For students of human development, the Human Embryology Animations site is a worthy resource. Created by Dr. Valerie O'Loughlin at Indiana University, the goal of this site is to help students "better understand the complex processes that must occur in embryologic development." The animations are divided into five thematic sections, including General Embryology, Development of the Limbs, and Urinary and Reproductive Embryology. Each animation lasts anywhere from 20 seconds to 8 minutes, and they cover heart tube folding, septum development, postnatal circulation, and 30 or so other processes. The site is designed for students and members of the general public with a basic understanding of human biology, and the animations are well-planned and worth a look. Additionally, they could be used for students reviewing materials for a course like AP Biology.
This collection features animations that illustrate a variety of the processes in the development of the human embryo. The collection was designed as a tool for medical students, but can serve as a review for other health-science practitioners and students. The animations are grouped by topic: cardiovascular embryology, development of the head and neck, gastrointestinal embryology, limb development, and urinary and reproductive embryology. They include written pre- and post-tests, and online assessment materials.
Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development.
Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712
Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded. PMID:16446412
Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L
This paper describes algorithms for the animation of men and women performing three dynamic athletic behaviors: running, bicycling, and vaulting. We animate these behaviors using control algorithms that cause a physically realistic model to perform the desired maneuver. For example, control algorithms allow the simulated humans to maintain balance while moving their arms, to run or bicycle at a variety
Jessica K. Hodgins; Wayne L. Wooten; David C. Brogan; James F. O'Brien
A set of animations showing changes during cardiovascular, head & neck, and gut, with limb and urogenital development coming soon. Currently includes a pre and post tests on each segment so students can assess their learning.
PhD Valerie Dean O'Loughlin (Indiana University Medical Sciences Program)
Levels of cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) proteins immunoreactive to antibodies raised against human CYP1A2, 2A6, 2C9, 2E1,\\u000a and 3A4, monkey CYP2B17, and rat CYP2D1 were determined in liver microsomes of rats, guinea pigs, dogs, monkeys, and humans.\\u000a We also examined several drug oxidation activities catalyzed by liver microsomes of these animal species using eleven P450\\u000a substrates such as phenacetin,
Tsutomu Shimada; Mayumi Mimura; Kiyoshi Inoue; Sei-ichi Nakamura; Hajime Oda; Shigeru Ohmori; Hiroshi Yamazaki
One of the most impressive ways to learn about biology, particularly that which we seldom see, is through modeling. Dr. Valerie O'Loughlin and her colleagues at Indiana University have created this thoroughly impressive set of animations so that "students could better understand the complex processes that must occur in embryologic development." The site is arranged into five main areas, including: Cardiovascular Embryology, Development of the Head and Neck, Gastrointestinal Embryology, Development of the Limbs, and Urinary and Reproductive Embryology. However, the only two sections currently loaded with animations are the first two. Presumably, the rest are coming soon. Also, because these animations are part of a study of teaching efficacy, Dr. O'Loughlin asks that users participate in an optional survey. However, all animations can be accessed without taking part. As a great addition to the site, users are presented with a few questions regarding the anatomy which they are about to see, prior to viewing the animation. Undboutedly, this is related to the Indiana University course that these animations are a part of, but they serve as a great addition for visitors other than students, too.
From January 2013, a new EU Directive 63/2010/EU requires that research using animals must undergo a harm-benefit analysis, which takes ethical considerations into account (Art. 38 (2) d) - a so-called 'project authorization' (Art. 36). A competent authority in each member state has to ensure that no project is carried out without such a project validation process, but often delegates the actual assessment to an animal ethics committee (AEC) or its equivalent. The core task of the AEC is to formulate a justifiable balance between the animals' suffering caused by research and the potential human benefit. AECs traditionally focus on animal welfare issues, but according to the new directive other public concerns must also be taken into account. Taking the new EU Directive as a point of departure, the central aim of this paper is to discuss the evaluation process in relation to animal welfare and animal ethics through the concept of animal integrity. A further aim is to elaborate on possible improvements to project evaluation by considering animal integrity. We argue that concepts like animal integrity are often left out of project authorization processes within AECs, because animal ethics is often interpreted narrowly to include only certain aspects of animal welfare. Firstly, we describe the task of an AEC and discuss what has typically been regarded as ethically relevant in the assessment process. Secondly, we categorize four notions of integrity found in the literature to show the complexity of the concept and furthermore to indicate its strengths. Thirdly, we discuss how certain interpretations of integrity can be included in AEC assessments to encapsulate wider ethical concerns and, perhaps even increase the democratic legitimacy of AECs. PMID:24367033
Röcklinsberg, H; Gamborg, C; Gjerris, M
The current study examines 3- and 5-year-olds' representation of the concept we label "animal" and its two nested concepts--"animal"[subscript contrastive] (including only non-human animals) and "animal"[subscript inclusive] (including both humans and non-human animals). Building upon evidence that naming promotes object categorization, we…
Herrmann, Patricia A.; Medin, Douglas L.; Waxman, Sandra R.
The motion of a human platform diver was simulated using a dynamic model and a control system. Thedynamic model has 32 actuated degrees of freedom and dynamic parameters within the range of thosereported in the literature for humans. The control system uses algorithms for balance, jumping, andtwisting to initiate the dive, sequences of desired values for proportional--derivative servos to performthe
Wayne L. Wooten; Jessica K. Hodgins
In order to develop an animal model for human clinical amnesia, the exact nature of severe mnemonic impairments existing in six rhesus monkeys that had previously sustained bilateral removals of the limbic system or rostral inferior temporal lobe was stud...
W. H. Overman
I review the direction and magnitude (effect sizes) of gender dif- ferences that have been reported in several areas of human-animal interac- tions. These include: attitudes toward the treatment of animals, attachment to pets, involvement in animal protectionism, animal hoarding, hunting, animal abuse, and bestiality. Women, on average, show higher levels of positive be- haviors and attitudes toward animals (e.g.,
Harold A. Herzog
Lifespan differs radically among organisms ever lived on earth, even among those roughly similar in size, shape, form, and physiology; Yet, in general, there exists a strong positive relationship between lifespan and body size. Although lifespans of humans and human-related (domestic) animals are becoming increasingly longer than that of other animals of similar sizes, the slope of the regression (lifespan-body size) line and the intercepts have been surprisingly stable over the course of the dramatic human population growth, indicating substantial depression in lifespans of many other animals probably due to shrunk and fragmented natural habitats. This article addresses two questions related to the lifespan-size relationship: (1) what caused the exceptions (e.g., a few remote human-related animals are also located above the regression line with great residuals) and why (e.g., could brain size or intelligence be a covariate in addition to body size in predicting lifespan?), and (2) whether continued human activities can eventually alter the ' natural' regression line in the future, and if so, how much. We also suggest similar research efforts to be extended to the plant world as well.
Guo, Q.; Yang, S.
In vivo animal models have proven very useful to understand basic biological pathways of the immune system, a prerequisite for the development of innovate therapies. This manuscript addresses currently available models for defined human monogenetic defects of neutrophil granulocytes, including murine, zebrafish and larger mammalian species. Strengths and weaknesses of each system are summarized, and clinical investigators may thus be inspired to develop further lines of research to improve diagnosis and therapy by use of the appropriate animal model system.
Schaffer, Alejandro A.; Klein, Christoph
Synopsis-The three principal areas of TESTING pertinent to COSMETICS are discussed. These include SAFETY determination in ANIMALS, safety and efficacy studies in HUMANS, and MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDIES for safety and product stability. Prod- ucts must be shown safe to animals prior to use on humans. Most animal studies include, for the most part, acute and subacute studies. The former are done
M. J. THOMAS; P. A. MAJORS
Thirty Ss displayed considerable consistency in judging portraits of 29 mythological hybrid (part-human, part-animal) figures along a human-animal continuum. Wings, attached (angel-like) to otherwise intact human bodies, were the sole animal features of the three figures judged to be most human. A single human feature, the head, joined to an otherwise animal body, characterized the four most animal-like figures. Humanness\\/animality
Purpose: The scope and significance of human anti- animal antibody interference in immunological assays is reviewed with an emphasis on human anti-animal immunoglobulins, particularly human anti-mouse anti- bodies (HAMAs). Issues: Anti-animal antibodies (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE class, anti-isotype, and anti-idiotype specificity) arise as a result of iatrogenic and noniatrogenic causes and include human anti-mouse, -rabbit, -goat, -sheep, -cow, -pig, -rat,
Larry J. Kricka
The main objective of the present study was to determined the occurrence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis, E. hellem, E. cuniculi, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Poland in animal faecal using the FISH (Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization) and multiplex FISH techniques. Additional objectives included: (1) identification of animal hosts of microsporidia that are infectious to humans amongst free-ranging, captive, livestock and domestic animals; (2) a molecular analysis of randomly selected parasite isolates and determination of their zoonotic potential; (3) evaluation of the role of animals in the dissemination of microsporidia spores in the environment, and an estimation of the potential risk of infection for other animals and humans. A total of 1340 faecal samples collected from 178 species of animals were examined using conventional staining (chromotrope-2R and calcofluor white M2R staining) and molecular techniques (FISH and multiplex FISH techniques). Microsporidian spores were detected in 33 faecal samples (2.5%) obtained from 17 animal species. Microsporidia were demonstrated more often in birds (6.1%) than in mammals (0.7%); the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.00001). In addition, the prevalence of microsporidian infections in waterfowl was significantly higher than the prevalence of microsporidian infections in other animals (p < 0.03). Animal reservoirs of human infectious microsporidia were disclosed in six of 38 sites where faecal samples were taken from animals. Three species of human virulent microsporidia were identified in animals. Spores of E. hellem were found in 25 faecal samples (1.9%) taken from 12 bird species (6 zoo bird species, 4 free-ranging bird species, 2 livestock bird species). Spores of E. intestinalis were identified in five faecal samples (0.4%) taken from two livestock bird species and two zoo mammal species. In turn, E. bieneusi spores were detected only in three faecal samples (0.2%) taken from three zoo mammal species. It was demonstrated that the new hosts of E. hellem are the following bird species: mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), greyleg goose (Anser anser), mute swan (Cygnus olor), black-necked swan (Cygnus melancoryphus), black swan (Cygnus atratus), coscoroba swan (Coscoroba coscoroba), black-crowned crane (Balearica pavonina), nicobar pigeon (Caloenas nicobarica) and carrion crow (Corvus cornix). In addition, E. hellem was found for the first time in birds from the Anseriformes and Gruiformes orders. Whereas E. intestinalis was disclosed for the first time in the domestic goose (Anser anser f. domestica), red ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata rubra) and the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), while the black lemur (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), mongoose lemur (Eulemur mongoz) and the Visayan warty pig (Sus cebifrons negrinus) were first found to carry E. bieneusi. The mammal species that were found to carry E. bieneusi and E. intestinalis are included in The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The results of the present study are significant from an epidemiological point of view. The wild, livestock and zoo animals that were found to carry microsporidia live in different conditions, and thus their role as animal reservoirs for these dangerous pathogens varies. Waterfowl birds may be the main source of contamination of surface waters with E. hellem spores and the protection of surface waters is virtually impossible. Moreover, isolates of E. hellem from mute swans have SSU rRNA sequences identical to E. hellem genotype reported 10 years ago in HIV-positive patient in USA (GenBank Accession no. L19070). This result indicate that E. hellem from mute swans can be a potential source of infection for humans. The contamination of the human environment with microsporidian spores infectious to humans is also facilitated by farm and synanthropic birds, because E. hellem and E. intestinalis were found in farms pigeons, domestic goose and the carrion crow. These birds can also be the source of infectious for breeders and ornithologists. The occurrence of microsporidiosis in an
Introduction In order to identify priorities for building integrated surveillance systems that effectively model and predict human risk of zoonotic diseases, there is a need for improved understanding of the practical options for linking surveillance data of animals and humans. We conducted an analysis of the literature and characterized the linkage between animal and human health data. We discuss the findings in relation to zoonotic surveillance and the linkage of human and animal data. Methods The Canary Database, an online bibliographic database of animal-sentinel studies was searched and articles were classified according to four linkage categories. Results 465 studies were identified and assigned to linkage categories involving: descriptive, analytic, molecular, or no human outcomes of human and animal health. Descriptive linkage was the most common, whereby both animal and human health outcomes were presented, but without quantitative linkage between the two. Rarely, analytic linkage was utilized in which animal data was used to quantitatively predict human risk. The other two categories included molecular linkage, and no human outcomes, which present health outcomes in animals but not humans. Discussion We found limited use of animal data to quantitatively predict human risk and listed the methods from the literature that performed analytic linkage. The lack of analytic linkage in the literature might not be solely related to technological barriers including access to electronic database, statistical software packages, and Geographical Information System (GIS). Rather, the problem might be from a lack of understanding by researchers of the importance of animal data as a 'sentinel' for human health. Researchers performing zoonotic surveillance should be aware of the value of animal-sentinel approaches for predicting human risk and consider analytic methods for linking animal and human data. Qualitative work needs to be done in order to examine researchers' decisions in linkage strategies between animal and human data.
Scotch, Matthew; Odofin, Lynda; Rabinowitz, Peter
Thirty male and female undergraduates judged pictures of 32 mythological hybrid (part-human, part-animal) figures on three dimensions: human-ness\\/animality, unpleasantness, and incongruity. Winged humans were judged more human than erect animal-headed, human-bodied hybrids, which were in turn judged more human than hybrids which were neither erect nor bipedal. Humanness\\/animality ratings of the figures correlated + .83 with incongruity ratings and +
Ongoing human–long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) conflicts in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore, have seen native macaques significantly affected, as residential development encroaches into animals' habitat, destroying important wildlife corridors. The search for a more humane treatment of these transgressive animals can be seen as an attempt to extend and include non-human animals within humanistic notions of ethics and care, in
Jun-Han Yeo; Harvey Neo
For centuries, opposition has been directed against the use of animals for the benefit of humans. For more than four centuries in Europe, and for more than a century in the United States, this opposition has targeted scientific research that involves animals. More recent movements in support of animal rights have arisen in an attempt to impede, if not prohibit, the use of animals in scientific experimentation. These movements employ various means that range from information and media campaigns to destruction of property and threats against investigators. The latter efforts have resulted in the identification of more militant animal rights bands as terrorist groups. The American Medical Association has long been a defender of humane research that employs animals, and it is very concerned about the efforts of animal rights and welfare groups to interfere with research. Recently, the Association prepared a detailed analysis of the controversy over the use of animals in research, and the consequences for research and clinical medicine if the philosophy of animal rights activists were to prevail in society. This article is a condensation of the Association's analysis. PMID:2810604
Loeb, J M; Hendee, W R; Smith, S J; Schwartz, M R
Materials and methods related to a transgenic non-human animal (e.g., a transgenic non-human mammal) whose genome comprises a disrupted TIEG allele are provided. Methods for making such transgenic non-human animals, and using them to identify and characte...
M. Subramaniam, M. J. Velasquez, N. M. Rajmannan, T. C. Spelsberg
Piperidine alkaloids are acutely toxic to adult livestock species and produce musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal animals. These teratogenic effects include multiple congenital contracture (MCC) deformities and cleft palate in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Poisonous plants containing teratogenic piperidine alkaloids include poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), lupine (Lupinus spp.), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) [including wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca)]. There is abundant epidemiological evidence in humans that link maternal tobacco use with a high incidence of oral clefting in newborns; this association may be partly attributable to the presence of piperidine alkaloids in tobacco products. In this review, we summarize the evidence for piperidine alkaloids that act as teratogens in livestock, piperidine alkaloid structure-activity relationships and their potential implications for human health. PMID:22449544
Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Panter, Kip E; Brown, David R
Since its detection in 2001 the human Metapneumovirus (HMPV), a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, was observed to be a serious pathogen in human respiratory infections during childhood. Meanwhile, several animal models have been established to study the virus-host interactions and pathogenic effects. Mainly, small laboratory animals like mice and cotton rats have been used, although the usage of these
Oliver Schildgen; Arne Simon; John Williams
Abstract Animal models have become,standard tools for the study of a wide array of human infectious diseases. Although there are no true animal reservoirs for M. tuberculosis, many,different animal species are susceptible to infection with this organism and have served as valuable tools for the study of TB. The most commonly,used experimental animal models of TB are the mouse, rabbit,
Ashwin S. Dharmadhikari; Edward A. Nardell
An important element of behavioral research with nonhuman animals is that insights are drawn from it about human behavior, what is called here the human side of animal behavior. This article examines the origins of comparing human behavior to that of other animals, the ways in which such comparisons are described, and considerations that arise in evaluating the validity of those comparisons. The rationale for such an approach originated in the reductionism of experimental physiology and the understanding of the commonalities of all life forms promulgated by Darwinian evolutionary biology. Added more recently were such observations as the relative simplicity of animal behavior, tempered by the constraints placed on resulting comparisons by the absence of verbal behavior in animals. The construction of comparisons of human behavior to that of animals may be framed on the basis of Skinner's (1957) distinction between the metaphorical and generic forms of the extended tact. Both ordinary and systematic comparisons of animal and human behavior are congruent with Skinner's extended tact framework. The most general consideration in evaluating comparisons of animal and human behavior is that a functional basis for the claimed similarity be established. Systematic analysis and convergent evidence also may contribute to acceptability of these comparisons. In the final analysis, however, conclusions about the human side of animal behavior are nondeductively derived and often are assessed based on their heuristic and pragmatic value. Such conclusions represent a valuable contribution to understanding the human animal and in developing practical solutions to problems of human behavior to which much of psychology is dedicated.
Lattal, Kennon A.
Construction and animation of realistic human facial models is an important research field in computer graphics. How to simulate the motions of human faces on 3D facial models in real-time to generate realistic facial expressions is still a challenge. In this paper, a technique to simulate the human facial animation realistically in real-time is presented. First of all, the 3D
ZHANG Qing-Shan; CHEN Guo-Liang
The regulation of human exposure to potentially carcinogenic chemicals constitutes society's most important use of animal carcinogenicity data. Environmental contaminants of greatest concern within the USA are listed in the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) chemicals database. However, of the 160 IRIS chemicals lacking even limited human exposure data but possessing animal data that had received a human carcinogenicity assessment by 1 January 2004, we found that in most cases (58.1%; 93/160), the EPA considered animal carcinogenicity data inadequate to support a classification of probable human carcinogen or non-carcinogen. For the 128 chemicals with human or animal data also assessed by the World Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), human carcinogenicity classifications were compatible with EPA classifications only for those 17 having at least limited human data (p = 0.5896). For those 111 primarily reliant on animal data, the EPA was much more likely than the IARC to assign carcinogenicity classifications indicative of greater human risk (p < 0.0001). The IARC is a leading international authority on carcinogenicity assessments, and its significantly different human carcinogenicity classifications of identical chemicals indicate that: 1) in the absence of significant human data, the EPA is over-reliant on animal carcinogenicity data; 2) as a result, the EPA tends to over-predict carcinogenic risk; and 3) the true predictivity for human carcinogenicity of animal data is even poorer than is indicated by EPA figures alone. The EPA policy of erroneously assuming that tumours in animals are indicative of human carcinogenicity is implicated as a primary cause of these errors. PMID:16522147
Knight, Andrew; Bailey, Jarrod; Balcombe, Jonathan
Antonites A., Odendaal J.S.J.: Ethics in Human-Animal Relationships.Acta Vet. Brno 2004, 73: 539-548. Reactions to ethical matters related to human-animal relationships are often ambiguous and are influenced by many human-related factors. Because of such variations, there is a need for guidance in this regard. Such guidelines should thus be useful in a universal sense. Due to veterinarians position as professionally
A. ANTONITES; J. S. J. ODENDAAL
Arguments for animal "rights" confuse the issue of what rights are about and, in the context of the care of laboratory animals, are misleading. Only human beings have rights and they should be cherished and extended. Consideration of the welfare of animals is important, but the context is that it is for the benefit of human beings and the animals serving humanity. Scientists need to explain the worth of animal research, particularly in regard to psychological studies. They also need to expose the fallacies in the animal rightists' arguments as one of the means to help diminish the threat to science. PMID:2463233
Animal and human bite wounds can lead to serious infections. The organisms recovered generally originate from the biter's oral cavity and the victim's skin flora. Anaerobes were isolated from more than two thirds of human and animal bite infections. Streptococcus pyogenes is often recovered in human bites, Pasteurella multocida in animal bites, Eikenella corrodens in animal and human, Capnocytophaga spp, Neisseria weaveri, Weeksella zoohelcum, Neisseria canis, Staphylococcus intermedius, nonoxidizer-1, and eugonic oxidizer-2 in dog, Flavobacterium group in pig, and Actinobacillus spp in horse and sheep bites. Vibrio spp, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Pseudomonas spp can cause infections in bites associated with marine settings. In addition to local wound infection, complications include lymphangitis, local abscess, septic arthritis, tenosynovitis, and osteomyelitis. Uncommon complications include endocarditis, meningitis, brain abscess, and sepsis with disseminated intravascular coagulation especially in immunocompromised individuals. Wound management includes administering local care and using proper antimicrobial therapy when needed. PMID:19698283
... rabies What type of exposure occurred? Is the animal available for testing? Medical care Human rabies immune globulin Rabies vaccine ... with potential exposure Clinical signs of rabies in animals Vaccines Rabies Vaccines Licensed and Marketed in the U.S., 2008 ... in manmade or natural disasters Should my ...
Over the past decade, research on animal personality has flourished in numerous disciplines ranging from Behavioral Ecology and Developmental Psychobiology to Genetics and Comparative Psychology. The broad appeal of animal studies is that, in comparison with human studies, they afford greater experimental control, more options for measuring physiological and genetic parameters, greater oppor- tunities for naturalistic observation, and an accelerated
Samuel D. Gosling
There is renewed interest in using animal oocytes to reprogram human somatic cells. Here we compare the re- programming of human somatic nuclei using oocytes obtained from animal and human sources. Comparative analysis of gene expression in morula-stage embryos was carried out using single-embryo transcriptome am- plification and global gene expression analyses. Genomic DNA fingerprinting and PCR analysis confirmed that
Young Chung; Colin E. Bishop; Nathan R. Treff; Stephen J. Walker; Vladislav M. Sandler; Sandy Becker; Irina Klimanskaya; Wan-Song Wun; Randall Dunn; Rebecca M. Hall; Jing Su; Shi-Jiang Lu; Marc Maserati; Young-Ho Choi; Richard Scott; Anthony Atala; Ralph Dittman; Robert Lanza
Uveitis represents a wide spectrum of intraocular inflammatory conditions and includes various autoimmune and infectious etiologies. The relevance of animal models of uveitis to human diseases remains a key issue with major implications for the translational research and development of therapeutic strategies. Histopathological findings in patients with Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, birdshot retinochoroidopathy and anterior uveitis are correlated to those observed in different animal models. Even though evidence based on histopathology is usually irrefutable, similar features may be due to different disease mechanisms. Analysis of triggering factors, determination of cellular populations and immune microenvironment should prevail over clinical phenotype evaluation. There is a controversy in correlating the clinical finding of nummular chorioretinal scars, commonly referred to as Dalen-Fuchs nodules, seen in the periphery of fundus in patients with chronic Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease with histologic observations made on such enucleated eyes. Although histopathology of the lesions consisted of focal chorioretinal scars with loss of RPE, there was no consensus about the histologic nature of the nummular chorioretinal scars, particularly whether they represent Dalen-Fuchs nodules. Based on the immunogenetic background, there may be different forms of one specific disease with variable phenotypic expression. This review discusses the importance of experimental models in the light of immunologic alterations and histopathological features in human uveitic entities. PMID:18421239
Bodaghi, Bahram; Rao, Narsing
Laboratory mice provide a ready source of diverse, high-affinity and high-specificity monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). However, development of rodent antibodies as therapeutic agents has been impaired by the inherent immunogenicity of these molecules. One technology that has been explored to generate low immunogenicity mAbs for in vivo therapy involves the use of transgenic mice expressing repertoires of human antibody gene sequences.
There has been no comparative psychological study of uncertainty processes. Accordingly, the present experiments asked whether animals, like humans, escape adaptively when they are uncertain. Human and animal observers were given two primary responses in a visual discrimination task, and the opportunity to escape from some trials into easier ones. In one psychophysical task (using a threshold paradigm), humans escaped selectively the difficult trials that left them uncertain of the stimulus. Two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) also showed this pattern. In a second psychophysical task (using the method of constant stimuli), some humans showed this pattern but one escaped infrequently and nonoptimally. Monkeys showed equivalent individual differences. The data suggest that escapes by humans and monkeys are interesting cognitive analogs and may reflect controlled decisional processes prompted by the perceptual ambiguity at threshold.
Smith, J. D.; Shields, W. E.; Schull, J.; Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)
It is one of the central aims of the philosophy of science to elucidate the meanings of scientific terms and also to think critically about their application. The focus of this essay is the scientific term predict and whether there is credible evidence that animal models, especially in toxicology and pathophysiology, can be used to predict human outcomes. Whether animals can be used to predict human response to drugs and other chemicals is apparently a contentious issue. However, when one empirically analyzes animal models using scientific tools they fall far short of being able to predict human responses. This is not surprising considering what we have learned from fields such evolutionary and developmental biology, gene regulation and expression, epigenetics, complexity theory, and comparative genomics.
Microscopic study of the human brain has revealed neural structures, enhanced wiring, and forms of connectivity among nerve cells not found in any animal, challenging the view that the human brain is simply an enlarged chimpanzee brain. On the other hand, cognitive studies have found animals to have abilities once thought unique to the human. This suggests a disparity between brain and mind. The suggestion is misleading. Cognitive research has not kept pace with neural research. Neural findings are based on microscopic study of the brain and are primarily cellular. Because cognition cannot be studied microscopically, we need to refine the study of cognition by using a different approach. In examining claims of similarity between animals and humans, one must ask: What are the dissimilarities? This approach prevents confusing similarity with equivalence. We follow this approach in examining eight cognitive cases—teaching, short-term memory, causal reasoning, planning, deception, transitive inference, theory of mind, and language—and find, in all cases, that similarities between animal and human abilities are small, dissimilarities large. There is no disparity between brain and mind.
The authors asked whether animals and humans would use similarly an uncertain response to escape indeterminate memories. Monkeys and humans performed serial probe recognition tasks that produced differential memory difficulty across serial positions (e.g., primacy and recency effects). Participants were given an escape option that let them avoid any trials they wished and receive a hint to the trial's answer. Across species, across tasks, and even across conspecifics with sharper or duller memories, monkeys and humans used the escape option selectively when more indeterminate memory traces were probed. Their pattern of escaping always mirrored the pattern of their primary memory performance across serial positions. Signal-detection analyses confirm the similarity of the animals' and humans' performances. Optimality analyses assess their efficiency. Several aspects of monkeys' performance suggest the cognitive sophistication of their decisions to escape.
Smith, J. D.; Shields, W. E.; Allendoerfer, K. R.; Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)
Humans, animals and robots are physically existing agents situated in the real world. Their common ability to extract, store and use spatial information is crucial for their successful operation. On the other hand, their idiosyncracies seem to be reflected on their spatial knowledge. The paper attempts a survey around the term cognitive map, coined to describe exactly the body of
Michail G. Lagoudakis
This paper presents an interactive hierarchical motion control system dedicated to the animation of human figure locomotion in virtual environments. As observed in gait experiments, controlling the trajectories of the feet during gait is a precise end-point control task. Inverse kinematics with optimal approaches are used to control the complex relationships between the motion of the body and the coordination
Shih-kai Chung; James K. Hahn
Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for novel therapies and preventative strategies. Present animal models include several target species for hRSV, including chimpanzees, cattle, sheep, cotton rats, and mice, as well as alternative animal pneumovirus models, such as bovine RSV and pneumonia virus of mice. These diverse animal models reproduce different features of hRSV disease, and their utilization should therefore be based on the scientific hypothesis under investigation. The purpose of this review is to summarize the strengths and limitations of each of these animal models. Our intent is to provide a resource for investigators and an impetus for future research.
Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.
I have attempted to show that the differential qualities of animals and human beings indeed to have bearing on moral rules and the derivation of rights, including rights established on the basis of reason and utilitarianism. Special rights for members of our species are not simply a consequence of human domination and self-interest. I also have tried to show that rights arise from values and that the qualities we value most highly often are the ones that distinguish human beings from other species. I maintain that giving more value to human lives over animal lives achieves reflective balance with the commonsense notions that most of us have developed. Because utilitarianism, contractualism, and the classical philosophical methods of Kant and Aristotle all may allow favoring human interests over animal interests, it seems reasonable to suspect that animal rights activists embrace narrow, extremist views. There are many uniquely human experiences to which we ascribe high value-deep interpersonal relationships, achieving a life's goal, enjoying a complex cultural event such as a play or an opera, or authoring a manuscript. Therefore, it would seem improper that social and ethical considerations regarding animals be centered entirely on the notion of a biological continuum, because there are many kinds of human experience-moral, religious, aesthetic, and otherwise-that appear to be outside the realm of biology. Knowledge about the biology of animals is helpful for making moral decisions about our obligations to them. Why, then, is there a substantial population of animal rights activists in Europe, the United States, and throughout the world, who would not agree with my conclusions? Certain habitual ways of thinking may encourage anthropomorphism and equating animal interests with human interests. Certain metaphysical beliefs, such as a belief in reincarnation, also might favor animal rights. It also is possible that a number of people are being deceived and misled by a smaller, more radical minority. I believe that a commitment to animal rights principles also may arise from a world view of strict naturalism. If ethical inquiry is based strictly on naturalism without criteria for value and goodness, then perhaps extreme views granting animals the same rights as human beings are a logical consequence of those premises; however, it is not clear to me whether one could be internally consistent and still maintain those beliefs. Moral convictions do not arise directly from the ethical frameworks I have discussed. The study of ethics only casts light on our presumptions and suppositions and helps us analyze and appraise our beliefs about justice, rights, and morality. Those of us who work with animals know that animals, particularly companion animals, can be wonderful to relate with, that they possess unique beauty and value, and that they enrich our lives and the world in which we live. In the strict biological sense, human beings are animals too, but in the broader sense, human beings are much more than animals. The life of a man, woman, or child is worth far more than the life of a mouse, rat, dog, or monkey. PMID:9054986
Dennis, J U
Since June 1998, EPFL's Visible Human Slice Server (http://visiblehuman.epfl.ch) allows to extract arbitrarily oriented and positioned slices. More than 300,000 slices are extracted each year. In order to give a 3D view of anatomic structures, a new service has been added for extracting slice animations along a user-defined trajectory. This service is useful both for research and teaching purposes (http:visiblehuman.epfl.ch/animation/). Extracting slices of animations at any desired position and orientation from the Visible Human volume (Visible Man or Woman) requires both high throughput and much processing power. The I/O disk bandwidth can be increased by accessing more than one disk at the same time, i.e. by stripping data across several disks and by carrying out parallel asynchronous disk accesses. Since processing operations such as slice and animation extraction are compute- intensive, they require the program execution to be carried out in parallel on several computers. In the present contribution, we describe the new slice sequence animation service as well as the approach taken for parallelizing this service on a multi-PC multi-disk Web server.
Bessaud, Jean-Christophe; Hersch, Roger D.
...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33...HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...Health Direct Traineeships Â§ 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare....
The Research & Toxicology Department of Humane Society International (HSI) operates a multifaceted and science-driven global programme aimed at ending the use of animals in toxicity testing and research. The key strategic objectives include: a) ending cosmetics animal testing worldwide, via the multinational Be Cruelty-Free campaign; b) achieving near-term reductions in animal testing requirements through revision of product sector regulations; and c) advancing humane science by exposing failing animal models of human disease and shifting science funding toward human biology-based research and testing tools fit for the 21st century. HSI was instrumental in ensuring the implementation of the March 2013 European sales ban for newly animal-tested cosmetics, in achieving the June 2013 cosmetics animal testing ban in India as well as major cosmetics regulatory policy shifts in China and South Korea, and in securing precedent-setting reductions in in vivo data requirements for pesticides in the EU through the revision of biocides and plant protection product regulations, among others. HSI is currently working to export these life-saving measures to more than a dozen industrial and emerging economies. PMID:24512229
Electronic media have unlocked a hitherto largely untapped potential for swarm intelligence (SI; generally, the realisation that group living can facilitate solving cognitive problems that go beyond the capacity of single animals) in humans with relevance for areas such as company management, prediction of elections, product development and the entertainment industry. SI is a rapidly developing topic that has become a hotbed for both innovative research and wild speculation. Here, we tie together approaches from seemingly disparate areas by means of a general definition of SI to unite SI work on both animal and human groups. Furthermore, we identify criteria that are important for SI to operate and propose areas in which further progress with SI research can be made. PMID:19735961
Krause, Jens; Ruxton, Graeme D; Krause, Stefan
Transgenic animals, especially mice, have been used quite extensively as models for various human diseases. At first, the\\u000a level of scientific inquiry was driven by the need to establish the model. In many cases, these models may be considered quite\\u000a crude because of their limitations. More recently, transgenic models of disease have become more refined and are currently\\u000a being used
Robert M. Petters; Jeffrey R. Sommer
Consideration of the human-animal bond typically focuses on the benefits of companion animals to human health and well-being, but it is essential that in realizing these benefits the welfare needs of the animals, both physical and mental, are also met. Positive emotional relationships with animals are likely to increase recognition of animal sentience and so help create positive attitudes toward animals at the societal level, but, at the individual level, the animals to which humans are bonded should also benefit from the human-animal relationship. A strong human-animal bond may benefit animal welfare (e.g., by motivating an owner to commit time and funds to necessary veterinary medical treatment), but may also be the source of compromised welfare. Highly bonded owners may, for example, be reluctant to permit euthanasia on humane grounds, and the anthropomorphic nature of many human-companion animal bonds can contribute to the development of problem behaviors and obesity. The challenge for the veterinary profession is to ensure that widespread positive sentiment toward animals, which the human-animal bond generates, is translated in to human behavior and actions that are conducive to good animal welfare. This, it is suggested, can be achieved through adequate veterinary education in veterinary and animal welfare science, ethics, and communication. PMID:19228905
Wensley, Sean P
A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environment," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, was held to consider the use of sentinel and surrogate animal species data for evaluating the potential human health effects of chemicals in the environment. The workshop took a broad view of the sentinel species concept, and included mammalian and nonmammalian species, companion animals, food animals, fish, amphibians, and other wildlife. Sentinel species data included observations of wild animals in field situations as well as experimental animal data. Workshop participants identified potential applications for sentinel species data derived from monitoring programs or serendipitous observations and explored the potential use of such information in human health hazard and risk assessments and for evaluating causes or mechanisms of effect. Although it is unlikely that sentinel species data will be used as the sole determinative factor in evaluating human health concerns, such data can be useful as for additional weight of evidence in a risk assessment, for providing early warning of situations requiring further study, or for monitoring the course of remedial activities. Attention was given to the factors impeding the application of sentinel species approaches and their acceptance in the scientific and regulatory communities. Workshop participants identified a number of critical research needs and opportunities for interagency collaboration that could help advance the use of sentinel species approaches.
van der Schalie, W H; Gardner, H S; Bantle, J A; De Rosa, C T; Finch, R A; Reif, J S; Reuter, R H; Backer, L C; Burger, J; Folmar, L C; Stokes, W S
Introduction Pleasure and reward are generated by brain circuits that are largely shared between humans and other animals. Discussion Here, we survey some fundamental topics regarding pleasure mechanisms and explicitly compare humans and animals. Conclusion Topics surveyed include liking, wanting, and learning components of reward; brain coding versus brain causing of reward; subjective pleasure versus objective hedonic reactions; roles of orbitofrontal cortex and related cortex regions; subcortical hedonic hotspots for pleasure generation; reappraisals of dopamine and pleasure-electrode controversies; and the relation of pleasure to happiness.
The current deficiencies of virtual environment (VE) are well known: annoying lag time in drawing the current view, drastically simplified environments to reduce that time lag, low resolution and narrow field of view. Animation scripting is an application of VE technology which can be carried out successfully despite these deficiencies. The final product is a smoothly moving high resolution animation displaying detailed models. In this system, the user is represented by a human computer model with the same body proportions. Using magnetic tracking, the motions of the model's upper torso, head and arms are controlled by the user's movements (18 degrees of freedom). The model's lower torso and global position and orientation are controlled by a spaceball and keypad (12 degrees of freedom). Using this system human motion scripts can be extracted from the user's movements while immersed in a simplified virtual environment. Recorded data is used to define key frames; motion is interpolated between them and post processing adds a more detailed environment. The result is a considerable savings in time and a much more natural-looking movement of a human figure in a smooth and seamless animation.
Goldsby, Michael E.; Pandya, Abhilash K.; Maida, James C.
The influence of a single gene, engineered to be normally or abnormally expressed, can be evaluated in vivo through the development of transgenic animals. Application of this approach in the study of human neurological problems is contributing to an increased understanding of the pathogenic components operative in a variety of disorders. These include Alzheimer's disease, prion encephalopathies, motor neuron disease
Linda S. Higgins; Barbara Cordell
Discarded cigarette butts may present health risks to human infants and animals because of indiscriminate eating behaviours. Nicotine found in cigarette butts may cause vomiting and neurological toxicity; leachates of cigarette butts in aquatic environments may cause exposure to additional toxic chemicals including heavy metals, ethyl phenol and pesticide residues. This report reviews published and grey literature regarding cigarette butt waste consumption by children, pets and wildlife. Although reports of human and animal exposures number in the tens of thousands, severe toxic outcomes due to butt consumption are rare. Nonetheless, the ubiquity of cigarette butt waste and its potential for adverse effects on human and animal health warrants additional research and policy interventions to reduce the stream of these pollutants in the environment.
Hardin, Sarah N; Hovda, Lynn R; Novotny, Dale J; McLean, Mary Kay; Khan, Safdar
...Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing...Relating to Extralabel Use of Animal and Human Drugs in Food-Producing Animals...Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in...
Toxoplasmosis is one of the more common parasitic zoonoses world-wide. Its causative agent, Toxoplasma gondii, is a facultatively heteroxenous, polyxenous protozoon that has developed several potential routes of transmission within and between different host species. If first contracted during pregnancy, T. gondii may be transmitted vertically by tachyzoites that are passed to the foetus via the placenta. Horizontal transmission of T. gondii may involve three life-cycle stages, i.e. ingesting infectious oocysts from the environment or ingesting tissue cysts or tachyzoites which are contained in meat or primary offal (viscera) of many different animals. Transmission may also occur via tachyzoites contained in blood products, tissue transplants, or unpasteurised milk. However, it is not known which of these routes is more important epidemiologically. In the past, the consumption of raw or undercooked meat, in particular of pigs and sheep, has been regarded as a major route of transmission to humans. However, recent studies showed that the prevalence of T. gondii in meat-producing animals decreased considerably over the past 20 years in areas with intensive farm management. For example, in several countries of the European Union prevalences of T. gondii in fattening pigs are now <1%. Considering these data it is unlikely that pork is still a major source of infection for humans in these countries. However, it is likely that the major routes of transmission are different in human populations with differences in culture and eating habits. In the Americas, recent outbreaks of acute toxoplasmosis in humans have been associated with oocyst contamination of the environment. Therefore, future epidemiological studies on T. gondii infections should consider the role of oocysts as potential sources of infection for humans, and methods to monitor these are currently being developed. This review presents recent epidemiological data on T. gondii, hypotheses on the major routes of transmission to humans in different populations, and preventive measures that may reduce the risk of contracting a primary infection during pregnancy.
Tenter, Astrid M.; Heckeroth, Anja R.; Weiss, Louis M.
