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1

Macrocyclic lactones: distribution in plasma lipoproteins of several animal species including humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the in vitro distribution of macrocyclic lactones (MLs), lipophilic anthelmintic drugs, in the plasma of several animal species including humans. First, in vitro spiking of goat plasma was performed with ivermectin, moxidectin, abamectin, doramectin, or eprinomectin. In parallel, goats were treated with subcutaneous injection of ivermectin. Then, cow, sheep, rabbit, pig, and human plasma were spiked with moxidectin.

Mohamad Firas Bassissi; Michel Alvinerie; Anne Lespine

2004-01-01

2

Pathology waste includes: Transgenic animals.  

E-print Network

Storage: · All pathology waste bags must be securely tied. · Secondary containers must be rigid, leakPathology waste includes: · Transgenic animals. · Potentially transgenic animals including, "no specimens. · Human tissues that have been fixed in formaldehyde or other fixatives*. · Animal carcasses

George, Steven C.

3

Macrocyclic lactones: distribution in plasma lipoproteins of several animal species including humans.  

PubMed

We studied the in vitro distribution of macrocyclic lactones (MLs), lipophilic anthelmintic drugs, in the plasma of several animal species including humans. First, in vitro spiking of goat plasma was performed with ivermectin, moxidectin, abamectin, doramectin, or eprinomectin. In parallel, goats were treated with subcutaneous injection of ivermectin. Then, cow, sheep, rabbit, pig, and human plasma were spiked with moxidectin. Four fractions were separated using KBr density gradient ultracentrifugation: very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and lipoprotein-deficient fraction. Cholesterol was analyzed by enzymatic assay and MLs by high-performance liquid chromatography. An average of 96% of MLs was associated with lipoproteins. The five MLs studied distributed similarly into goat plasma fractions with a preferential association with HDL (80-90%). Ivermectin partitioning in goat plasma was similar after in vitro spiking and in vivo treatment. In species displaying various lipoprotein profiles, moxidectin was also mainly associated with HDL. However, in human plasma, moxidectin was associated with a lesser extent to HDL (70%) and more to LDL (22%) when compared to other animal species. A relation between the plasma cholesterol content and pharmacokinetics of the drug is suggested. Our finding will allow further exploration of intestinal lymphatic absorption and milk elimination of these compounds-mechanisms in which lipoproteins are involved. In addition, possible improvements of new drug delivery systems are suggested. PMID:15536051

Bassissi, Mohamad Firas; Alvinerie, Michel; Lespine, Anne

2004-08-01

4

Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that can infect many animals, including humans. It belongs to  

E-print Network

Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that can infect many animals, including or transplant therapy or individuals that are positive for HIV. Biology Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan

Wood, Marcelo A.

5

Human Embryology Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For students of human development, the Human Embryology Animations site is a worthy resource. Created by Dr. Valerie O'Loughlin at Indiana University, the goal of this site is to help students "better understand the complex processes that must occur in embryologic development." The animations are divided into five thematic sections, including General Embryology, Development of the Limbs, and Urinary and Reproductive Embryology. Each animation lasts anywhere from 20 seconds to 8 minutes, and they cover heart tube folding, septum development, postnatal circulation, and 30 or so other processes. The site is designed for students and members of the general public with a basic understanding of human biology, and the animations are well-planned and worth a look. Additionally, they could be used for students reviewing materials for a course like AP Biology.

O'Loughlin, Valerie

2012-03-02

6

Human Embryology Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection features animations that illustrate a variety of the processes in the development of the human embryo. The collection was designed as a tool for medical students, but can serve as a review for other health-science practitioners and students. The animations are grouped by topic: cardiovascular embryology, development of the head and neck, gastrointestinal embryology, limb development, and urinary and reproductive embryology. They include written pre- and post-tests, and online assessment materials.

7

its monitoring. More generally, one could investigate the condi-tions under which animals (including humans) override their  

E-print Network

its monitoring. More generally, one could investigate the condi- tions under which animals, Harvard University, Bedford, MA 01730. griffin@fas.harvard.edu Abstract: In animals' natural lives confident or uncertain? If they are con- scious of anything, the content of animals' awareness probably

Hampton, Robert

8

Animating human athletics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes algorithms for the animation of men and women performing three dynamic athletic behaviors: running, bicycling, and vaulting. We animate these behaviors using control algorithms that cause a physically realistic model to perform the desired maneuver. For example, control algorithms allow the simulated humans to maintain balance while moving their arms, to run or bicycle at a variety

Jessica K. Hodgins; Wayne L. Wooten; David C. Brogan; James F. O'Brien

1995-01-01

9

The need to include animal protection in public health policies  

PubMed Central

Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712

Akhtar, Aysha

2013-01-01

10

Virtual human animation in natural language visualisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulation motion of Virtual Reality (VR) objects and humans has experienced 1 important developments in the last decade. However, realistic virtual human animation gen- 2 eration remains a major challenge, even if applications are numerous, from VR games to 3 medical training. This paper proposes different methods for animating virtual humans, includ- 4 ing blending simultaneous animations of various temporal

Minhua Ma; Paul Mckevitt

2006-01-01

11

Human Embryology Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A set of animations showing changes during cardiovascular, head & neck, and gut, with limb and urogenital development coming soon. Currently includes a pre and post tests on each segment so students can assess their learning.

PhD Valerie Dean O'Loughlin (Indiana University Medical Sciences Program)

2008-01-03

12

Animal and human influenzas.  

PubMed

Influenza type A viruses affect humans and other animals and cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Influenza A viruses are well adapted to cross species barriers and evade host immunity. Viruses that cause no clinical signs in wild aquatic birds may adapt in domestic poultry to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which decimate poultry flocks. Viruses that cause asymptomatic infection in poultry (e.g. the recently emerged A/H7N9 virus) may cause severe zoonotic disease and pose a major pandemic threat. Pandemic influenza arises at unpredictable intervals from animal viruses and, in its global spread, outpaces current technologies for making vaccines against such novel viruses. Confronting the threat of influenza in humans and other animals is an excellent example of a task that requires a One Health approach. Changes in travel, trade in livestock and pets, changes in animal husbandry practices, wet markets and complex marketing chains all contribute to an increased risk of the emergence of novel influenza viruses with the ability to cross species barriers, leading to epizootics or pandemics. Coordinated surveillance at the animal- human interface for pandemic preparedness, risk assessment, risk reduction and prevention at source requires coordinated action among practitioners in human and animal health and the environmental sciences. Implementation of One Health in the field can be challenging because of divergent short-term objectives. Successful implementation requires effort, mutual trust, respect and understanding to ensure that long-term goals are achieved without adverse impacts on agricultural production and food security. PMID:25707182

Peiris, M; Yen, H-L

2014-08-01

13

Human Embryology Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the most impressive ways to learn about biology, particularly that which we seldom see, is through modeling. Dr. Valerie O'Loughlin and her colleagues at Indiana University have created this thoroughly impressive set of animations so that "students could better understand the complex processes that must occur in embryologic development." The site is arranged into five main areas, including: Cardiovascular Embryology, Development of the Head and Neck, Gastrointestinal Embryology, Development of the Limbs, and Urinary and Reproductive Embryology. However, the only two sections currently loaded with animations are the first two. Presumably, the rest are coming soon. Also, because these animations are part of a study of teaching efficacy, Dr. O'Loughlin asks that users participate in an optional survey. However, all animations can be accessed without taking part. As a great addition to the site, users are presented with a few questions regarding the anatomy which they are about to see, prior to viewing the animation. Undboutedly, this is related to the Indiana University course that these animations are a part of, but they serve as a great addition for visitors other than students, too.

O'Loughlin, Valerie

14

When Humans Become Animals: Development of the Animal Category in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examines 3- and 5-year-olds' representation of the concept we label "animal" and its two nested concepts--"animal"[subscript contrastive] (including only non-human animals) and "animal"[subscript inclusive] (including both humans and non-human animals). Building upon evidence that naming promotes object categorization, we

Herrmann, Patricia A.; Medin, Douglas L.; Waxman, Sandra R.

2012-01-01

15

Human\\/companion animal therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human\\/Companion Animal Therapy is a single process in that it introduces a companion animal into the life of a person to enhance his emotional well being. There are, however, various ways in which the companion animal may be used. These are: a) as a psychotherapeutic adjunct, b) as the sole therapist, c) as a catalytic agent for change, d) as

Boris M. Levinson

1984-01-01

16

A case for integrity: gains from including more than animal welfare in animal ethics committee deliberations.  

PubMed

From January 2013, a new EU Directive 63/2010/EU requires that research using animals must undergo a harm-benefit analysis, which takes ethical considerations into account (Art. 38 (2) d) - a so-called 'project authorization' (Art. 36). A competent authority in each member state has to ensure that no project is carried out without such a project validation process, but often delegates the actual assessment to an animal ethics committee (AEC) or its equivalent. The core task of the AEC is to formulate a justifiable balance between the animals' suffering caused by research and the potential human benefit. AECs traditionally focus on animal welfare issues, but according to the new directive other public concerns must also be taken into account. Taking the new EU Directive as a point of departure, the central aim of this paper is to discuss the evaluation process in relation to animal welfare and animal ethics through the concept of animal integrity. A further aim is to elaborate on possible improvements to project evaluation by considering animal integrity. We argue that concepts like animal integrity are often left out of project authorization processes within AECs, because animal ethics is often interpreted narrowly to include only certain aspects of animal welfare. Firstly, we describe the task of an AEC and discuss what has typically been regarded as ethically relevant in the assessment process. Secondly, we categorize four notions of integrity found in the literature to show the complexity of the concept and furthermore to indicate its strengths. Thirdly, we discuss how certain interpretations of integrity can be included in AEC assessments to encapsulate wider ethical concerns and, perhaps even increase the democratic legitimacy of AECs. PMID:24367033

Rcklinsberg, H; Gamborg, C; Gjerris, M

2014-01-01

17

Gender Differences in HumanAnimal Interactions: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

I review the direction and magnitude (effect sizes) of gender dif- ferences that have been reported in several areas of human-animal interac- tions. These include: attitudes toward the treatment of animals, attachment to pets, involvement in animal protectionism, animal hoarding, hunting, animal abuse, and bestiality. Women, on average, show higher levels of positive be- haviors and attitudes toward animals (e.g.,

Harold A. Herzog

2007-01-01

18

Human and animal bite infections.  

PubMed

Although often innocuous initially, human and animal bites can cause serious local and systemic infections as well as other complications. Bites to a site where joints or bones are close to the skin are especially prone to severe complications. Bites to the hand, therefore, require meticulous radiographic and surgical evaluation if a puncture or a severe laceration has occurred. Since the normal human oral flora harbors more pathogens than that of animals, human bites have a higher incidence of serious infections and complications. The oral flora of both humans and animals is anaerobic-aerobic, and initial empiric treatment requires the most broad spectrum antimicrobial therapy available, in addition to scrupulous wound management and, when required, immunization against rabies and tetanus. PMID:2656906

Brook, I

1989-06-01

19

Bridging Animal and Human Models  

PubMed Central

Genetics play an important role in the development and course of alcohol abuse, and understanding genetic contributions to this disorder may lead to improved preventative and therapeutic strategies in the future. Studies both in humans and in animal models are necessary to fully understand the neurobiology of alcoholism from the molecular to the cognitive level. By dissecting the complex facets of alcoholism into discrete, well-defined phenotypes that are measurable in both human populations and animal models of the disease, researchers will be better able to translate findings across species and integrate the knowledge obtained from various disciplines. Some of the key areas of alcoholism research where consilience between human and animal studies is possible are alcohol withdrawal severity, sensitivity to rewards, impulsivity, and dysregulated alcohol consumption. PMID:23134048

Barkley-Levenson, Amanda M.; Crabbe, John C.

2012-01-01

20

Animal lifespan and human influence  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lifespan differs radically among organisms ever lived on earth, even among those roughly similar in size, shape, form, and physiology; Yet, in general, there exists a strong positive relationship between lifespan and body size. Although lifespans of humans and human-related (domestic) animals are becoming increasingly longer than that of other animals of similar sizes, the slope of the regression (lifespan-body size) line and the intercepts have been surprisingly stable over the course of the dramatic human population growth, indicating substantial depression in lifespans of many other animals probably due to shrunk and fragmented natural habitats. This article addresses two questions related to the lifespan-size relationship: (1) what caused the exceptions (e.g., a few remote human-related animals are also located above the regression line with great residuals) and why (e.g., could brain size or intelligence be a covariate in addition to body size in predicting lifespan?), and (2) whether continued human activities can eventually alter the ' natural' regression line in the future, and if so, how much. We also suggest similar research efforts to be extended to the plant world as well.

Guo, Q.; Yang, S.

2002-01-01

21

Animal Models of Human Granulocyte Diseases  

PubMed Central

In vivo animal models have proven very useful to understand basic biological pathways of the immune system, a prerequisite for the development of innovate therapies. This manuscript addresses currently available models for defined human monogenetic defects of neutrophil granulocytes, including murine, zebrafish and larger mammalian species. Strengths and weaknesses of each system are summarized, and clinical investigators may thus be inspired to develop further lines of research to improve diagnosis and therapy by use of the appropriate animal model system. PMID:23351993

Schffer, Alejandro A.; Klein, Christoph

2012-01-01

22

INTRODUCTION Numerous marine animals that migrate long distances, including  

E-print Network

3535 INTRODUCTION Numerous marine animals that migrate long distances, including fishes, sea marine migrations. Young loggerheads leave their nesting beaches and embark on transoceanic migrations., 1995; Lohmann et al., 2012). During these migrations, juvenile turtles spend considerable time foraging

Lohmann, Kenneth J.

23

Boron in human and animal nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the findings from human and animal studies indicating that B is a dynamic trace element which, in physiological amounts, can affect the metabolism or utilisation of numerous other substances involved in life processes including macrominerals, energy substrates such as triglycerides and glucose, nitrogen containing substances such as amino acids and proteins, reactive oxygen species, and estrogen. Through

Forrest H. Nielsen

1997-01-01

24

Translating cognition from animals to humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many clinical disorders, whether neurological (e.g. Alzheimer's disease) or neuropsychiatric (e.g. schizophrenia and depression), exhibit cognitive symptoms that require pharmacological treatment. Cognition is multi-faceted and includes processes of perception, attention, working memory, long-term memory, executive function, language and social cognition. This article reviews how it is feasible to model many aspects of human cognition with the use of appropriate animal

J. F. Keeler; T. W. Robbins

2011-01-01

25

Comparing Ocean Animals with Other Animals (and Humans!)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What characteristics do ocean animals have that help them to survive in the ocean that are the same or different than other animals which live on the land or fly through the sky? How are they the same or different from humans? We have enjoyed learning about lots of different animals in class, but there is still so much more to learn! The websites listed below have some fun pictures and videos that will help you compare some of the characteristics of ocean animals with other land and sky animals we've learned ...

Mrs. Plouffe

2011-09-26

26

CONTROL FOR SIMULATED HUMAN AND ANIMAL MOTION  

E-print Network

community, com­ puter animation has proved to be a surprisingly fertile ground for experimentation in motionCONTROL FOR SIMULATED HUMAN AND ANIMAL MOTION Michiel van de Panne 1 Department of Computer Science University of Toronto Abstract: The intelligent and graceful motion control exhibited by animals and humans

Panne, M. van de

27

Human and animal cognition: Continuity and discontinuity  

E-print Network

Human and animal cognition: Continuity and discontinuity David Premack* University of Communicated, 2007) Microscopic study of the human brain has revealed neural struc- tures, enhanced wiring, and forms of connectivity among nerve cells not found in any animal, challenging the view that the human brain is simply

Indiana University

28

CEW Research Models: Animal and Human Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Research on CEWs has involved both animals and humans. Multiple investigators have conducted extensive, detailed and complex\\u000a experimental studies on animal models, as well as human volunteer subjects to measure, monitor, and determine the physiologic\\u000a effects of CEWs. The findings and results of these animal and human experimental studies have varied and, as a result, the\\u000a conclusions drawn by investigators

Theodore C. Chan; Gary M. Vilke

29

The simulation of humans and lower animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a brief review of our ongoing work on the biomechanical simulation of the human body. Our comprehensive musculoskeletal model, which includes more or less all of the relevant articular bones and muscle actuators, plus soft tissue deformations, raises the challenge of simulating natural body movements by controlling hundreds of contractile muscles. We have begun to confront this problem by developing a trainable neuromuscular controller for the important special case of the neck-head-face complex. Additionally, I briefly review our relevant earlier work on the motor control of anthropomorphically articulated dynamic models, as well as the biomechanical modeling of lower animals such as fish, including motor control algorithms that enable these simulated animals to learn natural, muscle-actuated locomotion.

Terzopoulos, Demetri

2009-03-01

30

Piperidine alkaloids: human and food animal teratogens.  

PubMed

Piperidine alkaloids are acutely toxic to adult livestock species and produce musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal animals. These teratogenic effects include multiple congenital contracture (MCC) deformities and cleft palate in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Poisonous plants containing teratogenic piperidine alkaloids include poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), lupine (Lupinus spp.), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) [including wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca)]. There is abundant epidemiological evidence in humans that link maternal tobacco use with a high incidence of oral clefting in newborns; this association may be partly attributable to the presence of piperidine alkaloids in tobacco products. In this review, we summarize the evidence for piperidine alkaloids that act as teratogens in livestock, piperidine alkaloid structure-activity relationships and their potential implications for human health. PMID:22449544

Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Panter, Kip E; Brown, David R

2012-06-01

31

Lighted display devices for producing static or animated visual displays, including animated facial features  

DOEpatents

An illuminated display device with a base member with a plurality of cavities therein. Illumination devices illuminate the cavities and emit light through an opening of the cavities in a pattern, and a speaker can emit sounds in synchronization with the pattern. A panel with translucent portions can overly the base member and the cavities. An animated talking character can have an animated mouth cavity complex with multiple predetermined mouth lighting configurations simulative of human utterances. The cavities can be open, or optical waveguide material or positive members can be disposed therein. Reflective material can enhance internal reflectance and light emission.

Heilbron, Valerie J; Clem, Paul G; Cook, Adam Wade

2014-02-11

32

What Animal Models Teach Humans about Tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Animal models have become,standard tools for the study of a wide array of human infectious diseases. Although there are no true animal reservoirs for M. tuberculosis, many,different animal species are susceptible to infection with this organism and have served as valuable tools for the study of TB. The most commonly,used experimental animal models of TB are the mouse, rabbit,

Ashwin S. Dharmadhikari; Edward A. Nardell

2008-01-01

33

[A society for humans and animals].  

PubMed

In industrial societies, living with animals can no longer be taken for granted. The long-standing tradition of living with animals has been radically questioned by biotechnological developments in animal farming and by animal liberation theories. The goal seems to be to exclude domestic animals from our food chain and return them to the wild, a paradoxical development as, at the same time, there is a tendency to domesticate wild animals. The paradox may be explained by coming back to the issue of work: living with animals means that humans and animals not only live together but also work together, thus giving work a role to play in their mutual emancipation. PMID:23516755

Porcher, Jocelyne

2013-01-01

34

Human Factor Aspects of Power System Flow Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents experimental results associated with human factor aspects of using animation to display electric power system flow information, including transmission line megawatt flow and power transfer distribution factor (PTDF) values. The paper's results are based on two experiments performed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign using electric power system students. The results indicate that animated motion of

Douglas A. Wiegmann; Gavin R. Essenberg; Thomas J. Overbye; Yan Sun

2005-01-01

35

Social learning in humans and other animals  

PubMed Central

Decisions made by individuals can be influenced by what others think and do. Social learning includes a wide array of behaviors such as imitation, observational learning of novel foraging techniques, peer or parental influences on individual preferences, as well as outright teaching. These processes are believed to underlie an important part of cultural variation among human populations and may also explain intraspecific variation in behavior between geographically distinct populations of animals. Recent neurobiological studies have begun to uncover the neural basis of social learning. Here we review experimental evidence from the past few decades showing that social learning is a widespread set of skills present in multiple animal species. In mammals, the temporoparietal junction, the dorsomedial, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as the anterior cingulate gyrus, appear to play critical roles in social learning. Birds, fish, and insects also learn from others, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. We discuss the evolutionary implications of these findings and highlight the importance of emerging animal models that permit precise modification of neural circuit function for elucidating the neural basis of social learning. PMID:24765063

Garipy, Jean-Franois; Watson, Karli K.; Du, Emily; Xie, Diana L.; Erb, Joshua; Amasino, Dianna; Platt, Michael L.

2014-01-01

36

Toxoplasmosis in animals and humans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

T. gondii is one of the most studied parasites.It causes disease in virtually all warm blooded animals Many scientists use T. gondii to investigate problems in cell biology and genetics. The book is divided into 19 chapters. Chapter 1 deals with biology. Chapter 2, which deals with toxoplasmosis...

37

Personality in Non-human Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, research on animal personality has flourished in numerous disciplines ranging from Behavioral Ecology and Developmental Psychobiology to Genetics and Comparative Psychology. The broad appeal of animal studies is that, in comparison with human studies, they afford greater experimental control, more options for measuring physiological and genetic parameters, greater oppor- tunities for naturalistic observation, and an accelerated

Samuel D. Gosling

2008-01-01

38

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN HUMANS AND FEED ANIMALS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Few issues evoke as much discussion and disagreement as the use or misuse of antibiotics in feed animal production systems. Increased concern over the development of antimicrobial resistance in human bacterial pathogens that are also carried by feed animals has led many public health and medical pro...

39

Are animal models predictive for humans?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is one of the central aims of the philosophy of science to elucidate the meanings of scientific terms and also to think critically about their application. The focus of this essay is the scientific term predict and whether there is credible evidence that animal models, especially in toxicology and pathophysiology, can be used to predict human outcomes. Whether animals

Niall Shanks; Ray Greek; Jean Greek

2009-01-01

40

Revised January 2012 Appendix I Animals (including insects and fish)  

E-print Network

conducted) 2. Will you be generating any genetically modified organisms? If yes, what animals and how? N/A 3 derivative) RG1 Farq / 123A *PHAC- Public Health Agency of Canada **CFIA- Canadian Food Inspection Agency

41

Human antibody production in transgenic animals.  

PubMed

Fully human antibodies from transgenic animals account for an increasing number of new therapeutics. After immunization, diverse human monoclonal antibodies of high affinity can be obtained from transgenic rodents, while large animals, such as transchromosomic cattle, have produced respectable amounts of specific human immunoglobulin (Ig) in serum. Several strategies to derive animals expressing human antibody repertoires have been successful. In rodents, gene loci on bacterial artificial chromosomes or yeast artificial chromosomes were integrated by oocyte microinjection or transfection of embryonic stem (ES) cells, while ruminants were derived from manipulated fibroblasts with integrated human chromosome fragments or human artificial chromosomes. In all strains, the endogenous Ig loci have been silenced by gene targeting, either in ES or fibroblast cells, or by zinc finger technology via DNA microinjection; this was essential for optimal production. However, comparisons showed that fully human antibodies were not as efficiently produced as wild-type Ig. This suboptimal performance, with respect to immune response and antibody yield, was attributed to imperfect interaction of the human constant region with endogenous signaling components such as the Ig?/? in mouse, rat or cattle. Significant improvements were obtained when the human V-region genes were linked to the endogenous CH-region, either on large constructs or, separately, by site-specific integration, which could also silence the endogenous Ig locus by gene replacement or inversion. In animals with knocked-out endogenous Ig loci and integrated large IgH loci, containing many human Vs, all D and all J segments linked to endogenous C genes, highly diverse human antibody production similar to normal animals was obtained. PMID:25467949

Brggemann, Marianne; Osborn, Michael J; Ma, Biao; Hayre, Jasvinder; Avis, Suzanne; Lundstrom, Brian; Buelow, Roland

2015-04-01

42

PBS Online NewsHour: Chimeras: Animal-Human Hybrids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In-depth coverage of the implanting of human cells into animals in order to make more human-like models for medical research, accompanied by instructional materials. Includes lesson plan on the ethics of chimeric research, Q-and-A with two experts, and extended interviews with researchers. Main story is provided as text, streaming video, and RealAudio.

43

Vision-Based Animation of Digital Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a system for animating customized virtual humans using motion parameters estimated from multi-view image sequences. The advantage of our method is that the subject does not have to wear markers or other devices. We offer a detailed analysis of the singulari- ties that might arise during tracking humans using multiple cameras and we provide an analysis of

Ioannis A. Kakadiaris; Dimitris N. Metaxas

1998-01-01

44

Animal models of human respiratory syncytial virus disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for novel therapies and preventative strategies. Present animal models include several target species for hRSV, including chimpanzees, cattle, sheep, cotton

R. A. Bem; J. B. Domachowske; H. F. Rosenberg

2011-01-01

45

Best practices for planning events encouraging human-animal interactions.  

PubMed

Educational events encouraging human-animal interaction include the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. It is estimated that 14% of all disease in the USA caused by Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichiacoli (STEC) O157, non-O157 STECs, Listeriamonocytogenes, non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica and Yersinia enterocolitica were attributable to animal contact. This article reviews best practices for organizing events where human-animal interactions are encouraged, with the objective of lowering the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. PMID:24751220

Erdozain, G; KuKanich, K; Chapman, B; Powell, D

2015-03-01

46

(Provisional syllabus) HUMANS AMONG ANIMALS  

E-print Network

time. Requirements: -Active participation in discussions. Class participation will include brief wider public readership. We will also read a wide range of brief essays, and commentary on them, drawing for instance on anthropology, history, linguistics, philosophy, psychology, and zoology. Findings

Goldberg, Bennett

47

The uncertain response in humans and animals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has been no comparative psychological study of uncertainty processes. Accordingly, the present experiments asked whether animals, like humans, escape adaptively when they are uncertain. Human and animal observers were given two primary responses in a visual discrimination task, and the opportunity to escape from some trials into easier ones. In one psychophysical task (using a threshold paradigm), humans escaped selectively the difficult trials that left them uncertain of the stimulus. Two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) also showed this pattern. In a second psychophysical task (using the method of constant stimuli), some humans showed this pattern but one escaped infrequently and nonoptimally. Monkeys showed equivalent individual differences. The data suggest that escapes by humans and monkeys are interesting cognitive analogs and may reflect controlled decisional processes prompted by the perceptual ambiguity at threshold.

Smith, J. D.; Shields, W. E.; Schull, J.; Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

1997-01-01

48

Are animal models predictive for humans?  

PubMed Central

It is one of the central aims of the philosophy of science to elucidate the meanings of scientific terms and also to think critically about their application. The focus of this essay is the scientific term predict and whether there is credible evidence that animal models, especially in toxicology and pathophysiology, can be used to predict human outcomes. Whether animals can be used to predict human response to drugs and other chemicals is apparently a contentious issue. However, when one empirically analyzes animal models using scientific tools they fall far short of being able to predict human responses. This is not surprising considering what we have learned from fields such evolutionary and developmental biology, gene regulation and expression, epigenetics, complexity theory, and comparative genomics. PMID:19146696

2009-01-01

49

What animal models teach humans about tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Animal models have become standard tools for the study of a wide array of human infectious diseases. Although there are no true animal reservoirs for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, many different animal species are susceptible to infection with this organism and have served as valuable tools for the study of tuberculosis (TB). The most commonly used experimental animal models of TB are the mouse, rabbit, and guinea pig. Although substantial differences in TB susceptibility and disease manifestations exist between these species, they have contributed significantly to the understanding of TB immunopathogenesis, host genetic influence on infection, efficacy of antimicrobial therapy, and host/pathogen interactions that determine the outcome or severity of infection. Among the three species, mice are relatively resistant to TB infection, followed by rabbits and then guinea pigs, which are extremely vulnerable to infection. Mice are most often used in experiments on immune responses to TB infection and drug regimens against TB. Rabbits, unlike the other two animal models, develop cavitary TB and offer a means to study the factors leading to this form of the disease. Guinea pigs, due to their high susceptibility to infection, have been ideal for studies on airborne transmission and vaccine efficacy. In addition to these three species, TB research has occasionally involved nonhuman primates and cattle models. Current concepts in TB pathogenesis have also been derived from animal studies involving experimentally induced infections with related mycobacteria (e.g., Mycobacterium bovis) whose manifestations in select animal hosts mimic human TB. PMID:18556589

Dharmadhikari, Ashwin S; Nardell, Edward A

2008-11-01

50

Epidemiological review of Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from former East European countries, including Romania is sketchy. Unfortunately, in many Eastern European countries, including Romania it has been assumed that T. ...

51

ISFG: Recommendations regarding the use of non-human (animal) DNA in forensic genetic investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of non-human DNA typing in forensic science investigations, and specifically that from animal DNA, is ever increasing. The term animal DNA in this document refers to animal species encountered in a forensic science examination but does not include human DNA. Non-human DNA may either be: the trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species,

A. Linacre; L. Gusmo; W. Hecht; A. P. Hellmann; W. R. Mayr; W. Parson; M. Prinz; P. M. Schneider; N. Morling

2011-01-01

52

Piperidine alkaloids: Human and food animal teratogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Piperidine alkaloids are acutely toxic to adult livestock species and produce musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal animals. These teratogenic effects include multiple congenital contracture (MCC) deformities and cleft palate in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Poisonous plants containing teratogen...

53

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award...Administration Manual 2 concerning animal welfare. 2 The...

2013-10-01

54

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

2012-10-01

55

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

2014-10-01

56

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

2013-10-01

57

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

2011-10-01

58

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

2010-10-01

59

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award...Administration Manual 2 concerning animal welfare. 2 The...

2014-10-01

60

Improving the translation of animal ischemic stroke studies to humans.  

PubMed

Despite testing more than 1,026 therapeutic strategies in models of ischemic stroke and 114 therapies in human ischemic stroke, only one agent tissue plasminogen activator has successfully been translated to clinical practice as a treatment for acute stroke. Though disappointing, this immense body of work has led to a rethinking of animal stroke models and how to better translate therapies to patients with ischemic stroke. Several recommendations have been made, including the STAIR recommendations and statements of RIGOR from the NIH/NINDS. In this commentary we discuss additional aspects that may be important to improve the translational success of ischemic stroke therapies. These include use of tissue plasminogen activator in animal studies; modeling ischemic stroke heterogeneity in terms of infarct size and cause of human stroke; addressing the confounding effect of anesthesia; use of comparable therapeutic dosage between humans and animals based on biological effect; modeling the human immune system; and developing outcome measures in animals comparable to those used in human stroke trials. With additional study and improved animal modeling of factors involved in human ischemic stroke, we are optimistic that new stroke therapies will be developed. PMID:24526567

Jickling, Glen C; Sharp, Frank R

2015-04-01

61

Effects of interactions between humans and domesticated animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans have many kinds of relationships with domesticated animals. To maintain relationships interactions are needed. Interactions with animals may be beneficial for humans but may also be risky. Scientific literature on effects of human-animal relationships and interactions in a workplace, health-care and residential context has been reviewed to develop ideas about the effects farm animals can have on humans. Although

EDDIE A. M. BOKKERS

2006-01-01

62

Naturally Occurring Animal Models of Human Hepatitis E Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus in the family Hepeviridae. Hepatitis E caused by HEV is a clinically important global disease. There are currently four well-characterized genotypes of HEV in mammalian species, although numerous novel strains of HEV likely belonging to either new genotypes or species have recently been identified from several other animal species. HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are limited to infection in humans, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 infect an expanding host range of animal species and are zoonotic to humans. Historical animal models include various species of nonhuman primates, which have been indispensable for the discovery of human HEV and for understanding its pathogenesis and course of infection. With the genetic identification and characterization of animal strains of HEV, a number of naturally occurring animal models such as swine, chicken, and rabbit have recently been developed for various aspects of HEV research, including vaccine trials, pathogenicity, cross-species infection, mechanism of virus replication, and molecular biology studies. Unfortunately, the current available animal models for HEV are still inadequate for certain aspects of HEV research. For instance, an animal model is still lacking to study the underlying mechanism of severe and fulminant hepatitis E during pregnancy. Also, an animal model that can mimic chronic HEV infection is critically needed to study the mechanism leading to chronicity in immunocompromised individuals. Genetic identification of additional novel animal strains of HEV may lead to the development of better naturally occurring animal models for HEV. This article reviews the current understanding of animal models of HEV infection in both natural and experimental infection settings and identifies key research needs and limitations. PMID:24936039

Yugo, Danielle M.; Cossaboom, Caitlin M.; Meng, Xiang-Jin

2014-01-01

63

Memory monitoring by animals and humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors asked whether animals and humans would use similarly an uncertain response to escape indeterminate memories. Monkeys and humans performed serial probe recognition tasks that produced differential memory difficulty across serial positions (e.g., primacy and recency effects). Participants were given an escape option that let them avoid any trials they wished and receive a hint to the trial's answer. Across species, across tasks, and even across conspecifics with sharper or duller memories, monkeys and humans used the escape option selectively when more indeterminate memory traces were probed. Their pattern of escaping always mirrored the pattern of their primary memory performance across serial positions. Signal-detection analyses confirm the similarity of the animals' and humans' performances. Optimality analyses assess their efficiency. Several aspects of monkeys' performance suggest the cognitive sophistication of their decisions to escape.

Smith, J. D.; Shields, W. E.; Allendoerfer, K. R.; Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

64

Toxoplasma gondii in animal and human hosts  

E-print Network

The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an important zoonotic pathogen, which has the ability to infect all warm blooded mammals including humans, with approximately one third of the human population ...

Burrells, Alison Clair

2014-07-05

65

Animal models of human respiratory syncytial virus disease  

PubMed Central

Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for novel therapies and preventative strategies. Present animal models include several target species for hRSV, including chimpanzees, cattle, sheep, cotton rats, and mice, as well as alternative animal pneumovirus models, such as bovine RSV and pneumonia virus of mice. These diverse animal models reproduce different features of hRSV disease, and their utilization should therefore be based on the scientific hypothesis under investigation. The purpose of this review is to summarize the strengths and limitations of each of these animal models. Our intent is to provide a resource for investigators and an impetus for future research. PMID:21571908

Domachowske, Joseph B.; Rosenberg, Helene F.

2011-01-01

66

Animal models of human respiratory syncytial virus disease.  

PubMed

Infection with the human pneumovirus pathogen, respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), causes a wide spectrum of respiratory disease, notably among infants and the elderly. Laboratory animal studies permit detailed experimental modeling of hRSV disease and are therefore indispensable in the search for novel therapies and preventative strategies. Present animal models include several target species for hRSV, including chimpanzees, cattle, sheep, cotton rats, and mice, as well as alternative animal pneumovirus models, such as bovine RSV and pneumonia virus of mice. These diverse animal models reproduce different features of hRSV disease, and their utilization should therefore be based on the scientific hypothesis under investigation. The purpose of this review is to summarize the strengths and limitations of each of these animal models. Our intent is to provide a resource for investigators and an impetus for future research. PMID:21571908

Bem, Reinout A; Domachowske, Joseph B; Rosenberg, Helene F

2011-08-01

67

Ethics, standards, and procedures of animal and human chronobiology research.  

PubMed

The majority of research papers published in Chronobiology International report the findings of investigations conducted on laboratory animals and human beings. The editors and the readers of the journal expect the authors of submitted manuscripts to have made an important contribution to biological rhythm and related research through the ethical conduct of investigations and unbiased and accurate reporting of findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to disclose any potential conflict of interest. The journal accepts only papers that are original work, no part of which has been submitted for publication elsewhere, except as brief abstracts. The journal and its editors endorse the compliance of investigators to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on human beings, and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals. The peer review of manuscripts by Chronobiology International thus includes judgment as to whether or not the investigative methods conform to the standards of good research practice. This article updates the ethical policies, standards, and procedures for manuscripts submitted to Chronobiology International that involve human and animal biological rhythm research, both from the perspective of the criteria of quality chronobiology investigation and from the perspective of humane and ethical research on human beings and animals. PMID:17190696

Touitou, Yvan; Smolensky, Michael H; Portaluppi, Francesco

2006-01-01

68

Animation of Human Walking in Virtual Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an interactive hierarchical motion control system dedicated to the animation of human figure locomotion in virtual environments. As observed in gait experiments, controlling the trajectories of the feet during gait is a precise end-point control task. Inverse kinematics with optimal approaches are used to control the complex relationships between the motion of the body and the coordination

Shih-kai Chung; James K. Hahn

1999-01-01

69

Transgenic Animals: Their Benefits To Human Welfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, reviewed, student article is about how transgenic animals, i.e., engineered to carry genes from other species, have the potential to improve human welfare in: agriculture, such as larger sheep that grow more wool, medicine, such as cows that produce insulin in their milk, andindustry, such as goats that produce spider silk for materials production.

Endang Tri Margawati (Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia; )

2003-01-01

70

Guideline for Review, Approval, & Post Approval Monitoring of Animal Study Proposals Including Designated Member Review  

E-print Network

, justification of the number of animals required and experimental refinement. #12;2 Protocols with procedures1 Guideline for Review, Approval, & Post Approval Monitoring of Animal Study Proposals Including Designated Member Review In the NIH Animal Study Proposal (ASP) review process, Animal Care and Use

Bandettini, Peter A.

71

Medical Geography's contribution to understanding human-animal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging infectious diseases pose significant threats to human and animal health. Infectious agents shared between humans and animals (or zoonotic pathogens) are estimated to cause 75% of emerging and re-emerging diseases in humans (Bengis, 2004). For example, respiratory diseases like avian influenza that are transmitted from animals to humans have resulted in substantial bird and human deaths. Fatal blood-borne diseases

Sarah Beth Paige

72

Human cerebral response to animal affective vocalizations  

PubMed Central

It is presently unknown whether our response to affective vocalizations is specific to those generated by humans or more universal, triggered by emotionally matched vocalizations generated by other species. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal participants to measure cerebral activity during auditory stimulation with affectively valenced animal vocalizations, some familiar (cats) and others not (rhesus monkeys). Positively versus negatively valenced vocalizations from cats and monkeys elicited different cerebral responses despite the participants' inability to differentiate the valence of these animal vocalizations by overt behavioural responses. Moreover, the comparison with human non-speech affective vocalizations revealed a common response to the valence in orbitofrontal cortex, a key component on the limbic system. These findings suggest that the neural mechanisms involved in processing human affective vocalizations may be recruited by heterospecific affective vocalizations at an unconscious level, supporting claims of shared emotional systems across species. PMID:18077254

Belin, Pascal; Fecteau, Shirley; Charest, Ian; Nicastro, Nicholas; Hauser, Marc D; Armony, Jorge L

2007-01-01

73

Visible human slice sequence animation Web server  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since June 1998, EPFL's Visible Human Slice Server (http://visiblehuman.epfl.ch) allows to extract arbitrarily oriented and positioned slices. More than 300,000 slices are extracted each year. In order to give a 3D view of anatomic structures, a new service has been added for extracting slice animations along a user-defined trajectory. This service is useful both for research and teaching purposes (http:visiblehuman.epfl.ch/animation/). Extracting slices of animations at any desired position and orientation from the Visible Human volume (Visible Man or Woman) requires both high throughput and much processing power. The I/O disk bandwidth can be increased by accessing more than one disk at the same time, i.e. by stripping data across several disks and by carrying out parallel asynchronous disk accesses. Since processing operations such as slice and animation extraction are compute- intensive, they require the program execution to be carried out in parallel on several computers. In the present contribution, we describe the new slice sequence animation service as well as the approach taken for parallelizing this service on a multi-PC multi-disk Web server.

Bessaud, Jean-Christophe; Hersch, Roger D.

2000-12-01

74

Tobacco and cigarette butt consumption in humans and animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discarded cigarette butts may present health risks to human infants and animals because of indiscriminate eating behaviours. Nicotine found in cigarette butts may cause vomiting and neurological toxicity; leachates of cigarette butts in aquatic environments may cause exposure to additional toxic chemicals including heavy metals, ethyl phenol and pesticide residues. This report reviews published and grey literature regarding cigarette butt

Thomas E Novotny; Sarah N Hardin; Lynn R Hovda; Dale J Novotny; Mary Kay McLean; Safdar Khan

2011-01-01

75

Phenotypic Differentiation of Bifidobacteria of Human and Animal Origins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenotypes of 153 strains belonging or related to the genus Bijidobacterium were studied. These organisms included 38 collection strains and 115 wild strains (41 strains of human origin, 56 strains of animal origin, and 18 strains obtained from rivers or sewage). Our phenotypic analysis revealed seven main groups that were subdivided into 20 subgroups. Seven subgroups contained no type

FRANCOISE GAVINI; ANNE-MARIE POURCHER; CHRISTEL NEUT; DANIEL MONGET; CHARLES ROMOND; CATHERINE OGER; DANIEL IZARD

76

Affective neuroscience of pleasure: reward in humans and animals  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pleasure and reward are generated by brain circuits that are largely shared between humans and other animals. Discussion Here, we survey some fundamental topics regarding pleasure mechanisms and explicitly compare humans and animals. Conclusion Topics surveyed include liking, wanting, and learning components of reward; brain coding versus brain causing of reward; subjective pleasure versus objective hedonic reactions; roles of orbitofrontal cortex and related cortex regions; subcortical hedonic hotspots for pleasure generation; reappraisals of dopamine and pleasure-electrode controversies; and the relation of pleasure to happiness. PMID:18311558

2010-01-01

77

Tobacco and cigarette butt consumption in humans and animals.  

