Science.gov

Sample records for animals including human

  1. Humane Treatment of Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Joan Smithey

    This booklet is designed to give teachers resource information about the humane treatment of and care for animals. The topics are presented as springboards for discussion and class activity. Topics include the care of dogs, cats, birds, horses, and fish; wildlife and ecological relationships; and careers with animals. Illustrations on some pages

  2. Animal and Human Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rummel, Lynda

    Several misconceptions regarding the status of human communication systems relative to the systems of other animals are discussed in this paper. Arguments are offered supporting the expansion of the communication discipline to include the study of the communication systems of other species. The "communicative continuity" view which ranks man at…

  3. The need to include animal protection in public health policies

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2013-01-01

    Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712

  4. Animal rights, animal minds, and human mindreading.

    PubMed

    Mameli, M; Bortolotti, L

    2006-02-01

    Do non-human animals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non-human animals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading-whether scientifically aided or not-have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non-human animals should be accorded. PMID:16446412

  5. Animal and human influenzas.

    PubMed

    Peiris, M; Yen, H-L

    2014-08-01

    Influenza type A viruses affect humans and other animals and cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Influenza A viruses are well adapted to cross species barriers and evade host immunity. Viruses that cause no clinical signs in wild aquatic birds may adapt in domestic poultry to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which decimate poultry flocks. Viruses that cause asymptomatic infection in poultry (e.g. the recently emerged A/H7N9 virus) may cause severe zoonotic disease and pose a major pandemic threat. Pandemic influenza arises at unpredictable intervals from animal viruses and, in its global spread, outpaces current technologies for making vaccines against such novel viruses. Confronting the threat of influenza in humans and other animals is an excellent example of a task that requires a One Health approach. Changes in travel, trade in livestock and pets, changes in animal husbandry practices, wet markets and complex marketing chains all contribute to an increased risk of the emergence of novel influenza viruses with the ability to cross species barriers, leading to epizootics or pandemics. Coordinated surveillance at the animal- human interface for pandemic preparedness, risk assessment, risk reduction and prevention at source requires coordinated action among practitioners in human and animal health and the environmental sciences. Implementation of One Health in the field can be challenging because of divergent short-term objectives. Successful implementation requires effort, mutual trust, respect and understanding to ensure that long-term goals are achieved without adverse impacts on agricultural production and food security. PMID:25707182

  6. Cytochrome P450-dependent drug oxidation activities in liver microsomes of various animal species including rats, guinea pigs, dogs, monkeys, and humans.

    PubMed

    Shimada, T; Mimura, M; Inoue, K; Nakamura, S; Oda, H; Ohmori, S; Yamazaki, H

    1997-01-01

    Levels of cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) proteins immunoreactive to antibodies raised against human CYP1A2, 2A6, 2C9, 2E1, and 3A4, monkey CYP2B17, and rat CYP2D1 were determined in liver microsomes of rats, guinea pigs, dogs, monkeys, and humans. We also examined several drug oxidation activities catalyzed by liver microsomes of these animal species using eleven P450 substrates such as phenacetin, coumarin, pentoxyresorufin, phenytoin, S-mephenytoin, bufuralol, aniline, benzphetamine, ethylmorphine, erythromycin, and nifedipine; the activities were compared with the levels of individual P450 enzymes. Monkey liver P450 proteins were found to have relatively similar immunochemical properties by immunoblotting analysis to the human enzymes, which belong to the same P450 gene families. Mean catalytic activities (on basis of mg microsomal protein) of P450-dependent drug oxidations with eleven substrates were higher in liver microsomes of monkeys than of humans, except that humans showed much higher activities for aniline p-hydroxylation than those catalyzed by monkeys. However, when the catalytic activities of liver microsomes of monkeys and humans were compared on the basis of nmol of P450, both species gave relatively similar rates towards the oxidation of phenacetin, coumarin, pentoxyresorufin, phenytoin, mephenytoin, benzphetamine, ethylmorphine, erythromycin, and nifedipine, while the aniline p-hydroxylation was higher and bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation was lower in humans than monkeys. On the other hand, the immunochemical properties of P450 proteins and the activities of P450-dependent drug oxidation reactions in dogs, guinea pigs, and rats were somewhat different from those of monkeys and humans; the differences in these animal species varied with the P450 enzymes examined and the substrates used. The results presented in this study provide useful information towards species-related differences in susceptibilities of various animal species regarding actions and toxicities of drugs and xenobiotic chemicals. PMID:9195021

  7. Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, P J; Hogenkamp, P S; de Graaf, C; Higgs, S; Lluch, A; Ness, A R; Penfold, C; Perry, R; Putz, P; Yeomans, M R; Mela, D J

    2016-01-01

    By reducing energy density, low-energy sweeteners (LES) might be expected to reduce energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW). To assess the totality of the evidence testing the null hypothesis that LES exposure (versus sugars or unsweetened alternatives) has no effect on EI or BW, we conducted a systematic review of relevant studies in animals and humans consuming LES with ad libitum access to food energy. In 62 of 90 animal studies exposure to LES did not affect or decreased BW. Of 28 reporting increased BW, 19 compared LES with glucose exposure using a specific ‘learning' paradigm. Twelve prospective cohort studies in humans reported inconsistent associations between LES use and body mass index (−0.002 kg m−2 per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.009 to 0.005). Meta-analysis of short-term randomized controlled trials (129 comparisons) showed reduced total EI for LES versus sugar-sweetened food or beverage consumption before an ad libitum meal (−94 kcal, 95% CI −122 to −66), with no difference versus water (−2 kcal, 95% CI −30 to 26). This was consistent with EI results from sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (10 comparisons). Meta-analysis of sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (4 weeks to 40 months) showed that consumption of LES versus sugar led to relatively reduced BW (nine comparisons; −1.35 kg, 95% CI –2.28 to −0.42), and a similar relative reduction in BW versus water (three comparisons; −1.24 kg, 95% CI –2.22 to −0.26). Most animal studies did not mimic LES consumption by humans, and reverse causation may influence the results of prospective cohort studies. The preponderance of evidence from all human randomized controlled trials indicates that LES do not increase EI or BW, whether compared with caloric or non-caloric (for example, water) control conditions. Overall, the balance of evidence indicates that use of LES in place of sugar, in children and adults, leads to reduced EI and BW, and possibly also when compared with water. PMID:26365102

  8. Does low-energy sweetener consumption affect energy intake and body weight? A systematic review, including meta-analyses, of the evidence from human and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Rogers, P J; Hogenkamp, P S; de Graaf, C; Higgs, S; Lluch, A; Ness, A R; Penfold, C; Perry, R; Putz, P; Yeomans, M R; Mela, D J

    2016-03-01

    By reducing energy density, low-energy sweeteners (LES) might be expected to reduce energy intake (EI) and body weight (BW). To assess the totality of the evidence testing the null hypothesis that LES exposure (versus sugars or unsweetened alternatives) has no effect on EI or BW, we conducted a systematic review of relevant studies in animals and humans consuming LES with ad libitum access to food energy. In 62 of 90 animal studies exposure to LES did not affect or decreased BW. Of 28 reporting increased BW, 19 compared LES with glucose exposure using a specific 'learning' paradigm. Twelve prospective cohort studies in humans reported inconsistent associations between LES use and body mass index (-0.002 kg m(-)(2) per year, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.009 to 0.005). Meta-analysis of short-term randomized controlled trials (129 comparisons) showed reduced total EI for LES versus sugar-sweetened food or beverage consumption before an ad libitum meal (-94 kcal, 95% CI -122 to -66), with no difference versus water (-2 kcal, 95% CI -30 to 26). This was consistent with EI results from sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (10 comparisons). Meta-analysis of sustained intervention randomized controlled trials (4 weeks to 40 months) showed that consumption of LES versus sugar led to relatively reduced BW (nine comparisons; -1.35 kg, 95% CI -2.28 to -0.42), and a similar relative reduction in BW versus water (three comparisons; -1.24 kg, 95% CI -2.22 to -0.26). Most animal studies did not mimic LES consumption by humans, and reverse causation may influence the results of prospective cohort studies. The preponderance of evidence from all human randomized controlled trials indicates that LES do not increase EI or BW, whether compared with caloric or non-caloric (for example, water) control conditions. Overall, the balance of evidence indicates that use of LES in place of sugar, in children and adults, leads to reduced EI and BW, and possibly also when compared with water. PMID:26365102

  9. When Humans Become Animals: Development of the Animal Category in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Patricia A.; Medin, Douglas L.; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines 3- and 5-year-olds' representation of the concept we label "animal" and its two nested concepts--"animal"[subscript contrastive] (including only non-human animals) and "animal"[subscript inclusive] (including both humans and non-human animals). Building upon evidence that naming promotes object categorization, we

  10. When Humans Become Animals: Development of the Animal Category in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Patricia A.; Medin, Douglas L.; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines 3- and 5-year-olds' representation of the concept we label "animal" and its two nested concepts--"animal"[subscript contrastive] (including only non-human animals) and "animal"[subscript inclusive] (including both humans and non-human animals). Building upon evidence that naming promotes object categorization, we…

  11. Bridging Animal and Human Models

    PubMed Central

    Barkley-Levenson, Amanda M.; Crabbe, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Genetics play an important role in the development and course of alcohol abuse, and understanding genetic contributions to this disorder may lead to improved preventative and therapeutic strategies in the future. Studies both in humans and in animal models are necessary to fully understand the neurobiology of alcoholism from the molecular to the cognitive level. By dissecting the complex facets of alcoholism into discrete, well-defined phenotypes that are measurable in both human populations and animal models of the disease, researchers will be better able to translate findings across species and integrate the knowledge obtained from various disciplines. Some of the key areas of alcoholism research where consilience between human and animal studies is possible are alcohol withdrawal severity, sensitivity to rewards, impulsivity, and dysregulated alcohol consumption. PMID:23134048

  12. Animals are key to human toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Schlüter, Dirk; Däubener, Walter; Schares, Gereon; Groß, Uwe; Pleyer, Uwe; Lüder, Carsten

    2014-10-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an extremely sucessfull protozoal parasite which infects almost all mamalian species including humans. Approximately 30% of the human population worldwide is chronically infected with T. gondii. In general, human infection is asymptomatic but the parasite may induce severe disease in fetuses and immunocompromised patients. In addition, T. gondii may cause sight-threatening posterior uveitis in immunocompetent patients. Apart from few exceptions, humans acquire T. gondii from animals. Both, the oral uptake of T. gondii oocysts released by specific hosts, i.e. felidae, and of cysts persisting in muscle cells of animals result in human toxoplasmosis. In the present review, we discuss recent new data on the cell biology of T. gondii and parasite diversity in animals. In addition, we focus on the impact of these various parasite strains and their different virulence on the clinical outcome of human congenital toxoplasmosis and T. gondii uveitis. PMID:25240467

  13. Animal lifespan and human influence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.; Yang, S.

    2002-01-01

    Lifespan differs radically among organisms ever lived on earth, even among those roughly similar in size, shape, form, and physiology; Yet, in general, there exists a strong positive relationship between lifespan and body size. Although lifespans of humans and human-related (domestic) animals are becoming increasingly longer than that of other animals of similar sizes, the slope of the regression (lifespan-body size) line and the intercepts have been surprisingly stable over the course of the dramatic human population growth, indicating substantial depression in lifespans of many other animals probably due to shrunk and fragmented natural habitats. This article addresses two questions related to the lifespan-size relationship: (1) what caused the exceptions (e.g., a few remote human-related animals are also located above the regression line with great residuals) and why (e.g., could brain size or intelligence be a covariate in addition to body size in predicting lifespan?), and (2) whether continued human activities can eventually alter the ' natural' regression line in the future, and if so, how much. We also suggest similar research efforts to be extended to the plant world as well.

  14. Anesthetizing animals: Similar to humans yet, peculiar?

    PubMed Central

    Kurdi, Madhuri S.; Ramaswamy, Ashwini H.

    2015-01-01

    From time immemorial, animals have served as models for humans. Like humans, animals too have to undergo several types of elective and emergency surgeries. Several anesthetic techniques and drugs used in humans are also used in animals. However, unlike humans, the animal kingdom includes a wide variety of species, breeds, and sizes. Different species have variable pharmacological responses, anatomy, temperament, behavior, and lifestyles. The anesthetic techniques and drugs have to suit different species and breeds. Nevertheless, there are several drugs and many peculiar anesthetic techniques used in animals but not in human beings. Keeping this in mind, literature was hand searched and electronically searched using the words “veterinary anesthesia,” “anesthetic drugs and techniques in animals” using Google search engine. The interesting information so collected is presented in this article which highlights some challenging and amazing aspects of anesthetizing animals including the preanesthetic assessment, preparation, premedication, monitoring, induction of general anesthesia, intubation, equipment, regional blocks, neuraxial block, and perioperative complications. PMID:26712963

  15. Fostering Kinship with Animals: Animal Portraiture in Humane Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalof, Linda; Zammit-Lucia, Joe; Bell, Jessica; Granter, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of animals can alter human perceptions of, emotional responses to, and attitudes toward animals. Our study addressed the potential of a slideshow designed to activate emotional responses to animals to foster feelings of kinship with them. The personal meaning map measured changes in perceptions of animals. The participants were…

  16. Fostering Kinship with Animals: Animal Portraiture in Humane Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalof, Linda; Zammit-Lucia, Joe; Bell, Jessica; Granter, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Visual depictions of animals can alter human perceptions of, emotional responses to, and attitudes toward animals. Our study addressed the potential of a slideshow designed to activate emotional responses to animals to foster feelings of kinship with them. The personal meaning map measured changes in perceptions of animals. The participants were

  17. Lighted display devices for producing static or animated visual displays, including animated facial features

    DOEpatents

    Heilbron, Valerie J; Clem, Paul G; Cook, Adam Wade

    2014-02-11

    An illuminated display device with a base member with a plurality of cavities therein. Illumination devices illuminate the cavities and emit light through an opening of the cavities in a pattern, and a speaker can emit sounds in synchronization with the pattern. A panel with translucent portions can overly the base member and the cavities. An animated talking character can have an animated mouth cavity complex with multiple predetermined mouth lighting configurations simulative of human utterances. The cavities can be open, or optical waveguide material or positive members can be disposed therein. Reflective material can enhance internal reflectance and light emission.

  18. Animal and cellular models of human disease.

    PubMed

    Arends, Mark J; White, Eric S; Whitelaw, C Bruce A

    2016-01-01

    In this eighteenth (2016) Annual Review Issue of The Journal of Pathology, we present a collection of 19 invited review articles that cover different aspects of cellular and animal models of disease. These include genetically-engineered models, chemically-induced models, naturally-occurring models, and combinations thereof, with the focus on recent methodological and conceptual developments across a wide range of human diseases. Copyright 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26482929

  19. Linkages between animal and human health sentinel data

    PubMed Central

    Scotch, Matthew; Odofin, Lynda; Rabinowitz, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Introduction In order to identify priorities for building integrated surveillance systems that effectively model and predict human risk of zoonotic diseases, there is a need for improved understanding of the practical options for linking surveillance data of animals and humans. We conducted an analysis of the literature and characterized the linkage between animal and human health data. We discuss the findings in relation to zoonotic surveillance and the linkage of human and animal data. Methods The Canary Database, an online bibliographic database of animal-sentinel studies was searched and articles were classified according to four linkage categories. Results 465 studies were identified and assigned to linkage categories involving: descriptive, analytic, molecular, or no human outcomes of human and animal health. Descriptive linkage was the most common, whereby both animal and human health outcomes were presented, but without quantitative linkage between the two. Rarely, analytic linkage was utilized in which animal data was used to quantitatively predict human risk. The other two categories included molecular linkage, and no human outcomes, which present health outcomes in animals but not humans. Discussion We found limited use of animal data to quantitatively predict human risk and listed the methods from the literature that performed analytic linkage. The lack of analytic linkage in the literature might not be solely related to technological barriers including access to electronic database, statistical software packages, and Geographical Information System (GIS). Rather, the problem might be from a lack of understanding by researchers of the importance of animal data as a 'sentinel' for human health. Researchers performing zoonotic surveillance should be aware of the value of animal-sentinel approaches for predicting human risk and consider analytic methods for linking animal and human data. Qualitative work needs to be done in order to examine researchers' decisions in linkage strategies between animal and human data. PMID:19389228

  20. The simulation of humans and lower animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzopoulos, Demetri

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a brief review of our ongoing work on the biomechanical simulation of the human body. Our comprehensive musculoskeletal model, which includes more or less all of the relevant articular bones and muscle actuators, plus soft tissue deformations, raises the challenge of simulating natural body movements by controlling hundreds of contractile muscles. We have begun to confront this problem by developing a trainable neuromuscular controller for the important special case of the neck-head-face complex. Additionally, I briefly review our relevant earlier work on the motor control of anthropomorphically articulated dynamic models, as well as the biomechanical modeling of lower animals such as fish, including motor control algorithms that enable these simulated animals to learn natural, muscle-actuated locomotion.

  1. The human side of animal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    2001-01-01

    An important element of behavioral research with nonhuman animals is that insights are drawn from it about human behavior, what is called here the human side of animal behavior. This article examines the origins of comparing human behavior to that of other animals, the ways in which such comparisons are described, and considerations that arise in evaluating the validity of those comparisons. The rationale for such an approach originated in the reductionism of experimental physiology and the understanding of the commonalities of all life forms promulgated by Darwinian evolutionary biology. Added more recently were such observations as the relative simplicity of animal behavior, tempered by the constraints placed on resulting comparisons by the absence of verbal behavior in animals. The construction of comparisons of human behavior to that of animals may be framed on the basis of Skinner's (1957) distinction between the metaphorical and generic forms of the extended tact. Both ordinary and systematic comparisons of animal and human behavior are congruent with Skinner's extended tact framework. The most general consideration in evaluating comparisons of animal and human behavior is that a functional basis for the claimed similarity be established. Systematic analysis and convergent evidence also may contribute to acceptability of these comparisons. In the final analysis, however, conclusions about the human side of animal behavior are nondeductively derived and often are assessed based on their heuristic and pragmatic value. Such conclusions represent a valuable contribution to understanding the human animal and in developing practical solutions to problems of human behavior to which much of psychology is dedicated. PMID:22478360

  2. Balancing Human and Animal Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteria and antibiotics have likely co-existed since the beginning of time; one seeks only to survive (bacteria) while the other (antibiotics) serves multiple functions. The discovery of antimicrobials began a ‘golden age’ in medicine as previously untreatable diseases were cured. Animals benefite...

  3. Balancing Human and Animal Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteria and antibiotics have likely co-existed since the beginning of time; one seeks only to survive (bacteria) while the other (antibiotics) serves multiple functions. The discovery of antimicrobials began a golden age in medicine as previously untreatable diseases were cured. Animals benefite...

  4. Sarcocystosis of animals and humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species of Sarcocystosis, single-celled protozoan parasites in the Phylum Apicomplexa, are widespread in warm-blooded animals. Completion of the life cycle requires two host species: an intermediate (or prey) host and a definitive (or predator) host. Hosts can harbor more than one species of Sarcocy...

  5. Toxoplasmosis in animals and humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    T. gondii is one of the most studied parasites.It causes disease in virtually all warm blooded animals Many scientists use T. gondii to investigate problems in cell biology and genetics. The book is divided into 19 chapters. Chapter 1 deals with biology. Chapter 2, which deals with toxoplasmosis...

  6. Social learning in humans and other animals

    PubMed Central

    Gariépy, Jean-François; Watson, Karli K.; Du, Emily; Xie, Diana L.; Erb, Joshua; Amasino, Dianna; Platt, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Decisions made by individuals can be influenced by what others think and do. Social learning includes a wide array of behaviors such as imitation, observational learning of novel foraging techniques, peer or parental influences on individual preferences, as well as outright teaching. These processes are believed to underlie an important part of cultural variation among human populations and may also explain intraspecific variation in behavior between geographically distinct populations of animals. Recent neurobiological studies have begun to uncover the neural basis of social learning. Here we review experimental evidence from the past few decades showing that social learning is a widespread set of skills present in multiple animal species. In mammals, the temporoparietal junction, the dorsomedial, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as the anterior cingulate gyrus, appear to play critical roles in social learning. Birds, fish, and insects also learn from others, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. We discuss the evolutionary implications of these findings and highlight the importance of emerging animal models that permit precise modification of neural circuit function for elucidating the neural basis of social learning. PMID:24765063

  7. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN HUMANS AND FEED ANIMALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few issues evoke as much discussion and disagreement as the use or misuse of antibiotics in feed animal production systems. Increased concern over the development of antimicrobial resistance in human bacterial pathogens that are also carried by feed animals has led many public health and medical pro...

  8. Management of human and animal bite wound infection: an overview.

    PubMed

    Brook, Itzhak

    2009-09-01

    Animal and human bite wounds can lead to serious infections. The organisms recovered generally originate from the biter's oral cavity and the victim's skin flora. Anaerobes were isolated from more than two thirds of human and animal bite infections. Streptococcus pyogenes is often recovered in human bites, Pasteurella multocida in animal bites, Eikenella corrodens in animal and human, Capnocytophaga spp, Neisseria weaveri, Weeksella zoohelcum, Neisseria canis, Staphylococcus intermedius, nonoxidizer-1, and eugonic oxidizer-2 in dog, Flavobacterium group in pig, and Actinobacillus spp in horse and sheep bites. Vibrio spp, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Pseudomonas spp can cause infections in bites associated with marine settings. In addition to local wound infection, complications include lymphangitis, local abscess, septic arthritis, tenosynovitis, and osteomyelitis. Uncommon complications include endocarditis, meningitis, brain abscess, and sepsis with disseminated intravascular coagulation especially in immunocompromised individuals. Wound management includes administering local care and using proper antimicrobial therapy when needed. PMID:19698283

  9. Engineering large animal models of human disease.

    PubMed

    Whitelaw, C Bruce A; Sheets, Timothy P; Lillico, Simon G; Telugu, Bhanu P

    2016-01-01

    The recent development of gene editing tools and methodology for use in livestock enables the production of new animal disease models. These tools facilitate site-specific mutation of the genome, allowing animals carrying known human disease mutations to be produced. In this review, we describe the various gene editing tools and how they can be used for a range of large animal models of diseases. This genomic technology is in its infancy but the expectation is that through the use of gene editing tools we will see a dramatic increase in animal model resources available for both the study of human disease and the translation of this knowledge into the clinic. Comparative pathology will be central to the productive use of these animal models and the successful translation of new therapeutic strategies. 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. PMID:26414877

  10. [Animal protection in constitutional law?--On the necessity of including animal protection in the constitution].

    PubMed

    Caspar, J

    1998-03-01

    The inclusion of animal protection in the constitution poses a lengthy legal-political demand, which is again being vehemently discussed at the present time. Under consideration of juristic aspects, the following treatise attempts to clarify the legal requirements which presently exist for anchoring animal protection in constitutional law. It is therefore necessary in the first instance to explain the present situation regarding animal protection law. The legal situation in this respect is marked by a fundamental collision between special democratic rights guaranteed by the constitution on the one hand, and the norms of animal protection law on the other hand, which tend to restrict these rights. Based on concrete examples taken from court decisions, it is shown that constitutional vacuum surrounding a major part of animal protection law greatly complicates or even renders impossible the application and enforcement of the latter in practice. A prerequisite for a proper legal framework for animal protection is that the different special basic democratic rights governing animal use must be counterpoised by animal protection laws backed up by the constitution. Only by this means it is possible to prevent the ineffectiveness of animal protection legislative norms in the long term. PMID:9581372

  11. Human antibody production in transgenic animals.

    PubMed

    Brüggemann, Marianne; Osborn, Michael J; Ma, Biao; Hayre, Jasvinder; Avis, Suzanne; Lundstrom, Brian; Buelow, Roland

    2015-04-01

    Fully human antibodies from transgenic animals account for an increasing number of new therapeutics. After immunization, diverse human monoclonal antibodies of high affinity can be obtained from transgenic rodents, while large animals, such as transchromosomic cattle, have produced respectable amounts of specific human immunoglobulin (Ig) in serum. Several strategies to derive animals expressing human antibody repertoires have been successful. In rodents, gene loci on bacterial artificial chromosomes or yeast artificial chromosomes were integrated by oocyte microinjection or transfection of embryonic stem (ES) cells, while ruminants were derived from manipulated fibroblasts with integrated human chromosome fragments or human artificial chromosomes. In all strains, the endogenous Ig loci have been silenced by gene targeting, either in ES or fibroblast cells, or by zinc finger technology via DNA microinjection; this was essential for optimal production. However, comparisons showed that fully human antibodies were not as efficiently produced as wild-type Ig. This suboptimal performance, with respect to immune response and antibody yield, was attributed to imperfect interaction of the human constant region with endogenous signaling components such as the Igα/β in mouse, rat or cattle. Significant improvements were obtained when the human V-region genes were linked to the endogenous CH-region, either on large constructs or, separately, by site-specific integration, which could also silence the endogenous Ig locus by gene replacement or inversion. In animals with knocked-out endogenous Ig loci and integrated large IgH loci, containing many human Vs, all D and all J segments linked to endogenous C genes, highly diverse human antibody production similar to normal animals was obtained. PMID:25467949

  12. Animal models of human response to dioxins.

    PubMed Central

    Grassman, J A; Masten, S A; Walker, N J; Lucier, G W

    1998-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the most potent member of a class of chlorinated hydrocarbons that interact with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). TCDD and dioxinlike compounds are environmentally and biologically stable and as a result, human exposure is chronic and widespread. Studies of highly exposed human populations show that dioxins produce developmental effects, chloracne, and an increase in all cancers and suggest that they may also alter immune and endocrine function. In contrast, the health effects of low-level environmental exposure have not been established. Experimental animal models can enhance the understanding of the effects of low-level dioxin exposure, particularly when there is evidence that humans respond similarly to the animal models. Although there are species differences in pharmacokinetics, experimental animal models demonstrate AhR-dependent health effects that are similar to those found in exposed human populations. Comparisons of biochemical changes show that humans and animal models have similar degrees of sensitivity to dioxin-induced effects. The information gained from animal models is important for developing mechanistic models of dioxin toxicity and critical for assessing the risks to human populations under different circumstances of exposure. PMID:9599728

  13. Animal models of human response to dioxins.

    PubMed

    Grassman, J A; Masten, S A; Walker, N J; Lucier, G W

    1998-04-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the most potent member of a class of chlorinated hydrocarbons that interact with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). TCDD and dioxinlike compounds are environmentally and biologically stable and as a result, human exposure is chronic and widespread. Studies of highly exposed human populations show that dioxins produce developmental effects, chloracne, and an increase in all cancers and suggest that they may also alter immune and endocrine function. In contrast, the health effects of low-level environmental exposure have not been established. Experimental animal models can enhance the understanding of the effects of low-level dioxin exposure, particularly when there is evidence that humans respond similarly to the animal models. Although there are species differences in pharmacokinetics, experimental animal models demonstrate AhR-dependent health effects that are similar to those found in exposed human populations. Comparisons of biochemical changes show that humans and animal models have similar degrees of sensitivity to dioxin-induced effects. The information gained from animal models is important for developing mechanistic models of dioxin toxicity and critical for assessing the risks to human populations under different circumstances of exposure. PMID:9599728

  14. The uncertain response in humans and animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. D.; Shields, W. E.; Schull, J.; Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    There has been no comparative psychological study of uncertainty processes. Accordingly, the present experiments asked whether animals, like humans, escape adaptively when they are uncertain. Human and animal observers were given two primary responses in a visual discrimination task, and the opportunity to escape from some trials into easier ones. In one psychophysical task (using a threshold paradigm), humans escaped selectively the difficult trials that left them uncertain of the stimulus. Two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) also showed this pattern. In a second psychophysical task (using the method of constant stimuli), some humans showed this pattern but one escaped infrequently and nonoptimally. Monkeys showed equivalent individual differences. The data suggest that escapes by humans and monkeys are interesting cognitive analogs and may reflect controlled decisional processes prompted by the perceptual ambiguity at threshold.

