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1

Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that can infect many animals, including humans. It belongs to  

E-print Network

parasite that infects most species of warm blooded animals, including humans, and can cause the disease-to-person, except in instances of mother-to-child (congenital) transmission and blood transfusion or organToxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that can infect many animals, including

Wood, Marcelo A.

2

Pathology waste includes: Transgenic animals.  

E-print Network

Collection" form. · We will pick up your waste within 1-3 days. University of California, IrvinePathology waste includes: · Transgenic animals. · Potentially transgenic animals including, "no of as a hazardous chemical waste. The tissues or carcasses can then be disposed of as pathology waste. Labeling

George, Steven C.

3

Humane Treatment of Animals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is designed to give teachers resource information about the humane treatment of and care for animals. The topics are presented as springboards for discussion and class activity. Topics include the care of dogs, cats, birds, horses, and fish; wildlife and ecological relationships; and careers with animals. Illustrations on some pages

Dawson, Joan Smithey

4

Human Embryology Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For students of human development, the Human Embryology Animations site is a worthy resource. Created by Dr. Valerie O'Loughlin at Indiana University, the goal of this site is to help students "better understand the complex processes that must occur in embryologic development." The animations are divided into five thematic sections, including General Embryology, Development of the Limbs, and Urinary and Reproductive Embryology. Each animation lasts anywhere from 20 seconds to 8 minutes, and they cover heart tube folding, septum development, postnatal circulation, and 30 or so other processes. The site is designed for students and members of the general public with a basic understanding of human biology, and the animations are well-planned and worth a look. Additionally, they could be used for students reviewing materials for a course like AP Biology.

O'Loughlin, Valerie

2012-03-02

5

Human Embryology Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection features animations that illustrate a variety of the processes in the development of the human embryo. The collection was designed as a tool for medical students, but can serve as a review for other health-science practitioners and students. The animations are grouped by topic: cardiovascular embryology, development of the head and neck, gastrointestinal embryology, limb development, and urinary and reproductive embryology. They include written pre- and post-tests, and online assessment materials.

6

Animal and Human Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several misconceptions regarding the status of human communication systems relative to the systems of other animals are discussed in this paper. Arguments are offered supporting the expansion of the communication discipline to include the study of the communication systems of other species. The "communicative continuity" view which ranks man at

Rummel, Lynda

7

its monitoring. More generally, one could investigate the condi-tions under which animals (including humans) override their  

E-print Network

its monitoring. More generally, one could investigate the condi- tions under which animals, Harvard University, Bedford, MA 01730. griffin@fas.harvard.edu Abstract: In animals' natural lives: Does what is seen, heard, or smelled mean danger? Does that gesture mean aggression or fear? Is he

Hampton, Robert

8

The need to include animal protection in public health policies  

PubMed Central

Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712

Akhtar, Aysha

2013-01-01

9

Animating human athletics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes algorithms for the animation of men and women performing three dynamic athletic behaviors: running, bicycling, and vaulting. We animate these behaviors using control algorithms that cause a physically realistic model to perform the desired maneuver. For example, control algorithms allow the simulated humans to maintain balance while moving their arms, to run or bicycle at a variety

Jessica K. Hodgins; Wayne L. Wooten; David C. Brogan; James F. O'Brien

1995-01-01

10

Human Embryology Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A set of animations showing changes during cardiovascular, head & neck, and gut, with limb and urogenital development coming soon. Currently includes a pre and post tests on each segment so students can assess their learning.

PhD Valerie Dean O'Loughlin (Indiana University Medical Sciences Program)

2008-01-03

11

Astroviruses: human and animal.  

PubMed

The name astrovirus was used by Madeley and Cosgrove in 1975 to describe a small round virus (approximately 28 nm diameter) with star-like appearance on electron microscopy. It was first seen in faeces from a few children with gastroenteritis. An aetiological role in gastroenteritis has since been confirmed. The virus causes a mild illness after an incubation period of 3-4 days. Antibody studies indicate that infection is widespread and, in Britain, mainly occurs in the 2-5 year age group. Outbreaks occur in, for example, institutions and paediatric wards. The virus usually spreads by the faecal-oral route but food- or water-borne outbreaks have occurred. Strains of astrovirus have been isolated from many animals including calf, lamb, pig, cat, dog, duck and turkey. The lamb strain can cause gastroenteritis but the bovine strain did not cause diarrhoea in gnotobiotic calves. Infected turkeys have scours, and infection in ducklings causes haemorrhagic hepatitis with a mortality up to 25%. Five human serotypes have been described, all antigenically distinct from the bovine and ovine strains. The human astrovirus does not replicate in conventional tissue cultures but undergoes a non-productive cycle in human embryo kidney cells, and productive replication in the presence of trypsin. It is a positive-strand RNA virus, which is acid stable (pH3), survives at 60 degrees C for five but not 10 minutes and, like the enteroviruses, resists inactivation by alcohols. It has a density of 1.35-1.37 g/ml in caesium chloride. PMID:3109854

Kurtz, J B; Lee, T W

1987-01-01

12

Virtual human animation in natural language visualisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation motion of Virtual Reality (VR) objects and humans has experienced 1 important developments in the last decade. However, realistic virtual human animation gen- 2 eration remains a major challenge, even if applications are numerous, from VR games to 3 medical training. This paper proposes different methods for animating virtual humans, includ- 4 ing blending simultaneous animations of various temporal

Minhua Ma; Paul Mckevitt

2006-01-01

13

Companion animals and human health.  

PubMed

Pets, or companion animals, are said to be good for people. Until recently there has been little serious study of the effects on people's health of their interactions with companion animals. This is in spite of the fact that they have shared human lives for centuries and their beneficial effects have been known for at least 200 years. This paper reviews the ways in which companion animals have favourable effects on human health and behaviour, for example, as guides for blind and deaf people, for enriching the lives of long stay patients and for providing physical activity like horse riding for the severely disabled. Current knowledge of the effects of animals on human psychological, behavioural, physiological and social development is reviewed, including the use of animals in prison programmes. New findings in Australia show that pet owners had marked reduction in risk factors related to cardiac disease compared with non-owners. Other recent work has indicated that companion animals are able to act as 'early warning systems' for acute human conditions such as epileptic seizures. PMID:1534428

Edney, A T

1992-04-01

14

Human Embryology Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the most impressive ways to learn about biology, particularly that which we seldom see, is through modeling. Dr. Valerie O'Loughlin and her colleagues at Indiana University have created this thoroughly impressive set of animations so that "students could better understand the complex processes that must occur in embryologic development." The site is arranged into five main areas, including: Cardiovascular Embryology, Development of the Head and Neck, Gastrointestinal Embryology, Development of the Limbs, and Urinary and Reproductive Embryology. However, the only two sections currently loaded with animations are the first two. Presumably, the rest are coming soon. Also, because these animations are part of a study of teaching efficacy, Dr. O'Loughlin asks that users participate in an optional survey. However, all animations can be accessed without taking part. As a great addition to the site, users are presented with a few questions regarding the anatomy which they are about to see, prior to viewing the animation. Undboutedly, this is related to the Indiana University course that these animations are a part of, but they serve as a great addition for visitors other than students, too.

O'Loughlin, Valerie

15

(Provisional syllabus) HUMANS AMONG ANIMALS  

E-print Network

draw between humans and animals, or culture and nature, get redrawn ­ for psychological, political1 (Provisional syllabus) HUMANS AMONG ANIMALS KHC AN101 Honors College Freshman Seminar Prof of study is emerging in human-animal relations. Based partly on ancient questions and long-debated ideas

Goldberg, Bennett

16

Stability of oxymethyl-modified coumarinic acid cyclic prodrugs of diastereomeric opioid peptides in biological media from various animal species including human.  

PubMed

In vitro stability studies of oxymethyl-modified coumarinic acid (OMCA) cyclic prodrugs of the diastereomeric opioid peptides DADLE ([D-Ala2,D-Leu5]-Enk, H-Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-D-Leu-OH), [Ala2,D-Leu5]-Enk (H-Tyr-Ala-Gly-Phe-D-Leu-OH), [D-Ala2,Leu5]-Enk (H-Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-Phe-Leu-OH), and [Ala2,Leu5]-Enk (H-Tyr-Ala-Gly-Phe-Leu-OH) were conducted to evaluate how the chirality of specific amino acid residues (Ala2 and Leu5) in the peptide portion affects their bioconversion by esterases. The stability studies were conducted at 37 degrees C in plasma and tissue homogenates (liver and brain) from five animal species (rat, mouse, canine, guinea pig, and hamster) and human in an attempt to identify an animal species that had a "prodrug bioconversion profile" comparable to that of humans. Initially, the total esterase activity in these biological media was measured using p-nitrophenyl butyrate (PNPB) as a substrate. By repeating this activity assay in the presence of paraoxon, a potent esterase B inhibitor, it was possible to estimate the relative amounts of esterases B and esterases A/C in a biological sample. Stability studies of the cyclic prodrugs were carried out under identical conditions, that is, in the presence and absence of paraoxon. Significant differences in the rates of hydrolysis of the cyclic prodrugs were observed, particularly between cyclic prodrugs with differences in the chirality of the amino acid on the C-terminus of the peptide portion, for example, L-amino acids at the C-terminus hydrolyzed more rapidly than D-amino acids. This stereoselective hydrolysis was independent of the animal species but tended to be more pronounced in brain and liver homogenates compared to plasma. Increased esterase specific activity, as measured by PNPB, in the biological media did not necessarily correlate with increased bioconversion rates of the cyclic prodrugs. The enzymatic stability profiles of the cyclic prodrugs in biological media from canine and guinea pig most closely resembled the profiles from human biological media. Therefore, canine and guinea pig appear to be the most relevant animal models for conducting pharmacokinetic studies on these cyclic prodrugs of opioid peptides. PMID:16136552

Liederer, Bianca M; Borchardt, Ronald T

2005-10-01

17

Humans and Animals Learning Together  

E-print Network

Humans and Animals Learning Together HALT (Humans and Animals Learning Together) is a non to dogs. Suitable dogs are selected from a local animal shelter and are medically and behaviorally site. Student trainers are adolescents from residential centers for treatment of substance abuse

Tennessee, University of

18

Human\\/companion animal therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human\\/Companion Animal Therapy is a single process in that it introduces a companion animal into the life of a person to enhance his emotional well being. There are, however, various ways in which the companion animal may be used. These are: a) as a psychotherapeutic adjunct, b) as the sole therapist, c) as a catalytic agent for change, d) as

Boris M. Levinson

1984-01-01

19

Companion animals and human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pets, or companion animals, are said to be good for people. Until recently there has been little serious study of the effects on people's health of their interactions with companion animals. This is in spite of the fact that they have shared human lives for centuries and their beneficial effects have been known for at least 200 years. This paper

AT Edney

1992-01-01

20

Humans and Animals Learning Together  

E-print Network

Humans and Animals Learning Together HALT Spring 2013 Dogs Available for Adoption For information for treatment of substance abuse, behavioral or alienation problems. They are selected by the staff Medicine. Dogs are provided through an arrangement with Young-Williams Animal Center. Veterinary care

Tennessee, University of

21

Gender Differences in HumanAnimal Interactions: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

I review the direction and magnitude (effect sizes) of gender dif- ferences that have been reported in several areas of human-animal interac- tions. These include: attitudes toward the treatment of animals, attachment to pets, involvement in animal protectionism, animal hoarding, hunting, animal abuse, and bestiality. Women, on average, show higher levels of positive be- haviors and attitudes toward animals (e.g.,

Harold A. Herzog

2007-01-01

22

INTRODUCTION Numerous marine animals that migrate long distances, including  

E-print Network

3535 INTRODUCTION Numerous marine animals that migrate long distances, including fishes, sea marine migrations. Young loggerheads leave their nesting beaches and embark on transoceanic migrations., 1995; Lohmann et al., 2012). During these migrations, juvenile turtles spend considerable time foraging

Lohmann, Kenneth J.

23

Category Description Study of animals and animal life, including the study of the structure,  

E-print Network

and of interactions between the two. Astronomy is the study of anything in the universe beyond the Earth. Plant1 Category Description Animal Sciences Study of animals and animal life, including the study analysis and design, application and system software design, programming, and datacenter operations. Earth

Cooper, Robin L.

24

Animal Models of Human Granulocyte Diseases  

PubMed Central

In vivo animal models have proven very useful to understand basic biological pathways of the immune system, a prerequisite for the development of innovate therapies. This manuscript addresses currently available models for defined human monogenetic defects of neutrophil granulocytes, including murine, zebrafish and larger mammalian species. Strengths and weaknesses of each system are summarized, and clinical investigators may thus be inspired to develop further lines of research to improve diagnosis and therapy by use of the appropriate animal model system. PMID:23351993

Schaffer, Alejandro A.; Klein, Christoph

2012-01-01

25

Animal, Human, and Microbiological Safety Testing of Cosmetic Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis-The three principal areas of TESTING pertinent to COSMETICS are discussed. These include SAFETY determination in ANIMALS, safety and efficacy studies in HUMANS, and MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDIES for safety and product stability. Prod- ucts must be shown safe to animals prior to use on humans. Most animal studies include, for the most part, acute and subacute studies. The former are done

M. J. THOMAS; P. A. MAJORS

26

Animal Model Evaluation of Dairy Goats for Milk, Fat, and Protein Yields with Crossbred Animals Included  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic evaluation of dairy goats was extended to include evaluation of protein yield and evaluation of Oberhasli and experimental breeds. Diverse genetic background of parents of crossbred ani- mals can be accounted for with an animal model that includes all relationships. The animal model system implemented for dairy goats differed from the one for dairy cattle in that all breeds

G. R. Wiggans

1989-01-01

27

Boron in human and animal nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the findings from human and animal studies indicating that B is a dynamic trace element which, in physiological amounts, can affect the metabolism or utilisation of numerous other substances involved in life processes including macrominerals, energy substrates such as triglycerides and glucose, nitrogen containing substances such as amino acids and proteins, reactive oxygen species, and estrogen. Through

Forrest H. Nielsen

1997-01-01

28

Judgment of the Humanness\\/Animality of Mythological Hybrid (Part-Human, Part-Animal) Figures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty Ss displayed considerable consistency in judging portraits of 29 mythological hybrid (part-human, part-animal) figures along a human-animal continuum. Wings, attached (angel-like) to otherwise intact human bodies, were the sole animal features of the three figures judged to be most human. A single human feature, the head, joined to an otherwise animal body, characterized the four most animal-like figures. Humanness\\/animality

Harvey Nash

1974-01-01

29

Animal products and selected human infectious diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

e developing of close contacts of humans with animals that served humans for meat and as guardians brought among others the exchange of microflora in both organisms. By inhalation of aerosol from animal's hair and scales, and especially by consumption of animal meat, eggs and milk, men became a part of natural circulation of animal microorganisms. Many of originally zoopathogenic

M. KOL?OV; L. KOL?OV; A. PE?INA; P. CHALUPA

2002-01-01

30

Fascioliasis prevalences among animals and human in Upper Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coprological surveys on animal and human fascioliasis were performed in Qena, a governorate located in Upper Egypt. Animal and human stool samples were collected from four localities: Abu-Tesht, Qena, Armant, and Isna. A total of 297 stool samples from different animals were examined. These samples are (105 cows, 163 buffaloes and 29 sheep). The overall prevalence was 30.3% and including

Abdel-Nasser A. Hussein; Refaat M. A. Khalifa

2010-01-01

31

[Animal reservoirs of human virulent microsporidian species].  

PubMed

The main objective of the present study was to determined the occurrence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis, E. hellem, E. cuniculi, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Poland in animal faecal using the FISH (Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization) and multiplex FISH techniques. Additional objectives included: (1) identification of animal hosts of microsporidia that are infectious to humans amongst free-ranging, captive, livestock and domestic animals; (2) a molecular analysis of randomly selected parasite isolates and determination of their zoonotic potential; (3) evaluation of the role of animals in the dissemination of microsporidia spores in the environment, and an estimation of the potential risk of infection for other animals and humans. A total of 1340 faecal samples collected from 178 species of animals were examined using conventional staining (chromotrope-2R and calcofluor white M2R staining) and molecular techniques (FISH and multiplex FISH techniques). Microsporidian spores were detected in 33 faecal samples (2.5%) obtained from 17 animal species. Microsporidia were demonstrated more often in birds (6.1%) than in mammals (0.7%); the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.00001). In addition, the prevalence of microsporidian infections in waterfowl was significantly higher than the prevalence of microsporidian infections in other animals (p < 0.03). Animal reservoirs of human infectious microsporidia were disclosed in six of 38 sites where faecal samples were taken from animals. Three species of human virulent microsporidia were identified in animals. Spores of E. hellem were found in 25 faecal samples (1.9%) taken from 12 bird species (6 zoo bird species, 4 free-ranging bird species, 2 livestock bird species). Spores of E. intestinalis were identified in five faecal samples (0.4%) taken from two livestock bird species and two zoo mammal species. In turn, E. bieneusi spores were detected only in three faecal samples (0.2%) taken from three zoo mammal species. It was demonstrated that the new hosts of E. hellem are the following bird species: mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), greyleg goose (Anser anser), mute swan (Cygnus olor), black-necked swan (Cygnus melancoryphus), black swan (Cygnus atratus), coscoroba swan (Coscoroba coscoroba), black-crowned crane (Balearica pavonina), nicobar pigeon (Caloenas nicobarica) and carrion crow (Corvus cornix). In addition, E. hellem was found for the first time in birds from the Anseriformes and Gruiformes orders. Whereas E. intestinalis was disclosed for the first time in the domestic goose (Anser anser f. domestica), red ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata rubra) and the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), while the black lemur (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), mongoose lemur (Eulemur mongoz) and the Visayan warty pig (Sus cebifrons negrinus) were first found to carry E. bieneusi. The mammal species that were found to carry E. bieneusi and E. intestinalis are included in The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The results of the present study are significant from an epidemiological point of view. The wild, livestock and zoo animals that were found to carry microsporidia live in different conditions, and thus their role as animal reservoirs for these dangerous pathogens varies. Waterfowl birds may be the main source of contamination of surface waters with E. hellem spores and the protection of surface waters is virtually impossible. Moreover, isolates of E. hellem from mute swans have SSU rRNA sequences identical to E. hellem genotype reported 10 years ago in HIV-positive patient in USA (GenBank Accession no. L19070). This result indicate that E. hellem from mute swans can be a potential source of infection for humans. The contamination of the human environment with microsporidian spores infectious to humans is also facilitated by farm and synanthropic birds, because E. hellem and E. intestinalis were found in farms pigeons, domestic goose and the carrion crow. These birds can also be the source of infectious for breeders and ornithologists. The occurrence of microsporidiosis in an

S?odkowicz-Kowalska, Anna

2009-01-01

32

Comparing Ocean Animals with Other Animals (and Humans!)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What characteristics do ocean animals have that help them to survive in the ocean that are the same or different than other animals which live on the land or fly through the sky? How are they the same or different from humans? We have enjoyed learning about lots of different animals in class, but there is still so much more to learn! The websites listed below have some fun pictures and videos that will help you compare some of the characteristics of ocean animals with other land and sky animals we've learned ...

Plouffe, Mrs.

2011-09-26

33

Animal models are reliably mimicking human diseases? A morphological study that compares animal with human NAFLD.  

PubMed

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a clinical-pathological syndrome that includes a wide spectrum of morphological alterations. In research, animal models are crucial in evaluating not only the pathogenesis of NAFLD and its progression, but also the therapeutic effects of various agents. Investigations on the ultrastructural features of NAFLD in humans are not copious, due to the difficulty to obtain human samples and to the long time of NAFLD to evolve. Translational comparative studies on the reliability of animal models in representing the histopathologic picture as seen in humans are missing. To overcome this lack of investigations, we compared the ultrastructural NAFLD features of an animal model versus human. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a high fat diet (HFD) for 1-4 weeks, while control rats were fed with a standard diet. Human specimens were collected from patients with diagnosed fatty liver disease, undergoing liver biopsies or surgery. Rat and human samples were examined by light microscopy and by transmission and high resolution scanning electron microscopy. The present work demonstrated that NAFLD in animal model and in human, share overlapping ultrastructural features. In conclusion, animal HFD represent an appropriate tool in studying the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Microsc. Res. Tech. 77:790-796, 2014. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25044260

Solinas, Paola; Isola, Michela; Lilliu, Maria Alberta; Conti, Gabriele; Civolani, Alberto; Demelia, Luigi; Loy, Francesco; Isola, Raffaella

2014-10-01

34

Human\\/Animal Body Imagery: Judgment of Mythological Hybrid (Part-Human, Part-Animal) Figures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty male and female undergraduates judged pictures of 32 mythological hybrid (part-human, part-animal) figures on three dimensions: human-ness\\/animality, unpleasantness, and incongruity. Winged humans were judged more human than erect animal-headed, human-bodied hybrids, which were in turn judged more human than hybrids which were neither erect nor bipedal. Humanness\\/animality ratings of the figures correlated + .83 with incongruity ratings and +

Harvey Nash

1980-01-01

35

Animal model evaluation of dairy goats for milk, fat, and protein yields with crossbred animals included.  

PubMed

Genetic evaluation of dairy goats was extended to include evaluation of protein yield and evaluation of Oberhasli and experimental breeds. Diverse genetic background of parents of crossbred animals can be accounted for with an animal model that includes all relationships. The animal model system implemented for dairy goats differed from the one for dairy cattle in that all breeds were processed simultaneously and evaluations of relatives included data from does without a first lactation record and from later herds for does that changed herds. Unknown parent groups were defined for each breed except Oberhasli, which was grouped with the Alpine breed because of small population size. Management groups were 2-mo seasons with separate groups for first and later lactations. Management groups with fewer than five lactation records were combined with other groups until five lactations were included or the management group was 10-mo long. Evaluations for milk and fat were computed for 141,003 animals: 80,227 does with lactation records, 34,294 dams without records, and 26,482 bucks. About 70% of animals had protein evaluations. Genetic trend in 1984 for the five breeds with largest population sizes ranged from 3.8 to 5.2 kg/yr for milk yield. PMID:2592651

Wiggans, G R

1989-09-01

36

CONTROL FOR SIMULATED HUMAN AND ANIMAL MOTION  

E-print Network

community, com­ puter animation has proved to be a surprisingly fertile ground for experimentation in motionCONTROL FOR SIMULATED HUMAN AND ANIMAL MOTION Michiel van de Panne 1 Department of Computer Science University of Toronto Abstract: The intelligent and graceful motion control exhibited by animals and humans

Panne, M. van de

37

Human and animal cognition: Continuity and discontinuity  

E-print Network

Human and animal cognition: Continuity and discontinuity David Premack* University of Communicated, 2007) Microscopic study of the human brain has revealed neural struc- tures, enhanced wiring, and forms of connectivity among nerve cells not found in any animal, challenging the view that the human brain is simply

Indiana University

38

Human stewardship and animal welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal welfare must be clearly defined and understood in all languages. Welfare means well-being, so that `bad-welfare' is contradictory. Welfare depends upon the provision of all necessary physiological and psychological requirements and the absence or control of adverse factors. Recognition of animals' sentience led to concerns for their welfare. Since animals can neither obtain nor sustain rights for themselves they

J. H Seamer

1998-01-01

39

Revised January 2012 Appendix I Animals (including insects and fish)  

E-print Network

conducted) 2. Will you be generating any genetically modified organisms? If yes, what animals and how? N/A 3 derivative) RG1 Farq / 123A *PHAC- Public Health Agency of Canada **CFIA- Canadian Food Inspection Agency

40

Animal models for human herpesvirus 6 infection  

PubMed Central

Human herpesvirus (HHV)-6A and HHV-6B are two enveloped DNA viruses of ?-herpesvirus family, infecting over 90% of the population and associated with several diseases, including exanthema subitum (for HHV-6B), multiple sclerosis and encephalitis, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. Animal models are highly important to better understand the pathogenesis of viral infections. Naturally developed neutralizing antibodies to HHV-6 or a related virus were found in different species of monkeys, suggesting their susceptibility to HHV-6 infection. Both HHV-6 DNA and infectious virus were detected in experimentally infected Cynomolgus and African green monkeys, although most animals remained clinically asymptomatic. Furthermore, HHV-6A infection was shown to accelerate the progression of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in macaques and to lead to the development of neurological symptoms in the marmoset model. Humanized SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice efficiently replicated HHV-6 and were also susceptible to coinfection with HHV-6 and HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus 1). As CD46 was identified as a receptor for HHV-6, transgenic mice expressing human CD46 may present a potentially interesting model for study certain aspects of HHV-6 infection and neuroinflammation. PMID:23847599

Reynaud, Josephine M.; Horvat, Branka

2013-01-01

41

Realistic 3D Human Facial Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Construction and animation of realistic human facial models is an important research field in computer graphics. How to simulate the motions of human faces on 3D facial models in real-time to generate realistic facial expressions is still a challenge. In this paper, a technique to simulate the human facial animation realistically in real-time is presented. First of all, the 3D

ZHANG Qing-Shan; CHEN Guo-Liang

2003-01-01

42

Heartworm disease in animals and humans.  

PubMed

Heartworm disease due to Dirofilaria immitis continues to cause severe disease and even death in dogs and other animals in many parts of the world, even though safe, highly effective and convenient preventatives have been available for the past two decades. Moreover, the parasite and vector mosquitoes continue to spread into areas where they have not been reported previously. Heartworm societies have been established in the USA and Japan and the First European Dirofilaria Days (FEDD) Conference was held in Zagreb, Croatia, in February of 2007. These organizations promote awareness, encourage research and provide updated guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of heartworm disease. The chapter begins with a review of the biology and life cycle of the parasite. It continues with the prevalence and distribution of the disease in domestic and wild animals, with emphasis on more recent data on the spreading of the disease and the use of molecular biology techniques in vector studies. The section on pathogenesis and immunology also includes a discussion of the current knowledge of the potential role of the Wolbachia endosymbiont in inflammatory and immune responses to D. immitis infection, diagnostic use of specific immune responses to the bacteria, immunomodulatory activity and antibiotic treatment of infected animals. Canine, feline and ferret heartworm disease are updated with regard to the clinical presentation, diagnosis, prevention, therapy and management of the disease, with special emphasis on the recently described Heartworm Associated Respiratory Disease (HARD) Syndrome in cats. The section devoted to heartworm infection in humans also includes notes on other epizootic filariae, particularly D. repens in humans in Europe. The chapter concludes with a discussion on emerging strategies in heartworm treatment and control, highlighting the potential role of tetracycline antibiotics in adulticidal therapy. PMID:18486691

McCall, John W; Genchi, Claudio; Kramer, Laura H; Guerrero, Jorge; Venco, Luigi

2008-01-01

43

Social learning in humans and other animals  

PubMed Central

Decisions made by individuals can be influenced by what others think and do. Social learning includes a wide array of behaviors such as imitation, observational learning of novel foraging techniques, peer or parental influences on individual preferences, as well as outright teaching. These processes are believed to underlie an important part of cultural variation among human populations and may also explain intraspecific variation in behavior between geographically distinct populations of animals. Recent neurobiological studies have begun to uncover the neural basis of social learning. Here we review experimental evidence from the past few decades showing that social learning is a widespread set of skills present in multiple animal species. In mammals, the temporoparietal junction, the dorsomedial, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as the anterior cingulate gyrus, appear to play critical roles in social learning. Birds, fish, and insects also learn from others, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. We discuss the evolutionary implications of these findings and highlight the importance of emerging animal models that permit precise modification of neural circuit function for elucidating the neural basis of social learning. PMID:24765063

Gariepy, Jean-Francois; Watson, Karli K.; Du, Emily; Xie, Diana L.; Erb, Joshua; Amasino, Dianna; Platt, Michael L.

2014-01-01

44

Personality in Non-human Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, research on animal personality has flourished in numerous disciplines ranging from Behavioral Ecology and Developmental Psychobiology to Genetics and Comparative Psychology. The broad appeal of animal studies is that, in comparison with human studies, they afford greater experimental control, more options for measuring physiological and genetic parameters, greater oppor- tunities for naturalistic observation, and an accelerated

Samuel D. Gosling

2008-01-01

45

Companion animals and human health: an overview.  

PubMed

Domestic animals share our environment in a variety of ways. One of these ways is as companions in and around our homes. Although a wide variety of species are kept in households for this purpose, the great majority are dogs and cats. Sharing our environment with such animals has a profound effect on the health of the humans concerned. As keeping companion animals is a very widespread activity, about 50% of all households in the Western world have some sort of animal, the effects are far reaching. PMID:8786595

Edney, A T

1995-12-01

46

Companion animals and human health: an overview.  

PubMed Central

Domestic animals share our environment in a variety of ways. One of these ways is as companions in and around our homes. Although a wide variety of species are kept in households for this purpose, the great majority are dogs and cats. Sharing our environment with such animals has a profound effect on the health of the humans concerned. As keeping companion animals is a very widespread activity, about 50% of all households in the Western world have some sort of animal, the effects are far reaching. PMID:8786595

Edney, A T

1995-01-01

47

Animal models of human disease: inflammation.  

PubMed

Animals have been used as models to study inflammation and autoimmunity for more than 80 years. During that time it has been understood that although the use of such models is an important and necessary part of understanding human disease, they inevitably display significant differences from the human disease state. Since our understanding of human inflammation and autoimmunity is necessarily incomplete, it may be concluded that the animal models will also be reflective of the state of knowledge regarding such diseases. Nevertheless, animal models of rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease and multiple sclerosis have been successfully used to enhance the understanding of the human disease and have made significant contributions to the development of powerful new therapies. However, there are exceptions. One of the most persistent has been the study of sepsis where the animal models have been woefully inadequate in uncovering targets for drug discovery and have led to repeated clinical failures. As will be explained, only by using newly developed genomics tools has it been possible to uncover the differences between sepsis in mice and sepsis in man. It is concluded that approaches using the newer genomic and proteomic data derived from human tissues, will make possible the development of animal models with more predictive power as aids to drug discovery. PMID:23811309

Webb, David R

2014-01-01

48

Are animal models predictive for humans?  

PubMed Central

It is one of the central aims of the philosophy of science to elucidate the meanings of scientific terms and also to think critically about their application. The focus of this essay is the scientific term predict and whether there is credible evidence that animal models, especially in toxicology and pathophysiology, can be used to predict human outcomes. Whether animals can be used to predict human response to drugs and other chemicals is apparently a contentious issue. However, when one empirically analyzes animal models using scientific tools they fall far short of being able to predict human responses. This is not surprising considering what we have learned from fields such evolutionary and developmental biology, gene regulation and expression, epigenetics, complexity theory, and comparative genomics. PMID:19146696

2009-01-01

49

Guideline for Review, Approval, & Post Approval Monitoring of Animal Study Proposals Including Designated Member Review  

E-print Network

, justification of the number of animals required and experimental refinement. #12;2 Protocols with procedures1 Guideline for Review, Approval, & Post Approval Monitoring of Animal Study Proposals Including Designated Member Review In the NIH Animal Study Proposal (ASP) review process, Animal Care and Use

Bandettini, Peter A.

50

Breeding amiable animals? Improving farm animal welfare by including social effects in breeding programmes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social interactions between individuals, such as co-operation and competition, are key factors in evolution by natural selection. As a consequence, evolutionary biologists have developed extensive theories to understand the consequences of social interactions for response to natural selection. Current genetic improvement programmes in animal husbandry, in contrast, largely ignore the implications of social interactions for the design of breeding programmes.

T. B. Rodenburg; P. Bijma; E. D. Ellen; R. Bergsma; Vries de S; J. E. Bolhuis; B. Kemp; Arendonk van J. A. M

2010-01-01

51

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section 86.19... 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may be made...Administration Manual 2 concerning animal welfare. 2 The Department...

2010-10-01

52

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section 86.19... 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may be made...Administration Manual 2 concerning animal welfare. 2 The Department...

2011-10-01

53

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application is...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See footnote 2...

2011-10-01

54

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application is...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See footnote 2...

2010-10-01

55

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

2012-10-01

56

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award...Administration Manual 2 concerning animal welfare. 2 The...

2013-10-01

57

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

2013-10-01

58

Anthrax in animals and humans in Mongolia.  

PubMed

Anthrax is endemic throughout Mongolia, except in the semi-desert and desert areas of the south. The prevalence of anthrax in Mongolia had drastically decreased since the 1950s due to the use of anthrax antiserum and vaccines, but the privatisation of the animal husbandry sector and changes in the structures of the veterinary and medical delivery systems in Mongolia over the last decade have resulted in challenges for disease control. Animal and human anthrax has become an increasing problem since the mid-1990s. Human cutaneous anthrax is common in Mongolia as a result of exposure to infected animals. In this paper, the authors identify potential causes forthe increase of anthrax in Mongolia. The current prevention efforts may not be adequate. Anthrax surveillance and control must be intensified, particularly in areas of high prevalence. PMID:18293618

Odontsetseg, N; Sh, Tserendorj; Adiyasuren, Z; Uuganbayar, D; Mweene, A S

2007-12-01

59

Animation of Human Walking in Virtual Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an interactive hierarchical motion control system dedicated to the animation of human figure locomotion in virtual environments. As observed in gait experiments, controlling the trajectories of the feet during gait is a precise end-point control task. Inverse kinematics with optimal approaches are used to control the complex relationships between the motion of the body and the coordination

Shih-kai Chung; James K. Hahn

1999-01-01

60

Spatial Knowledge in Humans, Animals and Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans, animals and robots are physically existing agents situated in the real world. Their common ability to extract, store and use spatial information is crucial for their successful operation. On the other hand, their idiosyncracies seem to be reflected on their spatial knowledge. The paper attempts a survey around the term cognitive map, coined to describe exactly the body of

Michail G. Lagoudakis

1998-01-01

61

Variability Discrimination in Humans and Animals Implications for Adaptive Action  

E-print Network

Variability Discrimination in Humans and Animals Implications for Adaptive Action Edward A Tufts University Both humans and animals live in a rich world of events. Some events repeat themselves- ability affects both human and animal action. Recent com- parative research with humans and animals

Cook, Robert

62

Effects of interactions between humans and domesticated animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans have many kinds of relationships with domesticated animals. To maintain relationships interactions are needed. Interactions with animals may be beneficial for humans but may also be risky. Scientific literature on effects of human-animal relationships and interactions in a workplace, health-care and residential context has been reviewed to develop ideas about the effects farm animals can have on humans. Although

EDDIE A. M. BOKKERS

2006-01-01

63

Proteomics in farm animals models of human diseases.  

PubMed

The need to provide in vivo complex environments to understand human diseases strongly relies on the use of animal models, which traditionally include small rodents and rabbits. It is becoming increasingly evident that the few species utilised to date cannot be regarded as universal. There is a great need for new animal species that are naturally endowed with specific features relevant to human diseases. Farm animals, including pigs, cows, sheep and horses, represent a valid alternative to commonly utilised rodent models. There is an ample scope for the application of proteomic techniques in farm animals, and the establishment of several proteomic maps of plasma and tissue has clearly demonstrated that farm animals provide a disease environment that closely resembles that of human diseases. The present review offers a snapshot of how proteomic techniques have been applied to farm animals to improve their use as biomedical models. Focus will be on specific topics of biomedical research in which farm animal models have been characterised through the application of proteomic techniques. PMID:24595991

Ceciliani, Fabrizio; Restelli, Laura; Lecchi, Cristina

2014-10-01

64

Visible human slice sequence animation Web server  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since June 1998, EPFL's Visible Human Slice Server (http://visiblehuman.epfl.ch) allows to extract arbitrarily oriented and positioned slices. More than 300,000 slices are extracted each year. In order to give a 3D view of anatomic structures, a new service has been added for extracting slice animations along a user-defined trajectory. This service is useful both for research and teaching purposes (http:visiblehuman.epfl.ch/animation/). Extracting slices of animations at any desired position and orientation from the Visible Human volume (Visible Man or Woman) requires both high throughput and much processing power. The I/O disk bandwidth can be increased by accessing more than one disk at the same time, i.e. by stripping data across several disks and by carrying out parallel asynchronous disk accesses. Since processing operations such as slice and animation extraction are compute- intensive, they require the program execution to be carried out in parallel on several computers. In the present contribution, we describe the new slice sequence animation service as well as the approach taken for parallelizing this service on a multi-PC multi-disk Web server.

Bessaud, Jean-Christophe; Hersch, Roger D.

2000-12-01

65

ISFG: Recommendations regarding the use of non-human (animal) DNA in forensic genetic investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of non-human DNA typing in forensic science investigations, and specifically that from animal DNA, is ever increasing. The term animal DNA in this document refers to animal species encountered in a forensic science examination but does not include human DNA. Non-human DNA may either be: the trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species,

A. Linacre; L. Gusmo; W. Hecht; A. P. Hellmann; W. R. Mayr; W. Parson; M. Prinz; P. M. Schneider; N. Morling

2011-01-01

66

Amino acids in human and animal nutrition.  

PubMed

Amino acids are key components of human and animal nutrition, both as part of a protein-containing diet, and as supplemented individual products. In the last 10 years there has been a marked move away from the extraction of amino acids from natural products, which has been replaced by efficient fermentation processes using nonanimal carbon sources. Today several amino acids are produced in fermentation plants with capacities of more than 100,000 tonnes to serve the requirements of animal feed and human nutrition. The main fermentative amino acids for animal nutrition are L-lysine, L-threonine, and L-tryptophan. DL-Methionine continues to be manufactured for animal feed use principally by chemical synthesis, and a pharmaceutical grade is manufactured by enzymatic resolution. Amino acids play an important role in medical nutrition, particularly in parenteral nutrition, where there are high purity requirements for infusion grade products. Amino acids are also appearing more often in dietary supplements, initially for performance athletes, but increasingly for the general population. As the understanding of the effects of the individual amino acids on the human metabolism is deepened, more specialized product mixtures are being offered to improve athletic performance and for body-building. PMID:24676880

Karau, Andreas; Grayson, Ian

2014-01-01

67

Morally relevant differences between animals and human beings justifying the use of animals in biomedical research.  

PubMed

I have attempted to show that the differential qualities of animals and human beings indeed to have bearing on moral rules and the derivation of rights, including rights established on the basis of reason and utilitarianism. Special rights for members of our species are not simply a consequence of human domination and self-interest. I also have tried to show that rights arise from values and that the qualities we value most highly often are the ones that distinguish human beings from other species. I maintain that giving more value to human lives over animal lives achieves reflective balance with the commonsense notions that most of us have developed. Because utilitarianism, contractualism, and the classical philosophical methods of Kant and Aristotle all may allow favoring human interests over animal interests, it seems reasonable to suspect that animal rights activists embrace narrow, extremist views. There are many uniquely human experiences to which we ascribe high value-deep interpersonal relationships, achieving a life's goal, enjoying a complex cultural event such as a play or an opera, or authoring a manuscript. Therefore, it would seem improper that social and ethical considerations regarding animals be centered entirely on the notion of a biological continuum, because there are many kinds of human experience-moral, religious, aesthetic, and otherwise-that appear to be outside the realm of biology. Knowledge about the biology of animals is helpful for making moral decisions about our obligations to them. Why, then, is there a substantial population of animal rights activists in Europe, the United States, and throughout the world, who would not agree with my conclusions? Certain habitual ways of thinking may encourage anthropomorphism and equating animal interests with human interests. Certain metaphysical beliefs, such as a belief in reincarnation, also might favor animal rights. It also is possible that a number of people are being deceived and misled by a smaller, more radical minority. I believe that a commitment to animal rights principles also may arise from a world view of strict naturalism. If ethical inquiry is based strictly on naturalism without criteria for value and goodness, then perhaps extreme views granting animals the same rights as human beings are a logical consequence of those premises; however, it is not clear to me whether one could be internally consistent and still maintain those beliefs. Moral convictions do not arise directly from the ethical frameworks I have discussed. The study of ethics only casts light on our presumptions and suppositions and helps us analyze and appraise our beliefs about justice, rights, and morality. Those of us who work with animals know that animals, particularly companion animals, can be wonderful to relate with, that they possess unique beauty and value, and that they enrich our lives and the world in which we live. In the strict biological sense, human beings are animals too, but in the broader sense, human beings are much more than animals. The life of a man, woman, or child is worth far more than the life of a mouse, rat, dog, or monkey. PMID:9054986

Dennis, J U

1997-03-01

68

Swarm intelligence in animals and humans.  

PubMed

Electronic media have unlocked a hitherto largely untapped potential for swarm intelligence (SI; generally, the realisation that group living can facilitate solving cognitive problems that go beyond the capacity of single animals) in humans with relevance for areas such as company management, prediction of elections, product development and the entertainment industry. SI is a rapidly developing topic that has become a hotbed for both innovative research and wild speculation. Here, we tie together approaches from seemingly disparate areas by means of a general definition of SI to unite SI work on both animal and human groups. Furthermore, we identify criteria that are important for SI to operate and propose areas in which further progress with SI research can be made. PMID:19735961

Krause, Jens; Ruxton, Graeme D; Krause, Stefan

2010-01-01

69

Humane Society International's global campaign to end animal testing.  