\\u000a Researcher inquiries into topics such as animal welfare, animal affect, and human experiences of the human–animal bond have\\u000a historically been rooted in positivist epistemologies and reliant on quantitative measures and experiments, rather than naturalistic\\u000a observations and individual experiences (Fraser, 2009). In this chapter, I target several topic areas within human–animal\\u000a and animal research to explore the existence and benefits of
In contrast to a perceptible threat that releases freezing, fleeing and fighting, abstract potential threat elicits anxiety and vigilance. The prevalent view is that the larger the animal groups the lower the individual vigilance. Vigilance is a reflection of anxiety, and here we show that anxiety is contagious in grouped social animals. In humans, anxiety frequently results in rituals that confer a sense of controllability and thereby a means to cope with anxiety. Accordingly, in mental disorders with sustained anxiety, rituals predominate the behavior and consequently reduce functionality. Finally, the adaptive value of precautionary behavior, including rituals, lies in providing individuals with the opportunity to practice defensive means safely, and thus to prepare for the eventuality of real danger. Accordingly, the prevalence of anxiety in human and animal behavior accords with the "better safe than sorry" principle. PMID:20727909
Eilam, David; Izhar, Rony; Mort, Joel
Zoonoses as causes of human infections have been increasingly reported, and many of these are viruses that cause central nervous system infections. This paper focuses on the henipaviruses (family Paramyxoviridae, genus henipavirus) that have recently emerged to cause severe encephalitis and systemic infection in humans and animals in the Asia-Pacific region. The pathological features in the human infections comprise vasculopathy (vasculitis, endothelial multinucleated syncytia, thrombosis, etc.) and parenchymal cell infection in the central nervous system, lung, kidney, and other major organs. Most animals naturally or experimentally infected show more or less similar features confirming the dual pathogenetic mechanism of vasculopathy-associated microinfarction and direct extravascular parenchymal cell infection as causes of tissue injury. The most promising animal models include the hamster, ferret, squirrel monkey, and African green monkey. With increasing evidence of infection in the natural hosts, the pteropid bats and, hence, probable future outbreaks in many more countries, a greater awareness of henipavirus infection in both humans and animals is imperative.
Wong, K. T.; Ong, K. C.
Veterinarians confronted with situations involving animal welfare, animal rights, and human responsibility assume practical importance in the relationships of veterinarians with clients and other constituencies. To help resolve these situations, the authors briefly compare economics and ethics and discuss the types of rights. An attempt is made to bring animal welfare and animal rights into the same conceptual framework, using an ecologic approach. This reaches the thesis that the less human beings allow animals the right of self-determination, the more we should exercise responsibility in their care and welfare. Actively exercised human responsibility in all uses of animals is offered as a practical and valid alternative to the extreme of abolitionism. This alternative also is applied in a cautionary way to the role of veterinary medicine in specieism. The veterinary profession is urged to be active in the middle ground of the field of animal rights and to firmly establish its relationships to animal welfare and human responsibility. PMID:3679952
Kronfeld, D S; Parr, C P
In 2003, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) caused one of the most devastating epidemics known to the developed world. There were two important lessons from this epidemic. Firstly, coronaviruses, in addition to influenza viruses, can cause severe and rapidly spreading human infections. Secondly, bats can serve as the origin and natural animal reservoir of deadly human viruses. Since then, researchers around the world, especially those in Asia where SARS-CoV was first identified, have turned their focus to find novel coronaviruses infecting humans, bats, and other animals. Two human coronaviruses, HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-NL63, were identified shortly after the SARS-CoV epidemic as common causes of human respiratory tract infections. In 2012, a novel human coronavirus, now called Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), has emerged in the Middle East to cause fatal human infections in three continents. MERS-CoV human infection is similar to SARS-CoV in having a high fatality rate and the ability to spread from person to person which resulted in secondary cases among close contacts including healthcare workers without travel history to the Middle East. Both viruses also have close relationships with bat coronaviruses. New cases of MERS-CoV infection in humans continue to occur with the origins of the virus still unknown in many cases. A multifaceted approach is necessary to control this evolving MERS-CoV outbreak. Source identification requires detailed epidemiological studies of the infected patients and enhanced surveillance of MERS-CoV or similar coronaviruses in humans and animals. Early diagnosis of infected patients and appropriate infection control measures will limit the spread in hospitals, while social distancing strategies may be necessary to control the outbreak in communities if it remained uncontrolled as in the SARS epidemic. PMID:23977429
To, Kelvin K W; Hung, Ivan F N; Chan, Jasper F W; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
There is renewed interest in using animal oocytes to reprogram human somatic cells. Here we compare the reprogramming of human somatic nuclei using oocytes obtained from animal and human sources. Comparative analysis of gene expression in morula-stage embryos was carried out using single-embryo transcriptome amplification and global gene expression analyses. Genomic DNA fingerprinting and PCR analysis confirmed that the nuclear genome of the cloned embryos originated from the donor somatic cell. Although the human-human, human-bovine, and human-rabbit clones appeared morphologically similar and continued development to the morula stage at approximately the same rate (39, 36, and 36%, respectively), the pattern of reprogramming of the donor genome was dramatically different. In contrast to the interspecies clones, gene expression profiles of the human-human embryos showed that there was extensive reprogramming of the donor nuclei through extensive upregulation, and that the expression pattern was similar in key upregulation in normal control embryos. To account for maternal gene expression, enucleated oocyte transcriptome profiles were subtracted from the corresponding morula-stage embryo profiles. t-Test comparisons (median-normalized data @ fc>4; p<0.005) between human in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos and human-bovine or human-rabbit interspecies somatic cell transfer (iSCNT) embryos found between 2400 and 2950 genes that were differentially expressed, the majority (60-70%) of which were downregulated, whereas the same comparison between the bovine and rabbit oocyte profiles found no differences at all. In contrast to the iSCNT embryos, expression profiles of human-human clones compared to the age-matched IVF embryos showed that nearly all of the differentially expressed genes were upregulated in the clones. Importantly, the human oocytes significantly upregulated Oct-4, Sox-2, and nanog (22-fold, 6-fold, and 12-fold, respectively), whereas the bovine and rabbit oocytes either showed no difference or a downregulation of these critical pluripotency-associated genes, effectively silencing them. Without appropriate reprogramming, these data call into question the potential use of these discordant animal oocyte sources to generate patient-specific stem cells. PMID:19186982
Chung, Young; Bishop, Colin E; Treff, Nathan R; Walker, Stephen J; Sandler, Vladislav M; Becker, Sandy; Klimanskaya, Irina; Wun, Wan-Song; Dunn, Randall; Hall, Rebecca M; Su, Jing; Lu, Shi-Jiang; Maserati, Marc; Choi, Young-Ho; Scott, Richard; Atala, Anthony; Dittman, Ralph; Lanza, Robert
Ideas within the animal welfare science arena have evolved continuously throughout the last 30 years, and will continue to do so. This paper outlines some of these developments. These included reformulation of the five freedoms concept into the five domains of potential welfare compromise. This accommodated weaknesses in the former by distinguishing between the physical\\/functional and the mental factors that
TC Green; DJ Mellor
Human attitudes toward nonhuman animals are complex and quite contradictory. Th ey can range between extremely negative (animal cruelty) to positive (treating companion animals like human surrogates). Attitudes toward animals are especially negative when people think about human creatureliness and personal mortality. Th is paper investigates people's attitudes toward highly valued animals (companion animals). Th e research presented here tested
Ruth Beatson; Stephen Loughnan; Michael Halloran
Provides an overview of the rapidly expanding area of human-animal bonding. The historical background of human-animal bonding, the current multidisciplinary interest in companion animals, and theoretical perspectives are reviewed. The article examines programmatic and legislative developments in which social workers have participated and presents…
Netting, F. Ellen; And Others
Background Anesthetic blood solubility predicts pharmacokinetics for inhaled agents and is essential for determination of blood anesthetic concentrations from end-tidal gas concentrations using Henry’s Law. Though used to model anesthetic effects in humans, there are limited interspecies solubility comparisons that include modern haloethers. This study aimed to measure hematocrit-adjusted blood:gas anesthetic partition coefficients (?B:G) for desflurane, sevoflurane, isoflurane, and methoxyflurane in humans and animals. Methods Whole blood was collected from 20 rats, 8 horses, and 4 each of cats, cattle, humans, dogs, goats, pigs, rabbits, and sheep. Plasma or cell volume was removed to adjust all samples to a packed cell volume of 40%. A single agent calibration gas headspace was added to blood in a glass syringe and was mixed and equilibrated at 37°C for 2 hours. Agent concentrations in the calibration gas and syringe headspace were measured using gas chromatography. Anesthetic solubility in saline, citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine, and olive oil were similarly measured. Results Except for goats, all animal species had at least one ?B:G measurement that differed significantly from humans. For each agent, ?B:G positively correlated with serum triglyceride concentrations, but this only explained 25% of interspecies variability. Desflurane was significantly less soluble in blood than sevoflurane in some species (e.g., humans) but not in others (e.g., rabbits). Conclusions Anesthetic partition coefficients differ significantly between humans and most animals for haloether anesthetics. Because of their similar ?B:G values, goats may be a better animal model for inhaled anesthetic pharmacokinetics in people.
Soares, Joao H. N.; Brosnan, Robert J.; Fukushima, Fabiola B.; Hodges, Joanne; Liu, Hong
Rapid Multiplex Reverse Transcription-PCR Typing of Influenza A and B Virus, and Subtyping of Influenza A Virus into H1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, N1 (Human), N1 (Animal), N2, and N7, Including Typing of Novel Swine Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus, during the 2009 Outbreak in Milwaukee, Wisconsin?
A large outbreak of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus (swine origin influenza virus [S-OIV]) infection in Milwaukee, WI, occurred in late April 2009. We had recently developed a rapid multiplex reverse transcription-PCR enzyme hybridization assay (FluPlex) to determine the type (A or B) and subtype (H1, H2, H3, H5, H7, H9, N1 [human], N1 [animal], N2, or N7) of influenza viruses, and this assay was used to confirm the diagnoses for the first infected patients in the state. The analytical sensitivity was excellent at 1.5 to 116 copies/reaction, or 10?3 to 10?1 50% tissue culture infective doses/ml. The testing of all existing hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtypes of influenza A virus and influenza B virus (41 influenza virus strains) and 24 common respiratory pathogens showed only one low-level H3 cross-reaction with an H10N7 avian strain and only at 5.2 × 106 copies/reaction, not at lower concentrations. Comparisons of the FluPlex results with results from multiple validated in-house molecular assays, CDC-validated FDA-approved assays, and gene sequencing demonstrated 100% positive agreement for the typing of 179 influenza A viruses and 3 influenza B viruses, the subtyping of 110 H1N1 (S-OIV; N1 [animal]), 62 H1N1 (human), and 6 H3N2 (human) viruses, and the identification of 24 negative clinical samples and 100% negative agreement for all viruses tested except H1N1 (human) (97.7%). The small number of false-positive H1N1 (human) samples most likely represent increased sensitivity over that of other in-house assays, with four of four results confirmed by the CDC's influenza virus subtyping assay. The FluPlex is a rapid, inexpensive, sensitive, and specific method for the typing and subtyping of influenza viruses and demonstrated outstanding utility during the first 2 weeks of an S-OIV infection outbreak. Methods for rapid detection and broad subtyping of influenza viruses, including animal subtypes, are needed to address public concern over the emergence of pandemic strains. Attempts to automate this assay are ongoing.
He, Jie; Bose, Michael E.; Beck, Eric T.; Fan, Jiang; Tiwari, Sagarika; Metallo, Jacob; Jurgens, Lisa A.; Kehl, Sue C.; Ledeboer, Nathan; Kumar, Swati; Weisburg, William; Henrickson, Kelly J.
The website for the new journal Humanimalia, published by DePauw University, recently released its first issue. The appeal and importance of the journal goes beyond appearance, as the journal states that the study of the human/animal interface has been a "neglected" area of research. In the "Humanimalifesto" link, a lengthy explanation is given, and it notes that one of the main goals of the journal is "to approach animal/human interfaces without relying on stigmatizing critique of philosophical, political, or cultural antagonists." The first issue consists of articles and reviews, including an article called "Hooters for Neuters: Sexist Transgressive Animal Advocacy Campaign?" and a review of the popular Michael Pollan book, "The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals". Visitors interested in submitting an article to the peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journal should check out the guidelines in the "Call-for-Papers" link on the left side of the page. The "Notes and Bulletins" link, also on the left side of the page, has a notice of an Animal Studies meeting at NYU, and the "Links" area includes information on upcoming conferences.
It is widely accepted that animals often experience pain and distress as a result of their use in scientific experimentation. However, unlike human suffering, the wide range of acute, recurrent, and chronic stressors and trauma on animals is rarely evaluated. In order to better understand the cumulative effects of captivity and laboratory research conditions on animals, we explore parallels between human experiences of pain and psychological distress and those of animals based on shared brain structures and physiological mechanisms. We review anatomical, physiological, and behavioral similarities between humans and other animals regarding the potential for suffering. In addition, we examine associations between research conditions and indicators of pain and distress. We include 4 case studies of common animal research protocols in order to illustrate incidental and experimental factors that can lead to animal suffering. Finally, we identify parallels between established traumatic conditions for humans and existing laboratory conditions for animals. PMID:22651679
Ferdowsian, Hope; Merskin, Debra
WORKSHOP ON THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPARABILITY OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY, WORK GROUP I REPORT: COMPARABILITY OF MEASURES OF DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY IN HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS
Assessment measures used in developmental neurotoxicology are reviewed for their comparability in humans and laboratory animals, and their ability to detect comparable, adverse effects across species. ompounds used for these comparisons include: abuse substances, anticonvulsant d...
Despite several decades of research, the epigenesis of behavioural and brain lateralization is still elusive, although its knowledge is important in understanding developmental plasticity, function and evolution of lateralization, and its relationship with developmental disorders. Over the last decades, it has become clear that behavioural lateralization is not restricted to humans, but a fundamental principle in the organization of behaviour in vertebrates. This has opened the possibility of extending descriptive studies on human lateralization with descriptive and experimental studies on other vertebrate species. In this review, we therefore explore the evidence for the role of genes and environment on behavioural lateralization in humans and other animals. First, we discuss the predominant genetic models for human handedness, and conclude that their explanatory power alone is not sufficient, leaving, together with ambiguous results from adoption studies and selection experiments in animals, ample opportunity for a role of environmental factors. Next, we discuss the potential influence of such factors, including perinatal asymmetrical perception induced by asymmetrical head position or parental care, and social modulation, both in humans and other vertebrates, presenting some evidence from our own work on the domestic chick. We conclude that both perinatal asymmetrical perception and later social modulation are likely candidates in influencing the degree or strength of lateralization in both humans and other vertebrates. However, in most cases unequivocal evidence for this is lacking and we will point out further avenues for research.
Schaafsma, S.M.; Riedstra, B.J.; Pfannkuche, K.A.; Bouma, A.; Groothuis, T.G.G.
...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19...HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...and Health Training Grants Â§ 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No...
The present invention features a non-human animal model of malaria, e.g., Plasmodium, particularly Plasmodium falciparum. The model is based on a non-human, immunocompromised transgenic animal having a human-mouse chimeric liver, where the transgene provi...
A. F. Azad D. L. Tyrrell J. B. Sacci J. F. Elliott N. M. Kneteman
...Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...Relating to Extralabel Use of Animal and Human Drugs in Food-Producing Animals Â§...
...Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...Relating to Extralabel Use of Animal and Human Drugs in Food-Producing Animals Â§...
This slide presentation reviews the use of animal models to research and inform bone morphology, in particular relating to human research in bone loss as a result of low gravity environments. Reasons for use of animal models as tools for human research programs include: time-efficient, cost-effective, invasive measures, and predictability as some model are predictive for drug effects.
Sibonga, Jean D.
Summary: Dirofilariasis represents a zoonotic mosaic, which includes two main filarial species (Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens) that have adapted to canine, feline, and human hosts with distinct biological and clinical implications. At the same time, both D. immitis and D. repens are themselves hosts to symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, the study of which has resulted in a profound shift in the understanding of filarial biology, the mechanisms of the pathologies that they produce in their hosts, and issues related to dirofilariasis treatment. Moreover, because dirofilariasis is a vector-borne transmitted disease, their distribution and infection rates have undergone significant modifications influenced by global climate change. Despite advances in our knowledge of D. immitis and D. repens and the pathologies that they inflict on different hosts, there are still many unknown aspects of dirofilariasis. This review is focused on human and animal dirofilariasis, including the basic morphology, biology, protein composition, and metabolism of Dirofilaria species; the climate and human behavioral factors that influence distribution dynamics; the disease pathology; the host-parasite relationship; the mechanisms involved in parasite survival; the immune response and pathogenesis; and the clinical management of human and animal infections.
Siles-Lucas, Mar; Morchon, Rodrigo; Gonzalez-Miguel, Javier; Mellado, Isabel; Carreton, Elena; Montoya-Alonso, Jose Alberto
...Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/ Feed Facilities; Reopening of...Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request for Comments...process, pack, or hold human food or animal food/feed (including pet food)....
The manufacture of stone tools and their use to access animal tissues by Pliocene hominins marks the origin of a key adaptation in human evolutionary history. Here we report an in situ archaeological assemblage from the Koobi Fora Formation in northern Kenya that provides a unique combination of faunal remains, some with direct evidence of butchery, and Oldowan artifacts, which are well dated to 1.95 Ma. This site provides the oldest in situ evidence that hominins, predating Homo erectus, enjoyed access to carcasses of terrestrial and aquatic animals that they butchered in a well-watered habitat. It also provides the earliest definitive evidence of the incorporation into the hominin diet of various aquatic animals including turtles, crocodiles, and fish, which are rich sources of specific nutrients needed in human brain growth. The evidence here shows that these critical brain-growth compounds were part of the diets of hominins before the appearance of Homo ergaster/erectus and could have played an important role in the evolution of larger brains in the early history of our lineage.
Braun, David R.; Harris, John W. K.; Levin, Naomi E.; McCoy, Jack T.; Herries, Andy I. R.; Bamford, Marion K.; Bishop, Laura C.; Richmond, Brian G.; Kibunjia, Mzalendo
Graphical manipulation of human figures is essential for certain types of human factors analyses such as reach, clearance, fit, and view. In many situations, however, the animation of simulated people performing various tasks may be based on more complica...
J. Esakov N. I. Badler M. Jung
In view of recent developments in human-animal relations, vets and ethicists face a new problem: On the one hand, animals such as mammals and birds are used extensively and are in danger to be reduced to mere production units e. g. in the agricultural production, measuring devices in laboratories, sports equipment etc. On the other hand, biologically similar animals are perceived as family members or partners and are almost treated like humans. The article summarizes the results of a workshop that dealt with reductionism and anthropomorphism in human-animal relations. Vets and ethicists tackled the question how the unequal treatment of biologically similar animals can be better understood and whether it can be ethically justified. In the first section, the problem of inconsistency in human-animals relations is briefly sketched. The second part of the article addresses the ethics of unequal treatment of similar animals in different contexts. The following section inquires possible solutions and the advantages and disadvantages of biological criteria versus social criteria in animal protection. Finally, the background and reasons for our moral intuitions of injustice associated with the inconsistencies in human-animal relations are outlined. This fourth section refers to the presentation of Peter Kunzmann during the workshop on the unequal treatment of equals.The article closes with some general remarks on the issue. One main result of the workshop can be stated as follows: Due to the fact that the various human-animal relations gain their ethical justification from different ethical reasons, the unequal treatment of similar animals in different contexts is not ethically wrong per se. However, every intrusive dealing or interaction with animals is in itself in need of ethical justification. PMID:24199378
Grimm, Herwig; Hartnack, Sonja
Sumatriptan is a new 5HT1-like agonist that has proved a novel and effective treatment for migraine. The disposition of the 14C-radiolabeled drug in laboratory animals and humans after oral and parenteral administration is described. Oral absorption of sumatriptan is essentially complete in dogs and rabbits, but only approximately 50% in rat. In humans, at least 57% of an oral dose is absorbed. Bioavailabilities are species dependent (14, 23, 37, and 58% in humans, rabbits, rats, and dogs) reflecting differing degrees of first-pass metabolism. These data correlate well with hepatic extraction ratios, which are highest in rabbits and humans and lowest in dogs. Renal clearance is significant in all species and exceeds the glomerular filtration rate in rats, rabbits, and humans, but not in dogs. The compound is a weak base that shows widespread tissue distribution, including passage across the placental barrier and into milk, but low CNS penetration. Protein binding of sumatriptan is low in all species. Elimination half-lives of sumatriptan are approximately 1 hr in rats and rabbits, and approximately 2 hr in dogs and humans. In all species the majority of the absorbed dose is renally excreted, predominantly as the indole acetic acid metabolite and unchanged drug. Interesting species differences are evident in the metabolism of sumatriptan. Thus, in humans, the indole acetic acid metabolite is excreted partly as a glucuronide, whereas in animals conjugation of this metabolite is not apparent. In addition, demethylation of the sulfonamide side chain of the drug is evident in rodent and lagomorph species only. PMID:7902233
Dixon, C M; Saynor, D A; Andrew, P D; Oxford, J; Bradbury, A; Tarbit, M H
This presentation is part of the Metaphor and Vision track.\\u000aNanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on the molecular and atomic scales. Some have projected that it will have broad economic and social benefits; including improved energy efficiency, computing power, medical treatments, and removal of environmental pollutants. ‘Nature’ has been identified as the ultimate nanotechnologist and design elements from animal
Research at the intersections of feminism, biology and philosophy provides dynamic starting grounds for this discussion of\\u000a genetic technologies and animals. With a focus on animal bodies, I will examine moral implications of the genetic engineering\\u000a of “domesticated” animals—primarily pigs and chickens—for the purposes of human consumption. Concepts of natural and artificial,\\u000a contamination and purity, integrity and fragmentation and mind
\\u000a Research at the intersections of feminism, biology and philosophy provides dynamic starting grounds for this discussion of\\u000a genetic technologies and animals. With a focus on animal bodies, I examine moral implications of the genetic engineering of\\u000a “domesticated” animals—primarily pigs and chickens—for the purposes of human consumption. Concepts of natural and artificial,\\u000a contamination and purity, integrity and fragmentation and mind and
Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982) that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly.
Szucs, E.; Geers, R.; Jezierski, T.; Sossidou, E. N.; Broom, D. M.
Mites that affect animals (acariasis) can occasionally be transmitted to humans by incidental contact producing pruritus and dermatitis. Animals such as dogs, cats, mice, birds and reptiles, harbour several mite species. Hemophage mites and those that feed on lymph have the potential of transmitting important zoonotic agents (cuales??). The presence of lesions of unclear origin and a history of contact with pets or wild animals should alert towards the possibility of acariasis. Diagnosis is based on direct visualization of the mite,analysis of its morphology and obtaining information on the animal host. Awareness of these acarosis and the responsible care of pets and animals are the most relevant preventive measures. PMID:19621159
Jofré M, Leonor; Noemí H, Isabel; Neira O, Patricia; Saavedra U, Tirza; Díaz L, Cecilia
The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts. PMID:24547648
Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M
Genetic constructs containing the human lactoferrin (hLf) gene were created within a joint program of Russian and Belorussian scientists. Using these constructs, transgenic mice were bred (the maximum hLf concentration in their milk was 160 g/L), and transgenic goats were also generated (up to 10 g/L hLf in their milk). Experimental goatherds that produced hLf in their milk were also bred, and the recombinant hLf was found to be identical to the natural protein in its physical and chemical properties. These properties included electrophoretic mobility, isoelectric point, recognition by polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, circular dichroic spectra, interaction with natural ligands (DNA, lipopolysaccharides, and heparin), the binding of iron ions, the sequence of the 7 terminal amino acids, and its biological activity. The latter was assessed by the agglutination of Micrococcus luteus protoplasts, bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes , and fungicidal activity against Candida albicans . We also demonstrated a significant increase in the activity of antibiotics when used in combination with Lf. PMID:22360490
Goldman, I L; Georgieva, S G; Gurskiy, Ya G; Krasnov, A N; Deykin, A V; Popov, A N; Ermolkevich, T G; Budzevich, A I; Chernousov, A D; Sadchikova, E R
Metagenomic approaches applied to viruses have highlighted their prevalence in almost all microbial ecosystems investigated. In all ecosystems, notably those associated with humans or animals, the viral fraction is dominated by bacteriophages. Whether they contribute to dysbiosis, i.e., the departure from microbiota composition in symbiosis at equilibrium and entry into a state favoring human or animal disease is unknown at present. This review summarizes what has been learnt on phages associated with human and animal microbiota, and focuses on examples illustrating the several ways by which phages may contribute to a shift to pathogenesis, either by modifying population equilibrium, by horizontal transfer, or by modulating immunity. PMID:24734220
De Paepe, Marianne; Leclerc, Marion; Tinsley, Colin R; Petit, Marie-Agnès
Metagenomic approaches applied to viruses have highlighted their prevalence in almost all microbial ecosystems investigated. In all ecosystems, notably those associated with humans or animals, the viral fraction is dominated by bacteriophages. Whether they contribute to dysbiosis, i.e., the departure from microbiota composition in symbiosis at equilibrium and entry into a state favoring human or animal disease is unknown at present. This review summarizes what has been learnt on phages associated with human and animal microbiota, and focuses on examples illustrating the several ways by which phages may contribute to a shift to pathogenesis, either by modifying population equilibrium, by horizontal transfer, or by modulating immunity.
De Paepe, Marianne; Leclerc, Marion; Tinsley, Colin R.; Petit, Marie-Agnes
This paper explores the ways in which pet-owners in contemporary Britain mobilize the categories of ‘animal’ and ‘human’ in their attempts to understand their pets. Pet-keeping forms one of the closest forms of human–animal interaction in modern western society and as such provides an ideal opportunity to examine the ways in which people understand the similarities and differences between humans
Virtual humans are employed in many interactive applications using 3D virtual environments, including (serious) games. The motion of such virtual humans should look realistic (or ‘natural’) and allow interaction with the surroundings and other (virtual) humans. Current animation techniques differ in the trade-off they offer between motion naturalness and the control that can be exerted over the motion. We show
Herwin van Welbergen; Ben J. H. van Basten; Arjan Egges; Zsófia Ruttkay; Mark H. Overmars
Humans have a long history of relationship with domestic animals and nowadays pets often act as "social substitutes" through bonding. There is some evidence that pet presence at home may induce well being in people and the development of social skills in children. Animal assisted therapies aim at developing these skills in patients on the basis of human animal interactions. Experimental data obtained on animal models suggest that this is indeed a promising line. There is however a lack of clear scientific data that would help defines what the most appropriate procedures or species may be. Improvements are observed, but again sound scientific data are mostly missing. Attention must be given to the welfare of the animals being used. PMID:22194075
Grandgeorge, Marine; Hausberger, Martine
The last few years have seen great maturation in the computation speed and control methods needed to portray 3D virtual humans suitable for real interactive applications. We first describe the state of the art, then focus on the particular approach taken at the University of Pennsylvania with the Jack system. Various aspects of real-time virtual humans are considered such as
The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which was first described in 1986 in the United Kingdom but has occurred subsequently in several other countries. This Memorandum reviews the existing state of knowledge on all the known spongiform encephalopathies, and evaluates the pathways of transmission and associated hazards. The possible implications of the animal diseases, especially BSE, with regard to the use of animal tissues as animal feed, human food, and in the preparation of medicinal and other products for human use are discussed, with recommendations to national health authorities on appropriate measures to minimize the consequences of BSE to public and animal health.
While level of detail (LoD) methods for the representation of 3D models are efficient and established tools to manage the trade-off between speed and quality of the rendering, LoD for animation has not yet been intensively studied by the community, and especially virtual humans animation has not been focused in the past. Animation, a major step for immersive and credible
Thomas Di Giacomo; Chris Joslin; Stephane Garchery; Hyungseok Kim; Nadia Magnenat-thalmann
\\u000a Psychology has held through its history an ambiguous attitude towards animal behavior. Researchers who have chosen some animal\\u000a different than man as their experimental subject have often sought to justify themselves, emphasizing the potential benefits\\u000a that the understanding of animal behavior could eventually have for understanding human behavior or even for alleviating people\\u000a suffering from psychological distress. During the behavioristic
Luis Aguado Aguilar
In this article, the authors take a very conservative view of the contribution of animal models to an understanding of human development. We do not think that homologies can be readily documented with even our most closely related relatives' behavior and psychological functioning. The major contribution of animal models is their provision of food…
Gottlieb, Gilbert; Lickliter, Robert
Veterinarians have responsibilities to both the animal and its owner. In the past several years there has been an increased awareness and concern about human-animal bonds. As a result, we have begun to appreciate the nature, strength, and significance of ...
R. E. Weller
Humans, birds and (occasionally) apes walk bipedally. Humans, birds, many lizards and (at their highest speeds) cockroaches run bipedally. Kangaroos, some rodents and many birds hop bipedally, and jerboas and crows use a skipping gait. This paper deals only with walking and running bipeds. Chimpanzees walk with their knees bent and their backs sloping forward. Most birds walk and run with their backs and femurs sloping at small angles to the horizontal, and with their knees bent. These differences from humans make meaningful comparisons of stride length, duty factor, etc., difficult, even with the aid of dimensionless parameters that would take account of size differences, if dynamic similarity were preserved. Lizards and cockroaches use wide trackways. Humans exert a two-peaked pattern of force on the ground when walking, and an essentially single-peaked pattern when running. The patterns of force exerted by apes and birds are never as markedly two-peaked as in fast human walking. Comparisons with quadrupedal mammals of the same body mass show that human walking is relatively economical of metabolic energy, and human running is expensive. Bipedal locomotion is remarkably economical for wading birds, and expensive for geese and penguins.
Alexander, R McN
The aim of this study was to provide a single site resource for investigators, clinicians, and others seeking preclinical, animal, and human investigational studies concerning the postsurgical, anti-adhesion barrier Seprafilm™ (Genzyme Corporation, Cambridge, MA). All published preclinical, animal, human extra-abdominal research as of July 2011 have been summarized and included in this document. Searches of Medline and EMBASE Drugs and Pharmaceuticals databases were conducted for original preclinical, animal, and human extra-abdominal studies involving Seprafilm. Preclinical, animal, and extra-abdominal human investigational studies are the study selection for this manuscript. Intraabdominal use is discussed in the accompanying manuscript. Data extraction includes systematic manuscript review. Summary of preclinical, animal, and extra-abdominal human investigational use of Seprafilm by surgical discipline were gathered for data synthesis. The clinical use of Seprafilm, which was approved by the FDA for intra-abdominal procedures, is supported by preclinical and animal studies relating to general surgical and obstetrical/gynecological applications. Findings from preclinical, animal, and human investigational studies at other sites throughout the body raises the potential for additional human clinical trials to assess efficacy and safety following surgical procedures at non-abdominal locations. PMID:22837732
Diamond, Michael P; Burns, Ellen L; Accomando, Beverly; Mian, Sadiqa; Holmdahl, Lena
A general discussion of the creation and animation of characters in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional character animation techniques, such as those developed by the Disney animators, and also human modelling. The section includes html pages, images and several videos.
Methods and compositions are provided for the creation and screening of non-human animal models having many of the histologic characteristics of human psoriasis. Immunocompromised host animals are injected with a purified population of CD45Rb positive cells, which are tolerant of the host major histocompatibility antigens, but are mismatched at one or more minor antigens. The injected cells are stimulated with a pro-inflammatory cytokine, e.g. IL-12, and a polyclonal activating agent. The injected animals develop a chronic skin disorder that includes histological features observed in human psoriasis, e.g. rete pegs, severe acanthosis and infiltration of Th1 cells into the dermis.
The research presents MARTI (Man-machine Animation Real-Time Interface) for the realisation of automated special effect animation and human computer interaction. MARTI introduces novel research in a number of engineering disciplines, which include speech recognition, facial modelling, and computer animation. This interdisciplinary research utilises the latest, hybrid connectionist\\/hidden Markov model system, providing very accurate phone recognition and timing for speaker independent
Christian Martyn Jones; Satnam Singh Dlay
The assumption that animal models are reasonably predictive of human outcomes provides the basis for their widespread use in toxicity testing and in biomedical research aimed at developing cures for human diseases. To investigate the validity of this assumption, the comprehensive Scopus biomedical bibliographic databases were searched for published systematic reviews of the human clinical or toxicological utility of animal experiments. In 20 reviews in which clinical utility was examined, the authors concluded that animal models were either significantly useful in contributing to the development of clinical interventions, or were substantially consistent with clinical outcomes, in only two cases, one of which was contentious. These included reviews of the clinical utility of experiments expected by ethics committees to lead to medical advances, of highly-cited experiments published in major journals, and of chimpanzee experiments--those involving the species considered most likely to be predictive of human outcomes. Seven additional reviews failed to clearly demonstrate utility in predicting human toxicological outcomes, such as carcinogenicity and teratogenicity. Consequently, animal data may not generally be assumed to be substantially useful for these purposes. Possible causes include interspecies differences, the distortion of outcomes arising from experimental environments and protocols, and the poor methodological quality of many animal experiments, which was evident in at least 11 reviews. No reviews existed in which the majority of animal experiments were of good methodological quality. Whilst the effects of some of these problems might be minimised with concerted effort (given their widespread prevalence), the limitations resulting from interspecies differences are likely to be technically and theoretically impossible to overcome. Non-animal models are generally required to pass formal scientific validation prior to their regulatory acceptance. In contrast, animal models are simply assumed to be predictive of human outcomes. These results demonstrate the invalidity of such assumptions. The consistent application of formal validation studies to all test models is clearly warranted, regardless of their animal, non-animal, historical, contemporary or possible future status. Likely benefits would include, the greater selection of models truly predictive of human outcomes, increased safety of people exposed to chemicals that have passed toxicity tests, increased efficiency during the development of human pharmaceuticals and other therapeutic interventions, and decreased wastage of animal, personnel and financial resources. The poor human clinical and toxicological utility of most animal models for which data exists, in conjunction with their generally substantial animal welfare and economic costs, justify a ban on animal models lacking scientific data clearly establishing their human predictivity or utility. PMID:18186670
The use of non-human DNA typing in forensic science investigations, and specifically that from animal DNA, is ever increasing. The term animal DNA in this document refers to animal species encountered in a forensic science examination but does not include human DNA. Non-human DNA may either be: the trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species, which is contrary to legislation; as evidence where the crime is against a person or property; instances of animal cruelty; or where the animal is the offender. The first instance is addressed by determining the species present, and the other scenarios can often be addressed by assigning a DNA sample to a particular individual organism. Currently there is little standardization of methodologies used in the forensic analysis of animal DNA or in reporting styles. The recommendations in this document relate specifically to animal DNA that is integral to a forensic science investigation and are not relevant to the breeding of animals for commercial purposes. This DNA commission was formed out of discussions at the International Society for Forensic Genetics 23rd Congress in Buenos Aires to outline recommendations on the use of non-human DNA in a forensic science investigation. Due to the scope of non-human DNA typing that is possible, the remit of this commission is confined to animal DNA typing only. PMID:21106449
Linacre, A; Gusmão, L; Hecht, W; Hellmann, A P; Mayr, W R; Parson, W; Prinz, M; Schneider, P M; Morling, N
Rabies is a fatal neurological disease and a persistent global problem. It is spread primarily by domestic dogs but other canid, viverrid (skunks and raccoons) and chiropteran species are considered as the most efficient vectors of the disease. Since dogs are the main perpetuator of rabies, special attention has to be given to bring all the dogs including unauthorized stray dogs under immunization umbrella in order to control rabies. Vaccination is the only way to combat the disease before and after exposure or infection as there is no treatment available once the symptoms have appeared. After the first crude nerve tissue vaccine developed by Pasteur in 1885, a number of rabies vaccines for animal and human use have been developed with varying degree of safety and efficacy over the years. Presently, cell culture based inactivated rabies vaccines are largely used in most of the parts of the world. However, these vaccines are too expensive and unaffordable for vaccination of people and animals in developing countries. The comparatively cheaper inactivated nerve tissues vaccines can cause serious side-effects such as autoimmune encephalomyelitis in inoculated animals and production has been discontinued in several countries. Although attenuated live vaccines can efficiently elicit a protective immune response with a smaller amount of virus, they sometimes can cause rabies in the inoculated animals by its residual virulence or pathogenic mutation during viral propagation in the body. New-generation rabies vaccines generated by gene manipulation although in experimental stage may be a suitable alternative to overcome the disadvantages of the live attenuated vaccines. So, awareness must be created in general public about the disease and the cell culture based vaccines available in the market should be recommended for wide scale use to prevent and control this emerging and reemerging infectious disease in foreseeable future. PMID:23407587
Nandi, Sukdeb; Kumar, Manoj
Creation of new human faces for synthetic actors is a tedious and painful task. The situation may be improved by introducing tools for the creation. Two approaches are discussed in this paper: modification and edition of an existing synthetic actor using local transformations; generation of new synthetic actors obtained by interpolation between two existing actors; creation of a synthetic actor
Nadia Magnenat-thalmann; H. T. Minh; M. De Angelis; Daniel Thalmann
The two classical forms of human trypanosomoses are sleeping sickness due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. brucei rhodesiense, and Chagas disease due to T. cruzi. However, a number of atypical human infections caused by other T. species (or sub-species) have been reported, namely due to T. brucei brucei, T. vivax, T. congolense, T. evansi, T. lewisi, and T. lewisi-like. These cases are reviewed here. Some infections were transient in nature, while others required treatments that were successful in most cases, although two cases were fatal. A recent case of infection due to T. evansi was related to a lack of apolipoprotein L-I, but T. lewisi infections were not related to immunosuppression or specific human genetic profiles. Out of 19 patients, eight were confirmed between 1974 and 2010, thanks to improved molecular techniques. However, the number of cases of atypical human trypanosomoses might be underestimated. Thus, improvement, evaluation of new diagnostic tests, and field investigations are required for detection and confirmation of these atypical cases.
Truc, Philippe; Buscher, Philippe; Cuny, Gerard; Gonzatti, Mary Isabel; Jannin, Jean; Joshi, Prashant; Juyal, Prayag; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Mattioli, Raffaele; Pays, Etienne; Simarro, Pere P.; Teixeira, Marta Maria Geraldes; Touratier, Louis; Vincendeau, Philippe; Desquesnes, Marc
BACKGROUND/AIMS—Although human ocular toxocariasis causes severe vision defect, little is known about its aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment. To develop a new animal model for human ocular toxocariasis, ophthalmological findings of fundi in Mongolian gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus, and BALB/c mice were investigated following infection with Toxocara canis.?METHODS—Using an ophthalmoscope, which was specifically developed to observe the fundi of small animals, ocular changes of fundi of 20 gerbils and 11 mice were monitored after oral infection with embryonated eggs of T canis.?RESULTS—Vitreous, choroidal, and retinal haemorrhages were consistently observed in Mongolian gerbils, but rarely in mice. Severe exudative lesions and vasculitis were often present in gerbils but not in mice. Migrating larvae were also frequently observed in gerbils.?CONCLUSION—Mongolian gerbils are more appropriate animal model for human ocular toxocariasis than previously used experimental animal such as mice, guinea pigs, rabbits, and monkeys because of its high susceptibility of ocular infection.??
Takayanagi, T. H.; Akao, N.; Suzuki, R.; Tomoda, M.; Tsukidate, S.; Fujita, K.
Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare. PMID:25000803
Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K
Presented is a policy regarding vivisection, dissection, and other use of animals in biology classrooms. Alternative teaching techniques are stressed. The organizational responsibility regarding this issue is discussed. (CW)
American Biology Teacher, 1990
Toxicity testing for regulatory purposes raises the question of test selection for a particular endpoint. Given the public's concern for animal welfare, test selection is a multi-objective decision problem that requires balancing information outcome, animal welfare loss, and monetary testing costs. This paper demonstrates the applicability of cost-effectiveness analysis as a decision-support tool for test selection in a regulatory context
Silke Gabbert; Ekko C. van Ierland
Staphylococcus aureus is a typical human pathogen. Some animal S. aureus lineages have derived from human strains following profound genetic adaptation determining a change in host specificity. Due to the close relationship of animals with the environmental microbiome and resistome, animal staphylococcal strains also represent a source of resistance determinants. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) emerged 50?years ago as a nosocomial pathogen but in the last decade it has also become a frequent cause of infections in the community. The recent finding that MRSA frequently colonizes animals, especially livestock, has been a reason for concern, as it has revealed an expanded reservoir of MRSA. While MRSA strains recovered from companion animals are generally similar to human nosocomial MRSA, MRSA strains recovered from food animals appear to be specific animal-adapted clones. Since 2005, MRSA belonging to ST398 was recognized as a colonizer of pigs and human subjects professionally exposed to pig farming. The “pig” MRSA was also found to colonize other species of farmed animals, including horses, cattle, and poultry and was therefore designated livestock-associated (LA)-MRSA. LA-MRSA ST398 can cause infections in humans in contact with animals, and can infect hospitalized people, although at the moment this occurrence is relatively rare. Other animal-adapted MRSA clones have been detected in livestock, such as ST1 and ST9. Recently, ST130 MRSA isolated from bovine mastitis has been found to carry a novel mecA gene that eludes detection by conventional PCR tests. Similar ST130 strains have been isolated from human infections in UK, Denmark, and Germany at low frequency. It is plausible that the increased attention to animal MRSA will reveal other strains with peculiar characteristics that can pose a risk to human health.
Guinea pigs immunized through the nasal route by an antigenic preparation of humanAscaris lumbricoides produced predominantly homocytotropic antibodies. The sensitization of the homologous skin required a latency period. Hypersensitivity\\u000a reaction was triggered within 30 min. of the antigen challenge. The antibodies were sensitive to heat and ?-mercaptoethanol\\u000a treatments and appeared to be similar to the IgE type of immunoglobulins of
Krishna Mukerji; R. P. Saxena; S. N. Ghatak; K. C. Saxena
Damage to structures in the human medial temporal lobe causes severe memory impairment. Animal object recognition tests gained prominence from attempts to model "global" human medial temporal lobe amnesia, such as that observed in patient HM. These tasks, such as delayed nonmatching-to-sample and spontaneous object recognition, for assessing…
Winters, Boyer D.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.
Recent isolations of Rhodococcus equi from cavitatory pulmonary disease in patients with AIDS have aroused interest among medical microbiologists in this unusual organism. Earlier isolations from humans had also been in immunosuppressed patients following hemolymphatic tumors or renal transplantation. This organism has been recognized for many years as a cause of a serious pyogranulomatous pneumonia of young foals and is occasionally isolated from granulomatous lesions in several other species, in some cases following immunosuppression. The last decade has seen many advances in understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and immunity to infection in foals. The particular susceptibility of the foal is not understood but can be explained in part by a combination of heavy challenge through the respiratory route coinciding with declining maternally derived antibody in the absence of fully competent foal cellular immune mechanisms. R. equi is largely a soil organism but is widespread in the feces of herbivores. Its growth in soil is considerably improved by simple nutrients it obtains from herbivore manure. About one-third of human patients who have developed R. equi infections had contact in some way with herbivores or their manure. Others may have acquired infection from contact with soil or wild bird manure. R. equi is an intracellular parasite, which explains the typical pyogranulomatous nature of R. equi infections, the predisposition to infection in human patients with defective cell-mediated immune mechanisms, and the efficacy of antimicrobial drugs that penetrate phagocytic cells. Images
Prescott, J F
Cerebellar injury is increasingly recognized through advanced neonatal brain imaging as a complication of premature birth. Survivors of preterm birth demonstrate a constellation of long-term neurodevelopmental deficits, many of which are potentially referable to cerebellar injury, including impaired motor functions such as fine motor incoordination, impaired motor sequencing and also cognitive, behavioral dysfunction among older patients. This paper reviews the morphogenesis and histogenesis of the human and rodent developing cerebellum, and its more frequent injuries in preterm. Most cerebellar lesions are cerebellar hemorrhage and infarction usually leading to cerebellar abnormalities and/or atrophy, but the exact pathogenesis of lesions of the cerebellum is unknown. The different mechanisms involved have been investigated with animal models and are primarily hypoxia, ischemia, infection, and inflammation Exposure to drugs and undernutrition can also induce cerebellar abnormalities. Different models are detailed to analyze these various disturbances of cerebellar development around birth.
Biran, Valerie; Verney, Catherine; Ferriero, Donna M.
Cerebellar injury is increasingly recognized through advanced neonatal brain imaging as a complication of premature birth. Survivors of preterm birth demonstrate a constellation of long-term neurodevelopmental deficits, many of which are potentially referable to cerebellar injury, including impaired motor functions such as fine motor incoordination, impaired motor sequencing and also cognitive, behavioral dysfunction among older patients. This paper reviews the morphogenesis and histogenesis of the human and rodent developing cerebellum, and its more frequent injuries in preterm. Most cerebellar lesions are cerebellar hemorrhage and infarction usually leading to cerebellar abnormalities and/or atrophy, but the exact pathogenesis of lesions of the cerebellum is unknown. The different mechanisms involved have been investigated with animal models and are primarily hypoxia, ischemia, infection, and inflammation Exposure to drugs and undernutrition can also induce cerebellar abnormalities. Different models are detailed to analyze these various disturbances of cerebellar development around birth. PMID:22530126
Biran, Valerie; Verney, Catherine; Ferriero, Donna M
The 3-D skin equivalent can be viewed as physiologically comparable to the natural skin and therefore is a suitable alternative for animal testing. This highly differentiated in vitro human skin equivalent is used to assess the efficacy and mode of action of novel agents. This model is generated from primary human keratinocytes on a collagen substrate containing human dermal fibroblasts. It is grown at the air-liquid interface which allows full epidermal stratification and epidermal-dermal interactions to occur. Future emphasis is the establishment of different test systems to investigate wound healing, melanoma research and infection biology. Key features of this skin model are that it can be used as an alternative for in vivo studies, donor tissue can be tailored to the needs of the study and multiple analyses can be carried out at mRNA and protein level. Driven by both ethical and economical incentives, this has already resulted in a shift of the test strategies used by the Pharmaceutical Industry in the early drug development process as reflected by the increased demand for application of cell based assays. It is also a suitable model for testing a wide variety of endpoints including cell viability, the release of proinflammatory mediators, permeation rate, proliferation and biochemical changes.
Mertsching, Heike; Weimer, Michaela; Kersen, Silke; Brunner, Herwig
The 3-D skin equivalent can be viewed as physiologically comparable to the natural skin and therefore is a suitable alternative for animal testing. This highly differentiated in vitro human skin equivalent is used to assess the efficacy and mode of action of novel agents. This model is generated from primary human keratinocytes on a collagen substrate containing human dermal fibroblasts. It is grown at the air-liquid interface which allows full epidermal stratification and epidermal-dermal interactions to occur. Future emphasis is the establishment of different test systems to investigate wound healing, melanoma research and infection biology. Key features of this skin model are that it can be used as an alternative for in vivo studies, donor tissue can be tailored to the needs of the study and multiple analyses can be carried out at mRNA and protein level. Driven by both ethical and economical incentives, this has already resulted in a shift of the test strategies used by the Pharmaceutical Industry in the early drug development process as reflected by the increased demand for application of cell based assays. It is also a suitable model for testing a wide variety of endpoints including cell viability, the release of proinflammatory mediators, permeation rate, proliferation and biochemical changes. PMID:20204113
Mertsching, Heike; Weimer, Michaela; Kersen, Silke; Brunner, Herwig
Background, aim and scope The aim of this work is to find out to what extent human excretion is relevant in the context of a Spaniard’s overall food\\u000a intake. A case study dealing with the average Spanish diet is carried out, including the whole life cycle of food: agricultural\\u000a and animal production, industrial processing, distribution and retail, home storage and cooking,
Ivan Muñoz; Llorenç Milà i Canals; Amadeo R. Fernández-Alba
To review the ethical and regulatory issues related to the research on human-animal entities at various stages. Review of scientific publications, laws and ethical guidelines in this field up through September 2008. The article presents the overall picture of the research on human-animal entities in Europe, including the public opinion and the country-specific regulations and guidelines regarding such research, discusses the ethical issues, including both arguments opposing and favoring such research, as well as discusses and clarifies the terminology used. Creation of human-animal entities with the potential for what may be viewed as human faculties raises profound questions concerning the rights and responsibilities of human beings. There is great need for informed discussions and interchanges between the expert researchers, ethicists, policymakers, lawyers and the public in general to come to consensus regarding the issues discussed in this paper. Suggestions regarding these rights and responsibilities are overviewed. PMID:19557551
Listeria monocytogenes causes listeriosis, a human foodborne infection leading to gastroenteritis, meningoencephalitis and maternofetal infections. InlA and InlB, two L. monocytogenes surface proteins, interact with their respective receptors E-cadherin and Met and mediate bacterial entry into human cultured cells. Here, we present protocols for studying listeriosis in three complementary animal models: (i) the human E-cadherin (hEcad) transgenic mouse line; (ii)
Olivier Disson; Georgios Nikitas; Solène Grayo; Olivier Dussurget; Pascale Cossart; Marc Lecuit
There are currently no widely accepted animal surveillance guidelines for human Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak investigations to identify potential sources of Ebolavirus (EBOV) spillover into humans and other animals. Animal field surveillance during and following an outbreak has several purposes, from helping identify the specific animal source of a human case to guiding control activities by describing the spatial and temporal distribution of wild circulating EBOV, informing public health efforts, and contributing to broader EHF research questions. Since 1976, researchers have sampled over 10,000 individual vertebrates from areas associated with human EHF outbreaks and tested for EBOV or antibodies. Using field surveillance data associated with EHF outbreaks, this review provides guidance on animal sampling for resource-limited outbreak situations, target species, and in some cases which diagnostics should be prioritized to rapidly assess the presence of EBOV in animal reservoirs. In brief, EBOV detection was 32.7% (18/55) for carcasses (animals found dead) and 0.2% (13/5309) for live captured animals. Our review indicates that for the purposes of identifying potential sources of transmission from animals to humans and isolating suspected virus in an animal in outbreak situations, (1) surveillance of free-ranging non-human primate mortality and morbidity should be a priority, (2) any wildlife morbidity or mortality events should be investigated and may hold the most promise for locating virus or viral genome sequences, (3) surveillance of some bat species is worthwhile to isolate and detect evidence of exposure, and (4) morbidity, mortality, and serology studies of domestic animals should prioritize dogs and pigs and include testing for virus and previous exposure.
Olson, Sarah H.; Reed, Patricia; Cameron, Kenneth N.; Ssebide, Benard J.; Johnson, Christine K.; Morse, Stephen S.; Karesh, William B.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.; Joly, Damien O.
PCR procedures based on 16S rRNA genen sequence specific for 12 anaerobic bacteria that predominate in the human intestinal tract were developed and used for quantitative detection of these species in human feces and animal feces. The reported PCR procedure including the fecal sample preparation method is simplified and rapid and eliminates the DNA isolation steps.
Rong-Fu Wang; Wei-Wen Cao; C. E. Cerniglia
This paper is about the fear of zoonosis (transmission of disease from animals to humans) surrounding xenotransplantation that involves animal to human organ transplantation. While not wanting to minimize the very real threat to human health that cross-species organ transplantation could pose, these fears will be read as symbolic statements that may reveal anxieties about our perception of human nature
All human Ebola virus outbreaks during 2001-2003 in the forest zone between Gabon and Republic of Congo resulted from handling infected wild animal carcasses. After the first outbreak, we created an Animal Mortality Monitoring Network in collaboration with the Gabonese and Congolese Ministries of Forestry and Environment and wildlife organizations (Wildlife Conservation Society and Programme de Conservation et Utilisation Rationnelle des Ecosystemes Forestiers en Afrique Centrale) to predict and possibly prevent human Ebola outbreaks. Since August 2001, 98 wild animal carcasses have been recovered by the network, including 65 great apes. Analysis of 21 carcasses found that 10 gorillas, 3 chimpanzees, and 1 duiker tested positive for Ebola virus. Wild animal outbreaks began before each of the 5 human Ebola outbreaks. Twice we alerted the health authorities to an imminent risk for human outbreaks, weeks before they occurred. PMID:15752448
Rouquet, Pierre; Froment, Jean-Marc; Bermejo, Magdalena; Kilbourn, Annelisa; Karesh, William; Reed, Patricia; Kumulungui, Brice; Yaba, Philippe; Délicat, André; Rollin, Pierre E; Leroy, Eric M
Since the discovery of bacteriophages at the beginning of the 19th century their contribution to bacterial evolution and ecology and use in a variety of applications in biotechnology and medicine has been recognized and understood. Bacteriophages are natural bacterial killers, proven as best biocontrol agents due to their ability to lyse host bacterial cells specifically thereby helping in disease prevention and control. The requirement of such therapeutic approach is straight away required in view of the global emergence of Multidrug Resistant (MDR) strains of bacteria and rapidly developing resistance to antibiotics in both animals and humans along with increasing food safety concerns including of residual antibiotic toxicities. Phage typing is a popular tool to differentiate bacterial isolates and to identify and characterize outbreak-associated strains of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia and Listeria. Numerous methods viz. plaque morphology, ultracentrifugation in the density gradient of CsCl2, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) have been found to be effective in detection of various phages. Bacteriophages have been isolated and recovered from samples of animal waste products of different livestock farms. High titer cocktails of broad spectrum lytic bacteriophages are usually used for clinical trial for assessing their therapeutic efficacy against antibiotic unresponsive infections in different animals. Bacteriophage therapy also helps to fight various bacterial infections of poultry viz. colibacillosis, salmonellosis and listeriosis. Moreover, the utility of phages concerning biosafety has raised the importance to explore and popularize the therapeutic dimension of this promising novel therapy which forms the topic of discussion of the present review. PMID:24897784
Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Kumar, Amit; Rahal, Anu; Kapoor, Sanjay
Because chemicals from a wide range of environmental sources have been implicated in birth defects and reproductive failures, the effects on human reproduction of chemicals in air, in the terrestrial ecosystem, and in food were studied. Chemicals considered included nicotine, cadmium, polycyclic aromatic compounds, red dye number2, DES, PCB's, TCDD, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, strontium, and zinc. The most serious source of chemical exposure to pregnant women is cigarette smoke which exposes unborn babies to high levels of carbon monoxide, cadmium, nicotine, and benzo-a-pyrene. Fetal exposure to all teratogenic compounds must be minimized.
Kurzel, R.B.; Cetrulo, C.L.
Proposes a shift in the direction of biocentrism that advocates the incorporation of humane education goals. Investigates preconceptions of human-animal relationships among a group of grade 5 students with a view to understanding their readiness to embrace a biocentric perspective. Includes recommendations for science and technology curricula and…
This monograph discusses the care and maintenance of animals, suggests some alternative teaching strategies, and affirms the value of teaching biology as the study of living organisms, rather than dead specimens. The lessons in this monograph are intended as guidelines that teachers should adapt for their own particular classroom needs. Chapter 1,…
Hairston, Rosalina V., Ed.
When doing spring planting activities, what does a teacher do while waiting for the plants to grow? This waiting time is a golden opportunity to explore another side of gardening--the creatures that make it all possible. Insects are an integral part of everyday world, having existed for over 300 million years; they are the most common animal on…
Hachey, Alyse C.; Butler, Deanna
With the population of older adults expected to grow rapidly over the next two decades, it has become increasingly important to advance research efforts to elucidate the mechanisms associated with cognitive aging, with the ultimate goal of developing effective interventions and prevention therapies. Although there has been a vast research literature on the use of cognitive tests to evaluate the effects of aging and age-related neurodegenerative disease, the need for a set of standardized measures to characterize the cognitive profiles specific to healthy aging has been widely recognized. Here we present a review of selected methods and approaches that have been applied in human research studies to evaluate the effects of aging on cognition, including executive function, memory, processing speed, language, and visuospatial function. The effects of healthy aging on each of these cognitive domains are discussed with examples from cognitive/experimental and clinical/neuropsychological approaches. Further, we consider those measures that have clear conceptual and methodological links to tasks currently in use for non-human animal studies of aging, as well as those that have the potential for translation to animal aging research. Having a complementary set of measures to assess the cognitive profiles of healthy aging across species provides a unique opportunity to enhance research efforts for cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intervention studies of cognitive aging. Taking a cross-species, translational approach will help to advance cognitive aging research, leading to a greater understanding of associated neurobiological mechanisms with the potential for developing effective interventions and prevention therapies for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22988439
Alexander, Gene E; Ryan, Lee; Bowers, Dawn; Foster, Thomas C; Bizon, Jennifer L; Geldmacher, David S; Glisky, Elizabeth L
Radio transmitters swallowed, surgically implanted, or carried externally make it possible to study a subject with minimum disturbance to normal patterns of activity. The radio frequency of transmission chosen will depend on the application, and will generally fall in the range from 50 kHz to 300 MHz. A number of specific experiments are reported, including the case of a snake which has swallowed a mouse containing a transmitter of pressure and temperature. Questions of monitoring are explored. Satellite Doppler tracking considerations are discussed together with the attachment of the transmitter package in the case of a study of birds.
Mackay, R. S.
SUMMARY Domestic pets were the most common animals seen by respondents in a survey of attitudes and perceptions towards non-human animals of 212 tourists in the Caribbean. These visitors indicated that the care offered animals caused some of them to change their view of the island visited. More tourists reported positive than negative interactions with animals, but unstructured interactions with
Eleanor H. Grennan; William J. Fielding
Human health is related to animal life, health and disease primarily through animal food products and the safety and risks connected to these products. In other terms: the quality of the food produced from animal products (eggs, milk and meat) is important in order to maintain human health and be a safe resource for food. In this paper, food quality
The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date.
O'Sullivan, Laurie; Murphy, Brian; McLoughlin, Peter; Duggan, Patrick; Lawlor, Peadar G.; Hughes, Helen; Gardiner, Gillian E.
The family Retroviridae comprises some fifty viruses in three subfamilies: Oncoviridae, Lentiviridae and Spumaviridae. A better understanding of retroviral pathobiology has resulted from the rapid developments in knowledge of the molecular biology of normal and cancerous cells as well as retroviruses. Genomic relatedness was found between two human T cell leukemia viruses and bovine leukemia virus, similarly, some relatedness appears possible between human AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) virus and lentiviruses of large animals. Because of their genomic relatedness, retroviruses from man and animals could theoretically form recombinants during in vitro manipulation. Therefore persons who work with retroviral materials should follow established laboratory practices to control infectious agents.
Bouillant, Alain M.P.
Oral bioavailability is a key consideration in development of drug products, and the use of preclinical species in predicting bioavailability in human has long been debated. In order to clarify whether any correlation between human and animal bioavailability exist, an extensive analysis of the published literature data was conducted. Due to the complex nature of bioavailability calculations inclusion criteria were applied to ensure integrity of the data. A database of 184 compounds was assembled. Linear regression for the reported compounds indicated no strong or predictive correlations to human data for all species, individually and combined. The lack of correlation in this extended dataset highlights that animal bioavailability is not quantitatively predictive of bioavailability in human. Although qualitative (high/low bioavailability) indications might be possible, models taking into account species-specific factors that may affect bioavailability are recommended for developing quantitative prediction. PMID:23988844
Musther, Helen; Olivares-Morales, Andrés; Hatley, Oliver J D; Liu, Bo; Rostami Hodjegan, Amin
Oral bioavailability is a key consideration in development of drug products, and the use of preclinical species in predicting bioavailability in human has long been debated. In order to clarify whether any correlation between human and animal bioavailability exist, an extensive analysis of the published literature data was conducted. Due to the complex nature of bioavailability calculations inclusion criteria were applied to ensure integrity of the data. A database of 184 compounds was assembled. Linear regression for the reported compounds indicated no strong or predictive correlations to human data for all species, individually and combined. The lack of correlation in this extended dataset highlights that animal bioavailability is not quantitatively predictive of bioavailability in human. Although qualitative (high/low bioavailability) indications might be possible, models taking into account species-specific factors that may affect bioavailability are recommended for developing quantitative prediction.
Musther, Helen; Olivares-Morales, Andres; Hatley, Oliver J.D.; Liu, Bo; Rostami Hodjegan, Amin
A paper-based disease reporting system has been associated with a number of challenges. These include difficulties to submit hard copies of the disease surveillance forms because of poor road infrastructure, weather conditions or challenging terrain, particularly in the developing countries. The system demands re-entry of the data at data processing and analysis points, thus making it prone to introduction of errors during this process. All these challenges contribute to delayed acquisition, processing and response to disease events occurring in remote hard to reach areas. Our study piloted the use of mobile phones in order to transmit near to real-time data from remote districts in Tanzania (Ngorongoro and Ngara), Burundi (Muyinga) and Zambia (Kazungula and Sesheke). Two technologies namely, digital and short messaging services were used to capture and transmit disease event data in the animal and human health sectors in the study areas based on a server-client model. Smart phones running the Android operating system (minimum required version: Android 1.6), and which supported open source application, Epicollect, as well as the Open Data Kit application, were used in the study. These phones allowed collection of geo-tagged data, with the opportunity of including static and moving images related to disease events. The project supported routine disease surveillance systems in the ministries responsible for animal and human health in Burundi, Tanzania and Zambia, as well as data collection for researchers at the Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania. During the project implementation period between 2011 and 2013, a total number of 1651 diseases event-related forms were submitted, which allowed reporters to include GPS coordinates and photographs related to the events captured. It was concluded that the new technology-based surveillance system is useful in providing near to real-time data, with potential for enhancing timely response in rural remote areas of Africa. We recommended adoption of the proven technologies to improve disease surveillance, particularly in the developing countries. PMID:25005126
Mwabukusi, Mpoki; Karimuribo, Esron D; Rweyemamu, Mark M; Beda, Eric
Q fever is a disease of humans, caused by Coxiella burnetii, and a large range of animals can be infected. This paper presents a review of the epidemiology of Q fever in humans and farm animals between 1982 and 2010, using case studies from four European countries (Bulgaria, France, Germany and the Netherlands). The Netherlands had a large outbreak between 2007 and 2010, and the other countries a history of Q fever and Q fever research. Within all four countries, the serological prevalence of C. burnetii infection and reported incidence of Q fever varies broadly in both farm animals and humans. Proximity to farm animals and contact with infected animals or their birth products have been identified as the most important risk factors for human disease. Intrinsic farm factors, such as production systems and management, influence the number of outbreaks in an area. A number of disease control options have been used in these four countries, including measures to increase diagnostic accuracy and general awareness, and actions to reduce spillover (of infection from farm animals to humans) and human exposure. This study highlights gaps in knowledge, and future research needs. PMID:23449232
Georgiev, M; Afonso, A; Neubauer, H; Needham, H; Thiery, R; Rodolakis, A; Roest, Hj; Stark, Kd; Stegeman, Ja; Vellema, P; van der Hoek, W; More, Sj
After many years of experimental work with animals of diverse species, the author felt confronted with the question whether the great expenditure of sacrificed animal life would pay off when compared with the results gained. By self-critically considering his work, he gradually experienced a conversion from an unconcerned experimenter to a man feeling a deep sympathy with his fellow creatures. This motivated him to ponder the true nature of animals. Instead of applying ethics--though justified in its own realm--the author preferred to look at the problem using the General Systems Theory (GST), which can describe "the other side" of any system, the side into which any system may occasionally or necessarily transform. It occurred to him to assume that--provided we see a living organism as a system (as Ludwig von Bertalanffy, the founder of GST, did)--the "other side" of the animal would correspond to an innocent "genius" who suffers for man (thereby assuming a Christ-like position), whereas in its transitory life the true essence of the animal is hidden. Thus, by fancifully viewing the role of animals destined to suffer, a connection between GST and theology or religion arises. The consequence for us would be to pay honour to the test animal, irrespective of whether or not painful experiments could be avoided. The differentiation between a sacrifice (spiritually surrendering for a greater good) and a victim (involuntarily subjected to suffering) reveals that the experimental animal primarily belongs to the latter. But it can be elevated to the former when the full meaning of its suffering becomes obvious. The same holds true for "human testing", if, in contrast to the formidable atrocities, e.g. of concentration camps, the momentum of voluntariness is guaranteed, as pioneers of medical research frequently demonstrated by carrying out experiments on themselves. PMID:15586253
The advantages and justifications for using small animals in human-oriented research are reviewed. Some of the pitfalls of extrapolating animal-derived data to humans are discussed. Several specific problems with animal experimentation are highlighted. (CW)
Webb, G. P.
ABSTRACT The role of tea in protection,against cancer,has been,supported,by ample,evidence,from studies in cell culture and animal models. However, epidemiological studies have generated inconsistent results, some of which associated tea with reduced risk of cancer, whereas others found that tea lacks protective activity against certain human,cancers. These results raise questions,about,the actual role of tea in human,cancer,that needs,to be addressed.,This article is
Fung-lung Chung; Joel Schwartz; Christopher R. Herzog; Yang-ming Yang
This paper analyzes the immensely popular animated film Ratatouille as a social and cultural document. It begins with a recapitulation of the movie's story line – a saga of an astute, ambitious and talented rat, who becomes transformed into an accomplished haute cuisine chef. The film illustrates recent anthropological writings on the central role of cooking in human evolution. It
Stanley Brandes; Thor Anderson
Both humans and animals live in a rich world of events. Some events repeat themselves, whereas others constantly change. The authors propose that discriminating this stability, sameness, and uniformity from change, differentness, and diversity is fundamental to adaptive action. Evidence from many areas of behavioral science indicates that the…
Wasserman, Edward A.; Young, Michael E.; Cook, Robert G.
A critical review of the literature on Al toxicity in plants, animals and humans reveals a similar mode of Al action in all living organisms, namely interference with the secondary messenger system (phosphoinositide and cytosolic Ca2+ signalling pathways) and enhanced production of reactive oxygen species resulting in oxidative stress. Aluminium uptake by plants is relatively quick (across the intact plasma
The worldwide contamination of foods and feeds with mycotoxins is a significant problem. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds that have adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops that result in illnesses and economic losses. Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, zearelenone, fumonisins, tremorgenic toxins, and ergot alkaloids are the mycotoxins of greatest agro-economic importance. Some molds are capable of producing more than
Hussein S Hussein; Jeffrey M Brasel
A geometric and kinematic model for describing the global shape and the predominant motions of the human tongue, to be applied in computer animation, is discussed. The model consists of a spatial configuration of moving points that form the vertices of a mesh of 9 3-D triangles. These triangles are interpreted as charge centres (the so-called skeleton) for a potential
Catherine Pelachaud; Chin Seah
Nitrobenzene (NB) human cancer studies have not been reported, but animals studies have. Three rodent strains inhaling NB produce cancer at eight sites. B6C3F1 mice respond with mammary gland malignant tumors and male lung and thyroid benign tumors, F344/N male rats respond with ...
The governance demands generated by the use of human/animal chimeras in scientific research offer both a challenge and an opportunity for the development of new forms of anticipatory governance through the novel application of bioethical expertise. Anticipatory governance can be seen to have three stages of development whereby bioethical experts move from a reactive to a proactive stance at the edge of what is scientifically possible. In the process, the ethicists move upstream in their engagement with the science of human-to-animal chimeras. To what extent is the anticipatory coestablishment of the principles and operational rules of governance at this early stage in the development of the human-to-animal research field likely to result in a framework for bioethical decision making that is in support of science? The process of anticipatory governance is characterised by the entwining of the scientific and the philosophical so that judgements against science are also found to be philosophically unfounded, and conversely, those activities that are permissible are deemed so on both scientific and ethical grounds. Through what is presented as an organic process, the emerging bioethical framework for human-to-animal chimera research becomes a legitimating framework within which ‘good’ science can safely progress. Science gives bioethical expertise access to new governance territory; bioethical expertise gives science access to political acceptability.
Harvey, Alison; Salter, Brian
We analyzed 9s Cryptosporidium parvum isolates from humans and animals by a polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method based on the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein 2 gene sequence. Used as a molecular marker, this method can differentiate ...
The oleander is an attractive and hardy shrub that thrives in tropical and subtropical regions. The common pink oleander, Nerium oleander, and the yellow oleander, Thevetia peruviana, are the principle oleander representatives of the family Apocynaceae. Oleanders contain within their tissues cardenolides that are capable of exerting positive inotropic effects on the hearts of animals and humans. The cardiotonic properties
Shannon D. Langford; Paul J. Boor
Domestic animal husbandry, a common practice globally, can lead to zoonotic transmission of enteric pathogens. However, this risk has received little attention to date. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the evidence for an association between domestic exposure to food-producing animals and cases of human diarrhea and specific enteric infections. We performed a systematic review of available literature to examine domestic livestock and poultry as risk factors for diarrhea and applied pre-determined quality criteria. Where possible, we carried out meta-analysis of specific animal-pathogen pairs. We found consistent evidence of a positive association between exposure to domestic food-producing animals and diarrheal illness across a range of animal exposures and enteric pathogens. Out of 29 studies included in the review, 20 (69.0%) reported a positive association between domestic animal exposure and diarrhea. Domestic exposure to poultry revealed a substantial association with human campylobacteriosis (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.90-3.93). Our results suggest that domestic poultry and livestock exposures are associated with diarrheal illness in humans. Failure to ascertain the microbial cause of disease may mask this effect. Exposure to domestic animals should be considered a risk factor for human diarrheal illness and additional studies may identify potential mitigation strategies to address this risk. PMID:24812065
Zambrano, Laura D; Levy, Karen; Menezes, Neia P; Freeman, Matthew C
The global trend toward intensive livestock production has led to significant public health risks and industry-associated losses due to an increased incidence of disease and contamination of livestock-derived food products. A potential factor contributing to these health concerns is the prospect that selective pressure within a particular host may give rise to bacterial strain variants that exhibit enhanced fitness in the present host relative to that in the parental host from which the strain was derived. Here, we assessed 184 Salmonella enterica human and animal clinical isolates for their virulence capacities in mice and for the presence of the Salmonella virulence plasmid encoding the SpvB actin cytotoxin required for systemic survival and Pef fimbriae, implicated in adherence to the murine intestinal epithelium. All (21 of 21) serovar Typhimurium clinical isolates derived from animals were virulent in mice, whereas many (16 of 41) serovar Typhimurium isolates derived from human salmonellosis patients lacked this capacity. Additionally, many (10 of 29) serovar Typhimurium isolates derived from gastroenteritis patients did not possess the Salmonella virulence plasmid, in contrast to all animal and human bacteremia isolates tested. Lastly, among serovar Typhimurium isolates that harbored the Salmonella virulence plasmid, 6 of 31 derived from human salmonellosis patients were avirulent in mice, which is in contrast to the virulent phenotype exhibited by all the animal isolates examined. These studies suggest that Salmonella isolates derived from human salmonellosis patients are distinct from those of animal origin. The characterization of these bacterial strain variants may provide insight into their relative pathogenicities as well as into the development of treatment and prophylactic strategies for salmonellosis. PMID:18245251
Heithoff, Douglas M; Shimp, William R; Lau, Patrick W; Badie, Golnaz; Enioutina, Elena Y; Daynes, Raymond A; Byrne, Barbara A; House, John K; Mahan, Michael J
The animal foodstuffs industry has changed in recent decades as a result of factors such as: human population growth and longer life expectancy, increasing urbanisation and migration, emerging zoonotic infectious diseases and foodborne diseases (FBDs), food security problems, technological advances in animal production systems, globalisation of trade and environmental changes. The Millennium Development Goals and the 'One Health' paradigm provide global guidelines on efficiently addressing the issues of consumer product safety, food security and risks associated with zoonoses. Professionals involved in the supply chain must therefore play an active role, based on knowledge and skills that meet current market requirements. Accordingly, it is necessary for the veterinary medicine curriculum, both undergraduate and postgraduate, to incorporate these skills. This article analyses the approach that veterinary education should adopt in relation to food safety, with an emphasis on animal health, food pathogens and FBD surveillance. PMID:24547647
Vidal, S M; Fajardo, P I; González, C G
Ecdysteroids are widely used as inducers for gene-switch systems based on insect ecdysteroid receptors and genes of interest placed under the control of ecdysteroid-response elements. We review here these systems, which are currently mainly used in vitro with cultured cells in order to analyse the role of a wide array of genes, but which are expected to represent the basis for future gene therapy strategies. Such developments raise several questions, which are addressed in detail. First, the metabolic fate of ecdysteroids in mammals, including humans, is only poorly known, and the rapid catabolism of ecdysteroids may impede their use as in vivo inducers. A second set of questions arose in fact much earlier with the pioneering “heterophylic” studies of Burdette in the early sixties on the pharmacological effects of ecdysteroids on mammals. These and subsequent studies showed a wide range of effects, most of them being beneficial for the organism (e.g. hypoglycaemic, hypocholesterolaemic, anabolic). These effects are reviewed and critically analysed, and some hypotheses are proposed to explain the putative mechanisms involved. All of these pharmacological effects have led to the development of a wide array of ecdysteroid-containing preparations, which are primarily used for their anabolic and/or “adaptogenic” properties on humans (or horses or dogs). In the same way, increasing numbers of patents have been deposited concerning various beneficial effects of ecdysteroids in many medical or cosmetic domains, which make ecdysteroids very attractive candidates for several practical uses. It may be questioned whether all these pharmacological actions are compatible with the development of ecdysteroid-inducible gene switches for gene therapy, and also if ecdysteroids should be classified among doping substances. Abbreviation: 20E 20-hydroxyecdysone 2d20E 2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone 2dE 2-deoxyecdysone BAH bisacylhydrazine BmEcR Bombyx mori EcR CfEcR Choristoneura fumiferana EcR CfUSP Choristoneura fumiferana USP CHO Chinese hamster ovary CMV cytomegalovirus DBD DNA-binding domain DmEcR Drosophila melanogaster EcR AbbE ecdysone EcR ecdysteroid receptor EcRE ecdysteroid response element EHT effective half-time ERE oestrogen response element GR glucocorticoid receptor GRE glucocorticoid response element HEK human embryonic kidney HvEcR Heliothis virescens EcR LBD ligand binding domain murA muristerone A PKA protein kinase A polB polypodine B ponA ponasterone A PPAR peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor RAR retinoic acid receptor RXR retinoid X receptor TR thyroid receptor USP ultraspiracle VDR vitamin D receptor VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor
Lafont, R.; Dinan, L.
Human health and aquatic animal health are organically related at three distinct interfaces. Aquatic animals serve as important contributors to the nutritional protein, lipid, and vitamin requirements of humans; as carriers and transmitters of many infectious and parasitic diseases to which humans are susceptible; and as indicators of toxic and carcinogenic substances that they can convey, in some part, from aquatic environments to man and other terrestrial animals. Transcending these relationships, but less visible and definable to many, is the role that aquatic animals play in the sustenance of our integrated planetary ecosystem. Up to the present, this ecosystem has been compatible with mankind's occupation of a niche within it at high but ultimately limited population levels. In the past century we have become clearly aware that human activities, particularly over-harvesting of aquatic animals together with chemical degradation of their habitats, can quite rapidly lead to perturbances that drastically shift aquatic ecosystems toward conditions of low productivity and impaired function as one of earth's vital organs. The negative values of aquatic animals as disease vectors are far outweighed by their positive values as nutritional sources and as sustainers of a relatively stable equilibrium in the global ecosystem. In the immediate future we can expect to see increased and improved monitoring of aquatic habitats to determine the extent to which aquatic animals cycle anthropogenic toxic and carcinogenic chemicals back to human consumers. In the long term, methods are particularly needed to assess the effects of these pollutants on reproductive success in aquatic communities and in human communities as well. As inputs of habitat-degrading substances change in quality and quantity, it becomes increasingly urgent to evaluate the consequences in advance, not in retrospect. A new, more realistic and comprehensive philosophy regarding aquatic environmental preservation and equally new and comprehensive technological advances reflective of this philosophy will be required. In the next century we will see a serious test of whether or not mankind has lost its ability to foresee and forestall the side effects of scientific and technological ingenuity.
Dawe, C J
Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)
March, B. E.
The translational capacity of data generated in preclinical toxicological studies is contingent upon several factors, including the appropriateness of the animal model. The primary objectives of this article are: 1) to analyze the natural history of acute and delayed signs and symptoms that develop following an acute exposure of humans to organophosphorus (OP) compounds, with an emphasis on nerve agents; 2) to identify animal models of the clinical manifestations of human exposure to OPs; and 3) to review the mechanisms that contribute to the immediate and delayed OP neurotoxicity. As discussed in this study, clinical manifestations of an acute exposure of humans to OP compounds can be faithfully reproduced in rodents and nonhuman primates. These manifestations include an acute cholinergic crisis in addition to signs of neurotoxicity that develop long after the OP exposure, particularly chronic neurologic deficits consisting of anxiety-related behavior and cognitive deficits, structural brain damage, and increased slow electroencephalographic frequencies. Because guinea pigs and nonhuman primates, like humans, have low levels of circulating carboxylesterases-the enzymes that metabolize and inactivate OP compounds-they stand out as appropriate animal models for studies of OP intoxication. These are critical points for the development of safe and effective therapeutic interventions against OP poisoning because approval of such therapies by the Food and Drug Administration is likely to rely on the Animal Efficacy Rule, which allows exclusive use of animal data as evidence of the effectiveness of a drug against pathologic conditions that cannot be ethically or feasibly tested in humans. PMID:24907067
Pereira, Edna F R; Aracava, Yasco; DeTolla, Louis J; Beecham, E Jeffrey; Basinger, G William; Wakayama, Edgar J; Albuquerque, Edson X
Animal models have historically played a critical role in the exploration and characterization of disease pathophysiology, target identification, and in the in vivo evaluation of novel therapeutic agents and treatments. In the wake of numerous clinical trial failures of new chemical entities (NCEs) with promising preclinical profiles, animal models in all therapeutic areas have been increasingly criticized for their limited ability to predict NCE efficacy, safety and toxicity in humans. The present review discusses some of the challenges associated with the evaluation and predictive validation of animal models, as well as methodological flaws in both preclinical and clinical study designs that may contribute to the current translational failure rate. The testing of disease hypotheses and NCEs in multiple disease models necessitates evaluation of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationships and the earlier development of validated disease-associated biomarkers to assess target engagement and NCE efficacy. Additionally, the transparent integration of efficacy and safety data derived from animal models into the hierarchical data sets generated preclinically is essential in order to derive a level of predictive utility consistent with the degree of validation and inherent limitations of current animal models. The predictive value of an animal model is thus only as useful as the context in which it is interpreted. Finally, rather than dismissing animal models as not very useful in the drug discovery process, additional resources, like those successfully used in the preclinical PK assessment used for the selection of lead NCEs, must be focused on improving existing and developing new animal models. PMID:23954708
McGonigle, Paul; Ruggeri, Bruce
Calcium isotopes in tissues are thought to be influenced by an individual's diet, reflecting parameters such as trophic level and dairy consumption, but this has not been carefully assessed. We report the calcium isotope ratios (? 44/42Ca) of modern and archaeological animal and human bone ( n = 216). Modern sheep raised at the same location show 0.14 ± 0.08‰ higher ? 44/42Ca in females than in males, which we attribute to lactation by the ewes. In the archaeological bone samples the calcium isotope ratios of the herbivorous fauna vary by location. At a single site, the archaeological fauna do not show a trophic level effect. Humans have lower ? 44/42Ca than the mean site fauna by 0.22 ± 0.22‰, and the humans have a greater ? 44/42Ca range than the animals. No effect of sex or age on the calcium isotope ratios was found, and intra-individual skeletal ? 44/42Ca variability is negligible. We rule out dairy consumption as the main cause of the lower human ? 44/42Ca, based on results from sites pre-dating animal domestication and dairy availability, and suggest instead that individual physiology and calcium intake may be important in determining bone calcium isotope ratios.
Reynard, L. M.; Henderson, G. M.; Hedges, R. E. M.