  15. Are animal models predictive for humans?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    It is one of the central aims of the philosophy of science to elucidate the meanings of scientific terms and also to think critically about their application. The focus of this essay is the scientific term predict and whether there is credible evidence that animal models, especially in toxicology and pathophysiology, can be used to predict human outcomes. Whether animals can be used to predict human response to drugs and other chemicals is apparently a contentious issue. However, when one empirically analyzes animal models using scientific tools they fall far short of being able to predict human responses. This is not surprising considering what we have learned from fields such evolutionary and developmental biology, gene regulation and expression, epigenetics, complexity theory, and comparative genomics. PMID:19146696

  16. What Animal Models Teach Humans about Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Dharmadhikari, Ashwin S.; Nardell, Edward A.

    2008-01-01

    Animal models have become standard tools for the study of a wide array of human infectious diseases. Although there are no true animal reservoirs for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, many different animal species are susceptible to infection with this organism and have served as valuable tools for the study of tuberculosis (TB). The most commonly used experimental animal models of TB are the mouse, rabbit, and guinea pig. Although substantial differences in TB susceptibility and disease manifestations exist between these species, they have contributed significantly to the understanding of TB immunopathogenesis, host genetic influence on infection, efficacy of antimicrobial therapy, and host/pathogen interactions that determine the outcome or severity of infection. Among the three species, mice are relatively resistant to TB infection, followed by rabbits and then guinea pigs, which are extremely vulnerable to infection. Mice are most often used in experiments on immune responses to TB infection and drug regimens against TB. Rabbits, unlike the other two animal models, develop cavitary TB and offer a means to study the factors leading to this form of the disease. Guinea pigs, due to their high susceptibility to infection, have been ideal for studies on airborne transmission and vaccine efficacy. In addition to these three species, TB research has occasionally involved nonhuman primates and cattle models. Current concepts in TB pathogenesis have also been derived from animal studies involving experimentally induced infections with related mycobacteria (e.g., Mycobacterium bovis) whose manifestations in select animal hosts mimic human TB. PMID:18556589

  17. Therapeutic Targets of Human AKI: Harmonizing Human and Animal AKI.

    PubMed

    Okusa, Mark D; Rosner, Mitchell H; Kellum, John A; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The opportunity to make advances in the prevention and treatment of AKI has never been greater than it is today. Major advances have been made in the understanding of the biology of AKI, the design of clinical trials, and the use of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. These advances have been supplemented by the coordinated effort of societies, federal agencies, and industry, such that we are poised in the ensuing years to positively address the unrelenting harm that this disorder has created. Over the past decade, major advances have been made in understanding the pathophysiology of AKI, mainly through the study of small animal models. However, translating these findings to human AKI remains a barrier, which is typified by the absence of effective therapeutic agents. The purpose of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) XIII was to harmonize human and animal studies and determine what is known about potential therapeutic targets and what gaps in knowledge remain. A series of invited reviews will distill key concepts from this initiative that focus on different pathogenic features of AKI, including hemodynamics, immunity and inflammation, cellular and molecular pathways, progression, and regeneration and repair. This series will convey the status of our knowledge of the pathophysiology of human AKI and propose therapeutic targets for further investigation. PMID:26519086

  18. Piperidine alkaloids: Human and food animal teratogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piperidine alkaloids are acutely toxic to adult livestock species and produce musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal animals. These teratogenic effects include multiple congenital contracture (MCC) deformities and cleft palate in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Poisonous plants containing teratogen...

  19. Animal Model of Fatal Human Monocytotropic Ehrlichiosis

    PubMed Central

    Sotomayor, Edgar A.; Popov, Vsevolod L.; Feng, Hui-Min; Walker, David H.; Olano, Juan P.

    2001-01-01

    Human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis is a life-threatening, tick-borne, emerging infectious disease for which no satisfactory animal model has been developed. Strain HF565, an ehrlichial organism closely related to E. chaffeensis isolated from Ixodes ovatus ticks in Japan, causes fatal infection of mice. C57BL/6 mice became ill on day 7 after inoculation and died on day 9. The liver revealed confluent necrosis, ballooning cell injury, apoptosis, poorly formed granulomas, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, erythrophagocytosis, and microvesicular fatty metamorphosis. The other significant histological findings consisted of marked expansion of the marginal zone and infiltration of the red pulp of the spleen by macrophages, interstitial pneumonitis, and increased numbers of immature myeloid cells and areas of necrosis in the bone marrow. Ehrlichiae were detected by immunohistology and electron microscopy in the liver, lungs, and spleen. The main target cells were macrophages, including Kupffer cells, hepatocytes, and endothelial cells. Apoptosis was detected in Kupffer cells, hepatocytes, and macrophages in the lungs and spleen. This tropism for macrophages and the pathological lesions closely resemble those of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis for which it is a promising model for investigation of immunity and pathogenesis. PMID:11159213

  20. Human and animal cognition: Continuity and discontinuity

    PubMed Central

    Premack, David

    2007-01-01

    Microscopic study of the human brain has revealed neural structures, enhanced wiring, and forms of connectivity among nerve cells not found in any animal, challenging the view that the human brain is simply an enlarged chimpanzee brain. On the other hand, cognitive studies have found animals to have abilities once thought unique to the human. This suggests a disparity between brain and mind. The suggestion is misleading. Cognitive research has not kept pace with neural research. Neural findings are based on microscopic study of the brain and are primarily cellular. Because cognition cannot be studied microscopically, we need to refine the study of cognition by using a different approach. In examining claims of similarity between animals and humans, one must ask: What are the dissimilarities? This approach prevents confusing similarity with equivalence. We follow this approach in examining eight cognitive casesteaching, short-term memory, causal reasoning, planning, deception, transitive inference, theory of mind, and languageand find, in all cases, that similarities between animal and human abilities are small, dissimilarities large. There is no disparity between brain and mind. PMID:17717081

  1. Neural signs of flexible categorization: evidence from the flexibility of inclusion of humans in animal/non-animal categorization.

    PubMed

    Long, Changquan; Liu, Qiang; Qiu, Jiang; Shen, Xiaying; Li, Sensen; Li, Hong

    2010-06-14

    The temporal course of the human brain dealing with flexible categorization was analyzed by using an event-related potential (ERP) technique in an animal/non-animal categorization task in two parallel experiments. Participants shown animal, person, mixed and non-animal images were asked if they saw 'animals' after being instructed to exclude humans in the category of 'animals' in Experiment 1, while they were told to define humans as animals in Experiment 2. The ERP data analysis showed that targets elicited larger P150 amplitudes than non-targets, which may reflect early perceptual detection and selection. Images including humans (person and mixed images) elicited larger anterior N2 amplitudes than animal images, regardless of the polysemy of the animal category, which may reflect an extra load on attention and monitoring processes in flexible categorization. Compared to non-targets, targets elicited larger P3 amplitudes, which may be associated with the categorical decision process. PMID:20403341

  2. Best practices for planning events encouraging human-animal interactions.

    PubMed

    Erdozain, G; KuKanich, K; Chapman, B; Powell, D

    2015-03-01

    Educational events encouraging human-animal interaction include the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. It is estimated that 14% of all disease in the USA caused by Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, non-O157 STECs, Listeria monocytogenes, non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica and Yersinia enterocolitica were attributable to animal contact. This article reviews best practices for organizing events where human-animal interactions are encouraged, with the objective of lowering the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. PMID:24751220

  3. Memory monitoring by animals and humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. D.; Shields, W. E.; Allendoerfer, K. R.; Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The authors asked whether animals and humans would use similarly an uncertain response to escape indeterminate memories. Monkeys and humans performed serial probe recognition tasks that produced differential memory difficulty across serial positions (e.g., primacy and recency effects). Participants were given an escape option that let them avoid any trials they wished and receive a hint to the trial's answer. Across species, across tasks, and even across conspecifics with sharper or duller memories, monkeys and humans used the escape option selectively when more indeterminate memory traces were probed. Their pattern of escaping always mirrored the pattern of their primary memory performance across serial positions. Signal-detection analyses confirm the similarity of the animals' and humans' performances. Optimality analyses assess their efficiency. Several aspects of monkeys' performance suggest the cognitive sophistication of their decisions to escape.

  4. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from former East European countries, including Romania is sketchy. Unfortunately, in many Eastern European countries, including Romania it has been assumed that T. ...

  5. 21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section... Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification. Cultured animal and human cells are in vitro cultivated cell lines from the tissue of humans or other animals which are used in various...

  6. 21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section... Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification. Cultured animal and human cells are in vitro cultivated cell lines from the tissue of humans or other animals which are used in various...

  7. 21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section... Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification. Cultured animal and human cells are in vitro cultivated cell lines from the tissue of humans or other animals which are used in various...

  8. 21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section... Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification. Cultured animal and human cells are in vitro cultivated cell lines from the tissue of humans or other animals which are used in various...

  9. Realistic animation of human figures using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Taha, Z; Brown, R; Wright, D

    1996-12-01

    We describe a new approach to the animation of human figures which can produce realistic animation and based on artificial neural networks (ANN). A fully connected ANN is trained with inputs and outputs of key frames obtained from image analysis and key postures and parameters of standing, walking and running. A behaviour index is introduced as an input to the ANN. Each index is unique to each behaviour. Other inputs include speed, cycle history and subsystem index. The subsystem index refers to the different subsystem of the human figure e.g. the right leg is a subsystem referred to by an index. The outputs are the joints displacements. The ANN is trained using the back propagation method. The ANN was able to generate realistic animations of walking and running and could merge three different behaviours, standing, walking and running. The proposed method should enable design evaluations, human factors analysis, task simulation and motion understanding easier for non-animation experts. PMID:8953559

  10. Comparison of internal emitter radiobiology in animals and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Miller, S.C.; Taylor, G.N.

    1997-01-01

    Investigations of radionuclide metabolism and effects in various mammalian species revealed important similarities between animals and humans and between some animal species. These include skeletal deposition of radium and radiostrontium in bone volume; deposition on bone surfaces of plutonium and other actinides; liver deposition of actinides; induction of skeletal or liver malignancies by these radionuclides; induction of tooth and jaw abnormalities; mammary cancer induction by radium in humans and in the beagle; depression of circulating cells in blood; and induction of bone fractures. There are also inter-species differences that may not have been noted if multiple species (including humans) had not been studied. Some of these are more rapid excretion of radium in humans compared with most other mammals; induction by radium of eye melanomas in animals but not humans; rapid loss of deposited plutonium from liver in many species of mice and rats but not in humans and dog; substantial sex-related differences in skeletal plutonium retention and bone sarcoma induction in mice but not in humans or dog; and induction of head sinus carcinomas by {sup 226}Ra in humans but not the beagle. Leukemia and other related neoplasms were not induced in radionuclide-injected lifespan dogs in excess of the occurrence in control animals. Much of our current understanding of skeletal biology and radionuclide behavior in mammals was derived from this and related projects. The primary goal of the Utah experiment of estimating toxicities of bone-seeking radionuclides relative to radium has been accomplished.

  11. Naturally Occurring Animal Models of Human Hepatitis E Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yugo, Danielle M.; Cossaboom, Caitlin M.; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus in the family Hepeviridae. Hepatitis E caused by HEV is a clinically important global disease. There are currently four well-characterized genotypes of HEV in mammalian species, although numerous novel strains of HEV likely belonging to either new genotypes or species have recently been identified from several other animal species. HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are limited to infection in humans, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 infect an expanding host range of animal species and are zoonotic to humans. Historical animal models include various species of nonhuman primates, which have been indispensable for the discovery of human HEV and for understanding its pathogenesis and course of infection. With the genetic identification and characterization of animal strains of HEV, a number of naturally occurring animal models such as swine, chicken, and rabbit have recently been developed for various aspects of HEV research, including vaccine trials, pathogenicity, cross-species infection, mechanism of virus replication, and molecular biology studies. Unfortunately, the current available animal models for HEV are still inadequate for certain aspects of HEV research. For instance, an animal model is still lacking to study the underlying mechanism of severe and fulminant hepatitis E during pregnancy. Also, an animal model that can mimic chronic HEV infection is critically needed to study the mechanism leading to chronicity in immunocompromised individuals. Genetic identification of additional novel animal strains of HEV may lead to the development of better naturally occurring animal models for HEV. This article reviews the current understanding of animal models of HEV infection in both natural and experimental infection settings and identifies key research needs and limitations. PMID:24936039

  12. Pet Face: Mechanisms Underlying Human-Animal Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Borgi, Marta; Cirulli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating behavioral and neurophysiological studies support the idea of infantile (cute) faces as highly biologically relevant stimuli rapidly and unconsciously capturing attention and eliciting positive/affectionate behaviors, including willingness to care. It has been hypothesized that the presence of infantile physical and behavioral features in companion (or pet) animals (i.e., dogs and cats) might form the basis of our attraction to these species. Preliminary evidence has indeed shown that the human attentional bias toward the baby schema may extend to animal facial configurations. In this review, the role of facial cues, specifically of infantile traits and facial signals (i.e., eyes gaze) as emotional and communicative signals is highlighted and discussed as regulating the human-animal bond, similarly to what can be observed in the adult-infant interaction context. Particular emphasis is given to the neuroendocrine regulation of the social bond between humans and animals through oxytocin secretion. Instead of considering companion animals as mere baby substitutes for their owners, in this review we highlight the central role of cats and dogs in human lives. Specifically, we consider the ability of companion animals to bond with humans as fulfilling the need for attention and emotional intimacy, thus serving similar psychological and adaptive functions as human-human friendships. In this context, facial cuteness is viewed not just as a releaser of care/parental behavior, but, more in general, as a trait motivating social engagement. To conclude, the impact of this information for applied disciplines is briefly described, particularly in consideration of the increasing evidence of the beneficial effects of contacts with animals for human health and wellbeing. PMID:27014120

  13. An Inclusive Re-Engagement with our Nonhuman Animal Kin: Considering Human Interrelationships with Nonhuman Animals

    PubMed Central

    Bennison, Rod

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary The impact that the divide between human and nonhuman animals, between nature and culture, actually has on the planet, on nonhuman animals, cannot be underestimated. The divide is a socially constructed separation, an ‘othering’, of all life on the planet, and has been imposed and systematically used by humanity in order to exploit nonhuman animals and utilise the environment without little thought as to the ramifications. The paper examines such complex questions as ‘what is nature?’, ‘what is an animal?’ and ‘what does it mean to be human?’ Issues considered include species concepts, nature culture dualisms, and the human place within animality. What is recommended is an an urgent need for the adoption of an ethic of ecological inclusion. Abstract As humans increasingly acknowledge the effects that they are having on the planet, there is a realisation implicit in these effects that human interrelationships with nature are actually arbitrated and expedited exploitatively. Understanding how the different discourses and histories through which the interrelationships with nature are mediated and actually told and then retold is fundamental to appreciating how humans may relate with nature less exploitatively and in ways that are more inclusionary, particularly with nonhuman animals. Humans perceive nature and individual nonhuman animals in various ways. This paper provides an investigation of how humans have socially constructed nature and their place as either within or outside of it. Such constructions are elaborated conceptually and through narrative. More pertinently, this paper examines how nature and nonhuman animals are perceived and placed within those narratives that humans construct from reality. It is stressed here that such constructions have, and may continue, to lead to a worsening of the effects that humans have on the planet if there is no acceptance or recognition that certain realities exist beyond the exploitative bounds of any human-inspired concept or narrative. This paper therefore provides the groundwork for the foundations of an ethic that is both socially and ecologically inclusive and is based on a soft realist approach. PMID:26486213

  14. Morally relevant differences between animals and human beings justifying the use of animals in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Dennis, J U

    1997-03-01

    I have attempted to show that the differential qualities of animals and human beings indeed to have bearing on moral rules and the derivation of rights, including rights established on the basis of reason and utilitarianism. Special rights for members of our species are not simply a consequence of human domination and self-interest. I also have tried to show that rights arise from values and that the qualities we value most highly often are the ones that distinguish human beings from other species. I maintain that giving more value to human lives over animal lives achieves reflective balance with the commonsense notions that most of us have developed. Because utilitarianism, contractualism, and the classical philosophical methods of Kant and Aristotle all may allow favoring human interests over animal interests, it seems reasonable to suspect that animal rights activists embrace narrow, extremist views. There are many uniquely human experiences to which we ascribe high value-deep interpersonal relationships, achieving a life's goal, enjoying a complex cultural event such as a play or an opera, or authoring a manuscript. Therefore, it would seem improper that social and ethical considerations regarding animals be centered entirely on the notion of a biological continuum, because there are many kinds of human experience-moral, religious, aesthetic, and otherwise-that appear to be outside the realm of biology. Knowledge about the biology of animals is helpful for making moral decisions about our obligations to them. Why, then, is there a substantial population of animal rights activists in Europe, the United States, and throughout the world, who would not agree with my conclusions? Certain habitual ways of thinking may encourage anthropomorphism and equating animal interests with human interests. Certain metaphysical beliefs, such as a belief in reincarnation, also might favor animal rights. It also is possible that a number of people are being deceived and misled by a smaller, more radical minority. I believe that a commitment to animal rights principles also may arise from a world view of strict naturalism. If ethical inquiry is based strictly on naturalism without criteria for value and goodness, then perhaps extreme views granting animals the same rights as human beings are a logical consequence of those premises; however, it is not clear to me whether one could be internally consistent and still maintain those beliefs. Moral convictions do not arise directly from the ethical frameworks I have discussed. The study of ethics only casts light on our presumptions and suppositions and helps us analyze and appraise our beliefs about justice, rights, and morality. Those of us who work with animals know that animals, particularly companion animals, can be wonderful to relate with, that they possess unique beauty and value, and that they enrich our lives and the world in which we live. In the strict biological sense, human beings are animals too, but in the broader sense, human beings are much more than animals. The life of a man, woman, or child is worth far more than the life of a mouse, rat, dog, or monkey. PMID:9054986

  15. Meaning in animal and human communication.

    PubMed

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C

    2015-05-01

    What is meaning? While traditionally the domain of philosophy and linguistics, this question, and others related to it, is critical for cognitive and comparative approaches to communication. This short essay provides a concise and accessible description of how the term meaning can and should be used, how it relates to 'intentional communication', and what would constitute good evidence of meaning in animal communication, in the sense that is relevant for comparisons with human language. PMID:25647173

  16. Scripting human animations in a virtual environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, Michael E.; Pandya, Abhilash K.; Maida, James C.

    1994-01-01

    The current deficiencies of virtual environment (VE) are well known: annoying lag time in drawing the current view, drastically simplified environments to reduce that time lag, low resolution and narrow field of view. Animation scripting is an application of VE technology which can be carried out successfully despite these deficiencies. The final product is a smoothly moving high resolution animation displaying detailed models. In this system, the user is represented by a human computer model with the same body proportions. Using magnetic tracking, the motions of the model's upper torso, head and arms are controlled by the user's movements (18 degrees of freedom). The model's lower torso and global position and orientation are controlled by a spaceball and keypad (12 degrees of freedom). Using this system human motion scripts can be extracted from the user's movements while immersed in a simplified virtual environment. Recorded data is used to define key frames; motion is interpolated between them and post processing adds a more detailed environment. The result is a considerable savings in time and a much more natural-looking movement of a human figure in a smooth and seamless animation.

  17. Humane Society International's global campaign to end animal testing.

    PubMed

    Seidle, Troy

    2013-12-01

    The Research & Toxicology Department of Humane Society International (HSI) operates a multifaceted and science-driven global programme aimed at ending the use of animals in toxicity testing and research. The key strategic objectives include: a) ending cosmetics animal testing worldwide, via the multinational Be Cruelty-Free campaign; b) achieving near-term reductions in animal testing requirements through revision of product sector regulations; and c) advancing humane science by exposing failing animal models of human disease and shifting science funding toward human biology-based research and testing tools fit for the 21st century. HSI was instrumental in ensuring the implementation of the March 2013 European sales ban for newly animal-tested cosmetics, in achieving the June 2013 cosmetics animal testing ban in India as well as major cosmetics regulatory policy shifts in China and South Korea, and in securing precedent-setting reductions in in vivo data requirements for pesticides in the EU through the revision of biocides and plant protection product regulations, among others. HSI is currently working to export these life-saving measures to more than a dozen industrial and emerging economies. PMID:24512229

  18. Humane Society International's global campaign to end animal testing.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Seidle T

    2013-12-01

    The Research & Toxicology Department of Humane Society International (HSI) operates a multifaceted and science-driven global programme aimed at ending the use of animals in toxicity testing and research. The key strategic objectives include: a) ending cosmetics animal testing worldwide, via the multinational Be Cruelty-Free campaign; b) achieving near-term reductions in animal testing requirements through revision of product sector regulations; and c) advancing humane science by exposing failing animal models of human disease and shifting science funding toward human biology-based research and testing tools fit for the 21st century. HSI was instrumental in ensuring the implementation of the March 2013 European sales ban for newly animal-tested cosmetics, in achieving the June 2013 cosmetics animal testing ban in India as well as major cosmetics regulatory policy shifts in China and South Korea, and in securing precedent-setting reductions in in vivo data requirements for pesticides in the EU through the revision of biocides and plant protection product regulations, among others. HSI is currently working to export these life-saving measures to more than a dozen industrial and emerging economies.

  19. Our Professional Responsibilities Relative to Human-Animal Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bustad, L. K.; Hines, L.

    1984-01-01

    An interesting area with great potential for benefiting and enriching the lives and conditions of people and animals is opening to us in research, service and teaching. By working with colleagues in other disciplines, we can develop new and creative ways to realize the great promise inherent in people-animal interactions properly studied and utilized. Veterinarians who understand that a strong human-companion animal bond can augment people's mental and physical states will help develop sound and effective companion animal programs for individuals who are lonely or handicapped and for persons in the school systems of the community, as well as its hospices, nursing and convalescent homes, prisons and other institutions. Children experiencing the deep satisfaction of interacting with animals while young will more likely become responsible pet owners and advocates as adults. The image of the profession is enhanced when children and adults see veterinarians as concerned teachers and compassionate health professionals. We as professionals will be required not only to update our knowledge and skills, but to acquire new knowledge in fields of animal and human behavior, psychology and sociology. We are needed on interdisciplinary research teams to study human-animal interactions. We will also be asked to commit time and personal energies in community programs, sometimes with no remuneration. But if skilled health professionals like veterinarians do not take the lead in establishing sound, long-term companion animal programs in their own communities, everyone will suffer including the animals. How we, as individual professionals, respond will be an important reflection of our compassion and our humanity. PMID:17422458

  20. Non-Human Primates Harbor Diverse Mammalian and Avian Astroviruses Including Those Associated with Human Infections

    PubMed Central

    Freiden, Pamela; Feeroz, MM; Matsen, Frederick A; San, Sorn; Hasan, M Kamrul; Wang, David; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Astroviruses (AstVs) are positive sense, single-stranded RNA viruses transmitted to a wide range of hosts via the fecal-oral route. The number of AstV-infected animal hosts has rapidly expanded in recent years with many more likely to be discovered because of the advances in viral surveillance and next generation sequencing. Yet no study to date has identified human AstV genotypes in animals, although diverse AstV genotypes similar to animal-origin viruses have been found in children with diarrhea and in one instance of encephalitis. Here we provide important new evidence that non-human primates (NHP) can harbor a wide variety of mammalian and avian AstV genotypes, including those only associated with human infection. Serological analyses confirmed that >25% of the NHP tested had antibodies to human AstVs. Further, we identified a recombinant AstV with parental relationships to known human AstVs. Phylogenetic analysis suggests AstVs in NHP are on average evolutionarily much closer to AstVs from other animals than are AstVs from bats, a frequently proposed reservoir. Our studies not only demonstrate that human astroviruses can be detected in NHP but also suggest that NHP are unique in their ability to support diverse AstV genotypes, further challenging the paradigm that astrovirus infection is species-specific. PMID:26571270

  1. Affective neuroscience of pleasure: reward in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Pleasure and reward are generated by brain circuits that are largely shared between humans and other animals. Discussion Here, we survey some fundamental topics regarding pleasure mechanisms and explicitly compare humans and animals. Conclusion Topics surveyed include liking, wanting, and learning components of reward; brain coding versus brain causing of reward; subjective pleasure versus objective hedonic reactions; roles of orbitofrontal cortex and related cortex regions; subcortical hedonic hotspots for pleasure generation; reappraisals of dopamine and pleasure-electrode controversies; and the relation of pleasure to happiness. PMID:18311558

  2. Toxinotype V Clostridium difficile in Humans and Food Animals

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Angela D.; Killgore, George E.; Zukowski, Walter E.; Songer, Glenn; Warny, Michael; Johnson, Stuart; Gerding, Dale N.; McDonald, L. Clifford; Limbago, Brandi M.

    2008-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a recognized pathogen in neonatal pigs and may contribute to enteritis in calves. Toxinotype V strains have been rare causes of human C. difficileassociated disease (CDAD). We examined toxinotype V in human disease, the genetic relationship of animal and human toxinotype V strains, and in vitro toxin production of these strains. From 2001 through 2006, 8 (1.3%) of 620 patient isolates were identified as toxinotype V; before 2001, 7 (<0.02%) of ?6,000 isolates were identified as toxinotype V. Six (46.2%) of 13 case-patients for whom information was available had community-associated CDAD. Molecular characterization showed a high degree of similarity between human and animal toxinotype V isolates; all contained a 39-bp tcdC deletion and most produced binary toxin. Further study is needed to understand the epidemiology of CDAD caused by toxinotype V C. difficile, including the potential of foodborne transmission to humans. PMID:18598622

  3. Epidemiological review of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Hotea, I; Olariu, T R; Jones, J L; D?r?bu?, G

    2014-03-01

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from eastern European countries is sketchy. In many eastern European countries, including Romania, it has been assumed that chronic T. gondii infection is a common cause of infertility and abortion. For this reason, many women in Romania with these problems were needlessly tested for T. gondii infection. Most papers on toxoplasmosis in Romania were published in Romanian in local journals and often not available to scientists in other countries. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Romania is largely unknown. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii or prevalence in animals and humans in Romania. In the present paper we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Romania. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, veterinarians and physicians. PMID:24553077

  4. Toxoplasma gondii: from animals to humans

    PubMed Central

    Tenter, Astrid M.; Heckeroth, Anja R.; Weiss, Louis M.