PubMed

The Research & Toxicology Department of Humane Society International (HSI) operates a multifaceted and science-driven global programme aimed at ending the use of animals in toxicity testing and research. The key strategic objectives include: a) ending cosmetics animal testing worldwide, via the multinational Be Cruelty-Free campaign; b) achieving near-term reductions in animal testing requirements through revision of product sector regulations; and c) advancing humane science by exposing failing animal models of human disease and shifting science funding toward human biology-based research and testing tools fit for the 21st century. HSI was instrumental in ensuring the implementation of the March 2013 European sales ban for newly animal-tested cosmetics, in achieving the June 2013 cosmetics animal testing ban in India as well as major cosmetics regulatory policy shifts in China and South Korea, and in securing precedent-setting reductions in in vivo data requirements for pesticides in the EU through the revision of biocides and plant protection product regulations, among others. HSI is currently working to export these life-saving measures to more than a dozen industrial and emerging economies. PMID:24512229

Seidle, Troy

2013-12-01

70

Collision Detection for Clothed Human Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a voxel-based collision detection method for clothed human animation. We speed up the performance of the voxel-based method by choosing an appropriate voxel size and using a fast voxelization approach. Based on the voxel method, we propose a self-collision detection method and a simplified collision detection method. First, the efficiency of self-collision detection is improved by taking advantage

Dongliang Zhang; Matthew Ming-fai Yuen

2000-01-01

71

Scripting human animations in a virtual environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current deficiencies of virtual environment (VE) are well known: annoying lag time in drawing the current view, drastically simplified environments to reduce that time lag, low resolution and narrow field of view. Animation scripting is an application of VE technology which can be carried out successfully despite these deficiencies. The final product is a smoothly moving high resolution animation displaying detailed models. In this system, the user is represented by a human computer model with the same body proportions. Using magnetic tracking, the motions of the model's upper torso, head and arms are controlled by the user's movements (18 degrees of freedom). The model's lower torso and global position and orientation are controlled by a spaceball and keypad (12 degrees of freedom). Using this system human motion scripts can be extracted from the user's movements while immersed in a simplified virtual environment. Recorded data is used to define key frames; motion is interpolated between them and post processing adds a more detailed environment. The result is a considerable savings in time and a much more natural-looking movement of a human figure in a smooth and seamless animation.

Goldsby, Michael E.; Pandya, Abhilash K.; Maida, James C.

1994-01-01

72

Our Professional Responsibilities Relative to Human-Animal Interactions  

PubMed Central

An interesting area with great potential for benefiting and enriching the lives and conditions of people and animals is opening to us in research, service and teaching. By working with colleagues in other disciplines, we can develop new and creative ways to realize the great promise inherent in people-animal interactions properly studied and utilized. Veterinarians who understand that a strong human-companion animal bond can augment people's mental and physical states will help develop sound and effective companion animal programs for individuals who are lonely or handicapped and for persons in the school systems of the community, as well as its hospices, nursing and convalescent homes, prisons and other institutions. Children experiencing the deep satisfaction of interacting with animals while young will more likely become responsible pet owners and advocates as adults. The image of the profession is enhanced when children and adults see veterinarians as concerned teachers and compassionate health professionals. We as professionals will be required not only to update our knowledge and skills, but to acquire new knowledge in fields of animal and human behavior, psychology and sociology. We are needed on interdisciplinary research teams to study human-animal interactions. We will also be asked to commit time and personal energies in community programs, sometimes with no remuneration. But if skilled health professionals like veterinarians do not take the lead in establishing sound, long-term companion animal programs in their own communities, everyone will suffer including the animals. How we, as individual professionals, respond will be an important reflection of our compassion and our humanity. PMID:17422458

Bustad, L. K.; Hines, L.

1984-01-01

73

Tobacco and cigarette butt consumption in humans and animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discarded cigarette butts may present health risks to human infants and animals because of indiscriminate eating behaviours. Nicotine found in cigarette butts may cause vomiting and neurological toxicity; leachates of cigarette butts in aquatic environments may cause exposure to additional toxic chemicals including heavy metals, ethyl phenol and pesticide residues. This report reviews published and grey literature regarding cigarette butt

Thomas E Novotny; Sarah N Hardin; Lynn R Hovda; Dale J Novotny; Mary Kay McLean; Safdar Khan

2011-01-01

74

Tobacco and cigarette butt consumption in humans and animals  

PubMed Central

Discarded cigarette butts may present health risks to human infants and animals because of indiscriminate eating behaviours. Nicotine found in cigarette butts may cause vomiting and neurological toxicity; leachates of cigarette butts in aquatic environments may cause exposure to additional toxic chemicals including heavy metals, ethyl phenol and pesticide residues. This report reviews published and grey literature regarding cigarette butt waste consumption by children, pets and wildlife. Although reports of human and animal exposures number in the tens of thousands, severe toxic outcomes due to butt consumption are rare. Nonetheless, the ubiquity of cigarette butt waste and its potential for adverse effects on human and animal health warrants additional research and policy interventions to reduce the stream of these pollutants in the environment. PMID:21504918

Hardin, Sarah N; Hovda, Lynn R; Novotny, Dale J; McLean, Mary Kay; Khan, Safdar

2011-01-01

75

Spinal hyperostosis in humans and companion animals.  

PubMed

Both spondylosis and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) are prevalent in humans and are considered distinct entities. Nowadays, the term spondylosis is in the biomedical literature mostly used when also degenerative disc disease is present. In companion animals, many reports on spondylosis, often without intervertebral disc degeneration, are described. The nomenclature and the definitions of both spondylosis and DISH in the biomedical and veterinary literature should be more in line to facilitate comparison. DISH occurs in dogs but has not been described in cats yet. DISH and spondylosis can co-occur in dogs in one animal. Boxers may serve as translational disease models for the elucidation of the gene(s) involved in the (etio)pathogenesis of DISH or serve as a test population for newly developed treatment options. PMID:23419148

Kranenburg, H C; Hazewinkel, H A W; Meij, B P

2013-01-01

76

Hepatitis E virus infections in humans and animals.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E has traditionally been considered an endemic disease of developing countries. It generally spreads through contaminated water. However, seroprevalence studies have shown that hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are not uncommon in industrialized countries. In addition, the number of autochthonous hepatitis E cases in these countries is increasing. Most HEV infections in developed countries can be traced to the ingestion of contaminated raw or undercooked pork meat or sausages. Several animal species, including pigs, are known reservoirs of HEV that transmit the virus to humans. HEVs are now recognized as an emerging zoonotic agent. In this review, we describe the general characteristics of HEVs isolated from humans and animals, the risk factors for human HEV infection, and the current status of human vaccine development. PMID:24427760

Song, Young-Jo; Park, Woo-Jung; Park, Byung-Joo; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Nak-Hyung; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Choi, In-Soo

2014-01-01

77

21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section 864.2280... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

78

Animal models for human craniofacial malformations.  

PubMed

Holoprosencephaly malformations, of which the fetal alcohol syndrome appears to be a mild form, can result from medial anterior neural plate deficiencies as demonstrated in an ethanol treated animal model. These malformations are associated with more medial positioning of the nasal placodes and resulting underdevelopment or absence of the medial nasal prominences (MNPs) and their derivatives. Malformations seen in the human retinoic acid syndrome (RAS) can be produced by administration of the drug 13-cis-retinoic acid in animals. Primary effects on neural crest cells account for most of these RAS malformations. Many of the malformations seen in the RAS are similar to those of hemifacial microsomia, suggesting similar neural crest involvement. Excessive cell death, apparently limited to trigeminal ganglion neuroblasts of placodal origin, follows 13-cis retinoic acid administration at the time of ganglion formation and leads to malformations virtually identical to those of the Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS). Secondary effects on neural crest cells in the area of the ganglion appear to be responsible for the TCS malformations. Malformations of the DiGeorge Syndrome are similar to those of the RAS and can be produced in mice by ethanol administration or by "knocking out" a homeobox gene (box 1.5). Human and animal studies indicate that cleft lips of multifactorial etiology may be generically susceptible because of small MNP)s or other MNP developmental alterations, such as those found in A/J mice, that make prominence contact more difficult. Experimental maternal hypoxia in mice indicates that cigarette smoking may increase the incidence of cleft lip by interfering with morphogenetic movements. Other human cleft lips may result from the action of a single major gene coding for TGF-alpha variants. A study with mouse palatal shelves in culture and other information suggest that a fusion problem may be involved. PMID:1812129

Johnston, M C; Bronsky, P T

1991-01-01

79

Circadian rhythms and depression: human psychopathology and animal models.  

PubMed

Most organisms (including humans) developed daily rhythms in almost every aspect of their body. It is not surprising that rhythms are also related to affect in health and disease. In the present review we present data that demonstrate the evidence for significant interactions between circadian rhythms and affect from both human studies and animal models research. A number of lines of evidence obtained from human and from animal models research clearly demonstrate relationships between depression and circadian rhythms including (1) daily patterns of depression; (2) seasonal affective disorder; (3) connections between circadian clock genes and depression; (4) relationship between sleep disorders and depression; (5) the antidepressant effect of sleep deprivation; (6) the antidepressant effect of bright light exposure; and (7) the effects of antidepressant drugs on sleep and circadian rhythms. The integration of data suggests that the relationships between the circadian system and depression are well established but the underlying biology of the interactions is far from being understood. We suggest that an important factor hindering research into the underlying mechanisms is the lack of good animal models and we propose that additional efforts in that area should be made. One step in that direction could be the attempt to develop models utilizing diurnal animals which might have a better homology to humans with regard to their circadian rhythms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'. PMID:21871466

Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; Einat, Haim

2012-01-01

80

Management of human and animal bite wound infection: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal and human bite wounds can lead to serious infections. The organisms recovered generally originate from the biters\\u000a oral cavity and the victims skin flora. Anaerobes were isolated from more than two thirds of human and animal bite infections.\\u000a Streptococcus pyogenes is often recovered in human bites, Pasteurella multocida in animal bites, Eikenella corrodens in animal and human, Capnocytophaga spp,

Itzhak Brook

2009-01-01

81

Teratoma Formation Assays with Human Embryonic Stem Cells: A Rationale for One Type of Human-Animal Chimera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a long and valuable history, human-animal chimera research has often been questioned. Among the moral issues raised by chimeras is the concept that integration of human cells into ana- tomical locations such as the brain might endow animals with ''human-like'' capacities including self- awareness. We present a justification for one type of human-animal chimera experiment: the evalu- ation of

M. William Lensch; Thorsten M. Schlaeger; Leonard I. Zon; George Q. Daley

82

FACE ANIMATION FOR HUMAN COMPUTER INTERFACES Joern Ostermann, Axel Weissenfeld  

E-print Network

animations indistinguishable from real videos. Subjective tests indicate that animated faces increaseFACE ANIMATION FOR HUMAN COMPUTER INTERFACES Joern Ostermann, Axel Weissenfeld Institut für MPEG-4 based 3D face animation and image-based face animation are presented. The latter can produce

83

Genetic Relationship between Human and Animal Isolates of Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

Analyzing Candida albicans isolates from different human and animal individuals by Ca3 fingerprinting, we obtained no evidence for host-specific genotypes and for the existence of species-specific lineages, even though a certain degree of separation between human and animal isolates was found. Therefore, animals could potentially serve as reservoirs for human Candida infection. PMID:16333121

Edelmann, Anke; Kruger, Monika; Schmid, Jan

2005-01-01

84

Computer Animation of Human Walking: a Survey Franck Multon1  

E-print Network

Computer Animation of Human Walking: a Survey Franck Multon1 , Laure France2 , Marie-Paule Cani Animation of human walking is a crucial problem in Computer Graphics: Many synthetic scenes involve virtual fteen years ago in Computer Graphics, with the rst work on \\knowledge- based" animation of human gures

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

85

Farm Animal Serum Proteomics and Impact on Human Health  

PubMed Central

Due to the incompleteness of animal genome sequencing, the analysis and characterization of serum proteomes of most farm animals are still in their infancy, compared to the already well-documented human serum proteome. This review focuses on the implications of the farm animal serum proteomics in order to identify novel biomarkers for animal welfare, early diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of infectious disease treatment, and develop new vaccines, aiming at determining the reciprocal benefits for humans and animals. PMID:25257521

Girolamo, Francesco Di; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Lante, Isabella; Signore, Fabrizio; Muraca, Marta; Putignani, Lorenza

2014-01-01

86

Atypical prion diseases in humans and animals.  

PubMed

Although prion diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep, have long been recognized, our understanding of their epidemiology and pathogenesis is still in its early stages. Progress is hampered by the lengthy incubation periods and the lack of effective ways of monitoring and characterizing these agents. Protease-resistant conformers of the prion protein (PrP), known as the "scrapie form" (PrP(Sc)), are used as disease markers, and for taxonomic purposes, in correlation with clinical, pathological, and genetic data. In humans, prion diseases can arise sporadically (sCJD) or genetically (gCJD and others), caused by mutations in the PrP-gene (PRNP), or as a foodborne infection, with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) causing variant CJD (vCJD). Person-to-person spread of human prion disease has only been known to occur following cannibalism (kuru disease in Papua New Guinea) or through medical or surgical treatment (iatrogenic CJD, iCJD). In contrast, scrapie in small ruminants and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids behave as infectious diseases within these species. Recently, however, so-called atypical forms of prion diseases have been discovered in sheep (atypical/Nor98 scrapie) and in cattle, BSE-H and BSE-L. These maladies resemble sporadic or genetic human prion diseases and might be their animal equivalents. This hypothesis also raises the significant public health question of possible epidemiological links between these diseases and their counterparts in humans. PMID:21598097

Tranulis, Michael A; Benestad, Sylvie L; Baron, Thierry; Kretzschmar, Hans

2011-01-01

87

Animals as sentinels of human health hazards of environmental chemicals.  

PubMed Central

A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environment," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, was held to consider the use of sentinel and surrogate animal species data for evaluating the potential human health effects of chemicals in the environment. The workshop took a broad view of the sentinel species concept, and included mammalian and nonmammalian species, companion animals, food animals, fish, amphibians, and other wildlife. Sentinel species data included observations of wild animals in field situations as well as experimental animal data. Workshop participants identified potential applications for sentinel species data derived from monitoring programs or serendipitous observations and explored the potential use of such information in human health hazard and risk assessments and for evaluating causes or mechanisms of effect. Although it is unlikely that sentinel species data will be used as the sole determinative factor in evaluating human health concerns, such data can be useful as for additional weight of evidence in a risk assessment, for providing early warning of situations requiring further study, or for monitoring the course of remedial activities. Attention was given to the factors impeding the application of sentinel species approaches and their acceptance in the scientific and regulatory communities. Workshop participants identified a number of critical research needs and opportunities for interagency collaboration that could help advance the use of sentinel species approaches. PMID:10090711

van der Schalie, W H; Gardner, H S; Bantle, J A; De Rosa, C T; Finch, R A; Reif, J S; Reuter, R H; Backer, L C; Burger, J; Folmar, L C; Stokes, W S

1999-01-01

88

Autonomous animation of human figures using intelligent agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The task of animating human characters is complex and has many degrees of freedom. There is an obvious need to provide a consistent framework to organize the knowledge and tools required so that the creative, intelligent animator working together with a series of reasoning systems, can quickly develop a complex animation. We investigate an approach in which the animator works

Tom Calvert; Sang Mah; Simon Tang

1995-01-01

89

Congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction: human disease and animal models  

PubMed Central

Ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction is the most frequently observed cause of obstructive nephropathy in children. Neonatal and foetal animal models have been developed that mimic closely what is observed in human disease. The purpose of this review is to discuss how obstructive nephropathy alters kidney histology and function and describe the molecular mechanisms involved in the progression of the lesions, including inflammation, proliferation/apoptosis, reninangiotensin system activation and fibrosis, based on both human and animal data. Also we propose that during obstructive nephropathy, hydrodynamic modifications are early inducers of the tubular lesions, which are potentially at the origin of the pathology. Finally, an important observation in animal models is that relief of obstruction during kidney development has important effects on renal function later in adult life. A major short-coming is the absence of data on the impact of UPJ obstruction on long-term adult renal function to elucidate whether these animal data are also valid in humans. PMID:20681980

Klein, Julie; Gonzalez, Julien; Miravete, Mathieu; Caubet, Cecile; Chaaya, Rana; Decramer, Stephane; Bandin, Flavio; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Buffin-Meyer, Benedicte; Schanstra, Joost P

2011-01-01

90

Food Animals and Antimicrobials: Impacts on Human Health  

PubMed Central

Summary: Antimicrobials are valuable therapeutics whose efficacy is seriously compromised by the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The provision of antibiotics to food animals encompasses a wide variety of nontherapeutic purposes that include growth promotion. The concern over resistance emergence and spread to people by nontherapeutic use of antimicrobials has led to conflicted practices and opinions. Considerable evidence supported the removal of nontherapeutic antimicrobials (NTAs) in Europe, based on the precautionary principle. Still, concrete scientific evidence of the favorable versus unfavorable consequences of NTAs is not clear to all stakeholders. Substantial data show elevated antibiotic resistance in bacteria associated with animals fed NTAs and their food products. This resistance spreads to other animals and humansdirectly by contact and indirectly via the food chain, water, air, and manured and sludge-fertilized soils. Modern genetic techniques are making advances in deciphering the ecological impact of NTAs, but modeling efforts are thwarted by deficits in key knowledge of microbial and antibiotic loads at each stage of the transmission chain. Still, the substantial and expanding volume of evidence reporting animal-to-human spread of resistant bacteria, including that arising from use of NTAs, supports eliminating NTA use in order to reduce the growing environmental load of resistance genes. PMID:21976606

Marshall, Bonnie M.; Levy, Stuart B.

2011-01-01

91

Humanimalia: A journal of human/animal interface studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website for the new journal Humanimalia, published by DePauw University, recently released its first issue. The appeal and importance of the journal goes beyond appearance, as the journal states that the study of the human/animal interface has been a "neglected" area of research. In the "Humanimalifesto" link, a lengthy explanation is given, and it notes that one of the main goals of the journal is "to approach animal/human interfaces without relying on stigmatizing critique of philosophical, political, or cultural antagonists." The first issue consists of articles and reviews, including an article called "Hooters for Neuters: Sexist Transgressive Animal Advocacy Campaign?" and a review of the popular Michael Pollan book, "The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals". Visitors interested in submitting an article to the peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journal should check out the guidelines in the "Call-for-Papers" link on the left side of the page. The "Notes and Bulletins" link, also on the left side of the page, has a notice of an Animal Studies meeting at NYU, and the "Links" area includes information on upcoming conferences.

92

Attitudes toward Animals: Th e Eff ect of Priming Th oughts of Human-Animal Similarities and Mortality Salience on the Evaluation of Companion Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human attitudes toward nonhuman animals are complex and quite contradictory. Th ey can range between extremely negative (animal cruelty) to positive (treating companion animals like human surrogates). Attitudes toward animals are especially negative when people think about human creatureliness and personal mortality. Th is paper investigates people's attitudes toward highly valued animals (companion animals). Th e research presented here tested

Ruth Beatson; Stephen Loughnan; Michael Halloran

93

WORKSHOP ON THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPARABILITY OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY, WORK GROUP I REPORT: COMPARABILITY OF MEASURES OF DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY IN HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Assessment measures used in developmental neurotoxicology are reviewed for their comparability in humans and laboratory animals, and their ability to detect comparable, adverse effects across species. ompounds used for these comparisons include: abuse substances, anticonvulsant d...

94

Exploring host-microbiota interactions in animal models and humans.  

PubMed

The animal and bacterial kingdoms have coevolved and coadapted in response to environmental selective pressures over hundreds of millions of years. The meta'omics revolution in both sequencing and its analytic pipelines is fostering an explosion of interest in how the gut microbiome impacts physiology and propensity to disease. Gut microbiome studies are inherently interdisciplinary, drawing on approaches and technical skill sets from the biomedical sciences, ecology, and computational biology. Central to unraveling the complex biology of environment, genetics, and microbiome interaction in human health and disease is a deeper understanding of the symbiosis between animals and bacteria. Experimental model systems, including mice, fish, insects, and the Hawaiian bobtail squid, continue to provide critical insight into how host-microbiota homeostasis is constructed and maintained. Here we consider how model systems are influencing current understanding of host-microbiota interactions and explore recent human microbiome studies. PMID:23592793

Kostic, Aleksandar D; Howitt, Michael R; Garrett, Wendy S

2013-04-01

95

Linkages between animal and human health sentinel data  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: In order to identify priorities for building integrated surveillance systems that effectively model and predict human risk of zoonotic diseases, there is a need for improved understanding of the practical options for linking surveillance data of animals and humans. We conducted an analysis of the literature and characterized the linkage between animal and human health data. We discuss the

Matthew Scotch; Lynda Odofin; Peter Rabinowitz

2009-01-01

96

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19...HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...and Health Training Grants 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No...

2012-10-01

97

Human and animal dirofilariasis: the emergence of a zoonotic mosaic.  

PubMed

Dirofilariasis represents a zoonotic mosaic, which includes two main filarial species (Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens) that have adapted to canine, feline, and human hosts with distinct biological and clinical implications. At the same time, both D. immitis and D. repens are themselves hosts to symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, the study of which has resulted in a profound shift in the understanding of filarial biology, the mechanisms of the pathologies that they produce in their hosts, and issues related to dirofilariasis treatment. Moreover, because dirofilariasis is a vector-borne transmitted disease, their distribution and infection rates have undergone significant modifications influenced by global climate change. Despite advances in our knowledge of D. immitis and D. repens and the pathologies that they inflict on different hosts, there are still many unknown aspects of dirofilariasis. This review is focused on human and animal dirofilariasis, including the basic morphology, biology, protein composition, and metabolism of Dirofilaria species; the climate and human behavioral factors that influence distribution dynamics; the disease pathology; the host-parasite relationship; the mechanisms involved in parasite survival; the immune response and pathogenesis; and the clinical management of human and animal infections. PMID:22763636

Simn, Fernando; Siles-Lucas, Mar; Morchn, Rodrigo; Gonzlez-Miguel, Javier; Mellado, Isabel; Carretn, Elena; Montoya-Alonso, Jose Alberto

2012-07-01

98

Natural immune systems protect animals from dangerous foreign pathogens, including bacte-  

E-print Network

Natural immune systems protect animals from dangerous foreign pathogens, including bacte- ria of Naval Research (N00014-95-1-0364), Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (N00014 infections are all highly parallel and distributed. This is one reason immune system mechanisms are so

Garlan, David

99

Animal Models and Bone Histomorphometry: Translational Research for the Human Research Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the use of animal models to research and inform bone morphology, in particular relating to human research in bone loss as a result of low gravity environments. Reasons for use of animal models as tools for human research programs include: time-efficient, cost-effective, invasive measures, and predictability as some model are predictive for drug effects.

Sibonga, Jean D.

2010-01-01

100

Systematic Reviews of Animal Experiments Demonstrate Poor Contributions Toward Human Healthcare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread reliance on animal models during preclinical research and toxicity testing assumes their reasonable predictivity for human outcomes. However, of 20 published systematic reviews examining human clinical utility, located during a comprehensive lit- erature search, animal models demonstrated significant potential to contribute toward the development of clinical interventions in only two cases, one of which was contentious. Included were experiments

Andrew Knight

2008-01-01

101

21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a)...

2012-04-01

102

21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products 864.2800 Animal and human sera. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

103

21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products 864.2800 Animal and human sera. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

104

21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a)...

2014-04-01

105

21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a)...

2013-04-01

106

21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.  

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products 864.2800 Animal and human sera. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

107

Future Directions in Human-Animal Bond Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human-animal contact can influence psychological and physiological parameters important to health and welfare; nevertheless, there has been relatively little research on the variables that influence or mediate those health consequences. In addition, little attention has been paid on how to create or alter the animal interactions for the betterment of people and their animals. The investigation can be guided by

Alan M. Beck; Aaron H. Katcher

2003-01-01

108

Discrimination of human and animal blood traces via Raman spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The characterization of suspected blood stains is an important aspect of forensic science. In particular, determining the origin of a blood stain is a critical, yet overlooked, step in establishing its relevance to the crime. Currently, assays for determining human origin for blood are time consuming and destructive to the sample. The research presented here demonstrates that Raman spectroscopy can be effectively applied as a non-destructive technique for differentiating human blood from a wide survey of animal blood. A Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) model was built from a training set of the near infrared Raman spectra from 11 species. Various performance measures, including a blind test and external validation, confirm the discriminatory performance of the chemometric model. The model demonstrated 100% accuracy in its differentiation between human and nonhuman blood. These findings further demonstrate a great potential of Raman spectroscopy to the field of serology, especially for species identification of a suspected blood stain. PMID:24681972

McLaughlin, Gregory; Doty, Kyle C; Lednev, Igor K

2014-05-01

109

The Archaeological Record of Human Impacts on Animal Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent archaeological research has fundamentally altered our understanding of the scope of past human impacts on nondomesticated animal populations. Predictions derived from foraging theory concerning the abundance histories of high-return human prey and diet breadth have been met in many parts of the world. People are known to have introduced a broad variety of nondomesticated animals, from sponges to agoutis

Donald K. Grayson

2001-01-01

110

The Human-Animal Bond and the Elementary School Counselor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses research on the significance of the human-animal relationship among various populations (elderly, children, business executives, displaced children, institutionalized children, juvenile offenders, and emotionally disturbed children). Describes experiences of incorporating the human-animal bond into an elementary school guidance and

Nebbe, Linda Lloyd

1991-01-01

111

Animal and Human CATs with a School Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-two school children were administered two forms of the CAT two weeks apart. Half received Animal form first and half received Human form first. Each form was scored as to the defense mechanisms and the various signs from a check list utilized. Analysis of the data by chi square revealed essentially no significant agreement between Animal and Human forms in

Marcia J. Lawton

1966-01-01

112

Chapter 18 Modeling the Interaction between Humans and Animals  

E-print Network

Chapter 18 Modeling the Interaction between Humans and Animals in Multiple-use Forests: A Case COLLEGE, CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AND J. L. D. SMITH DEPARTMENT OF FISHERIES, WILDLIFE AND CONSERVATION BIOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA The loss of animal habitat and the greater use of forests by humans

Ahearn, Sean

113

Mind, space and objectivity in non-human animals  

E-print Network

and explaining animal behavior. Evolutionary biology is focussing on the functions that appear in phylogeny. Philosophy looks for an explanation of mind in general, i.e. mentality as it appears in all animals, human and events may lead us to mistake the human, mentalistic, way of representing, with early biological

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

114

Extending ideas about animal welfare assessment to include 'quality of life' and related concepts.  

PubMed

Ideas within the animal welfare science arena have evolved continuously throughout the last 30 years, and will continue to do so. This paper outlines some of these developments. These included reformulation of the five freedoms concept into the five domains of potential welfare compromise. This accommodated weaknesses in the former by distinguishing between the physical/functional and the mental factors that contribute to an animal's welfare state. This development reflected a rising scientific acceptance that the mental experiences of animals were legitimate foci for study and highlighted that what the animal itself experiences represents its welfare status. Initially, most concepts of animal welfare emphasised predominantly negative subjective experiences, such as thirst, hunger and pain, and negative affective states or feelings including anxiety, fear and boredom, but today positive experiences or emotions such as satiety, vitality, reward, contentment, curiosity and playfulness are also considered to be important. During the same period, the focus shifted from evaluating the impacts of individual mental subjective experiences or emotions towards seeking a more comprehensive, multifactorial understanding. The five domains concept was specifically designed to achieve this. Subsequent notions about quality of life (QoL) had the same objective, and emphasised the importance of positive experiences. However, some approaches to QoL assessment relied heavily on empathetic speculation about what animals may experience subjectively and this raised concerns about inappropriate anthropomorphic projections. Such pitfalls may be minimised when informed personnel rigorously apply objectively based methodologies to QoL assessments limited to a short time frame. It is clear that both formal and somewhat less formal QoL assessments of this type are already used to guide decision-making about the ongoing care and therapeutic management of animals on a daily basis. However, application of the recently introduced concepts of 'a life not worth living', 'a life worth avoiding', 'a life worth living' and 'a good life' is problematical, because extending the assessment time scale to the whole of life is attended by a number of as yet unresolved difficulties. Accordingly, their value in the practical management of animals is limited so that, at present, reliance on the minimum standards and recommendations for best practice outlined in codes of practice or welfare will continue to be necessary and worthwhile. Nevertheless, these concepts have value in providing a contextual theme that strongly focuses attention on the promotion of a lifelong QoL with an overall balance that is positive. PMID:22040330

Green, T C; Mellor, D J

2011-11-01

115

Freedom: Animal Rights, Human Rights, And Superhuman Rights  

E-print Network

FREEDOM: ANIMAL RIGHTS/. HUMAN 'RIGHTS, AND SUPERHUMAN RIGHTS Corbin Fowler & Thomas Manig It is typical (even among many of the most zealous advocates of humane treatment of animals) for people to assume that the only moral issue regarding our... treatment of animals lies in our needlessly slaughtering them or causing them pain. Thus, people rightly complain about our causing the extinction of a certain species or of those who cruelly beat their pets. We, however, have come to think...

Fowler, Corbin; Manig, Thomas

1976-11-01

116

The contribution of farm animals to human health.  

PubMed

Farm animals and their products have a longstanding and successful history of providing significant contributions to human nutrition, clothing, facilitation of labour, research, development and medicine and have thus been essential in improving life expectancy and human health. With the advent of transgenic technologies the potential of farm animals for improving human health is growing and many areas remain to be explored. Recent breakthroughs in reproductive technologies, such as somatic cloning and in vitro embryo production, and their merger with molecular genetic tools, will further advance progress in this field. Here, we have summarized the contribution of farm animals to human health, covering the production of antimicrobial peptides, dietary supplements or functional foods, animals used as disease models and the contribution of animals to solving urgent environmental problems and challenges in medicine such as the shortage of human cells, tissues and organs and therapeutic proteins. Some of these areas have already reached the level of preclinical testing or commercial application, others will be further advanced only when the genomes of the animals concerned have been sequenced and annotated. Provided the necessary precautions are being taken, the transmission of pathogens from animals to humans can be avoided to provide adequate security. Overall, the promising perspectives of farm animals and their products warrant further research and development in this field. PMID:15158058

Kues, Wilfried A; Niemann, Heiner

2004-06-01

117

Assessment of driving expertise using multiple choice questions including static vs. animated presentation of driving scenarios.  

PubMed

Novice drivers have a high collision risk compared to more experienced drivers. The optimization of driving assessment's validity should lead to a better identification of those examinees that need further training before solo driving. The aim of the present two studies was to find out whether the integration of animated traffic scenarios can enhance some quality aspects of selected multiple choice items of the official German driving test. For the first study, we developed a static version of a set of multiple choice questions each containing a computerized still picture of a traffic scenario and a dynamic version that included animated instead of still pictures of the same situations. Driving novices (n=57) and experts (n=63) were presented 22 items either in the static or in the dynamic version. Only the novices benefited from the dynamic presentation. Fifty novices and 50 experts participated in a second longitudinal study including three measurements with parallel tests of the dynamic testing materials at intervals of three to four months. The novices, who were currently attending driving school, improved over time whereas the experts' performance remained stable. The results indicate that animation has positive effects on some quality aspects of driving assessment, but the problem of low criterion validity has to be addressed by the means of further approaches. PMID:23207840

Malone, Sarah; Brnken, Roland

2013-03-01

118

Production of human lactoferrin in animal milk.  

PubMed

Genetic constructs containing the human lactoferrin (hLf) gene were created within a joint program of Russian and Belorussian scientists. Using these constructs, transgenic mice were bred (the maximum hLf concentration in their milk was 160 g/L), and transgenic goats were also generated (up to 10 g/L hLf in their milk). Experimental goatherds that produced hLf in their milk were also bred, and the recombinant hLf was found to be identical to the natural protein in its physical and chemical properties. These properties included electrophoretic mobility, isoelectric point, recognition by polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, circular dichroic spectra, interaction with natural ligands (DNA, lipopolysaccharides, and heparin), the binding of iron ions, the sequence of the 7 terminal amino acids, and its biological activity. The latter was assessed by the agglutination of Micrococcus luteus protoplasts, bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes , and fungicidal activity against Candida albicans . We also demonstrated a significant increase in the activity of antibiotics when used in combination with Lf. PMID:22360490

Goldman, I L; Georgieva, S G; Gurskiy, Ya G; Krasnov, A N; Deykin, A V; Popov, A N; Ermolkevich, T G; Budzevich, A I; Chernousov, A D; Sadchikova, E R

2012-06-01

119

Animal behaviours, post-human lives: everyday negotiations of the animalhuman divide in pet-keeping  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the ways in which pet-owners in contemporary Britain mobilize the categories of animal and human in their attempts to understand their pets. Pet-keeping forms one of the closest forms of humananimal interaction in modern western society and as such provides an ideal opportunity to examine the ways in which people understand the similarities and differences between humans

Rebekah Fox

2006-01-01

120

Toxinotype V Clostridium difficile in Humans and Food Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clostridium diffi cile is a recognized pathogen in neo- natal pigs and may contribute to enteritis in calves. Toxino- type V strains have been rare causes of human C. diffi cile- associated disease (CDAD). We examined toxinotype V in human disease, the genetic relationship of animal and human toxinotype V strains, and in vitro toxin production of these strains. From

Michael A. Jhung; Angela D. Thompson; George E. Killgore; Walter E. Zukowski; Glenn Songer; Michael Warny; Stuart Johnson; Dale N. Gerding; L. Clifford McDonald; Brandi M. Limbago

2008-01-01

121

The Evolution of Personality Variation in Humans and Other Animals  

E-print Network

The Evolution of Personality Variation in Humans and Other Animals Daniel Nettle University variation in humans is yet to be developed. Some evolutionary psychol- ogists have argued that heritable that each of the Big Five dimensions of human personality can be seen as the result of a trade-off between

Napp, Nils

122

The significant human-animal bond: Pets with cancer  

SciTech Connect

Veterinarians have responsibilities to both the animal and its owner. In the past several years there has been an increased awareness and concern about human-animal bonds. As a result, we have begun to appreciate the nature, strength, and significance of bonds that develop between humans and companion animals. It is typical for a pet to be perceived as and treated as a member of the family and as a result, animals provide special and beneficial relationships for many years. It is partly because of this role of the pet in promoting human health and happiness that we as veterinarians have an obligation to assist both owner and animal. The mark of the good practitioner concerns not only the ability to diagnose and treat accurately, but also the ability to show understanding and compassionate judgement.

Weller, R.E.

1994-03-01

123

How companion animals contribute to the fight against cancer in humans.  

PubMed

Companion animals and their human guardians suffer from many of the same types of cancer and are often treated with many of the same drugs. Moreover, the overall tumour biology is much more similar between humans and companion animals than between humans and rodent tumor models. Therefore, it is proposed that pre-clinical evaluation of novel cancer therapeutics should more often include appropriately designed trials in companion animals with cancer to more accurately predict efficacy and toxicity in humans. For example, studies in dogs with cancer have been used to assess efficacy and design human clinical trials of immunotherapy, gene therapy, sustained release drug delivery and liposomal drug delivery. In the future, such studies will ultimately benefit not only humans, but also companion animals with cancer. PMID:20391394

Thamm, Douglas; Dow, Steven

2009-01-01

124

Human Figure Animation: A Historical Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer Animation, has advanced significantly as well as spectacularly over the last two-to-three decades. The interesting field has innovated tremendously moving from first-generation i.e. purely geometric models where mo- tion was developed using kinematic techniques, to second- generation i.e. physical-based models (direct versus in- verse dynamics and hybrid systems), towards the devel- opment of the third-generation i.e. autonomous behaviour through

Yiorgos Chrysanthou

125

Animal Cognition and Human Cognition: A Necessary Dialogue  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Psychology has held through its history an ambiguous attitude towards animal behavior. Researchers who have chosen some animal\\u000a different than man as their experimental subject have often sought to justify themselves, emphasizing the potential benefits\\u000a that the understanding of animal behavior could eventually have for understanding human behavior or even for alleviating people\\u000a suffering from psychological distress. During the behavioristic

Luis Aguado Aguilar

126

Human-animal relationships: from daily life to animal-assisted therapies.  

PubMed

Humans have a long history of relationship with domestic animals and nowadays pets often act as "social substitutes" through bonding. There is some evidence that pet presence at home may induce well being in people and the development of social skills in children. Animal assisted therapies aim at developing these skills in patients on the basis of human animal interactions. Experimental data obtained on animal models suggest that this is indeed a promising line. There is however a lack of clear scientific data that would help defines what the most appropriate procedures or species may be. Improvements are observed, but again sound scientific data are mostly missing. Attention must be given to the welfare of the animals being used. PMID:22194075

Grandgeorge, Marine; Hausberger, Martine

2011-01-01

127

Plant and AnimalPlant and Animal Domestication as HumanDomestication as Human--  

E-print Network

and animal domestication and evolution and the genetic improvement of crops and animal breeds [... No doubt organs: e.g., · udders of cows and goats · seeds of domesticated plants ­ "Comparing the diversityEvidence for Origin and Dispersal of Domesticated Plants and AnimalsPlants and Animals (modified from Harlan and de

Gepts, Paul

128

Public health issues related to animal and human spongiform encephalopathies: memorandum from a WHO meeting.  

PubMed Central

The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which was first described in 1986 in the United Kingdom but has occurred subsequently in several other countries. This Memorandum reviews the existing state of knowledge on all the known spongiform encephalopathies, and evaluates the pathways of transmission and associated hazards. The possible implications of the animal diseases, especially BSE, with regard to the use of animal tissues as animal feed, human food, and in the preparation of medicinal and other products for human use are discussed, with recommendations to national health authorities on appropriate measures to minimize the consequences of BSE to public and animal health. PMID:1600580

1992-01-01

129

Effect of environmental pollutants on human reproduction, including birth defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because chemicals from a wide range of environmental sources have been implicated in birth defects and reproductive failures, the effects on human reproduction of chemicals in air, in the terrestrial ecosystem, and in food were studied. Chemicals considered included nicotine, cadmium, polycyclic aromatic compounds, red dye number2, DES, PCB's, TCDD, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, strontium, and zinc. The most serious

R. B. Kurzel; C. L. Cetrulo

1981-01-01

130

21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products 864.2800 Animal and human...that provide the necessary growth-promoting nutrients in a cell culture system. (b) Classification. Class I...

2010-04-01

131

Animating Human Athletics Jessica K. Hodgins Wayne L. Wooten  

E-print Network

Animating Human Athletics Jessica K. Hodgins Wayne L. Wooten David C. Brogan James F. O for the animation of men and women performing three dynamic athletic behaviors: running, bicycling, and vaulting. We of the joints are chosen so that each behavior can be completed in a natural-looking fashion. Although

Brogan, David

132

Developmental Links between Cruelty to Animals and Human Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

eviews evidence for the significance of childhood cruelty to animals as a predictor of later violence toward humans. Moves are under- way in the United States (US) and Britain to encourage communication and cross-fertilisation between animal welfare and child protection and crime prevention services. Literature on healthy versus deviant child-pet interactions is reviewed, with particular regard to the prediction of

Mark R. Dadds; Cynthia M. Turner; John McAloon

2002-01-01

133

Childhood Cruelty to Animals and Subsequent Violence against Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have offered compelling evidence supporting a relationship between childhood cruelty to animals and later violence against humans. This study investigated whether violent offenders were significantly more likely than nonviolent offenders to have abused animals of various types during childhood. Interviews were conducted with 45 violent and 45 nonviolent offenders incarcerated in a maximum-security prison and randomly selected for

Linda Merz-Perez; Kathleen M. Heide; Ira J. Silverman

2001-01-01

134

The Various Roles of Animal Models in Understanding Human Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the authors take a very conservative view of the contribution of animal models to an understanding of human development. We do not think that homologies can be readily documented with even our most closely related relatives' behavior and psychological functioning. The major contribution of animal models is their provision of food for thought (hypotheses, not facts) about

Gilbert Gottlieb; Robert Lickliter

2004-01-01

135

The Various Roles of Animal Models in Understanding Human Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors take a very conservative view of the contribution of animal models to an understanding of human development. We do not think that homologies can be readily documented with even our most closely related relatives' behavior and psychological functioning. The major contribution of animal models is their provision of food

Gottlieb, Gilbert; Lickliter, Robert

2004-01-01

136

Autonomous virtual humans and lower animals: from biomechanics to intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The confluence of virtual reality and artificial life, an emerg- ing discipline that spans the computational and biological sciences, has yielded synthetic worlds inhabited by realistic artificial flora and fauna. Artificial animals are complex syn- thetic organisms that have functional, biomechanical bodies, perceptual sensors, and brains with locomotion, perception, behavior, learning, and cognition centers. Virtual humans and lower animals are

Demetri Terzopoulos

2008-01-01

137

Rovers minimize human disturbance in research on wild animals.  