The main aim of the present study was to explore the significance of large group/greater pen housing (PH) versus standard Makrolon caging (ST) in three behaviour tests related to human-animal interactions in the adult male laboratory rat. The rats' perception of human interaction was tested in three behavioural tests, of which two reflected common practical procedures, capture and restraint, whereas the third was a human approach test in a Y-maze. The rats' anticipatory reactions to handling and the reactions to restraint did not differ between groups, but the ST rats approached a human hand more quickly than did the PH rats (P < 0.01). Although food intake did not differ, ST rats gained more weight (P < 0.01) and had higher total cholesterol values (P < 0.01) than PH rats. In conclusion, this study shows that housing rats in large groups in an enriched environment did not influence their anticipatory reaction to handling in normal handling situations. However, as the PH rats tended to have a longer approach latency than ST rats in the Y-maze there might be underlying differences in appraisal that are not detected in practical situations. In addition, the PH rats weighed less and had lower total cholesterol values than ST rats and their urine corticosterone values were higher. These effects are suggested to be due to higher physical activity in the PH rats, and the implications of this on the animal as a model is discussed. PMID:12144739
Augustsson, H; Lindberg, L; Höglund, A U; Dahlborn, K
Environmental concerns surrounding drilling for gas are intense due to expansion of shale gas drilling operations. Controversy surrounding the impact of drilling on air and water quality has pitted industry and lease-holders against individuals and groups concerned with environmental protection and public health. Because animals often are exposed continually to air, soil, and groundwater and have more frequent reproductive cycles, animals can be used as sentinels to monitor impacts to human health. This study involved interviews with animal owners who live near gas drilling operations. The findings illustrate which aspects of the drilling process may lead to health problems and suggest modifications that would lessen but not eliminate impacts. Complete evidence regarding health impacts of gas drilling cannot be obtained due to incomplete testing and disclosure of chemicals, and nondisclosure agreements. Without rigorous scientific studies, the gas drilling boom sweeping the world will remain an uncontrolled health experiment on an enormous scale. PMID:22446060
Bamberger, Michelle; Oswald, Robert E
Increasing importance is placed on the translational validity of animal models of human menopause to discern risk vs. benefit for prediction of outcomes after therapeutic interventions and to develop new therapeutic strategies to promote health. Basic discovery research conducted over many decades has built an extensive body of knowledge regarding reproductive senescence across mammalian species upon which to advance animal models of human menopause. Modifications to existing animal models could rapidly address translational gaps relevant to clinical issues in human menopausal health, which include the impact of 1) chronic ovarian hormone deprivation and hormone therapy, 2) clinically relevant hormone therapy regimens (cyclic vs. continuous combined), 3) clinically relevant hormone therapy formulations, and 4) windows of opportunity and optimal duration of interventions. Modifications in existing animal models to more accurately represent human menopause and clinical interventions could rapidly provide preclinical translational data to predict outcomes regarding unresolved clinical issues relevant to women's menopausal health. Development of the next generation of animal models of human menopause could leverage advances in identifying genotypic variations in estrogen and progesterone receptors to develop personalized menopausal care and to predict outcomes of interventions for protection against or vulnerability to disease. Key to the success of these models is the close coupling between the translational target and the range of predictive validity. Preclinical translational animal models of human menopause need to keep pace with changes in clinical practice. With focus on predictive validity and strategic use of advances in genetic and epigenetic science, new animal models of human menopause have the opportunity to set new directions for menopausal clinical care for women worldwide.
An international team of investigators has identified the first human antibodies that can neutralize different strains of virus responsible for outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The researchers used a mouse model and in vitro assays (lab tests) to test the neutralizing activity of the antibodies.
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are drugs of abuse. They are taken in large quantities by athletes and others to increase performance, with negative health consequences. As a result, in 1991 testosterone and related AAS were declared controlled substances. However, the relative abuse and dependence liability of AAS have not been fully characterized. In humans, it is difficult to separate the direct psychoactive effects of AAS from reinforcement due to their systemic anabolic effects. However, using conditioned place preference and self-administration, studies in animals have demonstrated that AAS are reinforcing in a context where athletic performance is irrelevant. Furthermore, AAS share brain sites of action and neurotransmitter systems in common with other drugs of abuse. In particular, recent evidence links AAS with opioids. In humans, AAS abuse is associated with prescription opioid use. In animals, AAS overdose produces symptoms resembling opioid overdose, and AAS modify the activity of the endogenous opioid system.
Wood, Ruth I.
The state and perspectives for chemotherapy of cyst-forming and non-cyst-forming coccidia in humans and animals are summarized.\\u000a In toxoplasmosis the therapeutic care of transplacental infections, which have gone out of control because of immunodeficiency,\\u000a is in the forefront of attempts at improvement. Predominant drugs in use are pyrimethamine combined with a sulfonamide or\\u000a with clindamycin, or trimethoprim plus sulfamethoxazole. For
Bifidobacteria are normal intestinal flora in humans and animals. The genus Bifidobacterium includes 31 species of significant host specificity. Taking into account their properties, we proposed to use bifidobacteria as fecal contamination indicators. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism on the 16S rDNA gene was used to distinguish the different Bifidobacterium species. Sixty-four strains belonging to 13 different species were differentiated from animal or human origin using one or two restriction enzymes. Moreover, the primers used were specifics of the Bifidobacterium genus. Therefore, this method made it possible to determine both the presence of bifidobacteria in a sample and its origin of contamination. PMID:15222566
Delcenserie, V; Bechoux, N; Léonard, T; China, B; Daube, G
The human hearing range is from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. However, many animals can hear much higher sound frequencies. Dolphins, especially, have a hearing range up to 300 kHz. To our knowledge, there is no data of a reported wide-band sound frequency earphone to satisfy both humans and animals. Here, we show that graphene earphones, packaged into commercial earphone casings can play sounds ranging from 100 Hz to 50 kHz. By using a one-step laser scribing technology, wafer-scale flexible graphene earphones can be obtained in 25 min. Compared with a normal commercial earphone, the graphene earphone has a wider frequency response (100 Hz to 50 kHz) and a three times lower fluctuation (±10 dB). A nonlinear effect exists in the graphene-generated sound frequency spectrum. This effect could be explained by the DC bias added to the input sine waves which may induce higher harmonics. Our numerical calculations show that the sound frequency emitted by graphene could reach up to 1 MHz. In addition, we have demonstrated that a dog wearing a graphene earphone could also be trained and controlled by 35 kHz sound waves. Our results show that graphene could be widely used to produce earphones for both humans and animals. PMID:24766102
Tian, He; Li, Cheng; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Cui, Ya-Long; Mi, Wen-Tian; Yang, Yi; Xie, Dan; Ren, Tian-Ling
In his lecture, Shiller discusses the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. The book discusses how ?animal spirits,? or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today?s global financial crisis.
Robert J. Shiller
This paper gives a review of chromatographic methods used for the determination of ochratoxin A (OA) in animal and human tissues and fluids. These methods are needed for example for monitoring studies of OA occurrence in the food chain and for studies dealing with the OA carry-over. In this survey, emphasis was given to HPLC methods. The review includes sampling,
The paper reviews techniques of electromagnetic dosimetry for human and animal models. Numerical techniques, analytical cylindrical models, and geometrical optics methods are described, noting the useful frequency range of each method. Analytical techniques included analysis of planar and spherical models, long-wavelength analysis of spheroids and ellipsoids and solutions of the wave equation in spheroidal coordinates. Numerical techniques involved the moment
C. H. Durney
In his lecture, Shiller discusses the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. The book discusses how “animal spirits,” or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today’s global financial crisis.
Robert J. Shiller
Background Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a type of high-flow vascular malformations that most commonly occurs in the head and neck. They are present at birth but are usually clinically asymptomatic until later in life. The pathogenesis of AVMs remains unclear and therapeutic approaches to AVMs are unsatisfied. In order to provide a tool for studying the pathogenesis and therapies of this disease, we established and studied a xenograft animal model of human AVMs. Methods Fresh human AVMs specimens harvested from 4 patients were sectioned (5x5x5 mm) and xenografted subcutaneously in 5 immunologically naïve nude mice (Athymic Nude-Foxn1nu). Each mouse had four pieces specimens in four quadrants along the back. The grafts were observed weekly for volume, color and texture. The grafts were harvested at every 30 days intervals for histologic examination. All grafts (n?=?20) were sectioned and stained for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Comparative pathologic evaluation of the grafts and native AVMs were performed by two blinded pathologists. Immunohistochemical examination of human-specific nuclear antigen, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and Ki-67 was performed. Results Clinical characteristics and pathologic diagnosis of native human derived AVMs were confirmed. 85% (n?=?17) of AVM xenografts survived although the sizes decreased after implantation. Histological examination demonstrated numerous small and medium-size vessels and revealed structural characteristics matching the native AVMs tissue.76.5% (n?=?13) of the surviving xenografts were positive for Ki-67 and human-specific nuclear antigen suggesting survival of the human derived tissue, 52.9% (n?=?9) were positive for VEGFR-2. Conclusions This preliminary xenograft animal model suggests that AVMs can survive in the nude mouse. The presence of human-specific nuclear antigen, VEGFR-2, and Ki-67 demonstrates the stability of native tissue qualities within the xenografts.
Animation is making a splash with the recent box office hit, Shrek 2. This Topic in Depth explores how animation works, it's history and the entertaining as well as academic applications of animation. The first website provides a basic overview of digital cinema (1). More information on animation can be found on the second website (2). Digital Media FX provides this history (3 ) of animation. The Library of Congress has also put together a nice website (4 ) with some historical artifacts that for demonstrating a "a variety of elements that go into the creative process of developing and interpreting animated motion pictures." The fourth website provides an extensive list of online resources and academic uses for animation such as Chemistry, Evolution, Genetics, and Physics. (5 ). This fifth website posts the winners of the 2004 Character Animation Technologies competition (6 ). And finally, Slashdot has a nice expose on the Mathematics of Futurama (7).
Animal experimentation has proven to be of invaluable help in the understanding of biological functions, for the advancement of medical research and for the improvement of health conditions of both humans and animals. This phase of scientific progress is far from completed and there are no hints for substitution of all animal experiments by so called alternative methods. Therefore, there is a real need to analyse, without prejudice or undue dogmatic statements, the present situation in order to contribute to a responsible attitude, which should be transparent, understandable for lay people and useful as a background for the passing of adequate legislation. This process of analysis calls for the cooperation of scientists, a class which can neither be ignored nor treated as minor and should be above any suspicion of any part concerned. Finding a reasonable and just solution for the problem under debate can only result from the convergence of utilitarian and responsible ethical viewpoints. From utilitarian reasoning an overwhelming mass of evidence has resulted in favour of animal experimentation: medical progress would be severely maimed by prohibition or severe curtailing of animal experiments and catastrophic consequences would ensue. On the other hand, ethical considerations result in clear condemnation of useless or redundant experiments, of those causing disproportionate pain or suffering or of doubtful scientific standing: and to the recommendation that every effort should be undertaken in order to find and to establish on a sound scientific basis, alternative or complementary methods, i.e. those not involving animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1605074
Malaria is a vector-borne infection caused by unicellular parasite of the genus Plasmodium. Plasmodia are obligate intracellular parasites that are able to infect and replicate within the erythrocytes after a clinically silent replication phase in the liver. Four species (P.falciparum, P.malariae, P.ovale and P.vivax) are traditionally recognized as responsible of natural infection in human beings but the recent upsurge of P.knowlesi malaria in South-East Asia has led clinicians to consider it as the fifth human malaria parasite. Recent studies in wild-living apes in Africa have revealed that P.falciparum, the most deadly form of human malaria, is not only human-host restricted as previously believed and its phylogenetic lineage is much more complex with new species identified in gorilla, bonobo and chimpanzee. Although less impressive, new data on biology of P.malariae, P.ovale and P.vivax are also emerging and will be briefly discussed in this review. PMID:22550559
Antinori, Spinello; Galimberti, Laura; Milazzo, Laura; Corbellino, Mario
The occurrence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in the opportunistic pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium is well-documented in clinical research. Recently, the esp gene has been proposed as a marker of human pollution in environmental waters; however, information on its relative incidence in various human and animal fecal sources is limited. We have determined the occurrence of the esp gene in enterococci from human (n = 64) and animal (n = 233) fecal samples by polymerase chain reaction using two primer sets: one presumably specific for E. faecium (espfm) and the other for both E. faecalis and E. faecium (espfs/fm). We believe that this research is the first to explore the use of espfs/fm for the detection of human waste in natural environmental settings. The incidence in human sources was 93.1% espfm and 100% espfs/fm in raw sewage influent; 30% for both espfm and espfs/fm in septic waste; and 0% espfm and 80% espfs/fm in active pit toilets. The overall occurrence of the gene in animal feces was 7.7% (espfs/fm) and 4.7% (espfm); animal types with positive results included dogs (9/43, all espfm), gulls (10/34, espfs/fm; 2/34, espfm), mice (3/22, all espfs/fm), and songbirds (5/55, all espfs/fm). The esp gene was not detected in cat (0/34), deer (0/4), goose (0/18), or raccoon (0/23) feces. The inconsistent occurrence, especially in septic and pit toilet sewage, suggests a low statistical power of discrimination between animal and human sources, which means a large number of replicates should be collected. Both espfm and espfs/fm were common in raw sewage, but neither one efficiently differentiated between animal and other human sources.
Whitman, R. L.; Przybyla-Kelly, K.; Shively, D. A.; Byappanahalli, M. N.
...144(a). (d) Non-positive animal studies. Positive results...provided. (g) Use of high doses in animal testing. Positive results for carcinogenicity...determination of whether results in human, animal or short-term studies...
...144(a). (d) Non-positive animal studies. Positive results...provided. (g) Use of high doses in animal testing. Positive results for carcinogenicity...determination of whether results in human, animal or short-term studies...
NASA exploration goals include returning humans to the moon by 20 15-2020 as a prelude for human exploration of Mars and beyond. The number of human flight subjects available during this very short time period is insufficient to solve high-risk problems without data from animals. This presentation will focus on three questions: What do we know? What do we need to know? Where do we go from here?: roles for animals in the exploration era. Answers to these questions are based on flight and ground-based models using humans and animals. First, what do we know? Adult humans have spent less than 1% of their lifespan in space while juvenile rats have spent almost 2%. This information suggests that our data are rather meager for projecting to a 30-month mission to Mars. The space platforms for humans have included Skylab, STS/MIR, and STS/ISS and for animals have included the unmanned Bion series and shuttle. The ground-based models include head-down bedrest in humans (BR) and hindlimb unloading in rodents (HU). We know that as gravity decreases, the impact forces generated by the body during locomotion decrease. For example, on Earth, your legs supports approximately 1 body weight (BW) when standing, 1.33BW when walking, and 3BW when jogging. On Mars, the same activity would generate 0.38BW standing, 0.5BW walking, and 1BW when jogging. In space, no impact load is generated, as gravity is minimal.
Morey-Holton, Emily R.
The use of structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in animal models of neuropathology is of increasing interest to the neuroscience community. In this work, we present our approach to create optimal translational studies that include both animal and human neuroimaging data within the frameworks of a study of post-natal neuro-development in intra-uterine cocaine-exposure. We propose the use of non-invasive neuroimaging to study developmental brain structural and white matter pathway abnormalities via sMRI and DTI, as advanced MR imaging technology is readily available and automated image analysis methodology have recently been transferred from the human to animal imaging setting. For this purpose, we developed a synergistic, parallel approach to imaging and image analysis for the human and the rodent branch of our study. We propose an equivalent design in both the selection of the developmental assessment stage and the neuroimaging setup. This approach brings significant advantages to study neurobiological features of early brain development that are common to animals and humans but also preserve analysis capabilities only possible in animal research. This paper presents the main framework and individual methods for the proposed cross-species study design, as well as preliminary DTI cross-species comparative results in the intra-uterine cocaine-exposure study.
Gerig, Guido; Oguz, Ipek; Gouttard, Sylvain; Lee, Joohwi; An, Hongyu; Lin, Weili; McMurray, Matthew; Grewen, Karen; Johns, Josephine; Styner, Martin Andreas
Mercury contamination of the environment from historical and ongoing mining practices that rely on mercury amalgamation for gold extraction is widespread. Contamination was particularly severe in the immediate vicinity of gold extraction and refining operations; however, mercury--especially in the form of water-soluble methylmercury--may be transported to pristine areas by rainwater, water currents, deforestation, volatilization, and other vectors. Examples of gold mining-associated mercury pollution are shown for Canada, the United States, Africa, China, the Philippines, Siberia, and South America. In parts of Brazil, for example, mercury concentrations in all abiotic materials, plants, and animals--including endangered species of mammals and reptiles--collected near ongoing mercury-amalgamation gold mining sites were far in excess of allowable mercury levels promulgated by regulatory agencies for the protection of human health and natural resources. Although health authorities in Brazil are unable to detect conclusive evidence of human mercury intoxication, the potential exists in the absence of mitigation for epidemic mercury poisoning of the mining population and environs. In the United States, environmental mercury contamination is mostly from historical gold mining practices, and portions of Nevada remain sufficiently mercury-contaminated to pose a hazard to reproduction of carnivorous fishes and fish-eating birds. Concentrations of total mercury lethal to sensitive representative natural resources range from 0.1 to 2.0 ug/L of medium for aquatic organisms; from 2200 to 31,000 ug/kg body weight (acute oral) and 4000 to 40,000 ug/kg (dietary) for birds; and from 100 to 500 ug/kg body weight (daily dose) and 1000 to 5000 ug/kg diet for mammals. Significant adverse sublethal effects were observed among selected aquatic species at water concentrations of 0.03 to 0.1 ug Hg/L. For some birds, adverse effects--mainly on reproduction--have been associated with total mercury concentrations (in ug/kg fresh weight) of 5000 in feather, 900 in egg, and 50 to 100 in diet; and with daily intakes of 640 ug/kg body weight. Sensitive nonhuman mammals showed significant adverse effects of mercury when daily intakes were 250 ug/kg body weight, when dietary levels were 1100 ug/kg, or when tissue concentrations exceeded 1100 ug/kg. Proposed mercury criteria for protection of aquatic life range from 0.012 ug/L for freshwater life to 0.025 ug/L for marine life; for birds, less than 100 ug/kg diet fresh weight; and for small mammals, less than 1100 ug/kg fresh weight diet. All of these proposed criteria provide, at best, minimal protection.
The identification of genes linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) has led to the development of animal models for studying mechanism and evaluating potential therapies. None of the transgenic models developed based on disease-associated genes have been able to fully recapitulate the behavioral and pathological features of the corresponding disease. However, there has been enormous progress made in identifying potential therapeutic targets and understanding some of the common mechanisms of neurodegeneration. In this review, we will discuss transgenic animal models for AD, ALS, HD and PD that are based on human genetic studies. All of the diseases discussed have active or complete clinical trials for experimental treatments that benefited from transgenic models of the disease.
Richie, Christopher T.; Hoffer, Barry J.; Airavaara, Mikko
Introduction From August 2009 to October 2010, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh and the Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research together investigated 14 outbreaks of anthrax which included 140 animal and 273 human cases in 14 anthrax-affected villages. Our investigation objectives were to explore the context in which these outbreaks occurred, including livestock rearing practices, human handling of sick and dead animals, and the anthrax vaccination program. Methods Field anthropologists used qualitative data-collection tools, including 15 hours of unstructured observations, 11 key informant interviews, 32 open-ended interviews, and 6 group discussions in 5 anthrax-affected villages. Results Each cattle owner in the affected communities raised a median of six ruminants on their household premises. The ruminants were often grazed in pastures and fed supplementary rice straw, green grass, water hyacinth, rice husk, wheat bran, and oil cake; lactating cows were given dicalcium phosphate. Cattle represented a major financial investment. Since Islamic law forbids eating animals that die from natural causes, when anthrax-infected cattle were moribund, farmers often slaughtered them on the household premises while they were still alive so that the meat could be eaten. Farmers ate the meat and sold it to neighbors. Skinners removed and sold the hides from discarded carcasses. Farmers discarded the carcasses and slaughtering waste into ditches, bodies of water, or open fields. Cattle in the affected communities did not receive routine anthrax vaccine due to low production, poor distribution, and limited staffing for vaccination. Conclusion Slaughtering anthrax-infected animals and disposing of butchering waste and carcasses in environments where ruminants live and graze, combined with limited vaccination, provided a context that permitted repeated anthrax outbreaks in animals and humans. Because of strong financial incentives, slaughtering moribund animals and discarding carcasses and waste products will likely continue. Long-term vaccination coverage for at-risk animal populations may reduce anthrax infection.
Islam, Md. Saiful; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Mikolon, Andrea; Parveen, Shahana; Khan, M. Salah Uddin; Haider, Najmul; Chakraborty, Apurba; Titu, Abu Mohammad Naser; Rahman, M. Waliur; Sazzad, Hossain M. S.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Gurley, Emily S.; Luby, Stephen P.
The report encompasses a detailed technology assessment of vegetable substitutes for animal protein in human food. The potential exists for vegetable protein to be an important substitute for animal protein in the human diet, but the substitution must tak...
H. S. Becker R. Richmond E. W. Lusas S. P. Clark
Animal use continues to be central to preclinical drug development, in spite of a lack of its demonstrable validity. The current nadir of new drug approvals and the drying-up of pipelines may be a direct consequence of this. To estimate the evidential weight given by animal data to the probability that a new drug may be toxic to humans, we have calculated Likelihood Ratios (LRs) for an extensive data set of 2,366 drugs, for which both animal and human data are available, including tissue-level effects and MedDRA Level 1-4 biomedical observations. This was done for three preclinical species (rat, mouse and rabbit), to augment our previously-published analysis of canine data. In common with our dog analysis, the resulting LRs show: a) that the absence of toxicity in the animal provides little or virtually no evidential weight that adverse drug reactions (ADRs) will also be absent in humans; and b) that, while the presence of toxicity in these species can add considerable evidential weight for human risk, the LRs are extremely inconsistent, varying by over two orders of magnitude for different classes of compounds and their effects. Therefore, our results for these additional preclinical species have important implications for their use in predicting human toxicity, and suggest that alternative methods are urgently required. PMID:25068930
Bailey, Jarrod; Thew, Michelle; Balls, Michael
\\u000a Ah, animation! Where would we be without the likes of Disney, Warner Bros., Walter Lanz, Hanna-Barbera, and dozens more like\\u000a them? For many people, animation is the reason to get involved with Flash as a creative outlet. This makes perfect sense, because Flash began life more than a decade ago\\u000a as an animation tool. Supplemental features like ActionScript, XML parsing,
Tom Green; David Stiller
The pedestrian-bridge dynamic interaction problem based on bipedal walking model and damped compliant legs is presented in this work. A time-variant damper is modeled at a given walking speed. A control force is applied by the pedestrian to compensate for energy dissipated with the system damping in walking and to regulate the walking performance of the pedestrian. The effects of stiffness, damping of the leg and the landing angle of attack are investigated in the numerical studies. Simulation results show that the dynamic interaction will increase with a larger vibration level of structure. More external energy must be input to maintain steady walking and uniform dynamic behavior of the pedestrian in the process. The simple bipedal walking model could well describe the human-structure dynamic interaction.
Qin, J. W.; Law, S. S.; Yang, Q. S.; Yang, N.
This article considers the interpretative challenge for fairy tales that is posed by animal studies, which focuses on the specificity of animals and their relation to humans. The animal-human hybridity that is central to metamorphosis tales is especially significant in this respect because it at least implicitly calls into question the autonomy that modern rationalism grants to humans. To illustrate
Lewis C. Seifert
Perception studies have shown similarities between humans and other animals in a wide array of language-related processes. However, the components of language that make it uniquely human have not been fully identified. Here we show that nonhuman animals extract rules over speech sequences that are difficult for humans. Specifically, animals easily…
de la Mora, Daniela M.; Toro, Juan M.
Animal experiments are being used to examine a number of physical and biological factors that influence risk estimations though not usually in coordination with epidemiologists. It is clear that the different mechanisms involved in different types of tumors are reflected in the diversity of dose-response relationships. The forms of the dose-response relationships are influenced by both the initial events and their expression. Evidence is accumulating that many initiated cells do not get expressed as overt cancers and host factors may play a major role in the expression of potential tumor cells. There is a need for information about the relationship of the natural incidence and susceptibility to radiation induction for more tumor types. Such experiments will help answer the question of which risk estimate models are appropriate for different tumor types and can be carried out on animals. Perhaps because of the importance of host factors risk estimates as a percentage of the natural incidence appear to be similar for human beings and mice for a small number of tumor types. The elucidation of the mechanisms involved in different tissues while a slow business remains an important role of animal experiments.
Two hundred years ago, Giovanni Aldini published a highly influential book that reported experiments in which the principles of Luigi Galvani (animal electricity) and Alessandro Volta (bimetallic electricity) were used together for the first time. Aldini was born in Bologna in 1762 and graduated in physics at the University of his native town in 1782. As nephew and assistant of Galvani, he actively participated in a series of crucial experiments with frog's muscles that led to the idea that electricity was the long-sought vital force coursing from brain to muscles. Aldini became professor of experimental physics at the University of Bologna in 1798. He traveled extensively throughout Europe, spending much time defending the concept of his discreet uncle against the incessant attacks of Volta, who did not believe in animal electricity. Aldini used Volta's bimetallic pile to apply electric current to dismembered bodies of animals and humans; these spectacular galvanic reanimation experiments made a strong and enduring impression on his contemporaries. Aldini also treated patients with personality disorders and reported complete rehabilitation following transcranial administration of electric current. Aldini's work laid the ground for the development of various forms of electrotherapy that were heavily used later in the 19th century. Even today, deep brain stimulation, a procedure currently employed to relieve patients with motor or behavioral disorders, owes much to Aldini and galvanism. In recognition of his merits, Aldini was made a knight of the Iron Crown and a councillor of state at Milan, where he died in 1834. PMID:15595271
Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…
Tech Directions, 2008
Mast cells (MCs) play an important role in allergic hyperresponsiveness and in defending microorganism infections. Recent studies of experimental animals and humans have suggested that MCs participate in obesity and diabetes. MC distribution and activities in adipose tissues may vary, depending on the locations of different adipose tissues. In addition to releasing inflammatory mediators to affect adipose tissue extracellular matrix remodeling and to promote inflammatory cell recruitment and proliferation, MCs directly and indirectly interact and activate adipose tissue cells, including adipocytes and recruited inflammatory cells. Plasma MC protease levels are significantly higher in obese patients than in lean subjects. Experimental obese animals lose body weight after MC inactivation. MC functions in diabetes are even more complicated, and depend on the type of diabetes and on different diabetic complications. Both plasma MC proteases and MC activation essential immunoglobulin E levels are significant risk factors for human pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus. MC stabilization prevents diet-induced diabetes and improves pre-established diabetes in experimental animals. MC depletion or inactivation can improve diet-induced type 2 diabetes and some forms of type 1 diabetes, but also can worsen other forms of type 1 diabetes, at least in experimental animals. Observations from animal and human studies have suggested beneficial effects of treating diabetic patients with MC stabilizers. Some diabetic patients may benefit from enhancing MC survival and proliferation – hypotheses that merit detailed basic researches and clinical studies.
Shi, Michael A.; Shi, Guo-Ping
...accomplished in accordance with an appropriate medical rationale; and (2) If scientific information on the human food safety aspect of the use of the drug in food-producing animals is not available, the veterinarian must take...
Antimicrobial resistance is a major health problem. After decades of research, numerous difficulties in tackling resistance have emerged, from the paucity of new antimicrobials to the inefficient contingency plans to reduce the use of antimicrobials; consequently, resistance to these drugs is out of control. Today we know that bacteria from the environment are often at the very origin of the acquired resistance determinants found in hospitals worldwide. Here we define the genetic components that flow from the environment to pathogenic bacteria and thereby confer a quantum increase in resistance levels, as resistance units (RU). Environmental bacteria as well as microbiomes from humans, animals, and food represent an infinite reservoir of RU, which are based on genes that have had, or not, a resistance function in their original bacterial hosts. This brief review presents our current knowledge of antimicrobial resistance and its consequences, with special focus on the importance of an ecologic perspective of antimicrobial resistance. This discipline encompasses the study of the relationships of entities and events in the framework of curing and preventing disease, a definition that takes into account both microbial ecology and antimicrobial resistance. Understanding the flux of RU throughout the diverse ecosystems is crucial to assess, prevent and eventually predict emerging scaffolds before they colonize health institutions. Collaborative horizontal research scenarios should be envisaged and involve all actors working with humans, animals, food and the environment. PMID:23847814
González-Zorn, Bruno; Escudero, José A
We have devised a method to extrapolate biological equilibrium levels between animal species and subsequently to humans. Our initial premise was based on the observation that radionuclide retention is normally a function of metabolism so that direct or indirect measures could be described by a power law based on body weights of test animal species. However, we found that such interspecies comparisons ought to be based on the coefficient of the power equation rather than on the exponential parameter. The method is illustrated using retention data obtained from five non-ruminant species (including humans) that were fed radionuclides with different properties. It appears that biological equilibrium level for radionuclides in man can be estimated using data from mice, rats and dogs. The need to extrapolate low-dose effects data obtained from small animals (usually rodents) to humans is not unique to radiation dosimetry or radiation protection problems. Therefore, researchers have reviewed some quantitative problems connected with estimating low-dose effects from other disciplines, both because of the concern about effects induced by the radionuclide moiety of a radiopharmaceutical and those of the nonradioactive component. The possibility of extrapolating low-dose effects calculated from animal studies to humans is discussed.
Thomas, J.M.; Eberhardt, L.L.
Background\\/purpose Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a novel concept using an endoscope via a translumenal access for\\u000a abdominal surgery. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and technical aspects of NOTES cholecystectomy from\\u000a our experience on humans and animals.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods NOTES cholecystectomies were performed in 12 animal experiments, including 8 pigs (6 by transgastric and 2 by transvaginal\\u000a accesses)
Maki Sugimoto; Hideki Yasuda; Keiji Koda; Masato Suzuki; Masato Yamazaki; Tohru Tezuka; Chihiro Kosugi; Ryota Higuchi; Yoshihisa Watayo; Yohsuke Yagawa; Shuichiro Uemura; Hironori Tsuchiya; Atsushi Hirano; Shoki Ro
Background Research regarding zoonotic diseases often focuses on infectious diseases animals have given to humans. However, an increasing number of reports indicate that humans are transmitting pathogens to animals. Recent examples include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, influenza A virus, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Ascaris lumbricoides. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of published literature regarding reverse zoonoses and highlight the need for future work in this area. Methods An initial broad literature review yielded 4763 titles, of which 4704 were excluded as not meeting inclusion criteria. After careful screening, 56 articles (from 56 countries over three decades) with documented human-to-animal disease transmission were included in this report. Findings In these publications, 21 (38%) pathogens studied were bacterial, 16 (29%) were viral, 12 (21%) were parasitic, and 7 (13%) were fungal, other, or involved multiple pathogens. Effected animals included wildlife (n?=?28, 50%), livestock (n?=?24, 43%), companion animals (n?=?13, 23%), and various other animals or animals not explicitly mentioned (n?=?2, 4%). Published reports of reverse zoonoses transmission occurred in every continent except Antarctica therefore indicating a worldwide disease threat. Interpretation As we see a global increase in industrial animal production, the rapid movement of humans and animals, and the habitats of humans and wild animals intertwining with great complexity, the future promises more opportunities for humans to cause reverse zoonoses. Scientific research must be conducted in this area to provide a richer understanding of emerging and reemerging disease threats. As a result, multidisciplinary approaches such as One Health will be needed to mitigate these problems.
Messenger, Ali M.; Barnes, Amber N.; Gray, Gregory C.
Elemental boron was isolated in 1808. It typically occurs in nature as borates hydrated with varying amounts of water. Important compounds are boric acid and borax. Boron compounds are also used in the production of metals, enamels, and glasses. In trace amounts, boron is essential for the growth of many plants, and is found in animal and human tissues at low concentrations. Poisoning in humans has been reported as the result of accidental ingestion or use of large amounts in the treatment of burns. Boron as boric acid is fairly rapidly absorbed and excreted from the body via urine. The half-life of boric acid in humans is on the order of 1 day. Boron does not appear to accumulate in soft tissues of animals, but does accumulate in bone. Normal levels of boron in soft tissues, urine, and blood generally range from less than 0.05 ppm to no more than 10 ppm. In poisoning incidents, the amount of boric acid in brain and liver tissue has been reported to be as high as 2000 ppm. Recent studies at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences have indicated that boron may contribute to reduced fertility in male rodents fed 9000 ppm of boric acid in feed. Within a few days, boron levels in blood and most soft tissues quickly reached a plateau of about 15 ppm. Boron in bone did not appear to plateau, reaching 47 ppm after 7 days on the diet. Cessation of exposure to dietary boron resulted in a rapid drop in bone boron.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Moseman, R F
The Psammomys obesus lives in natural desert habitat on low energy (LE) diet, however when maintained in laboratory conditions with high energy (HE) diet it exhibits pathological metabolic changes resembling those of type 2 diabetes. We have evaluated and correlated the histopathology, metabolic and functional renal alterations occurring in the diabetic Psammomys. Renal function determined by measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR), protein excretion, protein/creatinine ratio and morpho-immunocytochemical evaluations were performed on HE diet diabetic animals and compared to LE diet control animals. The diabetic animals present a 54% increase in GFR after one month of hyperglycemic condition and a decrease of 47% from baseline values after 4 months. Protein excretion in diabetic animals was 5 folds increased after 4 months. Light microscopy showed an increase in glomeruli size in the diabetic Psammomys, and electron microscopy and immunocytochemical quantitative evaluations revealed accumulation of basement membrane material as well as frequent splitting of the glomerular basement membrane. In addition, glycogen-filled Armanni-Ebstein clear cells were found in the distal tubules including the thick ascending limbs of the diabetic animals. These renal complications in the Psammomys, including changes in GFR with massive proteinuria sustained by physiological and histopathological changes, are very similar to the diabetic nephropathy in human. The Psamommys obesus represents therefore a reliable animal model of diabetic nephropathy.
Scherzer, Pnina; Katalan, Shachaf; Got, Gay; Pizov, Galina; Londono, Irene; Gal-Moscovici, Anca; Popovtzer, Mordecai M.; Ziv, Ehud
Animal welfare has been conceptualized in such a way that the use of animals in science and for food seems justified. I argue that those who have done this have appropriated the concept of animal welfare, claiming to give a scientific account that is more objective than the "sentimental" account given by animal liberationists. This strategy seems to play a major role in supporting merely limited reform in the use of animals and seems to support the assumption that there are conditions under which animals may be raised and slaughtered for food that are ethically acceptable. Reformists do not need to make this assumption, but they tend to conceptualize animal welfare is such a way that death does not count as harmful to the interests of animals, nor prolonged life a benefit. In addition to this prudential value assumption, some members of this community have developed strategies for defending suitably reformed farming practices as ethical even granting that death and some other forms of constraints are harms. One such strategy is the fiction of a domestic contract. However, if one accepts the conceptualization of human welfare give by L. W. Sumner, and applies it to animals in the way that I think is justified, an accurate conceptualization of animal welfare has different implications for which uses of animals should be regarded as ethically acceptable. In this paper I give an historical and philosophical account of animal welfare conceptulization and use this account to argue that animal breeders, as custodians of the animals they breed, have the ethical responsibility to help their animal wards achieve as much autonomy as possible in choosing the form of life made available to them and to provide that life. Attempts to avoid these implications by alluding to a contract model of the relationship between custodians and their wards fail to relieve custodians of their ethical responsibilities of care. PMID:21305338
Haynes, Richard P
More than 5 million Americans are bitten by animals, usually dogs, annually. Bite patients comprise ?1% of all patients who visit emergency departments (300,000/year), and approximately 10,000 require hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics. Ceftaroline is the bioactive component of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, which is FDA approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), including those containing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are no in vitro data about the activity of ceftaroline against Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica, other Pasteurella spp., or other bite wound isolates. We therefore studied the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against 243 animal bite isolates. MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method according to CLSI guidelines. Comparator drugs included cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, azithromycin, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). Ceftaroline was the most active agent against all 5 Pasteurella species, including P. multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica, with a maximum MIC of ?0.008 ?g/ml; more active than ceftriaxone and ertapenem (MIC90s, ?0.015 ?g/ml); and more active than cefazolin (MIC90, 0.5 ?g/ml) doxycycline (MIC90, 0.125 ?g/ml), azithromycin (MIC90, 0.5 ?g/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (MIC90, 0.125 ?g/ml), and SMX-TMP (MIC90, 0.125 ?g/ml). Ceftaroline was also very active against all S. aureus isolates (MIC90, 0.125 ?g/ml) and other Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, with a maximum MIC of 0.125 ?g/ml against all bite isolates tested. Ceftaroline has potential clinical utility against infections involving P. multocida, other Pasteurella species, and aerobic Gram-positive isolates, including S. aureus.
Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L.
Mercury contamination of the environment from historical and ongoing mining practices that rely on mercury amalgamation for gold extraction is widespread. Contamination was particularly severe in the immediate vicinity of gold extraction and refining operations; however, mercury, especially in the form of water-soluble methylmercury, may be transported to pristine areas by rainwater, water currents, deforestation, volatilization, and other vectors. Examples of gold mining-associated mercury pollution have been shown for Canada, the U.S., Africa, China, the Philippines, Siberia, and South America. In parts of Brazil, for example, mercury concentrations in all abiotic materials, plants, and animals, including endangered species of mammals and reptiles, collected near ongoing mercury amalgamation gold mining sites were far in excess of allowable mercury levels promulgated by regulatory agencies for the protection of human health and natural resources. Although health authorities in Brazil are unable to detect conclusive evidence of human mercury intoxication, the potential exists in the absence of mitigation for epidemic mercury poisoning of the mining population and environs. In the U.S., environmental mercury contamination is mostly from historical gold mining practices, and portions of Nevada remain sufficiently mercury contaminated to pose a hazard to reproduction of carnivorous fishes and fish-eating birds. Concentrations of total mercury lethal to sensitive representative natural resources range from 0.1 to 2.0 microg/L of medium for aquatic organisms; from 2,200 to 31,000 microg/kg BW (acute oral) and from 4,000 to 40,000 microg/kg (dietary) for birds; and from 100 to 500 microg/kg BW (daily dose) and from 1,000 to 5,000 microg/kg diet for mammals. Significant adverse sublethal effects were observed among selected aquatic species at water concentrations of 0.03-0.1 microg Hg/L. For some birds, adverse effects, mainly on reproduction, have been associated with total mercury concentrations (microg/kg FW) of 5,000 in feathers, 900 in eggs, and 50-100 in diet, and with daily intakes of 640 microg/kg BW. Sensitive nonhuman mammals showed significant adverse effects of mercury when daily intakes were 250 microg/kg BW, when dietary levels were 1,100 microg/kg, or when tissue concentrations exceeded 1,100 microg/kg. Proposed mercury criteria for protection of aquatic life range from 0.012 microg/L for freshwater life to 0.025 microg/L for marine life; for birds, less than 100 microg/kg diet FW; and for small mammals, less than 1,100 microg/kg FW diet. All these proposed criteria provide, at best, minimal protection. PMID:14738199
Schuknecht proposed a discrete form of presbycusis in which hearing loss results principally from degeneration of cochlear stria vascularis and decline of the endocochlear potential (EP). This form was asserted to be genetically linked, and to arise independently from age-related pathology of either the organ of Corti or cochlear neurons. Although extensive strial degeneration in humans coincides with hearing loss, EPs have never been measured in humans, and age-related EP reduction has never been verified. No human genes that promote strial presbycusis have been identified, nor is its pathophysiology well understood. Effective application of animal models to this issue requires models demonstrating EP decline, and preferably, genetically distinct strains that vary in patterns of EP decline and its cellular correlates. Until recently, only two models, Mongolian gerbils and Tyrp1B-lt mice, were known to undergo age-associated EP reduction. Detailed studies of seven inbred mouse strains have now revealed three strains (C57BL/6J, B6.CAST-Cdh23CAST, CBA/J) showing essentially no EP decline with age, and four strains ranging from modest to severe EP reduction (C57BL/6-Tyrc-2J, BALB/cJ, CBA/CaJ, NOD.NON-H2nbl/LtJ). Collectively, animal models support five basic principles regarding a strial form of presbycusis: 1) Progressive EP decline from initially normal levels as a defining characteristic; 2) Non-universality, not all age-associated hearing loss involves EP decline; 3) A clear genetic basis; 4) Modulation by environment or stochastic events; and 5) Independent strial, organ of Corti, and neural pathology. Shared features between human strial presbycusis, gerbils, and BALB/cJ and C57BL/6-Tyrc-2J mice further suggest this condition frequently begins with strial marginal cell dysfunction and loss. By contrast, NOD.NON-H2nbl mice may model a sequence more closely associated with strial microvascular disease. Additional studies of these and other inbred mouse and rat models should reveal candidate processes and genes that promote EP decline in humans.