PubMed

Discarded cigarette butts may present health risks to human infants and animals because of indiscriminate eating behaviours. Nicotine found in cigarette butts may cause vomiting and neurological toxicity; leachates of cigarette butts in aquatic environments may cause exposure to additional toxic chemicals including heavy metals, ethyl phenol and pesticide residues. This report reviews published and grey literature regarding cigarette butt waste consumption by children, pets and wildlife. Although reports of human and animal exposures number in the tens of thousands, severe toxic outcomes due to butt consumption are rare. Nonetheless, the ubiquity of cigarette butt waste and its potential for adverse effects on human and animal health warrants additional research and policy interventions to reduce the stream of these pollutants in the environment. PMID:21504918

Novotny, Thomas E; Hardin, Sarah N; Hovda, Lynn R; Novotny, Dale J; McLean, Mary Kay; Khan, Safdar

2011-05-01

78

Animal models of human breast carcinoma: canine and feline neoplasms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Domestic animals develop spontaneously many of the diseases that also affect human beings, including cancer, and thus are\\u000a excelent natural models of those diseases. The canine and feline mammary gland carcinoma is one of the natural models proposed\\u000a by the World Health Organization because of its epidemiologic, clinical and morphologic similarities with human breast cancer.\\u000a Incidence is high in both

Juana Martn de las Mulas; Carlos Reymundo

2000-01-01

79

Meaning in animal and human communication.  

PubMed

What is meaning? While traditionally the domain of philosophy and linguistics, this question, and others related to it, is critical for cognitive and comparative approaches to communication. This short essay provides a concise and accessible description of how the term meaning can and should be used, how it relates to 'intentional communication', and what would constitute good evidence of meaning in animal communication, in the sense that is relevant for comparisons with human language. PMID:25647173

Scott-Phillips, Thomas C

2015-05-01

80

Scripting human animations in a virtual environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current deficiencies of virtual environment (VE) are well known: annoying lag time in drawing the current view, drastically simplified environments to reduce that time lag, low resolution and narrow field of view. Animation scripting is an application of VE technology which can be carried out successfully despite these deficiencies. The final product is a smoothly moving high resolution animation displaying detailed models. In this system, the user is represented by a human computer model with the same body proportions. Using magnetic tracking, the motions of the model's upper torso, head and arms are controlled by the user's movements (18 degrees of freedom). The model's lower torso and global position and orientation are controlled by a spaceball and keypad (12 degrees of freedom). Using this system human motion scripts can be extracted from the user's movements while immersed in a simplified virtual environment. Recorded data is used to define key frames; motion is interpolated between them and post processing adds a more detailed environment. The result is a considerable savings in time and a much more natural-looking movement of a human figure in a smooth and seamless animation.

Goldsby, Michael E.; Pandya, Abhilash K.; Maida, James C.

1994-01-01

81

THE APPLICATION OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND THE HUMANE CARE OF FARM ANIMALS 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Humane care is best defined as maintaining husbandry procedures in keeping with the traits which are species-specific to the animal farmed. It must be evaluated in relation to the ethogram of the species, and not to anthropomorphic human feelings about animal care. If humane care is pursued, some compatability may be found between what the animal behavior scien- tists

R. Kilgour

2010-01-01

82

Qualitative Directions in HumanAnimal Companion Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Researcher inquiries into topics such as animal welfare, animal affect, and human experiences of the humananimal bond have\\u000a historically been rooted in positivist epistemologies and reliant on quantitative measures and experiments, rather than naturalistic\\u000a observations and individual experiences (Fraser, 2009). In this chapter, I target several topic areas within humananimal\\u000a and animal research to explore the existence and benefits of

David Shen-Miller

83

21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section 864.2280... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

84

21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section 864.2280... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

85

21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section 864.2280... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

86

21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section 864.2280... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

87

21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section 864.2280... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

88

Toxoplasma gondii: from animals to humans  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasmosis is one of the more common parasitic zoonoses world-wide. Its causative agent, Toxoplasma gondii, is a facultatively heteroxenous, polyxenous protozoon that has developed several potential routes of transmission within and between different host species. If first contracted during pregnancy, T. gondii may be transmitted vertically by tachyzoites that are passed to the foetus via the placenta. Horizontal transmission of T. gondii may involve three life-cycle stages, i.e. ingesting infectious oocysts from the environment or ingesting tissue cysts or tachyzoites which are contained in meat or primary offal (viscera) of many different animals. Transmission may also occur via tachyzoites contained in blood products, tissue transplants, or unpasteurised milk. However, it is not known which of these routes is more important epidemiologically. In the past, the consumption of raw or undercooked meat, in particular of pigs and sheep, has been regarded as a major route of transmission to humans. However, recent studies showed that the prevalence of T. gondii in meat-producing animals decreased considerably over the past 20 years in areas with intensive farm management. For example, in several countries of the European Union prevalences of T. gondii in fattening pigs are now <1%. Considering these data it is unlikely that pork is still a major source of infection for humans in these countries. However, it is likely that the major routes of transmission are different in human populations with differences in culture and eating habits. In the Americas, recent outbreaks of acute toxoplasmosis in humans have been associated with oocyst contamination of the environment. Therefore, future epidemiological studies on T. gondii infections should consider the role of oocysts as potential sources of infection for humans, and methods to monitor these are currently being developed. This review presents recent epidemiological data on T. gondii, hypotheses on the major routes of transmission to humans in different populations, and preventive measures that may reduce the risk of contracting a primary infection during pregnancy. PMID:11113252

Tenter, Astrid M.; Heckeroth, Anja R.; Weiss, Louis M.

2011-01-01

89

Chapter 18 Modeling the Interaction between Humans and Animals  

E-print Network

of the tiger as a prototype for modeling the interaction between humans and animals in the wild. Over the pastChapter 18 Modeling the Interaction between Humans and Animals in Multiple-use Forests: A Case BIOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA The loss of animal habitat and the greater use of forests by humans

Ahearn, Sean

90

Exemplar Selection Methods to Distinguish Human from Animal Footsteps  

E-print Network

Exemplar Selection Methods to Distinguish Human from Animal Footsteps Po-Sen Huang , Mark Hasegawa animal footsteps can be framed as a class discovery problem. When humans travel alone, every footstep. When humans travel with animals, their footsteps are interspersed and/or overlapped in time; without

Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark

91

76 FR 29767 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request for Comments  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/ Feed Facilities; Request...pack, or hold human food or animal food/feed (including pet...for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-300), Food and Drug...with respect to human food or animal food/feed (including...

2011-05-23

92

Pathology of Acute Henipavirus Infection in Humans and Animals  

PubMed Central

Zoonoses as causes of human infections have been increasingly reported, and many of these are viruses that cause central nervous system infections. This paper focuses on the henipaviruses (family Paramyxoviridae, genus henipavirus) that have recently emerged to cause severe encephalitis and systemic infection in humans and animals in the Asia-Pacific region. The pathological features in the human infections comprise vasculopathy (vasculitis, endothelial multinucleated syncytia, thrombosis, etc.) and parenchymal cell infection in the central nervous system, lung, kidney, and other major organs. Most animals naturally or experimentally infected show more or less similar features confirming the dual pathogenetic mechanism of vasculopathy-associated microinfarction and direct extravascular parenchymal cell infection as causes of tissue injury. The most promising animal models include the hamster, ferret, squirrel monkey, and African green monkey. With increasing evidence of infection in the natural hosts, the pteropid bats and, hence, probable future outbreaks in many more countries, a greater awareness of henipavirus infection in both humans and animals is imperative. PMID:21961078

Wong, K. T.; Ong, K. C.

2011-01-01

93

Farm Animal Serum Proteomics and Impact on Human Health  

PubMed Central

Due to the incompleteness of animal genome sequencing, the analysis and characterization of serum proteomes of most farm animals are still in their infancy, compared to the already well-documented human serum proteome. This review focuses on the implications of the farm animal serum proteomics in order to identify novel biomarkers for animal welfare, early diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of infectious disease treatment, and develop new vaccines, aiming at determining the reciprocal benefits for humans and animals. PMID:25257521

Girolamo, Francesco Di; DAmato, Alfonsina; Lante, Isabella; Signore, Fabrizio; Muraca, Marta; Putignani, Lorenza

2014-01-01

94

Human-Animal Bonds in the Laboratory: How Animal Behavior Affects the Perspective of Caregivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiencing the human-animal bond in the laboratory con- text can potentially improve the quality of life of animals as well as increase job satisfaction for animal caregivers. With today's centralized facilities, caregivers generally focus en- tirely on providing routine care for animals without involve- ment in experimental procedures. Results of responses to a detailed and open-ended survey of 16 caregivers

Fon T. Chang; Lynette A. Hart

95

Animals as sentinels of human health hazards of environmental chemicals.  

PubMed Central

A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environment," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, was held to consider the use of sentinel and surrogate animal species data for evaluating the potential human health effects of chemicals in the environment. The workshop took a broad view of the sentinel species concept, and included mammalian and nonmammalian species, companion animals, food animals, fish, amphibians, and other wildlife. Sentinel species data included observations of wild animals in field situations as well as experimental animal data. Workshop participants identified potential applications for sentinel species data derived from monitoring programs or serendipitous observations and explored the potential use of such information in human health hazard and risk assessments and for evaluating causes or mechanisms of effect. Although it is unlikely that sentinel species data will be used as the sole determinative factor in evaluating human health concerns, such data can be useful as for additional weight of evidence in a risk assessment, for providing early warning of situations requiring further study, or for monitoring the course of remedial activities. Attention was given to the factors impeding the application of sentinel species approaches and their acceptance in the scientific and regulatory communities. Workshop participants identified a number of critical research needs and opportunities for interagency collaboration that could help advance the use of sentinel species approaches. PMID:10090711

van der Schalie, W H; Gardner, H S; Bantle, J A; De Rosa, C T; Finch, R A; Reif, J S; Reuter, R H; Backer, L C; Burger, J; Folmar, L C; Stokes, W S

1999-01-01

96

Review of human-animal interactions and their impact on animal productivity and welfare  

PubMed Central

Humans and animals are in regular and at times close contact in modern intensive farming systems. The quality of human-animal interactions can have a profound impact on the productivity and welfare of farm animals. Interactions by humans may be neutral, positive or negative in nature. Regular pleasant contact with humans may result in desirable alterations in the physiology, behaviour, health and productivity of farm animals. On the contrary, animals that were subjected to aversive human contact were highly fearful of humans and their growth and reproductive performance could be compromised. Farm animals are particularly sensitive to human stimulation that occurs early in life, while many systems of the animals are still developing. This may have long-lasting impact and could possibly modify their genetic potential. The question as to how human contact can have a positive impact on responses to stressors, and productivity is not well understood. Recent work in our laboratory suggested that pleasant human contact may alter ability to tolerate various stressors through enhanced heat shock protein (hsp) 70 expression. The induction of hsp is often associated with increased tolerance to environmental stressors and disease resistance in animals. The attitude and consequent behaviour of stockpeople affect the animals fear of human which eventually influence animals productivity and welfare. Other than attitude and behaviour, technical skills, knowledge, job motivation, commitment and job satisfaction are prerequisites for high job performance. PMID:23855920

2013-01-01

97

WORKSHOP ON THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPARABILITY OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY, WORK GROUP I REPORT: COMPARABILITY OF MEASURES OF DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY IN HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Assessment measures used in developmental neurotoxicology are reviewed for their comparability in humans and laboratory animals, and their ability to detect comparable, adverse effects across species. ompounds used for these comparisons include: abuse substances, anticonvulsant d...

98

Congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction: human disease and animal models  

PubMed Central

Ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction is the most frequently observed cause of obstructive nephropathy in children. Neonatal and foetal animal models have been developed that mimic closely what is observed in human disease. The purpose of this review is to discuss how obstructive nephropathy alters kidney histology and function and describe the molecular mechanisms involved in the progression of the lesions, including inflammation, proliferation/apoptosis, reninangiotensin system activation and fibrosis, based on both human and animal data. Also we propose that during obstructive nephropathy, hydrodynamic modifications are early inducers of the tubular lesions, which are potentially at the origin of the pathology. Finally, an important observation in animal models is that relief of obstruction during kidney development has important effects on renal function later in adult life. A major short-coming is the absence of data on the impact of UPJ obstruction on long-term adult renal function to elucidate whether these animal data are also valid in humans. PMID:20681980

Klein, Julie; Gonzalez, Julien; Miravete, Mathieu; Caubet, Ccile; Chaaya, Rana; Decramer, Stphane; Bandin, Flavio; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Buffin-Meyer, Bndicte; Schanstra, Joost P

2011-01-01

99

Mind, space and objectivity in non-human animals  

E-print Network

Mind, space and objectivity in non-human animals published in Erkenntnis, 51, 1, 1999, 41-58. Joëlle Proust CREA, Ecole Polytechnique Paris Mind, space and objectivity in non-human animals ---------- There are many diverse, and sometimes conflicting motives for studying animal minds. Ethology aims at describing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

100

Human Factors Aspects of Power System Flow Animation  

E-print Network

Human Factors Aspects of Power System Flow Animation Douglas A. Wiegmann, Gavin R. Essenberg experimental results associated with human factors aspects of using animation to display electric power system at Urbana-Champaign using electric power system students. The results indicate that animated motion of power

101

Attitudes toward Animals: Th e Eff ect of Priming Th oughts of Human-Animal Similarities and Mortality Salience on the Evaluation of Companion Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human attitudes toward nonhuman animals are complex and quite contradictory. Th ey can range between extremely negative (animal cruelty) to positive (treating companion animals like human surrogates). Attitudes toward animals are especially negative when people think about human creatureliness and personal mortality. Th is paper investigates people's attitudes toward highly valued animals (companion animals). Th e research presented here tested

Ruth Beatson; Stephen Loughnan; Michael Halloran

102

Humanimalia: A journal of human/animal interface studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website for the new journal Humanimalia, published by DePauw University, recently released its first issue. The appeal and importance of the journal goes beyond appearance, as the journal states that the study of the human/animal interface has been a "neglected" area of research. In the "Humanimalifesto" link, a lengthy explanation is given, and it notes that one of the main goals of the journal is "to approach animal/human interfaces without relying on stigmatizing critique of philosophical, political, or cultural antagonists." The first issue consists of articles and reviews, including an article called "Hooters for Neuters: Sexist Transgressive Animal Advocacy Campaign?" and a review of the popular Michael Pollan book, "The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals". Visitors interested in submitting an article to the peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journal should check out the guidelines in the "Call-for-Papers" link on the left side of the page. The "Notes and Bulletins" link, also on the left side of the page, has a notice of an Animal Studies meeting at NYU, and the "Links" area includes information on upcoming conferences.

103

Food Animals and Antimicrobials: Impacts on Human Health  

PubMed Central

Summary: Antimicrobials are valuable therapeutics whose efficacy is seriously compromised by the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The provision of antibiotics to food animals encompasses a wide variety of nontherapeutic purposes that include growth promotion. The concern over resistance emergence and spread to people by nontherapeutic use of antimicrobials has led to conflicted practices and opinions. Considerable evidence supported the removal of nontherapeutic antimicrobials (NTAs) in Europe, based on the precautionary principle. Still, concrete scientific evidence of the favorable versus unfavorable consequences of NTAs is not clear to all stakeholders. Substantial data show elevated antibiotic resistance in bacteria associated with animals fed NTAs and their food products. This resistance spreads to other animals and humansdirectly by contact and indirectly via the food chain, water, air, and manured and sludge-fertilized soils. Modern genetic techniques are making advances in deciphering the ecological impact of NTAs, but modeling efforts are thwarted by deficits in key knowledge of microbial and antibiotic loads at each stage of the transmission chain. Still, the substantial and expanding volume of evidence reporting animal-to-human spread of resistant bacteria, including that arising from use of NTAs, supports eliminating NTA use in order to reduce the growing environmental load of resistance genes. PMID:21976606

Marshall, Bonnie M.; Levy, Stuart B.

2011-01-01

104

very year, unknown numbers of marine animals, including whales, seals, dolphins,  

E-print Network

E very year, unknown numbers of marine animals, including whales, seals, dolphins, turtles, and sea.S.C. 1951 et seq. 4 Marine Plastic Pollution Research and Control Act, 33 U.S.C. 1901 et seq. 4 Marine

105

Perceiving Nonhumans: Human Moral Psychology and Animal Ethics  

E-print Network

There are currently very few discussions of moral psychology in the animal ethics literature. This dissertation aims to fill this void. My main contention is that many theories in animal ethics hold mistaken views about the moral psychology of human...

Kasperbauer, Tyler

2014-04-17

106

Exploring hostmicrobiota interactions in animal models and humans  

PubMed Central

The animal and bacterial kingdoms have coevolved and coadapted in response to environmental selective pressures over hundreds of millions of years. The meta'omics revolution in both sequencing and its analytic pipelines is fostering an explosion of interest in how the gut microbiome impacts physiology and propensity to disease. Gut microbiome studies are inherently interdisciplinary, drawing on approaches and technical skill sets from the biomedical sciences, ecology, and computational biology. Central to unraveling the complex biology of environment, genetics, and microbiome interaction in human health and disease is a deeper understanding of the symbiosis between animals and bacteria. Experimental model systems, including mice, fish, insects, and the Hawaiian bobtail squid, continue to provide critical insight into how hostmicrobiota homeostasis is constructed and maintained. Here we consider how model systems are influencing current understanding of hostmicrobiota interactions and explore recent human microbiome studies. PMID:23592793

Kostic, Aleksandar D.; Howitt, Michael R.; Garrett, Wendy S.

2013-01-01

107

21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products...864.2800 Animal and human sera. (a) Identification...obtained from the blood of humans or other animals, that...growth-promoting nutrients in a cell culture system....

2013-04-01

108

21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products...864.2800 Animal and human sera. (a) Identification...obtained from the blood of humans or other animals, that...growth-promoting nutrients in a cell culture system....

2014-04-01

109

21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products...864.2800 Animal and human sera. (a) Identification...obtained from the blood of humans or other animals, that...growth-promoting nutrients in a cell culture system....

2011-04-01

110

21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products...864.2800 Animal and human sera. (a) Identification...obtained from the blood of humans or other animals, that...growth-promoting nutrients in a cell culture system....

2012-04-01

111

Animating non-humanoid characters with human motion data  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method for generating animations of non-humanoid characters from human motion capture data. Characters considered in this work have proportion and\\/or topology significantly different from humans, but are expected to convey expressions and emotions through body language that are understandable to human viewers. Keyframing is most commonly used to animate such characters. Our method provides an alternative

Katsu Yamane; Yuka Ariki; Jessica K. Hodgins

2010-01-01

112

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19...HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...and Health Training Grants 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No...

2010-10-01

113

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19...HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...and Health Training Grants 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No...

2012-10-01

114

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19...HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...and Health Training Grants 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No...

2011-10-01

115

Linkages between animal and human health sentinel data  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: In order to identify priorities for building integrated surveillance systems that effectively model and predict human risk of zoonotic diseases, there is a need for improved understanding of the practical options for linking surveillance data of animals and humans. We conducted an analysis of the literature and characterized the linkage between animal and human health data. We discuss the

Matthew Scotch; Lynda Odofin; Peter Rabinowitz

2009-01-01

116

76 FR 67465 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Reopening of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/ Feed Facilities; Reopening...for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request...for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-300), Food and Drug...pack, or hold human food or animal food/feed (including...

2011-11-01

117

Multiparasite communities in animals and humans: frequency, structure and pathogenic significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual humans and animals are subject to infection by a variety of parasites (broadly defined to include viruses, bacteria and other non-protozoan microparasites) at any one time. Multiple parasite infections occur frequently in populations of wild animals as well as in humans from developing countries. In some species and regions, hosts with multiple infections are more common than hosts with

Trevor N. Petney; Ross H. Andrews

1998-01-01

118

Animal Models and Bone Histomorphometry: Translational Research for the Human Research Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the use of animal models to research and inform bone morphology, in particular relating to human research in bone loss as a result of low gravity environments. Reasons for use of animal models as tools for human research programs include: time-efficient, cost-effective, invasive measures, and predictability as some model are predictive for drug effects.

Sibonga, Jean D.

2010-01-01

119

Real-time Human Hair Modeling and Animation Chuan Koon Koh and Zhiyong Huang  

E-print Network

1 Real-time Human Hair Modeling and Animation Chuan Koon Koh and Zhiyong Huang {kohchuan | huangzy and animation of hair. Various methods have been employed to model human hair, including modeling hair strands individually [1, 4]; using trigonal prisms with 2D hair distribution maps [3, 9] and more recently, volumetric

Huang, Zhiyong

120

Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health  

SciTech Connect

Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also carried out taking into account all direct and indirect sources of nitrite from the human diet, including carry-over of nitrite in animal-based products such as milk, eggs and meat products. Human exposure was then compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nitrite of 0-0.07 mg/kg b.w. per day. Overall, the low levels of nitrite in fresh animal products represented only 2.9% of the total daily dietary exposure and thus were not considered to raise concerns for human health. It is concluded that the potential health risk to animals from the consumption of feed or to man from eating fresh animal products containing nitrite, is very low.

Cockburn, Andrew [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU (United Kingdom); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanit, Toxicological chemistry unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fernndez, Maria-Luisa [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigacin y Tecnologa Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacin, Carretera de la Corua, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arcella, Davide [Unit on Data Collection and Exposure, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A43100 Parma (Italy); Bordajandi, Luisa R. [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cottrill, Bruce [Policy Delivery Group, Animal Health and Welfare, ADAS, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom); Peteghem, Carlos van [University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dorne, Jean-Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

2013-08-01

121

Rapid Multiplex Reverse Transcription-PCR Typing of Influenza A and B Virus, and Subtyping of Influenza A Virus into H1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, N1 (Human), N1 (Animal), N2, and N7, Including Typing of Novel Swine Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus, during the 2009 Outbreak in Milwaukee, Wisconsin?  

PubMed Central

A large outbreak of novel influenza A (H1N1) virus (swine origin influenza virus [S-OIV]) infection in Milwaukee, WI, occurred in late April 2009. We had recently developed a rapid multiplex reverse transcription-PCR enzyme hybridization assay (FluPlex) to determine the type (A or B) and subtype (H1, H2, H3, H5, H7, H9, N1 [human], N1 [animal], N2, or N7) of influenza viruses, and this assay was used to confirm the diagnoses for the first infected patients in the state. The analytical sensitivity was excellent at 1.5 to 116 copies/reaction, or 10?3 to 10?1 50% tissue culture infective doses/ml. The testing of all existing hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtypes of influenza A virus and influenza B virus (41 influenza virus strains) and 24 common respiratory pathogens showed only one low-level H3 cross-reaction with an H10N7 avian strain and only at 5.2 106 copies/reaction, not at lower concentrations. Comparisons of the FluPlex results with results from multiple validated in-house molecular assays, CDC-validated FDA-approved assays, and gene sequencing demonstrated 100% positive agreement for the typing of 179 influenza A viruses and 3 influenza B viruses, the subtyping of 110 H1N1 (S-OIV; N1 [animal]), 62 H1N1 (human), and 6 H3N2 (human) viruses, and the identification of 24 negative clinical samples and 100% negative agreement for all viruses tested except H1N1 (human) (97.7%). The small number of false-positive H1N1 (human) samples most likely represent increased sensitivity over that of other in-house assays, with four of four results confirmed by the CDC's influenza virus subtyping assay. The FluPlex is a rapid, inexpensive, sensitive, and specific method for the typing and subtyping of influenza viruses and demonstrated outstanding utility during the first 2 weeks of an S-OIV infection outbreak. Methods for rapid detection and broad subtyping of influenza viruses, including animal subtypes, are needed to address public concern over the emergence of pandemic strains. Attempts to automate this assay are ongoing. PMID:19641063

He, Jie; Bose, Michael E.; Beck, Eric T.; Fan, Jiang; Tiwari, Sagarika; Metallo, Jacob; Jurgens, Lisa A.; Kehl, Sue C.; Ledeboer, Nathan; Kumar, Swati; Weisburg, William; Henrickson, Kelly J.

2009-01-01

122

21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals. 530.20 Section 530.20 Food and...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS...

2012-04-01

123

21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals. 530.20 Section 530.20 Food and...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS...

2011-04-01

124

21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals. 530.20 Section 530.20 Food and...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS...

2014-04-01

125

21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals. 530.20 Section 530.20 Food and...OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS...

2010-04-01

126

Natural immune systems protect animals from dangerous foreign pathogens, including bacte-  

E-print Network

Natural immune systems protect animals from dangerous foreign pathogens, including bacte- ria computer immune systems with some of the important properties of natural immune systems, including are less well known. The immune system provides a persuasive example of how they might be implemented

Garlan, David

127

The Wild and the Humanized: Animals in Thai Tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual framework for the classification of the totality of settings of tourists' engagement with animals\\/based of the degree to which they are framed, is proposed. Four types of settings are distinguished, ranging from those offering the experience of Otherness of wild animals, to those offering entertainment by humanized animals. This framework is applied to a study of settings of

ERIK COHEN

2009-01-01

128

Future Directions in Human-Animal Bond Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human-animal contact can influence psychological and physiological parameters important to health and welfare; nevertheless, there has been relatively little research on the variables that influence or mediate those health consequences. In addition, little attention has been paid on how to create or alter the animal interactions for the betterment of people and their animals. The investigation can be guided by

Alan M. Beck; Aaron H. Katcher

2003-01-01

129

Computer Animation of Human Walking: a Survey Franck Multon1  

E-print Network

Computer Animation of Human Walking: a Survey Franck Multon1 , Laure France2 , Marie-Paule Cani Grenoble cedex 09, France Abstract: This paper surveys the set of techniques developed in Computer Graphics animations by interactively blending and tuning synthetic or captured motions. Keywords: computer animation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

130

INTRODUCTION Social Learning in Humans and Nonhuman Animals  

E-print Network

with knowledgeable others. Consequently, the study of social learning has become a major focus of research in thoseINTRODUCTION Social Learning in Humans and Nonhuman Animals: Theoretical and Empirical Dissections seen a resurgent, concerted interest in social learning research comparing human and nonhuman animals

Galef Jr., Bennett G.

131

Freedom: Animal Rights, Human Rights, And Superhuman Rights  

E-print Network

FREEDOM: ANIMAL RIGHTS/. HUMAN 'RIGHTS, AND SUPERHUMAN RIGHTS Corbin Fowler & Thomas Manig It is typical (even among many of the most zealous advocates of humane treatment of animals) for people to assume that the only moral issue regarding our... treatment of animals lies in our needlessly slaughtering them or causing them pain. Thus, people rightly complain about our causing the extinction of a certain species or of those who cruelly beat their pets. We, however, have come to think...

Fowler, Corbin; Manig, Thomas

132

The human, the non-human and the animal: Feminist theories and animal imagery in nanotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation is part of the Metaphor and Vision track.\\u000aNanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on the molecular and atomic scales. Some have projected that it will have broad economic and social benefits; including improved energy efficiency, computing power, medical treatments, and removal of environmental pollutants. Nature has been identified as the ultimate nanotechnologist and design elements from animal

Kasi Jackson

2010-01-01

133

Implications of animal object memory research for human amnesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damage to structures in the human medial temporal lobe causes severe memory impairment. Animal object recognition tests gained prominence from attempts to model global human medial temporal lobe amnesia, such as that observed in patient HM. These tasks, such as delayed nonmatching-to-sample and spontaneous object recognition, for assessing object memory in non-human primates and rodents have proved invaluable as animal

Boyer D. Winters; Lisa M. Saksida; Timothy J. Bussey

2010-01-01

134

Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities, and Bibliography. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population matters. The document describes 15 class sessions which integrate information for sociology, anthropology, psychology, biology, animal behavior, and education. Topics include the history of human

Murphy, Elaine M.; Long, Alison T.

135

Visceral pain in humans: Lessons from animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute and persistent neuropathic and inflammatory injuries of healthy animals have contributed importantly to our current\\u000a understanding of nociception and pain. Studies have differentiated somatic from visceral nociceptive input, and elucidated\\u000a the pathways of transduction, transmission, perception, and modulation of the input. Other animal studies have identified\\u000a important genetic and environmental influences on responses to nociception. Studies of naturally occurring

C. A. Tony Buffington; Vernon L. Tharp

2001-01-01

136

CENSHARE - Center to Study Human Animal Relationships and Environments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1981 at the University of Minnesota's School of Public Health, the Center to Study Human Animal Relationships and Environments (CENSHARE) is an umbrella organization that supports groups that aim to educate about the human animal relationship and the environment they share. This mission of this education is to improve the quality of life for both, encourage scientific study of such relationships, and also serve as a resource for the community on these relationships. Visitors should check out the thorough explanation of "Animal Assisted Therapy" (AAT), and learn how it differs from, say, Animal Assisted Activities (AAA). As animal therapy can be stressful on the animal if it is not properly trained for such demanding work, the AAT link gives helpful tips to visitors on how to get an animal ready to be a therapy animal. Visitors will also learn from the AAT link that such animals have been evaluated and registered by national groups that specialize in therapy animals, but are not given the federal protections that specially-trained service dogs are, such as access to public transportation and public buildings. Finally, visitors should check out the "Companion Animals in Care Environments" link. Here they can read a bittersweet story titled "Lessons to be Learned from the Saga of Mae" which addresses the considerations that should be made when deciding whether to allow a resident animal in a care facility.

137

Reconstituting a human brain in animals: a Jewish perspective on human sanctity.  

PubMed

The potential use of stem cells in the treatment of a variety of human diseases has been a major driving force for embryonic stem cell research. Another productive area of research has been the use of human stem cells to reconstitute human organ systems in animals in an attempt to create new animal models for human diseases. However, the possibility of transplanting human embryonic brain cells or precursor brain cells into an animal fetus presents numerous ethical challenges. This paper examines, from a Jewish perspective on human dignity, several bioethical concerns related to the reconstitution of animal brains with human neurons. PMID:19143409

Loike, John D; Tendler, Moshe

2008-12-01

138

Dis\\/integrating animals: ethical dimensions of the genetic engineering of animals for human consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research at the intersections of feminism, biology and philosophy provides dynamic starting grounds for this discussion of\\u000a genetic technologies and animals. With a focus on animal bodies, I will examine moral implications of the genetic engineering\\u000a of domesticated animalsprimarily pigs and chickensfor the purposes of human consumption. Concepts of natural and artificial,\\u000a contamination and purity, integrity and fragmentation and mind

Traci Warkentin

2006-01-01

139

Dis\\/Integrating Animals: Ethical Dimensions of the Genetic Engineering of Animals for Human Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Research at the intersections of feminism, biology and philosophy provides dynamic starting grounds for this discussion of\\u000a genetic technologies and animals. With a focus on animal bodies, I examine moral implications of the genetic engineering of\\u000a domesticated animalsprimarily pigs and chickensfor the purposes of human consumption. Concepts of natural and artificial,\\u000a contamination and purity, integrity and fragmentation and mind and

Traci Warkentin

140

Animal Welfare in Different Human Cultures, Traditions and Religious Faiths  

PubMed Central

Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982) that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly. PMID:25049508

Sz?cs, E.; Geers, R.; Jezierski, T.; Sossidou, E. N.; Broom, D. M.

2012-01-01

141

A more realistic animal technique for predicting human eye response.  

PubMed

The FHSA test (CPSC, 1981) for eye irritation in rabbits overpredicts the likely response of the human eye. Nineteen different chemicals, mixtures or solutions that had different degrees of recognized irritancy potential to the human eye were tested in albino rabbit eyes at dose volumes of 0.003, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.1 ml. The material was administered directly onto the rabbit cornea, without forced closing of the eyelid and without rinsing. A dose volume of 0.01 ml most often gave results that were consistent with information on effects of human eye exposures. The report of this work (Griffith et al. Toxic. appl. Pharmac. 1980, 55, 501) recommended that this more realistic 'low-volume' technique (0.01 ml of test material) should replace the FHSA test (0.1 ml of test material). The recovery times of human eyes after accidental exposure to consumer products in the USA, either during manufacture or in incidents involving consumers, were compared with the number of days-to-clear of rabbit eyes (tested in either the FHSA or the low-volume test) or monkey eyes exposed to the same products. Over 500 incidents involving human eyes (over several years) are included in the review. All three animal techniques are shown to overestimate the severity of the human eye response, the FHSA method being the worst in this respect. Only the results of the low-volume rabbit test show a statistically significant correlation (P less than 0.05 r greater than 0.5) with human experience. It is recommended that this low-volume test in rabbits should replace the FHSA test as the internationally agreed test for eye-irritancy potential because it correlates best with the response of the human eye. PMID:4040060

Walker, A P

1985-02-01

142

Nutritional ecology of obesity: from humans to companion animals.  

PubMed

We apply nutritional geometry, a framework for modelling the interactive effects of nutrients on animals, to help understand the role of modern environments in the obesity pandemic. Evidence suggests that humans regulate the intake of protein energy (PE) more strongly than non-protein energy (nPE), and consequently will over- and under-ingest nPE on diets with low or high PE, respectively. This pattern of macronutrient regulation has led to the protein leverage hypothesis, which proposes that the rise in obesity has been caused partly by a shift towards diets with reduced PE:nPE ratios relative to the set point for protein regulation. We discuss potential causes of this mismatch, including environmentally induced reductions in the protein density of the human diet and factors that might increase the regulatory set point for protein and hence exacerbate protein leverage. Economics--the high price of protein compared with fats and carbohydrates--is one factor that might contribute to the reduction of dietary protein concentrations. The possibility that rising atmospheric CO? levels could also play a role through reducing the PE:nPE ratios in plants and animals in the human food chain is discussed. Factors that reduce protein efficiency, for example by increasing the use of ingested amino acids in energy metabolism (hepatic gluconeogenesis), are highlighted as potential drivers of increased set points for protein regulation. We recommend that a similar approach is taken to understand the rise of obesity in other species, and identify some key gaps in the understanding of nutrient regulation in companion animals. PMID:25415804

Raubenheimer, David; Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E; Gosby, Alison K; Simpson, Stephen

2015-01-01

143

Distinguishing human from animal faecal contamination in water: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of faecal contamination of water would be improved if sources could be accurately identified through water analysis. Human faeces are generally perceived as constituting a greater human health risk than animal faeces, but reliable epidemiological evidence is lacking. United States waterborne disease data suggest that human?specific enteric viruses account for over half the documented outbreaks. However, in New Zealand,

L. W. Sinton; R. K. Finlay; D. J. Hannah

1998-01-01

144

Growth Animation of Human Organs Roman Durikovic Silvester Czanner  

E-print Network

Growth Animation of Human Organs Roman Durikovic Silvester Czanner , Hirofumi Inoue Computer The growth of the organs of human embryo is chang- ing significantly over a short period of time in the mother body. The shape of the human organs is or- ganic and has many folds that are difficult to model

Durikovic, Roman

145

Establishing efficacy of human products using animals: the US food and drug administration's "animal rule".  

PubMed

In 2002, the US Food and Drug Administration issued regulations to allow the approval of human drugs and biological products based on animal efficacy studies when human efficacy studies would be unethical or not feasible. These regulations are intended to assist in the approval process for products aimed at preventing or treating human diseases caused by nuclear, radiological, biological, and chemical agents that have the potential to harm a significant percentage of the US population. This article discusses the criteria that must be met to use the Animal Rule to demonstrate efficacy in place of human clinical trials. PMID:20551476

Snoy, P J

2010-09-01

146

The significant human-animal bond: Pets with cancer  

SciTech Connect

Veterinarians have responsibilities to both the animal and its owner. In the past several years there has been an increased awareness and concern about human-animal bonds. As a result, we have begun to appreciate the nature, strength, and significance of bonds that develop between humans and companion animals. It is typical for a pet to be perceived as and treated as a member of the family and as a result, animals provide special and beneficial relationships for many years. It is partly because of this role of the pet in promoting human health and happiness that we as veterinarians have an obligation to assist both owner and animal. The mark of the good practitioner concerns not only the ability to diagnose and treat accurately, but also the ability to show understanding and compassionate judgement.

Weller, R.E.

1994-03-01

147

Rabies: Diagnosis in Animals and Humans  

MedlinePLUS

... Precautions or contraindications for rabies vaccination Adverse reaction Management of human rabies Transmission Diagnostic laboratories Resources How Can I Help? ACIP recommendations Vaccine and ...

148

9 CFR 91.17 - Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. 91.17 Section 91.17 Animals...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. (a) The owner or operator of an ocean vessel carrying animals from...

2014-01-01

149

9 CFR 91.17 - Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. 91.17 Section 91.17 Animals...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. (a) The owner or operator of an ocean vessel carrying animals from...

2012-01-01

150

9 CFR 91.17 - Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. 91.17 Section 91.17 Animals...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. (a) The owner or operator of an ocean vessel carrying animals from...

2013-01-01

151

9 CFR 91.17 - Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. 91.17 Section 91.17 Animals...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. (a) The owner or operator of an ocean vessel carrying animals from...

2011-01-01

152

9 CFR 91.17 - Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. 91.17 Section 91.17 Animals...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. (a) The owner or operator of an ocean vessel carrying animals from...

2010-01-01

153

21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products 864.2800 Animal and human...that provide the necessary growth-promoting nutrients in a cell culture system. (b) Classification. Class I...

2010-04-01

154

The Various Roles of Animal Models in Understanding Human Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors take a very conservative view of the contribution of animal models to an understanding of human development. We do not think that homologies can be readily documented with even our most closely related relatives' behavior and psychological functioning. The major contribution of animal models is their provision of food

Gottlieb, Gilbert; Lickliter, Robert

2004-01-01

155

Autonomous virtual humans and lower animals: from biomechanics to intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The confluence of virtual reality and artificial life, an emerg- ing discipline that spans the computational and biological sciences, has yielded synthetic worlds inhabited by realistic artificial flora and fauna. Artificial animals are complex syn- thetic organisms that have functional, biomechanical bodies, perceptual sensors, and brains with locomotion, perception, behavior, learning, and cognition centers. Virtual humans and lower animals are

Demetri Terzopoulos

2008-01-01

156

Ethical principles and standards for the conduct of human and animal biological rhythm research.  

PubMed

Most research papers published in Chronobiology International report the findings of investigations conducted on laboratory animals and human beings. The Journal, its editors and the publication committee endorse the compliance of investigators to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association relating to the conduct of ethical research on human beings and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council relating to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals. Chronobiology International requires that submitted manuscripts reporting the findings of human and animal research conform to the respective policy and mandates of the Declaration of Helsinki and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. The peer review of manuscripts will thus include judgment of whether or not the involved research methods conform to the standards of good research practice. This article outlines the basic expectations for the methods of human and animal biological rhythm research, both from the perspective of the fundamental criteria necessary for quality chronobiology investigation and from the perspective of humane and ethical research on human beings and animals. PMID:15129830

Touitou, Yvan; Portaluppi, Francesco; Smolensky, Michael H; Rensing, Ludger

2004-01-01

157

Abstract representations of numbers in the animal and human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence to suggest that animals, young infants and adult humans possess a biologically determined, domain-specific representation of number and of elementary arithmetic operations. Behavioral studies in infants and animals reveal number perception, discrimination and elementary calculation abilities in non-verbal organisms. Lesion and brain-imaging studies in humans indicate that a specific neural substrate, located in the left and right

Stanislas Dehaene; Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz; Laurent Cohen

1998-01-01

158

Sketch-Based Virtual Human Modelling and Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animated virtual humans created by skilled artists play a remarkable role in todays public entertainment. However, ordinary\\u000a users are still treated as audiences due to the lack of appropriate expertise, equipment, and computer skills. We developed\\u000a a new method and a novel sketching interface, which enable anyone who can draw to sketch-out 3D virtual humans and animation.\\u000a We devised a

Chen Mao; Sheng Feng Qin; David Wright

2007-01-01

159

The Cough Reflex in Animals: Relevance to Human Cough Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

All mammalian species studied cough or display some similar respiratory reflex upon aerosol challenge with tussigenic stimuli\\u000a such as citric acid or capsaicin. Animals cough to the same stimuli that evoke coughing in humans, and therapeutic agents\\u000a that display antitussive effects in human studies also prevent coughing in animals. The many invasive procedures and complementary\\u000a in vitro studies possible in

Brendan J. Canning

2008-01-01

160

Rovers minimize human disturbance in research on wild animals.  

