates and bundles. Transient expression of wild-type gigaxonin in GAN fibroblasts reduces the number of IF aggregates and bundles, restoring mitochondrial motility. Conversely, silencing the expression of gigaxonin in control fibroblasts leads to changes in IF organization similar to that of GAN patient fibroblasts and a coincident loss of mitochondrial motility. The inhibition of mitochondrial motility in GAN fibroblasts is not due to a global inhibition of organelle translocation, as lysosome motility is normal. Our findings demonstrate that it is the pathological changes in IF organization that cause the loss of mitochondrial motility. PMID:26700320

  15. Photocurrent enhancements of organic solar cells by altering dewetting of plasmonic Ag nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Fleetham, Tyler; Choi, Jea-Young; Choi, Hyung Woo; Alford, Terry; Jeong, Doo Seok; Lee, Taek Sung; Lee, Wook Seong; Lee, Kyeong-Seok; Li, Jian; Kim, Inho

    2015-01-01

    Incorporation of metal nanoparticles into active layers of organic solar cells is one of the promising light trapping approaches. The size of metal nanoparticles is one of key factors to strong light trapping, and the size of thermally evaporated metal nanoparticles can be tuned by either post heat treatment or surface modification of substrates. We deposited Ag nanoparticles on ITO by varying nominal thicknesses, and post annealing was carried out to increase their size in radius. PEDOT:PSS was employed onto the ITO substrates as a buffer layer to alter the dewetting behavior of Ag nanoparticles. The size of Ag nanoparticles on PEDOT:PSS were dramatically increased by more than three times compared to those on the ITO substrates. Organic solar cells were fabricated on the ITO and PEDOT:PSS coated ITO substrates with incorporation of those Ag nanoparticles, and their performances were compared. The photocurrents of the cells with the active layers on PEDOT:PSS with an optimal choice of the Ag nanoparticles were greatly enhanced whereas the Ag nanoparticles on the ITO substrates did not lead to the photocurrent enhancements. The origin of the photocurrent enhancements with introducing the Ag nanoparticles on PEDOT:PSS are discussed. PMID:26388104

  16. Altered systemic bioavailability and organ distribution of azathioprine in methotrexate-induced intestinal mucositis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Karbelkar, Sadaf A.; Majumdar, Anuradha S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Intestinal mucositis is a significant problem haunting clinicians for decades. One of the major reasons for its occurrence is high-dose chemotherapy. The study is aimed at investigating effect of intestinal mucositis on pharmacokinetics, organ distribution, and bioavailability of azathioprine (AZA) (6-mercaptopurine). Materials and Methods: Intestinal mucositis was induced with methotrexate (MTX) (2.5 mg/kg). The oral absorption of AZA and 6-mercaptopurine (metabolite) levels were determined in control and MTX-treated rats: ex vivo (noneverted sac technique) and in vivo (pharmacokinetics and organ-distribution) using high-performance liquid chromatography. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to evaluate peptide transporter expression on luminal membrane of small intestine. Results: Intestinal permeation of AZA into systemic circulation of rats was lower after MTX administration, widely found in intestinal segments of mucositis-induced rats leading to decline in systemic bioavailability of AZA. Immunohistochemistry findings indicated diminution of peptide transporter expression representing hampered absorption of drugs absorbed via this transporter. Conclusion: Study outcome has thrown light on altered fate of AZA when administered to individuals with mucositis which suggests modified drug therapy. These findings can further be investigated in different drug classes which might be administered concomitantly in mucositis and study outcome can be further confirmed in mucositis patients in clinical practice also. PMID:27298491

  17. Photocurrent enhancements of organic solar cells by altering dewetting of plasmonic Ag nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleetham, Tyler; Choi, Jea-Young; Choi, Hyung Woo; Alford, Terry; Jeong, Doo Seok; Lee, Taek Sung; Lee, Wook Seong; Lee, Kyeong-Seok; Li, Jian; Kim, Inho

    2015-09-01

    Incorporation of metal nanoparticles into active layers of organic solar cells is one of the promising light trapping approaches. The size of metal nanoparticles is one of key factors to strong light trapping, and the size of thermally evaporated metal nanoparticles can be tuned by either post heat treatment or surface modification of substrates. We deposited Ag nanoparticles on ITO by varying nominal thicknesses, and post annealing was carried out to increase their size in radius. PEDOT:PSS was employed onto the ITO substrates as a buffer layer to alter the dewetting behavior of Ag nanoparticles. The size of Ag nanoparticles on PEDOT:PSS were dramatically increased by more than three times compared to those on the ITO substrates. Organic solar cells were fabricated on the ITO and PEDOT:PSS coated ITO substrates with incorporation of those Ag nanoparticles, and their performances were compared. The photocurrents of the cells with the active layers on PEDOT:PSS with an optimal choice of the Ag nanoparticles were greatly enhanced whereas the Ag nanoparticles on the ITO substrates did not lead to the photocurrent enhancements. The origin of the photocurrent enhancements with introducing the Ag nanoparticles on PEDOT:PSS are discussed.

  18. Significant alterations in reported clinical practice associated with increased oversight of organ transplant center performance.

    PubMed

    Schold, Jesse D; Arrington, Charlotte J; Levine, Greg

    2010-09-01

    In the past several years, emphasis on quality metrics in the field of organ transplantation has increased significantly, largely because of the new conditions of participation issued by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. These regulations directly associate patients' outcomes and measured performance of centers with the distribution of public funding to institutions. Moreover, insurers and marketing ventures have used publicly available outcomes data from transplant centers for business decision making and advertisement purposes. We gave a 10-question survey to attendees of the Transplant Management Forum at the 2009 meeting of the United Network for Organ Sharing to ascertain how centers have responded to the increased oversight of performance. Of 63 responses, 55% indicated a low or near low performance rating at their center in the past 3 years. Respondents from low-performing centers were significantly more likely to indicate increased selection criteria for candidates (81% vs 38%, P = .001) and donors (77% vs 31%, P < .001) as well as alterations in clinical protocols (84% vs 52%, P = .007). Among respondents indicating lost insurance contracts (31%), these differences were also highly significant. Based on respondents' perceptions, outcomes of performance evaluations are associated with significant changes in clinical practice at transplant centers. The transplant community and policy makers should practice vigilance that performance evaluations and regulatory oversight do not inadvertently lead to diminished access to care among viable candidates or decreased transplant volume. PMID:20929114

  19. Alteration of organic matter during infaunal polychaete gut passage and links to sediment organic geochemistry. Part I: Amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woulds, Clare; Middelburg, Jack J.; Cowie, Greg L.

    2012-01-01

    Of the factors which control the quantity and composition of organic matter (OM) buried in marine sediments, the links between infaunal ingestion and gut passage and sediment geochemistry have received relatively little attention. This study aimed to use feeding experiments and novel isotope tracing techniques to quantify amino acid net accumulation and loss during polychaete gut passage, and to link this to patterns of selective preservation and decay in sediments. Microcosms containing either Arenicolamarina or Hediste (formerly Nereis) diversicolor were constructed from defaunated sediment and filtered estuarine water, and maintained under natural temperature and light conditions. They were fed with 13C-labelled diatoms daily for 8 days, and animals were transferred into fresh, un-labelled sediment after ∼20 days. Samples of fauna, microcosm sediment and faecal matter were collected after 8, ∼20 and ∼40 days, and analysed for their bulk isotopic signatures and 13C-labelled amino acid compositions. Bulk isotopic data showed that, consistent with their feeding modes, Hediste assimilated added 13C more quickly, and attained a higher labelling level than Arenicola. Both species retained the added 13C in their biomass even after removal from the food. A principal component analysis of 13C-labelled amino acid mole percentages showed clear differences in composition between the algae, faunal tissues, and sediment plus faecal matter. Further, the two species of polychaete showed different compositions in their tissues. The amino acids phenylalanine, valine, leucine, iso-leucine, threonine and proline showed net accumulation in polychaete tissues. Serine, methionine, lysine, aspartic and glutamic acids and tyrosine were rapidly lost through metabolism, consistent with their presence in easily digestible cell components (as opposed to cell walls which offer physical protection). All sample types (polychaete tissues, sediments and faecal matter) were enriched in

  20. Pelvic Organ Support in Animals with Partial Loss of Fibulin-5 in the Vaginal Wall

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Haolin; Balgobin, Sunil; Montoya, T. Ignacio; Yanagisawa, Hiromi; Word, R. Ann

    2016-01-01

    Compromise of elastic fiber integrity in connective tissues of the pelvic floor is most likely acquired through aging, childbirth-associated injury, and genetic susceptibility. Mouse models of pelvic organ prolapse demonstrate systemic deficiencies in proteins that affect elastogenesis. Prolapse, however, does not occur until several months after birth and is thereby acquired with age or after parturition. To determine the impact of compromised levels of fibulin-5 (Fbln5) during adulthood on pelvic organ support after parturition and elastase-induced injury, tissue-specific conditional knockout (cKO) mice were generated in which doxycycline (dox) treatment results in deletion of Fbln5 in cells that utilize the smooth muscle α actin promoter-driven reverse tetracycline transactivator and tetracycline responsive element-Cre recombinase (i.e., Fbln5f/f/SMA++-rtTA/Cre+, cKO). Fbln5 was decreased significantly in the vagina of cKO mice compared with dox-treated wild type or controls (Fbln5f/f/SMA++-rtTA/Cre-/-). In controls, perineal body length (PBL) and bulge increased significantly after delivery but declined to baseline values within 6–8 weeks. Although overt prolapse did not occur in cKO animals, these transient increases in PBL postpartum were amplified and, unlike controls, parturition-induced increases in PBL (and bulge) did not recover to baseline but remained significantly increased for 12 wks. This lack of recovery from parturition was associated with increased MMP-9 and nondetectable levels of Fbln5 in the postpartum vagina. This predisposition to prolapse was accentuated by injection of elastase into the vaginal wall in which overt prolapse occurred in cKO animals, but rarely in controls. Taken together, our model system in which Fbln5 is conditionally knock-downed in stromal cells of the pelvic floor results in animals that undergo normal elastogenesis during development but lose Fbln5 as adults. The results indicate that vaginal fibulin-5 during

  1. Pelvic Organ Support in Animals with Partial Loss of Fibulin-5 in the Vaginal Wall.

    PubMed

    Chin, Kathleen; Wieslander, Cecilia; Shi, Haolin; Balgobin, Sunil; Montoya, T Ignacio; Yanagisawa, Hiromi; Word, R Ann

    2016-01-01

    Compromise of elastic fiber integrity in connective tissues of the pelvic floor is most likely acquired through aging, childbirth-associated injury, and genetic susceptibility. Mouse models of pelvic organ prolapse demonstrate systemic deficiencies in proteins that affect elastogenesis. Prolapse, however, does not occur until several months after birth and is thereby acquired with age or after parturition. To determine the impact of compromised levels of fibulin-5 (Fbln5) during adulthood on pelvic organ support after parturition and elastase-induced injury, tissue-specific conditional knockout (cKO) mice were generated in which doxycycline (dox) treatment results in deletion of Fbln5 in cells that utilize the smooth muscle α actin promoter-driven reverse tetracycline transactivator and tetracycline responsive element-Cre recombinase (i.e., Fbln5f/f/SMA++-rtTA/Cre+, cKO). Fbln5 was decreased significantly in the vagina of cKO mice compared with dox-treated wild type or controls (Fbln5f/f/SMA++-rtTA/Cre-/-). In controls, perineal body length (PBL) and bulge increased significantly after delivery but declined to baseline values within 6-8 weeks. Although overt prolapse did not occur in cKO animals, these transient increases in PBL postpartum were amplified and, unlike controls, parturition-induced increases in PBL (and bulge) did not recover to baseline but remained significantly increased for 12 wks. This lack of recovery from parturition was associated with increased MMP-9 and nondetectable levels of Fbln5 in the postpartum vagina. This predisposition to prolapse was accentuated by injection of elastase into the vaginal wall in which overt prolapse occurred in cKO animals, but rarely in controls. Taken together, our model system in which Fbln5 is conditionally knock-downed in stromal cells of the pelvic floor results in animals that undergo normal elastogenesis during development but lose Fbln5 as adults. The results indicate that vaginal fibulin-5 during

  2. Pollution going multimodal: the complex impact of the human-altered sensory environment on animal perception and performance.

    PubMed

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic sensory pollution is affecting ecosystems worldwide. Human actions generate acoustic noise, emanate artificial light and emit chemical substances. All of these pollutants are known to affect animals. Most studies on anthropogenic pollution address the impact of pollutants in unimodal sensory domains. High levels of anthropogenic noise, for example, have been shown to interfere with acoustic signals and cues. However, animals rely on multiple senses, and pollutants often co-occur. Thus, a full ecological assessment of the impact of anthropogenic activities requires a multimodal approach. We describe how sensory pollutants can co-occur and how covariance among pollutants may differ from natural situations. We review how animals combine information that arrives at their sensory systems through different modalities and outline how sensory conditions can interfere with multimodal perception. Finally, we describe how sensory pollutants can affect the perception, behaviour and endocrinology of animals within and across sensory modalities. We conclude that sensory pollution can affect animals in complex ways due to interactions among sensory stimuli, neural processing and behavioural and endocrinal feedback. We call for more empirical data on covariance among sensory conditions, for instance, data on correlated levels in noise and light pollution. Furthermore, we encourage researchers to test animal responses to a full-factorial set of sensory pollutants in the presence or the absence of ecologically important signals and cues. We realize that such approach is often time and energy consuming, but we think this is the only way to fully understand the multimodal impact of sensory pollution on animal performance and perception. PMID:25904319

  3. Pollution going multimodal: the complex impact of the human-altered sensory environment on animal perception and performance

    PubMed Central

    Halfwerk, Wouter; Slabbekoorn, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic sensory pollution is affecting ecosystems worldwide. Human actions generate acoustic noise, emanate artificial light and emit chemical substances. All of these pollutants are known to affect animals. Most studies on anthropogenic pollution address the impact of pollutants in unimodal sensory domains. High levels of anthropogenic noise, for example, have been shown to interfere with acoustic signals and cues. However, animals rely on multiple senses, and pollutants often co-occur. Thus, a full ecological assessment of the impact of anthropogenic activities requires a multimodal approach. We describe how sensory pollutants can co-occur and how covariance among pollutants may differ from natural situations. We review how animals combine information that arrives at their sensory systems through different modalities and outline how sensory conditions can interfere with multimodal perception. Finally, we describe how sensory pollutants can affect the perception, behaviour and endocrinology of animals within and across sensory modalities. We conclude that sensory pollution can affect animals in complex ways due to interactions among sensory stimuli, neural processing and behavioural and endocrinal feedback. We call for more empirical data on covariance among sensory conditions, for instance, data on correlated levels in noise and light pollution. Furthermore, we encourage researchers to test animal responses to a full-factorial set of sensory pollutants in the presence or the absence of ecologically important signals and cues. We realize that such approach is often time and energy consuming, but we think this is the only way to fully understand the multimodal impact of sensory pollution on animal performance and perception. PMID:25904319

  4. Bioturbating animals control the mobility of redox-sensitive trace elements in organic-rich mudstone

    SciTech Connect

    Harazim, Dario; McIlroy, Duncan; Edwards, Nicholas P.; Wogelius, Roy A.; Manning, Phillip L.; Poduska, Kristin M.; Layne, Graham D.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe

    2015-10-07

    Bioturbating animals modify the original mineralogy, porosity, organic content, and fabric of mud, thus affecting the burial diagenetic pathways of potential hydrocarbon source, seal, and reservoir rocks. High-sensitivity, synchrotron rapid scanning X-ray fluorescence elemental mapping reveals that producers of phycosiphoniform burrows systematically partition redox-sensitive trace elements (i.e., Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and As) in fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. Systematic differences in organic carbon content (total organic carbon >1.5 wt%) and quality (Δ13Corg~0.6‰) are measured between the burrow core and host sediment. The relative enrichment of redox-sensitive elements in the burrow core does not correlate with significant neo-formation of early diagenetic pyrite (via trace metal pyritization), but is best explained by physical concentration of clay- and silt-sized components. A measured loss (~–15%) of the large-ionic-radius elements Sr and Ba from both burrow halo and core is most likely associated with the release of Sr and Ba to pore waters during biological (in vivo) weathering of silt- to clay-sized lithic components and feldspar. In conclusion, this newly documented effect has significant potential to inform the interpretation of geochemical proxy and rock property data, particularly from shales, where elemental analyses are commonly employed to predict reservoir quality and support paleoenvironmental analysis.

  5. Bioturbating animals control the mobility of redox-sensitive trace elements in organic-rich mudstone

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Harazim, Dario; McIlroy, Duncan; Edwards, Nicholas P.; Wogelius, Roy A.; Manning, Phillip L.; Poduska, Kristin M.; Layne, Graham D.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe

    2015-10-07

    Bioturbating animals modify the original mineralogy, porosity, organic content, and fabric of mud, thus affecting the burial diagenetic pathways of potential hydrocarbon source, seal, and reservoir rocks. High-sensitivity, synchrotron rapid scanning X-ray fluorescence elemental mapping reveals that producers of phycosiphoniform burrows systematically partition redox-sensitive trace elements (i.e., Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and As) in fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. Systematic differences in organic carbon content (total organic carbon >1.5 wt%) and quality (Δ13Corg~0.6‰) are measured between the burrow core and host sediment. The relative enrichment of redox-sensitive elements in the burrow core does not correlate with significant neo-formation ofmore » early diagenetic pyrite (via trace metal pyritization), but is best explained by physical concentration of clay- and silt-sized components. A measured loss (~–15%) of the large-ionic-radius elements Sr and Ba from both burrow halo and core is most likely associated with the release of Sr and Ba to pore waters during biological (in vivo) weathering of silt- to clay-sized lithic components and feldspar. In conclusion, this newly documented effect has significant potential to inform the interpretation of geochemical proxy and rock property data, particularly from shales, where elemental analyses are commonly employed to predict reservoir quality and support paleoenvironmental analysis.« less

  6. [Intensity of DNA synthesis in animal organs after a flight on the Kosmos-782 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Guseĭnov, F T; Egorov, I A; Komolova, G S; Tigranian, R A

    1979-01-01

    With respect to H3-thymidine incorporation the rate of DNA synthesis in the liver, spleen and thymus of rats was determined in flight and synchronous rats. Six hours post-flight the rate of H3-thymidine incorporation into the liver of flight rats did not differ from the normal (vivarium controls) and was 50% higher than in the synchronous rats. In the spleen and thymus of flight animals this parameter was 60 and 33% below the norm. Similar but less pronounced changes in the spleen were found in the synchronous rats. Twenty-five days postflight the rate of DNA synthesis in lymph organs recovered completely and tended to increase, whereas in the liver it remained significantly below the norm. PMID:459398

  7. Effect of Composting on Dissolved Organic Matter in Animal Manure and Its Binding with Cu

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengsong; Li, Yanxia; Xiong, Xiong; Yang, Ming; Li, Wei

    2012-01-01

    The agricultural application of raw animal manure introduces large amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into soil and would increase transport of heavy metals such as Cu which are widely present in animal manure. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the evolution of DOM from pig and cattle manures during composting through excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy and the binding ability of DOM toward copper (Cu) ions with the aid of fluorescence quenching titration. The excitation-emission matrix spectra indicated that tyrosine-like, tryptophan-like, and soluble microbial byproduct-like fluorescence decreased significantly, while humic-like and fulvic-like fluorescence increased and became the main peaks in composted manure DOM. Fluorescence quenching titration showed that the complexing capacities of pig and cattle manure DOM decreased after composting. Correlation analysis confirmed that complexing capacity of DOM positively and significantly correlates with tyrosine-like and soluble microbial byproduct-like materials which mostly degraded after composting. These results would suggest that the ability of manure DOM to complex with Cu is inhibited as a result of reduced protein-like materials after composting. PMID:23125554

  8. The gut microbiome as a virtual endocrine organ with implications for farm and domestic animal endocrinology.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, T F; Ross, R P; Stanton, C; Clarke, G

    2016-07-01

    The gut microbiome exerts a marked influence on host physiology, and manipulation of its composition has repeatedly been shown to influence host metabolism and body composition. This virtual endocrine organ also has a role in the regulation of the plasma concentrations of tryptophan, an essential amino acid and precursor to serotonin, a key neurotransmitter within both the enteric and central nervous systems. Control over the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis also appears to be under the influence of the gut microbiota. This is clear from studies in microbiota-deficient germ-free animals with exaggerated responses to psychological stress that can be normalized by monocolonization with certain bacterial species including Bifidobacterium infantis. Therapeutic targeting of the gut microbiota may thus be useful in treating or preventing stress-related microbiome-gut-brain axis disorders and metabolic diseases, much the same way as redirections of metabolopathies can be achieved through more traditional endocrine hormone-based interventions. Moreover, the implications of these findings need to be considered in the context of farm and domestic animal physiology, behavior, and food safety. PMID:27345323

  9. Plant roots alter microbial potential for mediation of soil organic carbon decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, M.; Shi, S.; Herman, D.; He, Z.; Zhou, J.

    2014-12-01

    Plant root regulation of soil organic carbon (SOC) decomposition is a key controller of terrestrial C-cycling. Although many studies have tested possible mechanisms underlying plant "priming" of decomposition, few have investigated the microbial mediators of decomposition, which can be greatly influenced by plant activities. Here we examined effects of Avena fatua roots on decomposition of 13C-labeled root litter in a California grassland soil over two simulated growing-seasons. The presence of plant roots consistently suppressed rates of litter decomposition. Reduction of inorganic nitrogen (N) concentration in soil reduced but did not completely relieve this suppressive effect. The presence of plants significantly altered the abundance, composition and functional potential of microbial communities. Significantly higher signal intensities of genes capable of degrading low molecular weight organic compounds (e.g., glucose, formate and malate) were observed in microbial communities from planted soils, while microorganisms in unplanted soils had higher relative abundances of genes involved in degradation of some macromolecules (e.g., hemicellulose and lignin). Additionally, compared to unplanted soils, microbial communities from planted soils had higher signal intensities of proV and proW, suggesting microbial osmotic stress in planted soils. Possible mechanisms for the observed inhibition of decomposition are 1) microbes preferentially using simple substrates from root exudates and 2) soil drying by plant evapotranspiration impairing microbial activity. We propose a simple data-based model suggesting that the impacts of roots, the soil environment, and microbial community composition on decomposition processes result from impacts of these factors on the soil microbial functional gene potential.

  10. Cardiovascular and organ responses and adaptation responses to hypogravity in an experimental animal model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biondi, R.; Capodicasa, E.; Tassi, C.; Mezzasomal, L.; Benedetti, C.; Valiani, M.; Marconi, P.; Rossi, R.

    1995-10-01

    The head-down suspension (i.e antiorthostatic hypokinesia) rat is used to simulate weightlessness. However, little is known about cardiovascular and organ adaptation responses which, over a long time, can become pathologically significant. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate regional changes in the hematology parameters, Endotheline-1 (ET-1) concentration and urinary excretion of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (EC 3.2.1.30) (NAG) in an experimental antiorthostatic rat model. The data indicate significant variations in the plasma ET-1 level in time, in the superior and inferior cava vessel blood of animals maintained for 10 days in hypogravity with respect to controls. These changes do not seem to be due to hemoconcentration. The increase in urinary NAG was observed during the first 24h of experiment, indicating renal stress, probably due to adverse blood flow variations within the organ. We conclude that the plasma ET-1 level changes could be responsible, overall for the blood flow variations in the kidney and renal stress could be the consequence of extended antiorthostatic hypokinesia. The ET-1 behaviour and urinary NAG excretion in rats exposed to antiorthostatic hypokjnetic hydynamia offer possibilities for understanding if these changes might be reversible or when they become pathological. This could give some relevant information about the effects of prolonged hypogravity during the space voyage.

  11. Novel threadlike structures may be present on the large animal organ surface: evidence in Swine model.

    PubMed

    Bae, Kyoung-Hee; Park, Sang Hyun; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Nam, Min-Ho; Yoon, Ji Woong; Kwon, Hee-Min; Yoon, Seung Zhoo

    2013-01-01

    Background. The types of embryonic development probably provoke different paths of novel threadlike structure (NTS) development. The authors hypothesized that NTS may be easily observed on the surface of swine intestines by using trypan blue staining method and visualization under an optical microscope. Methods. General anesthesia was administered to 2 Yorkshire pigs. The abdominal walls of the pigs were carefully dissected along the medial alba. NTSs were identified on organ surfaces under a stereoscopic microscope after trypan blue staining. Isolated NTS specimens obtained from the large intestine were subjected to 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and observed using the polarized light microscopy to confirm whether the obtained structure fits the definition of NTS. Results. We found elastic, semitransparent threadlike structures (forming a network structure) that had a milky-white color in situ and in vivo in swine large intestines. The samples showed distinct extinction of polarized light at every 90 degrees, and nucleus was shown to be rod shaped by DAPI staining, indicating that they meet the criteria of NTS. Conclusion. We used a swine model to demonstrate that NTS may be present on large animal organ surfaces. Our results may permit similar studies by using human specimens. PMID:23762159

  12. Relationships between organics, water and early stages of aqueous alteration in the pristine CR3.0 chondrite MET 00426

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Guillou, Corentin; Brearley, Adrian

    2014-04-01

    In order to investigate the nature of organics at the time of their accretion into chondrite parent bodies, as well as their subsequent evolution with aqueous alteration, we have conducted a study of the morphologies, spatial distribution and relationships between organic particles and the surrounding matrix phases in one of the most pristine carbonaceous chondrites currently known (MET 00426, CR), which is therefore likely to contain the best preserved record of pre-accretion features. Focused ion beam sections were extracted for transmission electron microscope observations from its matrix. Organic matter (OM) shows a heterogeneous population of grains, most of them smaller than 1 μm. Diverse morphologies are observed, such as compact, rounded aggregates, individual and aggregated nanoglobules, and micron- to nanometer-sized veins. A common feature is the systematic presence of cracks connected to the grains and filled with OM. The surrounding matrix groundmass consists of amorphous iron-rich silicate particles intimately mixed with phyllosilicates, sulfides and occasional tochilinite, with sizes ranging from several hundreds of nanometers to below 10 nm. A close spatial relationship is commonly observed between some of the organic matter particles and alteration phases, such as tochilinite and phyllosilicates. Phyllosilicates sometimes occur intimately intercalated with organic matter at a scale below 10 nm. We used TEM/EDS techniques to quantify the water concentration in the matrix amorphous silicate material and the phyllosilicates. The water contents of both materials are identical at 10 (±6) wt.% H2O and demonstrate, that the amorphous silicate material in this meteorite is hydrated. Therefore, even though these CR3.0 chondrites are the least altered objects from a mineralogical point of view, their matrices contain significant amounts of water in the amorphous silicate. This coupled in situ study of organics and aqueous alteration suggests that a

  13. Predators alter community organization of coral reef cryptofauna and reduce abundance of coral mutualists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stier, A. C.; Leray, M.

    2014-03-01

    Coral reefs are the most diverse marine systems in the world, yet our understanding of the processes that maintain such extraordinary diversity remains limited and taxonomically biased toward the most conspicuous species. Cryptofauna that live deeply embedded within the interstitial spaces of coral reefs make up the majority of reef diversity, and many of these species provide important protective services to their coral hosts. However, we know very little about the processes governing the diversity and composition of these less conspicuous but functionally important species. Here, we experimentally quantify the role of predation in driving the community organization of small fishes and decapods that live embedded within Pocillopora eydouxi, a structurally complex, reef-building coral found widely across the Indo-Pacific. We use surveys to describe the natural distribution of predators, and then, factorially manipulate two focal predator species to quantify the independent and combined effects of predator density and identity on P. eydouxi-dwelling cryptofauna. Predators reduced abundance (34 %), species richness (20 %), and modified species composition. Rarefaction revealed that observed reductions in species richness were primarily driven by changes in abundance. Additionally, the two predator species uniquely affected the beta diversity and composition of the prey assemblage. Predators reduced the abundance and modified the composition of a number of mutualist fishes and decapods, whose benefit to the coral is known to be both diversity- and density-dependent. We predict that the density and identity of predators present within P. eydouxi may substantially alter coral performance in the face of an increased frequency and intensity of natural and anthropogenic stressors.

  14. The purified and recombinant Legionella pneumophila chaperonin alters mitochondrial trafficking and microfilament organization.

    PubMed

    Chong, Audrey; Lima, Celia A; Allan, David S; Nasrallah, Gheyath K; Garduño, Rafael A

    2009-11-01

    A portion of the total cellular pool of the Legionella pneumophila chaperonin, HtpB, is found on the bacterial cell surface, where it can mediate invasion of nonphagocytic cells. HtpB continues to be abundantly produced and released by internalized L. pneumophila and may thus have postinvasion functions. We used here two functional models (protein-coated beads and expression of recombinant proteins in CHO cells) to investigate the competence of HtpB in mimicking early intracellular trafficking events of L. pneumophila, including the recruitment of mitochondria, cytoskeletal alterations, the inhibition of phagosome-lysosome fusion, and association with the endoplasmic reticulum. Microscopy and flow cytometry studies indicated that HtpB-coated beads recruited mitochondria in CHO cells and U937-derived macrophages and induced transient changes in the organization of actin microfilaments in CHO cells. Ectopic expression of HtpB in the cytoplasm of transfected CHO cells also led to modifications in actin microfilaments similar to those produced by HtpB-coated beads but did not change the distribution of mitochondria. Association of phagosomes containing HtpB-coated beads with the endoplasmic reticulum was not consistently detected by either fluorescence or electron microscopy studies, and only a modest delay in the fusion of TrOv-labeled lysosomes with phagosomes containing HtpB-coated beads was observed. HtpB is the first Legionella protein and the first chaperonin shown to, by means of our functional models, induce mitochondrial recruitment and microfilament rearrangements, two postinternalization events that typify the early trafficking of virulent L. pneumophila. PMID:19687203

  15. Shear Stress-Induced Alteration of Epithelial Organization in Human Renal Tubular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Belloy, Marcy; Saulnier-Blache, Jean-Sébastien; Casemayou, Audrey; Ducasse, Laure; Grès, Sandra; Bellière, Julie; Caubet, Cécile; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Schanstra, Joost P.; Buffin-Meyer, Bénédicte

    2015-01-01

    Tubular epithelial cells in the kidney are continuously exposed to urinary fluid shear stress (FSS) generated by urine movement and recent in vitro studies suggest that changes of FSS could contribute to kidney injury. However it is unclear whether FSS alters the epithelial characteristics of the renal tubule. Here, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo the influence of FSS on epithelial characteristics of renal proximal tubular cells taking the organization of junctional complexes and the presence of the primary cilium as markers of epithelial phenotype. Human tubular cells (HK-2) were subjected to FSS (0.5 Pa) for 48h. Control cells were maintained under static conditions. Markers of tight junctions (Claudin-2, ZO-1), Par polarity complex (Pard6), adherens junctions (E-Cadherin, β-Catenin) and the primary cilium (α-acetylated Tubulin) were analysed by quantitative PCR, Western blot or immunocytochemistry. In response to FSS, Claudin-2 disappeared and ZO-1 displayed punctuated and discontinuous staining in the plasma membrane. Expression of Pard6 was also decreased. Moreover, E-Cadherin abundance was decreased, while its major repressors Snail1 and Snail2 were overexpressed, and β-Catenin staining was disrupted along the cell periphery. Finally, FSS subjected-cells exhibited disappeared primary cilium. Results were confirmed in vivo in a uninephrectomy (8 months) mouse model where increased FSS induced by adaptive hyperfiltration in remnant kidney was accompanied by both decreased epithelial gene expression including ZO-1, E-cadherin and β-Catenin and disappearance of tubular cilia. In conclusion, these results show that proximal tubular cells lose an important number of their epithelial characteristics after long term exposure to FSS both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the changes in urinary FSS associated with nephropathies should be considered as potential insults for tubular cells leading to disorganization of the tubular epithelium. PMID:26146837

  16. Photoinhibition of photosystem I in a pea mutant with altered LHCII organization.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A G; Morgan-Kiss, R M; Krol, M; Allakhverdiev, S I; Zanev, Yu; Sane, P V; Huner, N P A

    2015-11-01

    Comparative analysis of in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence imaging revealed that photosystem II (PSII) photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) of leaves of the Costata 2/133 pea mutant with altered pigment composition and decreased level of oligomerization of the light harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complexes (LHCII) of PSII (Dobrikova et al., 2000; Ivanov et al., 2005) did not differ from that of WT. In contrast, photosystem I (PSI) activity of the Costata 2/133 mutant measured by the far-red (FR) light inducible P700 (P700(+)) signal exhibited 39% lower steady state level of P700(+), a 2.2-fold higher intersystem electron pool size (e(-)/P700) and higher rate of P700(+) re-reduction, which indicate an increased capacity for PSI cyclic electron transfer (CET) in the Costata 2/133 mutant than WT. The mutant also exhibited a limited capacity for state transitions. The lower level of oxidizable P700 (P700(+)) is consistent with a lower amount of PSI related chlorophyll protein complexes and lower abundance of the PsaA/PsaB heterodimer, PsaD and Lhca1 polypeptides in Costata 2/133 mutant. Exposure of WT and the Costata 2/133 mutant to high light stress resulted in a comparable photoinhibition of PSII measured in vivo, although the decrease of Fv/Fm was modestly higher in the mutant plants. However, under the same photoinhibitory conditions PSI photochemistry (P700(+)) measured as ΔA820-860 was inhibited to a greater extent (50%) in the Costata 2/133 mutant than in the WT (22%). This was accompanied by a 50% faster re-reduction rate of P700(+) in the dark indicating a higher capacity for CET around PSI in high light treated mutant leaves. The role of chloroplast thylakoid organization on the stability of the PSI complex and its susceptibility to high light stress is discussed. PMID:26321219

  17. [The organization of veterinary services in African animal husbandry systems: chances for the exchange of interdisciplinary learning processes].

    PubMed

    Kirk, M

    1995-12-01

    The structure of the veterinary services to date hinders--together with massive intervention in the land tenure systems and the animal keepers' rights in arid and semi-arid areas--the future organization of productive animal-keeping systems adapted to the ecological conditions. The consensus of the findings of research in the social as well as in the natural sciences, is that state (agrarian) policies and international development cooperation have led to centralism and authoritarian administrations which formalize formerly informal, locally specific rules for securing the health of the animals and the maintenance of grazing and water resources. As a result, the animal-keeping groups have lost their rights, social conflicts arose and the environment suffered. Thus, decentralization, subsidarity and--above all--comprehensive participation on the part of the animal keepers are regarded as the guidelines for the future organization of state and/or private services for maintaining the health of the animals. Thereby, the planning at the various administrative levels is faced by great challenges in view of the progressing differentiation in the animal-keeping systems (e.g. peri-urban systems; urban absentee herd owners; marginalized, subsistence-oriented households). PMID:8651895

  18. The contribution of starvation, deconditioning and ageing to the observed alterations in peripheral skeletal muscle in chronic organ diseases.

    PubMed

    Franssen, F M E; Wouters, E F M; Schols, A M W J

    2002-02-01

    Muscle weakness and early fatigue are common symptoms of chronic organ diseases, like chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic heart failure (CHF) and chronic renal failure (CRF). It is becoming more and more clear that symptom intensities and exercise intolerance are related to muscle wasting and intrinsic alterations in peripheral skeletal muscle in these patient populations, while correlations with parameters of organ functioning are poor. Also, changes in muscle structure and function in COPD, CHF and CRF show much resemblance. Semi-starvation, reduced physical activity and ageing are external factors possibly confounding a direct relationship between the primary organ impairments and alterations in peripheral skeletal muscle and exercise capacity. Reducing the catabolic effects of the various contributing factors might improve muscle function and health status in chronic disease. In this review, we present a systematic overview of human studies on alterations in skeletal muscle function, morphology and energy metabolism in COPD, CHF, CRF and we compare the results with comparable studies in anorexia nervosa, disuse or inactivity and ageing. Unravelling the relative contributions of these external factors to the observed alterations in the various diseases may contribute to targeted intervention strategies to improve muscle function in selected groups of patients. PMID:11884007

  19. Altered Mechanical Environment of Bone Cells in an Animal Model of Short- and Long-Term Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Verbruggen, Stefaan W.; Mc Garrigle, Myles J.; Haugh, Matthew G.; Voisin, Muriel C.; McNamara, Laoise M.

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in bone tissue composition during osteoporosis likely disrupt the mechanical environment of bone cells and may thereby initiate a mechanobiological response. It has proved challenging to characterize the mechanical environment of bone cells in vivo, and the mechanical environment of osteoporotic bone cells is not known. The objective of this research is to characterize the local mechanical environment of osteocytes and osteoblasts from healthy and osteoporotic bone in a rat model of osteoporosis. Using a custom-designed micromechanical loading device, we apply strains representative of a range of physical activity (up to 3000 με) to fluorescently stained femur samples from normal and ovariectomized rats. Confocal imaging was simultaneously performed, and digital image correlation techniques were applied to characterize cellular strains. In healthy bone tissue, osteocytes experience higher maximum strains (31,028 ± 4213 με) than osteoblasts (24,921 ± 3,832 με), whereas a larger proportion of the osteoblast experiences strains >10,000 με. Most interestingly, we show that osteoporotic bone cells experience similar or higher maximum strains than healthy bone cells after short durations of estrogen deficiency (5 weeks), and exceeded the osteogenic strain threshold (10,000 με) in a similar or significantly larger proportion of the cell (osteoblast, 12.68% vs. 13.68%; osteocyte, 15.74% vs. 5.37%). However, in long-term estrogen deficiency (34 weeks), there was no significant difference between bone cells in healthy and osteoporotic bone. These results suggest that the mechanical environment of bone cells is altered during early-stage osteoporosis, and that mechanobiological responses act to restore the mechanical environment of the bone tissue after it has been perturbed by ovariectomy. PMID:25863050

  20. Systems Approach to Studying Animal Sociality: Individual Position versus Group Organization in Dynamic Social Network Models

    PubMed Central

    Hock, Karlo; Ng, Kah Loon; Fefferman, Nina H.

    2010-01-01

    Social networks can be used to represent group structure as a network of interacting components, and also to quantify both the position of each individual and the global properties of a group. In a series of simulation experiments based on dynamic social networks, we test the prediction that social behaviors that help individuals reach prominence within their social group may conflict with their potential to benefit from their social environment. In addition to cases where individuals were able to benefit from improving both their personal relative importance and group organization, using only simple rules of social affiliation we were able to obtain results in which individuals would face a trade-off between these factors. While selection would favor (or work against) social behaviors that concordantly increase (or decrease, respectively) fitness at both individual and group level, when these factors conflict with each other the eventual selective pressure would depend on the relative returns individuals get from their social environment and their position within it. The presented results highlight the importance of a systems approach to studying animal sociality, in which the effects of social behaviors should be viewed not only through the benefits that those provide to individuals, but also in terms of how they affect broader social environment and how in turn this is reflected back on an individual's fitness. PMID:21203425

  1. A strategy for trade monitoring and substitution of the organs of threatened animals.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiao-yang; Yan, Dan; Song, Jing-yuan; Zhang, Da; Xing, Xiao-yan; Han, Yu-mei; Yang, Mei-hua; Dong, Xiao-ping; Peng, Cheng; Chen, Shi-lin; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2013-01-01

    The use of threatened animals as a source of traditional medicines is accelerating the extinction of such species and imposes great challenges to animal conservation. In this study, we propose a feasible strategy for the conservation of threatened medicinal animals that combines trade monitoring and the search for substitutes. First, DNA barcoding provides a powerful technique for monitoring the trade of animal species, which helps in restricting the excessive use and illegal trade of such species. Second, pharmacological tests have been adopted to evaluate the biological equivalence of threatened and domestic animals; based on such testing, potential substitutes are recommended. Based on a review of threatened animal species and their substitutes, we find that the search for substitutes deserves special attention; however, this work is far from complete. These results may be of great value for the conservation of threatened animals and maintaining the heritage of traditional medicine. PMID:24173429

  2. A strategy for trade monitoring and substitution of the organs of threatened animals

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jiao-yang; Yan, Dan; Song, Jing-yuan; Zhang, Da; Xing, Xiao-yan; Han, Yu-mei; Yang, Mei-hua; Dong, Xiao-ping; Peng, Cheng; Chen, Shi-lin; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2013-01-01

    The use of threatened animals as a source of traditional medicines is accelerating the extinction of such species and imposes great challenges to animal conservation. In this study, we propose a feasible strategy for the conservation of threatened medicinal animals that combines trade monitoring and the search for substitutes. First, DNA barcoding provides a powerful technique for monitoring the trade of animal species, which helps in restricting the excessive use and illegal trade of such species. Second, pharmacological tests have been adopted to evaluate the biological equivalence of threatened and domestic animals; based on such testing, potential substitutes are recommended. Based on a review of threatened animal species and their substitutes, we find that the search for substitutes deserves special attention; however, this work is far from complete. These results may be of great value for the conservation of threatened animals and maintaining the heritage of traditional medicine. PMID:24173429

  3. NMR studies on the chemical alteration of soil organic matter precursors during controlled charring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knicker, Heike

    2010-05-01

    Beside the production of volatiles, vegetation fire transforms various amounts of labile organic components into recalcitrant dark colored and highly aromatic structures. They are incorporated into soils and are assumed to represent an important sink within the global carbon cycle. In order to elucidate the real importance of PyOM as a C-sink, a good understanding of its chemistry is crucial. Although several 'Black Carbon' (BC) models are reported, a commonly accepted view of the chemistry involved in its formation is still missing. Its biogeochemical recalcitrance is commonly associated with a highly condensed aromatic structure. However, recent studies indicated that this view may be oversimplified for PyOM derived from vegetation fire. In order to bring some more light on the structural properties of PyOM produced during vegetation fire, charred plant residues and model chars derived from typical plant macromolecules (casein, cellulose, lignin and condensed tannins) were subjected to controlled charring under oxic conditions (350°C and 450°C) and then characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Subsequently, the chemical features of the PyOM were related to its chemical recalcitrance as determined by chemical oxidation with acid potassium dichromate. Charring cellulose (350°C, 8 min) yielded in a low C-recovery (11%). Treating casein in the same way resulted in a survival of 62% of its C and 46% of its N. Comparable high C-recoveries are reported for lignin. After charring Lolium perenne, 34% of its N and C were recovered. NMR-spectroscopic studies revealed that for this sample most of the charred N and C occurred in pyrrole-type structures. Our studies further indicate that the aromatic skeleton of char accumulating after a vegetation fire must contain remains of the lignin backbone and considerable contributions of furans and anhydrosugars from thermally altered cellulose. Enhancing the temperature during the

  4. Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) Preference and Behavioral Response to Animated Images of Conspecifics Altered in Their Color, Aspect Ratio, and Swimming Depth

    PubMed Central

    Polverino, Giovanni; Liao, Jian Cong; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) is an example of a freshwater fish species whose remarkable diffusion outside its native range has led to it being placed on the list of the world’s hundred worst invasive alien species (International Union for Conservation of Nature). Here, we investigate mosquitofish shoaling tendency using a dichotomous choice test in which computer-animated images of their conspecifics are altered in color, aspect ratio, and swimming level in the water column. Pairs of virtual stimuli are systematically presented to focal subjects to evaluate their attractiveness and the effect on fish behavior. Mosquitofish respond differentially to some of these stimuli showing preference for conspecifics with enhanced yellow pigmentation while exhibiting highly varying locomotory patterns. Our results suggest that computer-animated images can be used to understand the factors that regulate the social dynamics of shoals of Gambusia affinis. Such knowledge may inform the design of control plans and open new avenues in conservation and protection of endangered animal species. PMID:23342131

  5. Speciation and quantification of volatile organic compounds sorbed to PM 10 fraction associated with confined animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) associated with confined animal feeding operations (CAFO) is of regulatory interested due to the potential emissions of both ozone precursors compounds and hazardous air pollutants. Emissions of VOC from CAFO occur in both gaseous phase and sorption onto particulate ...

  6. Effects of Biochemical Alteration in Animal Model after Short-Term Exposure of Jatropha curcas (Linn) Leaf Extract

    PubMed Central

    Igbinosa, Osamuyimen O.; Oviasogie, Efosa F.; Igbinosa, Etinosa O.; Igene, Otibhor; Igbinosa, Isoken H.; Idemudia, Omoruyi G.

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate potential toxic effect of Jatropha curcas leaves methanol extract on laboratory rats as well as determine its LD50. A total of 80 male Wistar rats were used as the experimental animals, 40 for LD50 determination and the other 40 for toxicity study. Based on the pretest that was done in order to establish a range of toxicity, 4 dosages (86.00, 58.00, 46.00, and 34.0 kg/body weight) were chosen. The rats were randomly assigned into four groups with 10 rats in each group. Rats in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were given 0 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, and 2000 mg/kg body weight of Jatropha curcas extract, respectively, by oral intubation for 21 days. Thereafter, clinical signs, change in body weight, toxicity symptoms, and biochemical parameters were obtained. The LD50 at 95% confidence limits for rats was 46.0 mg/kg body weight (44.95–52.69 mg/kg body mass). There was no clinical and biochemical signs of toxicity when the extract was administered at 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight, respectively (P > 0.05). Results obtained from this study suggest that liver, kidney, and haematological system of rats tolerated methanolic leave extract of Jatropha curcas at a certain concentration. PMID:23781161

  7. Fermented milk supplemented with probiotics and prebiotics can effectively alter the intestinal microbiota and immunity of host animals.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Zhu, H; Lu, C; Kang, Z; Luo, Y; Feng, L; Lu, X

    2012-09-01

    Fermented milk supplemented with 2 probiotic strains, Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, and a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide, was orally administered to 100 healthy adults at 480 g/d for 2 wk in a randomized controlled trial. The fecal bacterial compositions of these subjects were examined by culture before and after the intervention. The same fermented milk was also orally fed to BALB/c mice, and immune as well as fecal bacteria analyses were conducted using the same culturing methods. After the intervention, increases in fecal bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were observed among the subjects compared with the subjects in the control group. In contrast, after the intervention, fecal enterobacilli were significantly decreased in the test group compared with the control group. The same effects on the composition of the intestinal microbiota were observed in mice. Furthermore, the tested mice were found to have significantly increased delayed-type hypersensitivity, plaque-forming cells, and half-hemolysis values after the intervention with the fermented milk. In summary, the synbiotic fermented milk containing probiotics and a prebiotic may contribute to improve intestinal health and may have a positive effect on the humoral and cell-mediated immunity of host animals. PMID:22916885

  8. Characterizing non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumsey, Ian C.; Aneja, Viney P.; Lonneman, William A.

    2012-02-01

    Emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) were determined from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation (CAFO) in North Carolina. NMVOCs were measured in air samples collected in SUMMA and fused-silica lined (FSL) canisters and were analyzed using a gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID) system. Measurements were made from both an anaerobic lagoon and barn in each of the four seasonal sampling periods during the period June 2007 through April 2008. In each sampling period, nine to eleven canister samples were taken from both the anaerobic lagoon and barn over a minimum of four different days during a period of ˜1 week. Measurements of meteorological and physiochemical parameters were also made during the sampling period. In lagoon samples, six NMVOCs were identified that had significantly larger emissions in comparison to other NMVOCs. This included three alcohols (ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, and methanol), two ketones (acetone and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)) and an aldehyde (acetaldehyde). The overall average fluxes for these NMVOCs, ranged from 0.18 μg m -2 min -1 for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol to 2.11 μg m -2 min -1 for acetone, with seasonal fluxes highest in the summer for four (acetone, acetaldehyde, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and MEK) of the six compounds In barn samples, there were six NMVOCs that had significantly larger concentrations and emissions in comparison to other NMVOCs. These consisted of two alcohols (methanol and ethanol), an aldehyde (acetaldehyde), two ketones (acetone and 2,3-butanedione), and a phenol (4-methylphenol). Overall average barn concentration ranged from 2.87 ppb for 4-methylphenol to 16.12 ppb for ethanol. Overall average normalized barn emission rates ranged from 0.10 g day -1 AU -1 (1 AU (animal unit) = 500 kg of live animal weight) for acetaldehyde to 0.45 g day -1 AU -1 for ethanol. The NMVOCs, 4-methylphenol and 2,3-butanedione, which have low odor thresholds (odor thresholds = 1.86 ppb and 0

  9. Alterations of the synapse of the inner retinal layers after chronic intraocular pressure elevation in glaucoma animal model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dendrites of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) synapse with axon terminals of bipolar cells in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). Changes in RGC dendrites and synapses between bipolar cells in the inner retinal layer may critically alter the function of RGCs in glaucoma. Recently, synaptic plasticity has been observed in the adult central nervous system, including the outer retinal layers. However, few studies have focused on changes in the synapses between RGCs and bipolar cells in glaucoma. In the present study, we used a rat model of ocular hypertension induced by episcleral vein cauterization to investigate changes in synaptic structure and protein expression in the inner retinal layer at various time points after moderate intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation. Results Synaptophysin, a presynaptic vesicle protein, increased throughout the IPL, outer plexiform layer, and outer nuclear layer after IOP elevation. Increased synaptophysin after IOP elevation was expressed in bipolar cells in the innermost IPL. The RGC marker, SMI-32, co-localized with synaptophysin in RGC dendrites and were significantly increased at 1 week and 4 weeks after IOP elevation. Both synaptophysin and postsynaptic vesicle protein, PSD-95, were increased after IOP elevation by western blot analysis. Ribbon synapses in the IPL were quantified and structurally evaluated in retinal sections by transmission electron microscopy. After IOP elevation the total number of ribbon synapses decreased. There were increases in synapse diameter and synaptic vesicle number and decreases in active zone length and the number of docked vesicles after IOP elevation. Conclusions Although the total number of synapses decreased as RGCs were lost after IOP elevation, there are attempts to increase synaptic vesicle proteins and immature synapse formation between RGCs and bipolar cells in the inner retinal layers after glaucoma induction. PMID:25116810

  10. Laboratory simulated hydrothermal alteration of sedimentary organic matter from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leif, Roald N.