Ohlemiller, Kevin K.
The conflict between animal costs and human benefits has dominated public as well as academic debates about animal research. However, surveys of public perceptions of animal research rarely focus on this part of attitude formation. This paper traces the prevalence of different attitudes to animal research in the public when people are asked to take benefit and cost considerations into account concurrently. Results from the examination of two representative samples of the Danish public identify three reproducible attitude stances. Approximately 30-35% of people questioned approved of animal research quite strongly, and 15-20% opposed animal research. The remaining 50% were reserved in their views. Further studies will ideally use the measure developed here to make possible relatively fine-grained comparisons and understandings of differences between populations and changes in attitudes over time. PMID:23825251
Lund, Thomas Bøker; Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Lassen, Jesper; Sandøe, Peter
Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of human and animal fascioliasis in Ilam Province, Iran. Background Fascioliasis, caused by Fasciola hepatica, is one of the most important zoonotic diseases. Snails are an intermediate host. Human infection with the parasite can led to hypertrophy and hyperplasia in bile duct. It also economic importance and further information is essential about the epidemiology of the parasite in Ilam province. Patients and methods The study on animals was descriptive and retrospective. All records from abattoirs were analyzed. It was conducted on 27242 indigenous animals including 17055 sheep, 5703 goats, and 4484 cattle. For the study of human Fascioliasis infection 600 human sera, from person among 5-80 year old, were collected and ELISA test was used for identification of IgG antibody to Fasciola hepatica by commercial kit. Results The overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica among 27242 slaughtered animals was 0.98%. Out of 267 domestic animals, 98 sheep, 28 goats and 141 cattle were infected with the parasite. The highest and lowest infection rate of 3.14% and 0.1% were cattle and goat, respectively. The prevalence of IgG antibody was0.66% (n = 4) against Fasciola hepatica in humans. Three infected people were living in rural areas. The highest infection rate (3 people) was found in women. Conclusion Ilam province is among the areas where the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica is low. This is probably due to the drought in the region in recent years that makes conditions difficult for the survival of snails, the intermediate hosts. But there is a risk of the disease increasing in incidence, in this region.
Abdi, Jahangir; Nejad, Mohammad Rostami; Mansouri, Vahid
The full understanding of the behavior of any species must include biology, but at present there is no agreement on how comparisons between our species and others should be made. To a remarkable extent, people believe what they want to believe, as exemplified by the history of the interpretation of the behaviors of the great apes. When comparing human behavior
S. L. Washburn
In this article we use actual instances of human conduct with animals to reflect on the debates about animal agency in human activities. Where much of psychology, philosophy, and sociology begin with a fundamental scepticism over animal mind as the grounds for its inquiries, we join with a growing body of work that examines the continuities…
Laurier, Eric; Maze, Ramia; Lundin, Johan
The majority of emerging infectious diseases have their source in animals, and emergence occurs at the human/animal interface, when infections in animals breech the species barrier to infect humans, the population in which they are often first identified. The response is frequently characterized by a series of emergency activities to contain and manage the infection in human populations, and at the same time to identify the source of the infection in nature. If infection is found to have a source in animals, and if animals cause a continuous threat of human infection, culling is often recommended with severe economic impact. Currently, efforts are being undertaken for closer interaction at the animal/human interface through joint surveillance and risk assessment between the animal and human medicine sectors, and research is underway in geographic areas where emergence at the animal/human interface has occurred in the past. The goal of this research is to identify infectious organisms in tropical and other wild animals, to genetically sequence these organisms, and to attempt to predict which organisms have the potential to emerge in human populations. It may be more cost-effective to learn from past emergence events, and to shift the paradigm from disease surveillance, detection, and response in humans; to prevention of emergence at the source by understanding and mitigating the factors, or determinants, that influence animal infection. These determinants are clearly understood from the study of previous emergence events and include human-induced changes in natural environments, urban areas, and agricultural systems; raising and processing animal-based foods; and the roles of global trade, migration, and climate change. Better understanding of these factors learned from epidemiological investigation of past and present emergence events, and modeling and study of the cost-effectiveness of interventions that could result in their mitigation, could provide evidence necessary to better address the political and economic barriers to prevention of infections in animals. Such economically convincing arguments for change and mitigation are required because of the basic difference in animal health-driven by the need for profit; and human health-driven by the need to save lives. PMID:23239233
Heymann, David L; Dixon, Mathew
Zoonoses of public health significance may occur in wildlife, livestock or companion animals, and may be detected by the human or animal health sectors. Of particular public health interest are foodborne, arboviral and emerging zoonoses (known/unknown, endemic/exotic). A coordinated One Health approach to the management of zoonoses in NSW uses measures including: mutually agreed intersectoral procedures for detection and response; surveillance and notification systems for defined endemic and exotic diseases; joint meetings and exercises to ensure currency of response plans; and intersectoral communication during a response. This One Health approach is effective and ensures the interests of both the human health and animal health sectors are addressed. PMID:21781617
Adamson, Sheena; Marich, Andrew; Roth, Ian
Five short notes describe the contributions to human welfare of animal research in reproductive physiology; ruminant nutrition; meat science research; genetics and animal breeding; and recycling food by-products. (AL)
Following the recent discovery of new Brucella strains from different animal species and from the environment, ten Brucella species are nowadays included in the genus Brucella. Although the intracellular trafficking of Brucella is well described, the strategies developed by Brucella to survive and multiply in phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells, particularly to access nutriments during its intracellular journey, are still largely unknown. Metabolism and virulence of Brucella are now considered to be two sides of the same coin. Mechanisms presiding to the colonization of the pregnant uterus in different animal species are not known. Vaccination is the cornerstone of control programs in livestock and although the S19, RB51 (both in cattle) and Rev 1 (in sheep and goats) vaccines have been successfully used worldwide, they have drawbacks and thus the ideal brucellosis vaccine is still very much awaited. There is no vaccine available for pigs and wildlife. Animal brucellosis control strategies differ in the developed and the developing world. Most emphasis is put on eradication and on risk analysis to avoid the re-introduction of Brucella in the developed world. Information related to the prevalence of brucellosis is still scarce in the developing world and control programs are rarely implemented. Since there is no vaccine available for humans, prevention of human brucellosis relies on its control in the animal reservoir. Brucella is also considered to be an agent to be used in bio- and agroterrorism attacks. At the animal/ecosystem/human interface it is critical to reduce opportunities for Brucella to jump host species as already seen in livestock, wildlife and humans. This task is a challenge for the future in terms of veterinary public health, as for wildlife and ecosystem managers and will need a "One Health" approach to be successful. PMID:21571380
Godfroid, J; Scholz, H C; Barbier, T; Nicolas, C; Wattiau, P; Fretin, D; Whatmore, A M; Cloeckaert, A; Blasco, J M; Moriyon, I; Saegerman, C; Muma, J B; Al Dahouk, S; Neubauer, H; Letesson, J-J
This article updates the ethical standards and methods for the conduct of high-quality animal and human biological rhythm research, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. The editors of Chronobiology International adhere to and endorse the Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE), which encourages communication of such updates at regular intervals in the journal. The journal accepts papers representing original work, no part of which was previously submitted for publication elsewhere, except as brief abstracts, as well as in-depth reviews. The majority of research papers published in Chronobiology International entails animal and human investigations. The editors and readers of the journal expect authors of submitted manuscripts to have made an important contribution to the research of biological rhythms and related phenomena using ethical methods/procedures and unbiased, accurate, and honest reporting of findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to declare all potential conflicts of interest. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of investigators to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, relating to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals, and the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, relating to the conduct of ethical research on human beings. The peer review of manuscripts by Chronobiology International thus includes judgment as to whether or not the protocols and methods conform to ethical standards. Authors are expected to show mastery of the basic methods and procedures of biological rhythm research and proper statistical assessment of data, including the appropriate application of time series data analyses, as briefly reviewed in this article. The journal editors strive to consistently achieve high standards for the research of original and review papers reported in Chronobiology International, and current examples of expectations are presented herein. PMID:20969531
Portaluppi, Francesco; Smolensky, Michael H; Touitou, Yvan
Despite, Egypt is started to be considered as an emerging endemic area for cystic echinococcosis (CE), no enough data in the literature about the exact status of the genotype in both animals and humans. Therefore, the present study aims to characterize the underlying genotypes that could be responsible for the transmission cycle and for the growing infectivity. Animal isolates were collected from 47 camels and 6 pigs. Human isolates are 31 CE cases including; 21 of hepatic cases, 5 of pulmonary cases and 5 multiple-organ affection cases. Hot-Start specific PCR followed by DNA sequencing for mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene, revealed G1 genotype in one (3.2%) of 31 human isolate only. G6 genotype was detected in all the 53 (100%) animal isolates and in 30 out of 31 (96.8%) human isolate. The Egyptian G6 strain nucleotide sequence revealed 100% homology with an Argentinean reference strain 99% homology with the Kenyan G6 strain. It was concluded that G6 genotype is the predominant genotype in Egypt. PMID:22062047
Aaty, H E Abdel; Abdel-Hameed, D M; Alam-Eldin, Y H; El-Shennawy, S F; Aminou, H A; Makled, S S; Darweesh, S K
The occurrence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in the opportunistic pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium is well-documented in clinical research. Recently, the esp gene has been proposed as a marker of human pollution in environmental waters; however, information on its relative incidence in various human and animal fecal sources is limited. We have determined the occurrence of the esp gene in enterococci from human (n=64) and animal (n=233) fecal samples by polymerase chain reaction using two primer sets: one presumably specific for E. faecium (esp(fm)) and the other for both E. faecalis and E. faecium (esp(fs/fm)). We believe that this research is the first to explore the use of esp(fs/fm) for the detection of human waste in natural environmental settings. The incidence in human sources was 93.1% esp(fm) and 100% esp(fs/fm) in raw sewage influent; 30% for both esp(fm) and esp(fs/fm) in septic waste; and 0% esp(fm) and 80% esp(fs/fm) in active pit toilets. The overall occurrence of the gene in animal feces was 7.7% (esp(fs/fm)) and 4.7% (esp(fm)); animal types with positive results included dogs (9/43, all esp(fm)), gulls (10/34, esp(fs/fm); 2/34, esp(fm)), mice (3/22, all esp(fs/fm)), and songbirds (5/55, all esp(fs/fm)). The esp gene was not detected in cat (0/34), deer (0/4), goose (0/18), or raccoon (0/23) feces. The inconsistent occurrence, especially in septic and pit toilet sewage, suggests a low statistical power of discrimination between animal and human sources, which means a large number of replicates should be collected. Both esp(fm) and esp(fs/fm) were common in raw sewage, but neither one efficiently differentiated between animal and other human sources. PMID:17937286
Whitman, Richard L; Przybyla-Kelly, Katarzyna; Shively, Dawn A; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N
Non-typhoidal Salmonella represents an important human and animal pathogen world-wide. Most human salmonellosis cases are foodborne, but each year\\u000a infections are also acquired through direct or indirect animal contact in homes, veterinary clinics, zoological gardens, farm\\u000a environments or other public, professional or private settings. Clinically affected animals may exhibit a higher prevalence\\u000a of shedding than apparently healthy animals, but both
Karin Hoelzer; Andrea Isabel Moreno Switt; Martin Wiedmann
Phenolic compounds with a phenolic molecule to which are covalently linked an oxygen-containing group, a nitrogen or another oxygen containing group, and a C.sub.1-C.sub.4 alkoxy group, or their precursor compounds, obtainable from monocotyledonous plants, or by chemical synthesis, have been found to calm and/or reduce anxiety and related behaviors and states in humans and animals. Additional chemical compounds of the present invention may include benzoxazinoids-cyclic hydroxyamic acids, lactams, and corresponding glucosides, which may serve as precursors to phenolic compounds. The phenolic compounds and precursors of phenolic compounds of the present invention, at concentrations suitable for human and animal therapeutic use, may be obtained from monocotyledonous plants such as corn in their early growth states which are timely harvested for optimum yield.
What is the relation between humans and non-human animals? From a biological perspective, we view humans as one species among many, but in the fables and films we create for children, we often offer an anthropocentric perspective, imbuing non-human animals with human-like characteristics. What are the consequences of these distinctly different perspectives on children’s reasoning about the natural world? Some have argued that children universally begin with an anthropocentric perspective and that acquiring a biological perspective requires a basic conceptual change (cf. Carey, 1985). But recent work reveals that this anthropocentric perspective, evidenced in urban 5-year-olds, is not evident in 3-year-olds (Herrmann etal., 2010). This indicates that the anthropocentric perspective is not an obligatory first step in children’s reasoning about biological phenomena. In the current paper, we introduced a priming manipulation to assess whether 5-year-olds’ reasoning about a novel biological property is influenced by the perspectives they encounter in children’s books. Just before participating in a reasoning task, each child read a book about bears with an experimenter. What varied was whether bears were depicted from an anthropomorphic (Berenstain Bears) or biological perspective (Animal Encyclopedia). The priming had a dramatic effect. Children reading the Berenstain Bears showed the standard anthropocentric reasoning pattern, but those reading the Animal Encyclopedia adopted a biological pattern. This offers evidence that urban 5-year-olds can adopt either a biological or a human-centered stance, depending upon the context. Thus, children’s books and other media are double-edged swords. Media may (inadvertently) support human-centered reasoning in young children, but may also be instrumental in redirecting children’s attention to a biological model.
Waxman, Sandra R.; Herrmann, Patricia; Woodring, Jennie; Medin, Douglas L.
What is the relation between humans and non-human animals? From a biological perspective, we view humans as one species among many, but in the fables and films we create for children, we often offer an anthropocentric perspective, imbuing non-human animals with human-like characteristics. What are the consequences of these distinctly different perspectives on children's reasoning about the natural world? Some have argued that children universally begin with an anthropocentric perspective and that acquiring a biological perspective requires a basic conceptual change (cf. Carey, 1985). But recent work reveals that this anthropocentric perspective, evidenced in urban 5-year-olds, is not evident in 3-year-olds (Herrmann etal., 2010). This indicates that the anthropocentric perspective is not an obligatory first step in children's reasoning about biological phenomena. In the current paper, we introduced a priming manipulation to assess whether 5-year-olds' reasoning about a novel biological property is influenced by the perspectives they encounter in children's books. Just before participating in a reasoning task, each child read a book about bears with an experimenter. What varied was whether bears were depicted from an anthropomorphic (Berenstain Bears) or biological perspective (Animal Encyclopedia). The priming had a dramatic effect. Children reading the Berenstain Bears showed the standard anthropocentric reasoning pattern, but those reading the Animal Encyclopedia adopted a biological pattern. This offers evidence that urban 5-year-olds can adopt either a biological or a human-centered stance, depending upon the context. Thus, children's books and other media are double-edged swords. Media may (inadvertently) support human-centered reasoning in young children, but may also be instrumental in redirecting children's attention to a biological model. PMID:24672493
Waxman, Sandra R; Herrmann, Patricia; Woodring, Jennie; Medin, Douglas L
Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal and pathogen of several mammalian species, particularly humans and cattle. We aimed to (i) identify S. aureus genes associated with host specificity, (ii) determine the relatedness of human and animal isolates, and (iii) identify whether human and animal isolates typically exchanged mobile genetic elements encoding virulence and resistance genes. Using a well-validated seven-strain S. aureus
Julia M.-L. Sung; David H. Lloyd; Jodi A. Lindsay
The National Academy of Sciences re- cently issued voluntary guidelines to govern human embryonic stem cell research. Among other restric- tions, these guidelines prohibit certain kinds of combi- nations of human and nonhuman animal cells, and call for ethics review and oversight of any protocol involv- ing the transfer of human embryonic stem cells into nonhuman animals. In this essay,
Jason Scott Robert
Infectious fungi are among a broad group of microbial pathogens that has and continues to emerge concomitantly due to the global AIDS pandemic as well as an overall increase of patients with compromised immune systems. In addition, many pathogens have been emerging and reemerging, causing disease in both individuals who have an identifiable immune defect and those who do not. The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii can infect individuals with and without an identifiable immune defect, with a broad geographic range including both endemic areas and emerging outbreak regions. Infections in patients and animals can be severe and often fatal if untreated. We review the molecular epidemiology, population structure, clinical manifestations, and ecological niche of this emerging pathogen.
Byrnes, Edmond J.; Bartlett, Karen H.; Perfect, John R.; Heitman, Joseph
In the field of the pet robot and robot assisted therapy (RAT), the creatural motion is important for the robots imitated the form of various animals. This paper presents the generation method of animal gait for quadrupedal robot. Here, we have employed AIBO as experimental quadrupedal robot and created the gait of AIBO in imitation of animal gait. At first,
Hitoshi Nishi; Hidekazu Suzuki
This website contains Flash animations and real footage movies (QuickTime format) from a physical geography textbook. Animations show phenomena associated with the atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere/cryosphere. Animations are slow to download and cannot be rewound to stress important points. Users may also follow links to PowerPoint slides, interactive activities, an image library and an instructor's manual.
Strahler, Alan H.; University, Boston; Education, Wiley H.
The genetic deficiency of ALDH2, a major mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, is intimately related to alcohol sensitivity and the degree of predisposition to alcoholic diseases in humans. The ultimate biological role of ALDH2 can be exposed by knocking out the ALDH2 gene in an animal model. As the first step for this line of studies, we cloned and characterized the ALDH2 gene from mouse C57/6J strain which is associated with a high alcohol preference. The gene spans 26 kbp and is composed of 13 exons. Embryonic stem cells were transfected with a replacement vector which contains a partially deleted exon3, a positive selection cassette (pPgk Neo), exon 4 with an artificial stop codon, exons 5, 6, 7, and a negative selection cassette (pMCI-Tk). Genomic DNAs prepared from drug resistant clones were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and by Southern blot analysis to distinguish random integration from homologous recombination. Out of 132 clones examined, 8 had undergone homologous recombination at one of the ALDH2 alleles. The cloned transformed embryonic stem cells with a disrupted ALDH2 allele were injected into blastocysts. Transplantation of the blastocysts into surrogate mother mice yielded chimeric mice. The role of ALDH2 in alcohol preference, alcohol sensitivity and other biological and behavioral characteristics can be elucidated by examining the heterozygous and homozygous mutant strains produced by breeding of chimeric mice.
Chang, C.; Mann, J.; Yoshida, A. [Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA (United States)
Previous human studies have demonstrated that midazolam-induced signal changes on scalp EEG recording include widespread augmentation of sigma-oscillations and that the amplitude of such oscillations is correlated to the severity of midazolam-induced amnesia. Still unanswered questions include whether midazolam-induced sigma-augmentation also involves the medial temporal region, which plays a role in memory encoding. Taking advantage of rare and unique opportunities to monitor neuronal activities using intracranial electrocorticography (ECoG) recording, we determined how intravenous administration of midazolam elicited spectral frequency changes in the human cerebral cortex, including the medial temporal region. We studied three children with focal epilepsy who underwent subdural electrode placement and extraoperative ECoG recording for subsequent resection of the seizure focus; an intravenous bolus of midazolam was given to abort an ongoing simple partial seizure or to provide sedation prior to induction of general anesthesia. 'Midazolam-induced ECoG frequency alteration' in sites distant from the seizure focus was sequentially animated on their individual three-dimensional MR images. The common ECoG changes induced by midazolam included gradual augmentation of sigma-oscillations (12-16 Hz) in the widespread non-epileptic regions, including the medial temporal region. The spatial and temporal alteration of ECoG spectral frequency pattern can be appreciated via animation movies. Midazolam-induced sigma-augmentation was observed in the medial temporal region in our relatively small cohort of human subjects. In-vivo animation of ECoG spectral measures provided a unique situation to study the effect of midazolam on neuronal processing in the deep brain regions. PMID:19733366
Nishida, Masaaki; Sood, Sandeep; Asano, Eishi
Abstract Significance: Severe life stress (SLS), as opposed to trivial everyday stress, is defined as a serious psychosocial event with the potential of causing an impacting psychological traumatism. Recent Advances: Numerous studies have attempted to understand how the central nervous system (CNS) responds to SLS. This response includes a variety of morphological and neurochemical modifications; among them, oxidative stress is almost invariably observed. Oxidative stress is defined as disequilibrium between oxidant generation and the antioxidant response. Critical Issues: In this review, we discuss how SLS leads to oxidative stress in the CNS, and how the latter impacts pathophysiological outcomes. We also critically discuss experimental methods that measure oxidative stress in the CNS. The review covers animal models and human observations. Animal models of SLS include sleep deprivation, maternal separation, and social isolation in rodents, and the establishment of hierarchy in non-human primates. In humans, SLS, which is caused by traumatic events such as child abuse, war, and divorce, is also accompanied by oxidative stress in the CNS. Future Directions: The outcome of SLS in humans ranges from resilience, over post-traumatic stress disorder, to development of chronic mental disorders. Defining the sources of oxidative stress in SLS might in the long run provide new therapeutic avenues. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1475–1490.
Jaquet, Vincent; Trabace, Luigia; Krause, Karl-Heinz
Humans face daunting challenges in the successful exploration and colonization of space, including adverse alterations in gravity and radiation. The Earth-determined biology of humans, animals and plants is significantly modified in such extraterrestrial environments. One physiological requirement shared by humans with larger plants and animals is a complex, highly branching vascular system that is dynamically responsive to cellular metabolism, immunological protection and specialized cellular/tissue function. The VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) Analysis has been developed as a mature beta version, pre-release research software for mapping and quantification of the fractal-based complexity of vascular branching. Alterations in vascular branching pattern can provide informative read-outs of altered vascular regulation. Originally developed for biomedical applications in angiogenesis, VESGEN 2D has provided novel insights into the cytokine, transgenic and therapeutic regulation of angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and other microvascular remodeling phenomena. Vascular trees, networks and tree-network composites are mapped and quantified. Applications include disease progression from clinical ophthalmic images of the human retina; experimental regulation of vascular remodeling in the mouse retina; avian and mouse coronary vasculature, and other experimental models in vivo. We envision that altered branching in the leaves of plants studied on ISS such as Arabidopsis thaliana cans also be analyzed.
Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.; Vickerman, Mary B.; Keith, Patricia A.
Animal papillomaviruses are widely used as models to study papillomavirus infection in humans despite differences in genome organization and tissue tropism. Here, we have investigated the extent to which animal models of papillomavirus infection resemble human disease by comparing the life cycles of 10 different papillomavirus types. Three phases in the life cycles of all viruses were apparent using antibodies that distinguish between early events, the onset of viral genome amplification, and the expression of capsid proteins. The initiation of these phases follows a highly ordered pattern that appears important for the production of virus particles. The viruses examined included canine oral papillomavirus, rabbit oral papillomavirus (ROPV), cottontail rabbit papillomavirus (CRPV), bovine papillomavirus type 1, and human papillomavirus types 1, 2, 11, and 16. Each papillomavirus type showed a distinctive gene expression pattern that could be explained in part by differences in tissue tropism, transmission route, and persistence. As the timing of life cycle events affects the accessibility of viral antigens to the immune system, the ideal model system should resemble human mucosal infection if vaccine design is to be effective. Of the model systems examined here, only ROPV had a tissue tropism and a life cycle organization that resembled those of the human mucosal types. ROPV appears most appropriate for studies of the life cycles of mucosal papillomavirus types and for the development of prophylactic vaccines. The persistence of abortive infections caused by CRPV offers advantages for the development of therapeutic vaccines.
Peh, Woei Ling; Middleton, Kate; Christensen, Neil; Nicholls, Philip; Egawa, Kiyofumi; Sotlar, Karl; Brandsma, Janet; Percival, Alan; Lewis, Jon; Liu, Wen Jun; Doorbar, John
Classification of human and animal targets imaged by a linear pyroelectic array senor presents some unique challenges especially in target segmentation and feature extraction. In this paper, we apply two approaches to address this problem. Both techniques start with the variational energy functional level set segmentation technique to separate the object from background. After segmentation, in the first technique, we extract features such as texture, invariant moments, edge, shape information, and spectral contents of the segmented object. These features are fed to classifiers including Naïve Bayesian (NB), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) for human against animal classification. In the second technique, the speeded up robust feature (SURF) extraction algorithm is applied to the segmented objects. A code book technique is used to classify objects based on SURF features. Human and animal data acquired-using the pyroelectric sensor in different terrains, are used for performance evaluation of the algorithms. The evaluation indicates that the features extracted in the first technique in conjunction with the NB classifier provide the highest classification rates. While the SURF feature plus code book approach provides a slightly lower classification rate, it provides better computational efficiency lending itself to real time implementation.
Hossen, Jakir; Jacobs, Eddie; Chari, Srikant
The NOD/SCID human chimeric animal model was generated by implanting of human fetal bones (FBs) into subcutaneous sites of NOD/SCID mice (NOD/SCID-hu+), followed by inoculation of primary bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMNCs) obtained from patients with multiple myeloma (MM) into the FBs. The BMNCs from 30 patients with MM were inoculated, and 28 (93%) of them revealed evidence of tumor growth of myeloma cells (MCs) in the NOD/SCID-hu+ mice. Intriguingly, 17 (61%) of the 28 patients’ BMNCs inoculated developed not only myeloma in the bone marrow of the FBs, but also extramedullary macrotumors (EMTs) along the periosteum of the FBs. The tumor cells in these EMTs had plasmacytoid morphology and preserved antigens and cytogenetics similar, if not identical, to those in the parent MCs. Moreover, small tumor blocks from nine EMTs were transplanted into subcutaneous sites of subsequent recipient NOD/SCID mice without human FBs (NOD/SCID-hu?), and all but one grew successfully. Two of the EMTs have been maintained in the animal model for more than 12 months. The NOD/SCID-hu+ chimeric animal model is highly efficient for growth of primary MCs and presents clinical features of human MM. The engrafted MCs can be maintained subsequently in NOD/SCID-hu? mice as in vivo culture.
Huang, Shang-Yi; Tien, Hwei-Fang; Su, Fang-Hsein; Hsu, Su-Ming
A growing body of evidence suggests that animals of vari- ous species can discriminate among the humans with whom they have regular contact. This discriminative ability has considerable implications for research. Because animal life is hedonistic, there is a strong incentive for animal subjects to predict the events that bring them pleasure and pain. Many research settings attempt to deliver
Although osteoporosis is a major health concern for our growing population of the elderly, there continues to be a need for well-designed clinical and animal studies on the link between dietary magnesium (Mg) intake and osteoporosis. Relatively few animal studies have assessed the skeletal and hormonal impact of long-term low Mg intake; however, these studies have demonstrated that Mg deficiency
Robert K. Rude; Helen E. Gruber
It was recently reported that Streptococcus iniae, a bacterial pathogen of aquatic animals, can cause serious disease in humans. Using the chaperonin 60 (Cpn60) gene identification method with reverse checkerboard hybridization and chemiluminescent detection, we identified correctly each of 12 S. iniae samples among 34 aerobic gram-positive isolates from animal and clinical human sources.
Goh, Swee Han; Driedger, David; Gillett, Sandra; Low, Donald E.; Hemmingsen, Sean M.; Amos, Mayben; Chan, David; Lovgren, Marguerite; Willey, Barbara M.; Shaw, Carol; Smith, John A.
We describe the HUMANOID environment dedicated to human modeling and animation for general multimedia, VR, and CAD applications integrating virtual humans. We present the design of the system and the integration of the various features: generic modeling of a large class of entities with the BODY data structure, realistic skin deformation for body and hands, facial animation, collision detection, integrated
Ronan Boulic; Tolga K. Capin; Zhiyong Huang; Prem Kalra; B. Linterrnann; Nadia Magnenat-thalmann; Laurent Moccozet; Tom Molet; Igor S. Pandzic; Kurt Saar; Alfred Schmitt; J. Shen; Daniel Thalmann
There is only modest overlap in the most common alcohol consumption phenotypes measured in animal studies and those typically studied in humans. To address this issue, we identified a number of alcohol consumption phenotypes of importance to the field that have potential for consilience between human and animal models. These phenotypes can be broken down into three categories: 1) abstinence/the decision to drink or abstain; 2) the actual amount of alcohol consumed and 3) heavy drinking. A number of suggestions for human and animal researchers are made in order to address these phenotypes and enhance consilience. Laboratory studies of the decision to drink or abstain are needed in both human and animal research. In human laboratory studies, heavy or binge drinking that meets cut-offs used in epidemiological and clinical trials should be reported. Greater attention to patterns of drinking over time is needed in both animal and human studies. Individual differences pertaining to all consumption phenotypes should be addressed in animal research. Lastly, improved biomarkers need to be developed in future research for use with both humans and animals. Greater precision in estimating blood alcohol levels in the field together with consistent measurement of breath/blood alcohol levels in human laboratory and animal studies provides one means of achieving greater consilience of alcohol consumption phenotypes.
Leeman, Robert F.; Heilig, Markus; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Stephens, David N.; Duka, Taheodora; O'Malley, Stephanie S.
The recent increase in concentrated animal feeding operations in the United States has caused renewed concern regarding the infectious diseases that may be passed from farm animals to humans via the environment. It is also known that more than 20 recent epidemics among humans cou...
A survey was conducted to determine the occurrence of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in animal and human fecal samples. Fecal samples from 14 animal species and humans were analyzed by quantitative culture for enterococci and VRE. Over 800 VRE isolates were characterize...
Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been shown to be a potent nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and teratogenic compound. In farm animals, the intake of feed contaminated with OTA affects animal health and productivity, and may result in the presence of OTA in the animal products. Strategies for the control of OTA in food products require early identification and elimination of contaminated commodities from the food chain. However, current analytical protocols may fail to identify contaminated products, especially in animal feed. The present paper discusses the impact of OTA on human and animal health, with special emphasis on the potential risks of OTA residue in animal products, and control strategies applied in the feed industry.
Denli, Muzaffer; Perez, Jose F.
Purpose of review Comparative genomics allows researchers to combine genome wide association data from humans with studies in animal models in order to assist in the identification of the genes and the genetic variants that modify susceptibility to dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Recent findings Association and linkage studies in human and rodent species have been successful in identifying genetic loci associated with complex traits, but have been less robust in identifying and validating the responsible gene and/or genetic variants. Recent technological advancements have assisted in the development of comparative genomic approaches, which rely on the combination of human and rodent datasets and bioinformatics tools, followed by the narrowing of concordant loci and improved identification of candidate genes and genetic variants. Additionally, candidate genes and genetic variants identified by these methods have been further validated and functionally investigated in animal models, a process that is not feasible in humans. Summary Comparative genomic approaches have lead to the identification and validation of several new genes, including a few not previously implicated, as modifiers of plasma lipid levels and atherosclerosis, yielding new insights into the biological mechanisms of these complex traits.
Berisha, Stela Z.; Smith, Jonathan D.
Background Pig keeping is becoming increasingly common across sub-Saharan Africa. Domestic pigs from the Arusha region of northern Tanzania were screened for trypanosomes using PCR-based methods to examine the role of pigs as a reservoir of human and animal trypanosomiasis. Methods A total of 168 blood samples were obtained from domestic pigs opportunistically sampled across four districts in Tanzania (Babati, Mbulu, Arumeru and Dodoma) during December 2004. A suite of PCR-based methods was used to identify the species and sub-species of trypanosomes including: Internally Transcribed Sequence to identify multiple species; species specific PCR to identify T. brucei s. l. and T. godfreyi and a multiplex PCR reaction to distinguish T. b. rhodesiense from T. brucei s. l. Results Of the 168 domestic pigs screened for animal and human infective trypanosome DNA, 28 (16.7%) were infected with one or more species of trypanosome; these included: six pigs infected with Trypanosoma vivax (3.6%); three with Trypanosoma simiae (1.8%); two with Trypanosoma congolense (Forest) (1%) and four with Trypanosoma godfreyi (2.4%). Nineteen pigs were infected with Trypanosoma brucei s. l. (10.1%) of which eight were identified as carrying the human infective sub-species Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (4.8%). Conclusion These results show that in Tanzania domestic pigs may act as a significant reservoir for animal trypanosomiasis including the cattle pathogens T. vivax and T. congolense, the pig pathogen T. simiae, and provide a significant reservoir for T. b. rhodesiense, the causative agent of acute Rhodesian sleeping sickness.
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease in animals and has been hypothesized to be associated with Crohn's disease in humans. Recently, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates recovered from Crohn's disease patients were shown to have limited diversity, implying the existence of human disease-associated genotypes and strain sharing with animals (A. H. Ghadiali et al., J.
Alifiya S. Motiwala; Harish K. Janagama; Michael L. Paustian; Xiaochun Zhu; John P. Bannantine; Vivek Kapur; Srinand Sreevatsan
Most of the natural cases of pneumonia in feedlot cattle are characterized by a longer clinical course due to chronic lung lesions. Microscopically, these lesions include interstitial fibroplasia, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis obliterans, and epithelial metaplasia of the airways. Herein, the aim was to review, under a medical perspective, the pathologic mechanisms operating in these chronic pneumonic lesions in calves. Based on the similarities of these changes to those reported in bronchiolitis obliterans/organising pneumonia (BO/OP) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in human beings, calves are proposed as an alternative animal model.
Ramirez-Romero, Rafael; Nevarez-Garza, Alicia M.; Rodriguez-Tovar, Luis E.; Wong-Gonzalez, Alfredo; Ledezma-Torres, Rogelio A.; Hernandez-Vidal, Gustavo
The nematode genus Baylisascaris (order Ascaridida, superfamily Ascaridoidea) contains nine relatively host-specific, parasite species of carnivores, omnivores, herbivores, carnivorous marsupials or rodents. They have a facultative heteroxenous life cycle, at least under experimental conditions. Eggs passed in faeces embryonate in the environment and the second-stage larva infective for both definitive and intermediate hosts develops. In intermediate hosts larvae migrate extensively through tissues, where they grow and moult to the third-stage, causing extensive damage. All Baylisascaris spp. are considered a potential cause of visceral, ocular and/or neural larval migrans in mammals including humans and in birds. This paper summarises our current knowledge on the prevalence, biology, pathogenicity and zoonotic significance of three Baylisascaris species: B. transfuga, B. schroederi and B. procyonis which have as definitive hosts bears, giant pandas and raccoons (occasionally dogs), respectively. PMID:23339846
Ochratoxin A (OTA) exposure via ingestion and inhalation has been described in the literature to cause kidney disease in both animals and humans. This paper reviews Ochratoxin A and its relationship to human health and kidney disease with a focus on a possible association with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in humans. Prevention and treatment strategies for OTA-induced illness are also discussed, including cholestyramine, a bile-acid-binding resin used as a sequestrant to reduce the enterohepatic recirculation of OTA.
Hope, Janette H.; Hope, Bradley E.
Zoonotic pathogens have caused the majority of emerging infectious disease events in the past 6 decades. With most emerging infectious diseases arising from animal origins, including many of the select agents identified as most likely candidates for bioterrorism, linking human and animal surveillance systems will be critical to effective disease identification and control in the future. Lack of this linkage has been the focus of a number of important policy papers in recent years. These have expressed concern over the continued lack of preparedness for addressing zoonotic threats and have called for a new approach to integrating biosurveillance. However, these studies have been mainly Western-centric in viewpoint and have overlooked the example of the Russian Federation (RF) Anti-Plague System (AP system). In this article we submit that the RF AP system has select components that effectively address recent concerns and inform the US and UK intersectoral efforts on human-animal health surveillance, forming a basis for US, UK, and RF collaboration. PMID:24041194
McNamara, Tracey; Platonov, Alexander; Elleman, Tatyana; Gresham, Louise
In his lecture, Shiller will discuss the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. Winner of the getAbstract International Book Award and the 2009 TIAA-CREF Paul A. Samuelson Award for Outstanding Scholarly Writing on Lifelong Financial Security, the book, which has the same title as Shiller's lecture, discusses how "animal spirits," or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today's global financial crisis. John Maynard Keynes coined the phrase "animal spirits" to describe the changing psychology that led to the Great Depression and the recovery from it. Like Keynes, Shiller and Akerlof believe that government intervention is necessary to overcome the adverse effects on the economy brought about by unruly and irrational human emotions. In his talk, Shiller will explain how "animal spirits" lead to adverse economic effects, and he will outline his insights on how the global economy can recover from its recent setbacks.
Stem cells derived from adult tissues or the inner cell mass (ICM) of embryos in the mammalian blastocyst (BL) stage are capable of self-renewal and have remarkable potential for undergoing lineage-specific differentiation under in vitro culturing conditions. In particular, neural stem cells (NSCs) that self-renew and differentiate into major cell types of the brain exist in the developing and adult central nervous system (CNS). The exact function and distribution of NSCs has been assessed, and they represent an interesting population that includes astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neurons. Many researchers have demonstrated functional recovery in animal models of various neurological diseases such as stroke, Parkinson's disease (PD), brain tumors, and metastatic tumors. The safety and efficacy of stem cell-based therapies (SCTs) are also being evaluated in humans. The therapeutic efficacy of NSCs has been shown in the brain disorder-induced animal models, and animal models may be well established to perform the test before clinical stage. Taken together, data from the literature have indicated that therapeutic NSCs may be useful for selectively treating diverse types of human brain diseases without incurring adverse effects.
Yi, Bo-Rim; Kim, Seung U.
In his lecture, Shiller will discuss the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. Winner of the getAbstract International Book Award and the 2009 TIAA-CREF Paul A. Samuelson Award for Outstanding Scholarly Writing on Lifelong Financial Security, the book, which has the same title as Shiller's lecture, discusses how "animal spirits," or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today's global financial crisis. John Maynard Keynes coined the phrase "animal spirits" to describe the changing psychology that led to the Great Depression and the recovery from it. Like Keynes, Shiller and Akerlof believe that government intervention is necessary to overcome the adverse effects on the economy brought about by unruly and irrational human emotions. In his talk, Shiller will explain how "animal spirits" lead to adverse economic effects, and he will outline his insights on how the global economy can recover from its recent setbacks.
Shiller, Robert J. (Yale) [Yale
Investigates the effects of both computer animations of microscopic chemical processes occurring in a galvanic cell and conceptual-change instruction based on chemical demonstrations on students' conceptions of current flow in electrolyte solutions. Finds that conceptual change instruction was effective at dispelling student misconceptions but…
Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.
The LDH isoenzyme and RNase activities of hepatic or hepatopancreatic and muscle tissues were studied. The animals examined are 1 species of echinoderm, 7 species of molluscs, 2 species of arthropods, 1 species of chordate, and 6 species of vertebrate. Th...