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the more common parasitic zoonoses world-wide. Its causative agent, Toxoplasma gondii, is a facultatively heteroxenous, polyxenous protozoon that has developed several potential routes of transmission within and between different host species. If first contracted during pregnancy, T. gondii may be transmitted vertically by tachyzoites that are passed to the foetus via the placenta. Horizontal transmission of T. gondii may involve three life-cycle stages, i.e. ingesting infectious oocysts from the environment or ingesting tissue cysts or tachyzoites which are contained in meat or primary offal (viscera) of many different animals. Transmission may also occur via tachyzoites contained in blood products, tissue transplants, or unpasteurised milk. However, it is not known which of these routes is more important epidemiologically. In the past, the consumption of raw or undercooked meat, in particular of pigs and sheep, has been regarded as a major route of transmission to humans. However, recent studies showed that the prevalence of T. gondii in meat-producing animals decreased considerably over the past 20 years in areas with intensive farm management. For example, in several countries of the European Union prevalences of T. gondii in fattening pigs are now <1%. Considering these data it is unlikely that pork is still a major source of infection for humans in these countries. However, it is likely that the major routes of transmission are different in human populations with differences in culture and eating habits. In the Americas, recent outbreaks of acute toxoplasmosis in humans have been associated with oocyst contamination of the environment. Therefore, future epidemiological studies on T. gondii infections should consider the role of oocysts as potential sources of infection for humans, and methods to monitor these are currently being developed. This review presents recent epidemiological data on T. gondii, hypotheses on the major routes of transmission to humans in different populations, and preventive measures that may reduce the risk of contracting a primary infection during pregnancy. PMID:11113252

  5. Animal welfare and the human-animal bond: considerations for veterinary faculty, students, and practitioners.

    PubMed

    Wensley, Sean P

    2008-01-01

    Consideration of the human-animal bond typically focuses on the benefits of companion animals to human health and well-being, but it is essential that in realizing these benefits the welfare needs of the animals, both physical and mental, are also met. Positive emotional relationships with animals are likely to increase recognition of animal sentience and so help create positive attitudes toward animals at the societal level, but, at the individual level, the animals to which humans are bonded should also benefit from the human-animal relationship. A strong human-animal bond may benefit animal welfare (e.g., by motivating an owner to commit time and funds to necessary veterinary medical treatment), but may also be the source of compromised welfare. Highly bonded owners may, for example, be reluctant to permit euthanasia on humane grounds, and the anthropomorphic nature of many human-companion animal bonds can contribute to the development of problem behaviors and obesity. The challenge for the veterinary profession is to ensure that widespread positive sentiment toward animals, which the human-animal bond generates, is translated in to human behavior and actions that are conducive to good animal welfare. This, it is suggested, can be achieved through adequate veterinary education in veterinary and animal welfare science, ethics, and communication. PMID:19228905

  6. Humans, animals, robots: handling volumic data flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Valery

    1999-08-01

    Human visual system is properly suited for reliable and adequate volumetric perception of natural environment. Volumetric data flows coming from the outer physical space are easily acquired, transferred and processed by eye-brain system in real time. This relates also to the animals which use different complicate mechanisms of optical volumetric data acquisition and can navigate safely at high speeds. On the contrary machine vision systems utilizing currently the stereoscopic effect in attempt to achieve volumetric data presentation are very slow, bulky and in a way inelegantly devised. The stereoscopy itself seems can hardly organize the adequate, real time volumetric robot vision.

  7. 21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification. Cultured animal and human cells are in...

  8. 21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Animal and human sera. 864.2800 Section 864.2800...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2800 Animal and human sera. (a) Identification. Animal and human sera are biological products, obtained from the...

  9. 21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Animal and human sera. 864.2800 Section 864.2800...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2800 Animal and human sera. (a) Identification. Animal and human sera are biological products, obtained from the...

  10. 21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Animal and human sera. 864.2800 Section 864.2800...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2800 Animal and human sera. (a) Identification. Animal and human sera are biological products, obtained from the...

  11. 21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Animal and human sera. 864.2800 Section 864.2800...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2800 Animal and human sera. (a) Identification. Animal and human sera are biological products, obtained from the...

  12. The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Aysha

    2015-10-01

    Nonhuman animal ("animal") experimentation is typically defended by arguments that it is reliable, that animals provide sufficiently good models of human biology and diseases to yield relevant information, and that, consequently, its use provides major human health benefits. I demonstrate that a growing body of scientific literature critically assessing the validity of animal experimentation generally (and animal modeling specifically) raises important concerns about its reliability and predictive value for human outcomes and for understanding human physiology. The unreliability of animal experimentation across a wide range of areas undermines scientific arguments in favor of the practice. Additionally, I show how animal experimentation often significantly harms humans through misleading safety studies, potential abandonment of effective therapeutics, and direction of resources away from more effective testing methods. The resulting evidence suggests that the collective harms and costs to humans from animal experimentation outweigh potential benefits and that resources would be better invested in developing human-based testing methods. PMID:26364776

  13. Atypical prion diseases in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Tranulis, Michael A; Benestad, Sylvie L; Baron, Thierry; Kretzschmar, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Although prion diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep, have long been recognized, our understanding of their epidemiology and pathogenesis is still in its early stages. Progress is hampered by the lengthy incubation periods and the lack of effective ways of monitoring and characterizing these agents. Protease-resistant conformers of the prion protein (PrP), known as the "scrapie form" (PrP(Sc)), are used as disease markers, and for taxonomic purposes, in correlation with clinical, pathological, and genetic data. In humans, prion diseases can arise sporadically (sCJD) or genetically (gCJD and others), caused by mutations in the PrP-gene (PRNP), or as a foodborne infection, with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) causing variant CJD (vCJD). Person-to-person spread of human prion disease has only been known to occur following cannibalism (kuru disease in Papua New Guinea) or through medical or surgical treatment (iatrogenic CJD, iCJD). In contrast, scrapie in small ruminants and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids behave as infectious diseases within these species. Recently, however, so-called atypical forms of prion diseases have been discovered in sheep (atypical/Nor98 scrapie) and in cattle, BSE-H and BSE-L. These maladies resemble sporadic or genetic human prion diseases and might be their animal equivalents. This hypothesis also raises the significant public health question of possible epidemiological links between these diseases and their counterparts in humans. PMID:21598097

  14. Farm Animal Serum Proteomics and Impact on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Girolamo, Francesco Di; D’Amato, Alfonsina; Lante, Isabella; Signore, Fabrizio; Muraca, Marta; Putignani, Lorenza

    2014-01-01

    Due to the incompleteness of animal genome sequencing, the analysis and characterization of serum proteomes of most farm animals are still in their infancy, compared to the already well-documented human serum proteome. This review focuses on the implications of the farm animal serum proteomics in order to identify novel biomarkers for animal welfare, early diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of infectious disease treatment, and develop new vaccines, aiming at determining the reciprocal benefits for humans and animals. PMID:25257521

  15. Farm animal serum proteomics and impact on human health.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Francesco; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Lante, Isabella; Signore, Fabrizio; Muraca, Marta; Putignani, Lorenza

    2014-01-01

    Due to the incompleteness of animal genome sequencing, the analysis and characterization of serum proteomes of most farm animals are still in their infancy, compared to the already well-documented human serum proteome. This review focuses on the implications of the farm animal serum proteomics in order to identify novel biomarkers for animal welfare, early diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of infectious disease treatment, and develop new vaccines, aiming at determining the reciprocal benefits for humans and animals. PMID:25257521

  16. [Animals--humans, the physician and ethics].

    PubMed

    Barolin, G S; Barolin, A S

    1993-01-01

    Ethics and humanitarianism are indivisible. They have to refer to the entire animated and inanimate environment likewise. This has moral as well as essential ecological consequences which are of special actuality at present, with mankind being on the verge of total ecological self-destruction. Key-word: eco-ethics. The worship of the Golden Calf by name of economic growth has to be replaced at last by an acceptance of "shrinking into recovery". Unfortunately, human cruelty is not to be confined to the historical past of the Third Reich, but becomes evident continuously before our very eyes. To shut one's eyes to it is a tendency as widespread as the habit of averting one's eyes from avoidable man-made suffering of animals. We need better education and enlightenment (in the sense of resistance at the very beginning), better control and better execution of better regulations. The health professions, together with educational, ecclesiastical and military professions are called upon to direct attention to this aspect of moral hygiene. PMID:8488687

  17. Animals as sentinels of human health hazards of environmental chemicals.

    PubMed Central

    van der Schalie, W H; Gardner, H S; Bantle, J A; De Rosa, C T; Finch, R A; Reif, J S; Reuter, R H; Backer, L C; Burger, J; Folmar, L C; Stokes, W S

    1999-01-01

    A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environment," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, was held to consider the use of sentinel and surrogate animal species data for evaluating the potential human health effects of chemicals in the environment. The workshop took a broad view of the sentinel species concept, and included mammalian and nonmammalian species, companion animals, food animals, fish, amphibians, and other wildlife. Sentinel species data included observations of wild animals in field situations as well as experimental animal data. Workshop participants identified potential applications for sentinel species data derived from monitoring programs or serendipitous observations and explored the potential use of such information in human health hazard and risk assessments and for evaluating causes or mechanisms of effect. Although it is unlikely that sentinel species data will be used as the sole determinative factor in evaluating human health concerns, such data can be useful as for additional weight of evidence in a risk assessment, for providing early warning of situations requiring further study, or for monitoring the course of remedial activities. Attention was given to the factors impeding the application of sentinel species approaches and their acceptance in the scientific and regulatory communities. Workshop participants identified a number of critical research needs and opportunities for interagency collaboration that could help advance the use of sentinel species approaches. PMID:10090711

  18. Congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction: human disease and animal models

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Julie; Gonzalez, Julien; Miravete, Mathieu; Caubet, Cécile; Chaaya, Rana; Decramer, Stéphane; Bandin, Flavio; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Buffin-Meyer, Bénédicte; Schanstra, Joost P

    2011-01-01

    Ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction is the most frequently observed cause of obstructive nephropathy in children. Neonatal and foetal animal models have been developed that mimic closely what is observed in human disease. The purpose of this review is to discuss how obstructive nephropathy alters kidney histology and function and describe the molecular mechanisms involved in the progression of the lesions, including inflammation, proliferation/apoptosis, renin–angiotensin system activation and fibrosis, based on both human and animal data. Also we propose that during obstructive nephropathy, hydrodynamic modifications are early inducers of the tubular lesions, which are potentially at the origin of the pathology. Finally, an important observation in animal models is that relief of obstruction during kidney development has important effects on renal function later in adult life. A major short-coming is the absence of data on the impact of UPJ obstruction on long-term adult renal function to elucidate whether these animal data are also valid in humans. PMID:20681980

  19. 21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2800 Animal and... of humans or other animals, that provide the necessary growth-promoting nutrients in a cell...

  20. The Effect of Toxic Cyanobacteria on Human and Animal Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants unlike people in most ambient ex...

  1. TOXOPLASMOSIS IN MEXICO: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SITUATION IN HUMANS AND ANIMALS

    PubMed Central

    HERNÁNDEZ-CORTAZAR, Ivonne; ACOSTA-VIANA, Karla Y.; ORTEGA-PACHECO, Antonio; GUZMAN-MARIN, Eugenia del S.; AGUILAR-CABALLERO, Armando J.; JIMÉNEZ-COELLO, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease widely distributed throughout the world, infecting a wide variety of animal species including humans. In Mexico, this parasite has been detected in different parts of the country, particularly in the tropical areas where the parasite can remain infective for long periods of time due to the environmental conditions (i.e. high temperature and humidity over the whole year). Several epidemiological studies have been conducted in both human and animal populations, but despite the wide distribution of the agent in the country, there is a significant lack of knowledge on the parasite transmission, treatment alternatives and control measures. The lack of feral cat populations and control measures in sites of meat production for human consumption are playing a role that has led to the wide spread of the disease in the country, particularly in tropical areas of Southeastern Mexico. For these reasons, this manuscript aims to review the published information on relevant epidemiological aspects of infection with T. gondii in humans and animals from Mexico. PMID:25923887

  2. Toxoplasmosis in Mexico: epidemiological situation in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cortazar, Ivonne; Acosta-Viana, Karla Y; Ortega-Pacheco, Antonio; Guzman-Marin, Eugenia del S; Aguilar-Caballero, Armando J; Jiménez-Coello, Matilde

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease widely distributed throughout the world, infecting a wide variety of animal species including humans. In Mexico, this parasite has been detected in different parts of the country, particularly in the tropical areas where the parasite can remain infective for long periods of time due to the environmental conditions (i.e. high temperature and humidity over the whole year). Several epidemiological studies have been conducted in both human and animal populations, but despite the wide distribution of the agent in the country, there is a significant lack of knowledge on the parasite transmission, treatment alternatives and control measures. The lack of feral cat populations and control measures in sites of meat production for human consumption are playing a role that has led to the wide spread of the disease in the country, particularly in tropical areas of Southeastern Mexico. For these reasons, this manuscript aims to review the published information on relevant epidemiological aspects of infection with T. gondii in humans and animals from Mexico. PMID:25923887

  3. Review of human-animal interactions and their impact on animal productivity and welfare

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Humans and animals are in regular and at times close contact in modern intensive farming systems. The quality of human-animal interactions can have a profound impact on the productivity and welfare of farm animals. Interactions by humans may be neutral, positive or negative in nature. Regular pleasant contact with humans may result in desirable alterations in the physiology, behaviour, health and productivity of farm animals. On the contrary, animals that were subjected to aversive human contact were highly fearful of humans and their growth and reproductive performance could be compromised. Farm animals are particularly sensitive to human stimulation that occurs early in life, while many systems of the animals are still developing. This may have long-lasting impact and could possibly modify their genetic potential. The question as to how human contact can have a positive impact on responses to stressors, and productivity is not well understood. Recent work in our laboratory suggested that pleasant human contact may alter ability to tolerate various stressors through enhanced heat shock protein (hsp) 70 expression. The induction of hsp is often associated with increased tolerance to environmental stressors and disease resistance in animals. The attitude and consequent behaviour of stockpeople affect the animals’ fear of human which eventually influence animals’ productivity and welfare. Other than attitude and behaviour, technical skills, knowledge, job motivation, commitment and job satisfaction are prerequisites for high job performance. PMID:23855920

  4. Exploring host–microbiota interactions in animal models and humans

    PubMed Central

    Kostic, Aleksandar D.; Howitt, Michael R.; Garrett, Wendy S.

    2013-01-01

    The animal and bacterial kingdoms have coevolved and coadapted in response to environmental selective pressures over hundreds of millions of years. The meta'omics revolution in both sequencing and its analytic pipelines is fostering an explosion of interest in how the gut microbiome impacts physiology and propensity to disease. Gut microbiome studies are inherently interdisciplinary, drawing on approaches and technical skill sets from the biomedical sciences, ecology, and computational biology. Central to unraveling the complex biology of environment, genetics, and microbiome interaction in human health and disease is a deeper understanding of the symbiosis between animals and bacteria. Experimental model systems, including mice, fish, insects, and the Hawaiian bobtail squid, continue to provide critical insight into how host–microbiota homeostasis is constructed and maintained. Here we consider how model systems are influencing current understanding of host–microbiota interactions and explore recent human microbiome studies. PMID:23592793

  5. Epigenesis of behavioural lateralization in humans and other animals

    PubMed Central

    Schaafsma, S.M.; Riedstra, B.J.; Pfannkuche, K.A.; Bouma, A.; Groothuis, T.G.G.

    2008-01-01

    Despite several decades of research, the epigenesis of behavioural and brain lateralization is still elusive, although its knowledge is important in understanding developmental plasticity, function and evolution of lateralization, and its relationship with developmental disorders. Over the last decades, it has become clear that behavioural lateralization is not restricted to humans, but a fundamental principle in the organization of behaviour in vertebrates. This has opened the possibility of extending descriptive studies on human lateralization with descriptive and experimental studies on other vertebrate species. In this review, we therefore explore the evidence for the role of genes and environment on behavioural lateralization in humans and other animals. First, we discuss the predominant genetic models for human handedness, and conclude that their explanatory power alone is not sufficient, leaving, together with ambiguous results from adoption studies and selection experiments in animals, ample opportunity for a role of environmental factors. Next, we discuss the potential influence of such factors, including perinatal asymmetrical perception induced by asymmetrical head position or parental care, and social modulation, both in humans and other vertebrates, presenting some evidence from our own work on the domestic chick. We conclude that both perinatal asymmetrical perception and later social modulation are likely candidates in influencing the degree or strength of lateralization in both humans and other vertebrates. However, in most cases unequivocal evidence for this is lacking and we will point out further avenues for research. PMID:19064352

  6. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... institution has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the protection of human subjects; and (b... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  7. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... institution has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the protection of human subjects; and (b... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  8. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... institution has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the protection of human subjects; and (b... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  9. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... institution has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the protection of human subjects; and (b... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  10. 42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... institution has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the protection of human subjects; and (b... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section 86.33... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships § 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...

  11. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, Andrew; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fernández, Maria-Luisa; Arcella, Davide; Peteghem, Carlos van; Dorne, Jean-Lou

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also carried out taking into account all direct and indirect sources of nitrite from the human diet, including carry-over of nitrite in animal-based products such as milk, eggs and meat products. Human exposure was then compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nitrite of 0-0.07 mg/kg b.w. per day. Overall, the low levels of nitrite in fresh animal products represented only 2.9% of the total daily dietary exposure and thus were not considered to raise concerns for human health. It is concluded that the potential health risk to animals from the consumption of feed or to man from eating fresh animal products containing nitrite, is very low.

  12. WORKSHOP ON THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPARABILITY OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY, WORK GROUP I REPORT: COMPARABILITY OF MEASURES OF DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY IN HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment measures used in developmental neurotoxicology are reviewed for their comparability in humans and laboratory animals, and their ability to detect comparable, adverse effects across species. ompounds used for these comparisons include: abuse substances, anticonvulsant d...

  13. Parallels in sources of trauma, pain, distress, and suffering in humans and nonhuman animals.

    PubMed

    Ferdowsian, Hope; Merskin, Debra

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that animals often experience pain and distress as a result of their use in scientific experimentation. However, unlike human suffering, the wide range of acute, recurrent, and chronic stressors and trauma on animals is rarely evaluated. In order to better understand the cumulative effects of captivity and laboratory research conditions on animals, we explore parallels between human experiences of pain and psychological distress and those of animals based on shared brain structures and physiological mechanisms. We review anatomical, physiological, and behavioral similarities between humans and other animals regarding the potential for suffering. In addition, we examine associations between research conditions and indicators of pain and distress. We include 4 case studies of common animal research protocols in order to illustrate incidental and experimental factors that can lead to animal suffering. Finally, we identify parallels between established traumatic conditions for humans and existing laboratory conditions for animals. PMID:22651679

  14. Epidemiology of human and animal kobuviruses.

    PubMed

    Khamrin, Pattara; Maneekarn, Niwat; Okitsu, Shoko; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Kobuviruses are member of the family Picornaviridae. Initially, members in Kobuvirus genus were named according to the basis of their host species. The viruses found in humans called "Aichi virus", the viruses from cattle called "bovine kobuvirus", and the viruses isolated from pigs called "porcine kobuvirus". Currently, taxonomy of kobuviruses has been proposed and the virus species have been renamed. The "Aichi virus" has been renamed as "Aichivirus A", "bovine kobuvirus" has been renamed as "Aichivirus B", and "porcine kobuvirus" has been changed to "Aichivirus C". Among Aichivirus A, three distinct members, including Aichi virus 1 (Aichivirus in human), canine kobuvirus 1, and murine kobuvirus 1, have been described. Aichi virus 1 in human is globally distributed and has been identified at low incidence (0-3 %) in sporadic acute gastroenteritis cases. Aichi virus 1 has been reported to be associated with variety types of clinical illnesses including diarrhea, vomiting, fever, purulent conjunctivitis, and respiratory symptoms. The studies from Japan, Spain, Germany, and Tunisia demonstrated that high antibody prevalence against Aichi virus 1 were found in the populations. Aichivirus B or previously known as bovine kobuvirus was first reported in 2003. Since then, Aichivirus B has also been reported from several countries worldwide. An overall prevalence of Aichivirus B varies from 1 to 34.5 %, and the highest prevalence was found in cattle with diarrhea in Korea. Aichivirus C or porcine kobuvirus is widely distributed in pigs. Aichivirus C has been found in both diarrhea and healthy pigs and the positive rate of this virus varies from 3.9 up to 100 %. It was reported that Aichivirus C was found with high prevalence in wild boars in Hungary. The accumulated data of the biological, pathological, as well as epidemiological studies of kobuviruses are still limited. Comprehensive global investigations of the prevalence and diversity are required and will be helpful for providing further insight into pathogenicity, genetic heterogeneity, interspecies transmission, and global distribution of kobuviruses. PMID:25674585

  15. Human and Animal Dirofilariasis: the Emergence of a Zoonotic Mosaic

    PubMed Central

    Siles-Lucas, Mar; Morchón, Rodrigo; González-Miguel, Javier; Mellado, Isabel; Carretón, Elena; Montoya-Alonso, Jose Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Dirofilariasis represents a zoonotic mosaic, which includes two main filarial species (Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens) that have adapted to canine, feline, and human hosts with distinct biological and clinical implications. At the same time, both D. immitis and D. repens are themselves hosts to symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, the study of which has resulted in a profound shift in the understanding of filarial biology, the mechanisms of the pathologies that they produce in their hosts, and issues related to dirofilariasis treatment. Moreover, because dirofilariasis is a vector-borne transmitted disease, their distribution and infection rates have undergone significant modifications influenced by global climate change. Despite advances in our knowledge of D. immitis and D. repens and the pathologies that they inflict on different hosts, there are still many unknown aspects of dirofilariasis. This review is focused on human and animal dirofilariasis, including the basic morphology, biology, protein composition, and metabolism of Dirofilaria species; the climate and human behavioral factors that influence distribution dynamics; the disease pathology; the host-parasite relationship; the mechanisms involved in parasite survival; the immune response and pathogenesis; and the clinical management of human and animal infections. PMID:22763636

  16. Food Animals and Antimicrobials: Impacts on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Bonnie M.; Levy, Stuart B.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Antimicrobials are valuable therapeutics whose efficacy is seriously compromised by the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The provision of antibiotics to food animals encompasses a wide variety of nontherapeutic purposes that include growth promotion. The concern over resistance emergence and spread to people by nontherapeutic use of antimicrobials has led to conflicted practices and opinions. Considerable evidence supported the removal of nontherapeutic antimicrobials (NTAs) in Europe, based on the “precautionary principle.” Still, concrete scientific evidence of the favorable versus unfavorable consequences of NTAs is not clear to all stakeholders. Substantial data show elevated antibiotic resistance in bacteria associated with animals fed NTAs and their food products. This resistance spreads to other animals and humans—directly by contact and indirectly via the food chain, water, air, and manured and sludge-fertilized soils. Modern genetic techniques are making advances in deciphering the ecological impact of NTAs, but modeling efforts are thwarted by deficits in key knowledge of microbial and antibiotic loads at each stage of the transmission chain. Still, the substantial and expanding volume of evidence reporting animal-to-human spread of resistant bacteria, including that arising from use of NTAs, supports eliminating NTA use in order to reduce the growing environmental load of resistance genes. PMID:21976606

  17. Animal Models and Bone Histomorphometry: Translational Research for the Human Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of animal models to research and inform bone morphology, in particular relating to human research in bone loss as a result of low gravity environments. Reasons for use of animal models as tools for human research programs include: time-efficient, cost-effective, invasive measures, and predictability as some model are predictive for drug effects.

  18. Discrimination of human and animal blood traces via Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Gregory; Doty, Kyle C; Lednev, Igor K

    2014-05-01

    The characterization of suspected blood stains is an important aspect of forensic science. In particular, determining the origin of a blood stain is a critical, yet overlooked, step in establishing its relevance to the crime. Currently, assays for determining human origin for blood are time consuming and destructive to the sample. The research presented here demonstrates that Raman spectroscopy can be effectively applied as a non-destructive technique for differentiating human blood from a wide survey of animal blood. A Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) model was built from a training set of the near infrared Raman spectra from 11 species. Various performance measures, including a blind test and external validation, confirm the discriminatory performance of the chemometric model. The model demonstrated 100% accuracy in its differentiation between human and nonhuman blood. These findings further demonstrate a great potential of Raman spectroscopy to the field of serology, especially for species identification of a suspected blood stain. PMID:24681972

  19. Rabies: Diagnosis in Animals and Humans

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a low probability of rabies such as dogs, cats, and ferrets, observation periods (10 days) may be ... 2008 Rabies in Domestic Animals, 1958-2008 Rabid Cats Reported in the United States, 2008 Rabid Dogs ...

  20. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may be made under this subpart unless the applicant has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section...

  1. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may be made under this subpart unless the applicant has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section...

  2. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may be made under this subpart unless the applicant has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section...

  3. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may be made under this subpart unless the applicant has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section...

  4. 42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award may be made under this subpart unless the applicant has complied with: (a) 45 CFR part 46 pertaining to the... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section...

  5. [Animal protection without limits? Human-animal relations in between anthropomorphism and objectification].