PubMed

Investigating wild animals while minimizing human disturbance remains an important methodological challenge. When approached by a remote-operated vehicle (rover) which can be equipped to make radio-frequency identifications, wild penguins had significantly lower and shorter stress responses (determined by heart rate and behavior) than when approached by humans. Upon immobilization, the rover-unlike humans-did not disorganize colony structure, and stress rapidly ceased. Thus, rovers can reduce human disturbance of wild animals and the resulting scientific bias. PMID:25362361

Le Maho, Yvon; Whittington, Jason D; Hanuise, Nicolas; Pereira, Louise; Boureau, Matthieu; Brucker, Mathieu; Chatelain, Nicolas; Courtecuisse, Julien; Crenner, Francis; Friess, Benjamin; Grosbellet, Edith; Kernalguen, Latitia; Olivier, Frdrique; Saraux, Claire; Vetter, Nathanal; Viblanc, Vincent A; Thierry, Bernard; Tremblay, Pascale; Groscolas, Ren; Le Bohec, Cline

2014-12-01

161

Virtual humans for animation, ergonomics, and simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last few years have seen great maturation in the computation speed and control methods needed to portray 3D virtual humans suitable for real interactive applications. We first describe the state of the art, then focus on the particular approach taken at the University of Pennsylvania with the Jack system. Various aspects of real-time virtual humans are considered such as

Norman Badler

1997-01-01

162

Early hominin diet included diverse terrestrial and aquatic animals 1.95 Ma in East Turkana, Kenya  

PubMed Central

The manufacture of stone tools and their use to access animal tissues by Pliocene hominins marks the origin of a key adaptation in human evolutionary history. Here we report an in situ archaeological assemblage from the Koobi Fora Formation in northern Kenya that provides a unique combination of faunal remains, some with direct evidence of butchery, and Oldowan artifacts, which are well dated to 1.95 Ma. This site provides the oldest in situ evidence that hominins, predating Homo erectus, enjoyed access to carcasses of terrestrial and aquatic animals that they butchered in a well-watered habitat. It also provides the earliest definitive evidence of the incorporation into the hominin diet of various aquatic animals including turtles, crocodiles, and fish, which are rich sources of specific nutrients needed in human brain growth. The evidence here shows that these critical brain-growth compounds were part of the diets of hominins before the appearance of Homo ergaster/erectus and could have played an important role in the evolution of larger brains in the early history of our lineage. PMID:20534571

Braun, David R.; Harris, John W. K.; Levin, Naomi E.; McCoy, Jack T.; Herries, Andy I. R.; Bamford, Marion K.; Bishop, Laura C.; Richmond, Brian G.; Kibunjia, Mzalendo

2010-01-01

163

This list includes a sampling of volunteer opportunities and organizations working with animals or animal advocacy work. These opportunities may be suitable for students majoring or interested in  

E-print Network

This list includes a sampling of volunteer opportunities and organizations working with animals or animal advocacy work. These opportunities may be suitable for students majoring or interested's needs so that you can make a big difference in the lives of animals in need. Step 1: Submit a VOLUNTEER

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

164

Computing Human Faces for Human Viewers: Automated Animation in Photographs and Paintings  

E-print Network

Computing Human Faces for Human Viewers: Automated Animation in Photographs and Paintings Volker@informatik.uni-siegen.de ABSTRACT This paper describes a system for animating and modifying faces in images. It combines an algorithm for 3D face recon- struction from single images with a learning-based approach for 3D animation

Blanz, Volker

165

Bipedal animals, and their differences from humans  

PubMed Central

Humans, birds and (occasionally) apes walk bipedally. Humans, birds, many lizards and (at their highest speeds) cockroaches run bipedally. Kangaroos, some rodents and many birds hop bipedally, and jerboas and crows use a skipping gait. This paper deals only with walking and running bipeds. Chimpanzees walk with their knees bent and their backs sloping forward. Most birds walk and run with their backs and femurs sloping at small angles to the horizontal, and with their knees bent. These differences from humans make meaningful comparisons of stride length, duty factor, etc., difficult, even with the aid of dimensionless parameters that would take account of size differences, if dynamic similarity were preserved. Lizards and cockroaches use wide trackways. Humans exert a two-peaked pattern of force on the ground when walking, and an essentially single-peaked pattern when running. The patterns of force exerted by apes and birds are never as markedly two-peaked as in fast human walking. Comparisons with quadrupedal mammals of the same body mass show that human walking is relatively economical of metabolic energy, and human running is expensive. Bipedal locomotion is remarkably economical for wading birds, and expensive for geese and penguins. PMID:15198697

Alexander, R McN

2004-01-01

166

Development in Immunoprophylaxis against Rabies for Animals and Humans  

PubMed Central

Rabies is a fatal neurological disease and a persistent global problem. It is spread primarily by domestic dogs but other canid, viverrid (skunks and raccoons) and chiropteran species are considered as the most efficient vectors of the disease. Since dogs are the main perpetuator of rabies, special attention has to be given to bring all the dogs including unauthorized stray dogs under immunization umbrella in order to control rabies. Vaccination is the only way to combat the disease before and after exposure or infection as there is no treatment available once the symptoms have appeared. After the first crude nerve tissue vaccine developed by Pasteur in 1885, a number of rabies vaccines for animal and human use have been developed with varying degree of safety and efficacy over the years. Presently, cell culture based inactivated rabies vaccines are largely used in most of the parts of the world. However, these vaccines are too expensive and unaffordable for vaccination of people and animals in developing countries. The comparatively cheaper inactivated nerve tissues vaccines can cause serious side-effects such as autoimmune encephalomyelitis in inoculated animals and production has been discontinued in several countries. Although attenuated live vaccines can efficiently elicit a protective immune response with a smaller amount of virus, they sometimes can cause rabies in the inoculated animals by its residual virulence or pathogenic mutation during viral propagation in the body. New-generation rabies vaccines generated by gene manipulation although in experimental stage may be a suitable alternative to overcome the disadvantages of the live attenuated vaccines. So, awareness must be created in general public about the disease and the cell culture based vaccines available in the market should be recommended for wide scale use to prevent and control this emerging and reemerging infectious disease in foreseeable future. PMID:23407587

Nandi, Sukdeb; Kumar, Manoj

2010-01-01

167

Mobile technologies for disease surveillance in humans and animals.  

PubMed

A paper-based disease reporting system has been associated with a number of challenges. These include difficulties to submit hard copies of the disease surveillance forms because of poor road infrastructure, weather conditions or challenging terrain, particularly in the developing countries. The system demands re-entry of the data at data processing and analysis points, thus making it prone to introduction of errors during this process. All these challenges contribute to delayed acquisition, processing and response to disease events occurring in remote hard to reach areas. Our study piloted the use of mobile phones in order to transmit near to real-time data from remote districts in Tanzania (Ngorongoro and Ngara), Burundi (Muyinga) and Zambia (Kazungula and Sesheke). Two technologies namely, digital and short messaging services were used to capture and transmit disease event data in the animal and human health sectors in the study areas based on a server-client model. Smart phones running the Android operating system (minimum required version: Android 1.6), and which supported open source application, Epicollect, as well as the Open Data Kit application, were used in the study. These phones allowed collection of geo-tagged data, with the opportunity of including static and moving images related to disease events. The project supported routine disease surveillance systems in the ministries responsible for animal and human health in Burundi, Tanzania and Zambia, as well as data collection for researchers at the Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania. During the project implementation period between 2011 and 2013, a total number of 1651 diseases event-related forms were submitted, which allowed reporters to include GPS coordinates and photographs related to the events captured. It was concluded that the new technology-based surveillance system is useful in providing near to real-time data, with potential for enhancing timely response in rural remote areas of Africa. We recommended adoption of the proven technologies to improve disease surveillance, particularly in the developing countries. PMID:25005126

Mwabukusi, Mpoki; Karimuribo, Esron D; Rweyemamu, Mark M; Beda, Eric

2014-01-01

168

Chemicals and cancer in humans: first evidence in experimental animals.  

PubMed Central

Certain human diseases have been traced to exposure to environmental and occupational chemicals. In many instances the first evidence of potential adverse effects came from experimental studies and were subsequently discovered in humans. Associations of human cancers, as a diverse group of diseases, and chemicals have been made since the middle 1700s. Since then, nearly 100 chemicals, mixtures of chemicals, or exposure circumstances are now recognized as being or strongly implicated as being carcinogenic to humans. Of the less than 1000 agents evaluated adequately for carcinogenicity in laboratory animals, a varying spectrum of data from studies on humans are available for only about 20-25%. So far, more than 60 agents are linked unequivocally as causing cancer in humans, and another 50 or so are strongly suspected of being carcinogenic to humans. Not all of these have been or can be evaluated in animals because some are industrial processes or "occupations," some are environmental and cultural risk factors, and some are mixtures of agents. For those that can be studied experimentally, the qualitative concordance between humans and animals approaches unity, and in every case there is at least one common organ site of cancer in both species. The evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals preceded that observed in humans for nearly 30 agents and is the subject of this paper. PMID:8354167

Huff, J

1993-01-01

169

Defending the use of animals to research human disease.  

PubMed

Recent activities by animal rights sympathizers in the UK at Shoreham, Brighton, Brightlingsea and Dover, campaigning against live transport of domestic animals, have again brought the issue of animal rights onto the front pages of newspapers in the UK. Television news bulletins have continued to show almost nightly scenes of violent protest as the police have struggled to keep demonstrators from disrupting the legal export of livestock. This is the public face of a continuing campaign to establish rights for animals that has gained strength sincethe early 1970s. It includes an on-going campaign against medical scientists who use animals in their research. PMID:17607883

Senior, K

1995-08-01

170

Character Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of the creation and animation of characters in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional character animation techniques, such as those developed by the Disney animators, and also human modelling. The section includes html pages, images and several videos.

171

Research on human-animal entities: ethical and regulatory aspects in Europe.  

PubMed

To review the ethical and regulatory issues related to the research on human-animal entities at various stages. Review of scientific publications, laws and ethical guidelines in this field up through September 2008. The article presents the overall picture of the research on human-animal entities in Europe, including the public opinion and the country-specific regulations and guidelines regarding such research, discusses the ethical issues, including both arguments opposing and favoring such research, as well as discusses and clarifies the terminology used. Creation of human-animal entities with the potential for what may be viewed as human faculties raises profound questions concerning the rights and responsibilities of human beings. There is great need for informed discussions and interchanges between the expert researchers, ethicists, policymakers, lawyers and the public in general to come to consensus regarding the issues discussed in this paper. Suggestions regarding these rights and responsibilities are overviewed. PMID:19557551

Hug, Kristina

2009-09-01

172

Human disorders in N-glycosylation and animal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes that cause human disorders in N-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis have appeared much faster than animal model systems to study them. In most models, a single gene is altered or deleted while other genes and the environment are held constant. Since humans have variable genetic backgrounds and environments, model systems may only partially mimic the actual disorders. Mutations in seven of

Hudson H Freeze

2002-01-01

173

What can animal aggression research tell us about human aggression?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on endocrinological correlates of aggression in laboratory animals is implicitly motivated by an expectation that the results of such studies may be applicable to human aggression as well. Research with a focus on the stimulus antecedents of aggression, its response characteristics, and its outcomes suggests a number of detailed correspondences between offensive aggression in laboratory rodents and human angry

D. Caroline Blanchard; Robert J Blanchard

2003-01-01

174

Implications of Animal Object Memory Research for Human Amnesia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Damage to structures in the human medial temporal lobe causes severe memory impairment. Animal object recognition tests gained prominence from attempts to model "global" human medial temporal lobe amnesia, such as that observed in patient HM. These tasks, such as delayed nonmatching-to-sample and spontaneous object recognition, for assessing

Winters, Boyer D.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.

2010-01-01

175

Human and animal hepatocytes in vitro with extrapolation in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human and animal hepatocytes are now being used as an in vitro technique to aid drug discovery by predicting the in vivo metabolic pathways of drugs or new chemical entities (NCEs), identifying drug-metabolizing enzymes and predicting their in vivo induction. Because of the difficulty of establishing whether the cytotoxic susceptibility of human hepatocytes to xenobiotics\\/drugs in vitro could be used

Katie Chan; Paul M. Silber

2004-01-01

176

Wild Animal Mortality Monitoring and Human Ebola Outbreaks, Gabon and Republic of Congo, 20012003  

PubMed Central

All human Ebola virus outbreaks during 20012003 in the forest zone between Gabon and Republic of Congo resulted from handling infected wild animal carcasses. After the first outbreak, we created an Animal Mortality Monitoring Network in collaboration with the Gabonese and Congolese Ministries of Forestry and Environment and wildlife organizations (Wildlife Conservation Society and Programme de Conservation et Utilisation Rationnelle des Ecosystmes Forestiers en Afrique Centrale) to predict and possibly prevent human Ebola outbreaks. Since August 2001, 98 wild animal carcasses have been recovered by the network, including 65 great apes. Analysis of 21 carcasses found that 10 gorillas, 3 chimpanzees, and 1 duiker tested positive for Ebola virus. Wild animal outbreaks began before each of the 5 human Ebola outbreaks. Twice we alerted the health authorities to an imminent risk for human outbreaks, weeks before they occurred. PMID:15752448

Froment, Jean-Marc; Bermejo, Magdalena; Kilbourn, Annelisa; Karesh, William; Reed, Patricia; Kumulungui, Brice; Yaba, Philippe; Dlicat, Andr; Rollin, Pierre E.; Leroy, Eric M.

2005-01-01

177

The origin of human pathogens: evaluating the role of agriculture and domestic animals in the evolution of human disease.  

PubMed

Many significant diseases of human civilization are thought to have arisen concurrently with the advent of agriculture in human society. It has been hypothesised that the food produced by farming increased population sizes to allow the maintenance of virulent pathogens, i.e. civilization pathogens, while domestic animals provided sources of disease to humans. To determine the relationship between pathogens in humans and domestic animals, I examined phylogenetic data for several human pathogens that are commonly evolutionarily linked to domestic animals: measles, pertussis, smallpox, tuberculosis, taenid worms, and falciparal malaria. The majority are civilization pathogens, although I have included others whose evolutionary origins have traditionally been ascribed to domestic animals. The strongest evidence for a domestic-animal origin exists for measles and pertussis, although the data do not exclude a non-domestic origin. As for the other pathogens, the evidence currently available makes it difficult to determine if the domestic-origin hypothesis is supported or refuted; in fact, intriguing data for tuberculosis and taenid worms suggests that transmission may occur as easily from humans to domestic animals. These findings do not abrogate the importance of agriculture in disease transmission; rather, if anything, they suggest an alternative, more complex series of effects than previously elucidated. Rather than domestication, the broader force for human pathogen evolution could be ecological change, namely anthropogenic modification of the environment. This is supported by evidence that many current emerging infectious diseases are associated with human modification of the environment. Agriculture may have changed the transmission ecology of pre-existing human pathogens, increased the success of pre-existing pathogen vectors, resulted in novel interactions between humans and wildlife, and, through the domestication of animals, provided a stable conduit for human infection by wildlife diseases. PMID:16672105

Pearce-Duvet, Jessica M C

2006-08-01

178

Plant and AnimalPlant and Animal Domestication as HumanDomestication as Human--  

E-print Network

and animal domestication and evolution and the genetic improvement of crops and animal breeds [... No doubt or animal exist · Traits subject to selection have been identified ("domestication syndrome) · Time frame Rice, banana, sugarcane, coconut, cucumber, jute Centers of Domestication of Crop Plants Gepts 2002

Gepts, Paul

179

World distribution of Trichinella spp. infections in animals and humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The etiological agents of human trichinellosis show virtually worldwide distribution in domestic and\\/or wild animals, with the exception of Antarctica, where the presence of the parasite has not been reported. This global distribution of Trichinella and varying cultural eating habits represent the main factors favouring human infections in industrialised and non-industrialised countries. Human trichinellosis has been documented in 55 (27.8%)

Edoardo Pozio

2007-01-01

180

Picture recognition in animals and humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of objectpicture recognition has received relatively little attention in both human and comparative psychology; a paradoxical situation given the important use of image technology (e.g. slides, digitised pictures) made by neuroscientists in their experimental investigation of visual cognition. The present review examines the relevant literature pertaining to the question of the correspondence between and\\/or equivalence of real objects

Dalila Bovet; Jacques Vauclair

2000-01-01

181

Rhodococcus equi: an animal and human pathogen.  

PubMed Central

Recent isolations of Rhodococcus equi from cavitatory pulmonary disease in patients with AIDS have aroused interest among medical microbiologists in this unusual organism. Earlier isolations from humans had also been in immunosuppressed patients following hemolymphatic tumors or renal transplantation. This organism has been recognized for many years as a cause of a serious pyogranulomatous pneumonia of young foals and is occasionally isolated from granulomatous lesions in several other species, in some cases following immunosuppression. The last decade has seen many advances in understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and immunity to infection in foals. The particular susceptibility of the foal is not understood but can be explained in part by a combination of heavy challenge through the respiratory route coinciding with declining maternally derived antibody in the absence of fully competent foal cellular immune mechanisms. R. equi is largely a soil organism but is widespread in the feces of herbivores. Its growth in soil is considerably improved by simple nutrients it obtains from herbivore manure. About one-third of human patients who have developed R. equi infections had contact in some way with herbivores or their manure. Others may have acquired infection from contact with soil or wild bird manure. R. equi is an intracellular parasite, which explains the typical pyogranulomatous nature of R. equi infections, the predisposition to infection in human patients with defective cell-mediated immune mechanisms, and the efficacy of antimicrobial drugs that penetrate phagocytic cells. Images PMID:2004346

Prescott, J F

1991-01-01

182

[Animals as sources of infections in humans--salmonellosis].  

PubMed

Foodborne infections/intoxications of men including salmonelloses increased as a whole in the last years. Some reasons for this development are discussed. From the 2,500 Salmonella serovars known at present only 10 to 15 are of epidemic importance, in the first place S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. Mainly salmonella-contaminated foodstuffs from animals are sources of Salmonella infections in men. In this connection raw eggs and raw egg-containing food, as well as raw meat and meat products are of prime importance. Especially endangered are humans whose mechanisms of infectious defence are not fully developed (infants, young children) or are impaired to some extent (elderly people, immunocompromised persons). Salmonellosis control has to be carried out as a concerted action along the whole food chain, starting at animal farms and continuing with adequate methods at each stage of food production and processing, in trade, in restaurants and canteens up to private households. In connection with the health protection of consumers hygienic education of staff handling foodstuffs, as well as information of consumers are very important. Despite some deficiencies our knowledge is sufficient to work effectively in practice to improve the situation. PMID:10488640

Meyer, H

1999-08-01

183

Identifying Transmission Cycles at the Human-Animal Interface: The Role of Animal Reservoirs in Maintaining Gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis  

PubMed Central

Many infections can be transmitted between animals and humans. The epidemiological roles of different species can vary from important reservoirs to dead-end hosts. Here, we present a method to identify transmission cycles in different combinations of species from field data. We used this method to synthesise epidemiological and ecological data from Bipindi, Cameroon, a historical focus of gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness), a disease that has often been considered to be maintained mainly by humans. We estimated the basic reproduction number of gambiense HAT in Bipindi and evaluated the potential for transmission in the absence of human cases. We found that under the assumption of random mixing between vectors and hosts, gambiense HAT could not be maintained in this focus without the contribution of animals. This result remains robust under extensive sensitivity analysis. When using the distributions of species among habitats to estimate the amount of mixing between those species, we found indications for an independent transmission cycle in wild animals. Stochastic simulation of the system confirmed that unless vectors moved between species very rarely, reintroduction would usually occur shortly after elimination of the infection from human populations. This suggests that elimination strategies may have to be reconsidered as targeting human cases alone would be insufficient for control, and reintroduction from animal reservoirs would remain a threat. Our approach is broadly applicable and could reveal animal reservoirs critical to the control of other infectious diseases. PMID:23341760

Funk, Sebastian; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Heesterbeek, Hans; Edmunds, W. John; Checchi, Francesco

2013-01-01

184

Bacteriophage therapy for safeguarding animal and human health: a review.  

PubMed

Since the discovery of bacteriophages at the beginning of the 19th century their contribution to bacterial evolution and ecology and use in a variety of applications in biotechnology and medicine has been recognized and understood. Bacteriophages are natural bacterial killers, proven as best biocontrol agents due to their ability to lyse host bacterial cells specifically thereby helping in disease prevention and control. The requirement of such therapeutic approach is straight away required in view of the global emergence of Multidrug Resistant (MDR) strains of bacteria and rapidly developing resistance to antibiotics in both animals and humans along with increasing food safety concerns including of residual antibiotic toxicities. Phage typing is a popular tool to differentiate bacterial isolates and to identify and characterize outbreak-associated strains of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia and Listeria. Numerous methods viz. plaque morphology, ultracentrifugation in the density gradient of CsCl2, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) have been found to be effective in detection of various phages. Bacteriophages have been isolated and recovered from samples of animal waste products of different livestock farms. High titer cocktails of broad spectrum lytic bacteriophages are usually used for clinical trial for assessing their therapeutic efficacy against antibiotic unresponsive infections in different animals. Bacteriophage therapy also helps to fight various bacterial infections of poultry viz. colibacillosis, salmonellosis and listeriosis. Moreover, the utility of phages concerning biosafety has raised the importance to explore and popularize the therapeutic dimension of this promising novel therapy which forms the topic of discussion of the present review. PMID:24897784

Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Kumar, Amit; Rahal, Anu; Kapoor, Sanjay

2014-02-01

185

Life cycle assessment of the average Spanish diet including human excretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scopeThe aim of this work is to find out to what extent human excretion is relevant in the context of a Spaniards overall food\\u000a intake. A case study dealing with the average Spanish diet is carried out, including the whole life cycle of food: agricultural\\u000a and animal production, industrial processing, distribution and retail, home storage and cooking,

Ivan Muoz; Lloren Mil i Canals; Amadeo R. Fernndez-Alba

2010-01-01

186

Animal Dissection. [Fact Sheet and Resource List Information Packet from the Humane Society of the United States].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Killing animals for classroom dissection causes animal suffering, cheapens the value of life, and depletes wild animal populations, yet it remains commonplace. The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) addresses the issue in this information packet which includes a fact sheet and three resource lists "on Dissection." The fact sheet discusses

Balcombe, Jonathan

187

Animal and Human Health Implications of Avian Influenza Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avian influenza (AI) is a listed disease of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) that has become a disease of great\\u000a importance both for animal and human health. Until recent times, AI was considered a disease of birds with zoonotic implications\\u000a of limited significance. The emergence and spread of the Asian lineage highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) H5N1 virus has

Ilaria Capua; Dennis J. Alexander

2007-01-01

188

Examining the links between animal abuse and human violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical research has increasingly found evidence for the coexistence of animal abuse and various forms of interpersonal\\u000a violence. Some researchers have even argued for a specific version of this relationship, namely, that individuals tend to\\u000a move from violence toward animals, particularly in childhood, to subsequent violence toward humans. Others have suggested\\u000a that the evidence for this graduation or progression hypothesis

Clifton P. Flynn

2011-01-01

189

Metaphysical and Ethical Perspectives on Creating Animal-Human Chimeras  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses several questions related to the nature, production, and use of animal-human (a-h) chimeras. At the heart of the issue is whether certain types of a-h chimeras should be brought into existence, and, if they are, how we should treat such creatures. In our current research environment, we recognize a dichotomy between research involving nonhuman animal subjects and

Jason T. Eberl; R. A. Ballard

2009-01-01

190

Proline and hydroxyproline metabolism: implications for animal and human nutrition  

PubMed Central

Proline plays important roles in protein synthesis and structure, metabolism (particularly the synthesis of arginine, polyamines, and glutamate via pyrroline-5-carboxylate), and nutrition, as well as wound healing, antioxidative reactions, and immune responses. On a pergram basis, proline plus hydroxyproline are most abundant in collagen and milk proteins, and requirements of proline for whole-body protein synthesis are the greatest among all amino acids. Therefore, physiological needs for proline are particularly high during the life cycle. While most mammals (including humans and pigs) can synthesize proline from arginine and glutamine/glutamate, rates of endogenous synthesis are inadequate for neonates, birds, and fish. Thus, work with young pigs (a widely used animal model for studying infant nutrition) has shown that supplementing 0.0, 0.35, 0.7, 1.05, 1.4, and 2.1% proline to a proline-free chemically defined diet containing 0.48% arginine and 2% glutamate dose dependently improved daily growth rate and feed efficiency while reducing concentrations of urea in plasma. Additionally, maximal growth performance of chickens depended on at least 0.8% proline in the diet. Likewise, dietary supplementation with 0.07, 0.14, and 0.28% hydroxyproline (a metabolite of proline) to a plant protein-based diet enhanced weight gains of salmon. Based on its regulatory roles in cellular biochemistry, proline can be considered as a functional amino acid for mammalian, avian, and aquatic species. Further research is warranted to develop effective strategies of dietary supplementation with proline or hydroxyproline to benefit health, growth, and development of animals and humans. PMID:20697752

Bazer, Fuller W.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Johnson, Gregory A.; Kim, Sung Woo; Knabe, Darrell A.; Li, Peng; Li, Xilong; McKnight, Jason R.; Satterfield, M. Carey; Spencer, Thomas E.

2013-01-01

191

Characterizing cognitive aging in humans with links to animal models  

PubMed Central

With the population of older adults expected to grow rapidly over the next two decades, it has become increasingly important to advance research efforts to elucidate the mechanisms associated with cognitive aging, with the ultimate goal of developing effective interventions and prevention therapies. Although there has been a vast research literature on the use of cognitive tests to evaluate the effects of aging and age-related neurodegenerative disease, the need for a set of standardized measures to characterize the cognitive profiles specific to healthy aging has been widely recognized. Here we present a review of selected methods and approaches that have been applied in human research studies to evaluate the effects of aging on cognition, including executive function, memory, processing speed, language, and visuospatial function. The effects of healthy aging on each of these cognitive domains are discussed with examples from cognitive/experimental and clinical/neuropsychological approaches. Further, we consider those measures that have clear conceptual and methodological links to tasks currently in use for non-human animal studies of aging, as well as those that have the potential for translation to animal aging research. Having a complementary set of measures to assess the cognitive profiles of healthy aging across species provides a unique opportunity to enhance research efforts for cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intervention studies of cognitive aging. Taking a cross-species, translational approach will help to advance cognitive aging research, leading to a greater understanding of associated neurobiological mechanisms with the potential for developing effective interventions and prevention therapies for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22988439

Alexander, Gene E.; Ryan, Lee; Bowers, Dawn; Foster, Thomas C.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Geldmacher, David S.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

2012-01-01

192

A Selective Critique of Animal Experiments in Human-Orientated Biological Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The advantages and justifications for using small animals in human-oriented research are reviewed. Some of the pitfalls of extrapolating animal-derived data to humans are discussed. Several specific problems with animal experimentation are highlighted. (CW)

Webb, G. P.

1990-01-01

193

Telemetry in animal and human biometeorology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radio transmitters swallowed, surgically implanted, or carried externally make it possible to study a subject with minimum disturbance to normal patterns of activity. The radio frequency of transmission chosen will depend on the application, and will generally fall in the range from 50 kHz to 300 MHz. A number of specific experiments are reported, including the case of a snake which has swallowed a mouse containing a transmitter of pressure and temperature. Questions of monitoring are explored. Satellite Doppler tracking considerations are discussed together with the attachment of the transmitter package in the case of a study of birds.

Mackay, R. S.

1972-01-01

194

Consciousness in humans and non-human animals: recent advances and future directions  

PubMed Central

This joint article reflects the authors' personal views regarding noteworthy advances in the neuroscience of consciousness in the last 10 years, and suggests what we feel may be promising future directions. It is based on a small conference at the Samoset Resort in Rockport, Maine, USA, in July of 2012, organized by the Mind Science Foundation of San Antonio, Texas. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of subjectivity in humans and other animals, including empirical, applied, technical, and conceptual insights. These include the evidence for the importance of fronto-parietal connectivity and of top-down processes, both of which enable information to travel across distant cortical areas effectively, as well as numerous dissociations between consciousness and cognitive functions, such as attention, in humans. In addition, we describe the development of mental imagery paradigms, which made it possible to identify covert awareness in non-responsive subjects. Non-human animal consciousness research has also witnessed substantial advances on the specific role of cortical areas and higher order thalamus for consciousness, thanks to important technological enhancements. In addition, much progress has been made in the understanding of non-vertebrate cognition relevant to possible conscious states. Finally, major advances have been made in theories of consciousness, and also in their comparison with the available evidence. Along with reviewing these findings, each author suggests future avenues for research in their field of investigation. PMID:24198791

Boly, Melanie; Seth, Anil K.; Wilke, Melanie; Ingmundson, Paul; Baars, Bernard; Laureys, Steven; Edelman, David B.; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

2013-01-01

195

Animal versus human oral drug bioavailability: Do they correlate?  

PubMed Central

Oral bioavailability is a key consideration in development of drug products, and the use of preclinical species in predicting bioavailability in human has long been debated. In order to clarify whether any correlation between human and animal bioavailability exist, an extensive analysis of the published literature data was conducted. Due to the complex nature of bioavailability calculations inclusion criteria were applied to ensure integrity of the data. A database of 184 compounds was assembled. Linear regression for the reported compounds indicated no strong or predictive correlations to human data for all species, individually and combined. The lack of correlation in this extended dataset highlights that animal bioavailability is not quantitatively predictive of bioavailability in human. Although qualitative (high/low bioavailability) indications might be possible, models taking into account species-specific factors that may affect bioavailability are recommended for developing quantitative prediction. PMID:23988844

Musther, Helen; Olivares-Morales, Andrs; Hatley, Oliver J.D.; Liu, Bo; Rostami Hodjegan, Amin

2014-01-01

196

Animal versus human oral drug bioavailability: do they correlate?  

PubMed

Oral bioavailability is a key consideration in development of drug products, and the use of preclinical species in predicting bioavailability in human has long been debated. In order to clarify whether any correlation between human and animal bioavailability exist, an extensive analysis of the published literature data was conducted. Due to the complex nature of bioavailability calculations inclusion criteria were applied to ensure integrity of the data. A database of 184 compounds was assembled. Linear regression for the reported compounds indicated no strong or predictive correlations to human data for all species, individually and combined. The lack of correlation in this extended dataset highlights that animal bioavailability is not quantitatively predictive of bioavailability in human. Although qualitative (high/low bioavailability) indications might be possible, models taking into account species-specific factors that may affect bioavailability are recommended for developing quantitative prediction. PMID:23988844

Musther, Helen; Olivares-Morales, Andrs; Hatley, Oliver J D; Liu, Bo; Rostami Hodjegan, Amin

2014-06-16

197

Epidemiological characteristics of human and animal rabies in Azerbaijan.  

PubMed

The Caucasus is a region of geopolitical importance, in the gateway between Europe and Asia. This geographical location makes the region equally important in the epidemiology and control of transboundary infectious diseases such as rabies. Azerbaijan is the largest country in the Caucasus, and although rabies is notifiable and considered endemic, there is little information on the burden of human and animal rabies. Here, we describe a cross-disciplinary international collaboration aimed at improving rabies control in Azerbaijan. Partial nucleoprotein gene sequences were obtained from animal rabies cases for comparison with those from surrounding areas. Reported human and animal rabies cases between 2000 and 2010 were also reviewed and analysed by region and year. Comparison of rabies virus strains circulating in Azerbaijan demonstrates more than one lineage of rabies virus circulating concurrently in Azerbaijan and illustrates the need for further sample collection and characterization. Officially reported rabies data showed an increase in human and animal rabies cases, and an increase in animal bites requiring provision of post-exposure prophylaxis, since 2006. This is despite apparently consistent levels of dog vaccination and culling of stray dogs. PMID:24845953

Zeynalova, S; Shikhiyev, M; Aliyeva, T; Ismayilova, R; Wise, E; Abdullayev, R; Asadov, K; Rustamova, S; Quliyev, F; Whatmore, A M; Marshall, E S; Fooks, A R; Horton, D L

2015-03-01

198

A Quantitative Prioritisation of Human and Domestic Animal Pathogens in Europe  

PubMed Central

Disease or pathogen risk prioritisations aid understanding of infectious agent impact within surveillance or mitigation and biosecurity work, but take significant development. Previous work has shown the H-(Hirsch-)index as an alternative proxy. We present a weighted risk analysis describing infectious pathogen impact for human health (human pathogens) and well-being (domestic animal pathogens) using an objective, evidence-based, repeatable approach; the H-index. This study established the highest H-index European pathogens. Commonalities amongst pathogens not included in previous surveillance or risk analyses were examined. Differences between host types (humans/animals/zoonotic) in pathogen H-indices were explored as a One Health impact indicator. Finally, the acceptability of the H-index proxy for animal pathogen impact was examined by comparison with other measures. 57 pathogens appeared solely in the top 100 highest H-indices (1) human or (2) animal pathogens list, and 43 occurred in both. Of human pathogens, 66 were zoonotic and 67 were emerging, compared to 67 and 57 for animals. There were statistically significant differences between H-indices for host types (humans, animal, zoonotic), and there was limited evidence that H-indices are a reasonable proxy for animal pathogen impact. This work addresses measures outlined by the European Commission to strengthen climate change resilience and biosecurity for infectious diseases. The results include a quantitative evaluation of infectious pathogen impact, and suggest greater impacts of human-only compared to zoonotic pathogens or scientific under-representation of zoonoses. The outputs separate high and low impact pathogens, and should be combined with other risk assessment methods relying on expert opinion or qualitative data for priority setting, or could be used to prioritise diseases for which formal risk assessments are not possible because of data gaps. PMID:25136810

McIntyre, K. Marie; Setzkorn, Christian; Hepworth, Philip J.; Morand, Serge; Morse, Andrew P.; Baylis, Matthew

2014-01-01

199

Hemorrhagic transformation after ischemic stroke in animals and humans  

PubMed Central

Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a common complication of ischemic stroke that is exacerbated by thrombolytic therapy. Methods to better prevent, predict, and treat HT are needed. In this review, we summarize studies of HT in both animals and humans. We propose that early HT (<18 to 24?hours after stroke onset) relates to leukocyte-derived matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and brain-derived MMP-2 that damage the neurovascular unit and promote bloodbrain barrier (BBB) disruption. This contrasts to delayed HT (>18 to 24?hours after stroke) that relates to ischemia activation of brain proteases (MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and endogenous tissue plasminogen activator), neuroinflammation, and factors that promote vascular remodeling (vascular endothelial growth factor and high-moblity-group-box-1). Processes that mediate BBB repair and reduce HT risk are discussed, including transforming growth factor beta signaling in monocytes, Src kinase signaling, MMP inhibitors, and inhibitors of reactive oxygen species. Finally, clinical features associated with HT in patients with stroke are reviewed, including approaches to predict HT by clinical factors, brain imaging, and blood biomarkers. Though remarkable advances in our understanding of HT have been made, additional efforts are needed to translate these discoveries to the clinic and reduce the impact of HT on patients with ischemic stroke. PMID:24281743

Jickling, Glen C; Liu, DaZhi; Stamova, Boryana; Ander, Bradley P; Zhan, Xinhua; Lu, Aigang; Sharp, Frank R

2014-01-01

200

The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.  

PubMed

The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts. PMID:24547648

Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

2013-08-01

201

Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in animals and humans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common parasites of domestic, wild, and companion animals, and it also infects approximately 25% of the worlds human population. T. gondii has a complex life cycle. Sexual development occurs only in the cat gut, while asexual replication and transmission occur i...

202

Variability Discrimination in Humans and Animals: Implications for Adaptive Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both humans and animals live in a rich world of events. Some events repeat themselves, whereas others constantly change. The authors propose that discriminating this stability, sameness, and uniformity from change, differentness, and diversity is fundamental to adaptive action. Evidence from many areas of behavioral science indicates that the

Wasserman, Edward A.; Young, Michael E.; Cook, Robert G.

2004-01-01

203

Challenges in Designing Human-Animal Interaction Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses challenges in designing Human-Animal Interaction (HAI) research. A summary of previous reviews of HAI research is presented, followed by a discussion of areas that present particular challenges to research in this field, specifically design issues, control of extraneous variables, sample selection, intervention development, and outcome measurement. Suggestions for addressing these areas also are presented.

Cindy C. Wilson; Sandra B. Barker

2003-01-01

204

Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from animals causing human endocarditis.  

PubMed

We report a case of infection with coagulase-positive Staphylococcus pseudintermedius related to the implantation of a cardioverter-defribrillator device. This species is usually isolated from infected animals, and contact with a dog was the probable source of infection in this patient. This isolate produced a leukotoxin effective against human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. PMID:21075051

Riegel, Philippe; Jesel-Morel, Laurence; Laventie, Benot; Boisset, Sandrine; Vandenesch, Franois; Prvost, Gilles

2011-03-01

205

COMPARING THE EMOTIONAL BRAINS OF HUMANS AND OTHER ANIMALS  

E-print Network

25 3 COMPARING THE EMOTIONAL BRAINS OF HUMANS AND OTHER ANIMALS Kent C. Berridge How is emotion embodied in the brain? That is the ques- tion posed by affective neuroscience (Cacioppo & Gardner, 1999 and emotion at both psychological and neurobiological levels. Evidence regarding the brain substrates

Berridge, Kent

206

Affective neuroscience of pleasure: reward in humans and animals  

E-print Network

; and the relation of pleasure to happiness. Keywords Reward . Pleasure . Motivation . Hedonic . Food . Addiction . Addiction Introduction Affective neuroscience has emerged as an exciting disci- pline in recent years to schizophrenia and addiction. Here, our aim is to bridge findings from research in humans and other animals

Berridge, Kent

207

NITROBENZENE CARCINOGENICITY IN ANIMALS AND HUMAN HAZARD EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Nitrobenzene (NB) human cancer studies have not been reported, but animals studies have. Three rodent strains inhaling NB produce cancer at eight sites. B6C3F1 mice respond with mammary gland malignant tumors and male lung and thyroid benign tumors, F344/N male rats respond with ...

208

DIFFERENTIATING HUMAN FROM ANIMAL ISOLATES OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM  

EPA Science Inventory

We analyzed 9s Cryptosporidium parvum isolates from humans and animals by a polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method based on the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein 2 gene sequence. Used as a molecular marker, this method can differentiate ...

209

Anticipatory Governance: Bioethical Expertise for Human/Animal Chimeras  

PubMed Central

The governance demands generated by the use of human/animal chimeras in scientific research offer both a challenge and an opportunity for the development of new forms of anticipatory governance through the novel application of bioethical expertise. Anticipatory governance can be seen to have three stages of development whereby bioethical experts move from a reactive to a proactive stance at the edge of what is scientifically possible. In the process, the ethicists move upstream in their engagement with the science of human-to-animal chimeras. To what extent is the anticipatory coestablishment of the principles and operational rules of governance at this early stage in the development of the human-to-animal research field likely to result in a framework for bioethical decision making that is in support of science? The process of anticipatory governance is characterised by the entwining of the scientific and the philosophical so that judgements against science are also found to be philosophically unfounded, and conversely, those activities that are permissible are deemed so on both scientific and ethical grounds. Through what is presented as an organic process, the emerging bioethical framework for human-to-animal chimera research becomes a legitimating framework within which good science can safely progress. Science gives bioethical expertise access to new governance territory; bioethical expertise gives science access to political acceptability. PMID:23576848

Harvey, Alison; Salter, Brian

2012-01-01

210

Anticipatory Governance: Bioethical Expertise for Human\\/Animal Chimeras  

Microsoft Academic Search

The governance demands generated by the use of human\\/animal chimeras in scientific research offer both a challenge and an opportunity for the development of new forms of anticipatory governance through the novel application of bioethical expertise. Anticipatory governance can be seen to have three stages of development whereby bioethical experts move from a reactive to a proactive stance at the

Alison Harvey; Brian Salter

2012-01-01

211

The importance of animal influenza for human disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influenza is a zoonotic disease caused by a constantly varying RNA virus resulting in a need for continuous surveillance to update human vaccines. Our knowledge indicates that the intermittent pandemics of influenza originate from influenza viruses or gene segments from influenza viruses in lower animals and birds. These pandemics can be mild to catastrophic. While we have learned a great

Robert G. Webster

2002-01-01

212

Ecology of Disease: The Intersection of Human and Animal Health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Environmental ecosystems and climate are closely linked and they affect animal and human diseases. We describe (1) the effect of ecology on vector-borne disease, (2) the role of ecology and global climate in disease forecasting, and (3) the potential use of forecasting to reduce impact and limit sp...

213

An Interactive Model of Human and Companion Animal Dynamics: The Ecology and Economics of Dog Overpopulation and the Human Costs of Addressing the Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Companion animal overpopulation is a problem of human creation with significant human costs that can only be addressed through human action. A model was constructed to understand the dynamics of canine overpopulation and the effectiveness of various policy options for reducing euthanasia. The model includes economic and ecological factors in human and dog populations. According to the model, a no-kill

Joshua Frank

2004-01-01

214

[Reference relationships between human and animal in Hildegard von Bingen].  