    1993-01-01

    High temperature alteration of sedimentary organic matter associated with marine hydrothermal systems involves complex physical and chemical processes that are not easily measured in most natural systems. Many of these processes can be evaluated indirectly by examining the geochemistry of the hydrothermal system in the laboratory. In this investigation, an experimental organic geochemical approach to studying pyrolysis of sedimentary organic matter is applied to the hydrothermal system in the Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California. A general survey of hydrothermal oils and extractable organic matter (bitumen) in hydrothermally altered sediments identified several homologous series of alkanones associated with a high temperature hydrothermal origin. The alkanones range in carbon number from C11 to C30 with no carbon number preference. Alkan-2-ones are in highest concentrations, with lower amounts of 3-, 4-, 5- (and higher) homologs. The alkanones appear to be pyrolysis products synthesized under extreme hydrothermal conditions. Hydrous pyrolysis and confinement pyrolysis experiments were performed to simulate thermally enhanced diagenetic and catagenetic changes in the immature sedimentary organic matter. The extent of alteration was measured by monitoring the n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, steroid and triterpenoid biomarkers, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanones. The results were compared to bitumen extracts from sediments which have been naturally altered by a sill intrusion and accompanied hydrothermal fluid flow. These pyrolysis experiments duplicated many of the organic matter transformations observed in the natural system. Full hopane and sterane maturation occurred after 48 hr in experiments at 330 deg C with low water/rock mass ratios (0.29). A variety of radical and ionic reactions are responsible for the organic compound conversions which occur under extreme hydrothermal conditions. Short duration pyrolysis experiments revealed that a portion of the

  11. The Protein 4.1 family: hub proteins in animals for organizing membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Baines, Anthony J; Lu, Hui-Chun; Bennett, Pauline M

    2014-02-01

    Proteins of the 4.1 family are characteristic of eumetazoan organisms. Invertebrates contain single 4.1 genes and the Drosophila model suggests that 4.1 is essential for animal life. Vertebrates have four paralogues, known as 4.1R, 4.1N, 4.1G and 4.1B, which are additionally duplicated in the ray-finned fish. Protein 4.1R was the first to be discovered: it is a major mammalian erythrocyte cytoskeletal protein, essential to the mechanochemical properties of red cell membranes because it promotes the interaction between spectrin and actin in the membrane cytoskeleton. 4.1R also binds certain phospholipids and is required for the stable cell surface accumulation of a number of erythrocyte transmembrane proteins that span multiple functional classes; these include cell adhesion molecules, transporters and a chemokine receptor. The vertebrate 4.1 proteins are expressed in most tissues, and they are required for the correct cell surface accumulation of a very wide variety of membrane proteins including G-Protein coupled receptors, voltage-gated and ligand-gated channels, as well as the classes identified in erythrocytes. Indeed, such large numbers of protein interactions have been mapped for mammalian 4.1 proteins, most especially 4.1R, that it appears that they can act as hubs for membrane protein organization. The range of critical interactions of 4.1 proteins is reflected in disease relationships that include hereditary anaemias, tumour suppression, control of heartbeat and nervous system function. The 4.1 proteins are defined by their domain structure: apart from the spectrin/actin-binding domain they have FERM and FERM-adjacent domains and a unique C-terminal domain. Both the FERM and C-terminal domains can bind transmembrane proteins, thus they have the potential to be cross-linkers for membrane proteins. The activity of the FERM domain is subject to multiple modes of regulation via binding of regulatory ligands, phosphorylation of the FERM associated domain and

  12. Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cell Phenotypic Alterations in a Large Animal Model of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations Following the Glenn Shunt

    PubMed Central

    Kavarana, Minoo N.; Mukherjee, Rupak; Eckhouse, Shaina R.; Rawls, William F.; Logdon, Christina; Stroud, Robert E.; Patel, Risha K.; Nadeau, Elizabeth K.; Spinale, Francis G.; Graham, Eric M.; Forbus, Geoffrey A.; Bradley, Scott M.; Ikonomidis, John S.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Longevity of the superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC) is limited by the development of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM). The goal of this study was to determine whether phenotypic changes in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC) that favor angiogenesis occur with PAVM formation. Methods: A superior vena cava to right pulmonary artery connection was constructed in 5 pigs. Pulmonary arteries were harvested at 6-8 weeks following surgery to establish cultures of PAEC and smooth muscle cells, to determine cell proliferation, gene expression, and tubule formation. Abundance of proteins related to angiogenesis was measured in lung tissue. Results: Contrast echocardiography revealed right-to-left shunting, consistent with PAVM formation. While the proliferation of smooth muscle cells from the right pulmonary artery (RPA) (shunted side) and left pulmonary artery (LPA) (non- shunted side) were similar, right PAEC proliferation was significantly higher. Expression profiles of genes encoding cellular signaling proteins were higher in PAECs from the RPA vs. LPA. Protein abundance of angiopoietin-1, and Tie-2 (angiopoietin receptor) were increased in the right lung (both p<0.05). Tubule formation was increased in endothelial cells from the RPA compared to the LPA (404±16 vs. 199±71 tubules/mm2, respectively p<0.05). Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that PAVMs developed in a clinically relevant animal model of SCPC. This study found that PAVM development occurred concomitantly with differential changes in PAEC proliferative ability and phenotype. Moreover, there was a significant increase in the angiopoietin/Tie-2 complex in the right lung, which may provide novel therapeutic targets to attenuate PAVM formation following a SCPC. PMID:23968766

  13. Morphology of the internal organs in the adaptation of animals to high-altitude conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakhimov, Y. A.; Belkin, V. S.; Usmanov, M. U.

    1975-01-01

    Disruption of metabolic processes in the walls of the blood vessels as well as changes in the functional activity of the endocrine glands play an important role in the process of an animal's accommodation to a combination of stress factors. Preliminary training of animals for stays at high-altitude markedly reduces the severity of the morphological picture.

  14. Non-Invasive in vivo Mapping and Long-Term Monitoring of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Different Organs of Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, Maxim; Yuriev, Mikhail; Brusentsov, Nikolai; Vetoshko, Petr; Nikitin, Petr

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative detection of magnetic nanoparticles (MP) in vivo is very important for various biomedical applications. Our original detection method based on non-linear MP magnetization has been modified for non-invasive in vivo mapping of the MP distribution among different organs of rats. A novel highly sensitive room-temperature device equipped with an external probe has been designed and tested for quantification of MP within 20-mm depth from the animal skin. Results obtained by external in vivo scanning of rats by the probe and ex vivo MP quantification in different organs of rats well correlated. The method allows long-term in vivo study of MP evolution, clearance and redistribution among different organs of the animal. Experiments showed that dynamics in vivo strongly depend on MP characteristics (size, material, coatings, etc.), site of injection and dose. The developed detection method combined with the magnetic nanolabels can substitute the radioactive labeling in many applications.

  15. Alteration of cancer pain-related signals by radiation: Proteomic analysis in an animal model with cancer bone invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hee Chul; Seong, Jinsil . E-mail: jsseong@yumc.yonsei.ac.kr; An, Jung Hee; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Un Jung; Lee, Bae Whan

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: Although radiotherapy is highly effective in relieving bone pain due to cancer invasion, its mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore this mechanism in an animal model system. Methods and Materials: A hind paw model of cancer pain was developed by transplanting a murine hepatocarcinoma, HCa-1, into the periosteal membrane of the foot dorsum of C3H/HeJ mice. Bone invasion from HCa-1 was histopathologically confirmed from sequential tumor sampling. For three experimental groups, a control (N), tumor without radiation (T), and tumor with radiation (TR), the development and level of pain were objectively examined in mice with a growing tumor by assessing pain-associated behavior. The differential expression of pain-related signals in the spinal cord was analyzed by proteomic analysis using high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry, and those of proteins by Western blotting. The pain-mediating neurotransmitters in the spinal cord were also examined by immunohistochemical staining for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P. Results: In the histopathologic examinations, bone invasion from HCa-1 was seen from Day 7 and was evident at Day 14 after transplantation, and measurable pain-associated behaviors were developed from Day 7. After 25 Gy of radiation to the tumors, the objective level of pain in the TR group decreased, with higher thresholds to mechanical and thermal stimulation than in the T group. From the 2-DE of spinal cord, 107 spots were identified; 12 proteins were changed more than fivefold because of tumor formation but then reversed after radiation in the tumor-bearing mice. The proteins involved included secretagogin, syntenin, P2X purinoreceptor 6 (P2X6), and Ca{sup 2+}/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 1 (CaM kinase 1), the functions of which have been known to be involved in the Ca{sup 2+}-signaling cascade, ATP-mediated fast synaptic transmission, or control of

  16. Organic solvent alteration of hydraulic properties of sedimentary rocks of low permeability: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Sklarew, D.S.

    1985-05-01

    A review of the current literature on hydrophysical interactions of organic solutes with sedimentary rocks of low permeability is presented. The motivation was the premise that low permeability rocks may act as secondary (aquifer) barriers for the containment of hazardous organic wastes, thus preventing these wastes from contaminating the groundwater. However, this premise may be incorrect if organic wastes can affect the hydraulic conductivity of these rocks. The results indicate that very little work has been done concerning interactions of organics with consolidated subsurface materials. Available information on three related topics was summarized: the effect of organic compounds on the hydrophysical properties of clays, case studies concerning the interactions of organic compounds with clays and sedimentary rocks, and the effect of shales on inorganic transport. These studies give an indication of some research areas that need to be explored with regard to the effect of organic compounds on the hydrophysical properties of sedimentary rocks; these research needs are briefly summarized. 42 refs.

  17. Development of a vessel organ culture system: characterisation of the method and implications for the reduction of animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Zaniboni, Andrea; Zannoni, Augusta; Bernardini, Chiara; De Cecco, Marco; Bombardi, Cristiano; Seren, Eraldo; Forni, Monica; Bacci, Maria Laura

    2013-09-01

    In the field of cardiovascular research, the pig is considered to be an excellent animal model of human diseases. It is well-known that primary cultures of endothelial cells (ECs) are a powerful tool for the study of vascular physiology and pathology, and, according to the principles of the Three Rs, their use results in a substantial reduction in the numbers of experimental animals required. However, a limitation of EC culture is that the cells are not in their physiological context. Here, we describe and characterise a method for the culture of porcine vessels that overcomes the limitation of EC cultures, with the advantage of reducing the number of animals used for research purposes. The organ cultures were set-up by using an aortic cylinder obtained from the arteries of control pigs sacrificed for other experimental purposes. In order to characterise the method, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation and the vessel's structural features were evaluated during organ culture. These analyses confirm that the culture of aortic cylinder lumen, in a medium specific for ECs, results in a stable system in terms of VEGF and MMP secretion. The ECs do not undergo cell division during the organ culture, which is also the case in vivo, if no stimulation occurs. Overall, we show that this novel system closely resembles the in vivo context. Importantly, porcine aortas can be collected from either veterinary surgeries or slaughterhouses, without having to sacrifice animals specifically for the purposes of this type of research. PMID:24168133

  18. 9 CFR 355.37 - Alteration or limitation of statement of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alteration or limitation of statement of certification. 355.37 Section 355.37 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  19. Sodium Butyrate, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Reverses Behavioral and Mitochondrial Alterations in Animal Models of Depression Induced by Early- or Late-life Stress.

    PubMed

    Valvassori, Samira S; Resende, Wilson R; Budni, Josiane; Dal-Pont, Gustavo C; Bavaresco, Daniela V; Réus, Gislaine Z; Carvalho, André F; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Furlanetto, Camila B; Streck, Emilio L; Quevedo, João

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sodium butyrate on depressive-like behavior and mitochondrial alteration parameters in animal models of depression induced by maternal deprivation or chronic mild stress in Wistar rats. maternal deprivation was established by separating pups from their mothers for 3 h daily from postnatal day 1 to day 10. Chronic mild stress was established by water deprivation, food deprivation, restraint stress, isolation and flashing lights. Sodium butyrate or saline was administered twice a day for 7 days before the behavioral tests. Depressive behavior was evaluated using the forced swim test. The activity of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes (succinate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase) and of mitochondrial chain complexes (I, II, II-III and IV) was measured in the striatum of rats. From these analyses it can be observed that sodium butyrate reversed the depressive-like behavior observed in both animal models of depression. Additionally, maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress inhibited mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and increased the activity of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. Sodium butyrate treatment reversed -maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress- induced dysfunction in the striatum of rats. In conclusion, sodium butyrate showed antidepressant effects in maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress-treated rats, and this effect can be attributed to its action on the neurochemical pathways related to depression. PMID:26216027

  20. Impact Metamorphism of Subsurface Organic Matter on Mars: A Potential Source for Methane and Surface Alteration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, D. Z.; Allen, C. C.; McKay, D. S.

    2005-01-01

    Reports of methane in the Martian atmosphere have spurred speculation about sources for that methane [1-3]. Discussion has centered on cometary/ meteoritic delivery, magmatic/mantle processes, UV-breakdown of organics, serpentinization of basalts, and generation of methane by living organisms. This paper describes an additional possibility: that buried organic remains from past life on Mars may have been generating methane throughout Martian history as a result of heating associated with impact metamorphism.

  1. Approaches to extrapolating animal toxicity data on organic solvents to public health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing predictive relationships between exposure and toxicity in humans is difficult because 1) available data are usually derived from experimental animals whose sensitivity to the chemical relative to humans is unknown; 2) the specific neurotoxic endpoints measured in labor...

  2. Long-term variation in above and belowground plant inputs alters soil organic matter biogeochemistry at the molecular-level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, M. J.; Pisani, O.; Lin, L.; Lun, O.; Simpson, A.; Lajtha, K.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    The long-term fate of soil carbon reserves with global environmental change remains uncertain. Shifts in moisture, altered nutrient cycles, species composition, or rising temperatures may alter the proportions of above and belowground biomass entering soil. However, it is unclear how long-term changes in plant inputs may alter the composition of soil organic matter (SOM) and soil carbon storage. Advanced molecular techniques were used to assess SOM composition in mineral soil horizons (0-10 cm) after 20 years of Detrital Input and Removal Treatment (DIRT) at the Harvard Forest. SOM biomarkers (solvent extraction, base hydrolysis and cupric (II) oxide oxidation) and both solid-state and solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to identify changes in SOM composition and stage of degradation. Microbial activity and community composition were assessed using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Doubling aboveground litter inputs decreased soil carbon content, increased the degradation of labile SOM and enhanced the sequestration of aliphatic compounds in soil. The exclusion of belowground inputs (No roots and No inputs) resulted in a decrease in root-derived components and enhanced the degradation of leaf-derived aliphatic structures (cutin). Cutin-derived SOM has been hypothesized to be recalcitrant but our results show that even this complex biopolymer is susceptible to degradation when inputs entering soil are altered. The PLFA data indicate that changes in soil microbial community structure favored the accelerated processing of specific SOM components with littler manipulation. These results collectively reveal that the quantity and quality of plant litter inputs alters the molecular-level composition of SOM and in some cases, enhances the degradation of recalcitrant SOM. Our study also suggests that increased litterfall is unlikely to enhance soil carbon storage over the long-term in temperate forests.

  3. Microcystin-LR induces abnormal root development by altering microtubule organization in tissue-cultured common reed (Phragmites australis) plantlets.

    PubMed

    Máthé, Csaba; Beyer, Dániel; Erdodi, Ferenc; Serfozo, Zoltán; Székvölgyi, Lóránt; Vasas, Gábor; M-Hamvas, Márta; Jámbrik, Katalin; Gonda, Sándor; Kiss, Andrea; Szigeti, Zsuzsa M; Surányi, Gyula

    2009-05-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is a heptapeptide cyanotoxin, known to be a potent inhibitor of type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases in eukaryotes. Our aim was to investigate the effect of MC-LR on the organization of microtubules and mitotic chromatin in relation to its possible effects on cell and whole organ morphology in roots of common reed (Phragmites australis). P. australis is a widespread freshwater and brackish water aquatic macrophyte, frequently exposed to phytotoxins in eutrophic waters. Reed plantlets regenerated from embryogenic calli were treated with 0.001-40 microg ml(-1) (0.001-40.2 microM) MC-LR for 2-20 days. At 0.5 microg ml(-1) MC-LR and at higher cyanotoxin concentrations, the inhibition of protein phosphatase activity by MC-LR induced alterations in reed root growth and morphology, including abnormal lateral root development and the radial swelling of cells in the elongation zone of primary and lateral roots. Both short-term (2-5 days) and long-term (10-20 days) of cyanotoxin treatment induced microtubule disruption in meristems and in the elongation and differentiation zones. Microtubule disruption was accompanied by root cell shape alteration. At concentrations of 0.5-5 microg ml(-1), MC-LR increased mitotic index at long-term exposure and induced the increase of the percentage of meristematic cells in prophase as well as telophase and cytokinesis of late mitosis. High cyanotoxin concentrations (10-40 microg ml(-1)) inhibited mitosis at as short as 2 days of exposure. The alteration of microtubule organization was observed in mitotic cells at all exposure periods studied, at cyanotoxin concentrations of 0.5-40 microg ml(-1). MC-LR induced spindle anomalies at the metaphase-anaphase transition, the formation of asymmetric anaphase spindles and abnormal sister chromatid separation. This paper reports for the first time that MC-LR induces cytoskeletal changes that lead to alterations of root architecture and development in common reed and generally, in

  4. 1H-NMR-based profiling of organic components in leachate from animal carcasses disposal site with time.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong-Kook; Bae, Hyun-Whee; Shin, Sun Kyoung; Jeon, Tae-Wan; Seo, Jungju; Hwang, Geum-Sook

    2014-09-01

    Leachate, generated by the decomposition of animal carcasses, presents many environmental, sanitary, and food safety hazards. However, research on the characteristics of leachate is lacking. In this study, we performed biochemical profiling of leachate from two animal species (pig and cattle) in two soil types (sandy loam and sandy soil) using (1)H-NMR-based profiling, followed by multivariate data analysis. The leachate was collected from a well-controlled artificial burial site over a 31-week period. Principal components analysis (PCA) of the NMR data showed similar patterns between species and soil types. Organic components, including organic acids and phenols, predominated, and their levels increased with time. The methylamine level in leachate from pig carcasses 18 weeks following burial was significantly higher than that from cattle carcasses; leachate from cattle carcasses in sandy soil 1 week after burial contained unique components (specifically ethanol, formate, alanine, N-methylation, and taurine), in contrast with those from sandy loam soil. This study suggests that a NMR-based profiling approach is useful to characterize the organic components in leachate from animal carcasses over time. PMID:24819439

  5. Programmed pyrolysis of organic matter from thermally altered Cretaceous black shales

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, K.E.; Hunt, J.M.; Tarafa, M.E.; Whelan, J.K.

    1983-11-01

    Organic-rich Cretaceous black shales from the Cape Verde Rise in the eastern Atlantic were penetrated by hot diabase sills during the Miocene. Programmed pyrolysis and pyrolysis-gas chromatography of organic matter from core samples taken at various distances from a major sill were used to show: the type of kerogen, its relative level of thermal maturity, the fraction of pyrolyzable organic compounds which are free, and the compositions of the bitumen and kerogen. The dominant factor affecting these sediments appears to be thermal maturity rather than differences in the quality of the organic matter. Systematic changes in the pyrolyzate resulted from thermal cracking of volatile organics from the oil-prone Type II kerogen. Generation of these products caused progressive aromatization of the residual kerogen closer to the sill. These conclusions are supported by changes in kerogen elemental compositions, quantity of bitumen extract, and vitrinite reflectance. Although the major sill is 15 m (about 50 ft) thick, solvent extraction and pyrolysis results show that hydrocarbon generation was restricted to within about 10 m (about 33 ft) of the shale/sill contacts. At equal distances, the maximum temperature reached by the shales was higher above than below the sill. The reflectance of vitrinite responds more rapidly than bitumen composition to high temperatures imposed over a short time.

  6. Interspecies chimeric complementation for the generation of functional human tissues and organs in large animal hosts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-01

    The past decade's rapid progress in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) research has generated hope for meeting the rising demand of organ donation, which remains the only effective cure for end-stage organ failure, a major cause of death worldwide. Despite the potential, generation of transplantable organs from hPSCs using in vitro differentiation is far-fetched. An in vivo interspecies chimeric complementation strategy relying on chimeric-competent hPSCs and zygote genome editing provides an auspicious alternative for providing unlimited organ source for transplantation. PMID:26820411

  7. Mice Long-Term High-Fat Diet Feeding Recapitulates Human Cardiovascular Alterations: An Animal Model to Study the Early Phases of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Calligaris, Sebastián D.; Lecanda, Manuel; Solis, Felipe; Ezquer, Marcelo; Gutiérrez, Jaime; Brandan, Enrique; Leiva, Andrea; Sobrevia, Luis; Conget, Paulette

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim Hypercaloric diet ingestion and sedentary lifestyle result in obesity. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of clinical features secondary to obesity, considered as a pre-diabetic condition and recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. To better understand the relationship between obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease as well as for the development of novel therapeutic strategies, animal models that reproduce the etiology, course and outcomes of these pathologies are required. The aim of this work was to characterize the long-term effects of high-fat diet-induced obesity on the mice cardiovascular system, in order to make available a new animal model for diabetic cardiomyopathy. Methods/Results Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with a standardized high-fat diet (obese) or regular diet (normal) for 16 months. Metabolic syndrome was evaluated testing plasma glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, and glucose tolerance. Arterial pressure was measured using a sphygmomanometer (non invasive method) and by hemodynamic parameters (invasive method). Cardiac anatomy was described based on echocardiography and histological studies. Cardiac function was assessed by cardiac catheterization under a stress test. Cardiac remodelling and metabolic biomarkers were assessed by RT-qPCR and immunoblotting. As of month eight, the obese mice were overweight, hyperglycaemic, insulin resistant, hyperinsulinemic and hypercholesterolemic. At month 16, they also presented normal arterial pressure but altered vascular reactivity (vasoconstriction), and cardiac contractility reserve reduction, heart mass increase, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, and heart metabolic compensations. By contrast, the normal mice remained healthy throughout the study. Conclusions Mice fed with a high-fat diet for prolonged time recapitulates the etiology, course and outcomes of the early phases of human diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:23593350

  8. Pyrolysis of organic compounds in the presence of ammonia The Viking Mars lander site alteration experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzer, G.; Oro, J.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of ammonia on the pyrolysis pattern of selected organic substances sorbed on an inorganic phase was investigated. The thermal degradation products were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The feasibility of this technique was tested on a meteoritic sample. All substances examined react with ammonia at the pyrolysis temperature of 500 C, the major products being nitriles and heterocyclic compounds in which nitrogen was incorporated. Based on these results, a model for the non-equilibrium production of organic compounds on Jupiter is discussed. The investigation was performed in connection with the Viking lander molecular analysis. The results obtained indicate that the concentrations of ammonia in the retrorocket fuel exhaust would have been probably too small to produce significant changes in the Martian soil organic compounds if any were found.

  9. Effects of Short-Term Thermal Alteration on Organic Matter in Experimentally-Heated Tagish Lake Observed by Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Q. H. S.; Nakato, A.; Zolensky, M. E.; Nakamura, T.; Kebukawa, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites exhibit a wide range of aqueous and thermal alteration characteristics. Examples of the thermally metamorphosed carbonaceous chondrites (TMCCs) include the C2-ung/CM2TIVs Belgica (B)-7904 and Yamato (Y) 86720. The alteration extent is the most complete in these meteorites and thus they are considered typical end-members of TMCCs exhibiting complete dehydration of matrix phyllosilicates [1, 2]. The estimated heating conditions are 10 to 10(sup 3) days at 700 C to 1 to 100 hours at 890 C, i.e. short-term heating induced by impact and/or solar radiation [3]. The chemical and bulk oxygen isotopic compositions of the matrix of the carbonate (CO3)-poor lithology of the Tagish Lake (hereafter Tag) meteorite bears similarities to these TMCCs [4]. We investigated the experimentally-heated Tag with the use of Raman spectroscopy to understand how short-term heating affects the maturity of insoluble organic matter (IOM) in aqueously altered meteorites.

  10. Postdiagenetic Alteration of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Rock of the Greater caucasus and the Caucasus Piedmont (Based on Studies of Organic matter)

    SciTech Connect

    Chichua, B.K.; Agulov, A.P.; Kilasoniva, Z.N.; Zhgenti, T.G.

    1986-03-01

    Based on the study of the metamorphism of scattered organic matter (vitrinite), maps have been compiled of the postdiagenetic alteration of the Lower Jurassic, Lower Cretaceous, and Upper Paleogene rocks.

  11. Cover crops alter phosphorus soil fractions and organic matter accumulation in a Peruvian cacao agroforestry system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many tropical soils, excessive weathering of primary minerals confounded by intense agricultural production has resulted in the depletion of organic matter and plant available forms of phosphorus (P). Long-term growth of cover crops in tropical agroforestry systems have been shown to influence nu...

  12. Tannins Alter Soil Organic Matter Extraction, Solubility of Metals, and Root Physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannins are common plant-derived polyphenolic compounds that precipitate proteins and react with other biomolecules but knowledge of their effects on soil organic matter, the solubility of metals, and root physiology is incomplete. Soil from forest and pasture systems was treated with tannic acid (...

  13. Saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes alters the biogeochemical processing of organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, S. C.; Franklin, R. B.; Berrier, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental perturbations in wetlands affect the integrated plant-microbial-soil system, causing biogeochemical responses that can manifest at local to global scales. The objective of this study was to determine how saltwater intrusion affects carbon mineralization and greenhouse gas production in coastal wetlands. Working with tidal freshwater marsh soils that had experienced ~ 3.5 yr of in situ saltwater additions, we quantified changes in soil properties, measured extracellular enzyme activity associated with organic matter breakdown, and determined potential rates of anaerobic carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) production. Soils from the field plots treated with brackish water had lower carbon content and higher C : N ratios than soils from freshwater plots, indicating that saltwater intrusion reduced carbon availability and increased organic matter recalcitrance. This was reflected in reduced activities of enzymes associated with the hydrolysis of cellulose and the oxidation of lignin, leading to reduced rates of soil CO2 and CH4 production. The effects of long-term saltwater additions contrasted with the effects of short-term exposure to brackish water during three-day laboratory incubations, which increased rates of CO2 production but lowered rates of CH4 production. Collectively, our data suggest that the long-term effect of saltwater intrusion on soil CO2 production is indirect, mediated through the effects of elevated salinity on the quantity and quality of autochthonous organic matter inputs to the soil. In contrast, salinity, organic matter content, and enzyme activities directly influence CH4 production. Our analyses demonstrate that saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes affects the entire process of carbon mineralization, from the availability of organic carbon through its terminal metabolism to CO2 and/or CH4, and illustrate that long-term shifts in biogeochemical functioning are not necessarily consistent with short

  14. Saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes alters the biogeochemical processing of organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubauer, S. C.; Franklin, R. B.; Berrier, D. J.

    2013-07-01

    Environmental perturbations in wetlands affect the integrated plant-microbial-soil system, causing biogeochemical responses that can manifest at local to global scales. The objective of this study was to determine how saltwater intrusion affects carbon mineralization and greenhouse gas production in coastal wetlands. Working with tidal freshwater marsh soils that had experienced roughly 3.5 yr of in situ saltwater additions, we quantified changes in soil properties, measured extracellular enzyme activity associated with organic matter breakdown, and determined potential rates of anaerobic carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) production. Soils from the field plots treated with brackish water had lower carbon content and higher C : N ratios than soils from freshwater plots, indicating that saltwater intrusion reduced carbon availability and increased organic matter recalcitrance. This was reflected in reduced activities of enzymes associated with the hydrolysis of cellulose and the oxidation of lignin, leading to reduced rates of soil CO2 and CH4 production. The effects of long-term saltwater additions contrasted with the effects of short-term exposure to brackish water during three-day laboratory incubations, which increased rates of CO2 production but lowered rates of CH4 production. Collectively, our data suggest that the long-term effect of saltwater intrusion on soil CO2 production is indirect, mediated through the effects of elevated salinity on the quantity and quality of autochthonous organic matter inputs to the soil. In contrast, salinity, organic matter content, and enzyme activities directly influence CH4 production. Our analyses demonstrate that saltwater intrusion into tidal freshwater marshes affects the entire process of carbon mineralization, from the availability of organic carbon through its terminal metabolism to CO2 and/or CH4, and illustrate that long-term shifts in biogeochemical functioning are not necessarily consistent with short

  15. Tunicamycin-Induced Alterations in the Vasorelaxant Response in Organ-Cultured Superior Mesenteric Arteries of Rats.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takayuki; Ando, Makoto; Watanabe, Shun; Iguchi, Maika; Nagata, Mako; Kobayashi, Shota; Taguchi, Kumiko; Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    In cellular events, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has an important role in the development of various diseases including cardiovascular diseases. Tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-linked glycosylation, is known to be an inducer of ER stress. However, the extent to which tunicamycin affects the vasorelaxant function is not completely understood. Thus, we investigated the effect of tunicamycin on relaxations induced by various vasorelaxant agents, including acetylcholine (ACh; endothelium-dependent vasodilator), sodium nitroprusside (SNP; endothelium-independent vasodilator), isoprenaline (ISO; beta-adrenoceptor agonist), forskolin (FSK; adenylyl cyclase activator), and cromakalim [ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channel activator] in organ-cultured superior mesenteric arteries of rats, which are treated with either a vehicle [dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)] or tunicamycin (20 µg/mL for 22-24 h). Protein levels of the ER stress marker binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP) were determined by Western blotting. Tunicamycin increased the expression of BiP in organ-cultured arteries. Tunicamycin impaired ACh-induced relaxation, but did not alter SNP-induced relaxation. Tunicamycin also impaired vasorelaxation induced by ISO, FSK, and cromakalim; moreover, it reduced basal nitric oxide (NO) formation. In conclusion, short-term treatment with tunicamycin not only caused endothelial dysfunction but also impaired cAMP- and KATP-mediated responses in the superior mesenteric arteries of rats. These alterations in tunicamycin-treated arteries may be due to reduced basal NO formation. This work provides new insight into ER stress in vascular dysfunction. PMID:27582328

  16. Biogeochemical alteration of dissolved organic material in the Cape Fear River Estuary as a function of freshwater discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Jennifer L.; Helms, John R.; Kieber, Robert J.; Avery, G. Brooks

    2014-08-01

    This study presents the first extensive examination of the controls on optical properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) within the Cape Fear River Estuary (CFRE) utilizing spectral slope ratios (SR). The application of SUVA254 values, absorption spectral slopes (S) and SR values has presented a distinct opportunity to observe compositional changes in CDOM in the CFRE that was not possible using bulk DOC and aCDOM(350) values alone. By comparing estuarine trends in CDOM spectral shape during both normal and historically low flow conditions, we found that diagenetic processing of CDOM in the CFRE is controlled primarily by riverine discharge rates. These findings suggest that the chromophoric fraction of DOM is altered during estuarine transport under low flow regimes but reaches the coastal ocean relatively unaltered under higher flow conditions. This highlights the tendency for autochthonous sources of DOC to offset photochemical losses and indicates that in situ DOC production can significantly contribute to the overall carbon load if discharge is low or sufficient biogeochemical alteration of the terrestrial DOM end-member occurs. This provides new insight into the usefulness of these optical properties into understanding the cycling, fate and transport of CDOM to the coastal ocean. SR values provide a simple but potentially powerful tool in understanding the flux, transport and impact of terrestrially derived organic material deposited in the coastal ocean.

  17. Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Ki; Lee, Woei Ming; Kim, Pilhan; Choi, Myunghwan; Jung, Keehoon; Kim, Seonghoon; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Intravital fluorescence microscopy has emerged as a powerful technique to visualize cellular processes in vivo. However, the size of the objective lenses has limited physical accessibility to various tissue sites in the internal organs of small animals. The use of small-diameter probes using graded-index (GRIN) lenses expands the capabilities of conventional intravital microscopes into minimally invasive internal organs imaging. In this protocol, we describe the detailed steps for the fabrication of front- and side-view GRIN probes and the integration and operation of the probes in a confocal microscope for visualizing fluorescent cells and microvasculature in various murine organs. We further present longitudinal imaging of immune cells in renal allografts and the tumor development in the colon. The fabrication and integration can be completed in 5–7 hours, and a typical in vivo imaging session takes 1–2 hours. PMID:22767088

  18. Soil enzyme activities as affected by anthropogenic alterations: intensive agricultural practices and organic pollution.

    PubMed

    Gianfreda, Liliana; Antonietta Rao, Maria; Piotrowska, Anna; Palumbo, Giuseppe; Colombo, Claudio

    2005-04-01

    The activity of a range of enzymes related to the cycling of the main biologically important nutrients C, N, P and S was investigated in cultivated and non-cultivated soils from various parts of Europe. Two agricultural sites from North Italy under continuous corn (Zea mays L.) with and without organic fertilization were compared. Two other agricultural sites from South Italy under hazel (Corylus avellana L.) never flooded or repeatedly flooded over by uncontrolled urban and industrial wastes were investigated. The non-cultivated soils were from Middle and South Europe with different pollution history such as no-pollution and pollution with organic contaminants, which is phenanthrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Agricultural soils showed significant differences in some of physical-chemical properties (i.e. organic C, total and labile phosphate contents, available Ca and Mg) between the two sites studied. Enzyme activities of hazel sites periodically flooded by wastes were mainly higher than in the hazel sites never flooded. Sites under many years of continuous corn showed dehydrogenase, invertase, arylsulphatase and beta-glucosidase activities generally lower than the soils under hazel either flooded or not by wastes. As compared to agricultural soils, non-cultivated soils heavily or moderately polluted by organic contaminants displayed much lower values or complete absence of enzymatic activities. Dissimilar, contradictory correlations between soil enzyme activities and the majority of soil properties were observed separately in the two groups of soils. When the whole set of enzyme activities and soil properties were considered, all significant correlations found separately for the groups of soils were lost. The overall results seem to confirm that no direct cause-effect relationships can be derived between the changes of a soil in response to a given factor and both the variations of the activity and the behaviour of the enzymes in soil

  19. Butenolide inhibits marine fouling by altering the primary metabolism of three target organisms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Huoming; He, Lisheng; Liu, Changdong; Xu, Ying; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-06-15

    Butenolide is a very promising antifouling compound that inhibits ship hull fouling by a variety of marine organisms, but its antifouling mechanism was previously unknown. Here we report the first study of butenolide's molecular targets in three representative fouling organisms. In the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite, butenolide bound to acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1), which is involved in ketone body metabolism. Both the substrate and the product of ACAT1 increased larval settlement under butenolide treatment, suggesting its functional involvement. In the bryozoan Bugula neritina, butenolide bound to very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADVL), actin, and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). ACADVL is the first enzyme in the very long chain fatty acid β-oxidation pathway. The inhibition of this primary pathway for energy production in larvae by butenolide was supported by the finding that alternative energy sources (acetoacetate and pyruvate) increased larval attachment under butenolide treatment. In marine bacterium Vibrio sp. UST020129-010, butenolide bound to succinyl-CoA synthetase β subunit (SCSβ) and inhibited bacterial growth. ACAT1, ACADVL, and SCSβ are all involved in primary metabolism for energy production. These findings suggest that butenolide inhibits fouling by influencing the primary metabolism of target organisms. PMID:22458453

  20. Recent Alterations of Aerosol Concentration, Mercury Distribution And Organic Matter Deposition In The Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pempkowiak, Janusz; Zieliński, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Zaborska, Agata; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Material fluxes in the Arctic and Antarctic have been, in several respects, strongly affected recently. For example, atmospheric turbidity conditions are frequently subject to strong changes due to haze and dust transport episodes, which can cause considerable perturbations in the radiation balance of the atmosphere beyond regional scale. This, directly or indirectly, contributes to the increased mercury deposition and organic matter fluxes to sediments. The results show that local emissions are not always the most important factors influencing the composition of aerosol in the atmosphere of the west Spitsbergen region. The direct radiative impact of polar aerosols on the surface and at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) need to be studied more closely through both theoretical studies on the aerosol radiative properties and measurements of the surface reflectance characteristics. Mercury dissolved/solid partitioning, both in the unconsolidated, fluffy layer of suspended matter covering the sediments, and the uppermost sediment layer, indicate that the influence of the athmospheric mercury deposition event (AMDE) can prolong well into summer (July/August), and can provide a pathway to the food chain for mercury contained in sediments. Since terrigenous supplies of organic carbon to the Barents Sea are minor (˜5%) compared to the marine supply, modern sediment deposits in this region sequester on average 6.0 g/m2year organic carbon, or 5.8% of the annual integrated pelagic primary production. This burial fraction exceeds, by a factor of 3, the burial fraction derived for the Holocene.

  1. Recent Alterations of Aerosol Concentration, Mercury Distribution and Organic Matter Deposition in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pempkowiak, Janusz; Zieliński, Tymon; Petelski, Tomasz; Bełdowski, Agata Zaborska Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Material fluxes in the Arctic and Antarctic have been, in several respects, strongly affected recently. For example, atmospheric turbidity conditions are frequently subject to strong changes due to haze and dust transport episodes, which can cause considerable perturbations in the radiation balance of the atmosphere beyond regional scale. This, directly or indirectly, contributes to the increased mercury deposition and organic matter fluxes to sediments. The results show that local emissions are not always the most important factors influencing the composition of aerosol in the atmosphere of the west Spitsbergen region. The direct radiative impact of polar aerosols on the surface and at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) need to be studied more closely through both theoretical studies on the aerosol radiative properties and measurements of the surface reflectance characteristics. Mercury dissolved/solid partitioning, both in the unconsolidated, fluffy layer of suspended matter covering the sediments, and the uppermost sediment layer, indicate that the influence of the athmospheric mercury deposition event (AMDE) can prolong well into summer (July/August), and can provide a pathway to the food chain for mercury contained in sediments. Since terrigenous supplies of organic carbon to the Barents Sea are minor (~5%) compared to the marine supply, modern sediment deposits in this region sequester on average 6.0 g/m2year organic carbon, or 5.8% of the annual integrated pelagic primary production. This burial fraction exceeds, by a factor of 3, the burial fraction derived for the Holocene.

  2. Permissive hypotension does not reduce regional organ perfusion compared to normotensive resuscitation: animal study with fluorescent microspheres

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to investigate regional organ perfusion acutely following uncontrolled hemorrhage in an animal model that simulates a penetrating vascular injury and accounts for prehospital times in urban trauma. We set forth to determine if hypotensive resuscitation (permissive hypotension) would result in equivalent organ perfusion compared to normotensive resuscitation. Methods Twenty four (n=24) male rats randomized to 4 groups: Sham, No Fluid (NF), Permissive Hypotension (PH) (60% of baseline mean arterial pressure - MAP), Normotensive Resuscitation (NBP). Uncontrolled hemorrhage caused by a standardised injury to the abdominal aorta; MAP was monitored continuously and lactated Ringer’s was infused. Fluorimeter readings of regional blood flow of the brain, heart, lung, kidney, liver, and bowel were obtained at baseline and 85 minutes after hemorrhage, as well as, cardiac output, lactic acid, and laboratory tests; intra-abdominal blood loss was assessed. Analysis of variance was used for comparison. Results Intra-abdominal blood loss was higher in NBP group, as well as, lower hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. No statistical differences in perfusion of any organ between PH and NBP groups. No statistical difference in cardiac output between PH and NBP groups, as well as, in lactic acid levels between PH and NBP. NF group had significantly higher lactic acidosis and had significantly lower organ perfusion. Conclusions Hypotensive resuscitation causes less intra-abdominal bleeding than normotensive resuscitation and concurrently maintains equivalent organ perfusion. No fluid resuscitation reduces intra-abdominal bleeding but also significantly reduces organ perfusion. PMID:23531188

  3. Diagenesis of amorphous organic matter as an essential aspect of genesis and alteration of tabular-type uranium-vanadium deposits, Colorado Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Spirakis, C.S.; Hansley, P.L.

    1987-05-01

    Organic matter was the key to the initial concentration of uranium and vanadium (during the sulfate reduction stage of early diagenesis) in all sandstone-hosted, tabular deposits in the Morrison Formation, Colorado Plateau. In deposits rich in amorphous organic matter, as are many in the Grants uranium region (GUR), diagenesis did not proceed beyond sulfate reduction. In contrast, in organic-poor, chlorite deposits of the Henry Mountains district, /sup 13/C- and /sup 18/O-enriched dolomites preserve evidence of a subsequent methanogenic stage. In these and similar organic-poor deposits in the Slick Rock district and in parts of the GUR, aluminosilicate dissolution (including a distinctive, organic-acid-induced etching of garnets) and growth of coarse-grained coffinite, albite, ankerite, and chlorite suggest diagenesis reached the organic acid stage. Temperature and thermal maturation indicators (vitrinite reflectance, type IIb chlorite, ordered illite/smectite, and fluid inclusion data) are consistent with temperatures of organic-acid stage diagenesis (approx. 100/sup 0/C). The localization of these alterations in and around organic-poor, clay-rich ore; the similarities in type and sequence of these alterations to the normal alteration of organic-bearing sediments; the alteration of iron-titanium oxides (attributed to the action of soluble organic complexes) around both organic-rich and organic-poor deposits; and the gradation from organic-rich to organic-poor, chlorite-rich deposits (in GUR) suggest that (1) amorphous organic matter was involved in the genesis of all of these deposits and (2) differences among deposits may reflect varying degrees of diagenesis of the organic matter.

  4. Microfabricated Mammalian Organ Systems and Their Integration into Models of Whole Animals and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jong H; Esch, Mandy B; Prot, Jean-Matthieu; Long, Christopher J; Smith, Alec; Hickman, James; Shuler, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    While in vitro cell based systems have been an invaluable tool in biology, they often suffer from a lack of physiological relevance. The discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo systems has been a bottleneck in drug development process and biological sciences. The recent progress in microtechnology has enabled manipulation of cellular environment at a physiologically relevant length scale, which has led to the development of novel in vitro organ systems, often termed ‘organ-on-a-chip’ systems. By mimicking the cellular environment of in vivo tissues, various organ-on-a-chip systems have been reported to reproduce target organ functions better than conventional in vitro model systems. Ultimately, these organ-on-a-chip systems will converge into multi-organ ‘body-on-a-chip’ systems composed of functional tissues that reproduce the dynamics of the whole-body response. Such microscale in vitro systems will open up new possibilities in medical science and in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:23388858

  5. Super-Resolution Microscopy Reveals Altered Desmosomal Protein Organization in Tissue from Patients with Pemphigus Vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Stahley, Sara N; Warren, Maxine F; Feldman, Ron J; Swerlick, Robert A; Mattheyses, Alexa L; Kowalczyk, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune epidermal blistering disease in which autoantibodies (IgG) are directed against the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein 3. To better understand how PV IgG alters desmosome morphology and function in vivo, biopsies from patients with PV were analyzed by structured illumination microscopy, a form of superresolution fluorescence microscopy. In patient tissue, desmosomal proteins were aberrantly clustered and patient IgG colocalized with markers for lipid rafts and endosomes. Additionally, steady-state levels of desmoglein 3 were decreased and desmosomes were reduced in size in patient tissue. Desmosomes at blister sites were occasionally split, with PV IgG decorating the extracellular faces of split desmosomes. Desmosome splitting was recapitulated in vitro by exposing cultured keratinocytes both to PV IgG and to mechanical stress, demonstrating that splitting at the blister interface in patient tissue is due to compromised desmosomal adhesive function. These findings indicate that desmoglein 3 clustering and endocytosis are associated with reduced desmosome size and adhesion defects in tissue of patients with PV. Further, this study reveals that superresolution optical imaging is a powerful approach for studying epidermal adhesion structures in normal and diseased skin. PMID:26763424

  6. Tactile stimulation during development alters the neuroanatomical organization of the optic nerve in normal rats.

    PubMed

    Horiquini-Barbosa, Everton; Lachat, João-José

    2016-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the progressive effect of tactile stimulation in the cytoarchitecture of the optic nerve of normal rats during early postnatal development. We used 36 male pups which were randomly assigned to either the tactile-stimulated group (TS-stimulation for 3 min, once a day, from postnatal day (P) 1 to 32) or the non-tactile-stimulated (NTS) group. Morphological analysis were performed to evaluate the alterations caused by tactile stimulation, and morphometric analysis were carried out to determine whether the observed changes in optic nerve cytoarchitecture were significantly different between groups and at three different ages (P18, P22, and P32), thereby covering the entire progression of development of the optic nerve from its start to its completion. The rats of both groups presented similar increase in body weight. The morphometric analysis revealed no difference in the astrocyte density between age-matched groups; however, the oligodendrocyte density of TS group was higher compared to the NTS at P22, and P32, but not at P18. The optic nerve of TS group showed an increase of blood vessels and a reduction of damage fiber density when compared to the age-matched pups of NTS. Taken together, these findings support the view that tactile stimulation, an enriching experience, can positively affects the neuroanatomy of the brain, modifying its cellular components by progressive morphological and morphometric changes. PMID:26879768

  7. Super-resolution microscopy reveals altered desmosomal protein organization in pemphigus vulgaris patient tissue

    PubMed Central

    Stahley, Sara N.; Warren, Maxine F.; Feldman, Ron J.; Swerlick, Robert A.; Mattheyses, Alexa L.; Kowalczyk, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune epidermal blistering disease in which autoantibodies (IgG) are directed against the desmosomal cadherin desmoglein 3 (Dsg3). In order to better understand how PV IgG alters desmosome morphology and function in vivo, PV patient biopsies were analyzed by structured illumination microscopy (SIM), a form of super-resolution fluorescence microscopy. In patient tissue, desmosomal proteins were aberrantly clustered and localized to PV IgG-containing endocytic linear arrays. Patient IgG also colocalized with markers for lipid rafts and endosomes. Additionally, steady-state levels of Dsg3 were decreased and desmosomes were reduced in size in patient tissue. Desmosomes at blister sites were occasionally split, with PV IgG decorating the extracellular faces of split desmosomes. Desmosome splitting was recapitulated in vitro by exposing cultured keratinocytes both to PV IgG and to mechanical stress, demonstrating that splitting at the blister interface in patient tissue is due to compromised desmosomal adhesive function. These findings indicate that Dsg3 clustering and endocytosis are associated with reduced desmosome size and adhesion defects in PV patient tissue. Further, this study reveals that super-resolution optical imaging is powerful approach for studying epidermal adhesion structures in normal and diseased skin. PMID:26763424

  8. Transport and Breakdown of Organic Matter in Urban and Forested Streams: The Effects of Altered Hydrology and Landscape Position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belt, K. T.; Swan, C. M.; Pouyat, R. V.; Kaushal, S.; Groffman, P. M.; Stack, W. P.; Fisher, G. T.