    PubMed

    Grimm, Herwig; Hartnack, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    In view of recent developments in human-animal relations, vets and ethicists face a new problem: On the one hand, animals such as mammals and birds are used extensively and are in danger to be reduced to mere production units e. g. in the agricultural production, measuring devices in laboratories, sports equipment etc. On the other hand, biologically similar animals are perceived as family members or partners and are almost treated like humans. The article summarizes the results of a workshop that dealt with reductionism and anthropomorphism in human-animal relations. Vets and ethicists tackled the question how the unequal treatment of biologically similar animals can be better understood and whether it can be ethically justified. In the first section, the problem of inconsistency in human-animals relations is briefly sketched. The second part of the article addresses the ethics of unequal treatment of similar animals in different contexts. The following section inquires possible solutions and the advantages and disadvantages of biological criteria versus social criteria in animal protection. Finally, the background and reasons for our moral intuitions of injustice associated with the inconsistencies in human-animal relations are outlined. This fourth section refers to the presentation of Peter Kunzmann during the workshop on the unequal treatment of equals.The article closes with some general remarks on the issue. One main result of the workshop can be stated as follows: Due to the fact that the various human-animal relations gain their ethical justification from different ethical reasons, the unequal treatment of similar animals in different contexts is not ethically wrong per se. However, every intrusive dealing or interaction with animals is in itself in need of ethical justification. PMID:24199378

  6. Systematic reviews of animal experiments demonstrate poor contributions toward human healthcare.

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew

    2008-05-01

    Widespread reliance on animal models during preclinical research and toxicity testing assumes their reasonable predictivity for human outcomes. However, of 20 published systematic reviews examining human clinical utility, located during a comprehensive literature search, animal models demonstrated significant potential to contribute toward the development of clinical interventions in only two cases, one of which was contentious. Included were experiments expected by ethics committees to lead to medical advances, highly-cited experiments published in major journals, and chimpanzee experiments-the species most generally predictive of human outcomes. Seven additional reviews failed to demonstrate utility in reliably predicting human toxicological outcomes such as carcinogenicity and teratogenicity. Results in animal models were frequently equivocal, or inconsistent with human outcomes. Consequently, animal data may not generally be considered useful for these purposes. Regulatory acceptance of non-animal models is normally conditional on formal scientific validation. In contrast, animal models are simply assumed to be predictive of human outcomes. These results demonstrate the invalidity of such assumptions. The poor human clinical and toxicological utility of animal models, combined with their generally substantial animal welfare and economic costs, necessitate considerably greater rigor within animal studies, and justify a ban on the use of animal models lacking scientific data clearly establishing their human predictivity or utility. PMID:18474018

  7. Microsporidiosis: an emerging and opportunistic infection in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Didier, Elizabeth S

    2005-04-01

    Microsporidia have emerged as causes of infectious diseases in AIDS patients, organ transplant recipients, children, travelers, contact lens wearers, and the elderly. These organisms are small single-celled, obligate intracellular parasites that were considered to be early eukaryotic protozoa but were recently reclassified with the fungi. Of the 14 species of microsporidia currently known to infect humans, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis are the most common causes of human infections and are associated with diarrhea and systemic disease. Species of microsporidia infecting humans have been identified in water sources as well as in wild, domestic, and food-producing farm animals, raising concerns for waterborne, foodborne, and zoonotic transmission. Current therapies for microsporidiosis include albendazole which is a benzimidazole that inhibits microtubule assembly and is effective against several microsporidia, including the Encephalitozoon species, but is less effective against E. bieneusi. Fumagillin, an antibiotic and anti-angiogenic compound produced by Aspergillus fumigatus, is more broadly effective against Encephalitozoon spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi but is toxic when administered systemically to mammals. Gene target studies have focused on methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MetAP2) for characterizing the mechanism of action and for identifying more effective, less toxic fumagillin-related drugs. Polyamine analogues have shown promise in demonstrating anti-microsporidial activity in culture and in animal models, and a gene encoding topoisomerase IV was identified in Vittaforma corneae, raising prospects for studies on fluoroquinolone efficacy against microsporidia. PMID:15777637

  8. Color experience and the human animal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardin, Clyde L.

    2002-06-01

    It is one thing to understand what advantages an animal such as ourselves gains by being able to exploit spectral information in its environment, but quite another to understand how the animal benefits by having conscious color experiences. Since experiences are private, how could they confer a selective advantage? Could they do so by enabling voluntary action of a sort forever beyond the resources of the most ingeniously designed wavelength-processing robot? Or is there an ancient biological link between color experience and the emotions that colors evoke in us?

  9. Production of human lactoferrin in animal milk.

    PubMed

    Goldman, I L; Georgieva, S G; Gurskiy, Ya G; Krasnov, A N; Deykin, A V; Popov, A N; Ermolkevich, T G; Budzevich, A I; Chernousov, A D; Sadchikova, E R

    2012-06-01

    Genetic constructs containing the human lactoferrin (hLf) gene were created within a joint program of Russian and Belorussian scientists. Using these constructs, transgenic mice were bred (the maximum hLf concentration in their milk was 160 g/L), and transgenic goats were also generated (up to 10 g/L hLf in their milk). Experimental goatherds that produced hLf in their milk were also bred, and the recombinant hLf was found to be identical to the natural protein in its physical and chemical properties. These properties included electrophoretic mobility, isoelectric point, recognition by polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, circular dichroic spectra, interaction with natural ligands (DNA, lipopolysaccharides, and heparin), the binding of iron ions, the sequence of the 7 terminal amino acids, and its biological activity. The latter was assessed by the agglutination of Micrococcus luteus protoplasts, bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes , and fungicidal activity against Candida albicans . We also demonstrated a significant increase in the activity of antibiotics when used in combination with Lf. PMID:22360490

  10. Animal models of human placentation--a review.

    PubMed

    Carter, A M

    2007-04-01

    This review examines the strengths and weaknesses of animal models of human placentation and pays particular attention to the mouse and non-human primates. Analogies can be drawn between mouse and human in placental cell types and genes controlling placental development. There are, however, substantive differences, including a different mode of implantation, a prominent yolk sac placenta, and fewer placental hormones in the mouse. Crucially, trophoblast invasion is very limited in the mouse and transformation of uterine arteries depends on maternal factors. The mouse also has a short gestation and delivers poorly developed young. Guinea pig is a good alternative rodent model and among the few species known to develop pregnancy toxaemia. The sheep is well established as a model in fetal physiology but is of limited value for placental research. The ovine placenta is epitheliochorial, there is no trophoblast invasion of uterine vessels, and the immunology of pregnancy may be quite different. We conclude that continued research on non-human primates is needed to clarify embryonic-endometrial interactions. The interstitial implantation of human is unusual, but the initial interaction between trophoblast and endometrium is similar in macaques and baboons, as is the subsequent lacunar stage. The absence of interstitial trophoblast cells in the monkey is an important difference from human placentation. However, there is a strong resemblance in the way spiral arteries are invaded and transformed in the macaque, baboon and human. Non-human primates are therefore important models for understanding the dysfunction that has been linked to pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Models that are likely to be established in the wake of comparative genomics include the marmoset, tree shrew, hedgehog tenrec and nine-banded armadillo. PMID:17196252

  11. [Further comment on the distinction between humans and animals].

    PubMed

    Kozarovitski?, L B

    1988-01-01

    The problem of mind is considered in the aspect of natural scientific and philosophical problem of distinction between human and animal. The widespread confusion of the terms "rudiments", "elements" of specifically human properties in animals and "biological prerequisites" of these properties are critically analysed. The idea is formulated according to which only in the process of anthropogenesis the rudiments of new social property--mind, conscience--could appear in the developing human beings. PMID:3382706

  12. Assessment of driving expertise using multiple choice questions including static vs. animated presentation of driving scenarios.

    PubMed

    Malone, Sarah; Brnken, Roland

    2013-03-01

    Novice drivers have a high collision risk compared to more experienced drivers. The optimization of driving assessment's validity should lead to a better identification of those examinees that need further training before solo driving. The aim of the present two studies was to find out whether the integration of animated traffic scenarios can enhance some quality aspects of selected multiple choice items of the official German driving test. For the first study, we developed a static version of a set of multiple choice questions each containing a computerized still picture of a traffic scenario and a dynamic version that included animated instead of still pictures of the same situations. Driving novices (n=57) and experts (n=63) were presented 22 items either in the static or in the dynamic version. Only the novices benefited from the dynamic presentation. Fifty novices and 50 experts participated in a second longitudinal study including three measurements with parallel tests of the dynamic testing materials at intervals of three to four months. The novices, who were currently attending driving school, improved over time whereas the experts' performance remained stable. The results indicate that animation has positive effects on some quality aspects of driving assessment, but the problem of low criterion validity has to be addressed by the means of further approaches. PMID:23207840

  13. Animal and human innovation: novel problems and novel solutions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This theme issue explores how and why behavioural innovation occurs, and the consequences of innovation for individuals, groups and populations. A vast literature on human innovation exists, from the development of problem-solving in children, to the evolution of technology, to the cultural systems supporting innovation. A more recent development is a growing literature on animal innovation, which has demonstrated links between innovation and personality traits, cognitive traits, neural measures, changing conditions, and the current state of the social and physical environment. Here, we introduce these fields, define key terms and discuss the potential for fruitful exchange between the diverse fields researching innovation. Comparisons of innovation between human and non-human animals provide opportunities, but also pitfalls. We also summarize some key findings specifying the circumstances in which innovation occurs, discussing factors such as the intrinsic nature of innovative individuals and the environmental and socio-ecological conditions that promote innovation, such as necessity, opportunity and free resources. We also highlight key controversies, including the relationship between innovation and intelligence, and the notion of innovativeness as an individual-level trait. Finally, we discuss current research methods and suggest some novel approaches that could fruitfully be deployed. PMID:26926273

  14. Animal and human innovation: novel problems and novel solutions.

    PubMed

    Reader, Simon M; Morand-Ferron, Julie; Flynn, Emma

    2016-03-19

    This theme issue explores how and why behavioural innovation occurs, and the consequences of innovation for individuals, groups and populations. A vast literature on human innovation exists, from the development of problem-solving in children, to the evolution of technology, to the cultural systems supporting innovation. A more recent development is a growing literature on animal innovation, which has demonstrated links between innovation and personality traits, cognitive traits, neural measures, changing conditions, and the current state of the social and physical environment. Here, we introduce these fields, define key terms and discuss the potential for fruitful exchange between the diverse fields researching innovation. Comparisons of innovation between human and non-human animals provide opportunities, but also pitfalls. We also summarize some key findings specifying the circumstances in which innovation occurs, discussing factors such as the intrinsic nature of innovative individuals and the environmental and socio-ecological conditions that promote innovation, such as necessity, opportunity and free resources. We also highlight key controversies, including the relationship between innovation and intelligence, and the notion of innovativeness as an individual-level trait. Finally, we discuss current research methods and suggest some novel approaches that could fruitfully be deployed. PMID:26926273

  15. Fear and anxiety: animal models and human cognitive psychophysiology.

    PubMed

    Lang, P J; Davis, M; Ohman, A

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to explicate what is special about emotional information processing, emphasizing the neural foundations that underlie the experience and expression of fear. A functional, anatomical model of defense behavior in animals is presented and applications are described in cognitive and physiological studies of human affect. It is proposed that unpleasant emotions depend on the activation of an evolutionarily primitive subcortical circuit, including the amygdala and the neural structures to which it projects. This motivational system mediates specific autonomic (e.g., heart rate change) and somatic reflexes (e.g., startle change) that originally promoted survival in dangerous conditions. These same response patterns are illustrated in humans, as they process objective, memorial, and media stimuli. Furthermore, it is shown how variations in the neural circuit and its outputs may separately characterize cue-specific fear (as in specific phobia) and more generalized anxiety. Finally, again emphasizing links between the animal and human data, we focus on special, attentional features of emotional processing: The automaticity of fear reactions, hyper-reactivity to minimal threat-cues, and evidence that the physiological responses in fear may be independent of slower, language-based appraisal processes. PMID:11163418

  16. Animal Welfare in Different Human Cultures, Traditions and Religious Faiths

    PubMed Central

    Szűcs, E.; Geers, R.; Jezierski, T.; Sossidou, E. N.; Broom, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982) that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly. PMID:25049508

  17. 21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... human drug use in food-producing animals. 530.20 Section 530.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS Specific Provisions Relating to Extralabel Use of Animal and Human Drugs...

  18. 21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... human drug use in food-producing animals. 530.20 Section 530.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS Specific Provisions Relating to Extralabel Use of Animal and Human Drugs...

  19. 21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... human drug use in food-producing animals. 530.20 Section 530.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS Specific Provisions Relating to Extralabel Use of Animal and Human Drugs...

  20. 21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... human drug use in food-producing animals. 530.20 Section 530.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS Specific Provisions Relating to Extralabel Use of Animal and Human Drugs...

  1. [Animals as a potential source of human fungal infections].

    PubMed

    Dworecka-Kaszak, Bozena

    2008-01-01

    Changing environment is a reason, that many saprotrophic fungi became opportunists and in the end also maybe a pathogenic. Host specific adaptation is not so strong among fungi, so there are many common fungal pathogens for people and for animals. Animals suffering from dermatomycosis are well recognize as source of human superficial mycoses. Breeding of different exotic animals such as parrots, various Reptiles and Amphibians, miniature Rodents and keeping them as a pets in the peoples houses, have become more and more popular in the recent years. This article is shortly presenting which animals maybe a potential source of fungal infections for humans. Looking for the other mycoses as systemic mycoses, especially candidiasis or aspergilosis there are no data, which allow excluding sick animals as a source of infection for human, even if those deep mycoses have endogenic reactivation mechanism. Immunocompromised people are in high-risk group when they take care of animals. Another important source of potentially pathogenic, mostly air-born fungi may be animal use in experimental laboratory work. During the experiments is possible that laboratory workers maybe hurt and these animals and their environment, food and house boxes could be the possible source of microorganisms, pathogenic for humans or other animals. Unusual way to inoculate these potentially pathogens into the skin of laboratory personnel may cause granulomatous, local lesions on their hands. PMID:18702314

  2. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopic studies of human and animal skins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, Brian W.; Edwards, Howell G.; Williams, Adrian C.

    1994-01-01

    The stratum corneum is the outermost layer of the skin and provides the principal barrier for the ingress of chemicals and environmental toxins into human and animal tissues. However, human skin has several advantages for the administration of therapeutic agents (transdermal drug delivery), but problems occur with the supply, storage, and biohazardous nature of human tissue. Hence, alternative animal tissues have been prepared to model drug diffusion across human skin but the molecular basis for comparison is lacking. Here, FT-Raman spectra of mammalian (human and pig) and reptilian (snake) skins have been obtained and the structural dissimilarities are correlated with drug diffusion studies across the tissues.

  3. Bacteriophages: an underestimated role in human and animal health?

    PubMed Central

    De Paepe, Marianne; Leclerc, Marion; Tinsley, Colin R.; Petit, Marie-Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomic approaches applied to viruses have highlighted their prevalence in almost all microbial ecosystems investigated. In all ecosystems, notably those associated with humans or animals, the viral fraction is dominated by bacteriophages. Whether they contribute to dysbiosis, i.e., the departure from microbiota composition in symbiosis at equilibrium and entry into a state favoring human or animal disease is unknown at present. This review summarizes what has been learnt on phages associated with human and animal microbiota, and focuses on examples illustrating the several ways by which phages may contribute to a shift to pathogenesis, either by modifying population equilibrium, by horizontal transfer, or by modulating immunity. PMID:24734220

  4. Early hominin diet included diverse terrestrial and aquatic animals 1.95 Ma in East Turkana, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Braun, David R.; Harris, John W. K.; Levin, Naomi E.; McCoy, Jack T.; Herries, Andy I. R.; Bamford, Marion K.; Bishop, Laura C.; Richmond, Brian G.; Kibunjia, Mzalendo

    2010-01-01

    The manufacture of stone tools and their use to access animal tissues by Pliocene hominins marks the origin of a key adaptation in human evolutionary history. Here we report an in situ archaeological assemblage from the Koobi Fora Formation in northern Kenya that provides a unique combination of faunal remains, some with direct evidence of butchery, and Oldowan artifacts, which are well dated to 1.95 Ma. This site provides the oldest in situ evidence that hominins, predating Homo erectus, enjoyed access to carcasses of terrestrial and aquatic animals that they butchered in a well-watered habitat. It also provides the earliest definitive evidence of the incorporation into the hominin diet of various aquatic animals including turtles, crocodiles, and fish, which are rich sources of specific nutrients needed in human brain growth. The evidence here shows that these critical brain-growth compounds were part of the diets of hominins before the appearance of Homo ergaster/erectus and could have played an important role in the evolution of larger brains in the early history of our lineage. PMID:20534571

  5. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities, and Bibliography. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.; Long, Alison T.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population matters. The document describes 15 class sessions which integrate information for sociology, anthropology, psychology, biology, animal behavior, and education. Topics include the history of human

  6. Nutritional ecology of obesity: from humans to companion animals.

    PubMed

    Raubenheimer, David; Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E; Gosby, Alison K; Simpson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We apply nutritional geometry, a framework for modelling the interactive effects of nutrients on animals, to help understand the role of modern environments in the obesity pandemic. Evidence suggests that humans regulate the intake of protein energy (PE) more strongly than non-protein energy (nPE), and consequently will over- and under-ingest nPE on diets with low or high PE, respectively. This pattern of macronutrient regulation has led to the protein leverage hypothesis, which proposes that the rise in obesity has been caused partly by a shift towards diets with reduced PE:nPE ratios relative to the set point for protein regulation. We discuss potential causes of this mismatch, including environmentally induced reductions in the protein density of the human diet and factors that might increase the regulatory set point for protein and hence exacerbate protein leverage. Economics--the high price of protein compared with fats and carbohydrates--is one factor that might contribute to the reduction of dietary protein concentrations. The possibility that rising atmospheric CO₂ levels could also play a role through reducing the PE:nPE ratios in plants and animals in the human food chain is discussed. Factors that reduce protein efficiency, for example by increasing the use of ingested amino acids in energy metabolism (hepatic gluconeogenesis), are highlighted as potential drivers of increased set points for protein regulation. We recommend that a similar approach is taken to understand the rise of obesity in other species, and identify some key gaps in the understanding of nutrient regulation in companion animals. PMID:25415804

  7. The significant human-animal bond: Pets with cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Veterinarians have responsibilities to both the animal and its owner. In the past several years there has been an increased awareness and concern about human-animal bonds. As a result, we have begun to appreciate the nature, strength, and significance of bonds that develop between humans and companion animals. It is typical for a pet to be perceived as and treated as a member of the family and as a result, animals provide special and beneficial relationships for many years. It is partly because of this role of the pet in promoting human health and happiness that we as veterinarians have an obligation to assist both owner and animal. The mark of the good practitioner concerns not only the ability to diagnose and treat accurately, but also the ability to show understanding and compassionate judgement.

  8. Dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant clones of Salmonella enterica among domestic animals, wild animals, and humans.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Gonzalo; Campos, Maria Jorge; Ugarte, Mara; Porrero, Mara Concepcin; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Domnguez, Lucas; Quesada, Alberto; Priz, Segundo

    2013-02-01

    Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Salmonella enterica. This work focuses on the identification of Salmonella enterica clonal strains which, presenting a wide distribution potential, express resistance determinants that compromise effectiveness of the antimicrobial therapy. The screening was performed on 506 Salmonella enterica isolates from animals and humans, which were characterized by serovar and phage typing, genome macrorestriction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and detection of phenotypic and genotypic traits for antimicrobial resistance. A Salmonella Enteritidis strain with strong quinolone resistance is spread on three host environments carrying one of the four variants found for the GyrA protein: (1) Asp87Tyr, the major polymorphism found in 39 Salmonella isolates from human origin and six from poultry; (2) Ser83Phe, with four isolates from human origin and one from white stork (Ciconia ciconia); and (3) Asp87Asn or (4) Asp87Gly, with two isolates each from human origins. Several Salmonella Typhimurium strains that presented int1 elements and the classically associated pentaresistance (ACSSuT) phenotype were found distributed between two host environments: domestic animals and humans, domestics and wild animals, or wild fauna plus humans. This study points out the importance of monitoring gut microbiota and its antimicrobial resistance from wildlife, in parallel to livestock animals and humans, especially for animal species that are in close contact with people. PMID:23360170

  9. The Various Roles of Animal Models in Understanding Human Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Gilbert; Lickliter, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors take a very conservative view of the contribution of animal models to an understanding of human development. We do not think that homologies can be readily documented with even our most closely related relatives' behavior and psychological functioning. The major contribution of animal models is their provision of food…

  10. The Various Roles of Animal Models in Understanding Human Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Gilbert; Lickliter, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors take a very conservative view of the contribution of animal models to an understanding of human development. We do not think that homologies can be readily documented with even our most closely related relatives' behavior and psychological functioning. The major contribution of animal models is their provision of food

  11. Atypical Human Infections by Animal Trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Truc, Philippe; Bscher, Philippe; Cuny, Grard; Gonzatti, Mary Isabel; Jannin, Jean; Joshi, Prashant; Juyal, Prayag; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Mattioli, Raffaele; Pays, Etienne; Simarro, Pere P.; Teixeira, Marta Maria Geraldes; Touratier, Louis; Vincendeau, Philippe; Desquesnes, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The two classical forms of human trypanosomoses are sleeping sickness due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. brucei rhodesiense, and Chagas disease due to T. cruzi. However, a number of atypical human infections caused by other T. species (or sub-species) have been reported, namely due to T. brucei brucei, T. vivax, T. congolense, T. evansi, T. lewisi, and T. lewisi-like. These cases are reviewed here. Some infections were transient in nature, while others required treatments that were successful in most cases, although two cases were fatal. A recent case of infection due to T. evansi was related to a lack of apolipoprotein L-I, but T. lewisi infections were not related to immunosuppression or specific human genetic profiles. Out of 19 patients, eight were confirmed between 1974 and 2010, thanks to improved molecular techniques. However, the number of cases of atypical human trypanosomoses might be underestimated. Thus, improvement, evaluation of new diagnostic tests, and field investigations are required for detection and confirmation of these atypical cases. PMID:24069464

  12. Rovers minimize human disturbance in research on wild animals.

    PubMed

    Le Maho, Yvon; Whittington, Jason D; Hanuise, Nicolas; Pereira, Louise; Boureau, Matthieu; Brucker, Mathieu; Chatelain, Nicolas; Courtecuisse, Julien; Crenner, Francis; Friess, Benjamin; Grosbellet, Edith; Kernalguen, Latitia; Olivier, Frdrique; Saraux, Claire; Vetter, Nathanal; Viblanc, Vincent A; Thierry, Bernard; Tremblay, Pascale; Groscolas, Ren; Le Bohec, Cline

    2014-12-01

    Investigating wild animals while minimizing human disturbance remains an important methodological challenge. When approached by a remote-operated vehicle (rover) which can be equipped to make radio-frequency identifications, wild penguins had significantly lower and shorter stress responses (determined by heart rate and behavior) than when approached by humans. Upon immobilization, the rover-unlike humans-did not disorganize colony structure, and stress rapidly ceased. Thus, rovers can reduce human disturbance of wild animals and the resulting scientific bias. PMID:25362361

  13. Public health issues related to animal and human spongiform encephalopathies: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which was first described in 1986 in the United Kingdom but has occurred subsequently in several other countries. This Memorandum reviews the existing state of knowledge on all the known spongiform encephalopathies, and evaluates the pathways of transmission and associated hazards. The possible implications of the animal diseases, especially BSE, with regard to the use of animal tissues as animal feed, human food, and in the preparation of medicinal and other products for human use are discussed, with recommendations to national health authorities on appropriate measures to minimize the consequences of BSE to public and animal health. PMID:1600580

  14. Rhodococcus equi: an animal and human pathogen.

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, J F

    1991-01-01

    Recent isolations of Rhodococcus equi from cavitatory pulmonary disease in patients with AIDS have aroused interest among medical microbiologists in this unusual organism. Earlier isolations from humans had also been in immunosuppressed patients following hemolymphatic tumors or renal transplantation. This organism has been recognized for many years as a cause of a serious pyogranulomatous pneumonia of young foals and is occasionally isolated from granulomatous lesions in several other species, in some cases following immunosuppression. The last decade has seen many advances in understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and immunity to infection in foals. The particular susceptibility of the foal is not understood but can be explained in part by a combination of heavy challenge through the respiratory route coinciding with declining maternally derived antibody in the absence of fully competent foal cellular immune mechanisms. R. equi is largely a soil organism but is widespread in the feces of herbivores. Its growth in soil is considerably improved by simple nutrients it obtains from herbivore manure. About one-third of human patients who have developed R. equi infections had contact in some way with herbivores or their manure. Others may have acquired infection from contact with soil or wild bird manure. R. equi is an intracellular parasite, which explains the typical pyogranulomatous nature of R. equi infections, the predisposition to infection in human patients with defective cell-mediated immune mechanisms, and the efficacy of antimicrobial drugs that penetrate phagocytic cells. Images PMID:2004346

  15. Development in Immunoprophylaxis against Rabies for Animals and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Sukdeb; Kumar, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Rabies is a fatal neurological disease and a persistent global problem. It is spread primarily by domestic dogs but other canid, viverrid (skunks and raccoons) and chiropteran species are considered as the most efficient vectors of the disease. Since dogs are the main perpetuator of rabies, special attention has to be given to bring all the dogs including unauthorized stray dogs under immunization umbrella in order to control rabies. Vaccination is the only way to combat the disease before and after exposure or infection as there is no treatment available once the symptoms have appeared. After the first crude nerve tissue vaccine developed by Pasteur in 1885, a number of rabies vaccines for animal and human use have been developed with varying degree of safety and efficacy over the years. Presently, cell culture based inactivated rabies vaccines are largely used in most of the parts of the world. However, these vaccines are too expensive and unaffordable for vaccination of people and animals in developing countries. The comparatively cheaper inactivated nerve tissues vaccines can cause serious side-effects such as autoimmune encephalomyelitis in inoculated animals and production has been discontinued in several countries. Although attenuated live vaccines can efficiently elicit a protective immune response with a smaller amount of virus, they sometimes can cause rabies in the inoculated animals by its residual virulence or pathogenic mutation during viral propagation in the body. New-generation rabies vaccines generated by gene manipulation although in experimental stage may be a suitable alternative to overcome the disadvantages of the live attenuated vaccines. So, awareness must be created in general public about the disease and the cell culture based vaccines available in the market should be recommended for wide scale use to prevent and control this emerging and reemerging infectious disease in foreseeable future. PMID:23407587

  16. Canine tumors: a spontaneous animal model of human carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Salom S; Carvalho, Sandra; Cabral, Joana; Reis, Celso A; Grtner, Ftima

    2012-03-01

    The enormous biologic complexity of human cancer has stimulated the development of more appropriate experimental models that could resemble in a natural and spontaneous manner the physiopathologic aspects of cancer biology. Companion animals have many desired characteristics that fill the gap between invitro and invivo studies, and these characteristics have proven to be important in understanding many complex molecular aspects of human cancer. Spontaneous tumors in dogs share a wide variety of epidemiologic, biologic, and clinical features with human cancer, which makes this animal model both attractive and underused in oncology research. In this review, we summarize the importance of naturally occurring canine tumors as valuable tools for studying numerous aspects of human cancer as well as the potential use of this animal model for the development of new cancer treatments. We address specifically the use of canine mammary tumors as an increasingly powerful model to study human breast cancer. PMID:22340765

  17. [Current types of human dermatophytoses transmitted from animals].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ichiro