PubMed

Investigating wild animals while minimizing human disturbance remains an important methodological challenge. When approached by a remote-operated vehicle (rover) which can be equipped to make radio-frequency identifications, wild penguins had significantly lower and shorter stress responses (determined by heart rate and behavior) than when approached by humans. Upon immobilization, the rover-unlike humans-did not disorganize colony structure, and stress rapidly ceased. Thus, rovers can reduce human disturbance of wild animals and the resulting scientific bias. PMID:25362361

Le Maho, Yvon; Whittington, Jason D; Hanuise, Nicolas; Pereira, Louise; Boureau, Matthieu; Brucker, Mathieu; Chatelain, Nicolas; Courtecuisse, Julien; Crenner, Francis; Friess, Benjamin; Grosbellet, Edith; Kernalguen, Latitia; Olivier, Frdrique; Saraux, Claire; Vetter, Nathanal; Viblanc, Vincent A; Thierry, Bernard; Tremblay, Pascale; Groscolas, Ren; Le Bohec, Cline

2014-12-01

138

Tick-borne infections of animals and humans: a common ground.  

PubMed

A wide variety of pathogens is transmitted from ticks to vertebrates including viruses, bacteria, protozoa and helminths, of which most have a life cycle that requires passage through the vertebrate host. Tick-borne infections of humans, farm and companion animals are essentially associated with wildlife animal reservoirs. While some flying insect-borne diseases of humans such as malaria, filariasis and Kala Azar caused by Leishmania donovani target people as their main host, major tick-borne infections of humans, although potentially causing disease in large numbers of individuals, are typically an infringement of a circulation between wildlife animal reservoirs and tick vectors. While new tick-borne infectious agents are frequently recognised, emerging agents of human tick-borne infections were probably circulating among wildlife animal and tick populations long before being recognised as clinical causes of human disease as has been shown for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Co-infection with more than one tick-borne infection is common and can enhance pathogenic processes and augment disease severity as found in B. burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum co-infection. The role of wild animal reservoirs in co-infection of human hosts appears to be central, further linking human and animal tick-borne infections. Although transmission of most tick-borne infections is through the tick saliva, additional routes of transmission, shown mostly in animals, include infection by oral uptake of infected ticks, by carnivorism, animal bites and transplacentally. Additionally, artificial infection via blood transfusion is a growing threat in both human and veterinary medicine. Due to the close association between human and animal tick-borne infections, control programs for these diseases require integration of data from veterinary and human reporting systems, surveillance in wildlife and tick populations, and combined teams of experts from several scientific disciplines such as entomology, epidemiology, medicine, public health and veterinary medicine. PMID:24846527

Baneth, Gad

2014-08-01

139

Automated Lip Synchronization for Human-Computer Interaction and Special Effect Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research presents MARTI (Man-machine Animation Real-Time Interface) for the realisation of automated special effect animation and human computer interaction. MARTI introduces novel research in a number of engineering disciplines, which include speech recognition, facial modelling, and computer animation. This interdisciplinary research utilises the latest, hybrid connectionist\\/hidden Markov model system, providing very accurate phone recognition and timing for speaker independent

Christian Martyn Jones; Satnam Singh Dlay

1997-01-01

140

Mobile technologies for disease surveillance in humans and animals.  

PubMed

A paper-based disease reporting system has been associated with a number of challenges. These include difficulties to submit hard copies of the disease surveillance forms because of poor road infrastructure, weather conditions or challenging terrain, particularly in the developing countries. The system demands re-entry of the data at data processing and analysis points, thus making it prone to introduction of errors during this process. All these challenges contribute to delayed acquisition, processing and response to disease events occurring in remote hard to reach areas. Our study piloted the use of mobile phones in order to transmit near to real-time data from remote districts in Tanzania (Ngorongoro and Ngara), Burundi (Muyinga) and Zambia (Kazungula and Sesheke). Two technologies namely, digital and short messaging services were used to capture and transmit disease event data in the animal and human health sectors in the study areas based on a server-client model. Smart phones running the Android operating system (minimum required version: Android 1.6), and which supported open source application, Epicollect, as well as the Open Data Kit application, were used in the study. These phones allowed collection of geo-tagged data, with the opportunity of including static and moving images related to disease events. The project supported routine disease surveillance systems in the ministries responsible for animal and human health in Burundi, Tanzania and Zambia, as well as data collection for researchers at the Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania. During the project implementation period between 2011 and 2013, a total number of 1651 diseases event-related forms were submitted, which allowed reporters to include GPS coordinates and photographs related to the events captured. It was concluded that the new technology-based surveillance system is useful in providing near to real-time data, with potential for enhancing timely response in rural remote areas of Africa. We recommended adoption of the proven technologies to improve disease surveillance, particularly in the developing countries. PMID:25005126

Mwabukusi, Mpoki; Karimuribo, Esron D; Rweyemamu, Mark M; Beda, Eric

2014-01-01

141

ISFG: recommendations regarding the use of non-human (animal) DNA in forensic genetic investigations.  

PubMed

The use of non-human DNA typing in forensic science investigations, and specifically that from animal DNA, is ever increasing. The term animal DNA in this document refers to animal species encountered in a forensic science examination but does not include human DNA. Non-human DNA may either be: the trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species, which is contrary to legislation; as evidence where the crime is against a person or property; instances of animal cruelty; or where the animal is the offender. The first instance is addressed by determining the species present, and the other scenarios can often be addressed by assigning a DNA sample to a particular individual organism. Currently there is little standardization of methodologies used in the forensic analysis of animal DNA or in reporting styles. The recommendations in this document relate specifically to animal DNA that is integral to a forensic science investigation and are not relevant to the breeding of animals for commercial purposes. This DNA commission was formed out of discussions at the International Society for Forensic Genetics 23rd Congress in Buenos Aires to outline recommendations on the use of non-human DNA in a forensic science investigation. Due to the scope of non-human DNA typing that is possible, the remit of this commission is confined to animal DNA typing only. PMID:21106449

Linacre, A; Gusmo, L; Hecht, W; Hellmann, A P; Mayr, W R; Parson, W; Prinz, M; Schneider, P M; Morling, N

2011-11-01

142

Humane killing of animals for disease control purposes.  

PubMed

Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare. PMID:25000803

Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K

2014-04-01

143

Rhodococcus equi: an animal and human pathogen.  

PubMed Central

Recent isolations of Rhodococcus equi from cavitatory pulmonary disease in patients with AIDS have aroused interest among medical microbiologists in this unusual organism. Earlier isolations from humans had also been in immunosuppressed patients following hemolymphatic tumors or renal transplantation. This organism has been recognized for many years as a cause of a serious pyogranulomatous pneumonia of young foals and is occasionally isolated from granulomatous lesions in several other species, in some cases following immunosuppression. The last decade has seen many advances in understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and immunity to infection in foals. The particular susceptibility of the foal is not understood but can be explained in part by a combination of heavy challenge through the respiratory route coinciding with declining maternally derived antibody in the absence of fully competent foal cellular immune mechanisms. R. equi is largely a soil organism but is widespread in the feces of herbivores. Its growth in soil is considerably improved by simple nutrients it obtains from herbivore manure. About one-third of human patients who have developed R. equi infections had contact in some way with herbivores or their manure. Others may have acquired infection from contact with soil or wild bird manure. R. equi is an intracellular parasite, which explains the typical pyogranulomatous nature of R. equi infections, the predisposition to infection in human patients with defective cell-mediated immune mechanisms, and the efficacy of antimicrobial drugs that penetrate phagocytic cells. Images PMID:2004346

Prescott, J F

1991-01-01

144

Distribution of alkaline sphingomyelinase activity in human beings and animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alkaline sphingomyelinase (SMase) was first found in rat intestinal brush border. The important roles of this enzyme in digestion of sphingomyelin and in mucosal cell proliferation have been suggested. In the present work, the distribution of the alkaline SMase in the tissues of human beings and animals have been studied. By assaying the enzyme activity in human biopsy samples,

R.-D. Duan; E. Hertervig; L. Nyberg; T. Hauge; B. Sternby; J. Lillienau; A. Farooqi; . Nilsson

1996-01-01

145

What can animal aggression research tell us about human aggression?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on endocrinological correlates of aggression in laboratory animals is implicitly motivated by an expectation that the results of such studies may be applicable to human aggression as well. Research with a focus on the stimulus antecedents of aggression, its response characteristics, and its outcomes suggests a number of detailed correspondences between offensive aggression in laboratory rodents and human angry

D. Caroline Blanchard; Robert J Blanchard

2003-01-01

146

Implications of Animal Object Memory Research for Human Amnesia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Damage to structures in the human medial temporal lobe causes severe memory impairment. Animal object recognition tests gained prominence from attempts to model "global" human medial temporal lobe amnesia, such as that observed in patient HM. These tasks, such as delayed nonmatching-to-sample and spontaneous object recognition, for assessing

Winters, Boyer D.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.

2010-01-01

147

Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in humans and animals.  

PubMed

Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), defined as the presence of altered organ function in an acutely ill patient such that homeostasis cannot be maintained without intervention, is a cause of high morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. Many advances have been made in understanding the pathophysiology and treatment of this syndrome in human medicine, but much still is unknown. This comparative review will provide information regarding the history and pathophysiology of MODS in humans and discuss how MODS affects each major organ system in animals. PMID:24773159

Osterbur, K; Mann, F A; Kuroki, K; DeClue, A

2014-01-01

148

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Animals and Its Relevance to Human Health  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus is a typical human pathogen. Some animal S. aureus lineages have derived from human strains following profound genetic adaptation determining a change in host specificity. Due to the close relationship of animals with the environmental microbiome and resistome, animal staphylococcal strains also represent a source of resistance determinants. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) emerged 50?years ago as a nosocomial pathogen but in the last decade it has also become a frequent cause of infections in the community. The recent finding that MRSA frequently colonizes animals, especially livestock, has been a reason for concern, as it has revealed an expanded reservoir of MRSA. While MRSA strains recovered from companion animals are generally similar to human nosocomial MRSA, MRSA strains recovered from food animals appear to be specific animal-adapted clones. Since 2005, MRSA belonging to ST398 was recognized as a colonizer of pigs and human subjects professionally exposed to pig farming. The pig MRSA was also found to colonize other species of farmed animals, including horses, cattle, and poultry and was therefore designated livestock-associated (LA)-MRSA. LA-MRSA ST398 can cause infections in humans in contact with animals, and can infect hospitalized people, although at the moment this occurrence is relatively rare. Other animal-adapted MRSA clones have been detected in livestock, such as ST1 and ST9. Recently, ST130 MRSA isolated from bovine mastitis has been found to carry a novel mecA gene that eludes detection by conventional PCR tests. Similar ST130 strains have been isolated from human infections in UK, Denmark, and Germany at low frequency. It is plausible that the increased attention to animal MRSA will reveal other strains with peculiar characteristics that can pose a risk to human health. PMID:22509176

Pantosti, Annalisa

2012-01-01

149

Human skin equivalent as an alternative to animal testing.  

PubMed

The 3-D skin equivalent can be viewed as physiologically comparable to the natural skin and therefore is a suitable alternative for animal testing. This highly differentiated in vitro human skin equivalent is used to assess the efficacy and mode of action of novel agents. This model is generated from primary human keratinocytes on a collagen substrate containing human dermal fibroblasts. It is grown at the air-liquid interface which allows full epidermal stratification and epidermal-dermal interactions to occur. Future emphasis is the establishment of different test systems to investigate wound healing, melanoma research and infection biology. Key features of this skin model are that it can be used as an alternative for in vivo studies, donor tissue can be tailored to the needs of the study and multiple analyses can be carried out at mRNA and protein level. Driven by both ethical and economical incentives, this has already resulted in a shift of the test strategies used by the Pharmaceutical Industry in the early drug development process as reflected by the increased demand for application of cell based assays. It is also a suitable model for testing a wide variety of endpoints including cell viability, the release of proinflammatory mediators, permeation rate, proliferation and biochemical changes. PMID:20204113

Mertsching, Heike; Weimer, Michaela; Kersen, Silke; Brunner, Herwig

2008-01-01

150

Vitrification in human and domestic animal embryology: work in progress.  

PubMed

According to the analysis of papers published in major international journals, rapidly increasing application of vitrification is one of the greatest achievements in domestic animal and especially human embryology during the first decade of our century. This review highlights factors supporting or hampering this progress, summarises results achieved with vitrification and outlines future tasks to fully exploit the benefits of this amazing approach that has changed or will change many aspects of laboratory (and also clinical) embryology. Supporting factors include the simplicity, cost efficiency and convincing success of vitrification compared with other approaches in all species and developmental stages in mammalian embryology, while causes that slow down the progress are mostly of human origin: inadequate tools and solutions, superficial teaching, improper application and unjustified concerns resulting in legal restrictions. Elimination of these hindrances seems to be a slower process and more demanding task than meeting the biological challenge. A key element of future progress will be to pass the pioneer age, establish a consensus regarding biosafety requirements, outline the indispensable features of a standard approach and design fully-automated vitrification machines executing all phases of the procedure, including equilibration, cooling, warming and dilution steps. PMID:22951206

Vajta, Gbor

2013-01-01

151

Character Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of the creation and animation of characters in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional character animation techniques, such as those developed by the Disney animators, and also human modelling. The section includes html pages, images and several videos.

2007-01-20

152

What Children Think about Human-Animal Relationships: Incorporating Humane Education Goals in Science and Technology Curriculum and Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a shift in the direction of biocentrism that advocates the incorporation of humane education goals. Investigates preconceptions of human-animal relationships among a group of grade 5 students with a view to understanding their readiness to embrace a biocentric perspective. Includes recommendations for science and technology curricula and

Yoon, Susan

2002-01-01

153

PCR detection and quantitation of predominant anaerobic bacteria in human and animal fecal samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCR procedures based on 16S rRNA genen sequence specific for 12 anaerobic bacteria that predominate in the human intestinal tract were developed and used for quantitative detection of these species in human feces and animal feces. The reported PCR procedure including the fecal sample preparation method is simplified and rapid and eliminates the DNA isolation steps.

Rong-Fu Wang; Wei-Wen Cao; C. E. Cerniglia

1996-01-01

154

Dead or alive: animal sampling during Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in humans.  

PubMed

There are currently no widely accepted animal surveillance guidelines for human Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak investigations to identify potential sources of Ebolavirus (EBOV) spillover into humans and other animals. Animal field surveillance during and following an outbreak has several purposes, from helping identify the specific animal source of a human case to guiding control activities by describing the spatial and temporal distribution of wild circulating EBOV, informing public health efforts, and contributing to broader EHF research questions. Since 1976, researchers have sampled over 10,000 individual vertebrates from areas associated with human EHF outbreaks and tested for EBOV or antibodies. Using field surveillance data associated with EHF outbreaks, this review provides guidance on animal sampling for resource-limited outbreak situations, target species, and in some cases which diagnostics should be prioritized to rapidly assess the presence of EBOV in animal reservoirs. In brief, EBOV detection was 32.7% (18/55) for carcasses (animals found dead) and 0.2% (13/5309) for live captured animals. Our review indicates that for the purposes of identifying potential sources of transmission from animals to humans and isolating suspected virus in an animal in outbreak situations, (1) surveillance of free-ranging non-human primate mortality and morbidity should be a priority, (2) any wildlife morbidity or mortality events should be investigated and may hold the most promise for locating virus or viral genome sequences, (3) surveillance of some bat species is worthwhile to isolate and detect evidence of exposure, and (4) morbidity, mortality, and serology studies of domestic animals should prioritize dogs and pigs and include testing for virus and previous exposure. PMID:22558004

Olson, Sarah H; Reed, Patricia; Cameron, Kenneth N; Ssebide, Benard J; Johnson, Christine K; Morse, Stephen S; Karesh, William B; Mazet, Jonna A K; Joly, Damien O

2012-01-01

155

Dead or alive: animal sampling during Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in humans  

PubMed Central

There are currently no widely accepted animal surveillance guidelines for human Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak investigations to identify potential sources of Ebolavirus (EBOV) spillover into humans and other animals. Animal field surveillance during and following an outbreak has several purposes, from helping identify the specific animal source of a human case to guiding control activities by describing the spatial and temporal distribution of wild circulating EBOV, informing public health efforts, and contributing to broader EHF research questions. Since 1976, researchers have sampled over 10,000 individual vertebrates from areas associated with human EHF outbreaks and tested for EBOV or antibodies. Using field surveillance data associated with EHF outbreaks, this review provides guidance on animal sampling for resource-limited outbreak situations, target species, and in some cases which diagnostics should be prioritized to rapidly assess the presence of EBOV in animal reservoirs. In brief, EBOV detection was 32.7% (18/55) for carcasses (animals found dead) and 0.2% (13/5309) for live captured animals. Our review indicates that for the purposes of identifying potential sources of transmission from animals to humans and isolating suspected virus in an animal in outbreak situations, (1) surveillance of free-ranging non-human primate mortality and morbidity should be a priority, (2) any wildlife morbidity or mortality events should be investigated and may hold the most promise for locating virus or viral genome sequences, (3) surveillance of some bat species is worthwhile to isolate and detect evidence of exposure, and (4) morbidity, mortality, and serology studies of domestic animals should prioritize dogs and pigs and include testing for virus and previous exposure. PMID:22558004

Olson, Sarah H.; Reed, Patricia; Cameron, Kenneth N.; Ssebide, Benard J.; Johnson, Christine K.; Morse, Stephen S.; Karesh, William B.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.; Joly, Damien O.

2012-01-01

156

Gaps in the evidence about companion animals and human health: some suggestions for progress.  

PubMed

A number of researchers have explored the relationship between companion animal ownership and human physical and psychological health. Results have been inconclusive, with positive, neutral and negative effects variously reported in the literature. Furthermore, the possible mechanisms of any influence are frustratingly unclear. A number of conceptual and methodological weaknesses have hampered progress in our understanding of how companion animals may impact upon human health. The two evidence gaps discussed in this paper, with suggestions for needed next steps, are: (i) a preponderance of anecdotal reports and cross-sectional research designs; and (ii) failure to control for a host of other known influences on human health including health habits, level of attachment to the companion animal and human social supports. Finally, an example of these gaps is provided in relation to the literature on the effects of animals on elderly nursing home residents. PMID:21199382

Chur-Hansen, Anna; Stern, Cindy; Winefield, Helen

2010-09-01

157

Wild Animal Mortality Monitoring and Human Ebola Outbreaks, Gabon and Republic of Congo, 2001-2003  

PubMed Central

All human Ebola virus outbreaks during 20012003 in the forest zone between Gabon and Republic of Congo resulted from handling infected wild animal carcasses. After the first outbreak, we created an Animal Mortality Monitoring Network in collaboration with the Gabonese and Congolese Ministries of Forestry and Environment and wildlife organizations (Wildlife Conservation Society and Programme de Conservation et Utilisation Rationnelle des Ecosystmes Forestiers en Afrique Centrale) to predict and possibly prevent human Ebola outbreaks. Since August 2001, 98 wild animal carcasses have been recovered by the network, including 65 great apes. Analysis of 21 carcasses found that 10 gorillas, 3 chimpanzees, and 1 duiker tested positive for Ebola virus. Wild animal outbreaks began before each of the 5 human Ebola outbreaks. Twice we alerted the health authorities to an imminent risk for human outbreaks, weeks before they occurred. PMID:15752448

Froment, Jean-Marc; Bermejo, Magdalena; Kilbourn, Annelisa; Karesh, William; Reed, Patricia; Kumulungui, Brice; Yaba, Philippe; Delicat, Andre; Rollin, Pierre E.; Leroy, Eric M.

2005-01-01

158

Rift Valley Fever in Humans and Animals in Mayotte, an Endemic Situation?  

PubMed Central

Retrospective studies and surveillance on humans and animals revealed that Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) has been circulating on Mayotte for at least several years. A study was conducted in 2011 to estimate the seroprevalence of RVF in humans and in animals and to identify associated risk factors. Using a multistage cluster sampling method, 1420 individuals were enrolled in the human study, including 337 children aged 5 to 14 years. For the animal study, 198 seronegative ruminants from 33 randomly selected sentinel ruminant herds were followed up for more than one year. In both studies, information on environment and risk factors was collected through a standardized questionnaire. The overall weighted seroprevalence of RVFV antibodies in the general population aged ?5 years was 3.5% (95% CI 2.64.8). The overall seroprevalence of RVFV antibodies in the ruminant population was 25.3% (95% CI 19.832.2). Age (?15), gender (men), place of birth on the Comoros, living in Mayotte since less than 5 years, low educational level, farming and living close to a water source were significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity in humans. Major risk factors for RFV infection in animals were the proximity of the farm to a water point, previous two-month rainfall and absence of abortions disposal. Although resulting in few clinical cases in humans and in animals, RVFV has been circulating actively on the island of Mayotte, in a context of regular import of the virus from nearby countries through illegal animal movements, the presence of susceptible animals and a favorable environment for mosquito vectors to maintain virus transmission locally. Humans and animals share the same ways of RVFV transmission, with mosquitoes playing an important role. The studies emphasize the need for a one health approach in which humans and animals within their ecosystems are included. PMID:24098637

Jego, Mael; Despres, Philippe; Collet, Louis; Zumbo, Betty; Tillard, Emmanuel; Girard, Sebastien; Filleul, Laurent

2013-01-01

159

Examining the links between animal abuse and human violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical research has increasingly found evidence for the coexistence of animal abuse and various forms of interpersonal\\u000a violence. Some researchers have even argued for a specific version of this relationship, namely, that individuals tend to\\u000a move from violence toward animals, particularly in childhood, to subsequent violence toward humans. Others have suggested\\u000a that the evidence for this graduation or progression hypothesis

Clifton P. Flynn

2011-01-01

160

Effect of environmental pollutants on human reproduction, including birth defects  

SciTech Connect

Because chemicals from a wide range of environmental sources have been implicated in birth defects and reproductive failures, the effects on human reproduction of chemicals in air, in the terrestrial ecosystem, and in food were studied. Chemicals considered included nicotine, cadmium, polycyclic aromatic compounds, red dye number2, DES, PCB's, TCDD, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, strontium, and zinc. The most serious source of chemical exposure to pregnant women is cigarette smoke which exposes unborn babies to high levels of carbon monoxide, cadmium, nicotine, and benzo-a-pyrene. Fetal exposure to all teratogenic compounds must be minimized.

Kurzel, R.B.; Cetrulo, C.L.

1981-06-01

161

Characterizing cognitive aging in humans with links to animal models  

PubMed Central

With the population of older adults expected to grow rapidly over the next two decades, it has become increasingly important to advance research efforts to elucidate the mechanisms associated with cognitive aging, with the ultimate goal of developing effective interventions and prevention therapies. Although there has been a vast research literature on the use of cognitive tests to evaluate the effects of aging and age-related neurodegenerative disease, the need for a set of standardized measures to characterize the cognitive profiles specific to healthy aging has been widely recognized. Here we present a review of selected methods and approaches that have been applied in human research studies to evaluate the effects of aging on cognition, including executive function, memory, processing speed, language, and visuospatial function. The effects of healthy aging on each of these cognitive domains are discussed with examples from cognitive/experimental and clinical/neuropsychological approaches. Further, we consider those measures that have clear conceptual and methodological links to tasks currently in use for non-human animal studies of aging, as well as those that have the potential for translation to animal aging research. Having a complementary set of measures to assess the cognitive profiles of healthy aging across species provides a unique opportunity to enhance research efforts for cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intervention studies of cognitive aging. Taking a cross-species, translational approach will help to advance cognitive aging research, leading to a greater understanding of associated neurobiological mechanisms with the potential for developing effective interventions and prevention therapies for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22988439

Alexander, Gene E.; Ryan, Lee; Bowers, Dawn; Foster, Thomas C.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Geldmacher, David S.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

2012-01-01

162

Proline and hydroxyproline metabolism: implications for animal and human nutrition.  

PubMed

Proline plays important roles in protein synthesis and structure, metabolism (particularly the synthesis of arginine, polyamines, and glutamate via pyrroline-5-carboxylate), and nutrition, as well as wound healing, antioxidative reactions, and immune responses. On a per-gram basis, proline plus hydroxyproline are most abundant in collagen and milk proteins, and requirements of proline for whole-body protein synthesis are the greatest among all amino acids. Therefore, physiological needs for proline are particularly high during the life cycle. While most mammals (including humans and pigs) can synthesize proline from arginine and glutamine/glutamate, rates of endogenous synthesis are inadequate for neonates, birds, and fish. Thus, work with young pigs (a widely used animal model for studying infant nutrition) has shown that supplementing 0.0, 0.35, 0.7, 1.05, 1.4, and 2.1% proline to a proline-free chemically defined diet containing 0.48% arginine and 2% glutamate dose dependently improved daily growth rate and feed efficiency while reducing concentrations of urea in plasma. Additionally, maximal growth performance of chickens depended on at least 0.8% proline in the diet. Likewise, dietary supplementation with 0.07, 0.14, and 0.28% hydroxyproline (a metabolite of proline) to a plant protein-based diet enhanced weight gains of salmon. Based on its regulatory roles in cellular biochemistry, proline can be considered as a functional amino acid for mammalian, avian, and aquatic species. Further research is warranted to develop effective strategies of dietary supplementation with proline or hydroxyproline to benefit health, growth, and development of animals and humans. PMID:20697752

Wu, Guoyao; Bazer, Fuller W; Burghardt, Robert C; Johnson, Gregory A; Kim, Sung Woo; Knabe, Darrell A; Li, Peng; Li, Xilong; McKnight, Jason R; Satterfield, M Carey; Spencer, Thomas E

2011-04-01

163

Animal-free toxicology: the use of human tissue to replace the use of animals - examples from human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies.  

PubMed

Human data on exposure and adverse effects are the most appropriate for human risk assessment, and modern toxicology focuses on human pathway analysis and the development of human biomarkers. Human biomonitoring and human placental transport studies provide necessary information for human risk assessment, in accordance with the legislation on chemical, medicine and food safety. Toxicology studies based on human mechanistic and exposure information can replace animal studies. These animal-free approaches can be further supplemented by new in silico methods and chemical structure-activity relationships. The inclusion of replacement expertise in the international Three Rs centres, the ongoing exploration of alternatives to animal research, and the improvement of conditions for research animals, all imply the beginning of a paradigm shift in toxicology research toward the use of human data. PMID:24512227

Knudsen, Lisbeth E

2013-12-01

164

What Do We Feed to Food-Production Animals? A Review of Animal Feed Ingredients and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health  

PubMed Central

Objective Animal feeding practices in the United States have changed considerably over the past century. As large-scale, concentrated production methods have become the predominant model for animal husbandry, animal feeds have been modified to include ingredients ranging from rendered animals and animal waste to antibiotics and organoarsenicals. In this article we review current U.S. animal feeding practices and etiologic agents that have been detected in animal feed. Evidence that current feeding practices may lead to adverse human health impacts is also evaluated. Data sources We reviewed published veterinary and human-health literature regarding animal feeding practices, etiologic agents present in feed, and human health effects along with proceedings from animal feed workshops. Data extraction Data were extracted from peer-reviewed articles and books identified using PubMed, Agricola, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention databases. Data synthesis Findings emphasize that current animal feeding practices can result in the presence of bacteria, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, prions, arsenicals, and dioxins in feed and animal-based food products. Despite a range of potential human health impacts that could ensue, there are significant data gaps that prevent comprehensive assessments of human health risks associated with animal feed. Limited data are collected at the federal or state level concerning the amounts of specific ingredients used in animal feed, and there are insufficient surveillance systems to monitor etiologic agents from farm to fork. Conclusions Increased funding for integrated veterinary and human health surveillance systems and increased collaboration among feed professionals, animal producers, and veterinary and public health officials is necessary to effectively address these issues. PMID:17520050

Sapkota, Amy R.; Lefferts, Lisa Y.; McKenzie, Shawn; Walker, Polly

2007-01-01

165

Genetics of hypertension: From experimental animals to humans  

PubMed Central

Essential hypertension affects 20 to 30% of the population worldwide and contributes significantly to cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Heridability of blood pressure is around 15 to 40% but there are also substantial environmental factors affecting blood pressure variability. It is assumed that blood pressure is under the control of a large number of genes each of which has only relatively mild effects. It has therefore been difficult to discover the genes that contribute to blood pressure variation using traditional approaches including candidate gene studies and linkage studies. Animal models of hypertension, particularly in the rat, have led to the discovery of quantitative trait loci harbouring one or several hypertension related genes, but translation of these findings into human essential hypertension remains challenging. Recent development of genotyping technology made large scale genome-wide association studies possible. This approach and the study of monogenic forms of hypertension has led to the discovery of novel and robust candidate genes for human essential hypertension, many of which require functional analysis in experimental models. PMID:20035862

Delles, Christian; McBride, Martin W.; Graham, Delyth; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Dominiczak, Anna F.

2010-01-01

166

Epidemic dynamics at the human-animal interface  

PubMed Central

Few infectious diseases are entirely human-specific: most human pathogens also circulate in animals, or else originated in non-human hosts. Influenza, plague, and trypanosomiasis are classic examples of zoonoses, or infections that transmit from animals to humans. The multi-host ecology of zoonoses leads to complex dynamics, and analytical tools such as mathematical modeling are vital to the development of effective control policies and research agendas. Much attention has focused on modeling pathogens with simpler life cycles and immediate global urgency, such as influenza and SARS, but vector-transmitted, chronic, and protozoan infections have been neglected, as have crucial processes such as cross-species transmission. Progress in understanding and combating zoonoses requires a new generation of models that addresses a broader set of pathogen life histories and integrates across host species and scientific disciplines. PMID:19965751

Lloyd-Smith, James O.; George, Dylan; Pepin, Kim M.; Pitzer, Virginia E.; Pulliam, Juliet R. C.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Hudson, Peter J.; Grenfell, Bryan T.

2013-01-01

167

Animal versus human oral drug bioavailability: do they correlate?  

PubMed

Oral bioavailability is a key consideration in development of drug products, and the use of preclinical species in predicting bioavailability in human has long been debated. In order to clarify whether any correlation between human and animal bioavailability exist, an extensive analysis of the published literature data was conducted. Due to the complex nature of bioavailability calculations inclusion criteria were applied to ensure integrity of the data. A database of 184 compounds was assembled. Linear regression for the reported compounds indicated no strong or predictive correlations to human data for all species, individually and combined. The lack of correlation in this extended dataset highlights that animal bioavailability is not quantitatively predictive of bioavailability in human. Although qualitative (high/low bioavailability) indications might be possible, models taking into account species-specific factors that may affect bioavailability are recommended for developing quantitative prediction. PMID:23988844

Musther, Helen; Olivares-Morales, Andrs; Hatley, Oliver J D; Liu, Bo; Rostami Hodjegan, Amin

2014-06-16

168

Animal Dissection. [Fact Sheet and Resource List Information Packet from the Humane Society of the United States].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Killing animals for classroom dissection causes animal suffering, cheapens the value of life, and depletes wild animal populations, yet it remains commonplace. The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) addresses the issue in this information packet which includes a fact sheet and three resource lists "on Dissection." The fact sheet discusses

Balcombe, Jonathan

169

A Selective Critique of Animal Experiments in Human-Orientated Biological Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The advantages and justifications for using small animals in human-oriented research are reviewed. Some of the pitfalls of extrapolating animal-derived data to humans are discussed. Several specific problems with animal experimentation are highlighted. (CW)

Webb, G. P.

1990-01-01

170

Affective neuroscience of pleasure: reward in humans and animals  

E-print Network

; and the relation of pleasure to happiness. Keywords Reward . Pleasure . Motivation . Hedonic . Food . AddictionREVIEW Affective neuroscience of pleasure: reward in humans and animals Kent C. Berridge & Morten L-Verlag 2008 Abstract Introduction Pleasure and reward are generated by brain circuits that are largely shared

Berridge, Kent

171

Origins of techniques in human and animal embryology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly innovative and imaginative techniques are being developed to investigate the development of animal and human embryos. Among the types of techniques that have been developed are ones that deal with oocyte maturation and culture, the isolation and utilization of stem cells, cryopreservation of reproductive cells and tissues, and various procedures to manipulate early embryos. To appreciate the derivation of

S. P. Leibo

2007-01-01

172

NITROBENZENE CARCINOGENICITY IN ANIMALS AND HUMAN HAZARD EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Nitrobenzene (NB) human cancer studies have not been reported, but animals studies have. Three rodent strains inhaling NB produce cancer at eight sites. B6C3F1 mice respond with mammary gland malignant tumors and male lung and thyroid benign tumors, F344/N male rats respond with ...

173

INTRODUCTION Social Learning in Humans and Nonhuman Animals  

E-print Network

as a keyword theory of mind (another active area of contemporary research in social cognition). Of note here are the distinct trajectories taken by theory of mind compared with social learning and imitation. Whereas sinceINTRODUCTION Social Learning in Humans and Nonhuman Animals: Theoretical and Empirical Dissections

Galef Jr., Bennett G.

174

COMPARING THE EMOTIONAL BRAINS OF HUMANS AND OTHER ANIMALS  

E-print Network

25 3 COMPARING THE EMOTIONAL BRAINS OF HUMANS AND OTHER ANIMALS Kent C. Berridge How is emotion embodied in the brain? That is the ques- tion posed by affective neuroscience (Cacioppo & Gardner, 1999 and emotion at both psychological and neurobiological levels. Evidence regarding the brain substrates

Berridge, Kent

175

Vision-Based Animation of Digital Humans Ioannis Kakadiaris  

E-print Network

im- portant role in computer graphics applications requiring en- hanced realism [2, 35]. This synergy where the use of complex models such as humans or other articulated objects and the model- ing of their motions is often necessary [3, 7]. In such cases, even the most skilled modelers and animators

176

Human Factors Aspects of Power System Flow Animation  

E-print Network

system flows can be used successfully in displays to improve both the speed and accuracy of certain tasks. Index Terms--Power System Operations and Planning, Power System Visualization, Animation, Human Factors operators and engineers to quickly process a vastly increased amount of information. To meet this need

177

Exemplar Selection Methods to Distinguish Human from Animal Footsteps  

E-print Network

146@illinois.edu, rdamarla@arl.army.mil Abstract The "class discovery" problem is the problem animal footsteps can be framed as a class discovery problem. When humans travel alone, every footstep. However, personnel detection is a challenging problem. Video sensors consume high amounts of power

Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark

178

Anticipatory Governance: Bioethical Expertise for Human/Animal Chimeras  

PubMed Central

The governance demands generated by the use of human/animal chimeras in scientific research offer both a challenge and an opportunity for the development of new forms of anticipatory governance through the novel application of bioethical expertise. Anticipatory governance can be seen to have three stages of development whereby bioethical experts move from a reactive to a proactive stance at the edge of what is scientifically possible. In the process, the ethicists move upstream in their engagement with the science of human-to-animal chimeras. To what extent is the anticipatory coestablishment of the principles and operational rules of governance at this early stage in the development of the human-to-animal research field likely to result in a framework for bioethical decision making that is in support of science? The process of anticipatory governance is characterised by the entwining of the scientific and the philosophical so that judgements against science are also found to be philosophically unfounded, and conversely, those activities that are permissible are deemed so on both scientific and ethical grounds. Through what is presented as an organic process, the emerging bioethical framework for human-to-animal chimera research becomes a legitimating framework within which good science can safely progress. Science gives bioethical expertise access to new governance territory; bioethical expertise gives science access to political acceptability. PMID:23576848

Harvey, Alison; Salter, Brian

2012-01-01

179

A Laboratory Animal Model of Human Shift Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop a laboratory animal model of human shift work. Two methods of monitoring circadian rhythms in rats were employed: an activity wheel cage, where number of wheel revolutions (WR) were counted, and an internal radio transmitter, which recorded gross motor activity (GMA) and body temperature (BT). Rats were implanted with biotelemetry transmitters that

HELEN M. MURPHY; CYRILLA H. WIDEMAN; GEORGE R. NADZAM

2003-01-01

180

Variability Discrimination in Humans and Animals: Implications for Adaptive Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both humans and animals live in a rich world of events. Some events repeat themselves, whereas others constantly change. The authors propose that discriminating this stability, sameness, and uniformity from change, differentness, and diversity is fundamental to adaptive action. Evidence from many areas of behavioral science indicates that the

Wasserman, Edward A.; Young, Michael E.; Cook, Robert G.

2004-01-01

181

Challenges in Designing Human-Animal Interaction Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses challenges in designing Human-Animal Interaction (HAI) research. A summary of previous reviews of HAI research is presented, followed by a discussion of areas that present particular challenges to research in this field, specifically design issues, control of extraneous variables, sample selection, intervention development, and outcome measurement. Suggestions for addressing these areas also are presented.

Cindy C. Wilson; Sandra B. Barker

2003-01-01

182

Cerebral Hemiatrophy Correlation of Human with Animal Experimental Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the neuropathologic findings in a 63-year-old white male with a history of birth asphyxia, cerebral palsy, seizures and mild mental retardation in conjunction with similar brain pathologic findings in animal models of perinatal asphyxia. The human case showed a left cerebral hemispheric hemiatrophy associated with an extensive ulegyria involving all cerebral lobes on that side and a single

Lisa Ford; Gabrielle M. De Courten-Myers; Thaddeus Mandybur; Ronald E. Myers

1988-01-01

183

Virtual human interface: towards building an intelligent animated agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe our ongoing research on creating a Virtual Human Interface that employs photo-realistic virtual people and animated characters to provide digital media users with information, learning services and entertainment in a highly personalized manner. Our system was designed to be able to create emotional engagement between the virtual character and the user, thus increasing the efficiency of learning and\\/or

Bernadette Kiss; Gbor Szijrt; Barnabs Takcs

2002-01-01

184

Consciousness in humans and non-human animals: recent advances and future directions  

PubMed Central

This joint article reflects the authors' personal views regarding noteworthy advances in the neuroscience of consciousness in the last 10 years, and suggests what we feel may be promising future directions. It is based on a small conference at the Samoset Resort in Rockport, Maine, USA, in July of 2012, organized by the Mind Science Foundation of San Antonio, Texas. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of subjectivity in humans and other animals, including empirical, applied, technical, and conceptual insights. These include the evidence for the importance of fronto-parietal connectivity and of top-down processes, both of which enable information to travel across distant cortical areas effectively, as well as numerous dissociations between consciousness and cognitive functions, such as attention, in humans. In addition, we describe the development of mental imagery paradigms, which made it possible to identify covert awareness in non-responsive subjects. Non-human animal consciousness research has also witnessed substantial advances on the specific role of cortical areas and higher order thalamus for consciousness, thanks to important technological enhancements. In addition, much progress has been made in the understanding of non-vertebrate cognition relevant to possible conscious states. Finally, major advances have been made in theories of consciousness, and also in their comparison with the available evidence. Along with reviewing these findings, each author suggests future avenues for research in their field of investigation. PMID:24198791

Boly, Melanie; Seth, Anil K.; Wilke, Melanie; Ingmundson, Paul; Baars, Bernard; Laureys, Steven; Edelman, David B.; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

2013-01-01

185

Male reproductive toxicology: comparison of the human to animal models.  

PubMed Central

The human male is of relatively low fertility and thus may be at greater risk from reproductive toxicants than are males of the common laboratory animal model species. Lack of knowledge of the physiological differences that contribute to interspecies variation between man and animals can prevent the effective application of animal data to the assessment of human reproductive risk. Evaluation of spermatogenesis from testicular histology, while uncommon, can provide valuable information about human reproductive risk. The measurement of sperm count or concentration has long been the most feasible approach for human semen evaluation, but may be an insensitive indicator of reproductive function because of high sample-to-sample variability. Interspecies extrapolation factors can be calculated by comparing the reduction in sperm count in humans and test species after exposure to drugs or chemicals. These factors can provide a realistic assessment of relative risk, provided that the sperm are counted at the appropriate time after exposure. However, the degree to which extrapolation factors derived for one agent, and only from sperm counts, can be generalized is not known. Monitoring of sperm motility and morphology parameters is also a common means of evaluating human semen quality, but these techniques are also hampered by the relatively high interindividual and intersample variability. Computer-assisted and morphometric approaches show promise of decreasing the subjective nature of these evaluations and increasing their value in risk assessment procedures. Improvements in predicting human reproductive risk can be expected to come from increased knowledge about reproductive mechanisms in man and animals, together with the utilization of objective measures of cellular indicators of male reproductive function. Images FIGURE 2. PMID:3289906

Working, P K

1988-01-01

186

Metaphysical and ethical perspectives on creating animal-human chimeras.  