PubMed

In "De animalibus", the 7th book in the "Liber simplicis medicinae", Hildegard von Bingen describes the characteristics of four-footed land animals. Some of these have a special relationship with humans in that they embody moral qualities. An explanation for this is already given in the preface, which states that human intelligence recognizes these qualities, declaring that "You are this or that sort of creature". Since the relationship that animals have with nature shares a degree of similarity with that of man's, they can be regarded as symbolic representatives for particular human traits and characteristics. The article at hand presents Hildegard von Bingen's descriptions of the monkey, the lion, the bear, the rabbit, the dog, the cat, the wolf, the lynx, and the donkey. While the monkey just mimics man's behaviour and is imperfect in both settings, the lion embodies will power. The bear on the other hand stands for unbridled sexual desire, while in the rabbit the gentleness of a sheep is united with the bounce of a deer. The lynx is regarded as hedonistic, the donkey as stupid, and the wolf as surrounded by dangerous sylphs. In Hildegard's depictions, exotic and native animal species display rather extraordinary behavioural traits, and the medieval Christian world view of the author conveys unexpected relationships between humans and animals. In addition to empirical observation and experience, Hildegard also relies on folkloristic beliefs and magical practices related to explanatory models of her time. She allows largely unknown sources into her animal lore but never strays from her ultimate goal of having it serve to instruct people. In doing so, Hildegard removed herself far from the common tradition of medieval animal portraits. PMID:23155757

Riethe, Peter

2012-01-01

215

Animal Models That Best Reproduce the Clinical Manifestations of Human Intoxication with Organophosphorus Compounds  

PubMed Central

The translational capacity of data generated in preclinical toxicological studies is contingent upon several factors, including the appropriateness of the animal model. The primary objectives of this article are: 1) to analyze the natural history of acute and delayed signs and symptoms that develop following an acute exposure of humans to organophosphorus (OP) compounds, with an emphasis on nerve agents; 2) to identify animal models of the clinical manifestations of human exposure to OPs; and 3) to review the mechanisms that contribute to the immediate and delayed OP neurotoxicity. As discussed in this study, clinical manifestations of an acute exposure of humans to OP compounds can be faithfully reproduced in rodents and nonhuman primates. These manifestations include an acute cholinergic crisis in addition to signs of neurotoxicity that develop long after the OP exposure, particularly chronic neurologic deficits consisting of anxiety-related behavior and cognitive deficits, structural brain damage, and increased slow electroencephalographic frequencies. Because guinea pigs and nonhuman primates, like humans, have low levels of circulating carboxylesterasesthe enzymes that metabolize and inactivate OP compoundsthey stand out as appropriate animal models for studies of OP intoxication. These are critical points for the development of safe and effective therapeutic interventions against OP poisoning because approval of such therapies by the Food and Drug Administration is likely to rely on the Animal Efficacy Rule, which allows exclusive use of animal data as evidence of the effectiveness of a drug against pathologic conditions that cannot be ethically or feasibly tested in humans. PMID:24907067

Pereira, Edna F. R.; Aracava, Yasco; DeTolla, Louis J.; Beecham, E. Jeffrey; Basinger, G. William; Wakayama, Edgar J.

2014-01-01

216

Multilocus Sequence Typing and Virulence Gene Profiles Associated with Escherichia coli from Human and Animal Sources.  

PubMed

We investigated whether specific sequence types, and their shared virulence gene profiles, may be associated with both human and food animal reservoirs. A total of 600 Escherichia coli isolates were assembled from human (n=265) and food-animal (n=335) sources from overlapping geographic areas and time periods (2005-2010) in Canada. The entire collection was subjected to multilocus sequence typing and a subset of 286 E. coli isolates was subjected to an E. coli-specific virulence gene microarray. The most common sequence type (ST) was E. coli ST10, which was present in all human and food-animal sources, followed by ST69, ST73, ST95, ST117, and ST131. A core group of virulence genes was associated with all 10 common STs including artJ, ycfZ, csgA, csgE, fimA, fimH, gad, hlyE, ibeB, mviM, mviN, and ompA. STs 73, 92, and 95 exhibited the largest number of virulence genes, and all were exclusively identified from human infections. ST117 was found in both human and food-animal sources and shared virulence genes common in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli lineages. Select groups of E. coli may be found in both human and food-animal reservoirs. PMID:25774654

Manges, Amee R; Harel, Jose; Masson, Luke; Edens, Thaddeus J; Portt, Andrea; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Zhanel, George G; Kropinski, Andrew M; Boerlin, Patrick

2015-04-01

217

Of mice and men: olfactory neuroblastoma among animals and humans.  

PubMed

Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a rare tumour of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses that arises from the olfactory neuroepithelium and has unpredictable clinical course. As the sense of smell is phylogenetically one of the first senses and olfactory neuroepithelium is evolutionary conserved with striking similarities among different species, we performed an extensive analysis of the literature in order to evaluate the similarities and differences between animals and humans on the clinical, morphological, immunohistochemical, ultrastructural and molecular level. Our analysis revealed that ONB was reported mainly in mammals and showed striking similarities to human ONB. These observations provide rationale for introduction of therapy modalities used in humans into the veterinary medicine. Animal models of neuroblastoma should be considered for the preclinical studies evaluating novel therapies for ONB. PMID:25041470

Lubojemska, A; Borejko, M; Czapiewski, P; Dziadziuszko, R; Biernat, W

2014-07-12

218

Metaphysical and ethical perspectives on creating animal-human chimeras.  

PubMed

This paper addresses several questions related to the nature, production, and use of animal-human (a-h) chimeras. At the heart of the issue is whether certain types of a-h chimeras should be brought into existence, and, if they are, how we should treat such creatures. In our current research environment, we recognize a dichotomy between research involving nonhuman animal subjects and research involving human subjects, and the classification of a research protocol into one of these categories will trigger different ethical standards as to the moral permissibility of the research in question. Are a-h chimeras entitled to the more restrictive and protective ethical standards applied to human research subjects? We elucidate an Aristotelian-Thomistic metaphysical framework in which to argue how such chimeras ought to be defined ontologically. We then examine when the creation of, and experimentation upon, certain types of a-h chimeras may be morally permissible. PMID:19692673

Eberl, Jason T; Ballard, Rebecca A

2009-10-01

219

Human task animation from performance models and natural language input  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Graphical manipulation of human figures is essential for certain types of human factors analyses such as reach, clearance, fit, and view. In many situations, however, the animation of simulated people performing various tasks may be based on more complicated functions involving multiple simultaneous reaches, critical timing, resource availability, and human performance capabilities. One rather effective means for creating such a simulation is through a natural language description of the tasks to be carried out. Given an anthropometrically-sized figure and a geometric workplace environment, various simple actions such as reach, turn, and view can be effectively controlled from language commands or standard NASA checklist procedures. The commands may also be generated by external simulation tools. Task timing is determined from actual performance models, if available, such as strength models or Fitts' Law. The resulting action specification are animated on a Silicon Graphics Iris workstation in real-time.

Esakov, Jeffrey; Badler, Norman I.; Jung, Moon

1989-01-01

220

Implications of aquatic animal health for human health.  

PubMed Central

Human health and aquatic animal health are organically related at three distinct interfaces. Aquatic animals serve as important contributors to the nutritional protein, lipid, and vitamin requirements of humans; as carriers and transmitters of many infectious and parasitic diseases to which humans are susceptible; and as indicators of toxic and carcinogenic substances that they can convey, in some part, from aquatic environments to man and other terrestrial animals. Transcending these relationships, but less visible and definable to many, is the role that aquatic animals play in the sustenance of our integrated planetary ecosystem. Up to the present, this ecosystem has been compatible with mankind's occupation of a niche within it at high but ultimately limited population levels. In the past century we have become clearly aware that human activities, particularly over-harvesting of aquatic animals together with chemical degradation of their habitats, can quite rapidly lead to perturbances that drastically shift aquatic ecosystems toward conditions of low productivity and impaired function as one of earth's vital organs. The negative values of aquatic animals as disease vectors are far outweighed by their positive values as nutritional sources and as sustainers of a relatively stable equilibrium in the global ecosystem. In the immediate future we can expect to see increased and improved monitoring of aquatic habitats to determine the extent to which aquatic animals cycle anthropogenic toxic and carcinogenic chemicals back to human consumers. In the long term, methods are particularly needed to assess the effects of these pollutants on reproductive success in aquatic communities and in human communities as well. As inputs of habitat-degrading substances change in quality and quantity, it becomes increasingly urgent to evaluate the consequences in advance, not in retrospect. A new, more realistic and comprehensive philosophy regarding aquatic environmental preservation and equally new and comprehensive technological advances reflective of this philosophy will be required. In the next century we will see a serious test of whether or not mankind has lost its ability to foresee and forestall the side effects of scientific and technological ingenuity. PMID:2205490

Dawe, C J

1990-01-01

221

Group decisions in humans and animals: a survey  

PubMed Central

Humans routinely make many decisions collectively, whether they choose a restaurant with friends, elect political leaders or decide actions to tackle international problems, such as climate change, that affect the future of the whole planet. We might be less aware of it, but group decisions are just as important to social animals as they are for us. Animal groups have to collectively decide about communal movements, activities, nesting sites and enterprises, such as cooperative breeding or hunting, that crucially affect their survival and reproduction. While human group decisions have been studied for millennia, the study of animal group decisions is relatively young, but is now expanding rapidly. It emerges that group decisions in animals pose many similar questions to those in humans. The purpose of the present issue is to integrate and combine approaches in the social and natural sciences in an area in which theoretical challenges and research questions are often similar, and to introduce each discipline to the other's key ideas, findings and successful methods. In order to make such an introduction as effective as possible, here, we briefly review conceptual similarities and differences between the sciences, and provide a guide to the present issue. PMID:19073475

Conradt, Larissa; List, Christian

2008-01-01

222

Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

March, B. E.

1984-01-01

223

On the lack of evidence that non-human animals possess anything remotely  

E-print Network

On the lack of evidence that non-human animals possess anything remotely resembling a `theory-human minds, there is still little consensus on whether or not non-human animals understand anything about the unobservable mental states of other animals or even what it would mean for a non-verbal animal to understand

Indiana University

224

Calcium isotope ratios in animal and human bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Calcium isotopes in tissues are thought to be influenced by an individual's diet, reflecting parameters such as trophic level and dairy consumption, but this has not been carefully assessed. We report the calcium isotope ratios (? 44/42Ca) of modern and archaeological animal and human bone ( n = 216). Modern sheep raised at the same location show 0.14 0.08 higher ? 44/42Ca in females than in males, which we attribute to lactation by the ewes. In the archaeological bone samples the calcium isotope ratios of the herbivorous fauna vary by location. At a single site, the archaeological fauna do not show a trophic level effect. Humans have lower ? 44/42Ca than the mean site fauna by 0.22 0.22, and the humans have a greater ? 44/42Ca range than the animals. No effect of sex or age on the calcium isotope ratios was found, and intra-individual skeletal ? 44/42Ca variability is negligible. We rule out dairy consumption as the main cause of the lower human ? 44/42Ca, based on results from sites pre-dating animal domestication and dairy availability, and suggest instead that individual physiology and calcium intake may be important in determining bone calcium isotope ratios.

Reynard, L. M.; Henderson, G. M.; Hedges, R. E. M.

2010-07-01

225

Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism  

SciTech Connect

In his lecture, Shiller discusses the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. The book discusses how animal spirits, or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including todays global financial crisis.

Robert J. Shiller

2010-03-02

226

Concordance of the Toxicity of Pharmaceuticals in Humans and in Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes the results of a multinational pharmaceutical company survey and the outcome of an International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Workshop (April 1999), which served to better understand concordance of the toxicity of pharmaceuticals observed in humans with that observed in experimental animals. The Workshop included representatives from academia, the multinational pharmaceutical industry, and international regulatory scientists. The main

Harry Olson; Graham Betton; Denise Robinson; Karluss Thomas; Alastair Monro; Gerald Kolaja; Patrick Lilly; James Sanders; Glenn Sipes; William Bracken; Michael Dorato; Koen Van Deun; Peter Smith; Bruce Berger; Allen Heller

2000-01-01

227

Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism  

ScienceCinema

In his lecture, Shiller discusses the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. The book discusses how ?animal spirits,? or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today?s global financial crisis.

Robert J. Shiller

2010-09-01

228

Distinct brain activity in processing negative pictures of animals and objects --- the role of human contexts  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that the amygdala is important in processing not only animate entities but also social information. It remains to be determined to what extent the factors of category and social context interact to modulate the activities of the amygdala and cortical regions. In this study, pictures depicting animals and inanimate objects in negative and neutral levels were presented. The contexts of the pictures differed in whether they included human/human parts. The factors of valence, arousal, familiarity and complexity of pictures were controlled across categories. The results showed that the amygdala activity was modulated by category and contextual information. Under the nonhuman context condition, the amygdala responded more to animals than objects for both negative and neutral pictures. In contrast, under the human context condition, the amygdala showed stronger activity for negative objects than animals. In addition to cortical regions related to object action, functional and effective connectivity analyses showed that the anterior prefrontal cortex interacted with the amygdala more for negative objects (vs. animals) in the human context condition, by a top-down modulation of the anterior prefrontal cortex to the amygdala. These results highlighted the effects of category and human contexts on modulating brain activity in emotional processing. PMID:24099847

Cao, Zhijun; Zhao, Yanbing; Tan, Tengteng; Chen, Gang; Ning, Xueling; Zhan, Lexia; Yang, Jiongjiong

2013-01-01

229

Impacts of gas drilling on human and animal health.  

PubMed

Environmental concerns surrounding drilling for gas are intense due to expansion of shale gas drilling operations. Controversy surrounding the impact of drilling on air and water quality has pitted industry and lease-holders against individuals and groups concerned with environmental protection and public health. Because animals often are exposed continually to air, soil, and groundwater and have more frequent reproductive cycles, animals can be used as sentinels to monitor impacts to human health. This study involved interviews with animal owners who live near gas drilling operations. The findings illustrate which aspects of the drilling process may lead to health problems and suggest modifications that would lessen but not eliminate impacts. Complete evidence regarding health impacts of gas drilling cannot be obtained due to incomplete testing and disclosure of chemicals, and nondisclosure agreements. Without rigorous scientific studies, the gas drilling boom sweeping the world will remain an uncontrolled health experiment on an enormous scale. PMID:22446060

Bamberger, Michelle; Oswald, Robert E

2012-01-01

230

The Brain Functional Networks Associated to Human and Animal Suffering Differ among Omnivores, Vegetarians and Vegans  

PubMed Central

Empathy and affective appraisals for conspecifics are among the hallmarks of social interaction. Using functional MRI, we hypothesized that vegetarians and vegans, who made their feeding choice for ethical reasons, might show brain responses to conditions of suffering involving humans or animals different from omnivores. We recruited 20 omnivore subjects, 19 vegetarians, and 21 vegans. The groups were matched for sex and age. Brain activation was investigated using fMRI and an event-related design during observation of negative affective pictures of human beings and animals (showing mutilations, murdered people, human/animal threat, tortures, wounds, etc.). Participants saw negative-valence scenes related to humans and animals, alternating with natural landscapes. During human negative valence scenes, compared with omnivores, vegetarians and vegans had an increased recruitment of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). More critically, during animal negative valence scenes, they had decreased amygdala activation and increased activation of the lingual gyri, the left cuneus, the posterior cingulate cortex and several areas mainly located in the frontal lobes, including the ACC, the IFG and the middle frontal gyrus. Nonetheless, also substantial differences between vegetarians and vegans have been found responding to negative scenes. Vegetarians showed a selective recruitment of the right inferior parietal lobule during human negative scenes, and a prevailing activation of the ACC during animal negative scenes. Conversely, during animal negative scenes an increased activation of the inferior prefrontal cortex was observed in vegans. These results suggest that empathy toward non conspecifics has different neural representation among individuals with different feeding habits, perhaps reflecting different motivational factors and beliefs. PMID:20520767

Filippi, Massimo; Riccitelli, Gianna; Falini, Andrea; Di Salle, Francesco; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Comi, Giancarlo; Rocca, Maria A.

2010-01-01

231

The brain functional networks associated to human and animal suffering differ among omnivores, vegetarians and vegans.  

PubMed

Empathy and affective appraisals for conspecifics are among the hallmarks of social interaction. Using functional MRI, we hypothesized that vegetarians and vegans, who made their feeding choice for ethical reasons, might show brain responses to conditions of suffering involving humans or animals different from omnivores. We recruited 20 omnivore subjects, 19 vegetarians, and 21 vegans. The groups were matched for sex and age. Brain activation was investigated using fMRI and an event-related design during observation of negative affective pictures of human beings and animals (showing mutilations, murdered people, human/animal threat, tortures, wounds, etc.). Participants saw negative-valence scenes related to humans and animals, alternating with natural landscapes. During human negative valence scenes, compared with omnivores, vegetarians and vegans had an increased recruitment of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). More critically, during animal negative valence scenes, they had decreased amygdala activation and increased activation of the lingual gyri, the left cuneus, the posterior cingulate cortex and several areas mainly located in the frontal lobes, including the ACC, the IFG and the middle frontal gyrus. Nonetheless, also substantial differences between vegetarians and vegans have been found responding to negative scenes. Vegetarians showed a selective recruitment of the right inferior parietal lobule during human negative scenes, and a prevailing activation of the ACC during animal negative scenes. Conversely, during animal negative scenes an increased activation of the inferior prefrontal cortex was observed in vegans. These results suggest that empathy toward non conspecifics has different neural representation among individuals with different feeding habits, perhaps reflecting different motivational factors and beliefs. PMID:20520767

Filippi, Massimo; Riccitelli, Gianna; Falini, Andrea; Di Salle, Francesco; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Comi, Giancarlo; Rocca, Maria A

2010-01-01

232

Animals and their moral standing: A philosophical exploration of the relationship between animals and human beings in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main focus of this dissertation is to unearth some core values from within agriculture and to introduce to animal agriculture and philosophical animal ethics an ethic of fiduciary responsibility. Traditionally, an ethic of stewardship and accountability, which celebrated the intimate interconnectedness between human communities, nature and farmed animals, served as the cornerstone of sustainable communities and sanctioned legitimate uses

Raymond Anthony

2003-01-01

233

Vascular targets for cannabinoids: animal and human studies  

PubMed Central

Application of cannabinoids and endocannabinoids to perfused vascular beds or individual isolated arteries results in changes in vascular resistance. In most cases, the result is vasorelaxation, although vasoconstrictor responses are also observed. Cannabinoids also modulate the actions of vasoactive compounds including acetylcholine, methoxamine, angiotensin II and U46619 (thromboxane mimetic). Numerous mechanisms of action have been proposed including receptor activation, potassium channel activation, calcium channel inhibition and the production of vasoactive mediators such as calcitonin gene-related peptide, prostanoids, NO, endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor and hydrogen peroxide. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence for the range of receptors now known to be activated by cannabinoids. Direct activation by cannabinoids of CB1, CBe, TRPV1 (and potentially other TRP channels) and PPARs in the vasculature has been observed. A potential role for CB2, GPR55 and 5-HT1A has also been identified in some studies. Indirectly, activation of prostanoid receptors (TP, IP, EP1 and EP4) and the CGRP receptor is involved in the vascular responses to cannabinoids. The majority of this evidence has been obtained through animal research, but recent work has confirmed some of these targets in human arteries. Vascular responses to cannabinoids are enhanced in hypertension and cirrhosis, but are reduced in obesity and diabetes, both due to changes in the target sites of action. Much further work is required to establish the extent of vascular actions of cannabinoids and the application of this research in physiological and pathophysiological situations. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids 2013. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-6 PMID:24329566

Stanley, Christopher; O'Sullivan, Saoirse E

2014-01-01

234

ANABOLIC-ANDROGENIC STEROID DEPENDENCE? INSIGHTS FROM ANIMALS AND HUMANS  

PubMed Central

Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are drugs of abuse. They are taken in large quantities by athletes and others to increase performance, with negative health consequences. As a result, in 1991 testosterone and related AAS were declared controlled substances. However, the relative abuse and dependence liability of AAS have not been fully characterized. In humans, it is difficult to separate the direct psychoactive effects of AAS from reinforcement due to their systemic anabolic effects. However, using conditioned place preference and self-administration, studies in animals have demonstrated that AAS are reinforcing in a context where athletic performance is irrelevant. Furthermore, AAS share brain sites of action and neurotransmitter systems in common with other drugs of abuse. In particular, recent evidence links AAS with opioids. In humans, AAS abuse is associated with prescription opioid use. In animals, AAS overdose produces symptoms resembling opioid overdose, and AAS modify the activity of the endogenous opioid system. PMID:18275992

Wood, Ruth I.

2008-01-01

235

Comparison of lung antioxidant levels in humans and laboratory animals.  

PubMed

Basal lung concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA), nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH), and alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T) were determined in rabbits, guinea pigs, rats, hamsters, mice, domestic pigs and sheep, and in human lung samples obtained from cancer surgery patients. Significant differences were found among the laboratory animals: AA levels ranged from 25.6 mg% (mg/100 g wet weight) in hamsters to 41.7 mg% in mice, NPSH from 50.9 mg% in rats to 84.7 mg% in rabbits, and alpha-T from 1.01 mg% in hamsters to 2.74 mg% in rats. Porcine lung AA and NPSH concentrations approximated those of the laboratory animals and their alpha-T levels were the highest of all species studied. Sheep lung AA levels were comparable to those in the other species, although their NPSH and alpha-T levels appeared to be lower. Human lung concentrations of NPSH (5.2 mg%) and alpha-T (0.85 mg%) appeared low, whereas the mean AA concentration (22.1 mg%) was similar to that of laboratory animals. A partial correlation was found between AA and alpha-T levels and between NPSH and alpha-T levels in the 5 laboratory animal species. PMID:4003918

Slade, R; Stead, A G; Graham, J A; Hatch, G E

1985-05-01

236

The Responsible Use of Animals in Biology Classrooms, Including Alternatives to Dissection. A NABT Policy Statement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a policy regarding vivisection, dissection, and other use of animals in biology classrooms. Alternative teaching techniques are stressed. The organizational responsibility regarding this issue is discussed. (CW)

American Biology Teacher, 1990

1990-01-01

237

Merleau-Ponty, Deleuze, and the Question Singular: What Marks the Difference between Humans and Animals?  

E-print Network

Merleau-Ponty, Deleuze, and the Question Singular: What Marks the Difference between Humans and Animals? Arsalan Memon SUNY Stony Brook Abstract: What marks the difference between humans and ani mals? At what point does a human become... an animal and vice versa? What is the difference between human flesh and animal meat and reversibly, between human meat and animal flesh? Where is the line to be drawn between them, if possible? This paper seeks to problematize and rethink the long...

Memon, Arsalan

238

Practical uses for ecdysteroids in mammals including humans: an update  

PubMed Central

Ecdysteroids are widely used as inducers for gene-switch systems based on insect ecdysteroid receptors and genes of interest placed under the control of ecdysteroid-response elements. We review here these systems, which are currently mainly used in vitro with cultured cells in order to analyse the role of a wide array of genes, but which are expected to represent the basis for future gene therapy strategies. Such developments raise several questions, which are addressed in detail. First, the metabolic fate of ecdysteroids in mammals, including humans, is only poorly known, and the rapid catabolism of ecdysteroids may impede their use as in vivo inducers. A second set of questions arose in fact much earlier with the pioneering heterophylic studies of Burdette in the early sixties on the pharmacological effects of ecdysteroids on mammals. These and subsequent studies showed a wide range of effects, most of them being beneficial for the organism (e.g. hypoglycaemic, hypocholesterolaemic, anabolic). These effects are reviewed and critically analysed, and some hypotheses are proposed to explain the putative mechanisms involved. All of these pharmacological effects have led to the development of a wide array of ecdysteroid-containing preparations, which are primarily used for their anabolic and/or adaptogenic properties on humans (or horses or dogs). In the same way, increasing numbers of patents have been deposited concerning various beneficial effects of ecdysteroids in many medical or cosmetic domains, which make ecdysteroids very attractive candidates for several practical uses. It may be questioned whether all these pharmacological actions are compatible with the development of ecdysteroid-inducible gene switches for gene therapy, and also if ecdysteroids should be classified among doping substances. Abbreviation: 20E 20-hydroxyecdysone 2d20E 2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone 2dE 2-deoxyecdysone BAH bisacylhydrazine BmEcR Bombyx mori EcR CfEcR Choristoneura fumiferana EcR CfUSP Choristoneura fumiferana USP CHO Chinese hamster ovary CMV cytomegalovirus DBD DNA-binding domain DmEcR Drosophila melanogaster EcR AbbE ecdysone EcR ecdysteroid receptor EcRE ecdysteroid response element EHT effective half-time ERE oestrogen response element GR glucocorticoid receptor GRE glucocorticoid response element HEK human embryonic kidney HvEcR Heliothis virescens EcR LBD ligand binding domain murA muristerone A PKA protein kinase A polB polypodine B ponA ponasterone A PPAR peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor RAR retinoic acid receptor RXR retinoid X receptor TR thyroid receptor USP ultraspiracle VDR vitamin D receptor VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor PMID:15844229

Lafont, R.; Dinan, L.

2003-01-01

239

Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the wonderful world of animals Listen to the animal sound. See if you can identify the animal.Animal sounds. Explore and find out about different animals.Kids Planet Create a animal report using one of the animals found in the web site.Kids Planet,SeaWorld/animals Create a picture of your animal examples are found...Your big backyard ...

Mrs. Unsworth

2005-03-31

240

Incidence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in human and animal fecal sources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The occurrence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in the opportunistic pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium is well-documented in clinical research. Recently, the esp gene has been proposed as a marker of human pollution in environmental waters; however, information on its relative incidence in various human and animal fecal sources is limited. We have determined the occurrence of the esp gene in enterococci from human (n = 64) and animal (n = 233) fecal samples by polymerase chain reaction using two primer sets: one presumably specific for E. faecium (espfm) and the other for both E. faecalis and E. faecium (espfs/fm). We believe that this research is the first to explore the use of espfs/fm for the detection of human waste in natural environmental settings. The incidence in human sources was 93.1% espfm and 100% espfs/fm in raw sewage influent; 30% for both espfm and espfs/fm in septic waste; and 0% espfm and 80% espfs/fm in active pit toilets. The overall occurrence of the gene in animal feces was 7.7% (espfs/fm) and 4.7% (espfm); animal types with positive results included dogs (9/43, all espfm), gulls (10/34, espfs/fm; 2/34, espfm), mice (3/22, all espfs/fm), and songbirds (5/55, all espfs/fm). The esp gene was not detected in cat (0/34), deer (0/4), goose (0/18), or raccoon (0/23) feces. The inconsistent occurrence, especially in septic and pit toilet sewage, suggests a low statistical power of discrimination between animal and human sources, which means a large number of replicates should be collected. Both espfm and espfs/fm were common in raw sewage, but neither one efficiently differentiated between animal and other human sources.

Whitman, R.L.; Przybyla-Kelly, K.; Shively, D.A.; Byappanahalli, M.N.

2007-01-01

241

Graphene earphones: entertainment for both humans and animals.  

PubMed

The human hearing range is from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. However, many animals can hear much higher sound frequencies. Dolphins, especially, have a hearing range up to 300 kHz. To our knowledge, there is no data of a reported wide-band sound frequency earphone to satisfy both humans and animals. Here, we show that graphene earphones, packaged into commercial earphone casings can play sounds ranging from 100 Hz to 50 kHz. By using a one-step laser scribing technology, wafer-scale flexible graphene earphones can be obtained in 25 min. Compared with a normal commercial earphone, the graphene earphone has a wider frequency response (100 Hz to 50 kHz) and a three times lower fluctuation (10 dB). A nonlinear effect exists in the graphene-generated sound frequency spectrum. This effect could be explained by the DC bias added to the input sine waves which may induce higher harmonics. Our numerical calculations show that the sound frequency emitted by graphene could reach up to 1 MHz. In addition, we have demonstrated that a dog wearing a graphene earphone could also be trained and controlled by 35 kHz sound waves. Our results show that graphene could be widely used to produce earphones for both humans and animals. PMID:24766102

Tian, He; Li, Cheng; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Cui, Ya-Long; Mi, Wen-Tian; Yang, Yi; Xie, Dan; Ren, Tian-Ling

2014-06-24

242

Bone Research and Animal Support of Human Space Exploration: Where do we go from here?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA exploration goals include returning humans to the moon by 20 15-2020 as a prelude for human exploration of Mars and beyond. The number of human flight subjects available during this very short time period is insufficient to solve high-risk problems without data from animals. This presentation will focus on three questions: What do we know? What do we need to know? Where do we go from here?: roles for animals in the exploration era. Answers to these questions are based on flight and ground-based models using humans and animals. First, what do we know? Adult humans have spent less than 1% of their lifespan in space while juvenile rats have spent almost 2%. This information suggests that our data are rather meager for projecting to a 30-month mission to Mars. The space platforms for humans have included Skylab, STS/MIR, and STS/ISS and for animals have included the unmanned Bion series and shuttle. The ground-based models include head-down bedrest in humans (BR) and hindlimb unloading in rodents (HU). We know that as gravity decreases, the impact forces generated by the body during locomotion decrease. For example, on Earth, your legs supports approximately 1 body weight (BW) when standing, 1.33BW when walking, and 3BW when jogging. On Mars, the same activity would generate 0.38BW standing, 0.5BW walking, and 1BW when jogging. In space, no impact load is generated, as gravity is minimal.

Morey-Holton, Emily R.

2004-01-01

243

29 CFR 1990.143 - General provisions for the use of human and animal data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (d) Non-positive animal studies. Positive...Use of high doses in animal testing. Positive results...Threshold or No-effect Levels. No determination...whether results in human, animal or short-term...

2010-07-01

244

29 CFR 1990.143 - General provisions for the use of human and animal data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...144(a). (d) Non-positive animal studies. Positive results...provided. (g) Use of high doses in animal testing. Positive results for carcinogenicity...determination of whether results in human, animal or short-term studies...

2012-07-01

245

29 CFR 1990.143 - General provisions for the use of human and animal data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...144(a). (d) Non-positive animal studies. Positive results...provided. (g) Use of high doses in animal testing. Positive results for carcinogenicity...determination of whether results in human, animal or short-term studies...

2011-07-01

246

29 CFR 1990.143 - General provisions for the use of human and animal data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...144(a). (d) Non-positive animal studies. Positive results...provided. (g) Use of high doses in animal testing. Positive results for carcinogenicity...determination of whether results in human, animal or short-term studies...

2013-07-01

247

29 CFR 1990.143 - General provisions for the use of human and animal data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...144(a). (d) Non-positive animal studies. Positive results...provided. (g) Use of high doses in animal testing. Positive results for carcinogenicity...determination of whether results in human, animal or short-term studies...

2014-07-01

248

The Zoonotic Tuberculosis Syndemic: A Literature Review and Analysis of the Scientific Journals Covering a Multidisciplinary Field That Includes Clinical Medicine, Animal Science, Wildlife Management, Bacterial Evolution, and Food Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article reviews the steadily increasing literature on tuberculosis outbreaks involving Mycobacterium bovis, a bacillus traditionally associated with cattle and dairy products but in fact syndemic in a wide range of other animals including humans. Six major categories of journals cover this story: human infectious diseases and epidemiology, general human medicine, general veterinary practice, veterinary management of zoonoses and wildlife

Amy Hardin; Philip G. Crandall; Tony Stankus

2011-01-01

249

Effects of virtual human animation on emotion contagion in simulated inter-personal experiences.  

PubMed

We empirically examined the impact of virtual human animation on the emotional responses of participants in a medical virtual reality system for education in the signs and symptoms of patient deterioration. Participants were presented with one of two virtual human conditions in a between-subjects experiment, static (non-animated) and dynamic (animated). Our objective measures included the use of psycho-physical Electro Dermal Activity (EDA) sensors, and subjective measures inspired by social psychology research included the Differential Emotions Survey (DES IV) and Positive and Negative Affect Survey (PANAS). We analyzed the quantitative and qualitative measures associated with participants? emotional state at four distinct time-steps in the simulated interpersonal experience as the virtual patient?s medical condition deteriorated. Results suggest that participants in the dynamic condition with animations exhibited a higher sense of co-presence and greater emotional response as compared to participants in the static condition, corresponding to the deterioration in the medical condition of the virtual patient. Negative affect of participants in the dynamic condition increased at a higher rate than for participants in the static condition. The virtual human animations elicited a stronger response in negative emotions such as anguish, fear, and anger as the virtual patient?s medical condition worsened. PMID:24650990

Wu, Yanxiang; Babu, Sabarish V; Armstrong, Rowan; Bertrand, Jeffrey W; Luo, Jun; Roy, Tania; Daily, Shaundra B; Dukes, Lauren Cairco; Hodges, Larry F; Fasolino, Tracy

2014-04-01

250

Risk practices for animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh: an exploratory study  

PubMed Central

Introduction From August 2009 to October 2010, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh and the Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research together investigated 14 outbreaks of anthrax which included 140 animal and 273 human cases in 14 anthrax-affected villages. Our investigation objectives were to explore the context in which these outbreaks occurred, including livestock rearing practices, human handling of sick and dead animals, and the anthrax vaccination program. Methods Field anthropologists used qualitative data-collection tools, including 15 hours of unstructured observations, 11 key informant interviews, 32 open-ended interviews, and 6 group discussions in 5 anthrax-affected villages. Results Each cattle owner in the affected communities raised a median of six ruminants on their household premises. The ruminants were often grazed in pastures and fed supplementary rice straw, green grass, water hyacinth, rice husk, wheat bran, and oil cake; lactating cows were given dicalcium phosphate. Cattle represented a major financial investment. Since Islamic law forbids eating animals that die from natural causes, when anthrax-infected cattle were moribund, farmers often slaughtered them on the household premises while they were still alive so that the meat could be eaten. Farmers ate the meat and sold it to neighbors. Skinners removed and sold the hides from discarded carcasses. Farmers discarded the carcasses and slaughtering waste into ditches, bodies of water, or open fields. Cattle in the affected communities did not receive routine anthrax vaccine due to low production, poor distribution, and limited staffing for vaccination. Conclusion Slaughtering anthrax-infected animals and disposing of butchering waste and carcasses in environments where ruminants live and graze, combined with limited vaccination, provided a context that permitted repeated anthrax outbreaks in animals and humans. Because of strong financial incentives, slaughtering moribund animals and discarding carcasses and waste products will likely continue. Long-term vaccination coverage for at-risk animal populations may reduce anthrax infection. PMID:24298326

Islam, Md. Saiful; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Mikolon, Andrea; Parveen, Shahana; Khan, M. Salah Uddin; Haider, Najmul; Chakraborty, Apurba; Titu, Abu Mohammad Naser; Rahman, M. Waliur; Sazzad, Hossain M. S.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Gurley, Emily S.; Luby, Stephen P.

2013-01-01

251

Animal models of aging research: implications for human aging and age-related diseases.  

PubMed

Aging is characterized by an increasing morbidity and functional decline that eventually results in the death of an organism. Aging is the largest risk factor for numerous human diseases, and understanding the aging process may thereby facilitate the development of new treatments for age-associated diseases. The use of humans in aging research is complicated by many factors, including ethical issues; environmental and social factors; and perhaps most importantly, their long natural life span. Although cellular models of human disease provide valuable mechanistic information, they are limited in that they may not replicate the in vivo biology. Almost all organisms age, and thus animal models can be useful for studying aging. Herein, we review some of the major models currently used in aging research and discuss their benefits and pitfalls, including interventions known to extend life span and health span. Finally, we conclude by discussing the future of animal models in aging research. PMID:25689319

Mitchell, Sarah J; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Longo, Dan L; de Cabo, Rafael

2015-02-16

252

76 FR 30176 - Expedited Review for New Animal Drug Applications for Human Pathogen Reduction Claims; Withdrawal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Expedited Review for New Animal Drug Applications for Human Pathogen Reduction Claims; Withdrawal of Guidance AGENCY: Food and...Expedited Review for New Animal Drug Applications for Human Pathogen Reduction Claims.'' The guidance predates the...

2011-05-24

253

Putting the Dog Back in the Park: Animal and Human Mind-in-Action  

E-print Network

In this article we use actual instances of human conduct with animals to reflect on the debates about animal agency in human activities. Where much of psychology, philosophy, and sociology begin with a fundamental ...

Laurier, Eric; Maze, Ramia; Lundin, Johan

2006-01-01

254

Copyright: Potts & White, May 2007 New Zealand Centre for Human-Animal Studies  

E-print Network

/factory farming 71 Further issues 72 Vivisection/animal experimentation 72 Zoos 74 Section 3: Attitudes to animalsCopyright: Potts & White, May 2007 New Zealand Centre for Human-Animal Studies Cruelty-Director: New Zealand Centre for Human-Animal Studies Te Whare Wananga o Waitaha/University of Canterbury

Hickman, Mark

255

Cryptosporidium ubiquitum n.sp. in animals and humans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new species, Cryptosporidium ubiquitum, previously identified as the Cryptosporidium cervine genotype is described. In published studies the cervine genotype was reported in wild and domesticated ruminants, rodents, carnivores, and primates including humans. Molecular data for C. ubiquitum have b...

256

Relevance of animal models to human tardive dyskinesia  

PubMed Central

Tardive dyskinesia remains an elusive and significant clinical entity that can possibly be understood via experimentation with animal models. We conducted a literature review on tardive dyskinesia modeling. Subchronic antipsychotic drug exposure is a standard approach to model tardive dyskinesia in rodents. Vacuous chewing movements constitute the most common pattern of expression of purposeless oral movements and represent an impermanent response, with individual and strain susceptibility differences. Transgenic mice are also used to address the contribution of adaptive and maladaptive signals induced during antipsychotic drug exposure. An emphasis on non-human primate modeling is proposed, and past experimental observations reviewed in various monkey species. Rodent and primate models are complementary, but the non-human primate model appears more convincingly similar to the human condition and better suited to address therapeutic issues against tardive dyskinesia. PMID:22404856

2012-01-01

257

Photoacoustic tomography of small-animal and human peripheral joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an emerging imaging technology that combines the merits of both light and ultrasound, photoacoustic tomography (PAT) holds promise for screening and diagnosis of inflammatory joint diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, the feasibility of PAT in imaging small-animal joints and human peripheral joints in a noninvasive manner was explored. Ex vivo rat tail and fresh cadaveric human finger joints were imaged. Based on the intrinsic optical contrast, intra- and extra-articular tissue structures in the joints were visualized successfully. Using light in the near-infrared region, the imaging depth of PAT is sufficient for cross-sectional imaging of a human peripheral joint as a whole organ. PAT, as a novel imaging modality with unique advantages, may contribute significantly to the early diagnosis of inflammatory joint disorders and accurate monitoring of disease progression and response to therapy.

Wang, Xueding; Chamberland, David L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Carson, Paul L.; Jamadar, David A.

2008-02-01

258

The Responsible Use of Animals in Biology Classrooms Including Alternatives to Dissection. Monograph IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph discusses the care and maintenance of animals, suggests some alternative teaching strategies, and affirms the value of teaching biology as the study of living organisms, rather than dead specimens. The lessons in this monograph are intended as guidelines that teachers should adapt for their own particular classroom needs. Chapter 1,

Hairston, Rosalina V., Ed.

259

Creatures in the Classroom: Including Insects and Small Animals in Your Preschool Gardening Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When doing spring planting activities, what does a teacher do while waiting for the plants to grow? This waiting time is a golden opportunity to explore another side of gardening--the creatures that make it all possible. Insects are an integral part of everyday world, having existed for over 300 million years; they are the most common animal on

Hachey, Alyse C.; Butler, Deanna

2012-01-01

260

Re-emergence of animal rabies in northern Greece and subsequent human exposure, October 2012 - March 2013.  