    2006-05-01

    A better understanding of how urbanization and trees interact to alter organic matter transport and cycling is needed to assess retention in catchments and streams, as well as to estimate the magnitude of carbon fluxes to the atmosphere and to downstream aquatic ecosystems. The influx of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM/DOC) to headwater streams normally originates within or near riparian areas, and is important to aquatic food webs in stream ecosystems. Urban catchments, however, have huge effective drainage densities (due to storm drainage infrastructure), which facilitate a POM/DOC "gutter subsidy" to streams that dwarfs riparian inputs and alters benthic litter quality (and represents a major short-circuit in the carbon vegetation-soil cycle.) We measured in-situ leaf litter breakdown rates, flows, DOC, BOD and nutrients in forested, suburban and urban streams of the BES LTER and Baltimore City DPW sampling networks, which encompassed a variety of urban and rural landscapes. Sycamore and Planetree leaf litter in-situ experiments revealed faster breakdown rates for suburban and urban landscape litter than for riparian litter, with rates being much faster than literature values for forested catchments. DOC, BOD and nutrient data (storm and dry weather) from BES/DPW stream sites showed much higher concentrations and loads in the more urbanized catchments and indicate the streams are likely heterotrophic and experience transient but high dissolved oxygen demands. High nutrient concentrations, faster litter breakdown rates, and substantially higher upland urban fluxes of organic matter (particulate and dissolved) in urban streams suggest that export rates are likely substantially higher than in forested systems and that carbon loads to both downstream aquatic systems and to the atmosphere (as CO2) are substantial.

  9. Hydrothermal alteration of organic matter in uranium ores, Elliot Lake, Canada: Implications for selected organic-rich deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Mossman, D.J.; Nagy, B.; Davis, D.W.

    1993-07-01

    Organic matter in the uraniferous Matinenda Formation, Elliot Lake, is preserved in the forms of syngenetic kerogen and solid bitumen as it is in many of the Oklo uranium deposits and in the Witwatersrand gold-uranium ores. The Elliot Lake kerogen is a vitrinite-like material considered to be remnants of the Precambrian cyanobacterial mats. The kerogen at Elliot Lake has reflectances (in oil) ranging from 2.63-7.31% RO{sub max}, high aromaticity, relatively low (0.41-0.60) atomic H/C ratios, and it contains cryptocrystalline graphite. Bitumen, present primarily as dispersed globules (up to 0.5 mm dia.), has reflectances from 0.72-1.32% RO{sub max}, atomic H/C ratios of 0.71-0.81, and is somewhat less aromatic than the kerogen. Overall similarity in molecular compositions indicates that liquid bitumen was derived from kerogen by processes similar to hydrous pyrolysis. The carbon isotopic composition of kerogen ({minus}15.62 to {minus}24.72%), and the now solid bitumen ({minus}25.91 to {minus}33.00%) are compatible with these processes. Despite having been subjected to several thermal episodes, ca. 2.45 Ga old kerogen of microbiological origin here survived as testimony of the antiquity of life on Earth. U-Pb isotopic data from discrete kerogen grains at Elliot Lake form a scattered array intersecting concordia at 2130 {+-} 100 Ma, correspond to the Nipissing event. U-Pb systems were totally reset by this event. Uranium and lead show subsequently partial mobility, the average of which is indicated by the lower concordia intersect of 550 {+-} 260 Ma. The migrated bitumen contains virtually no uranium and thorium but has a large excess of {sup 206}Pb, which indicates that the once liquid bitumen must have acted as a sink for mobile intermediate decay products of {sup 238}U. Emplacement of the Nipissing diabase may have been responsible for producing the bitumen and, indirectly, for its enrichment in {sup 206}Pb as a result of outgassing of {sup 222}Rn.

  10. Measurement of Contractile Activity in Small Animal's Digestive Organ by Carbon Nanotube-Based Force Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Takamichi; Takeda, Naoki; Tsutsui, Chihiro; Koike, Kanako; Shimatani, Yuichi; Sakai, Takafumi; Akiya, Masahiro; Taguchi, Akira

    2011-03-01

    A carbon nanotube (CNT)-based force transducer designed to be embedded in the body of a live animal was fabricated and implanted into the stomach of a rat omit to measure contractile movement. The transducer comprised dispersed poly(ethylene glycol)-grafted multiwalled CNTs applied to a comb-like Au-electrode formed on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) sheet. The implanted rat was injected with acetylcholine to induce muscular contractions and changes in the resistance of the transducer were measured. Such changes arise owing to strain in the CNT network upon distortion. The measured resistance change was found to be proportional to the concentration of injected acetylcholine.

  11. Elevated temperature alters proteomic responses of individual organisms within a biofilm community

    SciTech Connect

    Mosier, Annika; Li, Zhou; Thomas, Brian; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Pan, Chongle; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities that underpin global biogeochemical cycles will likely be influenced by elevated temperature associated with environmental change. Here, we test an approach to measure how elevated temperature impacts the physiology of individual microbial groups in a community context, using a model microbial-based ecosystem. The study is the first application of tandem mass tag (TMT)-based proteomics to a microbial community. We accurately, precisely and reproducibly quantified thousands of proteins in biofilms growing at 40, 43 and 46 1C. Elevated temperature led to upregulation of proteins involved in amino-acid metabolism at the level of individual organisms and the entire community. Proteins from related organisms differed in their relative abundance and functional responses to temperature. Elevated temperature repressed carbon fixation proteins from two Leptospirillum genotypes, whereas carbon fixation proteins were significantly upregulated at higher temperature by a third member of this genus. Leptospirillum group III bacteria may have been subject to viral stress at elevated temperature, which could lead to greater carbon turnover in the microbial food web through the release of viral lysate. Overall, these findings highlight the utility of proteomics-enabled community-based physiology studies, and provide a methodological framework for possible extension to additional mixed culture and environmental sample analyses.

  12. Elevated temperature alters proteomic responses of individual organisms within a biofilm community

    PubMed Central

    Mosier, Annika C; Li, Zhou; Thomas, Brian C; Hettich, Robert L; Pan, Chongle; Banfield, Jillian F

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities that underpin global biogeochemical cycles will likely be influenced by elevated temperature associated with environmental change. Here, we test an approach to measure how elevated temperature impacts the physiology of individual microbial groups in a community context, using a model microbial-based ecosystem. The study is the first application of tandem mass tag (TMT)-based proteomics to a microbial community. We accurately, precisely and reproducibly quantified thousands of proteins in biofilms growing at 40, 43 and 46 °C. Elevated temperature led to upregulation of proteins involved in amino-acid metabolism at the level of individual organisms and the entire community. Proteins from related organisms differed in their relative abundance and functional responses to temperature. Elevated temperature repressed carbon fixation proteins from two Leptospirillum genotypes, whereas carbon fixation proteins were significantly upregulated at higher temperature by a third member of this genus. Leptospirillum group III bacteria may have been subject to viral stress at elevated temperature, which could lead to greater carbon turnover in the microbial food web through the release of viral lysate. Overall, these findings highlight the utility of proteomics-enabled community-based physiology studies, and provide a methodological framework for possible extension to additional mixed culture and environmental sample analyses. PMID:25050524

  13. Elevated temperature alters proteomic responses of individual organisms within a biofilm community

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mosier, Annika; Li, Zhou; Thomas, Brian; Hettich, Robert; Pan, Chongle; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities that underpin global biogeochemical cycles will likely be influenced by elevated temperature associated with environmental change. Here, we test an approach to measure how elevated temperature impacts the physiology of individual microbial groups in a community context, using a model microbial-based ecosystem. The study is the first application of tandem mass tag (TMT)-based proteomics to a microbial community. We accurately, precisely and reproducibly quantified thousands of proteins in biofilms growing at 40, 43 and 46 1C. Elevated temperature led to upregulation of proteins involved in amino-acid metabolism at the level of individual organisms and the entire community. Proteinsmore » from related organisms differed in their relative abundance and functional responses to temperature. Elevated temperature repressed carbon fixation proteins from two Leptospirillum genotypes, whereas carbon fixation proteins were significantly upregulated at higher temperature by a third member of this genus. Leptospirillum group III bacteria may have been subject to viral stress at elevated temperature, which could lead to greater carbon turnover in the microbial food web through the release of viral lysate. Overall, these findings highlight the utility of proteomics-enabled community-based physiology studies, and provide a methodological framework for possible extension to additional mixed culture and environmental sample analyses.« less

  14. Longgu (Fossilia Ossis Mastodi) alters the profiles of organic and inorganic components in Keishikaryukotsuboreito.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Kazuki; Kawase, Masaya; Harada, Kazuo; Shimada-Takaura, Kayoko; Takahashi, Toshiharu; Takahashi, Kyoko

    2016-07-01

    Longgu (Fossilia Ossis Mastodi) is a non-botanical crude drug, defined as "the ossified bone of large mammal" in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia sixteenth edition (JP16). It is a non-reproducible drug and is now facing the threat of exhaustion. To solve this problem, we aimed to clarify the role of longgu in Kampo prescriptions, which has not yet been scientifically ascertained. In this study, we focused on decoction of Keishikaryukotsuboreito (KRB). The profile of inorganic and organic components in the extract was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC/FID), respectively. Twenty-five elements were detected by ICP-MS in KRB and longgu-free KRB (KB) decoctions. However, 23 elements were detected in unadultrated longgu (R) decoctions, and their total amount was 30 times lower than those of the KRB and KB decoctions were. No organic compounds were detected in R decoctions by GC/FID, though many were detected in KRB and KB decoctions. KRB decoctions were distinguished from KB decoctions by multivariate analysis. The only difference in the crude drugs was the presence of longgu, and therefore the difference in the profiles was attributed to the effect of longgu. Longgu was submitted to terahertz (THz) wave spectrometry after the decocting process. The THz spectra indicated that longgu adsorbed compounds during the KRB decoction. These results suggested that longgu not only releases its components, but also adsorbs ingredients from other crude drugs during decoction. PMID:26841944

  15. Elevated temperature alters proteomic responses of individual organisms within a biofilm community.

    PubMed

    Mosier, Annika C; Li, Zhou; Thomas, Brian C; Hettich, Robert L; Pan, Chongle; Banfield, Jillian F

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities that underpin global biogeochemical cycles will likely be influenced by elevated temperature associated with environmental change. Here, we test an approach to measure how elevated temperature impacts the physiology of individual microbial groups in a community context, using a model microbial-based ecosystem. The study is the first application of tandem mass tag (TMT)-based proteomics to a microbial community. We accurately, precisely and reproducibly quantified thousands of proteins in biofilms growing at 40, 43 and 46 °C. Elevated temperature led to upregulation of proteins involved in amino-acid metabolism at the level of individual organisms and the entire community. Proteins from related organisms differed in their relative abundance and functional responses to temperature. Elevated temperature repressed carbon fixation proteins from two Leptospirillum genotypes, whereas carbon fixation proteins were significantly upregulated at higher temperature by a third member of this genus. Leptospirillum group III bacteria may have been subject to viral stress at elevated temperature, which could lead to greater carbon turnover in the microbial food web through the release of viral lysate. Overall, these findings highlight the utility of proteomics-enabled community-based physiology studies, and provide a methodological framework for possible extension to additional mixed culture and environmental sample analyses. PMID:25050524

  16. Body weight distribution and organ size in newborn swine (sus scrofa domestica) -- a study describing an animal model for asymmetrical intrauterine growth retardation.

    PubMed

    Bauer, R; Walter, B; Hoppe, A; Gaser, E; Lampe, V; Kauf, E; Zwiener, U

    1998-03-01

    evidence that the weight restriction was more pronounced than expected concerning respective body weight. This is indicated by slope values > 1 in almost all of those organs. Plasma concentration of IGF-1 showed an inverse correlation with body weight (r = -0.42; p < 0.05, fig 4). IGF-1 concentration of intrauterine growth retarded (IUGR) newborn piglets was in the mean nearly double that of normal weight animals (p < 0.05) and the brain weight to liver weight ratio was increased more than 2.5 times in IUGR newborn (fig 5 A, p < 0.05). This investigation provides information on the naturally occurring body weight distribution of one-day-old piglets, which was obviously a result of epigenetic factors. Gravimetrical estimation showed clearly that body weight variety is most probably caused by alterations of placental functioning. Severe alterations resulted in asymmetrical growth retardation, which was proved by a significantly increased brain to liver ratio in animals with a body weight < 10th centile. Thus, evidence is provided that naturally occurring asymmetrical intrauterine growth restricted newborn piglets can be identified simply by body weight measurement, so that convenient conditions are given for pathogenetically motivated studies on intrauterine compromised newborns. PMID:9570503

  17. Common Medications Which Lead to Unintended Alterations in Weight Gain or Organ Lipotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Medici, Valentina; McClave, Stephen A; Miller, Keith R

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most common chronic conditions in the world. Its management is difficult, partly due to the multiple associated comorbidities including fatty liver, diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. As a result, the choice of prescription medications in overweight and obese patients has important implications as some of them can actually worsen the fat accumulation and its associated metabolic complications. Several prescription medications are associated with weight gain with mechanisms that are often poorly understood and under-recognized. Even less data are available on the distribution of fat and lipotoxicity (the organ damage related to fat accumulation). The present review will discuss the drugs associated with weight gain, their mechanism of action, and the magnitude and timing of their effect. PMID:26700070

  18. How reservoirs alter drinking water quality: Organic matter sources, sinks, and transformations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Hernes, Peter J.; Doctor, Daniel H.; Kendall, Carol; Downing, Bryan D.; Losee, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    Within reservoirs, production, transformation, and loss of dissolved organic matter (DOM) occur simultaneously. While the balance between production and loss determines whether a reservoir is a net sink or source of DOM, changes in chemical composition are also important because they affect DOM reactivity with respect to disinfection by-product (DBP) formation. The composition of the DOM pool also provides insight into DOM sources and processing, which can inform reservoir management. We examined the concentration and composition of DOM in San Luis Reservoir, a large off-stream impoundment of the California State Water Project. We used a wide array of DOM chemical tracers including dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, trihalomethane and haloacetic acid formation potentials (THMFP and HAAFP, respectively), absorbance properties, isotopic composition, lignin phenol content, and structural groupings determined by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). There were periods when the reservoir was a net source of DOC due to the predominance of algal production (summer), a net sink due to the predominance of degradation (fall–winter), and balanced between production and consumption (spring). Despite only moderate variation in bulk DOC concentration (3.0–3.6 mg C/L), changes in DOM composition indicated that terrestrial-derived material entering the reservoir was being degraded and replaced by aquatic-derived DOM produced within the reservoir. Substantial changes in the propensity of the DOM pool to form THMs and HAAs illustrate that the DBP precursor pool was not directly coupled to bulk DOC concentration and indicate that algal production is an important source of DBP precursors. Results suggest reservoirs have the potential to attenuate DOM amount and reactivity with respect to DBP precursors via degradative processes; however, these benefits can be decreased or even negated by the production of algal-derived DOM.

  19. Animal-to-human organ transplants--a solution or a new problem?

    PubMed Central

    Daar, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    Xenotransplantation is seen by some mainly as an opportunity and by others mainly as a danger. It could help overcome the shortage of organs from human donors, but it raises a number of questions, particularly about safety, ethics and human nature. This article reviews the progress of research, debate and decision-making in this area. PMID:10063663

  20. Rainfall-induced fecal indicator organisms transport from animal waste applied fields: model sensitivity analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The microbial quality of surface waters warrants attention because of associated food- and waterborne-disease outbreaks, and fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) are commonly used to evaluate levels of microbial pollution. Models that predict the fate and transport of FIOs are required for designing and...

  1. Therapeutic effect of an altered peptide ligand derived from heat-shock protein 60 by suppressing of inflammatory cytokines secretion in two animal models of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, N; Barberá, A; Domínguez, M C; Torres, A M; Hernandez, M V; Hernandez, I; Gil, R; Ancizar, J; Garay, H; Reyes, O; Altruda, F; Silengo, L; Padrón, G

    2012-09-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic autoimmune disease mediated by T cells. Productive engagement of T cell receptors by major histocompatibility complex-peptide leads to proliferation, differentiation and the definition of effector functions. Altered peptide ligands (APL) generated by amino acid substitutions in the antigenic peptide have diverse effects on T cell response. We predicted a novel T cell epitope from human heat-shock protein 60, an autoantigen involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Three APLs were designed from this epitope and it was demonstrated that these peptides induce the activation of T cells through their ability to modify cell cycle phase's distribution of CD4+T cells from RA patients. Also, IL-17, TNF-α and IL-10 levels were determined in PBMC from these patients. Unlike the wild-type peptide and the other two APLs, APL2 increased the IL-10 level and suppressed IL-17 secretion in these assays. Therapeutic effect of this APL in adjuvant arthritis (AA) and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) models was also evaluated. Clinical score, histopathology, inflammatory and regulatory cytokine concentration were monitored in the animals. APL2 efficiently inhibited the progression of AA and CIA with a significant reduction of the clinical and histopathologic score. Therapeutic effect of APL2 on CIA was similar to that obtained with MTX; the standard treatment for RA. This effect was associated with a decrease of TNF-α and IL-17 levels. These results suggest that the therapeutic effect of APL2 is mediated in part by down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and support the potential use of APL2 as a therapeutic drug in RA patients. PMID:22686732

  2. Dysfunction of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 alters intestinal bacteria and bile acid metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2012-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1) is predominantly expressed in liver and is able to transport bile acids (BAs) in vitro. Male Oatp1a1-null mice have increased concentrations of taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA), a secondary BA generated by intestinal bacteria, in both serum and livers. Therefore, in the present study, BA concentrations and intestinal bacteria in wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice were quantified to investigate whether the increase of secondary BAs in Oatp1a1-null mice is due to alterations in intestinal bacteria. The data demonstrate that Oatp1a1-null mice : (1) have similar bile flow and BA concentrations in bile as WT mice; (2) have a markedly different BA composition in the intestinal contents, with a decrease in conjugated BAs and an increase in unconjugated BAs; (3) have BAs in the feces that are more deconjugated, desulfated, 7-dehydroxylated, 3-epimerized, and oxidized, but less 7-epimerized; (4) have 10-fold more bacteria in the small intestine, and 2-fold more bacteria in the large intestine which is majorly due to a 200% increase in Bacteroides and a 30% reduction in Firmicutes; and (5) have a different urinary excretion of bacteria-related metabolites than WT mice. In conclusion, the present study for the first time established that lack of a liver transporter (Oatp1a1) markedly alters the intestinal environment in mice, namely the bacteria composition. PMID:22496825

  3. Dysfunction of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1a1 Alters Intestinal Bacteria and Bile Acid Metabolism in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B.; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1) is predominantly expressed in liver and is able to transport bile acids (BAs) in vitro. Male Oatp1a1-null mice have increased concentrations of taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA), a secondary BA generated by intestinal bacteria, in both serum and livers. Therefore, in the present study, BA concentrations and intestinal bacteria in wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice were quantified to investigate whether the increase of secondary BAs in Oatp1a1-null mice is due to alterations in intestinal bacteria. The data demonstrate that Oatp1a1-null mice : (1) have similar bile flow and BA concentrations in bile as WT mice; (2) have a markedly different BA composition in the intestinal contents, with a decrease in conjugated BAs and an increase in unconjugated BAs; (3) have BAs in the feces that are more deconjugated, desulfated, 7-dehydroxylated, 3-epimerized, and oxidized, but less 7-epimerized; (4) have 10-fold more bacteria in the small intestine, and 2-fold more bacteria in the large intestine which is majorly due to a 200% increase in Bacteroides and a 30% reduction in Firmicutes; and (5) have a different urinary excretion of bacteria-related metabolites than WT mice. In conclusion, the present study for the first time established that lack of a liver transporter (Oatp1a1) markedly alters the intestinal environment in mice, namely the bacteria composition. PMID:22496825

  4. [Introduction of dinitrosyl iron complexes with thiol-containing ligands into animal organism by inhalation method].

    PubMed

    Vanin, A F; Mozhokina, G N; Tkachev, N A; Mikoian, V D; Borodulin, R R; Elistratova, N A

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of water-soluble dinitrosyl iron complexes (DNIC) with thiol-containing ligands introduction into lungs and other tissues of mice by free inhalation of little drops (2-3 microns diameter) of the solutions of these complexes was investigated. Little drops of 2-20 mM solutions of the complexes were obtained by using an inhalation apparatus (compressor nebulizer). A cloud of these little drops was then inhaled by animals in a closed chamber. A maximal amount of protein-bound DNICs formed in mouse lungs was 0.6 micromoles per kilogram of tissue weight. The amount of DNIC in lungs, liver and blood decreased to the undetected level within 2-3 hours after inhalation. No cytotoxic effect of DNIC formed in lungs on Mycobacterium tuberculosis was found in mice infected with these mycobacteria. PMID:23755557

  5. Automated rodent in situ muscle contraction assay and myofiber organization analysis in sarcopenia animal models.

    PubMed

    Weber, H; Rauch, A; Adamski, S; Chakravarthy, K; Kulkarni, A; Dogdas, B; Bendtsen, C; Kath, G; Alves, S E; Wilkinson, H A; Chiu, C-S

    2012-06-01

    Age-related sarcopenia results in frailty and decreased mobility, which are associated with increased falls and long-term disability in the elderly. Given the global increase in lifespan, sarcopenia is a growing, unmet medical need. This report aims to systematically characterize muscle aging in preclinical models, which may facilitate the development of sarcopenia therapies. Naïve rats and mice were subjected to noninvasive micro X-ray computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging, terminal in situ muscle function characterizations, and ATPase-based myofiber analysis. We developed a Definiens (Parsippany, NJ)-based algorithm to automate micro-CT image analysis, which facilitates longitudinal in vivo muscle mass analysis. We report development and characterization of translational in situ skeletal muscle performance assay systems in rat and mouse. The systems incorporate a custom-designed animal assay stage, resulting in enhanced force measurement precision, and LabVIEW (National Instruments, Austin, TX)-based algorithms to support automated data acquisition and data analysis. We used ATPase-staining techniques for myofibers to characterize fiber subtypes and distribution. Major parameters contributing to muscle performance were identified using data mining and integration, enabled by Labmatrix (BioFortis, Columbia, MD). These technologies enabled the systemic and accurate monitoring of muscle aging from a large number of animals. The data indicated that longitudinal muscle cross-sectional area measurement effectively monitors change of muscle mass and function during aging. Furthermore, the data showed that muscle performance during aging is also modulated by myofiber remodeling factors, such as changes in myofiber distribution patterns and changes in fiber shape, which affect myofiber interaction. This in vivo muscle assay platform has been applied to support identification and validation of novel targets for the treatment of sarcopenia. PMID:22461442

  6. Curcumin inhibits cellular condensation and alters microfilament organization during chondrogenic differentiation of limb bud mesenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Kyun; Kim, Song Ja; Kang, Shin Sung; Jin, Eun Jung

    2009-09-30

    Curcumin is a well known natural polyphenol product isolated from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa, anti-inflammatory agent for arthritis by inhibiting synthesis of inflammatory prostaglandins. However, the mechanisms by which curcumin regulates the functions of chondroprogenitor, such as proliferation, precartilage condensation, cytoskeletal organization or overall chondrogenic behavior, are largely unknown. In the present report, we investigated the effects and signaling mechanism of curcumin on the regulation of chondrogenesis. Treating chick limb bud mesenchymal cells with curcumin suppressed chondrogenesis by stimulating apoptotic cell death. It also inhibited reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton into a cortical pattern concomitant with rounding of chondrogenic competent cells and down-regulation of integrin beta1 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation. Curcumin suppressed the phosphorylation of Akt leading to Akt inactivation. Activation of Akt by introducing a myristoylated, constitutively active form of Akt reversed the inhibitory actions of curcumin during chondrogenesis. In summary, for the first time, we describe biological properties of curcumin during chondrogenic differentiation of chick limb bud mesenchymal cells. Curcumin suppressed chondrogenesis by stimulating apoptotic cell death and down-regulating integrin-mediated reorganization of actin cytoskeleton via modulation of Akt signaling. PMID:19478554

  7. Photochemical alteration of dissolved organic matter and the subsequent effects on bacterial carbon cycling and diversity.

    PubMed

    Lønborg, Christian; Nieto-Cid, Mar; Hernando-Morales, Victor; Hernández-Ruiz, Marta; Teira, Eva; Álvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón

    2016-05-01

    The impact of solar radiation on dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from 3 different sources (seawater, eelgrass leaves and river water) and the effect on the bacterial carbon cycling and diversity were investigated. Seawater with DOM from the sources was first either kept in the dark or exposed to sunlight (4 days), after which a bacterial inoculum was added and incubated for 4 additional days. Sunlight exposure reduced the coloured DOM and carbon signals, which was followed by a production of inorganic nutrients. Bacterial carbon cycling was higher in the dark compared with the light treatment in seawater and river samples, while higher levels were found in the sunlight-exposed eelgrass experiment. Sunlight pre-exposure stimulated the bacterial growth efficiency in the seawater experiments, while no impact was found in the other experiments. We suggest that these responses are connected to differences in substrate composition and the production of free radicals. The bacterial community that developed in the dark and sunlight pre-treated samples differed in the seawater and river experiments. Our findings suggest that impact of sunlight exposure on the bacterial carbon transfer and diversity depends on the DOM source and on the sunlight-induced production of inorganic nutrients. PMID:26940087

  8. [Soil organic carbon variation of de-farming and wasteland during alteration of ecosystem in Billabong].

    PubMed

    Tu, Cheng-long; Liu, Cong-qiang; Wu, Yong-feng

    2007-09-01

    Four soil profile samples were collected in the middle of de-farming and wasteland billabong and around slopes, located at typical karst district of Guizhou province. Soil organic matter (SOC) content and delta Corg, were determined. SOC content ranged from 6.0 mg x kg(-1) to 92.3 mg x kg(-1), and decreased with depth at slope soil profiles. The range of value was bigger than that at billabong soil profile (6.3-26.7 mg x kg(-1)). The value of detla13 Corg, at slope profiles was between - 25.103% per hundred and - 23.666% per hundred, but variation direction of three slope soil profiles was different. The value of delta 13Corg, in billabong soil profile was between - 23.495% per hundred and - 20.809% per hundred, and increased with depth. The correlation between delta13 Csoc and C4-C,C3-C was significant (R = 0.884, n=7), influenced by new C3-C. PMID:17990530

  9. Thermal alteration experiments on organic matter in recent marine sediments as a model for petroleum genesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baedecker, M. J.; Ikan, R.; Ishiwatari, R.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1977-01-01

    The fate of naturally occurring lipids and pigments in a marine sediment exposed to elevated temperatures was studied. Samples of a young marine sediment from Tanner Basin, California, were heated to a series of temperatures (65-200 C) for varying periods of time (7-64 days). The sediment was analyzed prior to and after heating for pigments, isoprenoid compounds, alcohols, fatty acids, and hydrocarbons. Structural changes caused by heating unextractable organic material (kerogen) were also studied, and the significance of the results for understanding petroleum genesis is considered. Among other results, fatty acids and hydrocarbons increased in abundance although there appeared to be no obvious precursor-to-product relationship via simple decarboxylation reactions. Chlorins were partially converted into porphyrins. The phytyl side chain of pheophytin was initially preserved intact by reduction of the phytyl double bond, but later converted to a variety of isoprenoid compounds including alkanes. Thermal grafting of components onto kerogen occurred as well as structural changes caused by heat.

  10. A variant of Rubus yellow net virus with altered genomic organization.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Lara, Alfredo; Mosier, Nola J; Keller, Karen E; Martin, Robert R

    2015-02-01

    Rubus yellow net virus (RYNV) is a member of the genus Badnavirus (family: Caulimoviridae). RYNV infects Rubus species causing chlorosis of the tissue along the leaf veins, giving an unevenly distributed netted symptom in some cultivars of red and black raspberry. Recently, a strain of RYNV was sequenced from a Rubus idaeus plant in Alberta, Canada, exhibiting such symptoms. The viral genome contained seven open reading frames (ORFs) with five of them in the sense-strand, including a large polyprotein. Here we describe a graft-transmissible strain of RYNV from Europe infecting cultivar 'Baumforth's Seedling A' (named RYNV-BS), which was sequenced using rolling circle amplification, enzymatic digestion, cloning and primer walking, and it was resequenced at a 5X coverage. This sequence was then compared with the RYNV-Ca genome and significant differences were observed. Genomic analysis identified differences in the arrangement of coding regions, promoter elements, and presence of motifs. The genomic organization of RYNV-BS consisted of five ORFs (four ORFs in the sense-strand and one ORF in the antisense-strand). ORFs 1, 2, and 3 showed a high degree of homology to RYNV-Ca, while ORFs 4 and 6 of RYNV-BS were quite distinct. Also, the predicted ORFs 5 and 7 in the RYNV-Ca were absent in the RYNV-BS sequence. These differences may account for the lack of aphid transmissibility of RYNV-BS. PMID:25480633

  11. Hormonal Studies of fass, an Arabidopsis Mutant That Is Altered in Organ Elongation.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, R. H.; Barton, M. K.; Cohen, J. D.; Cooke, T. J.

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated an allele of fass, an Arabidopsis thaliana mutation that separates plant development and organ differentiation from plant elongation, and studied its hormonal regulation. Micro-surgically isolated fass roots elongate 2.5 times as much as the roots on intact mutant plants. Wild-type heart embryos, when cultured with a strong auxin, naphthaleneacetic acid, phenocopy fass embryos. fass seedlings contain variable levels of free auxin, which average 2.5 times higher than wild-type seedling levels, and fass seedlings evolve 3 times as much ethylene as wild-type seedlings on a per-plant basis over a 24-h period. The length-to-width ratios of fass seedlings can be changed by several compounds that affect their endogenous ethylene levels, but fass is epistatic to etr1, an ethylene-insensitive mutant. fass's high levels of free auxin may be inducing its high levels of ethylene, which may, in turn, result in the fass phenotype. We postulate that FASS may be acting as a negative regulator to maintain wild-type auxin levels and that the mutation may be in an auxin-conjugating enzyme. PMID:12226245

  12. Origin and Alteration of Organic Matter in Termite Mounds from Different Feeding Guilds of the Amazon Rainforests

    PubMed Central

    Siebers, Nina; Martius, Christopher; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Garcia, Marcos V. B.; Leinweber, Peter; Amelung, Wulf

    2015-01-01

    The impact of termites on nutrient cycling and tropical soil formation depends on their feeding habits and related material transformation. The identification of food sources, however, is difficult, because they are variable and changed by termite activity and nest construction. Here, we related the sources and alteration of organic matter in nests from seven different termite genera and feeding habits in the Terra Firme rainforests to the properties of potential food sources soil, wood, and microepiphytes. Chemical analyses comprised isotopic composition of C and N, cellulosic (CPS), non-cellulosic (NCPS), and N-containing saccharides, and molecular composition screening using pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS). The isotopic analysis revealed higher soil δ13C (-27.4‰) and δ15N (6.6‰) values in nests of wood feeding Nasutitermes and Cornitermes than in wood samples (δ13C = -29.1‰, δ15N = 3.4‰), reflecting stable-isotope enrichment with organic matter alterations during or after nest construction. This result was confirmed by elevated NCPS:CPS ratios, indicating a preferential cellulose decomposition in the nests. High portions of muramic acid (MurAc) pointed to the participation of bacteria in the transformation processes. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) revealed increasing geophagy in the sequence Termes < Embiratermes < Anoplotermes and increasing xylophagy for Cornitermes < Nasutitermes, and that the nest material of Constrictotermes was similar to the microepiphytes sample, confirming the report that Constrictotermes belongs to the microepiphyte-feeders. We therewith document that nest chemistry of rainforest termites shows variations and evidence of modification by microbial processes, but nevertheless it primarily reflects the trophic niches of the constructors. PMID:25909987

  13. Origin and alteration of organic matter in termite mounds from different feeding guilds of the Amazon rainforests.

    PubMed

    Siebers, Nina; Martius, Christopher; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Garcia, Marcos V B; Leinweber, Peter; Amelung, Wulf

    2015-01-01

    The impact of termites on nutrient cycling and tropical soil formation depends on their feeding habits and related material transformation. The identification of food sources, however, is difficult, because they are variable and changed by termite activity and nest construction. Here, we related the sources and alteration of organic matter in nests from seven different termite genera and feeding habits in the Terra Firme rainforests to the properties of potential food sources soil, wood, and microepiphytes. Chemical analyses comprised isotopic composition of C and N, cellulosic (CPS), non-cellulosic (NCPS), and N-containing saccharides, and molecular composition screening using pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS). The isotopic analysis revealed higher soil δ13C (-27.4‰) and δ15N (6.6‰) values in nests of wood feeding Nasutitermes and Cornitermes than in wood samples (δ13C = -29.1‰, δ15N = 3.4‰), reflecting stable-isotope enrichment with organic matter alterations during or after nest construction. This result was confirmed by elevated NCPS:CPS ratios, indicating a preferential cellulose decomposition in the nests. High portions of muramic acid (MurAc) pointed to the participation of bacteria in the transformation processes. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) revealed increasing geophagy in the sequence Termes < Embiratermes < Anoplotermes and increasing xylophagy for Cornitermes < Nasutitermes., and that the nest material of Constrictotermes was similar to the microepiphytes sample, confirming the report that Constrictotermes belongs to the microepiphyte-feeders. We therewith document that nest chemistry of rainforest termites shows variations and evidence of modification by microbial processes, but nevertheless it primarily reflects the trophic niches of the constructors. PMID:25909987

  14. The effect of dynamic factors of space flight on animal organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genin, A. M. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Physiological, biochemical and morphological studies made on the Cosmos-782 biosatellite are presented. Rats, which were exposed on the biosatellite for 19.5 days, were examined immediately after completion of the flight and also during the 25 day period of readaptation to earth's conditions. The effect of factors of space flight, primarily weightlessness, on the organism was investigated for all systems of the body.

  15. The organization structure and regulatory elements of Chlamydomonas histone genes reveal features linking plant and animal genes.

    PubMed

    Fabry, S; Müller, K; Lindauer, A; Park, P B; Cornelius, T; Schmitt, R

    1995-09-01

    The genome of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains approximately 15 gene clusters of the nucleosomal (or core) histone H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 genes and at least one histone H1 gene. Seven non-allelic histone gene loci were isolated from a genomic library, physically mapped, and the nucleotide sequences of three isotypes of each core histone gene species and one linked H1 gene determined. The core histone genes are organized in clusters of H2A-H2B and H3-H4 pairs, in which each gene pair shows outwardly divergent transcription from a short (< 300 bp) intercistronic region. These intercistronic regions contain typically conserved promoter elements, namely a TATA-box and the three motifs TGGCCAG-G(G/C)-CGAG, CGTTGACC and CGGTTG. Different from the genes of higher plants, but like those of animals and the related alga Volvox, the 3' untranslated regions contain no poly A signal, but a palindromic sequence (3' palindrome) essential for mRNA processing is present. One single H1 gene was found in close linkage to a H2A-H2B pair. The H1 upstream region contains the octameric promoter element GGTTGACC (also found upstream of the core histone genes) and two specific sequence motifs that are shared only with the Volvox H1 promoters. This suggests differential transcription of the H1 and the core histone genes. The H1 gene is interrupted by two introns. Unlike Volvox H3 genes, the three sequenced H3 isoforms are intron-free. Primer-directed PCR of genomic DNA demonstrated, however, that at least 8 of the about 15 H3 genes do contain one intron at a conserved position. In synchronized C. reinhardtii cells, H4 mRNA levels (representative of all core histone mRNAs) peak during cell division, suggesting strict replication-dependent gene control. The derived peptide sequences place C. reinhardtii core histones closer to plants than to animals, except that the H2A histones are more animal-like. The peptide sequence of histone H1 is closely related to the V. carteri VH1-II

  16. Spatial Organization in Protein Kinase A Signaling Emerged at the Base of Animal Evolution.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mao; Aye, Thin Thin; Snel, Berend; van Breukelen, Bas; Scholten, Arjen; Heck, Albert J R

    2015-07-01

    In phosphorylation-directed signaling, spatial and temporal control is organized by complex interaction networks that diligently direct kinases toward distinct substrates to fine-tune specificity. How these protein networks originate and evolve into complex regulatory machineries are among the most fascinating research questions in biology. Here, spatiotemporal signaling is investigated by tracing the evolutionary dynamics of each functional domain of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and its diverse set of A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs). Homologues of the catalytic (PKA-C) and regulatory (PKA-R) domains of the (PKA-R)2-(PKA-C)2 holoenzyme were found throughout evolution. Most variation was observed in the RIIa of PKA-R, crucial for dimerization and docking to AKAPs. The RIIa domain was not observed in all PKA-R homologues. In the fungi and distinct protist lineages, the RIIa domain emerges within PKA-R, but it displays large sequence variation. These organisms do not harbor homologues of AKAPs, suggesting that efficient docking to direct spatiotemporal PKA activity evolved in multicellular eukaryotes. To test this in silico hypothesis, we experimentally screened organisms with increasing complexity by cAMP-based chemical proteomics to reveal that the occurrence of PKA-AKAP interactions indeed coincided and expanded within vertebrates, suggesting a crucial role for AKAPs in the advent of metazoan multicellularity. PMID:26066639

  17. Substrate quality alters the microbial mineralization of added substrate and soil organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadamma, S.; Mayes, M. A.; Steinweg, J. M.; Schaeffer, S. M.

    2014-09-01

    The rate and extent of decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is dependent, among other factors, on substrate chemistry and microbial dynamics. Our objectives were to understand the influence of substrate chemistry on microbial decomposition of carbon (C), and to use model fitting to quantify differences in pool sizes and mineralization rates. We conducted an incubation experiment for 270 days using four uniformly labeled 14C substrates (glucose, starch, cinnamic acid and stearic acid) on four different soils (a temperate Mollisol, a tropical Ultisol, a sub-arctic Andisol, and an arctic Gelisol). The 14C labeling enabled us to separate CO2 respired from added substrates and from native SOC. Microbial gene copy numbers were quantified at days 4, 30 and 270 using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Substrate C respiration was always higher for glucose than other substrates. Soils with cinnamic and stearic acid lost more native SOC than glucose- and starch-amended soils. Cinnamic and stearic acid amendments also exhibited higher fungal gene copy numbers at the end of incubation compared to unamended soils. We found that 270 days were sufficient to model the decomposition of simple substrates (glucose and starch) with three pools, but were insufficient for more complex substrates (cinnamic and stearic acid) and native SOC. This study reveals that substrate quality exerts considerable control on the microbial decomposition of newly added and native SOC, and demonstrates the need for multi-year incubation experiments to constrain decomposition parameters for the most recalcitrant fractions of SOC and complex substrates.

  18. Substrate quality alters microbial mineralization of added substrate and soil organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadamma, S.; Mayes, M. A.; Steinweg, J. M.; Schaeffer, S. M.

    2014-03-01

    The rate and extent of decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is dependent on substrate chemistry and microbial dynamics. Our objectives were to understand the influence of substrate chemistry on microbial processing of carbon (C), and to use model fitting to quantify differences in pool sizes and mineralization rates. We conducted an incubation experiment for 270 days using four uniformly-labeled 14C substrates (glucose, starch, cinnamic acid and stearic acid) on four different soils (a temperate Mollisol, a tropical Ultisol, a sub-arctic Andisol, and an arctic Gelisol). The 14C labeling enabled us to separate CO2 respired from added substrates and from native SOC. Microbial gene copy numbers were quantified at days 4, 30 and 270 using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Substrate C respiration was always higher for glucose than other substrates. Soils with cinnamic and stearic acid lost more native SOC than glucose- and starch-amended soils, despite an initial delay in respiration. Cinnamic and stearic acid amendments also exhibited higher fungal gene copy numbers at the end of incubation compared to unamended soils. We found that 270 days was sufficient to model decomposition of simple substrates (glucose and starch) with three pools, but was insufficient for more complex substrates (cinnamic and stearic acid) and native SOC. This study reveals that substrate quality imparts considerable control on microbial decomposition of newly added and native SOC, and demonstrates the need for multi-year incubation experiments to constrain decomposition parameters for the most recalcitrant fractions of SOC and added substrates.

  19. Altered interhemispheric and temporal lobe white matter microstructural organization in severe chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Holleran, Laurena; Ahmed, Mohamed; Anderson-Schmidt, Heike; McFarland, John; Emsell, Louise; Leemans, Alexander; Scanlon, Cathy; Dockery, Peter; McCarthy, Peter; Barker, Gareth J; McDonald, Colm; Cannon, Dara M

    2014-03-01

    Diffusion MRI investigations in schizophrenia provide evidence of abnormal white matter (WM) microstructural organization as indicated by reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) primarily in interhemispheric, left frontal and temporal WM. Using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS), we examined diffusion parameters in a sample of patients with severe chronic schizophrenia. Diffusion MRI data were acquired on 19 patients with chronic severe schizophrenia and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using a 64 gradient direction sequence, (b=1300 s/mm(2)) collected on a Siemens 1.5T MRI scanner. Diagnosis of schizophrenia was determined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders 4th Edition (DSM-IV) Structured Clinical Interview for DSM disorder (SCID). Patients were treatment resistance, having failed to respond to at least two antipsychotic medications, and had prolonged periods of moderate to severe positive or negative symptoms. Analysis of diffusion parameters was carried out using TBSS. Individuals with chronic severe schizophrenia had significantly reduced FA with corresponding increased radial diffusivity in the genu, body, and splenium of the corpus callosum, the right posterior limb of the internal capsule, right external capsule, and the right temporal inferior longitudinal fasciculus. There were no voxels of significantly increased FA in patients compared with controls. A decrease in splenium FA was shown to be related to a longer illness duration. We detected widespread abnormal diffusivity properties in the callosal and temporal lobe WM regions in individuals with severe chronic schizophrenia who have not previously been exposed to clozapine. These deficits can be driven by a number of factors that are indistinguishable using in vivo diffusion-weighted imaging, but may be related to reduced axonal number or packing density, abnormal glial cell arrangement or function, and reduced myelin. PMID:24150571

  20. Characterizing Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from a Swine Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aneja, V. P.; Rumsey, I. C.; Lonneman, W. A.

    2011-12-01

    The emission of NMVOCs from swine concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in North Carolina is of concern, due to their contribution to odor. In addition, of the 188 listed hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), 162 are classified as NMVOCs. NMVOCs emissions were determined over four seasonal sampling periods from an anaerobic lagoon and barn at a swine CAFO in North Carolina. Sampling was conducted during the period June 2007 through April 2008. Air samples were collected using SUMMA and fused-silca lined (FSL) canisters and were analyzed for NMVOCs using a gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID) system. Nine to eleven canister samples were collected from both the anaerobic lagoon and the barn over a ~1 week sampling period, with samples collected on a minimum of four different days. Measurements of meteorological and physiochemical parameters were made during the lagoon and barn sampling. Six NMVOCs (acetone, acetaldehyde, ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, methanol and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)) were identified in lagoon samples, that were classified as having significantly larger emissions in comparison to other NMVOCs. Overall average lagoon fluxes of these NMVOCs ranged from 0.18 ug m-2 min-1 for 2-ethyl-1-hexanol to 2.11 ug m-2 min-1 for acetone. In barn samples there were also six NMVOCs (acetaldehyde, acetone, 2,3-butanedione, ethanol, methanol and 4-methylphenol) that were classified as having significantly larger emissions in comparison to other compounds. Overall average concentrations for these six compounds ranged from 2.87 ppb for 4-methylphenol to 16.12 ppb for ethanol. The overall average normalized emissions ranged from 0.10 g day-1 AU-1 (AU = one animal unit, representing 500 kg of live animal weight) for acetaldehyde to 0.45 g day-1 AU-1 for ethanol. Eight odorous compounds were identified in lagoon and barn samples. These were 2,3-butanedione, decanal, ethylbenzene, heptanal, hexanal, 4-methylphenol, nonanal, and octanal. Of the eight

  1. N isotope fractionation and measures of organic matter alteration during decomposition across a climate-chrono sequence in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, M. G.; Chadwick, O.; Sletten, R.; Sollins, P.; Swart, P. K.

    2006-12-01

    Most soil organic matter (SOM) derives from plant material but there are substantial gaps in our understanding of its transformation mechanisms. Alterations that occur as SOM decays and is stabilized have proven difficult to study owing largely to its diverse initial chemical composition and stable isotope values. We are studying the forms of soil organic matter (SOM) that accumulate across a range of temperate and tropical soils. NMR spectra (300 MHz 13C CPMAS, Bruker, Rheinstetten) were obtained for solid-state samples from fresh source materials and from sequentially deeper organic and mineral-soil horizons, which were physically fractionated based on particle density (1.65 g/cm3 Na polytungstate) at the University of Washington. For heavy fractions we could only obtain reliable NMR spectra (high signal:noise ratio) for a few samples with high C content. Aliphaticity was defined as the ratio of unsubstituted aliphatic carbon [0 to 45 parts per million (ppm)] to oxygenated carbon (carbohydrates) (45-110 ppm). Samples were analyzed for Del 15N and Del 13C with a 20/20 ANCA GSL continuous-flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (PDZ Europa, Cheshire, UK) at the Rosenstiel School of Marine Science, University of Miami. We then examined relations between stable isotope ratios and SOM composition (13C NMR) in sequentially deeper organic and mineral horizon soil horizons from tropical soils collected in Hawaii. We found that the tropical soils studied were more limited, both in terms of the extent of N isotope fractionation found in soils and the abundance of aliphatic compounds, when compared to temperate forest soils previously studied. However in select, wet (4000mm rainfall) Hawaiian soils, the NMR spectra resembled previously studied illuviated soil horizons found in coastal temperate rainforests of southeast Alaska, suggesting comparable processes may have been responsible for their formation.

  2. [DNA content in the organs of animals in space flight on the Kosmos-690 satellite].

    PubMed

    Guseĭnov, F T; Komolova, G S; Egorov, I A; Tigranian, R A; Serova, L V

    1978-01-01

    The DNA content in the liver, spleen and bone marrow of white rats exposed to a prolonged gamma-irradiation at a dose of 220 and 800 rad on the 10th day of the 20.5-day space flight and the ground-based synchronous experiment was measured. Space flight factors produced a modifying effect on the postradiation changes in the DNA content. This modifying influence was detected in all organs tested, although in a different degree, and involved an enhancement of the radiation effect which was associated with retardation of postradiation regenerative processes. PMID:713477

  3. Acetylation of Surface Lysine Groups of a Protein Alters the Organization and Composition of Its Crystal Contacts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyungtae; Choi, Jeong-Mo; Fox, Jerome M; Snyder, Phillip W; Moustakas, Demetri T; Whitesides, George M

    2016-07-14

    This paper uses crystals of bovine carbonic anhydrase (CA) and its acetylated variant to examine (i) how a large negative formal charge can be accommodated in protein-protein interfaces, (ii) why lysine residues are often excluded from them, and (iii) how changes in the surface charge of a protein can alter the structure and organization of protein-protein interfaces. It demonstrates that acetylation of lysine residues on the surface of CA increases the participation of polar residues (particularly acetylated lysine) in protein-protein interfaces, and decreases the participation of nonpolar residues in those interfaces. Negatively charged residues are accommodated in protein-protein interfaces via (i) hydrogen bonds or van der Waals interactions with polar residues or (ii) salt bridges with other charged residues. The participation of acetylated lysine in protein-protein interfaces suggests that unacetylated lysine tends to be excluded from interfaces because of its positive charge, and not because of a loss in conformational entropy. Results also indicate that crystal contacts in acetylated CA become less constrained geometrically and, as a result, more closely packed (i.e., more tightly clustered spatially) than those of native CA. This study demonstrates a physical-organic approach-and a well-defined model system-for studying the role of charges in protein-protein interactions. PMID:27292012

  4. Alteration of chromophoric dissolved organic matter by solar UV radiation causes rapid changes in bacterial community composition†

    PubMed Central

    Piccini, Claudia; Conde, Daniel; Pernthaler, Jakob; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of photochemical alterations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) on bacterial abundance, activity and community composition in a coastal lagoon of the Atlantic Ocean with high dissolved organic carbon concentration. On two occasions during the austral summer, bacteria-free water of the lagoon was exposed to different regions of the solar spectrum (full solar radiation, UV-A + PAR, PAR) or kept in the dark. Subsequently, dilution cultures were established with bacterioplankton from the lagoon that were incubated in the pre-exposed water for 5 h in the dark. Cell abundance, activity, and community composition of bacterioplankton were assessed before and after incubation in the different treatments. Changes in absorption, fluorescence, and DOC concentration were used as proxies for CDOM photoalteration. We found a significant CDOM photobleaching signal, DOC loss, as well as a stimulation of bacterial activity in the treatments pre-exposed to UV radiation, suggesting increased bioavailability of DOM. Bacterial community analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that this stimulation was mainly accompanied by the specific enrichment of Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria. Thus, our results suggest that CDOM photoalteration not only stimulates bacterioplankton growth, but also induces rapid changes in bacterioplankton composition, which can be of relevance for ecosystem functioning, particularly considering present and future changes in the input of terrestrial CDOM to aquatic systems. PMID:19707620

  5. Origin, distribution and alteration of organic matter and generation and migration of hydrocarbons in Austin Chalk, Upper Cretaceous, southeastern Texas. Final report, September 1, 1980-August 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Grabowski, G.J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The kerogen and bitumen from samples of the Austin Chalk from the subsurface of southeastern Texas were analyzed to determine the origin of the organic matter and the alteration of the kerogen to form petroleum. The effects of mineral composition on the rate of alteration and on the composition of hydrocarbons generated was examined. The source-rock potential and the processes of migration and reservoiring in the chalk are considered.