PubMed

This paper addresses several questions related to the nature, production, and use of animal-human (a-h) chimeras. At the heart of the issue is whether certain types of a-h chimeras should be brought into existence, and, if they are, how we should treat such creatures. In our current research environment, we recognize a dichotomy between research involving nonhuman animal subjects and research involving human subjects, and the classification of a research protocol into one of these categories will trigger different ethical standards as to the moral permissibility of the research in question. Are a-h chimeras entitled to the more restrictive and protective ethical standards applied to human research subjects? We elucidate an Aristotelian-Thomistic metaphysical framework in which to argue how such chimeras ought to be defined ontologically. We then examine when the creation of, and experimentation upon, certain types of a-h chimeras may be morally permissible. PMID:19692673

Eberl, Jason T; Ballard, Rebecca A

2009-10-01

187

Practical uses for ecdysteroids in mammals including humans: an update  

PubMed Central

Ecdysteroids are widely used as inducers for gene-switch systems based on insect ecdysteroid receptors and genes of interest placed under the control of ecdysteroid-response elements. We review here these systems, which are currently mainly used in vitro with cultured cells in order to analyse the role of a wide array of genes, but which are expected to represent the basis for future gene therapy strategies. Such developments raise several questions, which are addressed in detail. First, the metabolic fate of ecdysteroids in mammals, including humans, is only poorly known, and the rapid catabolism of ecdysteroids may impede their use as in vivo inducers. A second set of questions arose in fact much earlier with the pioneering heterophylic studies of Burdette in the early sixties on the pharmacological effects of ecdysteroids on mammals. These and subsequent studies showed a wide range of effects, most of them being beneficial for the organism (e.g. hypoglycaemic, hypocholesterolaemic, anabolic). These effects are reviewed and critically analysed, and some hypotheses are proposed to explain the putative mechanisms involved. All of these pharmacological effects have led to the development of a wide array of ecdysteroid-containing preparations, which are primarily used for their anabolic and/or adaptogenic properties on humans (or horses or dogs). In the same way, increasing numbers of patents have been deposited concerning various beneficial effects of ecdysteroids in many medical or cosmetic domains, which make ecdysteroids very attractive candidates for several practical uses. It may be questioned whether all these pharmacological actions are compatible with the development of ecdysteroid-inducible gene switches for gene therapy, and also if ecdysteroids should be classified among doping substances. Abbreviation: 20E 20-hydroxyecdysone 2d20E 2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone 2dE 2-deoxyecdysone BAH bisacylhydrazine BmEcR Bombyx mori EcR CfEcR Choristoneura fumiferana EcR CfUSP Choristoneura fumiferana USP CHO Chinese hamster ovary CMV cytomegalovirus DBD DNA-binding domain DmEcR Drosophila melanogaster EcR AbbE ecdysone EcR ecdysteroid receptor EcRE ecdysteroid response element EHT effective half-time ERE oestrogen response element GR glucocorticoid receptor GRE glucocorticoid response element HEK human embryonic kidney HvEcR Heliothis virescens EcR LBD ligand binding domain murA muristerone A PKA protein kinase A polB polypodine B ponA ponasterone A PPAR peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor RAR retinoic acid receptor RXR retinoid X receptor TR thyroid receptor USP ultraspiracle VDR vitamin D receptor VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor PMID:15844229

Lafont, R.; Dinan, L.

2003-01-01

188

Working with Human Cells in Animals This cubicle is currently housing _____________ (animal species) that have been injected with human cell  

E-print Network

of as biological waste. After the completion of these procedures, personnel will remove all PPE and must wash his, or cleaning the room. Adhere to standard (universal) precautions. All surfaces and racks that may be labeled with the universal biohazard label following injection of the animal with human cells. Cage

Cui, Yan

189

Group decisions in humans and animals: a survey  

PubMed Central

Humans routinely make many decisions collectively, whether they choose a restaurant with friends, elect political leaders or decide actions to tackle international problems, such as climate change, that affect the future of the whole planet. We might be less aware of it, but group decisions are just as important to social animals as they are for us. Animal groups have to collectively decide about communal movements, activities, nesting sites and enterprises, such as cooperative breeding or hunting, that crucially affect their survival and reproduction. While human group decisions have been studied for millennia, the study of animal group decisions is relatively young, but is now expanding rapidly. It emerges that group decisions in animals pose many similar questions to those in humans. The purpose of the present issue is to integrate and combine approaches in the social and natural sciences in an area in which theoretical challenges and research questions are often similar, and to introduce each discipline to the other's key ideas, findings and successful methods. In order to make such an introduction as effective as possible, here, we briefly review conceptual similarities and differences between the sciences, and provide a guide to the present issue. PMID:19073475

Conradt, Larissa; List, Christian

2008-01-01

190

The Responsible Use of Animals in Biology Classrooms Including Alternatives to Dissection. Monograph IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph discusses the care and maintenance of animals, suggests some alternative teaching strategies, and affirms the value of teaching biology as the study of living organisms, rather than dead specimens. The lessons in this monograph are intended as guidelines that teachers should adapt for their own particular classroom needs. Chapter 1,

Hairston, Rosalina V., Ed.

191

Animal Science, Including Instruction in Agricultural Mechanics, Careers, Leadership, and Supervised Occupational Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed and reviewed by a committee of 16 teachers, the state supervisory staff, and the teacher education staff, this curriculum guide is for vocational agriculture teacher use with ninth grade students interested in agricultural occupations. Some objectives for this 1-year course in animal science are--(1) to develop competencies in

Missouri State Dept. of Education, Jefferson City. Agricultural Education Section.

192

Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the wonderful world of animals Listen to the animal sound. See if you can identify the animal.Animal sounds. Explore and find out about different animals.Kids Planet Create a animal report using one of the animals found in the web site.Kids Planet,SeaWorld/animals Create a picture of your animal examples are found...Your big backyard ...

Unsworth, Mrs.

2005-03-31

193

Human Antibodies that Block Human and Animal SARS Viruses Identified  

Cancer.gov

An international team of investigators has identified the first human antibodies that can neutralize different strains of virus responsible for outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The researchers used a mouse model and in vitro assays (lab tests) to test the neutralizing activity of the antibodies.

194

Mechanized syringe homogenization of human and animal tissues.  

PubMed

Tissue homogenization is a prerequisite to any fractionation schedule. A plethora of hands-on methods are available to homogenize tissues. Here we report a mechanized method for homogenizing animal and human tissues rapidly and easily. The Bio-Mixer 1200 (manufactured by Innovative Products, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK) utilizes the back-and-forth movement of two motor-driven disposable syringes, connected to each other through a three-way stopcock, to homogenize animal or human tissue. Using this method, we were able to homogenize human or mouse tissues (brain, liver, heart, and salivary glands) in 5 min. From sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric enzyme assay for prolidase, we have found that the homogenates obtained were as good or even better than that obtained used a manual glass-on-Teflon (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) homogenization protocol (all-glass tube and Teflon pestle). Use of the Bio-Mixer 1200 to homogenize animal or human tissue precludes the need to stay in the cold room as is the case with the other hands-on homogenization methods available, in addition to freeing up time for other experiments. PMID:15285912

Kurien, Biji T; Porter, Andrew C; Patel, Nisha C; Kurono, Sadamu; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Scofield, R Hal

2004-06-01

195

Calcium isotope ratios in animal and human bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium isotopes in tissues are thought to be influenced by an individual's diet, reflecting parameters such as trophic level and dairy consumption, but this has not been carefully assessed. We report the calcium isotope ratios (? 44/42Ca) of modern and archaeological animal and human bone ( n = 216). Modern sheep raised at the same location show 0.14 0.08 higher ? 44/42Ca in females than in males, which we attribute to lactation by the ewes. In the archaeological bone samples the calcium isotope ratios of the herbivorous fauna vary by location. At a single site, the archaeological fauna do not show a trophic level effect. Humans have lower ? 44/42Ca than the mean site fauna by 0.22 0.22, and the humans have a greater ? 44/42Ca range than the animals. No effect of sex or age on the calcium isotope ratios was found, and intra-individual skeletal ? 44/42Ca variability is negligible. We rule out dairy consumption as the main cause of the lower human ? 44/42Ca, based on results from sites pre-dating animal domestication and dairy availability, and suggest instead that individual physiology and calcium intake may be important in determining bone calcium isotope ratios.

Reynard, L. M.; Henderson, G. M.; Hedges, R. E. M.

2010-07-01

196

[Anatomia sacra. Religiously motivated interventions on human or animal bodies].  

PubMed

Controlled surgery in the interior of human or animal bodies in classical antiquity was allowed only under certain circumstances. Bloody animal sacrifice and its rules for the interpretation of entrails as well as the rare examples of 'ritual anatomy' presented a religious framework for the opening of bodies. Greek mythology provided several examples of medical operations, for example, the Caesarean section, transplantations and plastic surgery. Great cultic significance was given to organ votives or reproductions of human inner organs which were offered in temples ex voto or with request for their curing. The anatomical knowledge transported along with these offerings represents a separate tradition different from the state of anatomical knowledge found in medical literature of the period. PMID:7789103

Gladigow, B

1995-01-01

197

ANABOLIC-ANDROGENIC STEROID DEPENDENCE? INSIGHTS FROM ANIMALS AND HUMANS  

PubMed Central

Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are drugs of abuse. They are taken in large quantities by athletes and others to increase performance, with negative health consequences. As a result, in 1991 testosterone and related AAS were declared controlled substances. However, the relative abuse and dependence liability of AAS have not been fully characterized. In humans, it is difficult to separate the direct psychoactive effects of AAS from reinforcement due to their systemic anabolic effects. However, using conditioned place preference and self-administration, studies in animals have demonstrated that AAS are reinforcing in a context where athletic performance is irrelevant. Furthermore, AAS share brain sites of action and neurotransmitter systems in common with other drugs of abuse. In particular, recent evidence links AAS with opioids. In humans, AAS abuse is associated with prescription opioid use. In animals, AAS overdose produces symptoms resembling opioid overdose, and AAS modify the activity of the endogenous opioid system. PMID:18275992

Wood, Ruth I.

2008-01-01

198

A laboratory animal model of human shift work  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop a laboratory animal model of human shift work. Two methods of monitoring circadian\\u000a rhythms in rats were employed: an activity wheel cage, where number of wheel revolutions (WR) were counted, and an internal\\u000a radio transmitter, which recorded gross motor activity (GMA) and body temperature (BT). Rats were implanted with biotelemetry\\u000a transmitters that

Helen M. Murphy; Cyrilla H. Wideman; George R. Nadzam

2003-01-01

199

Children's understanding of false belief in humans and animals  

E-print Network

Change Task . 30 3 Nean Number of Items Correct for Human Actor and Animal Actor 30 4 Correlations Between Having a Sibling and Performance on False Belief Tasks . . . . . . . . 35 5 Correlations Between Number of Siblings and Performance on False... are designed to measure a child's understanding of how beliefs affect a person' s actions and conceptions about reality (Perner, Leekam, Wimmer, 1987; Wimmer a Perner, 1983). Frequently used are tasks that seek to measure a child' s knowledge...

Saunders, Katherine Nuttall

2012-06-07

200

Classification of humans and animals using an infrared profiling sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents initial object profile classification results using range and elevation independent features from a simulated infrared profiling sensor. The passive infrared profiling sensor was simulated using a LWIR camera. A field data collection effort to yield profiles of humans and animals is reported. Range and elevation independent features based on height and width of the objects were extracted from profiles. The profile features were then used to train and test four classification algorithms to classify objects as humans or animals. The performance of Nave Bayesian (NB), Nave Bayesian with Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA+NB), K-Nearest Neighbors (K-NN), and Support Vector Machines (SVM) are compared based on their classification accuracy. Results indicate that for our data set SVM and (LDA+NB) are capable of providing classification rates as high as 98.5%. For perimeter security applications where misclassification of humans as animals (true negatives) needs to be avoided, SVM and NB provide true negative rates of 0% while maintaining overall classification rates of over 95%.

Chari, Srikant; Halford, Carl; Jacobs, Eddie; Smith, Forrest; Brown, Jeremy; Russomanno, David

2009-05-01

201

Graphene earphones: entertainment for both humans and animals.  

PubMed

The human hearing range is from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. However, many animals can hear much higher sound frequencies. Dolphins, especially, have a hearing range up to 300 kHz. To our knowledge, there is no data of a reported wide-band sound frequency earphone to satisfy both humans and animals. Here, we show that graphene earphones, packaged into commercial earphone casings can play sounds ranging from 100 Hz to 50 kHz. By using a one-step laser scribing technology, wafer-scale flexible graphene earphones can be obtained in 25 min. Compared with a normal commercial earphone, the graphene earphone has a wider frequency response (100 Hz to 50 kHz) and a three times lower fluctuation (10 dB). A nonlinear effect exists in the graphene-generated sound frequency spectrum. This effect could be explained by the DC bias added to the input sine waves which may induce higher harmonics. Our numerical calculations show that the sound frequency emitted by graphene could reach up to 1 MHz. In addition, we have demonstrated that a dog wearing a graphene earphone could also be trained and controlled by 35 kHz sound waves. Our results show that graphene could be widely used to produce earphones for both humans and animals. PMID:24766102

Tian, He; Li, Cheng; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Cui, Ya-Long; Mi, Wen-Tian; Yang, Yi; Xie, Dan; Ren, Tian-Ling

2014-06-24

202

Simulating prediction markets that include human and automated agents  

E-print Network

In this work I study the interaction of sophisticated trading agents with simpler agents in a prediction market. The goal is to simulate markets with both human and computer agents, and investigate ways to maximize the ...

Chang, Wendy, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

203

Electromagnetic dosimetry for models of humans and animals - A review of theoretical and numerical techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reviews techniques of electromagnetic dosimetry for human and animal models. Numerical techniques, analytical cylindrical models, and geometrical optics methods are described, noting the useful frequency range of each method. Analytical techniques included analysis of planar and spherical models, long-wavelength analysis of spheroids and ellipsoids and solutions of the wave equation in spheroidal coordinates. Numerical techniques involved the moment

C. H. Durney

1980-01-01

204

Rift Valley Fever in Humans and Animals in Mayotte, an Endemic Situation?  

E-print Network

enrolled in the human study, including 337 children aged 5 to 14 years. For the animal study, 198 transmission, with mosquitoes playing an important role. The studies emphasize the need for a one health under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

205

Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism  

SciTech Connect

In his lecture, Shiller discusses the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. The book discusses how animal spirits, or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including todays global financial crisis.

Robert J. Shiller

2010-03-02

206

Chromatographic methods for the determination of ochratoxin A in animal and human tissues and fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives a review of chromatographic methods used for the determination of ochratoxin A (OA) in animal and human tissues and fluids. These methods are needed for example for monitoring studies of OA occurrence in the food chain and for studies dealing with the OA carry-over. In this survey, emphasis was given to HPLC methods. The review includes sampling,

Hana Valenta

1998-01-01

207

21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...must be met for a permitted extralabel use of in food-producing animals an approved human drug... (2) If scientific information on the human food safety aspect of the use of the drug in food-producing animals is not available, the...

2010-04-01

208

21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...must be met for a permitted extralabel use of in food-producing animals an approved human drug... (2) If scientific information on the human food safety aspect of the use of the drug in food-producing animals is not available, the...

2011-04-01

209

21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.  

...must be met for a permitted extralabel use of in food-producing animals an approved human drug... (2) If scientific information on the human food safety aspect of the use of the drug in food-producing animals is not available, the...

2014-04-01

210

21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...must be met for a permitted extralabel use of in food-producing animals an approved human drug... (2) If scientific information on the human food safety aspect of the use of the drug in food-producing animals is not available, the...

2012-04-01

211

21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...must be met for a permitted extralabel use of in food-producing animals an approved human drug... (2) If scientific information on the human food safety aspect of the use of the drug in food-producing animals is not available, the...

2013-04-01

212

The Brain Functional Networks Associated to Human and Animal Suffering Differ among Omnivores, Vegetarians and Vegans  

PubMed Central

Empathy and affective appraisals for conspecifics are among the hallmarks of social interaction. Using functional MRI, we hypothesized that vegetarians and vegans, who made their feeding choice for ethical reasons, might show brain responses to conditions of suffering involving humans or animals different from omnivores. We recruited 20 omnivore subjects, 19 vegetarians, and 21 vegans. The groups were matched for sex and age. Brain activation was investigated using fMRI and an event-related design during observation of negative affective pictures of human beings and animals (showing mutilations, murdered people, human/animal threat, tortures, wounds, etc.). Participants saw negative-valence scenes related to humans and animals, alternating with natural landscapes. During human negative valence scenes, compared with omnivores, vegetarians and vegans had an increased recruitment of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). More critically, during animal negative valence scenes, they had decreased amygdala activation and increased activation of the lingual gyri, the left cuneus, the posterior cingulate cortex and several areas mainly located in the frontal lobes, including the ACC, the IFG and the middle frontal gyrus. Nonetheless, also substantial differences between vegetarians and vegans have been found responding to negative scenes. Vegetarians showed a selective recruitment of the right inferior parietal lobule during human negative scenes, and a prevailing activation of the ACC during animal negative scenes. Conversely, during animal negative scenes an increased activation of the inferior prefrontal cortex was observed in vegans. These results suggest that empathy toward non conspecifics has different neural representation among individuals with different feeding habits, perhaps reflecting different motivational factors and beliefs. PMID:20520767

Filippi, Massimo; Riccitelli, Gianna; Falini, Andrea; Di Salle, Francesco; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Comi, Giancarlo; Rocca, Maria A.

2010-01-01

213

Parasitic worms, animals and human Professor John W Lewis  

E-print Network

, Royal Holloway-University of London, Egham, TW20 0EX ABSTRACT Toxocara is a large parasitic roundworm (nematode) occurring in the intestine of carnivorous animals including dogs, cats and foxes (regarded ( sometimes regarded as the paratenic host).Larvae will then burrow through the wall of the intestine

Royal Holloway, University of London

214

Recycling biowaste--human and animal health problems.  

PubMed

Biowaste from the food chain is of potential benefit to use in agriculture. Agriculture in general and organic farming in particular needs alternative plant nutrients. However, the quality concerning hygiene and soil contaminants must be assured. This recycling has to be regulated in a way that harmful effects on soil, vegetation, animals and man are prevented. The problems with heavy metals and organic contaminants have been focused on. Still, maximum threshold values are continuously discussed to avoid an increase of soil concentrations. The effect on the ecosystems of residues from use of medicines needs further attention. There is also a risk for a spread of antibiotic resistant micro-organisms in the environment and then to animals and man. Infectious diseases may be spread from biowaste and new routes of disease transmission between animals and humans can be created. Zoonotic diseases in this context play a central role. Pathogens recently introduced to a country may be further spread when biowaste is recycled. The very good health status of domestic animals in the Nordic countries may then quickly change. The quality of biowaste is of enormous importance if biowaste is to gain general acceptance for agricultural use, especially for organic production. A balance needs to be maintained between risk and advantage for its use. PMID:11995393

Albihn, A

2001-01-01

215

[Anthrax--continuous threat to humans and animals].  

PubMed

Gram-positive, spore-forming, aerobic bacterium Bacillus anthracis is an etiological agent of anthrax a disease very dangerous to humans and all warm-blooded animals. The spore forms are markedly resistant to unfavourable environmental extremes of heat, cold, desiccation, chemicals, irradiation etc. The vegetative forms characterised virulence factors: the antiphagocytic poly-gamma-D-polipeptide capsule and three proteins, edema factor (EF), lethal factor (LF) and protective antigen (PA). Anthrax is mainly transmitted from animals to man through food of animal origin, animal products and contamination of the environment with B. anthracis and its spores. There are three types of this disease: cutaneous, intestinal and inhalation anthrax. Research on anthrax as a biological weapon began more then 80 years ago. Depending on the target chosen and the scale of the attack the anthrax spores may by used to contaminate of foodstuffs or liquids and water. The aerosolised release of anthrax spore can cause illness with a high fatality rate. PMID:15517814

Mizak, Lidia

2004-01-01

216

29 CFR 1990.143 - General provisions for the use of human and animal data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...144(a). (d) Non-positive animal studies. Positive results...provided. (g) Use of high doses in animal testing. Positive results for carcinogenicity...determination of whether results in human, animal or short-term studies...

2013-07-01

217

29 CFR 1990.143 - General provisions for the use of human and animal data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...144(a). (d) Non-positive animal studies. Positive results...provided. (g) Use of high doses in animal testing. Positive results for carcinogenicity...determination of whether results in human, animal or short-term studies...

2010-07-01

218

29 CFR 1990.143 - General provisions for the use of human and animal data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...144(a). (d) Non-positive animal studies. Positive results...provided. (g) Use of high doses in animal testing. Positive results for carcinogenicity...determination of whether results in human, animal or short-term studies...

2012-07-01

219

29 CFR 1990.143 - General provisions for the use of human and animal data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...144(a). (d) Non-positive animal studies. Positive results...provided. (g) Use of high doses in animal testing. Positive results for carcinogenicity...determination of whether results in human, animal or short-term studies...

2011-07-01

220

Bone Research and Animal Support of Human Space Exploration: Where do we go from here?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA exploration goals include returning humans to the moon by 20 15-2020 as a prelude for human exploration of Mars and beyond. The number of human flight subjects available during this very short time period is insufficient to solve high-risk problems without data from animals. This presentation will focus on three questions: What do we know? What do we need to know? Where do we go from here?: roles for animals in the exploration era. Answers to these questions are based on flight and ground-based models using humans and animals. First, what do we know? Adult humans have spent less than 1% of their lifespan in space while juvenile rats have spent almost 2%. This information suggests that our data are rather meager for projecting to a 30-month mission to Mars. The space platforms for humans have included Skylab, STS/MIR, and STS/ISS and for animals have included the unmanned Bion series and shuttle. The ground-based models include head-down bedrest in humans (BR) and hindlimb unloading in rodents (HU). We know that as gravity decreases, the impact forces generated by the body during locomotion decrease. For example, on Earth, your legs supports approximately 1 body weight (BW) when standing, 1.33BW when walking, and 3BW when jogging. On Mars, the same activity would generate 0.38BW standing, 0.5BW walking, and 1BW when jogging. In space, no impact load is generated, as gravity is minimal.

Morey-Holton, Emily R.

2004-01-01

221

Mercury hazards from gold mining to humans, plants, and animals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mercury contamination of the environment from historical and ongoing mining practices that rely on mercury amalgamation for gold extraction is widespread. Contamination was particularly severe in the immediate vicinity of gold extraction and refining operations; however, mercury--especially in the form of water-soluble methylmercury--may be transported to pristine areas by rainwater, water currents, deforestation, volatilization, and other vectors. Examples of gold mining-associated mercury pollution are shown for Canada, the United States, Africa, China, the Philippines, Siberia, and South America. In parts of Brazil, for example, mercury concentrations in all abiotic materials, plants, and animals--including endangered species of mammals and reptiles--collected near ongoing mercury-amalgamation gold mining sites were far in excess of allowable mercury levels promulgated by regulatory agencies for the protection of human health and natural resources. Although health authorities in Brazil are unable to detect conclusive evidence of human mercury intoxication, the potential exists in the absence of mitigation for epidemic mercury poisoning of the mining population and environs. In the United States, environmental mercury contamination is mostly from historical gold mining practices, and portions of Nevada remain sufficiently mercury-contaminated to pose a hazard to reproduction of carnivorous fishes and fish-eating birds. Concentrations of total mercury lethal to sensitive representative natural resources range from 0.1 to 2.0 ug/L of medium for aquatic organisms; from 2200 to 31,000 ug/kg body weight (acute oral) and 4000 to 40,000 ug/kg (dietary) for birds; and from 100 to 500 ug/kg body weight (daily dose) and 1000 to 5000 ug/kg diet for mammals. Significant adverse sublethal effects were observed among selected aquatic species at water concentrations of 0.03 to 0.1 ug Hg/L. For some birds, adverse effects--mainly on reproduction--have been associated with total mercury concentrations (in ug/kg fresh weight) of 5000 in feather, 900 in egg, and 50 to 100 in diet; and with daily intakes of 640 ug/kg body weight. Sensitive nonhuman mammals showed significant adverse effects of mercury when daily intakes were 250 ug/kg body weight, when dietary levels were 1100 ug/kg, or when tissue concentrations exceeded 1100 ug/kg. Proposed mercury criteria for protection of aquatic life range from 0.012 ug/L for freshwater life to 0.025 ug/L for marine life; for birds, less than 100 ug/kg diet fresh weight; and for small mammals, less than 1100 ug/kg fresh weight diet. All of these proposed criteria provide, at best, minimal protection.

Eisler, R.

2004-01-01

222

Animal models for human behavioral deficiencies during development.  

PubMed

Often considered to be a subdiscipline of neurotoxicology, experimental behavioral teratology has difficulties to be acknowledged by its own right. Results obtained in the laboratory concerning purely behavioral effects induced by low level prenatal exposure to substances are often doubted to contain any relevance with respect to humans. This doubt is based on many debates going on in the numerous extrapolation steps between observed effects on animal behavior and human psychopathology. Taking the inverse path, extrapolation from a typical human behavioral syndrome (minimal brain dysfunction) to observations which can be made on laboratory animals, the following main debates are discussed: the psychology debate (behaviorism--perceptionism--cognitivism); the psychopathology debate (hyperactivity--attention deficit--tactile-kinesthetic perception deficiency--sensory integration deficits); the relevance debate (behavior is reprogrammable software--behavioral deficits may reflect undetectable hardware defects); the interpretation debate (behavioral teratogenicity is chemical imprinting--behavioral disturbances due to chemicals reflect neurotoxicity); the intelligence debate (IQ decrements--attention deficits); the developmental delay debate (the relevance of a delay in the behavioral development); the sensitivity debate (behavior is the most sensitive measure in toxicology--the brain redundancy and plasticity compensates subtle deficiencies); the statistics debate (gather as many behavioral variables as possible--stay simple and measure only one aspect of behavior); the regulation debate (behavioral teratology should be regulated in detail--tests should not be prescribed). It is attempted to find rational solutions for these debates which menace to jeopardize the very existence of behavioral teratology. PMID:1380686

Elsner, J

1992-01-01

223

Chemotherapy of human and animal coccidioses: state and perspectives.  

PubMed

The state and perspectives for chemotherapy of cyst-forming and non-cyst-forming coccidia in humans and animals are summarized. In toxoplasmosis the therapeutic care of transplacental infections, which have gone out of control because of immunodeficiency, is in the forefront of attempts at improvement. Predominant drugs in use are pyrimethamine combined with a sulfonamide or with clindamycin, or trimethoprim plus sulfamethoxazole. For reasons of tolerability in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, after 3 months of therapy a maintenance treatment on 2 days a week has recently given very positive results. In cats, monensin and toltrazuril are effective against the intestinal developmental stages of Toxoplasma gondii, the later drug affecting to a reasonable extent the extraintestinal stages as well. Attempts to treat neosporosis and sarcocystosis remain in the initial stages. The same is true for cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals. A number of highly effective drugs are available for prophylaxis of poultry coccidiosis. Increasing problems with resistance have led to new treatment schemes such as shuttle and rotation programs. In addition to a new polyether, semduramycin, a benzeneacetonitrile derivative (diclazuril) has been developed in recent years. After three decades a new drug (toltrazuril), a symmetrical triazinone derivative, has brought improvements for therapy and/or metaphylaxis in coccidiosis of poultry and mammals. The increasing possibilities for vaccination may result in new aspects for the use of chemotherapeutics, i.e., new combinations and/or shuttle or rotation programs. PMID:8801548

Haberkorn, A

1996-01-01

224

Single Animal to Human Transmission Event Responsible for 2014 Ebola Outbreak  

MedlinePLUS

... animal to human transmission event responsible for 2014 Ebola outbreak NIH-funded scientist uses latest genomic technology ... animal reservoir to a human in the current Ebola outbreak in West Africa. This research has also ...

225

Copyright: Potts & White, May 2007 New Zealand Centre for Human-Animal Studies  

E-print Network

/factory farming 71 Further issues 72 Vivisection/animal experimentation 72 Zoos 74 Section 3: Attitudes to animalsCopyright: Potts & White, May 2007 New Zealand Centre for Human-Animal Studies Cruelty-Director: New Zealand Centre for Human-Animal Studies Te Whare Wananga o Waitaha/University of Canterbury

Hickman, Mark

226

Battery of short-term tests in laboratory animals to corroborate the detection of human population exposures to genotoxic chemicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors are conducting a battery of short-term tests in laboratory animals for comparison to a series of monitoring test they are evaluating for the detection of human population exposures to genotoxic chemicals. The human monitoring tests are described in a separate abstract. These assays include (1) hemoglobin (Hb) alkylation, (2) cytogenetic effects in bone marrow cells including chromosomal structural

M. A. Pereira; L. W. Chang; L. McMillan; J. B. Ward; M. S. Legator

1982-01-01

227

An analysis of the use of animal models in predicting human toxicology and drug safety.  

PubMed

Animal use continues to be central to preclinical drug development, in spite of a lack of its demonstrable validity. The current nadir of new drug approvals and the drying-up of pipelines may be a direct consequence of this. To estimate the evidential weight given by animal data to the probability that a new drug may be toxic to humans, we have calculated Likelihood Ratios (LRs) for an extensive data set of 2,366 drugs, for which both animal and human data are available, including tissue-level effects and MedDRA Level 1-4 biomedical observations. This was done for three preclinical species (rat, mouse and rabbit), to augment our previously-published analysis of canine data. In common with our dog analysis, the resulting LRs show: a) that the absence of toxicity in the animal provides little or virtually no evidential weight that adverse drug reactions (ADRs) will also be absent in humans; and b) that, while the presence of toxicity in these species can add considerable evidential weight for human risk, the LRs are extremely inconsistent, varying by over two orders of magnitude for different classes of compounds and their effects. Therefore, our results for these additional preclinical species have important implications for their use in predicting human toxicity, and suggest that alternative methods are urgently required. PMID:25068930

Bailey, Jarrod; Thew, Michelle; Balls, Michael

2014-06-01

228

Integrative molecular phylogeography in the context of infectious diseases on the human-animal interface.  

PubMed

The rate of new emerging infectious diseases entering the human population has increased over the past century, with pathogens originating from animals or from products of animal origin accounting for the vast majority. Primary risk factors for the emergence and spread of emerging zoonoses include expansion and intensification of animal agriculture and long-distance live animal transport, live animal markets, bushmeat consumption and habitat destruction. Developing effective control strategies is contingent upon the ability to test causative hypotheses of disease transmission within a statistical framework. Broadly speaking, molecular phylogeography offers a framework in which specific hypotheses regarding pathogen gene flow and dispersal within an ecological context can be compared. A number of different methods has been developed for this application. Here, our intent is firstly to discuss the application of a wide variety of statistically based methods (including Bayesian reconstruction, network parsimony analysis and regression) to specific viruses (influenza, salmon anaemia virus, foot and mouth disease and Rift Valley Fever) that have been associated with animal farming/movements; and secondly to place them in the larger framework of the threat of potential zoonotic events as well as the economic and biosecurity implications of pathogen outbreaks among our animal food sources. PMID:22931895

Gray, Rebecca R; Salemi, Marco

2012-12-01

229

Animal-Human Hybridity in dAulnoys Babiole and Prince Wild Boar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the interpretative challenge for fairy tales that is posed by animal studies, which focuses on the specificity of animals and their relation to humans. The animal-human hybridity that is central to metamorphosis tales is especially significant in this respect because it at least implicitly calls into question the autonomy that modern rationalism grants to humans. To illustrate

Lewis C. Seifert

2011-01-01

230

Articular Osteochondrosis: A Comparison of Naturally-Occurring Human and Animal Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Osteochondrosis (OC) is a common developmental orthopedic disease affecting both humans and animals. Despite increasing recognition of this disease among children and adolescents, its pathogenesis is incompletely understood because clinical signs are often not apparent until lesions have progressed to end-stage, and examination of cadaveric early lesions is not feasible. In contrast, both naturally-occurring and surgically-induced animal models of disease have been extensively studied, most notably in horses and swine, species in which OC is recognized to have profound health and economic implications. The potential for a translational model of human OC has not been recognized in the existing human literature. Objective The purpose of this review is to highlight the similarities in signalment, predilection sites and clinical presentation of naturally-occurring OC in humans and animals and to propose a common pathogenesis for this condition across species. Study Design Review Methods The published human and veterinary literature for the various manifestations of OC was reviewed. Peer-reviewed original scientific articles and species-specific review articles accessible in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) were eligible for inclusion. Results A broad range of similarities exists between OC affecting humans and animals, including predilection sites, clinical presentation, radiographic/MRI changes, and histological appearance of the end stage lesion, suggesting a shared pathogenesis across species. Conclusion This proposed shared pathogenesis for OC between species implies that naturally-occurring and surgically-induced models of OC in animals may be useful in determining risk factors and for testing new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions that can be used in humans. PMID:23954774

McCoy, Annette M; Toth, Ferenc; Dolvik, Nils I; Ekman, Stina; Ellermann, Jutta; Olstad, Kristin; Ytrehus, Bjornar; Carlson, Cathy S

2013-01-01

231

Relevance of experimental animal studies to the human experience  

SciTech Connect

Animal experiments are being used to examine a number of physical and biological factors that influence risk estimations though not usually in coordination with epidemiologists. It is clear that the different mechanisms involved in different types of tumors are reflected in the diversity of dose-response relationships. The forms of the dose-response relationships are influenced by both the initial events and their expression. Evidence is accumulating that many initiated cells do not get expressed as overt cancers and host factors may play a major role in the expression of potential tumor cells. There is a need for information about the relationship of the natural incidence and susceptibility to radiation induction for more tumor types. Such experiments will help answer the question of which risk estimate models are appropriate for different tumor types and can be carried out on animals. Perhaps because of the importance of host factors risk estimates as a percentage of the natural incidence appear to be similar for human beings and mice for a small number of tumor types. The elucidation of the mechanisms involved in different tissues while a slow business remains an important role of animal experiments.

Fry, R.J.M.

1982-01-01

232

Cadmium-induced Cancers in Animals and in Humans  

PubMed Central

Discovered in the early 1800s, the use of cadmium and various cadmium salts started to become industrially important near the close of the 19th century, rapidly thereafter began to flourish, yet has diminished more recently. Most cadmium used in the United States is a byproduct from the smelting of zinc, lead, or copper ores, and is used to manufacture batteries. Carcinogenic activity of cadmium was discovered first in animals and only subsequently in humans. Cadmium and cadmium compounds have been classified as known human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the National Toxicology Program based on epidemiologic studies showing a causal association with lung cancer, and possibly prostate cancer, and studies in experimental animals, demonstrating that cadmium causes tumors at multiple tissue sites, by various routes of exposure, and in several species and strains. Epidemiologic studies published since these evaluations suggest that cadmium is also associated with cancers of the breast, kidney, pancreas, and urinary bladder. The basic metal cationic portion of cadmium is responsible for both toxic and cardinogenic activity, and the mechanism of carcinogenicity appears to be multifactorial. Available information about the carcinogenicity of cadmium and cadmium compounds is reviewed, evaluated, and discussed. PMID:17718178

Huff, James; Lunn, Ruth M.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Tomatis, Lorenzo; Infante, Peter F.

2012-01-01

233

Wounds of the hand contaminated by human or animal saliva.  

PubMed

A prospective and retrospective evaluation of 75 patients with hand wounds contaminated by human saliva (35) or animal saliva (40) demonstrates that a program of outpatient management can be sufficient for optimal care in many patients. This series challenges the proposition that hospitalization, radiographs, and surgical debridement are necessary for most such wounds. Sixty-seven per cent did not have surgical intervention and no complications resulted. Ninety-two per cent received antibiotics. Radiographs were obtained only when bony injury or entry into a joint was suspected. Delay in seeking treatment until obvious signs of infection or pain are present is common. Literature review details the anatomic factors important in the natural history and control of these infections, and the changes with respect to modes of treatment for these potentially dangerous wounds. The injury is caused by bites with the hand extended or, in fight-bite wounds, with the metacarpal-phalangeal and interphalangeal joints flexed, allowing deeper penetration and then sealing of the wound when the first is opened. Staphylococcus and Streptococcus are the organisms most frequently found in human bites, and in animal bites; Pasteurella multocida should be considered in dog and cat bites. PMID:7365851

Peeples, E; Boswick, J A; Scott, F A

1980-05-01

234

Different Roles of Mast Cells in Obesity and Diabetes: Lessons from Experimental Animals and Humans  

PubMed Central

Mast cells (MCs) play an important role in allergic hyperresponsiveness and in defending microorganism infections. Recent studies of experimental animals and humans have suggested that MCs participate in obesity and diabetes. MC distribution and activities in adipose tissues may vary, depending on the locations of different adipose tissues. In addition to releasing inflammatory mediators to affect adipose tissue extracellular matrix remodeling and to promote inflammatory cell recruitment and proliferation, MCs directly and indirectly interact and activate adipose tissue cells, including adipocytes and recruited inflammatory cells. Plasma MC protease levels are significantly higher in obese patients than in lean subjects. Experimental obese animals lose body weight after MC inactivation. MC functions in diabetes are even more complicated, and depend on the type of diabetes and on different diabetic complications. Both plasma MC proteases and MC activation essential immunoglobulin E levels are significant risk factors for human pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus. MC stabilization prevents diet-induced diabetes and improves pre-established diabetes in experimental animals. MC depletion or inactivation can improve diet-induced type 2 diabetes and some forms of type 1 diabetes, but also can worsen other forms of type 1 diabetes, at least in experimental animals. Observations from animal and human studies have suggested beneficial effects of treating diabetic patients with MC stabilizers. Some diabetic patients may benefit from enhancing MC survival and proliferation hypotheses that merit detailed basic researches and clinical studies. PMID:22566893

Shi, Michael A.; Shi, Guo-Ping

2012-01-01

235

Chemical disposition of boron in animals and humans.  

PubMed Central

Elemental boron was isolated in 1808. It typically occurs in nature as borates hydrated with varying amounts of water. Important compounds are boric acid and borax. Boron compounds are also used in the production of metals, enamels, and glasses. In trace amounts, boron is essential for the growth of many plants, and is found in animal and human tissues at low concentrations. Poisoning in humans has been reported as the result of accidental ingestion or use of large amounts in the treatment of burns. Boron as boric acid is fairly rapidly absorbed and excreted from the body via urine. The half-life of boric acid in humans is on the order of 1 day. Boron does not appear to accumulate in soft tissues of animals, but does accumulate in bone. Normal levels of boron in soft tissues, urine, and blood generally range from less than 0.05 ppm to no more than 10 ppm. In poisoning incidents, the amount of boric acid in brain and liver tissue has been reported to be as high as 2000 ppm. Recent studies at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences have indicated that boron may contribute to reduced fertility in male rodents fed 9000 ppm of boric acid in feed. Within a few days, boron levels in blood and most soft tissues quickly reached a plateau of about 15 ppm. Boron in bone did not appear to plateau, reaching 47 ppm after 7 days on the diet. Cessation of exposure to dietary boron resulted in a rapid drop in bone boron.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7889870

Moseman, R F

1994-01-01

236

Evaluation for transvaginal and transgastric NOTES cholecystectomy in human and animal natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/purposeNatural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a novel concept using an endoscope via a translumenal access for\\u000a abdominal surgery. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and technical aspects of NOTES cholecystectomy from\\u000a our experience on humans and animals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a MethodsNOTES cholecystectomies were performed in 12 animal experiments, including 8 pigs (6 by transgastric and 2 by transvaginal\\u000a accesses)

Maki Sugimoto; Hideki Yasuda; Keiji Koda; Masato Suzuki; Masato Yamazaki; Tohru Tezuka; Chihiro Kosugi; Ryota Higuchi; Yoshihisa Watayo; Yohsuke Yagawa; Shuichiro Uemura; Hironori Tsuchiya; Atsushi Hirano; Shoki Ro

2009-01-01

237

Molecular and comparative analysis of Salmonella enterica Senftenberg from humans and animals using PFGE, MLST and NARMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\u000a Salmonella species are recognized worldwide as a significant cause of human and animal disease. In this study the molecular profiles\\u000a and characteristics of Salmonella enterica Senftenberg isolated from human cases of illness and those recovered from healthy or diagnostic cases in animals were assessed.\\u000a Included in the study was a comparison with our own sequenced strain of S. Senfteberg

Ryan M Stepan; Julie S Sherwood; Shana R Petermann; Catherine M Logue

2011-01-01

238

Mercury hazards from gold mining to humans, plants, and animals.  