PubMed

Greece has been rabies-free since 1987 with no human cases since 1970. During 2012 to 2013, rabies has re-emerged in wild and domestic animals in northern Greece. By end March 2013, rabies was diagnosed in 17 animals including 14 red foxes, two shepherd dogs and one cat; 104 subsequent human exposures required post-exposure prophylaxis according to the World Health Organization criteria. Human exposures occurred within 50 km radius of a confirmed rabies case in a wild or domestic animal, and most frequently stray dogs were involved. PMID:23725773

Tsiodras, S; Dougas, G; Baka, A; Billinis, C; Doudounakis, S; Balaska, A; Georgakopoulou, T; Rigakos, G; Kontos, V; Tasioudi, K E; Tzani, M; Tsarouxa, P; Iliadou, P; Mangana-Vougiouka, O; Iliopoulos, D; Sapounas, S; Efstathiou, P; Tsakris, A; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Kremastinou, J

2013-01-01

261

Mercury hazards from gold mining to humans, plants, and animals  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mercury contamination of the environment from historical and ongoing mining practices that rely on mercury amalgamation for gold extraction is widespread. Contamination was particularly severe in the immediate vicinity of gold extraction and refining operations; however, mercury--especially in the form of water-soluble methylmercury--may be transported to pristine areas by rainwater, water currents, deforestation, volatilization, and other vectors. Examples of gold mining-associated mercury pollution are shown for Canada, the United States, Africa, China, the Philippines, Siberia, and South America. In parts of Brazil, for example, mercury concentrations in all abiotic materials, plants, and animals--including endangered species of mammals and reptiles--collected near ongoing mercury-amalgamation gold mining sites were far in excess of allowable mercury levels promulgated by regulatory agencies for the protection of human health and natural resources. Although health authorities in Brazil are unable to detect conclusive evidence of human mercury intoxication, the potential exists in the absence of mitigation for epidemic mercury poisoning of the mining population and environs. In the United States, environmental mercury contamination is mostly from historical gold mining practices, and portions of Nevada remain sufficiently mercury-contaminated to pose a hazard to reproduction of carnivorous fishes and fish-eating birds. Concentrations of total mercury lethal to sensitive representative natural resources range from 0.1 to 2.0 ug/L of medium for aquatic organisms; from 2200 to 31,000 ug/kg body weight (acute oral) and 4000 to 40,000 ug/kg (dietary) for birds; and from 100 to 500 ug/kg body weight (daily dose) and 1000 to 5000 ug/kg diet for mammals. Significant adverse sublethal effects were observed among selected aquatic species at water concentrations of 0.03 to 0.1 ug Hg/L. For some birds, adverse effects--mainly on reproduction--have been associated with total mercury concentrations (in ug/kg fresh weight) of 5000 in feather, 900 in egg, and 50 to 100 in diet; and with daily intakes of 640 ug/kg body weight. Sensitive nonhuman mammals showed significant adverse effects of mercury when daily intakes were 250 ug/kg body weight, when dietary levels were 1100 ug/kg, or when tissue concentrations exceeded 1100 ug/kg. Proposed mercury criteria for protection of aquatic life range from 0.012 ug/L for freshwater life to 0.025 ug/L for marine life; for birds, less than 100 ug/kg diet fresh weight; and for small mammals, less than 1100 ug/kg fresh weight diet. All of these proposed criteria provide, at best, minimal protection.

Eisler, R.

2004-01-01

262

[Effect of increasing the omega-3 fatty acid in the diets of animals on the animal products consumed by humans].  

PubMed

As shown by huge amount of assays in human as well as in animal models, w-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids play important role in the development and maintenance of different organs, primarily the brain, and could be useful in the prevention of different pathologies, mainly the cardiovascular diseases, and, as proposed recently, some psychiatric, dermatological or rheumatological disorders. For ALA, the major and cheapest source for human is rapeseed oil (canola oil), and walnut "noix de Grenoble" oil). The actual goal is first to identify which foods are naturally rich in w-3 fatty acids, and, second, to determine the true impact of the formulations (enriched in w-3 fatty acids) in chows used on farms and breeding centres on the nutritional value of the products and thus their effect on the health of consumers, thanks to quantities of either ALA, or EPA or DHA or both. This concern fish (in proportion of their lipid content, mainly mackerel, salmon, sardine and herring), eggs (wildly naturally rich in w-3 fatty acids, both ALA and DHA, or from laying hen fed ALA from linseed or rapeseed), meat from birds, mammals (from the highest concentration : rabbit, then pig and monogastrics, then polygastrics such as beef, mutton and goat) \\; in butter, milk, dairy products, cheese (all naturally poor in w-3 fatty acids)... Indeed, the nature of fatty acids of reserve triglycerides (found in more or less large amounts depending on the anatomical localisation, that is to say the butcher's cuts) can vary mainly as a function of the food received by the animal. EPA and DHA are mainly present in animal's products. The impact (qualitative and quantitative) of alterations in the lipid composition of animal foods on the nutritional value of derived products (in terms of EPA and DHA content) eaten by humans are more important in single-stomach animals than multi-stomach animals (due to their hydrogenating intestinal bacteria). The intestinal physiology of birds results in the relatively good preservation of their dietary w-3 fatty acids. The enrichment in eggs is proportional to the amount of w-3 fatty acids in the hen's diet and can be extremely important. Including ALA in fish feeds is effective only if they are, like carp, vegetarians, as they have the enzymes required to transform ALA into EPA and DHA \\; in contrast, it is probably less effective for carnivorous fish (75 % of the fish used for human), which have little of these enzymes : their feed must contain marine animals, mainly fish or fish oil. Analysis of the published results shows that, under the best conditions, feeding animals with extracts of linseed and rapeseed grains, for example, increases the level of ALA acid by 20 to 40-fold in eggs (according to the low or high level of ALA in commercial eggs), 10-fold in chicken, 6-fold in pork and less than 2-fold in beef. By feeding animals with fish extracts or algae (oils), the level of DHA is increased by 20-fold in fish, 7-fold in chicken, 3 to 6-fold in eggs, less than 2-fold in beef. In practise, the effect is considerable for fish and egg, interesting for poultry and rabbit, extremely low for beef, mutton and sheep. The effect on the price paid by the consumer is very low compared to the considerable gain in nutritional value. PMID:16115466

Bourre, Jean-Marie

2005-01-01

263

Animal-Human Hybridity in dAulnoys Babiole and Prince Wild Boar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the interpretative challenge for fairy tales that is posed by animal studies, which focuses on the specificity of animals and their relation to humans. The animal-human hybridity that is central to metamorphosis tales is especially significant in this respect because it at least implicitly calls into question the autonomy that modern rationalism grants to humans. To illustrate

Lewis C. Seifert

2011-01-01

264

Mycobacterium bovis at the animalhuman interface: A problem, or not?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium bovis is a pathogen of significant importance in livestock and a wide range of wild animal species worldwide. It is also known to cause tuberculosis disease in humans, a fact which has raised renewed concerns regarding the zoonotic risk for humans, especially those living at the animal-human interface. This review consolidates recent reports in the literature mainly on animal

Anita Luise Michel; Borna Mller; Paul David van Helden

2010-01-01

265

The creatures, too, must become free: Marx and the Animal\\/Human Distinction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to establish what it is that makes us essentially human Marx, like Aristotle, distinguishes between humans and other animals. The distinction rests on how we produce, and it remains defensible, despite recent commentaries which argue that it involves a dis respectful view of animals. Marx's humanism involves a naturalism which is incompatible with purely instrumental attitudes towards animals.

Lawrence Wilde

2000-01-01

266

Rule Learning over Consonants and Vowels in a Non-Human Animal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perception studies have shown similarities between humans and other animals in a wide array of language-related processes. However, the components of language that make it uniquely human have not been fully identified. Here we show that nonhuman animals extract rules over speech sequences that are difficult for humans. Specifically, animals easily

de la Mora, Daniela M.; Toro, Juan M.

2013-01-01

267

Transfer of human materials into animals. Approved 2/18/2009  

E-print Network

Transfer of human materials into animals. Approved 2/18/2009 Institutional Biosafety Committee Research Protocols that describe the use of human materials in animals will follow the requirements below into animals can be done in BSL2 or ABSL2 containment. Additionally, inoculation of human materials can be done

268

78 FR 7994 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Food for Human or Animal Consumption'' that...detention of human or animal food as required by the...Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration...adversely affects human or animal health and that FDA would...Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) or the...

2013-02-05

269

Simulating prediction markets that include human and automated agents  

E-print Network

In this work I study the interaction of sophisticated trading agents with simpler agents in a prediction market. The goal is to simulate markets with both human and computer agents, and investigate ways to maximize the ...

Chang, Wendy, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

270

Setting the One Health Agenda and the Human-Companion Animal Bond  

PubMed Central

One Health, also called One Medicine, began as an initiative advocating greater integration of human and animal medicine, in the 1800s. This concept has recently come to prominence, driven by the recognition that 75% of the newly emerging infectious diseases will arise from animal reservoirs, and that successful control and prevention will require a coordinated human medical and veterinary approach. Consequently, many One Health discussions have centered on the surveillance of animals in order to anticipate the potential emergence of new zoonotic diseases. An area that has been given only cursory mention, are the many ways that small companion animals benefit individual, community and possibly world health. The goal of this paper is to briefly review some of the evidenced-based data concerning the benefits of having companion animals in our lives, focusing on four major areas; cancer, heart disease, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and the potential positive economic effects of the human-companion animal bond on One Health. Heart disease and cancer are the two leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, while ASD is a growing concern, not only for its individual effects, but also for its effect on family units, educational institutions, and its social implications for the community. In addition, these diseases can greatly affect the national and global cost of healthcare, as well as the economic output of a nation. It is therefore important to include and build on the concept of the Human-Animal Bond (HAB) as it relates to healthcare in these areas. PMID:25350006

Takashima, Gregg K.; Day, Michael J.

2014-01-01

271

Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in animals and humans  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widespread parasites of domestic, wild, and companion animals, and it also commonly infects humans. Toxoplasma gondii has a complex life cycle. Sexual development occurs only in the cat gut, while asexual replication occurs in many vertebrate hosts. These features combine to create an unusual population structure. The vast majority of strains in North America and Europe fall into three recently derived, clonal lineages known as types I, II and III. Recent studies have revealed that South American strains are more genetically diverse and comprise distinct genotypes. These differences have been shaped by infrequent sexual recombination, population sweeps and biogeography. The majority of human infections that have been studied in North America and Europe are caused by type II strains, which are also common in agricultural animals from these regions. In contrast, several diverse genotypes of T. gondii are associated with severe infections in humans in South America. Defining the population structure of T. gondii from new regions has important implications for transmission, immunogenicity and pathogenesis. PMID:19687043

Sibley, L. David; Khan, Asis; Ajioka, James W.; Rosenthal, Benjamin M.

2009-01-01

272

Oleander toxicity: an examination of human and animal toxic exposures.  

PubMed

The oleander is an attractive and hardy shrub that thrives in tropical and subtropical regions. The common pink oleander, Nerium oleander, and the yellow oleander, Thevetia peruviana, are the principle oleander representatives of the family Apocynaceae. Oleanders contain within their tissues cardenolides that are capable of exerting positive inotropic effects on the hearts of animals and humans. The cardiotonic properties of oleanders have been exploited therapeutically and as an instrument of suicide since antiquity. The basis for the physiological action of the oleander cardenolides is similar to that of the classic digitalis glycosides, i.e. inhibition of plasmalemma Na+,K+ ATPase. Differences in toxicity and extracardiac effects exist between the oleander and digitalis cardenolides, however. Toxic exposures of humans and wildlife to oleander cardenolides occur with regularity throughout geographic regions where these plants grow. The human mortality associated with oleander ingestion is generally very low, even in cases of intentional consumption (suicide attempts). Experimental animal models have been successfully utilized to evaluate various treatment protocols designed to manage toxic oleander exposures. The data reviewed here indicate that small children and domestic livestock are at increased risk of oleander poisoning. Both experimental and established therapeutic measures involved in detoxification are discussed. PMID:8619248

Langford, S D; Boor, P J

1996-05-01

273

Different Roles of Mast Cells in Obesity and Diabetes: Lessons from Experimental Animals and Humans  

PubMed Central

Mast cells (MCs) play an important role in allergic hyperresponsiveness and in defending microorganism infections. Recent studies of experimental animals and humans have suggested that MCs participate in obesity and diabetes. MC distribution and activities in adipose tissues may vary, depending on the locations of different adipose tissues. In addition to releasing inflammatory mediators to affect adipose tissue extracellular matrix remodeling and to promote inflammatory cell recruitment and proliferation, MCs directly and indirectly interact and activate adipose tissue cells, including adipocytes and recruited inflammatory cells. Plasma MC protease levels are significantly higher in obese patients than in lean subjects. Experimental obese animals lose body weight after MC inactivation. MC functions in diabetes are even more complicated, and depend on the type of diabetes and on different diabetic complications. Both plasma MC proteases and MC activation essential immunoglobulin E levels are significant risk factors for human pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus. MC stabilization prevents diet-induced diabetes and improves pre-established diabetes in experimental animals. MC depletion or inactivation can improve diet-induced type 2 diabetes and some forms of type 1 diabetes, but also can worsen other forms of type 1 diabetes, at least in experimental animals. Observations from animal and human studies have suggested beneficial effects of treating diabetic patients with MC stabilizers. Some diabetic patients may benefit from enhancing MC survival and proliferation hypotheses that merit detailed basic researches and clinical studies. PMID:22566893

Shi, Michael A.; Shi, Guo-Ping

2012-01-01

274

Human Illnesses and Animal Deaths Associated with Freshwater Harmful Algal BloomsKansas  

PubMed Central

Freshwater harmful algal bloom (FHAB) toxins can cause morbidity and mortality in both humans and animals, and the incidence of FHABs in the United States and Kansas has increased. In 2010, the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) developed a FHAB policy and response plan. We describe the epidemiology of FHAB-associated morbidity and mortality in humans and animals in Kansas. Healthcare providers and veterinarians voluntarily reported FHAB-associated cases to KDHE. An investigation was initiated for each report to determine the source of exposure and to initiate public health mitigation actions. There were 38 water bodies with a confirmed FHAB in 2011. There were 34 reports of human and animal FHAB-associated health events in 2011, which included five dog deaths and hospitalization of two human case patients. Five confirmed human illnesses, two dog illnesses and five dog deaths were associated with one lake. Four human and seven dog cases were exposed to the lake after a public health alert was issued. Public health officials and FHAB partners must ensure continued awareness of the risks to the public, educate healthcare providers and veterinarians on FHAB-related health events and encourage timely reporting to public health authorities. PMID:25647780

Trevino-Garrison, Ingrid; DeMent, Jamie; Ahmed, Farah S.; Haines-Lieber, Patricia; Langer, Thomas; Mnager, Henri; Neff, Janet; van der Merwe, Deon; Carney, Edward

2015-01-01

275

Veterinary education in the area of food safety (including animal health, food pathogens and surveillance of foodborne diseases).  

PubMed

The animal foodstuffs industry has changed in recent decades as a result of factors such as: human population growth and longer life expectancy, increasing urbanisation and migration, emerging zoonotic infectious diseases and foodborne diseases (FBDs), food security problems, technological advances in animal production systems, globalisation of trade and environmental changes. The Millennium Development Goals and the 'One Health' paradigm provide global guidelines on efficiently addressing the issues of consumer product safety, food security and risks associated with zoonoses. Professionals involved in the supply chain must therefore play an active role, based on knowledge and skills that meet current market requirements. Accordingly, it is necessary for the veterinary medicine curriculum, both undergraduate and postgraduate, to incorporate these skills. This article analyses the approach that veterinary education should adopt in relation to food safety, with an emphasis on animal health, food pathogens and FBD surveillance. PMID:24547647

Vidal, S M; Fajardo, P I; Gonzlez, C G

2013-08-01

276

Reverse Zoonotic Disease Transmission (Zooanthroponosis): A Systematic Review of Seldom-Documented Human Biological Threats to Animals  

PubMed Central

Background Research regarding zoonotic diseases often focuses on infectious diseases animals have given to humans. However, an increasing number of reports indicate that humans are transmitting pathogens to animals. Recent examples include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, influenza A virus, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Ascaris lumbricoides. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of published literature regarding reverse zoonoses and highlight the need for future work in this area. Methods An initial broad literature review yielded 4763 titles, of which 4704 were excluded as not meeting inclusion criteria. After careful screening, 56 articles (from 56 countries over three decades) with documented human-to-animal disease transmission were included in this report. Findings In these publications, 21 (38%) pathogens studied were bacterial, 16 (29%) were viral, 12 (21%) were parasitic, and 7 (13%) were fungal, other, or involved multiple pathogens. Effected animals included wildlife (n?=?28, 50%), livestock (n?=?24, 43%), companion animals (n?=?13, 23%), and various other animals or animals not explicitly mentioned (n?=?2, 4%). Published reports of reverse zoonoses transmission occurred in every continent except Antarctica therefore indicating a worldwide disease threat. Interpretation As we see a global increase in industrial animal production, the rapid movement of humans and animals, and the habitats of humans and wild animals intertwining with great complexity, the future promises more opportunities for humans to cause reverse zoonoses. Scientific research must be conducted in this area to provide a richer understanding of emerging and reemerging disease threats. As a result, multidisciplinary approaches such as One Health will be needed to mitigate these problems. PMID:24586500

Messenger, Ali M.; Barnes, Amber N.; Gray, Gregory C.

2014-01-01

277

78 FR 20326 - Draft Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 100.250 Food Facility Registration-Human and Animal Food...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Registration--Human and Animal Food; Availability AGENCY...Registration--Human and Animal Food (the draft CPG). The...for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS- 615), Food and Drug...Registration-- Human and Animal Food.'' The draft CPG...

2013-04-04

278

The Impact of Fusarium Mycotoxins on Human and Animal Host Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Contamination of food and feed with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. At present, acute mycotoxicosis caused by high doses is rare in humans and animals. Ingestion of low to moderate amounts of Fusarium mycotoxins is common and generally does not result in obvious intoxication. However, these low amounts may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host pathogen interactions and thus a different outcome of infection. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the impact of Fusarium mycotoxin exposure on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases. On the one hand, exposure to deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium mycotoxins generally exacerbates infections with parasites, bacteria and viruses across a wide range of animal host species. Well-known examples include coccidiosis in poultry, salmonellosis in pigs and mice, colibacillosis in pigs, necrotic enteritis in poultry, enteric septicemia of catfish, swine respiratory disease, aspergillosis in poultry and rabbits, reovirus infection in mice and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus infection in pigs. However, on the other hand, T-2 toxin has been shown to markedly decrease the colonization capacity of Salmonella in the pig intestine. Although the impact of the exposure of humans to Fusarium toxins on infectious diseases is less well known, extrapolation from animal models suggests possible exacerbation of, for instance, colibacillosis and salmonellosis in humans, as well. PMID:24476707

Antonissen, Gunther; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Verbrugghe, Elin; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Li, Shaoji; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska

2014-01-01

279

Relevance of experimental animal studies to the human experience  

SciTech Connect

Animal experiments are being used to examine a number of physical and biological factors that influence risk estimations though not usually in coordination with epidemiologists. It is clear that the different mechanisms involved in different types of tumors are reflected in the diversity of dose-response relationships. The forms of the dose-response relationships are influenced by both the initial events and their expression. Evidence is accumulating that many initiated cells do not get expressed as overt cancers and host factors may play a major role in the expression of potential tumor cells. There is a need for information about the relationship of the natural incidence and susceptibility to radiation induction for more tumor types. Such experiments will help answer the question of which risk estimate models are appropriate for different tumor types and can be carried out on animals. Perhaps because of the importance of host factors risk estimates as a percentage of the natural incidence appear to be similar for human beings and mice for a small number of tumor types. The elucidation of the mechanisms involved in different tissues while a slow business remains an important role of animal experiments.

Fry, R.J.M.

1982-01-01

280

Giovanni Aldini: from animal electricity to human brain stimulation.  

PubMed

Two hundred years ago, Giovanni Aldini published a highly influential book that reported experiments in which the principles of Luigi Galvani (animal electricity) and Alessandro Volta (bimetallic electricity) were used together for the first time. Aldini was born in Bologna in 1762 and graduated in physics at the University of his native town in 1782. As nephew and assistant of Galvani, he actively participated in a series of crucial experiments with frog's muscles that led to the idea that electricity was the long-sought vital force coursing from brain to muscles. Aldini became professor of experimental physics at the University of Bologna in 1798. He traveled extensively throughout Europe, spending much time defending the concept of his discreet uncle against the incessant attacks of Volta, who did not believe in animal electricity. Aldini used Volta's bimetallic pile to apply electric current to dismembered bodies of animals and humans; these spectacular galvanic reanimation experiments made a strong and enduring impression on his contemporaries. Aldini also treated patients with personality disorders and reported complete rehabilitation following transcranial administration of electric current. Aldini's work laid the ground for the development of various forms of electrotherapy that were heavily used later in the 19th century. Even today, deep brain stimulation, a procedure currently employed to relieve patients with motor or behavioral disorders, owes much to Aldini and galvanism. In recognition of his merits, Aldini was made a knight of the Iron Crown and a councillor of state at Milan, where he died in 1834. PMID:15595271

Parent, Andr

2004-11-01

281

The HumanAnimal Experience in Deep Historical Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A variety of academics, including archaeologists, geographers, ecologists, historians, political scientists, philosophers,\\u000a and others, have been critical of the notion of pristine, natural, or wild areas, arguing that human impacts on environments\\u000a have been widespread over millennia (Frazier, 2009). While study of human impacts on the environment is vast and extends back\\u000a to the nineteenth century (see Grayson, 1984), over

Todd J. Braje

282

Psammomys obesus, a particularly important animal model for the study of the human diabetic nephropathy  

PubMed Central

The Psammomys obesus lives in natural desert habitat on low energy (LE) diet, however when maintained in laboratory conditions with high energy (HE) diet it exhibits pathological metabolic changes resembling those of type 2 diabetes. We have evaluated and correlated the histopathology, metabolic and functional renal alterations occurring in the diabetic Psammomys. Renal function determined by measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR), protein excretion, protein/creatinine ratio and morpho-immunocytochemical evaluations were performed on HE diet diabetic animals and compared to LE diet control animals. The diabetic animals present a 54% increase in GFR after one month of hyperglycemic condition and a decrease of 47% from baseline values after 4 months. Protein excretion in diabetic animals was 5 folds increased after 4 months. Light microscopy showed an increase in glomeruli size in the diabetic Psammomys, and electron microscopy and immunocytochemical quantitative evaluations revealed accumulation of basement membrane material as well as frequent splitting of the glomerular basement membrane. In addition, glycogen-filled Armanni-Ebstein clear cells were found in the distal tubules including the thick ascending limbs of the diabetic animals. These renal complications in the Psammomys, including changes in GFR with massive proteinuria sustained by physiological and histopathological changes, are very similar to the diabetic nephropathy in human. The Psamommys obesus represents therefore a reliable animal model of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:22025969

Scherzer, Pnina; Katalan, Shachaf; Got, Gay; Pizov, Galina; Londono, Irene; Gal-Moscovici, Anca; Popovtzer, Mordecai M.; Ziv, Ehud

2011-01-01

283

Psammomys obesus, a particularly important animal model for the study of the human diabetic nephropathy.  

PubMed

The Psammomys obesus lives in natural desert habitat on low energy (LE) diet, however when maintained in laboratory conditions with high energy (HE) diet it exhibits pathological metabolic changes resembling those of type 2 diabetes. We have evaluated and correlated the histopathology, metabolic and functional renal alterations occurring in the diabetic Psammomys. Renal function determined by measuring glomerular filtration rate (GFR), protein excretion, protein/creatinine ratio and morpho-immunocytochemical evaluations were performed on HE diet diabetic animals and compared to LE diet control animals. The diabetic animals present a 54% increase in GFR after one month of hyperglycemic condition and a decrease of 47% from baseline values after 4 months. Protein excretion in diabetic animals was 5 folds increased after 4 months. Light microscopy showed an increase in glomeruli size in the diabetic Psammomys, and electron microscopy and immunocytochemical quantitative evaluations revealed accumulation of basement membrane material as well as frequent splitting of the glomerular basement membrane. In addition, glycogen-filled Armanni-Ebstein clear cells were found in the distal tubules including the thick ascending limbs of the diabetic animals. These renal complications in the Psammomys, including changes in GFR with massive proteinuria sustained by physiological and histopathological changes, are very similar to the diabetic nephropathy in human. The Psamommys obesus represents therefore a reliable animal model of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:22025969

Scherzer, Pnina; Katalan, Shachaf; Got, Gay; Pizov, Galina; Londono, Irene; Gal-Moscovici, Anca; Popovtzer, Mordecai M; Ziv, Ehud; Bendayan, Moise

2011-09-01

284

Plant-made vaccines for humans and animals.  

PubMed

The concept of using plants to produce high-value pharmaceuticals such as vaccines is 20 years old this year and is only now on the brink of realisation as an established technology. The original reliance on transgenic plants has largely given way to transient expression; proofs of concept for human and animal vaccines and of efficacy for animal vaccines have been established; several plant-produced vaccines have been through Phase I clinical trials in humans and more are scheduled; regulatory requirements are more clear than ever, and more facilities exist for manufacture of clinic-grade materials. The original concept of cheap edible vaccines has given way to a realisation that formulated products are required, which may well be injectable. The technology has proven its worth as a means of cheap, easily scalable production of materials: it now needs to find its niche in competition with established technologies. The realised achievements in the field as well as promising new developments will be reviewed, such as rapid-response vaccines for emerging viruses with pandemic potential and bioterror agents. PMID:20233333

Rybicki, Edward P

2010-06-01

285

Cadmium-induced Cancers in Animals and in Humans  

PubMed Central

Discovered in the early 1800s, the use of cadmium and various cadmium salts started to become industrially important near the close of the 19th century, rapidly thereafter began to flourish, yet has diminished more recently. Most cadmium used in the United States is a byproduct from the smelting of zinc, lead, or copper ores, and is used to manufacture batteries. Carcinogenic activity of cadmium was discovered first in animals and only subsequently in humans. Cadmium and cadmium compounds have been classified as known human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the National Toxicology Program based on epidemiologic studies showing a causal association with lung cancer, and possibly prostate cancer, and studies in experimental animals, demonstrating that cadmium causes tumors at multiple tissue sites, by various routes of exposure, and in several species and strains. Epidemiologic studies published since these evaluations suggest that cadmium is also associated with cancers of the breast, kidney, pancreas, and urinary bladder. The basic metal cationic portion of cadmium is responsible for both toxic and cardinogenic activity, and the mechanism of carcinogenicity appears to be multifactorial. Available information about the carcinogenicity of cadmium and cadmium compounds is reviewed, evaluated, and discussed. PMID:17718178

Huff, James; Lunn, Ruth M.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Tomatis, Lorenzo; Infante, Peter F.

2012-01-01

286

Differential cytotoxic effects of arsenic on human and animal cells.  

PubMed

Human fibroblasts (HFW) were 10-fold more susceptible than Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells to sodium arsenite. Comparison of cellular antioxidant enzyme activities showed that CHO-K1 cells contained 3- and 8-fold more glutathione-peroxidase and catalase activities, respectively, than HFW cells. Since vitamin E, methylamine, and benzyl alcohol could prevent, in part, the arsenite-induced killing of HFW cells, we suggest that arsenite can induce oxidative damage in HFW cells. We have also established arsenic-resistant cells, SA7 and CL3R, from CHO cells and from a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (CL3), respectively. The arsenic resistance of SA7 cells was attributed mainly to elevation of glutathione S-transferase pi levels, and that of CL3R cells was possibly due to an increase in heme oxygenase activity. Since induction of heme oxygenase is a general response to oxidative stress, we suspect that the differential toxicity of arsenic to human and animal cells could be due to arsenic's more efficient induction of oxidative damage in human cells. PMID:7843080

Lee, T C; Ho, I C

1994-09-01

287

When animals misbehave: Analogs of human biases and suboptimal choice.  

PubMed

Humans tend to value rewards more if they have had to work hard to obtain them (justification of effort). Similarly they tend to persist in a task even when they would be better off beginning a new one (sunk cost). Humans also often give greater value to objects of good quality than the same objects together with objects of lesser quality (the less is more effect). Commercial gambling (lotteries and slot machines) is another example of suboptimal choice by humans because on average the rewards are less than the investment. In another example of a systematic bias, when humans try to estimate the probability of the occurrence of a low probability event, they often give too much weight to the results of a test, in spite of the fact that the known probability of a false alarm reduces the predictive value of the test (base rate neglect). In each of these examples, we have found that pigeons show a similar tendency to choose suboptimally. When one can show comparable findings of suboptimal choice in animals it suggests that whereas culture may reinforce certain suboptimal behavior, the behavior is likely to result from the overgeneralization of basic behavioral processes or predisposed heuristics that may have been appropriate in natural environments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: "Tribute to Tom Zentall." PMID:25192737

Zentall, Thomas R

2015-03-01

288

21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false...Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals. 530.20 Section 530.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,...

2013-04-01

289

Human and Animal Subjects of Research: The Moral Significance of Respect versus Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human beings with diminished decision-making capacities are usually thought to require greater protections from the potential harms of research than fully autonomous persons. Animal subjects of research receive lesser protections than any human beings regardless of decision-making capacity. Paradoxically, however, it is precisely animals lack of some characteristic human capacities that is commonly invoked to justify using them for human

Rebecca L. Walker

2006-01-01

290

Integration of Design, Thermal, Structural, and Optical Analysis, Including Thermal Animation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In many industries there has recently been a concerted movement toward 'quality management' and the issue of how to accomplish work more efficiently. Part of this effort is focused on concurrent engineering; the idea of integrating the design and analysis processes so that they are not separate, sequential processes (often involving design rework due to analytical findings) but instead form an integrated system with smooth transfers of information. Presented herein are several specific examples of concurrent engineering methods being carried out at Langley Research Center (LaRC): integration of thermal, structural and optical analyses to predict changes in optical performance based on thermal and structural effects; integration of the CAD design process with thermal and structural analyses; and integration of analysis and presentation by animating the thermal response of a system as an active color map -- a highly effective visual indication of heat flow.

Amundsen, Ruth M.

1993-01-01

291

Gene Therapy in Large Animal Models of Human Cardiovascular Genetic Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several naturally occurring animal models for human genetic heart diseases offer an excellent opportunity to evaluate poten- tial novel therapies, including gene therapy. Some of these diseasesespecially those that result in a structural defect during development (e.g., patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonic stenosis)would likely be diffi cult to treat with a therapeutic gene transfer approach. However, the ability to transduce a

Meg M. Sleeper; Lawrence T. Bish; H. Lee Sweeney

2009-01-01

292

New features of fascioliasis in human and animal infections in Ilam province, Western Iran  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of human and animal fascioliasis in Ilam Province, Iran. Background Fascioliasis, caused by Fasciola hepatica, is one of the most important zoonotic diseases. Snails are an intermediate host. Human infection with the parasite can led to hypertrophy and hyperplasia in bile duct. It also economic importance and further information is essential about the epidemiology of the parasite in Ilam province. Patients and methods The study on animals was descriptive and retrospective. All records from abattoirs were analyzed. It was conducted on 27242 indigenous animals including 17055 sheep, 5703 goats, and 4484 cattle. For the study of human Fascioliasis infection 600 human sera, from person among 5-80 year old, were collected and ELISA test was used for identification of IgG antibody to Fasciola hepatica by commercial kit. Results The overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica among 27242 slaughtered animals was 0.98%. Out of 267 domestic animals, 98 sheep, 28 goats and 141 cattle were infected with the parasite. The highest and lowest infection rate of 3.14% and 0.1% were cattle and goat, respectively. The prevalence of IgG antibody was0.66% (n = 4) against Fasciola hepatica in humans. Three infected people were living in rural areas. The highest infection rate (3 people) was found in women. Conclusion Ilam province is among the areas where the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica is low. This is probably due to the drought in the region in recent years that makes conditions difficult for the survival of snails, the intermediate hosts. But there is a risk of the disease increasing in incidence, in this region. PMID:24834263

Abdi, Jahangir; Nejad, Mohammad Rostami; Mansouri, Vahid

2013-01-01

293

Chemical disposition of boron in animals and humans.  

PubMed Central

Elemental boron was isolated in 1808. It typically occurs in nature as borates hydrated with varying amounts of water. Important compounds are boric acid and borax. Boron compounds are also used in the production of metals, enamels, and glasses. In trace amounts, boron is essential for the growth of many plants, and is found in animal and human tissues at low concentrations. Poisoning in humans has been reported as the result of accidental ingestion or use of large amounts in the treatment of burns. Boron as boric acid is fairly rapidly absorbed and excreted from the body via urine. The half-life of boric acid in humans is on the order of 1 day. Boron does not appear to accumulate in soft tissues of animals, but does accumulate in bone. Normal levels of boron in soft tissues, urine, and blood generally range from less than 0.05 ppm to no more than 10 ppm. In poisoning incidents, the amount of boric acid in brain and liver tissue has been reported to be as high as 2000 ppm. Recent studies at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences have indicated that boron may contribute to reduced fertility in male rodents fed 9000 ppm of boric acid in feed. Within a few days, boron levels in blood and most soft tissues quickly reached a plateau of about 15 ppm. Boron in bone did not appear to plateau, reaching 47 ppm after 7 days on the diet. Cessation of exposure to dietary boron resulted in a rapid drop in bone boron.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7889870

Moseman, R F

1994-01-01

294

Mechanisms and Genes in Human Strial Presbycusis from Animal Models  

PubMed Central

Schuknecht proposed a discrete form of presbycusis in which hearing loss results principally from degeneration of cochlear stria vascularis and decline of the endocochlear potential (EP). This form was asserted to be genetically linked, and to arise independently from age-related pathology of either the organ of Corti or cochlear neurons. Although extensive strial degeneration in humans coincides with hearing loss, EPs have never been measured in humans, and age-related EP reduction has never been verified. No human genes that promote strial presbycusis have been identified, nor is its pathophysiology well understood. Effective application of animal models to this issue requires models demonstrating EP decline, and preferably, genetically distinct strains that vary in patterns of EP decline and its cellular correlates. Until recently, only two models, Mongolian gerbils and Tyrp1B-lt mice, were known to undergo age-associated EP reduction. Detailed studies of seven inbred mouse strains have now revealed three strains (C57BL/6J, B6.CAST-Cdh23CAST, CBA/J) showing essentially no EP decline with age, and four strains ranging from modest to severe EP reduction (C57BL/6-Tyrc-2J, BALB/cJ, CBA/CaJ, NOD.NON-H2nbl/LtJ). Collectively, animal models support five basic principles regarding a strial form of presbycusis: 1) Progressive EP decline from initially normal levels as a defining characteristic; 2) Non-universality, not all age-associated hearing loss involves EP decline; 3) A clear genetic basis; 4) Modulation by environment or stochastic events; and 5) Independent strial, organ of Corti, and neural pathology. Shared features between human strial presbycusis, gerbils, and BALB/cJ and C57BL/6-Tyrc-2J mice further suggest this condition frequently begins with strial marginal cell dysfunction and loss. By contrast, NOD.NON-H2nbl mice may model a sequence more closely associated with strial microvascular disease. Additional studies of these and other inbred mouse and rat models should reveal candidate processes and genes that promote EP decline in humans. PMID:19285967

Ohlemiller, Kevin K.

2009-01-01

295

Putting the Dog Back in the Park: Animal and Human Mind-in-Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we use actual instances of human conduct with animals to reflect on the debates about animal agency in human activities. Where much of psychology, philosophy, and sociology begin with a fundamental scepticism over animal mind as the grounds for its inquiries, we join with a growing body of work that examines the continuities

Laurier, Eric; Maze, Ramia; Lundin, Johan

2006-01-01

296

New Directions: Challenges for Human-Animal Bond Research and the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential health effect of the human-animal bond has been explored for over 15 years with limited success. Professionals from a variety of fields have examined the benefits a companion animal can provide for persons with special needs. We examined the research related to human-animal interactions and the community- based elderly. We reviewed recommendations from the 1984 Delta Society conference

Cindy C. Wilson; F. Ellen Netting

1987-01-01

297

How Humans Differ from Other Animals in Their Levels of Morphological Variation  

E-print Network

and Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada Abstract Animal species come in many shapes how humans compare to other animals in terms of body size variation. We quantitatively compare levels of morphological variation within humans compare to those in other animal species. We use body size as our focal

Hendry, Andrew

298

Bridging human and animal research: A comparative approach to studies of personality and health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article evaluates a comparative approach to personality and health research. We (1) review evidence showing that personality exists and can be measured in animals, (2) illustrate the benefits of animal studies for human personality research, (3) illustrate the benefits of human studies for animal personality research, and (4) provide guidelines for making cross-species comparisons. We conclude that a comparative

Pranjal H. Mehta; Samuel D. Gosling

2008-01-01

299

Modeling the relationship between food animal health and human foodborne illness  

E-print Network

a risk to human health. For example, the use of antibiotics in food animals can reduce rates of animal illness but can also select for antibiotic-resistant bacteria which can threaten human www interventions such as the continued use of antibiotics in animal agriculture can be evaluated simultaneously. We

Singer, Randall

300

Human-computer interface including haptically controlled interactions  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides a method of human-computer interfacing that provides haptic feedback to control interface interactions such as scrolling or zooming within an application. Haptic feedback in the present method allows the user more intuitive control of the interface interactions, and allows the user's visual focus to remain on the application. The method comprises providing a control domain within which the user can control interactions. For example, a haptic boundary can be provided corresponding to scrollable or scalable portions of the application domain. The user can position a cursor near such a boundary, feeling its presence haptically (reducing the requirement for visual attention for control of scrolling of the display). The user can then apply force relative to the boundary, causing the interface to scroll the domain. The rate of scrolling can be related to the magnitude of applied force, providing the user with additional intuitive, non-visual control of scrolling.

Anderson, Thomas G.

2005-10-11

301

Vinyl chloride-specific mutations in humans and animals.  

PubMed

Vinyl chloride is a potent hepatocarcinogen which reacts with DNA to generate etheno bases. In order to determine whether mutational patterns in target genes in vivo are characteristic of vinyl chloride and could be explained by the mutagenic properties of the etheno bases, human and rat liver tumours associated with exposure to vinyl chloride were analysed for point mutations in the ras and p53 genes. In this paper, we review these data and report our latest results on animal tumours. Two alterations were found which could be attributed to a direct effect of vinyl chloride: a GC-->AT transition which leads to a GGC-->GAC mutation at codon 13 of the Ki-ras gene in human liver angiosarcomas, and lesions at AT base pairs, mostly AT-->TA transversions, which lead to mutations in the p53 gene in human and rat angiosarcomas and to a CAA-->CTA mutation at codon 61 of the Ha-ras gene in rat hepatocellular carcinomas. PMID:10626231

Marion, M J; Boivin-Angele, S

1999-01-01

302

Social Work Practitioners and the Human-Companion Animal Bond: A National Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extensive research documents powerful relationships between humans and companion animals, and 62 percent of U. S. households report having a companion animal. Social workers are likely to work with individuals and families with companion animals; thus, the inclusion of such animals in both practice and research as a natural extension of social

Risley-Curtiss, Christina

2010-01-01

303

Toward new understandings of humananimal relationships in sport: a study of Australian jumps racing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of studying humananimal relationships and animal subjectivity is increasingly recognised by social and cultural geographers, particularly in agricultural pursuits. Little research, however, has been undertaken on animals in sport, resulting in a limited understanding of the perceptions and treatment of animals in society. To address this concern, we interrogate print media coverage of the construction and positioning of

Phil McManus; Daniel Montoya

2012-01-01

304

AALAS resources and programs supporting the 3 R's and humane concepts in animal research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Association for Laboratory Animal Science is a nonprofit association dedicated to providing humane treatment of animals used in research. AALAS professional programs, publications, and websites provide resources for: - professional development of research staff in alignment with ethical standards for animal research; - bioethics training on animal care and use among research personnel and the public; - support

Nicole E. Duffee; Ann T. Turner

305

Molecular Characterization of Human and Animal Isolates of Echinococcus granulosus in the Thrace Region, Turkey  

PubMed Central

Objective: Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of cystic echinococcosis in humans and many domestic animals, and remains an important global health problem. The aim of this study was to genotype E. granulosus isolates obtained from humans and animals in the Thrace Region of Turkey. Material and Methods: A total of 58 isolates were obtained from patients who underwent surgery at several hospitals and from animals at a slaughterhouse in the province of Edirne. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 fragments, and polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) of the partial mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1) gene, was used to characterize human and animal E. granulosus isolates. To investigate the genetic characteristics of isolates, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) and ND1 genes was performed. Results: Fifty-eight E. granulosus isolates, including 42 from human, 13 from cattle and 3 from sheep were, analyzed. The results indicated two distinct genotypes: the G1 (sheep strain) and G7 (pig strain) genotypes. The sheep strain was shown to be the most common genotype of E. granulosus affecting humans, sheep and cattle. Among the concatenated partial CO1 and ND1 sequence data, eight haplotypes of Echinococcus species were identified in the present study. Conclusion: This is the first report indicating that the E. granulosus pig strain is present in humans in this region. We suggest that new strategies be designed for E. granulosus control programs in Turkey. PMID:25207011

Ery?ld?z, Canan; ?akru, Nermin

2012-01-01

306

[Antibiotics and aquaculture in Chile: implications for human and animal health].  