    2003-01-01

    Microsporum canis, Trichophyton verrucosum and T. mentagrophytes are the most common dermatophytes isolated from human and animals. M. canis infection in human is closely related to companion animals such as cats and dogs. According to a recent epidemiological survey in Japan, human M. canis infection is decreasing. T. verrucosum is usually transmitted from cows to human. T. verrucosum infection in human is not restricted to daily farming prefectures, however, suggesting that this species has already been spread widely in Japan. T. mentagrophytes is one of the most common pathogens in human tinea. Recent molecular methods show the infection is caused by one teleomorph of T. mentagrophytes, Arthroderma benhamiae, which has already been spread throughout Japan by companion animals. This pathogen is believed not to have existed in Japan until 1980. The chance of human fungal infection caused by unusual pathogens is increasing because of the changes in types of companion animals. Animal dermatophytoses is now an important issue not only for veterinary doctors but also for dermatologists. PMID:14615787

  18. Mobile technologies for disease surveillance in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Mwabukusi, Mpoki; Karimuribo, Esron D; Rweyemamu, Mark M; Beda, Eric

    2014-01-01

    A paper-based disease reporting system has been associated with a number of challenges. These include difficulties to submit hard copies of the disease surveillance forms because of poor road infrastructure, weather conditions or challenging terrain, particularly in the developing countries. The system demands re-entry of the data at data processing and analysis points, thus making it prone to introduction of errors during this process. All these challenges contribute to delayed acquisition, processing and response to disease events occurring in remote hard to reach areas. Our study piloted the use of mobile phones in order to transmit near to real-time data from remote districts in Tanzania (Ngorongoro and Ngara), Burundi (Muyinga) and Zambia (Kazungula and Sesheke). Two technologies namely, digital and short messaging services were used to capture and transmit disease event data in the animal and human health sectors in the study areas based on a server-client model. Smart phones running the Android operating system (minimum required version: Android 1.6), and which supported open source application, Epicollect, as well as the Open Data Kit application, were used in the study. These phones allowed collection of geo-tagged data, with the opportunity of including static and moving images related to disease events. The project supported routine disease surveillance systems in the ministries responsible for animal and human health in Burundi, Tanzania and Zambia, as well as data collection for researchers at the Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania. During the project implementation period between 2011 and 2013, a total number of 1651 diseases event-related forms were submitted, which allowed reporters to include GPS coordinates and photographs related to the events captured. It was concluded that the new technology-based surveillance system is useful in providing near to real-time data, with potential for enhancing timely response in rural remote areas of Africa. We recommended adoption of the proven technologies to improve disease surveillance, particularly in the developing countries. PMID:25005126

  19. Defending the use of animals to research human disease.

    PubMed

    Senior, K

    1995-08-01

    Recent activities by animal rights sympathizers in the UK at Shoreham, Brighton, Brightlingsea and Dover, campaigning against live transport of domestic animals, have again brought the issue of animal rights onto the front pages of newspapers in the UK. Television news bulletins have continued to show almost nightly scenes of violent protest as the police have struggled to keep demonstrators from disrupting the legal export of livestock. This is the public face of a continuing campaign to establish rights for animals that has gained strength sincethe early 1970s. It includes an on-going campaign against medical scientists who use animals in their research. PMID:17607883

  20. The benefits of human-companion animal interaction: a review.

    PubMed

    Barker, Sandra B; Wolen, Aaron R

    2008-01-01

    This article provides a review of research published since 1980 on the benefits of human-companion animal interaction. Studies focusing on the benefits of pet ownership are presented first, followed by research on the benefits of interacting with companion animals that are not owned by the subject (animal-assisted activities). While most of the published studies are descriptive and have been conducted with convenience samples, a promising number of controlled studies support the health benefits of interacting with companion animals. Future research employing more rigorous designs and systematically building upon a clearly defined line of inquiry is needed to advance our knowledge of the benefits of human-companion animal interaction. PMID:19228898

  1. Affective consciousness: Core emotional feelings in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2005-03-01

    The position advanced in this paper is that the bedrock of emotional feelings is contained within the evolved emotional action apparatus of mammalian brains. This dual-aspect monism approach to brain-mind functions, which asserts that emotional feelings may reflect the neurodynamics of brain systems that generate instinctual emotional behaviors, saves us from various conceptual conundrums. In coarse form, primary process affective consciousness seems to be fundamentally an unconditional "gift of nature" rather than an acquired skill, even though those systems facilitate skill acquisition via various felt reinforcements. Affective consciousness, being a comparatively intrinsic function of the brain, shared homologously by all mammalian species, should be the easiest variant of consciousness to study in animals. This is not to deny that some secondary processes (e.g., awareness of feelings in the generation of behavioral choices) cannot be evaluated in animals with sufficiently clever behavioral learning procedures, as with place-preference procedures and the analysis of changes in learned behaviors after one has induced re-valuation of incentives. Rather, the claim is that a direct neuroscientific study of primary process emotional/affective states is best achieved through the study of the intrinsic ("instinctual"), albeit experientially refined, emotional action tendencies of other animals. In this view, core emotional feelings may reflect the neurodynamic attractor landscapes of a variety of extended trans-diencephalic, limbic emotional action systems-including SEEKING, FEAR, RAGE, LUST, CARE, PANIC, and PLAY. Through a study of these brain systems, the neural infrastructure of human and animal affective consciousness may be revealed. Emotional feelings are instantiated in large-scale neurodynamics that can be most effectively monitored via the ethological analysis of emotional action tendencies and the accompanying brain neurochemical/electrical changes. The intrinsic coherence of such emotional responses is demonstrated by the fact that they can be provoked by electrical and chemical stimulation of specific brain zones-effects that are affectively laden. For substantive progress in this emerging research arena, animal brain researchers need to discuss affective brain functions more openly. Secondary awareness processes, because of their more conditional, contextually situated nature, are more difficult to understand in any neuroscientific detail. In other words, the information-processing brain functions, critical for cognitive consciousness, are harder to study in other animals than the more homologous emotional/motivational affective state functions of the brain. PMID:15766890

  2. Role of mycotoxins in human and animal nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Smith, J E; Solomons, G; Lewis, C; Anderson, J G

    1995-01-01

    The impact of mycotoxins on human and animal health is now increasingly recognised. Mycotoxin entry to the human and animal dietary systems is mainly by ingestion but increasing evidence also points at entry by inhalation. Mycotoxins exhibit a wide array of biological effects and individual mycotoxins can be mutagenic, carcinogenic, embryotoxic, teratogenic, or oestrogenic. Average levels of ingestion of currently known mycotoxins in most EEC countries are rather low. Little is known about the consequences to humans of such mycotoxin intakes. Establishing a causal relationship between mycotoxin exposure and human disease is complicated by uncertainties associated with human epidemiological studies. Analysis of mycotoxin adducts in human populations can act as a surrogate for human genotoxicity. Mycotoxins can also be immunosuppressive and appear to involve cellular immune phenomena and non-specific humoral factors associated with immunity. PMID:7582615

  3. Humane killing of animals for disease control purposes.

    PubMed

    Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K

    2014-04-01

    Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare. PMID:25000803

  4. Human-animal bonds I: the relational significance of companion animals.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Froma

    2009-12-01

    The importance of human-animal bonds has been documented throughout history, across cultures, and in recent research. However, attachments with companion animals have been undervalued and even pathologized in the field of mental health. This article briefly surveys the evolution of human-animal bonds, reviews research on their health and mental health benefits, and examines their profound relational significance across the life course. Finally, the emerging field of animal-assisted interventions is described, noting applications in hospital and eldercare settings, and in innovative school, prison, farm, and community programs. The aim of this overview paper is to stimulate more attention to these vital bonds in systems-oriented theory, practice, and research. A companion paper in this issue focuses on the role of pets and relational dynamics in family systems and family therapy. PMID:19930433

  5. Animal experiments scrutinised: systematic reviews demonstrate poor human clinical and toxicological utility.

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The assumption that animal models are reasonably predictive of human outcomes provides the basis for their widespread use in toxicity testing and in biomedical research aimed at developing cures for human diseases. To investigate the validity of this assumption, the comprehensive "Scopus" biomedical bibliographic databases were searched for published systematic reviews of the human clinical or toxicological utility of animal experiments. Of 20 reviews examining clinical utility, authors concluded that the animal models were substantially consistent with or useful in advancing clinical outcomes in only two cases, and the conclusion in one case was contentious. Included were reviews of the clinical utility of experiments expected by ethics committees to lead to medical advances, of highly-cited experiments published in major journals, and of chimpanzee experiments - the species most likely to be predictive of human outcomes. Seven additional reviews failed to clearly demonstrate utility in predicting human toxicological outcomes such as carcinogenicity and teratogenicity. Consequently, animal data may not generally be assumed to be substantially useful for these purposes. Possible causes include interspecies differences, the distortion of experimental outcomes arising from experimental environments and protocols, and the poor methodological quality of many animal experiments evident in at least 11 reviews. No reviews existed in which a majority of animal experiments were of good quality. While the latter problems might be minimised with concerted effort, given their widespread nature, the interspecies limitations are likely to be technically and theoretically impossible to overcome. Yet, unlike non-animal models, animal models are not normally subjected to formal scientific validation. Instead of simply assuming they are predictive of human outcomes, the consistent application of formal validation studies to all test models is clearly warranted, regardless of their animal, non-animal, historical, contemporary or possible future status. Expected benefits would include greater selection of models truly predictive of human outcomes, increased safety of people exposed to chemicals that have passed toxicity tests, increased efficiency during the development of human pharmaceuticals, and decreased wastage of animal, personnel and financial resources. The poor human clinical and toxicological utility of most animal models for which data exists, in conjunction with their generally substantial animal welfare and economic costs, justify a ban on animal models lacking scientific data clearly establishing their human predictivity or utility. PMID:18288428

  6. Systematic reviews of animal experiments demonstrate poor human clinical and toxicological utility.

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew

    2007-12-01

    The assumption that animal models are reasonably predictive of human outcomes provides the basis for their widespread use in toxicity testing and in biomedical research aimed at developing cures for human diseases. To investigate the validity of this assumption, the comprehensive Scopus biomedical bibliographic databases were searched for published systematic reviews of the human clinical or toxicological utility of animal experiments. In 20 reviews in which clinical utility was examined, the authors concluded that animal models were either significantly useful in contributing to the development of clinical interventions, or were substantially consistent with clinical outcomes, in only two cases, one of which was contentious. These included reviews of the clinical utility of experiments expected by ethics committees to lead to medical advances, of highly-cited experiments published in major journals, and of chimpanzee experiments--those involving the species considered most likely to be predictive of human outcomes. Seven additional reviews failed to clearly demonstrate utility in predicting human toxicological outcomes, such as carcinogenicity and teratogenicity. Consequently, animal data may not generally be assumed to be substantially useful for these purposes. Possible causes include interspecies differences, the distortion of outcomes arising from experimental environments and protocols, and the poor methodological quality of many animal experiments, which was evident in at least 11 reviews. No reviews existed in which the majority of animal experiments were of good methodological quality. Whilst the effects of some of these problems might be minimised with concerted effort (given their widespread prevalence), the limitations resulting from interspecies differences are likely to be technically and theoretically impossible to overcome. Non-animal models are generally required to pass formal scientific validation prior to their regulatory acceptance. In contrast, animal models are simply assumed to be predictive of human outcomes. These results demonstrate the invalidity of such assumptions. The consistent application of formal validation studies to all test models is clearly warranted, regardless of their animal, non-animal, historical, contemporary or possible future status. Likely benefits would include, the greater selection of models truly predictive of human outcomes, increased safety of people exposed to chemicals that have passed toxicity tests, increased efficiency during the development of human pharmaceuticals and other therapeutic interventions, and decreased wastage of animal, personnel and financial resources. The poor human clinical and toxicological utility of most animal models for which data exists, in conjunction with their generally substantial animal welfare and economic costs, justify a ban on animal models lacking scientific data clearly establishing their human predictivity or utility. PMID:18186670

  7. Implications of Animal Object Memory Research for Human Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Boyer D.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Damage to structures in the human medial temporal lobe causes severe memory impairment. Animal object recognition tests gained prominence from attempts to model "global" human medial temporal lobe amnesia, such as that observed in patient HM. These tasks, such as delayed nonmatching-to-sample and spontaneous object recognition, for assessing

  8. Implications of Animal Object Memory Research for Human Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Boyer D.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Damage to structures in the human medial temporal lobe causes severe memory impairment. Animal object recognition tests gained prominence from attempts to model "global" human medial temporal lobe amnesia, such as that observed in patient HM. These tasks, such as delayed nonmatching-to-sample and spontaneous object recognition, for assessing…

  9. ISFG: recommendations regarding the use of non-human (animal) DNA in forensic genetic investigations.

    PubMed

    Linacre, A; Gusmão, L; Hecht, W; Hellmann, A P; Mayr, W R; Parson, W; Prinz, M; Schneider, P M; Morling, N

    2011-11-01

    The use of non-human DNA typing in forensic science investigations, and specifically that from animal DNA, is ever increasing. The term animal DNA in this document refers to animal species encountered in a forensic science examination but does not include human DNA. Non-human DNA may either be: the trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species, which is contrary to legislation; as evidence where the crime is against a person or property; instances of animal cruelty; or where the animal is the offender. The first instance is addressed by determining the species present, and the other scenarios can often be addressed by assigning a DNA sample to a particular individual organism. Currently there is little standardization of methodologies used in the forensic analysis of animal DNA or in reporting styles. The recommendations in this document relate specifically to animal DNA that is integral to a forensic science investigation and are not relevant to the breeding of animals for commercial purposes. This DNA commission was formed out of discussions at the International Society for Forensic Genetics 23rd Congress in Buenos Aires to outline recommendations on the use of non-human DNA in a forensic science investigation. Due to the scope of non-human DNA typing that is possible, the remit of this commission is confined to animal DNA typing only. PMID:21106449

  10. The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.

    PubMed

    Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

    2013-08-01

    The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts. PMID:24547648

  11. An Inclusive Re-Engagement with our Nonhuman Animal Kin: Considering Human Interrelationships with Nonhuman Animals.

    PubMed

    Bennison, Rod

    2010-01-01

    As humans increasingly acknowledge the effects that they are having on the planet, there is a realisation implicit in these effects that human interrelationships with nature are actually arbitrated and expedited exploitatively. Understanding how the different discourses and histories through which the interrelationships with nature are mediated and actually told and then retold is fundamental to appreciating how humans may relate with nature less exploitatively and in ways that are more inclusionary, particularly with nonhuman animals. Humans perceive nature and individual nonhuman animals in various ways. This paper provides an investigation of how humans have socially constructed nature and their place as either within or outside of it. Such constructions are elaborated conceptually and through narrative. More pertinently, this paper examines how nature and nonhuman animals are perceived and placed within those narratives that humans construct from reality. It is stressed here that such constructions have, and may continue, to lead to a worsening of the effects that humans have on the planet if there is no acceptance or recognition that certain realities exist beyond the exploitative bounds of any human-inspired concept or narrative. This paper therefore provides the groundwork for the foundations of an ethic that is both socially and ecologically inclusive and is based on a soft realist approach. PMID:26486213

  12. Human skin equivalent as an alternative to animal testing.

    PubMed

    Mertsching, Heike; Weimer, Michaela; Kersen, Silke; Brunner, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    The 3-D skin equivalent can be viewed as physiologically comparable to the natural skin and therefore is a suitable alternative for animal testing. This highly differentiated in vitro human skin equivalent is used to assess the efficacy and mode of action of novel agents. This model is generated from primary human keratinocytes on a collagen substrate containing human dermal fibroblasts. It is grown at the air-liquid interface which allows full epidermal stratification and epidermal-dermal interactions to occur. Future emphasis is the establishment of different test systems to investigate wound healing, melanoma research and infection biology. Key features of this skin model are that it can be used as an alternative for in vivo studies, donor tissue can be tailored to the needs of the study and multiple analyses can be carried out at mRNA and protein level. Driven by both ethical and economical incentives, this has already resulted in a shift of the test strategies used by the Pharmaceutical Industry in the early drug development process as reflected by the increased demand for application of cell based assays. It is also a suitable model for testing a wide variety of endpoints including cell viability, the release of proinflammatory mediators, permeation rate, proliferation and biochemical changes. PMID:20204113

  13. Human skin equivalent as an alternative to animal testing

    PubMed Central

    Mertsching, Heike; Weimer, Michaela; Kersen, Silke; Brunner, Herwig

    2008-01-01

    The 3-D skin equivalent can be viewed as physiologically comparable to the natural skin and therefore is a suitable alternative for animal testing. This highly differentiated in vitro human skin equivalent is used to assess the efficacy and mode of action of novel agents. This model is generated from primary human keratinocytes on a collagen substrate containing human dermal fibroblasts. It is grown at the air-liquid interface which allows full epidermal stratification and epidermal-dermal interactions to occur. Future emphasis is the establishment of different test systems to investigate wound healing, melanoma research and infection biology. Key features of this skin model are that it can be used as an alternative for in vivo studies, donor tissue can be tailored to the needs of the study and multiple analyses can be carried out at mRNA and protein level. Driven by both ethical and economical incentives, this has already resulted in a shift of the test strategies used by the Pharmaceutical Industry in the early drug development process as reflected by the increased demand for application of cell based assays. It is also a suitable model for testing a wide variety of endpoints including cell viability, the release of proinflammatory mediators, permeation rate, proliferation and biochemical changes. PMID:20204113

  14. Sex differences in partner preferences in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Balthazart, Jacques

    2016-02-19

    A large number of morphological, physiological and behavioural traits are differentially expressed by males and females in all vertebrates including humans. These sex differences, sometimes, reflect the different hormonal environment of the adults, but they often remain present after subjects of both sexes are placed in the same endocrine conditions following gonadectomy associated or not with hormonal replacement therapy. They are then the result of combined influences of organizational actions of sex steroids acting early during development, or genetic differences between the sexes, or epigenetic mechanisms differentially affecting males and females. Sexual partner preference is a sexually differentiated behavioural trait that is clearly controlled in animals by the same type of mechanisms. This is also probably true in humans, even if critical experiments that would be needed to obtain scientific proof of this assertion are often impossible for pragmatic or ethical reasons. Clinical, epidemiological and correlative studies provide, however, converging evidence strongly suggesting, if not demonstrating, that endocrine, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms acting during the pre- or perinatal life control human sexual orientation, i.e. homosexuality versus heterosexuality. Whether they interact with postnatal psychosexual influences remains, however, unclear at present. PMID:26833838

  15. Telemetry in animal and human biometeorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackay, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    Radio transmitters swallowed, surgically implanted, or carried externally make it possible to study a subject with minimum disturbance to normal patterns of activity. The radio frequency of transmission chosen will depend on the application, and will generally fall in the range from 50 kHz to 300 MHz. A number of specific experiments are reported, including the case of a snake which has swallowed a mouse containing a transmitter of pressure and temperature. Questions of monitoring are explored. Satellite Doppler tracking considerations are discussed together with the attachment of the transmitter package in the case of a study of birds.

  16. Rhesus CMV: an emerging animal model for human CMV.

    PubMed

    Powers, Colin; Frh, Klaus

    2008-06-01

    Human CMV is the predominant infectious cause of congenital birth defects and an opportunistic pathogen in immunosuppressed individuals, including AIDS patients. Most individuals are infected early during their life followed by life-long latent infection. During this latent phase, frequent reactivation and antigen production continue to stimulate the immune system. While the immune response is able to control the virus, it is unable to eradicate it. Moreover, super-infection by different CMV strains has been observed despite a strong immune response. Long-term immune stimulation by CMV has also been implicated in immune senescence and chronic conditions such as atherosclerosis. CMVs are highly species-specific and the relatedness of CMV genomes exactly mirrors the relatedness of their hosts. Thus, each CMV species is highly adapted to its respective host species, but is unable to infect other, even closely related hosts. While fascinating from an evolutionary perspective, this host restriction prevents studying HCMV in experimental animals. Exceptions are severely immunocompromised mice, e.g. SCID mice, or SCID/NOD mice, which might allow partial reconstitution of CMV infection in rodents. More practical however, is to study CMVs in their natural host, e.g. murine, rat or guinea pig CMVs. However, while these small animal models have many advantages, such as the availability of inbred animals as well as lower cost, the limited homology of the viral genomes with HCMV limits the functional analysis of homologous gene products. The closest relative to HCMV is chimpanzee CMV (CCMV), but this is not a practical animal model since chimps are a protected species, extremely expensive and of very limited availability. In contrast, rhesus macaques are a more widely used experimental animal species and, while more distant than CCMV, rhesus CMV (RhCMV) contains most of the HCMV gene families thus allowing the study of their role in acute and latent CMV infection. In this review we will discuss the current state of developing RhCMV as a model for HCMV. PMID:18193454

  17. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Animals and Its Relevance to Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Pantosti, Annalisa

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a typical human pathogen. Some animal S. aureus lineages have derived from human strains following profound genetic adaptation determining a change in host specificity. Due to the close relationship of animals with the environmental microbiome and resistome, animal staphylococcal strains also represent a source of resistance determinants. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) emerged 50 years ago as a nosocomial pathogen but in the last decade it has also become a frequent cause of infections in the community. The recent finding that MRSA frequently colonizes animals, especially livestock, has been a reason for concern, as it has revealed an expanded reservoir of MRSA. While MRSA strains recovered from companion animals are generally similar to human nosocomial MRSA, MRSA strains recovered from food animals appear to be specific animal-adapted clones. Since 2005, MRSA belonging to ST398 was recognized as a colonizer of pigs and human subjects professionally exposed to pig farming. The “pig” MRSA was also found to colonize other species of farmed animals, including horses, cattle, and poultry and was therefore designated livestock-associated (LA)-MRSA. LA-MRSA ST398 can cause infections in humans in contact with animals, and can infect hospitalized people, although at the moment this occurrence is relatively rare. Other animal-adapted MRSA clones have been detected in livestock, such as ST1 and ST9. Recently, ST130 MRSA isolated from bovine mastitis has been found to carry a novel mecA gene that eludes detection by conventional PCR tests. Similar ST130 strains have been isolated from human infections in UK, Denmark, and Germany at low frequency. It is plausible that the increased attention to animal MRSA will reveal other strains with peculiar characteristics that can pose a risk to human health. PMID:22509176

  18. Cell therapy of periodontium: from animal to human?

    PubMed Central

    Trofin, Elena A.; Monsarrat, Paul; Kmoun, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the soft and hard tissues supporting the teeth, which often leads to tooth loss. Its significant impact on the patient's general health and quality of life point to a need for more effective management of this condition. Existing treatments include scaling/root planning and surgical approaches but their overall effects are relatively modest and restricted in application. The goal of regenerative therapy of periodontal defects is to enhance endogenous progenitors and thus promote optimal wound healing. Considering that the host or tissue might be defective in the periodontitis context, it has been proposed that grafting exogenous stem cells would produce new tissues and create a suitable microenvironment for tissue regeneration. Thus, cell therapy of periodontium has been assessed in many animal models and promising results have been reported. However, the methodological diversity of these studies makes the conversion to clinical practice difficult. The aim of this review is to highlight the primary requirements to be satisfied before the leap to clinical trials can be made. We therefore review cell therapy applications for periodontal regeneration in animal models and the concerns to be addressed before undertaking human experiments. PMID:24298258

  19. Identifying Transmission Cycles at the Human-Animal Interface: The Role of Animal Reservoirs in Maintaining Gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Sebastian; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Heesterbeek, Hans; Edmunds, W. John; Checchi, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Many infections can be transmitted between animals and humans. The epidemiological roles of different species can vary from important reservoirs to dead-end hosts. Here, we present a method to identify transmission cycles in different combinations of species from field data. We used this method to synthesise epidemiological and ecological data from Bipindi, Cameroon, a historical focus of gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness), a disease that has often been considered to be maintained mainly by humans. We estimated the basic reproduction number of gambiense HAT in Bipindi and evaluated the potential for transmission in the absence of human cases. We found that under the assumption of random mixing between vectors and hosts, gambiense HAT could not be maintained in this focus without the contribution of animals. This result remains robust under extensive sensitivity analysis. When using the distributions of species among habitats to estimate the amount of mixing between those species, we found indications for an independent transmission cycle in wild animals. Stochastic simulation of the system confirmed that unless vectors moved between species very rarely, reintroduction would usually occur shortly after elimination of the infection from human populations. This suggests that elimination strategies may have to be reconsidered as targeting human cases alone would be insufficient for control, and reintroduction from animal reservoirs would remain a threat. Our approach is broadly applicable and could reveal animal reservoirs critical to the control of other infectious diseases. PMID:23341760

  20. On Some Issues of Human-Animal Studies: An Introduction.

    PubMed

    Métraux, Alexandre

    2016-03-01

    Animals are "in" - since prehistoric times when humans (or their ancient ancestors) were hunting animals, and when they fabricated the Paleolithic dog as well as the Paleolithic cat. In less general terms, animals are "in" since they received names and were listed, observed, mummified, turned into totems, and, later on, dissected, tortured under laboratory conditions, trained as experimental subjects or "purified" as model organisms. And they are massively "in" again, but now from overtly legal and moral points of view, at least since the last two decades of the twentieth century. This is to say that modern members of the species Homo sapiens have always been connected to animals of the most various kinds - from the human flea (Pulex irritans) and the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) to marine mammals, such as dolphins and whales, from horses to parrots, from scallops to worms, and so on. PMID:26903370

  1. Contemporary Animal Models For Human Gene Therapy Applications.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Chitra; Nathar, Trupti Job; Ghosh, Arkasubhra; Hickstein, Dennis Durand; Remington Nelson, Everette Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Over the past three decades, gene therapy has been making considerable progress as an alternative strategy in the treatment of many diseases. Since 2009, several studies have been reported in humans on the successful treatment of various diseases. Animal models mimicking human disease conditions are very essential at the preclinical stage before embarking on a clinical trial. In gene therapy, for instance, they are useful in the assessment of variables related to the use of viral vectors such as safety, efficacy, dosage and localization of transgene expression. However, choosing a suitable disease-specific model is of paramount importance for successful clinical translation. This review focuses on the animal models that are most commonly used in gene therapy studies, such as murine, canine, non-human primates, rabbits, porcine, and a more recently developed humanized mice. Though small and large animals both have their own pros and cons as disease-specific models, the choice is made largely based on the type and length of study performed. While small animals with a shorter life span could be well-suited for degenerative/aging studies, large animals with longer life span could suit longitudinal studies and also help with dosage adjustments to maximize therapeutic benefit. Recently, humanized mice or mouse-human chimaeras have gained interest in the study of human tissues or cells, thereby providing a more reliable understanding of therapeutic interventions. Thus, animal models are of great importance with regard to testing new vector technologies in vivo for assessing safety and efficacy prior to a gene therapy clinical trial. PMID:26415576

  2. Bacteriophage therapy for safeguarding animal and human health: a review.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ruchi; Dhama, Kuldeep; Kumar, Amit; Rahal, Anu; Kapoor, Sanjay

    2014-02-01

    Since the discovery of bacteriophages at the beginning of the 19th century their contribution to bacterial evolution and ecology and use in a variety of applications in biotechnology and medicine has been recognized and understood. Bacteriophages are natural bacterial killers, proven as best biocontrol agents due to their ability to lyse host bacterial cells specifically thereby helping in disease prevention and control. The requirement of such therapeutic approach is straight away required in view of the global emergence of Multidrug Resistant (MDR) strains of bacteria and rapidly developing resistance to antibiotics in both animals and humans along with increasing food safety concerns including of residual antibiotic toxicities. Phage typing is a popular tool to differentiate bacterial isolates and to identify and characterize outbreak-associated strains of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia and Listeria. Numerous methods viz. plaque morphology, ultracentrifugation in the density gradient of CsCl2, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) have been found to be effective in detection of various phages. Bacteriophages have been isolated and recovered from samples of animal waste products of different livestock farms. High titer cocktails of broad spectrum lytic bacteriophages are usually used for clinical trial for assessing their therapeutic efficacy against antibiotic unresponsive infections in different animals. Bacteriophage therapy also helps to fight various bacterial infections of poultry viz. colibacillosis, salmonellosis and listeriosis. Moreover, the utility of phages concerning biosafety has raised the importance to explore and popularize the therapeutic dimension of this promising novel therapy which forms the topic of discussion of the present review. PMID:24897784

  3. Household Animal and Human Medicine Use and Animal Husbandry Practices in Rural Bangladesh: Risk Factors for Emerging Zoonotic Disease and Antibiotic Resistance.