PubMed

Mercury contamination of the environment from historical and ongoing mining practices that rely on mercury amalgamation for gold extraction is widespread. Contamination was particularly severe in the immediate vicinity of gold extraction and refining operations; however, mercury, especially in the form of water-soluble methylmercury, may be transported to pristine areas by rainwater, water currents, deforestation, volatilization, and other vectors. Examples of gold mining-associated mercury pollution have been shown for Canada, the U.S., Africa, China, the Philippines, Siberia, and South America. In parts of Brazil, for example, mercury concentrations in all abiotic materials, plants, and animals, including endangered species of mammals and reptiles, collected near ongoing mercury amalgamation gold mining sites were far in excess of allowable mercury levels promulgated by regulatory agencies for the protection of human health and natural resources. Although health authorities in Brazil are unable to detect conclusive evidence of human mercury intoxication, the potential exists in the absence of mitigation for epidemic mercury poisoning of the mining population and environs. In the U.S., environmental mercury contamination is mostly from historical gold mining practices, and portions of Nevada remain sufficiently mercury contaminated to pose a hazard to reproduction of carnivorous fishes and fish-eating birds. Concentrations of total mercury lethal to sensitive representative natural resources range from 0.1 to 2.0 microg/L of medium for aquatic organisms; from 2,200 to 31,000 microg/kg BW (acute oral) and from 4,000 to 40,000 microg/kg (dietary) for birds; and from 100 to 500 microg/kg BW (daily dose) and from 1,000 to 5,000 microg/kg diet for mammals. Significant adverse sublethal effects were observed among selected aquatic species at water concentrations of 0.03-0.1 microg Hg/L. For some birds, adverse effects, mainly on reproduction, have been associated with total mercury concentrations (microg/kg FW) of 5,000 in feathers, 900 in eggs, and 50-100 in diet, and with daily intakes of 640 microg/kg BW. Sensitive nonhuman mammals showed significant adverse effects of mercury when daily intakes were 250 microg/kg BW, when dietary levels were 1,100 microg/kg, or when tissue concentrations exceeded 1,100 microg/kg. Proposed mercury criteria for protection of aquatic life range from 0.012 microg/L for freshwater life to 0.025 microg/L for marine life; for birds, less than 100 microg/kg diet FW; and for small mammals, less than 1,100 microg/kg FW diet. All these proposed criteria provide, at best, minimal protection. PMID:14738199

Eisler, Ronald

2004-01-01

239

Reverse Zoonotic Disease Transmission (Zooanthroponosis): A Systematic Review of Seldom-Documented Human Biological Threats to Animals  

PubMed Central

Background Research regarding zoonotic diseases often focuses on infectious diseases animals have given to humans. However, an increasing number of reports indicate that humans are transmitting pathogens to animals. Recent examples include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, influenza A virus, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Ascaris lumbricoides. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of published literature regarding reverse zoonoses and highlight the need for future work in this area. Methods An initial broad literature review yielded 4763 titles, of which 4704 were excluded as not meeting inclusion criteria. After careful screening, 56 articles (from 56 countries over three decades) with documented human-to-animal disease transmission were included in this report. Findings In these publications, 21 (38%) pathogens studied were bacterial, 16 (29%) were viral, 12 (21%) were parasitic, and 7 (13%) were fungal, other, or involved multiple pathogens. Effected animals included wildlife (n?=?28, 50%), livestock (n?=?24, 43%), companion animals (n?=?13, 23%), and various other animals or animals not explicitly mentioned (n?=?2, 4%). Published reports of reverse zoonoses transmission occurred in every continent except Antarctica therefore indicating a worldwide disease threat. Interpretation As we see a global increase in industrial animal production, the rapid movement of humans and animals, and the habitats of humans and wild animals intertwining with great complexity, the future promises more opportunities for humans to cause reverse zoonoses. Scientific research must be conducted in this area to provide a richer understanding of emerging and reemerging disease threats. As a result, multidisciplinary approaches such as One Health will be needed to mitigate these problems. PMID:24586500

Messenger, Ali M.; Barnes, Amber N.; Gray, Gregory C.

2014-01-01

240

Mechanisms and Genes in Human Strial Presbycusis from Animal Models  

PubMed Central

Schuknecht proposed a discrete form of presbycusis in which hearing loss results principally from degeneration of cochlear stria vascularis and decline of the endocochlear potential (EP). This form was asserted to be genetically linked, and to arise independently from age-related pathology of either the organ of Corti or cochlear neurons. Although extensive strial degeneration in humans coincides with hearing loss, EPs have never been measured in humans, and age-related EP reduction has never been verified. No human genes that promote strial presbycusis have been identified, nor is its pathophysiology well understood. Effective application of animal models to this issue requires models demonstrating EP decline, and preferably, genetically distinct strains that vary in patterns of EP decline and its cellular correlates. Until recently, only two models, Mongolian gerbils and Tyrp1B-lt mice, were known to undergo age-associated EP reduction. Detailed studies of seven inbred mouse strains have now revealed three strains (C57BL/6J, B6.CAST-Cdh23CAST, CBA/J) showing essentially no EP decline with age, and four strains ranging from modest to severe EP reduction (C57BL/6-Tyrc-2J, BALB/cJ, CBA/CaJ, NOD.NON-H2nbl/LtJ). Collectively, animal models support five basic principles regarding a strial form of presbycusis: 1) Progressive EP decline from initially normal levels as a defining characteristic; 2) Non-universality, not all age-associated hearing loss involves EP decline; 3) A clear genetic basis; 4) Modulation by environment or stochastic events; and 5) Independent strial, organ of Corti, and neural pathology. Shared features between human strial presbycusis, gerbils, and BALB/cJ and C57BL/6-Tyrc-2J mice further suggest this condition frequently begins with strial marginal cell dysfunction and loss. By contrast, NOD.NON-H2nbl mice may model a sequence more closely associated with strial microvascular disease. Additional studies of these and other inbred mouse and rat models should reveal candidate processes and genes that promote EP decline in humans. PMID:19285967

Ohlemiller, Kevin K.

2009-01-01

241

Cryptosporidium ubiquitum n. sp. in animals and humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species, Cryptosporidium ubiquitum, previously identified as the Cryptosporidium cervine genotype and infrequently as the cervid, W4 or genotype 3 genotype, is described. In published studies this genotype was reported in wild and domesticated ruminants, rodents, carnivores and primates including humans. In the present study oocysts were found in feces from a captive prehensile-tailed porcupine and her infant. Oocysts

Ronald Fayer; Mnica Santn; Dumitru Macarisin

2010-01-01

242

Surveillance of hantaviruses in Poland: a study of animal reservoirs and human hantavirus disease in Subcarpathia.  

PubMed

The first cluster of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Poland was identified in 2007 in the Subcarpathian region. The natural environment of this area is a key habitat for hantavirus vectors. The animal reservoir of existing human HFRS clusters was studied to assess the occurrence of viruses (including Tula virus, Puumala virus, and Dobrava-Belgrade virus) among rodents. We examined 70 suspected human cases with symptoms corresponding to the clinical picture of HFRS. Serological analysis (indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunoblot) confirmed the presence of anti-hantavirus antibodies in 18 patients, which were surveyed with regard to developed symptoms and presumed rodent contact. Seroepidemiological analysis of newly confirmed human cases was performed, putative areas of human exposure were studied, and 194 rodents were subsequently captured from identified areas. Internal organs (lungs, heart, spleen, bladder, and kidneys) were collected from 64 Apodemus flavicollis, 55 Apodemus agrarius, 40 Myodes glareolus, 21 Mus musculus, and 14 Microtus arvalis and tested for the presence of hantavirus RNA by reverse transcription and subsequent real-time PCR. Positive samples were also tested by indirect immunofluorescence. Animal reservoir surveillance enabled the first detection of Puumala virus and Dobrava-Belgrade virus among animals in Poland. Furthermore, some places where rodents were captured correlated with areas of residence of laboratory-confirmed human cases and likely detected virus species. Moreover, three species of hantaviruses coexisting in a relatively small area were identified. PMID:24902039

Michalski, Aleksander; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Bielawska-Drzd, Agata; Nowakowska, Anna; Gawe?, Jerzy; Pitucha, Grzegorz; Joniec, Justyna; Zielonka, Katarzyna; Marciniak-Niemcewicz, Anna; Kocik, Janusz

2014-07-01

243

A comparison of human and animal botulism: a review.  

PubMed Central

Botulism can arise from preformed toxin, wound infection or intestinal toxico-infection. All three forms can occur in humans as well as in animals. The examination of botulism in veterinary practice can alert the medical profession to the hazards which can occur with the introduction of dietary alterations and hermetic sealing of foodstuffs. There is also the possibility that the development of pica through lack of essential nutrients could lead to the ingestion of contaminated substances rendering the child (or even adult) susceptible to botulinum intoxication. A positive gain has been that research leading to the elimination of shaker foal disease has provided a comprehensive analysis of factors which may underline the risk of toxico-infection in infants. PMID:2041009

Critchley, E M

1991-01-01

244

Dopaminergic control of cognitive flexibility in humans and animals  

PubMed Central

Striatal dopamine (DA) is thought to code for learned associations between cues and reinforcers and to mediate approach behavior toward a reward. Less is known about the contribution of DA to cognitive flexibilitythe ability to adapt behavior in response to changes in the environment. Altered reward processing and impairments in cognitive flexibility are observed in psychiatric disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Patients with this disorder show a disruption of functioning in the frontostriatal circuit and alterations in DA signaling. In this review we summarize findings from animal and human studies that have investigated the involvement of striatal DA in cognitive flexibility. These findings may provide a better understanding of the role of dopaminergic dysfunction in cognitive inflexibility in psychiatric disorders, such as OCD. PMID:24204329

Klanker, Marianne; Feenstra, Matthijs; Denys, Damiaan

2013-01-01

245

Granulocytic anaplasmosis emerging tick-borne disease of humans and animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granulocytic anaplasmoses represent a group of emerging tick-borne infectious diseases caused by the obligate intracellular\\u000a gram-negative bacterium, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales) that infects granulocytes. It has been known as a ruminant pathogen in Europe since 1932, however, recently\\u000a it has emerged as a pathogen of humans and domestic animals such as dogs and horses in the Northern Hemisphere, including\\u000a United States

Mria Novkov; Bronislava Vchov

2010-01-01

246

New features of fascioliasis in human and animal infections in Ilam province, Western Iran  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of human and animal fascioliasis in Ilam Province, Iran. Background Fascioliasis, caused by Fasciola hepatica, is one of the most important zoonotic diseases. Snails are an intermediate host. Human infection with the parasite can led to hypertrophy and hyperplasia in bile duct. It also economic importance and further information is essential about the epidemiology of the parasite in Ilam province. Patients and methods The study on animals was descriptive and retrospective. All records from abattoirs were analyzed. It was conducted on 27242 indigenous animals including 17055 sheep, 5703 goats, and 4484 cattle. For the study of human Fascioliasis infection 600 human sera, from person among 5-80 year old, were collected and ELISA test was used for identification of IgG antibody to Fasciola hepatica by commercial kit. Results The overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica among 27242 slaughtered animals was 0.98%. Out of 267 domestic animals, 98 sheep, 28 goats and 141 cattle were infected with the parasite. The highest and lowest infection rate of 3.14% and 0.1% were cattle and goat, respectively. The prevalence of IgG antibody was0.66% (n = 4) against Fasciola hepatica in humans. Three infected people were living in rural areas. The highest infection rate (3 people) was found in women. Conclusion Ilam province is among the areas where the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica is low. This is probably due to the drought in the region in recent years that makes conditions difficult for the survival of snails, the intermediate hosts. But there is a risk of the disease increasing in incidence, in this region. PMID:24834263

Abdi, Jahangir; Nejad, Mohammad Rostami; Mansouri, Vahid

2013-01-01

247

78 FR 45729 - Foreign Supplier Verification Programs for Importers of Food for Humans and Animals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2013 Part III Department of Health and Human Services...Verification Programs for Importers of Food for Humans and Animals; Proposed Rule Federal Register...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...

2013-07-29

248

Merleau-Ponty, Deleuze, and the Question Singular: What Marks the Difference between Humans and Animals?  

E-print Network

courses on nature in Nature: Course Notes from the College de France"Animality, the Human Body, and the Pas sage to Culture" and "Nature and Logos: The Human Body" and in the fourth chapter, "Body, Meat, and Spirit: Becoming- Animal," of the book... and the Invisible We study the human through its body in order to see it emerge as different from the animal, not by the addition of reason, but rather, in short, in the Ineinander with the animal (strange anticipations or cari catures of the human in the animal...

Memon, Arsalan

2006-09-01

249

Putting the Dog Back in the Park: Animal and Human Mind-in-Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we use actual instances of human conduct with animals to reflect on the debates about animal agency in human activities. Where much of psychology, philosophy, and sociology begin with a fundamental scepticism over animal mind as the grounds for its inquiries, we join with a growing body of work that examines the continuities

Laurier, Eric; Maze, Ramia; Lundin, Johan

2006-01-01

250

Extending animal models of fear conditioning to humans M.R. Delgado a,*, A. Olsson b  

E-print Network

the extinction phase. This manuscript reviews how animal models of fear are translated to human behavior, and howExtending animal models of fear conditioning to humans M.R. Delgado a,*, A. Olsson b , E.A. Phelps, a simple paradigm that has been extensively investigated in animals, helping outline a brain circuitry

Phelps, Elizabeth

251

New Directions: Challenges for Human-Animal Bond Research and the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential health effect of the human-animal bond has been explored for over 15 years with limited success. Professionals from a variety of fields have examined the benefits a companion animal can provide for persons with special needs. We examined the research related to human-animal interactions and the community- based elderly. We reviewed recommendations from the 1984 Delta Society conference

Cindy C. Wilson; F. Ellen Netting

1987-01-01

252

Painful dilemmas: A study of the way the public's assessment of animal research balances costs to animals against human benefits.  

PubMed

The conflict between animal costs and human benefits has dominated public as well as academic debates about animal research. However, surveys of public perceptions of animal research rarely focus on this part of attitude formation. This paper traces the prevalence of different attitudes to animal research in the public when people are asked to take benefit and cost considerations into account concurrently. Results from the examination of two representative samples of the Danish public identify three reproducible attitude stances. Approximately 30-35% of people questioned approved of animal research quite strongly, and 15-20% opposed animal research. The remaining 50% were reserved in their views. Further studies will ideally use the measure developed here to make possible relatively fine-grained comparisons and understandings of differences between populations and changes in attitudes over time. PMID:23825251

Lund, Thomas Bker; Mrkbak, Morten Raun; Lassen, Jesper; Sande, Peter

2014-05-01

253

Toward new understandings of humananimal relationships in sport: a study of Australian jumps racing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of studying humananimal relationships and animal subjectivity is increasingly recognised by social and cultural geographers, particularly in agricultural pursuits. Little research, however, has been undertaken on animals in sport, resulting in a limited understanding of the perceptions and treatment of animals in society. To address this concern, we interrogate print media coverage of the construction and positioning of

Phil McManus; Daniel Montoya

2012-01-01

254

Wood, animals and human beings as reservoirs for human Cryptococcus neoformans infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptococcus neoformanswas first cultivated by Sanfelice from fermenting peach juice in 1894. At the same time, Busse and Buschke reported, separately, the first case of human disease caused by this yeast. During the next years, the fungus was isolated only from lesions or secretions of men or animals. In 1951, Emmons repor- ted the isolation of C. neoformans from soils

Luiz Fernando; Cabral Passoni

1999-01-01

255

Humans (really) are animals: picture-book reading influences 5-year-old urban children's construal of the relation between humans and non-human animals.  

PubMed

What is the relation between humans and non-human animals? From a biological perspective, we view humans as one species among many, but in the fables and films we create for children, we often offer an anthropocentric perspective, imbuing non-human animals with human-like characteristics. What are the consequences of these distinctly different perspectives on children's reasoning about the natural world? Some have argued that children universally begin with an anthropocentric perspective and that acquiring a biological perspective requires a basic conceptual change (cf. Carey, 1985). But recent work reveals that this anthropocentric perspective, evidenced in urban 5-year-olds, is not evident in 3-year-olds (Herrmann etal., 2010). This indicates that the anthropocentric perspective is not an obligatory first step in children's reasoning about biological phenomena. In the current paper, we introduced a priming manipulation to assess whether 5-year-olds' reasoning about a novel biological property is influenced by the perspectives they encounter in children's books. Just before participating in a reasoning task, each child read a book about bears with an experimenter. What varied was whether bears were depicted from an anthropomorphic (Berenstain Bears) or biological perspective (Animal Encyclopedia). The priming had a dramatic effect. Children reading the Berenstain Bears showed the standard anthropocentric reasoning pattern, but those reading the Animal Encyclopedia adopted a biological pattern. This offers evidence that urban 5-year-olds can adopt either a biological or a human-centered stance, depending upon the context. Thus, children's books and other media are double-edged swords. Media may (inadvertently) support human-centered reasoning in young children, but may also be instrumental in redirecting children's attention to a biological model. PMID:24672493

Waxman, Sandra R; Herrmann, Patricia; Woodring, Jennie; Medin, Douglas L

2014-01-01

256

Humans (really) are animals: picture-book reading influences 5-year-old urban childrens construal of the relation between humans and non-human animals  

PubMed Central

What is the relation between humans and non-human animals? From a biological perspective, we view humans as one species among many, but in the fables and films we create for children, we often offer an anthropocentric perspective, imbuing non-human animals with human-like characteristics. What are the consequences of these distinctly different perspectives on childrens reasoning about the natural world? Some have argued that children universally begin with an anthropocentric perspective and that acquiring a biological perspective requires a basic conceptual change (cf. Carey, 1985). But recent work reveals that this anthropocentric perspective, evidenced in urban 5-year-olds, is not evident in 3-year-olds (Herrmann etal., 2010). This indicates that the anthropocentric perspective is not an obligatory first step in childrens reasoning about biological phenomena. In the current paper, we introduced a priming manipulation to assess whether 5-year-olds reasoning about a novel biological property is influenced by the perspectives they encounter in childrens books. Just before participating in a reasoning task, each child read a book about bears with an experimenter. What varied was whether bears were depicted from an anthropomorphic (Berenstain Bears) or biological perspective (Animal Encyclopedia). The priming had a dramatic effect. Children reading the Berenstain Bears showed the standard anthropocentric reasoning pattern, but those reading the Animal Encyclopedia adopted a biological pattern. This offers evidence that urban 5-year-olds can adopt either a biological or a human-centered stance, depending upon the context. Thus, childrens books and other media are double-edged swords. Media may (inadvertently) support human-centered reasoning in young children, but may also be instrumental in redirecting childrens attention to a biological model. PMID:24672493

Waxman, Sandra R.; Herrmann, Patricia; Woodring, Jennie; Medin, Douglas L.

2014-01-01

257

Potential animal and environmental sources of Q fever infection for humans in Queensland.  

PubMed

Q fever is a vaccine-preventable disease; despite this, high annual notification numbers are still recorded in Australia. We have previously shown seroprevalence in Queensland metropolitan regions is approaching that of rural areas. This study investigated the presence of nucleic acid from Coxiella burnetii, the agent responsible for Q fever, in a number of animal and environmental samples collected throughout Queensland, to identify potential sources of human infection. Samples were collected from 129 geographical locations and included urine, faeces and whole blood from 22 different animal species; 45 ticks were removed from two species, canines and possums; 151 soil samples; 72 atmospheric dust samples collected from two locations and 50 dust swabs collected from domestic vacuum cleaners. PCR testing was performed targeting the IS1111 and COM1 genes for the specific detection of C.burnetii DNA. There were 85 detections from 1318 animal samples, giving a detection rate for each sample type ranging from 2.1 to 6.8%. Equine samples produced a detection rate of 11.9%, whilst feline and canine samples showed detection rates of 7.8% and 5.2%, respectively. Native animals had varying detection rates: pooled urines from flying foxes had 7.8%, whilst koalas had 5.1%, and 6.7% of ticks screened were positive. The soil and dust samples showed the presence of C.burnetii DNA ranging from 2.0 to 6.9%, respectively. These data show that specimens from a variety of animal species and the general environment provide a number of potential sources for C.burnetii infections of humans living in Queensland. These previously unrecognized sources may account for the high seroprevalence rates seen in putative low-risk communities, including Q fever patients with no direct animal contact and those subjects living in a low-risk urban environment. PMID:23663407

Tozer, S J; Lambert, S B; Strong, C L; Field, H E; Sloots, T P; Nissen, M D

2014-03-01

258

FAO-OIE-WHO Joint Technical Consultation on Avian Influenza at the Human-Animal Interface.  

PubMed

For the past 10 years, animal health experts and human health experts have been gaining experience in the technical aspects of avian influenza in mostly separate fora. More recently, in 2006, in a meeting of the small WHO Working Group on Influenza Research at the Human Animal Interface (Meeting report available from: http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/influenza/WHO_CDS_EPR_GIP_2006_3/en/index.html) in Geneva allowed influenza experts from the animal and public health sectors to discuss together the most recent avian influenza research. Ad hoc bilateral discussions on specific technical issues as well as formal meetings such as the Technical Meeting on HPAI and Human H5N1 Infection (Rome, June, 2007; information available from: http://www.fao.org/avianflu/en/conferences/june2007/index.html) have increasingly brought the sectors together and broadened the understanding of the topics of concern to each sector. The sectors have also recently come together at the broad global level, and have developed a joint strategy document for working together on zoonotic diseases (Joint strategy available from: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/ajl37e/ajl37e00.pdf). The 2008 FAO-OIE-WHO Joint Technical Consultation on Avian Influenza at the Human Animal Interface described here was the first opportunity for a large group of influenza experts from the animal and public health sectors to gather and discuss purely technical topics of joint interest that exist at the human-animal interface. During the consultation, three influenza-specific sessions aimed to (1) identify virological characteristics of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) important for zoonotic and pandemic disease, (2) evaluate the factors affecting evolution and emergence of a pandemic influenza strain and identify existing monitoring systems, and (3) identify modes of transmission and exposure sources for human zoonotic influenza infection (including discussion of specific exposure risks by affected countries). A final session was held to discuss broadening the use of tools and systems to other emerging zoonotic diseases. The meeting was structured as short technical presentations with substantial time available for facilitated discussion, to take advantage of the vast influenza knowledge and experience available from the invited expert participants. Particularly important was the identification of gaps in knowledge that have not yet been filled by either sector. Technical discussions focused on H5N1, but included other potentially zoonotic avian and animal influenza viruses whenever possible. During the consultation, the significant threat posed by subtypes other than H5N1 was continually emphasized in a variety of contexts. It was stressed that epidemiological and virological surveillance for these other viruses should be broadening and strengthened. The important role of live bird markets (LBMs) in amplifying and sustaining AIVs in some countries was also a recurring topic, and the need for better understanding of the role of LBMs in human zoonotic exposure and infection was noted. Much is understood about the contribution of various virus mutations and gene combinations to transmissibility, infectivity, and pathogenicity, although it was agreed that the specific constellation of gene types and mutations that would characterize a potentially pandemic virus remains unclear. The question of why only certain humans have become infected with H5N1 in the face of massive exposure in some communities was frequently raised during discussion of human exposure risks. It was suggested that individual-level factors may play a role. More research is needed to address this as well as questions of mode of transmission, behaviors associated with increased risk, virological and ecological aspects, and viral persistence in the environment in order to better elucidate specific human exposure risks. It became clear that great strides have been made in recent years in collaboration between the animal health and public health sectors, especially at the global level. In some countries out

Anderson, Tara; Capua, Ilaria; Dauphin, Gwenalle; Donis, Ruben; Fouchier, Ron; Mumford, Elizabeth; Peiris, Malik; Swayne, David; Thiermann, Alex

2010-05-01

259

Guideline Regarding Significant Changes to Animal Study Proposals The Animal Welfare Regulations and the PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory  

E-print Network

of the experimental animals, and thus need review and approval by the ACUC. To aid the ACUCs in fulfillingGuideline Regarding Significant Changes to Animal Study Proposals The Animal Welfare Regulations and the PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (PHS Policy) require that Animal Care and Use

Bandettini, Peter A.

260

Differences between animals and humans in the gastrointestinal absorption of barium  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a particular animal model can be demonstrated to differ substantially in certain aspects from human function or physiology, such differences must be accounted for when extrapolating the animal data to potential effects in humans. Significant differences exist between newborn rats and infant humans in the mechanism by which a variety of compounds are absorbed from the intestine. Consequently, newborn

Robert J. Golden; Lenore H. Schupak; Nathan J. Karch

1989-01-01

261

Staphylococcus aureus host specificity: comparative genomics of human versus animal isolates by multi-strain microarray  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal and pathogen of several mammalian species, particularly humans and cattle. We aimed to (i) identify S. aureus genes associated with host specificity, (ii) determine the relatedness of human and animal isolates, and (iii) identify whether human and animal isolates typically exchanged mobile genetic elements encoding virulence and resistance genes. Using a well-validated seven-strain S. aureus

Julia M.-L. Sung; David H. Lloyd; Jodi A. Lindsay

2008-01-01

262

The science and ethics of making part-human animals in stem cell biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Academy of Sciences re- cently issued voluntary guidelines to govern human embryonic stem cell research. Among other restric- tions, these guidelines prohibit certain kinds of combi- nations of human and nonhuman animal cells, and call for ethics review and oversight of any protocol involv- ing the transfer of human embryonic stem cells into nonhuman animals. In this essay,

Jason Scott Robert

2006-01-01

263

Genetic characterization of Mycobacterium avium isolates recovered from humans and animals in Australia.  

PubMed Central

Genetic relationships amongst 115 mainly Australian isolates of Mycobacterium avium were assessed using multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE). The isolates were divided into 58 electrophoretic types (ETs), with a mean genetic diversity of 0.29. Isolates from humans were closely related to but distinct from those cultured from birds, whilst some porcine isolates belonged to the same ETs as certain human isolates. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to differentiate related isolates, and those from birds and some from other animals, including pigs, were distinguished from the human isolates. The results of MEE and PFGE suggested that certain strains of M. avium may be transmitted between birds and pigs, but there was no clear evidence of transmission to humans. The serovar of the M. avium isolates was not obviously related to their ET assignment or their PFGE type. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8626003

Feizabadi, M. M.; Robertson, I. D.; Cousins, D. V.; Dawson, D.; Chew, W.; Gilbert, G. L.; Hampson, D. J.

1996-01-01

264

MPEG-4 Body Animation Parameters (BAPs) are used for animation of MPEG-4 compliant virtual human-like characters. Distributed virtual reality applications and networked games on  

E-print Network

of the resulting animation upon decompression. Consequently, the hybrid algorithm for BAP data compression is ideal Power Aware Compression Algorithms for MPEG-4 Virtual Human Animation in Mobile Computers Siddhartha virtual human (avatar) animation is used in many applications that depict human models interacting

Li, Kang

265

Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection contains animations of a nuclear chain reaction, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. It also showcases interactive models of the first atomic bombs and simulation of the "Nuclear Winter" effect.

Griffith, Christopher

266

Animal Rights Versus HumanismThe Charge of Speciesism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article examines a concern I have had for some time about the compatibility of humanistic psychology with the emerging animal rights movement. Beyond working out my position, the paper has the additional educational and, frankly, political purpose of bringing animal rights issues to the attention of humanistic psychologists. The article applies certain concepts of contemporary animal rights philosophy,

Kenneth J. Shapiro

1990-01-01

267

The Animal-Human Bond and Ethnic Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Affectionate relationships with animal companions have health-enhancing effects on people and enrich their quality of life, and the majority of families with companion animals regard their animals as family members. Research has also suggested that these relationships are complicated and vary depending on a number of factors, yet there has been

Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Holley, Lynn C.; Wolf, Shapard

2006-01-01

268

Animals as Sentinels of Human Environmental Health Hazards: An Evidence-Based Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite recognition that animals could be serving as sentinels for environmental risks to human health, there are no evidence-based guidelines for the use of animal sentinel data in human health \\u000adecision making. We performed a systematic review of the animal sentinel literature to assess the evidence linking such events to human health. A search of MEDLINE identified peer-reviewed original studies

Peter M. Rabinowitz; Zimra Gordon; Rebecca Holmes; Brynn Taylor; Matthew Wilcox; Daniel Chudnov; Prakash Nadkarni; F. Joshua Dein

2005-01-01

269

Hydroanalysis of Animal Lysozymes c and Human Defensins a  

E-print Network

Proteins appear to be the most dramatic natural example of self-organized criticality (SOC), a concept that explains many otherwise apparently unlikely phenomena. Protein functionality is dominated by long range hydro(phobic/philic) interactions which both drive protein compaction and mediate protein-protein interactions. In contrast to previous reductionist short range hydrophobicity scales, the holistic Moret-Zebende hydrophobicity scale represents a hydroanalytic tool that bioinformatically quantifies SOC in a way fully compatible with evolution. Hydroprofiling identifies chemical trends in the activities and substrate binding abilities of model enzymes and antibiotic animal lysozymes c and antibiotic human defensins, which have been the subject of tens of thousands of experimental studies. The analysis is simple and easily performed, and immediately yields insights not obtainable by traditional methods based on short-range real-space interactions, as described either by classical force fields (CFF) used in molecular dynamics simulations (MDS), or hydrophobicity scales based on transference energies from water to organic solvents.

J. C. Phillips

2008-08-17

270

Criminology and Human-Animal Violence Research: The Contribution and the Challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using theories concerning human-animal abuse links this paper assesses the role(s) that criminology can play in understanding\\u000a human-animal relationships. That this is not a one-way process of knowledge transferral is acknowledged with analysis of the\\u000a contribution that human-animal studies can offer in return. Following a brief outline of human-animal abuse theses the contributions\\u000a that criminology can play in furthering understandings

Nik Taylor

271

Why test animals to treat humans? On the validity of animal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critics of animal modeling have advanced a variety of arguments against the validity of the practice. The point of one such form of argument is to establish that animal modeling is pointless and therefore immoral. In this article, critical arguments of this form are divided into three types, the pseudoscience argument, the disanalogy argument, and the predictive validity argument. I

Cameron Shelley

2010-01-01

272

Humane Disposability: Rethinking Food Animals, Animal Welfare, and Vegetarianism in Response to the Factory Farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensively industrialized animal agriculture, or factory farming, poses many challenges for our notions of life and how it should be treated. Factory farmings mass instrumentalization and exploitation of animals potentially unsettles both our most basic notions regarding the justice of sacrificing certain lives in order to improve other lives, and our decisions about which lives belong to each category. This

Jessica L W Carey

2011-01-01

273

Mapping and Quantification of Vascular Branching in Plants, Animals and Humans by VESGEN Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Humans face daunting challenges in the successful exploration and colonization of space, including adverse alterations in gravity and radiation. The Earth-determined biology of humans, animals and plants is significantly modified in such extraterrestrial environments. One physiological requirement shared by humans with larger plants and animals is a complex, highly branching vascular system that is dynamically responsive to cellular metabolism, immunological protection and specialized cellular/tissue function. The VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) Analysis has been developed as a mature beta version, pre-release research software for mapping and quantification of the fractal-based complexity of vascular branching. Alterations in vascular branching pattern can provide informative read-outs of altered vascular regulation. Originally developed for biomedical applications in angiogenesis, VESGEN 2D has provided novel insights into the cytokine, transgenic and therapeutic regulation of angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and other microvascular remodeling phenomena. Vascular trees, networks and tree-network composites are mapped and quantified. Applications include disease progression from clinical ophthalmic images of the human retina; experimental regulation of vascular remodeling in the mouse retina; avian and mouse coronary vasculature, and other experimental models in vivo. We envision that altered branching in the leaves of plants studied on ISS such as Arabidopsis thaliana cans also be analyzed.

Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.; Vickerman, Mary B.; Keith, Patricia A.

2010-01-01

274

UniversityofFloridaSchoolofForestResources&Conservation The SFRC has 54 full-time faculty specializing in areas that include agroforestry, aquaculture, aquatic animal health, biological  

E-print Network

-time faculty specializing in areas that include agroforestry, aquaculture, aquatic animal health, biological from Orlando, Tallahassee, Jacksonville and Tampa. The Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean

Florida, University of

275

In-vivo animation of midazolam-induced electrocorticographic changes in humans.  

PubMed

Previous human studies have demonstrated that midazolam-induced signal changes on scalp EEG recording include widespread augmentation of sigma-oscillations and that the amplitude of such oscillations is correlated to the severity of midazolam-induced amnesia. Still unanswered questions include whether midazolam-induced sigma-augmentation also involves the medial temporal region, which plays a role in memory encoding. Taking advantage of rare and unique opportunities to monitor neuronal activities using intracranial electrocorticography (ECoG) recording, we determined how intravenous administration of midazolam elicited spectral frequency changes in the human cerebral cortex, including the medial temporal region. We studied three children with focal epilepsy who underwent subdural electrode placement and extraoperative ECoG recording for subsequent resection of the seizure focus; an intravenous bolus of midazolam was given to abort an ongoing simple partial seizure or to provide sedation prior to induction of general anesthesia. 'Midazolam-induced ECoG frequency alteration' in sites distant from the seizure focus was sequentially animated on their individual three-dimensional MR images. The common ECoG changes induced by midazolam included gradual augmentation of sigma-oscillations (12-16 Hz) in the widespread non-epileptic regions, including the medial temporal region. The spatial and temporal alteration of ECoG spectral frequency pattern can be appreciated via animation movies. Midazolam-induced sigma-augmentation was observed in the medial temporal region in our relatively small cohort of human subjects. In-vivo animation of ECoG spectral measures provided a unique situation to study the effect of midazolam on neuronal processing in the deep brain regions. PMID:19733366

Nishida, Masaaki; Sood, Sandeep; Asano, Eishi

2009-12-15

276

Life Cycle Heterogeneity in Animal Models of Human Papillomavirus-Associated Disease  

PubMed Central

Animal papillomaviruses are widely used as models to study papillomavirus infection in humans despite differences in genome organization and tissue tropism. Here, we have investigated the extent to which animal models of papillomavirus infection resemble human disease by comparing the life cycles of 10 different papillomavirus types. Three phases in the life cycles of all viruses were apparent using antibodies that distinguish between early events, the onset of viral genome amplification, and the expression of capsid proteins. The initiation of these phases follows a highly ordered pattern that appears important for the production of virus particles. The viruses examined included canine oral papillomavirus, rabbit oral papillomavirus (ROPV), cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV), bovine papillomavirus type 1, and human papillomavirus types 1, 2, 11, and 16. Each papillomavirus type showed a distinctive gene expression pattern that could be explained in part by differences in tissue tropism, transmission route, and persistence. As the timing of life cycle events affects the accessibility of viral antigens to the immune system, the ideal model system should resemble human mucosal infection if vaccine design is to be effective. Of the model systems examined here, only ROPV had a tissue tropism and a life cycle organization that resembled those of the human mucosal types. ROPV appears most appropriate for studies of the life cycles of mucosal papillomavirus types and for the development of prophylactic vaccines. The persistence of abortive infections caused by CRPV offers advantages for the development of therapeutic vaccines. PMID:12239317

Peh, Woei Ling; Middleton, Kate; Christensen, Neil; Nicholls, Philip; Egawa, Kiyofumi; Sotlar, Karl; Brandsma, Janet; Percival, Alan; Lewis, Jon; Liu, Wen Jun; Doorbar, John

2002-01-01

277

Classifying human audiometric phenotypes of age-related hearing loss from animal models.  

PubMed

Age-related hearing loss (presbyacusis) has a complex etiology. Results from animal models detailing the effects of specific cochlear injuries on audiometric profiles may be used to understand the mechanisms underlying hearing loss in older humans and predict cochlear pathologies associated with certain audiometric configurations ("audiometric phenotypes"). Patterns of hearing loss associated with cochlear pathology in animal models were used to define schematic boundaries of human audiograms. Pathologies included evidence for metabolic, sensory, and a mixed metabolic + sensory phenotype; an older normal phenotype without threshold elevation was also defined. Audiograms from a large sample of older adults were then searched by a human expert for "exemplars" (best examples) of these phenotypes, without knowledge of the human subject demographic information. Mean thresholds and slopes of higher frequency thresholds of the audiograms assigned to the four phenotypes were consistent with the predefined schematic boundaries and differed significantly from each other. Significant differences in age, gender, and noise exposure history provided external validity for the four phenotypes. Three supervised machine learning classifiers were then used to assess reliability of the exemplar training set to estimate the probability that newly obtained audiograms exhibited one of the four phenotypes. These procedures classified the exemplars with a high degree of accuracy; classifications of the remaining cases were consistent with the exemplars with respect to average thresholds and demographic information. These results suggest that animal models of age-related hearing loss can be used to predict human cochlear pathology by classifying audiograms into phenotypic classifications that reflect probable etiologies for hearing loss in older humans. PMID:23740184

Dubno, Judy R; Eckert, Mark A; Lee, Fu-Shing; Matthews, Lois J; Schmiedt, Richard A

2013-10-01

278

[Relationship between the included levels of coffee pulp and the protein content in rations for monogastric animals].  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of including fresh and ensilaged coffee pulp in rations for monogastric animals, and find the best protein and coffee pulp levels in rations for rats. Fresh coffee pulp and pulp ensilaged for 12 months were used; both kinds of pulp were sun-dried before incorporating them into the rations. The chemical analyses of the pulps revealed a lower content in caffeine, tannins, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in the ensilaged pulp than in fresh coffee pulp. Thirty-two experimental rations were prepared, 16 with fresh coffee pulp and 16 with the ensilaged by-product, distributed into four different protein levels (10, 15, 20 and 25%), and three levels of pulp (15, 30 and 45%) for each protein level. The rations thus prepared were fed to Wistar albino rats for a six-week period. The parameters used to measure the effect of the two types of pulp were mortality rate, food consumption, weight gain, food conversion and apparent digestibility of the rations. Ensilaged pulp had a higher nutritive value, lower toxicity and better digestibility than fresh pulp. The increase in the protein level of the ration resulted in partial protection against the negative effects of coffee pulp on the performance of animals, since this improved as the protein level of the ration increased. PMID:3842050

Gmez-Brenes, R A; Bendaa, G; Gonzlez, J M; Braham, J E; Bressani, R

1985-09-01

279

METABOLISM AND DISPOSITION OF INORGANIC ARSENIC IN LABORATORY ANIMALS AND HUMANS  

EPA Science Inventory

The carcinogenicity of inorganic arsenic in humans, particulary in the lung and skin, has been reasonably well established through epidemiological investigations. owever, there is no substantial experimental evidence for carcinogenicity in animals to support the human studies. tu...

280

College of Health, Education and Human Development A complete application package should include (1)  

E-print Network

College of Health, Education and Human Development A complete application package should include (1 Education prepares students in one of the following specialty areas: clinical mental health counseling

Stuart, Steven J.

281

Characterizing interspecies uncertainty using data from studies of anti-neoplastic agents in animals and humans  

SciTech Connect

For most chemicals, the Reference Dose (RfD) is based on data from animal testing. The uncertainty introduced by the use of animal models has been termed interspecies uncertainty. The magnitude of the differences between the toxicity of a chemical in humans and test animals and its uncertainty can be investigated by evaluating the inter-chemical variation in the ratios of the doses associated with similar toxicological endpoints in test animals and humans. This study performs such an evaluation on a data set of 64 anti-neoplastic drugs. The data set provides matched responses in humans and four species of test animals: mice, rats, monkeys, and dogs. While the data have a number of limitations, the data show that when the drugs are evaluated on a body weight basis: 1) toxicity generally increases with a species' body weight; however, humans are not always more sensitive than test animals; 2) the animal to human dose ratios were less than 10 for most, but not all, drugs; 3) the current practice of using data from multiple species when setting RfDs lowers the probability of having a large value for the ratio. These findings provide insight into inter-chemical variation in animal to human extrapolations and suggest the need for additional collection and analysis of matched toxicity data in humans and test animals.

Price, Paul S. [Dow Chemical Company, Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting, 1803 Building, Midland MI 48674 (United States)], E-mail: pprice@dow.com; Keenan, Russell E. [AMEC Earth and Environmental, 15 Franklin Street, Portland, ME 04101 (United States); Swartout, Jeffrey C. [National Center for Environmental Assessment U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. M. L. King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

2008-11-15

282

Are Children with Autism More Responsive to Animated Characters? A Study of Interactions with Humans and Human-Controlled Avatars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few direct comparisons have been made between the responsiveness of children with autism to computer-generated or animated characters and their responsiveness to humans. Twelve 4-to 8-year-old children with autism interacted with a human therapist; a human-controlled, interactive avatar in a theme park; a human actor speaking like the avatar; and

Carter, Elizabeth J.; Williams, Diane L.; Hodgins, Jessica K.; Lehman, Jill F.

2014-01-01

283

We show an artificial world where animals (humans) and animats (software agents) interact in a coevolutionary  

E-print Network

Abstract We show an artificial world where animals (humans) and animats (software agents) interact an appropriate setup that creates mutualism, a relationship where human and animat species benefit from --- selection occurs and only the fittest are sent out to coevolve with the opposing ``animal'' population. 1

Pollack, Jordan B.