  6. Interactions between Seagrass Complexity, Hydrodynamic Flow and Biomixing Alter Food Availability for Associated Filter-Feeding Organisms

    PubMed Central

    González-Ortiz, Vanessa; Egea, Luis G.; Jiménez-Ramos, Rocio; Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Pérez-Lloréns, José L.; Bouma, Tjeed J.; Brun, Fernando G.

    2014-01-01

    Seagrass shoots interact with hydrodynamic forces and thereby a positively or negatively influence the survival of associated species. The modification of these forces indirectly alters the physical transport and flux of edible particles within seagrass meadows, which will influence the growth and survivorship of associated filter-feeding organisms. The present work contributes to gaining insight into the mechanisms controlling the availability of resources for filter feeders inhabiting seagrass canopies, both from physical (influenced by seagrass density and patchiness) and biological (regulated by filter feeder density) perspectives. A factorial experiment was conducted in a large racetrack flume, which combined changes in hydrodynamic conditions, chlorophyll a concentration in the water and food intake rate (FIR) in a model active filter-feeding organism (the cockle). Results showed that seagrass density and patchiness modified both hydrodynamic forces and availability of resources for filter feeders. Chlorophyll a water content decreased to 50% of the initial value when densities of both seagrass shoots and cockles were high. Also, filter feeder density controlled resource availability within seagrass patches, depending on its spatial position within the racetrack flume. Under high density of filter-feeding organisms, chlorophyll a levels were lower between patches. This suggests that the pumping activity of cockles (i.e. biomixing) is an emergent key factor affecting both resource availability and FIR for filter feeders in dense canopies. Applying our results to natural conditions, we suggest the existence of a direct correlation between habitat complexity (i.e. shoot density and degree of patchiness) and filter feeders density. Fragmented and low-density patches seem to offer both greater protection from hydrodynamic forces and higher resource availability. In denser patches, however, resources are allocated mostly within the canopy, which would benefit

  7. Interactions between seagrass complexity, hydrodynamic flow and biomixing alter food availability for associated filter-feeding organisms.

    PubMed

    González-Ortiz, Vanessa; Egea, Luis G; Jiménez-Ramos, Rocio; Moreno-Marín, Francisco; Pérez-Lloréns, José L; Bouma, Tjeed J; Brun, Fernando G

    2014-01-01

    Seagrass shoots interact with hydrodynamic forces and thereby a positively or negatively influence the survival of associated species. The modification of these forces indirectly alters the physical transport and flux of edible particles within seagrass meadows, which will influence the growth and survivorship of associated filter-feeding organisms. The present work contributes to gaining insight into the mechanisms controlling the availability of resources for filter feeders inhabiting seagrass canopies, both from physical (influenced by seagrass density and patchiness) and biological (regulated by filter feeder density) perspectives. A factorial experiment was conducted in a large racetrack flume, which combined changes in hydrodynamic conditions, chlorophyll a concentration in the water and food intake rate (FIR) in a model active filter-feeding organism (the cockle). Results showed that seagrass density and patchiness modified both hydrodynamic forces and availability of resources for filter feeders. Chlorophyll a water content decreased to 50% of the initial value when densities of both seagrass shoots and cockles were high. Also, filter feeder density controlled resource availability within seagrass patches, depending on its spatial position within the racetrack flume. Under high density of filter-feeding organisms, chlorophyll a levels were lower between patches. This suggests that the pumping activity of cockles (i.e. biomixing) is an emergent key factor affecting both resource availability and FIR for filter feeders in dense canopies. Applying our results to natural conditions, we suggest the existence of a direct correlation between habitat complexity (i.e. shoot density and degree of patchiness) and filter feeders density. Fragmented and low-density patches seem to offer both greater protection from hydrodynamic forces and higher resource availability. In denser patches, however, resources are allocated mostly within the canopy, which would benefit

  8. Biochar affects soil organic matter cycling and microbial functions but does not alter microbial community structure in a paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jing; Wang, Jingyuan; Dippold, Michaela; Gao, Yang; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-06-15

    The application of biochar (BC) in conjunction with mineral fertilizers is one of the most promising management practices recommended to improve soil quality. However, the interactive mechanisms of BC and mineral fertilizer addition affecting microbial communities and functions associated with soil organic matter (SOM) cycling are poorly understood. We investigated the SOM in physical and chemical fractions, microbial community structure (using phospholipid fatty acid analysis, PLFA) and functions (by analyzing enzymes involved in C and N cycling and Biolog) in a 6-year field experiment with BC and NPK amendment. BC application increased total soil C and particulate organic C for 47.4-50.4% and 63.7-74.6%, respectively. The effects of BC on the microbial community and C-cycling enzymes were dependent on fertilization. Addition of BC alone did not change the microbial community compared with the control, but altered the microbial community structure in conjunction with NPK fertilization. SOM fractions accounted for 55% of the variance in the PLFA-related microbial community structure. The particulate organic N explained the largest variation in the microbial community structure. Microbial metabolic activity strongly increased after BC addition, particularly the utilization of amino acids and amines due to an increase in the activity of proteolytic (l-leucine aminopeptidase) enzymes. These results indicate that microorganisms start to mine N from the SOM to compensate for high C:N ratios after BC application, which consequently accelerate cycling of stable N. Concluding, BC in combination with NPK fertilizer application strongly affected microbial community composition and functions, which consequently influenced SOM cycling. PMID:26974565

  9. Morphofunctional Merits of an In Vivo Cryotechnique for Living Animal Organs: Challenges of Clinical Applications from Basic Medical Research

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular and genetic techniques have led to establishment of new biomedical fields; however, morphological techniques are still required for a more precise understanding of functioning cells and tissues. Conventional preparation procedures involve a series of chemical fixation, alcohol dehydration, paraffin or epoxy resin embedding, sectioning, and staining steps. In these steps, technical artifacts modify original morphologies of the cells being examined. Furthermore, difficulties are associated with capturing dynamic images in vivo using conventional chemical fixation. Therefore, a quick-freezing (QF) method was introduced for biological specimens in the 20th century. However, specimens have to be resected from living animal organs with blood supply, and their dynamical morphologies have not been investigated in detail using the QF method. In order to overcome these issues, the tissue resection step of organs had to be avoided and samples needed to be frozen under blood circulation. Our in vivo cryotechnique (IVCT) was an original technique to cryofix samples without resecting their tissues. The most significant merit of IVCT is that blood circulation into organs is preserved at the exact moment of freezing, which has been useful for arresting transient physiological processes of cells and tissues and maintaining their components in situ. PMID:27006516

  10. Altered topological organization of high-level visual networks in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment patients.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yanjia; Shi, Lin; Lei, Yi; Wang, Defeng

    2016-09-01

    Altered regional activation of high-level visual (HLV) cortices in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been well documented in previous fMRI studies, which led us to investigate the underlying alteration of the HLV networks in the terms of intrinsic interaction and topological organization. First, the activation likelihood estimation, a coordinate-based meta-analysis approach, was used to define the cortical regions/nodes included in HLV networks of "what" and "where" visions. Secondly, the acquired HLV regions were used as seeds to calculate their interregional resting-state functional connectivities (RSFCs) based on the temporal correlation of rs-functional MRI (rs-fMRI) time series. Here, the rs-fMRI data of AD (n=30), late MCI (n=35), early MCI (n=52) and matched healthy controls (n=44) were obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative dataset. Finally, based on the calculated pair-wise RSFCs, the "what" and "where" HLV networks were respectively constructed, and their topological properties were calculated and analyzed among groups using the graph theory method. The results demonstrated increased clustering coefficient combined with a prolonged characteristic path length of the "where" visual network in AD patients. No significant alternation of the "what" visual network was found among the groups. These results suggest that the abnormality of the HLV networks could be a late-stage outcome in AD and that the "where" visual network may be more susceptible to the AD-related neuropathological changes than the "what" visual network. In addition, the dysfunction of the "where" network is found to be characterized by a decreased integration combined with an increased local segregation. PMID:27461791

  11. Intron-exon organization of the gene for the multifunctional animal fatty acid synthase.

    PubMed Central

    Amy, C M; Williams-Ahlf, B; Naggert, J; Smith, S

    1992-01-01

    The complete intron-exon organization of the gene encoding a multifunctional mammalian fatty acid synthase has been elucidated, and specific exons have been assigned to coding sequences for the component domains of the protein. The rat gene is interrupted by 42 introns and the sequences bordering the splice-site junctions universally follow the GT/AG rule. However, of the 41 introns that interrupt the coding region of the gene, 23 split the reading frame in phase I, 14 split the reading frame in phase 0, and only 4 split the reading frame in phase II. Remarkably, 46% of the introns interrupt codons for glycine. With only one exception, boundaries between the constituent enzymes of the multifunctional polypeptide coincide with the location of introns in the gene. The significance of the predominance of phase I introns, the almost uniformly short length of the 42 introns and the overall small size of the gene, is discussed in relation to the evolution of multifunctional proteins. Images PMID:1736293

  12. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Contributes to Hypertensive Target Organ Damage: Lessons from an Animal Model of Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stanzione, Rosita; Volpe, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying hypertensive target organ damage (TOD) are not completely understood. The pathophysiological role of mitochondrial oxidative stress, resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction, in development of TOD is unclear. The stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) is a suitable model of human hypertension and of its vascular consequences. Pathogenesis of TOD in SHRSP is multifactorial, being determined by high blood pressure levels, high salt/low potassium diet, and genetic factors. Accumulating evidence points to a key role of mitochondrial dysfunction in increased susceptibility to TOD development of SHRSP. Mitochondrial abnormalities were described in both heart and brain of SHRSP. Pharmacological compounds able to protect mitochondrial function exerted a significant protective effect on TOD development, independently of blood pressure levels. Through our research efforts, we discovered that two genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, one (Ndufc2) involved in OXPHOS complex I assembly and activity and the second one (UCP2) involved in clearance of mitochondrial ROS, are responsible, when dysregulated, for vascular damage in SHRSP. The suitability of SHRSP as a model of human disease represents a promising background for future translation of the experimental findings to human hypertension. Novel therapeutic strategies toward mitochondrial molecular targets may become a valuable tool for prevention and treatment of TOD in human hypertension. PMID:27594970

  13. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Contributes to Hypertensive Target Organ Damage: Lessons from an Animal Model of Human Disease.

    PubMed

    Rubattu, Speranza; Stanzione, Rosita; Volpe, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying hypertensive target organ damage (TOD) are not completely understood. The pathophysiological role of mitochondrial oxidative stress, resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction, in development of TOD is unclear. The stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) is a suitable model of human hypertension and of its vascular consequences. Pathogenesis of TOD in SHRSP is multifactorial, being determined by high blood pressure levels, high salt/low potassium diet, and genetic factors. Accumulating evidence points to a key role of mitochondrial dysfunction in increased susceptibility to TOD development of SHRSP. Mitochondrial abnormalities were described in both heart and brain of SHRSP. Pharmacological compounds able to protect mitochondrial function exerted a significant protective effect on TOD development, independently of blood pressure levels. Through our research efforts, we discovered that two genes encoding mitochondrial proteins, one (Ndufc2) involved in OXPHOS complex I assembly and activity and the second one (UCP2) involved in clearance of mitochondrial ROS, are responsible, when dysregulated, for vascular damage in SHRSP. The suitability of SHRSP as a model of human disease represents a promising background for future translation of the experimental findings to human hypertension. Novel therapeutic strategies toward mitochondrial molecular targets may become a valuable tool for prevention and treatment of TOD in human hypertension. PMID:27594970

  14. Animal-to-animal variability in neuromodulation and circuit function

    PubMed Central

    Hamood, Albert W.; Marder, Eve

    2015-01-01

    Each animal alive in the world is different from all other individuals, while sharing most attributes of form and function with others of the same species. Still other attributes are shared within a phylum, and still others are common to most eukaryotic organisms. All animals have mechanisms that modulate the strength of their synapses or alter the intrinsic excitability of component neurons. What animal-to-animal variability in behavior arises from differences in neuronal structure, ion channel expression, or connectivity, and what variability arises from neuromodulation of brain states? Conversely, can robust behavior be maintained despite variability in circuit components by the action of neuromodulatory inputs? These are fundamental issues relevant to all nervous systems that have been illuminated by many years of study of the small, rhythmic motor circuits found in the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system. PMID:25876630

  15. DNA ALTERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The exposure of an organism to genotoxic chemicals may induce a cascade of genetic events. nitially, structural alterations to DNA are formed. ext, the DNA damage is processed and subsequently expressed in mutant gene products. inally, diseases result from the genetic damage. he ...

  16. AMP Kinase Activation Alters Oxidant-Induced Stress Granule Assembly by Modulating Cell Signaling and Microtubule Organization.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Hicham; Koromilas, Antonis E; Stochaj, Ursula

    2016-10-01

    Eukaryotic cells assemble stress granules (SGs) when translation initiation is inhibited. Different cell signaling pathways regulate SG production. Particularly relevant to this process is 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which functions as a stress sensor and is transiently activated by adverse physiologic conditions. Here, we dissected the role of AMPK for oxidant-induced SG formation. Our studies identified multiple steps of de novo SG assembly that are controlled by the kinase. Single-cell analyses demonstrated that pharmacological AMPK activation prior to stress exposure changed SG properties, because the granules became more abundant and smaller in size. These altered SG characteristics correlated with specific changes in cell survival, cell signaling, cytoskeletal organization, and the abundance of translation initiation factors. Specifically, AMPK activation increased stress-induced eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 2α phosphorylation and reduced the concentration of eIF4F complex subunits eIF4G and eIF4E. At the same time, the abundance of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) was diminished. This loss of HDAC6 was accompanied by increased acetylation of α-tubulin on Lys40. Pharmacological studies further confirmed this novel AMPK-HDAC6 interplay and its importance for SG biology. Taken together, we provide mechanistic insights into the regulation of SG formation. We propose that AMPK activation stimulates oxidant-induced SG formation but limits their fusion into larger granules. PMID:27430620

  17. Differential effects of conifer and broadleaf litter inputs on soil organic carbon chemical composition through altered soil microbial community composition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Shi-Rong; Wang, Jing-Xin; Shi, Zuo-Min; Xu, Jia; Hong, Pi-Zheng; Ming, An-Gang; Yu, Hao-Long; Chen, Lin; Lu, Li-Hua; Cai, Dao-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    A strategic selection of tree species will shift the type and quality of litter input, and subsequently magnitude and composition of the soil organic carbon (SOC) through soil microbial community. We conducted a manipulative experiment in randomized block design with leaf litter inputs of four native subtropical tree species in a Pinus massoniana plantation in southern China and found that the chemical composition of SOC did not differ significantly among treatments until after 28 months of the experiment. Contrasting leaf litter inputs had significant impacts on the amounts of total microbial, Gram-positive bacterial, and actinomycic PLFAs, but not on the amounts of total bacterial, Gram-negative bacterial, and fungal PLFAs. There were significant differences in alkyl/O-alkyl C in soils among the leaf litter input treatments, but no apparent differences in the proportions of chemical compositions (alkyl, O-alkyl, aromatic, and carbonyl C) in SOC. Soil alkyl/O-alkyl C was significantly related to the amounts of total microbial, and Gram-positive bacterial PLFAs, but not to the chemical compositions of leaf litter. Our findings suggest that changes in forest leaf litter inputs could result in changes in chemical stability of SOC through the altered microbial community composition. PMID:27256545

  18. Chloral hydrate alters the organization of the ciliary basal apparatus and cell organelles in sea urchin embryos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, A.; Schatten, H.; Mitchell, K. D.; Crosser, M.; Taylor, M.

    1998-01-01

    The mitotic inhibitor, chloral hydrate, induces ciliary loss in the early embryo phase of Lytechinus pictus. It causes a breakdown of cilia at the junction of the cilium and the basal body known as the basal plate. This leaves the plasma membrane temporarily unsealed. The basal apparatus accessory structures, consisting of the basal body, basal foot, basal foot cap, striated side arm, and striated rootlet, are either misaligned or disintegrated by treatment with chloral hydrate. Furthermore, microtubules which are associated with the basal apparatus are disassembled. Mitochondria accumulate at the base of cilia - underneath the plasma membrane - and show alterations in their structural organization. The accumulation of mitochondria is observed in 40% of all electron micrograph sections while 60% show the areas mostly devoid of mitochondria. The microvilli surrounding a cilium and striated rootlet remain intact in the presence of chloral hydrate. These results suggest that deciliation in early sea urchin embryos by chloral hydrate is caused by combined effects on the ciliary membrane and on microtubules in the cilia. Furthermore, it is suggested that chloral hydrate can serve as a tool to explore the cytoskeletal mechanisms that are involved in cilia motility in the developing sea urchin embryo.

  19. Differential effects of conifer and broadleaf litter inputs on soil organic carbon chemical composition through altered soil microbial community composition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Shi-Rong; Wang, Jing-Xin; Shi, Zuo-Min; Xu, Jia; Hong, Pi-Zheng; Ming, An-Gang; Yu, Hao-Long; Chen, Lin; Lu, Li-Hua; Cai, Dao-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    A strategic selection of tree species will shift the type and quality of litter input, and subsequently magnitude and composition of the soil organic carbon (SOC) through soil microbial community. We conducted a manipulative experiment in randomized block design with leaf litter inputs of four native subtropical tree species in a Pinus massoniana plantation in southern China and found that the chemical composition of SOC did not differ significantly among treatments until after 28 months of the experiment. Contrasting leaf litter inputs had significant impacts on the amounts of total microbial, Gram-positive bacterial, and actinomycic PLFAs, but not on the amounts of total bacterial, Gram-negative bacterial, and fungal PLFAs. There were significant differences in alkyl/O-alkyl C in soils among the leaf litter input treatments, but no apparent differences in the proportions of chemical compositions (alkyl, O-alkyl, aromatic, and carbonyl C) in SOC. Soil alkyl/O-alkyl C was significantly related to the amounts of total microbial, and Gram-positive bacterial PLFAs, but not to the chemical compositions of leaf litter. Our findings suggest that changes in forest leaf litter inputs could result in changes in chemical stability of SOC through the altered microbial community composition. PMID:27256545

  20. Altered calmodulin activity in fluphenazine-resistant mutant strains. Pleiotropic effect on development and cellular organization in Volvox carteri.

    PubMed

    Kurn, N; Sela, B A

    1981-12-01

    Genetically altered calmodulin activity in spontaneously derived mutant strains, which were selected for resistance to the toxic effect of a specific inhibitor, the phenothiazine drug fluphenazine, is demonstrated. Partially purified calmodulin preparations from wild-type and fluphenazine-resistant strains of the multicellular alga Volvox carteri, were tested for the ability to activate Ca2+-ATPase of the erythrocyte membranes, and the inhibition of this stimulatory activity by fluphenazine. Unlike the preparation obtained from wild-type cells, mutant calmodulin is shown to be insensitive to fluphenazine inhibition, in one case, and calmodulin from another strain was found to be inactive in vitro, i.e. it did not activate Ca2+-ATPase. The pleiotropic phenotype of the spontaneously derived mutant strains involved aberrant multicellular organization and hormone-independent commitment of the multipotent asexual reproductive cells, gonodia, to sexual development. These results clearly implicate calmodulin in the control of development and morphogenesis in this simple multicellular eukaryote. In addition, intracellular inhibition of calmodulin in wild-type cells is shown to block the morphogenic process of embryo inversion and to arrest motility. The availability of mutant calmodulin will facilitate further investigation of the role of this ubiquitous regulatory protein in the control of development and differentiation in multicellular eukarytes, as well as the fine structure/function relationship with regard to calmodulin modulation of a wide variety of cellular processes. PMID:6459931

  1. GBR 12909 administration as an animal model of bipolar mania: time course of behavioral, brain oxidative alterations and effect of mood stabilizing drugs.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Ana Isabelle G; de Araújo, Maíra Moraes; da Silva Araújo, Tatiane; de Souza, Greicy Coelho; Cavalcante, Lígia Menezes; de Jesus Souza Machado, Michel; de Lucena, David Freitas; Quevedo, João; Macêdo, Danielle

    2015-10-01

    Polymorphisms in the human dopamine transporter (DAT) are associated with bipolar endophenotype. Based on this, the acute inhibition of DAT using GBR12909 causes behavioral alterations that are prevented by valproate (VAL), being related to a mania-like model. Herein our first aim was to analyze behavioral and brain oxidative alterations during a 24 h period post-GBR12909 to better characterize this model. Our second aim was to determine the preventive effects of lithium (Li) or VAL 2 h post-GBR12909. For this, adult male mice received GBR12909 or saline being evaluated at 2, 4, 8, 12 or 24 h post-administration. Hyperlocomotion, levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation in brain areas were assessed at all these time-points. GBR12909 caused hyperlocomotion at 2 and 24 h. Rearing behavior increased only at 2 h. GSH levels decreased in the hippocampus and striatum at the time points of 2, 4, 8 and 12 h. Increased lipid peroxidation was detected at the time-points of 2 and 12 h in all brain areas studied. At the time-point of 2 h post-GBR12909 Li prevented the hyperlocomotion and rearing alterations, while VAL prevented only rearing alterations. Both drugs prevented pro-oxidative changes. In conclusion, we observed that the main behavioral and oxidative alterations took place at the time-period of 2 h post-GBR12909, what points to this time-period as the best for the assessment of alterations in this model. Furthermore, the present study expands the predictive validity of the model by the determination of the preventive effects of Li. PMID:26073232

  2. Expression of Extracellular Matrix-Remodeling Proteins Is Altered in Vaginal Tissue of Premenopausal Women With Severe Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    Alarab, May; Kufaishi, Hala; Lye, Stephen; Drutz, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The molecular etiology of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is complex and not well understood. We compared the expression/activity of extracellular matrix (ECM)-processing (procollagen I N-proteinase/ a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs [ADAMTS]-2,-3,-14) and ECM-degrading (matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-1, -2, -7, -8, -9, -12) enzymes and their natural tissue inhibitors (tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase [TIMP]-1,-2,-3,-4) in vaginal tissues from premenopausal women with advanced POP (POP-Q stage ≥ 3) and asymptomatic controls (POP-Q = 0). Study Design: We sampled the anterior vaginal wall of 36 premenopausal women (17 patients with POP and 19 controls) undergoing total hysterectomy. Exclusion criteria include steroid therapy, malignancy, previous pelvic surgery, and connective tissue diseases. Total RNAs and proteins were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and Luminex assay; MMPs activity was analyzed by zymography and tissue localization by immunohistochemistry. Results: The MMP-2 gelatinase activity as well as expression of 58-kDa isoform of ADAMTS-2 was upregulated in patients with POP, irrespective of menstrual phase status, secretory or proliferative, when compared to controls (P < .05). The TIMP-1-4 gene and TIMP-1 protein expression were significantly (P < .05) reduced, whereas protein expression of MMP-12 (pro and active forms) was significantly increased in vaginal biopsies of patients with POP in the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle compared to corresponding controls. Analyses of MMP-12, TIMP-1, and ADAMTS-2 tissue immunostaining indicate similar localization in the vaginal specimens from control and patients with POP. Conclusion: Expression of ECM-remodeling proteins is altered in the vagina of premenopausal patients with severe POP. We speculate that dysregulation of MMP/TIMP complexes and ADAMTS-2 proteins may cause connective tissue defects, which result in weakened vaginal

  3. Organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3/Slc22a8) knockout mice exhibit altered clearance and distribution of penicillin G

    PubMed Central

    VanWert, Adam L.; Bailey, Rachel M.; Sweet, Douglas H.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of renal basolateral organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) with commonly used pharmacotherapeutics (e.g., NSAIDs, β-lactams, and methotrexate) has been studied extensively in vitro. However, the in vivo role of Oat3 in drug disposition, in the context of other transporters, glomerular filtration, and metabolism, has not been established. Moreover, recent investigations have identified inactive human OAT3 polymorphisms. Therefore, this investigation was designed to elucidate the in vivo role of Oat3 in the disposition of penicillin G and prototypical substrates using an Oat3 knockout mouse model. Oat3 deletion resulted in a doubling of penicillin’s half-life (P < 0.05) and a reduced volume of distribution (P < 0.01), together yielding a plasma clearance that was one-half (P < 0.05, males) to one-third (P < 0.001, females) of that in wild-type mice. Inhibition of Oat3 abolished the differences in penicillin G elimination between genotypes. Hepatic accumulation of penicillin was 2.3 times higher in male knockouts (P < 0.05) and 3.7 times higher in female knockouts (P < 0.001). Female knockouts also exhibited impaired estrone-3-sulfate clearance. Oat3 deletion did not impact p-aminohippurate elimination, providing correlative evidence to studies in Oat1 knockout mice that suggest Oat1 governs tubular uptake of p-aminohippurate. Collectively, these findings are the first to indicate that functional Oat3 is necessary for proper elimination of xenobiotic and endogenous compounds in vivo. Thus Oat3 plays a distinct role in determining the efficacy and toxicity of drugs. Dysfunctional human OAT3 polymorphisms or instances of polypharmacy involving OAT3 substrates may result in altered systemic accumulation of β-lactams and other clinically relevant compounds. PMID:17686950

  4. Effects of condensed organic matter on PCBs bioavailability in juvenile swine, an animal model for young children.

    PubMed

    Delannoy, Matthieu; Rychen, Guido; Fournier, Agnès; Jondreville, Catherine; Feidt, Cyril

    2014-06-01

    The exposure assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated soils is a critical issue in terms of human health, especially since little reliable information on transfer of PCBs to humans via involuntary soil ingestion is available. Indeed, young children with their hand-to-mouth activity may be exposed to contaminated soils. The current study addresses the impact of soil organic matter (OM) condensation on bioavailability of sequestrated NDL-PCBs. Three artificial soils (ASs) were prepared according to OECD guideline 207. One standard soil (SS), devoid of OM, and two amended versions of this SS with fulvic acid (FA) or activated carbon (AC) were prepared to obtain 1% organic mass. This study involved fourteen juvenile male swine as a digestive physiology model of young children. Animals were randomly distributed into 4 contaminated groups (3 replicates) and a control one (2 replicates). During 10d, the piglets were fed AS or a corn oil spiked with 19200 ng of Aroclor 1254 per g of dry matter (6000 ng g(-1) of NDL-PCBs) to achieve an exposure dose of 1200 ng NDL-PCBskg(-1) of body weight per day. After 10d of oral exposure, NDL-PCBs in adipose tissue, liver and muscles were analyzed by GC-MS, after extraction and purification. Two distinct groups of treatments were found: on the one hand oil, SS and FA, on the other hand C and AC. This study highlights that condensed OM (AC) strongly reduces bioavailability whereas the less condensed one (FA) does not seem to have a significant effect. This result has to be considered as a first major step for further relative bioavailability studies involving mixture of different humic substances. PMID:24289980

  5. Global and gene-specific DNA methylation alterations in the adolescent amygdala and hippocampus in an animal model of caregiver maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Tiffany S; Forster, Amy; Roth, Tania L

    2016-02-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are part of an emerging story on how early-life experiences can alter behavioral trajectories and lead to the development of disease and psychological disorders. Previous work from our laboratory has demonstrated alterations in methylation of DNA associated with the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) gene within the amygdala and hippocampus of infant and adult rats that were repeatedly exposed to caregiver maltreatment outside the home cage during their first week of life. In the current study we examine changes in global levels of DNA methylation (5-mC) and hydroxymethylation (5-hmC), as well as gene-specific changes in methylation patterns of the candidate gene bdnf (at exons I and IV) within the adolescent amygdala and hippocampus resulting from exposure to maltreatment. While adolescent females exposed to maltreatment showed no significant alterations in global 5-mC or 5-hmC levels, examination of bdnf DNA methylation revealed that maltreated females had greater methylation of exon IV DNA in the amygdala and ventral hippocampus. While adolescent males exposed to maltreatment showed no significant alterations in bdnf DNA methylation, maltreated males had significantly higher 5-mC levels in the dorsal hippocampus and lower 5-hmC levels in the amygdala. These findings demonstrate that the effects of the early caregiving environment are detectable in the adolescent brain at the level of the epigenome, with brain-region specific and sexually-dimorphic epigenetic consequences that could have relevance to adolescent mental health and behavior. PMID:26027495

  6. Altered soil organic carbon stability in eastern deciduous forest: interplay between forest successional Stage and invasive earthworm activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y.; Filley, T. R.; McCormick, M.; Szlavecz, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Detritivore -mediated decomposition and incorporation of aboveground litter is an important processes in soil carbon cycle of forest ecosystems that can be a major control on the proportion of stable and unstable soil carbon pools. We investigated how earthworm activity interacts with litter type to alter the stability of soil organic carbon (SOC) in an eastern deciduous successional forest within at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC). Soil C and N content and chemistry (lignin and fatty acids) among particulate and mineral-bound fractions was shifted after 5 years of litter (wood and leaf) addition but with significant differences among the forest successional stages and with earthworm activity. Results from a 6 month laboratory incubation (25°C and 15°C) of bulk soil samples taken from the treatments and incubated at 25°C and 15°C demonstrate that litter addition type and earthworm activity interacted to control the proportion of labile and stable carbon. Specifically, the labile C pools in double wood and control treatments were highest in young successional forest with higher earthworm activity. However, in the double leaf treatment, the labile C pool was higher in old successional forests with less worm activity. In general, the stable C pool, released after one month, was higher in old successional forests for all three treatments. The difference of the stable pool between young and old successional forest was the largest with double wood treatment, followed by control treatment and the lowest with double leaf treatment. In summary, wood treatment shifted SOC pool to relatively more stable pool in old successional forests decreasing labile C pool but not the young sites. While double leaf treatment increased the labile pool in old forests but in young successional forests, SOC shifted to relatively more stable pool by decreasing the labile pool and increasing the stable pool. This result indicates that the type of aboveground litter

  7. Standardization of flux chamber and wind tunnel flux measurements for quantifying volatile organic compound and ammonia emissions from area sources at animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A variety of wind tunnels and flux chambers have been used to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and ammonia (NH3) at animal feeding operations (AFO). However, there has been little regard to the extreme variation and potential inaccuracies caused by inappropriate air velocity or sw...

  8. Molecular multiproxy analysis of ancient root systems suggests strong alteration of deep subsoil organic matter by rhizomicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gocke, Martina; Huguet, Arnaud; Derenne, Sylvie; Kolb, Steffen; Wiesenberg, Guido L. B.

    2013-04-01

    decreasing contents of archeal GDGTs from rhizolith via rhizosphere towards root-free loess. Furthermore, the bacterial fingerprint revealed - similar to modern root systems - higher taxonomic diversity in rhizosphere compared to rhizoliths and reference loess. This argues for microorganisms benefiting from root deposits and exudates. Highest concentrations of branched GDGTs in rhizoliths suggest that their source organisms feed on root remains. Incorporation of rhizomicrobial remains as represented by RNA and GDGTs usually affected the sediment at maximum to a distance of 2-3 cm from the former root. FA contents in rhizosphere showed strong scatter and were in part depleted compared to reference loess or, especially in deeper transects, enriched. This indicates the presence of degradation products originating from former rhizosphere processes. Especially at larger depth not affected by modern pedogenic processes, portions of mainly microbial derived C16 homologues were higher in rhizosphere loess up to distances of 10 cm, revealing that the possible extension of the rhizosphere was underestimated so far. In Corg poor subsoil, the occurence of diverse rhizosphere microorganisms and degradation processes even in several centimeters distant from roots point to a strong alteration of OM, possibly contributing to carbon mineralisation.

  9. Developmental Exposure of Rats to Chlorpyrifos Leads to Behavioral Alterations in Adulthood, Involving Serotonergic Mechanisms and Resembling Animal Models of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Aldridge, Justin E.; Levin, Edward D.; Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2005-01-01

    Developmental exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF) causes persistent changes in serotonergic (5HT) systems. We administered 1 mg/kg/day CPF to rats on postnatal days 1–4, a regimen below the threshold for systemic toxicity. When tested in adulthood, CPF-exposed animals showed abnormalities in behavioral tests that involve 5HT mechanisms. In the elevated plus maze, males treated with CPF spent more time in the open arms, an effect seen with 5HT deficiencies in animal models of depression. Similarly, in an anhedonia test, the CPF-exposed group showed a decreased preference for chocolate milk versus water. Developmental CPF exposure also has lasting effects on cognitive function. We replicated our earlier finding that developmental CPF exposure ablates the normal sex differences in 16-arm radial maze learning and memory: during acquisition training, control male rats typically perform more accurately than do control females, but CPF treatment eliminated this normal sex difference. Females exposed to CPF showed a reduction in working and reference memory errors down to the rate of control males. Conversely, CPF-exposed males exhibited an increase in working and reference memory errors. After radial-arm acquisition training, we assessed the role of 5HT by challenging the animals with the 5HT2 receptor antagonist ketanserin. Ketanserin did not affect performance in controls but elicited dose-dependent increases in working and reference memory errors in the CPF group, indicating an abnormal dependence on 5HT systems. Our results indicate that neonatal CPF exposures, classically thought to be subtoxic, produce lasting changes in 5HT-related behaviors that resemble animal models of depression. PMID:15866758

  10. Fenproporex increases locomotor activity and alters energy metabolism, and mood stabilizers reverse these changes: a proposal for a new animal model of mania.

    PubMed

    Rezin, Gislaine T; Furlanetto, Camila B; Scaini, Giselli; Valvassori, Samira S; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Jeremias, Isabela C; Resende, Wilson R; Cardoso, Mariane R; Varela, Roger B; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

    2014-04-01

    Fenproporex (Fen) is converted in vivo into amphetamine, which is used to induce mania-like behaviors in animals. In the present study, we intend to present a new animal model of mania. In order to prove through face, construct, and predictive validities, we evaluated behavioral parameters (locomotor activity, stereotypy activity, and fecal boli amount) and brain energy metabolism (enzymes citrate synthase; malate dehydrogenase; succinate dehydrogenase; complexes I, II, II-III, and IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain; and creatine kinase) in rats submitted to acute and chronic administration of fenproporex, treated with lithium (Li) and valproate (VPA). The administration of Fen increased locomotor activity and decreased the activity of Krebs cycle enzymes, mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, and creatine kinase, in most brain structures evaluated. In addition, treatment with mood stabilizers prevented and reversed this effect. Our results are consistent with the literature that demonstrates behavioral changes and mitochondrial dysfunction caused by psychostimulants. These findings suggest that chronic administration of Fen may be a potential animal model of mania. PMID:24126971

  11. Methods for study of cardiovascular adaptation of small laboratory animals during exposure to altered gravity. [hypothermia for cardiovascular control and cancer therapy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popovic, V.

    1973-01-01

    Several new techniques are reported for studying cardiovascular circulation in small laboratory animals kept in metabolic chambers. Chronical cannulation, miniaturized membrane type heart-lung machines, a prototype walking chamber, and a fluorocarbon immersion method to simulate weightlessness are outlined. Differential hypothermia work on rat cancers provides localized embedding of radionuclides and other chemotherapeutical agents in tumors and increases at the same time blood circulation through the warmed tumor as compared to the rest of the cold body. Some successful clinical applications of combined chemotherapy and differential hypothermia in skin cancer, mammary tumors, and brain gliomas are described.

  12. Origin distribution and alteration of organic matter and generation and migration of hydrocarbons in Austin Chalk, Upper Cretaceous, Southeastern Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, G. J., Jr.

    1981-08-01

    The Austin Chalk is an impure onshore chalk that was deposited on a ramp marginal to the Gulf of Mexico during the Late Cretaceous. Basinal chalks are organic rich, commonly containing 0.5-5.0% amorphous, sapropelic kerogen derived from marine organic matter with only trace amounts of terrestial kerogen. Less organic matter was deposited and perserved in oxygenated shallow water, and fresh-water diagenesis oxidized the organic matter on outcrop. In each sample, the kerogen is concentrated in microstylolites, with organic fluids segregated in micropores in the chalk.

  13. Increased anxiety-like behaviour and altered GABAergic system in the amygdala and cerebellum of VPA rats - An animal model of autism.

    PubMed

    Olexová, Lucia; Štefánik, Peter; Kršková, Lucia

    2016-08-26

    Anxiety is one of the associated symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. According to the literature, increases in anxiety are accompanied by GABAergic system deregulation. The aim of our study, performed using an animal model of autism in the form of rats prenatally treated with valproic acid (VPA rats), was to investigate changes in anxiety-like behaviour and the gene expression of molecules that control levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain. Anxiety-like behaviours were investigated using zone preferences in the open field test. The levels of the 65 and 67kDa enzymes of l-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) mRNAs and type 1 GABA transporter (GAT1) were evaluated in the amygdala, as well as GABA producing enzymes in the cortex layer of the cerebellum. Our research showed that adult VPA rats spent less time in the inner zone of the testing chamber and more time in the outer zone of the testing chamber in the open field test. We also found that adult VPA rats had increased expression of GAT1 in the amygdala, as well as decreased levels of GAD65 and GAD67 mRNA in the cerebellum compared to control animals. These findings support the existence of a relationship between increased anxiety-like behaviour and changes in the regulation of the GABAergic system in VPA rats. PMID:27353514

  14. Characterizing reduced sulfur compounds and non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions from a swine concentrated animal feeding operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumsey, Ian Cooper

    Reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have become a potential environmental and human health concern. Both RSCs and NMVOCs contribute to odor. In addition, RSCs also have the potential to form fine particulate matter (PMfine) and NMVOCs the potential to form ozone. Measurements of RSCs and NMVOCs emissions were made from both an anaerobic lagoon and barn at a swine CAFO in North Carolina. Emission measurements were made over all four seasonal periods. In each seasonal period, measurements were made from both the anaerobic lagoon and barn for ˜1 week. RSC and NMVOCs samples were collected using passivated canisters. Nine to eleven canister samples were taken from both the lagoon and barn over each sampling period. The canisters were analyzed ex-situ using gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) measurements were made in-situ using a pulsed fluorescence H2S/SO2 analyzer. During sampling, measurements of meteorological and physiochemical parameters were made. H2S had the largest RSC flux, with an overall average lagoon flux of 1.33 mug m-2 min-1. The two main RSCs identified by the GC-FID, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), had overall average lagoon fluxes an order of magnitude lower, 0.12 and 0.09 mug m-2 min-1, respectively. Twelve significant NMVOCs were identified in lagoon samples (ethanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, methanol, acetaldehyde, decanal, heptanal, hexanal, nonanal, octanal, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and 4-methylphenol). The overall average fluxes for these NMVOCs, ranged from 0.08 mug m-2 min-1 (4-methylphenol) to 2.11 mug m-2 min-1 (acetone). Seasonal H2S barn concentrations ranged from 72-631 ppb. DMS and DMDS seasonal concentrations were 2-3 orders of magnitude lower. There were six significant NMVOCs identified in barn samples (methanol, ethanol, acetone 2-3 butanedione, acetaldehyde

  15. Developmental exposure to lead (Pb) alters the expression of the human tau gene and its products in a transgenic animal model.

    PubMed

    Dash, M; Eid, A; Subaiea, G; Chang, J; Deeb, R; Masoud, A; Renehan, W E; Adem, A; Zawia, N H

    2016-07-01

    Tauopathies are a class of neurodegenerative diseases associated with the pathological aggregation of the tau protein in the human brain. The best known of these illnesses is Alzheimer's disease (AD); a disease where the microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT) becomes hyperphosphorylated (lowering its binding affinity to microtubules) and aggregates within neurons in the form of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). In this paper we examine whether environmental factors play a significant role in tau pathogenesis. Our studies were conducted in a double mutant mouse model that expressed the human tau gene and lacked the gene for murine tau. The human tau mouse model was tested for the transgene's ability to respond to an environmental toxicant. Pups were developmentally exposed to lead (Pb) from postnatal day (PND) 1-20 with 0.2% Pb acetate. Mice were then sacrificed at PND 20, 30, 40 and 60. Protein and mRNA levels for tau and CDK5 as well as tau phosphorylation at Ser396 were determined. In addition, the potential role of miRNA in tau expression was investigated by measuring levels of miR-34c, a miRNA that targets the mRNA for human tau, at PND20 and 50. The expression of the human tau transgene was altered by developmental exposure to Pb. This exposure also altered the expression of miR-34c. Our findings are the first of their kind to test the responsiveness of the human tau gene to an environmental toxicant and to examine an epigenetic mechanism that may be involved in the regulation of this gene's expression. PMID:27293183

  16. Fostering Kinship with Animals: Animal Portraiture in Humane Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalof, Linda; Zammit-Lucia, Joe; Bell, Jessica; Granter, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of animals can alter human perceptions of, emotional responses to, and attitudes toward animals. Our study addressed the potential of a slideshow designed to activate emotional responses to animals to foster feelings of kinship with them. The personal meaning map measured changes in perceptions of animals. The participants were…

  17. Chronic L-deprenyl treatment alters brain monoamine levels and reduces impulsiveness in an animal model of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Boix, F; Qiao, S W; Kolpus, T; Sagvolden, T

    1998-07-01

    Effects of chronic L-deprenyl administration on hyperactive behaviour and brain monoamine levels were studied in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. SHR were hyperactive, impulsive and had impaired sustained attention when tested with a multiple 2-min fixed interval (FI) 5-min extinction (EXT) schedule of reinforcement. Even low, 0.25 mg/kg, doses of chronically-administered L-deprenyl reduced the impulsiveness (bursts of responses with short interresponse times) of SHR, without altering the general hyperactivity or the impaired sustained attention. The drug had no effect on WKY behaviour. The levels of noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and their metabolites, measured in neostriatum, nucleus accumbens and frontal cortex, showed that L-deprenyl effectively inhibited monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity. These results suggest that impulsiveness is a behavioural component that may be operating independent of the other components, like hyperactivity and deficient sustained attention, and that can be reduced by chronic MAO-B inhibition with L-deprenyl in this strain of rats. The positive effect of L-deprenyl on impulsiveness is discussed as due either to normalization of an asymmetric dopaminergic activity in the nucleus accumbens, or to a restoration of normal DA function in the prefrontal cortex. PMID:9708846

  18. Animal issues and society.

    PubMed

    Grabau, J H

    1993-05-01

    Animal use topics are sensitive issues today. Animal uses issues are often presented as black and white or 'we' are right and 'they' are wrong. This is clearly demonstrated in the available literature from most organizations. Topics presented will include: delineation of issues and concerned groups; examples of animal issues in education and agriculture; the terrorist issue; examples of animal issues/sportsman issues; examples of political and legislative impact; and examples of biomedical and toxicology animal use issues. PMID:8516774

  19. Gravity as a factor in the animal environment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Review of current knowledge, research, and research planning on the influence of gravity upon living organisms. Discussed factors affecting the adaptability of animals to increased acceleration fields include age, sex, posture, and body size. Affected functions and aspects reviewed cover growth and mature body size, body composition, maintenance feed requirements, and feed utilization efficiency. It is expected that research involving the exposure of animals to altered gravity states will lead to new biological concepts of very broad importance.

  20. What can we learn from the toughest animals of the Earth? Water bears (tardigrades) as multicellular model organisms in order to perform scientific preparations for lunar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidetti, Roberto; Rizzo, Angela Maria; Altiero, Tiziana; Rebecchi, Lorena

    2012-12-01

    Space missions of long duration required a series of preliminary experiments on living organisms, validated by a substantial phase of ground simulation experiments, in the field of micro- and inter-mediate gravities, radiobiology, and, for planetary explorations, related to risks deriving from regolith and dust exposure. In this review, we present the tardigrades, whose characteristics that recommend them as an emerging model for space biology. They are microscopic animals but are characterized by a complex structural organization similar to that of larger animals; they can be cultured in lab in small facilities, having small size; they are able to produce clonal lineages by means of parthenogenesis; they can completely suspend their metabolism when entering in dormant states (anhydrobiosis induced by dehydration and cryobiosis induced by freezing); desiccated anhydrobiotic tardigrades are able to withstand chemical and physical extremes, but a large tolerance is showed also by active animals; they can be stored in dry state for many years without loss of viability. Tardigrades have already been exposed to space stressors on Low Earth Orbit several times. The relevance of ground-based and space studies on tardigrades rests on the presumption that results could suggest strategies to protect organisms, also humans, when exposed to the space and lunar environments.

  1. [The specific features of the distribution of 4-metoxyhydroxybenzene in the organism of the warm-blooded animals suffering lethal intoxication].