    PubMed

    Roess, A A; Winch, P J; Akhter, A; Afroz, D; Ali, N A; Shah, R; Begum, N; Seraji, H R; El Arifeen, S; Darmstadt, G L; Baqui, A H

    2015-11-01

    Animal antimicrobial use and husbandry practices increase risk of emerging zoonotic disease and antibiotic resistance. We surveyed 700 households to elicit information on human and animal medicine use and husbandry practices. Households that owned livestock (n = 265/459, 57.7%) reported using animal treatments 630 times during the previous 6 months; 57.6% obtained medicines, including antibiotics, from drug sellers. Government animal healthcare providers were rarely visited (9.7%), and respondents more often sought animal health care from pharmacies and village doctors (70.6% and 11.9%, respectively), citing the latter two as less costly and more successful based on past performance. Animal husbandry practices that could promote the transmission of microbes from animals to humans included the following: the proximity of chickens to humans (50.1% of households reported that the chickens slept in the bedroom); the shared use of natural bodies of water for human and animal bathing (78.3%); the use of livestock waste as fertilizer (60.9%); and gender roles that dictate that females are the primary caretakers of poultry and children (62.8%). In the absence of an effective animal healthcare system, villagers must depend on informal healthcare providers for treatment of their animals. Suboptimal use of antimicrobials coupled with unhygienic animal husbandry practices is an important risk factor for emerging zoonotic disease and resistant pathogens. PMID:25787116

  4. Clostridium difficile ribotypes in humans and animals in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rodrigo Otvio Silveira; Rupnik, Maja; Diniz, Amanda Ndia; Vilela, Eduardo Garcia; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria

    2015-12-01

    Clostridium difficile is an emerging enteropathogen responsible for pseudomembranous colitis in humans and diarrhoea in several domestic and wild animal species. Despite its known importance, there are few studies aboutC. difficile polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotypes in Brazil and the actual knowledge is restricted to studies on human isolates. The aim of the study was therefore to compare C. difficileribotypes isolated from humans and animals in Brazil. Seventy-six C. difficile strains isolated from humans (n = 25), dogs (n = 23), piglets (n = 12), foals (n = 7), calves (n = 7), one cat, and one manned wolf were distributed into 24 different PCR ribotypes. Among toxigenic strains, PCR ribotypes 014/020 and 106 were the most common, accounting for 14 (18.4%) and eight (10.5%) samples, respectively. Fourteen different PCR ribotypes were detected among human isolates, nine of them have also been identified in at least one animal species. PCR ribotype 027 was not detected, whereas 078 were found only in foals. This data suggests a high diversity of PCR ribotypes in humans and animals in Brazil and support the discussion of C. difficile as a zoonotic pathogen. PMID:26676318

  5. Clostridium difficile ribotypes in humans and animals in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rodrigo Otvio Silveira; Rupnik, Maja; Diniz, Amanda Ndia; Vilela, Eduardo Garcia; Lobato, Francisco Carlos Faria

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is an emerging enteropathogen responsible for pseudomembranous colitis in humans and diarrhoea in several domestic and wild animal species. Despite its known importance, there are few studies aboutC. difficile polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotypes in Brazil and the actual knowledge is restricted to studies on human isolates. The aim of the study was therefore to compare C. difficileribotypes isolated from humans and animals in Brazil. Seventy-six C. difficile strains isolated from humans (n = 25), dogs (n = 23), piglets (n = 12), foals (n = 7), calves (n = 7), one cat, and one manned wolf were distributed into 24 different PCR ribotypes. Among toxigenic strains, PCR ribotypes 014/020 and 106 were the most common, accounting for 14 (18.4%) and eight (10.5%) samples, respectively. Fourteen different PCR ribotypes were detected among human isolates, nine of them have also been identified in at least one animal species. PCR ribotype 027 was not detected, whereas 078 were found only in foals. This data suggests a high diversity of PCR ribotypes in humans and animals in Brazil and support the discussion of C. difficile as a zoonotic pathogen. PMID:26676318

  6. Human and animal Campylobacteriosis in Tanzania: A review.

    PubMed

    Komba, Erick V G; Mdegela, Robinson H; Msoffe, Peter L M; Ingmer, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    The thermotolerant species of Campylobacter have become very important in public health, particularly as agents of infectious diarrhoea in human beings. Though the mechanism by which they cause disease is yet to be fully explained, they have been recognized as the leading cause of bacterial enteritis in both developed and developing countries. The organisms colonize different animal species without causing any symptoms of disease; and humans acquire infections through contact with or consumption of contaminated meat especially raw/undercooked poultry meat. The growing trend of antibiotic resistant Campylobacter isolates continues to pose significant public health challenges. In this review we present the available information generated in Tanzania about Campylobacter infections in humans and animals. We conducted a structured literature search of PUBMED and ScienceDirect electronic databases and identified 15 articles. Studies on humans reported Campylobacter infections in both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects; with higher prevalence in children under the age of five years. Studies on animals found colonization of both domestic and wild species. Among isolates, some demonstrated antimicrobial resistance. The available information for both human and animal Campylobacteriosis in the country is sparse. It however provides an insight of the bacteriological and epidemiological aspects of Campylobacter infections in the country and eventually creates more awareness on the need to develop control strategies. Since the organism is zoonotic its control strategies should adopt the "One Health" approach involving collaborative efforts from veterinary and human medicine. PMID:26591672

  7. Pathology of the Aging Brain in Domestic and Laboratory Animals, and Animal Models of Human Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Youssef, S A; Capucchio, M T; Rofina, J E; Chambers, J K; Uchida, K; Nakayama, H; Head, E

    2016-03-01

    According to the WHO, the proportion of people over 60 years is increasing and expected to reach 22% of total world's population in 2050. In parallel, recent animal demographic studies have shown that the life expectancy of pet dogs and cats is increasing. Brain aging is associated not only with molecular and morphological changes but also leads to different degrees of behavioral and cognitive dysfunction. Common age-related brain lesions in humans include brain atrophy, neuronal loss, amyloid plaques, cerebrovascular amyloid angiopathy, vascular mineralization, neurofibrillary tangles, meningeal osseous metaplasia, and accumulation of lipofuscin. In aging humans, the most common neurodegenerative disorder is Alzheimer's disease (AD), which progressively impairs cognition, behavior, and quality of life. Pathologic changes comparable to the lesions of AD are described in several other animal species, although their clinical significance and effect on cognitive function are poorly documented. This review describes the commonly reported age-associated neurologic lesions in domestic and laboratory animals and the relationship of these lesions to cognitive dysfunction. Also described are the comparative interspecies similarities and differences to AD and other human neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy, and the spontaneous and transgenic animal models of these diseases. PMID:26869150

  8. Proline and hydroxyproline metabolism: implications for animal and human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao; Bazer, Fuller W; Burghardt, Robert C; Johnson, Gregory A; Kim, Sung Woo; Knabe, Darrell A; Li, Peng; Li, Xilong; McKnight, Jason R; Satterfield, M Carey; Spencer, Thomas E

    2011-04-01

    Proline plays important roles in protein synthesis and structure, metabolism (particularly the synthesis of arginine, polyamines, and glutamate via pyrroline-5-carboxylate), and nutrition, as well as wound healing, antioxidative reactions, and immune responses. On a per-gram basis, proline plus hydroxyproline are most abundant in collagen and milk proteins, and requirements of proline for whole-body protein synthesis are the greatest among all amino acids. Therefore, physiological needs for proline are particularly high during the life cycle. While most mammals (including humans and pigs) can synthesize proline from arginine and glutamine/glutamate, rates of endogenous synthesis are inadequate for neonates, birds, and fish. Thus, work with young pigs (a widely used animal model for studying infant nutrition) has shown that supplementing 0.0, 0.35, 0.7, 1.05, 1.4, and 2.1% proline to a proline-free chemically defined diet containing 0.48% arginine and 2% glutamate dose dependently improved daily growth rate and feed efficiency while reducing concentrations of urea in plasma. Additionally, maximal growth performance of chickens depended on at least 0.8% proline in the diet. Likewise, dietary supplementation with 0.07, 0.14, and 0.28% hydroxyproline (a metabolite of proline) to a plant protein-based diet enhanced weight gains of salmon. Based on its regulatory roles in cellular biochemistry, proline can be considered as a functional amino acid for mammalian, avian, and aquatic species. Further research is warranted to develop effective strategies of dietary supplementation with proline or hydroxyproline to benefit health, growth, and development of animals and humans. PMID:20697752

  9. Proline and hydroxyproline metabolism: implications for animal and human nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Bazer, Fuller W.; Burghardt, Robert C.; Johnson, Gregory A.; Kim, Sung Woo; Knabe, Darrell A.; Li, Peng; Li, Xilong; McKnight, Jason R.; Satterfield, M. Carey; Spencer, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Proline plays important roles in protein synthesis and structure, metabolism (particularly the synthesis of arginine, polyamines, and glutamate via pyrroline-5-carboxylate), and nutrition, as well as wound healing, antioxidative reactions, and immune responses. On a pergram basis, proline plus hydroxyproline are most abundant in collagen and milk proteins, and requirements of proline for whole-body protein synthesis are the greatest among all amino acids. Therefore, physiological needs for proline are particularly high during the life cycle. While most mammals (including humans and pigs) can synthesize proline from arginine and glutamine/glutamate, rates of endogenous synthesis are inadequate for neonates, birds, and fish. Thus, work with young pigs (a widely used animal model for studying infant nutrition) has shown that supplementing 0.0, 0.35, 0.7, 1.05, 1.4, and 2.1% proline to a proline-free chemically defined diet containing 0.48% arginine and 2% glutamate dose dependently improved daily growth rate and feed efficiency while reducing concentrations of urea in plasma. Additionally, maximal growth performance of chickens depended on at least 0.8% proline in the diet. Likewise, dietary supplementation with 0.07, 0.14, and 0.28% hydroxyproline (a metabolite of proline) to a plant protein-based diet enhanced weight gains of salmon. Based on its regulatory roles in cellular biochemistry, proline can be considered as a functional amino acid for mammalian, avian, and aquatic species. Further research is warranted to develop effective strategies of dietary supplementation with proline or hydroxyproline to benefit health, growth, and development of animals and humans. PMID:20697752

  10. Characterizing cognitive aging in humans with links to animal models

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Gene E.; Ryan, Lee; Bowers, Dawn; Foster, Thomas C.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Geldmacher, David S.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2012-01-01

    With the population of older adults expected to grow rapidly over the next two decades, it has become increasingly important to advance research efforts to elucidate the mechanisms associated with cognitive aging, with the ultimate goal of developing effective interventions and prevention therapies. Although there has been a vast research literature on the use of cognitive tests to evaluate the effects of aging and age-related neurodegenerative disease, the need for a set of standardized measures to characterize the cognitive profiles specific to healthy aging has been widely recognized. Here we present a review of selected methods and approaches that have been applied in human research studies to evaluate the effects of aging on cognition, including executive function, memory, processing speed, language, and visuospatial function. The effects of healthy aging on each of these cognitive domains are discussed with examples from cognitive/experimental and clinical/neuropsychological approaches. Further, we consider those measures that have clear conceptual and methodological links to tasks currently in use for non-human animal studies of aging, as well as those that have the potential for translation to animal aging research. Having a complementary set of measures to assess the cognitive profiles of healthy aging across species provides a unique opportunity to enhance research efforts for cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intervention studies of cognitive aging. Taking a cross-species, translational approach will help to advance cognitive aging research, leading to a greater understanding of associated neurobiological mechanisms with the potential for developing effective interventions and prevention therapies for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22988439

  11. What Children Think about Human-Animal Relationships: Incorporating Humane Education Goals in Science and Technology Curriculum and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a shift in the direction of biocentrism that advocates the incorporation of humane education goals. Investigates preconceptions of human-animal relationships among a group of grade 5 students with a view to understanding their readiness to embrace a biocentric perspective. Includes recommendations for science and technology curricula and

  12. Effect of environmental pollutants on human reproduction, including birth defects

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzel, R.B.; Cetrulo, C.L.

    1981-06-01

    Because chemicals from a wide range of environmental sources have been implicated in birth defects and reproductive failures, the effects on human reproduction of chemicals in air, in the terrestrial ecosystem, and in food were studied. Chemicals considered included nicotine, cadmium, polycyclic aromatic compounds, red dye number2, DES, PCB's, TCDD, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, strontium, and zinc. The most serious source of chemical exposure to pregnant women is cigarette smoke which exposes unborn babies to high levels of carbon monoxide, cadmium, nicotine, and benzo-a-pyrene. Fetal exposure to all teratogenic compounds must be minimized.

  13. Dead or alive: animal sampling during Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in humans

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Sarah H.; Reed, Patricia; Cameron, Kenneth N.; Ssebide, Benard J.; Johnson, Christine K.; Morse, Stephen S.; Karesh, William B.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.; Joly, Damien O.

    2012-01-01

    There are currently no widely accepted animal surveillance guidelines for human Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak investigations to identify potential sources of Ebolavirus (EBOV) spillover into humans and other animals. Animal field surveillance during and following an outbreak has several purposes, from helping identify the specific animal source of a human case to guiding control activities by describing the spatial and temporal distribution of wild circulating EBOV, informing public health efforts, and contributing to broader EHF research questions. Since 1976, researchers have sampled over 10,000 individual vertebrates from areas associated with human EHF outbreaks and tested for EBOV or antibodies. Using field surveillance data associated with EHF outbreaks, this review provides guidance on animal sampling for resource-limited outbreak situations, target species, and in some cases which diagnostics should be prioritized to rapidly assess the presence of EBOV in animal reservoirs. In brief, EBOV detection was 32.7% (18/55) for carcasses (animals found dead) and 0.2% (13/5309) for live captured animals. Our review indicates that for the purposes of identifying potential sources of transmission from animals to humans and isolating suspected virus in an animal in outbreak situations, (1) surveillance of free-ranging non-human primate mortality and morbidity should be a priority, (2) any wildlife morbidity or mortality events should be investigated and may hold the most promise for locating virus or viral genome sequences, (3) surveillance of some bat species is worthwhile to isolate and detect evidence of exposure, and (4) morbidity, mortality, and serology studies of domestic animals should prioritize dogs and pigs and include testing for virus and previous exposure. PMID:22558004

  14. Analogy Between Lymphotropic Human Retroviruses and Large Animal Retroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Bouillant, Alain M.P.

    1986-01-01

    The family Retroviridae comprises some fifty viruses in three subfamilies: Oncoviridae, Lentiviridae and Spumaviridae. A better understanding of retroviral pathobiology has resulted from the rapid developments in knowledge of the molecular biology of normal and cancerous cells as well as retroviruses. Genomic relatedness was found between two human T cell leukemia viruses and bovine leukemia virus, similarly, some relatedness appears possible between human AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) virus and lentiviruses of large animals. Because of their genomic relatedness, retroviruses from man and animals could theoretically form recombinants during in vitro manipulation. Therefore persons who work with retroviral materials should follow established laboratory practices to control infectious agents. PMID:17422719

  15. Rift Valley Fever in Humans and Animals in Mayotte, an Endemic Situation?

    PubMed Central

    Jego, Mal; Desprs, Philippe; Collet, Louis; Zumbo, Betty; Tillard, Emmanuel; Girard, Sbastien; Filleul, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Retrospective studies and surveillance on humans and animals revealed that Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) has been circulating on Mayotte for at least several years. A study was conducted in 2011 to estimate the seroprevalence of RVF in humans and in animals and to identify associated risk factors. Using a multistage cluster sampling method, 1420 individuals were enrolled in the human study, including 337 children aged 5 to 14 years. For the animal study, 198 seronegative ruminants from 33 randomly selected sentinel ruminant herds were followed up for more than one year. In both studies, information on environment and risk factors was collected through a standardized questionnaire. The overall weighted seroprevalence of RVFV antibodies in the general population aged ?5 years was 3.5% (95% CI 2.64.8). The overall seroprevalence of RVFV antibodies in the ruminant population was 25.3% (95% CI 19.832.2). Age (?15), gender (men), place of birth on the Comoros, living in Mayotte since less than 5 years, low educational level, farming and living close to a water source were significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity in humans. Major risk factors for RFV infection in animals were the proximity of the farm to a water point, previous two-month rainfall and absence of abortions disposal. Although resulting in few clinical cases in humans and in animals, RVFV has been circulating actively on the island of Mayotte, in a context of regular import of the virus from nearby countries through illegal animal movements, the presence of susceptible animals and a favorable environment for mosquito vectors to maintain virus transmission locally. Humans and animals share the same ways of RVFV transmission, with mosquitoes playing an important role. The studies emphasize the need for a one health approach in which humans and animals within their ecosystems are included. PMID:24098637

  16. Parasites of wild animals as a potential source of hazard to humans.

    PubMed

    Ga??cki, Remigiusz; Sok?, Rajmund; Koziatek, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    The decline in wild animal habitats and the uncontrolled growth of their population make these animals come closer to human settlements. The aim of the study was to identify parasitic infections in wild animals in the selected area, and to specify the hazards they create for humans. In more than 66% of the analysed faecal samples from wild boar, hares, roe deer, deer and fallow deer various developmental forms of parasites were found. These included parasites dangerous for humans: Toxocara canis, Capillaria hepatica, Capillaria bovis, Trichuris suis, Trichuris ovis, Trichuris globulosus, Eimeria spp., and Trichostongylus spp. It is necessary to monitor parasitic diseases in wild animals as they can lead to the spread of parasites creating a hazard to humans, pets and livestock. PMID:26342506

  17. Wild Animal Mortality Monitoring and Human Ebola Outbreaks, Gabon and Republic of Congo, 2001–2003

    PubMed Central

    Froment, Jean-Marc; Bermejo, Magdalena; Kilbourn, Annelisa; Karesh, William; Reed, Patricia; Kumulungui, Brice; Yaba, Philippe; Délicat, André; Rollin, Pierre E.; Leroy, Eric M.

    2005-01-01

    All human Ebola virus outbreaks during 2001–2003 in the forest zone between Gabon and Republic of Congo resulted from handling infected wild animal carcasses. After the first outbreak, we created an Animal Mortality Monitoring Network in collaboration with the Gabonese and Congolese Ministries of Forestry and Environment and wildlife organizations (Wildlife Conservation Society and Programme de Conservation et Utilisation Rationnelle des Ecosystèmes Forestiers en Afrique Centrale) to predict and possibly prevent human Ebola outbreaks. Since August 2001, 98 wild animal carcasses have been recovered by the network, including 65 great apes. Analysis of 21 carcasses found that 10 gorillas, 3 chimpanzees, and 1 duiker tested positive for Ebola virus. Wild animal outbreaks began before each of the 5 human Ebola outbreaks. Twice we alerted the health authorities to an imminent risk for human outbreaks, weeks before they occurred. PMID:15752448

  18. Genetics of hypertension: From experimental animals to humans

    PubMed Central

    Delles, Christian; McBride, Martin W.; Graham, Delyth; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Dominiczak, Anna F.

    2010-01-01

    Essential hypertension affects 20 to 30% of the population worldwide and contributes significantly to cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Heridability of blood pressure is around 15 to 40% but there are also substantial environmental factors affecting blood pressure variability. It is assumed that blood pressure is under the control of a large number of genes each of which has only relatively mild effects. It has therefore been difficult to discover the genes that contribute to blood pressure variation using traditional approaches including candidate gene studies and linkage studies. Animal models of hypertension, particularly in the rat, have led to the discovery of quantitative trait loci harbouring one or several hypertension related genes, but translation of these findings into human essential hypertension remains challenging. Recent development of genotyping technology made large scale genome-wide association studies possible. This approach and the study of monogenic forms of hypertension has led to the discovery of novel and robust candidate genes for human essential hypertension, many of which require functional analysis in experimental models. PMID:20035862

  19. Reinforcing properties of caffeine: studies in humans and laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, R R; Woodson, P P

    1988-02-01

    Three types of experimental studies are reviewed: (1) intravenous and oral caffeine self-administration by laboratory animals, (2) oral caffeine self-administration by humans, and (3) human subjective effects of caffeine relevant to reinforcing effects. These studies show that, under appropriate conditions, caffeine can serve as a reinforcer and can produce elevations in subjective drug liking and/or euphoria. In this regard, caffeine can be distinguished from a wide range of behaviorally active compounds, such as the amphetamine analog fenfluramine and the major tranquilizer chlorpromazine, which do not produce such effects. Caffeine can also be distinguished from classic drugs of abuse such as cocaine, d-amphetamine or pentobarbital which generally maintain high levels of self-administration (or liking) in contrast to caffeine which tends to maintain lower levels of self-administration (or liking) or maintain self-administration under a more narrow range of parametric conditions. Several human studies and one animal experiment suggest that physical dependence substantially potentiates the reinforcing effects of caffeine. Other human and animal studies indicate that there may be substantial differences between individual subjects in the reinforcing effects of caffeine. An important challenge for future human and animal drug self-administration research will be to delineate more precisely the conditions under which caffeine does and does not serve reliably as a reinforcer. PMID:3283780

  20. Development of Animal Models of Human IgA Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Yusuke; Novak, Jan; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis in the world. IgAN is characterized by the mesangial accumulation of immune complexes containing IgA1, usually with co-deposits of complement C3 and variable IgG and/or IgM. Although more than 40 years have passed since IgAN was first described, the mechanisms underlying the disease development are not fully understood. Small-animal experimental models of IgAN can be very helpful in studies of IgAN, but development of these models has been hindered by the fact that only humans and hominoid primates have IgA1 subclass. Thus, multiple models have been developed, that may be helpful in studies of some specific aspects of IgAN. These models include a spontaneous animal model of IgAN, the ddY mouse first reported in 1985. These mice show mild proteinuria without hematuria, and glomerular IgA deposits, with a highly variable incidence and degree of glomerular injury, due to the heterogeneous genetic background. To obtain a murine line consistently developing IgAN, we intercrossed an earlyonset group of ddY mice, in which the development of IgAN includes mesangial IgA deposits and glomerular injury. After selective intercrossing for >20 generations, we established a novel 100% early-onset grouped ddY murine model. All grouped ddY mice develop proteinuria within eight weeks of age. The grouped ddY mouse model can be a useful tool for analysis of multiple aspects of the pathogenesis of IgAN and may aid in assessment of some approaches for the treatment of IgAN. PMID:25722731

  1. What Do We Feed to Food-Production Animals? A Review of Animal Feed Ingredients and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Amy R.; Lefferts, Lisa Y.; McKenzie, Shawn; Walker, Polly

    2007-01-01

    Objective Animal feeding practices in the United States have changed considerably over the past century. As large-scale, concentrated production methods have become the predominant model for animal husbandry, animal feeds have been modified to include ingredients ranging from rendered animals and animal waste to antibiotics and organoarsenicals. In this article we review current U.S. animal feeding practices and etiologic agents that have been detected in animal feed. Evidence that current feeding practices may lead to adverse human health impacts is also evaluated. Data sources We reviewed published veterinary and human-health literature regarding animal feeding practices, etiologic agents present in feed, and human health effects along with proceedings from animal feed workshops. Data extraction Data were extracted from peer-reviewed articles and books identified using PubMed, Agricola, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention databases. Data synthesis Findings emphasize that current animal feeding practices can result in the presence of bacteria, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, prions, arsenicals, and dioxins in feed and animal-based food products. Despite a range of potential human health impacts that could ensue, there are significant data gaps that prevent comprehensive assessments of human health risks associated with animal feed. Limited data are collected at the federal or state level concerning the amounts of specific ingredients used in animal feed, and there are insufficient surveillance systems to monitor etiologic agents “from farm to fork.” Conclusions Increased funding for integrated veterinary and human health surveillance systems and increased collaboration among feed professionals, animal producers, and veterinary and public health officials is necessary to effectively address these issues. PMID:17520050

  2. The Responsible Use of Animals in Biology Classrooms, Including Alternatives to Dissection. A NABT Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Biology Teacher, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a policy regarding vivisection, dissection, and other use of animals in biology classrooms. Alternative teaching techniques are stressed. The organizational responsibility regarding this issue is discussed. (CW)

  3. Epidemiological characteristics of human and animal rabies in Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Zeynalova, S; Shikhiyev, M; Aliyeva, T; Ismayilova, R; Wise, E; Abdullayev, R; Asadov, K; Rustamova, S; Quliyev, F; Whatmore, A M; Marshall, E S; Fooks, A R; Horton, D L

    2015-03-01

    The Caucasus is a region of geopolitical importance, in the gateway between Europe and Asia. This geographical location makes the region equally important in the epidemiology and control of transboundary infectious diseases such as rabies. Azerbaijan is the largest country in the Caucasus, and although rabies is notifiable and considered endemic, there is little information on the burden of human and animal rabies. Here, we describe a cross-disciplinary international collaboration aimed at improving rabies control in Azerbaijan. Partial nucleoprotein gene sequences were obtained from animal rabies cases for comparison with those from surrounding areas. Reported human and animal rabies cases between 2000 and 2010 were also reviewed and analysed by region and year. Comparison of rabies virus strains circulating in Azerbaijan demonstrates more than one lineage of rabies virus circulating concurrently in Azerbaijan and illustrates the need for further sample collection and characterization. Officially reported rabies data showed an increase in human and animal rabies cases, and an increase in animal bites requiring provision of post-exposure prophylaxis, since 2006. This is despite apparently consistent levels of dog vaccination and culling of stray dogs. PMID:24845953

  4. The comparative psychopathology of affective disorders in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Healy, D

    1987-01-01

    Reviews of animal models of affective disorders commonly concentrate on the behavioural features thereof, the supposed neurochemical substrates, the mode of production and the response to treatment of the state in question but ignore questions of psycho pathology. An attempt is made to deal critically with the psychopathology of human and animal affective disorders in the light of current operational criteria for the diagnosis of major depressive disorders. It is argued thatthe psychopathological tradition stemming from Jaspers may be more appropriate to a consideration of animal models of affective disorders than the psychopathological positions implicit in psychoanalysis, behaviourism or current cognitive psychologies and in addition more suited to meet these criteria. The adoption of such a perspective results in a shift of emphasis from abnormalities of psychological content to demonstrable neuropsychological deficits and a definition of affective disorders, whether in animals or humans, as psychosomatic illnesses, possibly involving a pathology of circadian rhythmicity. This perspective also suggests that animal models may be useful in the devel opment of more refined diagnostic criteria for affective disorders in humans. PMID:22158981

  5. Hemorrhagic transformation after ischemic stroke in animals and humans

    PubMed Central

    Jickling, Glen C; Liu, DaZhi; Stamova, Boryana; Ander, Bradley P; Zhan, Xinhua; Lu, Aigang; Sharp, Frank R

    2014-01-01

    Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a common complication of ischemic stroke that is exacerbated by thrombolytic therapy. Methods to better prevent, predict, and treat HT are needed. In this review, we summarize studies of HT in both animals and humans. We propose that early HT (<18 to 24?hours after stroke onset) relates to leukocyte-derived matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and brain-derived MMP-2 that damage the neurovascular unit and promote bloodbrain barrier (BBB) disruption. This contrasts to delayed HT (>18 to 24?hours after stroke) that relates to ischemia activation of brain proteases (MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and endogenous tissue plasminogen activator), neuroinflammation, and factors that promote vascular remodeling (vascular endothelial growth factor and high-moblity-group-box-1). Processes that mediate BBB repair and reduce HT risk are discussed, including transforming growth factor beta signaling in monocytes, Src kinase signaling, MMP inhibitors, and inhibitors of reactive oxygen species. Finally, clinical features associated with HT in patients with stroke are reviewed, including approaches to predict HT by clinical factors, brain imaging, and blood biomarkers. Though remarkable advances in our understanding of HT have been made, additional efforts are needed to translate these discoveries to the clinic and reduce the impact of HT on patients with ischemic stroke. PMID:24281743

  6. Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in animals and humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common parasites of domestic, wild, and companion animals, and it also infects approximately 25% of the worlds human population. T. gondii has a complex life cycle. Sexual development occurs only in the cat gut, while asexual replication and transmission occur i...