284

We show an artificial world where animals (humans) and animats (software agents) interact in a coevolutionary  

E-print Network

Abstract We show an artificial world where animals (humans) and animats (software agents) interact an appropriate setup that creates mutualism, a relationship where human and animat species benefit from occurs and only the fittest are sent out to coevolve with the opposing "animal" population. 1

Sklar, Elizabeth

285

Identification of Fecal Escherichia coli from Humans and Animals by Ribotyping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fecal pollution of water resources is an environmental problem of increasing importance. Identification of individual host sources of fecal Escherichia coli, such as humans, pets, production animals, and wild animals, is prerequisite to formulation of remediation plans. Ribotyping has been used to distinguish fecal E. coli of human origin from pooled fecal E. coli isolates of nonhuman origin. We have

C. ANDREW CARSON; BRIAN L. SHEAR; MARK R. ELLERSIECK; AMHA ASFAW

2001-01-01

286

Effect of Royal Jelly on serum lipids in experimental animals and humans with atherosclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this review was to assess the size and consistency of Royal Jelly (RJ) effect on serum lipids in experimental animals and humans. The data from animal studies were pooled, where possible, and statistically evaluated by Student's t-test. Meta-analysis was used for the evaluation of human trials. It was found that RJ significantly decreased serum and liver

J. Vittek

1995-01-01

287

Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Animals Approved by UGA IACUC May 22, 2007  

E-print Network

Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Animals Approved by UGA IACUC May 22, 2007 Reviewed, Revised, and Approved October 18, 2012 The Policy of The University of Georgia regarding the humane care and use of animals is to comply with the external documents listed below. Implementation of this Policy

Arnold, Jonathan

288

Toward an understanding of the differences in the responses of humans and other animals to density  

Microsoft Academic Search

J. L. Freedman claimed (a) that there is little basis for believing that high density generally has harmful effects on humans and other animals and (b) that it is not necessary to postulate different mechanisms that mediate the responses of humans and of other animals to density (the continuity position). These interpretations are challenged on the basis of a more

Reuben M. Baron; Stephen P. Needel

1980-01-01

289

Characterisation of the Wildlife Reservoir Community for Human and Animal Trypanosomiasis in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAnimal and human trypanosomiasis are constraints to both animal and human health in Sub-Saharan Africa, but there is little recent evidence as to how these parasites circulate in wild hosts in natural ecosystems. The Luangwa Valley in Zambia supports high densities of tsetse flies (Glossina species) and is recognised as an historical sleeping sickness focus. The objective of this study

Neil E. Anderson; Joseph Mubanga; Eric M. Fevre; Kim Picozzi; Mark C. Eisler; Robert Thomas; Susan C. Welburn

2011-01-01

290

Domestic pigs as potential reservoirs of human and animal trypanosomiasis in Northern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Pig keeping is becoming increasingly common across sub-Saharan Africa. Domestic pigs from the Arusha region of northern Tanzania were screened for trypanosomes using PCR-based methods to examine the role of pigs as a reservoir of human and animal trypanosomiasis. Methods A total of 168 blood samples were obtained from domestic pigs opportunistically sampled across four districts in Tanzania (Babati, Mbulu, Arumeru and Dodoma) during December 2004. A suite of PCR-based methods was used to identify the species and sub-species of trypanosomes including: Internally Transcribed Sequence to identify multiple species; species specific PCR to identify T. brucei s. l. and T. godfreyi and a multiplex PCR reaction to distinguish T. b. rhodesiense from T. brucei s. l. Results Of the 168 domestic pigs screened for animal and human infective trypanosome DNA, 28 (16.7%) were infected with one or more species of trypanosome; these included: six pigs infected with Trypanosoma vivax (3.6%); three with Trypanosoma simiae (1.8%); two with Trypanosoma congolense (Forest) (1%) and four with Trypanosoma godfreyi (2.4%). Nineteen pigs were infected with Trypanosoma brucei s. l. (10.1%) of which eight were identified as carrying the human infective sub-species Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (4.8%). Conclusion These results show that in Tanzania domestic pigs may act as a significant reservoir for animal trypanosomiasis including the cattle pathogens T. vivax and T. congolense, the pig pathogen T. simiae, and provide a significant reservoir for T. b. rhodesiense, the causative agent of acute Rhodesian sleeping sickness. PMID:24499540

2013-01-01

291

Ochratoxins in Feed, a Risk for Animal and Human Health: Control Strategies  

PubMed Central

Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been shown to be a potent nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and teratogenic compound. In farm animals, the intake of feed contaminated with OTA affects animal health and productivity, and may result in the presence of OTA in the animal products. Strategies for the control of OTA in food products require early identification and elimination of contaminated commodities from the food chain. However, current analytical protocols may fail to identify contaminated products, especially in animal feed. The present paper discusses the impact of OTA on human and animal health, with special emphasis on the potential risks of OTA residue in animal products, and control strategies applied in the feed industry. PMID:22069626

Denli, Muzaffer; Perez, Jose F.

2010-01-01

292

Baylisascariosis--infections of animals and humans with 'unusual' roundworms.  

PubMed

The nematode genus Baylisascaris (order Ascaridida, superfamily Ascaridoidea) contains nine relatively host-specific, parasite species of carnivores, omnivores, herbivores, carnivorous marsupials or rodents. They have a facultative heteroxenous life cycle, at least under experimental conditions. Eggs passed in faeces embryonate in the environment and the second-stage larva infective for both definitive and intermediate hosts develops. In intermediate hosts larvae migrate extensively through tissues, where they grow and moult to the third-stage, causing extensive damage. All Baylisascaris spp. are considered a potential cause of visceral, ocular and/or neural larval migrans in mammals including humans and in birds. This paper summarises our current knowledge on the prevalence, biology, pathogenicity and zoonotic significance of three Baylisascaris species: B. transfuga, B. schroederi and B. procyonis which have as definitive hosts bears, giant pandas and raccoons (occasionally dogs), respectively. PMID:23339846

Bauer, Christian

2013-04-15

293

Laboratory animals as surrogate models of human obesity  

PubMed Central

Obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases represent a growing socioeconomic problem throughout the world. Great emphasis has been put on establishing treatments for this condition, including pharmacological intervention. However, there are many obstacles and pitfalls in the development process from pre-clinical research to the pharmacy counter, and there is no certainty that what has been observed pre-clinically will translate into an improvement in human health. Hence, it is important to test potential new drugs in a valid translational model early in their development. In the current mini-review, a number of monogenetic and polygenic models of obesity will be discussed in view of their translational character. PMID:22301857

Nilsson, Cecilia; Raun, Kirsten; Yan, Fei-fei; Larsen, Marianne O; Tang-Christensen, Mads

2012-01-01

294

HUMAN AND ANIMAL RESEARCH GUIDELINES: ALIGNING ETHICAL CONSTRUCTS WITH NEW SCIENTIFIC DEVELOPMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTBoth human research and animal research operate within established standards and procedures. Although the human research environment has been criticized for its sometimes inefficient and imperfect process, reported abuses of human subjects in research served as the impetus for the establishment of the Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, and the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical

HOPE FERDOWSIAN

2011-01-01

295

Recent insights into cerebral cavernous malformations: animal models of CCM and the human phenotype  

PubMed Central

Cerebral cavernous malformations are common vascular lesions of the central nervous system that predispose to seizures, focal neurologic deficits and potentially fatal hemorrhagic stroke. Human genetic studies have identified three genes associated with the disease and biochemical studies of these proteins have identified interaction partners and possible signaling pathways. A variety of animal models of CCM have been described to help translate the cellular and biochemical insights into a better understanding of disease mechanism. In this minireview, we discuss the contributions of animal models to our growing understanding of the biology of cavernous malformations, including the elucidation of the cellular context of CCM protein actions and the in vivo confirmation of abnormal endothelial cellcell interactions. Challenges and progress towards developing a faithful model of CCM biology are reviewed. PMID:20096037

Chan, Aubrey C.; Li, Dean Y.; Berg, Michel J.; Whitehead, Kevin J.

2010-01-01

296

Histopathological Analogies in Chronic Pulmonary Lesions between Cattle and Humans: Basis for an Alternative Animal Model  

PubMed Central

Most of the natural cases of pneumonia in feedlot cattle are characterized by a longer clinical course due to chronic lung lesions. Microscopically, these lesions include interstitial fibroplasia, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis obliterans, and epithelial metaplasia of the airways. Herein, the aim was to review, under a medical perspective, the pathologic mechanisms operating in these chronic pneumonic lesions in calves. Based on the similarities of these changes to those reported in bronchiolitis obliterans/organising pneumonia (BO/OP) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in human beings, calves are proposed as an alternative animal model. PMID:22629176

Ramrez-Romero, Rafael; Nevrez-Garza, Alicia M.; Rodrguez-Tovar, Luis E.; Wong-Gonzlez, Alfredo; Ledezma-Torres, Rogelio A.; Hernndez-Vidal, Gustavo

2012-01-01

297

Why test animals to treat humans? On the validity of animal models.  

PubMed

Critics of animal modeling have advanced a variety of arguments against the validity of the practice. The point of one such form of argument is to establish that animal modeling is pointless and therefore immoral. In this article, critical arguments of this form are divided into three types, the pseudoscience argument, the disanalogy argument, and the predictive validity argument. I contend that none of these criticisms currently succeed, nor are they likely to. However, the connection between validity and morality is important, suggesting that critical efforts would be instructive if they addressed it in a more nuanced way. PMID:20934650

Shelley, Cameron

2010-09-01

298

The human-animal interface and zoonotic threats: the Russian Federation approach.  

PubMed

Zoonotic pathogens have caused the majority of emerging infectious disease events in the past 6 decades. With most emerging infectious diseases arising from animal origins, including many of the select agents identified as most likely candidates for bioterrorism, linking human and animal surveillance systems will be critical to effective disease identification and control in the future. Lack of this linkage has been the focus of a number of important policy papers in recent years. These have expressed concern over the continued lack of preparedness for addressing zoonotic threats and have called for a new approach to integrating biosurveillance. However, these studies have been mainly Western-centric in viewpoint and have overlooked the example of the Russian Federation (RF) Anti-Plague System (AP system). In this article we submit that the RF AP system has select components that effectively address recent concerns and inform the US and UK intersectoral efforts on human-animal health surveillance, forming a basis for US, UK, and RF collaboration. PMID:24041194

McNamara, Tracey; Platonov, Alexander; Elleman, Tatyana; Gresham, Louise

2013-09-01

299

Volatile organic compounds from the combustion of human and animal tissue.  

PubMed

The volatile by-products of the combustion of ordinary fuels such as wood, polystyrene, polyethylene, urethane foam, PVC and the like are well known to the forensic fire debris examiner. When a fire involves a human body, volatile species are produced that are not so well known, including various alkenes and aldehydes. These have sometimes been mistaken for the residues of unusual accelerants. In an attempt to document what volatiles are produced by the combustion of animal fat and human fat, the authors have used an open-tube pyrolysis probe as a microfurnace to burn small samples of unembalmed subcutaneous fat from human, avian and porcine sources, and collect volatiles by charcoal strip adsorption. The volatile products were analyzed by GC/MS. Predominant species included aldehydes in the C6-C10 range, homologous series of alkenes and alkanes, and other hydrocarbon products. These results were compared to those obtained by free-burning (open flame in air) of similar specimens and to the volatiles detected in debris from beneath a human cadaver in a test fire. Differences between the volatile profiles produced by human fat as compared to pork and chicken fat and adventitious sources of such volatiles are discussed. PMID:15527185

DeHaan, J D; Brien, D J; Large, R

2004-01-01

300

COMPARABLE MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

The importance of including neurodevelopmental end points in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive function in human infants that also has a homologous or parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for large-scale studie...

301

HOMOLOGOUS MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

The importance of including neurodevelopmental endpoints in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive fucntion in human infants that also has a parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for largescale studies. Such a ho...

302

Recombination of Influenza A Viruses of Human and Animal Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous infection of the allantoic sac of the chick embryo with influenza A\\/equine 1\\/56 and any of three recombinants derived from human influenza viruses produced stable hybrids with antigens from each parent strain. These hybrids contain the hemagglutinin protein of the equine virus and the neuraminidase of the human strains. The experiments demonstrate genetic homology of human and equine influenza

Edwin D. Kilbourne

1968-01-01

303

Fourier principles for emotion-based human figure animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the method for modeling human figure locomotions with emotions. Fourier expansions of experimental data of actual human behaviors serve as a basis from which the method can interpolate or extrapolate the human locomotions. This means, for instance, that transition from a walk to a run is smoothly and realistically performed by the method. Moreover an individual's character

Munetoshi Unuma; Ken-ichi Anjyo; Ryozo Takeuchi

1995-01-01

304

This list includes a sampling of volunteer opportunities and organizations working with animals or animal advocacy work. These opportunities may be suitable for students majoring or interested in  

E-print Network

APPLICATION. Step 2: Attend a VOLUNTEER ORIENTATION for new volunteers. Step 3: Attend TRAINING for your or animal advocacy work. These opportunities may be suitable for students majoring or interested Enclosure Fundraising Adoption Fairs Deliver New Cats Contact: volunteer@daneferals.org Dane County

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

305

Ethical Issues of Transplanting Organs from Transgenic Animals into Human Beings  

PubMed Central

One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into humans body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animals organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334

Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

2014-01-01

306

Intergenerational Programming of Metabolic Disease: Evidence from Human Populations and Experimental Animal Models  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY We are in the midst of unparalleled epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes - complex phenotypes originating at the intersection of genetic and environmental risk. As detailed in other chapters, evidence indicates that non-genetic, or environmental, risk may initiate during prenatal and early postnatal life1. Striking examples in humans include the association of low birth weight (LBW) and/or accelerated early growth with increased risk of insulin resistance, obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the close relationship between maternal obesity or diabetes with childhood obesity. In this chapter, we will focus on the intriguing emerging data from both humans and animal models which indicate that intrauterine and childhood exposures can also influence risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in subsequent generations. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for these effects is critical in order to develop effective metabolic and nutritional interventions to interrupt such vicious intergenerational cycles potentiating risk for metabolic disorders. PMID:23435955

Patti, Mary-Elizabeth

2013-01-01

307

Human and animal brucellosis in Jordan between 1996 and 1998: a study.  

PubMed

Between 1996 and 1998, a total of 2,494 samples of blood from humans and animals were collected and tested for brucellosis. This total included 1,594 samples of animal blood, collected from 1,050 sheep from 20 flocks, and 544 goats from eight herds. The serum samples were tested using the Rose Bengal test, the tube agglutination test, the complement fixation test and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, a complete history was compiled from each flock/herd. The rate of abortions in sheep due to brucellosis ranged from 0.5% to 56%, with a mean of 33.2%. The goats had a higher abortion rate. Thirty-four aborted sheep foetuses collected from these 20 flocks were bacteriologically and pathologically examined. A pure culture of Brucella melitensis biotype 3 was isolated from 21 of the aborted foetuses. The human blood samples were collected from two groups: first, from 800 apparently healthy people who were reporting to community hospitals for routine health checks and secondly, from 100 people from groups with a high-risk of contracting brucellosis, such as veterinarians, sheep-herders and laboratory technicians. The Brucella antibody titres for the 900 human serum samples were obtained using the microtitre agglutination test. The cumulative percentage of the serum samples showing a titre reading greater than 1:80 was higher in the at-risk group than among the normal population (7% compared to 4.1%). Although these results were not statistically significant, the higher percentage of positive reactors among the high-risk group may indicate an increased risk factor among professional agricultural and veterinary personnel in Jordan. It was concluded that brucellosis is common in sheep and goats in Jordan, subjecting the human population to high risks. Brucella melitensis Rev. 1 vaccination has been internationally recognised as the key to successfully controlling the disease. All animals in Jordan were repeatedly vaccinated between 1996 and 1998 on a trial basis, using a reduced dose of 1 x 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU). Cumulative data on the annual rate of human cases of brucellosis indicate that fewer people are affected each year. The same is true for the rate of abortions in animals. Such evidence strongly suggests that the vaccination programme has been successful. However, as wild strains of Brucella have also been isolated from vaccinated animals, the authors recommend increasing the amount of vaccine to a full dose of 1 to 2 x 10(9) CFU and vaccinating young female animals between the ages of three and eight months. To avoid brucellosis in humans, people should be educated about the dangers of contact with infected animals and the consumption of raw milk and milk products. PMID:15861878

Al-Ani, F K; El-Qaderi, S; Hailat, N Q; Razziq, R; Al-Darraji, A M

2004-12-01

308

Occurrence of male-specific bacteriophage in feral and domestic animal wastes, human feces, and human-associated wastewaters.  

PubMed

Male-specific bacteriophage (MSB) densities were determined in animal and human fecal wastes to assess their potential impact on aquatic environments. Fecal samples (1,031) from cattle, chickens, dairy cows, dogs, ducks, geese, goats, hogs, horses, seagulls, sheep, and humans as well as 64 sewerage samples were examined for MSB. All animal species were found to harbor MSB, although the great majority excreted these viruses at very low levels. The results from this study demonstrate that in areas affected by both human and animal wastes, wastewater treatment plants are the principal contributors of MSB to fresh, estuarine, and marine waters. PMID:9835602

Calci, K R; Burkhardt, W; Watkins, W D; Rippey, S R

1998-12-01

309

Measuring Cognitive Abilities of Machines, Humans and Non-Human Animals in a Unified Way: towards Universal  

E-print Network

Measuring Cognitive Abilities of Machines, Humans and Non-Human Animals in a Unified Way: towards or collective, either artificial, biological or hybrid. Universal psychometrics can be built, of course, upon the experience, techniques and methodologies from (human) psychometrics, comparative cognition and related areas

Dowe, David

310

Dose translation from animal to human studies revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

As new drugs are developed, it is essen- tial to appropriately translate the drug dosage from one animal species to another. A misunderstanding appears to exist regarding the appropriate method for allomet- ric dose translations, especially when starting new ani- mal or clinical studies. The need for education regard- ing appropriate translation is evident from the media response regarding some

Shannon Reagan-Shaw; Minakshi Nihal; Nihal Ahmad

2007-01-01

311

Chapter 4 Heartworm Disease in Animals and Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heartworm disease due to Dirofilaria immitis continues to cause severe disease and even death in dogs and other animals in many parts of the world, even though safe, highly effective and convenient preventatives have been available for the past two decades. Moreover, the parasite and vector mosquitoes continue to spread into areas where they have not been reported previously. Heartworm

John W. McCall; Claudio Genchi; Laura H. Kramer; Jorge Guerrero; Luigi Venco

2008-01-01

312

Examining the relationship between childhood animal cruelty motives and recurrent adult violent crimes toward humans.  

PubMed

Few researchers have studied the predictive ability of childhood animal cruelty motives as they are associated with later recurrent violence toward humans. Based on a sample of 180 inmates at one medium- and one maximum-security prison in a Southern state, the present study examines the relationship among several retrospectively identified motives (fun, out of anger, hate for the animal, and imitation) for childhood animal cruelty and the later commission of violent crimes (murder, rape, assault, and robbery) against humans. Almost two thirds of the inmates reported engaging in childhood animal cruelty for fun, whereas almost one fourth reported being motivated either out of anger or imitation. Only one fifth of the respondents reported they had committed acts of animal cruelty because they hated the animal. Regression analyses revealed that recurrent animal cruelty was the only statistically significant variable in the model. Respondents who had committed recurrent childhood animal cruelty were more likely to have had committed recurrent adult violence toward humans. None of the motives for committing childhood animal cruelty had any effect on later violence against humans. PMID:22007109

Overton, Joshua C; Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E

2012-03-01

313

Reward sensitivity: issues of measurement, and achieving consilience between human and animal phenotypes.  

PubMed

Reward is a concept fundamental to discussions of drug abuse and addiction. The idea that altered sensitivity to either drug-reward, or to rewards in general, contributes to, or results from, drug-taking is a common theme in several theories of addiction. However, the concept of reward is problematic in that it is used to refer to apparently different behavioural phenomena, and even to diverse neurobiological processes (reward pathways). Whether these different phenomena are different behavioural expressions of a common underlying process is not established, and much research suggests that there may be only loose relationships among different aspects of reward. Measures of rewarding effects of drugs in humans often depend upon subjective reports. In animal studies, such insights are not available, and behavioural measures must be relied upon to infer rewarding effects of drugs or other events. In such animal studies, but also in many human methods established to objectify measures of reward, many other factors contribute to the behaviour being studied. For that reason, studying the biological (including genetic) bases of performance of tasks that ostensibly measure reward cannot provide unequivocal answers. The current overview outlines the strengths and weaknesses of current approaches that hinder the conciliation of cross-species studies of the genetics of reward sensitivity and the dysregulation of reward processes by drugs of abuse. Some suggestions are made as to how human and animal studies may be made to address more closely homologous behaviours, even if those processes are only partly able to isolate 'reward' from other factors contributing to behavioural output. PMID:20148777

Stephens, David N; Duka, Theodora; Crombag, Hans S; Cunningham, Christopher L; Heilig, Markus; Crabbe, John C

2010-04-01

314

Chronic alcohol consumption, abstinence and relapse: brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies in animals and humans.  

PubMed

This chapter summarizes the peer-reviewed literature of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) studies on the effects of chronic and excessive alcohol consumption in both the animal and human brain. After a brief summary of the neuropathology of alcohol use disorders (AUD), we describe the primary brain metabolites measured by in vivo (1)H MRS. We then focus on published MRS studies of animal models of alcohol dependence and of treatment-seeking humans with AUD. We also summarize the scant MRS research on the much larger fraction of treatment-nave individuals with AUD and the similarities and discrepancies relative to treatment-seekers. It is exceedingly apparent that premorbid and/or comorbid disorders/conditions, especially chronic smoking, among individuals with AUD contribute to the considerable variability in the pattern and magnitude of neurobiological and neurocognitive abnormalities in AUD. Therefore, we also review studies on the neurobiological consequences of the combined effects of chronic drinking and smoking in AUD. Finally, as AUD is characterized by a chronically relapsing/remitting course over lifetime and identification of those at greatest risk for relapse is important, we review (1)H MRS studies on brain spectroscopic measures that contribute to the prediction of relapse in AUD. We conclude with an overall assessment of the MRS research literature on brain alcohol effects, the role of animal and human studies in understanding the disease, and discuss the need of widely integrative MRS studies of cohorts that include individuals with comorbidies that are reflective of the general population with AUD. PMID:21688208

Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Durazzo, Timothy C; Ende, Gabriele

2013-01-01

315

When can animation improve learning? Some implications for human computer interaction and learning  

E-print Network

When can animation improve learning? Some implications for human computer interaction and learning in the literature of mental model construction and human-computer interaction (HCI) (Carroll, 2003; de Kleer & Brown on the findings of this study, we present some implications for learning and human-computer interaction

316

Thinking Place: Animating the Indigenous Humanities in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrating contexts for and voices of the Indigenous humanities, this essay aims to clarify what the Indigenous humanities can mean for reclaiming education as Indigenous knowledges and pedagogies. After interrogating the visual representation of education and place in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, the essay turns to media constructions of

Battiste, Marie; Bell, Lynne; Findlay, Isobel M.; Findlay, Len; Henderson, James Youngblood

2005-01-01

317

Generalization of behavioral data between nonhuman and human animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considers that behavioral scientists engaged in comparative research continually encounter the problem of degree to which data derived from 1 species can be generalized to other species. While traditionally this has involved generalization of nonhuman data to the human species, a similar situation exists regarding generalization of human data to nonhuman primate species. Examples are presented of 3 areas-intellectual, motivational,

Harry F. Harlow; John P. Gluck; Stephen J. Suomi

1972-01-01

318

An ecological approach to assessing the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in animal and human populations  

PubMed Central

We examined long-term surveillance data on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (DT104) isolates from concurrently sampled and sympatric human and animal populations in Scotland. Using novel ecological and epidemiological approaches to examine diversity, and phenotypic and temporal relatedness of the resistance profiles, we assessed the more probable source of resistance of these two populations. The ecological diversity of AMR phenotypes was significantly greater in human isolates than in animal isolates, at the resolution of both sample and population. Of 5200 isolates, there were 65 resistance phenotypes, 13 unique to animals, 30 unique to humans and 22 were common to both. Of these 22, 11 were identified first in the human isolates, whereas only five were identified first in the animal isolates. We conclude that, while ecologically connected, animals and humans have distinguishable DT104 communities, differing in prevalence, linkage and diversity. Furthermore, we infer that the sympatric animal population is unlikely to be the major source of resistance diversity for humans. This suggests that current policy emphasis on restricting antimicrobial use in domestic animals may be overly simplistic. While these conclusions pertain to DT104 in Scotland, this approach could be applied to AMR in other bacteriahost ecosystems. PMID:22090389

Mather, Alison E.; Matthews, Louise; Mellor, Dominic J.; Reeve, Richard; Denwood, Matthew J.; Boerlin, Patrick; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Brown, Derek J.; Coia, John E.; Browning, Lynda M.; Haydon, Daniel T.; Reid, Stuart W. J.

2012-01-01

319

Colorectal carcinogenesis: Review of human and experimental animal studies  

PubMed Central

This review gives a comprehensive overview of cancer development and links it to the current understanding of tumorigenesis and malignant progression in colorectal cancer. The focus is on human and murine colorectal carcinogenesis and the histogenesis of this malignant disorder. A summary of a model of colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis (an AOM/DSS model) will also be presented. The earliest phases of colorectal oncogenesis occur in the normal mucosa, with a disorder of cell replication. The large majority of colorectal malignancies develop from an adenomatous polyp (adenoma). These can be defined as well-demarcated masses of epithelial dysplasia, with uncontrolled crypt cell proliferation. When neoplastic cells pass through the muscularis mucosa and infiltrate the submucosa, they are malignant. Carcinomas usually originate from pre-existing adenomas, but this does not imply that all polyps undergo malignant changes and does not exclude de novo oncogenesis. Besides adenomas, there are other types of pre-neoplasia, which include hyperplastic polyps, serrated adenomas, flat adenomas and dysplasia that occurs in the inflamed colon in associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Colorectal neoplasms cover a wide range of pre-malignant and malignant lesions, many of which can easily be removed during endoscopy if they are small. Colorectal neoplasms and/or pre-neoplasms can be prevented by interfering with the various steps of oncogenesis, which begins with uncontrolled epithelial cell replication, continues with the formation of adenomas and eventually evolves into malignancy. The knowledge described herein will help to reduce and prevent this malignancy, which is one of the most frequent neoplasms in some Western and developed countries. PMID:19332896

Tanaka, Takuji

2009-01-01

320

[Occurrence of Giardia species and genotypes in humans and animals in Wielkopolska region, Poland].  

PubMed

Giardia is the most common intestinal protozoan parasite found in humans and animals worldwide. Although it has been known for three hundred years, the nomenclature, taxonomy, host specificity, and pathogenicity of Giardia still arouse numerous controversies and ambiguities. Giardia is classified into six species, that are characterised by various ranges of hosts. The most dubious species is G. intestinalis, which includes a dozen or so genotypes, and only two of them (genotype A and B) have wide ranges of hosts, including humans. Moreover, in some genotype assemblages of G. intestinalis certain subgenotypes were distinguished and it was proven that in the same host species various subgenotypes of this parasite may occur. Bearing in mind the significant genetic heterogeneity of G. intestinalis and the fact that various genotypes and subgenotypes of this parasite are characterised by the broad or narrow host specificity, the data concerning the frequency of giardiosis occurrence are insufficient. It is necessary to use molecular biology techniques in order to define the genotype and/or the subgenotype of G. intestinalis that are found in humans and in certain animal species. Furthermore, since more and more pieces of evidence connected with a possibility of the sexual recombination of Giardia are gathered, it is unknown if genotypes and subgenotypes of this parasite are stable in time. The aim of this thesis was to define the frequency of Giardia occurrence in humans and animals in Wielkopolska region, to identify species and genotypes of Giardia that occur in humans and animals, as well as to obtain an axenic culture of the chosen isolates of Giardia from animals and to compare the sequence of the beta-giardin gene fragment obtained from the DNA isolated from cysts and trophozoites in order to check if the axenisation of G. intestinalis leads to the selection of genotypes or if Giardia genotypes are stable in time. Altogether, 2183 faecal samples were examined for the presence of Giardia cysts; 447 faecal samples were taken from 232 persons coming from 5 cities situated in Wielkopolska, and 1736 faecal samples were obtained from 123 animal species, including: 266 faecal samples from 113 species of animals kept in the Zoological Garden in Pozna?, 1286 samples from 4 species of breeding animals, 118 samples from dogs, and 66 samples from 5 species of wild animals. Faecal samples were taken from animals coming from 25 places in Wielkopolska. Moreover, seven isolates of G. intestinalis were used in the studies, which were obtained from various species of hosts and kept in an axenic in vitro culture. Microscopic, molecular and bio-informative methods were used in the studies. From each faecal sample fresh smears were made in a 0.6% solution of physiological salt and in Lugol's solution, as well as a permanent smear stained with trichrome was made. Moreover, the following molecular techniques were implemented in the studies: DNA extraction and purification, the PCR technique (two molecular markers), electrophoresis and visualisation of PCR products, and sequencing. A fragment of the beta-giardin gene was used as a molecular marker in order to define the genotype and subgenotype of Giardia. Only in the case of genotyping of two Giardia isolates obtained from Peromyscus eremicus another molecular marker (SSU rRNA)was additionally used. Some widely available computer programmes (Chromas, CAP 3, BioEdit, BLASTn, MEGA version 4.0) were utilised in the analysis of the sequence of the beta-giardin gene fragment and in the phylogenetic analysis. The culture of Giardia trophozoites was established to compare the sequence of the partial beta-giardin gene from cysts and trophozoites. Concentration and purification of Giardia cysts in the saccharose gradient, and the excystation technique were applied in the studies to obtaining an axenic in vitro culture. In this study, Giardia cysts were found in 12 faecal samples obtained from 3 persons and 5 animal species. Giardia cysts were found only in faecal samples from humans living in Pozna?

Solarczyk, Piotr

2009-01-01

321

Sepsis in Old Age: Review of Human and Animal Studies  

PubMed Central

Sepsis is a serious problem among the geriatric population as its incidence and mortality rates dramatically increase with advanced age. Despite a large number of ongoing clinical and basic research studies, there is currently no effective therapeutic strategy that rescues elderly patients with severe sepsis. Recognition of this problem is relatively low as compared to other age-associated diseases. The disparity between clinical and basic studies is a problem, and this is likely due, in part, to the fact that most laboratory animals used for sepsis research are not old while the majority of sepsis cases occur in the geriatric population. The objective of this article is to review recent epidemiological studies and clinical observations, and compare these with findings from basic laboratory studies which have used aged animals in experimental sepsis. PMID:24729938

Starr, Marlene E; Saito, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

322

Interactive control of avatars animated with human motion data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time control of three-dimensional avatars is an important problem in the context of computer games and virtual environments. Avatar animation and control is difficult, however, because a large repertoire of avatar behaviors must be made available, and the user must be able to select from this set of behaviors, possibly with a low-dimensional input device. One appealing approach to obtaining

Jehee Lee; Jinxiang Chai; Paul S. A. Reitsma; Jessica K. Hodgins; Nancy S. Pollard

2002-01-01

323

Computer animation of human figures in conversation and action  

E-print Network

Viable articulated computer-graphic representations of the human figure have recently been developed by O'Rourke, Zeltzer, and others. In this work, a figure implemented by Maxwell provides the starting point for the ...

Lewis, John Peter

1984-01-01

324

Recommendations for Blood Pressure Measurement in Humans and Experimental Animals-Part 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a scientific statement on blood pressure measurement in humans and experimental animals from the Subcommittee of Professional and Public Education of the American Heart Association Council on High Blood Pressure Research

2008-06-25

325

Talking with exotic pet owners: Exploratory audience research on wildlife television and human-animal interactions.  

E-print Network

??This qualitative grounded study explores the potential relationship between wildlife TV viewing and human-animal interactions for exotic pet owners. The method involved 13 in-depth interviews (more)

Smith, Susannah L

2008-01-01

326

FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF POLYHALOGENATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS AND HUMAN INFANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A scientific evaluation was made of functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in experimental animals and in human infants. ersistent neurobehavioral, reproductive, and endocrine alteration...

327

Animal welfare and ethical issues relevant to the humane control of vertebrate pests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The list of introduced vertebrate species now legally considered to be pests in New Zealand numbers nearly 50. Their common and Latin names are given in Table1. These pests, and the methods by which they are controlled, have significant impacts, both intentional and unintentional, on people, animals and the environment. The control of animals that threaten human health, safety or

KE Littin; DJ Mellor; B Warburton

2004-01-01

328

Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Se ries, 1995 Animating Human Athletics  

E-print Network

Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Se ries, 1995 Animating Human Athletics Jessica K dynamic athletic behaviors: running, bicycling, and vaulting. We animate these behaviors using control be completed in a natural-looking fashion. Although the behaviors are very different in character, the con

O'Brien, James F.

329

Minireview: Translational Animal Models of Human Menopause: Challenges and Emerging Opportunities  

E-print Network

. With focus on predictive validity and strategic use of advances in genetic and epigenetic science, new animalMinireview: Translational Animal Models of Human Menopause: Challenges and Emerging Opportunities Roberta Diaz Brinton Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Biomedical Engineering

Brinton, Roberta Diaz

330

Native homing endonucleases can target conserved genes in humans and in animal models  

E-print Network

grail of gene therapy and genetic engineering. It promises to markedly reduce the risks associated in crop bio-engineering (6), in the production of model cell lines (7,8) animal models (9), inducedNative homing endonucleases can target conserved genes in humans and in animal models Adi Barzel1

Pupko, Tal

331

Animals, Kids & Books: A Guide for Putting Humane Books into the Hands of Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide for choosing humane children's books (i.e., books in which animals are not eaten, expolited, or treated with cruelty) presents reviews of over 100 books for children up to age 7. Both subtle and blatant examples of animal exploitation portrayed in children's picture books are examined. Reviews are grouped into 3 categories: kind books,

Freedman, Barbara

332

Save an Animal Board Game - Impact of Human Activity or Natural Disasters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This student activity engages the students' thinking by listening to a story, brainstorming ideas in small groups about how human activity or natural disasters could possibly impact an animal's environment, and then reinforcing that thinking using a board game called Save an Animal.

333

Self-describing animated icons for human-computer interaction: a research note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animated icons may offer substantial advantage over static icons for human-computer communication. Nonetheless, problems and challenges remain. For example, the constant motion of animated icons can be distracting or tedious for users. Another challenge relates to the ease of learning and use of iconic interfaces in general: how can icons provide more helpful information to users regarding their intended use?

SHERMAN R. ALPERT

1991-01-01

334

Examining the Relationship Between Childhood Animal Cruelty Motives and Recurrent Adult Violent Crimes Toward Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few researchers have studied the predictive ability of childhood animal cruelty motives as they are associated with later recurrent violence toward humans. Based on a sample of 180 inmates at one medium- and one maximum-security prison in a Southern state, the present study examines the relationship among several retrospectively identified motives (fun, out of anger, hate for the animal, and

Joshua C. Overton; Christopher Hensley; Suzanne E. Tallichet

2012-01-01

335

Human-induced changes in animal populations and distributions, and the subsequent effects on fluvial systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans have profoundly altered hydrological pathways and fluvial systems through their near-extirpation of native populations of animal species that strongly influenced hydrology and removal of surface sediment, and through the introduction of now-feral populations of animals that bring to bear a suite of different geomorphic effects on the fluvial system. In the category of effects of extirpation, examples are offered

David R. Butler

2006-01-01

336

Interactive Control of Avatars Animated with Human Motion Data Carnegie Mellon University  

E-print Network

Interactive Control of Avatars Animated with Human Motion Data Jehee Lee Carnegie Mellon University-dimensional avatars is an important problem in the context of computer games and virtual environ- ments. Avatar animation and control is difficult, however, because a large repertoire of avatar behaviors must be made

Pollard, Nancy

337

Animal contact as a source of human non-typhoidal salmonellosis  

PubMed Central

Non-typhoidal Salmonella represents an important human and animal pathogen world-wide. Most human salmonellosis cases are foodborne, but each year infections are also acquired through direct or indirect animal contact in homes, veterinary clinics, zoological gardens, farm environments or other public, professional or private settings. Clinically affected animals may exhibit a higher prevalence of shedding than apparently healthy animals, but both can shed Salmonella over long periods of time. In addition, environmental contamination and indirect transmission through contaminated food and water may complicate control efforts. The public health risk varies by animal species, age group, husbandry practice and health status, and certain human subpopulations are at a heightened risk of infection due to biological or behavioral risk factors. Some serotypes such as Salmonella Dublin are adapted to individual host species, while others, for instance Salmonella Typhimurium, readily infect a broad range of host species, but the potential implications for human health are currently unclear. Basic hygiene practices and the implementation of scientifically based management strategies can efficiently mitigate the risks associated with animal contacts. However, the general public is frequently unaware of the specific disease risks involved, and high-risk behaviors are common. Here we describe the epidemiology and serotype distribution of Salmonella in a variety of host species. In addition, we review our current understanding of the public health risks associated with different types of contacts between humans and animals in public, professional or private settings, and, where appropriate, discuss potential risk mitigation strategies. PMID:21324103

2011-01-01

338

Neuro-immune interactions of neural stem cell transplants: from animal disease models to human trials.  

PubMed

Stem cell technology is a promising branch of regenerative medicine that is aimed at developing new approaches for the treatment of severely debilitating human diseases, including those affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Despite the increasing understanding of the mechanisms governing their biology, the application of stem cell therapeutics remains challenging. The initial idea that stem cell transplants work in vivo via the replacement of endogenous cells lost or damaged owing to disease has been challenged by accumulating evidence of their therapeutic plasticity. This new concept covers the remarkable immune regulatory and tissue trophic effects that transplanted stem cells exert at the level of the neural microenvironment to promote tissue healing via combination of immune modulatory and tissue protective actions, while retaining predominantly undifferentiated features. Among a number of promising candidate stem cell sources, neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) are under extensive investigation with regard to their therapeutic plasticity after transplantation. The significant impact in vivo of experimental NPC therapies in animal models of inflammatory CNS diseases has raised great expectations that these stem cells, or the manipulation of the mechanisms behind their therapeutic impact, could soon be translated to human studies. This review aims to provide an update on the most recent evidence of therapeutically-relevant neuro-immune interactions following NPC transplants in animal models of multiple sclerosis, cerebral stroke and traumas of the spinal cord, and consideration of the forthcoming challenges related to the early translation of some of these exciting experimental outcomes into clinical medicines. PMID:23507035

Giusto, Elena; Doneg, Matteo; Cossetti, Chiara; Pluchino, Stefano

2014-10-01

339

Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Escherichia coli from Humans and Food Animals, United States, 1950-2002  

PubMed Central

We conducted a retrospective study of Escherichia coli isolates recovered from human and food animal samples during 19502002 to assess historical changes in antimicrobial drug resistance. A total of 1,729 E. coli isolates (983 from humans, 323 from cattle, 138 from chickens, and 285 from pigs) were tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial drugs. A significant upward trend in resistance was observed for ampicillin (p<0.001), sulfonamide (p<0.001), and tetracycline (p<0.001). Animal strains showed increased resistance to 11/15 antimicrobial agents, including ampicillin (p<0.001), sulfonamide (p<0.01), and gentamicin (p<0.001). Multidrug resistance (?3 antimicrobial drug classes) in E. coli increased from 7.2% during the 1950s to 63.6% during the 2000s. The most frequent co-resistant phenotype observed was to tetracycline and streptomycin (29.7%), followed by tetracycline and sulfonamide (29.0%). These data describe the evolution of resistance after introduction of new antimicrobial agents into clinical medicine and help explain the range of resistance in modern E. coli isolates. PMID:22515968

Tadesse, Daniel A.; Zhao, Shaohua; Tong, Emily; Ayers, Sherry; Singh, Aparna; Bartholomew, Mary J.

2012-01-01

340

Widespread Endogenization of Densoviruses and Parvoviruses in Animal and Human Genomes ?  

PubMed Central

Parvoviruses infect humans and a broad range of animals, from mammals to crustaceans, and generally are associated with a variety of acute and chronic diseases. However, many others cause persistent infections and are not known to be associated with any disease. Viral persistence is likely related to the ability to integrate into the chromosomal DNA and to establish a latent infection. However, there is little evidence for genome integration of parvoviral DNA except for Adeno-associated virus (AAV). Here we performed a systematic search for homologs of parvoviral proteins in publicly available eukaryotic genome databases followed by experimental verification and phylogenetic analysis. We conclude that parvoviruses have frequently invaded the germ lines of diverse animal species, including mammals, fishes, birds, tunicates, arthropods, and flatworms. The identification of orthologous endogenous parvovirus sequences in the genomes of humans and other mammals suggests that parvoviruses have coexisted with mammals for at least 98 million years. Furthermore, some of the endogenized parvoviral genes were expressed in eukaryotic organisms, suggesting that these viral genes are also functional in the host genomes. Our findings may provide novel insights into parvovirus biology, host interactions, and evolution. PMID:21795360

Liu, Huiquan; Fu, Yanping; Xie, Jiatao; Cheng, Jiasen; Ghabrial, Said A.; Li, Guoqing; Peng, Youliang; Yi, Xianhong; Jiang, Daohong

2011-01-01

341

Neuro-immune interactions of neural stem cell transplants: From animal disease models to human trials  

PubMed Central

Stem cell technology is a promising branch of regenerative medicine that is aimed at developing new approaches for the treatment of severely debilitating human diseases, including those affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Despite the increasing understanding of the mechanisms governing their biology, the application of stem cell therapeutics remains challenging. The initial idea that stem cell transplants work in vivo via the replacement of endogenous cells lost or damaged owing to disease has been challenged by accumulating evidence of their therapeutic plasticity. This new concept covers the remarkable immune regulatory and tissue trophic effects that transplanted stem cells exert at the level of the neural microenvironment to promote tissue healing via combination of immune modulatory and tissue protective actions, while retaining predominantly undifferentiated features. Among a number of promising candidate stem cell sources, neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) are under extensive investigation with regard to their therapeutic plasticity after transplantation. The significant impact in vivo of experimental NPC therapies in animal models of inflammatory CNS diseases has raised great expectations that these stem cells, or the manipulation of the mechanisms behind their therapeutic impact, could soon be translated to human studies. This review aims to provide an update on the most recent evidence of therapeutically-relevant neuroimmune interactions following NPC transplants in animal models of multiple sclerosis, cerebral stroke and traumas of the spinal cord, and consideration of the forthcoming challenges related to the early translation of some of these exciting experimental outcomes into clinical medicines. PMID:23507035

Cossetti, Chiara; Pluchino, Stefano

2014-01-01

342

International regulations and standards for avian influenza, including the vaccine standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary For avian influenza the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has laid down international standards on notification, trade, diagnosis, surveillance and the production and use of vaccine. These standards are science- and risk-based to ensure safe trade in poultry and poultry products without unjustified barriers. The European Union, with its 27 Member States, has in place harmonised legislation in

C. J. M. Bruschke; M. Pittman; A. Laddomada

343

Virulence and antimicrobial resistance profiles among Escherichia coli strains isolated from human and animal wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

To gain insight into whether Escherichia coli isolated from humans and resistant to some common antimicrobial agents are derived from animals, 85 E. coli strains were selected by ERIC-PCR from human and animal wastewater samples. Phylogroup, pathogenicity islands (PAIs), resistance to quinolones, fluoroquinolones and presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) were analyzed. Among the total, 55% were resistant to nalidixic acid

Montserrat Sabat; Guillem Prats; Eva Moreno; Elisenda Ballest; Anicet R. Blanch; Antonia Andreu

2008-01-01

344

Digestibility of Human Foods and Animal Feeds as Measured by Experiments with Rats.  