    PubMed

    Shormanov, V K; Astashkina, A P; Ostanin, M A; Grishechko, O I; Tsatsua, E P

    2016-01-01

    This work was designed to study the distribution of 4-metoxyhydroxybenzene in the organism of the omnivorous warm-blooded animals (rats) after the intragastric administration of this poisonous compound at a dose three-fold greater than the LD50 value. The administered 4-metoxyhydroxybenzene was isolated from the organs and blood of the experimental animals by exposing the biological tissues to acetone with subsequent purification on a silica gel L 40/100 mcm using a hexane:dioxane:propanol-2 (20:5:1) as the mobile phase. The identification and quantitation of 4-metoxyhydroxybenzene were carried out with the use of TLC, GC-MS, and UF-spectrophotometry. It was shown that the administered 4-metoxyhydroxybenzene remained unmetabolized in the internal organs and blood of the poisoned experimental animals. The largest amounts of 4-metoxyhydroxybenzene were found in the stomach contents (2584,92±117,47), brain (59.49±6.05), contents of small intestines (28.21±3.77), and kidneys (26.13±1.64). PMID:27500483

  2. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus preferentially alters the translational profile of striatopallidal neurons in an animal model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Visanji, Naomi P.; Kamali Sarvestani, Iman; Creed, Meaghan C.; Shams Shoaei, Zahra; Nobrega, José N.; Hamani, Clement; Hazrati, Lili-Naz

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) is an effective surgical treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), the precise neuronal mechanisms of which both at molecular and network levels remain a topic of debate. Here we employ two transgenic mouse lines, combining translating ribosomal affinity purification (TRAP) with bacterial artificial chromosome expression (Bac), to selectively identify changes in translational gene expression in either Drd1a-expressing striatonigral or Drd2-expressing striatopallidal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum following STN-DBS. 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned mice received either 5 days stimulation via a DBS electrode implanted in the ipsilateral STN or 5 days sham treatment (no stimulation). Striatal polyribosomal RNA was selectively purified from either Drd2 or Drd1a MSNs using the TRAP method and gene expression profiling performed. We identified eight significantly altered genes in Drd2 MSNs (Vps33b, Ppp1r3c, Mapk4, Sorcs2, Neto1, Abca1, Penk1, and Gapdh) and two overlapping genes in Drd1a MSNs (Penk1 and Ppp1r3c) implicated in the molecular mechanisms of STN-DBS. A detailed functional analysis, using a further 728 probes implicated in STN-DBS, suggested an increased ability to receive excitation (mediated by increased dendritic spines, increased calcium influx and enhanced excitatory post synaptic potentials) accompanied by processes that would hamper the initiation of action potentials, transport of neurotransmitters from soma to axon terminals and vesicular release in Drd2-expressing MSNs. Finally, changes in expression of several genes involved in apoptosis as well as cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism were also identified. This increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms induced by STN-DBS may reveal novel targets for future non-surgical therapies for PD. PMID:26106299

  3. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus preferentially alters the translational profile of striatopallidal neurons in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Visanji, Naomi P; Kamali Sarvestani, Iman; Creed, Meaghan C; Shams Shoaei, Zahra; Nobrega, José N; Hamani, Clement; Hazrati, Lili-Naz

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) is an effective surgical treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), the precise neuronal mechanisms of which both at molecular and network levels remain a topic of debate. Here we employ two transgenic mouse lines, combining translating ribosomal affinity purification (TRAP) with bacterial artificial chromosome expression (Bac), to selectively identify changes in translational gene expression in either Drd1a-expressing striatonigral or Drd2-expressing striatopallidal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum following STN-DBS. 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned mice received either 5 days stimulation via a DBS electrode implanted in the ipsilateral STN or 5 days sham treatment (no stimulation). Striatal polyribosomal RNA was selectively purified from either Drd2 or Drd1a MSNs using the TRAP method and gene expression profiling performed. We identified eight significantly altered genes in Drd2 MSNs (Vps33b, Ppp1r3c, Mapk4, Sorcs2, Neto1, Abca1, Penk1, and Gapdh) and two overlapping genes in Drd1a MSNs (Penk1 and Ppp1r3c) implicated in the molecular mechanisms of STN-DBS. A detailed functional analysis, using a further 728 probes implicated in STN-DBS, suggested an increased ability to receive excitation (mediated by increased dendritic spines, increased calcium influx and enhanced excitatory post synaptic potentials) accompanied by processes that would hamper the initiation of action potentials, transport of neurotransmitters from soma to axon terminals and vesicular release in Drd2-expressing MSNs. Finally, changes in expression of several genes involved in apoptosis as well as cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism were also identified. This increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms induced by STN-DBS may reveal novel targets for future non-surgical therapies for PD. PMID:26106299

  4. Organ-specific alterations in tobacco transcriptome caused by the PVX-derived P25 silencing suppressor transgene

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background RNA silencing affects a broad range of regulatory processes in all eukaryotes ranging from chromatin structure maintenance to transcriptional and translational regulation and longevity of the mRNAs. Particularly in plants, it functions as the major defense mechanism against viruses. To counter-act this defense, plant viruses produce suppressors of RNA silencing (Viral suppressors of RNA silencing, VSRSs), which are essential for viruses to invade their specific host plants. Interactions of these VSRSs with the hosts’ silencing pathways, and their direct and indirect interference with different cellular regulatory networks constitute one of the main lines of the molecular virus-host interactions. Here we have used a microarray approach to study the effects of the Potato virus X Potexvirus (PVX)-specific P25 VSRS protein on the transcript profile of tobacco plants, when expressed as a transgene in these plants. Results The expression of the PVX-specific P25 silencing suppressor in transgenic tobacco plants caused significant up-regulation of 1350 transcripts, but down-regulation of only five transcripts in the leaves, and up- and down-regulation of 51 and 13 transcripts, respectively, in the flowers of these plants, as compared to the wild type control plants. Most of the changes occurred in the transcripts related to biotic and abiotic stresses, transcription regulation, signaling, metabolic pathways and cell wall modifications, and many of them appeared to be induced through up-regulation of the signaling pathways regulated by ethylene, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. Correlations of these alterations with the protein profile and related biological functions were analyzed. Surprisingly, they did not cause significant alterations in the protein profile, and caused only very mild alteration in the phenotype of the P25-expressing transgenic plants. Conclusion Expression of the PVX-specific P25 VSRS protein causes major alterations in the transcriptome

  5. BRG1/SMARCA4 inactivation promotes non-small cell lung cancer aggressiveness by altering chromatin organization

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shujie; Simon, Jeremy; Parker, Joel; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Desai, Nisarg; Major, Michael B.; Hayes, D. Neil

    2014-01-01

    SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes regulate critical cellular processes including cell cycle control, programmed cell death, differentiation, genomic instability and DNA repair. Inactivation of this class of chromatin remodeling complex has been associated with a variety of malignancies, including lung, ovarian, renal, liver and pediatric cancers. In particular, ~10% of primary human lung non-small lung cancers (NSCLC) display attenuations in the BRG1 ATPase, a core factor in SWI/SNF complexes. To evaluate the role of BRG1 attenuation in NSCLC development, we examined the effect of BRG1 silencing in primary and established human NSCLC cells. BRG1 loss altered cellular morphology and increased tumorigenic potential. Gene expression analyses showed reduced expression of genes known to be associated with progression of human NSCLC. We demonstrated that BRG1 losses in NSCLC cells were associated with variations in chromatin structure, including differences in nucleosome positioning and occupancy surrounding transcriptional start sites of disease-relevant genes. Our results offer direct evidence that BRG1 attenuation contributes to NSCLC aggressiveness by altering nucleosome positioning at a wide range of genes, including key cancer-associated genes. PMID:25115300

  6. BRG1/SMARCA4 inactivation promotes non-small cell lung cancer aggressiveness by altering chromatin organization.

    PubMed

    Orvis, Tess; Hepperla, Austin; Walter, Vonn; Song, Shujie; Simon, Jeremy; Parker, Joel; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Desai, Nisarg; Major, Michael B; Hayes, D Neil; Davis, Ian J; Weissman, Bernard

    2014-11-15

    SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes regulate critical cellular processes, including cell-cycle control, programmed cell death, differentiation, genomic instability, and DNA repair. Inactivation of this class of chromatin remodeling complex has been associated with a variety of malignancies, including lung, ovarian, renal, liver, and pediatric cancers. In particular, approximately 10% of primary human lung non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) display attenuations in the BRG1 ATPase, a core factor in SWI/SNF complexes. To evaluate the role of BRG1 attenuation in NSCLC development, we examined the effect of BRG1 silencing in primary and established human NSCLC cells. BRG1 loss altered cellular morphology and increased tumorigenic potential. Gene expression analyses showed reduced expression of genes known to be associated with progression of human NSCLC. We demonstrated that BRG1 losses in NSCLC cells were associated with variations in chromatin structure, including differences in nucleosome positioning and occupancy surrounding transcriptional start sites of disease-relevant genes. Our results offer direct evidence that BRG1 attenuation contributes to NSCLC aggressiveness by altering nucleosome positioning at a wide range of genes, including key cancer-associated genes. PMID:25115300

  7. Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants Expressing a Fungal Cutinase Show Alterations in the Structure and Properties of the Cuticle and Postgenital Organ Fusions

    PubMed Central

    Sieber, Patrick; Schorderet, Martine; Ryser, Ulrich; Buchala, Antony; Kolattukudy, Pappachan; Métraux, Jean-Pierre; Nawrath, Christiane

    2000-01-01

    A major structural component of the cuticle of plants is cutin. Analysis of the function of cutin in vivo has been limited because no mutants with specific defects in cutin have been characterized. Therefore, transgenic Arabidopsis plants were generated that express and secrete a cutinase from Fusarium solani f sp pisi. Arabidopsis plants expressing the cutinase in the extracellular space showed an altered ultrastructure of the cuticle and an enhanced permeability of the cuticle to solutes. In addition, pollen could germinate on fully differentiated leaves of cutinase-expressing plants but not on control leaves. These differences coincided with strong postgenital organ fusions. The junctions of the fusions contained pectic polysaccharides. As fused organs grew apart from each other, organ deformations and protrusions of epidermal cells developed at positions with high mechanical stress. These results demonstrate that an intact cutin layer not only is important for plant–environment interactions but also prevents fusions between different plant organs and is therefore necessary for normal epidermal differentiation and organ formation. PMID:10810146

  8. Controlled Burning of Forest Detritus Altering Spectroscopic Characteristics and Chlorine Reactivity of Dissolved Organic Matter: Effects of Temperature and Oxygen Availability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Jian; Dahlgren, Randy A; Chow, Alex T

    2015-12-15

    Forest fires occur with increasing frequency and severity in the western United States, potentially altering the chemistry and quantity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursors exported from forested watersheds. However, little is known concerning effects of the fire triangle (heat, oxygen, and fuel) on DOM alteration. Using detritus from Pinus ponderosa and Abies concolor (dominant species in forests in the western United States), we prepared DOM from unburned and burned detritus under hypoxic (pyrolysis) and oxic conditions (thermal oxidation) at 250 and 400 °C. DOM characteristics and chlorine reactivity were evaluated by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and chlorination-based DBP formation potential tests. Spectroscopic results suggest that burned-detritus extracts had lower molecular weight (reflected by increased E2:E3 and fluorescence index) and divergent aromaticity (reflected by SUVA254) depending on oxygen availability. Temperature and oxygen availability interacted to alter the chlorine reactivity of fire-affected DOM. Increasing temperature from 50 to 400 °C resulted in decreased reactivities for trihalomethane and chloral hydrate formation and divergent reactivities for haloacetonitrile formation (unchanged for pyrolysis and increased for oxidation) and haloketone formation (increased for pyrolysis and decreased for oxidation). We demonstrate that DBP precursors in fire-affected forest detritus are highly dependent on temperature and oxygen availability. PMID:26496434

  9. The cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter sequence alters the level and patterns of activity of adjacent tissue- and organ-specific gene promoters.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xuelian; Deng, Wei; Luo, Keming; Duan, Hui; Chen, Yongqin; McAvoy, Richard; Song, Shuiqing; Pei, Yan; Li, Yi

    2007-08-01

    Here we report the effect of the 35S promoter sequence on activities of the tissue- and organ-specific gene promoters in tobacco plants. In the absence of the 35S promoter sequence the AAP2 promoter is active only in vascular tissues as indicated by expression of the AAP2:GUS gene. With the 35S promoter sequence in the same T-plasmid, transgenic plants exhibit twofold to fivefold increase in AAP2 promoter activity and the promoter becomes active in all tissue types. Transgenic plants hosting the ovary-specific AGL5:iaaM gene (iaaM coding an auxin biosynthetic gene) showed a wild-type phenotype except production of seedless fruits, whereas plants hosting the AGL5:iaaM gene along with the 35S promoter sequence showed drastic morphological alterations. RT-PCR analysis confirms that the phenotype was caused by activation of the AGL5:iaaM gene in non-ovary organs including roots, stems and flowers. When the pollen-, ovule- and early embryo-specific PAB5:barnase gene (barnase coding a RNase gene) was transformed, the presence of 35S promoter sequence drastically reduced transformation efficiencies. However, the transformation efficiencies were restored in the absence of 35S promoter, indicating that the 35S promoter might activate the expression of PAB5:barnase in non-reproductive organs such as calli and shoot primordia. Furthermore, if the 35S promoter sequence was replaced with the NOS promoter sequence, no alteration in AAP2, AGL5 or PAB5 promoter activities was observed. Our results demonstrate that the 35S promoter sequence can convert an adjacent tissue- and organ-specific gene promoter into a globally active promoter. PMID:17340093

  10. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, YongHua; Wang, WenKe; He, Yunhua

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and l-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings. PMID:26395070

  11. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, YongHua; Wang, WenKe; He, Yunhua

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and l-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings. PMID:26395070

  12. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, Yonghua; Wang, Wenke; He, Yunhua

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and L-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings.

  13. Preparation techniques alter the mineral and organic fractions of fish otoliths: insights using Raman micro-spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jolivet, Aurélie; Fablet, Ronan; Bardeau, Jean-François; de Pontual, Hélène

    2013-05-01

    The high spatial resolution analysis of the mineral and organic composition of otoliths using Raman micro-spectrometry involves rigorous protocols for sample preparation previously established for microchemistry and trace elements analyses. These protocols often include otolith embedding in chemically neutral resin (i.e., resins which do not contain, in detectable concentration, elements usually sought in the otoliths). Such embedding may however induce organic contamination. In this paper, Raman micro-spectrometry reveals the presence of organic contamination onto the surface obtained from the use of epoxy resin, specifically Araldite. This contamination level varies depending on otolith structures. Core and checks, known as structural discontinuities, exhibit the most important level of contaminations. Our results suggest that otolith embedding with resin affects the organic matrix of the otolith, probably through an infiltration of the resin in the crystalline structure. The interpretation of chemical otolith signatures, especially Raman otolith signatures, and stable isotope analyses should then be revised in light of these results. In this respect, we propose a method for the correction of Raman otolith signatures for contamination effects. PMID:23508582

  14. Concentrations of Trace Elements in Organic Fertilizers and Animal Manures and Feeds and Cadmium Contamination in Herbal Tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino).

    PubMed

    Nookabkaew, Sumontha; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Prachoom, Norratouch; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2016-04-27

    Thailand is predominantly an agriculture-based country. Organic farming is enlisted as an important national agenda to promote food safety and international export. The present study aimed to determine the concentrations of trace elements in commercial organic fertilizers (fermented and nonfermented) composed of pig and cattle manures available in Thailand. Pig and cattle manures as well as animal feeds were also collected from either animal farms or markets. The results were compared to the literature data from other countries. Fermented fertilizer composed of pig manure contained higher concentrations of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) than fertilizer composed of cattle manure. High concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were also found in fertilizers and manures. Some organic fertilizers had high concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). The range of As concentration in these fertilizers was 0.50-24.4 mg/kg, whereas the ranges of Cd and Pb were 0.10-11.4 and 1.13-126 mg/kg, respectively. Moreover, pig manure contained As and Cd (15.7 and 4.59 mg/kg, respectively), higher than their levels in cattle manure (1.95 and 0.16 mg/kg, respectively). The use of pig manure as soil supplement also resulted in high Cd contamination in herbal tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino; GP). The Cd concentration in GP plants positively correlated with the Cd concentration in the soil. Therefore, the application of some organic fertilizers or animal manures to agricultural soil could increase some potentially toxic elements in soil, which may be absorbed by plants and, thus, increase the risk of contamination in agricultural products. PMID:27058252

  15. Earthworm Effects without Earthworms: Inoculation of Raw Organic Matter with Worm-Worked Substrates Alters Microbial Community Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Aira, Manuel; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Background Earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with soil microorganisms. They enhance decomposition rates through the joint action of direct effects (i.e. effects due to direct earthworm activity such as digestion, burrowing, etc) and indirect effects (i.e. effects derived from earthworm activities such as cast ageing). Here we test whether indirect earthworm effects affect microbial community functioning in the substrate, as when earthworms are present (i. e., direct effects). Methodology/Principal Findings To address these questions we inoculated fresh organic matter (pig manure) with worm-worked substrates (vermicompost) produced by three different earthworm species. Two doses of each vermicompost were used (2.5 and 10%). We hypothesized that the presence of worm-worked material in the fresh organic matter will result in an inoculum of different microorganisms and nutrients. This inoculum should interact with microbial communities in fresh organic matter, thus promoting modifications similar to those found when earthworms are present. Inoculation of worm-worked substrates provoked significant increases in microbial biomass and enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, cellulase, phosphatase and protease). These indirect effects were similar to, although lower than, those obtained in pig manure with earthworms (direct and indirect earthworm effects). In general, the effects were not dose-dependent, suggesting the existence of a threshold at which they were triggered. Conclusion/Significance Our data reveal that the relationships between earthworms and microorganisms are far from being understood, and suggest the existence of several positive feedbacks during earthworm activity as a result of the interactions between direct and indirect effects, since their combination produces stronger modifications to microbial biomass and enzyme activity. PMID:21298016

  16. Time-Course of Alterations in Myocardial Glucose Utilization in the Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) Rat with Correlation to Gene Expression of Glucose Transporters: A Small Animal PET Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Shoghi, Kooresh I.; Gropler, Robert J.; Sharp, Terry; Herrero, Pilar; Fettig, Nicole; Su, Yi; Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Kovacs, Attila; Finck, Brian N.; Welch, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Diabetic cardiomyopathy is associated with abnormalities in glucose metabolism. We evaluated myocardial glucose metabolism in a rodent model of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D), namely the Zucker Diabetic Rat (ZDF), and validated PET measures of glucose uptake against gene and protein expression of glucose transporters. Methods Six lean and ZDF rat underwent small animal PET imaging at the age of 14 weeks and at the age of 19 weeks. The imaging protocol consisted of a 60-minute dynamic acquisition with 18FDG (0.5–0.8mCi). Dynamic images were reconstructed using filtered back projection (FBP) with a 2.5 zoom on the heart and 40 frames per imaging session. PET measures of myocardial glucose uptake rate (MGUp) and utilization were determined with an input function derived by the Hybrid Image- Blood Sampling (HIBS) algorithm on recovery-corrected anterolateral myocardial regions of interest. Following the PET imaging session at week 19, hearts were extracted for gene and protein expression analysis of GLUT1 and GLUT4. The dependence of MGUp on gene expression of GLUT1 and GLUT4 was characterized by multiple-regression analysis. Results Compared to lean littermate control rats, MGUp was significantly depressed in ZDF rats at both week 14 and week 19 (P<0.006). Moreover, lean rats at week 19 displayed significantly higher MGUp than week 14 (P=0.007). Consistent with diminished MGUp, gene expression of GLUT4 was significantly (P=0.004) lower in ZDF rats. Finally, MGUp significantly (P=0.0003) correlated with gene expression of GLUT4. Conclusions Using small animal PET, we confirmed alterations in myocardial glucose utilization and validated PET measure of MGUp against gene and protein expression of glucose transporters in the diabetic heart of an animal model of T2D. PMID:18632819

  17. Thermally-induced structural and chemical alteration of organic-walled microfossils: an experimental approach to understanding fossil preservation in metasediments.

    PubMed

    Schiffbauer, J D; Wallace, A F; Hunter, J L; Kowalewski, M; Bodnar, R J; Xiao, S

    2012-09-01

    The identification and confirmation of bona fide Archean-Paleoproterozoic microfossils can prove to be a challenging task, further compounded by diagenetic and metamorphic histories. While structures of likely biological origin are not uncommon in Precambrian rocks, the search for early fossil life has been disproportionately focused on lesser thermally altered rocks, typically greenschist or lower-grade metamorphism. Recently, however, an increasing number of inferred micro- and macrofossils have been reported from higher-grade metasediments, prompting us to experimentally test and quantify the preservability of organic-walled microfossils over varying durations of controlled heating and under two differing redox conditions. Because of their relatively low-intensity natural thermal alteration, acritarchs from the Mesoproterozoic Ruyang Group were chosen as subjects for experimental heating at approximately 500°C, with durations ranging from 1 to 250 days and in both oxic (normal present day conditions) and anoxic conditions. Upon extraction, the opacity, reflectivity, color, microchemistry, and microstructures of the heated acritarchs were characterized using optic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results differ for acritarchs prepared under oxic vs. anoxic conditions, with the anoxic replicates surviving experimental heating longer and retaining biological morphologies better, despite an increasing degree of carbonization with continuous heating. Conversely, the oxic replicates show aggressive degradation. In conjunction with fossils from high-grade metasediments, our data illustrate the preservational potential of organic-walled microfossils subjected to metamorphism in reducing conditions, offer insights into the search for microfossils in metasediments, and help to elucidate the influence of time on the carbonization/graphitization processes during thermal alteration. PMID:22607551

  18. The effect of meter-scale lateral oxygen gradients at the sediment-water interface on selected organic matter based alteration, productivity and temperature proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogus, K. A.; Zonneveld, K. A. F.; Fischer, D.; Kasten, S.; Bohrmann, G.; Versteegh, G. J. M.

    2011-11-01

    A valid assessment of selective aerobic degradation on organic matter (OM) and its impact on OM-based proxies is vital to produce accurate environmental reconstructions. However, most studies investigating these effects suffer from inherent environmental heterogeneities. This includes differences in the initial OM composition, as a result of variable upper water column conditions, or from those induced by selective aerobic degradation. In this study, we used surface samples collected along two meter-scale transects and one longer transect in the northeastern Arabian Sea to constrain initial OM heterogeneity, in order to evaluate selective aerobic degradation on temperature, productivity and alteration indices at the sediment-water interface. All of the alteration indices, the higher plant alkane index, alcohol preservation index, and diol oxidation index, demonstrated that they are sensitive indicators for changes in oxygen content at the sediment-water interface. The export production indices, a cholesterol-based stanol/stenol and dinoflagellate lipid- and cyst-based ratios, showed significant (more than 20%) change over the lateral oxygen gradients. Therefore, they do not exclusively reflect surface water productivity, but can be altered after deposition with varying oxygen content at the sediment-water interface. Two of the investigated proxies, the glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGT) based TEX86 sea surface temperature indices and a productivity index based on phytol, phytane and pristane, did not show any trends related to oxygen concentration at the sediment-water interface. Nevertheless, unrealistic sea surface temperatures were obtained after application of the TEX86, TEX86L, and TEX86H proxies. The phytol-based ratios were likely modified by the sedimentary production of pristane. Our results demonstrate the rapid and selective impact of aerobic organic matter degradation on the lipid and palynomorph composition of surface sediments on a

  19. The effect of meter-scale lateral oxygen gradients at the sediment-water interface on selected organic matter based alteration, productivity and temperature proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogus, K. A.; Zonneveld, K. A. F.; Fischer, D.; Kasten, S.; Bohrmann, G.; Versteegh, G. J. M.

    2012-04-01

    A valid assessment of selective aerobic degradation on organic matter (OM) and its impact on OM-based proxies is vital to produce accurate environmental reconstructions. However, most studies investigating these effects suffer from inherent environmental heterogeneities. In this study, we used surface samples collected along two meter-scale transects and one longer transect in the northeastern Arabian Sea to constrain initial OM heterogeneity, in order to evaluate selective aerobic degradation on temperature, productivity and alteration indices at the sediment-water interface. All of the studied alteration indices, the higher plant alkane index, alcohol preservation index, and diol oxidation index, demonstrated that they are sensitive indicators for changes in the oxygen regime. Several export production indices, a cholesterol-based stanol/stenol index and dinoflagellate lipid- and cyst-based ratios, showed significant (more than 20%) change only over the lateral oxygen gradients. Therefore, these compounds do not exclusively reflect surface water productivity, but are significantly altered after deposition. Two of the proxies, glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether-based TEX86 sea surface temperature indices and indices based on phytol, phytane and pristane, did not show any trends related to oxygen. Nevertheless, unrealistic sea surface temperatures were obtained after application of the TEX86, TEX86L, and TEX86H proxies. The phytol-based ratios were likely affected by the sedimentary production of pristane. Our results demonstrate the selective impact of aerobic organic matter degradation on the lipid and palynomorph composition of surface sediments along a short lateral oxygen gradient and suggest that some of the investigated proxies may be useful tracers of changing redox conditions at the sediment-water interface.

  20. PHOTOCHEMICAL ALTERATION OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER: EFFECTS ON THE CONCENTRATION AND ACIDITIES OF IONIZABLE SITES IN DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN THE SATILLA RIVER OF GEORGIA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acid-base properties of humic substances, the major component of dissolved organic matter (DOM), area major control on the alkalinity, or acid neutralizing capacity of freshwater systems. Alkalinity is one of the fundamental parameters measured in aquatic sciences, and is an ...

  1. Formation, Alteration and Delivery of Exogenous High Molecular Weight Organic Compounds: Objectives of the Tanpopo Mission from the Point of View of Chemical Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; K. Sarker, Palash; Ono, Keisuke; Kawamoto, Yukinori; Obayashi, Yumiko; Kaneko, Takeo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Mita, Hajime; Yabuta, Hikaru; Yamagishi, Akihiko

    A wide variety of organic compounds have been detected in such extraterrestrial bodies as carbonaceous chondrites and comets. Amino acids have been confirmed in extracts from carbonaceous chondrites and cometary dusts. It was suggested that these organics were formed in quite cold environments. We irradiated possible interstellar media, such as a frozen mixture of methanol, ammonia and water, with high-energy particles. Amino acid precursors with high molecular weights were detected in the irradiated products. Such complex amino acid precursors are much more stable than free amino acids against radiation, and heat. It is suggested that interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) brought much more organics than meteorites and comets. However, characteristics of organic compounds in IDPs are little known, since they have been collected only in terrestrial biosphere. We are planning the Tanpopo Mission, where IDPs would be collected in aerogel equipped on the Exposure Facility of the International Space Station. In addition, amino acids and their relating compounds would be exposed to space environments to see their possible alteration processes.

  2. Zearalenone Altered the Serum Hormones, Morphologic and Apoptotic Measurements of Genital Organs in Post-weaning Gilts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X. X.; Yang, C. W.; Huang, L. B.; Niu, Q. S.; Jiang, S. Z.; Chi, F.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the adverse effects of dietary zearalenone (ZEA) (1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg diet) on serum hormones, morphologic and apoptotic measurements of genital organs in post-weaning gilts. A total of twenty gilts (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc) weaned at 21 d with an average body weight of 10.36±1.21 kg were used in the study. Gilts were fed a basal diet with an addition of 0, 1.1, 2.0, or 3.2 mg/kg purified ZEA for 18 d ad libitum. Results showed that 3.2 mg/kg ZEA challenged gilts decreased (p<0.05) the serum levels of luteinizing hormone, however, serum levels of prolactin in gilts fed the diet containing 2.0 mg/kg ZEA or more were increased (p<0.05) compared to those in the control. Linear effects on all tested serum hormones except progesterone were observed as dietary ZEA levels increased (p<0.05). Gilts fed ZEA-contaminated diet showed increase (p<0.05) in genital organs size, hyperplasia of submucosal smooth muscles in the corpus uteri in a dose-dependent manner. However, the decreased numbers of follicles in the cortex and apoptotic cells in the ovarian were observed in gilts treated with ZEA in a dose-dependent manner. Degeneration and structural abnormalities of genital organs tissues were also observed in the gilts fed diet containing 1.1 mg/kg ZEA or more. Results suggested that dietary ZEA at 1.1 to 3.2 mg/kg can induce endocrine disturbance and damage genital organs in post-weaning gilts. PMID:25557812

  3. Influence of sill intrusions on the hydrology and thermal maturity of sediments - Modelling heat flow and organic geochemical alterations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, Ulrich; Delisle, Georg

    2010-05-01

    In a variaty of continetal margins worldwide, sill intrusions had a significant influence on the fluid flow and on the thermal alteration of the sediments. We present concepts of fluid and/or gas flow within the contact aureole of sills. Water exposed to the high temperatures at the contact will inadvertently be converted into the steam phase. This process is of explosive nature due to the enormous expansion of the specific density of the fluid. High temperatures in combination with the available fluid will build up high pressures around the aureole and lead to fluid or gas flow according to the pressure gradient. From the thermal point of view, the major effect of the steam formation is a drastic reduction of the contact temperature at the sill to near the steam point of the fluid. The temperature value depends primarily on the local hydraulic pressure, which is closely related to the depth of the contact below surface. One consequence of the high pressure regime will be the escape of the steam through fractures wherever available. Geologic evidence from known locations points to the creation of so-called pipes. Through such pipes, the fluids and gases will be carried away from the contact, and with it the thermal energy. Our concept is compatible with observations on hydrothermal vents in sedimentary basins, which are known to be associated with sill intrusions. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the above concept, we employ a derivate of BGR's heat flow model which has been used and proven as a robust analytic tool in a variety of published studies. Our calculations demonstrate the massive temperature depression caused by the steam production in comparison to the case of pure heat transfer by conduction. After sill emplacement steam generation will ensue until the latent heat for steam formation for the given water volume has been supplied by heat flow out of the sill. During this process, the contact temperature will be kept at the steam point of water for the

  4. The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. III - Generation of bitumen in laboratory experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huizinga, Bradley J.; Tannenbaum, Eli; Kaplan, I. R.

    1987-01-01

    A series of pyrolysis experiments, utilizing two different immature kerogens (from the Monterey and Green River Formations) mixed with common sedimentary minerals (calcite, illite, or Na-montmorillonite), was conducted to study the impact of the mineral matrix on the bitumen that was generated. Calcite has no significant influence on the thermal evolution of bitumen and also shows virtually no adsorption capacity for any of the pyrolysate. In contrast, montmorillonite (M) and illite, to a lesser extent, alter bitumen during dry pyrolysis. M and illite also display strong adsorption capacities for the polar constituents of bitumen. By this process, hydrocarbons are substantially concentrated within the pyrolysate that is not strongly adsorbed on the clay matrices. The effects of the clay minerals are significantly reduced during hydrous pyrolysis. The strong adsorption capacities of M and illite, as well as their thermocatalytic properties, may in part explain why light oils and gases are generated from certain argillaceous source-rock assemblages, whereas heavy immature oils are often derived from carbonate source rocks.

  5. The evolution of infectious agents in relation to sex in animals and humans: brief discussions of some individual organisms

    PubMed Central

    Reed, David L.; Currier, Russell W.; Walton, Shelley F.; Conrad, Melissa; Sullivan, Steven A.; Carlton, Jane M.; Read, Timothy D.; Severini, Alberto; Tyler, Shaun; Eberle, R.; Johnson, Welkin E.; Silvestri, Guido; Clarke, Ian N.; Lagergård, Teresa; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Unemo, Magnus; Shafer, William M.; Beasley, R. Palmer; Bergström, Tomas; Norberg, Peter; Davison, Andrew J.; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Blomberg, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    The following series of concise summaries addresses the evolution of infectious agents in relation to sex in animals and humans from the perspective of three specific questions: (1) what have we learned about the likely origin and phylogeny, up to the establishment of the infectious agent in the genital econiche, including the relative frequency of its sexual transmission; (2) what further research is needed to provide additional knowledge on some of these evolutionary aspects; and (3) what evolutionary considerations might aid in providing novel approaches to the more practical clinical and public health issues facing us currently and in the future? PMID:21824167

  6. A gain-of-function mutation in IAA8 alters Arabidopsis floral organ development by change of jasmonic acid level.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Yan, Da-Wei; Yuan, Ting-Ting; Gao, Xiang; Lu, Ying-Tang

    2013-05-01

    Auxin regulates a variety of physiological processes via its downstream factors included Aux/IAAs. In this study, one of these Aux/IAAs, IAA8 is shown to play its role in Arabidopsis development with transgenic plants expressing GFP-mIAA8 under the control of IAA8 promoter, in which IAA8 protein was mutated by changing Pro170 to Leu170 in its conserved domain II. These transgenic dwarfed plants had more lateral branches, short primary inflorescence stems, decreased shoot apical dominance, curled leaves and abnormal flower organs (short petal and stamen, and bent stigmas). Further experiments revealed that IAA8::GFP-mIAA8 plants functioned as gain-of-function mutation to increase GFP-mIAA8 amount probably by stabilizing IAA8 protein against proteasome-mediated protein degradation with IAA8::GFP-IAA8 plants as control. The searching for its downstream factors indicated its interaction with both ARF6 and ARF8, suggesting that IAA8 may involve in flower organ development. This was further evidenced by analyzing the expression of jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthetic genes and JA levels because ARF6 and ARF8 are required for normal JA production. These results indicated that in IAA8::GFP-mIAA8 plants, JA biosynthetic genes including DAD1 (AT2G44810), AOS (AT5G42650) and ORP3 (AT2G06050) were dramatically down-regulated and JA level in the flowers was reduced to 70 % of that in wild-type. Furthermore, exogenous JA application can partially rescue short petal and stamen observed IAA8::GFP-mIAA8 plants. Thus, IAA8 plays its role in floral organ development by changes in JA levels probably via its interaction with ARF6/8 proteins. PMID:23483289

  7. Variation in langur social organization in relation to the socioecological model, human habitat alteration, and phylogenetic constraints.

    PubMed

    Sterck, E H

    1999-01-01

    The socioecological model is to date the best evolutionary model to explain variation in primate behaviour. Some species or populations, however, deviate from the predictions. These deviations may be due to a disequilibrium between evolutionary causes and behavioural adaptations, caused by recent human changes of the environment. The relationship between human habitat alteration and primate social behaviour is reviewed and investigated for langurs. Provisioning affects the spatial distribution of food. In these areas, but also in areas with natural monopolizable food sources, female dominance relationships are linear, but not nepotistic. This does not fit into the evolutionary model. Provisioning also affects the temporal distribution of food. This reduces the seasonality of mating, increases female monopolizability and gives rise to more one-male groups than in undisturbed areas. A human reduction of the number of predators leads to fewer males per group. It also results in female philopatry. Infanticide risk was higher in disturbed than in undisturbed areas. This was not caused by the lower proportion of one-male groups in disturbed areas, but by the lack of female dispersal. Thus, female behaviour was affected by human habitat disturbance in a way that does not fit the socioecological model. However, the extension of habitat disturbance does not explain all results. We could say that the model is refuted. Phylogenetic constraints, however, do explain the behaviour of despotic Hanuman langurs. Such phylogenetic constraints complement the socioecological model. To understand the evolutionary history of a current set of features, these two approaches should be studied simultaneously. PMID:23179541

  8. The Functions of Antioxidants and Heat Shock Proteins Are Altered in the Immune Organs of Selenium-Deficient Broiler Chickens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zijiang; Liu, Ci; Zheng, Weijia; Teng, Xiaohua; Li, Shu

    2016-02-01

    Despite increasing evidence indicating the essential involvement of selenium (Se) in the immune system, the effect of Se deficiency on the regulation of oxidative stress and heat shock proteins (Hsps) in broiler chickens is still unclear. In the present study, we established an exudative diathesis (ED) broiler chicken model caused by Se deficiency. We then analyzed histological observations and detected the expression levels of Hsps and antioxidant indexes in immune tissues. The antioxidant function declined remarkably, and most of the Hsp expression levels increased significantly in the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius of the broiler chicks with ED (except the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of Hsp27, Hsp40, and Hsp70, which decreased in thymus tissues from the treatment groups); therefore, constitutive oxidation resistance and higher Hsps in broiler chicks with ED caused defects in immune organ morphology and function, as evidenced by abnormal histological structures: red pulp broadening and lymphocytes in the cortex and medulla of the thymic lobule decreased distinctly and distributed loosely. These results underscore the importance of Se in establishing an immune organ microenvironment conducive to normal function. PMID:26123162

  9. Maternal consumption of organic trace minerals alters calf systemic and neutrophil mRNA and microRNA indicators of inflammation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Jacometo, Carolina B; Osorio, Johan S; Socha, Michael; Corrêa, Marcio N; Piccioli-Cappelli, Fiorenzo; Trevisi, Erminio; Loor, Juan J

    2015-11-01

    Organic trace mineral (ORG) supplementation to dairy cows in substitution of sulfate (INO) sources has been associated with improvement in immune function during stressful states such as the peripartal period. However, the effect of supplemental ORG during pregnancy on the neonatal calf is unknown. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects of ORG supplementation during late pregnancy on the immune system and growth of the neonatal calf. Of specific interest was the evaluation of inflammation-related microRNA (miRNA) and target gene expression in blood neutrophils as indicators of possible nutritional programming. Forty multiparous cows were supplemented for 30d prepartum with 40 mg/kg of Zn, 20 mg/kg of Mn, 5 mg/kg of Cu, and 1mg/kg of Co from either organic (ORG) or sulfate (INO) sources (total diet contained supplemental 75 mg/kg of Zn, 65 mg/kg of Mn, 11 mg/kg of Cu, and 1 mg/kg of Co, and additional Zn, Mn, and Co provided by sulfates), and a subset of calves (n=8/treatment) was used for blood immunometabolic marker and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) gene and miRNA expression analyses. Samples were collected at birth (before colostrum feeding), 1d (24 h after colostrum intake), and 7 and 21d of age. Data were analyzed as a factorial design with the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS. No differences were detected in BW, but maternal ORG tended to increase calf withers height. Calves from INO-fed cows had greater concentrations of blood glucose, GOT, paraoxonase, myeloperoxidase, and reactive oxygen metabolites. Antioxidant capacity also was greater in INO calves. The PMNL expression of toll-like receptor pathway genes indicated a pro-inflammatory state in INO calves, with greater expression of the inflammatory mediators MYD88, IRAK1, TRAF6, NFKB, and NFKBIA. The lower expression of miR-155 and miR-125b in ORG calves indicated the potential for maternal organic trace minerals in regulating the PMNL inflammatory response at least via alterations in mRNA and

  10. Warming Alters the Routing of Labile and Slower-Turnover Carbon Through Distinct Microbial Groups in Boreal Forest Organic Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, S. E.; Billings, S. A.; Lane, C. S.; Li, J.; Fogel, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Increased temperature has been linked to greater losses of soil organic carbon (SOC) via microbial respiration and potentially greater relative increases in mineralization of more complex, slow-turnover SOC pools. Though critical for predicting climate feedbacks, our mechanistic understanding of these temperature responses remains limited. Here we report results from a warming experiment using organic horizon soils from two mesic, boreal forest sites with contrasting climate regimes. We replaced extant Oi soil sub-horizons with another coniferous Oi possessing a distinct δ13C signature, and tracked incorporation of the replaced Oi-C and, by difference, the more humified Oea sub-horizon C into microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) following 120 day incubations at 15C and 20C. We demonstrate how regional climate (site effects) and experimental warming (temperature effects) influence microbial incorporation of Oi versus slower-turnover Oea SOC pools. Congruent with increased mineralization in these soils, the quantity of total PLFA, a proxy for microbial biomass, increased by 32-60% with experimental warming and was 20-42% higher within soils from the warmer versus cooler site. The proportion of Gram-positive bacterial PLFA-C derived from Oi-C more than doubled and coincided with a reduction in the incorporation of Oi-C into fungal relative to bacterial PLFA with laboratory warming and in soils from the warmer site. In conjunction with the relative decrease in fungal incorporation of Oi-C, warming led to an increase of 22-31% in the proportion of fungal PLFA-C derived from the Oea-C. This is consistent with site effects and an increased incorporation of this slower-turnover SOC pool in soils from the warmer site. The increase in microbial biomass and shift in routing of Oi and Oea pools through PLFA indicate that warming increases fungal mineralization of more slow-turnover C pools in these boreal organic soils. This increased exploitation of low C:N Oea by fungi

  11. Lung and 'end organ' injury due to mechanical ventilation in animals: comparison between the prone and supine positions

    PubMed Central

    Nakos, George; Batistatou, Anna; Galiatsou, Eftychia; Konstanti, Eleonora; Koulouras, Vassilios; Kanavaros, Panayotis; Doulis, Apostolos; Kitsakos, Athanassios; Karachaliou, Angeliki; Lekka, Marilena E; Bai, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Use of the prone position in patients with acute lung injury improves their oxygenation. Most of these patients die from multisystem organ failure and not from hypoxia, however. Moreover, there is some evidence that the organ failure is caused by increased cell apoptosis. In the present study we therefore examined whether the position of the patients affects histological changes and apoptosis in the lung and 'end organs', including the brain, heart, diaphragm, liver, kidneys and small intestine. Methods Ten mechanically ventilated sheep with a tidal volume of 15 ml/kg body weight were studied for 90 minutes. Five sheep were placed in the supine position and five sheep were placed in the prone position during the experiment. Lung changes were analyzed histologically using a semiquantitative scoring system and the extent of apoptosis was investigated with the TUNEL method. Results In the supine position intra-alaveolar hemorrhage appeared predominantly in the dorsal areas, while the other histopathologic lesions were homogeneously distributed throughout the lungs. In the prone position, all histological changes were homogeneously distributed. A significantly higher score of lung injury was found in the supine position than in the prone position (4.63 ± 0.58 and 2.17 ± 0.19, respectively) (P < 0.0001). The histopathologic changes were accompanied by increased apoptosis (TUNEL method). In the supine position, the apoptotic index in the lung and in most of the 'end organs' was significantly higher compared with the prone position (all P < 0.005). Interestingly, the apoptotic index was higher in dorsal areas compared with ventral areas in both the prone and supine positions (P < 0.003 and P < 0.02, respectively). Conclusion Our results suggest that the prone position appears to reduce the severity and the extent of lung injury, and is associated with decreased apoptosis in the lung and 'end organs'. PMID:16507176

  12. [Ethical challenges of genetic manipulation and research with animals].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Yunta, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Research with animals presents ethical questions both for being used as models of human diseases and for being a prerequisite for trials in humans, as in the introduction of genetic modifications. Some of these questions refer to the fact that, as models, they do not fully represent the human condition; that conducting toxicity tests causes great harm to animals; that their nature is altered by genetic modifications and that introducing genetically modified organisms is a risk. The use of animals in research for the benefit of humans imposes the moral responsibility to respect them, not making them suffer unnecessarily, since they are living beings capable of feeling. PMID:23338641

  13. Role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. I - Generation of gases and condensates under dry condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tannenbaum, E.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1985-01-01

    Pyrolysis experiments conducted at 200 and 300 C on kerogen and bitumen from the Monterey formation and on the Green River Formation kerogen with montmorillonite, illite, and calcite added are described. The pyrolysis products are identified and gas and condensate analyses are performed. A catalytic effect is detected in the pyrolysis of kerogen with montmorillonite; however, illite and calcite display no catalytic activity. The increased production of C1-C6 hydrocarbons and the dominance of branched hydrocarbons in the C4-C6 range reveals a catalytic influence. It is observed that the catalysis of montmorillonite is greater during bitumen pyrolysis than for kerogen, and catalysis with minerals affects the production of CO2. It is concluded that a mineral matrix is important in determining the type and amount of gases and condensates forming from organic matter under thermal stress.

  14. Alteration of the molecular-size-distribution of Boom Clay dissolved organic matter induced by Na+ and Ca2 +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durce, D.; Maes, N.; Bruggeman, C.; Van Ravestyn, L.

    2016-02-01

    In porous media, the extent of dissolved organic matter (DOM)-facilitated contaminant transport depends on the concentration, conformation and the size of the dissolved organic species. Yet, these parameters are highly sensitive to the ionic strength (IS) and the ionic composition of the solution. Boom Clay (BC) which is considered in Belgium as a potential host rock for nuclear waste disposal contains polydisperse DOM that might associate with radionuclide and increase their mobility. To get more insight into the effect of IS on DOM structure and into its impact on the solid/solution partitioning of OM in BC is essential for safety assessment. In a first set, we investigated the influence of NaCl and CaCl2 content on the concentration, the MW distribution and UV spectral parameters of DOM collected from BC. With an increase in IS two main mechanisms were identified: a compaction and/or dissociation of the DOM molecules and an aggregation. We showed that the sensitivity of the DOM species to these two mechanisms was size/MW dependent and that the presence of Ca2 + promotes the aggregation. The largest species are more prone to aggregation which at the extreme leads to their transfer to particulate OM. On the contrary, small DOM species hardly aggregate but compact or dissociate with an increase of IS. These observations were confirmed in the second experimental set in which we followed the release of DOM from BC rock in various electrolytes. The increase of IS and multivalent cations content reduces the amount, the degree of aromaticity and the MW of DOM released from BC which limit the extent of DOM-facilitated contaminant transport in BC.

  15. Alteration of the molecular-size-distribution of Boom Clay dissolved organic matter induced by Na(+) and Ca(2.).

    PubMed

    Durce, D; Maes, N; Bruggeman, C; Van Ravestyn, L

    2016-01-01

    In porous media, the extent of dissolved organic matter (DOM)-facilitated contaminant transport depends on the concentration, conformation and the size of the dissolved organic species. Yet, these parameters are highly sensitive to the ionic strength (IS) and the ionic composition of the solution. Boom Clay (BC) which is considered in Belgium as a potential host rock for nuclear waste disposal contains polydisperse DOM that might associate with radionuclide and increase their mobility. To get more insight into the effect of IS on DOM structure and into its impact on the solid/solution partitioning of OM in BC is essential for safety assessment. In a first set, we investigated the influence of NaCl and CaCl2 content on the concentration, the MW distribution and UV spectral parameters of DOM collected from BC. With an increase in IS two main mechanisms were identified: a compaction and/or dissociation of the DOM molecules and an aggregation. We showed that the sensitivity of the DOM species to these two mechanisms was size/MW dependent and that the presence of Ca(2+) promotes the aggregation. The largest species are more prone to aggregation which at the extreme leads to their transfer to particulate OM. On the contrary, small DOM species hardly aggregate but compact or dissociate with an increase of IS. These observations were confirmed in the second experimental set in which we followed the release of DOM from BC rock in various electrolytes. The increase of IS and multivalent cations content reduces the amount, the degree of aromaticity and the MW of DOM released from BC which limit the extent of DOM-facilitated contaminant transport in BC. PMID:26788872

  16. Biogas Production from Vietnamese Animal Manure, Plant Residues and Organic Waste: Influence of Biomass Composition on Methane Yield

    PubMed Central

    Cu, T. T. T.; Nguyen, T. X.; Triolo, J. M.; Pedersen, L.; Le, V. D.; Le, P. D.; Sommer, S. G.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg−1 volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg−1 VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam. PMID:25557826

  17. Biogas production from vietnamese animal manure, plant residues and organic waste: influence of biomass composition on methane yield.

    PubMed

    Cu, T T T; Nguyen, T X; Triolo, J M; Pedersen, L; Le, V D; Le, P D; Sommer, S G

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an efficient and renewable energy technology that can produce biogas from a variety of biomasses such as animal manure, food waste and plant residues. In developing countries this technology is widely used for the production of biogas using local biomasses, but there is little information about the value of these biomasses for energy production. This study was therefore carried out with the objective of estimating the biogas production potential of typical Vietnamese biomasses such as animal manure, slaughterhouse waste and plant residues, and developing a model that relates methane (CH4) production to the chemical characteristics of the biomass. The biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biomass characteristics were measured. Results showed that piglet manure produced the highest CH4 yield of 443 normal litter (NL) CH4 kg(-1) volatile solids (VS) compared to 222 from cows, 177 from sows, 172 from rabbits, 169 from goats and 153 from buffaloes. Methane production from duckweed (Spirodela polyrrhiza) was higher than from lawn grass and water spinach at 340, 220, and 110.6 NL CH4 kg(-1) VS, respectively. The BMP experiment also demonstrated that the CH4 production was inhibited with chicken manure, slaughterhouse waste, cassava residue and shoe-making waste. Statistical analysis showed that lipid and lignin are the most significant predictors of BMP. The model was developed from knowledge that the BMP was related to biomass content of lipid, lignin and protein from manure and plant residues as a percentage of VS with coefficient of determination (R-square) at 0.95. This model was applied to calculate the CH4 yield for a household with 17 fattening pigs in the highlands and lowlands of northern Vietnam. PMID:25557826

  18. Animal lifespan and human influence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.; Yang, S.

    2002-01-01

    Lifespan differs radically among organisms ever lived on earth, even among those roughly similar in size, shape, form, and physiology; Yet, in general, there exists a strong positive relationship between lifespan and body size. Although lifespans of humans and human-related (domestic) animals are becoming increasingly longer than that of other animals of similar sizes, the slope of the regression (lifespan-body size) line and the intercepts have been surprisingly stable over the course of the dramatic human population growth, indicating substantial depression in lifespans of many other animals probably due to shrunk and fragmented natural habitats. This article addresses two questions related to the lifespan-size relationship: (1) what caused the exceptions (e.g., a few remote human-related animals are also located above the regression line with great residuals) and why (e.g., could brain size or intelligence be a covariate in addition to body size in predicting lifespan?), and (2) whether continued human activities can eventually alter the ' natural' regression line in the future, and if so, how much. We also suggest similar research efforts to be extended to the plant world as well.

  19. Altered states of consciousness in small animals.

    PubMed

    Platt, Simon

    2014-11-01

    Impaired states of consciousness can be relatively easily identified, although it can occasionally be difficult to assess whether there is a pure disorder of wakefulness or awareness. Regardless, such impairments represent dysfunction of the brainstem and or cerebrum. Acute and severe impairments of consciousness can require immediate assessment, in part currently performed using the modified Glasgow coma scoring system, and emergency stabilization. The prognosis is always guarded and highly sensitive to the underlying etiology. PMID:25441625

  20. Organization of the antiseptic resistance gene qacA and Tn552-related beta-lactamase genes in multidrug- resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains of animal and human origins.

    PubMed

    Anthonisen, I-L; Sunde, M; Steinum, T M; Sidhu, M S; Sørum, H

    2002-11-01

    A part (12 kb) of a plasmid containing the beta-lactamase genes of Tn552, the disinfectant resistance gene qacA, and flanking DNA has been cloned from a Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolate and sequenced. This region was used to map the corresponding regions in six other multiresistant S. haemolyticus isolates of human and animal origin. The organizations of the genetic structures were almost identical in all isolates studied. The beta-lactamase and qacA genes from S. haemolyticus have >99.9% identities at the nucleotide level with the same genes from S. aureus, demonstrating that various staphylococcal species able to colonize animal and human hosts can exchange the genetic elements involved in resistance to antibiotics and disinfectants. The use of antibiotics and disinfectants in veterinary practice and animal husbandry may also contribute to the selection and maintenance of resistance factors among the staphylococcal species. Different parts of the 12-kb section analyzed had high degrees of nucleotide identity with regions from several other different Staphylococcus aureus plasmids. This suggests the contribution of interplasmid recombination in the evolutionary makeup of this 12-kb section involving plasmids that can intermingle between various staphylococcal species. The lateral spread of resistance genes between various staphylococcal species is probably facilitated by the generation of large multiresistance plasmids and the subsequent interspecies exchange of them. PMID:12384372

  1. Long-term fertilization alters chemically-separated soil organic carbon pools: Based on stable C isotope analyses

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools under the influence of long-term fertilization is essential for predicting carbon (C) sequestration. We combined soil chemical fractionation with stable C isotope analyses to investigate the C dynamics of the various SOC pools after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples (0–20, 20–40 cm) including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, IN; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into recalcitrant and labile fractions, and the fractions were analysed for C content, C:N ratios, δ13C values, soil C and N recalcitrance indexes (RIC and RIN). Chemical fractionation showed long-term MNPK fertilization strongly increased the SOC storage in both soil layers (0–20 cm = 1492.4 gC m2 and 20–40 cm = 1770.6 gC m2) because of enhanced recalcitrant C (RC) and labile C (LC). The 25 years of inorganic fertilizer treatment did not increase the SOC storage mainly because of the offsetting effects of enhanced RC and decreased LC, whereas no clear SOC increases under the SNPK fertilization resulted from the fast decay rates of soil C. PMID:26750143

  2. Long-term fertilization alters chemically-separated soil organic carbon pools: Based on stable C isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Xiaolin; He, Ping; Cheng, Xiaoli; Zhou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools under the influence of long-term fertilization is essential for predicting carbon (C) sequestration. We combined soil chemical fractionation with stable C isotope analyses to investigate the C dynamics of the various SOC pools after 25 years of fertilization. Five types of soil samples (0-20, 20-40 cm) including the initial level (CK) and four fertilization treatments (inorganic nitrogen fertilizer, IN; balanced inorganic fertilizer, NPK; inorganic fertilizer plus farmyard manure, MNPK; inorganic fertilizer plus corn straw residue, SNPK) were separated into recalcitrant and labile fractions, and the fractions were analysed for C content, C:N ratios, δ13C values, soil C and N recalcitrance indexes (RIC and RIN). Chemical fractionation showed long-term MNPK fertilization strongly increased the SOC storage in both soil layers (0-20 cm = 1492.4 gC m2 and 20-40 cm = 1770.6 gC m2) because of enhanced recalcitrant C (RC) and labile C (LC). The 25 years of inorganic fertilizer treatment did not increase the SOC storage mainly because of the offsetting effects of enhanced RC and decreased LC, whereas no clear SOC increases under the SNPK fertilization resulted from the fast decay rates of soil C.