K. Y. Lee S. C. Park
The volatile by-products of the combustion of ordinary fuels such as wood, polystyrene, polyethylene, urethane foam, PVC and the like are well known to the forensic fire debris examiner. When a fire involves a human body, volatile species are produced that are not so well known, including various alkenes and aldehydes. These have sometimes been mistaken for the residues of unusual accelerants. In an attempt to document what volatiles are produced by the combustion of animal fat and human fat, the authors have used an open-tube pyrolysis probe as a microfurnace to burn small samples of unembalmed subcutaneous fat from human, avian and porcine sources, and collect volatiles by charcoal strip adsorption. The volatile products were analyzed by GC/MS. Predominant species included aldehydes in the C6-C10 range, homologous series of alkenes and alkanes, and other hydrocarbon products. These results were compared to those obtained by free-burning (open flame in air) of similar specimens and to the volatiles detected in debris from beneath a human cadaver in a test fire. Differences between the volatile profiles produced by human fat as compared to pork and chicken fat and adventitious sources of such volatiles are discussed. PMID:15527185
DeHaan, J D; Brien, D J; Large, R
The importance of including neurodevelopmental endpoints in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive fucntion in human infants that also has a parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for largescale studies. Such a ho...
The importance of including neurodevelopmental end points in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive function in human infants that also has a homologous or parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for large-scale studie...
Cystic hydatid disease (CHD) is one of the most important zoonotic diseases in different parts of Iran. While it causes major health problem, there is limited information about its transmission cycles and reservoirs of human infection. Therefore we aimed to characterize the existence Echinococcus granulosus cysts in humans and animals in the province of Isfahan, central region of Iran. We collected hydatid cysts from the liver and lungs of patients who underwent surgery procedure and also cysts were obtained from domestic animals at slaughterhouses. DNA was extracted from the protoscoleces and examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of rDNA internal transcribed spacer1 (ITS1-PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). In addition, fragments of the genes coding for mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) were sequenced. Among the two different identified strains/genotypes (sheep and camel), the sheep strain was shown to be the most common genotype of E. granulosus affecting humans, sheep, cattle, goats and occasionally camels. Nine out of 26 camel samples were infected with sheep strain. However the camel genotype was observed in humans, camels and cattle. Seventeen out of 26 camel isolates, 6 out of 31 human and 5 out of 14 cattle samples were infected with the camel genotype. The camel genotypes had PCR and RFLP patterns which were different from the PCR and RFLP patterns of the rest of isolates (sheep strain). The results of this study showed that the 'camel' strain was actual source of infection to humans which circulates between intermediate hosts including camels and cattle, and it confirms the camel-dog transmission cycle in Isfahan. PMID:20858453
Shahnazi, Mojtaba; Hejazi, Hosein; Salehi, Mansour; Andalib, Ali Reza
The purpose of immunotoxicity testing is to obtain data that is meaningful for safety assessment. Host resistance assays are the best measure of a toxicant's effect on the overall ability to mount an effective immune response and protect the host from infectious disease. An outline is presented for immunotoxicological evaluation using host resistance assays. The influenza virus host resistance model is useful to evaluate the overall health of the immune system and is one of the most thoroughly characterized host resistance models. Viral clearance requires all aspects of the immune system to work together and is the ultimate measure of the health of the immune system in this model. Mechanistic immune functions may be included while measuring viral clearance and include: cytokines, macrophage activity, natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity, and influenza-specific IgM and IgG. Measurement of these immunological functions provides an evaluation of innate immunity (macrophage or NK activity), an evaluation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) (CTL activity), and an evaluation of humoral-mediated immunity (HMI) (influenza-specific IgM or IgG). Measurement of influenza-specific IgM or IgG also provides a measurement of T-dependent antibody response (TDAR) since influenza is a T-dependent antigen. There are several targeted host resistance models that may be used to answer specific questions. Should a defect in neutrophil and/or macrophage function be suspected, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Listeria monocytogenes host resistance models are useful. Anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals or therapeutics for rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn's disease that target TNFalpha may also be evaluated for immunotoxicity using the S. pneumoniae intranasal host resistance assay. Marginal zone B (MZB) cells are required for production of antibody to T-independent antigens such as the polysaccharide capsule of the encapsulated bacteria that are so prominent in causing blood-borne infections and pneumonia. Intravenous infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae, an encapsulated bacterium, results in a blood-borne infection that requires MZB cells for clearance. The systemic S. pneumoniae host resistance assay evaluates whether a therapeutic test article exerts immunotoxicity on MZB cells and measures the T-independent antibody response (TIAR). Suppression of CMI or in some cases HMI may result in reactivation of latent virus that may result in a fatal disease such as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). The murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) reactivation model may be used to evaluate a pharmaceutical agent to determine if suppression of CMI or HMI results in reactivation of latent virus. Candida albicans is another host resistance model to test potential immunotoxicity. Host resistance assays have been the ultimate measure of immunotoxicity testing for environmental chemicals and pharmaceutical small molecules. Human biologicals are now an important component of the drug development armamentarium for biotech and pharmaceutical companies. Many human biologicals are fusions of IgG, and/or target immune mediators, immunological receptors, adhesion molecules, and/or are indicated for diseases that have immune components. It is therefore necessary to thoroughly evaluate human biological therapeutics for immunotoxicity. Numerous biologicals that are pharmacologically active in rodents can be evaluated using well-characterized rodent host resistance assays. However, biologicals not active in rodents may use surrogate biologicals for testing in rodent host resistance assays, or may use host resistance assays in genetically engineered mice that mimic the effect of the human biological pharmacological agent. PMID:18382855
Burleson, Gary R; Burleson, Florence G
...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships Â§ 86.33 Human...
...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants Â§ 86.19 Human...
Microsporidia are ubiquitous parasites infecting all animal phyla and we present evidence that supports their zoonotic potential. Fecal samples taken from domestic (cats and dogs), farm (pigs, rabbits and ostriches) and wild animals (foxes) from different provinces of Spain were evaluated for microsporidia infection by light microscopy and PCR. After Microsporidia species identification, E. bieneusi genotypes were additionally studied by sequence analysis of the ITS region. Eighty-five samples out of 159 exhibited structures that were compatible with microsporidia spores by Webe?s stain with 37 of them being confirmed by PCR. Microsporidia species identified included E. bieneusi, E. intestinalis and A. algerae. We report the first diagnosis of E. intestinalis and E. bieneusi in ostriches and A. algerae in pigs. We also provide new information on the molecular characterization of E. bieneusi isolates both in rabbits and ostriches. All of the E. bieneusi genotypes identified belonged to the zoonotic group of genotypes (Group I) including genotypes A (dogs), I (pigs), D (rabbits and foxes) and type IV (ostriches). Our results demonstrate that microsporidia are present in domestic, farm and wild animals in Spain, corroborating their potential role as a source of human infection and environmental contamination. PMID:24651457
Galván-Díaz, Ana Luz; Magnet, Angela; Fenoy, Soledad; Henriques-Gil, Nuno; Haro, María; Gordo, Francisco Ponce; Miró, Guadalupe; del Águila, Carmen; Izquierdo, Fernando
Microsporidia are ubiquitous parasites infecting all animal phyla and we present evidence that supports their zoonotic potential. Fecal samples taken from domestic (cats and dogs), farm (pigs, rabbits and ostriches) and wild animals (foxes) from different provinces of Spain were evaluated for microsporidia infection by light microscopy and PCR. After Microsporidia species identification, E. bieneusi genotypes were additionally studied by sequence analysis of the ITS region. Eighty-five samples out of 159 exhibited structures that were compatible with microsporidia spores by Webe?s stain with 37 of them being confirmed by PCR. Microsporidia species identified included E. bieneusi, E. intestinalis and A. algerae. We report the first diagnosis of E. intestinalis and E. bieneusi in ostriches and A. algerae in pigs. We also provide new information on the molecular characterization of E. bieneusi isolates both in rabbits and ostriches. All of the E. bieneusi genotypes identified belonged to the zoonotic group of genotypes (Group I) including genotypes A (dogs), I (pigs), D (rabbits and foxes) and type IV (ostriches). Our results demonstrate that microsporidia are present in domestic, farm and wild animals in Spain, corroborating their potential role as a source of human infection and environmental contamination.
Galvan-Diaz, Ana Luz; Magnet, Angela; Fenoy, Soledad; Henriques-Gil, Nuno; Haro, Maria; Gordo, Francisco Ponce; Miro, Guadalupe; del Aguila, Carmen; Izquierdo, Fernando
Simultaneous infection of the allantoic sac of the chick embryo with influenza A\\/equine 1\\/56 and any of three recombinants derived from human influenza viruses produced stable hybrids with antigens from each parent strain. These hybrids contain the hemagglutinin protein of the equine virus and the neuraminidase of the human strains. The experiments demonstrate genetic homology of human and equine influenza
Edwin D. Kilbourne
This paper describes the method for modeling human figure locomotions with emotions. Fourier expansions of experimental data of actual human behaviors serve as a basis from which the method can interpolate or extrapolate the human locomotions. This means, for instance, that transition from a walk to a run is smoothly and realistically performed by the method. Moreover an individual's character
Munetoshi Unuma; Ken-ichi Anjyo; Ryozo Takeuchi
This review focuses on the immunization of animals as a means of preventing human diseases (zoonoses). Three frameworks for the use of vaccines in this context are described, and examples are provided of successes and failures. Framework I vaccines are used for protection of humans and economically valuable animals, where neither plays a role in the transmission cycle. The benefit of collaborations between animal health and human health industries and regulators in developing such products is discussed, and one example (West Nile vaccine) of a single product developed for use in animals and humans is described. Framework II vaccines are indicated for domesticated animals as a means of preventing disease in both animals and humans. The agents of concern are transmitted directly or indirectly (e.g. via arthropod vectors) from animals to humans. A number of examples of the use of Framework II vaccines are provided, e.g. against brucellosis, Escherichia coli O157, rabies, Rift Valley fever, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Hendra virus. Framework III vaccines are used to immunize wild animals as a means of preventing transmission of disease agents to humans and domesticated animals. Examples are reservoir-targeted, oral bait rabies, Mycobacterium bovis and Lyme disease vaccines. Given the speed and lost cost of veterinary vaccine development, some interventions based on the immunization of animals could lead to rapid and relatively inexpensive advances in public health. Opportunities for vaccine-based approaches to preventing zoonotic and emerging diseases that integrate veterinary and human medicine (the One Health paradigm) are emphasized. PMID:24060567
Monath, Thomas P
Between 1996 and 1998, a total of 2,494 samples of blood from humans and animals were collected and tested for brucellosis. This total included 1,594 samples of animal blood, collected from 1,050 sheep from 20 flocks, and 544 goats from eight herds. The serum samples were tested using the Rose Bengal test, the tube agglutination test, the complement fixation test and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, a complete history was compiled from each flock/herd. The rate of abortions in sheep due to brucellosis ranged from 0.5% to 56%, with a mean of 33.2%. The goats had a higher abortion rate. Thirty-four aborted sheep foetuses collected from these 20 flocks were bacteriologically and pathologically examined. A pure culture of Brucella melitensis biotype 3 was isolated from 21 of the aborted foetuses. The human blood samples were collected from two groups: first, from 800 apparently healthy people who were reporting to community hospitals for routine health checks and secondly, from 100 people from groups with a high-risk of contracting brucellosis, such as veterinarians, sheep-herders and laboratory technicians. The Brucella antibody titres for the 900 human serum samples were obtained using the microtitre agglutination test. The cumulative percentage of the serum samples showing a titre reading greater than 1:80 was higher in the at-risk group than among the normal population (7% compared to 4.1%). Although these results were not statistically significant, the higher percentage of positive reactors among the high-risk group may indicate an increased risk factor among professional agricultural and veterinary personnel in Jordan. It was concluded that brucellosis is common in sheep and goats in Jordan, subjecting the human population to high risks. Brucella melitensis Rev. 1 vaccination has been internationally recognised as the key to successfully controlling the disease. All animals in Jordan were repeatedly vaccinated between 1996 and 1998 on a trial basis, using a reduced dose of 1 x 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU). Cumulative data on the annual rate of human cases of brucellosis indicate that fewer people are affected each year. The same is true for the rate of abortions in animals. Such evidence strongly suggests that the vaccination programme has been successful. However, as wild strains of Brucella have also been isolated from vaccinated animals, the authors recommend increasing the amount of vaccine to a full dose of 1 to 2 x 10(9) CFU and vaccinating young female animals between the ages of three and eight months. To avoid brucellosis in humans, people should be educated about the dangers of contact with infected animals and the consumption of raw milk and milk products. PMID:15861878
Al-Ani, F K; El-Qaderi, S; Hailat, N Q; Razziq, R; Al-Darraji, A M
Cancer pain is not a single entity but a complex pain state involving different pain syndromes, with inflammatory, neuropathic, compressive, and ischaemic mechanisms. Current therapeutic regimens are based largely on opioids, although opioid treatment can lead to many side effects. Studies using animal models of cancer pain are aimed at understanding cancer pain and developing novel therapies. The most frequently reported models are of bone cancer pain, predominantly modelling pain associated with tumour growth within bone marrow. Here we summarise recent findings from studies using animal models of cancer pain and discuss the methodological quality of these studies. PMID:24760492
Currie, Gillian L; Sena, Emily S; Fallon, Marie T; Macleod, Malcolm R; Colvin, Lesley A
We have developed TransChromo (TC) technology, which enables the introduction of megabase-sized segments of DNA into cells. We have used this approach to derive mice that carry megabases of human DNA by the use of a human chromosome fragment (HCF) as a vector. TC technology has been applied to the construction of the TC Mouse,trade mark which incorporates entire human immunoglobulin (hIg) loci. TC Mouse expresses a fully diverse repertoire of hIgs, including all the subclasses of IgGs (IgG1-G4). Immunization of the TC Mouse with various human antigens produced antibody responses comprised of human antibodies. Furthermore, it was possible to obtain hybridoma clones expressing fully human antibodies specific for the target human antigen. However, because of the instability of the Igkappa locus-bearing HCF2, the efficiency of hybridoma production was less than one-tenth of that observed in normal mice. An instant solution to this problem was to cross-breed the Kirin TC Mouse carrying the HCF14, which was stable in mouse cells, with the Medarex YAC-transgenic mouse carrying about 50% of the hIgVkappa gene segments as a region that is stably integrated into the mouse genome. The resulting mouse, dubbed the KM Mouse, performed as well as normal mice with regard to immune responsiveness and efficiency of hybridoma production. Another application of TC technology is the production of polyclonal antibodies in large animals such as chickens and cows. To test the efficacy of human polyclonal antibodies derived from TC animals, feasibility studies were performed using antisera and purified gamma-globulin from TC mice immunized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), or Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). The TC mouse-derived antisera and gamma-globulin showed a much higher titer and efficacy in terms of the neutralizing activity of the pathogens in vitro and in vivo than either human serum or gamma-globulin prepared from human blood. PMID:12006160
Ishida, Isao; Tomizuka, Kazuma; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Tahara, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Ohguma, Atsuko; Tanaka, Sonoko; Umehashi, Misako; Maeda, Hiroaki; Nozaki, Chikateru; Halk, Ed; Lonberg, Nils
Purpose. Secretions that are produced by meibomian glands (also known as meibum) are a major source of lipids for the ocular surface of humans and animals alike. Many animal species have been evaluated for their meibomian lipidomes. However, there have been a very small number of studies in which the animals were compared with humans side by side. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare meibum collected from humans and three typical laboratory animals, canines, mice, and rabbits, for their meibomian lipid composition in order to determine which animal species most resembles humans. Methods. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) in combination with mass spectrometry were used to evaluate lipidomes of all tested species. Results. Among three tested animal species, mice were found to be the closest match to humans in terms of their meibomian lipidomes, while canines were the second closest species. The lipids of these three species were close to each other structurally and, for most lipid classes, quantitatively. The rabbit meibomian lipidome, on the other hand, was vastly different from lipidomes of all other tested species. Interestingly, a previously described class of lipids, acylated omega-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFA), was found to be present in every tested species as the major amphiphilic component of meibum. Conclusions. Our side by side comparison of the rabbit and the human meibum demonstrated their vast differences. Thus, the rabbit seems to be a poor animal model of the human tear film, at least when studying its biochemistry and biophysics.
Butovich, Igor A.; Lu, Hua; McMahon, Anne; Eule, J. Corinna
SUMMARY We are in the midst of unparalleled epidemics of obesity and type 2 diabetes - complex phenotypes originating at the intersection of genetic and environmental risk. As detailed in other chapters, evidence indicates that non-genetic, or environmental, risk may initiate during prenatal and early postnatal life1. Striking examples in humans include the association of low birth weight (LBW) and/or accelerated early growth with increased risk of insulin resistance, obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and cardiovascular disease (CVD), and the close relationship between maternal obesity or diabetes with childhood obesity. In this chapter, we will focus on the intriguing emerging data from both humans and animal models which indicate that intrauterine and childhood exposures can also influence risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in subsequent generations. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for these effects is critical in order to develop effective metabolic and nutritional interventions to interrupt such vicious intergenerational cycles potentiating risk for metabolic disorders.
Sarcocystosis, an unusual parasitic zoonotic disease, is caused by coccidian/ apicomplexan protozoa in humans and animals. The parasites usually develop in a heteroxenous predator-prey life-cycle involving final (carnivore) and intermediate (omnivore/herbivore) hosts. Besides the intestinal, non-invasive form of the disease in which humans and animals are the definitive hosts for certain Sarcocystis spp., the invasive form has come to recent attention. In the latter, humans and animals serve as intermediate host harbouring sarcocysts in their muscle tissue. Already in 1991 sarcocystosis was seen as a potential emerging food borne zoonosis in Malaysia, and in 2011 and 2012 the largest cluster of symptomatic human muscular sarcocystosis world-wide was reported from Tioman Island, Pahang state. In this review, we focus on invasive sarcocystosis in humans and animals in Malaysia, review the recorded cases and epidemiology, and present hypotheses. PMID:24189667
Tappe, D; Abdullah, S; Heo, C C; Kannan Kutty, M; Latif, B
Few researchers have studied the predictive ability of childhood animal cruelty motives as they are associated with later recurrent violence toward humans. Based on a sample of 180 inmates at one medium- and one maximum-security prison in a Southern state, the present study examines the relationship among several retrospectively identified motives (fun, out of anger, hate for the animal, and imitation) for childhood animal cruelty and the later commission of violent crimes (murder, rape, assault, and robbery) against humans. Almost two thirds of the inmates reported engaging in childhood animal cruelty for fun, whereas almost one fourth reported being motivated either out of anger or imitation. Only one fifth of the respondents reported they had committed acts of animal cruelty because they hated the animal. Regression analyses revealed that recurrent animal cruelty was the only statistically significant variable in the model. Respondents who had committed recurrent childhood animal cruelty were more likely to have had committed recurrent adult violence toward humans. None of the motives for committing childhood animal cruelty had any effect on later violence against humans. PMID:22007109
Overton, Joshua C; Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E
Opioid abuse has increased in the last decade, primarily as a result of increased access to prescription opioids. Physicians are also increasingly administering opioid analgesics for noncancer chronic pain. Thus, knowledge of the long-term consequences of opioid use/abuse has important implications for fully evaluating the clinical usefulness of opioid medications. Many studies have examined the effect of opioids on the endocrine system; however, a systematic review of the endocrine actions of opioids in both humans and animals has, to our knowledge, not been published since 1984. Thus, we reviewed the literature on the effect of opioids on the endocrine system. We included both acute and chronic effects of opioids, with the majority of the studies done on the acute effects although chronic effects are more physiologically relevant. In humans and laboratory animals, opioids generally increase GH and prolactin and decrease LH, testosterone, estradiol, and oxytocin. In humans, opioids increase TSH, whereas in rodents, TSH is decreased. In both rodents and humans, the reports of effects of opioids on arginine vasopressin and ACTH are conflicting. Opioids act preferentially at different receptor sites leading to stimulatory or inhibitory effects on hormone release. Increasing opioid abuse primarily leads to hypogonadism but may also affect the secretion of other pituitary hormones. The potential consequences of hypogonadism include decreased libido and erectile dysfunction in men, oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea in women, and bone loss or infertility in both sexes. Opioids may increase or decrease food intake, depending on the type of opioid and the duration of action. Additionally, opioids may act through the sympathetic nervous system to cause hyperglycemia and impaired insulin secretion. In this review, recent information regarding endocrine disorders among opioid abusers is presented.
Vuong, Cassidy; Van Uum, Stan H. M.; O'Dell, Laura E.; Lutfy, Kabirullah; Friedman, Theodore C.
Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the past decades, a series of animal models have been developed to advance vaccine development, provide insights into immunity to infection, and study the pathogenesis of human Salmonella disease. The successive introduction of new animal models, each suited to interrogate previously neglected aspects of Salmonella disease, has ushered in important conceptual advances that continue to have a strong and sustained influence on the ideas driving research on Salmonella serotypes. This article reviews important milestones in the use of animal models to study human Salmonella disease and identify research needs to guide future work. PMID:21343352
Tsolis, Renée M; Xavier, Mariana N; Santos, Renato L; Bäumler, Andreas J
Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the past decades, a series of animal models have been developed to advance vaccine development, provide insights into immunity to infection, and study the pathogenesis of human Salmonella disease. The successive introduction of new animal models, each suited to interrogate previously neglected aspects of Salmonella disease, has ushered in important conceptual advances that continue to have a strong and sustained influence on the ideas driving research on Salmonella serotypes. This article reviews important milestones in the use of animal models to study human Salmonella disease and identify research needs to guide future work.
Tsolis, Renee M.; Xavier, Mariana N.; Santos, Renato L.; Baumler, Andreas J.
Imagine you are asked to produce a 3D animation of a demonic armchair terrorizing an innocent desk lamp. You may think about model rigging, skeleton deformation, and keyframing. Depending on your experience, you might imagine hours to days at the controls of Maya or Blender. But even if you have absolutely no computer graphics experience, it can be so much
Jiawen Chen; Shahram Izadi; Andrew Fitzgibbon
Information on the reproductive and developmental toxicity of inorganic arsenic is available primarily from studies in animals using arsenite and arsenate salts and arsenic trioxide. Inorganic arsenic has been extensively studied as a teratogen in animals. Data from animal studies demonstrate that arsenic can produce developmental toxicity, including malformation, death, and growth retardation, in four species (hamsters, mice, rats, rabbits).
Mari S. Golub; Michael S. Macintosh; Nikki Baumrind
Background The animal efficacy rule addressing development of drugs for selected disease categories has pointed out the need to develop alternative large animal models. Based on this rule, the pathophysiology of the disease in the animal model must be well characterized and must reflect that in humans. So far, manifestations of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) have been extensively studied only in two large animal models, the non-human primate (NHP) and the canine. We are evaluating the suitability of the minipig as an additional large animal model for development of radiation countermeasures. We have previously shown that the Gottingen minipig manifests hematopoietic ARS phases and symptoms similar to those observed in canines, NHPs, and humans. Principal Findings We establish here the LD50/30 dose (radiation dose at which 50% of the animals succumb within 30 days), and show that at this dose the time of nadir and the duration of cytopenia resemble those observed for NHP and canines, and mimic closely the kinetics of blood cell depletion and recovery in human patients with reversible hematopoietic damage (H3 category, METREPOL approach). No signs of GI damage in terms of diarrhea or shortening of villi were observed at doses up to 1.9 Gy. Platelet counts at days 10 and 14, number of days to reach critical platelet values, duration of thrombocytopenia, neutrophil stress response at 3 hours and count at 14 days, and CRP-to-platelet ratio were correlated with survival. The ratios between neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelets were significantly correlated with exposure to irradiation at different time intervals. Significance As a non-rodent animal model, the minipig offers a useful alternative to NHP and canines, with attractive features including ARS resembling human ARS, cost, and regulatory acceptability. Use of the minipig may allow accelerated development of radiation countermeasures.
Moroni, Maria; Lombardini, Eric; Salber, Rudolph; Kazemzedeh, Mehdi; Nagy, Vitaly; Olsen, Cara; Whitnall, Mark H.
Male-specific bacteriophage (MSB) densities were determined in animal and human fecal wastes to assess their potential impact on aquatic environments. Fecal samples (1,031) from cattle, chickens, dairy cows, dogs, ducks, geese, goats, hogs, horses, seagulls, sheep, and humans as well as 64 sewerage samples were examined for MSB. All animal species were found to harbor MSB, although the great majority excreted these viruses at very low levels. The results from this study demonstrate that in areas affected by both human and animal wastes, wastewater treatment plants are the principal contributors of MSB to fresh, estuarine, and marine waters.
Calci, Kevin R.; Burkhardt, William; Watkins, William D.; Rippey, Scott R.
Following the ban of all food animal growth-promoting antibiotics by Sweden in 1986, the European Union banned avoparcin in 1997 and bacitracin, spiramycin, tylosin and virginiamycin in 1999. Three years later, the only attributable effect in humans has been a diminution in acquired resistance in enterococci isolated from human faecal carriers. There has been an increase in human infection from
Mark Casewell; Christian Friis; Enric Marco; Paul McMullin; Ian Phillips
Giardia is the most common intestinal protozoan parasite found in humans and animals worldwide. Although it has been known for three hundred years, the nomenclature, taxonomy, host specificity, and pathogenicity of Giardia still arouse numerous controversies and ambiguities. Giardia is classified into six species, that are characterised by various ranges of hosts. The most dubious species is G. intestinalis, which includes a dozen or so genotypes, and only two of them (genotype A and B) have wide ranges of hosts, including humans. Moreover, in some genotype assemblages of G. intestinalis certain subgenotypes were distinguished and it was proven that in the same host species various subgenotypes of this parasite may occur. Bearing in mind the significant genetic heterogeneity of G. intestinalis and the fact that various genotypes and subgenotypes of this parasite are characterised by the broad or narrow host specificity, the data concerning the frequency of giardiosis occurrence are insufficient. It is necessary to use molecular biology techniques in order to define the genotype and/or the subgenotype of G. intestinalis that are found in humans and in certain animal species. Furthermore, since more and more pieces of evidence connected with a possibility of the sexual recombination of Giardia are gathered, it is unknown if genotypes and subgenotypes of this parasite are stable in time. The aim of this thesis was to define the frequency of Giardia occurrence in humans and animals in Wielkopolska region, to identify species and genotypes of Giardia that occur in humans and animals, as well as to obtain an axenic culture of the chosen isolates of Giardia from animals and to compare the sequence of the beta-giardin gene fragment obtained from the DNA isolated from cysts and trophozoites in order to check if the axenisation of G. intestinalis leads to the selection of genotypes or if Giardia genotypes are stable in time. Altogether, 2183 faecal samples were examined for the presence of Giardia cysts; 447 faecal samples were taken from 232 persons coming from 5 cities situated in Wielkopolska, and 1736 faecal samples were obtained from 123 animal species, including: 266 faecal samples from 113 species of animals kept in the Zoological Garden in Pozna?, 1286 samples from 4 species of breeding animals, 118 samples from dogs, and 66 samples from 5 species of wild animals. Faecal samples were taken from animals coming from 25 places in Wielkopolska. Moreover, seven isolates of G. intestinalis were used in the studies, which were obtained from various species of hosts and kept in an axenic in vitro culture. Microscopic, molecular and bio-informative methods were used in the studies. From each faecal sample fresh smears were made in a 0.6% solution of physiological salt and in Lugol's solution, as well as a permanent smear stained with trichrome was made. Moreover, the following molecular techniques were implemented in the studies: DNA extraction and purification, the PCR technique (two molecular markers), electrophoresis and visualisation of PCR products, and sequencing. A fragment of the beta-giardin gene was used as a molecular marker in order to define the genotype and subgenotype of Giardia. Only in the case of genotyping of two Giardia isolates obtained from Peromyscus eremicus another molecular marker (SSU rRNA)was additionally used. Some widely available computer programmes (Chromas, CAP 3, BioEdit, BLASTn, MEGA version 4.0) were utilised in the analysis of the sequence of the beta-giardin gene fragment and in the phylogenetic analysis. The culture of Giardia trophozoites was established to compare the sequence of the partial beta-giardin gene from cysts and trophozoites. Concentration and purification of Giardia cysts in the saccharose gradient, and the excystation technique were applied in the studies to obtaining an axenic in vitro culture. In this study, Giardia cysts were found in 12 faecal samples obtained from 3 persons and 5 animal species. Giardia cysts were found only in faecal samples from humans living in Pozna?
The synthesis of human hand motion and grasping of arbitrary shaped objects is a very complex problem. Therefore high-level control is needed to perform these actions. In order to satisfy the kinematic and physical constraints associated with the human hand and to reduce the enormous search space associated with the problem of grasping objects, a knowledge based approach is used.
Hans Rijpkema; Michael Girard
Illustrating contexts for and voices of the Indigenous humanities, this essay aims to clarify what the Indigenous humanities can mean for reclaiming education as Indigenous knowledges and pedagogies. After interrogating the visual representation of education and place in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, the essay turns to media constructions of…
Battiste, Marie; Bell, Lynne; Findlay, Isobel M.; Findlay, Len; Henderson, James Youngblood
This review gives a comprehensive overview of cancer development and links it to the current understanding of tumorigenesis and malignant progression in colorectal cancer. The focus is on human and murine colorectal carcinogenesis and the histogenesis of this malignant disorder. A summary of a model of colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis (an AOM/DSS model) will also be presented. The earliest phases of colorectal oncogenesis occur in the normal mucosa, with a disorder of cell replication. The large majority of colorectal malignancies develop from an adenomatous polyp (adenoma). These can be defined as well-demarcated masses of epithelial dysplasia, with uncontrolled crypt cell proliferation. When neoplastic cells pass through the muscularis mucosa and infiltrate the submucosa, they are malignant. Carcinomas usually originate from pre-existing adenomas, but this does not imply that all polyps undergo malignant changes and does not exclude de novo oncogenesis. Besides adenomas, there are other types of pre-neoplasia, which include hyperplastic polyps, serrated adenomas, flat adenomas and dysplasia that occurs in the inflamed colon in associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Colorectal neoplasms cover a wide range of pre-malignant and malignant lesions, many of which can easily be removed during endoscopy if they are small. Colorectal neoplasms and/or pre-neoplasms can be prevented by interfering with the various steps of oncogenesis, which begins with uncontrolled epithelial cell replication, continues with the formation of adenomas and eventually evolves into malignancy. The knowledge described herein will help to reduce and prevent this malignancy, which is one of the most frequent neoplasms in some Western and developed countries.
The pharmacokinetic behavior of panipenem (PAPM)-betamipron (BP), a new carbapenem, in humans was successfully predicted from data collected from six animal species. PAPM and BP were biphasically eliminated from plasma after intravenous (i.v.) administration of PAPM-BP to mice, guinea pigs, rats, rabbits, monkeys, and dogs. Elimination rates of PAPM and BP were correlated with animal size: the larger the animal was, the slower the elimination was. As for PAPM and BP, log-log plots of total plasma clearance (CLtot) versus body weight and log-log plots of distribution volume at steady state (VSS) versus body weight for six animal species were linear, with high correlation coefficients. These allometric equations were extrapolated to predict CLtot and VSS for PAPM and BP in humans. In addition, concentration in plasma-time profiles for humans were predicted by using two-exponent equations fitted to the complex Dedrick plot of animal data. Predicted values for CLtot and VSS for PAPM and BP in humans agreed well with observed values in humans given 750/750 mg of PAPM-BP as an i.v. drip infusion for 30 min. Predicted concentration in plasma-time profiles for humans approximated observed profiles. Thus, the pharmacokinetics of PAPM-BP extrapolated well from animal species to humans when allometric equations and the complex Dedrick plot were used.
Kurihara, A; Naganuma, H; Hisaoka, M; Tokiwa, H; Kawahara, Y
Sepsis is a serious problem among the geriatric population as its incidence and mortality rates dramatically increase with advanced age. Despite a large number of ongoing clinical and basic research studies, there is currently no effective therapeutic strategy that rescues elderly patients with severe sepsis. Recognition of this problem is relatively low as compared to other age-associated diseases. The disparity between clinical and basic studies is a problem, and this is likely due, in part, to the fact that most laboratory animals used for sepsis research are not old while the majority of sepsis cases occur in the geriatric population. The objective of this article is to review recent epidemiological studies and clinical observations, and compare these with findings from basic laboratory studies which have used aged animals in experimental sepsis.
Starr, Marlene E; Saito, Hiroshi
Real-time control of three-dimensional avatars is an important problem in the context of computer games and virtual environments. Avatar animation and control is difficult, however, because a large repertoire of avatar behaviors must be made available, and the user must be able to select from this set of behaviors, possibly with a low-dimensional input device. One appealing approach to obtaining
Jehee Lee; Jinxiang Chai; Paul S. A. Reitsma; Jessica K. Hodgins; Nancy S. Pollard
Iron is an essential nutrient for humans and other animals, and must be consumed in adequate amounts to ensure proper growth and development, as well as good health of the organism. Dietary sources of iron can be divided into two types: non-heme iron, mostly provided by plant foods, and heme iron, present in animal foods. Heme iron intake is usually
Marta Vasconcelos; Michael A. Grusak
The list of introduced vertebrate species now legally considered to be pests in New Zealand numbers nearly 50. Their common and Latin names are given in Table1. These pests, and the methods by which they are controlled, have significant impacts, both intentional and unintentional, on people, animals and the environment. The control of animals that threaten human health, safety or
KE Littin; DJ Mellor; B Warburton
Animated icons may offer substantial advantage over static icons for human-computer communication. Nonetheless, problems and challenges remain. For example, the constant motion of animated icons can be distracting or tedious for users. Another challenge relates to the ease of learning and use of iconic interfaces in general: how can icons provide more helpful information to users regarding their intended use?
SHERMAN R. ALPERT
In this article, research on nonhuman animals is reviewed to show that there is no discontinuity between humans and other animals. For both, high density is not necessarily harmful. Rather, the effect of high density depends on other factors in the situation. (Author)
Freedman, Jonathan L.
Cognitive deficits following acute administration of corticosteroids have been described in experimental animals and humans. In both populations, an inverted-U shape relationship has been reported between the dose of corticosteroids administered and the nature and extent of the cognitive deficits induced by corticosteroids. Further studies in animals have revealed a two-level recognition system for adrenal steroids, which was later more
Sonia J. Lupien; Bruce S. McEwen
This guide for choosing humane children's books (i.e., books in which animals are not eaten, expolited, or treated with cruelty) presents reviews of over 100 books for children up to age 7. Both subtle and blatant examples of animal exploitation portrayed in children's picture books are examined. Reviews are grouped into 3 categories: kind books,…
A scientific evaluation was made of functionalspects of developmental toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in experimental animals and in human infants. Persistent neurobehavioral, reproductive and endocrine alterations were observed in experimental animals, following in utero and lactational exposure to PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs. The lowest observable adverse effect levels (LOAELs) for developmental neurobehavioral
Abraham Brouwer; Ulf G. Ahlborg; Martin Van den Berg; Linda S. Birnbaum; E. Ruud Boersma; Bart Bosveld; Michael S. Denison; L. Earl Gray; Lars Hagmar; Edel Holene; Marcel Huisman; Sandra W. Jacobson; Joseph L. Jacobson; Corine Koopman-Esseboom; Janna G. Koppe; Beverly M. Kulig; Dennis C. Morse; Gina Muckle; Richard E. Peterson; Pieter J. J. Sauer; Richard F. Seegal; Annette E. Smits-Van Prooije; Bert C. L. Touwen; Nynke Weisglas-Kuperus; Gerhard Winneke
This student activity engages the students' thinking by listening to a story, brainstorming ideas in small groups about how human activity or natural disasters could possibly impact an animal's environment, and then reinforcing that thinking using a board game called Save an Animal.
During the decade of the 1990s and the first years of the current century, our group embarked on a project to study and synthesize human milk oligosaccharides. This report describes 2 unexpected collateral observations from that endeavor. The first observation was the detection and confirmation of 2 rare neutral human milk oligosaccharides profiles that were uncovered while assessing oligosaccharide content in hundreds of samples of human milk. One of these lacked fucosylated structures altogether, and the other lacked the oligosaccharide 3-fucosyllactose [Gal?1-4(Fuc?1-3)Glc]. We used glycoconjugate probes to determine whether the unusual profiles were mirrored by fucosylation of milk glycoproteins. The results show that the lack of fucosylated oligosaccharides in these samples corresponds to the absence of equivalent fucosylated motifs in milk glycoproteins. The second finding was a shortened and distinct lactation process in transgenic rabbits expressing the human fucosyltransferase 1. During the first day of lactation, these animals expressed milk that contained both lactose and 2'-fucosylactose, but on the second day, the production of milk was severely diminished, and by the fourth day, no lactose was detected in their milk. Meanwhile, the concentration of fucosylated glycoproteins increased from the onset of lactation through its premature termination. These 2 findings may shed light on the glycobiology of milk and perhaps on mammary gland differentiation. PMID:22585925
Prieto, Pedro Antonio
The purpose of the report was (1) to study the human health effects of subtherapeutic use of penicillin and tetracycline (chloretracycline and oxytetracycline) in animal feeds; (2) to review and analyze published and unpublished epidemiological data and o...
Six high-level evernimicin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates were identified among 304 avilamycin-resistant E. faecium isolates from animals and 404 stool samples from humans with diarrhea. All four animal isolates, and one of the human isolates, were able to transfer resistance to a susceptible E. faecium strain. The resulting transconjugants all tested positive for the presence of emtA, a gene encoding a methyltransferase previously linked with high-level evernimicin resistance. The four transconjugants derived from animal isolates all carried the same plasmid, while a differently sized plasmid was found in the isolate from humans. This study demonstrated a low incidence of high-level evernimicin resistance mediated by the emtA gene in different E. faecium isolates of animal and human origin.
Aarestrup, Frank M?ller; McNicholas, Paul M.
A scientific evaluation was made of functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in experimental animals and in human infants. ersistent neurobehavioral, reproductive, and endocrine alteration...
The rate of emergence for emerging infectious diseases has increased dramatically over the last century, and research findings have implicated wildlife as an importance source of novel pathogens. However, the role played by domestic animals as amplifiers of pathogens emerging from the wild could also be significant, influencing the human infectious disease transmission cycle. The impact of domestic hosts on human disease emergence should therefore be ascertained. Here, using three independent datasets we showed positive relationships between the time since domestication of the major domesticated mammals and the total number of parasites or infectious diseases they shared with humans. We used network analysis, to better visualize the overall interactions between humans and domestic animals (and amongst animals) and estimate which hosts are potential sources of parasites/pathogens for humans (and for all other hosts) by investigating the network architecture. We used centrality, a measure of the connection amongst each host species (humans and domestic animals) in the network, through the sharing of parasites/pathogens, where a central host (i.e. high value of centrality) is the one that is infected by many parasites/pathogens that infect many other hosts in the network. We showed that domesticated hosts that were associated a long time ago with humans are also the central ones in the network and those that favor parasites/pathogens transmission not only to humans but also to all other domesticated animals. These results urge further investigation of the diversity and origin of the infectious diseases of domesticated animals in their domestication centres and the dispersal routes associated with human activities. Such work may help us to better understand how domesticated animals have bridged the epidemiological gap between humans and wildlife. PMID:24642136
Morand, Serge; McIntyre, K Marie; Baylis, Matthew
We conducted a retrospective study of Escherichia coli isolates recovered from human and food animal samples during 1950-2002 to assess historical changes in antimicrobial drug resistance. A total of 1,729 E. coli isolates (983 from humans, 323 from cattle, 138 from chickens, and 285 from pigs) were tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial drugs. A significant upward trend in resistance was observed for ampicillin (p<0.001), sulfonamide (p<0.001), and tetracycline (p<0.001). Animal strains showed increased resistance to 11/15 antimicrobial agents, including ampicillin (p<0.001), sulfonamide (p<0.01), and gentamicin (p<0.001). Multidrug resistance (?3 antimicrobial drug classes) in E. coli increased from 7.2% during the 1950s to 63.6% during the 2000s. The most frequent co-resistant phenotype observed was to tetracycline and streptomycin (29.7%), followed by tetracycline and sulfonamide (29.0%). These data describe the evolution of resistance after introduction of new antimicrobial agents into clinical medicine and help explain the range of resistance in modern E. coli isolates. PMID:22515968
Tadesse, Daniel A; Zhao, Shaohua; Tong, Emily; Ayers, Sherry; Singh, Aparna; Bartholomew, Mary J; McDermott, Patrick F
We conducted a retrospective study of Escherichia coli isolates recovered from human and food animal samples during 1950–2002 to assess historical changes in antimicrobial drug resistance. A total of 1,729 E. coli isolates (983 from humans, 323 from cattle, 138 from chickens, and 285 from pigs) were tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial drugs. A significant upward trend in resistance was observed for ampicillin (p<0.001), sulfonamide (p<0.001), and tetracycline (p<0.001). Animal strains showed increased resistance to 11/15 antimicrobial agents, including ampicillin (p<0.001), sulfonamide (p<0.01), and gentamicin (p<0.001). Multidrug resistance (?3 antimicrobial drug classes) in E. coli increased from 7.2% during the 1950s to 63.6% during the 2000s. The most frequent co-resistant phenotype observed was to tetracycline and streptomycin (29.7%), followed by tetracycline and sulfonamide (29.0%). These data describe the evolution of resistance after introduction of new antimicrobial agents into clinical medicine and help explain the range of resistance in modern E. coli isolates.