PubMed

Industrial antibiotic usage in agribusinesses and aquaculture is the force that drives the evolution of antibiotic resistant bacteria that produce human and animal disease in many countries. Several studies have demonstrated that most of the industrial use of antibiotics is unnecessary, and that modernization and hygienic changes can reduce this use of antibiotics without negative economic impact. In Chile, industrial aquaculture of salmon has expanded rapidly in the last 20 years becoming a major export business. The exponential growth of this industry has been accompanied by an unrestricted heavy usage of antibiotics in the aquatic environments of lakes, rivers and the ocean, and its impact is being felt in the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria around aquaculture sites and a decrease in the plancktonic diversity in the same areas. The passage of antibiotic resistance genes from aquatic bacteria to human and animal pathogens has been demonstrated, indicating that industrial use of antibiotics in aquaculture affects negatively the antibiotic therapy of human and animal bacterial infections. The Chilean situation triggers important concerns because it includes the use of fluoroquinolones in aquaculture, that are not biodegradable and are able to remain in the environment for years as well as being still effective in treating human infections. The use of large volumes of a wide spectrum of antibiotics in an aquatic environment heavily contaminated with human and animal pathogens also amplifies the opportunities for gene transfer among bacteria, facilitating the emergence of antibiotic resistance and more pathogenic bacterial recombinants. The detection of residual antibiotics in salmons marketed for human consumption that can modify the normal flora of the population also suggests the need for controls on this antibiotic usage and on the presence of residual antibiotics in aquaculture food products. This important problem of public health demands an active dialogue between government officials responsible for protecting public health, aquaculture industry representatives, politicians, consumers and professionals dealing with these matters. PMID:15478304

Cabello, Felipe C

2004-08-01

307

Overlapping Toxoplasma gondii Genotypes Circulating in Domestic Animals and Humans in Southeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

Although several Toxoplasma gondii genotyping studies have been performed in Brazil, studies of isolates from animals in the state of Minas Gerais are rare. The objective of this study was to conduct a genotypic characterization of T. gondii isolates obtained from dogs, free-range chickens, and humans in Minas Gerais and to verify whether the T. gondii genotypes circulating in domestic animals correspond to the genotypes detected in humans. Genetic variability was assessed by restricted fragment length polymorphism at 11 loci (SAG1, 5?+3?SAG2, SAG2 alt, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). Twelve different genotypes were identified among the 24 isolates studied, including 8 previously identified genotypes and 4 new genotypes. The genetic relationship of the 24 T. gondii isolates, together with the genotypes previously described from 24 human newborns with congenital toxoplasmosis, revealed a high degree of similarity among the genotypes circulating in humans and animals in Minas Gerais. The most common genotypes among these species were BrII, BrIII, ToxoDB #108, and ToxoDB #206. Restricted fragment length polymorphism at the CS3 locus of these 48 isolates showed that the majority of isolates presented alleles I (50%) or II (27%). Isolates harboring allele III at the CS3 locus presented low virulence for mice, whereas those harboring alleles I or II presented higher virulence. These results confirm the utility of marker CS3 for predicting the virulence of Brazilian isolates of T. gondii in mice. No association was found between the allele type and clinical manifestations of human congenital toxoplasmosis. This is the first report of T. gondii genotyping that verifies the overlapping genotypes of T. gondii from humans and animals in the same geographic region of Brazil. Our results suggest that there is a common source of infection to the species studied, most likely oocysts contaminating the environment. PMID:24587295

Silva, Letcia A.; Andrade, Renata O.; Carneiro, Ana Carolina A. V.; Vitor, Ricardo W. A.

2014-01-01

308

Competing conceptions of animal welfare and their ethical implications for the treatment of non-human animals.  

PubMed

Animal welfare has been conceptualized in such a way that the use of animals in science and for food seems justified. I argue that those who have done this have appropriated the concept of animal welfare, claiming to give a scientific account that is more objective than the "sentimental" account given by animal liberationists. This strategy seems to play a major role in supporting merely limited reform in the use of animals and seems to support the assumption that there are conditions under which animals may be raised and slaughtered for food that are ethically acceptable. Reformists do not need to make this assumption, but they tend to conceptualize animal welfare is such a way that death does not count as harmful to the interests of animals, nor prolonged life a benefit. In addition to this prudential value assumption, some members of this community have developed strategies for defending suitably reformed farming practices as ethical even granting that death and some other forms of constraints are harms. One such strategy is the fiction of a domestic contract. However, if one accepts the conceptualization of human welfare give by L. W. Sumner, and applies it to animals in the way that I think is justified, an accurate conceptualization of animal welfare has different implications for which uses of animals should be regarded as ethically acceptable. In this paper I give an historical and philosophical account of animal welfare conceptulization and use this account to argue that animal breeders, as custodians of the animals they breed, have the ethical responsibility to help their animal wards achieve as much autonomy as possible in choosing the form of life made available to them and to provide that life. Attempts to avoid these implications by alluding to a contract model of the relationship between custodians and their wards fail to relieve custodians of their ethical responsibilities of care. PMID:21305338

Haynes, Richard P

2011-06-01

309

Dopaminergic control of cognitive flexibility in humans and animals  

PubMed Central

Striatal dopamine (DA) is thought to code for learned associations between cues and reinforcers and to mediate approach behavior toward a reward. Less is known about the contribution of DA to cognitive flexibilitythe ability to adapt behavior in response to changes in the environment. Altered reward processing and impairments in cognitive flexibility are observed in psychiatric disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Patients with this disorder show a disruption of functioning in the frontostriatal circuit and alterations in DA signaling. In this review we summarize findings from animal and human studies that have investigated the involvement of striatal DA in cognitive flexibility. These findings may provide a better understanding of the role of dopaminergic dysfunction in cognitive inflexibility in psychiatric disorders, such as OCD. PMID:24204329

Klanker, Marianne; Feenstra, Matthijs; Denys, Damiaan

2013-01-01

310

Wood, animals and human beings as reservoirs for human Cryptococcus neoformans infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryptococcus neoformanswas first cultivated by Sanfelice from fermenting peach juice in 1894. At the same time, Busse and Buschke reported, separately, the first case of human disease caused by this yeast. During the next years, the fungus was isolated only from lesions or secretions of men or animals. In 1951, Emmons repor- ted the isolation of C. neoformans from soils

Luiz Fernando; Cabral Passoni

1999-01-01

311

Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animation is making a splash with the recent box office hit, Shrek 2. This Topic in Depth explores how animation works, it's history and the entertaining as well as academic applications of animation. The first website provides a basic overview of digital cinema (1). More information on animation can be found on the second website (2). Digital Media FX provides this history (3 ) of animation. The Library of Congress has also put together a nice website (4 ) with some historical artifacts that for demonstrating a "a variety of elements that go into the creative process of developing and interpreting animated motion pictures." The fourth website provides an extensive list of online resources and academic uses for animation such as Chemistry, Evolution, Genetics, and Physics. (5 ). This fifth website posts the winners of the 2004 Character Animation Technologies competition (6 ). And finally, Slashdot has a nice expose on the Mathematics of Futurama (7).

312

Ethics and methods for biological rhythm research on animals and human beings.  

PubMed

This article updates the ethical standards and methods for the conduct of high-quality animal and human biological rhythm research, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. The editors of Chronobiology International adhere to and endorse the Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE), which encourages communication of such updates at regular intervals in the journal. The journal accepts papers representing original work, no part of which was previously submitted for publication elsewhere, except as brief abstracts, as well as in-depth reviews. The majority of research papers published in Chronobiology International entails animal and human investigations. The editors and readers of the journal expect authors of submitted manuscripts to have made an important contribution to the research of biological rhythms and related phenomena using ethical methods/procedures and unbiased, accurate, and honest reporting of findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to declare all potential conflicts of interest. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of investigators to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, relating to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals, and the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, relating to the conduct of ethical research on human beings. The peer review of manuscripts by Chronobiology International thus includes judgment as to whether or not the protocols and methods conform to ethical standards. Authors are expected to show mastery of the basic methods and procedures of biological rhythm research and proper statistical assessment of data, including the appropriate application of time series data analyses, as briefly reviewed in this article. The journal editors strive to consistently achieve high standards for the research of original and review papers reported in Chronobiology International, and current examples of expectations are presented herein. PMID:20969531

Portaluppi, Francesco; Smolensky, Michael H; Touitou, Yvan

2010-10-01

313

Features and News: The Importance of Discoveries in Animal Science to Human Welfare  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five short notes describe the contributions to human welfare of animal research in reproductive physiology; ruminant nutrition; meat science research; genetics and animal breeding; and recycling food by-products. (AL)

BioScience, 1972

1972-01-01

314

Genetic Recombination between Human and Animal Parasites Creates Novel Strains of Human Pathogen.  

PubMed

Genetic recombination between pathogens derived from humans and livestock has the potential to create novel pathogen strains, highlighted by the influenza pandemic H1N1/09, which was derived from a re-assortment of swine, avian and human influenza A viruses. Here we investigated whether genetic recombination between subspecies of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, from humans and animals can generate new strains of human pathogen, T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr) responsible for sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT) in East Africa. The trait of human infectivity in Tbr is conferred by a single gene, SRA, which is potentially transferable to the animal pathogen Tbb by sexual reproduction. We tracked the inheritance of SRA in crosses of Tbr and Tbb set up by co-transmitting genetically-engineered fluorescent parental trypanosome lines through tsetse flies. SRA was readily transferred into new genetic backgrounds by sexual reproduction between Tbr and Tbb, thus creating new strains of the human pathogen, Tbr. There was no evidence of diminished growth or transmissibility of hybrid trypanosomes carrying SRA. Although expression of SRA is critical to survival of Tbr in the human host, we show that the gene exists as a single copy in a representative collection of Tbr strains. SRA was found on one homologue of chromosome IV in the majority of Tbr isolates examined, but some Ugandan Tbr had SRA on both homologues. The mobility of SRA by genetic recombination readily explains the observed genetic variability of Tbr in East Africa. We conclude that new strains of the human pathogen Tbr are being generated continuously by recombination with the much larger pool of animal-infective trypanosomes. Such novel recombinants present a risk for future outbreaks of HAT. PMID:25816228

Gibson, Wendy; Peacock, Lori; Ferris, Vanessa; Fischer, Katrin; Livingstone, Jennifer; Thomas, James; Bailey, Mick

2015-03-01

315

Genetic Recombination between Human and Animal Parasites Creates Novel Strains of Human Pathogen  

PubMed Central

Genetic recombination between pathogens derived from humans and livestock has the potential to create novel pathogen strains, highlighted by the influenza pandemic H1N1/09, which was derived from a re-assortment of swine, avian and human influenza A viruses. Here we investigated whether genetic recombination between subspecies of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, from humans and animals can generate new strains of human pathogen, T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr) responsible for sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT) in East Africa. The trait of human infectivity in Tbr is conferred by a single gene, SRA, which is potentially transferable to the animal pathogen Tbb by sexual reproduction. We tracked the inheritance of SRA in crosses of Tbr and Tbb set up by co-transmitting genetically-engineered fluorescent parental trypanosome lines through tsetse flies. SRA was readily transferred into new genetic backgrounds by sexual reproduction between Tbr and Tbb, thus creating new strains of the human pathogen, Tbr. There was no evidence of diminished growth or transmissibility of hybrid trypanosomes carrying SRA. Although expression of SRA is critical to survival of Tbr in the human host, we show that the gene exists as a single copy in a representative collection of Tbr strains. SRA was found on one homologue of chromosome IV in the majority of Tbr isolates examined, but some Ugandan Tbr had SRA on both homologues. The mobility of SRA by genetic recombination readily explains the observed genetic variability of Tbr in East Africa. We conclude that new strains of the human pathogen Tbr are being generated continuously by recombination with the much larger pool of animal-infective trypanosomes. Such novel recombinants present a risk for future outbreaks of HAT. PMID:25816228

Gibson, Wendy; Peacock, Lori; Ferris, Vanessa; Fischer, Katrin; Livingstone, Jennifer; Thomas, James; Bailey, Mick

2015-01-01

316

Humans (really) are animals: picture-book reading influences 5-year-old urban childrens construal of the relation between humans and non-human animals  

PubMed Central

What is the relation between humans and non-human animals? From a biological perspective, we view humans as one species among many, but in the fables and films we create for children, we often offer an anthropocentric perspective, imbuing non-human animals with human-like characteristics. What are the consequences of these distinctly different perspectives on childrens reasoning about the natural world? Some have argued that children universally begin with an anthropocentric perspective and that acquiring a biological perspective requires a basic conceptual change (cf. Carey, 1985). But recent work reveals that this anthropocentric perspective, evidenced in urban 5-year-olds, is not evident in 3-year-olds (Herrmann etal., 2010). This indicates that the anthropocentric perspective is not an obligatory first step in childrens reasoning about biological phenomena. In the current paper, we introduced a priming manipulation to assess whether 5-year-olds reasoning about a novel biological property is influenced by the perspectives they encounter in childrens books. Just before participating in a reasoning task, each child read a book about bears with an experimenter. What varied was whether bears were depicted from an anthropomorphic (Berenstain Bears) or biological perspective (Animal Encyclopedia). The priming had a dramatic effect. Children reading the Berenstain Bears showed the standard anthropocentric reasoning pattern, but those reading the Animal Encyclopedia adopted a biological pattern. This offers evidence that urban 5-year-olds can adopt either a biological or a human-centered stance, depending upon the context. Thus, childrens books and other media are double-edged swords. Media may (inadvertently) support human-centered reasoning in young children, but may also be instrumental in redirecting childrens attention to a biological model. PMID:24672493

Waxman, Sandra R.; Herrmann, Patricia; Woodring, Jennie; Medin, Douglas L.

2014-01-01

317

Humans (really) are animals: picture-book reading influences 5-year-old urban children's construal of the relation between humans and non-human animals.  

PubMed

What is the relation between humans and non-human animals? From a biological perspective, we view humans as one species among many, but in the fables and films we create for children, we often offer an anthropocentric perspective, imbuing non-human animals with human-like characteristics. What are the consequences of these distinctly different perspectives on children's reasoning about the natural world? Some have argued that children universally begin with an anthropocentric perspective and that acquiring a biological perspective requires a basic conceptual change (cf. Carey, 1985). But recent work reveals that this anthropocentric perspective, evidenced in urban 5-year-olds, is not evident in 3-year-olds (Herrmann etal., 2010). This indicates that the anthropocentric perspective is not an obligatory first step in children's reasoning about biological phenomena. In the current paper, we introduced a priming manipulation to assess whether 5-year-olds' reasoning about a novel biological property is influenced by the perspectives they encounter in children's books. Just before participating in a reasoning task, each child read a book about bears with an experimenter. What varied was whether bears were depicted from an anthropomorphic (Berenstain Bears) or biological perspective (Animal Encyclopedia). The priming had a dramatic effect. Children reading the Berenstain Bears showed the standard anthropocentric reasoning pattern, but those reading the Animal Encyclopedia adopted a biological pattern. This offers evidence that urban 5-year-olds can adopt either a biological or a human-centered stance, depending upon the context. Thus, children's books and other media are double-edged swords. Media may (inadvertently) support human-centered reasoning in young children, but may also be instrumental in redirecting children's attention to a biological model. PMID:24672493

Waxman, Sandra R; Herrmann, Patricia; Woodring, Jennie; Medin, Douglas L

2014-01-01

318

Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Human and Animal Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: A total of 409 samples were investigated bacteriologically to detect the occurrence of staphylococci among the diseased animals and human, the highest isolation rate was observed in human samples (36%) followed by dog (28%), bovine (24.8%), ration (14.7%) and chicken (12%) samples. A total of 78 S. aureus isolates secured from different animals and human origins were characterized

J. El-Jakee; Ata S. Nagwa; M. Bakry; Sahar A. Zouelfakar; E. Elgabry; W. A. Gad El-Said

319

Analysis of Methylmercury Disposition in Humans Utilizing A PBPK Model and Animal Pharmacokinetic Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are excellent tools to aid in the extrapolation of animal data to humans. When the fate of the chemical is the same among species being compared, animal data can appropriately be considered as a model for human exposure. For methylmercury exposure, sufficient data exist to allow comparison of numerous mammalian species to humans. PBPK model

John F. Young; Walter D. Wosilait; Richard H. Luecke

2001-01-01

320

Companion animals and human health: Benefits, challenges, and the road ahead  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil evidence indicates an association between human beings and animals dating back at least half a million years. Today, this relationship remains strong, as evidenced by millions of visits to zoos annually, high rates of pet ownership, and the economic prosperity of the pet industry. A review of the literature indicates that human-animal interactions can remarkably enhance human physical health

Marguerite O'Haire

2010-01-01

321

The science and ethics of making part-human animals in stem cell biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Academy of Sciences re- cently issued voluntary guidelines to govern human embryonic stem cell research. Among other restric- tions, these guidelines prohibit certain kinds of combi- nations of human and nonhuman animal cells, and call for ethics review and oversight of any protocol involv- ing the transfer of human embryonic stem cells into nonhuman animals. In this essay,

Jason Scott Robert

2006-01-01

322

Collaboration between academia and industry with focus on improvement of the welfare of both animals and humans in laboratory animal facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Centre for Applied Laboratory Animal Research (CALAR), www.calar.dk, is a research group established in 1999 consisting of scientists from Danish universities and private research institutions. It is the vision of CALAR that animals as well as humans in a modern laboratory animal facility will perceive it as a positive experience to be a laboratory animal or a laboratory animal experimenter,

Jan Lund Ottesen; Lars Friis Mikkelsen; Thomas Bertelsen; Sten Velschow; Jann Hau; Nils Dragsted; Axel Kornerup Hansen

323

Guideline Regarding Significant Changes to Animal Study Proposals The Animal Welfare Regulations and the PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory  

E-print Network

of the experimental animals, and thus need review and approval by the ACUC. To aid the ACUCs in fulfillingGuideline Regarding Significant Changes to Animal Study Proposals The Animal Welfare Regulations and the PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (PHS Policy) require that Animal Care and Use

Bandettini, Peter A.

324

Computing human faces for human viewers: automated animation in photographs and paintings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a system for animating and modifying faces in images. It combines an algorithm for 3D face reconstruction from single images with a learning-based approach for 3D animation and face modification. Modifications include changes of facial attributes, such as body weight, masculine or feminine look, or overall head shape, as well as cut-and-paste exchange of faces. Unlike traditional

Volker Blanz

2006-01-01

325

21 CFR 530.13 - Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. 530.13...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS Rules and Provisions for...

2014-04-01

326

21 CFR 530.13 - Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. 530.13...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS Rules and Provisions for...

2013-04-01

327

21 CFR 530.13 - Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. 530.13...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS Rules and Provisions for...

2012-04-01

328

21 CFR 530.13 - Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. 530.13...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS Rules and Provisions for...

2011-04-01

329

Rhesus CMV: an emerging animal model for human CMV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human CMV is the predominant infectious cause of congenital birth defects and an opportunistic pathogen in immunosuppressed\\u000a individuals, including AIDS patients. Most individuals are infected early during their life followed by life-long latent infection.\\u000a During this latent phase, frequent reactivation and antigen production continue to stimulate the immune system. While the\\u000a immune response is able to control the virus, it

Colin Powers; Klaus Frh

2008-01-01

330

In-vivo animation of midazolam-induced electrocorticographic changes in humans  

PubMed Central

Previous human studies have demonstrated that midazolam-induced signal changes on scalp EEG recording include widespread augmentation of sigma-oscillations and that the amplitude of such oscillations is correlated to the severity of midazolam-induced amnesia. Still unanswered questions include whether midazolam-induced sigma-augmentation also involves the medial temporal region, which plays a role in memory encoding. Taking advantage of rare and unique opportunities to monitor neuronal activities using intracranial electrocorticography (ECoG) recording, we determined how intravenous administration of midazolam induced spectral frequency changes in the human cerebral cortex, including the medial temporal region. We studied three children with focal epilepsy who underwent subdural electrode placement and extraoperative ECoG recording for subsequent resection of the seizure focus; an intravenous bolus of midazolam was given to abort an ongoing simple-partial seizure or to provide sedation prior to induction of general anesthesia. Midazolam-induced ECoG frequency alteration in sites distant from the seizure focus was sequentially animated on their individual three-dimensional MR images. The common ECoG changes induced by midazolam included gradual augmentation of sigma-oscillations (12-16 Hz) in the widespread non-epileptic regions, including the medial temporal region. The spatial and temporal alteration of ECoG spectral frequency pattern can be appreciated via animation movies. Midazolam-induced sigma-augmentation was observed in the medial temporal region in our relatively small cohort of human subjects. In-vivo animation of ECoG spectral measures provided a unique situation to study the effect of midazolam on neuronal processing in the deep brain regions. PMID:19733366

Nishida, Masaaki; Sood, Sandeep; Asano, Eishi

2009-01-01

331

Mapping and Quantification of Vascular Branching in Plants, Animals and Humans by VESGEN Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Humans face daunting challenges in the successful exploration and colonization of space, including adverse alterations in gravity and radiation. The Earth-determined biology of humans, animals and plants is significantly modified in such extraterrestrial environments. One physiological requirement shared by humans with larger plants and animals is a complex, highly branching vascular system that is dynamically responsive to cellular metabolism, immunological protection and specialized cellular/tissue function. The VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) Analysis has been developed as a mature beta version, pre-release research software for mapping and quantification of the fractal-based complexity of vascular branching. Alterations in vascular branching pattern can provide informative read-outs of altered vascular regulation. Originally developed for biomedical applications in angiogenesis, VESGEN 2D has provided novel insights into the cytokine, transgenic and therapeutic regulation of angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and other microvascular remodeling phenomena. Vascular trees, networks and tree-network composites are mapped and quantified. Applications include disease progression from clinical ophthalmic images of the human retina; experimental regulation of vascular remodeling in the mouse retina; avian and mouse coronary vasculature, and other experimental models in vivo. We envision that altered branching in the leaves of plants studied on ISS such as Arabidopsis thaliana cans also be analyzed.

Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.; Vickerman, Mary B.; Keith, Patricia A.

2010-01-01

332

Severe Life Stress and Oxidative Stress in the Brain: From Animal Models to Human Pathology  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Severe life stress (SLS), as opposed to trivial everyday stress, is defined as a serious psychosocial event with the potential of causing an impacting psychological traumatism. Recent Advances: Numerous studies have attempted to understand how the central nervous system (CNS) responds to SLS. This response includes a variety of morphological and neurochemical modifications; among them, oxidative stress is almost invariably observed. Oxidative stress is defined as disequilibrium between oxidant generation and the antioxidant response. Critical Issues: In this review, we discuss how SLS leads to oxidative stress in the CNS, and how the latter impacts pathophysiological outcomes. We also critically discuss experimental methods that measure oxidative stress in the CNS. The review covers animal models and human observations. Animal models of SLS include sleep deprivation, maternal separation, and social isolation in rodents, and the establishment of hierarchy in non-human primates. In humans, SLS, which is caused by traumatic events such as child abuse, war, and divorce, is also accompanied by oxidative stress in the CNS. Future Directions: The outcome of SLS in humans ranges from resilience, over post-traumatic stress disorder, to development of chronic mental disorders. Defining the sources of oxidative stress in SLS might in the long run provide new therapeutic avenues. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 14751490. PMID:22746161

Jaquet, Vincent; Trabace, Luigia; Krause, Karl-Heinz

2013-01-01

333

Role of human- and animal-sperm studies in the evaluation of male reproductive hazards  

SciTech Connect

Human sperm tests provide a direct means of assessing chemically induced spermatogenic dysfunction in man. Available tests include sperm count, motility, morphology (seminal cytology), and Y-body analyses. Over 70 different human exposures have been monitored in various groups of exposed men. The majority of exposures studied showed a significant change from control in one or more sperm tests. When carefully controlled, the sperm morphology test is statistically the most sensitive of these human sperm tests. Several sperm tests have been developed in nonhuman mammals for the study of chemical spermatotoxins. The sperm morphology test in mice has been the most widely used. Results with this test seem to be related to germ-cell mutagenicity. In general, animal sperm tests should play an important role in the identification and assessment of potential human reproductive hazards. Exposure to spermatotoxins may lead to infertility, and more importantly, to heritable genetic damage. While there are considerable animal and human data suggesting that sperm tests may be used to detect agents causing infertility, the extent to which these tests detect heritable genetic damage remains unclear. (ERB)

Wyrobek, A.J.; Gordon, L.; Watchmaker, G.

1982-04-07

334

Real-time algorithms for human versus animal classification using a pyroelectric sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Classification of human and animal targets imaged by a linear pyroelectic array senor presents some unique challenges especially in target segmentation and feature extraction. In this paper, we apply two approaches to address this problem. Both techniques start with the variational energy functional level set segmentation technique to separate the object from background. After segmentation, in the first technique, we extract features such as texture, invariant moments, edge, shape information, and spectral contents of the segmented object. These features are fed to classifiers including Nave Bayesian (NB), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) for human against animal classification. In the second technique, the speeded up robust feature (SURF) extraction algorithm is applied to the segmented objects. A code book technique is used to classify objects based on SURF features. Human and animal data acquired-using the pyroelectric sensor in different terrains, are used for performance evaluation of the algorithms. The evaluation indicates that the features extracted in the first technique in conjunction with the NB classifier provide the highest classification rates. While the SURF feature plus code book approach provides a slightly lower classification rate, it provides better computational efficiency lending itself to real time implementation.

Hossen, Jakir; Jacobs, Eddie; Chari, Srikant

2013-06-01

335

The Animal-Human Bond and Ethnic Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Affectionate relationships with animal companions have health-enhancing effects on people and enrich their quality of life, and the majority of families with companion animals regard their animals as family members. Research has also suggested that these relationships are complicated and vary depending on a number of factors, yet there has been

Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Holley, Lynn C.; Wolf, Shapard

2006-01-01

336

Animator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in

Tech Directions, 2008

2008-01-01

337

METABOLISM AND DISPOSITION OF INORGANIC ARSENIC IN LABORATORY ANIMALS AND HUMANS  

EPA Science Inventory

The carcinogenicity of inorganic arsenic in humans, particulary in the lung and skin, has been reasonably well established through epidemiological investigations. owever, there is no substantial experimental evidence for carcinogenicity in animals to support the human studies. tu...

338

An animal model of human aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency  

SciTech Connect

The genetic deficiency of ALDH2, a major mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, is intimately related to alcohol sensitivity and the degree of predisposition to alcoholic diseases in humans. The ultimate biological role of ALDH2 can be exposed by knocking out the ALDH2 gene in an animal model. As the first step for this line of studies, we cloned and characterized the ALDH2 gene from mouse C57/6J strain which is associated with a high alcohol preference. The gene spans 26 kbp and is composed of 13 exons. Embryonic stem cells were transfected with a replacement vector which contains a partially deleted exon3, a positive selection cassette (pPgk Neo), exon 4 with an artificial stop codon, exons 5, 6, 7, and a negative selection cassette (pMCI-Tk). Genomic DNAs prepared from drug resistant clones were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and by Southern blot analysis to distinguish random integration from homologous recombination. Out of 132 clones examined, 8 had undergone homologous recombination at one of the ALDH2 alleles. The cloned transformed embryonic stem cells with a disrupted ALDH2 allele were injected into blastocysts. Transplantation of the blastocysts into surrogate mother mice yielded chimeric mice. The role of ALDH2 in alcohol preference, alcohol sensitivity and other biological and behavioral characteristics can be elucidated by examining the heterozygous and homozygous mutant strains produced by breeding of chimeric mice.

Chang, C.; Mann, J.; Yoshida, A. [Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA (United States)

1994-09-01

339

Hydroanalysis of Animal Lysozymes c and Human Defensins a  

E-print Network

Proteins appear to be the most dramatic natural example of self-organized criticality (SOC), a concept that explains many otherwise apparently unlikely phenomena. Protein functionality is dominated by long range hydro(phobic/philic) interactions which both drive protein compaction and mediate protein-protein interactions. In contrast to previous reductionist short range hydrophobicity scales, the holistic Moret-Zebende hydrophobicity scale represents a hydroanalytic tool that bioinformatically quantifies SOC in a way fully compatible with evolution. Hydroprofiling identifies chemical trends in the activities and substrate binding abilities of model enzymes and antibiotic animal lysozymes c and antibiotic human defensins, which have been the subject of tens of thousands of experimental studies. The analysis is simple and easily performed, and immediately yields insights not obtainable by traditional methods based on short-range real-space interactions, as described either by classical force fields (CFF) used in molecular dynamics simulations (MDS), or hydrophobicity scales based on transference energies from water to organic solvents.

J. C. Phillips

2008-08-17

340

Sketching-Out Virtual Humans: A Smart Interface for Human Modelling and Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a fast and intuitive interface for sketching out 3D virtual humans and animation. The user draws\\u000a stick figure key frames first and chooses one for fleshing-out with freehand body contours. The system automatically constructs\\u000a a plausible 3D skin surface from the rendered figure, and maps it onto the posed stick figures to produce the 3D

Chen Mao; Sheng Feng Qin; David Wright

2007-01-01

341

Astrovirus infections in humans and animals Molecular biology, genetic diversity, and interspecies transmissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astroviruses are small, non-enveloped, positive sense, single-stranded RNA viruses first identified in 1975 in children suffering from diarrhea and then described in a wide variety of animals. To date, the list of animal species susceptible to astrovirus infection has expanded to 22 animal species or families, including domestic, synantropic and wild animals, avian, and mammalian species in the terrestrial and

Paola De Benedictis; Stacey Schultz-Cherry; Andrew Burnham; Giovanni Cattoli

2011-01-01

342

Ticks infesting wild and domestic animals and humans of Sri Lanka with new host records.  

PubMed

An island-wide collection of tick species infesting humans, domesticated and wild animals and questing ticks in domestic and peridomestic environments was carried out during 2009-2011. A total of 30,461 ticks were collected from 30 different hosts and free living stages from the ground. The collection consisted of 22 tick species from 30 different hosts recording 12 tick species from humans, 19 from domesticated animals and 21 from wild animals, with a total of 97 new host records. The most common tick species on humans were Dermacentor auratus and Amblyomma testudinairum, while Haemaphysalis intermedia, Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were common in domesticated and wild animals sharing 20 host species. Among the questing ticks, immature D. auratus was the most abundant. Humans and domesticated animals were mostly infested by the nymphal stages while adult ticks were found on wild animals. High number of new host records could be due to domestic animals picking tick species from wildlife and vise versa at the human/animal interface. Habitat destruction due to forest fragmentation has lead to wild animals roaming in urban and semi-urban neighbourhoods increasing the interactions of wild animals with domesticated animals. Wild animals play a significant role as a reservoir of many tick borne infections which can easily be spread to domesticated animals and then to humans via tick infestations. Data in this paper are useful for those interested in tick infesting wild and domestic animals and humans in describing the zoonotic potential of tick borne infections. PMID:25445744

Liyanaarachchi, D R; Rajakaruna, R S; Dikkumbura, A W; Rajapakse, R P V J

2015-02-01

343

Measuring Cognitive Abilities of Machines, Humans and Non-Human Animals in a Unified Way: towards Universal  

E-print Network

Measuring Cognitive Abilities of Machines, Humans and Non-Human Animals in a Unified Way: towards of Information Technology Monash University, Vic. 3800, Australia. david.dowe@infotech.monash.edu.au M among cognitive abilities. 1 #12;The concept of cognitive test has been extended to the whole animal

Dowe, David

344

Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Animals Approved by UGA IACUC May 22, 2007  

E-print Network

Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Animals Approved by UGA IACUC May 22, 2007 Reviewed, Revised of animals is to comply with the external documents listed below. Implementation of this Policy animals used in research and instruction. 1. United States Government Principles for the Utilization

Arnold, Jonathan

345

Prediction and Preparation: Pavlovian Implications of Research Animals Discriminating Among Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growing body of evidence suggests that animals of vari- ous species can discriminate among the humans with whom they have regular contact. This discriminative ability has considerable implications for research. Because animal life is hedonistic, there is a strong incentive for animal subjects to predict the events that bring them pleasure and pain. Many research settings attempt to deliver

Hank Davis

2002-01-01

346

Prosocial Primates: Empathy in Animals and Humans Frans B. M. de Waal  

E-print Network

Prosocial Primates: Empathy in Animals and Humans Frans B. M. de Waal Living Links, Yerkes Regional" in relation to animals. Both of these influences take little account of actual animal behavior, which would linkage arising from a direct mapping of another's behavioral state onto the subject's representations

Ginzel, Matthew

347

Breathe easy: Model and control of human respiration for computer animation  

E-print Network

Breathe easy: Model and control of human respiration for computer animation Victor B. Zordan; Anatomical models; Animation control 1524-0703/$ - see front matter 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reservedLorenzo). www.elsevier.com/locate/gmod Graphical Models 68 (2006) 113132 #12;1. Introduction In animation

Zordan, Victor

348

Parallels in Sources of Trauma, Pain, Distress, and Suffering in Humans and Nonhuman Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely accepted that animals often experience pain and distress as a result of their use in scientific experimentation. However, unlike our consideration of human suffering, the wide range of acute, recurrent and chronic stressors and trauma on animals are rarely evaluated. In order to better understand the cumulative effects of captivity and laboratory research conditions on animals, we

Hope Ferdowsian; Debra Merskin

2012-01-01

349

VERY LOW BITRATE CODING OF VIRTUAL HUMAN ANIMATION IN MPEG-4  

E-print Network

the FBA object is to specify sufficient parameters for animating both realistic and cartoon- like humanoidVERY LOW BITRATE CODING OF VIRTUAL HUMAN ANIMATION IN MPEG-4 Tolga K. Capin1 , Eric Petajan2 Lausanne, Switzerland capin@lig.di.epfl.ch 2 face2face animation, inc. 2 Kent Place Blvd. Summit, NJ 07901

Greenberg, Albert

350

Characterizing interspecies uncertainty using data from studies of anti-neoplastic agents in animals and humans  

SciTech Connect

For most chemicals, the Reference Dose (RfD) is based on data from animal testing. The uncertainty introduced by the use of animal models has been termed interspecies uncertainty. The magnitude of the differences between the toxicity of a chemical in humans and test animals and its uncertainty can be investigated by evaluating the inter-chemical variation in the ratios of the doses associated with similar toxicological endpoints in test animals and humans. This study performs such an evaluation on a data set of 64 anti-neoplastic drugs. The data set provides matched responses in humans and four species of test animals: mice, rats, monkeys, and dogs. While the data have a number of limitations, the data show that when the drugs are evaluated on a body weight basis: 1) toxicity generally increases with a species' body weight; however, humans are not always more sensitive than test animals; 2) the animal to human dose ratios were less than 10 for most, but not all, drugs; 3) the current practice of using data from multiple species when setting RfDs lowers the probability of having a large value for the ratio. These findings provide insight into inter-chemical variation in animal to human extrapolations and suggest the need for additional collection and analysis of matched toxicity data in humans and test animals.

Price, Paul S. [Dow Chemical Company, Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting, 1803 Building, Midland MI 48674 (United States)], E-mail: pprice@dow.com; Keenan, Russell E. [AMEC Earth and Environmental, 15 Franklin Street, Portland, ME 04101 (United States); Swartout, Jeffrey C. [National Center for Environmental Assessment U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. M. L. King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

2008-11-15

351

Why test animals to treat humans? On the validity of animal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critics of animal modeling have advanced a variety of arguments against the validity of the practice. The point of one such form of argument is to establish that animal modeling is pointless and therefore immoral. In this article, critical arguments of this form are divided into three types, the pseudoscience argument, the disanalogy argument, and the predictive validity argument. I

Cameron Shelley

2010-01-01

352

Are Children with Autism More Responsive to Animated Characters? A Study of Interactions with Humans and Human-Controlled Avatars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few direct comparisons have been made between the responsiveness of children with autism to computer-generated or animated characters and their responsiveness to humans. Twelve 4-to 8-year-old children with autism interacted with a human therapist; a human-controlled, interactive avatar in a theme park; a human actor speaking like the avatar; and

Carter, Elizabeth J.; Williams, Diane L.; Hodgins, Jessica K.; Lehman, Jill F.

2014-01-01

353

Emotional retrieval and associated pathologies: Combined human, animal and machine approaches  

E-print Network

. The influence of emotion on memory encoding is well-documented, both in humans and animals. At the behavioural1 Emotional retrieval and associated pathologies: Combined human, animal and machine approaches P. Gisquet, M. Seassau, R.Levy, B.Pillon, D.Béroule Key-words : Memory- Emotion- Neuromodulation

Béroule, Dominique

354

A Method of Human Short Hair Modeling and Real Time Animation Volume Interactions  

E-print Network

A Method of Human Short Hair Modeling and Real Time Animation Yang Guang Volume Interactions 5@comp.nus.edu.sg Abstract This paper describes a method of human short hair mod- eling and real time animation. A method is proposed to model the short hair. First, a hair style model is derived from a scalp model interactively

Huang, Zhiyong

355

Ethanol Consumption: How Should We Measure It? Achieving Consilience between Human and Animal Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

There is only modest overlap in the most common alcohol consumption phenotypes measured in animal studies and those typically studied in humans. To address this issue, we identified a number of alcohol consumption phenotypes of importance to the field that have potential for consilience between human and animal models. These phenotypes can be broken down into three categories: 1) abstinence/the decision to drink or abstain; 2) the actual amount of alcohol consumed and 3) heavy drinking. A number of suggestions for human and animal researchers are made in order to address these phenotypes and enhance consilience. Laboratory studies of the decision to drink or abstain are needed in both human and animal research. In human laboratory studies, heavy or binge drinking that meets cut-offs used in epidemiological and clinical trials should be reported. Greater attention to patterns of drinking over time is needed in both animal and human studies. Individual differences pertaining to all consumption phenotypes should be addressed in animal research. Lastly, improved biomarkers need to be developed in future research for use with both humans and animals. Greater precision in estimating blood alcohol levels in the field together with consistent measurement of breath/blood alcohol levels in human laboratory and animal studies provides one means of achieving greater consilience of alcohol consumption phenotypes. PMID:20148775

Leeman, Robert F.; Heilig, Markus; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Stephens, David N.; Duka, Taheodora; OMalley, Stephanie S.

2010-01-01

356

Genetic Diversity among Mycobacterium bovis Isolates: a Preliminary Study of Strains from Animal and Human Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium bovis has the broadest host range of species in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and is responsible for disease in humans and diverse animal species. We report on genotypic differences at multiple loci among 13 isolates derived from a range of human and animal infections. All isolates were classified as M. bovis by phenotypic analysis but could be subdivided into

M. P. U. Sales; G. M. Taylor; S. Hughes; M. Yates; G. Hewinson; D. B. Young; R. J. Shaw

2001-01-01

357

COMPARING BEHAVIORAL DOSE-EFFECT CURVES FOR HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS ACUTELY EXPOSED TO TOLUENE.  

EPA Science Inventory

The utility of laboratory animal data in toxicology depends upon the ability to generalize the results quantitatively to humans. To compare the acute behavioral effects of inhaled toluene in humans to those in animals, dose-effect curves were fitted by meta-analysis of published...

358

Status and future developments in plant iron for animal and human nutrition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant foods play a critical role in providing dietary iron to humans and other animals. Much of the world's human population subsists on diets that are predominantly vegetarian, while for those who eat limited to excessive amounts of animal food products, most of these foods come from livestock who...

359

A method for comparison of animal and human alveolar dose and toxic effect of inhaled ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present models for predicting the pulmonary toxicity of O in humans from the toxic effects observed in animals rely on dosimetric measurements of O mass balance and species comparisons of mechanisms that protect tissue against O. The goal of the study described was to identify a method to directly compare O dose and effect in animals and humans using bronchoalveolar

G. E. Hatch; H. Koren; M. Aissa

1989-01-01

360

Model for comparison of animal and human alveolar dose and toxic effect of inhaled ozone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Present models for predicting human pulmonary toxicity of ozone from the toxic effects observed in animals rely on dosimetric measurements of ozone mass balance, and species comparisons of tissue-protective mechanisms against ozone. The goal of this study was to identify a method to directly compare ozone dose and effect in animals and humans using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid markers. Feasibility

G. E. Hatch; H. Koren; M. Aissa

1988-01-01

361

ANIMAL PATHOGENS THAT MAY CAUSE HUMAN DISEASE THAT ORIGINATE FROM FARM OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The recent increase in concentrated animal feeding operations in the United States has caused renewed concern regarding the infectious diseases that may be passed from farm animals to humans via the environment. It is also known that more than 20 recent epidemics among humans cou...

362

Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection contains animations of a nuclear chain reaction, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. It also showcases interactive models of the first atomic bombs and simulation of the "Nuclear Winter" effect.

Christopher Griffith

363

Circadian timing of metabolism in animal models and humans.  