  7. DIFFERENTIATING HUMAN FROM ANIMAL ISOLATES OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    We analyzed 9s Cryptosporidium parvum isolates from humans and animals by a polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method based on the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein 2 gene sequence. Used as a molecular marker, this method can differentiate ...

  8. [Superficial infections caused by Microsporum canis in humans and animals].

    PubMed

    Segundo, Carolina; Martnez, Alejandrina; Arenas, Roberto; Fernndez, Ramn; Cervantes, Roberto A

    2004-03-01

    Dermatophytic infections caused by M. canis in humans and animals have a world wide distribution and they are zoonotic. The objective in this work was to know the frequency of M. canis infections in humans and pets. We studied our cases from January 1994 to December 2002. The human samples were obtained from a Dermatological Department in a General Hospital and we registered the next data: age, sex, job, and affected area. The animal samples were obtained from a mycological veterinary laboratory, and we registered the presence or absence of clinical lesions. A total of 46 clinical cases of M. canis infections were recorded, 26 female and 20 males: tinea capitis 21, tinea corporis 17, tinea pedis five, onychomycosis two, and only one case with tinea faciei. The 46 cases with positive culture yield 42 positive samples in KOH. The age range varied from 2 to 60 years. Among the animals, we studied 461 dogs and found six KOH positive (1%) samples and cultured 23 isolates (4.98%): 21 M. canis, one M. gypseum and one Trichophyton spp. From the 68 samples of cats, eight (11.76%) were positive to KOH, being 26 (38.23%) M. canis isolates. In M. canis infections in humans, the age rage was wide with predominance in women. In animals, M. canis isolates represented the most dermatophytic infection. PMID:15458362

  9. Cryptosporidium Spp. Infection in Human and Domestic Animals

    PubMed Central

    Heidarnegadi, SM; Mohebali, M; Maraghi, SH; Babaei, Z; Farnia, SH; Bairami, A; Rezaeian, M

    2012-01-01

    Background Cryptosporidium spp. is a coccidian parasite infected humans and animals. Prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium spp. infection associated with is some parameters such as sampling, age, season, country and contact to domestic animals. This study aimed to determine Cryptosporidium spp. Infection in humans and some animals in rural areas of Shushtar district from Khuzestan Province, south- west of Iran. Methods In this study, Stool specimens were randomly collected from 45 cattle, 8 buffalos, 35 calves, 22 turkeys, 3 sheep, 2 geese as well as 62 humans in different seasons selected from rural areas of Shushtar district located in Khuzestan in the south- west of Iran from August 2009 to April 2011. The collected stool samples were examined by modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method. Results Altogether, 68/115 (59.1%) domestic animals and 9/62 (14.5%) of humans were showed Cryptosporidium spp. infection in the study areas. Conclusion In this study we found the high frequency of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in the studied areas. PMID:23133472

  10. Ecology of Disease: The Intersection of Human and Animal Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental ecosystems and climate are closely linked and they affect animal and human diseases. We describe (1) the effect of ecology on vector-borne disease, (2) the role of ecology and global climate in disease forecasting, and (3) the potential use of forecasting to reduce impact and limit sp...

  11. Variability Discrimination in Humans and Animals: Implications for Adaptive Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Young, Michael E.; Cook, Robert G.

    2004-01-01

    Both humans and animals live in a rich world of events. Some events repeat themselves, whereas others constantly change. The authors propose that discriminating this stability, sameness, and uniformity from change, differentness, and diversity is fundamental to adaptive action. Evidence from many areas of behavioral science indicates that the

  12. Anticipatory Governance: Bioethical Expertise for Human/Animal Chimeras.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Alison; Salter, Brian

    2012-09-01

    The governance demands generated by the use of human/animal chimeras in scientific research offer both a challenge and an opportunity for the development of new forms of anticipatory governance through the novel application of bioethical expertise. Anticipatory governance can be seen to have three stages of development whereby bioethical experts move from a reactive to a proactive stance at the edge of what is scientifically possible. In the process, the ethicists move upstream in their engagement with the science of human-to-animal chimeras. To what extent is the anticipatory coestablishment of the principles and operational rules of governance at this early stage in the development of the human-to-animal research field likely to result in a framework for bioethical decision making that is in support of science? The process of anticipatory governance is characterised by the entwining of the scientific and the philosophical so that judgements against science are also found to be philosophically unfounded, and conversely, those activities that are permissible are deemed so on both scientific and ethical grounds. Through what is presented as an organic process, the emerging bioethical framework for human-to-animal chimera research becomes a legitimating framework within which 'good' science can safely progress. Science gives bioethical expertise access to new governance territory; bioethical expertise gives science access to political acceptability. PMID:23576848

  13. [Animal testing ethics and human testing. Thoughts on our conduct with and our relationship to animals].

    PubMed

    Locker, Alfred

    2004-01-01

    After many years of experimental work with animals of diverse species, the author felt confronted with the question whether the great expenditure of sacrificed animal life would pay off when compared with the results gained. By self-critically considering his work, he gradually experienced a conversion from an unconcerned experimenter to a man feeling a deep sympathy with his fellow creatures. This motivated him to ponder the true nature of animals. Instead of applying ethics--though justified in its own realm--the author preferred to look at the problem using the General Systems Theory (GST), which can describe "the other side" of any system, the side into which any system may occasionally or necessarily transform. It occurred to him to assume that--provided we see a living organism as a system (as Ludwig von Bertalanffy, the founder of GST, did)--the "other side" of the animal would correspond to an innocent "genius" who suffers for man (thereby assuming a Christ-like position), whereas in its transitory life the true essence of the animal is hidden. Thus, by fancifully viewing the role of animals destined to suffer, a connection between GST and theology or religion arises. The consequence for us would be to pay honour to the test animal, irrespective of whether or not painful experiments could be avoided. The differentiation between a sacrifice (spiritually surrendering for a greater good) and a victim (involuntarily subjected to suffering) reveals that the experimental animal primarily belongs to the latter. But it can be elevated to the former when the full meaning of its suffering becomes obvious. The same holds true for "human testing", if, in contrast to the formidable atrocities, e.g. of concentration camps, the momentum of voluntariness is guaranteed, as pioneers of medical research frequently demonstrated by carrying out experiments on themselves. PMID:15586253

  14. [Reference relationships between human and animal in Hildegard von Bingen].

    PubMed

    Riethe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In "De animalibus", the 7th book in the "Liber simplicis medicinae", Hildegard von Bingen describes the characteristics of four-footed land animals. Some of these have a special relationship with humans in that they embody moral qualities. An explanation for this is already given in the preface, which states that human intelligence recognizes these qualities, declaring that "You are this or that sort of creature". Since the relationship that animals have with nature shares a degree of similarity with that of man's, they can be regarded as symbolic representatives for particular human traits and characteristics. The article at hand presents Hildegard von Bingen's descriptions of the monkey, the lion, the bear, the rabbit, the dog, the cat, the wolf, the lynx, and the donkey. While the monkey just mimics man's behaviour and is imperfect in both settings, the lion embodies will power. The bear on the other hand stands for unbridled sexual desire, while in the rabbit the gentleness of a sheep is united with the bounce of a deer. The lynx is regarded as hedonistic, the donkey as stupid, and the wolf as surrounded by dangerous sylphs. In Hildegard's depictions, exotic and native animal species display rather extraordinary behavioural traits, and the medieval Christian world view of the author conveys unexpected relationships between humans and animals. In addition to empirical observation and experience, Hildegard also relies on folkloristic beliefs and magical practices related to explanatory models of her time. She allows largely unknown sources into her animal lore but never strays from her ultimate goal of having it serve to instruct people. In doing so, Hildegard removed herself far from the common tradition of medieval animal portraits. PMID:23155757

  15. Simulation of Spread of African Swine Fever, Including the Effects of Residues from Dead Animals

    PubMed Central

    Halasa, Tariq; Boklund, Anette; Bøtner, Anette; Toft, Nils; Thulke, Hans-Hermann

    2016-01-01

    To study the spread of African swine fever (ASF) within a pig unit and the impact of unit size on ASF spread, a simulation model was created. In the model, an animal can be in one of the following stages: susceptible, latent, subclinical, clinical, or recovered. Animals can be infectious during the subclinical stage and are fully infectious during the clinical stage. ASF virus (ASFV) infection through residues of dead animals in the slurries was also modeled in an exponentially fading-out pattern. Low and high transmission rates for ASFV were tested in the model. Robustness analysis was carried out in order to study the impact of uncertain parameters on model predictions. The results showed that the disease may fade out within the pig unit without a major outbreak. Furthermore, they showed that spread of ASFV is dependent on the infectiousness of subclinical animals and the residues of dead animals, the transmission rate of the virus, and importantly the unit size. Moreover, increasing the duration of the latent or the subclinical stages resulted in longer time to disease fade out. The proposed model is a simple and robust tool simulating the spread of ASFV within a pig house taking into account dynamics of ASFV spread and the unit size. The tool can be implemented in simulation models of ASFV spread between herds. PMID:26870740

  16. Human Salmonella Clinical Isolates Distinct from Those of Animal Origin▿

    PubMed Central

    Heithoff, Douglas M.; Shimp, William R.; Lau, Patrick W.; Badie, Golnaz; Enioutina, Elena Y.; Daynes, Raymond A.; Byrne, Barbara A.; House, John K.; Mahan, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The global trend toward intensive livestock production has led to significant public health risks and industry-associated losses due to an increased incidence of disease and contamination of livestock-derived food products. A potential factor contributing to these health concerns is the prospect that selective pressure within a particular host may give rise to bacterial strain variants that exhibit enhanced fitness in the present host relative to that in the parental host from which the strain was derived. Here, we assessed 184 Salmonella enterica human and animal clinical isolates for their virulence capacities in mice and for the presence of the Salmonella virulence plasmid encoding the SpvB actin cytotoxin required for systemic survival and Pef fimbriae, implicated in adherence to the murine intestinal epithelium. All (21 of 21) serovar Typhimurium clinical isolates derived from animals were virulent in mice, whereas many (16 of 41) serovar Typhimurium isolates derived from human salmonellosis patients lacked this capacity. Additionally, many (10 of 29) serovar Typhimurium isolates derived from gastroenteritis patients did not possess the Salmonella virulence plasmid, in contrast to all animal and human bacteremia isolates tested. Lastly, among serovar Typhimurium isolates that harbored the Salmonella virulence plasmid, 6 of 31 derived from human salmonellosis patients were avirulent in mice, which is in contrast to the virulent phenotype exhibited by all the animal isolates examined. These studies suggest that Salmonella isolates derived from human salmonellosis patients are distinct from those of animal origin. The characterization of these bacterial strain variants may provide insight into their relative pathogenicities as well as into the development of treatment and prophylactic strategies for salmonellosis. PMID:18245251

  17. Consciousness in humans and non-human animals: recent advances and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Boly, Melanie; Seth, Anil K.; Wilke, Melanie; Ingmundson, Paul; Baars, Bernard; Laureys, Steven; Edelman, David B.; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2013-01-01

    This joint article reflects the authors' personal views regarding noteworthy advances in the neuroscience of consciousness in the last 10 years, and suggests what we feel may be promising future directions. It is based on a small conference at the Samoset Resort in Rockport, Maine, USA, in July of 2012, organized by the Mind Science Foundation of San Antonio, Texas. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of subjectivity in humans and other animals, including empirical, applied, technical, and conceptual insights. These include the evidence for the importance of fronto-parietal connectivity and of “top-down” processes, both of which enable information to travel across distant cortical areas effectively, as well as numerous dissociations between consciousness and cognitive functions, such as attention, in humans. In addition, we describe the development of mental imagery paradigms, which made it possible to identify covert awareness in non-responsive subjects. Non-human animal consciousness research has also witnessed substantial advances on the specific role of cortical areas and higher order thalamus for consciousness, thanks to important technological enhancements. In addition, much progress has been made in the understanding of non-vertebrate cognition relevant to possible conscious states. Finally, major advances have been made in theories of consciousness, and also in their comparison with the available evidence. Along with reviewing these findings, each author suggests future avenues for research in their field of investigation. PMID:24198791

  18. A Selective Critique of Animal Experiments in Human-Orientated Biological Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, G. P.

    1990-01-01

    The advantages and justifications for using small animals in human-oriented research are reviewed. Some of the pitfalls of extrapolating animal-derived data to humans are discussed. Several specific problems with animal experimentation are highlighted. (CW)

  19. Implications of aquatic animal health for human health.

    PubMed Central

    Dawe, C J

    1990-01-01

    Human health and aquatic animal health are organically related at three distinct interfaces. Aquatic animals serve as important contributors to the nutritional protein, lipid, and vitamin requirements of humans; as carriers and transmitters of many infectious and parasitic diseases to which humans are susceptible; and as indicators of toxic and carcinogenic substances that they can convey, in some part, from aquatic environments to man and other terrestrial animals. Transcending these relationships, but less visible and definable to many, is the role that aquatic animals play in the sustenance of our integrated planetary ecosystem. Up to the present, this ecosystem has been compatible with mankind's occupation of a niche within it at high but ultimately limited population levels. In the past century we have become clearly aware that human activities, particularly over-harvesting of aquatic animals together with chemical degradation of their habitats, can quite rapidly lead to perturbances that drastically shift aquatic ecosystems toward conditions of low productivity and impaired function as one of earth's vital organs. The negative values of aquatic animals as disease vectors are far outweighed by their positive values as nutritional sources and as sustainers of a relatively stable equilibrium in the global ecosystem. In the immediate future we can expect to see increased and improved monitoring of aquatic habitats to determine the extent to which aquatic animals cycle anthropogenic toxic and carcinogenic chemicals back to human consumers. In the long term, methods are particularly needed to assess the effects of these pollutants on reproductive success in aquatic communities and in human communities as well. As inputs of habitat-degrading substances change in quality and quantity, it becomes increasingly urgent to evaluate the consequences in advance, not in retrospect. A new, more realistic and comprehensive philosophy regarding aquatic environmental preservation and equally new and comprehensive technological advances reflective of this philosophy will be required. In the next century we will see a serious test of whether or not mankind has lost its ability to foresee and forestall the side effects of scientific and technological ingenuity. PMID:2205490

  20. Human task animation from performance models and natural language input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esakov, Jeffrey; Badler, Norman I.; Jung, Moon

    1989-01-01

    Graphical manipulation of human figures is essential for certain types of human factors analyses such as reach, clearance, fit, and view. In many situations, however, the animation of simulated people performing various tasks may be based on more complicated functions involving multiple simultaneous reaches, critical timing, resource availability, and human performance capabilities. One rather effective means for creating such a simulation is through a natural language description of the tasks to be carried out. Given an anthropometrically-sized figure and a geometric workplace environment, various simple actions such as reach, turn, and view can be effectively controlled from language commands or standard NASA checklist procedures. The commands may also be generated by external simulation tools. Task timing is determined from actual performance models, if available, such as strength models or Fitts' Law. The resulting action specification are animated on a Silicon Graphics Iris workstation in real-time.

  1. Sex for fun: a synthesis of human and animal neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Janniko R; Kringelbach, Morten L; Pfaus, James G

    2012-09-01

    Sex is a fundamental pleasure, and crucial to the survival of our species. Though not many people would disagree with the proposition that sexual behaviour depends on the brain, the neuroscientific study of human sex is still relatively taboo and much remains to be discovered. On the contrary, excellent experimental animal models (mostly rat) are available that have uncovered major behavioural, neurochemical, and neuroanatomical characteristics of sexual behaviour. Restructuring sexual behaviour into broader terms reflecting behavioural states (wanting, liking, and inhibition) facilitates species comparison, revealing many similarities between animal and human sexual pleasure cycles, some of which can serve as potential avenues of new human sex research. In particular, behavioural and brain evidence clearly shows that motivational and consummatory phases are fundamentally distinct, and that genitally-induced sexual reward is a major factor in sexual learning mechanisms. PMID:22926422

  2. Animal Dissection. [Fact Sheet and Resource List Information Packet from the Humane Society of the United States].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balcombe, Jonathan

    Killing animals for classroom dissection causes animal suffering, cheapens the value of life, and depletes wild animal populations, yet it remains commonplace. The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) addresses the issue in this information packet which includes a fact sheet and three resource lists "on Dissection." The fact sheet discusses

  3. Animal Science, Including Instruction in Agricultural Mechanics, Careers, Leadership, and Supervised Occupational Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Education, Jefferson City. Agricultural Education Section.

    Developed and reviewed by a committee of 16 teachers, the state supervisory staff, and the teacher education staff, this curriculum guide is for vocational agriculture teacher use with ninth grade students interested in agricultural occupations. Some objectives for this 1-year course in animal science are--(1) to develop competencies in…

  4. The Responsible Use of Animals in Biology Classrooms Including Alternatives to Dissection. Monograph IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hairston, Rosalina V., Ed.

    This monograph discusses the care and maintenance of animals, suggests some alternative teaching strategies, and affirms the value of teaching biology as the study of living organisms, rather than dead specimens. The lessons in this monograph are intended as guidelines that teachers should adapt for their own particular classroom needs. Chapter 1,…

  5. Creatures in the Classroom: Including Insects and Small Animals in Your Preschool Gardening Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachey, Alyse C.; Butler, Deanna

    2012-01-01

    When doing spring planting activities, what does a teacher do while waiting for the plants to grow? This waiting time is a golden opportunity to explore another side of gardening--the creatures that make it all possible. Insects are an integral part of everyday world, having existed for over 300 million years; they are the most common animal on

  6. Creatures in the Classroom: Including Insects and Small Animals in Your Preschool Gardening Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachey, Alyse C.; Butler, Deanna

    2012-01-01

    When doing spring planting activities, what does a teacher do while waiting for the plants to grow? This waiting time is a golden opportunity to explore another side of gardening--the creatures that make it all possible. Insects are an integral part of everyday world, having existed for over 300 million years; they are the most common animal on…

  7. Group decisions in humans and animals: a survey

    PubMed Central

    Conradt, Larissa; List, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Humans routinely make many decisions collectively, whether they choose a restaurant with friends, elect political leaders or decide actions to tackle international problems, such as climate change, that affect the future of the whole planet. We might be less aware of it, but group decisions are just as important to social animals as they are for us. Animal groups have to collectively decide about communal movements, activities, nesting sites and enterprises, such as cooperative breeding or hunting, that crucially affect their survival and reproduction. While human group decisions have been studied for millennia, the study of animal group decisions is relatively young, but is now expanding rapidly. It emerges that group decisions in animals pose many similar questions to those in humans. The purpose of the present issue is to integrate and combine approaches in the social and natural sciences in an area in which theoretical challenges and research questions are often similar, and to introduce each discipline to the other's key ideas, findings and successful methods. In order to make such an introduction as effective as possible, here, we briefly review conceptual similarities and differences between the sciences, and provide a guide to the present issue. PMID:19073475

  8. Practical uses for ecdysteroids in mammals including humans: an update

    PubMed Central

    Lafont, R.; Dinan, L.

    2003-01-01

    Ecdysteroids are widely used as inducers for gene-switch systems based on insect ecdysteroid receptors and genes of interest placed under the control of ecdysteroid-response elements. We review here these systems, which are currently mainly used in vitro with cultured cells in order to analyse the role of a wide array of genes, but which are expected to represent the basis for future gene therapy strategies. Such developments raise several questions, which are addressed in detail. First, the metabolic fate of ecdysteroids in mammals, including humans, is only poorly known, and the rapid catabolism of ecdysteroids may impede their use as in vivo inducers. A second set of questions arose in fact much earlier with the pioneering “heterophylic” studies of Burdette in the early sixties on the pharmacological effects of ecdysteroids on mammals. These and subsequent studies showed a wide range of effects, most of them being beneficial for the organism (e.g. hypoglycaemic, hypocholesterolaemic, anabolic). These effects are reviewed and critically analysed, and some hypotheses are proposed to explain the putative mechanisms involved. All of these pharmacological effects have led to the development of a wide array of ecdysteroid-containing preparations, which are primarily used for their anabolic and/or “adaptogenic” properties on humans (or horses or dogs). In the same way, increasing numbers of patents have been deposited concerning various beneficial effects of ecdysteroids in many medical or cosmetic domains, which make ecdysteroids very attractive candidates for several practical uses. It may be questioned whether all these pharmacological actions are compatible with the development of ecdysteroid-inducible gene switches for gene therapy, and also if ecdysteroids should be classified among doping substances. Abbreviation: 20E 20-hydroxyecdysone 2d20E 2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone 2dE 2-deoxyecdysone BAH bisacylhydrazine BmEcR Bombyx mori EcR CfEcR Choristoneura fumiferana EcR CfUSP Choristoneura fumiferana USP CHO Chinese hamster ovary CMV cytomegalovirus DBD DNA-binding domain DmEcR Drosophila melanogaster EcR AbbE ecdysone EcR ecdysteroid receptor EcRE ecdysteroid response element EHT effective half-time ERE oestrogen response element GR glucocorticoid receptor GRE glucocorticoid response element HEK human embryonic kidney HvEcR Heliothis virescens EcR LBD ligand binding domain murA muristerone A PKA protein kinase A polB polypodine B ponA ponasterone A PPAR peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor RAR retinoic acid receptor RXR retinoid X receptor TR thyroid receptor USP ultraspiracle VDR vitamin D receptor VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor PMID:15844229

  9. Animal models to study the pathogenesis of human and animal Clostridium perfringens infections.

    PubMed

    Uzal, Francisco A; McClane, Bruce A; Cheung, Jackie K; Theoret, James; Garcia, Jorge P; Moore, Robert J; Rood, Julian I

    2015-08-31

    The most common animal models used to study Clostridium perfringens infections in humans and animals are reviewed here. The classical C. perfringens-mediated histotoxic disease of humans is clostridial myonecrosis or gas gangrene and the use of a mouse myonecrosis model coupled with genetic studies has contributed greatly to our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Similarly, the use of a chicken model has enhanced our understanding of type A-mediated necrotic enteritis in poultry and has led to the identification of NetB as the primary toxin involved in disease. C. perfringens type A food poisoning is a highly prevalent bacterial illness in the USA and elsewhere. Rabbits and mice are the species most commonly used to study the action of enterotoxin, the causative toxin. Other animal models used to study the effect of this toxin are rats, non-human primates, sheep and cattle. In rabbits and mice, CPE produces severe necrosis of the small intestinal epithelium along with fluid accumulation. C. perfringens type D infection has been studied by inoculating epsilon toxin (ETX) intravenously into mice, rats, sheep, goats and cattle, and by intraduodenal inoculation of whole cultures of this microorganism in mice, sheep, goats and cattle. Molecular Koch's postulates have been fulfilled for enterotoxigenic C. perfringens type A in rabbits and mice, for C. perfringens type A necrotic enteritis and gas gangrene in chickens and mice, respectively, for C. perfringens type C in mice, rabbits and goats, and for C. perfringens type D in mice, sheep and goats. PMID:25770894

  10. Human diarrhea infections associated with domestic animal husbandry: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano, Laura D.; Levy, Karen; Menezes, Neia P.; Freeman, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic animal husbandry, a common practice globally, can lead to zoonotic transmission of enteric pathogens. However, this risk has received little attention to date. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the evidence for an association between domestic exposure to food-producing animals and cases of human diarrhea and specific enteric infections. We performed a systematic review of available literature to examine domestic livestock and poultry as risk factors for diarrhea and applied pre-determined quality criteria. Where possible, we carried out meta-analysis of specific animalpathogen pairs. We found consistent evidence of a positive association between exposure to domestic food-producing animals and diarrheal illness across a range of animal exposures and enteric pathogens. Out of 29 studies included in the review, 20 (69.0%) reported a positive association between domestic animal exposure and diarrhea. Domestic exposure to poultry revealed a substantial association with human campylobacteriosis (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.903.93). Our results suggest that domestic poultry and livestock exposures are associated with diarrheal illness in humans. Failure to ascertain the microbial cause of disease may mask this effect. Exposure to domestic animals should be considered a risk factor for human diarrheal illness and additional studies may identify potential mitigation strategies to address this risk. PMID:24812065

  11. [Hypothesis of evolutionary origin of several human and animal diseases].