  3. Alterations in pelvic floor muscles and pelvic organ support by pregnancy and vaginal delivery in squirrel monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Michelle; Gendron, Jilene M.; Pierce, Lisa M.; Runge, Val M.; Kuehl, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction and hypothesis The objective of this study was to measure the effects of pregnancy and parturition on pelvic floor muscles and pelvic organ support. Methods Levator ani, obturator internus, and coccygeus (COC) muscle volumes and contrast uptake were assessed by MRI of seven females prior to pregnancy, 3 days, and 4 months postpartum. Bladder neck and cervix position were measured dynamically with abdominal squeezing. Results The sides of three paired muscles were similar (p>0.66). COC volumes were greater (p<0.004) after parturition than before pregnancy or after recovery. COC contrast uptake increased (p<0.02) immediately after delivery. Bladder neck position both in the relaxed state and abdominal pressure descended (p<0.04) after delivery and descended further (p<0.001) after recovery. Cervical position in the relaxed state before delivery was higher (p<0.001) than postpartum but was unchanged (p=0.50) with abdominal pressure relative to delivery. Conclusion In squirrel monkeys, coccygeus muscles demonstrate the greatest change related to parturition, and parturition-related bladder neck descent seems permanent. PMID:21567260

  4. [Investigations of the distribution of aripiprazole in the internal organs and biological fluids of the laboratory animals in case of acute intoxication].

    PubMed

    Voronkov, A V; Remezova, I P; Lazaryan, D S; Avramenko, N S; Rybasova, A S

    2015-01-01

    Despite the present-day extensive application of aripiprazole, there are many cases of its overdose and of poisoning with this compound. The objective of the present study was to detect and quantify aripiprazole in the internal organs and biological fluids of the laboratory animals in case of acute intoxication. The experiments were carried out on white mice of both sexes weighing 20.5 and 25.7 g. Aripiprazole was isolated from the liver, kidneys, brain, and heart as described by A.A. Vasil'eva and from the plasma and urine by the newly developed original methods. Aripiprazole was identified and quantitatively determined in the extracts from the aforementioned organs and tissues with the use of HPLC. The data obtained on the completeness of extraction from the liver, kidneys , and brain of the laboratory animals indicate that aripiprazole accumulated in the highest concentrations in the brain and kidneys within 24 hours after acute poisoning. Ist content was significantly lower in the liver while no traces of aripiprazole were found in the heart of the mice. The methods for aripiprazole isolation from the urine and blood plasma are described. The maximum amounts of aripiprazole were detected in blood plasma within 24 hours after acute intoxication. It is concluded that the proposed methods for aripiprazole isolation from the biological fluids (blood plasma and urine) can be included in the scheme of the chemical toxicological analysis of this compound. PMID:26856058

  5. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal facilities. 117.2 Section 117.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  6. 9 CFR 116.6 - Animal records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal records. 116.6 Section 116.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.6 Animal...

  7. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal facilities. 117.2 Section 117.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  8. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  9. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal facilities. 117.2 Section 117.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  10. 9 CFR 116.6 - Animal records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal records. 116.6 Section 116.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.6 Animal...

  11. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  12. 9 CFR 116.6 - Animal records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal records. 116.6 Section 116.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.6 Animal...

  13. 9 CFR 117.4 - Test animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test animals. 117.4 Section 117.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  14. 9 CFR 116.6 - Animal records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal records. 116.6 Section 116.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.6 Animal...

  15. 9 CFR 116.6 - Animal records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal records. 116.6 Section 116.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS RECORDS AND REPORTS § 116.6 Animal...

  16. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal facilities. 117.2 Section 117.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  17. 9 CFR 117.2 - Animal facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal facilities. 117.2 Section 117.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS §...

  18. Bdellovibrio and Like Organisms Enhanced Growth and Survival of Penaeus monodon and Altered Bacterial Community Structures in Its Rearing Water

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Cheng; Sun, Qiuping; Liu, Renliang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a 96-h laboratory reduction test was conducted with strain BDHSH06 (GenBank accession no. EF011103) as the test strain for Bdellovibrio and like organisms (BALOs) and 20 susceptible marine bacterial strains forming microcosms as the targets. The results showed that BDHSH06 reduced the levels of approximately 50% of prey bacterial strains within 96 h in the seawater microcosms. An 85-day black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) rearing experiment was performed. The shrimp survival rate, body length, and weight in the test tanks were 48.1% ± 1.2%, 99.8 ± 10.0 mm, and 6.36 ± 1.50 g, respectively, which were values significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those for the control, viz., 31.0% ± 2.1%, 86.0 ± 11.1 mm, and 4.21 ± 1.56 g, respectively. With the addition of BDHSH06, total bacterial and Vibrio numbers were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) by 1.3 to 4.5 log CFU · ml−1 and CFU · g−1 in both water and shrimp intestines, respectively, compared to those in the control. The effect of BDHSH06 on bacterial community structures in the rearing water was also examined using PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The DGGE profiles of rearing water samples from the control and test tanks revealed that the amounts of 44% of the bacterial species were reduced when BDHSH06 was added to the rearing water over the 85-day rearing period, and among these, approximately 57.1% were nonculturable. The results of this study demonstrated that BDHSH06 can be used as a biocontrol/probiotic agent in P. monodon culture. PMID:25107962

  19. Altered Levels of Zinc and N-methyl-D-aspartic Acid Receptor Underlying Multiple Organ Dysfunctions After Severe Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guanghuan; Yu, Xiaojun; Wang, Dian; Xu, Xiaohu; Chen, Guang; Jiang, Xuewu

    2015-01-01

    Background Severe trauma can cause secondary multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and death. Oxidative stress and/or excitatory neurotoxicity are considered as the final common pathway in nerve cell injuries. Zinc is the cofactor of the redox enzyme, and the effect of the excitatory neurotoxicity is related to N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR). Material/Methods We investigated the levels of zinc and brainstem NMDAR in a rabbit model of severe trauma. Zinc and serum biochemical profiles were determined. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect brainstem N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 1 (NR1), N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 2A (NR2A), and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 2B (NR2B) expression. Results Brain and brainstem Zn levels increased at 12 h, but serum Zn decreased dramatically after the trauma. NR1 in the brainstem dorsal regions increased at 6 h after injury and then decreased. NR2A in the dorsal regions decreased to a plateau at 12 h after trauma. The levels of NR2B were lowest in the death group in the brainstem. Serum zinc was positively correlated with NR2A and 2B and negatively correlated with zinc in the brain. Correlations were also found between the brainstem NR2A and that of the dorsal brainstem, as well as between brainstem NR2A and changes in NR2B. There was a negative correlation between zinc and NR2A. Conclusions Severe trauma led to an acute reduction of zinc enhancing oxidative stress and the changes of NMDAR causing the neurotoxicity of the nerve cells. This may be a mechanism for the occurrence of MODS or death after trauma. PMID:26335029

  20. Urbanization and agriculture increase exports and differentially alter elemental stoichiometry of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from tropical catchments.

    PubMed

    Gücker, Björn; Silva, Ricky C S; Graeber, Daniel; Monteiro, José A F; Boëchat, Iola G

    2016-04-15

    Many tropical biomes are threatened by rapid land-use change, but its catchment-wide biogeochemical effects are poorly understood. The few previous studies on DOM in tropical catchments suggest that deforestation and subsequent land use increase stream water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations, but consistent effects on DOM elemental stoichiometry have not yet been reported. Here, we studied stream water DOC concentrations, catchment DOC exports, and DOM elemental stoichiometry in 20 tropical catchments at the Cerrado-Atlantic rainforest transition, dominated by natural vegetation, pasture, intensive agriculture, and urban land cover. Streams draining pasture could be distinguished from those draining natural catchments by their lower DOC concentrations, with lower DOM C:N and C:P ratios. Catchments with intensive agriculture had higher DOC exports and lower DOM C:P ratios than natural catchments. Finally, with the highest DOC concentrations and exports, as well as the highest DOM C:P and N:P ratios, but the lowest C:N ratios among all land-use types, urbanized catchments had the strongest effects on catchment DOM. Thus, urbanization may have alleviated N limitation of heterotrophic DOM decomposition, but increased P limitation. Land use-especially urbanization-also affected the seasonality of catchment biogeochemistry. While natural catchments exhibited high DOC exports and concentrations, with high DOM C:P ratios in the rainy season only, urbanized catchments had high values in these variables throughout the year. Our results suggest that urbanization and pastoral land use exerted the strongest impacts on DOM biogeochemistry in the investigated tropical catchments and should thus be important targets for management and mitigation efforts. PMID:26849342

  1. Mutations in NEK8 link multiple organ dysplasia with altered Hippo signalling and increased c-MYC expression.

    PubMed

    Frank, Valeska; Habbig, Sandra; Bartram, Malte P; Eisenberger, Tobias; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E; Decker, Christian; Boorsma, Reinder A C; Göbel, Heike; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Griessmann, Anabel; Franke, Mareike; Borgal, Lori; Kohli, Priyanka; Völker, Linus A; Dötsch, Jörg; Nürnberg, Peter; Benzing, Thomas; Bolz, Hanno J; Johnson, Colin; Gerkes, Erica H; Schermer, Bernhard; Bergmann, Carsten

    2013-06-01

    Mutations affecting the integrity and function of cilia have been identified in various genes over the last decade accounting for a group of diseases called ciliopathies. Ciliopathies display a broad spectrum of phenotypes ranging from mild manifestations to lethal combinations of multiple severe symptoms and most of them share cystic kidneys as a common feature. Our starting point was a consanguineous pedigree with three affected fetuses showing an early embryonic phenotype with enlarged cystic kidneys, liver and pancreas and developmental heart disease. By genome-wide linkage analysis, we mapped the disease locus to chromosome 17q11 and identified a homozygous nonsense mutation in NEK8/NPHP9 that encodes a kinase involved in ciliary dynamics and cell cycle progression. Missense mutations in NEK8/NPHP9 have been identified in juvenile cystic kidney jck mice and in patients suffering from nephronophthisis (NPH), an autosomal-recessive cystic kidney disease. This work confirmed a complete loss of NEK8 expression in the affected fetuses due to nonsense-mediated decay. In cultured fibroblasts derived from these fetuses, the expression of prominent polycystic kidney disease genes (PKD1 and PKD2) was decreased, whereas the oncogene c-MYC was upregulated, providing potential explanations for the observed renal phenotype. We furthermore linked NEK8 with NPHP3, another NPH protein known to cause a very similar phenotype in case of null mutations. Both proteins interact and activate the Hippo effector TAZ. Taken together, our study demonstrates that NEK8 is essential for organ development and that the complete loss of NEK8 perturbs multiple signalling pathways resulting in a severe early embryonic phenotype. PMID:23418306

  2. The feasibility of a centralized biogas plant treating the manure produced by an organized animal farmers union in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dereli, R K; Yangin-Gomec, C; Ozabali, A; Ozturk, I

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and the energy recovery potential of mesophilic (30-35 °C) anaerobic digestion of animal wastes (manure) at a centralized biogas plant (CBP) for 35,000 cattle. The proposed CBP is composed of an equalization tank followed by pasteurization and 3+[1/2] modules; i.e. each module consists of four completely mixed anaerobic reactors with a capacity of treating the manure from 10,000 cattle. The effect of maize silage loading, as the co-substrate, both on biomethane production and feasibility of the system was also evaluated. Besides, the transport fuel substitutes of the produced biomethane with or without co-substrate were also investigated. Results of the proposed CBP indicated that biomethane production increased ca. 1.65 fold with co-substrate addition and pay-back periods for one module treating 10,000 cattle manure are calculated to be ca. 11 and 7.0 yr without and with silage addition, respectively. Besides, considering the potential revenue when replacing transport fuels, about 74 heavy goods vehicles or 1,560 cars may be powered per year by the biogas produced from the proposed CBP where the co-digestion of manure and maize silage is applied. PMID:22744686

  3. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading

    PubMed Central

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-01-01

    Do non‐human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non‐human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading—whether scientifically aided or not—have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non‐human animals should be accorded. PMID:16446412

  4. Alteration of Endothelins: A Common Pathogenetic Mechanism in Chronic Diabetic Complications

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zia Ali; Cukiernik, Mark; Fukuda, Gen; Chen, Shali; Mukherjee, Suranjana

    2002-01-01

    Endothelin (ET) peptides perform several physiological, vascular, and nonvascular functions and are widely distributed in a number of tissues. They are altered in several disease processes including diabetes. Alteration of ETs have been demonstrated in organs of chronic diabetic complications in both experimental and clinical studies. The majority of the effects of ET alteration in diabetes are due to altered vascular function. Furthermore, ET antagonists have been shown to prevent structural and functional changes induced by diabetes in animal models. This review discusses the contribution of ETs in the pathogenesis and the potential role of ET antagonism in the treatment of chronic diabetic complications. PMID:12546275

  5. Amazing Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Kuwari, Najat Saad

    2007-01-01

    "Animals" is a three-part lesson plan for young learners with a zoo animal theme. The first lesson is full of activities to describe animals, with Simon Says, guessing games, and learning stations. The second lesson is about desert animals, but other types of animals could be chosen depending on student interest. This lesson teaches…

  6. Universal Pacemaker of Genome Evolution in Animals and Fungi and Variation of Evolutionary Rates in Diverse Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Snir, Sagi; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2014-01-01

    Gene evolution is traditionally considered within the framework of the molecular clock (MC) model whereby each gene is characterized by an approximately constant rate of evolution. Recent comparative analysis of numerous phylogenies of prokaryotic genes has shown that a different model of evolution, denoted the Universal PaceMaker (UPM), which postulates conservation of relative, rather than absolute evolutionary rates, yields a better fit to the phylogenetic data. Here, we show that the UPM model is a better fit than the MC for genome wide sets of phylogenetic trees from six species of Drosophila and nine species of yeast, with extremely high statistical significance. Unlike the prokaryotic phylogenies that include distant organisms and multiple horizontal gene transfers, these are simple data sets that cover groups of closely related organisms and consist of gene trees with the same topology as the species tree. The results indicate that both lineage-specific and gene-specific rates are important in genome evolution but the lineage-specific contribution is greater. Similar to the MC, the gene evolution rates under the UPM are strongly overdispersed, approximately 2-fold compared with the expectation from sampling error alone. However, we show that neither Drosophila nor yeast genes form distinct clusters in the tree space. Thus, the gene-specific deviations from the UPM, although substantial, are uncorrelated and most likely depend on selective factors that are largely unique to individual genes. Thus, the UPM appears to be a key feature of genome evolution across the history of cellular life. PMID:24812293

  7. Mutations in TUBGCP4 Alter Microtubule Organization via the γ-Tubulin Ring Complex in Autosomal-Recessive Microcephaly with Chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Scheidecker, Sophie; Etard, Christelle; Haren, Laurence; Stoetzel, Corinne; Hull, Sarah; Arno, Gavin; Plagnol, Vincent; Drunat, Séverine; Passemard, Sandrine; Toutain, Annick; Obringer, Cathy; Koob, Mériam; Geoffroy, Véronique; Marion, Vincent; Strähle, Uwe; Ostergaard, Pia; Verloes, Alain; Merdes, Andreas; Moore, Anthony T.; Dollfus, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    We have identified TUBGCP4 variants in individuals with autosomal-recessive microcephaly and chorioretinopathy. Whole-exome sequencing performed on one family with two affected siblings and independently on another family with one affected child revealed compound-heterozygous mutations in TUBGCP4. Subsequent Sanger sequencing was performed on a panel of individuals from 12 French families affected by microcephaly and ophthalmic manifestations, and one other individual was identified with compound-heterozygous mutations in TUBGCP4. One synonymous variant was common to all three families and was shown to induce exon skipping; the other mutations were frameshift mutations and a deletion. TUBGCP4 encodes γ-tubulin complex protein 4, a component belonging to the γ-tubulin ring complex (γ-TuRC) and known to regulate the nucleation and organization of microtubules. Functional analysis of individual fibroblasts disclosed reduced levels of the γ-TuRC, altered nucleation and organization of microtubules, abnormal nuclear shape, and aneuploidy. Moreover, zebrafish treated with morpholinos against tubgcp4 were found to have reduced head volume and eye developmental anomalies with chorioretinal dysplasia. In summary, the identification of TUBGCP4 mutations in individuals with microcephaly and a spectrum of anomalies in eye development, particularly photoreceptor anomalies, provides evidence of an important role for the γ-TuRC in brain and eye development. PMID:25817018

  8. Significant alteration of soil bacterial communities and organic carbon decomposition by different long-term fertilization management conditions of extremely low-productivity arable soil in South China.

    PubMed

    Xun, Weibing; Zhao, Jun; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Guishan; Ran, Wei; Wang, Boren; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2016-06-01

    Different fertilization managements of red soil, a kind of Ferralic Cambisol, strongly affected the soil properties and associated microbial communities. The association of the soil microbial community and functionality with long-term fertilization management in the unique low-productivity red soil ecosystem is important for both soil microbial ecology and agricultural production. Here, 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S recombinant ribonucleic acid genes and GeoChip4-NimbleGen-based functional gene analysis were used to study the soil bacterial community composition and functional genes involved in soil organic carbon degradation. Long-term nitrogen-containing chemical fertilization-induced soil acidification and fertility decline and significantly altered the soil bacterial community, whereas long-term organic fertilization and fallow management improved the soil quality and maintained the bacterial diversity. Short-term quicklime remediation of the acidified soils did not change the bacterial communities. Organic fertilization and fallow management supported eutrophic ecosystems, in which copiotrophic taxa increased in relative abundance and have a higher intensity of labile-C-degrading genes. However, long-term nitrogen-containing chemical fertilization treatments supported oligotrophic ecosystems, in which oligotrophic taxa increased in relative abundance and have a higher intensity of recalcitrant-C-degrading genes but a lower intensity of labile-C-degrading genes. Quicklime application increased the relative abundance of copiotrophic taxa and crop production, although these effects were utterly inadequate. This study provides insights into the interaction of soil bacterial communities, soil functionality and long-term fertilization management in the red soil ecosystem; these insights are important for improving the fertility of unique low-productivity red soil. PMID:26486414

  9. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants

    PubMed Central

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A. M.; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant–plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar ‘Alva’ cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar ‘Kara’. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant–plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant–plant signalling between ‘Alva’ and ‘Kara’. Methods The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by ‘Alva’ under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ‘Kara’ plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the ‘Alva’ plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for ‘Kara’ plants exposed to ‘Alva’ VOCs, and also for ‘Alva’ plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Key Results Total VOC emissions by ‘Alva’ were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by ‘Alva’ plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of ‘Kara’. Conclusions The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions

  10. Isolated total lung perfusion as a means to deliver organ-specific chemotherapy: long-term studies in animals

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, M.R.; Christensen, C.W.; Minchin, R.F.; Rickaby, D.A.; Linehan, J.H.; Schuller, H.M.; Boyd, M.R.; Dawson, C.A.

    1985-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a surgical procedure that would allow for bilateral isolated lung perfusion in vivo as a means of delivering organ-specific chemotherapy and to evaluate the influence of the procedure on certain pulmonary physiologic parameters. The sterile surgical procedure that was carried out in dogs involved the setting up of two separate perfusion circuits. Once standard systemic cardiopulmonary bypass was established, a second circuit was devised to perfuse the lungs by placing an inflow cannula into the main pulmonary artery and collecting venous effluent in the left atrium. Cross-contamination between perfusion circuits was determined in acute studies with labeled plasma protein or red blood cells and was found to be in an acceptable range if the aorta was cross-clamped and the heart arrested. Only about 0.4 ml/min of pulmonary perfusate leaked into the systemic circulation, indicating that systemic toxicity should not be a major concern when chemotherapy agents are added to the pulmonary perfusate. Chronic studies demonstrated that hemodynamic parameters, lung water, pulmonary endothelial serotonin extraction, and histologic findings all showed minimal changes after 50 minutes of isolated lung perfusion. Five days after perfusion, lung dynamic compliance and peak serotonin extraction showed significant decreases. However, all of the measured parameters had returned toward baseline levels by the end of the 8-week postoperative study period. The procedure offers significant advantages over the previously described single lung perfusion and may provide a method of delivering immediate high-concentration adjuvant chemotherapy to coincide with resection of primary or metastatic lung tumors.

  11. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification for diagnosis of 18 World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) notifiable viral diseases of ruminants, swine and poultry.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Shimaa M G; Ali, Haytham; Chase, Christopher C L; Cepica, Arnost

    2015-12-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a simple, powerful state-of-the-art gene amplification technique used for the rapid diagnosis and early detection of microbial diseases. Many LAMP assays have been developed and validated for important epizootic diseases of livestock. We review the LAMP assays that have been developed for the detection of 18 viruses deemed notifiable of ruminants, swine and poultry by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). LAMP provides a fast (the assay often takes less than an hour), low cost, highly sensitive, highly specific and less laborious alternative to detect infectious disease agents. The LAMP procedure can be completed under isothermal conditions so thermocyclers are not needed. The ease of use of the LAMP assay allows adaptability to field conditions and works well in developing countries with resource-limited laboratories. However, this technology is still underutilized in the field of veterinary diagnostics despite its huge capabilities. PMID:25900363

  12. Physiological variability in volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath and released from faeces due to nutrition and somatic growth in a standardized caprine animal model.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Sina; Trefz, Phillip; Bergmann, Andreas; Steffens, Markus; Ziller, Mario; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen S; Köhler, Heike; Reinhold, Petra

    2015-06-01

    Physiological effects may change volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations and may therefore act as confounding factors in the definition of VOCs as disease biomarkers. To evaluate the extent of physiological background variability, this study assessed the effects of feed composition and somatic growth on VOC patterns in a standardized large animal model. Fifteen clinically healthy goats were followed during their first year of life. VOCs present in the headspace over faeces, exhaled breath and ambient air inside the stable were repeatedly assessed in parallel with the concentrations of glucose, protein, and albumin in venous blood. VOCs were collected and analysed using solid-phase or needle-trap microextraction and gas chromatograpy together with mass spectroscopy. The concentrations of VOCs in exhaled breath and above faeces varied significantly with increasing age of the animals. The largest variations in volatiles detected in the headspace over faeces occurred with the change from milk feeding to plant-based diet. VOCs above faeces and in exhaled breath correlated significantly with blood components. Among VOCs exhaled, the strongest correlations were found between exhaled nonanal concentrations and blood concentrations of glucose and albumin. Results stress the importance of a profound knowledge of the physiological backgrounds of VOC composition before defining reliable and accurate marker sets for diagnostic purposes. PMID:25971714

  13. Comparative Genomics of Korean Infectious Bronchitis Viruses (IBVs) and an Animal Model to Evaluate Pathogenicity of IBVs to the Reproductive Organs

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seung-Min; Kwon, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Il-Hwan; Mo, Mei-Lan; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2012-01-01

    The K-I and nephropathogenic K-II genotypes of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) have been isolated since 1995 and 1990, respectively, in Korea and commercial inactivated oil-emulsion vaccines containing KM91 (K-II type) and Massachusetts 41 strains have been used in the field. To date, genomic analyses of Korean IBV strains and animal models to test the pathogenicity of Korean IBVs to the reproductive organs have been rare. In the present study, comparative genomics of SNU8067 (K-I type) and KM91 IBVs was performed, and an animal model to test the pathogenicity of SNU8067 was established and applied to vaccine efficacy test. The genome sizes of SNU8067 (27,708 nt) and KM91 (27,626 nt) were slightly different and the nucleotide and amino acid identities of the S1 (79%, 77%), 3a (65%, 52%), and 3b (81%, 72%) genes were lower than those of other genes (94%–97%, 92%–98%). A recombination analysis revealed that SNU8067 was a recombinant virus with a KM91-like backbone except S1, 3a, and 3b genes which might be from an unknown virus. An SNU8067 infection inhibited formation of hierarchal ovarian follicles (80%) and oviduct maturation (50%) in the control group, whereas 70% of vaccinated chickens were protected from lesions. PMID:23202499

  14. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress CD4(+) T cell proliferation by altering phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] organization.

    PubMed

    Hou, Tim Y; Barhoumi, Rola; Fan, Yang-Yi; Rivera, Gonzalo M; Hannoush, Rami N; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms by which n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), abundant in fish oil, exert their anti-inflammatory effects have not been rigorously defined. We have previously demonstrated that n-3 PUFA decrease the amount of phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate, [PI(4,5)P2], in CD4(+) T cells, leading to suppressed actin remodeling upon activation. Since discrete pools of PI(4,5)P2 exist in the plasma membrane, we determined whether n-3 PUFA modulate spatial organization of PI(4,5)P2 relative to raft and non-raft domains. We used Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to demonstrate that lipid raft mesodomains in the plasma membrane of CD4(+) T cells enriched in n-3 PUFA display increased co-clustering of Lck(N10) and LAT(ΔCP), markers of lipid rafts. CD4(+) T cells enriched in n-3 PUFA also exhibited a depleted plasma membrane non-raft PI(4,5)P2 pool as detected by decreased co-clustering of Src(N15), a non-raft marker, and PH(PLC-δ), a PI(4,5)P2 reporter. Incubation with exogenous PI(4,5)P2 rescued the effects on the non-raft PI(4,5)P2 pool, and reversed the suppression of T cell proliferation in CD4(+) T cells enriched with n-3 PUFA. Furthermore, CD4(+) T cells isolated from mice fed a 4% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-enriched diet exhibited a decrease in the non-raft pool of PI(4,5)P2, and exogenous PI(4,5)P2 reversed the suppression of T cell proliferation. Finally, these effects were not due to changes to post-translational lipidation, since n-3 PUFA did not alter the palmitoylation status of signaling proteins. These data demonstrate that n-3 PUFA suppress T cell proliferation by altering plasma membrane topography and the spatial organization of PI(4,5)P2. PMID:26476105

  15. Comparison of selected animal observations and management practices used to assess welfare of calves and adult dairy cows on organic and conventional dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Bergman, M A; Richert, R M; Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Gamroth, M J; Schukken, Y H; Stiglbauer, K E; Ruegg, P L

    2014-07-01

    Differences in adoption of selected practices used in welfare assessment and audit programs were contrasted among organic (ORG; n=192) herds and similarly sized conventional grazing herds (CON-GR; n=36), and conventional nongrazing herds (CON-NG; n=64). Criteria from 3 programs were assessed: American Humane Association Animal Welfare Standards for Dairy Cattle, Farmers Assuring Responsible Management (FARM), and the Canadian Codes of Practice (CCP). Data were collected by trained study personnel during a herd visit and included information about neonatal care, dehorning, pain relief, calf nutrition, weaning, record keeping, use of veterinarians, and animal observations. Associations of management type (ORG, CON-GR, or CON-NG) with adoption of selected practice were assessed. Almost all farms (97%) met criteria suggested for age at weaning but fewer CON-NG farmers weaned calves at ≥5 wk of age compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Only 23% of farms met program requirements for use of pain relief during dehorning, and fewer CON-NG farmers used pain relief for calves after dehorning compared with ORG and CON-GR farmers. Calves on ORG farms were fed a greater volume of milk and were weaned at an older age than calves on CON-GR and CON-NG farms. Calves on CON-GR farms were dehorned at a younger age compared with calves on ORG and CON-NG farms. The calving area was shared with lactating cows for a larger proportion of ORG herds compared with conventional herds. About 30% of herds met welfare program criteria for body condition score but only about 20% met criteria for animal hygiene scores. The least proportion of cows with hock lesions was observed on ORG farms. Regular use of veterinarians was infrequent for ORG herds. Results of this study indicate that most of the organic and conventional farms enrolled in this study would have been unlikely to achieve many criteria of audit and assessment programs currently used in the US dairy industry. PMID:24819133

  16. A systems approach to animal communication

    PubMed Central

    Barron, Andrew B.; Balakrishnan, Christopher N.; Hauber, Mark E.; Hoke, Kim L.

    2016-01-01

    Why animal communication displays are so complex and how they have evolved are active foci of research with a long and rich history. Progress towards an evolutionary analysis of signal complexity, however, has been constrained by a lack of hypotheses to explain similarities and/or differences in signalling systems across taxa. To address this, we advocate incorporating a systems approach into studies of animal communication—an approach that includes comprehensive experimental designs and data collection in combination with the implementation of systems concepts and tools. A systems approach evaluates overall display architecture, including how components interact to alter function, and how function varies in different states of the system. We provide a brief overview of the current state of the field, including a focus on select studies that highlight the dynamic nature of animal signalling. We then introduce core concepts from systems biology (redundancy, degeneracy, pluripotentiality, and modularity) and discuss their relationships with system properties (e.g. robustness, flexibility, evolvability). We translate systems concepts into an animal communication framework and accentuate their utility through a case study. Finally, we demonstrate how consideration of the system-level organization of animal communication poses new practical research questions that will aid our understanding of how and why animal displays are so complex. PMID:26936240

  17. Channel widening due to urbanization and a major flood can alter bed particle organization and bed stability in an urban boulder-bed channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestegaard, K. L.; Behrns, K.; Blanchet, Z.; Hankin, E.

    2007-12-01

    The Anacostia River is a tributary of the Potomac River north of Washington D.C. that has become progressively more urbanized in the past 50 years. Bankfull discharge and bankfull width in the Anacostia have increased by 3- 4x in the past 50 years. Nearby watersheds of similar size and geology, but without significant urbanization, contain threshold gravel-bed streams. The Anacostia, however, is not a threshold channel; it exhibits break-up of boulder-bed channels in upstream reaches and significant gravel bar formation in downstream reaches. These gravel bars have grown and migrated considerably in the past 10-15 years, contributing significantly to local channel widening that can be twice that of adjacent reaches. The purpose of this study is to determine bedload transport rates and grain size distributions and their relationship to discharge, bed organization and sediment supply. Bed mobility data come from both bedload transport measurements and measurements of channel bed changes. Channel bed changes were obtained from a) repeated channel cross section surveys, b) surface and subsurface size distributions, and c) bed particle organization measurements (measurements of location of particles within reaches). These measurements were made prior to and after the floods of 2006, which equalled the largest floods on record for most parts of the Anacostia River. In some boulder bed reaches, boulders were removed from the center of the channel and deposited along and on the channel banks. The mid-channel boulders were replaced by sheets of gravel and cobbles, significantly altering the bed mobility of the channels.

  18. Development of a Large Animal Long-Term Intervertebral Disc Organ Culture Model That Includes the Bony Vertebrae for Ex Vivo Studies.

    PubMed

    Grant, Michael; Epure, Laura M; Salem, Omar; AlGarni, Nizar; Ciobanu, Ovidiu; Alaqeel, Motaz; Antoniou, John; Mwale, Fackson

    2016-07-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a common cause of low back pain. Testing potential therapeutics in the regeneration of the disc requires the use of model systems. Although several animal models have been developed to investigate IVD degeneration, they are technically challenging to prepare, expensive, present with limitations when performing biomechanical studies on the disc, and are impractical in large-scale screening of novel anabolic and scaffolding agents. An IVD organ culture system offers an inexpensive alternative. In the current paradigm, the bony endplates are removed to allow for nutrient diffusion and maintenance of disc cell viability. Although this is an excellent system for testing biologics, it results in concave cartilage endplates and, as such, requires special platens for loading purposes in a bioreactor as flat ones can overload the annular disc region leading to improper loading. Furthermore, the absence of bone makes it unsuitable for applying complex cyclic loading, a topic of interest in the study of chronic progressive degeneration, as multiaxial loading is more representative of daily forces encountered by the IVD. We have developed and validated a novel long-term IVD organ culture model that retains vertebral bone and is easy to prepare. Our model is ideal for testing potential drugs and alternate-based therapies, in addition to investigating the long-term effects of loading paradigms on disc degeneration and repair. PMID:27216856

  19. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    PubMed

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries. PMID:12017891

  20. 9 CFR 151.5 - Alteration of pedigree certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alteration of pedigree certificate. 151.5 Section 151.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED...

  1. 9 CFR 151.5 - Alteration of pedigree certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alteration of pedigree certificate. 151.5 Section 151.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED...

  2. 9 CFR 151.5 - Alteration of pedigree certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alteration of pedigree certificate. 151.5 Section 151.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED...

  3. 9 CFR 151.5 - Alteration of pedigree certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alteration of pedigree certificate. 151.5 Section 151.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED...

  4. 9 CFR 151.5 - Alteration of pedigree certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alteration of pedigree certificate. 151.5 Section 151.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL BREEDS RECOGNITION OF BREEDS AND BOOKS OF RECORD OF PUREBRED...

  5. Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    This is a list of aerospace organizations and other groups that provides educators with assistance and information in specific areas. Both government and nongovernment organizations are included. (Author/SA)

  6. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  7. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... and complications from bites Never pet, handle, or feed unknown animals Leave snakes alone Watch your children closely around animals Vaccinate your cats, ferrets, and dogs against rabies Spay or neuter ...

  8. Alterations caused to soil organic matter by post-fire rehabilitation actions in a pine forest from doñana national park (southwest Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Pérez, José A.; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Granged, Arturo J. P.; González-Vila, Francisco J.

    2016-04-01

    Post-fire rehabilitation actions and recovery attempts of burned soils include a range of management practices (tillage, tree logging, reforestation …), in some cases producing an additional damage to that directly caused by fire. Among negative impacts derived from unappropriated rehab practices are the increase soil erosion, loss of soil fertility and alterations in the hydrological cycle. Analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) is an appropriate technique to study organic matter characteristics within complex matrices. Here this technique is used to study the alterations caused by burning and post-fire rehab plans to soil organic matter (SOM). Fire and post-fire rehab actions impact on SOM is studied in a sandy soil under pine (Pinus pinea) forest that was affected by a severe fire in August 2012 in Doñana National Park (SW Spain). Bulk samples as well as its sieved soil fractions (coarse, 1-2 mm, and fine, <0.05 mm) collected from an undisturbed burned area (B) and in an adjacent burned area after rehab practices (BR) (logging and extraction of burned trees) were studied. An additional adjacent unburned (UB) area was used as a control. Conspicuous differences among bulk samples from the B, BR and UB control areas were found in the relative proportions of the main molecular families obtained by analytical pyrolysis, including alkane/alkene pairs, unspecific aromatic compounds (UAC), peptides, methoxyphenols, fatty acids, carbohydrates, N-compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The B site SOM showed lower proportion of lignin methoxyphenols and higher of UAC and PAH than the SOM from the UB site. This indicates that fire produced methoxyphenol de-functionalization, increasing the proportion of recalcitrant compounds. With respect to soil size fractions, in all cases, the coarse fraction showed a high content of carbohydrate-derived compounds and methoxyphenols followed by fatty acids, in line with inputs of new litter from stressed post-fire vegetation

  9. Age-related modifications of the morphological organization of pituicytes are associated with alteration of the GABAergic and dopaminergic innervation afferent to the neurohypophysial lobe.

    PubMed

    Alonso, G; Runquist, M; Hussy, N; Duvoid, A; Moos, F

    2003-10-01

    Ageing is known to induce a marked activation of astrocytes within various regions of the central nervous system. To date, the age-related factors responsible for these modifications are unknown. The neural lobe of the hypophysis (NL) is a particular brain region which does not contain neurons but does contain specialized astrocytes, called pituicytes, and numerous terminals of afferent axons, including (i) peptidergic neurohypophysial axons which terminate on the NL blood vessels, and (ii) axons containing both gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) and dopamine (DA) which form contacts with pituicytes. Because evidence has recently been provided that GABA signalling mediates the morphological organization of astrocytes, the present study was designed to determine whether modifications of pituicytes during ageing were associated with modifications of the GABAergic axons innervating the NL. We show here that, in adult rats, GABA/DA axons form preferential synaptic-like contacts with pituicytes which express both GABAA and D2 dopamine receptors. We then show that, during ageing, pituicytes undergo dramatic modifications of their morphology, correlatively with marked modifications of the GABA/DA fibres innervating the NL. Lastly, in vitro experiments indicate that modifications of the morphology of pituicytes similar to those observed during ageing were obtained by incubating isolated NL of adult rats with a GABAA receptor agonist and/or a D2 dopamine receptor antagonist, whereas inverse modifications were observed when NL of aged rats were incubated with a GABAA receptor antagonist and a D2 dopamine receptor agonist. Taken together, these data suggest that the age-related morphological changes of pituicytes result from the alteration of the GABA/DAergic innervation of the NL. PMID:14622222

  10. Late altered organ function in very long-term survivors after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a paired comparison with their HLA-identical sibling donor

    PubMed Central

    Rovó, Alicia; Daikeler, Thomas; Halter, Jörg; Heim, Dominik; Tsakiris, Dimitrios A.; Stern, Martin; Waltimo, Tuomas; Studt, Jan Dirk; Tyndall, Alan; Gratwohl, Alois; Tichelli, André

    2011-01-01

    Background Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has become an established procedure worldwide. Severe early and late complications are well described. Little is known about more subtle changes in general health status of very long-term survivors. The study objective was to assess health status of very long-term survivors in comparison with their respective human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling donors. Design and Methods Case matched comparison in a cross-sectional cohort was performed in a tertiary university hospital and referral center for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Forty-four pairs of recipients and their respective donors with a very long-term (17.5 years median; 11–26 years range) follow up after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were included. A comparative clinical evaluation and examination of routine clinical chemistry tests was carried out. Results Recipients more frequently had a lower Karnofsky score (P=0.05), hypertension (P=0.015) and dyslipidemia (P=0.002) but were less likely to be smokers (P=0.016). Recipients showed systematically lower glomerular filtration rates (P<0.0001), higher liver function tests (P=0.0004 for Aspartat-Amino-Transferase) and reduced thyroid function (P=0.002) despite normal or near normal values, and independent of presence or absence of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Indicators of inflammation were more frequent in recipients (9 of 44) with ongoing chronic graft-versus-host disease as measured by higher C-reactive protein (P=0.001) and higher von Willebrand factor (P=0.002). Conclusions Clinically very long-term survivors after an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation present more frequently with cardiovascular risk factors and with subtle signs of altered organ function compared to their sibling donors. Even minimal ongoing chronic graft-versus-host disease remains associated with elevated laboratory indicators of inflammation. The clinical significance of these

  11. Gene Expression Data from the Moon Jelly, Aurelia, Provide Insights into the Evolution of the Combinatorial Code Controlling Animal Sense Organ Development.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Camara, Anthony C; Yuan, David C; Gold, David A; Jacobs, David K

    2015-01-01

    In Bilateria, Pax6, Six, Eya and Dach families of transcription factors underlie the development and evolution of morphologically and phyletically distinct eyes, including the compound eyes in Drosophila and the camera-type eyes in vertebrates, indicating that bilaterian eyes evolved under the strong influence of ancestral developmental gene regulation. However the conservation in eye developmental genetics deeper in the Eumetazoa, and the origin of the conserved gene regulatory apparatus controlling eye development remain unclear due to limited comparative developmental data from Cnidaria. Here we show in the eye-bearing scyphozoan cnidarian Aurelia that the ectodermal photosensory domain of the developing medusa sensory structure known as the rhopalium expresses sine oculis (so)/six1/2 and eyes absent/eya, but not optix/six3/6 or pax (A&B). In addition, the so and eya co-expression domain encompasses the region of active cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and mechanoreceptor development in rhopalia. Consistent with the role of so and eya in rhopalial development, developmental transcriptome data across Aurelia life cycle stages show upregulation of so and eya, but not optix or pax (A&B), during medusa formation. Moreover, pax6 and dach are absent in the Aurelia genome, and thus are not required for eye development in Aurelia. Our data are consistent with so and eya, but not optix, pax or dach, having conserved functions in sensory structure specification across Eumetazoa. The lability of developmental components including Pax genes relative to so-eya is consistent with a model of sense organ development and evolution that involved the lineage specific modification of a combinatorial code that specifies animal sense organs. PMID:26225420

  12. Development of the Gecko (Pachydactylus turneri) Animal Model during Foton M-2 to Study Comparative Effects of Microgravity in Terrestrial and Aquatic Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Almeida, E. A.; Roden, C.; Phillips, J. A.; Globus, R. K.; Searby, N.; Vercoutere, W.; Morey-Holton, E.; Gulimova, V.; Saveliev, S.; Tairbekov, M.; Iwaniec, U. T.; McNamra, A. J.; Turner, R. T.

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial organisms exposed to microgravity during spaceflight experience degeneration in bone, muscle, and possibly other tissues that require gravity-mediated mechanical stimulation for normal regenerative growth. In the Gecko experiment aboard Foton M-2, we flew for the first time, five terrestrial Pachydactylus turneri specimens to develop a model of microgravity effects comparable to the newt Pleurodeles waltl, a well-established model organism for spaceflight. These lower vertebrate species have similar body plans and size, are poikilothermic, have tissue regenerative ability, and are adapted to moderate periods of fasting. Furthermore the gecko (Pachydactylus) can also survive prolonged periods without water. In pre-flight control experiments and after a 16-day Foton M-2 spaceflight without food or water, the geckos were recovered and showed no apparent negative health effects. However, detailed analysis of bone mass and architecture by micro Computed Tomography { pCT), showed that both synchronous control and spaceflight animals lost significant amounts of cancellous bone in the distal femur and humerus relative to basal controls. In addition, cell cycle analysis of 30h post-flight liver tissue reveals a shift of DNA content from G2 and S to G1, both in spaceflight and synchronous controls. Together, these results suggest that housing conditions alone induce rapid catabolism of cancellous bone and reduced normal tissue regeneration. Further use of the gecko Puchydactylus turneri as a spaceflight model requires modification of housing conditions, possibly by including water and food, or changing other factors such as eliminating housing stresses to obtain stable bone structure and tissue regeneration during spaceflight experiments.

  13. Gene Expression Data from the Moon Jelly, Aurelia, Provide Insights into the Evolution of the Combinatorial Code Controlling Animal Sense Organ Development

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Camara, Anthony C.; Yuan, David C.; Gold, David A.; Jacobs, David K.

    2015-01-01

    In Bilateria, Pax6, Six, Eya and Dach families of transcription factors underlie the development and evolution of morphologically and phyletically distinct eyes, including the compound eyes in Drosophila and the camera-type eyes in vertebrates, indicating that bilaterian eyes evolved under the strong influence of ancestral developmental gene regulation. However the conservation in eye developmental genetics deeper in the Eumetazoa, and the origin of the conserved gene regulatory apparatus controlling eye development remain unclear due to limited comparative developmental data from Cnidaria. Here we show in the eye-bearing scyphozoan cnidarian Aurelia that the ectodermal photosensory domain of the developing medusa sensory structure known as the rhopalium expresses sine oculis (so)/six1/2 and eyes absent/eya, but not optix/six3/6 or pax (A&B). In addition, the so and eya co-expression domain encompasses the region of active cell proliferation, neurogenesis, and mechanoreceptor development in rhopalia. Consistent with the role of so and eya in rhopalial development, developmental transcriptome data across Aurelia life cycle stages show upregulation of so and eya, but not optix or pax (A&B), during medusa formation. Moreover, pax6 and dach are absent in the Aurelia genome, and thus are not required for eye development in Aurelia. Our data are consistent with so and eya, but not optix, pax or dach, having conserved functions in sensory structure specification across Eumetazoa. The lability of developmental components including Pax genes relative to so-eya is consistent with a model of sense organ development and evolution that involved the lineage specific modification of a combinatorial code that specifies animal sense organs. PMID:26225420

  14. Prototype chicken galectins revisited: characterization of a third protein with distinctive hydrodynamic behaviour and expression pattern in organs of adult animals.

    PubMed

    Kaltner, Herbert; Solís, Dolores; Kopitz, Jürgen; Lensch, Martin; Lohr, Michaela; Manning, Joachim C; Mürnseer, Michael; Schnölzer, Martina; André, Sabine; Sáiz, José Luis; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2008-01-15

    Prototype galectins are versatile modulators of cell adhesion and growth via their reactivity to certain carbohydrate and protein ligands. These functions and the galectins' marked developmental regulation explain their attractiveness as models to dissect divergent evolution after gene duplication. Only two members have so far been assumed to constitute this group in chicken, namely the embryonic muscle/liver form {C-16 or CLL-I [16 kDa; chicken lactose lectin, later named CG-16 (chicken galectin-16)]} and the embryonic skin/intestine form (CLL-II or C-14; later named CG-14). In the present study, we report on the cloning and expression of a third prototype CG. It has deceptively similar electrophoretic mobility compared with recombinant C-14, the protein first isolated from embryonic skin, and turned out to be identical with the intestinal protein. Hydrodynamic properties unusual for a homodimeric galectin and characteristic traits in the proximal promoter region set it apart from the two already known CGs. Their structural vicinity to galectin-1 prompts their classification as CG-1A (CG-16)/CG-1B (CG-14), whereas sequence similarity to mammalian galectin-2 gives reason to refer to the intestinal protein as CG-2. The expression profiling by immunohistochemistry with specific antibodies discerned non-overlapping expression patterns for the three CGs in several organs of adult animals. Overall, the results reveal a network of three prototype galectins in chicken. PMID:17887955

  15. Animal models of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bari, A; Robbins, T W

    2011-01-01

    Studies employing animal models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present clear inherent advantages over human studies. Animal models are invaluable tools for the study of underlying neurochemical, neuropathological and genetic alterations that cause ADHD, because they allow relatively fast, rigorous hypothesis testing and invasive manipulations as well as selective breeding. Moreover, especially for ADHD, animal models with good predictive validity would allow the assessment of potential new therapeutics. In this chapter, we describe and comment on the most frequently used animal models of ADHD that have been created by genetic, neurochemical and physical alterations in rodents. We then discuss that an emerging and promising direction of the field is the analysis of individual behavioural differences among a normal population of animals. Subjects presenting extreme characteristics related to ADHD can be studied, thereby avoiding some of the problems that are found in other models, such as functional recovery and unnecessary assumptions about aetiology. This approach is justified by the theoretical need to consider human ADHD as the extreme part of a spectrum of characteristics that are distributed normally in the general population, as opposed to the predominant view of ADHD as a separate pathological category. PMID:21287324

  16. Organics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  17. Organizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a specific…

  18. [Transgenic animals and animal welfare

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Christoph

    1998-01-01

    Under the pressure of a public vote in Switzerland (7 June 1998) on an initiative to ban the production, use and patenting of transgenic animals, their value for biomedical research and development is intensely debated. In addition, the Swiss legislation has adopted (1992) a constitutional obligation to "take into account the dignity of creatures". The term "dignity of creatures", however, can be interpreted in anthropocentric or biocentric ways. The government has now formulated the legal implications of this term for transgenic animals and plants in various laws including the animal and environmental protection laws. This paper gives arguments for a fair evaluation of trangenic animals from an animal welfare point of view where not only the costs of animal suffering must be considered but also the probability of potential benefit for man. A self-confident research community should allow such an evaluation procedure even in view of an outcome which could ban many uses of transgenic animals PMID:11208266

  19. MEDLI Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of MEDLI, the Mars Science Laboratory Entry, Descent, and Landing Instrument, which contains multiple sophisticated temperature sensors to measure atmospheric conditions and performance o...