PubMed

Most living beings, including humans, must adapt to rhythmically occurring daily changes in their environment that are generated by the Earth's rotation. In the course of evolution, these organisms have acquired an internal circadian timing system that can anticipate environmental oscillations and thereby govern their rhythmic physiology in a proactive manner. In mammals, the circadian timing system coordinates virtually all physiological processes encompassing vigilance states, metabolism, endocrine functions and cardiovascular activity. Research performed during the past two decades has established that almost every cell in the body possesses its own circadian timekeeper. The resulting clock network is organized in a hierarchical manner. A master pacemaker, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, is synchronized every day to the photoperiod. In turn, the SCN determines the phase of the cellular clocks in peripheral organs through a wide variety of signalling pathways dependent on feeding cycles, body temperature rhythms, oscillating bloodborne signals and, in some organs, inputs of the peripheral nervous system. A major purpose of circadian clocks in peripheral tissues is the temporal orchestration of key metabolic processes, including food processing (metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification). Here, we review some recent findings regarding the molecular and cellular composition of the circadian timing system and discuss its implications for the temporal coordination of metabolism in health and disease. We focus primarily on metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, although circadian misalignments (shiftwork or 'social jet lag') have also been associated with the aetiology of human malignancies. PMID:25599827

Dibner, C; Schibler, U

2015-05-01

364

Humans mimicking animals: A cortical hierarchy for human vocal communication sounds  

PubMed Central

Numerous species possess cortical regions that are most sensitive to vocalizations produced by their own kind (conspecifics). In humans, the superior temporal sulci (STS) putatively represent homologous voice-sensitive areas of cortex. However, STS regions have recently been reported to represent auditory experience or expertise in general rather than showing exclusive sensitivity to human vocalizations per se. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a unique non-stereotypical category of complex human non-verbal vocalizations human-mimicked versions of animal vocalizations we found a cortical hierarchy in humans optimized for processing meaningful conspecific utterances. This left-lateralized hierarchy originated near primary auditory cortices and progressed into traditional speech-sensitive areas. These results suggest that the cortical regions supporting vocalization perception are initially organized by sensitivity to the human vocal tract in stages prior to the STS. Additionally, these findings have implications for the developmental time course of conspecific vocalization processing in humans as well as its evolutionary origins. PMID:22674283

Talkington, William J.; Rapuano, Kristina M.; Hitt, Laura; Frum, Chris A.; Lewis, James W.

2012-01-01

365

Are Underlying Assumptions of Current Animal Models of Human Stroke Correct: from STAIRs to High Hurdles?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal models of acute ischemic stroke have been criticized for failing to translate to human stroke. Nevertheless, animal\\u000a models are necessary to improve our understanding of stroke pathophysiology and to guide the development of new stroke therapies.\\u000a The rabbit embolic clot model is one animal model that has led to an effective therapy in human acute ischemic stroke, namely\\u000a tissue

Rene J. Turner; Glen C. Jickling; Frank R. Sharp

2011-01-01

366

COMPARABLE MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

The importance of including neurodevelopmental end points in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive function in human infants that also has a homologous or parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for large-scale studie...

367

HOMOLOGOUS MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

The importance of including neurodevelopmental endpoints in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive fucntion in human infants that also has a parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for largescale studies. Such a ho...

368

The SEURAT-1 approach towards animal free human safety assessment.  

PubMed

SEURAT-1 is a European public-private research consortium that is working towards animal-free testing of chemical compounds and the highest level of consumer protection. A research strategy was formulated based on the guiding principle to adopt a toxicological mode-of-action framework to describe how any substance may adversely affect human health.The proof of the initiative will be in demonstrating the applicability of the concepts on which SEURAT-1 is built on three levels:(i) Theoretical prototypes for adverse outcome pathways are formulated based on knowledge already available in the scientific literature on investigating the toxicological mode-of-actions leading to adverse outcomes (addressing mainly liver toxicity);(ii)adverse outcome pathway descriptions are used as a guide for the formulation of case studies to further elucidate the theoretical model and to develop integrated testing strategies for the prediction of certain toxicological effects (i.e., those related to the adverse outcome pathway descriptions);(iii) further case studies target the application of knowledge gained within SEURAT-1 in the context of safety assessment. The ultimate goal would be to perform ab initio predictions based on a complete understanding of toxicological mechanisms. In the near-term, it is more realistic that data from innovative testing methods will support read-across arguments. Both scenarios are addressed with case studies for improved safety assessment. A conceptual framework for a rational integrated assessment strategy emerged from designing the case studies and is discussed in the context of international developments focusing on alternative approaches for evaluating chemicals using the new 21st century tools for toxicity testing. PMID:25372315

Gocht, Tilman; Berggren, Elisabet; Ahr, Hans Jrgen; Cotgreave, Ian; Cronin, Mark T D; Daston, George; Hardy, Barry; Heinzle, Elmar; Hescheler, Jrgen; Knight, Derek J; Mahony, Catherine; Peschanski, Marc; Schwarz, Michael; Thomas, Russell S; Verfaillie, Catherine; White, Andrew; Whelan, Maurice

2015-01-01

369

Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why it Matters for Global Capitalism  

SciTech Connect

In his lecture, Shiller will discuss the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. Winner of the getAbstract International Book Award and the 2009 TIAA-CREF Paul A. Samuelson Award for Outstanding Scholarly Writing on Lifelong Financial Security, the book, which has the same title as Shiller's lecture, discusses how "animal spirits," or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today's global financial crisis. John Maynard Keynes coined the phrase "animal spirits" to describe the changing psychology that led to the Great Depression and the recovery from it. Like Keynes, Shiller and Akerlof believe that government intervention is necessary to overcome the adverse effects on the economy brought about by unruly and irrational human emotions. In his talk, Shiller will explain how "animal spirits" lead to adverse economic effects, and he will outline his insights on how the global economy can recover from its recent setbacks.

Shiller, Robert J. (Yale) [Yale

2010-03-02

370

Human Rabies Post-Exposure Prophylaxis and Animal Rabies in Ontario, Canada, 2001-2012.  

PubMed

In Ontario, Canada, the implementation of an annual rabies control programme in wildlife that began in 1989 resulted in a marked, steady decrease in the number of animal rabies cases. The number of animal rabies cases decreased from 1870 in 1989 to 183 in 2000 (Nunan etal., 2002 Emerg Infect Dis 8, 214). In our study period, the number of animal rabies cases continued to decrease from 210 in 2001 to 28 in 2012. The marked decrease in animal rabies cases since 1989 has resulted in a decrease in the risk of human infection. A concomitant decrease in the number of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (RPEP) administered was anticipated but failed to occur. The mean rate of RPEP, 13.9 RPEP administered per 100000 persons, from 2001-2012 was approximately the same as the rate in the 1990s. Two possible reasons that the rate of RPEP administration has not decreased include strict adherence to RPEP recommendations and administration of RPEP when it is not recommended. A reduction in the number of RPEP administered, consistent with the decrease in the animal rabies cases, would provide some financial savings for the government. Ideally, an increased use of the risk assessment approach in keeping with recent guidelines, rather than adhering to previous prescriptive recommendations for RPEP administration, coupled with a continuing low incidence of animal rabies cases will result in decreased, and yet appropriate, use of RPEP. Consideration should be given to identify how guidelines could be revised to more effectively target high-risk exposures and reduce the administration of RPEP for instances in which the risk of rabies virus exposure is exceedingly low. PMID:25244148

Middleton, D; Johnson, K O; Rosatte, R C; Hobbs, J L; Moore, S R; Rosella, L; Crowcroft, N S

2014-09-22

371

Ceftaroline versus Isolates from Animal Bite Wounds: Comparative In Vitro Activities against 243 Isolates, Including 156 Pasteurella Species Isolates  

PubMed Central

More than 5 million Americans are bitten by animals, usually dogs, annually. Bite patients comprise ?1% of all patients who visit emergency departments (300,000/year), and approximately 10,000 require hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics. Ceftaroline is the bioactive component of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, which is FDA approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), including those containing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are no in vitro data about the activity of ceftaroline against Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica, other Pasteurella spp., or other bite wound isolates. We therefore studied the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against 243 animal bite isolates. MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method according to CLSI guidelines. Comparator drugs included cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, azithromycin, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). Ceftaroline was the most active agent against all 5 Pasteurella species, including P. multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica, with a maximum MIC of ?0.008 ?g/ml; more active than ceftriaxone and ertapenem (MIC90s, ?0.015 ?g/ml); and more active than cefazolin (MIC90, 0.5 ?g/ml) doxycycline (MIC90, 0.125 ?g/ml), azithromycin (MIC90, 0.5 ?g/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (MIC90, 0.125 ?g/ml), and SMX-TMP (MIC90, 0.125 ?g/ml). Ceftaroline was also very active against all S. aureus isolates (MIC90, 0.125 ?g/ml) and other Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, with a maximum MIC of 0.125 ?g/ml against all bite isolates tested. Ceftaroline has potential clinical utility against infections involving P. multocida, other Pasteurella species, and aerobic Gram-positive isolates, including S. aureus. PMID:23027193

Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L.

2012-01-01

372

Contributions and complexities from the use of in vivo animal models to improve understanding of human neuroimaging signals  

PubMed Central

Many of the major advances in our understanding of how functional brain imaging signals relate to neuronal activity over the previous two decades have arisen from physiological research studies involving experimental animal models. This approach has been successful partly because it provides opportunities to measure both the hemodynamic changes that underpin many human functional brain imaging techniques and the neuronal activity about which we wish to make inferences. Although research into the coupling of neuronal and hemodynamic responses using animal models has provided a general validation of the correspondence of neuroimaging signals to specific types of neuronal activity, it is also highlighting the key complexities and uncertainties in estimating neural signals from hemodynamic markers. This review will detail how research in animal models is contributing to our rapidly evolving understanding of what human neuroimaging techniques tell us about neuronal activity. It will highlight emerging issues in the interpretation of neuroimaging data that arise from in vivo research studies, for example spatial and temporal constraints to neuroimaging signal interpretation, or the effects of disease and modulatory neurotransmitters upon neurovascular coupling. We will also give critical consideration to the limitations and possible complexities of translating data acquired in the typical animals models used in this area to the arena of human fMRI. These include the commonplace use of anesthesia in animal research studies and the fact that many neuropsychological questions that are being actively explored in humans have limited homologs within current animal models for neuroimaging research. Finally we will highlighting approaches, both in experimental animals models (e.g. imaging in conscious, behaving animals) and human studies (e.g. combined fMRI-EEG), that mitigate against these challenges. PMID:25191214

Martin, Chris

2014-01-01

373

Baylisascariosis--infections of animals and humans with 'unusual' roundworms.  

PubMed

The nematode genus Baylisascaris (order Ascaridida, superfamily Ascaridoidea) contains nine relatively host-specific, parasite species of carnivores, omnivores, herbivores, carnivorous marsupials or rodents. They have a facultative heteroxenous life cycle, at least under experimental conditions. Eggs passed in faeces embryonate in the environment and the second-stage larva infective for both definitive and intermediate hosts develops. In intermediate hosts larvae migrate extensively through tissues, where they grow and moult to the third-stage, causing extensive damage. All Baylisascaris spp. are considered a potential cause of visceral, ocular and/or neural larval migrans in mammals including humans and in birds. This paper summarises our current knowledge on the prevalence, biology, pathogenicity and zoonotic significance of three Baylisascaris species: B. transfuga, B. schroederi and B. procyonis which have as definitive hosts bears, giant pandas and raccoons (occasionally dogs), respectively. PMID:23339846

Bauer, Christian

2013-04-15

374

Large animal induced pluripotent stem cells as pre-clinical models for studying human disease.  

PubMed

The path to induced pluripotency Discovery of a pan-species pluripotency network Animal iPSCs and disease modelling Issues with large animal iPSCs Conclusions The derivation of human embryonic stem cells and subsequently human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has energized regenerative medicine research and enabled seemingly limitless applications. Although small animal models, such as mouse models, have played an important role in the progression of the field, typically, they are poor representations of the human disease phenotype. As an alternative, large animal models should be explored as a potentially better approach for clinical translation of cellular therapies. However, only fragmented information regarding the derivation, characterization and clinical usefulness of pluripotent large animal cells is currently available. Here, we briefly review the latest advances regarding the derivation and use of large animal iPSCs. PMID:22212700

Plews, Jordan R; Gu, Mingxia; Longaker, Michael T; Wu, Joseph C

2012-06-01

375

A Simple Physics Model to Animate Human Hair Modeled in 2D Strips in Real Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper presents a simple Physics model to animate human hair modeled in 2D strips in real time. A major difficulty in\\u000a animating human hair results from the large number of individual hair strands in a hairstyle. To address this problem, we\\u000a have presented aframework of human hair modeling based on grouping hair strands into strips. Each hair strip is

Chuan Koon Koh; Zhiyong Huang

376

Rapid 3D Human Modeling and Animation Based on Sketch and Motion Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a new rapid 3D human modeling and animation method based on sketch and motion database is proposed. This method reconstruct 3D human ball B-Spline model from sketch and implement real-time animation using motion database. We firstly blend all parts of sketch to obtain a new sketch which can represent human by one stroke. Then we triangulate this

Xiaohui Xu; Chang Leng; Zhongke Wu

2011-01-01

377

[Relationship between the included levels of coffee pulp and the protein content in rations for monogastric animals].  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of including fresh and ensilaged coffee pulp in rations for monogastric animals, and find the best protein and coffee pulp levels in rations for rats. Fresh coffee pulp and pulp ensilaged for 12 months were used; both kinds of pulp were sun-dried before incorporating them into the rations. The chemical analyses of the pulps revealed a lower content in caffeine, tannins, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid in the ensilaged pulp than in fresh coffee pulp. Thirty-two experimental rations were prepared, 16 with fresh coffee pulp and 16 with the ensilaged by-product, distributed into four different protein levels (10, 15, 20 and 25%), and three levels of pulp (15, 30 and 45%) for each protein level. The rations thus prepared were fed to Wistar albino rats for a six-week period. The parameters used to measure the effect of the two types of pulp were mortality rate, food consumption, weight gain, food conversion and apparent digestibility of the rations. Ensilaged pulp had a higher nutritive value, lower toxicity and better digestibility than fresh pulp. The increase in the protein level of the ration resulted in partial protection against the negative effects of coffee pulp on the performance of animals, since this improved as the protein level of the ration increased. PMID:3842050

Gmez-Brenes, R A; Bendaa, G; Gonzlez, J M; Braham, J E; Bressani, R

1985-09-01

378

The Nuremberg Code subverts human health and safety by requiring animal modeling  

PubMed Central

Background The requirement that animals be used in research and testing in order to protect humans was formalized in the Nuremberg Code and subsequent national and international laws, codes, and declarations. Discussion We review the history of these requirements and contrast what was known via science about animal models then with what is known now. We further analyze the predictive value of animal models when used as test subjects for human response to drugs and disease. We explore the use of animals for models in toxicity testing as an example of the problem with using animal models. Summary We conclude that the requirements for animal testing found in the Nuremberg Code were based on scientifically outdated principles, compromised by people with a vested interest in animal experimentation, serve no useful function, increase the cost of drug development, and prevent otherwise safe and efficacious drugs and therapies from being implemented. PMID:22769234

2012-01-01

379

Human and the animal in Victorian gothic scientific literature  

E-print Network

This doctoral thesis examines the role of animals in nineteenth-century science and Victorian Gothic fiction of the latter half of the century. It is interdisciplinary in its exploration of the interrelationship between science writings and literary...

McKechnie, Claire Charlotte

2011-07-01

380

Occurrence of male-specific bacteriophage in feral and domestic animal wastes, human feces, and human-associated wastewaters.  

PubMed

Male-specific bacteriophage (MSB) densities were determined in animal and human fecal wastes to assess their potential impact on aquatic environments. Fecal samples (1,031) from cattle, chickens, dairy cows, dogs, ducks, geese, goats, hogs, horses, seagulls, sheep, and humans as well as 64 sewerage samples were examined for MSB. All animal species were found to harbor MSB, although the great majority excreted these viruses at very low levels. The results from this study demonstrate that in areas affected by both human and animal wastes, wastewater treatment plants are the principal contributors of MSB to fresh, estuarine, and marine waters. PMID:9835602

Calci, K R; Burkhardt, W; Watkins, W D; Rippey, S R

1998-12-01

381

Vaccines against diseases transmitted from animals to humans: a one health paradigm.  

PubMed

This review focuses on the immunization of animals as a means of preventing human diseases (zoonoses). Three frameworks for the use of vaccines in this context are described, and examples are provided of successes and failures. Framework I vaccines are used for protection of humans and economically valuable animals, where neither plays a role in the transmission cycle. The benefit of collaborations between animal health and human health industries and regulators in developing such products is discussed, and one example (West Nile vaccine) of a single product developed for use in animals and humans is described. Framework II vaccines are indicated for domesticated animals as a means of preventing disease in both animals and humans. The agents of concern are transmitted directly or indirectly (e.g. via arthropod vectors) from animals to humans. A number of examples of the use of Framework II vaccines are provided, e.g. against brucellosis, Escherichia coli O157, rabies, Rift Valley fever, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Hendra virus. Framework III vaccines are used to immunize wild animals as a means of preventing transmission of disease agents to humans and domesticated animals. Examples are reservoir-targeted, oral bait rabies, Mycobacterium bovis and Lyme disease vaccines. Given the speed and lost cost of veterinary vaccine development, some interventions based on the immunization of animals could lead to rapid and relatively inexpensive advances in public health. Opportunities for vaccine-based approaches to preventing zoonotic and emerging diseases that integrate veterinary and human medicine (the One Health paradigm) are emphasized. PMID:24060567

Monath, Thomas P

2013-11-01

382

Ethical Issues of Transplanting Organs from Transgenic Animals into Human Beings  

PubMed Central

One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into humans body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animals organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334

Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

2014-01-01

383

The Effects of Opioids and Opioid Analogs on Animal and Human Endocrine Systems  

PubMed Central

Opioid abuse has increased in the last decade, primarily as a result of increased access to prescription opioids. Physicians are also increasingly administering opioid analgesics for noncancer chronic pain. Thus, knowledge of the long-term consequences of opioid use/abuse has important implications for fully evaluating the clinical usefulness of opioid medications. Many studies have examined the effect of opioids on the endocrine system; however, a systematic review of the endocrine actions of opioids in both humans and animals has, to our knowledge, not been published since 1984. Thus, we reviewed the literature on the effect of opioids on the endocrine system. We included both acute and chronic effects of opioids, with the majority of the studies done on the acute effects although chronic effects are more physiologically relevant. In humans and laboratory animals, opioids generally increase GH and prolactin and decrease LH, testosterone, estradiol, and oxytocin. In humans, opioids increase TSH, whereas in rodents, TSH is decreased. In both rodents and humans, the reports of effects of opioids on arginine vasopressin and ACTH are conflicting. Opioids act preferentially at different receptor sites leading to stimulatory or inhibitory effects on hormone release. Increasing opioid abuse primarily leads to hypogonadism but may also affect the secretion of other pituitary hormones. The potential consequences of hypogonadism include decreased libido and erectile dysfunction in men, oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea in women, and bone loss or infertility in both sexes. Opioids may increase or decrease food intake, depending on the type of opioid and the duration of action. Additionally, opioids may act through the sympathetic nervous system to cause hyperglycemia and impaired insulin secretion. In this review, recent information regarding endocrine disorders among opioid abusers is presented. PMID:19903933

Vuong, Cassidy; Van Uum, Stan H. M.; O'Dell, Laura E.; Lutfy, Kabirullah; Friedman, Theodore C.

2010-01-01

384

Adolescent sleep patterns in humans and laboratory animals.  

PubMed

This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". One of the defining characteristics of adolescence in humans is a large shift in the timing and structure of sleep. Some of these changes are easily observable at the behavioral level, such as a shift in sleep patterns from a relatively morning to a relatively evening chronotype. However, there are equally large changes in the underlying architecture of sleep, including a >60% decrease in slow brain wave activity, which may reflect cortical pruning. In this review we examine the developmental forces driving adolescent sleep patterns using a cross-species comparison. We find that behavioral and physiological sleep parameters change during adolescence in non-human mammalian species, ranging from primates to rodents, in a manner that is often hormone-dependent. However, the overt appearance of these changes is species-specific, with polyphasic sleepers, such as rodents, showing a phase-advance in sleep timing and consolidation of daily sleep/wake rhythms. Using the classic two-process model of sleep regulation, we demonstrate via a series of simulations that many of the species-specific characteristics of adolescent sleep patterns can be explained by a universal decrease in the build-up and dissipation of sleep pressure. Moreover, and counterintuitively, we find that these changes do not necessitate a large decrease in overall sleep need, fitting the adolescent sleep literature. We compare these results to our previous review detailing evidence for adolescent changes in the regulation of sleep by the circadian timekeeping system (Hagenauer and Lee, 2012), and suggest that both processes may be responsible for adolescent sleep patterns. PMID:23998671

Hagenauer, Megan Hastings; Lee, Theresa M

2013-07-01

385

Human and animal invasive muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia--recent cases, review and hypotheses.  

PubMed

Sarcocystosis, an unusual parasitic zoonotic disease, is caused by coccidian/ apicomplexan protozoa in humans and animals. The parasites usually develop in a heteroxenous predator-prey life-cycle involving final (carnivore) and intermediate (omnivore/herbivore) hosts. Besides the intestinal, non-invasive form of the disease in which humans and animals are the definitive hosts for certain Sarcocystis spp., the invasive form has come to recent attention. In the latter, humans and animals serve as intermediate host harbouring sarcocysts in their muscle tissue. Already in 1991 sarcocystosis was seen as a potential emerging food borne zoonosis in Malaysia, and in 2011 and 2012 the largest cluster of symptomatic human muscular sarcocystosis world-wide was reported from Tioman Island, Pahang state. In this review, we focus on invasive sarcocystosis in humans and animals in Malaysia, review the recorded cases and epidemiology, and present hypotheses. PMID:24189667

Tappe, D; Abdullah, S; Heo, C C; Kannan Kutty, M; Latif, B

2013-09-01

386

Plasma lipid profiling across species for the identification of optimal animal models of human dyslipidemia[S  

PubMed Central

In an attempt to understand the applicability of various animal models to dyslipidemia in humans and to identify improved preclinical models for target discovery and validation for dyslipidemia, we measured comprehensive plasma lipid profiles in 24 models. These included five mouse strains, six other nonprimate species, and four nonhuman primate (NHP) species, and both healthy animals and animals with metabolic disorders. Dyslipidemic humans were assessed by the same measures. Plasma lipoprotein profiles, eight major plasma lipid fractions, and FA compositions within these lipid fractions were compared both qualitatively and quantitatively across the species. Given the importance of statins in decreasing plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol for treatment of dyslipidemia in humans, the responses of these measures to simvastatin treatment were also assessed for each species and compared with dyslipidemic humans. NHPs, followed by dog, were the models that demonstrated closest overall match to dyslipidemic humans. For the subset of the dyslipidemic population with high plasma triglyceride levels, the data also pointed to hamster and db/db mouse as representative models for practical use in target validation. Most traditional models, including rabbit, Zucker diabetic fatty rat, and the majority of mouse models, did not demonstrate overall similarity to dyslipidemic humans in this study. PMID:22021650

Yin, Wu; Carballo-Jane, Ester; McLaren, David G.; Mendoza, Vivienne H.; Gagen, Karen; Geoghagen, Neil S.; McNamara, Lesley Ann; Gorski, Judith N.; Eiermann, George J.; Petrov, Aleksandr; Wolff, Michael; Tong, Xinchun; Wilsie, Larissa C.; Akiyama, Taro E.; Chen, Jing; Thankappan, Anil; Xue, Jiyan; Ping, Xiaoli; Andrews, Genevieve; Wickham, L. Alexandra; Gai, Cesaire L.; Trinh, Tu; Kulick, Alison A.; Donnelly, Marcie J.; Voronin, Gregory O.; Rosa, Ray; Cumiskey, Anne-Marie; Bekkari, Kavitha; Mitnaul, Lyndon J.; Puig, Oscar; Chen, Fabian; Raubertas, Richard; Wong, Peggy H.; Hansen, Barbara C.; Koblan, Ken S.; Roddy, Thomas P.; Hubbard, Brian K; Strack, Alison M.

2012-01-01

387

Fourier principles for emotion-based human figure animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the method for modeling human figure locomotions with emotions. Fourier expansions of experimental data of actual human behaviors serve as a basis from which the method can interpolate or extrapolate the human locomotions. This means, for instance, that transition from a walk to a run is smoothly and realistically performed by the method. Moreover an individual's character

Munetoshi Unuma; Ken-ichi Anjyo; Ryozo Takeuchi

1995-01-01

388

Understanding complex fragmented assemblages of human and animal remains: a fully integrated approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fragmented, co-mingled assemblages of human and animal bones are not uncommon in archaeological deposits, particularly in prehistoric contexts. It is suggested, firstly, that standard approaches to studying the human material do not lend themselves to the complete understanding of such contexts, secondly, that the application of some techniques more common to zooarchaeology are of particular value in understanding such human

Alan K. Outram; Christopher J. Knsel; Stephanie Knight; Anthony F. Harding

2005-01-01

389

In the simulation of human and animal bodies, complicated mechanical contact between nonlinearly  

E-print Network

-scale motion of a complex model derived from the widely used Visible Human dataset and encompassing multiple the shape of skin folds.Fig. 1. Constituent parts of the leg model derived from the Visible Human datasetIn the simulation of human and animal bodies, complicated mechanical contact between nonlinearly

State, Andrei

390

Hydrodynamic gene delivery of baboon trypanosome lytic factor eliminates both animal and human-  

E-print Network

Hydrodynamic gene delivery of baboon trypanosome lytic factor eliminates both animal and humanL-I. Unlike humans, baboons are not susceptible to infection by T. b. rhodesiense due to previously unidentified serum factors. Here, we show that baboons have a TLF complex that contains orthologs of Hpr

Arnold, Jonathan

391

Human-animal chimeras for vaccine development: an endangered species or opportunity for the developing world?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the field of vaccines for diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) which take a heavy toll in developing countries has faced major failures. This has led to a call for more basic science research, and development as well as evaluation of new vaccine candidates. Human-animal chimeras, developed with a 'humanized' immune system could be useful

Anant Bhan; Peter A Singer; Abdallah S Daar

2010-01-01

392

Animal abuse and family violence: Survey on the recognition of animal abuse by veterinarians in New Zealand and their understanding of the correlation between animal abuse and human violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMS: To establish the incidence, frequency and type of deliberate animal abuse seen in veterinary practice in New Zealand, and ascertain veterinarians' knowledge of human abuse within the families where animal abuse was occurring. To explore attitudes of veterinarians to and knowledge about the correlation between animal abuse and human violence, and their perceived role in dealing with such issues.METHODS:

VM Williams; AR Dale; N Clarke; NKG Garrett

2008-01-01

393

An ecological approach to assessing the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in animal and human populations  

PubMed Central

We examined long-term surveillance data on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (DT104) isolates from concurrently sampled and sympatric human and animal populations in Scotland. Using novel ecological and epidemiological approaches to examine diversity, and phenotypic and temporal relatedness of the resistance profiles, we assessed the more probable source of resistance of these two populations. The ecological diversity of AMR phenotypes was significantly greater in human isolates than in animal isolates, at the resolution of both sample and population. Of 5200 isolates, there were 65 resistance phenotypes, 13 unique to animals, 30 unique to humans and 22 were common to both. Of these 22, 11 were identified first in the human isolates, whereas only five were identified first in the animal isolates. We conclude that, while ecologically connected, animals and humans have distinguishable DT104 communities, differing in prevalence, linkage and diversity. Furthermore, we infer that the sympatric animal population is unlikely to be the major source of resistance diversity for humans. This suggests that current policy emphasis on restricting antimicrobial use in domestic animals may be overly simplistic. While these conclusions pertain to DT104 in Scotland, this approach could be applied to AMR in other bacteriahost ecosystems. PMID:22090389

Mather, Alison E.; Matthews, Louise; Mellor, Dominic J.; Reeve, Richard; Denwood, Matthew J.; Boerlin, Patrick; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Brown, Derek J.; Coia, John E.; Browning, Lynda M.; Haydon, Daniel T.; Reid, Stuart W. J.

2012-01-01

394

Quantitative PCR measurements of Escherichia coli including Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli (STEC) in Animal Feces and Environmental Waters.  

PubMed

Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were used to determine the concentrations of E. coli including shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) associated virulence genes (eaeA, stx1, stx2, and hlyA) in ten animal species (fecal sources) and environmental water samples in Southeast Queensland, Australia. The mean Log10 concentrations and standard deviations of E. coli 23S rRNA across fecal sources ranged from 1.3 0.1 (horse) to 6.3 0.4 (cattle wastewater) gene copies at a test concentration of 10 ng of DNA. The differences in mean concentrations of E. coli 23S rRNA gene copies among fecal source samples were significantly different from each other (P < 0.0001). Among the virulence genes, stx2 (25%, 95% CI, 17-33%) was most prevalent among fecal sources, followed by eaeA (19%, 95% CI, 12-27%), stx1 (11%, 95% CI, 5%-17%) and hlyA (8%, 95% CI, 3-13%). The Log10 concentrations of STEC virulence genes in cattle wastewater samples ranged from 3.8 to 5.0 gene copies at a test concentration of 10 ng of DNA. Of the 18 environmental water samples tested, three (17%) were positive for eaeA and two (11%) samples were also positive for the stx2 virulence genes. The data presented in this study will aid in the estimation of quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) from fecal pollution of domestic and wild animals in drinking/recreational water catchments. PMID:25648758

Ahmed, W; Gyawali, P; Toze, S

2015-03-01

395

Profiles of Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Production of Some Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Transgenic Animals12  

PubMed Central

During the decade of the 1990s and the first years of the current century, our group embarked on a project to study and synthesize human milk oligosaccharides. This report describes 2 unexpected collateral observations from that endeavor. The first observation was the detection and confirmation of 2 rare neutral human milk oligosaccharides profiles that were uncovered while assessing oligosaccharide content in hundreds of samples of human milk. One of these lacked fucosylated structures altogether, and the other lacked the oligosaccharide 3-fucosyllactose [Gal?14(Fuc?13)Glc]. We used glycoconjugate probes to determine whether the unusual profiles were mirrored by fucosylation of milk glycoproteins. The results show that the lack of fucosylated oligosaccharides in these samples corresponds to the absence of equivalent fucosylated motifs in milk glycoproteins. The second finding was a shortened and distinct lactation process in transgenic rabbits expressing the human fucosyltransferase 1. During the first day of lactation, these animals expressed milk that contained both lactose and 2?-fucosylactose, but on the second day, the production of milk was severely diminished, and by the fourth day, no lactose was detected in their milk. Meanwhile, the concentration of fucosylated glycoproteins increased from the onset of lactation through its premature termination. These 2 findings may shed light on the glycobiology of milk and perhaps on mammary gland differentiation. PMID:22585925

Prieto, Pedro Antonio

2012-01-01

396

Profiles of human milk oligosaccharides and production of some human milk oligosaccharides in transgenic animals.  

PubMed

During the decade of the 1990s and the first years of the current century, our group embarked on a project to study and synthesize human milk oligosaccharides. This report describes 2 unexpected collateral observations from that endeavor. The first observation was the detection and confirmation of 2 rare neutral human milk oligosaccharides profiles that were uncovered while assessing oligosaccharide content in hundreds of samples of human milk. One of these lacked fucosylated structures altogether, and the other lacked the oligosaccharide 3-fucosyllactose [Gal?1-4(Fuc?1-3)Glc]. We used glycoconjugate probes to determine whether the unusual profiles were mirrored by fucosylation of milk glycoproteins. The results show that the lack of fucosylated oligosaccharides in these samples corresponds to the absence of equivalent fucosylated motifs in milk glycoproteins. The second finding was a shortened and distinct lactation process in transgenic rabbits expressing the human fucosyltransferase 1. During the first day of lactation, these animals expressed milk that contained both lactose and 2'-fucosylactose, but on the second day, the production of milk was severely diminished, and by the fourth day, no lactose was detected in their milk. Meanwhile, the concentration of fucosylated glycoproteins increased from the onset of lactation through its premature termination. These 2 findings may shed light on the glycobiology of milk and perhaps on mammary gland differentiation. PMID:22585925

Prieto, Pedro Antonio

2012-05-01

397

Children's Perception of Death in Humans and Animals as a Function of Age, Anxiety and Cognitive Ability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings indicate a main effect of age, anxiety, and cognition on the conception of animal and human death. Human death scores were higher than animal death scores. Anxiety had a stranger impact on cognitively high subjects than on cognitively low subjects. Cognition affected the animal death concept more than the human death concept. (Author/RH)

Orbach, Israel; And Others

1985-01-01

398

21 CFR 530.13 - Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. 530.13 Section 530.13...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. (a) This part applies to...

2010-04-01

399

Chapter 4 Heartworm Disease in Animals and Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heartworm disease due to Dirofilaria immitis continues to cause severe disease and even death in dogs and other animals in many parts of the world, even though safe, highly effective and convenient preventatives have been available for the past two decades. Moreover, the parasite and vector mosquitoes continue to spread into areas where they have not been reported previously. Heartworm

John W. McCall; Claudio Genchi; Laura H. Kramer; Jorge Guerrero; Luigi Venco

2008-01-01

400

Animal models to study neonatal nutrition in humans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The impact of neonatal nutrition on the health status of the newborn and incidence of disease in later life is a topic of intense interest. Animal models are an invaluable tool to identify mechanisms that mediate the effect of nutrition on neonatal development and metabolic function. This review hig...

401

[The sorption of human and animal rotaviruses by Enterosgel].  

PubMed

Adsorptive activity of enterosgel has been studied as applied to different strains of rotaviruses of man and animals. Optimal amounts of the sorbent and pH values of the reaction medium at which rotaviruses were most efficiently sorbed from the virus-containing liquid were determined experimentally. PMID:8563946

Barbova, A I

1995-01-01

402

CONSTRUCTING GOOD QUALITY MOTION GRAPHS FOR REALISTIC HUMAN ANIMATION  

E-print Network

Normoyle, Grace Fong and Kendra Gibbons for their help with my research work and for making the lab a fun and suggestions both in my research work and in my life and career devel- opment, with sincerity and patience benefits novice animation users who desire simple and fully automatic motion synthesis tools

Plotkin, Joshua B.

403

The SEURAT-1 Approach towards Animal Free Human Safety Assessment  

EPA Science Inventory

SEURAT-1 is a European public-private research consortium that is working towards animal-free testing of chemical compounds and the highest level of consumer protection. A research strategy was formulated based on the guiding principle to adopt a toxicological mode-of-action fram...

404

Meat morals: relationship between meat consumption consumer attitudes towards human and animal welfare and moral behavior.  

PubMed

The aim of this work is to explore the relation between morality and diet choice by investigating how animal and human welfare attitudes and donation behaviors can predict a meat eating versus flexitarian versus vegetarian diet. The results of a survey study (N=299) show that animal health concerns (measured by the Animal Attitude Scale) can predict diet choice. Vegetarians are most concerned, while full-time meat eaters are least concerned, and the contrast between flexitarians and vegetarians is greater than the contrast between flexitarians and full-time meat eaters. With regards to human welfare (measured by the Moral Foundations Questionnaire), results show that attitudes towards human suffering set flexitarians apart from vegetarians and attitudes towards authority and respect distinguish between flexitarians and meat eaters. To conclude, results show that vegetarians donate more often to animal oriented charities than flexitarians and meat eaters, while no differences between the three diet groups occur for donations to human oriented charities. PMID:25282670

De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

2015-01-01

405

When can animation improve learning? Some implications for human computer interaction and learning  

E-print Network

of computer-based animation to enhance HCI and foster effective learning. Introduction For decades, research in the literature of mental model construction and human-computer interaction (HCI) (Carroll, 2003; de Kleer & Brown

406

Recommendations for Blood Pressure Measurement in Humans and Experimental Animals-Part 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a scientific statement on blood pressure measurement in humans and experimental animals from the Subcommittee of Professional and Public Education of the American Heart Association Council on High Blood Pressure Research

2008-06-25

407

In Search of Memory Tests Equivalent for Experiments on Animals and Humans  

PubMed Central

Older people often exhibit memory impairments. Contemporary demographic trends cause aging of the society. In this situation, it is important to conduct clinical trials of drugs and use training methods to improve memory capacity. Development of new memory tests requires experiments on animals and then clinical trials in humans. Therefore, we decided to review the assessment methods and search for tests that evaluate analogous cognitive processes in animals and humans. This review has enabled us to propose 2 pairs of tests of the efficiency of working memory capacity in animals and humans. We propose a basic set of methods for complex clinical trials of drugs and training methods to improve memory, consisting of 2 pairs of tests: 1) the Novel Object Recognition Test Sternberg Item Recognition Test and 2) the Object-Location Test Visuospatial Memory Test. We postulate that further investigations of methods that are equivalent in animals experiments and observations performed on humans are necessary. PMID:25524993

Brodziak, Andrzej; Ko?at, Estera; R?yk-Myrta, Alicja

2014-01-01

408

FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF POLYHALOGENATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS AND HUMAN INFANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A scientific evaluation was made of functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in experimental animals and in human infants. ersistent neurobehavioral, reproductive, and endocrine alteration...

409

Animal diseases affecting human welfare in developing countries: impacts and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal diseases adversely affect human populations by reducing the amount and quality of food and fiber, and draft power. Epizootics of diseases such as rinderpest have caused massive mortality among domestic and wild animals. Extensive outbreaks of Venezuelan equine encephalltis have caused massive mortality in equines, and significant morbidity among people. Foot-and-mouth disease can cause high morbidity and great direct

T. M. Yuill

1991-01-01

410

Self-describing animated icons for human-computer interaction: a research note  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animated icons may offer substantial advantage over static icons for human-computer communication. Nonetheless, problems and challenges remain. For example, the constant motion of animated icons can be distracting or tedious for users. Another challenge relates to the ease of learning and use of iconic interfaces in general: how can icons provide more helpful information to users regarding their intended use?

SHERMAN R. ALPERT

1991-01-01

411

Animate and Inanimate Objects in Human Visual Cortex: Evidence for Task-Independent Category Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence from neuropsychology suggests that the distinction between animate and inanimate kinds is fundamental to human cognition. Previous neuroimaging studies have reported that viewing animate objects activates ventrolateral visual brain regions, whereas inanimate objects activate ventromedial regions. However, these studies have typically

Wiggett, Alison J.; Pritchard, Iwan C.; Downing, Paul E.

2009-01-01

412

Animal models of human psychopathology based on individual differences in novelty-seeking and anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of individual factors in behavioural neuroscience is an important, but still neglected area of research. The present review aims to give, first, an outline of the most elaborated theory on animal behaviour, and second, an overview of systematic approaches of historic and present animal models of human psychopathology based on individual differences. This overview will be focused on

Cornelius R. Pawlak; Ying-Jui Ho; Rainer K. W. Schwarting

2008-01-01

413

Human-induced changes in animal populations and distributions, and the subsequent effects on fluvial systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans have profoundly altered hydrological pathways and fluvial systems through their near-extirpation of native populations of animal species that strongly influenced hydrology and removal of surface sediment, and through the introduction of now-feral populations of animals that bring to bear a suite of different geomorphic effects on the fluvial system. In the category of effects of extirpation, examples are offered

David R. Butler

2006-01-01

414

Reconciling Apparent Differences between the Responses of Humans and Other Animals to Crowding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, research on nonhuman animals is reviewed to show that there is no discontinuity between humans and other animals. For both, high density is not necessarily harmful. Rather, the effect of high density depends on other factors in the situation. (Author)

Freedman, Jonathan L.

1979-01-01

415

Animals, Kids & Books: A Guide for Putting Humane Books into the Hands of Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide for choosing humane children's books (i.e., books in which animals are not eaten, expolited, or treated with cruelty) presents reviews of over 100 books for children up to age 7. Both subtle and blatant examples of animal exploitation portrayed in children's picture books are examined. Reviews are grouped into 3 categories: kind books,

Freedman, Barbara

416

The acute effects of corticosteroids on cognition: integration of animal and human model studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive deficits following acute administration of corticosteroids have been described in experimental animals and humans. In both populations, an inverted-U shape relationship has been reported between the dose of corticosteroids administered and the nature and extent of the cognitive deficits induced by corticosteroids. Further studies in animals have revealed a two-level recognition system for adrenal steroids, which was later more

Sonia J. Lupien; Bruce S. McEwen

1997-01-01

417

Causal regulations vs. political will: Why human zoonotic infections increase despite precautionary bans on animal antibiotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using precautionary principles when facing incomplete facts and causal conjectures raises the possibility of a Faustian bargain. This paper applies systems dynamics based on previously unavailable data to show how well intended precautionary policies for promoting food safety may backfire unless they are informed by quantitative cause-and-effect models of how animal antibiotics affect animal and human health. We focus on

Louis A. Cox; Paolo F. Ricci

2008-01-01

418

Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Escherichia coli from Humans and Food Animals, United States, 19502002  

PubMed Central

We conducted a retrospective study of Escherichia coli isolates recovered from human and food animal samples during 19502002 to assess historical changes in antimicrobial drug resistance. A total of 1,729 E. coli isolates (983 from humans, 323 from cattle, 138 from chickens, and 285 from pigs) were tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial drugs. A significant upward trend in resistance was observed for ampicillin (p<0.001), sulfonamide (p<0.001), and tetracycline (p<0.001). Animal strains showed increased resistance to 11/15 antimicrobial agents, including ampicillin (p<0.001), sulfonamide (p<0.01), and gentamicin (p<0.001). Multidrug resistance (?3 antimicrobial drug classes) in E. coli increased from 7.2% during the 1950s to 63.6% during the 2000s. The most frequent co-resistant phenotype observed was to tetracycline and streptomycin (29.7%), followed by tetracycline and sulfonamide (29.0%). These data describe the evolution of resistance after introduction of new antimicrobial agents into clinical medicine and help explain the range of resistance in modern E. coli isolates. PMID:22515968

Tadesse, Daniel A.; Zhao, Shaohua; Tong, Emily; Ayers, Sherry; Singh, Aparna; Bartholomew, Mary J.