E-print Network

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION C. H. McDOWELL, ACTING DIRECTOR, College Station, Texas BULLETIN NO. 675 NOVEMBER 1945 DIGESTIBILITY OF HUMAN FOODS AND ANIMAL FEEDS AS MEASURED BY DIGESTION EXPERIMENTS WITH RATS G. S. FRAPS Division... with white rats. Results of 508 tests of the digestibility of foods and feeds by rats are summarized. The rats digested slightly less protein than chickens from the animal feeds but slightly more than the chickens from the human foods. The rats digested...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1945-01-01

345

76 FR 29767 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request for Comments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...with specific human food or animal food/feed and processes...contamination) for human food and animal food/feed. Implementing... Microbiological and other testing used to help ensure the safety of specific human food and animal food/feed. Specific...

2011-05-23

346

21 CFR 530.13 - Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. 530.13 Section 530.13...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. (a) This part applies to...

2010-04-01

347

21 CFR 530.13 - Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. 530.13 Section 530.13...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. (a) This part applies to...

2011-04-01

348

21 CFR 530.13 - Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. 530.13 Section 530.13...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. (a) This part applies to...

2012-04-01

349

21 CFR 530.13 - Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs.  

...compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. 530.13 Section 530.13...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. (a) This part applies to...

2014-04-01

350

21 CFR 530.13 - Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. 530.13 Section 530.13...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. (a) This part applies to...

2013-04-01

351

78 FR 69602 - Foreign Supplier Verification Programs for Importers of Food for Humans and Animals; Extension of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Programs for Importers of Food for Humans and Animals; Extension of Comment Periods...Programs for Importers of Food for Humans and Animals'' that appeared in the Federal...Programs for Importers of Food for Humans and Animals'' with a 120-day...

2013-11-20

352

Novel bisegmented virus (picobirnavirus) of animals, birds and humans  

PubMed Central

Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) are novel group of small, nonenveloped, bisegmented and double stranded RNA viruses. PBVs have been identified in the faeces of a broad range of hosts by several international research groups. Since attempts to culture PBV in vitro have not been made to date and no animal model of infection and disease exists. Laboratory diagnosis relies upon electron microscopy, the detection of the double stranded RNA bisegmented genome by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. PBVs have been identified in both normal and diarrheic faeces. Although their pathogenicity is still unclear, their potential needs further investigation.

Mondal, Anjan; Majee, Sharmila

2014-01-01

353

Ethical issues of transplanting organs from transgenic animals into human beings.  

PubMed

One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human's body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal's organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334

Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

2014-01-01

354

Update on the Human Broad Tapeworm (Genus Diphyllobothrium), Including Clinical Relevance  

PubMed Central

Summary: Tapeworms (Cestoda) continue to be an important cause of morbidity in humans worldwide. Diphyllobothriosis, a human disease caused by tapeworms of the genus Diphyllobothrium, is the most important fish-borne zoonosis caused by a cestode parasite. Up to 20 million humans are estimated to be infected worldwide. Besides humans, definitive hosts of Diphyllobothrium include piscivorous birds and mammals, which represent a significant zoonotic reservoir. The second intermediate hosts include both freshwater and marine fish, especially anadromous species such as salmonids. The zoonosis occurs most commonly in countries where the consumption of raw or marinated fish is a frequent practice. Due to the increasing popularity of dishes utilizing uncooked fish, numerous cases of human infections have appeared recently, even in the most developed countries. As many as 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium can cause human diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum and D. nihonkaiense being the most important pathogens. In this paper, all taxa from humans reported are reviewed, with brief information on their life history and their current distribution. Data on diagnostics, epidemiology, clinical relevance, and control of the disease are also summarized. The importance of reliable identification of human-infecting species with molecular tools (sequences of mitochondrial genes) as well as the necessity of epidemiological studies aimed at determining the sources of infections are pointed out. PMID:19136438

Scholz, Tom; Garcia, Hector H.; Kuchta, Roman; Wicht, Barbara

2009-01-01

355

Molecular and comparative analysis of Salmonella enterica Senftenberg from humans and animals using PFGE, MLST and NARMS  

PubMed Central

Background Salmonella species are recognized worldwide as a significant cause of human and animal disease. In this study the molecular profiles and characteristics of Salmonella enterica Senftenberg isolated from human cases of illness and those recovered from healthy or diagnostic cases in animals were assessed. Included in the study was a comparison with our own sequenced strain of S. Senfteberg recovered from production turkeys in North Dakota. Isolates examined in this study were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility profiling using the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) panel which tested susceptibility to 15 different antimicrobial agents. The molecular profiles of all isolates were determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and the sequence types of the strains were obtained using Multi-Locus Sequence Type (MLST) analysis based on amplification and sequence interrogation of seven housekeeping genes (aroC, dnaN, hemD, hisD, purE, sucA, and thrA). PFGE data was input into BioNumerics analysis software to generate a dendrogram of relatedness among the strains. Results The study found 93 profiles among 98 S. Senftenberg isolates tested and there were primarily two sequence types associated with humans and animals (ST185 and ST14) with overlap observed in all host types suggesting that the distribution of S. Senftenberg sequence types is not host dependent. Antimicrobial resistance was observed among the animal strains, however no resistance was detected in human isolates suggesting that animal husbandry has a significant influence on the selection and promotion of antimicrobial resistance. Conclusion The data demonstrates the circulation of at least two strain types in both animal and human health suggesting that S. Senftenberg is relatively homogeneous in its distribution. The data generated in this study could be used towards defining a pathotype for this serovar. PMID:21708021

2011-01-01

356

Leptomyxid ameba, a new agent of amebic meningoencephalitis in humans and animals.  

PubMed Central

Amebae belonging to the order Leptomyxida are regarded as innocuous soil organisms incapable of infecting mammals. We report here the isolation of a leptomyxid ameba from the brain of a pregnant baboon (Papio sphinx) that died of meningoencephalitis at the San Diego Zoo Wild Animal Park. By using rabbit anti-leptomyxid serum in the immunofluorescence assay, we have identified the leptomyxid ameba in the brain sections of a number of human encephalitic cases from around the world as well as a few cases of meningoencephalitis in animals in the United States, which suggests that the leptomyxid amebae are potential etiologic agents of fatal meningoencephalitis in humans and animals. Images PMID:2280005

Visvesvara, G S; Martinez, A J; Schuster, F L; Leitch, G J; Wallace, S V; Sawyer, T K; Anderson, M

1990-01-01

357

ANIMALS AS SENTINELS OF HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environmnet," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxi...

358

The Evolution of Personality Variation in Humans and Other Animals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive evolutionary framework for understanding the maintenance of heritable behavioral variation in humans is yet to be developed. Some evolutionary psychologists have argued that heritable variation will not be found in important, fitness-relevant characteristics because of the winnowing effect of natural selection. This article

Nettle, Daniel

2006-01-01

359

Virtual Humans for Animation, Ergonomics, and Simulation Norman Badler  

E-print Network

controller that can be used to drive virtual humans through complex tasks. Fi­ nally, we argue for a deep would be in our fu­ ture. Today's truth lies somewhere in­between. We have balanced our expectations of complete machine autonomy with a more rational view that machines should assist people to accomplish

Badler, Norman I.

360

Characterization of Temperate Phages Infecting Clostridium difficile Isolates of Human and Animal Origins  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive pathogen infecting humans and animals. Recent studies suggest that animals could represent potential reservoirs of C. difficile that could then transfer to humans. Temperate phages contribute to the evolution of most bacteria, for example, by promoting the transduction of virulence, fitness, and antibiotic resistance genes. In C. difficile, little is known about their role, mainly because suitable propagating hosts and conditions are lacking. Here we report the isolation, propagation, and preliminary characterization of nine temperate phages from animal and human C. difficile isolates. Prophages were induced by UV light from 58 C. difficile isolates of animal and human origins. Using soft agar overlays with 27 different C. difficile test strains, we isolated and further propagated nine temperate phages: two from horse isolates (?CD481-1 and ?CD481-2), three from dog isolates (?CD505, ?CD506, and ?CD508), and four from human isolates (?CD24-2, ?CD111, ?CD146, and ?CD526). Two phages are members of the Siphoviridae family (?CD111 and ?CD146), while the others are Myoviridae phages. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and restriction enzyme analyses showed that all of the phages had unique double-stranded DNA genomes of 30 to 60 kb. Phages induced from human C. difficile isolates, especially the members of the Siphoviridae family, had a broader host range than phages from animal C. difficile isolates. Nevertheless, most of the phages could infect both human and animal strains. Phage transduction of antibiotic resistance was recently reported in C. difficile. Our findings therefore call for further investigation of the potential risk of transduction between animal and human C. difficile isolates. PMID:24532062

Sekulovic, Ognjen; Garneau, Julian R.; Nron, Audrey

2014-01-01

361

A cross-species analysis method to analyze animal models' similarity to human's disease state  

PubMed Central

Background Animal models are indispensable tools in studying the cause of human diseases and searching for the treatments. The scientific value of an animal model depends on the accurate mimicry of human diseases. The primary goal of the current study was to develop a cross-species method by using the animal models' expression data to evaluate the similarity to human diseases' and assess drug molecules' efficiency in drug research. Therefore, we hoped to reveal that it is feasible and useful to compare gene expression profiles across species in the studies of pathology, toxicology, drug repositioning, and drug action mechanism. Results We developed a cross-species analysis method to analyze animal models' similarity to human diseases and effectiveness in drug research by utilizing the existing animal gene expression data in the public database, and mined some meaningful information to help drug research, such as potential drug candidates, possible drug repositioning, side effects and analysis in pharmacology. New animal models could be evaluated by our method before they are used in drug discovery. We applied the method to several cases of known animal model expression profiles and obtained some useful information to help drug research. We found that trichostatin A and some other HDACs could have very similar response across cell lines and species at gene expression level. Mouse hypoxia model could accurately mimic the human hypoxia, while mouse diabetes drug model might have some limitation. The transgenic mouse of Alzheimer was a useful model and we deeply analyzed the biological mechanisms of some drugs in this case. In addition, all the cases could provide some ideas for drug discovery and drug repositioning. Conclusions We developed a new cross-species gene expression module comparison method to use animal models' expression data to analyse the effectiveness of animal models in drug research. Moreover, through data integration, our method could be applied for drug research, such as potential drug candidates, possible drug repositioning, side effects and information about pharmacology. PMID:23282076

2012-01-01

362

SelenoDB 2.0: annotation of selenoprotein genes in animals and their genetic diversity in humans  

PubMed Central

SelenoDB (http://www.selenodb.org) aims to provide high-quality annotations of selenoprotein genes, proteins and SECIS elements. Selenoproteins are proteins that contain the amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) and the first release of the database included annotations for eight species. Since the release of SelenoDB 1.0 many new animal genomes have been sequenced. The annotations of selenoproteins in new genomes usually contain many errors in major databases. For this reason, we have now fully annotated selenoprotein genes in 58 animal genomes. We provide manually curated annotations for human selenoproteins, whereas we use an automatic annotation pipeline to annotate selenoprotein genes in other animal genomes. In addition, we annotate the homologous genes containing cysteine (Cys) instead of Sec. Finally, we have surveyed genetic variation in the annotated genes in humans. We use exon capture and resequencing approaches to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms in more than 50 human populations around the world. We thus present a detailed view of the genetic divergence of Sec- and Cys-containing genes in animals and their diversity in humans. The addition of these datasets into the second release of the database provides a valuable resource for addressing medical and evolutionary questions in selenium biology. PMID:24194593

Romagne, Frederic; Santesmasses, Didac; White, Louise; Sarangi, Gaurab K.; Mariotti, Marco; Hubler, Ron; Weihmann, Antje; Parra, Genis; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Guigo, Roderic; Castellano, Sergi

2014-01-01

363

Comparable measures of cognitive function in human infants and laboratory animals to identify environmental health risks to children.  

PubMed Central

The importance of including neurodevelopmental end points in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive function in human infants that also has a homologous or parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for large-scale studies. Such a comparable test will allow researchers to observe the effect of environmental neurotoxicants in animals and relate those findings to humans. In this article, we present the results of a review of post-1990, peer-reviewed literature and current research examining measures of cognitive function that can be applied to both human infants (0-12 months old) and laboratory animals. We begin with a discussion of the definition of cognitive function and important considerations in cross-species research. We then describe identified comparable measures, providing a description of the test in human infants and animal subjects. Available information on test reliability, validity, and population norms, as well as test limitations and constraints, is also presented. PMID:14527843

Sharbaugh, Carolyn; Viet, Susan Marie; Fraser, Alexa; McMaster, Suzanne B

2003-01-01

364

Animal and human dose-response models for Brucella species.  

PubMed

Human Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide. Disease transmission often occurs through the handling of domestic livestock, as well as ingestion of unpasteurized milk and cheese, but can have enhanced infectivity if aerosolized. Because there is no human vaccine available, rising concerns about the threat of Brucellosis to human health and its inclusion in the Center for Disease Control's Category B Bioterrorism/Select Agent List make a better understanding of the dose-response relationship of this microbe necessary. Through an extensive peer-reviewed literature search, candidate dose-response data were appraised so as to surpass certain standards for quality. The statistical programming language, "R," was used to compute the maximum likelihood estimation to fit two models, the exponential and the approximate beta-Poisson (widely used for quantitative risk assessment) to dose-response data. Dose-response models were generated for prevalent species of Brucella: Br. suis, Br. melitensis, and Br. abortus. Dose-response models were created for aerosolized Br. suis exposure to guinea pigs from pooled studies. A parallel model for guinea pigs inoculated through both aerosol and subcutaneous routes with Br. melitensis showed that the median infectious dose corresponded to a 30 colony-forming units (CFU) dose of Br. suis, much less than the N(50) dose of about 94 CFU for Br. melitensis organisms. When Br. melitensis was tested subcutaneously on mice, the N(50) dose was higher, 1,840 CFU. A dose-response model was constructed from pooled data for mice, rhesus macaques, and humans inoculated through three routes (subcutaneously/aerosol/intradermally) with Br. melitensis. PMID:21449960

Teske, Sondra S; Huang, Yin; Tamrakar, Sushil B; Bartrand, Timothy A; Weir, Mark H; Haas, Charles N

2011-10-01

365

Complement C3 Deficiency: Human, Animal, and Experimental Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The third complement component (C3) is a multifunctional glycoprotein that interacts with numerous serum proteins, cell surface receptors, and membrane-associated regulatory proteins. Deficiencies of C3 have been reported in several human kindred of different ethnic backgrounds and from different geographic regions. In addition, inherited C3 deficiency has been discovered in certain strains of guinea pigs, dogs, and rabbits, and has

Lori Singer; Harvey R. Colten; Rick A. Wetsel

1994-01-01

366

MUGEN mouse database; animal models of human immunological diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MUGEN mouse database (MMdb) (www.mugen-noe.org\\/database\\/) is a database of murine models of immune processes and immunological diseases. Its aim is to share and publicize information on mouse strain characteristics and availability from participating institutions. MMdb's basic classification of models is based on three major research application categories: Models of Human Disease, Models of Immune Processes and Transgenic Tools. Data

V. Aidinis; C. Chandras; M. Manoloukos; A. Thanassopoulou; K. Kranidioti; M. Armaka; E. Douni; D. L. Kontoyiannis; M. Zouberakis; G. Kollias

2008-01-01

367

Comparative metabolism of aspartame in experimental animals and humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspartame [SC?18862; 3?amino?H?(??carboxyphenethyl)succinamic acid, methyl ester, the methyl ester of aspartylphenylalanine] is a sweetening agent that organoleptically has about 180 times the sweetness of sugar. The metabolism of aspartame has been studied in mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, monkeys, and humans. The compound was digested in all species in the same way as are natural constituents of the diet. Hydrolysis of

R. E. Ranney; J. A. Oppermann; E. Muldoon; F. G. McMahon

1976-01-01

368

Toward an Animal Model of the Human Tear Film: Biochemical Comparison of the Mouse, Canine, Rabbit, and Human Meibomian Lipidomes  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Secretions that are produced by meibomian glands (also known as meibum) are a major source of lipids for the ocular surface of humans and animals alike. Many animal species have been evaluated for their meibomian lipidomes. However, there have been a very small number of studies in which the animals were compared with humans side by side. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare meibum collected from humans and three typical laboratory animals, canines, mice, and rabbits, for their meibomian lipid composition in order to determine which animal species most resembles humans. Methods. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) in combination with mass spectrometry were used to evaluate lipidomes of all tested species. Results. Among three tested animal species, mice were found to be the closest match to humans in terms of their meibomian lipidomes, while canines were the second closest species. The lipids of these three species were close to each other structurally and, for most lipid classes, quantitatively. The rabbit meibomian lipidome, on the other hand, was vastly different from lipidomes of all other tested species. Interestingly, a previously described class of lipids, acylated omega-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFA), was found to be present in every tested species as the major amphiphilic component of meibum. Conclusions. Our side by side comparison of the rabbit and the human meibum demonstrated their vast differences. Thus, the rabbit seems to be a poor animal model of the human tear film, at least when studying its biochemistry and biophysics. PMID:22918629

Butovich, Igor A.; Lu, Hua; McMahon, Anne; Eule, J. Corinna

2012-01-01

369

Animal models of pancreatitis: Can it be translated to human pain study?  

PubMed Central

Chronic pancreatitis affects many individuals around the world, and the study of the underlying mechanisms leading to better treatment possibilities are important tasks. Therefore, animal models are needed to illustrate the basic study of pancreatitis. Recently, animal models of acute and chronic pancreatitis have been thoroughly reviewed, but few reviews address the important aspect on the translation of animal studies to human studies. It is well known that pancreatitis is associated with epigastric pain, but the understanding regarding to mechanisms and appropriate treatment of this pain is still unclear. Using animal models to study pancreatitis associated visceral pain is difficult, however, these types of models are a unique way to reveal the mechanisms behind pancreatitis associated visceral pain. In this review, the animal models of acute, chronic and un-common pancreatitis are briefly outlined and animal models related to pancreatitis associated visceral pain are also addressed. PMID:24259952

Zhao, Jing-Bo; Liao, Dong-Hua; Nissen, Thomas Dahl

2013-01-01

370

Research and management of soil, plant, animal, and human resources in the Middle Rio Grande Basin  

E-print Network

Research and management of soil, plant, animal, and human resources in the Middle Rio Grande Basin of the Rio Grande Basin". This program is funded by an Ecosystem Management grant from Forest Service systems and human popula- tions in the Middle Rio Grande Basin. Research studies emphasize upland ecology

371

Role for Animal Research in the Investigation of Human Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A general learning impairment model and a reasoning insight model, both in rats, were reviewed for parallels to theories of human cognitive deficiency, leading to the conclusion that animal models of the cognitive deficiency states of mental retardation are underutilized and that human mental retardation researchers would benefit from greater

Anderson, Britt

1994-01-01

372

Render me Real? Investigating the Effect of Render Style on the Perception of Animated Virtual Humans  

E-print Network

Introduction Choosing an appropriate rendering style for virtual humans in movies, games, and other domains canRender me Real? Investigating the Effect of Render Style on the Perception of Animated Virtual of lifelike virtual humans has been the goal of many movie makers in the last decade. Recently, films

373

Caffeine physical dependence: a review of human and laboratory animal studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although caffeine is the most widely used behaviorally active drug in the world, caffeine physical dependence has been poorly characterized in laboratory animals and only moderately well characterized in humans. In humans, a review of 37 clinical reports and experimental studies dating back to 1833 shows that headache and fatigue are the most frequent withdrawal symptoms, with a wide variety

Roland R. Griffiths; Phillip P. Woodson

1988-01-01

374

Animal models for studies on cold-induced platelet activation in human beings  

Microsoft Academic Search

When human platelets are chilled below about 20C, they spontaneously activate, a phenomenon that limits their storage lifetime. We have previously shown that this activation in chilled human platelets is associated with passage through a lipid phase transition. Because animal models are necessary for investigating methods for cold storage of platelets, it is essential to determine whether such phase transitions

Fern Tablin; Naomi J Walker; Susan D Klein; Cara L Field; John H Crowe

2000-01-01

375

Epidemiological review of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in Portugal.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. However, data from Portugal are limited and a considerable part of the literature is in Portuguese. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Portugal is unknown, and almost nothing is known of sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. There is no recent general population-based serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in humans in Portugal. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii in animals and humans. In the present paper, we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Portugal. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, physicians and veterinarians. PMID:25215422

Lopes, A P; Dubey, J P; Dard, M-L; Cardoso, L

2014-11-01

376

Does the use of antibiotics in food animals pose a risk to human health? A critical review of published data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of antibiotics in food animals selects for bacteria resistant to antibiotics used in humans, and these might spread via the food to humans and cause human infection, hence the banning of growth-promoters. The actual danger seems small, and there might be disadvantages to human and to animal health. The low dosages used for growth promotion are an unquantified

Ian Phillips; Mark Casewell; Tony Cox; Brad De Groot; Christian Friis; Ron Jones; Charles Nightingale; Rodney Preston; John Waddell

377

[Epidemiological aspects of human and animal rabies in the urban area of Bamako, Mali].  

PubMed

The district of Bamako is the political and economical capital city of Mali with 1,800,000 inhabitants. The goal of the present retrospective study was to determine the frequency of animal bites, human and animal rabies on the one hand and to determine the frequency and the nature of mad animals on the other hand from January 2000 to December 2003 (4 years). To achieve this goal, we have analysed registers and documents related to rabies in the department of prevention and fight against diseases, the central veterinary laboratory, and also at the lazaret clinic involved in caring for human rabies cases. Human rabies diagnosis has been brought up based upon the following clinical arguments: agitation and lethal hydrophobia within few days following bites by known or unknown animal. Agitation and aggressiveness followed by the animals' death within an observation period of 15 days maximum, allowed to evoke the diagnosis in animals. In Bamako an average of 1470 persons have been bitten each year. In 97.1% of the cases, the mad animal was a dog; cats (1.6%), donkeys, horses, cattle and rats (1.4%) have also been identified on a total of 5870 cases of notified human bites by animals; 10 cases of notified human rabies have been recorded. The dog has been incriminated in 6 cases of human rabies out of 10, in the 4 other cases, it has not been possible to identify the mad animal. Among the 3924 mad animals in observation at the veterinary clinic, 187 have been clinically mad that is 4.8%. The rabies virus has also been researched by direct immunofluorescence in 121 specimens of dead mad animals brain. This research has been positive in 119 cases among which 116 dogs, 2 sheep and 1 cow. Anyway the vaccinal status of people bitten by mad animals has not been clearly established. According to these results, we recommend the implementation of a national specific program to eradicate rabies in Bamako. PMID:16983822

Dao, S; Abdillahi, A M; Bougoudogo, F; Toure, K; Simbe, C

2006-07-01

378

Critical periods of vulnerability for the developing nervous system: evidence from humans and animal models.  

PubMed Central

Vulnerable periods during the development of the nervous system are sensitive to environmental insults because they are dependent on the temporal and regional emergence of critical developmental processes (i.e., proliferation, migration, differentiation, synaptogenesis, myelination, and apoptosis). Evidence from numerous sources demonstrates that neural development extends from the embryonic period through adolescence. In general, the sequence of events is comparable among species, although the time scales are considerably different. Developmental exposure of animals or humans to numerous agents (e.g., X-ray irradiation, methylazoxymethanol, ethanol, lead, methyl mercury, or chlorpyrifos) demonstrates that interference with one or more of these developmental processes can lead to developmental neurotoxicity. Different behavioral domains (e.g., sensory, motor, and various cognitive functions) are subserved by different brain areas. Although there are important differences between the rodent and human brain, analogous structures can be identified. Moreover, the ontogeny of specific behaviors can be used to draw inferences regarding the maturation of specific brain structures or neural circuits in rodents and primates, including humans. Furthermore, various clinical disorders in humans (e.g., schizophrenia, dyslexia, epilepsy, and autism) may also be the result of interference with normal ontogeny of developmental processes in the nervous system. Of critical concern is the possibility that developmental exposure to neurotoxicants may result in an acceleration of age-related decline in function. This concern is compounded by the fact that developmental neurotoxicity that results in small effects can have a profound societal impact when amortized across the entire population and across the life span of humans. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 12 Figure 14 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:10852851

Rice, D; Barone, S

2000-01-01

379

Abusing the HumanAnimal Bond: On the Making of Fighting Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Among the countless animals throughout history who have been tamed to serve humans, there is only one who serves by choice\\u000a the dog (Wilcox & Walkowicz, 1995). Dogs display an inexhaustible willingness to form and sustain partnerships with humans\\u000a (Hart, 1995, p. 167), and they are the only species that assist humans in various social needs as police, therapy,

Linda Kalof; Maria Andromachi Iliopoulou

380

Rocky Mountain NP, Colorado Nitrogen emissions from a variety of human made sources, including ammonia  

E-print Network

, are especially susceptible to excess nitrogen. Within these ecosystems, alpine tundra, aquatic plants, soil nitrogen in the final agricultural product, or 3) preserving more nitrogen in the soil on the farmRocky Mountain NP, Colorado Nitrogen emissions from a variety of human made sources, including

MacDonald, Lee

381

Humanities: 12 credits (L,H,X,Z) --Must include 6 credits Literature (L)  

E-print Network

Humanities: 12 credits (L,H,X,Z) -- Must include 6 credits Literature (L) Social Science: 12 credits (S,W,Y,Z) 2.0 in all courses at UW­Madison 2.0 in all major & major department courses Major: Declare at least one major (and complete all declared majors) 30 credits in residence overall 15 upper

Liblit, Ben

382

Chronic arsenic exposure is associated with many human health conditions, including  

E-print Network

Chronic arsenic exposure is associated with many human health conditions, including skin lesions in Bangladesh (Bangladesh Arsenic Mitigation Water Supply Project 2006; Josephson 2002). Among the country water. Arsenic contamination has had a profound impact at both the individual and community levels

van Geen, Alexander

383

including cell-cycle regulation, and, along with hTERT, can immortalize human cells6  

E-print Network

including cell-cycle regulation, and, along with hTERT, can immortalize human cells6 . So it is possible that a central effect of these two pro- teins is to activate the cell-division machinery in chromosomes), thereby facilitating reprogramming. Are the iPS cells that Park et al. generated, or indeed

Balibar, Sébastien

384

Required courses (for all three majors) include: Biochemistry 2300 -Elements of Human Nutrition  

E-print Network

Required courses (for all three majors) include: Biochemistry 2300 - Elements of Human Nutrition of the two terms in the Pre-Nutrition and Food Science program, consult an Advisor before the program change & Science (UofL) Students with an academic objective of Nutrition and Food Science at the University

Seldin, Jonathan P.

385

Characterization of nuciferine metabolism by P450 enzymes and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases in liver microsomes from humans and animals  

PubMed Central

Aim: To characterize the metabolism of nuciferine by P450 enzymes and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) in liver microsomes from humans and several other animals including rats, mice, dogs, rabbits and monkeys. Methods: Nuciferine was incubated with both human and animal liver microsomal fractions containing P450 or UGT reaction components. Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was used to separate and identify nuciferine metabolites. Chemical inhibition was used to identify the involved isozymes. Species difference of nuciferine metabolism in human and various animals were investigated in the liver microsomal incubation system. Results: Among the nuciferine metabolites detected and identified, seven were catalyzed by P450 and one by UGT. Ketoconazole inhibited the formation of M292, M294 and M312. Furafylline, 8-methoxypsoralen and quercetin inhibited the formation of M282. Hecogenin showed a significant inhibitory effect on nuciferine glucuronidation. While the P450-catalyzed metabolites showed no species differences, the glucuronidation product was only detected in microsomes from humans and rabbits. Conclusion: The isozymes UGT 1A4, CYP 3A4, 1A2, 2A6 and 2C8 participated in the hepatic metabolism of nuciferine. Based on the observed species-specific hepatic metabolism of nuciferine, rats, mice, dogs and even monkeys are not suitable models for the pharmacokinetics of nuciferine in humans. PMID:21127497

Lu, Yan-liu; He, Yu-qi; Wang, Miao; Zhang, Li; Yang, Li; Wang, Zheng-tao; Ji, Guang

2010-01-01

386

Assessing gonadal hormone contributions to affective psychopathologies across humans and animal models.  

PubMed

Despite increasing acknowledgement of hormonal contributions to mood and anxiety disorders, the underlying mechanisms by which gonadal hormones influence psychopathology-related behaviours remain unknown. This review focuses on recent research that examines the influence of gonadal steroid hormones, including androgens, oestrogens, and progesterone, on mood and anxiety-related behaviours in human health and disease. To this aim, the literature was surveyed for studies that assess conditions with suspected underlying hormonal imbalances in otherwise healthy participants (e.g., premenstrual dysphoric disorder, postmenopausal depression) as well as conditions linked to congenital endocrine abnormalities (e.g., Turner Syndrome, Klinefelter Syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, familial male precocious puberty, androgen insensitivity syndrome). Furthermore, to better inform clinical work and to create a translational bridge, a second goal was to set human psychopathologies and animal models of these conditions side-by-side. In the second part of the review, based on consistencies revealed in the existing literature across conditions, a new model for the impact of gonadal hormones on anxious and depressed behavioural states is proposed. Finally, we conclude by proposing directions for future research, including the development of specific tasks suitable for cross-species comparisons to increase our knowledge of the role of gonadal hormones in mood and anxiety. PMID:24882164

Mueller, S C; Grissom, E M; Dohanich, G P

2014-08-01

387

Behavioural defences in animals against pathogens and parasites: parallels with the pillars of medicine in humans  

PubMed Central

No other theme in animal biology seems to be more central than the concept of employing strategies to survive and successfully reproduce. In nature, controlling or avoiding pathogens and parasites is an essential fitness strategy because of the ever-present disease-causing organisms. The disease-control strategies discussed here are: physical avoidance and removal of pathogens and parasites; quarantine or peripheralization of conspecifics that could be carrying potential pathogens; herbal medicine, animal style, to prevent or treat an infection; potentiation of the immune system; and care of sick or injured group members. These strategies are seen as also encompassing the pillars of human medicine: (i) quarantine; (ii) immune-boosting vaccinations; (iii) use of medicinal products; and (iv) caring or nursing. In contrast to animals, in humans, the disease-control strategies have been consolidated into a consistent and extensive medical system. A hypothesis that explains some of this difference between animals and humans is that humans are sick more often than animals. This increase in sickness in humans leading to an extensive, cognitively driven medical system is attributed to an evolutionary dietary transition from mostly natural vegetation to a meat-based diet, with an increase in health-eroding free radicals and a dietary reduction of free-radical-scavenging antioxidants. PMID:22042917

Hart, Benjamin L.

2011-01-01

388

On Behalf of Their Animal Friends: Involving Children in Animal Advocacy--Since Time Immemorial, Animals Have Been Serving Human Society in at Least Three Broad Roles--As Teachers, as Healers, and as Companions and Friends  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children and teachers in 750 kindness clubs (organized by the World Society for the Protection of Animals, WSPA) in 32 African countries are actively involved in coordinating rural animal clinics and participate in clinic activities including the treatment of these animals. This article discusses the benefits of child-animal relationships.

Pattnaik, Jyotsna

2004-01-01

389

Novel and emerging therapies safeguarding health of humans and their companion animals: a review.  

PubMed

Modern medicine has helped to a great extent to eradicate and cure several diseases of mankind and animals. But the existence of incurable diseases like cancer, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis, side effects of allopathic medicine, increasing trend of antibiotic resistance and chemicals and biopesticides causing dietary risk have made the situation more critical than ever before. Thus, it has become a matter of concern for the scientists and researchers to develop novel therapies. Bacteriophage therapy to treat pathogenic bacterial infections, virophage therapy for conservation of global system and avian egg yolk antibody therapy for designing prophylactic strategies against Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are interesting approaches. Others include the use of cytokines as adjunctive immunomodulators, gene therapy focusing on diseases caused by single gene defects, RNAi technology to suppress specific gene of interest and apoptins for cancer treatment. Stem cell therapy against several diseases and ailments has also been discussed. The use of nanoparticles for better drug delivery, even though costly, has been given equal importance. Nevertheless, immunomodulation, be it through physiological, chemical or microbial products, or through essential micronutrients, probiotics, herbs or cow therapy prove to be cost-effective, causing minimum adverse reactions when compared to allopathy. Development in the field of molecular biology has created an enormous impact on vaccine development. The present review deals with all these novel and emerging therapies essential to safeguard the health of humans and companion animals. PMID:24171271

Dhama, Kuldeep; Chakraborty, Sandip; Mahima; Wani, Mohd Yaqoob; Verma, Amit Kumar; Deb, Rajib; Tiwari, Ruchi; Kapoor, Sanjay

2013-02-01

390

Arsenic Hazards to Humans, Plants, and Animals from Gold Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic sources to the biosphere associated with gold mining include waste soil and rocks, residual water from ore concentrations,\\u000a roasting of some types of gold-containing ores to remove sulfur and sulfur oxides, and bacterially enhanced leaching. Arsenic\\u000a concentrations near gold mining operations are elevated in abiotic materials and biota: maximum total arsenic concentrations\\u000a measured were 560 ?g\\/L in surface waters,

Ronald Eisler

391

http://infection.thelancet.com Vol 8 July 2008 415 Modelling infectious diseases in humans and animals  

E-print Network

http://infection.thelancet.com Vol 8 July 2008 415 MediaWatch Books Modelling infectious diseases in humans and animals An informative textbook, Modeling infectious diseases in humans and animals is written with a few examples of the application of this type of model to a specific infectious disease of animals

Rohani, Pej

392

Borna disease virus infection in animals and humans.  

PubMed Central

The geographic distribution and host range of Borna disease (BD), a fatal neurologic disease of horses and sheep, are larger than previously thought. The etiologic agent, Borna disease virus (BDV), has been identified as an enveloped nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus with unique properties of replication. Data indicate a high degree of genetic stability of BDV in its natural host, the horse. Studies in the Lewis rat have shown that BDV replication does not directly influence vital functions; rather, the disease is caused by a virus-induced T-cell mediated immune reaction. Because antibodies reactive with BDV have been found in the sera of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, this review examines the possible link between BDV and such disorders. Seroepidemiologic and cerebrospinal fluid investigations of psychiatric patients suggest a causal role of BDV infection in human psychiatric disorders. In diagnostically unselected psychiatric patients, the distribution of psychiatric disorders was found to be similar in BDV seropositive and seronegative patients. In addition, BDV-seropositive neurologic patients became ill with lymphocytic meningoencephalitis. In contrast to others, we found no evidence is reported for BDV RNA, BDV antigens, or infectious B DV in peripheral blood cells of psychiatric patients. PMID:9284379

Richt, J. A.; Pfeuffer, I.; Christ, M.; Frese, K.; Bechter, K.; Herzog, S.

1997-01-01

393

Including Human Health Damages due to Road Traffic in Life Cycle Assessment of Dwellings  

Microsoft Academic Search

-DOI: http:\\/\\/dx.doi.org\\/10.1065\\/lca2006.04.013 \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a -Goal, Scope and background. Methodologies based on life cycle assessment have been developed to calculate the environmental\\u000a impact of dwellings. Human health damages due to exposure of occupants to substances and noise emitted by road traffic are\\u000a not included in these methodologies. In this study, a methodology has been developed to calculate damages to human health\\u000a of occupants

Mark Huijbregts; Edgar G. Hertwich; Lucas Reijnders

2006-01-01

394

Model-Based Power Aware Compression Algorithms for MPEG4 Virtual Human Animation in Mobile Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

MPEG-4 body animation parameters (BAP) are used for animation of MPEG-4 compliant virtual human-like characters. Distributed virtual reality applications and networked games on mobile computers require access to locally stored or streamed compressed BAP data. Existing MPEG-4 BAP compression techniques are inefficient for streaming, or storing, BAP data on mobile computers, because: 1) MPEG-4 compressed BAP data entails a significant

Siddhartha Chattopadhyay; Suchendra M. Bhandarkar; Kang Li

2007-01-01

395

Dopamine ligands and the stimulus effects of amphetamine: animal models versus human laboratory data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies with laboratory animals have consistently demonstrated a role for dopamine in mediating the discriminative stimulus\\u000a (i.e., interoceptive) effects of amphetamine. For example, D2 dopamine agonists mimic the discriminative stimulus effects of amphetamine and D1 and D2 dopamine antagonists generally block them. The discriminative stimulus effects of drugs in animals are believed to parallel\\u000a their subjective effects in humans. Therefore,

L. H. Brauer; Andrew J. Goudie; Harriet de Wit

1997-01-01

396

Spotting animals in natural scenes: efficiency of humans and monkeys at very low contrasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of monkeys to categorize objects in visual stimuli such as natural scenes might rely on sets of low-level visual\\u000a cues without any underlying conceptual abilities. Using a go\\/no-go rapid animal\\/non-animal categorization task with briefly\\u000a flashed achromatic natural scenes, we show that both human and monkey performance is very robust to large variations of stimulus\\u000a luminance and contrast. When

Marc J.-M. Mac; Arnaud Delorme; Ghislaine Richard; Michle Fabre-Thorpe

2010-01-01

397

Are animal models useful for studying human disc disorders/degeneration?  

PubMed Central

Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is an often investigated pathophysiological condition because of its implication in causing low back pain. As human material for such studies is difficult to obtain because of ethical and government regulatory restriction, animal tissue, organs and in vivo models have often been used for this purpose. However, there are many differences in cell population, tissue composition, disc and spine anatomy, development, physiology and mechanical properties, between animal species and human. Both naturally occurring and induced degenerative changes may differ significantly from those seen in humans. This paper reviews the many animal models developed for the study of IVD degeneration aetiopathogenesis and treatments thereof. In particular, the limitations and relevance of these models to the human condition are examined, and some general consensus guidelines are presented. Although animal models are invaluable to increase our understanding of disc biology, because of the differences between species, care must be taken when used to study human disc degeneration and much more effort is needed to facilitate research on human disc material. PMID:17632738

Eisenstein, Stephen M.; Ito, Keita; Little, Christopher; Kettler, A. Annette; Masuda, Koichi; Melrose, James; Ralphs, Jim; Stokes, Ian; Wilke, Hans Joachim

2007-01-01

398

A Review of the Diagnosis and Treatment of Ochratoxin A Inhalational Exposure Associated with Human Illness and Kidney Disease including Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Ochratoxin A (OTA) exposure via ingestion and inhalation has been described in the literature to cause kidney disease in both animals and humans. This paper reviews Ochratoxin A and its relationship to human health and kidney disease with a focus on a possible association with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in humans. Prevention and treatment strategies for OTA-induced illness are also discussed, including cholestyramine, a bile-acid-binding resin used as a sequestrant to reduce the enterohepatic recirculation of OTA. PMID:22253638

Hope, Janette H.; Hope, Bradley E.

2012-01-01

399

Onco-epidemiology of domestic animals and targeted therapeutic attempts: perspectives on human oncology.  

PubMed

The spontaneous tumor biology has been investigated with the support of animalists using animals as a preclinical model allowing translation of results in clinical practice. This review provides an insight into the field of comparative oncology. Evidence shows that companion animal health care is impressively growing in terms of development of new therapies and diagnostic tools, nutrition and disease prevention. However, even if most animal tumors might be a reliable model to study human carcinomas, many open questions, related to the opportunities to select and recruit new models in oncology, along with their legal and ethical implications, remain unanswered. PMID:24816783

Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Palmieri, Beniamino; De Vico, Gionata; Iannitti, Tommaso

2014-11-01

400

Is it acceptable to use animals to model obese humans? A critical discussion of two arguments against the use of animals in obesity research.  