Tadesse, Daniel A.; Zhao, Shaohua; Tong, Emily; Ayers, Sherry; Singh, Aparna; Bartholomew, Mary J.
Fecal samples from animal species and humans were analyzed by quantitative culture for enterococci and vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE). Each host species carried enterococci which exhibited intrinsic intermediate resistance to vancomycin and sensitivity to teicoplanin (Van C phenotype). The carriage rate in humans was 9%. Carriage rates varied among animal species with the highest percentages being found in deer, duck, goose, horse and turkey. PMID:12812721
Rice, Eugene W; Boczek, Laura A; Johnson, Clifford H; Messer, James W
Basal lung concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA), nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH), and a-tocopherol (a-T) were determined in rabbits, guinea pigs, rats, hamsters, mice, domestic pigs and sheep, and in human lung samples obtained from cancer surgery patients....
R. Slade A. G. Stead J. A. Graham G. E. Hatch
...Registration-- Human and Animal Food.'' The draft CPG is...or hold food for human or animal consumption in the United States...consequences or death to humans or animals, FDA may by order suspend...does not create or confer any rights for or on any person and...
...with specific human food or animal food/feed and processes...contamination) for human food and animal food/feed. Implementing... Microbiological and other testing used to help ensure the safety of specific human food and animal food/feed. Specific...
...compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. 530.13 Section 530.13...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. (a) This part applies to...
...from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. 530.13 Section...compounding of a product from approved animal or human drugs by a veterinarian or...compounding of approved new animal or human drugs is permitted if:...
...from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. 530.13 Section...compounding of a product from approved animal or human drugs by a veterinarian or...compounding of approved new animal or human drugs is permitted if:...
Although both the human and animal literatures are notable for the general lack of attention paid to possible sex differences in drug self-administration behavior, evidence is accumulating to suggest that males and females may differ in factors that maintain tobacco smoking or nicotine self-administration. Self-administration of nicotine per se may be less robust in women, and women are less sensitive than men to some effects of nicotine that may be reinforcing. Compared to men, smoking behavior of women may be influenced more by non-nicotine stimuli associated with smoking, suggesting greater conditioned reinforcement of smoking in women. Moreover, nicotine replacement, the current standard treatment for smoking cessation, is sometimes less effective in women, further suggesting the need for greater consideration of non-nicotine factors that may maintain women's smoking. Very recent research on rats also indicates sex differences in nicotine self-administration. However, these differences are complex and suggest that nicotine-seeking behavior is composed of several components, including hedonic, incentive-motivational, and conditioning effects; males and females may differ in one or more of these components. Menstrual or estrous cycle phase effects on the maintenance of nicotine self-administration are not particularly apparent in humans or animals, although cycle phase may influence other stages of dependence (e.g., withdrawal symptoms during cessation). Future research should evaluate further the consistency of results across human and non-human species, identify the conditions and procedures under which sex differences are observed, and elucidate the specific components of reinforcement that may differ between males and females. Studies also should examine the possible generalizability of these sex differences to other drugs of abuse. Identification of specific factors responsible for these sex differences may lead to improved interventions for smoking cessation and other substance abuse in women. PMID:11072427
Perkins, K A; Donny, E; Caggiula, A R
Summary Two cases of human early pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma were presented, and ductal lesions observed histologically were compared\\u000a to those induced in hamsters using a rapid-production model of pancreatic carcinoma. In human cases, direct histologic evidence\\u000a was obtained to suggest that cancerous changes arose from duct epithelial cell hyperplasia, because lesions of hyperplasia\\u000a and carcinoma coexisted in continuity. In hamster serialkilling
Yoichi Konishi; Kazuhiro Mizumoto; Shunji Kitazawa; Toshifumi Tsujiuchi; Masahiro Tsutsumi; Toshiki Kamano
The internal areas and the position of integration of the glycopeptide resistance element Tn1546 were characterized by using PCR fragment length polymorphism, sequencing, and DNA hybridization techniques with 38 high-level vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolates of human and animal origins from Europe and the United States. Only minor variations in the coding regions within Tn1546 were found, suggesting high genetic stability. The isolates originated from broilers (n = 5), a chicken (n = 1), a duck (n = 1), a turkey (n = 1), pigs (n = 8), a pony (n = 1), and humans (n = 23). A total of 13 different types were defined based on a single-nucleotide difference in the vanX gene, the presence of insertion sequences, and hybridization patterns. For some types more than one isolate were found. For type 1, 10 isolates of both human and animal origins were 1found. All were indistinguishable from the reference strain, BM4147. For type 2, 11 isolates of human and animal origins were found. Six human isolates from England were all of type 3. Two human isolates from the United States, indistinguishable from each other, were type 9. These results showed that vancomycin-resistant E. faecium of animal and human origins can contain indistinguishable genetic elements coding for vancomycin resistance, indicating either horizontal gene transfer between E. faecium organisms of human and animal origins or the existence of a common reservoir for glycopeptide resistance.
Jensen, Lars Bog?; Ahrens, Peter; Dons, Lone; Jones, Ronald N.; Hammerum, Anette M.; Aarestrup, Frank M?ller
Many human viral infections have a zoonotic, i.e., wild or domestic animal, origin. Several zoonotic viruses are transmitted to humans directly via contact with an animal or indirectly via exposure to the urine or feces of infected animals or the bite of a bloodsucking arthropod. If a virus is able to adapt and replicate in its new human host, human-to-human transmissions may occur, possibly resulting in an epidemic, such as the A/H1N1 flu pandemic in 2009. Thus, predicting emerging zoonotic infections is an important challenge for public health officials in the coming decades. The recent development of viral metagenomics, i.e., the characterization of the complete viral diversity isolated from an organism or an environment using high-throughput sequencing technologies, is promising for the surveillance of such diseases and can be accomplished by analyzing the viromes of selected animals and arthropods that are closely in contact with humans. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of viral diversity within such animals (in particular blood-feeding arthropods, wildlife and domestic animals) using metagenomics and present its possible future application for the surveillance of zoonotic and arboviral diseases. PMID:24918293
Temmam, Sarah; Davoust, Bernard; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle
Many human viral infections have a zoonotic, i.e., wild or domestic animal, origin. Several zoonotic viruses are transmitted to humans directly via contact with an animal or indirectly via exposure to the urine or feces of infected animals or the bite of a bloodsucking arthropod. If a virus is able to adapt and replicate in its new human host, human-to-human transmissions may occur, possibly resulting in an epidemic, such as the A/H1N1 flu pandemic in 2009. Thus, predicting emerging zoonotic infections is an important challenge for public health officials in the coming decades. The recent development of viral metagenomics, i.e., the characterization of the complete viral diversity isolated from an organism or an environment using high-throughput sequencing technologies, is promising for the surveillance of such diseases and can be accomplished by analyzing the viromes of selected animals and arthropods that are closely in contact with humans. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of viral diversity within such animals (in particular blood-feeding arthropods, wildlife and domestic animals) using metagenomics and present its possible future application for the surveillance of zoonotic and arboviral diseases.
Temmam, Sarah; Davoust, Bernard; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle
Summary: Tapeworms (Cestoda) continue to be an important cause of morbidity in humans worldwide. Diphyllobothriosis, a human disease caused by tapeworms of the genus Diphyllobothrium, is the most important fish-borne zoonosis caused by a cestode parasite. Up to 20 million humans are estimated to be infected worldwide. Besides humans, definitive hosts of Diphyllobothrium include piscivorous birds and mammals, which represent a significant zoonotic reservoir. The second intermediate hosts include both freshwater and marine fish, especially anadromous species such as salmonids. The zoonosis occurs most commonly in countries where the consumption of raw or marinated fish is a frequent practice. Due to the increasing popularity of dishes utilizing uncooked fish, numerous cases of human infections have appeared recently, even in the most developed countries. As many as 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium can cause human diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum and D. nihonkaiense being the most important pathogens. In this paper, all taxa from humans reported are reviewed, with brief information on their life history and their current distribution. Data on diagnostics, epidemiology, clinical relevance, and control of the disease are also summarized. The importance of reliable identification of human-infecting species with molecular tools (sequences of mitochondrial genes) as well as the necessity of epidemiological studies aimed at determining the sources of infections are pointed out.
Scholz, Tomas; Garcia, Hector H.; Kuchta, Roman; Wicht, Barbara
Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) are novel group of small, nonenveloped, bisegmented and double stranded RNA viruses. PBVs have been identified in the faeces of a broad range of hosts by several international research groups. Since attempts to culture PBV in vitro have not been made to date and no animal model of infection and disease exists. Laboratory diagnosis relies upon electron microscopy, the detection of the double stranded RNA bisegmented genome by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. PBVs have been identified in both normal and diarrheic faeces. Although their pathogenicity is still unclear, their potential needs further investigation.
Mondal, Anjan; Majee, Sharmila
We investigated the animal and human baby schema effect (BSE) in relation to gender, parental status, and individual features. In three, independent online surveys, conducted during three consecutive years, (Ntotal=1389), ratings of photographs of human and animal infants as well as of adults, sociodemographic variables (age, gender, parental status) and personality attributes (empathy, attachment, interpersonal closeness, narcissism, and need to belong) were assessed. We demonstrated that humans are sensitive to the baby schemata of both humans and animals and that both are weakly positively correlated. BSE is positively associated with female gender and (affective) empathy. Higher interpersonal closeness and need to belong were additionally connected specifically to the human BSE. In contrast, narcissism and insecure attachment were not related to the BSE, suggesting a robustness of this phenomenon to possible negative influences of these two personality attributes. PMID:23353724
Lehmann, Vicky; Huis in't Veld, Elisabeth M J; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M
Why are sustained energy budgets of humans and other vertebrates limited to not more than about seven times resting metabolic rate? The answer to this question has potential applications to growth rates, foraging ecology, biogeography, plant metabolism, burn patients and sports medicine.
Kimberly A. Hammond; Jared Diamond
Despite the pre-eminence of the mouse in modelling human disease, several aspects of murine biology limit its routine use in large-scale genetic and therapeutic screening. Many researchers who are interested in an embryologically and genetically tractable disease model have now turned to zebrafish. Zebrafish biology allows ready access to all developmental stages, and the optical clarity of embryos and larvae
Graham J. Lieschke; Peter D. Currie
A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environmnet," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxi...
Basal lung concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA), nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH), and a-tocopherol (a-T) were determined in rabbits, guinea pigs, rats, hamsters, mice, domestic pigs and sheep, and in human lung samples obtained from cancer surgery patients. Significant differences ...
SelenoDB (http://www.selenodb.org) aims to provide high-quality annotations of selenoprotein genes, proteins and SECIS elements. Selenoproteins are proteins that contain the amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) and the first release of the database included annotations for eight species. Since the release of SelenoDB 1.0 many new animal genomes have been sequenced. The annotations of selenoproteins in new genomes usually contain many errors in major databases. For this reason, we have now fully annotated selenoprotein genes in 58 animal genomes. We provide manually curated annotations for human selenoproteins, whereas we use an automatic annotation pipeline to annotate selenoprotein genes in other animal genomes. In addition, we annotate the homologous genes containing cysteine (Cys) instead of Sec. Finally, we have surveyed genetic variation in the annotated genes in humans. We use exon capture and resequencing approaches to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms in more than 50 human populations around the world. We thus present a detailed view of the genetic divergence of Sec- and Cys-containing genes in animals and their diversity in humans. The addition of these datasets into the second release of the database provides a valuable resource for addressing medical and evolutionary questions in selenium biology. PMID:24194593
Romagné, Frédéric; Santesmasses, Didac; White, Louise; Sarangi, Gaurab K; Mariotti, Marco; Hübler, Ron; Weihmann, Antje; Parra, Genís; Gladyshev, Vadim N; Guigó, Roderic; Castellano, Sergi
Background Animal models are indispensable tools in studying the cause of human diseases and searching for the treatments. The scientific value of an animal model depends on the accurate mimicry of human diseases. The primary goal of the current study was to develop a cross-species method by using the animal models' expression data to evaluate the similarity to human diseases' and assess drug molecules' efficiency in drug research. Therefore, we hoped to reveal that it is feasible and useful to compare gene expression profiles across species in the studies of pathology, toxicology, drug repositioning, and drug action mechanism. Results We developed a cross-species analysis method to analyze animal models' similarity to human diseases and effectiveness in drug research by utilizing the existing animal gene expression data in the public database, and mined some meaningful information to help drug research, such as potential drug candidates, possible drug repositioning, side effects and analysis in pharmacology. New animal models could be evaluated by our method before they are used in drug discovery. We applied the method to several cases of known animal model expression profiles and obtained some useful information to help drug research. We found that trichostatin A and some other HDACs could have very similar response across cell lines and species at gene expression level. Mouse hypoxia model could accurately mimic the human hypoxia, while mouse diabetes drug model might have some limitation. The transgenic mouse of Alzheimer was a useful model and we deeply analyzed the biological mechanisms of some drugs in this case. In addition, all the cases could provide some ideas for drug discovery and drug repositioning. Conclusions We developed a new cross-species gene expression module comparison method to use animal models' expression data to analyse the effectiveness of animal models in drug research. Moreover, through data integration, our method could be applied for drug research, such as potential drug candidates, possible drug repositioning, side effects and information about pharmacology.
Understanding interactions between animals and humans is critical in preventing outbreaks of zoonotic disease. This is particularly important for avian influenza. Food animal production has been transformed since the 1918 influenza pandemic. Poultry and swine production have changed from small-scale methods to industrial-scale operations. There is substantial evidence of pathogen movement between and among these industrial facilities, release to the external environment, and exposure to farm workers, which challenges the assumption that modern poultry production is more biosecure and biocontained as compared with backyard or small holder operations in preventing introduction and release of pathogens. An analysis of data from the Thai government investigation in 2004 indicates that the odds of H5N1 outbreaks and infections were significantly higher in large-scale commercial poultry operations as compared with backyard flocks. These data suggest that successful strategies to prevent or mitigate the emergence of pandemic avian influenza must consider risk factors specific to modern industrialized food animal production. PMID:19006971
Graham, Jay P; Leibler, Jessica H; Price, Lance B; Otte, Joachim M; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Tiensin, T; Silbergeld, Ellen K
Chronic pancreatitis affects many individuals around the world, and the study of the underlying mechanisms leading to better treatment possibilities are important tasks. Therefore, animal models are needed to illustrate the basic study of pancreatitis. Recently, animal models of acute and chronic pancreatitis have been thoroughly reviewed, but few reviews address the important aspect on the translation of animal studies to human studies. It is well known that pancreatitis is associated with epigastric pain, but the understanding regarding to mechanisms and appropriate treatment of this pain is still unclear. Using animal models to study pancreatitis associated visceral pain is difficult, however, these types of models are a unique way to reveal the mechanisms behind pancreatitis associated visceral pain. In this review, the animal models of acute, chronic and un-common pancreatitis are briefly outlined and animal models related to pancreatitis associated visceral pain are also addressed.
Zhao, Jing-Bo; Liao, Dong-Hua; Nissen, Thomas Dahl
The purpose of the present research was to determine how humans represent the bodies and limbs of nonhuman mammals based on anatomical and functional properties. To this end, participants completed a series of body-part compatibility tasks in which they responded with a thumb or foot response to the color of a stimulus (red or blue, respectively) presented on different limbs of several animals. Across the studies, this compatibility task was conducted with images of human and nonhuman animals (bears, cows, and monkeys) in bipedal or quadrupedal postures. The results revealed that the coding of the limbs of nonhuman animals is strongly influenced by the posture of the body, but not the functional capacity of the limb. Specifically, body-part compatibility effects were present for both human and nonhuman animals when the figures were in a bipedal posture, but were not present when the animals were in a quadrupedal stance (Experiments 1a-c). Experiments 2a and 2b revealed that the posture-based body-part compatibility effects were not simply a vertical spatial compatibility effect or due to a mismatch between the posture of the body in the image and the participant. These data indicate that nonhuman animals in a bipedal posture are coded with respect to the "human" body representation, whereas nonhuman animals in a quadrupedal posture are not mapped to the human body representation. Overall, these studies provide new insight into the processes through which humans understand, mimic, and learn from the actions of nonhuman animals. PMID:24881004
Welsh, Timothy N; McDougall, Laura; Paulson, Stephanie
On Behalf of Their Animal Friends: Involving Children in Animal Advocacy--Since Time Immemorial, Animals Have Been Serving Human Society in at Least Three Broad Roles--As Teachers, as Healers, and as Companions and Friends
Children and teachers in 750 kindness clubs (organized by the World Society for the Protection of Animals, WSPA) in 32 African countries are actively involved in coordinating rural animal clinics and participate in clinic activities including the treatment of these animals. This article discusses the benefits of child-animal relationships.…
Cellular therapy is reaching a pinnacle with an understanding of the potential of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to regenerate damaged tissue in the body. The limited numbers of these hMSCs in currently identified sources, like bone marrow, adipose tissue, and so forth, bring forth the need for their in vitro culture/expansion. However, the extensive usage of supplements containing xenogeneic components in the expansion-media might pose a risk to the post-transplantation safety of patients. This warrants the necessity to identify and develop chemically defined or “humanized” supplements which would make in vitro cultured/processed cells relatively safer for transplantation in regenerative medicine. In this paper, we outline the various caveats associated with conventionally used supplements of xenogenic origin and also portray the possible alternatives/additives which could one day herald the dawn of a new era in the translation of in vitro cultured cells to therapeutic interventions.
Tekkatte, Chandana; Gunasingh, Gency Ponrose; Cherian, K. M.; Sankaranarayanan, Kavitha
Immunity against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is demonstrated in humans by the graft-versus-leukemia effect in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Specific leukemic antigens have progressively been discovered and circulating specific T lymphocytes against Wilms tumor antigen, proteinase peptide or fusion-proteins produced from aberrant oncogenic chromosomal translocations have been detected in leukemic patients. However, due to the fact that leukemic blasts
Marie Robin; Marie-Hélène Schlageter; Christine Chomienne; Rose-Ann Padua
Breast-milk has a well-known anti-microbial effect, which is in part due to the many different carbohydrate structures expressed. This renders it a position as a potential therapeutic for treatment of infection by different pathogens, thus avoiding the drawbacks of many antibiotics. The plethora of carbohydrate epitopes in breast-milk is known to differ between species, with human milk expressing the most
Anki Gustafsson; Imre Kacskovics; Michael E. Breimer; Lennart Hammarström; Jan Holgersson
Aspartame [SC?18862; 3?amino?H?(??carboxyphenethyl)succinamic acid, methyl ester, the methyl ester of aspartylphenylalanine] is a sweetening agent that organoleptically has about 180 times the sweetness of sugar. The metabolism of aspartame has been studied in mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, monkeys, and humans. The compound was digested in all species in the same way as are natural constituents of the diet. Hydrolysis of
R. E. Ranney; J. A. Oppermann; E. Muldoon; F. G. McMahon
This study investigated the potential of using a computer-simulated animal in a handheld virtual pet videogame to improve children's empathy and humane attitudes. Also investigated was whether sex differences existed in children's development of empathy and humane attitudes resulting from play, as well as their feelings for a virtual pet. The…
Tsai, Yueh-Feng Lily; Kaufman, David M.
If correctional education aims to transform individuals and bring about change, we need to consider the whole person who comes with human needs, emotions and attitudes. In order to expand our approach, alternative programs should be explored. A somewhat unusual but very promising approach to address offenders' human needs is the use of animals in …
Transference theory suggests attitudes toward animals are transferable or will generalize to humans. Discusses to what extent teachers should rely on the theory when formulating a rationale for humane education programs. Research and teacher comments casting doubt on the validity of theory are considered. (BC)
Use of similar or identical antibiotics in both human and veterinary medicine has come under increasing scrutiny by regulators concerned that bacteria resistant to animal antibiotics will infect people and resist treatment with similar human antibiotics, leading to excess illnesses and deaths. Scientists, regulators, and interest groups in the United States and Europe have urged bans on nontherapeutic and some
Douglas A. Popken
Frailty is an increasingly recognized syndrome resulting in age-related decline in function and reserve across multiple physiologic systems. It presents as a hyperinflammable state, characterized by high vulnerability for adverse health outcomes, such as disability, falls, hospitalization, institutionalization, and mortality. The prevalence of Frailty Syndrome (FS) is of potentially enormous significance, as it potentially affects 20-30% of adults older than 75. Cellular and molecular basis of frailty has not been elucidated. The objective of this review is to discuss recent advances in: (i) the potential cellular and molecular basis of Frailty Syndrome, including development of new models to study it; (ii) the human and animal measures of Frailty Syndrome; and (iii) the development of objective cross-species correlates to aid the basic understanding, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation of Frailty Syndrome in older adults. PMID:24503059
Mohler, M Jane; Fain, Mindy J; Wertheimer, Anne M; Najafi, Bijan; Nikolich-Žugich, Janko
Clostridium perfringens uses its arsenal of >16 toxins to cause histotoxic and intestinal infections in humans and animals. It has been unclear why this bacterium produces so many different toxins, especially since many target the plasma membrane of host cells. However, it is now established that C. perfringens uses chromosomally encoded alpha toxin (a phospholipase C) and perfringolysin O (a pore-forming toxin) during histotoxic infections. In contrast, this bacterium causes intestinal disease by employing toxins encoded by mobile genetic elements, including C. perfringens enterotoxin, necrotic enteritis toxin B-like, epsilon toxin and beta toxin. Like perfringolysin O, the toxins with established roles in intestinal disease form membrane pores. However, the intestinal disease-associated toxins vary in their target specificity, when they are produced (sporulation vs vegetative growth), and in their sensitivity to intestinal proteases. Producing many toxins with diverse characteristics likely imparts virulence flexibility to C. perfringens so it can cause an array of diseases. PMID:24762309
Uzal, Francisco A; Freedman, John C; Shrestha, Archana; Theoret, James R; Garcia, Jorge; Awad, Milena M; Adams, Vicki; Moore, Robert J; Rood, Julian I; McClane, Bruce A
Rapid diagnosis and treatment of disease is often based on the identification and characterization of causative agents derived from phenotypic characteristics. Current methods can be laborious and time-consuming, often requiring many skilled personnel and a large amount of lab space. The objective of our study was to develop a spotted microarray for rapid identification and characterization of bacterial pathogens and their antimicrobial resistance genes. Our spotted microarray consists of 489 70mer probes that detect 40 bacterial pathogens of medical, veterinary and zoonotic importance (including 15 NIAID Category A, B and C pathogens); associated genes that encode resistance for antimicrobial and metal resistance; and DNA elements that are important for horizontal gene transfer among bacteria. High specificity and reliability of the microarray was achieved for bacterial pathogens of animal and human importance by validating MDR pathogenic bacteria as pure cultures or by following their inoculation in complex and highly organic sample matrices, such as soil and manure. PMID:20035807
Peterson, Greg; Bai, Jianfa; Nagaraja, T G; Narayanan, Sanjeev
Borna disease virus (BDV) is a newly classified non-segmented neurotrophic negative-strand RNA virus with a worldwide distribution and affecting warm-blooded animals ranging from birds to primates. Infection may be asymptomatic or results in manifest disturbances of movement behaviour. Although BDV has not been unequivocally implicated in any human disease, several reports have suggested relationship to exist between BDV infection and certain neuropsychiatric syndromes including affective disorders, chronic fatigue syndrome, and schizophrenia. Moreover, at least one centre has initiated a trial of antiviral therapy in patients with affective disorders attributable to BDV. The article consists in a review of recent advances in the molecular biology, pathogenesis and epidemiology of BDV, and an outline of anticipated directions for future research. PMID:9445954
Evengård, B; Lipkin, W I
Background Zoonotic infections are among the most common on earth and are responsible for over 60% of human infectious diseases, some of which are caused by helminth parasites. Infection may result from ingestion of infective stage of worms with food, contaminated soil; skin penetration or direct animal contact. This study estimates the prevalence of zoonotic helminth infections (ZHI) among animals and humans in Jos and identifies associated risk factors Methods We reviewed laboratory records from five hospitals, one veterinary clinic and meat inspection record at abattoir in Jos from 2005-2009. Prevalence was defined as the observed frequency of cases of zoonotic helminth in the sampled population within the study period. Odd ratio analysis was used to identify factors associated with ZHI. Results Of 6689 humans tested, 524 (7.8%) were positive. Observed ZHI are: Ascaris species (4.5%), Taeniasis-Cysticercosis (1.5%), Schistosoma species (1.1%), Strongyloidosis (0.09%). Among animals, 3520 (18.1%) of 19508 tested/observed were positive; including Fasciola species (12.7%), Taeniasis-Cysticercosis (5.0%), Strongyloidosis (0.4%), Ascaris species (0.04%). The risk of infection was higher among humans aged 6-19 (OR: 3.2; 95% CI: 2.0-5.2) and 20-60 (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.7-3.9). Peri-urban dwellers are at higher risk (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.3-1.9); and so are farmers. Conclusion The prevalence of zoonotic helminth infection is high among humans and animals in Jos. Risk of infection are higher among human age 6-60, peri-urban dwellers and farmers. This calls for the formulation of workable collaboration between human and veterinary medical disciplines for better control of zoonotic helminth infections.
Ekong, Pius Stephen; Juryit, Raymond; Dika, Ndahi Mwapu; Nguku, Patrick; Musenero, Monica
Taphonomic studies regularly employ animal analogues for human decomposition due to ethical restrictions relating to the use of human tissue. However, the validity of using animal analogues in soil decomposition studies is still questioned. This study compared the decomposition of skeletal muscle tissues (SMTs) from human (Homo sapiens), pork (Sus scrofa), beef (Bos taurus), and lamb (Ovis aries) interred in soil microcosms. Fixed interval samples were collected from the SMT for microbial activity and mass tissue loss determination; samples were also taken from the underlying soil for pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient (potassium, phosphate, ammonium, and nitrate) analysis. The overall patterns of nutrient fluxes and chemical changes in nonhuman SMT and the underlying soil followed that of human SMT. Ovine tissue was the most similar to human tissue in many of the measured parameters. Although no single analogue was a precise predictor of human decomposition in soil, all models offered close approximations in decomposition dynamics. PMID:23550805
Stokes, Kathryn L; Forbes, Shari L; Tibbett, Mark
The 2004 "National Framework for Religious Education" (NFRE) innovatively recommended that secular philosophies such as humanism, or secular worldviews, be included in locally agreed syllabuses for religious education (RE) in England. However, the NFRE is a non-statutory document, and Agreed Syllabus Conferences (ASCs) and Standing Advisory…
The 2004 National Framework for Religious Education (NFRE) innovatively recommended that secular philosophies such as humanism, or secular worldviews, be included in locally agreed syllabuses for religious education (RE) in England. However, the NFRE is a non?statutory document, and Agreed Syllabus Conferences (ASCs) and Standing Advisory Councils for Religious Education (SACREs), the bodies responsible for RE in each local authority
Bartonella species, belonging to the alpha 2 subgroup of Proteobacteria, have either been considered or established as potential human and mammal pathogens. Five novel species of Bartonella have been reported in Thailand and Australia. Recently, three strains of B. tamiae were isolated from febrile illness patients in Thailand, while B. australis was isolated from kangaroos, and B. coopersplainsensis, B. queenslandensis, and B. rattiaustraliensis were isolated from rats in Australia. The 17 novel Bartonella strains isolated from rodents in southern China that were identified using the partial citrate synthase gene (gltA) sequence displayed a similar genetic diversity, as compared to those obtained from rodents captured in northern Thailand. Herein, the authors review and discuss the few available reports on Bartonella infection in order to raise awareness of Bartonella infection transmitted from mammalian reservoirs to humans via arthropod ectoparasitic vectors such as fleas, ticks, and lice in Asia and Australia. The identification of Bartonella species on these continents was reported in eastern Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Russia, and Taiwan), south central Asia (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, and Nepal), southeast Asia (Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand), the Middle East (Israel and Jordan), and Australia. The rate of Bartonella infection was found to be high in arthropod ectoparasitic vectors, mammals, and febrile patients in these tropical zones. PMID:19459536
Saisongkorh, Watcharee; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Raoult, Didier
Animal species come in many shapes and sizes, as do the individuals and populations that make up each species. To us, humans might seem to show particularly high levels of morphological variation, but perhaps this perception is simply based on enhanced recognition of individual conspecifics relative to individual heterospecifics. We here more objectively ask how humans compare to other animals in terms of body size variation. We quantitatively compare levels of variation in body length (height) and mass within and among 99 human populations and 848 animal populations (210 species). We find that humans show low levels of within-population body height variation in comparison to body length variation in other animals. Humans do not, however, show distinctive levels of within-population body mass variation, nor of among-population body height or mass variation. These results are consistent with the idea that natural and sexual selection have reduced human height variation within populations, while maintaining it among populations. We therefore hypothesize that humans have evolved on a rugged adaptive landscape with strong selection for body height optima that differ among locations.
McKellar, Ann E.; Hendry, Andrew P.
Despite increasing acknowledgement of hormonal contributions to mood and anxiety disorders, the underlying mechanisms by which gonadal hormones influence psychopathology-related behaviours remain unknown. This review focuses on recent research that examines the influence of gonadal steroid hormones, including androgens, oestrogens, and progesterone, on mood and anxiety-related behaviours in human health and disease. To this aim, the literature was surveyed for studies that assess conditions with suspected underlying hormonal imbalances in otherwise healthy participants (e.g., premenstrual dysphoric disorder, postmenopausal depression) as well as conditions linked to congenital endocrine abnormalities (e.g., Turner Syndrome, Klinefelter Syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, familial male precocious puberty, androgen insensitivity syndrome). Furthermore, to better inform clinical work and to create a translational bridge, a second goal was to set human psychopathologies and animal models of these conditions side-by-side. In the second part of the review, based on consistencies revealed in the existing literature across conditions, a new model for the impact of gonadal hormones on anxious and depressed behavioural states is proposed. Finally, we conclude by proposing directions for future research, including the development of specific tasks suitable for cross-species comparisons to increase our knowledge of the role of gonadal hormones in mood and anxiety. PMID:24882164
Mueller, S C; Grissom, E M; Dohanich, G P
No other theme in animal biology seems to be more central than the concept of employing strategies to survive and successfully reproduce. In nature, controlling or avoiding pathogens and parasites is an essential fitness strategy because of the ever-present disease-causing organisms. The disease-control strategies discussed here are: physical avoidance and removal of pathogens and parasites; quarantine or peripheralization of conspecifics that could be carrying potential pathogens; herbal medicine, animal style, to prevent or treat an infection; potentiation of the immune system; and care of sick or injured group members. These strategies are seen as also encompassing the pillars of human medicine: (i) quarantine; (ii) immune-boosting vaccinations; (iii) use of medicinal products; and (iv) caring or nursing. In contrast to animals, in humans, the disease-control strategies have been consolidated into a consistent and extensive medical system. A hypothesis that explains some of this difference between animals and humans is that humans are sick more often than animals. This increase in sickness in humans leading to an extensive, cognitively driven medical system is attributed to an evolutionary dietary transition from mostly natural vegetation to a meat-based diet, with an increase in health-eroding free radicals and a dietary reduction of free-radical-scavenging antioxidants.
Hart, Benjamin L.
Microsatellites are highly mutable, repetitive sequences commonly used as genetic markers, but they have never been studied en masse. Using a custom microarray to measure hybridization intensities of every possible repetitive nucleotide motif from 1-mers to 6-mers, we examined 25 genomes. Here, we show that global microsatellite content varies predictably by species, as measured by array hybridization signal intensities, correlating with established taxonomic relationships, and particular motifs are characteristic of one species versus another. For instance, hominid-specific microsatellite motifs were identified despite alignment of the human reference, Celera, and Venter genomic sequences indicating substantial variation (30–50%) among individuals. Differential microsatellite motifs were mainly associated with genes involved in developmental processes, whereas those found in intergenic regions exhibited no discernible pattern. This is the first description of a method for evaluating microsatellite content to classify individual genomes.
McIver, L.J.; McCormick, J.F.; Skinner, M.A.; Xie, Y.; Gelhausen, R.A.; Ng, K.; Kumar, N.M.; Garner, H.R.
Progress in regenerative medicine seems likely to produce new treatments for neurologic conditions that use human cells as therapeutic agents; at least one trial for such an intervention is already under way. The development of cell-based interventions for neurologic conditions (CBI-NCs) will likely include preclinical studies using animals as models for humans with conditions of interest. This paper explores predictive
Alan Regenberg; Debra JH Mathews; David M Blass; Hilary Bok; Joseph T Coyle; Patrick Duggan; Ruth Faden; Julia Finkel; John D Gearhart; Argye Hillis; Ahmet Hoke; Richard Johnson; Michael Johnston; Jeffrey Kahn; Douglas Kerr; Patricia King; Joanne Kurtzberg; S Matthew Liao; John W McDonald; Guy McKhann; Karin B Nelson; Mahendra Rao; Andrew W Siegel; Kirby Smith; Davor Solter; Hongjun Song; Jeremy Sugarman; Angelo Vescovi; Wise Young; Henry T Greely; Richard J Traystman
Helicobacter pylori (HP) is the causative agent of many gastrointestinal diseases. Horses, calves, pigs, rabbits, and chickens were evaluated for HP presence, and the pathogenetic effect on their gastric mucosa. The large-sized animals all resulted positive. No positive cases were observed in rabbits and chickens. Chronic inflammatory response to the infection with the development of acquired lymphoid tissue associated to the mucosa was revealed. The recognition of HP in animals living near the human habitat such as animals for slaughter and for technical zootechnic and alimentary use, before the witnessing of the transmission of this infection such as a zoonosis or an anthropozoonosis, can contribute to research on a common source for human and animals as reservoir. It is possible to consider that the intraspecies transmission of infection occurs by vomit, the mucus acting as a vector, while the interspecies one is due to the faecal contamination of the food chain. PMID:10628327
Dimola, S; Caruso, M L
Animal use in medical research is widely accepted on the basis that it may help to save human lives and improve their quality of life. Recently, however, objections have been made specifically to the use of animals in scientific investigation of human obesity. This paper discusses two arguments for the view that this form of animal use, unlike some other forms of animal-based medical research, cannot be defended. The first argument leans heavily on the notion that people themselves are responsible for developing obesity and so-called 'lifestyle' diseases; the second involves the claim that animal studies of obesity's causes and therapies distract attention from preventive efforts. Drawing on both empirical data and moral reasoning, we argue that the relevant attributions of responsibility and claims about distraction are not plausible, and that, therefore, there is no reason to single out the use of animals in obesity research as especially problematic. PMID:23709177
Lund, Thomas Bøker; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Olsson, I Anna S; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Sandøe, Peter
Background The Chilean temperate rainforest has been subjected to dramatic fragmentation for agriculture and forestry exploitation. Carnivore species are particularly affected by fragmentation and the resulting resource use conflicts with humans. This study aimed at understanding values and human-animal relationships with negatively perceived threatened carnivores through the disclosure of local stories and Mapuche traditional folktales. Methods Our mixed approach comprised the qualitative analysis of 112 stories on the kodkod cat (Leopardus guigna) and the puma (Puma concolor) collected by students (9-14 years) from 28 schools in the Araucania region within their family contexts, 10 qualitative in-depth interviews with indigenous Mapuche people, 35 traditional Mapuche legends, and the significance of naming found in ethnographic collections. Results We revealed a quasi-extinction of traditional tales in the current knowledge pool about pumas and kodkods, local anecdotes, however, were present in significant numbers. Values associated to both felids were manifold, ranging from negativistic to positive values. While pumas played an important role in people’s spirituality, negative mythological connotations persisted in kodkod stories. Four prominent relationships were derived: (1) Both felids represent threats to livestock, pumas even to life, (2) both felids are symbols for upcoming negative events, (3) pumas are spiritual creatures, and (4) kodkods are threatened by humans. Recommendations are provided for stimulating new ways of perceiving unpopular and threatened carnivores among those who live in vicinity to them.
MPEG-4 body animation parameters (BAP) are used for animation of MPEG-4 compliant virtual human-like characters. Distributed virtual reality applications and networked games on mobile computers require access to locally stored or streamed compressed BAP data. Existing MPEG-4 BAP compression techniques are inefficient for streaming, or storing, BAP data on mobile computers, because: 1) MPEG-4 compressed BAP data entails a significant
Siddhartha Chattopadhyay; Suchendra M. Bhandarkar; Kang Li
Studies with laboratory animals have consistently demonstrated a role for dopamine in mediating the discriminative stimulus\\u000a (i.e., interoceptive) effects of amphetamine. For example, D2 dopamine agonists mimic the discriminative stimulus effects of amphetamine and D1 and D2 dopamine antagonists generally block them. The discriminative stimulus effects of drugs in animals are believed to parallel\\u000a their subjective effects in humans. Therefore,
L. H. Brauer; Andrew J. Goudie; Harriet de Wit
The geographic distribution and host range of Borna disease (BD), a fatal neurologic disease of horses and sheep, are larger than previously thought. The etiologic agent, Borna disease virus (BDV), has been identified as an enveloped nonsegmented negative-strand RNA virus with unique properties of replication. Data indicate a high degree of genetic stability of BDV in its natural host, the horse. Studies in the Lewis rat have shown that BDV replication does not directly influence vital functions; rather, the disease is caused by a virus-induced T-cell mediated immune reaction. Because antibodies reactive with BDV have been found in the sera of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, this review examines the possible link between BDV and such disorders. Seroepidemiologic and cerebrospinal fluid investigations of psychiatric patients suggest a causal role of BDV infection in human psychiatric disorders. In diagnostically unselected psychiatric patients, the distribution of psychiatric disorders was found to be similar in BDV seropositive and seronegative patients. In addition, BDV-seropositive neurologic patients became ill with lymphocytic meningoencephalitis. In contrast to others, we found no evidence is reported for BDV RNA, BDV antigens, or infectious B DV in peripheral blood cells of psychiatric patients.
Richt, J. A.; Pfeuffer, I.; Christ, M.; Frese, K.; Bechter, K.; Herzog, S.