2012-01-01

419

Widespread Endogenization of Densoviruses and Parvoviruses in Animal and Human Genomes ?  

PubMed Central

Parvoviruses infect humans and a broad range of animals, from mammals to crustaceans, and generally are associated with a variety of acute and chronic diseases. However, many others cause persistent infections and are not known to be associated with any disease. Viral persistence is likely related to the ability to integrate into the chromosomal DNA and to establish a latent infection. However, there is little evidence for genome integration of parvoviral DNA except for Adeno-associated virus (AAV). Here we performed a systematic search for homologs of parvoviral proteins in publicly available eukaryotic genome databases followed by experimental verification and phylogenetic analysis. We conclude that parvoviruses have frequently invaded the germ lines of diverse animal species, including mammals, fishes, birds, tunicates, arthropods, and flatworms. The identification of orthologous endogenous parvovirus sequences in the genomes of humans and other mammals suggests that parvoviruses have coexisted with mammals for at least 98 million years. Furthermore, some of the endogenized parvoviral genes were expressed in eukaryotic organisms, suggesting that these viral genes are also functional in the host genomes. Our findings may provide novel insights into parvovirus biology, host interactions, and evolution. PMID:21795360

Liu, Huiquan; Fu, Yanping; Xie, Jiatao; Cheng, Jiasen; Ghabrial, Said A.; Li, Guoqing; Peng, Youliang; Yi, Xianhong; Jiang, Daohong

2011-01-01

420

Neuroprotective effects of tetracyclines: molecular targets, animal models and human disease.  

PubMed

Tetracyclines are a class of antibiotics which could play a therapeutic role in several neurological disorders. Minocycline, extensively studied in animal models, decreased the size of ischaemic and haemorrhagic infarct. In Parkinson's disease models minocycline protected the nigrostriatal pathway, and in Huntington's disease and motoneuron disease models delayed the progression of disease extending the lifespan. Finally, in human diseases such as stroke and multiple sclerosis tetracyclines seem to play some neuroprotective role. The main biological effects of tetracyclines are the inhibition of microglial activation, the attenuation of apoptosis, and the suppression of reactive oxygen species production. These mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders. Several reports showed that minocycline reduced mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, stabilized mitochondrial membranes, and reduced the release into the cytoplasm of apoptotic factors. Other effects include up-regulation of mitochondrial bcl-2 (an antiapoptotic protein), direct scavenging of reactive oxygen species, and inhibition of mitogen activated protein kinases. It is still unclear which of these mechanisms plays the pivotal role in neuroprotective properties of tetracyclines. The anti-apoptotic effect of tetracyclines probably involves the mitochondrion. The major target for tetracyclines in neurodegeneration could lie within the complex network that links mitochondria, oxidative stress, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and apoptosis. Here, we review the neuroprotective effects of tetracyclines in animal models and in human disease, and we focus on their possible mechanism(s) of action, with special regard to mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegeneration. PMID:19601819

Orsucci, D; Calsolaro, V; Mancuso, M; Siciliano, G

2009-06-01

421

Animal contact as a source of human non-typhoidal salmonellosis  

PubMed Central

Non-typhoidal Salmonella represents an important human and animal pathogen world-wide. Most human salmonellosis cases are foodborne, but each year infections are also acquired through direct or indirect animal contact in homes, veterinary clinics, zoological gardens, farm environments or other public, professional or private settings. Clinically affected animals may exhibit a higher prevalence of shedding than apparently healthy animals, but both can shed Salmonella over long periods of time. In addition, environmental contamination and indirect transmission through contaminated food and water may complicate control efforts. The public health risk varies by animal species, age group, husbandry practice and health status, and certain human subpopulations are at a heightened risk of infection due to biological or behavioral risk factors. Some serotypes such as Salmonella Dublin are adapted to individual host species, while others, for instance Salmonella Typhimurium, readily infect a broad range of host species, but the potential implications for human health are currently unclear. Basic hygiene practices and the implementation of scientifically based management strategies can efficiently mitigate the risks associated with animal contacts. However, the general public is frequently unaware of the specific disease risks involved, and high-risk behaviors are common. Here we describe the epidemiology and serotype distribution of Salmonella in a variety of host species. In addition, we review our current understanding of the public health risks associated with different types of contacts between humans and animals in public, professional or private settings, and, where appropriate, discuss potential risk mitigation strategies. PMID:21324103

2011-01-01

422

Epidemiology and Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in Humans, Wild Primates, and Domesticated Animals in the Greater Gombe Ecosystem, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Cryptosporidium is an important zoonotic parasite globally. Few studies have examined the ecology and epidemiology of this pathogen in rural tropical systems characterized by high rates of overlap among humans, domesticated animals, and wildlife. We investigated risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection and assessed cross-species transmission potential among people, non-human primates, and domestic animals in the Gombe Ecosystem, Kigoma District, Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey was designed to determine the occurrence and risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection in humans, domestic animals and wildlife living in and around Gombe National Park. Diagnostic PCR revealed Cryptosporidium infection rates of 4.3% in humans, 16.0% in non-human primates, and 9.6% in livestock. Local streams sampled were negative. DNA sequencing uncovered a complex epidemiology for Cryptosporidium in this system, with humans, baboons and a subset of chimpanzees infected with C. hominis subtype IfA12G2; another subset of chimpanzees infected with C. suis; and all positive goats and sheep infected with C. xiaoi. For humans, residence location was associated with increased risk of infection in Mwamgongo village compared to one camp (Kasekela), and there was an increased odds for infection when living in a household with another positive person. Fecal consistency and other gastrointestinal signs did not predict Cryptosporidium infection. Despite a high degree of habitat overlap between village people and livestock, our results suggest that there are distinct Cryptosporidium transmission dynamics for humans and livestock in this system. The dominance of C. hominis subtype IfA12G2 among humans and non-human primates suggest cross-species transmission. Interestingly, a subset of chimpanzees was infected with C. suis. We hypothesize that there is cross-species transmission from bush pigs (Potaochoerus larvatus) to chimpanzees in Gombe forest, since domesticated pigs are regionally absent. Our findings demonstrate a complex nature of Cryptosporidium in sympatric primates, including humans, and stress the need for further studies. PMID:25700265

Parsons, Michele B.; Travis, Dominic; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Lipende, Iddi; Roellig, Dawn M. Anthony; Kamenya, Shadrack; Zhang, Hongwei; Xiao, Lihua; Gillespie, Thomas R.

2015-01-01

423

Epidemiology and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans, wild primates, and domesticated animals in the Greater Gombe Ecosystem, Tanzania.  

PubMed

Cryptosporidium is an important zoonotic parasite globally. Few studies have examined the ecology and epidemiology of this pathogen in rural tropical systems characterized by high rates of overlap among humans, domesticated animals, and wildlife. We investigated risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection and assessed cross-species transmission potential among people, non-human primates, and domestic animals in the Gombe Ecosystem, Kigoma District, Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey was designed to determine the occurrence and risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection in humans, domestic animals and wildlife living in and around Gombe National Park. Diagnostic PCR revealed Cryptosporidium infection rates of 4.3% in humans, 16.0% in non-human primates, and 9.6% in livestock. Local streams sampled were negative. DNA sequencing uncovered a complex epidemiology for Cryptosporidium in this system, with humans, baboons and a subset of chimpanzees infected with C. hominis subtype IfA12G2; another subset of chimpanzees infected with C. suis; and all positive goats and sheep infected with C. xiaoi. For humans, residence location was associated with increased risk of infection in Mwamgongo village compared to one camp (Kasekela), and there was an increased odds for infection when living in a household with another positive person. Fecal consistency and other gastrointestinal signs did not predict Cryptosporidium infection. Despite a high degree of habitat overlap between village people and livestock, our results suggest that there are distinct Cryptosporidium transmission dynamics for humans and livestock in this system. The dominance of C. hominis subtype IfA12G2 among humans and non-human primates suggest cross-species transmission. Interestingly, a subset of chimpanzees was infected with C. suis. We hypothesize that there is cross-species transmission from bush pigs (Potaochoerus larvatus) to chimpanzees in Gombe forest, since domesticated pigs are regionally absent. Our findings demonstrate a complex nature of Cryptosporidium in sympatric primates, including humans, and stress the need for further studies. PMID:25700265

Parsons, Michele B; Travis, Dominic; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Lipende, Iddi; Roellig, Dawn M Anthony; Kamenya, Shadrack; Zhang, Hongwei; Xiao, Lihua; Gillespie, Thomas R

2015-02-01

424

Molecular and comparative analysis of Salmonella enterica Senftenberg from humans and animals using PFGE, MLST and NARMS  

PubMed Central

Background Salmonella species are recognized worldwide as a significant cause of human and animal disease. In this study the molecular profiles and characteristics of Salmonella enterica Senftenberg isolated from human cases of illness and those recovered from healthy or diagnostic cases in animals were assessed. Included in the study was a comparison with our own sequenced strain of S. Senfteberg recovered from production turkeys in North Dakota. Isolates examined in this study were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility profiling using the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) panel which tested susceptibility to 15 different antimicrobial agents. The molecular profiles of all isolates were determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and the sequence types of the strains were obtained using Multi-Locus Sequence Type (MLST) analysis based on amplification and sequence interrogation of seven housekeeping genes (aroC, dnaN, hemD, hisD, purE, sucA, and thrA). PFGE data was input into BioNumerics analysis software to generate a dendrogram of relatedness among the strains. Results The study found 93 profiles among 98 S. Senftenberg isolates tested and there were primarily two sequence types associated with humans and animals (ST185 and ST14) with overlap observed in all host types suggesting that the distribution of S. Senftenberg sequence types is not host dependent. Antimicrobial resistance was observed among the animal strains, however no resistance was detected in human isolates suggesting that animal husbandry has a significant influence on the selection and promotion of antimicrobial resistance. Conclusion The data demonstrates the circulation of at least two strain types in both animal and human health suggesting that S. Senftenberg is relatively homogeneous in its distribution. The data generated in this study could be used towards defining a pathotype for this serovar. PMID:21708021

2011-01-01

425

Digestibility of Human Foods and Animal Feeds as Measured by Experiments with Rats.  

E-print Network

TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION C. H. McDOWELL, ACTING DIRECTOR, College Station, Texas BULLETIN NO. 675 NOVEMBER 1945 DIGESTIBILITY OF HUMAN FOODS AND ANIMAL FEEDS AS MEASURED BY DIGESTION EXPERIMENTS WITH RATS G. S. FRAPS Division... with white rats. Results of 508 tests of the digestibility of foods and feeds by rats are summarized. The rats digested slightly less protein than chickens from the animal feeds but slightly more than the chickens from the human foods. The rats digested...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1945-01-01

426

PCR ribotyping of Clostridium difficile isolates originating from human and animal sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular typing of Clostridium difficile isolates from animals and humans may be useful for evaluation ofthepossibilityforinterspecies transmission.Theobjectiveofthisstudywastoevaluate C. difficile isolates from domestic animals and humans using PCR ribotyping. Isolates were also tested using PCR for the presence of genes encoding toxins A and B. One hundred and thirty-three isolatesofC.difficilefromdogs(n 92),horses(n 21)andhumans(n 20),plusoneeachfrom a cat and a calf,

L. G Arroyo; Stephen A. Kruth; Barbara M. Willey; Henry R. Staempfli; Don E. Low

2005-01-01

427

Nicotine self-administration in animals and humans: similarities and differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of nicotine self-administration in animal and human subjects are discussed with respect to the behavioral paradigms\\u000a employed, the effects of nicotine dose manipulations and nicotinic agonist\\/antagonist pre-treatment, and the role of neurochemical\\u000a processes mediating reinforcement. Animal models have focused on intravenous nicotine self-administration, while most studies\\u000a in human subjects have studied cigarette smoking behavior. Despite procedural differences, data from

J. E. Rose; William A. Corrigall

1997-01-01

428

Antibiotic resistance pattern among the Salmonella isolated from human, animal and meat in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to study the antibiotic resistance pattern among nontyphoidal Salmonella isolated from human, animal and meat. A total of 37 Salmonella strains isolated from clinical cases (human and animal) and meat during 20082009 belonging to 12 serovars were screened\\u000a for their antimicrobial resistance pattern using 25 antimicrobial agents falling under 12 different antibiotic classes. All\\u000a the

Shweta Singh; Rajesh Kumar Agarwal; Suresh C. Tiwari; Himanshu Singh

429

Electrical signal analysis to assess the physical condition of a human or animal  

DOEpatents

The invention is a human and animal performance data acquisition, analysis, and diagnostic system for fitness and therapy devices having an interface box removably disposed on incoming power wiring to a fitness and therapy device, at least one current transducer removably disposed on said interface box for sensing current signals to said fitness and therapy device, and a means for analyzing, displaying, and reporting said current signals to determine human and animal performance on said device using measurable parameters.

Cox, Daryl F.; Hochanadel, Charles D.; Haynes, Howard D.

2010-06-15

430

Colorectal carcinogenesis: Review of human and experimental animal studies  

PubMed Central

This review gives a comprehensive overview of cancer development and links it to the current understanding of tumorigenesis and malignant progression in colorectal cancer. The focus is on human and murine colorectal carcinogenesis and the histogenesis of this malignant disorder. A summary of a model of colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis (an AOM/DSS model) will also be presented. The earliest phases of colorectal oncogenesis occur in the normal mucosa, with a disorder of cell replication. The large majority of colorectal malignancies develop from an adenomatous polyp (adenoma). These can be defined as well-demarcated masses of epithelial dysplasia, with uncontrolled crypt cell proliferation. When neoplastic cells pass through the muscularis mucosa and infiltrate the submucosa, they are malignant. Carcinomas usually originate from pre-existing adenomas, but this does not imply that all polyps undergo malignant changes and does not exclude de novo oncogenesis. Besides adenomas, there are other types of pre-neoplasia, which include hyperplastic polyps, serrated adenomas, flat adenomas and dysplasia that occurs in the inflamed colon in associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Colorectal neoplasms cover a wide range of pre-malignant and malignant lesions, many of which can easily be removed during endoscopy if they are small. Colorectal neoplasms and/or pre-neoplasms can be prevented by interfering with the various steps of oncogenesis, which begins with uncontrolled epithelial cell replication, continues with the formation of adenomas and eventually evolves into malignancy. The knowledge described herein will help to reduce and prevent this malignancy, which is one of the most frequent neoplasms in some Western and developed countries. PMID:19332896

Tanaka, Takuji

2009-01-01

431

Metazoa Ludens: Mixed Reality Interaction and Play Between Humans and Animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although animals and pets are so important for families and society, in modern urban lifestyles we can spend little time with our animal friends. Interactive media should be aimed to enhance not only human-to-human communication, but also human-to-animal communication. Thus, we promote a new type of inter-species media interaction which allows human users to interact and play with their small pet friends (in this case hamsters) remotely via the Internet through a mixed reality based game system Metazoa Ludens. We scientifically examined the effectiveness of this system in a two-pronged approach. Firstly and most importantly, the positive effects to the hamsters were ensured using Body Condition Score study. Secondly, the method of Duncan was used to assess the strength of preference of the hamsters towards Metazoa Ludens. Lastly, the effectiveness of this remote interaction with respect to the human users as a interactive gaming system with their pets/friends (hamsters) was examined based on Csikszentmihalyi's (Beyond boredom and anxiety, 1975) Flow theory. The results of both studies inform of positive remote interaction between human users and their pet friends using our research system. This research is not aimed just at providing specific experimental results on the implemented research system, but is aimed as a wider lesson for human-to-animal interactive media. Thus also the lessons learned are extrapolated and detailed in this chapter as a framework in general for human-to-animal interaction systems.

Cheok, Adrian David

432

Thinking Place: Animating the Indigenous Humanities in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrating contexts for and voices of the Indigenous humanities, this essay aims to clarify what the Indigenous humanities can mean for reclaiming education as Indigenous knowledges and pedagogies. After interrogating the visual representation of education and place in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, the essay turns to media constructions of

Battiste, Marie; Bell, Lynne; Findlay, Isobel M.; Findlay, Len; Henderson, James Youngblood

2005-01-01

433

Non-Human Primates: Model Animals for Developmental Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-human primates have been used to model psychiatric disease for several decades. The success of this paradigm has issued from comparable cognitive skills, brain morphology, and social complexity in adult monkeys and humans. Recently, interest in biological psychiatry has focused on similar brain, social, and emotional developmental processes in monkeys. In part, this is related to evidence that early postnatal

Eric E Nelson; James T Winslow

2009-01-01

434

Arsenic hazards to humans, plants, and animals from gold mining  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Arsenic sources to the biosphere associated with gold mining include waste soil and rocks, residual water from ore concentrations, roasting of some types of gold-containing ores to remove sulfur and sulfur oxides, and bacterially-enhanced leaching. Arsenic concentrations near gold mining operations were elevated in abiotic materials and biota: maximum total arsenic concentrations measured were 560 ug/L in surface waters, 5.16 mg/L in sediment pore waters, 5.6 mg/kg dry weight (DW) in bird liver, 27 mg/kg DW in terrestrial grasses, 50 mg/kg DW in soils, 79 mg/kg DW in aquatic plants, 103 mg/kg DW in bird diets, 225 mg/kg DW in soft parts of bivalve molluscs, 324 mg/L in mine drainage waters, 625 mg/kg DW in aquatic insects, 7700 mg/kg DW in sediments, and 21,000 mg/kg DW in tailings. Single oral doses of arsenicals that were fatal to 50% of tested species ranged from 17 to 48 mg/kg body weight (BW) in birds and from 2.5 to 33 mg/kg BW in mammals. Susceptible species of mammals were adversely affected at chronic doses of 1 to 10 mg As/kg BW, or 50 mg As/kg diet. Sensitive aquatic species were damaged at water concentrations of 19 to 48 ug As/L, 120 mg As/kg diet, or tissue residues (in the case of freshwater fish) >1.3 mg/kg fresh weight. Adverse effects to crops and vegetation were recorded at 3 to 28 mg of water-soluble As/L (equivalent to about 25 to 85 mg total As/kg soil) and at atmospheric concentrations >3.9 ug As/m3. Gold miners had a number of arsenic-associated health problems including excess mortality from cancer of the lung, stomach, and respiratory tract. Miners and schoolchildren in the vicinity of gold mining activities had elevated urine arsenic of 25.7 ug/L (range 2.2-106.0 ug/L). Of the total population at this location, 20% showed elevated urine arsenic concentrations associated with future adverse health effects; arsenic-contaminated drinking water is the probable causative factor of elevated arsenic in urine. Proposed arsenic criteria to protect human health and natural resources are listed and discussed. Many of these proposed criteria do not adequately protect sensitive species.

Eisler, R.

2004-01-01

435

Natural animal models of human psychiatric conditions: assessment of mechanism and validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. The classic animal models for human psychiatric conditions involves rodents As prey species, their normal behaviors of avoidance would be considered pathological in humans and dogs. Hence, such models may not be homologous for similar behaviors found in psychiatric pathology in humans.2.2. Dogs exhibit pathological behavioral conditions that may be equivalent to certain human psychiatric conditions. These canine conditions

Karen L. Overall

2000-01-01

436

Viral Metagenomics on Animals as a Tool for the Detection of Zoonoses Prior to Human Infection?  

PubMed Central

Many human viral infections have a zoonotic, i.e., wild or domestic animal, origin. Several zoonotic viruses are transmitted to humans directly via contact with an animal or indirectly via exposure to the urine or feces of infected animals or the bite of a bloodsucking arthropod. If a virus is able to adapt and replicate in its new human host, human-to-human transmissions may occur, possibly resulting in an epidemic, such as the A/H1N1 flu pandemic in 2009. Thus, predicting emerging zoonotic infections is an important challenge for public health officials in the coming decades. The recent development of viral metagenomics, i.e., the characterization of the complete viral diversity isolated from an organism or an environment using high-throughput sequencing technologies, is promising for the surveillance of such diseases and can be accomplished by analyzing the viromes of selected animals and arthropods that are closely in contact with humans. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of viral diversity within such animals (in particular blood-feeding arthropods, wildlife and domestic animals) using metagenomics and present its possible future application for the surveillance of zoonotic and arboviral diseases. PMID:24918293

Temmam, Sarah; Davoust, Bernard; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

2014-01-01

437

Viral metagenomics on animals as a tool for the detection of zoonoses prior to human infection?  

PubMed

Many human viral infections have a zoonotic, i.e., wild or domestic animal, origin. Several zoonotic viruses are transmitted to humans directly via contact with an animal or indirectly via exposure to the urine or feces of infected animals or the bite of a bloodsucking arthropod. If a virus is able to adapt and replicate in its new human host, human-to-human transmissions may occur, possibly resulting in an epidemic, such as the A/H1N1 flu pandemic in 2009. Thus, predicting emerging zoonotic infections is an important challenge for public health officials in the coming decades. The recent development of viral metagenomics, i.e., the characterization of the complete viral diversity isolated from an organism or an environment using high-throughput sequencing technologies, is promising for the surveillance of such diseases and can be accomplished by analyzing the viromes of selected animals and arthropods that are closely in contact with humans. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of viral diversity within such animals (in particular blood-feeding arthropods, wildlife and domestic animals) using metagenomics and present its possible future application for the surveillance of zoonotic and arboviral diseases. PMID:24918293

Temmam, Sarah; Davoust, Bernard; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

2014-01-01

438

Ethical issues of transplanting organs from transgenic animals into human beings.  

PubMed

One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human's body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal's organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334

Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

2014-01-01

439

Interactive control of avatars animated with human motion data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time control of three-dimensional avatars is an important problem in the context of computer games and virtual environments. Avatar animation and control is difficult, however, because a large repertoire of avatar behaviors must be made available, and the user must be able to select from this set of behaviors, possibly with a low-dimensional input device. One appealing approach to obtaining

Jehee Lee; Jinxiang Chai; Paul S. A. Reitsma; Jessica K. Hodgins; Nancy S. Pollard

2002-01-01

440

Primacy effects in animal memory and human nonverbal memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence for primacy effects in animals list memory is accumulating, despite assertions that these primacy effects may be\\u000a list-initiation-response artifacts (D. Gaffan, 1983; E. Gaffan, 1992). This evidence comes from list-memory experiments with\\u000a pigeons and monkeys in which primacy changed with retention interval, experiments with monkeys in which primacy correlated\\u000a with list length, and experiments with monkeys in which there

Anthony A. Wright

1994-01-01

441

Computer animation of human figures in conversation and action  

E-print Network

Viable articulated computer-graphic representations of the human figure have recently been developed by O'Rourke, Zeltzer, and others. In this work, a figure implemented by Maxwell provides the starting point for the ...

Lewis, John Peter

1984-01-01

442

Toward an Animal Model of the Human Tear Film: Biochemical Comparison of the Mouse, Canine, Rabbit, and Human Meibomian Lipidomes  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Secretions that are produced by meibomian glands (also known as meibum) are a major source of lipids for the ocular surface of humans and animals alike. Many animal species have been evaluated for their meibomian lipidomes. However, there have been a very small number of studies in which the animals were compared with humans side by side. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare meibum collected from humans and three typical laboratory animals, canines, mice, and rabbits, for their meibomian lipid composition in order to determine which animal species most resembles humans. Methods. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) in combination with mass spectrometry were used to evaluate lipidomes of all tested species. Results. Among three tested animal species, mice were found to be the closest match to humans in terms of their meibomian lipidomes, while canines were the second closest species. The lipids of these three species were close to each other structurally and, for most lipid classes, quantitatively. The rabbit meibomian lipidome, on the other hand, was vastly different from lipidomes of all other tested species. Interestingly, a previously described class of lipids, acylated omega-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFA), was found to be present in every tested species as the major amphiphilic component of meibum. Conclusions. Our side by side comparison of the rabbit and the human meibum demonstrated their vast differences. Thus, the rabbit seems to be a poor animal model of the human tear film, at least when studying its biochemistry and biophysics. PMID:22918629

Butovich, Igor A.; Lu, Hua; McMahon, Anne; Eule, J. Corinna

2012-01-01

443

Large animal induced pluripotent stem cells as pre-clinical models for studying human disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract The derivation of human embryonic stem cells and subsequently human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has energized regenerative medicine research and enabled seemingly limitless applications. Although small animal models, such as mouse models, have played an important role in the progression of the field, typically, they are poor representations of the human disease phenotype. As an alternative, large animal models should be explored as a potentially better approach for clinical translation of cellular therapies. However, only fragmented information regarding the derivation, characterization and clinical usefulness of pluripotent large animal cells is currently available. Here, we briefly review the latest advances regarding the derivation and use of large animal iPSCs. PMID:22212700

Plews, Jordan R; Gu, Mingxia; Longaker, Michael T; Wu, Joseph C

2012-01-01

444

Antimicrobial resistance of animal and human strains of Enterobacteriaceae in Greece.  

PubMed

Two hundred sixty two strains of Enterobacteriaceae from animal and human sources where intermixing and/or spreading is possible were examined for their resistance to 15 antimicrobials frequently used in animal prophylaxis and metaphylaxis. The antimicrobials with the highest proportion of resistant strains from animal sources were amoxicillin 25 mg, colistin sulphate 25 mg, erythromycin 5 mg, penicillin G 10 mg and spectinomycin 10 mg. The same with isolates from human sources where ampicillin 10 mg, amoxicillin 25 mg, colistin sulphate 25 mg, erythromycin 5 mg, neomycin 10 mg, penicillin G 10 mg and spectinomycin 10 mg. Human isolates were resistant to more antimicrobials than animal isolates. Common a high proportion of isolates from both sources were resistant to some antimicrobials. Systematic and better distributed information is needed to address the epidemiological role of veterinary treatment, prophylaxis and metaphylaxis in antimicrobial resistance in Greece. PMID:12578308

Burriel, A R; Mastoraki, F; Kritas, S

2003-01-01

445

A cross-species analysis method to analyze animal models' similarity to human's disease state  

PubMed Central

Background Animal models are indispensable tools in studying the cause of human diseases and searching for the treatments. The scientific value of an animal model depends on the accurate mimicry of human diseases. The primary goal of the current study was to develop a cross-species method by using the animal models' expression data to evaluate the similarity to human diseases' and assess drug molecules' efficiency in drug research. Therefore, we hoped to reveal that it is feasible and useful to compare gene expression profiles across species in the studies of pathology, toxicology, drug repositioning, and drug action mechanism. Results We developed a cross-species analysis method to analyze animal models' similarity to human diseases and effectiveness in drug research by utilizing the existing animal gene expression data in the public database, and mined some meaningful information to help drug research, such as potential drug candidates, possible drug repositioning, side effects and analysis in pharmacology. New animal models could be evaluated by our method before they are used in drug discovery. We applied the method to several cases of known animal model expression profiles and obtained some useful information to help drug research. We found that trichostatin A and some other HDACs could have very similar response across cell lines and species at gene expression level. Mouse hypoxia model could accurately mimic the human hypoxia, while mouse diabetes drug model might have some limitation. The transgenic mouse of Alzheimer was a useful model and we deeply analyzed the biological mechanisms of some drugs in this case. In addition, all the cases could provide some ideas for drug discovery and drug repositioning. Conclusions We developed a new cross-species gene expression module comparison method to use animal models' expression data to analyse the effectiveness of animal models in drug research. Moreover, through data integration, our method could be applied for drug research, such as potential drug candidates, possible drug repositioning, side effects and information about pharmacology. PMID:23282076

2012-01-01

446

Novel bisegmented virus (picobirnavirus) of animals, birds and humans  

PubMed Central

Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) are novel group of small, nonenveloped, bisegmented and double stranded RNA viruses. PBVs have been identified in the faeces of a broad range of hosts by several international research groups. Since attempts to culture PBV in vitro have not been made to date and no animal model of infection and disease exists. Laboratory diagnosis relies upon electron microscopy, the detection of the double stranded RNA bisegmented genome by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. PBVs have been identified in both normal and diarrheic faeces. Although their pathogenicity is still unclear, their potential needs further investigation.

Mondal, Anjan; Majee, Sharmila

2014-01-01

447

Ancient divergence of animal protein tyrosine kinase genes demonstrated by a gene family tree including choanoflagellate genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal-specific gene families involved in cellcell communication and developmental control comprise many subfamilies with distinct domain structures and functions. They diverged by subfamily-generating duplications and domain shufflings before the parazoaneumetazoan split. Here, we have cloned 40 PTK cDNAs from choanoflagellates, Monosiga ovata, Stephanoeca diplocostata and Codosiga gracilis, the closest relatives to animals. A phylogeny-based analysis of PTKs revealed that 40

Hiroshi Suga; Go Sasaki; Kei-ichi Kuma; Hiromi Nishiyori; Nozomi Hirose; Zhi-Hui Su; Naoyuki Iwabe; Takashi Miyata

2008-01-01

448

Towards an understanding of the role of Clostridium perfringens toxins in human and animal disease  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens uses its arsenal of >16 toxins to cause histotoxic and intestinal infections in humans and animals. It has been unclear why this bacterium produces so many different toxins, especially since many target the plasma membrane of host cells. However, it is now established that C. perfringens uses chromosomally encoded alpha toxin (a phospholipase C) and perfringolysin O (a pore-forming toxin) during histotoxic infections. In contrast, this bacterium causes intestinal disease by employing toxins encoded by mobile genetic elements, including C. perfringens enterotoxin, necrotic enteritis toxin B-like, epsilon toxin and beta toxin. Like perfringolysin O, the toxins with established roles in intestinal disease form membrane pores. However, the intestinal disease-associated toxins vary in their target specificity, when they are produced (sporulation vs vegetative growth), and in their sensitivity to intestinal proteases. Producing many toxins with diverse characteristics likely imparts virulence flexibility to C. perfringens so it can cause an array of diseases. PMID:24762309

Uzal, Francisco A; Freedman, John C; Shrestha, Archana; Theoret, James R; Garcia, Jorge; Awad, Milena M; Adams, Vicki; Moore, Robert J; Rood, Julian I; McClane, Bruce A

2014-01-01

449

Animal models of pancreatitis: Can it be translated to human pain study?  

PubMed Central

Chronic pancreatitis affects many individuals around the world, and the study of the underlying mechanisms leading to better treatment possibilities are important tasks. Therefore, animal models are needed to illustrate the basic study of pancreatitis. Recently, animal models of acute and chronic pancreatitis have been thoroughly reviewed, but few reviews address the important aspect on the translation of animal studies to human studies. It is well known that pancreatitis is associated with epigastric pain, but the understanding regarding to mechanisms and appropriate treatment of this pain is still unclear. Using animal models to study pancreatitis associated visceral pain is difficult, however, these types of models are a unique way to reveal the mechanisms behind pancreatitis associated visceral pain. In this review, the animal models of acute, chronic and un-common pancreatitis are briefly outlined and animal models related to pancreatitis associated visceral pain are also addressed. PMID:24259952

Zhao, Jing-Bo; Liao, Dong-Hua; Nissen, Thomas Dahl

2013-01-01

450

Socioeconomic status and the brain: mechanistic insights from human and animal research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human brain development occurs within a socioeconomic context and childhood socioeconomic status (SES) influences neural development particularly of the systems that subserve language and executive function. Research in humans and in animal models has implicated prenatal factors, parentchild interactions and cognitive stimulation in the home environment in the effects of SES on neural development. These findings provide a unique

Daniel A. Hackman; Martha J. Farah; Michael J. Meaney

2010-01-01

451

Humanizing Prisons with Animals: A Closer Look at "Cell Dogs" and Horse Programs in Correctional Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If correctional education aims to transform individuals and bring about change, we need to consider the whole person who comes with human needs, emotions and attitudes. In order to expand our approach, alternative programs should be explored. A somewhat unusual but very promising approach to address offenders' human needs is the use of animals in

Deaton, Christiane

2005-01-01

452

Monitoring for environmental mutagenesis in wild animals - lessons from human studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing realisation that environmental monitoring practices need to demonstrate radiological protection of the whole ecosystem has led to suggestions that genotoxic techniques derived from human monitoring of radiation exposure could be applied to other animal species. Human studies have highlighted the need to establish the relationship between exposure, genetic effect and biological consequence so that different study objectives, e.g.

E. Janet Tawn

1999-01-01

453

Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in the United States  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper reviews clinical and asymptomatic Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and other animals in the USA. Seroprevalence of T. gondii in humans and pigs is declining. Modes of transmission, epidemiology, and environmental contamination with oocysts on land and sea are discussed. ...

454

Caffeine physical dependence: a review of human and laboratory animal studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although caffeine is the most widely used behaviorally active drug in the world, caffeine physical dependence has been poorly characterized in laboratory animals and only moderately well characterized in humans. In humans, a review of 37 clinical reports and experimental studies dating back to 1833 shows that headache and fatigue are the most frequent withdrawal symptoms, with a wide variety

Roland R. Griffiths; Phillip P. Woodson

1988-01-01

455

Research and management of soil, plant, animal, and human resources in the Middle Rio Grande Basin  

E-print Network

Research and management of soil, plant, animal, and human resources in the Middle Rio Grande Basin of the Rio Grande Basin". This program is funded by an Ecosystem Management grant from Forest Service systems and human popula- tions in the Middle Rio Grande Basin. Research studies emphasize upland ecology

456

Direct genotyping of animal and human isolates of Toxoplasma gondii from Colombia (South America)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic analysis of the SAG2 locus was performed to determine the prevalence of the main genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii (SAG2 types I, II, and III) associated with humans, cats, birds and guinea pig toxoplasmosis in Colombia. This typing was directly performed on clinical samples and autopsy material from human or animals. A total of 50 from 146 samples were positive

Carolina Gallego; Carlos Saavedra-Matiz; Jorge Enrique Gmez-Marn

2006-01-01

457

The Socioemotional Effects of a Computer-Simulated Animal on Children's Empathy and Humane Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the potential of using a computer-simulated animal in a handheld virtual pet videogame to improve children's empathy and humane attitudes. Also investigated was whether sex differences existed in children's development of empathy and humane attitudes resulting from play, as well as their feelings for a virtual pet. The

Tsai, Yueh-Feng Lily; Kaufman, David M.

2009-01-01

458

Aspergillus flavus Genomics: Gateway to Human and Animal Health, Food Safety, and Crop Resistance to Diseases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aspergillus flavus is an imperfect filamentous fungus that has existed in nature for thousands of years. A. flavus is an opportunistic pathogen causing invasive and non-invasive aspergillosis in humans, animals, and insects. It is also an allergen causing allergic reaction in humans. A. flavus in...

459

Predicting the active doses in humans from animal studies: A novel approach in oncology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success rate of clinical drug development is significantly lower in oncology than in other therapeutic areas. Predicting the activity of new compounds in humans from preclinical data could substantially reduce the number of failures. A novel approach for predicting the expected active doses in humans from the first animal studies is presented here. The method relies upon a PK\\/PD

M. Rocchetti; M. Simeoni; E. Pesenti; G. De Nicolao; I. Poggesi

2007-01-01

460

Quantifying Potential Human Health Impacts of Animal Antibiotic Use: Enrofloxacin and Macrolides in Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of similar or identical antibiotics in both human and veterinary medicine has come under increasing scrutiny by regulators concerned that bacteria resistant to animal antibiotics will infect people and resist treatment with similar human antibiotics, leading to excess illnesses and deaths. Scientists, regulators, and interest groups in the United States and Europe have urged bans on nontherapeutic and some

Douglas A. Popken

2006-01-01

461

Update on the Human Broad Tapeworm (Genus Diphyllobothrium), Including Clinical Relevance  

PubMed Central

Summary: Tapeworms (Cestoda) continue to be an important cause of morbidity in humans worldwide. Diphyllobothriosis, a human disease caused by tapeworms of the genus Diphyllobothrium, is the most important fish-borne zoonosis caused by a cestode parasite. Up to 20 million humans are estimated to be infected worldwide. Besides humans, definitive hosts of Diphyllobothrium include piscivorous birds and mammals, which represent a significant zoonotic reservoir. The second intermediate hosts include both freshwater and marine fish, especially anadromous species such as salmonids. The zoonosis occurs most commonly in countries where the consumption of raw or marinated fish is a frequent practice. Due to the increasing popularity of dishes utilizing uncooked fish, numerous cases of human infections have appeared recently, even in the most developed countries. As many as 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium can cause human diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum and D. nihonkaiense being the most important pathogens. In this paper, all taxa from humans reported are reviewed, with brief information on their life history and their current distribution. Data on diagnostics, epidemiology, clinical relevance, and control of the disease are also summarized. The importance of reliable identification of human-infecting species with molecular tools (sequences of mitochondrial genes) as well as the necessity of epidemiological studies aimed at determining the sources of infections are pointed out. PMID:19136438

Scholz, Tom; Garcia, Hector H.; Kuchta, Roman; Wicht, Barbara

2009-01-01

462

Serodiagnosis of human and animal pythiosis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.  

PubMed Central

Conventional serodiagnosis of Pythium insidiosum infections involves the use of the immunodiffusion (ID) test. This test specifically diagnoses human and animal pythiosis. The test, however, has limited sensitivity and does not detect some culturally proven cases of the disease. Because of the increased recognition of pythiosis among humans and animals, we developed and evaluated an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a soluble antigen from broken hyphae of P. insidiosum. Studies were carried out with sera from five humans and eight animals with culturally and/or histologically proven pythiosis. Some of these sera were negative in the ID test for pythiosis. Heterologous case sera from thirteen humans and two horses, plus 5 sera from healthy humans and 17 from healthy animals, were tested. Of the pythiosis case sera tested, the ID test detected only 8 of 13 (61.5%), whereas the ELISA detected all of them (100%). The ID and ELISA tests were entirely specific and gave negative results or low titers respectively, with sera from humans and animals with heterologous fungal infections or with no apparent illness. No correlation was found between the height of the ELISA titers and negative or positive sera in the ID test. Our results indicate that the ELISA is a reliable serodiagnostic test for pythiosis. It is as specific as the ID test but more sensitive. PMID:9384295

Mendoza, L; Kaufman, L; Mandy, W; Glass, R

1997-01-01

463

Epidemiological review of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in Portugal.  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. However, data from Portugal are limited and a considerable part of the literature is in Portuguese. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Portugal is unknown, and almost nothing is known of sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. There is no recent general population-based serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in humans in Portugal. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii in animals and humans. In the present paper, we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Portugal. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, physicians and veterinarians. PMID:25215422

Lopes, A P; Dubey, J P; Dard, M-L; Cardoso, L

2014-11-01

464

The Evolution of Personality Variation in Humans and Other Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive evolutionary framework for understanding the maintenance of heritable behavioral variation in humans is yet to be developed. Some evolutionary psychologists have argued that heritable variation will not be found in important, fitness-relevant characteristics because of the winnowing effect of natural selection. This article propounds the opposite view. Heritable variation is ubiquitous in all species, and there are a

Daniel Nettle

2006-01-01

465

Metabolic manipulation of glycosylation disorders in humans and animal models  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade, over 40 inherited human glycosylation disorders were identified. Most patients have hypomorphic, rather than null alleles. The phenotypic spectrum is broad and most of the disorders affect embryonic and early post-natal development; a few appear in adult life. Some deficiencies can be treated with simple dietary sugar (monosaccharide) supplements. Here we focus on four glycosylation disorders

Hudson H. Freeze; Vandana Sharma

2010-01-01

466

ANIMALS AS SENTINELS OF HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environmnet," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxi...

467

Anabolicandrogenic steroid dependence? Insights from animals and humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anabolicandrogenic steroids (AAS) are drugs of abuse. They are taken in large quantities by athletes and others to increase performance, with negative health consequences. As a result, in 1991 testosterone and related AAS were declared controlled substances. However, the relative abuse and dependence liability of AAS have not been fully characterized. In humans, it is difficult to separate the direct

Ruth I. Wood

2008-01-01

468

COMPARISON OF LUNG ANTIOXIDANT LEVELS IN HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Basal lung concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA), nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH), and a-tocopherol (a-T) were determined in rabbits, guinea pigs, rats, hamsters, mice, domestic pigs and sheep, and in human lung samples obtained from cancer surgery patients. Significant differences ...

469

Microsporidiosis: An emerging and opportunistic infection in humans and animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsporidia have emerged as causes of infectious diseases in AIDS patients, organ transplant recipients, children, travelers, contact lens wearers, and the elderly. These organisms are small single-celled, obligate intracellular parasites that were considered to be early eukaryotic protozoa but were recently reclassified with the fungi. Of the 14 species of microsporidia currently known to infect humans, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon

Elizabeth S. Didier

2005-01-01

470

Fast Realistic Human Body Deformations for Animation and VR Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual Actors now play an important role in Computer-generated films, Virtual Envir