PubMed

Animal use in medical research is widely accepted on the basis that it may help to save human lives and improve their quality of life. Recently, however, objections have been made specifically to the use of animals in scientific investigation of human obesity. This paper discusses two arguments for the view that this form of animal use, unlike some other forms of animal-based medical research, cannot be defended. The first argument leans heavily on the notion that people themselves are responsible for developing obesity and so-called 'lifestyle' diseases; the second involves the claim that animal studies of obesity's causes and therapies distract attention from preventive efforts. Drawing on both empirical data and moral reasoning, we argue that the relevant attributions of responsibility and claims about distraction are not plausible, and that, therefore, there is no reason to single out the use of animals in obesity research as especially problematic. PMID:23709177

Lund, Thomas Bker; Srensen, Thorkild I A; Olsson, I Anna S; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Sande, Peter

2014-05-01

401

Bartonella Infection in Animals: Carriership, Reservoir Potential, Pathogenicity, and Zoonotic Potential for Human Infection  

PubMed Central

Recent observations have begun to support a role for Bartonella spp. as animal as well as human pathogens. Bartonella spp. are vector-transmitted, blood-borne, intracellular, gram-negative bacteria that can induce prolonged infection in the host. Persistent infections in domestic and wild animals result in a substantial reservoir of Bartonella organisms in nature that can serve as a source for inadvertent human infection. The prevalence of bacteremia can range from 50 to 95% in selected rodent, cat, deer, and cattle populations. Dogs infected with Bartonella spp. can develop lameness, endocarditis, granulomatous lymphadenitis, and peliosis hepatis, lesions that have also been reported in association with human infection. Understanding the role of Bartonella spp. as pathogens in cats and other wild or domestic animals awaits the results of additional studies. Considering the extensive animal reservoirs and the large number of insects that have been implicated in the transmission of Bartonella spp., both animal and human exposure to these organisms may be more substantial than is currently believed. PMID:10885985

Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Kordick, Dorsey L.

2000-01-01

402

Genetic Diversity among Mycobacterium bovis Isolates: a Preliminary Study of Strains from Animal and Human Sources  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium bovis has the broadest host range of species in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and is responsible for disease in humans and diverse animal species. We report on genotypic differences at multiple loci among 13 isolates derived from a range of human and animal infections. All isolates were classified as M. bovis by phenotypic analysis but could be subdivided into five distinct genotypes based on polymorphisms at the pncA and oxyR loci, the status of the RD5 deletion region, and the spoligotype pattern. These findings suggest the existence of a spectrum of strains with genotypic characteristics between those of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. PMID:11724883

Sales, M. P. U.; Taylor, G. M.; Hughes, S.; Yates, M.; Hewinson, G.; Young, D. B.; Shaw, R. J.

2001-01-01

403

Molecules to modeling: Toxoplasma gondii oocysts at the human-animal-environment interface  

PubMed Central

Environmental transmission of extremely resistant Toxoplasma gondii oocysts has resulted in infection of diverse species around the world, leading to severe disease and deaths in human and animal populations. This review explores T. gondii oocyst shedding, survival, and transmission, emphasizing the importance of linking laboratory and landscape from molecular characterization of oocysts to watershed-level models of oocyst loading and transport in terrestrial and aquatic systems. Building on discipline-specific studies, a One Health approach incorporating tools and perspectives from diverse fields and stakeholders has contributed to an advanced understanding of T. gondii and is addressing transmission at the rapidly changing humananimalenvironment interface. PMID:23218130

VanWormer, Elizabeth; Fritz, Heather; Shapiro, Karen; Mazet, Jonna A.K.; Conrad, Patricia A.

2013-01-01

404

Noggin heterozygous mice: an animal model for congenital conductive hearing loss in humans.  

PubMed

Conductive hearing loss occurs when sound waves are not relayed efficiently to the inner ear. Mutations of the NOGGIN (NOG) gene in humans are associated with several autosomal dominant disorders such as proximal symphalangism and multiple synostoses. These syndromes are characterized by skeletal defects and synostoses, which include conductive hearing loss. Noggin is an antagonist of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), and balanced levels of BMPs and Noggin are required for proper skeletal formation. Depending on the genetic background, some of the Nog(+/-) mice display mild hearing loss, that is, conductive in nature. Since Noggin is a single exon gene, this data strongly suggest that the autosomal dominant disorders associated with NOG mutations are due to haploinsufficiency of NOGGIN. The conductive hearing loss in Nog(+/-) mice is caused by an ectopic bone bridge located between the stapes and the posterior wall of the tympanum, which affects the normal mobility of the ossicle. Our analyses suggest that the ectopic bone formation is caused by a failure of the stapes and styloid process to separate completely during development. This failure of bone separation in the Nog(+/-) mice reveals another consequence of chondrocyte hyperplasia due to unopposed Bmp activities in these mutants such as Bmp4 and Bmp14 (Gdf5). More importantly, these results establish Nog(+/-) mice as the first animal model for the study of conductive rather than neurosensory hearing loss that has direct relevance to human genetic disorders. PMID:18096605

Hwang, Chan-Ho; Wu, Doris K

2008-03-15

405

Identification of Human and Animal Fecal Contamination after Rainfall in the Han River, Korea  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effect of rainfall on the levels and sources of microbial contamination in the Han River, Korea. Thirty-four samples were collected at two sampling sites located upstream and downstream in the river from July 2010 to February 2011. Various fecal indicator microorganisms, including total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., somatic and male-specific (F+) coliphage, and four major enteric viruses were analyzed. Rainfall was positively correlated with the levels of fecal coliform and norovirus at both sampling sites. Additionally, rainfall was positively correlated with the levels of total coliform, E. coli, Enterococcus spp., and F+ coliphage at the upstream site. To identify the source of fecal contamination, microbial source tracking (MST) was conducted using both male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage and the Enterococcus faecium esp gene as previously described. Our results clearly indicated that the majority of fecal contamination at the downstream Han River site was from a human source. At the upstream sampling site, contamination from human fecal matter was very limited; however, fecal contamination from non-point animal sources increased following rainfall. In conclusion, our data suggest that rainfall significantly affects the level and source of fecal contamination in the Han River, Korea. PMID:23666535

Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Heetae; Lee, Jung Eun; Chung, Myung-Sub; Ko, Gwang Pyo

2013-01-01

406

Does a monovalent inactivated human rotavirus vaccine induce heterotypic immunity? Evidence from animal studies.  

PubMed

There is substantial evidence for broad cross-reactive immunity and heterotypic protection among human rotavirus strains in children with natural infection or with monovalent Rotarix vaccination. In this commentary, we addressed this same topic by testing sera of guinea pigs and gnotobiotic piglets that were intramuscularly immunized with an inactivated human rotavirus vaccine and also demonstrated a broad cross-protective immunity among human rotavirus strains. Our findings from a single human strain in animal studies bode well for a low cost and efficacious inactivated vaccine to protect children against rotavirus disease throughout the world. PMID:23744507

Jiang, Baoming; Wang, Yuhuan; Glass, Roger I

2013-08-01

407

Blautia and Prevotella sequences distinguish human and animal fecal pollution in Brazil surface waters.  

PubMed

Untreated sewage discharges and limited agricultural manure management practices contribute to fecal pollution in rural Brazilian waterways. Most microbial source tracking studies have focused on Bacteroidales, and few have tested host-specific indicators in underdeveloped regions. Sequencing of sewage and human and animal feces with Illumina HiSeq revealed Prevotellaceae as the most abundant family in humans, with Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae also comprising a large proportion of the microbiome. These same families were also dominant in animals. Bacteroides, the genus containing the most commonly utilized human-specific marker in the United States was present in very low abundance. We used oligotyping to identify Prevotella and Blautia sequences that can distinguish human fecal contamination. Thirty-five of 61 Blautia oligotypes and 13 of 108 Prevotella oligotypes in humans were host-specific or highly abundant (i.e. host-preferred) compared to pig, dog, horse and cow sources. Certain human Prevotella and Blautia oligotypes increased more than an order of magnitude along a polluted river transect in rural Brazil, but traditional fecal indicator levels followed a steady or even decreasing trend. While both Prevotella and Blautia oligotypes distinguished human and animal fecal pollution in Brazil surface waters, Blautia appears to contain more discriminatory and globally applicable markers for tracking sources of fecal pollution. PMID:25360571

Koskey, Amber M; Fisher, Jenny C; Eren, A Murat; Ponce-Terashima, Rafael; Reis, Mitermayer G; Blanton, Ronald E; McLellan, Sandra L

2014-12-01

408

Essential veterinary education in emerging infections, modes of introduction of exotic animals, zoonotic diseases, bioterrorism, implications for human and animal health and disease manifestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A fundamental role of the veterinary profession is the protection of human health through wholesome food and control of diseases of animal origin, especially zoonoses. Therefore, training of veterinary students worldwide needs to face the new challenges posed by emerging infections, both from wildlife and domestic animals, as well as risks from bio\\/agroterrorism. New courses emphasising recognition, response, recovery

B. B. Chomel; N. Marano

409

Facing the Challenge of Data Transfer from Animal Models to Humans: the Case of Persistent Organohalogens  

PubMed Central

A well-documented fact for a group of persistent, bioaccumulating organohalogens contaminants, namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is that appropriate regulation was delayed, on average, up to 50 years. Some of the delay may be attributed to the fact that the science of toxicology was in its infancy when PCBs were introduced in 1920's. Nevertheless, even following the development of modern toxicology this story repeats itself 45 years later with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) another compound of concern for public health. The question is why? One possible explanation may be the low coherence between experimental studies of toxic effects in animal models and human studies. To explore this further, we reviewed a total of 807 PubMed abstracts and full texts reporting studies of toxic effects of PCB and PBDE in animal models. Our analysis documents that human epidemiological studies of PBDE stand to gain little from animal studies due to the following: 1) the significant delay between the commercialisation of a substance and studies with animal models; 2) experimental exposure levels in animals are several orders of magnitude higher than exposures in the general human population; 3) the limited set of evidence-based endocrine endpoints; 4) the traditional testing sequence (adult animals neonates foetuses) postpones investigation of the critical developmental stages; 5) limited number of animal species with human-like toxicokinetics, physiology of development and pregnancy; 6) lack of suitable experimental outcomes for the purpose of epidemiological studies. Our comparison of published PCB and PBDE studies underscore an important shortcoming: history has, unfortunately, repeated itself. Broadening the crosstalk between the various branches of toxicology should therefore accelerate accumulation of data to enable timely and appropriate regulatory action. PMID:19014546

Suvorov, Alexander; Takser, Larissa

2008-01-01

410

The Boundaries of Humanity: The Ethics of HumanAnimal Chimeras in Cloning and Stem Cell Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Advances in molecular and cell biology are opening new possibilities for combining human and animal cells, tissues, and organs.\\u000a These projects could have important scientific and medical benefits, but open ethical dilemmas that challenge our traditional\\u000a notions of the boundaries of humanity. Beginning with an overview of the goals and likely limitations of this research, we\\u000a seek a framework of

William B. Hurlbut

411

Adhesion patterns of commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli from humans and wild animals on human and porcine epithelial cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background Different strategies of colonization or infection by E. coli result in formation of certain adhesion patterns which help also in classifying intestinal E. coli into pathotypes. Little is known about adhesion patterns and host- and tissue adaption of commensal E. coli and about E. coli originating in clinically healthy hosts carrying pathotype-specific virulence-associated genes. Findings Adhesion pattern of E. coli (n?=?282) from humans and from 18 animal species were verified on intestinal human Caco-2 and porcine IPEC-J2 cells and, furthermore, for comparison on human urinary bladder 5637, porcine kidney PK-15 epithelial and HEp-2 cells. The analysis was carried out on 150,000 images of adhesion assays. Adhesion patterns were very diverse; 88 isolates were completely non-adherent, whereas 194 adhered to at least one cell line with the dominant adhesion patterns diffusely distributed and microcolony formation. Adhesion patterns chains and clumps were also visible. Chain formation was mediated by the presence of epithelial cells. Clump formation was very specific on only the 5637 cell line. All enteropathogenic (eae+) E. coli (EPEC; n?=?14) were able to form microcolonies which was cell line specific for each isolate. Most EPEC formed microcolonies on intestinal IPEC-J2 and Caco-2 but several also on urinary tract cells. Shigatoxin-producing (stx+) E. coli (n?=?10) showed no specific adhesion patterns. Conclusions E. coli isolates were highly diverse. Commensal and pathogenic isolates can adhere in various forms, including diffuse distribution, microcolonies, chains and clumps. Microcolony formation seems to be a global adhesion strategy also for commensal E. coli. PMID:24188314

2013-01-01

412

Talking with exotic pet owners: Exploratory audience research on wildlife television and human-animal interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This qualitative grounded study explores the potential relationship between wildlife TV viewing and human-animal interactions for exotic pet owners. The method involved 13 in-depth interviews and a qualifying open-ended questionnaire with 37 individuals. The interviews gathered viewers' interpretations of two different human-wildlife interactions on TV and served as a launching point for discussion. Findings supported the literature in that wildlife

Susannah L Smith

2008-01-01

413

The nutritional and metabolic effects of boron in humans and animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have undertaken studies in humans and animals that aimed to obtain further information about the intake and excretion of\\u000a boron (B) as well as its effects on markers of coronary heart disease. In humans, we have shown that the intake of B is 2.2\\u000a mg\\/d; its urinary excretion is 1.9 mg\\/d, and there appears to be little intraindividual variation.

S. Samman; M. R. Naghii; P. M. Lyons Wall; A. P. Verus

1998-01-01

414

Animal models of human genetic diseases: do they need to be faithful to be useful?  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advances in molecular genetics, animal models of human diseases are becoming more numerous and more refined every\\u000a year. Despite this, one must recognize that they generally do not faithfully and comprehensively mimic the homologous human\\u000a disease. Faced with these imperfections, some geneticists believe that these models are of little value, while for others,\\u000a on the contrary, they are

Jean-Louis Gunet

2011-01-01

415

Animal Models of Psychiatric Disorders That Reflect Human Copy Number Variation  

PubMed Central

The development of genetic technologies has led to the identification of several copy number variations (CNVs) in the human genome. Genome rearrangements affect dosage-sensitive gene expression in normal brain development. There is strong evidence associating human psychiatric disorders, especially autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and schizophrenia to genetic risk factors and accumulated CNV risk loci. Deletions in 1q21, 3q29, 15q13, 17p12, and 22q11, as well as duplications in 16p11, 16p13, and 15q11-13 have been reported as recurrent CNVs in ASD and/or schizophrenia. Chromosome engineering can be a useful technology to reflect human diseases in animal models, especially CNV-based psychiatric disorders. This system, based on the Cre/loxP strategy, uses large chromosome rearrangement such as deletion, duplication, inversion, and translocation. Although it is hard to reflect human pathophysiology in animal models, some aspects of molecular pathways, brain anatomy, cognitive, and behavioral phenotypes can be addressed. Some groups have created animal models of psychiatric disorders, ASD, and schizophrenia, which are based on human CNV. These mouse models display some brain anatomical and behavioral abnormalities, providing insight into human neuropsychiatric disorders that will contribute to novel drug screening for these devastating disorders. PMID:22900207

Nomura, Jun; Takumi, Toru

2012-01-01

416

Cadmium osteotoxicity in experimental animals: Mechanisms and relationship to human exposures  

SciTech Connect

Extensive epidemiological studies have recently demonstrated increased cadmium exposure correlating significantly with decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture incidence in humans at lower exposure levels than ever before evaluated. Studies in experimental animals have addressed whether very low concentrations of dietary cadmium can negatively impact the skeleton. This overview evaluates results in experimental animals regarding mechanisms of action on bone and the application of these results to humans. Results demonstrate that long-term dietary exposures in rats, at levels corresponding to environmental exposures in humans, result in increased skeletal fragility and decreased mineral density. Cadmium-induced demineralization begins soon after exposure, within 24 h of an oral dose to mice. In bone culture systems, cadmium at low concentrations acts directly on bone cells to cause both decreases in bone formation and increases in bone resorption, independent of its effects on kidney, intestine, or circulating hormone concentrations. Results from gene expression microarray and gene knock-out mouse models provide insight into mechanisms by which cadmium may affect bone. Application of the results to humans is considered with respect to cigarette smoke exposure pathways and direct vs. indirect effects of cadmium. Clearly, understanding the mechanism(s) by which cadmium causes bone loss in experimental animals will provide insight into its diverse effects in humans. Preventing bone loss is critical to maintaining an active, independent lifestyle, particularly among elderly persons. Identifying environmental factors such as cadmium that contribute to increased fractures in humans is an important undertaking and a first step to prevention.

Bhattacharyya, Maryka H. [Environmental Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: mhbhatt@anl.gov

2009-08-01

417

Dioxin--an analysis of the major human studies: comparison with animal-based cancer risks.  

PubMed

Several major epidemiological studies have reported significant mortality rates (SMRs) for both rare cancers (soft tissue sarcoma, non-Hodgkin's, lymphoma, liver) and the more common cancers (lung, colon, etc), all allegedly caused by TCDD. In this paper, we use the potency of TCDD in animals to establish a plausible worst case cancer risk and ask whether its likely that TCDD is responsible for the epidemiological findings assuming the animal carcinogenic potency is applicable to the conditions of human exposure. Two new features of the technique are the use of measured TCDD blood levels in both animals and humans for dose scale-up and the calculation of an integrated life-time exposure for the exposed workers using measured blood levels. On the basis of the stated assumptions it appears unlikely that any of the major epidemiological studies, with the possible exception of the NIOSH study have adequate power to detect the common cancers potentially caused by TCDD. PMID:7604166

Scheuplein, R J; Bowers, J C

1995-06-01

418

Antibiotic resistance genes located in integrons isolated from Escherichia coli recovered from humans and animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-drug resistant pathogens are the principal cause of failure in the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases. Accurate surveillance of antibiotic resistance genes in the community is essential to developing strategies for resistance control and prevention. In this study, a collection of 514 Escherichia coli strains from animal and human sources was examined for the presence of class 1, 2 and

Fay Ellen Dawes

2009-01-01

419

Animal Rights and Human Growth: Intellectual Courage and Extending the Moral Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the ethical dimension of human-animal relationships has become a legitimate, rich subject for contemporary moral philosophers, scholars of moral education, and to a large extent, philosophers of education, have remained surprisingly silent on this subject. The primary purpose of this essay is to illustrate the relationship between the moral

Rowe, Bradley D.

2009-01-01

420

Review of pulmonary toxicity of indium compounds to animals and humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the increased production of ITO, the potential health hazards arising from occupational exposure to this material have attracted much attention. This review consists of three parts: 1) toxic effects of indium compounds on animals, 2) toxic effects of indium compounds on humans, and 3) recommendations for preventing exposure to indium compounds in the workplace.Available data have indicated that

Akiyo Tanaka; Miyuki Hirata; Yutaka Kiyohara; Makiko Nakano; Kazuyuki Omae; Masaharu Shiratani; Kazunori Koga

2010-01-01

421

MACRO AND MICRO APPROACHES TO THE DETERMINATION OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL TISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Analytical approaches to the determination of pesticides and metabolites in human and animal tissues will take many forms. Several factors must be considered in choosing an analytical scheme if the results are to be meaningful. Whenever possible the residue chemist will use stand...

422

Animal-Inspired Human-Robot Interaction: A Robotic Tail for Communicating State  

E-print Network

@cs.umanitoba.ca ABSTRACT We present a robotic tail interface for enabling a robot to communicate its state to people. Our, leveraging people's existing knowledge of and experiences with animals for human-robot interaction are designed and built as utility robots to help people in their homes and workplaces. Some argue

423

Nicotine dependence - human and animal studies, current pharmacotherapies and future perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotine dependence is a disease of constantly growing importance. This mini-review describes the effects of nicotine in humans and focuses on the various laboratory animal models developed to study the dependence-related behavioral effects of nicotine. In ad- dition, we outline the current therapeutic approaches designed to substitute nicotine from cigarette smoke with safer compounds or to relieve symptoms of nicotine

Magdalena Zaniewska

424

LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT STRUCTURE OF LABORATORY ANIMALS AND HUMANS: DOSIMETRY IMPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Significant differences in lower respiratory tract structure exist both within an animal and between species at each level of anatomy. rregular bipodial and tripodial branching patterns of airways are present in human an nonhuman primate lungs. n contrast, the dog and common labo...

425

Lectins in Extracts of Certain Polygonaceae Seed Precipitate Animal and Human Serums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of four species of Polygonaceae were tested for lectins that precipitate human and animal serums. Rumex crispus, Polygonum convolvulus, and Polygonum pennsylvanicum developed specific precipitate bands on double diffusion on agar gel plates. These bands were enhanced and increased in number when extracts were tested against serums from patients with certain diseases. When tested against lyophilized serum, no precipitate

Ernest B. Hanan; James W. Spindler

1968-01-01

426

Convergent Functional Genomics of bipolar disorder: From animal model pharmacogenomics to human genetics and biomarkers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in understanding the genetic and neurobiological basis of bipolar disorder(s) has come from both human studies and animal model studies. Until recently, the lack of concerted integration between the two approaches has been hindering the pace of discovery, or more exactly, constituted a missed opportunity to accelerate our understanding of this complex and heterogeneous group of disorders. Our group

H. Le-Niculescua; M. J. McFarlanda; S. Mamidipallia; C. A. Ogdend; R. Kuczenskie; S. M. Kurianf; Ming T. Tsuange; J. I. Nurnberger Jr; A. B. Niculescua

427

Adipogenic Potential of Multiple Human Adenoviruses In Vivo and In Vitro in Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Journal Article Adipogenic potential of multiple human adenoviruses in vivo and in vitro in animals, by Leah D. Whigham, Barbara A. Israel, and Richard L. Atkinson, found in the American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.

Leah D. Whigham (University of Wisconsin-Madison Departments of Medicine and Nutritional Sciences); MD Richard L. Atkinson (Obetech Obesity Research Center); Barbara A. Israel (University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Pathological Sciences)

2006-01-01

428

Revisiting the Flight of Icarus: Making Human Organs from PSCs with Large Animal Chimeras.  

PubMed

While cell therapies hold great potential for treating many conditions, their utility for treating patients that require whole organ replacement is unclear. To address this challenge, we propose using genetically engineered "organ niches" in large animals to generate human organs from pluripotent stem cells and discuss the hurdles facing such strategies. PMID:25280216

Rashid, Tamir; Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

2014-10-01

429

78 FR 7994 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and 3,000 die from food borne diseases, according...ensure the safety and security of the food supply. It enables FDA...administrative detention of food for human or animal consumption...of the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism...

2013-02-05

430

The Role of Dopamine in the Behavioral Effects of Caffeine in Animals and Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopamine has been proposed to mediate some of the behavioral effects of caffeine. This review discusses cellular mechanisms of action that could explain the role of dopamine in the behavioral effects of caffeine and summarizes the results of behavioral studies in both animals and humans that provide evidence for a role of dopamine in these effects. Caffeine is a competitive

Bridgette E Garrett; Roland R Griffiths

1997-01-01

431

Assessing risk to humans from chemical exposure by using non-animal test data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of data from non-animal toxicity methods in risk assessment has mainly been limited to hazard identification and for elucidating mechanisms of toxicity. However, there is a need to extend the use of in vitro tests to hazard characterisation and risk assessment. This might be feasible by: (a) increased use of human cells of different types; (b) better maintenance

Robert D. Combes

2005-01-01

432

Effects of pineal peptide preparation Epithalamin on free-radical processes in humans and animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: The review on our own data on the effect of the pineal peptide prepa- ration Epithalamin on free radical processes in rodents and humans is presented in this paper. RESULTS: The activity of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) was found decreased in the brain of aged rats (30 months old) by 46.8% as compared to young animals. Concentration of Schiff's

Vladimir N. Anisimov; Alexander V. Arutjunyan; Vladimir Kh

433

Evidence of horizontal gene transfer between human and animal commensal Escherichia coli strains identified by microarray  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria exchange genetic material by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). To evaluate the impact of HGT on Escherichia coli genome plasticity, 19 commensal strains collected from the intestinal floras of humans and animals were analyzed by microarrays. Strains were hybridized against an oligoarray containing 2700 E. coli K12 chromosomal genes. A core (genes shared among compared genomes) and a flexible gene

Elena Grasselli; Michaela Gutacker; Brian Gettler; Cinzia Benagli; Maruska Convert; Patrick Boerlin; Jacques Schrenzel; Jean-Claude Piffaretti

2008-01-01

434

The Multidimensional Structure of Mythological Hybrid (Part-Human, Part-Animal) Figures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty young adults scaled paired pictures of 32 mythological hybrid (part-human, part-animal) beings for perceived similarity, each S rating only a fraction of the 496 unique stimulus pairs. Four factors were extracted from the data by multidimensional scaling, each factor representing a dimension which Ss used to organize perceived differences between the stimuli. Factor 1 reflected several characteristics; it primarily

Harvey Nash; Henry Pieszko

1982-01-01

435

Evolution and Molecular Phylogeny of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated from Human and Animal Listeriosis Cases and Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

To probe the evolution and phylogeny of Listeria monocytogenes from defined host species and environments, L. monocytogenes isolates from human (n 60) and animal (n 30) listeriosis cases and food samples (n 30) were randomly selected from a larger collection of isolates (n 354) obtained in New York State between 1999 and 2001. Partial sequencing of four housekeeping genes (gap,

K. K. Nightingale; K. Windham; M. Wiedmann

2005-01-01

436

ImmunotoxicityBridging the Gap between Animal Research and Human Health Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symposium Overview: ImmunotoxicityBridging the Gap between Animal Research and Human Health Effects. Selgrade, M.-J. K., Cooper, K. D., Devlin, R. B., van Loveren, H., Biagini, R. E., and Luster, M. I. (1995). Fundam. Appl. Toxicol.24, 13-21.

MaryJane K. Selgrade; Kevin D. Cooper; Robert B. Devlin; Henk van Loveren; Raymond E. Biagini; Michael I. Luster

1995-01-01

437

Australian hunting and angling sports and the changing nature of human-animal relations in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

While broad international currents of change affected human-animal relations in Australia, the precise course and pattern of change was influenced by changes specific to Australian society. The paper suggests that two discourses are especially significant in specifying the nature of change. First, a colonial dis course (Britainisation), which sentimentalised British species and sought to implant them in Australia, and second,

Adrian Franklin

1996-01-01

438

Bacterial resistance to antibiotics continues to pose a serious threat to human and animal  

E-print Network

Bacterial resistance to antibiotics continues to pose a serious threat to human and animal health. The relationship between antibiotic use and the development of resistance has been studied extensively, with some of this research aimed at identifying antibiotic treatment strategies that minimize the maintenance of resistance

Singer, Randall

439

WORKSHOP ON THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPARABILITY OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY: SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Workshop on the Qualitative and Quantitative Comparability of Human and Animal Developmental Neurotoxicity was convened by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse to address issues related to when testing should be required, wha...

440

HOMOLOGY OF ASSESSMENT OF VISUAL FUNCTION IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL MODELS.  

EPA Science Inventory

Compromised sensory function is an adverse consequence of toxic exposure. Given the frequency with which it occurs and the ability to measure sensory function in both humans and animals, sensory evaluations offer fertile ground for cross-species extrapolation. In some cases, id...

441

Veterinary public health: Human health hazards associated with the administration of antimicrobials to slaughter animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the assessment of consumer risks of residues of tetracyclines in slaughter pigs in the Netherlands. The assessed risks were toxic and allergic reactions, and the disturbance of the consumers intestinal flora. Toxic and allergic reactions in humans and animals have only been observed at therapeutic doses, affecting between an estimated 1 in 5000 and one 1 in

B. R. Berends; A. E. J. M. van den Bogaard; F. Van Knapen; J. M. A. Snijders

2001-01-01

442

Integration of motion control techniques for virtual human and avatar real-time animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time animation of virtual humans requires a dedicated architecture for the integration of different motion control techniques running into so-called actions. In this paper we describe a software architecture called AGENTlib for the management of action combination. Considered actions exploit various techniques from keyframe sequence playback to Inverse Kinematics and motion capture. Two major requirements have to be enforced from

Ronan Boulic; Pascal Bcheiraz; Luc Emering; Daniel Thalmann

1997-01-01

443

CONTAMINATION LEVEL AND DISTRIBUTION OF RADIOACTIVE CERIUM IN HUMANS AND ANIMALS UNDER NATURAL CONDITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt was made to determine the selective distribution of Cs\\/sup ; 137\\/ in human and animal organs under natural conditions and to determine the ; contamination level in the Leningrad area as a result of nuclear test explosions. ; The tabulated data show the highest Cs¹³⁷ uptake in the second half of ; 1958 and the lowest in 1960.

Shakhidzanyan

1962-01-01

444

People & Animals: A Humane Education Curriculum Guide. Levels A-D.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides the framework for integrating humane education into the traditional elementary school curriculum. The activities in this guide are designed to help students think critically and clarify their own feelings about various issues, as well as to provide them with factual information and understandings about animals.

Savesky, Kathleen, Ed.; Malcarne, Vanessa, Ed.

445

Highly penetrant alterations of a critical region including BDNF contribute to human psychopathology  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is suspected of being a causative factor in psychiatric disorders based on case reports or studies involving large structural anomalies. OBJECTIVE To determine the involvement of BDNF in human psychopathology DESIGN Case- Control study SETTING Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data from seven molecular diagnostic centers including 38, 550 affected subjects and 28, 705 unaffected subjects. PATIENTS Subjects referred to diagnostic screening centers for aCGH for physical or cognitive impairment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE Genomic copy number gains and losses RESULTS We report five individuals with psychopathology and genomic deletion of a critical region including BDNF. The defined critical region was never disrupted in control subjects or diagnostic cases without developmental abnormalities. CONCLUSION Hemizygosity of the BDNF region contributes to variable psychiatric phenotypes including anxiety, behavioral, and mood disorders. PMID:23044507

Ernst, Carl; Marshall, Christian R.; Shen, Yiping; Metcalfe, Kay; Rosenfeld, Jill; Hodge, Jennelle C.; Torres, Alcy; Blumenthal, Ian; Chiang, Colby; Pillalamarri, Vamsee; Crapper, Liam; Diallo, Alpha B.; Ruderfer, Douglas; Pereira, Shahrin; Sklar, Pamela; Purcell, Shaun; Wildin, Robert S.; Spencer, Anne C.; Quade, Bradley F.; Harris, David J.; Lemyre, Emanuelle; Wu, Bailin; Stavropoulos, Dimitri J.; Geraghty, Michael T.; Shaffer, Lisa G.; Morton, Cynthia C; Scherer, Stephen W.; Gusella, James F.; Talkowski, Michael E.

2013-01-01

446

Problems in Diagnosing Scabies, a Global Disease in Human and Animal Populations  

PubMed Central

Scabies is a worldwide disease and a major public health problem in many developing countries, related primarily to poverty and overcrowding. In remote Aboriginal communities in northern Australia, prevalences of up to 50% among children have been described, despite the availability of effective chemotherapy. Sarcoptic mange is also an important veterinary disease engendering significant morbidity and mortality in wild, domestic, and farmed animals. Scabies is caused by the ectoparasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei burrowing into the host epidermis. Clinical symptoms include intensely itchy lesions that often are a precursor to secondary bacterial pyoderma, septicemia, and, in humans, poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Although diagnosed scabies cases can be successfully treated, the rash of the primary infestation takes 4 to 6 weeks to develop, and thus, transmission to others often occurs prior to therapy. In humans, the symptoms of scabies infestations can mimic other dermatological skin diseases, and traditional tests to diagnose scabies are less than 50% accurate. To aid early identification of disease and thus treatment, a simple, cheap, sensitive, and specific test for routine diagnosis of active scabies is essential. Recent developments leading to the expression and purification of S. scabiei recombinant antigens have identified a number of molecules with diagnostic potential, and current studies include the investigation and assessment of the accuracy of these recombinant proteins in identifying antibodies in individuals with active scabies and in differentiating those with past exposure. Early identification of disease will enable selective treatment of those affected, reduce transmission and the requirement for mass treatment, limit the potential for escalating mite resistance, and provide another means of controlling scabies in populations in areas of endemicity. PMID:17428886

Walton, Shelley F.; Currie, Bart J.

2007-01-01

447

Endangered animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many animals that are in danger of becoming extinct. Humans are largely to blame for their endangerment. Over-hunting and habitat destruction are only a couple of ways that humans are endangering animals.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-05-26

448

A decision support system prototype including human factors based on the TOGA meta-theory approach  

SciTech Connect

The human contribution to the risk of operation of complex technological systems is often not negligible and sometimes tends to become significant, as shown by many reports on incidents and accidents occurred in the past inside Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). An error of a human operator of a NPP can derive by both omission and commission. For instance, complex commission errors can also lead to significant catastrophic technological accidents, as for the case of the Three Mile Island accident. Typically, the problem is analyzed by focusing on the single event chain that has provoked the incident or accident. What is needed is a general framework able to include as many parameters as possible, i.e. both technological and human factors. Such a general model could allow to envisage an omission or commission error before it can happen or, alternatively, suggest preferred actions to do in order to take countermeasures to neutralize the effect of the error before it becomes critical. In this paper, a preliminary Decision Support System (DSS) based on the so-called (-) TOGA meta-theory approach is presented. The application of such a theory to the management of nuclear power plants has been presented in the previous ICAPP 2011. Here, a human factor simulator prototype is proposed in order to include the effect of human errors in the decision path. The DSS has been developed using a TRIGA research reactor as reference plant, and implemented using the LabVIEW programming environment and the Finite State Machine (FSM) model The proposed DSS shows how to apply the Universal Reasoning Paradigm (URP) and the Universal Management Paradigm (UMP) to a real plant context. The DSS receives inputs from instrumentation data and gives as output a suggested decision. It is obtained as the result of an internal elaborating process based on a performance function. The latter, describes the degree of satisfaction and efficiency, which are dependent on the level of responsibility related to each professional role. As an application, we present the simulation of the discussed error, e.g. the unchecked extraction of the control rods during a power variation maneuver and we show how the effect of human errors can affect the performance function, giving rise to different countermeasures which could call different operator figures into play, potentially not envisaged in the standard procedure. (authors)

Cappelli, M.; Memmi, F. [UTFISST, ENEA Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, Rome (Italy); Gadomski, A. M. [ECONA, Centro Interuniv. Elaborazione Cognitiva Sistemi Naturali e Artificiali, via dei Marsi 47, Rome (Italy); Sepielli, M. [UTFISST, ENEA Casaccia, via Anguillarese 301, Rome (Italy)

2012-07-01

449

i The institutional review board is an impediment to human research: the result is more animal-based research  

PubMed Central

Biomedical research today can be generally classified as human-based or nonhuman animal-based, each with separate and distinct review boards that must approve research protocols. Researchers wishing to work with humans or human tissues have become frustrated by the required burdensome approval panel, the Institutional Review Board. However, scientists have found it is much easier to work with the animal-based research review board, the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Consequently, animals are used for investigations even when scientists believe these studies should be performed with humans or human tissue. This situation deserves attention from society and more specifically the animal protection and patient advocate communities, as neither patients nor animals are well served by the present situation. PMID:21649895

2011-01-01

450

Animal and human studies with the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ.  

PubMed

As mitochondrial oxidative damage contributes to a wide range of human diseases, antioxidants designed to be accumulated by mitochondria in vivo have been developed. The most extensively studied of these mitochondria-targeted antioxidants is MitoQ, which contains the antioxidant quinone moiety covalently attached to a lipophilic triphenylphosphonium cation. MitoQ has now been used in a range of in vivo studies in rats and mice and in two phase II human trials. Here, we review what has been learned from these animal and human studies with MitoQ. PMID:20649545

Smith, Robin A J; Murphy, Michael P

2010-07-01

451

Mechanistic models of bone cancer induction by radium and plutonium in animals compared to humans.  

PubMed

Two-mutation carcinogenesis models of mice and rats injected with (239)Pu and (226)Ra have been derived extending previous modellings of beagle dogs injected with (239)Pu and (226)Ra and radium dial painters. In all cases statistically significant parameters could be derived fitting data from several research groups jointly. This also lead to similarly parametrised models for (239)Pu and (226)Ra for all species. For each data set not more than five free model parameters were needed to fit the data adequately. From the toxicity ratios of the animal models for (239)Pu and (226)Ra, together with the human model for (226)Ra, an approximate model for the exposure of humans to (239)Pu has been derived. Relative risk calculations with this approximate model are in good agreement with epidemiological findings for the plutonium-exposed Mayak workers. This promising result may indicate new possibilities for estimating risks for humans from animal experiments. PMID:17166879

Bijwaard, H

2006-01-01

452

Bracken-associated human and animal health hazards: chemical, biological and pathological evidence.  

PubMed

Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) is a widely distributed carcinogenic fern, to whose toxins human populations are exposed through multiple routes. Animals are also affected by bracken toxins, leading to serious production losses yearly. Accordingly, several governmental reports regarding the safeguard of public health against bracken carcinogens have been recently issued. This review describes the main bioactive compounds identified in bracken and their biological effects at the molecular, cellular, pathological and populational levels, with particular emphasis on ptaquiloside, the main bracken carcinogen. Recent biopathological studies shedding further light on the genotoxicity immunotoxicity and carcinogenicity of ptaquiloside are discussed. Key steps on the long effort to understand bracken toxicology are also reviewed, along with the latest findings on new bracken toxins and human exposures routes. The presence of ptaquiloside and related terpene glycosides in milk, meat and water are of particular concern from the viewpoints of both human and animal health. PMID:22226718

Gil da Costa, R M; Bastos, M M S M; Oliveira, P A; Lopes, C

2012-02-15

453

Cost-effective Method for Microbial Source Tracking Using Specific Human and Animal Viruses  

PubMed Central

Microbial contamination of the environment represents a significant health risk. Classical bacterial fecal indicators have shown to have significant limitations, viruses are more resistant to many inactivation processes and standard fecal indicators do not inform on the source of contamination. The development of cost-effective methods for the concentration of viruses from water and molecular assays facilitates the applicability of viruses as indicators of fecal contamination and as microbial source tracking (MST) tools. Adenoviruses and polyomaviruses are DNA viruses infecting specific vertebrate species including humans and are persistently excreted in feces and/or urine in all geographical areas studied. In previous studies, we suggested the quantification of human adenoviruses (HAdV) and JC polyomaviruses (JCPyV) by quantitative PCR (qPCR) as an index of human fecal contamination. Recently, we have developed qPCR assays for the specific quantification of porcine adenoviruses (PAdV) and bovine polyomaviruses (BPyV) as animal fecal markers of contamination with sensitivities of 1-10 genome copies per test tube. In this study, we present the procedure to be followed to identify the source of contamination in water samples using these tools. As example of representative results, analysis of viruses in ground water presenting high levels of nitrates is shown. Detection of viruses in low or moderately polluted waters requires the concentration of the viruses from at least several liters of water into a much smaller volume, a procedure that usually includes two concentration steps in series. This somewhat cumbersome procedure and the variability observed in viral recoveries significantly hamper the simultaneous processing of a large number of water samples. In order to eliminate the bottleneck caused by the two-step procedures we have applied a one-step protocol developed in previous studies and applicable to a diversity of water matrices. The procedure includes: acidification of ten-liter water samples, flocculation by skimmed milk, gravity sedimentation of the flocculated materials, collection of the precipitate and centrifugation, resuspension of the precipitate in 10 ml phosphate buffer. The viral concentrate is used for the extraction of viral nucleic acids and the specific adenoviruses and polyomaviruses of interest are quantified by qPCR. High number of samples may be simultaneously analyzed using this low-cost concentration method. The procedure has been applied to the analysis of bathing waters, seawater and river water and in this study, we present results analyzing groundwater samples. This high-throughput quantitative method is reliable, straightforward, and cost-effective. PMID:22158410

Bofill-Mas, Silvia; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Calgua, Byron; Rusinol, Marta; Maluquer de Motes, Carlos; Girones, Rosina

2011-01-01

454

Cost-effective method for microbial source tracking using specific human and animal viruses.  

PubMed

Microbial contamination of the environment represents a significant health risk. Classical bacterial fecal indicators have shown to have significant limitations, viruses are more resistant to many inactivation processes and standard fecal indicators do not inform on the source of contamination. The development of cost-effective methods for the concentration of viruses from water and molecular assays facilitates the applicability of viruses as indicators of fecal contamination and as microbial source tracking (MST) tools. Adenoviruses and polyomaviruses are DNA viruses infecting specific vertebrate species including humans and are persistently excreted in feces and/or urine in all geographical areas studied. In previous studies, we suggested the quantification of human adenoviruses (HAdV) and JC polyomaviruses (JCPyV) by quantitative PCR (qPCR) as an index of human fecal contamination. Recently, we have developed qPCR assays for the specific quantification of porcine adenoviruses (PAdV) and bovine polyomaviruses (BPyV) as animal fecal markers of contamination with sensitivities of 1-10 genome copies per test tube. In this study, we present the procedure to be followed to identify the source of contamination in water samples using these tools. As example of representative results, analysis of viruses in ground water presenting high levels of nitrates is shown. Detection of viruses in low or moderately polluted waters requires the concentration of the viruses from at least several liters of water into a much smaller volume, a procedure that usually includes two concentration steps in series. This somewhat cumbersome procedure and the variability observed in viral recoveries significantly hamper the simultaneous processing of a large number of water samples. In order to eliminate the bottleneck caused by the two-step procedures we have applied a one-step protocol developed in previous studies and applicable to a diversity of water matrices. The procedure includes: acidification of ten-liter water samples, flocculation by skimmed milk, gravity sedimentation of the flocculated materials, collection of the precipitate and centrifugation, resuspension of the precipitate in 10 ml phosphate buffer. The viral concentrate is used for the extraction of viral nucleic acids and the specific adenoviruses and polyomaviruses of interest are quantifi