  20. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Staczek, J

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovirus infections. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the study of many of the animal cytomegaloviruses in vitro. Consequently, animal cytomegaloviruses can be used as model systems for studying the pathogenesis, immunobiology, and molecular biology of cytomegalovirus-host and cytomegalovirus-cell interactions. PMID:2170830

  1. 75 FR 33576 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant... traceability. The meetings are being organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Additional...: Mr. Neil Hammerschmidt, Program Manager, Animal Disease Traceability, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road...

  2. The Early Years: Animal Adventures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Children can have a new favorite animal every week or even every hour. The more familiar the children become with an animal, the more they will be able to understand how its body form and behavior allow it to survive. Learning about the characteristics of organisms and how organisms relate to their environment is part of the National Science…

  3. Animals in research.

    PubMed

    Smith, S J; Hendee, W R

    1988-04-01

    The authors urge American physicians and scientists to undertake a primary role in defending the use of animals in biomedical research against a strategy of progressively more restrictive legislation and regulation initiated by determined and well-financed opponents. They argue that medical progress may be impeded by the objectives of both those who seek only more humane treatment of an absolute minimum of research animals and those whose belief in animals' moral rights precludes all use of animals. Smith and Hendee maintain that the greatest danger to animal research is not the activities of its opponents but the inactivity of its defenders in presenting their arguments to legislators and the public. They appeal for an aggressive, organized campaign by the biomedical community not only at the national level but by local professional groups and individuals at the state and county level. PMID:3346982

  4. Standardization of flux chamber and wind tunnel flux measurements for quantifying volatile organic compound and ammonia emissions from area sources at animal feeding operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, David; Ham, Jay; Woodbury, Bryan; Cai, Lingshuang; Spiehs, Mindy; Rhoades, Marty; Trabue, Steve; Casey, Ken; Todd, Rick; Cole, Andy

    2013-02-01

    A variety of portable wind tunnels and flux chambers have been used to measure fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and ammonia (NH3) at animal feeding operations (AFO). However, there has been little regard to the extreme variation and potential inaccuracies caused by air velocity or sweep air flow rates that are either too low or too high to simulate field conditions. There is a need for correction factors to standardize flux chamber and wind tunnel measurements. In this manuscript, we present results of water evaporative flux and VOC flux measurements with the EPA flux chamber and a small wind tunnel. In the EPA flux chamber, water evaporative flux was positively correlated with sweep air flow rate (SAFR) between 1 and 20 L min-1 (r2 = 0.981-0.999) and negatively correlated with sweep air relative humidity between 0 and 80% (r2 = 0.982-0.992). Emissions of gas-film controlled compounds like NH3 and VOC at AFOs were positively correlated with evaporation rates between 0.6 and 2.8 mm d-1. We demonstrate a simple methodology for standardizing and comparing different chamber types by measuring water evaporation within the chamber using a gravimetric mass balance approach under controlled laboratory conditions. A water evaporative flux ratio correction factor (EFRCF) was used to improve the accuracy of field-measured VOC and NH3 chamber flux measurements. In a field study, both the EPA flux chamber (SAFR = 5 L min-1) and small wind tunnel (SAFR = 1 L min-1) underestimated the true field emissions of VOC, with EFRCFs of 2.42 and 3.84, respectively. EFRCFs are recommended for all but the driest of soil and manure conditions.

  5. Kindergarten Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinshaw, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Animation is one of the last lessons that come to mind when thinking of kindergarten art. The necessary understanding of sequencing, attention to small, often detailed drawings, and the use of technology all seem more suitable to upper elementary. With today's emphasis on condensing and integrating curriculum, consider developing animation lessons…

  6. Space research on organs and tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Marc E.; Morey-Holton, Emily

    1992-01-01

    The effects of microgravity on various physiological systems are reviewed focusing on muscle, bone, cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurovestibular, liver, and endocrine systems. It is noted that certain alterations of organs and tissues caused by microgravity are not reproducible in earth-bound animal or human models. Thus space research on organs and tissues is essential for both validating the earth-bound models used in laboratories and studying the adaptations to weightlessness which cannot be mimicked on earth.

  7. Animal learning.

    PubMed

    Castro, Leyre; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-01-01

    Pavlov and Thorndike pioneered the experimental study of animal learning and provided psychologists with powerful tools to unveil its underlying mechanisms. Today's research developments and theoretical analyses owe much to the pioneering work of these early investigators. Nevertheless, in the evolution of our knowledge about animal learning, some initial conceptions have been challenged and revised. We first review the original experimental procedures and findings of Pavlov and Thorndike. Next, we discuss critical research and consequent controversies which have greatly shaped animal learning theory. For example, although contiguity seemed to be the only condition that is necessary for learning, we now know that it is not sufficient; the conditioned stimulus (CS) also has to provide information about the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus (US). Also, animals appear to learn different things about the same stimuli when circumstances vary. For instance, when faced with situations in which the meaning of a CS changes, as in the case of acquisition and later extinction, animals seem to preserve the original knowledge (CS-US) in addition to learning about the new conditions (CS-noUS). Finally, we discuss how parallels among Pavlovian conditioning, operant conditioning, and human causal judgment suggest that causal knowledge may lie at the root of both human and animal learning. All of these empirical findings and theoretical developments prove that animal learning is more complex and intricate than was once imagined. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26272842

  8. Animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation. PMID:16501652

  9. Suzaku Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the Suzaku spacecraft. Suzaku (originally known as Astro-E2) was launched July 10, 2005, and maintains a low-Earth orbit while it observes X-rays from the universe. The satel...

  10. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental Disabilities Ear Nose & Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth ...

  11. Making Animations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, James

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides simple instructions for making an animation using "PowerPoint". He describes the process by walking readers through it for a sample image. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)

  12. Pulsar Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Pulsars are thought to emit relatively narrow radio beams, shown as green in this animation. If these beams don't sweep toward Earth, astronomers cannot detect the radio signals. Pulsar gamma-ray e...

  13. Wild Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and other resources focuses on wild animals. Includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, and professional resources, as well as a class activity. (LRW)

  14. [Dangerous animals].

    PubMed

    Koljonen, Virve; Söderlund, Tim; Mäkisalo, Heikki; Gissler, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Contacts between humans and animals inevitably involve encounters possibly resulting in the human being injured. During the period of 2000 to 2014 almost 90 people died in this kind of conflict in Finland. Of these deaths, one third were associated with horses. In addition, over the same period 85 people died in traffic accidents in which an animal was hit by a car. Accidents requiring hospitalization occurred for approx. 8 000 people. PMID:27522833

  15. 9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED...

  16. 9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED...

  17. 9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  18. 9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  19. 9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED...

  20. 9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  1. 9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  2. 9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  3. 9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  4. 9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED...

  5. 9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  6. 9 CFR 117.6 - Removal of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Removal of animals. 117.6 Section 117.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT LICENSED...

  7. 9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  8. 9 CFR 117.5 - Segregation of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Segregation of animals. 117.5 Section 117.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  9. 9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  10. Microgravity alters the expression of salivary proteins.

    PubMed

    Mednieks, Maija; Khatri, Aditi; Rubenstein, Renee; Burleson, Joseph A; Hand, Arthur R

    2014-06-01

    Spaceflight provides a unique opportunity to study how physiologic responses are influenced by the external environment. Microgravity has been shown to alter the function of a number of tissues and organ systems. Very little, however, is known about how microgravity affects the oral cavity. The rodent model is useful for study in that their salivary gland morphology and physiology is similar to that of humans. Useful also is the fact that saliva, a product of the salivary glands with a major role in maintaining oral health, can be easily collected in humans whereas the glands can be studied in experimental animals. Our working hypothesis is that expression of secretory proteins in saliva will respond to microgravity and will be indicative of the nature of physiologic reactions to travel in space. This study was designed to determine which components of the salivary proteome are altered in mice flown on the US space shuttle missions and to determine if a subset with predictive value can be identified using microscopy and biochemistry methods. The results showed that the expression of secretory proteins associated with beta-adrenergic hormone regulated responses and mediated via the cyclic AMP pathway was significantly altered, whereas that of a number of unrelated proteins was not. The findings are potentially applicable to designing a biochemical test system whereby specific salivary proteins can be biomarkers for stress associated with travel in space and eventually for monitoring responses to conditions on earth. PMID:24984624

  11. Animal Bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Neville H.

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model vocalization frequency scaling in animals hearing sound production animal animal biological biological bioacoustics whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  12. Conservation physiology of animal migration.

    PubMed

    Lennox, Robert J; Chapman, Jacqueline M; Souliere, Christopher M; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D; Cooke, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  13. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    PubMed Central

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  14. Correlated alterations in genome organization, histone methylation, and DNA-lamin A/C interactions in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    McCord, Rachel Patton; Nazario-Toole, Ashley; Zhang, Haoyue; Chines, Peter S; Zhan, Ye; Erdos, Michael R; Collins, Francis S; Dekker, Job; Cao, Kan

    2013-02-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a premature aging disease that is frequently caused by a de novo point mutation at position 1824 in LMNA. This mutation activates a cryptic splice donor site in exon 11, and leads to an in-frame deletion within the prelamin A mRNA and the production of a dominant-negative lamin A protein, known as progerin. Here we show that primary HGPS skin fibroblasts experience genome-wide correlated alterations in patterns of H3K27me3 deposition, DNA-lamin A/C associations, and, at late passages, genome-wide loss of spatial compartmentalization of active and inactive chromatin domains. We further demonstrate that the H3K27me3 changes associate with gene expression alterations in HGPS cells. Our results support a model that the accumulation of progerin in the nuclear lamina leads to altered H3K27me3 marks in heterochromatin, possibly through the down-regulation of EZH2, and disrupts heterochromatin-lamina interactions. These changes may result in transcriptional misregulation and eventually trigger the global loss of spatial chromatin compartmentalization in late passage HGPS fibroblasts. PMID:23152449

  15. Adapting Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedman, John; Wedman, Judy

    1985-01-01

    The "Animals" program found on the Apple II and IIe system master disk can be adapted for use in the mathematics classroom. Instructions for making the necessary changes and suggestions for using it in lessons related to geometric shapes are provided. (JN)

  16. Animal Bioacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Neville

    Animals rely upon their acoustic and vibrational senses and abilities to detect the presence of both predators and prey and to communicate with members of the same species. This chapter surveys the physical bases of these abilities and their evolutionary optimization in insects, birds, and other land animals, and in a variety of aquatic animals other than cetaceans, which are treated in Chap. 20. While there are many individual variations, and some animals devote an immense fraction of their time and energy to acoustic communication, there are also many common features in their sound production and in the detection of sounds and vibrations. Excellent treatments of these matters from a biological viewpoint are given in several notable books [19.1,2] and collections of papers [19.3,4,5,6,7,8], together with other more specialized books to be mentioned in the following sections, but treatments from an acoustical viewpoint [19.9] are rare. The main difference between these two approaches is that biological books tend to concentrate on anatomical and physiological details and on behavioral outcomes, while acoustical books use simplified anatomical models and quantitative analysis to model whole-system behavior. This latter is the approach to be adopted here.

  17. Transgenic Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaenisch, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    Describes three methods and their advantages and disadvantages for introducing genes into animals. Discusses the predictability and tissue-specificity of the injected genes. Outlines the applications of transgenic technology for studying gene expression, the early stages of mammalian development, mutations, and the molecular nature of chromosomes.…

  18. Animal Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  19. 75 FR 47769 - Animal Traceability; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Animal Traceability; Public Meetings AGENCY: Animal and Plant... traceability. The meetings are being organized by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. DATES: The... Traceability, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 46, Riverdale, MD 20737-1231; (301) 734-5571....

  20. Kindergarten Science Unit on Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Nancy A.

    Seven activities designed to teach kindergarten students about animals are offered in this unit. Instructions for each activity include a behavioral objective, materials needed, step-by-step procedures, and an evaluation suggestion. Topics of the activities are: (1) characteristics that distinguish animals from other living organisms (including…

  1. CXCL13 blockade disrupts B lymphocyte organization in tertiary lymphoid structures without altering B cell receptor bias or preventing diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Henry, Rachel A; Kendall, Peggy L

    2010-08-01

    Lymphocytes that invade nonlymphoid tissues often organize into follicle-like structures known as tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs). These structures resemble those found in spleen or lymph nodes, but their function is unknown. TLOs are recognized in many autoimmune diseases, including the NOD mouse model of type 1 diabetes. In some cases, TLOs have been associated with the B lymphocyte chemoattractant, CXCL13. Studies presented in this article show that CXCL13 is present in inflamed islets of NOD mice. Ab blockade of this chemokine unraveled B lymphocyte organization in islet TLOs, without reducing their proportion in the islets. These chaotic milieus contained B lymphocytes with the same distinct repertoire of B cell receptors as those found in mice with well-organized structures. Somatic hypermutation, associated with T-B interactions, was not impaired in these disorganized insulitis lesions. Finally, loss of B lymphocyte organization in islets did not provide disease protection. Thus, B lymphocytes infiltrating islets in NOD mice do not require the morphology of secondary lymphoid tissues to support their role in disease. PMID:20574003

  2. Small Animal Imaging with Magnetic Resonance Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Driehuys, Bastiaan; Nouls, John; Badea, Alexandra; Bucholz, Elizabeth; Ghaghada, Ketan; Petiet, Alexandra; Hedlund, Laurence W.

    2009-01-01

    Small animal magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) has evolved significantly from testing the boundaries of imaging physics to its expanding use today as a tool in non-invasive biomedical investigations. This review is intended to capture the state-of-the-art in MRM for scientists who may be unfamiliar with this modality, but who want to apply its capabilities to their research. We therefore include a brief review of MR concepts and methods of animal handling and support before covering a range of MRM applications including the heart, lung, brain, and the emerging field of MR histology. High-resolution anatomical imaging reveals increasingly exquisite detail in healthy animals and subtle architectural aberrations that occur in genetically altered models. Resolution of 100 µm in all dimensions is now routinely attained in living animals, and 10 µm3 is feasible in fixed specimens. Such images almost rival conventional histology while allowing the object to be viewed interactively in any plane. MRM is now increasingly used to provide functional information in living animals. Images of the beating heart, breathing lung, and functioning brain can be recorded. While clinical MRI focuses on diagnosis, MRM is used to reveal fundamental biology or to non-invasively measure subtle changes in the structure or function of organs during disease progression or in response to experimental therapies. The ability of MRM to provide a detailed functional and anatomical picture in rats and mice, and to track this picture over time, makes it a promising platform with broad applications in biomedical research. PMID:18172332

  3. [Dangerous animals].

    PubMed

    Hasle, Gunnar

    2002-06-30

    As travellers seek ever more exotic destinations they are more likely to encounter dangerous animals. Compared to risks such as AIDS, traffic accidents and malaria, the risk is not so great; many travellers are, however, concerned about this and those who give pre-travel vaccines and advice should know something about it. This article is mainly based on medical and zoological textbooks. Venomous stings and bites may be prevented by adequate clothing and by keeping safe distance to the animals. Listening to those who live in the area is of course important. Travellers should not carry antisera with them, but antisera should be available at local hospitals. It should be borne in mind that plant eaters cause just as many deaths as large predators. In some cases it is necessary to carry a sufficiently powerful firearm. PMID:12555616

  4. Animal leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, William A

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a global disease of animals, which can have a major economic impact on livestock industries and is an important zoonosis. The current knowledge base is heavily biased towards the developed agricultural economies. The disease situation in the developing economies presents a major challenge as humans and animals frequently live in close association. The severity of disease varies with the infecting serovar and the affected species, but there are many common aspects across the species; for example, the acute phase of infection is mostly sub-clinical and the greatest economic losses arise from chronic infection causing reproductive wastage. The principles of, and tests for, diagnosis, treatment, control and surveillance are applicable across the species. PMID:25388134

  5. Coupler for surgery on small animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. E., Jr.; Swartz, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    Minicoupler simplifies exchange of fluids with organs of laboratory animals enabling one person to perform surgery on experimental animals such as rats and mice. Innovation eliminates obstructing hands and instruments from areas of surgery.

  6. The adaptation of mussels Crenomytilus grayanus to cadmium accumulation result in alterations in organization of microsomal enzyme-membrane complex (non-specific phosphatase).

    PubMed

    Zakhartsev; Chelomin; Belcheva

    2000-08-01

    The kinetic parameters (V(m), K(m) and slope) of membrane-bound microsomal non-specific phosphatase (NPase, with G6P as the substrate) from the digestive gland of unexposed and cadmium adapted (45 days for 100 µg Cd(2+)/l) mussels were investigated. In vivo and in vitro approaches were used. Adaptation of mussels (Crenomytilus grayanus) to cadmium resulted in a 1.6-fold increase in NPase activity. V(m) was increased by 1.6-fold, but K(m) was the same in terms of enzyme kinetics. This indicates that the total concentration of the enzymes in the digestive gland increased. Cd(2+) (1 mM) did not significantly alter the activity of the membrane-bound enzyme in vitro both for unexposed and for cadmium adapted mussels, meaning that cadmium ions are not a direct inhibitor of the membrane-bound enzyme in this concentration. The microsomal NPase activity in both unexposed and cadmium adapted mussels was inhibited by in vitro solubilization of microsomes with non-ionic detergent (Triton X100, 0.01%). This inhibition was uncompetitive for microsomes of unexposed mussels (K(m) decreased 3.1-fold). The most drastic events were observed in cadmium adapted mussels, where inhibition was mixed (K(m) decreased 7.2-fold). The simultaneous actions of detergent and cadmium ions did not alter NPase activity significantly in comparison with action of the detergent alone. The differences in the types and the extents of inhibition of the enzymes activity by membrane disordering agent (Triton X100) indicated that the enzyme-membrane complex (NPase) has been altered as a result of adaptation of mussels to cadmium accumulation. We conclude that the mussels produced a new enzyme-membrane complex, with the same K(m) as the previous complex, but with other detergent sensitivity and greater amounts. Thus, the adaptation capacity of this enzyme is reduced as result of adaptation of mussels to cadmium accumulation. PMID:10930649

  7. Micronucleus assay in aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Bolognesi, Claudia; Hayashi, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic pollutants produce multiple consequences at organism, population, community and ecosystem level, affecting organ function, reproductive status, population size, species survival and thus biodiversity. Among these, carcinogenic and mutagenic compounds are the most dangerous as their effects may exert a damage beyond that of individual and may be active through several generations. The application of genotoxicity biomarkers in sentinel organisms allows for the assessment of mutagenic hazards and/or for the identification of the sources and fate of the contaminants. Micronucleus (MN) test as an index of accumulated genetic damage during the lifespan of the cells is one of the most suitable techniques to identify integrated response to the complex mixture of contaminants. MN assay is today widely applied in a large number of wild and transplanted aquatic species. The large majority of studies or programmes on the genotoxic effect of the polluted water environment have been carried out with the use of bivalves and fish. Haemocytes and gill cells are the target tissues most frequently considered for the MN determination in bivalves. The MN test was widely validated and was successfully applied in a large number of field studies using bivalves from the genera Mytilus. MN in fish can be visualised in different cell types: erythrocytes and gill, kidney, hepatic and fin cells. The use of peripheral erythrocytes is more widely used because it avoids the complex cell preparation and the killing of the animals. The MN test in fish erythrocytes was validated in laboratory with different species after exposure to a large number of genotoxic agents. The erythrocyte MN test in fish was also widely and frequently applied for genotoxicity assessment of freshwater and marine environment in situ using native or caged animals following different periods of exposure. Large interspecies differences in sensitivity for MN induction were observed. Further validation studies are

  8. The role of minerals in the thermal alteration of organic matter. IV - Generation of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and alkenes in laboratory experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huizinga, Bradley J.; Tannenbaum, Eli; Kaplan, Isaac R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of common sedimentary minerals (illite, Na-montmorillonite, or calcite) under different water concentrations on the generation and release of n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and select alkenes from oil-prone kerogens was investigated. Matrices containing Green River Formation kerogen or Monterey Formation kerogen, alone or in the presence of minerals, were heated at 200 or 300 C for periods of up to 1000 hours, and the pyrolysis products were analyzed. The influence of the first two clay minerals was found to be critically dependent on the water content. Under the dry pyrolysis conditions, both minerals significantly reduced alkene formation; the C12+ n-alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids were mostly destroyed by montmorillonite, but underwent only minor alteration with illite. Under hydrous conditions (mineral/water of 2/1), the effects of both minerals were substantially reduced. Calcite had no significant effect on the thermal evolution of the hydrocarbons.

  9. Cell proliferation, cell shape, and microtubule and cellulose microfibril organization of tobacco BY-2 cells are not altered by exposure to near weightlessness in space.

    PubMed

    Sieberer, Björn J; Kieft, Henk; Franssen-Verheijen, Tiny; Emons, Anne Mie C; Vos, Jan W

    2009-11-01

    The microtubule cytoskeleton and the cell wall both play key roles in plant cell growth and division, determining the plant's final stature. At near weightlessness, tubulin polymerizes into microtubules in vitro, but these microtubules do not self-organize in the ordered patterns observed at 1g. Likewise, at near weightlessness cortical microtubules in protoplasts have difficulty organizing into parallel arrays, which are required for proper plant cell elongation. However, intact plants do grow in space and therefore should have a normally functioning microtubule cytoskeleton. Since the main difference between protoplasts and plant cells in a tissue is the presence of a cell wall, we studied single, but walled, tobacco BY-2 suspension-cultured cells during an 8-day space-flight experiment on board of the Soyuz capsule and the International Space Station during the 12S mission (March-April 2006). We show that the cortical microtubule density, ordering and orientation in isolated walled plant cells are unaffected by near weightlessness, as are the orientation of the cellulose microfibrils, cell proliferation, and cell shape. Likely, tissue organization is not essential for the organization of these structures in space. When combined with the fact that many recovering protoplasts have an aberrant cortical microtubule cytoskeleton, the results suggest a role for the cell wall, or its production machinery, in structuring the microtubule cytoskeleton. PMID:19756725

  10. Androgen and taxol cause cell type-specific alterations of centrosome and DNA organization in androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, H.; Ripple, M.; Balczon, R.; Weindruch, R.; Chakrabarti, A.; Taylor, M.; Hueser, C. N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effects of androgen and taxol on the androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen-independent DU145 prostate cancer cell lines. Cells were treated for 48 and 72 h with 0.05-1 nM of the synthetic androgen R1881 and with 100 nM taxol. Treatment of LNCaP cells with 0.05 nM R1881 led to increased cell proliferation, whereas treatment with 1 nM R1881 resulted in inhibited cell division, DNA cycle arrest, and altered centrosome organization. After treatment with 1 nM R1881, chromatin became clustered, nuclear envelopes convoluted, and mitochondria accumulated around the nucleus. Immunofluorescence microscopy with antibodies to centrosomes showed altered centrosome structure. Although centrosomes were closely associated with the nucleus in untreated cells, they dispersed into the cytoplasm after treatment with 1 nM R1881. Microtubules were only faintly detected in 1 nM R1881-treated LNCaP cells. The effects of taxol included microtubule bundling and altered mitochondria morphology, but not DNA organization. As expected, the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line DU145 was not affected by R1881. Treatment with taxol resulted in bundling of microtubules in both cell lines. Additional taxol effects were seen in DU145 cells with micronucleation of DNA, an indication of apoptosis. Simultaneous treatment with R1881 and taxol had no additional effects on LNCaP or DU145 cells. These results suggest that LNCaP and DU145 prostate cancer cells show differences not only in androgen responsiveness but in sensitivity to taxol as well. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Animal picobirnavirus.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Masachessi, Gisela; Mladenova, Zornitsa

    2014-01-01

    Picobirnavirus (PBV) is a small, non-enveloped, bisegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus of vertebrate hosts. The name 'Picobirnavirus' derives from the prefix 'pico' (latin for 'small') in reference to the small virion size, plus the prefix 'bi' (latin for 'two') and the word 'RNA' to indicate the nature of the viral genome. The serendipitous discovery of PBV dates back to 1988 from Brazil, when human fecal samples collected during the acute gastroenteritis outbreaks were subjected for routine rotavirus surveillance by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and silver straining (S/S). The PAGE gels after silver staining showed a typical 'two RNA band' pattern, and it was identified as Picobirnavirus. Likewise, the feces of wild black-footed pigmy rice rats (Oryzomys nigripes) subjected for PAGE assay by the same research group in Brazil reported the presence of PBV (Pereira et al., J Gen Virol 69:2749-2754, 1988). PBVs have been detected in faeces of humans and wide range of animal species with or without diarrhoea, worldwide. The probable role of PBV as either a 'primary diarrhoeal agent' in 'immunocompetent children'; or a 'potential pathogen' in 'immunocompromised individuals' or an 'innocuous virus' in the intestine remains elusive and needs to be investigated despite the numerous reports of the presence of PBV in fecal samples of various species of domestic mammals, wild animals, birds and snakes; our current knowledge of their biology, etiology, pathogenicity or their transmission characteristics remains subtle. This review aims to analyse the veterinary and zoonotic aspects of animal Picobirnavirus infections since its discovery. PMID:25674589

  12. Animal Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretto, Johnny; Chauffert, Bruno; Bouyer, Florence

    The development of a new anticancer drug is a long, complex and multistep process which is supervised by regulatory authorities from the different countries all around the world [1]. Application of a new drug for admission to the market is supported by preclinical and clinical data, both including the determination of pharmacodynamics, toxicity, antitumour activity, therapeutic index, etc. As preclinical studies are associated with high cost, optimization of animal experiments is crucial for the overall development of a new anticancer agent. Moreover, in vivo efficacy studies remain a determinant panel for advancement of agents to human trials and thus, require cautious design and interpretation from experimental and ethical point of views.

  13. Downstream alterations in biodegradability and optical characteristics of dissolved and particulate organic carbon fractions exported during storm events in a mixed land-use watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Byung-Joon; Yang, Boram; Park, Ji-Hyung

    2014-05-01

    Although storm pulses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) can account for a significant C loss from the terrestrial sink of atmospheric CO2, there have been rare attempts to compare the biodegradation and chemical transformation of terrestrially derived DOC and POC in receiving waters. Short-term laboratory incubations were performed with water and sediment samples collected during intense monsoon rainfalls at four stream locations in a mountainous, mixed land-use watershed, Korea to compare biodegradation and optical properties of DOC and POC exported from different sources. Biodegradable DOC (BDOC) and fluorescence EEMs coupled with PARAFAC modeling in either bulk or flow field-flow fractionated samples were measured to track changes in biodegradation and optical characteristics of DOC and suspended sediment-derived DOC (SS-DOC). During a 30 day incubation at 25 °C, both DOC and POC from a forested headwater stream initially exhibited rapid biodegradation of labile components, whereas sediment-derived materials increased continuously not just DOC concentrations, but also fulvic- and humic-like fluorescent components. In the second 13-day incubation with DOC and POC samples from a forest stream, an agricultural stream, and two downstream rivers, the BDOC of filtered waters differed little between sites, whereas the BDOC of SS-DOC was higher in downstream rivers. Higher ratios of protein- to fuvic- or humic-like fluorescence in the SS-DOC from two downstream rivers compared to upstream measurements pointed to a higher contribution of labile organic components to the biodegradation of SS-DOC from the downstream rivers. Downstream increases in labile moieties of SS-DOC were also observed in fluorescence measurements of field-flow fractionated samples. The results suggest that storm pulses of POC contain labile organic components that are increasingly released from downstream sources and can rapidly change in optical properties

  14. 2,3,7,8- Te trachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin treatment alters eicosanoid levels in several organs of the mouse in an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent fashion

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Peter; Solaimani, Parrisa; Wu, Xiaomeng; Hankinson, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    2,3,7,8- Te trachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) adversely affects many mammalian organs and tissues. These effects are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 are upregulated by the liganded AHR. These (and other) cytochromes P450 can metabolize arachidonic acid into a variety of bioactive eicosanoids. Towards investigating a potential role of eicosanoids in TCDD toxicity, arachidonic acid, two other unsaturated long-chain fatty acids, and up to twenty-three eicosanoids were measured in five organs/tissues of male and female wild-type and Ahr null mice treated or untreated with TCDD. TCDD generally increased the levels of the four dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) and (where measured) 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid and 18-, 19- and 20-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (HETEs) in the serum, liver, spleen and lungs, but not the heart, of both sexes, and increased the levels in the serum, liver and spleen of several metabolites that are usually considered products of lipoxygenase activity, but which may also be generated by cytochromes P450. TCDD also increased the levels of the esterified forms of these eicosanoids in the liver in parallel with the corresponding free forms. The levels of prostanoids were generally not affected by TCDD. The above changes did not occur in Ahr null mice, and are therefore mediated by the AHR. TCDD increased the mRNA levels of Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1 and the Pla2g12a form of phospholipase A2 to varying degrees in the different organs, and these increases correlated with some but not all the changes in eicosanoids levels in the organs, suggesting that other enzymes may also be involved. PMID:22230337

  15. Growth inhibition and ultrastructural alterations induced by Δ24(25)-sterol methyltransferase inhibitors in Candida spp. isolates, including non-albicans organisms

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Although Candida species are commensal microorganisms, they can cause many invasive fungal infections. In addition, antifungal resistance can contribute to failure of treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of inhibitors of Δ24(25)-sterol methyltransferase (24-SMTI), 20-piperidin-2-yl-5α-pregnan-3β-20(R)-diol (AZA), and 24(R,S),25-epiminolanosterol (EIL), against clinical isolates of Candida spp., analysing the ultrastructural changes. Results AZA and EIL were found to be potent growth inhibitors of Candida spp. isolates. The median MIC50 was 0.5 μg.ml-1 for AZA and 2 μg.ml-1 for EIL, and the MIC90 was 2 μg.ml-1 for both compounds. All strains used in this study were susceptible to amphotericin B; however, some isolates were fluconazole- and itraconazole-resistant. Most of the azole-resistant isolates were Candida non-albicans (CNA) species, but several of them, such as C. guilliermondii, C. zeylanoides, and C. lipolytica, were susceptible to 24-SMTI, indicating a lack of cross-resistance. Reference strain C. krusei (ATCC 6258, FLC-resistant) was consistently susceptible to AZA, although not to EIL. The fungicidal activity of 24-SMTI was particularly high against CNA isolates. Treatment with sub-inhibitory concentrations of AZA and EIL induced several ultrastructural alterations, including changes in the cell-wall shape and thickness, a pronounced disconnection between the cell wall and cytoplasm with an electron-lucent zone between them, mitochondrial swelling, and the presence of electron-dense vacuoles. Fluorescence microscopy analyses indicated an accumulation of lipid bodies and alterations in the cell cycle of the yeasts. The selectivity of 24-SMTI for fungal cells versus mammalian cells was assessed by the sulforhodamine B viability assay. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that inhibition of 24-SMT may be a novel approach to control Candida spp. infections, including those caused by azole

  16. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin treatment alters eicosanoid levels in several organs of the mouse in an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent fashion

    SciTech Connect

    Bui, Peter; Solaimani, Parrisa; Wu, Xiaomeng; Hankinson, Oliver

    2012-03-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) adversely affects many mammalian organs and tissues. These effects are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 are upregulated by the liganded AHR. These (and other) cytochromes P450 can metabolize arachidonic acid into a variety of bioactive eicosanoids. Towards investigating a potential role of eicosanoids in TCDD toxicity, arachidonic acid, two other unsaturated long-chain fatty acids, and up to twenty-five eicosanoids were measured in five organs/tissues of male and female wild-type and Ahr null mice treated or untreated with TCDD. TCDD generally increased the levels of the four dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) and (where measured) 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid and 18-, 19- and 20-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (HETEs) in the serum, liver, spleen and lungs, but not the heart, of both sexes, and increased the levels in the serum, liver and spleen of several metabolites that are usually considered products of lipoxygenase activity, but which may also be generated by cytochromes P450. TCDD also increased the levels of the esterified forms of these eicosanoids in the liver in parallel with the corresponding free forms. The levels of prostanoids were generally not affected by TCDD. The above changes did not occur in Ahr null mice, and are therefore mediated by the AHR. TCDD increased the mRNA levels of Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2, Cyp1b1 and the Pla2g12a form of phospholipase A{sub 2} to varying degrees in the different organs, and these increases correlated with some but not all the changes in eicosanoids levels in the organs, suggesting that other enzymes may also be involved. -- Highlights: ► TCDD treatment increases the levels of many eicosanoids in several mouse organs. ► Products of both the cytochrome P450 and classical lipoxygenase pathways are increased. ► These increases are dependent on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. ► Cyp1a1, Cyp1a2 and Cyp1b1 appear to be responsible for much but

  17. Nanodiamonds coupled with 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, a plant bioactive metabolite, interfere with the mitotic process in B16F10 cells altering the actin organization

    PubMed Central

    Gismondi, Angelo; Nanni, Valentina; Reina, Giacomo; Orlanducci, Silvia; Terranova, Maria Letizia; Canini, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, we coupled reduced detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) with a plant secondary metabolite, citropten (5,7-dimethoxycoumarin), and demonstrated how this complex was able to reduce B16F10 tumor cell growth more effectively than treatment with the pure molecule. These results encouraged us to find out the specific mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Internalization kinetics and quantification of citropten in cells after treatment with its pure or ND-conjugated form were measured, and it was revealed that the coupling between NDs and citropten was essential for the biological properties of the complex. We showed that the adduct was not able to induce apoptosis, senescence, or differentiation, but it determined cell cycle arrest, morphological changes, and alteration of mRNA levels of the cytoskeletal-related genes. The identification of metaphasic nuclei and irregular disposition of β-actin in the cell cytoplasm supported the hypothesis that citropten conjugated with NDs showed antimitotic properties in B16F10 cells. This work can be considered a pioneering piece of research that could promote and support the biomedical use of plant drug-functionalized NDs in cancer therapy. PMID:26893562

  18. Nanodiamonds coupled with 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin, a plant bioactive metabolite, interfere with the mitotic process in B16F10 cells altering the actin organization.

    PubMed

    Gismondi, Angelo; Nanni, Valentina; Reina, Giacomo; Orlanducci, Silvia; Terranova, Maria Letizia; Canini, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, we coupled reduced detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) with a plant secondary metabolite, citropten (5,7-dimethoxycoumarin), and demonstrated how this complex was able to reduce B16F10 tumor cell growth more effectively than treatment with the pure molecule. These results encouraged us to find out the specific mechanism underlying this phenomenon. Internalization kinetics and quantification of citropten in cells after treatment with its pure or ND-conjugated form were measured, and it was revealed that the coupling between NDs and citropten was essential for the biological properties of the complex. We showed that the adduct was not able to induce apoptosis, senescence, or differentiation, but it determined cell cycle arrest, morphological changes, and alteration of mRNA levels of the cytoskeletal-related genes. The identification of metaphasic nuclei and irregular disposition of β-actin in the cell cytoplasm supported the hypothesis that citropten conjugated with NDs showed antimitotic properties in B16F10 cells. This work can be considered a pioneering piece of research that could promote and support the biomedical use of plant drug-functionalized NDs in cancer therapy. PMID:26893562

  19. Histopathological alterations after a growth promoter boldenone injection in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Tousson, Ehab

    2016-02-01

    Boldenone (BOL) is a derivative of the testosterone that has dual effects on humans, both directly and indirectly; directly as injection to build muscles and indirectly as through consuming meat of animals that where treated with BOL. However, the action of these steroids on different body organs structures is still unclear; therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the intramuscular injection of BOL undecylenate on the different organ structures. A total of 10 adult New Zealand rabbits were divided into two main groups, the first group was the control group, which includes animals that were injected intramuscularly with olive oil and the second group included animals that received two intramuscular injections of 5 mg/kg body weight BOL dissected after 6 weeks. Our results showed that intramuscular injection of rabbits with BOL showed hypertrophy in both skeletal and cardiac muscles, disturbances of the hepatocytes radially arranged cords with multifocal hepatocellular vacuolations in the liver, glomerulus mass reduction with multifocal glomerular injury in the kidney, disturbances of the cycle of spermatogenesis in the testes. In conclusion, using BOL, while preparing for a young bodybuilding contest, may cause an alteration in the histological structure of most of the body organs; these findings suggested that especially young people who misuse anablic androgenic steroids should be careful if they want to use such steroids to enhance their strength and endurance. PMID:24097356

  20. Animal Models for Therapeutic Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, Patricia L.; An, Yuehuei H.

    2003-04-15

    Embolization techniques have been performed in different animals to accumulate basic data before a clinical trial.Choosing the right embolization model for a specific project is critical. However, there are several variables when defining the best model for embolization research such as the size of the animal to be used, the target organs, the route of introducing the embolization agent, and the feasible methods of evaluation. Commonly used research animals for endovascular embolization include rabbits, dogs, and rats. Frequently used target organs are the kidney and the liver. Most models use a transcatheter for introducing the embolus and occasionally open surgery and direct arterial injection are used. Basic methods of evaluation are straightforward, and commonly include macro observation of the embolized organs, angiogram, and histology. This article concisely reviews the available animal models and their evaluation for embolization research to help researchers to choose the appropriate model.

  1. Animal models of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Jones, CA; Watson, DJG; Fone, KCF

    2011-01-01

    Developing reliable, predictive animal models for complex psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, is essential to increase our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for the development of novel drugs with improved therapeutic efficacy. All available animal models of schizophrenia fit into four different induction categories: developmental, drug-induced, lesion or genetic manipulation, and the best characterized examples of each type are reviewed herein. Most rodent models have behavioural phenotype changes that resemble ‘positive-like’ symptoms of schizophrenia, probably reflecting altered mesolimbic dopamine function, but fewer models also show altered social interaction, and learning and memory impairment, analogous to negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia respectively. The negative and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia are resistant to treatment with current antipsychotics, even after remission of the psychosis, which limits their therapeutic efficacy. The MATRICS initiative developed a consensus on the core cognitive deficits of schizophrenic patients, and recommended a standardized test battery to evaluate them. More recently, work has begun to identify specific rodent behavioural tasks with translational relevance to specific cognitive domains affected in schizophrenia, and where available this review focuses on reporting the effect of current and potential antipsychotics on these tasks. The review also highlights the need to develop more comprehensive animal models that more adequately replicate deficits in negative and cognitive symptoms. Increasing information on the neurochemical and structural CNS changes accompanying each model will also help assess treatments that prevent the development of schizophrenia rather than treating the symptoms, another pivotal change required to enable new more effective therapeutic strategies to be developed. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on

  2. Drug metabolism alterations in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Merrell, Matthew D.; Cherrington, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    Drug-metabolizing enzymes play a vital role in the elimination of the majority of therapeutic drugs. The major organ involved in drug metabolism is the liver. Chronic liver diseases have been identified as a potential source of significant interindividual variation in metabolism. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the United States, affecting between 60 and 90 million Americans, yet the vast majority of NAFLD patients are undiagnosed. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of pathologies, ranging from steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Numerous animal studies have investigated the effects of NAFLD on hepatic gene expression, observing significant alterations in mRNA, protein, and activity levels. Information on the effects of NAFLD in human patients is limited, though several significant investigations have recently been published. Significant alterations in the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes may affect the clearance of therapeutic drugs, with the potential to result in adverse drug reactions. With the enormous prevalence of NAFLD, it is conceivable that every drug currently on the market is being given to patients with NAFLD. The current review is intended to present the results from both animal models and human patients, summarizing the observed alterations in the expression and activity of the phase I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes. PMID:21612324

  3. Inhibition of DNA Methylation Alters Chromatin Organization, Nuclear Positioning and Activity of 45S rDNA Loci in Cycling Cells of Q. robur

    PubMed Central

    Horvat, Tomislav; Maglica, Željka; Vojta, Aleksandar; Zoldoš, Vlatka

    2014-01-01

    Around 2200 copies of genes encoding ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in pedunculate oak, Quercus robur, are organized into two rDNA loci, the major (NOR-1) and the minor (NOR-2) locus. We present the first cytogenetic evidence indicating that the NOR-1 represents the active nucleolar organizer responsible for rRNA synthesis, while the NOR-2 probably stays transcriptionally silent and does not participate in the formation of the nucleolus in Q. robur, which is a situation resembling the well-known phenomenon of nucleolar dominance. rDNA chromatin topology analyses in cycling root tip cells by light and electron microscopy revealed the minor locus to be highly condensed and located away from the nucleolus, while the major locus was consistently associated with the nucleolus and often exhibited different levels of condensation. In addition, silver precipitation was confined exclusively to the NOR-1 locus. Also, NOR-2 was highly methylated at cytosines and rDNA chromatin was marked with histone modifications characteristic for repressive state. After treatment of the root cells with the methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine, we observed an increase in the total level of rRNA transcripts and a decrease in DNA methylation level at the NOR-2 locus. Also, NOR-2 sites relocalized with respect to the nuclear periphery/nucleolus, however, the relocation did not affect the contribution of this locus to nucleolar formation, nor did it affect rDNA chromatin decondensation, strongly suggesting that NOR-2 has lost the function of rRNA synthesis and nucleolar organization. PMID:25093501

  4. Inhibition of DNA methylation alters chromatin organization, nuclear positioning and activity of 45S rDNA loci in cycling cells of Q. robur.

    PubMed

    Bočkor, Vedrana Vičić; Barišić, Darko; Horvat, Tomislav; Maglica, Željka; Vojta, Aleksandar; Zoldoš, Vlatka

    2014-01-01

    Around 2200 copies of genes encoding ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in pedunculate oak, Quercus robur, are organized into two rDNA loci, the major (NOR-1) and the minor (NOR-2) locus. We present the first cytogenetic evidence indicating that the NOR-1 represents the active nucleolar organizer responsible for rRNA synthesis, while the NOR-2 probably stays transcriptionally silent and does not participate in the formation of the nucleolus in Q. robur, which is a situation resembling the well-known phenomenon of nucleolar dominance. rDNA chromatin topology analyses in cycling root tip cells by light and electron microscopy revealed the minor locus to be highly condensed and located away from the nucleolus, while the major locus was consistently associated with the nucleolus and often exhibited different levels of condensation. In addition, silver precipitation was confined exclusively to the NOR-1 locus. Also, NOR-2 was highly methylated at cytosines and rDNA chromatin was marked with histone modifications characteristic for repressive state. After treatment of the root cells with the methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, we observed an increase in the total level of rRNA transcripts and a decrease in DNA methylation level at the NOR-2 locus. Also, NOR-2 sites relocalized with respect to the nuclear periphery/nucleolus, however, the relocation did not affect the contribution of this locus to nucleolar formation, nor did it affect rDNA chromatin decondensation, strongly suggesting that NOR-2 has lost the function of rRNA synthesis and nucleolar organization. PMID:25093501

  5. Epigenetic Case Studies in Agricultural Animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many biological processes, the regulation of gene expression involves epigenetic mechanisms. An altered pattern of epigenetic modification is central to many animal diseases. Using animal disease models, we have studied one of the major epigenetic components: DNA methylation. We characterized the...

  6. Animal Intuitions.

    PubMed

    Kaebnick, Gregory E

    2016-07-01

    As described by Lori Gruen in the Perspective column at the back of this issue, federally supported biomedical research conducted on chimpanzees has now come to an end in the United States, although the wind-down has taken longer than expected. The process began with a 2011 Institute of Medicine report that set up several stringent criteria that sharply limited biomedical research. The National Institutes of Health accepted the recommendations and formed a committee to determine how best to implement them. The immediate question raised by this transition was whether the IOM restrictions should be extended in some form to other nonhuman primates-and beyond them to other kinds of animals. In the lead article in this issue, Anne Barnhill, Steven Joffe, and Franklin Miller consider the status of other nonhuman primates. PMID:27417859

  7. Mercury induced time-dependent alterations in lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation in different body organs of cat-fish Heteropneustes fossilis

    SciTech Connect

    Bano, Y.; Hasan, M.

    1989-04-01

    The effects of mercuric chloride (HgCl/sub 2/) on lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation in different body organs of fresh water cat-fish Heteropneustes fossilis were studied. The daily exposure of HgCl/sub 2/ 0.2 mg/L for 10, 20 and 30 days depleted the total lipids in brain. But the content of phospholipids enhanced significantly at 30 days. Significant diminution in C/P ratio was discernible with 30 days of exposure following mercury toxicosis. Liver exhibited elevated levels of total lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol and C/P ratio. Interestingly kidney showed marked decrease in the concentration of total lipids, cholesterol and C/P ratio at higher exposure. However, the phospholipid values increased during the longer exposure. The content of total lipids and phospholipids was high in muscle but the level of cholesterol and C/P ratio were depleted. Significant increment in lipid peroxidation was discernible in brain, liver and muscle. In kidney the rate of lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced. The results suggest that exposure of HgCl/sub 2/ enhances the peroxidation of endogenous lipids in brain, liver and muscle. Interestingly the lipid contents are affected differently in different body organs.

  8. Altering young tomato plant growth by nitrate and CO2 preserves the proportionate relation linking long-term organic-nitrogen accumulation to intercepted radiation.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Stéphane; Le Bot, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    * A previously published model of crop nitrogen (N) status based on intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (R(i), mol per plant) suggested that plant organic N accumulation is related to R(i) by a constant ratio, defined hereafter as the radiation use efficiency for N (NRUE). The aim of this paper was to compare the effects of N nutrition and CO2 enrichment on NRUE and RUE (radiation use efficiency for biomass accumulation). * In three unrelated glasshouse experiments, tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in hydroponics were fed for 28 d (exponential growth) with full solutions containing constant NO3(-) concentrations ([NO3(-)]) ranging from 0.05 to 15 mol m(-3), both under ambient or CO2-enriched (1000 microl l(-1)) air. * Each experiment comprised five harvests. Low [NO3(-)] (< 0.3 mol m(-3)) limited growth via leaf area (LA) restriction and decreased light interception. CO2 enrichment enhanced dry weight and LA. RUE was not affected by [NO3(-)], but increased under CO2-enriched air. By contrast, NRUE was not affected by [NO3(-)] or CO2 enrichment. * It is suggested that the radiation efficiency for organic N acquisition (NRUE) did not depend on C or N nutrition for young plants grown under unstressed conditions. PMID:18761639

  9. Signals of typhoon induced hydrologic alteration in particulate organic matter from largest tropical river system of Hainan Island, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, U. K.; Wu, Ying; Wang, Xiaona; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Guosen

    2016-03-01

    Tropical river systems affected by climatic extremes (typhoon) are recognized as significant source of particulate organic matter (POM) delivered to their adjacent seas. Studies on POM composition in typhoon affected rivers of tropical Hainan Island are limited. The Nandu River-Estuary (NRE) is the largest river system on Hainan Island in the South China Sea, affected by frequent typhoons every year. We used elemental contents, stable isotope ratios of organic carbon and lignin phenols to characterize POM compositions in NRE during typhoon affected wet season (August, 2011) vs. normal wet season (October, 2012). Short term and heavy precipitation during typhoon in August, 2011 was evidenced with a significant hydrologic change as well as change in POM composition along the NRE. The multi-proxy results suggest that POM was degraded and their sources significantly changed along the NRE hydrograph. Results from an end member mixing model indicated that POM constituted nearly similar OM input from soil (35%) and freshwater plankton (32%) during August, 2011, in contrast POM dominated with OM from freshwater plankton (51%) during October 2012 in riverine regions of NRE. In the estuarine region, POM constituted dominant inputs from marine plankton during August, 2011 (44%) and October, 2012 (56%) as compared to other sources. Collectively, the nature of POM composition change in the vicinity of typhoon induced copious precipitation, with potential land-use intervention across the Hainan Island are key factors affecting the carbon cycling in NRE and adjacent South China Sea.

  10. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  11. Autotrophic fixation of geogenic CO2 by microorganisms contributes to soil organic matter formation and alters isotope signatures in a wetland mofette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, M. E.; Beulig, F.; von Fischer, J.; Muhr, J.; Küsel, K.; Trumbore, S. E.