To characterize human exposures to vaccines intended for animals, evaluate the human risk due to these exposures and determine whether there is sufficient surveillance in place to monitor them. Retrospective analysis of surveillance data (2000-2009). Information collected by poison specialists during calls reporting human exposure to an animal vaccine product, made to one of the 57 United States Poison Control Centers. Data from the National Poison Data System were analysed to determine the number of calls due to human exposures to animal vaccines, and descriptive statistics were generated to characterize the exposures by age, gender, medical outcome, exposure site, exposure route, vaccine type and intended species, aetiologic agent, call date and exposure reason. Overall, the human health effects were minor, primarily due to unintentional parenteral exposure. Less than 15% of the reports were classified as occupational, and 80% of the exposures took place outside of a workplace or healthcare facility. Almost 60% of calls were due to exposure to the West Nile Virus vaccine; the others distributed among a variety of vaccines. Unintentional exposure to animal vaccines appears to occur almost exclusively among untrained individuals who may benefit from more effective education about the risks and benefits of administering vaccines. Improved reporting of adverse outcomes is essential to adequately define the extent of human exposure and risks associated with availability of new vaccines. PMID:23551869
Edison, L; Schulte, J; Schauben, J; Kay, R; Rubin, C
Drugs and environmental chemicals can adversely affect the reproductive system. Currently, available data indicate that the consequences of exposure depend on the nature of the chemical, its target, and the timing of exposure relative to critical windows in development of the reproductive system. The reproductive system is designed to produce gametes in far greater excess than would seem to be necessary for the survival of species. Ten to hundreds of millions of spermatozoa are generated daily by most adult male mammals, yet very few of these germ cells succeed in transmitting their genetic material to the next generation. Although the number of oocytes produced in mammalian females is more limited, and their production occurs only during fetal life, most ovaries contain several orders of magnitude more oocytes than ever will be fertilized. Toxicant exposures may affect critical events in the development of the reproductive system, ranging from early primordial germ cell determination to gonadal differentiation, gametogenesis, external genitalia, or signaling events regulating sexual behavior. Although there are differences between the human reproductive system and that of the usual animal models, such models have been extremely useful in assessing risks for key human reproductive and developmental processes. The objectives for future studies should include the elucidation of the specific cellular and molecular targets of known toxicants; the design of a systematic approach to the identification of reproductive toxicants; and the development of sensitive, specific, and predictive animal models, minimally invasive surrogate markers, or in vitro tests to assess reproductive system function during embryonic, postnatal, and adult life. Images Figure 1 Figure 2
Pryor, J L; Hughes, C; Foster, W; Hales, B F; Robaire, B
Antibiotic resistance in bacteria that cause disease in man is an issue of major concern. Although misuse of antibiotics in human medicine is the principal cause of the problem, antibiotic-resistant bacteria originating in animals are contributory factors, with some types of resistance in some species of bacteria. Antibiotics are added to animal feeds to treat and prevent infections and to improve growth and production. Until recently, the major concerns about incorporation of antibiotics in animal feeds related to antibiotic residues in products from treated animals. Although, in 1969, the Swann (1969) report drew attention to the potential for antibiotic-resistant bacteria to spread from treated animals via the food chain, there was little response until the detection of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in animals fed a related glycopeptide, avoparcin. Subsequently, attention started to focus on the issue and other examples of transfer of resistant bacteria through the food chain, such as enterococci resistant to quinupristin-dalfopristin or to everninomicin, fluoroquinolone-resistant campylobacters and multiresistant Escherichia coli, and salmonella such as Salmonella typhimurium DT104. Reviews and committees in many countries have highlighted the need for better control of licensing of antibiotics, and codes for prudent use of antibiotics by veterinary practitioners and farmers. The continued use of antibiotic growth promoters has been questioned and there is a need to ensure that antibiotics important in human medicine are not used therapeutically or prophylactically in animals. PMID:19087443
Barton, M D
No data is available in the world literature on serum anti-rhinosporidial antibody levels in animals, and as far as we aware this is the first report. Although rhinosporidiosis in farm and domestic animals has been widely reported from other countries, rhinosporidiosis in animals has not been reported in Sri Lanka, though this country has the highest world-wide prevalence of human rhinosporidiosis on a unit-population basis. Serum IgG titres in 6 species of Sri Lankan animals (buffalo, cat, cattle, dog, goat, horse; total 291) were assayed by the Immuno blot (dot-ELISA) method on nitrocellulose paper and were compared with serum IgG titres in normal Sri Lankan human subjects (total 211) in different geographical areas, and in human Sri Lankan patients with rhinosporidiosis as reference values (total 36). Sensitization to rhinosporidial antigen(s) was detected in all 6 species of animals and the highest titres (1/3200) were found in cats, and free-grazing horses. Cattle showed higher levels of antibody than buffaloes. The titres in these animals are compared with world reports on overt rhinosporidiosis in these species, and with titres in normal Sri Lankan humans. Human, but not animal titres showed variations compatible with the regional prevalence of rhinosporidiosis. The variations in titres in animals especially horses, were probably more related to their mode of feeding, while in humans the titres in normal persons were probably related to the rhinosporidial-endemicity of their respective regions. No conclusions from sero-positivity in animals could be made regarding the absence of reports on rhinosporidiosis as an overt disease in these Sri Lankan animal species but the possibility of a genetically-determined insusceptibility to rhinosporidiosis in Sri Lanka, is considered. Rhinosporidium seeberi-specific PCR positive reactions were obtained with nasal scrapings from cattle that microscopically showed PAS+ bodies that were compatible with rhinosporidial sporangia. Sequence-analysis of the reactions products from five positive R. seeberi-specific PCR samples (four in this study and 1 in a previous study) gave results confirmatory of R. seeberi. PMID:21801708
Sudasinghe, T; Rajapakse, R P V J; Perera, N A N D; Kumarasiri, P V R; Eriyagama, N B; Arseculeratne, S N
Summary A fundamental role of the veterinary profession is the protection of human health through wholesome food and control of diseases of animal origin, especially zoonoses. Therefore, training of veterinary students worldwide needs to face the new challenges posed by emerging infections, both from wildlife and domestic animals, as well as risks from bio\\/agroterrorism. New courses emphasising recognition, response, recovery
B. B. Chomel; N. Marano
Recent observations have begun to support a role for Bartonella spp. as animal as well as human pathogens. Bartonella spp. are vector-transmitted, blood-borne, intracellular, gram-negative bacteria that can induce prolonged infection in the host. Persistent infections in domestic and wild animals result in a substantial reservoir of Bartonella organisms in nature that can serve as a source for inadvertent human infection. The prevalence of bacteremia can range from 50 to 95% in selected rodent, cat, deer, and cattle populations. Dogs infected with Bartonella spp. can develop lameness, endocarditis, granulomatous lymphadenitis, and peliosis hepatis, lesions that have also been reported in association with human infection. Understanding the role of Bartonella spp. as pathogens in cats and other wild or domestic animals awaits the results of additional studies. Considering the extensive animal reservoirs and the large number of insects that have been implicated in the transmission of Bartonella spp., both animal and human exposure to these organisms may be more substantial than is currently believed.
Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Kordick, Dorsey L.
Until recently, the role of B cells in transplantation was thought to be restricted to producing antibodies that have been clearly shown to be deleterious in the long-term, but, in fact, B cells are also able to produce cytokine and to present antigen. Their role as regulatory cells in various pathological situations has also been highlighted, and their role in transplantation is beginning to emerge in animal, and also in human, models. This review summarizes the different studies in animals and humans that suggest a B-cell regulatory role in the transplant tolerance mechanisms.
Chesneau, Melanie; Michel, Laure; Degauque, Nicolas; Brouard, Sophie
This article is a literary review focused on the problem of the stress-effect of microgravity. Based on the all-round analysis of data from manned missions and space experiments with rats it is concluded that microgravity as a permanent factor of space flight does not produce an intense chronic stress in either humans or animals. On the other hand, microgravity is responsible for deconditioning of a number of vital systems and of the organism as a whole. On return to Earth, the deconditioned bodies of humans and animals exaggerate the usual terrestrial loads due to gravity forces and respond by acute gravitational stress.
Grigoriev, A. I.; Kaplansky, A. S.; Durnova, G. N.; Popova, I. A.
Chromosome 11, although average in size, is one of the most gene- and disease-rich chromosomes in the human genome. Initial gene annotation indicates an average gene density of 11.6 genes per megabase, including 1,524 protein-coding genes, some of which were identified using novel methods, and 765 pseudogenes. One-quarter of the protein-coding genes shows overlap with other genes. Of the 856
Hideki Noguchi; Yasushi Totoki; Atsushi Toyoda; Yoko Kuroki; Ken Dewar; Christine Lloyd; Takehiko Itoh; Tadayuki Takeda; Dae-Won Kim; Xinwei She; Karen F. Barlow; Toby Bloom; Elspeth Bruford; Jean L. Chang; Christina A. Cuomo; Evan Eichler; Michael G. FitzGerald; David B. Jaffe; Kurt LaButti; Robert Nicol; Hong-Seog Park; Christopher Seaman; Carrie Sougnez; Xiaoping Yang; Andrew R. Zimmer; Michael C. Zody; Bruce W. Birren; Chad Nusbaum; Asao Fujiyama; Masahira Hattori; Jane Rogers; Eric S. Lander; Todd D. Taylor; Yoshiyuki Sakaki
We investigated the effect of rainfall on the levels and sources of microbial contamination in the Han River, Korea. Thirty-four samples were collected at two sampling sites located upstream and downstream in the river from July 2010 to February 2011. Various fecal indicator microorganisms, including total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., somatic and male-specific (F+) coliphage, and four major enteric viruses were analyzed. Rainfall was positively correlated with the levels of fecal coliform and norovirus at both sampling sites. Additionally, rainfall was positively correlated with the levels of total coliform, E. coli, Enterococcus spp., and F+ coliphage at the upstream site. To identify the source of fecal contamination, microbial source tracking (MST) was conducted using both male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage and the Enterococcus faecium esp gene as previously described. Our results clearly indicated that the majority of fecal contamination at the downstream Han River site was from a human source. At the upstream sampling site, contamination from human fecal matter was very limited; however, fecal contamination from non-point animal sources increased following rainfall. In conclusion, our data suggest that rainfall significantly affects the level and source of fecal contamination in the Han River, Korea. PMID:23666535
Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Heetae; Lee, Jung Eun; Chung, Myung-Sub; Ko, Gwang Pyo
A technique not involving surgery is described for obtaining axenic (germ-free) newborn animals and human infants by decontamination immediately after birth. Three steps are involved: cleansing ther perineal region of the mother with an iodinated bactericidal solution, washing the newborn with the same solution, and after the newborn has been placed in a sterile isolater, administering a single oral dose of an antibiotic mixture previously determined to be active against the fecal and vaginal flora of the mother. All of the newborn obtained by means of this technique, including 13 piglets, 2 lambs, and 4 human infants, were found to be axenic throughout their stay in the isolators. Four piglets obtained by the same technique, but without adminstration of antibiotic mixture, were found not to be anenic. This technique, as compared with methods of surgical delivery of axenic young, embodies a number of advantages. It is harmless to the mother and to the newborn, it is relatively inexpensive, and it obviates the risk of prematurity involved in elective surgical delivery before term. PMID:1260547
Ducluzeau, R; Raibaud, P; Lauvergeon, B; Gouet, P; Riou, Y; Griscelli, C; Ghnassia, J C
We investigated the effect of rainfall on the levels and sources of microbial contamination in the Han River, Korea. Thirty-four samples were collected at two sampling sites located upstream and downstream in the river from July 2010 to February 2011. Various fecal indicator microorganisms, including total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., somatic and male-specific (F+) coliphage, and four major enteric viruses were analyzed. Rainfall was positively correlated with the levels of fecal coliform and norovirus at both sampling sites. Additionally, rainfall was positively correlated with the levels of total coliform, E. coli, Enterococcus spp., and F+ coliphage at the upstream site. To identify the source of fecal contamination, microbial source tracking (MST) was conducted using both male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage and the Enterococcus faecium esp gene as previously described. Our results clearly indicated that the majority of fecal contamination at the downstream Han River site was from a human source. At the upstream sampling site, contamination from human fecal matter was very limited; however, fecal contamination from non-point animal sources increased following rainfall. In conclusion, our data suggest that rainfall significantly affects the level and source of fecal contamination in the Han River, Korea.
Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Heetae; Lee, Jung Eun; Chung, Myung-Sub; Ko, Gwang Pyo
Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) are defined as infectious diseases of humans and animals caused by pathogenic agents such as viruses, protists, bacteria, and helminths transmitted by the bite of blood-feeding arthropod (BFA) vectors. VBDs represent a major public health threat in endemic areas, generally subtropical zones, and many are considered to be neglected diseases. Genome sequencing of some arthropod vectors as well as modern proteomic and genomic technologies are expanding our knowledge of arthropod-pathogen interactions. This review describes the proteomic approaches that have been used to investigate diverse biological questions about arthropod vectors, including the interplay between vectors and pathogens. Proteomic studies have identified proteins and biochemical pathways that may be involved in molecular crosstalk in BFA-pathogen associations. Future work can build upon this promising start and functional analyses coupled with interactome bioassays will be carried out to investigate the role of candidate peptides and proteins in BFA-human pathogen associations. Dissection of the host-pathogen interactome will be key to understanding the strategies and biochemical pathways used by BFAs to cope with pathogens. PMID:23077092
Patramool, Sirilaksana; Choumet, Valérie; Surasombatpattana, Pornapat; Sabatier, Laurence; Thomas, Frédéric; Thongrungkiat, Supatra; Rabilloud, Thierry; Boulanger, Nathalie; Biron, David G; Missé, Dorothée
We have studied the frequency of antimicrobial resistance and epidemiological relatedness among 473 isolates of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar typhimurium (S. typhimurium) from human and veterinary sources. The human strains were clinical isolates from patients with diarrhoea sent to the State Serum Institute during August 1993 (228 isolates). The animal strains were isolated from clinical or subclinical infections in cattle (48 isolates), pigs (99 isolates) or poultry (98 isolates), all from 1993. All strains were tested against 22 different antimicrobial agents used in both human and veterinary medicine with the tablet diffusion method. Strains were also phage-typed and the plasmid content determined in all resistant strains. Ribotyping was performed on selected strains. Of 228 human isolates tested, 19.3% of the strains were resistant to one or more antimicrobial agent compared with 10.4% of strains from cattle, 11.1% of strains from pigs and 9.2% of strains from poultry. Multiple resistance, i.e. resistance against at least four antimicrobial agents, was found in 9.2% of the human strains, but in only two of the cattle isolates. The majority of the multi-resistant strains in humans were from infections contracted outside Denmark, most often in southern Europe or south-east Asia. Resistance in human strains was most common against tetracycline (13%), ampicillin (12%), sulphonamide (12%), streptomycin (10%) and chloramphenicol (8%). The resistance pattern differed somewhat in animal isolates: Poultry strains were usually resistant only to ampicillin, while pig and cattle isolates were most often resistant to sulphonamide, tetracycline and streptomycin. Typing of the strains showed that some animal strains and human strains were indistinguishable. In conclusion, while antimicrobial resistance was present in S. typhimurium isolated from humans and animals in Denmark, multiple resistance was most often acquired outside Denmark. PMID:9249206
Seyfarth, A M; Wegener, H C; Frimodt-Møller, N
The database of the National Animal Poison Control Center (NAPCC) was evaluated as a source for animal poison data indicating human health hazards in indoor and outdoor environments. From 14,150 calls in the 1985 database, 259 cases were identified with histories suggesting human exposure. A subgroup of 25 cases with known human exposure was found. Dogs were the most common sentinel animal, but bird cases represented the highest proportional selection from the total 1985 call list. Indoor exposures represented 43.2% of cases; the most common toxicants were insecticides, lead and toxic fumes. Exposures associated with lawns were mainly due to insecticides and herbicides and constituted 25.5% of cases. Other outdoor exposures composed the remaining 31.7% of cases, with insecticides, herbicides and unidentified toxins the leading categories. Many of the specific agents identified, such as organophosphate insecticides, lead, gas and fume toxins, and phenoxy herbicides are also risk factors in human diseases. This study indicates that databases such as NAPCC could serve as sources of sentinel animal intoxications for followup studies to evaluate known and potential human health hazards. PMID:7631498
Hungerford, L L; Trammel, H L; Clark, J M
Interest in arcobacters in veterinary and human public health has increased since the first report of the isolation of arcobacters from food of animal origin. Since then, studies worldwide have reported the occurrence of arcobacters on food and in food production animals and have highlighted possible transmission, especially of Arcobacter butzleri, to the human population. In humans, arcobacters are associated with enteritis and septicemia. To assess their clinical relevance for humans and animals, evaluation of potential virulence factors is required. However, up to now, little has been known about the mechanisms of pathogenicity. Because of their close phylogenetic affiliation to the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter and their similar clinical manifestations, the presence of nine putative Campylobacter virulence genes (cadF, ciaB, cj1349, hecA, hecB, irgA, mviN, pldA, and tlyA) previously identified in the recent Arcobacter butzleri ATCC 49616 genome sequence was determined in a large set of human and animal Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and Arcobacter skirrowii strains after the development of rapid and accurate PCR assays and confirmed by sequencing and dot blot hybridization.
Douidah, Laid; de Zutter, Lieven; Bare, Julie; De Vos, Paul; Vandamme, Peter; Vandenberg, Olivier; Van den Abeele, Anne-Marie
A syndemic involves two or more afflictions that, by interacting synergistically, contribute to excess burdens of disease. A syndemic approach to prevention, meanwhile, focuses on connections among health-related problems, considers those connections when developing health policies, and aligns with forces for social change. In this short report, we expand the syndemic concept to acknowledge the extent to which animal health connects with human health and, with reference to existing publications, we demonstrate the pertinence of this expanded definition for a syndemic approach to prevention. Our demonstration assumes practical importance in relation to the concept of 'one health', which many prominent veterinary and human health scientists have recently endorsed as a sound basis for redressing human diseases, animal diseases, and environmental degradation worldwide. While social scientists have mostly ignored animal health, few 'one health' proponents have emphasized social conditions or involved social scientists. By explicitly accommodating animal-human connections in our expanded conceptualization of a syndemic, we hope to help create a space in which human health, veterinary, and social scientists may learn from one another, collaborate in research, and cooperate to clear the way for innovations in prevention. PMID:19157669
Rock, Melanie; Buntain, Bonnie J; Hatfield, Jennifer M; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt
Guido RÃÂ¶ÃÂling, who works for the Rechnerbetriebsgruppe (Computer Support Center) of the Department of Computer Science at the Darmstadt University of Technology, has created this website about ANIMAL. ANIMAL is a general-purpose animation tool with a current focus on algorithm animation. Posted on this website are the animations, including screenshots, classification and description, a user guide, other instructions, and research papers. A section with examples provides an overview and screen shots of the animations, such as one that shows how LZW compression (an algorithm created in 1984 by Lempel, Ziv and Welch) works.
The Three Rs are the main principles used by Animal Ethics Committees in the governance of animal experimentation, but they appear not to cover some ethical issues that arise today. These include: a) claims that certain species should be exempted on principle from harmful research; b) increased emphasis on enhancing quality of life of research animals; c) research involving genetically modified (GM) animals; and d) animals bred as models of disease. In some cases, the Three Rs can be extended to cover these developments. The burgeoning use of GM animals in science calls for new forms of reduction through improved genetic modification technology, plus continued attention to alternative approaches and cost-benefit analyses that include the large numbers of animals involved indirectly. The adoption of more expanded definitions of refinement that go beyond minimising distress will capture concerns for enhancing the quality of life of animals through improved husbandry and handling. Targeting refinement to the unpredictable effects of gene modification may be difficult; in these cases, careful attention to monitoring and endpoints are the obvious options. Refinement can also include sharing data about the welfare impacts of gene modifications, and modelling earlier stages of disease, in order to reduce the potential suffering caused to disease models. Other issues may require a move beyond the Three Rs. Certain levels of harm, or numbers and use of certain species, may be unacceptable, regardless of potential benefits. This can be addressed by supplementing the utilitarian basis of the Three Rs with principles based on deontological and relational ethics. The Three Rs remain very useful, but they require thoughtful interpretation and expansion in order for Animal Ethics Committees to address the full range of issues in animal-based research. PMID:15656775
Schuppli, Catherine A; Fraser, David; McDonald, Michael
Progress in regenerative medicine seems likely to produce new treatments for neurologic conditions that use human cells as therapeutic agents; at least one trial for such an intervention is already under way. The development of cell-based interventions for neurologic conditions (CBI-NCs) will likely include preclinical studies using animals as models for humans with conditions of interest. This paper explores predictive validity challenges and the proper role for animal models in developing CBI-NCs. In spite of limitations, animal models are and will remain an essential tool for gathering data in advance of first-in-human clinical trials. The goal of this paper is to provide a realistic lens for viewing the role of animal models in the context of CBI-NCs and to provide recommendations for moving forward through this challenging terrain.
Regenberg, Alan; Mathews, Debra JH; Blass, David M; Bok, Hilary; Coyle, Joseph T; Duggan, Patrick; Faden, Ruth; Finkel, Julia; Gearhart, John D; Hillis, Argye; Hoke, Ahmet; Johnson, Richard; Johnston, Michael; Kahn, Jeffrey; Kerr, Douglas; King, Patricia; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Liao, S Matthew; McDonald, John W; McKhann, Guy; Nelson, Karin B; Rao, Mahendra; Siegel, Andrew W; Smith, Kirby; Solter, Davor; Song, Hongjun; Sugarman, Jeremy; Vescovi, Angelo; Young, Wise; Greely, Henry T; Traystman, Richard J
\\u000a Advances in molecular and cell biology are opening new possibilities for combining human and animal cells, tissues, and organs.\\u000a These projects could have important scientific and medical benefits, but open ethical dilemmas that challenge our traditional\\u000a notions of the boundaries of humanity. Beginning with an overview of the goals and likely limitations of this research, we\\u000a seek a framework of
William B. Hurlbut
Extensive epidemiological studies have recently demonstrated increased cadmium exposure correlating significantly with decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture incidence in humans at lower exposure levels than ever before evaluated. Studies in experimental animals have addressed whether very low concentrations of dietary cadmium can negatively impact the skeleton. This overview evaluates results in experimental animals regarding mechanisms of action on bone and the application of these results to humans. Results demonstrate that long-term dietary exposures in rats, at levels corresponding to environmental exposures in humans, result in increased skeletal fragility and decreased mineral density. Cadmium-induced demineralization begins soon after exposure, within 24 h of an oral dose to mice. In bone culture systems, cadmium at low concentrations acts directly on bone cells to cause both decreases in bone formation and increases in bone resorption, independent of its effects on kidney, intestine, or circulating hormone concentrations. Results from gene expression microarray and gene knock-out mouse models provide insight into mechanisms by which cadmium may affect bone. Application of the results to humans is considered with respect to cigarette smoke exposure pathways and direct vs. indirect effects of cadmium. Clearly, understanding the mechanism(s) by which cadmium causes bone loss in experimental animals will provide insight into its diverse effects in humans. Preventing bone loss is critical to maintaining an active, independent lifestyle, particularly among elderly persons. Identifying environmental factors such as cadmium that contribute to increased fractures in humans is an important undertaking and a first step to prevention.
Bhattacharyya, Maryka H. [Environmental Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: email@example.com
Summary: Helicobacters other than Helicobacter pylori have been associated with gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in humans. These very fastidious microorganisms with a typical large spiral-shaped morphology were provisionally designated “H. heilmannii,” but in fact they comprise at least five different Helicobacter species, all of which are known to colonize the gastric mucosa of animals. H. suis, which has been isolated from the stomachs of pigs, is the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species in humans. Other gastric non-H. pylori helicobacters colonizing the human stomach are H. felis, H. salomonis, H. bizzozeronii, and the still-uncultivable “Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii.” These microorganisms are often detected in the stomachs of dogs and cats. “Candidatus Helicobacter bovis” is highly prevalent in the abomasums of cattle but has only occasionally been detected in the stomachs of humans. There are clear indications that gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter infections in humans originate from animals, and it is likely that transmission to humans occurs through direct contact. Little is known about the virulence factors of these microorganisms. The recent successes with in vitro isolation of non-H. pylori helicobacters from domestic animals open new perspectives for studying these microorganisms and their interactions with the host.
Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Flahou, Bram; Chiers, Koen; Baele, Margo; Meyns, Tom; Decostere, Annemie; Ducatelle, Richard
Over the past 15 years, cases of infection with organisms of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex have been diagnosed among captive elephants in the United States and worldwide. Outbreak investigations have documented that among staff employed at facilities housing infected animals, skin test conversion to purified protein derivative have been documented. Clonal spread among animals in close contact and even inter-species spread between elephant and human has been documented. Detection of actively infected animals relies on samples obtained by trunk wash. Diagnosis has been augmented by the development of a multi-antigen serologic assay with excellent specificity and sensitivity. Treatment regimens are still in development with efficacy largely unknown due to a paucity of both premortem follow-up and necropsy data of treated animals. The epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in elephants require additional careful study of clinical data. PMID:21397564
Mikota, Susan K; Maslow, Joel N
A total of 153 strains of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from different sources (72 from sheep, 12 from cattle, 18 from feedstuffs, and 51 from humans) in Spain from 1989 to 2000 were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The strains of L. monocytogenes displayed 55 pulsotypes. The 84 animal, 51 human, and 18 feedstuff strains displayed 31, 29, and 7 different pulsotypes, respectively, indicating a great genetic diversity among the Spanish L. monocytogenes isolates studied. L. monocytogenes isolates from clinical samples and feedstuffs consumed by the diseased animals were analyzed in 21 flocks. In most cases, clinical strains from different animals of the same flock had identical pulsotypes, confirming the existence of a listeriosis outbreak. L. monocytogenes strains with pulsotypes identical to those of clinical strains were isolated from silage, potatoes, and maize stalks. This is the first study wherein potatoes and maize stalks are epidemiologically linked with clinical listeriosis.
Vela, A. I.; Fernandez-Garayzabal, J. F.; Vazquez, J. A.; Latre, M. V.; Blanco, M. M.; Moreno, M. A.; de la Fuente, L.; Marco, J.; Franco, C.; Cepeda, A.; Rodriguez Moure, A. A.; Suarez, G.; Dominguez, L.
Animal epidemics are part of everyday life in animal husbandry, as are the psychosocial effects of the killing/slaughter of animals on the animal keeper. So here we are talking about everyday life observations of concerned people and veterinarians. But now, after the mass slaughter of contaminated animals in conjunction with BSE and MKS, society and the church have taught us to take a much closer look and we now realise that pathological traumatic states are to be considered almost universal concomitant phenomena. Rural families as well as the veterinarians and slaughtering teams involved (Keulungsteams) have to bear the emotional consequences of the circumstances of the loss of these animal for a long time. For the sake of people and the vitalization of the human-animal-relationship the pastoral service ("Kirchlicher Dienst") has initiated an oecumenically organised and specially trained pastoral care task force in Lower Saxony. Its intention is to support the initiation of trauma coverage regarding psycho-religious ways of connectivity at the entrance point of the crisis. PMID:12822253
Wichert von Holten, S
Anatoxin-a is a potent neurotoxin produced by several species of cyanobacteria. This alkaloid may cause fatal intoxication to exposed organisms and this has raised concerns over the increasing popularity of food supplements containing cyanobacteria. These are being marketed with alleged health properties for animal and human consumption. These supplements most commonly contain the genera Spirulina (Arthrospira) and Aphanizomenon and their
Sandra Rellán; Joana Osswald; Martin Saker; Ana Gago-Martinez; Vitor Vasconcelos
Thirty young adults scaled paired pictures of 32 mythological hybrid (part-human, part-animal) beings for perceived similarity, each S rating only a fraction of the 496 unique stimulus pairs. Four factors were extracted from the data by multidimensional scaling, each factor representing a dimension which Ss used to organize perceived differences between the stimuli. Factor 1 reflected several characteristics; it primarily
Harvey Nash; Henry Pieszko
Bacteria exchange genetic material by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). To evaluate the impact of HGT on Escherichia coli genome plasticity, 19 commensal strains collected from the intestinal floras of humans and animals were analyzed by microarrays. Strains were hybridized against an oligoarray containing 2700 E. coli K12 chromosomal genes. A core (genes shared among compared genomes) and a flexible gene
Elena Grasselli; Michaela Gutacker; Brian Gettler; Cinzia Benagli; Maruska Convert; Patrick Boerlin; Jacques Schrenzel; Jean-Claude Piffaretti
In the last 30 years the spread of emerging and invasive fungal pathogens has had a profound impact on plants, animals and humans, causing crop losses and damaging their health with economic and social impact. Awareness of the biodiversity of these pathogens is essential for their detection, identification, and control. In this paper their diversity in Italy is reviewed taking
A. M. Picco; P. Angelini; C. Ciccarone; A. Franceschini; A. Ragazzi; M. Rodolfi; G. C. Varese; M. Zotti
There is amply evidence that a number od xenobiotics suppress various components of the immune system and enhance susceptibility to disease when tested in laboratory animals. There is much less data of effects of xenobiotics on human immune responses. The challenge is to interpre...
Anthropologists have long considered culture to be a defining attribute of humanity. Over the last decade, however, primatologists have repeatedly asserted that great apes also possess culture. Whether or not great apes or other animals pass the `culture test' depends on how one defines culture. This article uses the terms `custom' and `symbolic culture' to distinguish socially transmitted behavioral patterns
Kathleen R. Gibson
The goal of this article is to examine whether mouse lines genetically selected for short and long attack latencies are good animal models for antisocial behavior in humans. To this end, we compared male Short and Long Attack Latency mice (SAL and LAL, respectively) with the extremes of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (men who persistently displayed antisocial
Frans Sluyter; Louise Arseneault; Terrie E. Moffitt; Alexa H. Veenema; Sietse de Boer; Jaap M. Koolhaas
While the ethical dimension of human-animal relationships has become a legitimate, rich subject for contemporary moral philosophers, scholars of moral education, and to a large extent, philosophers of education, have remained surprisingly silent on this subject. The primary purpose of this essay is to illustrate the relationship between the moral…
Rowe, Bradley D.
Analytical approaches to the determination of pesticides and metabolites in human and animal tissues will take many forms. Several factors must be considered in choosing an analytical scheme if the results are to be meaningful. Whenever possible the residue chemist will use stand...
Metabolomics, comprehensive metabolite analysis, is finding increasing application as a tool to measure and enable the manipulation of the phytochemical content of foods, to identify the measures of dietary intake, and to understand human and animal responses to phytochemicals in the diet. Recent applications of metabolomics directed toward understanding the role of phytochemicals in food and nutrition are reviewed. PMID:22162287
McGhie, Tony K; Rowan, Daryl D
Significant differences in lower respiratory tract structure exist both within an animal and between species at each level of anatomy. rregular bipodial and tripodial branching patterns of airways are present in human an nonhuman primate lungs. n contrast, the dog and common labo...
Pyrolysis (carbonization) has been proposed as one of several optional technologies for disposing and recycling waste products in Japan. Plant wastes (sugarcane bagasse and rice husks), animal waste (cow biosolids) and human waste (treated municipal sludge) were pyrolyzed at temperatures from 250–800 °C in closed containers. The carbonized materials were evaluated for specific physical properties (yield, surface area, density) and
Yoshiyuki Shinogi; Yutaka Kanri
Summary A double antibody sandwich blocking ELISA, using a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against influenza A nucleoprotein (NP) was developed to detect antibodies against influenza. Collections of serum samples were obtained from human and various animal species. All influenza A subtypes induced antibodies against hemagglutinins and NP. A close correlation between titers of the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and the NP-ELISA
G. F. de Boer; W. Back; A. D. M. E. Osterhaus
Despite the extensive influence of fungi on economic well-being, as well as on human, animal, plant, and ecosystem health, the threats posed by emerging fungal pathogens are often unappreciated and poorly understood. On December 14 and 15, 2010, the Insti...
D. A. Relman E. R. Choffnes L. Pray L. A. Olsen
Atmospheric CO2 enrichment is known to significantly enhance the growth and development of nearly all plants, implying a potential for elevated levels of CO2 to alter the concentrations of plant constituents related to animal and human health. Our review of this subject indicates that increases in the air's CO2 content typically lead to reductions in the nitrogen and protein concentrations
Sherwood B. Idso; Keith E. Idso
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus of clonal lineage ST398 that exhibits related spa types and contains SCCmec elements of types IVa or V has been isolated from colonized and infected humans and companion animals (e.g., dog, pig, horse) in Germany and Austria. Of particular concern is the association of these cases with cases of nosocomial ventilator-associated pneumonia.
Strommenger, Birgit; Stanek, Christian; Cuny, Christiane
The Workshop on the Qualitative and Quantitative Comparability of Human and Animal Developmental Neurotoxicity was convened by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse to address issues related to when testing should be required, wha...
Journal Article ÃÂAdipogenic potential of multiple human adenoviruses in vivo and in vitro in animals,ÃÂ by Leah D. Whigham, Barbara A. Israel, and Richard L. Atkinson, found in the American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.
Leah D. Whigham (University of Wisconsin-Madison Departments of Medicine and Nutritional Sciences); MD Richard L. Atkinson (Obetech Obesity Research Center); Barbara A. Israel (University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Pathological Sciences)
Modern data concerning biologic characteristics of chromium (Cr3+) its placement in nature, accessibility and metabolic action of its different forms in humans and animals is presented in this survey. Essentiality of chromium for humans is emphasized, data about consumption norms of this microelement and its use for curing different diseases especially diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis of vessels are presented. The biochemical mechanisms of Cr3+ effect on the metabolism in the human and animal organism are analyzed. It is shown that the organism reacts to chrome additions by the change of some metabolism links. Chrome influences positively growth and development of foetus, stimulates metabolism of glucose and insulin in the humans and animals. However, at the set chromium requirements it is necessary to take into account its low availability in food, high release of Cr3+ from the organism under the influence of stress factors, considerable decline of its level with age, and also in the period of pregnancy and lactation. Therefore experimental researches of introduction of Cr3+ additions to the diet of people and forage of animals taking into account their body mass, age and clinical state, can explain the biochemical mechanisms of biological action of this microelement. PMID:22276423
Iskra, R Ia; Ianovych, V G
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of a taxonomically diverse set of Bifidobacterium strains to different classes of antimicrobial agents using a recently described medium. Methods: The susceptibility of 100 strains encompassing 11 bifidobacterial species originating from humans, animals and probiotic products to 12 antimicrobial agents was tested by agar overlay disc diffusion. Based
L. Masco; K. Van Hoorde; E. De Brandt; J. Swings; G. Huys
Empathy and affective appraisals for conspecifics are among the hallmarks of social interaction. Using functional MRI, we hypothesized that vegetarians and vegans, who made their feeding choice for ethical reasons, might show brain responses to conditions of suffering involving humans or animals different from omnivores. We recruited 20 omnivore subjects, 19 vegetarians, and 21 vegans. The groups were matched for
Massimo Filippi; Gianna Riccitelli; Andrea Falini; Francesco di Salle; Patrik Vuilleumier; Giancarlo Comi; Maria A. Rocca; Pedro Antonio Valdes-Sosa
Scabies is a worldwide disease and a major public health problem in many developing countries, related primarily to poverty and overcrowding. In remote Aboriginal communities in northern Australia, prevalences of up to 50% among children have been described, despite the availability of effective chemotherapy. Sarcoptic mange is also an important veterinary disease engendering significant morbidity and mortality in wild, domestic, and farmed animals. Scabies is caused by the ectoparasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei burrowing into the host epidermis. Clinical symptoms include intensely itchy lesions that often are a precursor to secondary bacterial pyoderma, septicemia, and, in humans, poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Although diagnosed scabies cases can be successfully treated, the rash of the primary infestation takes 4 to 6 weeks to develop, and thus, transmission to others often occurs prior to therapy. In humans, the symptoms of scabies infestations can mimic other dermatological skin diseases, and traditional tests to diagnose scabies are less than 50% accurate. To aid early identification of disease and thus treatment, a simple, cheap, sensitive, and specific test for routine diagnosis of active scabies is essential. Recent developments leading to the expression and purification of S. scabiei recombinant antigens have identified a number of molecules with diagnostic potential, and current studies include the investigation and assessment of the accuracy of these recombinant proteins in identifying antibodies in individuals with active scabies and in differentiating those with past exposure. Early identification of disease will enable selective treatment of those affected, reduce transmission and the requirement for mass treatment, limit the potential for escalating mite resistance, and provide another means of controlling scabies in populations in areas of endemicity.
Walton, Shelley F.; Currie, Bart J.
Biomedical research today can be generally classified as human-based or nonhuman animal-based, each with separate and distinct review boards that must approve research protocols. Researchers wishing to work with humans or human tissues have become frustrated by the required burdensome approval panel, the Institutional Review Board. However, scientists have found it is much easier to work with the animal-based research review board, the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Consequently, animals are used for investigations even when scientists believe these studies should be performed with humans or human tissue. This situation deserves attention from society and more specifically the animal protection and patient advocate communities, as neither patients nor animals are well served by the present situation.
Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi able to infect keratinized tissues of human or animal origin. Among them, Trichophyton mentagrophytes is known to be a species complex composed of several species or variants, which occur in both human and animals. Since the T. mentagrophytes complex includes both anthropophilic and zoophilic pathogens, accurate molecular identification is a critical issue for comprehensive understanding of the clinical and epidemiological implications of the genetic heterogeneity of this complex. Here, 41 T. mentagrophytes isolates from either human patients (14 isolates) or animals (27 isolates) with dermatophytosis were prospectively isolated by culture and identified on morphological bases at the University Hospital Centres of Lille and Poitiers, and the Veterinary School of Alfort, respectively. The isolates were differentiated by DNA sequencing of the variable internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions flanking the 5.8S rDNA, and of the housekeeping gene encoding the manganese-containing superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), an enzyme which is involved in defence against oxidative stress and has previously provided interesting insight into both fungal taxonomy and phylogeny. ITS1-ITS2 regions and MnSOD sequences successfully differentiate between members of the T. mentagrophytes complex and the related species Trichophyton rubrum. Whatever the phylogenetic marker used, members of this complex were classified into two major clades exhibiting a similar topology, with a higher variability when the ITS marker was used. Relationships between ITS/MnSOD sequences and host origin, clinical pattern and phenotypic characteristics (macroscopic and microscopic morphologies) were analysed. PMID:17906145
Fréalle, Emilie; Rodrigue, Marion; Gantois, Nausicaa; Aliouat, Cécile-Marie; Delaporte, Emmanuel; Camus, Daniel; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Kauffmann-Lacroix, Catherine; Guillot, Jacques; Delhaes, Laurence
The present study was conducted to study the antibiotic resistance pattern among nontyphoidal Salmonella isolated from human, animal and meat. A total of 37 Salmonella strains isolated from clinical cases (human and animal) and meat during 2008-2009 belonging to 12 serovars were screened for their antimicrobial resistance pattern using 25 antimicrobial agents falling under 12 different antibiotic classes. All the Salmonella isolates tested showed multiple drug resistance varying from 5.40% to 100% with 16 of the 25 antibiotics tested. None of the isolates were sensitive to erythromycin and metronidazole. Resistance was also observed against clindamycin (94.59%), ampicillin (86.49%), co-trimoxazole (48.65%), colistin (45.94%), nalidixic acid (35.10%), amoxyclave (18.90%), cephalexin, meropenem, tobramycin, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, amoxicillin (8.10% each), sparfloxacin and streptomycin (5.40% each). Isolates from clinical cases of animals were resistant to as many as 16 antibiotics, whereas isolates from human clinical cases and meat were resistant to 9 and 14 antibiotics, respectively. Overall, 19 resistotypes were recorded. Analysis of multiple antibiotic resistance index (MARI) indicated that clinical isolates from animals had higher MARI (0.25) as compared to isolates from food (0.22) and human (0.21). Among the different serotypes studied for antibiogram, Paratyhi B isolates, showed resistance to three to 13 antibiotics, whereas Typhimurium strains were resistant to four to seven antibiotics. Widespread multidrug resistance among the isolates from human, animal and meat was observed. Some of the uncommon serotypes exhibited higher resistance rate. Considerable changes in the resistance pattern were also noted. An interesting finding was the reemergence of sensitivity to some of the old antibiotics (chloromphenicol, tetracycline). PMID:21853412
Singh, Shweta; Agarwal, Rajesh Kumar; Tiwari, Suresh C; Si