    2015-09-01

    To quantify the contribution of autotrophic microorganisms to organic matter formation (OM) in soils, we investigated natural CO2 vents (mofettes) situated in a wetland in NW Bohemia (Czech Republic). Mofette soils had higher SOM concentrations than reference soils due to restricted decomposition under high CO2 levels. We used radiocarbon (Δ14C) and stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) to characterize SOM and its sources in two moffetes and compared it with respective reference soils, which were not influenced by geogenic CO2. The geogenic CO2 emitted at these sites is free of radiocarbon and enriched in δ13C compared to atmospheric CO2. Together, these isotopic signals allow us to distinguish C fixed by plants from C fixed by autotrophic microorganisms using their differences in δ13C discrimination. We can then estimate that up to 27 % of soil organic matter in the 0-10 cm layer of these soils was derived from microbially assimilated CO2. Isotope values of bulk SOM were shifted towards more positive δ13C and more negative Δ14C values in mofettes compared to reference soils, suggesting that geogenic CO2 emitted from the soil atmosphere is incorporated into SOM. To distinguish whether geogenic CO2 was fixed by plants or by CO2 assimilating microorganisms, we first used the proportional differences in radiocarbon and δ13C values to indicate the magnitude of discrimination of the stable isotopes in living plants. Deviation from this relationship was taken to indicate the presence of microbial CO2 fixation, as microbial discrimination should differ from that of plants. 13CO2-labelling experiments confirmed high activity of CO2 assimilating microbes in the top 10 cm, where δ13C values of SOM were shifted up to 2 ‰ towards more negative values. Uptake rates of microbial CO2 fixation ranged up to 1.59 ± 0.16 μg gdw-1 d-1. We inferred that the negative δ13C shift was caused by the activity of chemo-lithoautotrophic microorganisms, as indicated from

  12. Autotrophic fixation of geogenic CO2 by microorganisms contributes to soil organic matter formation and alters isotope signatures in a wetland mofette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, M. E.; Beulig, F.; von Fischer, J.; Muhr, J.; Küsel, K.; Trumbore, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    To quantify the contribution of autotrophic microorganisms to organic matter (OM) formation in soils, we investigated natural CO2 vents (mofettes) situated in a wetland in northwest Bohemia (Czech Republic). Mofette soils had higher soil organic matter (SOM) concentrations than reference soils due to restricted decomposition under high CO2 levels. We used radiocarbon (Δ14C) and stable carbon (δ13C) isotope ratios to characterize SOM and its sources in two mofettes and compared it with respective reference soils, which were not influenced by geogenic CO2. The geogenic CO2 emitted at these sites is free of radiocarbon and enriched in 13C compared to atmospheric CO2. Together, these isotopic signals allow us to distinguish C fixed by plants from C fixed by autotrophic microorganisms using their differences in 13C discrimination. We can then estimate that up to 27 % of soil organic matter in the 0-10 cm layer of these soils was derived from microbially assimilated CO2. Isotope values of bulk SOM were shifted towards more positive δ13C and more negative Δ14C values in mofettes compared to reference soils, suggesting that geogenic CO2 emitted from the soil atmosphere is incorporated into SOM. To distinguish whether geogenic CO2 was fixed by plants or by CO2 assimilating microorganisms, we first used the proportional differences in radiocarbon and δ13C values to indicate the magnitude of discrimination of the stable isotopes in living plants. Deviation from this relationship was taken to indicate the presence of microbial CO2 fixation, as microbial discrimination should differ from that of plants. 13CO2-labelling experiments confirmed high activity of CO2 assimilating microbes in the top 10 cm, where δ13C values of SOM were shifted up to 2 ‰ towards more negative values. Uptake rates of microbial CO2 fixation ranged up to 1.59 ± 0.16 μg gdw-1 d-1. We inferred that the negative δ13C shift was caused by the activity of autotrophic microorganisms using the Calvin

  13. Effects of altered groundwater chemistry upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial attachment during transport within an organically contaminated sandy aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harvey, R.W.; Metge, D.W.; Barber, L.B.; Aiken, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a dilute (ionic strength = 5 ?? 10-3 M) plume of treated sewage, with elevated levels (3.9 mg/L) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), upon the pH-dependency and magnitude of bacterial transport through an iron-laden, quartz sand aquifer (Cape Cod, MA) were evaluated using sets of replicate, static minicolumns. Compared with uncontaminated groundwater, the plume chemistry diminished bacterial attachment under mildly acidic (pH 5.0-6.5) in-situ conditions, in spite of the 5-fold increase in ionic strength and substantively enhanced attachment under more alkaline conditions. The effects of the hydrophobic neutral and total fractions of the plume DOC; modest concentrations of fulvic and humic acids (1.5 mg/L); linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) (25 mg/L); Imbentin (200 ??g/L), a model nonionic surfactant; sulfate (28 mg/L); and calcium (20 mg/L) varied sharply in response to relatively small changes in pH, although the plume constituents collectively decreased the pH-dependency of bacterial attachment. LAS and other hydrophobic neutrals (collectively representing only ???3% of the plume DOC) had a disproportionately large effect upon bacterial attachment, as did the elevated concentrations of sulfate within the plume. The findings further suggest that the roles of organic plume constituents in transport or bacteria through acidic aquifer sediments can be very different than would be predicted from column studies performed at circumneutral pH and that the inorganic constituents within the plume cannot be ignored.

  14. Dendritic cell-specific disruption of TGFβ receptor II leads to altered regulatory T-cell phenotype and spontaneous multi-organ autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ramalingam, Rajalakshmy; Larmonier, Claire B.; Thurston, Robert D.; Midura-Kiela, Monica T.; Zheng, Song Guo; Ghishan, Fayez K.; Kiela, Pawel R.

    2012-01-01

    In vitrodata and transgenic mouse models suggest a role for TGFβ signaling in dendritic cells (DC) to prevent autoimmunity primarily through maintenance of DCs in their immature and tolerogenic state characterized by low expression of MHCII and co-stimulatory molecules, and increased expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), among others. To test whether a complete lack of TGFβ signaling in DCs predisposes mice to spontaneous autoimmunity, and to verify the mechanisms implicated previously in vitro, we generated conditional knock-out mice with Cre-mediated DC-specific deletion of Tgfbr2 (DC-Tgfbr2 KO). DC-Tgfbr2 KO mice die before 15 weeks of age with multi-organ autoimmune inflammation and spontaneous activation of T and B cells. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in the expression of MHCII, co-stimulatory molecules, or IDO in secondary lymphoid organ DCs, although Tgfbr2-deficient DCs were more pro-inflammatory in vitro and in vivo. DC-Tgfbr2 KO showed attenuated FoxP3 expression in regulatory T cells (Tregs) and abnormal expansion of CD25−FoxP3+ Tregs in vivo. Tgfbr2-deficient DCs secreted elevated levels of IFNγ and were not capable of directing antigen-specific Treg conversion unless in the presence of anti-IFNγ blocking antibody. Adoptive transfer of iTregs into DC-Tgfbr2 KO mice partially rescued the phenotype. Therefore, in vivo, TGFβ signaling in DCs is critical in the control of autoimmunity through both Treg dependent and independent mechanisms, but it does not affect MHCII and co-stimulatory molecule expression. PMID:22972928

  15. Excess of Organic Carbon in Mountain Spruce Forest Soils after Bark Beetle Outbreak Altered Microbial N Transformations and Mitigated N-Saturation.

    PubMed

    Kaňa, Jiří; Tahovská, Karolina; Kopáček, Jiří; Šantrůčková, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Mountain forests in National park Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic) were affected by bark beetle attack and windthrows in 2004-2008, followed by an extensive tree dieback. We evaluated changes in the biochemistry of the uppermost soil horizons with the emphasis on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in a near-natural spruce (Picea abies) mountain forest after the forest dieback, and compared it with an undisturbed control plot of similar age, climate, elevation, deposition, N-saturation level, and land use history. We hypothesised that the high litter input after forest dieback at the disturbed plot and its consequent decomposition might influence the availability of C for microorganisms, and consequently, N transformations in the soil. The concentrations of dissolved organic C (DOC) and N (DON) in soil water extracts rapidly increased at the disturbed plot for 3 yeas and then continually decreased. Net ammonification exhibited a similar trend as DOC and DON, indicating elevated mineralization. Despite the high ammonium concentrations found after the forest dieback (an increase from 0.5 mmol kg-1 to 2-3 mmol kg-1), net nitrification was stable and low during these 3 years. After the DOC depletion and decrease in microbial biomass 5 years after the forest dieback, net nitrification started to rise, and nitrate concentrations increased from 0.2-1 mmol kg-1 to 2-3 mmol kg-1. Our results emphasize the key role of the availability of organic C in microbial N transformations, which probably promoted microbial heterotrophic activity at the expense of slow-growing nitrifiers. PMID:26230678

  16. Excess of Organic Carbon in Mountain Spruce Forest Soils after Bark Beetle Outbreak Altered Microbial N Transformations and Mitigated N-Saturation

    PubMed Central

    Kaňa, Jiří; Tahovská, Karolina; Kopáček, Jiří; Šantrůčková, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Mountain forests in National park Bohemian Forest (Czech Republic) were affected by bark beetle attack and windthrows in 2004–2008, followed by an extensive tree dieback. We evaluated changes in the biochemistry of the uppermost soil horizons with the emphasis on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in a near-natural spruce (Picea abies) mountain forest after the forest dieback, and compared it with an undisturbed control plot of similar age, climate, elevation, deposition, N-saturation level, and land use history. We hypothesised that the high litter input after forest dieback at the disturbed plot and its consequent decomposition might influence the availability of C for microorganisms, and consequently, N transformations in the soil. The concentrations of dissolved organic C (DOC) and N (DON) in soil water extracts rapidly increased at the disturbed plot for 3 yeas and then continually decreased. Net ammonification exhibited a similar trend as DOC and DON, indicating elevated mineralization. Despite the high ammonium concentrations found after the forest dieback (an increase from 0.5 mmol kg-1 to 2–3 mmol kg-1), net nitrification was stable and low during these 3 years. After the DOC depletion and decrease in microbial biomass 5 years after the forest dieback, net nitrification started to rise, and nitrate concentrations increased from 0.2–1 mmol kg-1 to 2–3 mmol kg-1. Our results emphasize the key role of the availability of organic C in microbial N transformations, which probably promoted microbial heterotrophic activity at the expense of slow-growing nitrifiers. PMID:26230678

  17. Animal welfare: an animal science approach.

    PubMed

    Koknaroglu, H; Akunal, T

    2013-12-01

    Increasing world population and demand for animal-derived protein puts pressure on animal production to meet this demand. For this purpose animal breeding efforts were conducted to obtain the maximum yield that the genetic makeup of the animals permits. Under the influence of economics which is the driving force behind animal production, animal farming became more concentrated and controlled which resulted in rearing animals under confinement. Since more attention was given on economics and yield per animal, animal welfare and behavior were neglected. Animal welfare which can be defined as providing environmental conditions in which animals can display all their natural behaviors in nature started gaining importance in recent years. This does not necessarily mean that animals provided with good management practices would have better welfare conditions as some animals may be distressed even though they are in good environmental conditions. Consumers are willing to pay more for welfare-friendly products (e.g.: free range vs caged egg) and this will change the animal production practices in the future. Thus animal scientists will have to adapt themselves for the changing animal welfare rules and regulations that differ for farm animal species and countries. In this review paper, animal welfare is discussed from an animal science standpoint. PMID:23664009

  18. Myocardial diseases of animals.

    PubMed Central

    Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1986-01-01

    In this review we have attempted a comprehensive compilation of the cardiac morphologic changes that occur in spontaneous and experimental myocardial diseases of animals. Our coverage addresses diseases of mammals and birds and includes these diseases found in both domesticated and wild animals. A similar review of the myocardial diseases in this broad range of animal species has not been attempted previously. We have summarized and illustrated the gross, microscopic, and ultrastructural alterations for these myocardial diseases; and, whenever possible, we have reviewed their biochemical pathogenesis. We have arranged the myocardial diseases for presentation and discussion according to an etiologic classification with seven categories. These include a group of idiopathic or primary cardiomyopathies recognized in man (hypertrophic, dilated, and restrictive types) and a large group of secondary cardiomyopathies with known causes, such as inherited tendency; nutritional deficiency; toxicity; physical injury and shock; endocrine disorders, and myocarditides of viral, bacterial, and protozoal causation. Considerable overlap exists between each of the etiologic groups in the spectrum of pathologic alterations seen in the myocardium. These include various degenerative changes, myocyte necrosis, and inflammatory lesions. However, some diseases show rather characteristic myocardial alterations such as vacuolar degeneration in anthracycline cardiotoxicity, myofibrillar lysis in furazolidone cardiotoxicity, calcification in calcinosis of mice, glycogen accumulation in the glycogenoses, lipofuscinosis in cattle, fatty degeneration in erucic acid cardiotoxicity, myofiber disarray in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and lymphocytic inflammation with inclusion bodies in canine parvoviral myocarditis. The myocardial diseases represent the largest group in the spectrum of spontaneous cardiac diseases of animals. Pericardial and endocardial diseases and congential cardiac diseases are

  19. The Evolution of Multicellular Plants and Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, James W.

    1978-01-01

    Traces the evolution of unicellular organisms to the multi-cellular plants and animals in existence today. Major events are depicted in a geologic timetable. Organisms, extinct and recent, are classified by taxonomic group. (MA)

  20. Very early posttraumatic serum alterations are significantly associated to initial massive RBC substitution, injury severity, multiple organ failure and adverse clinical outcome in multiple injured patients

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Multiple severe trauma frequently leads to massive dysbalances of the human immune system. This phenomenon is known as "Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)". SIRS is connected to multiple organ failure and thereby entails higher morbidity and mortality in trauma patients. Pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as Il-6, Il-8 and Il-10 seem to play a superior role in the development of SIRS. Several studies support the hypothesis that the very early cytokine release pattern determines the patients' subsequent clinical course. Most data about interleukins in trauma patients however refer to serum concentrations assessed sometime in the first 24 h, but there is only little information about release dynamics in a small-meshed time frame in the very initial post-trauma period. Patients and methods 58 multiple injured patients (Injury Severity Score > 16 points) were included. Blood samples were drawn on patient admission (not later then 90 minutes after trauma) and at 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. Il-6, Il-8 and Il-10 were measured using an automated chemiluminescence assay (IMMULITE, Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics GmbH). Interleukin levels were correlated to distinct epidemiological and clinical parameters. Results Interleukin serum concentrations are thoroughly elevated after trauma. Patients with haemorrhagic shock and consecutive massive RBC substitution (n = 27) exhibit higher Il-6, Il-8 and Il-10 levels as compared to patients with minor RBC transfusion extent (n = 31). Interleukin levels also differentiate patients with MOF (n = 43) from such without MOF (n = 15) already at the earliest post trauma time (90 minutes). Il-6, Il-8 and Il-10 concentrations also significantly distinguish patients with adverse outcome (n = 11) from such with favourable outcome (n = 47). Exclusively Il-10 has significant correlation to injury severity (ISS > 35). Conclusion The current study presents an image of the serum Il-6, 8 and 10 releases in multiple

  1. Animating Brains.

    PubMed

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-07-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title 'Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience'. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of 'soul catching', the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain's electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  2. Animating Brains

    PubMed Central

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  3. Temporal Alterations in the Secretome of the Selective Ligninolytic Fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora during Growth on Aspen Wood Reveal This Organism's Strategy for Degrading Lignocellulose

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Chiaki; Gaskell, Jill; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Kersten, Phil; Mozuch, Michael; Samejima, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    The white-rot basidiomycetes efficiently degrade all wood cell wall polymers. Generally, these fungi simultaneously degrade cellulose and lignin, but certain organisms, such as Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, selectively remove lignin in advance of cellulose degradation. However, relatively little is known about the mechanism of selective ligninolysis. To address this issue, C. subvermispora was grown in liquid medium containing ball-milled aspen, and nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify and estimate extracellular protein abundance over time. Several manganese peroxidases and an aryl alcohol oxidase, both associated with lignin degradation, were identified after 3 days of incubation. A glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 51 arabinofuranosidase was also identified after 3 days but then successively decreased in later samples. Several enzymes related to cellulose and xylan degradation, such as GH10 endoxylanase, GH5_5 endoglucanase, and GH7 cellobiohydrolase, were detected after 5 days. Peptides corresponding to potential cellulose-degrading enzymes GH12, GH45, lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase, and cellobiose dehydrogenase were most abundant after 7 days. This sequential production of enzymes provides a mechanism consistent with selective ligninolysis by C. subvermispora. PMID:24441164

  4. Enhanced Photosynthesis and Growth in atquac1 Knockout Mutants Are Due to Altered Organic Acid Accumulation and an Increase in Both Stomatal and Mesophyll Conductance.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, David B; Martins, Samuel C V; Cavalcanti, João Henrique F; Daloso, Danilo M; Martinoia, Enrico; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; DaMatta, Fábio M; Fernie, Alisdair R; Araújo, Wagner L

    2016-01-01

    Stomata control the exchange of CO2 and water vapor in land plants. Thus, whereas a constant supply of CO2 is required to maintain adequate rates of photosynthesis, the accompanying water losses must be tightly regulated to prevent dehydration and undesired metabolic changes. Accordingly, the uptake or release of ions and metabolites from guard cells is necessary to achieve normal stomatal function. The AtQUAC1, an R-type anion channel responsible for the release of malate from guard cells, is essential for efficient stomatal closure. Here, we demonstrate that mutant plants lacking AtQUAC1 accumulated higher levels of malate and fumarate. These mutant plants not only display slower stomatal closure in response to increased CO2 concentration and dark but are also characterized by improved mesophyll conductance. These responses were accompanied by increases in both photosynthesis and respiration rates, without affecting the activity of photosynthetic and respiratory enzymes and the expression of other transporter genes in guard cells, which ultimately led to improved growth. Collectively, our results highlight that the transport of organic acids plays a key role in plant cell metabolism and demonstrate that AtQUAC1 reduce diffusive limitations to photosynthesis, which, at least partially, explain the observed increments in growth under well-watered conditions. PMID:26542441

  5. Temporal alterations in the secretome of the selective ligninolytic fungus Ceriporiopsis subvermispora during growth on aspen wood reveal this organism's strategy for degrading lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Hori, Chiaki; Gaskell, Jill; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Kersten, Phil; Mozuch, Michael; Samejima, Masahiro; Cullen, Dan

    2014-04-01

    The white-rot basidiomycetes efficiently degrade all wood cell wall polymers. Generally, these fungi simultaneously degrade cellulose and lignin, but certain organisms, such as Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, selectively remove lignin in advance of cellulose degradation. However, relatively little is known about the mechanism of selective ligninolysis. To address this issue, C. subvermispora was grown in liquid medium containing ball-milled aspen, and nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify and estimate extracellular protein abundance over time. Several manganese peroxidases and an aryl alcohol oxidase, both associated with lignin degradation, were identified after 3 days of incubation. A glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 51 arabinofuranosidase was also identified after 3 days but then successively decreased in later samples. Several enzymes related to cellulose and xylan degradation, such as GH10 endoxylanase, GH5_5 endoglucanase, and GH7 cellobiohydrolase, were detected after 5 days. Peptides corresponding to potential cellulose-degrading enzymes GH12, GH45, lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase, and cellobiose dehydrogenase were most abundant after 7 days. This sequential production of enzymes provides a mechanism consistent with selective ligninolysis by C. subvermispora. PMID:24441164

  6. Fibrin-Genipin Adhesive Hydrogel for Annulus Fibrosus Repair: Performance Evaluation with Large Animal Organ Culture, In Situ Biomechanics, and In Vivo Degradation Tests

    PubMed Central

    Likhitpanichkul, M.; Dreischarf, M.; Illien-Junger, S.; Walter, B. A.; Nukaga, T.; Long, R. G; Sakai, D.; Hecht, A. C.; Iatridis, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Annulus fibrosus (AF) defects from annular tears, herniation, and discectomy procedures are associated with painful conditions and accelerated intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Currently, no effective treatments exist to repair AF damage, restore IVD biomechanics and promote tissue regeneration. An injectable fibrin-genipin adhesive hydrogel (Fib-Gen) was evaluated for its performance repairing large AF defects in a bovine caudal IVD model using ex vivo organ culture and biomechanical testing of motion segments, and for its in vivo longevity and biocompatibility in a rat model by subcutaneous implantation. Fib-Gen sealed AF defects, prevented IVD height loss, and remained well-integrated with native AF tissue following approximately 14,000 cycles of compression in 6-day organ culture experiments. Fib-Gen repair also retained high viability of native AF cells near the repair site, reduced nitric oxide released to the media, and showed evidence of AF cell migration into the gel. Biomechanically, Fib-Gen fully restored compressive stiffness to intact levels validating organ culture findings. However, only partial restoration of tensile and torsional stiffness was obtained, suggesting opportunities to enhance this formulation. Subcutaneous implantation results, when compared with the literature, suggested Fib-Gen exhibited similar biocompatibility behaviour to fibrin alone but degraded much more slowly. We conclude that injectable Fib-Gen successfully sealed large AF defects, promoted functional restoration with improved motion segment biomechanics, and served as a biocompatible adhesive biomaterial that had greatly enhanced in vivo longevity compared to fibrin. Fib-Gen offers promise for AF repairs that may prevent painful conditions and accelerated degeneration of the IVD, and warrants further material development and evaluation. PMID:25036053

  7. 7 CFR 371.7 - Animal Care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal Care. 371.7 Section 371.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 371.7 Animal Care....

  8. 7 CFR 371.7 - Animal Care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal Care. 371.7 Section 371.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 371.7 Animal Care....

  9. 7 CFR 371.7 - Animal Care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal Care. 371.7 Section 371.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 371.7 Animal Care....

  10. 7 CFR 371.7 - Animal Care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal Care. 371.7 Section 371.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 371.7 Animal Care....

  11. 7 CFR 371.7 - Animal Care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal Care. 371.7 Section 371.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 371.7 Animal Care....

  12. Animal venom studies: Current benefits and future developments.

    PubMed

    Utkin, Yuri N

    2015-05-26

    Poisonous organisms are represented in many taxa, including kingdom Animalia. During evolution, animals have developed special organs for production and injection of venoms. Animal venoms are complex mixtures, compositions of which depend on species producing venom. The most known and studied poisonous terrestrial animals are snakes, scorpions and spiders. Among marine animals, these are jellyfishes, anemones and cone snails. The toxic substances in the venom of these animals are mainly of protein and peptide origin. Recent studies have indicated that the single venom may contain up to several hundred different components producing diverse physiological effects. Bites or stings by certain poisonous species result in severe envenomations leading in some cases to death. This raises the problem of bite treatment. The most effective treatment so far is the application of antivenoms. To enhance the effectiveness of such treatments, the knowledge of venom composition is needed. On the other hand, venoms contain substances with unique biological properties, which can be used both in basic science and in clinical applications. The best example of toxin application in basic science is α-bungarotoxin the discovery of which made a big impact on the studies of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Today compositions of venom from many species have already been examined. Based on these data, one can conclude that venoms contain a large number of individual components belonging to a limited number of structural types. Often minor changes in the amino acid sequence give rise to new biological properties. Change in the living conditions of poisonous animals lead to alterations in the composition of venoms resulting in appearance of new toxins. At the same time introduction of new methods of proteomics and genomics lead to discoveries of new compounds, which may serve as research tools or as templates for the development of novel drugs. The application of these sensitive and

  13. Animal venom studies: Current benefits and future developments

    PubMed Central

    Utkin, Yuri N

    2015-01-01

    Poisonous organisms are represented in many taxa, including kingdom Animalia. During evolution, animals have developed special organs for production and injection of venoms. Animal venoms are complex mixtures, compositions of which depend on species producing venom. The most known and studied poisonous terrestrial animals are snakes, scorpions and spiders. Among marine animals, these are jellyfishes, anemones and cone snails. The toxic substances in the venom of these animals are mainly of protein and peptide origin. Recent studies have indicated that the single venom may contain up to several hundred different components producing diverse physiological effects. Bites or stings by certain poisonous species result in severe envenomations leading in some cases to death. This raises the problem of bite treatment. The most effective treatment so far is the application of antivenoms. To enhance the effectiveness of such treatments, the knowledge of venom composition is needed. On the other hand, venoms contain substances with unique biological properties, which can be used both in basic science and in clinical applications. The best example of toxin application in basic science is α-bungarotoxin the discovery of which made a big impact on the studies of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Today compositions of venom from many species have already been examined. Based on these data, one can conclude that venoms contain a large number of individual components belonging to a limited number of structural types. Often minor changes in the amino acid sequence give rise to new biological properties. Change in the living conditions of poisonous animals lead to alterations in the composition of venoms resulting in appearance of new toxins. At the same time introduction of new methods of proteomics and genomics lead to discoveries of new compounds, which may serve as research tools or as templates for the development of novel drugs. The application of these sensitive and

  14. The common neural parasite Pseudoloma neurophilia is associated with altered startle response habituation in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio): Implications for the zebrafish as a model organism.

    PubMed

    Spagnoli, Sean; Xue, Lan; Kent, Michael L

    2015-09-15

    The zebrafish's potential as a model for human neurobehavioral research appears nearly limitless despite its relatively recent emergence as an experimental organism. Since the zebrafish has only been part of the research community for a handful of decades, pathogens from its commercial origins continue to plague laboratory stocks. One such pathogen is Pseudoloma neurophilia, a common microparasite in zebrafish laboratories world-wide that generally produces subclinical infections. Given its high prevalence, its predilection for the host's brain and spinal cord, and the delicate nature of neurobehavioral research, the behavioral consequences of subclinical P. neurophilia infection must be explored. Fish infected via cohabitation were tested for startle response habituation in parallel with controls in a device that administered ten taps over 10 min along with taps at 18 and 60 min to evaluate habituation extinction. After testing, fish were euthanized and evaluated for infection via histopathology. Infected fish had a significantly smaller reduction in startle velocity during habituation compared to uninfected tankmates and controls. Habituation was eliminated in infected and control fish at 18 min, whereas exposed negative fish retained partial habituation at 18 min. Infection was also associated with enhanced capture evasion: Despite the absence of external symptoms, infected fish tended to be caught later than uninfected fish netted from the same tank. The combination of decreased overall habituation, early extinction of habituation compared to uninfected cohorts, and enhanced netting evasion indicates that P. neurophilia infection is associated with a behavioral phenotype distinct from that of controls and uninfected cohorts. Because of its prevalence in zebrafish facilities, P. neurophilia has the potential to insidiously influence a wide range of neurobehavioral studies if these associations are causative. Rigorous health screening is therefore vital to the

  15. Increased size of solid organs in patients with Chuvash polycythemia and in mice with altered expression of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Donghoon; Okhotin, David V; Kim, Bumjun; Okhotina, Yulia; Okhotin, Daniel J; Miasnikova, Galina Y; Sergueeva, Adelina I; Polyakova, Lydia A; Maslow, Alexei; Lee, Yonggu; Semenza, Gregg L; Prchal, Josef T; Gordeuk, Victor R

    2010-05-01

    Chuvash polycythemia, the first hereditary disease associated with dysregulated oxygen-sensing to be recognized, is characterized by a homozygous germ-line loss-of-function mutation of the VHL gene (VHL(R200W)) resulting in elevated hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha and HIF-2alpha levels, increased red cell mass and propensity to thrombosis. Organ volume is determined by the size and number of cells, and the underlying molecular control mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Work from several groups has demonstrated that the proliferation of cells is regulated in opposite directions by HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha. HIF-1alpha inhibits cell proliferation by displacing MYC from the promoter of the gene encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21(Cip1), thereby inducing its expression. In contrast, HIF-2alpha promotes MYC activity and cell proliferation. Here we report that the volumes of liver, spleen, and kidneys relative to body mass were larger in 30 individuals with Chuvash polycythemia than in 30 matched Chuvash controls. In Hif1a(+/-) mice, which are heterozygous for a null (knockout) allele at the locus encoding HIF-1alpha, hepatic HIF-2alpha mRNA was increased (2-fold) and the mass of the liver was increased, compared with wild-type littermates, without significant difference in cell volume. Hepatic p21(Cip1) mRNA levels were 9.5-fold lower in Hif1a(+/-) mice compared with wild-type littermates. These data suggest that, in addition to increased red cell mass, the sizes of liver, spleen, and kidneys are increased in Chuvash polycythemia. At least in the liver, this phenotype may result from increased HIF-2alpha and decreased p21(Cip1) levels leading to increased hepatocyte proliferation. PMID:20140661

  16. Increased size of solid organs in patients with Chuvash polycythemia and in mice with altered expression of HIF-1α and HIF-2α

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Donghoon; Okhotin, David V.; Kim, Bumjun; Okhotina, Yulia; Okhotin, Daniel J.; Miasnikova, Galina Y.; Sergueeva, Adelina I.; Polyakova, Lydia A.; Maslow, Alexei; Lee, Yonggu; Semenza, Gregg L.; Prchal, Josef T.

    2010-01-01

    Chuvash polycythemia, the first hereditary disease associated with dysregulated oxygen-sensing to be recognized, is characterized by a homozygous germ-line loss-of-function mutation of the VHL gene (VHLR200W) resulting in elevated hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α levels, increased red cell mass and propensity to thrombosis. Organ volume is determined by the size and number of cells, and the underlying molecular control mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Work from several groups has demonstrated that the proliferation of cells is regulated in opposite directions by HIF-1α and HIF-2α. HIF-1α inhibits cell proliferation by displacing MYC from the promoter of the gene encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21Cip1, thereby inducing its expression. In contrast, HIF-2α promotes MYC activity and cell proliferation. Here we report that the volumes of liver, spleen, and kidneys relative to body mass were larger in 30 individuals with Chuvash polycythemia than in 30 matched Chuvash controls. In Hif1a+/− mice, which are heterozygous for a null (knockout) allele at the locus encoding HIF-1α, hepatic HIF-2α mRNA was increased (2-fold) and the mass of the liver was increased, compared with wild-type littermates, without significant difference in cell volume. Hepatic p21Cip1 mRNA levels were 9.5-fold lower in Hif1a+/− mice compared with wild-type littermates. These data suggest that, in addition to increased red cell mass, the sizes of liver, spleen, and kidneys are increased in Chuvash polycythemia. At least in the liver, this phenotype may result from increased HIF-2α and decreased p21Cip1 levels leading to increased hepatocyte proliferation. PMID:20140661

  17. Binding of EBP50 to Nox organizing subunit p47phox is pivotal to cellular reactive species generation and altered vascular phenotype.

    PubMed

    Al Ghouleh, Imad; Meijles, Daniel N; Mutchler, Stephanie; Zhang, Qiangmin; Sahoo, Sanghamitra; Gorelova, Anastasia; Henrich Amaral, Jefferson; Rodríguez, Andrés I; Mamonova, Tatyana; Song, Gyun Jee; Bisello, Alessandro; Friedman, Peter A; Cifuentes-Pagano, M Eugenia; Pagano, Patrick J

    2016-09-01

    Despite numerous reports implicating NADPH oxidases (Nox) in the pathogenesis of many diseases, precise regulation of this family of professional reactive oxygen species (ROS) producers remains unclear. A unique member of this family, Nox1 oxidase, functions as either a canonical or hybrid system using Nox organizing subunit 1 (NoxO1) or p47(phox), respectively, the latter of which is functional in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). In this manuscript, we identify critical requirement of ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50; aka NHERF1) for Nox1 activation and downstream responses. Superoxide (O2 (•-)) production induced by angiotensin II (AngII) was absent in mouse EBP50 KO VSMC vs. WT. Moreover, ex vivo incubation of aortas with AngII showed a significant increase in O2 (•-) in WT but not EBP50 or Nox1 nulls. Similarly, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxidative stress was attenuated in femoral arteries from EBP50 KO vs. WT. In silico analyses confirmed by confocal microscopy, immunoprecipitation, proximity ligation assay, FRET, and gain-/loss-of-function mutagenesis revealed binding of EBP50, via its PDZ domains, to a specific motif in p47(phox) Functional studies revealed AngII-induced hypertrophy was absent in EBP50 KOs, and in VSMC overexpressing EBP50, Nox1 gene silencing abolished VSMC hypertrophy. Finally, ex vivo measurement of lumen diameter in mouse resistance arteries exhibited attenuated AngII-induced vasoconstriction in EBP50 KO vs. WT. Taken together, our data identify EBP50 as a previously unidentified regulator of Nox1 and support that it promotes Nox1 activity by binding p47(phox) This interaction is pivotal for agonist-induced smooth muscle ROS, hypertrophy, and vasoconstriction and has implications for ROS-mediated physiological and pathophysiological processes. PMID:27540115

  18. The effects of radionuclides on animal behavior.

    PubMed

    Gagnaire, Beatrice; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Bouron, Alexandre; Lestaevel, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Concomitant with the expansion of the nuclear industry, the concentrations of several pollutants, radioactive or otherwise, including uranium, caesium, cadmium and cobalt, have increased over the last few decades. These elemental pollutants do exist in the environment and are a threat to many organisms. Behavior represents the integration of all the anatomical adaptations and physiological processes that occur within an organism. Compared to other biological endpoints, the effects of pollutants on animal behavior have been the focus of only a few studies. However, behavioral changes appear to be ideal for assessing the effects of pollutants on animal populations, because behavior links physiological functions with ecological processes. The alteration of behavioral responses can have severe implications for survival of individuals and of population of some species. Behavioral disruptions may derive from several underlying mechanisms: disruption of neuro-sensorial activity and of endocrines, or oxidative and metabolic disruptions. In this review, we presented an overview of the current literature in which the effects of radioactive pollutants on behavior in humans, rodents, fish and wildlife species are addressed. When possible, we have also indicated the potential underlying mechanisms of the behavioral alterations and parameters measured. In fried, chronic uranium contamination is associated with behavior alterations and mental disorders in humans, and cognitive deficits in rats. Comparative studies on depleted and enriched uranium effects in rats showed that chemical and radiological activities of this metal induced negative effects on several behavioral parameters and also produced brain oxidative stress. Uranium exposure also modifies feeding behavior of bivalves and reproductive behavior of fish. Studies of the effects of the Chernobyl accident shows that chronic irradiation to 137Cs induces both nervous system diseases and mental disorders in humans leading to

  19. Modeling animal landscapes.

    PubMed

    Porter, W P; Ostrowski, S; Williams, J B

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing need to assess the effects of climate and land-use change on habitat quality, ideally from a mechanistic basis. The symposium "Molecules to Migration: Pressures of Life" at the Fourth International Conference in Africa for Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry, Maasai Mara National Reserve, Kenya, 2008, illustrated how the principles of biophysical ecology can capture the mechanistic links between organisms, climate, and other habitat features. These principles provide spatially explicit assessments of habitat quality from a physiological perspective (i.e., "animal landscapes") that can be validated independently of the data used to derive and parameterize them. The contents of this symposium showcased how the modeling of animal landscapes can be used to assess key issues in applied and theoretical ecology. The presentations included applications to amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The rare Arabian oryx on the Arabian Peninsula is used as an example for energetic calculations and their implications for behavior on the landscape. PMID:20670170

  20. Organic compounds present in airborne particles stimulate superoxide production and DNA fragmentation: role of NOX and xanthine oxidase in animal tissues.

    PubMed

    Busso, Iván Tavera; Silva, Guillermo Benjamín; Carreras, Hebe Alejandra

    2016-08-01

    Suspended particulate matter trigger the production of reactive oxygen species. However, most of the studies dealing with oxidative damage of airborne particles focus on the effects of individual compounds and not real mixtures. In order to study the enzymatic superoxide production resulting from the exposition to a complex mixture, we derived organic extracts from airborne particles collected daily in an urban area and exposed kidney, liver, and heart mammal tissues. After that, we measured DNA damage employing the comet assay. We observed that in every tissue, NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase were involved in O2 (-) production when they were exposed to the organic extracts, as the lucigenin's chemiluminescence decays when enzymes were inhibited. The same trend was observed with the percentage of cells with comets, since DNA damage was higher when they were exposed to same experimental conditions. Our data allow us to hypothesize that these enzymes play an important role in the oxidative stress produced by PAHs and that there is a mechanism involving them in the O2 (-)generation. PMID:27180836

  1. 76 FR 63210 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 71, 77, 78, and 90 Secretary's Advisory Committee on Animal Health; Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of... Advisory Committee on Animal Health. The meeting is organized by the Animal and Plant Health...

  2. Detrimental Effects of Discectomy on Intervertebral Disc Biology can be Decelerated by Growth Factor Treatment during Surgery – A large animal organ culture model

    PubMed Central

    Illien-Jünger, S.; Lu, Y.; Purmessur, D.; Mayer, J.E.; Walter, B.A.; Roughley, P.J.; Qureshi, S.A.; Hecht, A.C.; Iatridis, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT Lumbar discectomies are common surgical interventions that treat radiculopathy by removing herniated and loose intervertebral disc (IVD) tissues. However, remaining IVD tissue can continue to degenerate resulting in long-term clinical problems. Little information is available on the effects of discectomy on IVD biology. Currently no treatments exist that can suspend or reverse the degeneration of the remaining IVD. PURPOSE To improve knowledge how discectomy procedures influence IVD physiology and to assess the potential of growth-factor treatment as an augmentation during surgery STUDY DESIGN To determine effects of discectomy on IVDs with and without TGFβ3 augmentation using bovine IVD organ culture. METHODS This study determined effects of discectomy with and without TGFβ3 injection using 1, 6, and 19 days organ culture experiments. Treated IVDs were injected with 0.2μg TGFβ3 in 20μl PBS+BSA into several locations of the discectomy site. Cell viability, gene expression, nitric-oxide release, IVD height, aggrecan degradation, and proteoglycan content were determined. RESULTS Discectomy significantly increased cell death, aggrecan degradation and nitric-oxide release in healthy IVDs. TGFβ3 injection treatment prevented or mitigated those effects for the 19 days culture period. CONCLUSIONS Discectomy procedures induced cell death, catabolism and nitric-oxide production in healthy IVDs, and we conclude that post-discectomy degeneration is likely to be associated with cell death and matrix degradation. TGFβ3 injection augmented discectomy procedures by acting to protect IVD tissues by maintaining cell viability, limiting matrix degradation and suppressing nitric-oxide. We conclude that discectomy procedures can be improved with injectable therapies at the time of surgery although further in vivo and human studies are required. PMID:24768749

  3. [Intercellular channels in animals].

    PubMed

    Panchin, Iu V

    2011-01-01

    Gap junctions are considered to serve a similar function in all multicellular animals (Metazoa). Two unrelated protein families are involved in this function: connexins, which are found only in chordates, and pannexins, which are present in the genomes of both chordates and invertebrates. Recent sequence data from different organisms show important exceptions to this simplified scheme. It looks as if Chordate lancelet has only pannexins and no connexins in its genome. New data indicate that some metazoans have neither connexins nor pannexins and use other unidentified proteins to form gap junctions. PMID:21786702

  4. Programs in Animal Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, Don R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five topics relating to programs in animal agriculture are addressed: (1) the future of animal agriculture; (2) preparing teachers in animal agriculture; (3) how animal programs help young people; (4) a nontraditional animal agriculture program; and (5) developing competencies in animal agriculture. (LRA)

  5. Symptomatic animal models for dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Bethany K.; Hess, Ellen J.

    2013-01-01

    Symptomatic animal models have clinical features consistent with human disorders and are often used to identify the anatomical and physiological processes involved in the expression of symptoms and to experimentally demonstrate causality where it would be infeasible in the patient population. Rodent and primate models of dystonia have identified basal ganglia abnormalities, including alterations in striatal GABAergic and dopaminergic transmission. Symptomatic animal models have also established the critical role of the cerebellum in dystonia, particularly abnormal glutamate signaling and aberrant Purkinje cell activity. Further, experiments suggest that the basal ganglia and cerebellum are nodes in an integrated network that is dysfunctional in dystonia. The knowledge gained from experiments in symptomatic animal models may serve as the foundation for the development of novel therapeutic interventions to treat dystonia. PMID:23893454

  6. The impact of auxins used in assisted phytoextraction of metals from the contaminated environment on the alterations caused by lead(II) ions in the organization of model lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Sroka, Aleksandra; Jabłońska, Klaudia

    2016-07-01

    Auxins are successfully used to improve phytoextraction efficiency of metal ions from the contaminated environment, however, the mechanism of their activity in this field is not explained. Auxins are known to exert various biochemical alterations in the plant membranes and cells, but their activity involves also direct interactions with lipids leading to changes in membrane organization. Following the suggestion that the auxins-induced modifications in membrane properties alleviate toxic effect of metal ions in this paper we have undertaken the comparative studies on the effect of metal ions and metal ions/auxins mixtures on model membrane systems. The experiments were done on lipid monolayers differing in their composition spread on water subphase and on Pb(2+), Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and Pb(2+)/IAA and Pb(2+)/NAA water solutions. The analysis of the collected data suggests that metal ions and auxins can change fluidity of the lipid systems and weaken the interactions between monolayer components. This manifested in the increase of the mean area per molecule and the excess area per molecule values for the films on Pb(2+), auxins as well as Pb(2+)/auxin solutions as compared to the values on pure water subphase. However, the presence of auxin in the mixture with lead(II) ions makes the alterations induced by sole metal ions weaker. This effect was more pronounced for the membranes of a higher packing. Thus it was proposed that auxins may enhance phytoextraction of metal ions by weakening their destabilizing effect on membrane. PMID:26998874

  7. Animal habitats for space experiments.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Keiji; Shimazu, Toru

    2004-11-01

    There has been little opportunity for flight experiments using small animals, due to delay of construction of the International Space Station. Therefore, proposals using small animals have been unfortunately excepted from International Space Life Sciences Experiment application opportunity since 2001. Moreover, NASA has changed their development plan of animal habitats for space experiments according to changes of the U.S. space policy and the outlook is not so bright. However, international researchers have been strongly requesting the opportunity for space experiments using small animals. It will be also important for Japanese researchers to make a request for the opportunity. At the same time, researchers have to make an advance in ground based studies toward space experiments and to respond future application opportunities immediately. In this symposium, we explain the AEM (Animal Enclosure Module), the RAHF (Research Animal Holding Facility), and the AAH (Advanced Animal Habitat). It will be helpful for investigators to have wide knowledge of what space experiment is technically possible. In addition, the sample share program will be introduced into our communities. The program will provide many researchers with the organs and tissues from space-flown animals. We will explain the technical aspect of sample share program. PMID:15858343

  8. Radiolytic Alteration of Biosignatures on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, R. C.

    2016-05-01

    When exposed to ionizing radiation, a complex distribution of redox states and reactive intermediates form in both perchlorate and nitrate salts. These reactive species then act to alter the forms of organic biosignatures preserved on Mars.

  9. 9 CFR 101.7 - Seed organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seed organisms. 101.7 Section 101.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.7 Seed organisms....

  10. 9 CFR 101.7 - Seed organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seed organisms. 101.7 Section 101.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.7 Seed organisms....

  11. 9 CFR 101.7 - Seed organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seed organisms. 101.7 Section 101.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.7 Seed organisms....

  12. 9 CFR 101.7 - Seed organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seed organisms. 101.7 Section 101.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.7 Seed organisms....

  13. 9 CFR 101.7 - Seed organisms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed organisms. 101.7 Section 101.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS § 101.7 Seed organisms....

  14. Fantastic animals as an experimental model to teach animal adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Guidetti, Roberto; Baraldi, Laura; Calzolai, Caterina; Pini, Lorenza; Veronesi, Paola; Pederzoli, Aurora

    2007-01-01

    Background Science curricula and teachers should emphasize evolution in a manner commensurate with its importance as a unifying concept in science. The concept of adaptation represents a first step to understand the results of natural selection. We settled an experimental project of alternative didactic to improve knowledge of organism adaptation. Students were involved and stimulated in learning processes by creative activities. To set adaptation in a historic frame, fossil records as evidence of past life and evolution were considered. Results The experimental project is schematized in nine phases: review of previous knowledge; lesson on fossils; lesson on fantastic animals; planning an imaginary world; creation of an imaginary animal; revision of the imaginary animals; adaptations of real animals; adaptations of fossil animals; and public exposition. A rubric to evaluate the student's performances is reported. The project involved professors and students of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia and of the "G. Marconi" Secondary School of First Degree (Modena, Italy). Conclusion The educational objectives of the project are in line with the National Indications of the Italian Ministry of Public Instruction: knowledge of the characteristics of living beings, the meanings of the term "adaptation", the meaning of fossils, the definition of ecosystem, and the particularity of the different biomes. At the end of the project, students will be able to grasp particular adaptations of real organisms and to deduce information about the environment in which the organism evolved. This project allows students to review previous knowledge and to form their personalities. PMID:17767729

  15. Experiments on Analysing Voice Production: Excised (Human, Animal) and In Vivo (Animal) Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Döllinger, Michael; Kobler, James; Berry, David A.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Luegmair, Georg; Bohr, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Experiments on human and on animal excised specimens as well as in vivo animal preparations are so far the most realistic approaches to simulate the in vivo process of human phonation. These experiments do not have the disadvantage of limited space within the neck and enable studies of the actual organ necessary for phonation, i.e., the larynx. The studies additionally allow the analysis of flow, vocal fold dynamics, and resulting acoustics in relation to well-defined laryngeal alterations. Purpose of Review This paper provides an overview of the applications and usefulness of excised (human/animal) specimen and in vivo animal experiments in voice research. These experiments have enabled visualization and analysis of dehydration effects, vocal fold scarring, bifurcation and chaotic vibrations, three-dimensional vibrations, aerodynamic effects, and mucosal wave propagation along the medial surface. Quantitative data will be shown to give an overview of measured laryngeal parameter values. As yet, a full understanding of all existing interactions in voice production has not been achieved, and thus, where possible, we try to indicate areas needing further study. Recent Findings A further motivation behind this review is to highlight recent findings and technologies related to the study of vocal fold dynamics and its applications. For example, studies of interactions between vocal tract airflow and generation of acoustics have recently shown that airflow superior to the glottis is governed by not only vocal fold dynamics but also by subglottal and supraglottal structures. In addition, promising new methods to investigate kinematics and dynamics have been reported recently, including dynamic optical coherence tomography, X-ray stroboscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction with laser projection systems. Finally, we touch on the relevance of vocal fold dynamics to clinical laryngology and to clinically-oriented research. PMID:26581597

  16. Animal care guidelines and future directions.

    PubMed

    Webster, A B

    2007-06-01

    Two notions broadly accepted in developed western societies have made animal care guidelines inevitable. These are that domestic animals are sentient and that humans are responsible to ensure the proper care of domestic animals. Despite these common views, people have differing moral understandings of the human-animal relationship, and there are sharp divisions over how these views should be applied to domestic animal care. Animal care guidelines have been developed by different nations at several organizational levels to represent a compromise that is acceptable to most people. These organizational levels include individual poultry companies, national poultry associations, individual customers of the poultry industry, national associations of customer companies, national governments, and international organizations. Animal care guideline development has typically included input from producers and scientists and, depending on the sponsoring organization, animal advocates and government representatives as well. Animal advocacy groups have also sought to influence domestic animal care by campaigning against animal production practices or by offering their preferred guidelines for producers to adopt in the hope that the endorsement of the welfare group would add value to the product. Originally, animal care guidelines were only recommended, with little or no requirement for compliance. In recent years, the need for retail companies to assure certain welfare standards has led to animal welfare auditing of production facilities. Animal care guidelines primarily have sought to establish standards for handling and husbandry in existing production systems. Future guidelines may put increasing emphasis on adoption of alternative management practices or housing systems. International animal care guidelines are being developed on 2 levels (i.e., among national governments to create a common standard for trade in animal products and within international retail companies to

  17. Connective tissue disorders in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Halper, Jaroslava

    2014-01-01

    Though soft tissue disorders have been recognized and described to some detail in several types of domestic animals and small mammals for some years, not much progress has been made in our understanding of the biochemical basis and pathogenesis of these diseases in animals. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome described in dogs already in 1943 and later in cats affects mainly skin in these animals. The involved skin is thin and hyperextensible with easily inflicted injuries resulting in hemorrhagic wounds and atrophic scars. Joint laxity and dislocation common in people are less frequently found in dogs. No systemic complications, such as organ rupture or cardiovascular problems which have devastating consequences in people have been described in cats and dogs. The diagnosis is based on clinical presentation and on light or electron microscopic features of disorganized and fragmented collagen fibrils. Several cases of bovine and ovine dermatosparaxis analogous to human Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type VIIC were found to be caused by mutations in the procollagen I N-proteinase (pnPI) or ADAMTS2 gene, though mutations in other sites are likely responsible for other types of dermatosparaxis. Cattle suffering from a form of Marfan syndrome were described to have aortic dilatation and aneurysm together with ocular abnormalities and skeletal involvement. As in people mutations at different sites of bovine FBN1 may be responsible for Marfan phenotype. Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA), or hyperelastosis cutis, has been recognized in several horse breeds as affecting primarily skin, and, occasionally, tendons. A mutation in cyclophilin B, a chaperon involved in proper folding of collagens, has been identified in some cases. Degenerative suspensory ligament desmitis (DSLD) affects primarily tendons and ligaments of certain horse breeds. New data from our laboratory showed excessive accumulation of proteoglycans in organs with high content of connective tissues. We have