    PubMed

    Pertseva, M N; Shpakov, A O

    2010-01-01

    Studies of our Laboratory in the field of molecular and evolutionary endocrinology have allowed us to put forward a hypothesis about evolutionary origin of endocrine and other diseases of human and animals. This hypothesis is considered using a model of hormonal signal systems. It is based on the concept formulated by the authors about molecular defects in hormonal signal systems as the key causes of endocrine diseases; on evolutionary conservatism of hormonal signal systems, which stems logically from the authors' concept of the prokaryotic origin and endosymbiotic appearance in the course of evolution of chemosignal systems in the higher eukaryotes; from the fact that the process of formation of hormonal signal systems with participation of endosymbiosis including the horizontal transfer of genes is accompanied by transfer not only of normal, but also of the defected genetic material. There are considered examples of the principal possibility of transfer of defected genes between bacteria and eukaryotic organisms. Analysis of the current literature allows suggesting inheritance of pathogenic factors from evolutionary ancestors in the lineage prokaryotes--lower eukaryotes--higher eukaryotes. PMID:20583590

  12. Calcium isotope ratios in animal and human bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynard, L. M.; Henderson, G. M.; Hedges, R. E. M.

    2010-07-01

    Calcium isotopes in tissues are thought to be influenced by an individual's diet, reflecting parameters such as trophic level and dairy consumption, but this has not been carefully assessed. We report the calcium isotope ratios (δ 44/42Ca) of modern and archaeological animal and human bone ( n = 216). Modern sheep raised at the same location show 0.14 ± 0.08‰ higher δ 44/42Ca in females than in males, which we attribute to lactation by the ewes. In the archaeological bone samples the calcium isotope ratios of the herbivorous fauna vary by location. At a single site, the archaeological fauna do not show a trophic level effect. Humans have lower δ 44/42Ca than the mean site fauna by 0.22 ± 0.22‰, and the humans have a greater δ 44/42Ca range than the animals. No effect of sex or age on the calcium isotope ratios was found, and intra-individual skeletal δ 44/42Ca variability is negligible. We rule out dairy consumption as the main cause of the lower human δ 44/42Ca, based on results from sites pre-dating animal domestication and dairy availability, and suggest instead that individual physiology and calcium intake may be important in determining bone calcium isotope ratios.

  13. Mechanized syringe homogenization of human and animal tissues.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Biji T; Porter, Andrew C; Patel, Nisha C; Kurono, Sadamu; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Scofield, R Hal

    2004-06-01

    Tissue homogenization is a prerequisite to any fractionation schedule. A plethora of hands-on methods are available to homogenize tissues. Here we report a mechanized method for homogenizing animal and human tissues rapidly and easily. The Bio-Mixer 1200 (manufactured by Innovative Products, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK) utilizes the back-and-forth movement of two motor-driven disposable syringes, connected to each other through a three-way stopcock, to homogenize animal or human tissue. Using this method, we were able to homogenize human or mouse tissues (brain, liver, heart, and salivary glands) in 5 min. From sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric enzyme assay for prolidase, we have found that the homogenates obtained were as good or even better than that obtained used a manual glass-on-Teflon (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) homogenization protocol (all-glass tube and Teflon pestle). Use of the Bio-Mixer 1200 to homogenize animal or human tissue precludes the need to stay in the cold room as is the case with the other hands-on homogenization methods available, in addition to freeing up time for other experiments. PMID:15285912

  14. Hemagglutination by a human rotavirus isolate as evidence for transmission of animal rotaviruses to humans.

    PubMed Central

    Nakagomi, O; Mochizuki, M; Aboudy, Y; Shif, I; Silberstein, I; Nakagomi, T

    1992-01-01

    Human rotavirus strain Ro1845, which was isolated in 1985 from an Israeli child with diarrhea, has a hemagglutinin that is capable of agglutinating erythrocytes from guinea pigs, sheep, chickens, and humans (group O). Hemagglutination was inhibited after incubation with hyperimmune sera or in the presence of glycophorin, the erythrocyte receptor for animal rotaviruses. These results suggest that Ro1845 is an animal rotavirus that infected a human child. PMID:1315327

  15. A quantitative prioritisation of human and domestic animal pathogens in Europe.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, K Marie; Setzkorn, Christian; Hepworth, Philip J; Morand, Serge; Morse, Andrew P; Baylis, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Disease or pathogen risk prioritisations aid understanding of infectious agent impact within surveillance or mitigation and biosecurity work, but take significant development. Previous work has shown the H-(Hirsch-)index as an alternative proxy. We present a weighted risk analysis describing infectious pathogen impact for human health (human pathogens) and well-being (domestic animal pathogens) using an objective, evidence-based, repeatable approach; the H-index. This study established the highest H-index European pathogens. Commonalities amongst pathogens not included in previous surveillance or risk analyses were examined. Differences between host types (humans/animals/zoonotic) in pathogen H-indices were explored as a One Health impact indicator. Finally, the acceptability of the H-index proxy for animal pathogen impact was examined by comparison with other measures. 57 pathogens appeared solely in the top 100 highest H-indices (1) human or (2) animal pathogens list, and 43 occurred in both. Of human pathogens, 66 were zoonotic and 67 were emerging, compared to 67 and 57 for animals. There were statistically significant differences between H-indices for host types (humans, animal, zoonotic), and there was limited evidence that H-indices are a reasonable proxy for animal pathogen impact. This work addresses measures outlined by the European Commission to strengthen climate change resilience and biosecurity for infectious diseases. The results include a quantitative evaluation of infectious pathogen impact, and suggest greater impacts of human-only compared to zoonotic pathogens or scientific under-representation of zoonoses. The outputs separate high and low impact pathogens, and should be combined with other risk assessment methods relying on expert opinion or qualitative data for priority setting, or could be used to prioritise diseases for which formal risk assessments are not possible because of data gaps. PMID:25136810

  16. A Quantitative Prioritisation of Human and Domestic Animal Pathogens in Europe

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, K. Marie; Setzkorn, Christian; Hepworth, Philip J.; Morand, Serge; Morse, Andrew P.; Baylis, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Disease or pathogen risk prioritisations aid understanding of infectious agent impact within surveillance or mitigation and biosecurity work, but take significant development. Previous work has shown the H-(Hirsch-)index as an alternative proxy. We present a weighted risk analysis describing infectious pathogen impact for human health (human pathogens) and well-being (domestic animal pathogens) using an objective, evidence-based, repeatable approach; the H-index. This study established the highest H-index European pathogens. Commonalities amongst pathogens not included in previous surveillance or risk analyses were examined. Differences between host types (humans/animals/zoonotic) in pathogen H-indices were explored as a One Health impact indicator. Finally, the acceptability of the H-index proxy for animal pathogen impact was examined by comparison with other measures. 57 pathogens appeared solely in the top 100 highest H-indices (1) human or (2) animal pathogens list, and 43 occurred in both. Of human pathogens, 66 were zoonotic and 67 were emerging, compared to 67 and 57 for animals. There were statistically significant differences between H-indices for host types (humans, animal, zoonotic), and there was limited evidence that H-indices are a reasonable proxy for animal pathogen impact. This work addresses measures outlined by the European Commission to strengthen climate change resilience and biosecurity for infectious diseases. The results include a quantitative evaluation of infectious pathogen impact, and suggest greater impacts of human-only compared to zoonotic pathogens or scientific under-representation of zoonoses. The outputs separate high and low impact pathogens, and should be combined with other risk assessment methods relying on expert opinion or qualitative data for priority setting, or could be used to prioritise diseases for which formal risk assessments are not possible because of data gaps. PMID:25136810

  17. Ethical acceptability of research on human-animal chimeric embryos: summary of opinions by the Japanese Expert Panel on Bioethics.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Hiroshi; Akutsu, Hidenori; Kato, Kazuto

    2015-12-01

    Human-animal chimeric embryos are embryos obtained by introducing human cells into a non-human animal embryo. It is envisaged that the application of human-animal chimeric embryos may make possible many useful research projects including producing three-dimensional human organs in animals and verification of the pluripotency of human ES cells or iPS cells in vivo. The use of human-animal chimeric embryos, however, raises several ethical and moral concerns. The most fundamental one is that human-animal chimeric embryos possess the potential to develop into organisms containing human-derived tissue, which may lead to infringing upon the identity of the human species, and thus impairing human dignity. The Japanese Expert Panel on Bioethics in the Cabinet Office carefully considered the scientific significance and ethical acceptability of the issue and released its "Opinions regarding the handling of research using human-animal chimeric embryos". The Panel proposed a framework of case-by-case review, and suggested that the following points must be carefully reviewed from the perspective of ethical acceptability: (a) Types of animal embryos and types of animals receiving embryo transfers, particularly in dealing with non-human primates; (b) Types of human cells and organs intended for production, particularly in dealing with human nerve or germ cells; and (c) Extent of the period required for post-transfer studies. The scientific knowledge that can be gained from transfer into an animal uterus and from the production of an individual must be clarified to avoid unnecessary generation of chimeric animals. The time is ripe for the scientific community and governments to start discussing the ethical issues for establishing a global consensus. PMID:26694481

  18. Impacts of gas drilling on human and animal health.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Michelle; Oswald, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Environmental concerns surrounding drilling for gas are intense due to expansion of shale gas drilling operations. Controversy surrounding the impact of drilling on air and water quality has pitted industry and lease-holders against individuals and groups concerned with environmental protection and public health. Because animals often are exposed continually to air, soil, and groundwater and have more frequent reproductive cycles, animals can be used as sentinels to monitor impacts to human health. This study involved interviews with animal owners who live near gas drilling operations. The findings illustrate which aspects of the drilling process may lead to health problems and suggest modifications that would lessen but not eliminate impacts. Complete evidence regarding health impacts of gas drilling cannot be obtained due to incomplete testing and disclosure of chemicals, and nondisclosure agreements. Without rigorous scientific studies, the gas drilling boom sweeping the world will remain an uncontrolled health experiment on an enormous scale. PMID:22446060

  19. Are emotionally attached companion animal caregivers conscientious and neurotic? Factors that affect the human-companion animal relationship.

    PubMed

    Reevy, Gretchen M; Delgado, Mikel M

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined how personality traits may be related to the amounts and types of attachments humans have toward companion animals (pets). In this study, 1,098 companion animal guardians (owners) completed a survey that included the Big Five Inventory, the Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale, and the Pet Attachment Questionnaire. Each participant chose whether he or she identified as a Cat Person, Dog Person, Both, or Neither. Results indicated that neuroticism, conscientiousness, choosing a dog as a favorite pet, and identifying as a Cat Person, Dog Person, or Both predicted affection for a pet. Conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness decreased avoidant attachment to pets, and neuroticism increased anxious attachment to pets. Both dogs and cats could benefit from pet owners who are conscientious, and there may be some benefits of neuroticism in pet owners. The findings of this study will advance understanding of the human-animal bond. As this understanding increases, measurements of human attachment and personality may be useful for the development of tools that could assist shelter employees and veterinarians in counseling people about pet ownership. PMID:25517173

  20. Animal models that best reproduce the clinical manifestations of human intoxication with organophosphorus compounds.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Edna F R; Aracava, Yasco; DeTolla, Louis J; Beecham, E Jeffrey; Basinger, G William; Wakayama, Edgar J; Albuquerque, Edson X

    2014-08-01

    The translational capacity of data generated in preclinical toxicological studies is contingent upon several factors, including the appropriateness of the animal model. The primary objectives of this article are: 1) to analyze the natural history of acute and delayed signs and symptoms that develop following an acute exposure of humans to organophosphorus (OP) compounds, with an emphasis on nerve agents; 2) to identify animal models of the clinical manifestations of human exposure to OPs; and 3) to review the mechanisms that contribute to the immediate and delayed OP neurotoxicity. As discussed in this study, clinical manifestations of an acute exposure of humans to OP compounds can be faithfully reproduced in rodents and nonhuman primates. These manifestations include an acute cholinergic crisis in addition to signs of neurotoxicity that develop long after the OP exposure, particularly chronic neurologic deficits consisting of anxiety-related behavior and cognitive deficits, structural brain damage, and increased slow electroencephalographic frequencies. Because guinea pigs and nonhuman primates, like humans, have low levels of circulating carboxylesterases-the enzymes that metabolize and inactivate OP compounds-they stand out as appropriate animal models for studies of OP intoxication. These are critical points for the development of safe and effective therapeutic interventions against OP poisoning because approval of such therapies by the Food and Drug Administration is likely to rely on the Animal Efficacy Rule, which allows exclusive use of animal data as evidence of the effectiveness of a drug against pathologic conditions that cannot be ethically or feasibly tested in humans. PMID:24907067

  1. Animal Models That Best Reproduce the Clinical Manifestations of Human Intoxication with Organophosphorus Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Edna F. R.; Aracava, Yasco; DeTolla, Louis J.; Beecham, E. Jeffrey; Basinger, G. William; Wakayama, Edgar J.

    2014-01-01

    The translational capacity of data generated in preclinical toxicological studies is contingent upon several factors, including the appropriateness of the animal model. The primary objectives of this article are: 1) to analyze the natural history of acute and delayed signs and symptoms that develop following an acute exposure of humans to organophosphorus (OP) compounds, with an emphasis on nerve agents; 2) to identify animal models of the clinical manifestations of human exposure to OPs; and 3) to review the mechanisms that contribute to the immediate and delayed OP neurotoxicity. As discussed in this study, clinical manifestations of an acute exposure of humans to OP compounds can be faithfully reproduced in rodents and nonhuman primates. These manifestations include an acute cholinergic crisis in addition to signs of neurotoxicity that develop long after the OP exposure, particularly chronic neurologic deficits consisting of anxiety-related behavior and cognitive deficits, structural brain damage, and increased slow electroencephalographic frequencies. Because guinea pigs and nonhuman primates, like humans, have low levels of circulating carboxylesterases—the enzymes that metabolize and inactivate OP compounds—they stand out as appropriate animal models for studies of OP intoxication. These are critical points for the development of safe and effective therapeutic interventions against OP poisoning because approval of such therapies by the Food and Drug Administration is likely to rely on the Animal Efficacy Rule, which allows exclusive use of animal data as evidence of the effectiveness of a drug against pathologic conditions that cannot be ethically or feasibly tested in humans. PMID:24907067

  2. Vasovagal syncope in humans and protective reactions in animals.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Jean-Jacques; Alboni, Paolo; Benditt, David G

    2015-03-01

    Vasovagal syncope (VVS) is not known to occur in animals, although other similar reflex responses are common. This review examines the possible relation of these latter presumably protective reflexes in animals to VVS in humans. The goal is to provide practitioners, and ultimately their patients, a meaningful understanding of the origins and appropriate management of this unpredictable affliction. This report utilized review of computer databases (e.g. PubMed) addressing VVS pathophysiology and origins, spontaneous transient loss of consciousness in animals, and comparative physiology. We also examined articles cited in the publications obtained by computer search and others suggested by colleagues. Articles were chosen based on those providing original observations and/or suggestions of novel mechanisms. In animals self-preservation is directed towards protection of the body through an escalation of behaviours depending on severity and proximity to danger. In humans self-preservation is directed not only to protection of the body, but also to protection of the brain's functional integrity. By virtue of loss of postural tone, the faint causes the body to assume a gravitationally neutral position, thereby offering a better chance of restoring brain blood supply and preserving brain function. Vasovagal syncope may seem to be a disadvantageous evolutionary adaptation. However, it is a reversible condition, that while exposing risk of injury and embarrassment, ultimately favours brain self-preservation in potentially threatening circumstances. PMID:25662986

  3. Toxicosis by Plant Alkaloids in Humans and Animals in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Gonzalo J

    2015-01-01

    Due to its tropical location, chains of mountains, inter-Andean valleys, Amazon basin area, eastern plains and shores on both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Colombia has many ecosystems and the second largest plant biodiversity in the world. Many plant species, both native and naturalized, are currently recognized as toxic for both animals and humans, and some of them are known to cause their toxic effects due to their alkaloid content. Among these, there are plants containing the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, neurotoxins such as the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine and the piperidine alkaloids coniine and ?-coniceine and tropane alkaloids. Unfortunately, the research in toxic plants in Colombia is not nearly proportional to its plant biodiversity and the scientific information available is only very scarce. The present review aims at summarizing the scarce information about plant alkaloid toxicosis in animals and humans in Colombia. PMID:26690479

  4. Toxicosis by Plant Alkaloids in Humans and Animals in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Gonzalo J.

    2015-01-01

    Due to its tropical location, chains of mountains, inter-Andean valleys, Amazon basin area, eastern plains and shores on both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, Colombia has many ecosystems and the second largest plant biodiversity in the world. Many plant species, both native and naturalized, are currently recognized as toxic for both animals and humans, and some of them are known to cause their toxic effects due to their alkaloid content. Among these, there are plants containing the hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, neurotoxins such as the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine and the piperidine alkaloids coniine and γ-coniceine and tropane alkaloids. Unfortunately, the research in toxic plants in Colombia is not nearly proportional to its plant biodiversity and the scientific information available is only very scarce. The present review aims at summarizing the scarce information about plant alkaloid toxicosis in animals and humans in Colombia. PMID:26690479

  5. ANABOLIC-ANDROGENIC STEROID DEPENDENCE? INSIGHTS FROM ANIMALS AND HUMANS

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Ruth I.

    2008-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are drugs of abuse. They are taken in large quantities by athletes and others to increase performance, with negative health consequences. As a result, in 1991 testosterone and related AAS were declared controlled substances. However, the relative abuse and dependence liability of AAS have not been fully characterized. In humans, it is difficult to separate the direct psychoactive effects of AAS from reinforcement due to their systemic anabolic effects. However, using conditioned place preference and self-administration, studies in animals have demonstrated that AAS are reinforcing in a context where athletic performance is irrelevant. Furthermore, AAS share brain sites of action and neurotransmitter systems in common with other drugs of abuse. In particular, recent evidence links AAS with opioids. In humans, AAS abuse is associated with prescription opioid use. In animals, AAS overdose produces symptoms resembling opioid overdose, and AAS modify the activity of the endogenous opioid system. PMID:18275992

  6. DNA barcoding of fungi causing infections in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Irinyi, Laszlo; Lackner, Michaela; de Hoog, G Sybren; Meyer, Wieland

    2016-02-01

    Correct species identification is becoming increasingly important in clinical diagnostics. Till now, many mycological laboratories rely on conventional phenotypic identification. But this is slow and strongly operator-dependent. Therefore, to improve the quality of pathogen identification, rapid, reliable, and objective identification methods are essential. One of the most encouraging approaches is molecular barcoding using the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the rDNA, which is rapid, easily achievable, accurate, and applicable directly from clinical specimens. It relies on the comparison of a single ITS sequence with a curated reference database. The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM) working group for DNA barcoding has recently established such a database, focusing on the majority of human and animal pathogenic fungi (ISHAM-ITS, freely accessible at http://www.isham.org/ or directly from http://its.mycologylab.org). For some fungi the use of secondary barcodes may be necessary. PMID:26781368

  7. [Anatomia sacra. Religiously motivated interventions on human or animal bodies].

    PubMed

    Gladigow, B

    1995-01-01

    Controlled surgery in the interior of human or animal bodies in classical antiquity was allowed only under certain circumstances. Bloody animal sacrifice and its rules for the interpretation of entrails as well as the rare examples of 'ritual anatomy' presented a religious framework for the opening of bodies. Greek mythology provided several examples of medical operations, for example, the Caesarean section, transplantations and plastic surgery. Great cultic significance was given to organ votives or reproductions of human inner organs which were offered in temples ex voto or with request for their curing. The anatomical knowledge transported along with these offerings represents a separate tradition different from the state of anatomical knowledge found in medical literature of the period. PMID:7789103

  8. Prebiotics from Marine Macroalgae for Human and Animal Health Applications

    PubMed Central

    O’Sullivan, Laurie; Murphy, Brian; McLoughlin, Peter; Duggan, Patrick; Lawlor, Peadar G.; Hughes, Helen; Gardiner, Gillian E.

    2010-01-01

    The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date. PMID:20714423

  9. Vascular targets for cannabinoids: animal and human studies

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Christopher; O'Sullivan, Saoirse E

    2014-01-01

    Application of cannabinoids and endocannabinoids to perfused vascular beds or individual isolated arteries results in changes in vascular resistance. In most cases, the result is vasorelaxation, although vasoconstrictor responses are also observed. Cannabinoids also modulate the actions of vasoactive compounds including acetylcholine, methoxamine, angiotensin II and U46619 (thromboxane mimetic). Numerous mechanisms of action have been proposed including receptor activation, potassium channel activation, calcium channel inhibition and the production of vasoactive mediators such as calcitonin gene-related peptide, prostanoids, NO, endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor and hydrogen peroxide. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence for the range of receptors now known to be activated by cannabinoids. Direct activation by cannabinoids of CB1, CBe, TRPV1 (and potentially other TRP channels) and PPARs in the vasculature has been observed. A potential role for CB2, GPR55 and 5-HT1A has also been identified in some studies. Indirectly, activation of prostanoid receptors (TP, IP, EP1 and EP4) and the CGRP receptor is involved in the vascular responses to cannabinoids. The majority of this evidence has been obtained through animal research, but recent work has confirmed some of these targets in human arteries. Vascular responses to cannabinoids are enhanced in hypertension and cirrhosis, but are reduced in obesity and diabetes, both due to changes in the target sites of action. Much further work is required to establish the extent of vascular actions of cannabinoids and the application of this research in physiological and pathophysiological situations. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids 2013. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-6 PMID:24329566

  10. Graphene earphones: entertainment for both humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Tian, He; Li, Cheng; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Cui, Ya-Long; Mi, Wen-Tian; Yang, Yi; Xie, Dan; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2014-06-24

    The human hearing range is from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. However, many animals can hear much higher sound frequencies. Dolphins, especially, have a hearing range up to 300 kHz. To our knowledge, there is no data of a reported wide-band sound frequency earphone to satisfy both humans and animals. Here, we show that graphene earphones, packaged into commercial earphone casings can play sounds ranging from 100 Hz to 50 kHz. By using a one-step laser scribing technology, wafer-scale flexible graphene earphones can be obtained in 25 min. Compared with a normal commercial earphone, the graphene earphone has a wider frequency response (100 Hz to 50 kHz) and a three times lower fluctuation (10 dB). A nonlinear effect exists in the graphene-generated sound frequency spectrum. This effect could be explained by the DC bias added to the input sine waves which may induce higher harmonics. Our numerical calculations show that the sound frequency emitted by graphene could reach up to 1 MHz. In addition, we have demonstrated that a dog wearing a graphene earphone could also be trained and controlled by 35 kHz sound waves. Our results show that graphene could be widely used to produce earphones for both humans and animals. PMID:24766102

  11. The immunology of human and animal cysticercosis: a review

    PubMed Central

    Flisser, A.; Pérez-Montfort, R.; Larralde, C.

    1979-01-01

    In this review of the literature concerning the immunology of animal and human cysticercosis, emphasis is placed on whether previous exposure to the antigen confers protection to the host. Statistical analysis of the published data indicates that immunized animals have a lower risk than non-immunized animals of contracting cysticercosis, there being large variations within and between different host—cysticercus relationships. There is no indication as to which antigen is best for immunization but, although live parasites in all stages of development, or extracts, appear to give protection, embryos, eggs, and excretions are most frequently used. Antibodies appear to be the principal mediators of resistance, but the action seems to be only upon very young larvae, while fully grown cysticerci are unharmed. Several immunological methods are valuable in the diagnosis of cysticercosis, the choice depending more on the purpose of the study than on differences in their ability to discriminate between healthy and sick. The presence of anticysticercus antibodies in the serum of up to 50% of human patients indicates that human vaccination may be possible in high-risk areas; the remaining patients pose an interesting problem open to speculation and research on immunological evasion, immunodepression, and the existence of serotypes. ImagesFig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 4(Contd.) PMID:396058

  12. Nitrobenzene carcinogenicity in animals and human hazard evaluation.

    PubMed

    Holder, J W

    1999-08-01

    Nitrobenzene (NB) human cancer studies have not been reported, but animals studies have. Three rodent strains inhaling NB produce cancer at eight sites. B6C3F1 mice respond with mammary gland malignant tumors and male lung and thyroid benign tumors, F344/N male rats respond with liver malignant tumors and thyroid and kidney benign tumors, while females respond with endometrial polyps. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (CD strain) respond with liver benign tumors. NB is oxidized to various phenolic metabolites, while also being reduced in the cecum and systemically in the microsomes to nitrosobenzene (NOB), phenylhydroxylamine (PH), related free radicals, and aniline (AN). Based on structural and mechanistic similarities, NB compares with other animal and human carcinogenic nitroarenes and aromatic amines. Reduced NB first forms the nitroanion free radical, which can react with O2 to form superoxide O2*. Repeated NB dosing produces a persistent redox couple NOB<==>PH in red blood cells (RBCs) that generates met-Hb and expends NAD(P)H. NOB forms activated glutathione (GSH) conjugates. These biochemical effects may lead to critical redox imbalances and macromolecular binding. Known NB effects are hemosiderosis, methemoglobinemia, and anemia--and now dispersed cancer in rodents. On the basis of animal, metabolic and structure-activity studies, NB is determined to be a probable human carcinogen by any route of exposure. PMID:10487355

  13. 9 CFR 91.17 - Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... animals on ocean vessels. 91.17 Section 91.17 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... Accommodations § 91.17 Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. (a) The owner or operator of an ocean vessel carrying animals from the United States to a foreign country shall provide,...

  14. 9 CFR 91.17 - Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... animals on ocean vessels. 91.17 Section 91.17 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... Accommodations § 91.17 Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. (a) The owner or operator of an ocean vessel carrying animals from the United States to a foreign country shall provide,...

  15. 9 CFR 91.17 - Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... animals on ocean vessels. 91.17 Section 91.17 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... Accommodations § 91.17 Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. (a) The owner or operator of an ocean vessel carrying animals from the United States to a foreign country shall provide,...

  16. 9 CFR 91.17 - Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... animals on ocean vessels. 91.17 Section 91.17 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... Accommodations § 91.17 Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. (a) The owner or operator of an ocean vessel carrying animals from the United States to a foreign country shall provide,...

  17. 9 CFR 91.17 - Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... animals on ocean vessels. 91.17 Section 91.17 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... Accommodations § 91.17 Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. (a) The owner or operator of an ocean vessel carrying animals from the United States to a foreign country shall provide,...

  18. Integration of Design, Thermal, Structural, and Optical Analysis, Including Thermal Animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amundsen, Ruth M.

    1993-01-01

    In many industries there has recently been a concerted movement toward 'quality management' and the issue of how to accomplish work more efficiently. Part of this effort is focused on concurrent engineering; the idea of integrating the design and analysis processes so that they are not separate, sequential processes (often involving design rework due to analytical findings) but instead form an integrated system with smooth transfers of information. Presented herein are several specific examples of concurrent engineering methods being carried out at Langley Research Center (LaRC): integration of thermal, structural and optical analyses to predict changes in optical performance based on thermal and structural effects; integration of the CAD design process with thermal and structural analyses; and integration of analysis and presentation by animating the thermal response of a system as an active color map -- a highly effective visual indication of heat flow.

  19. Veterinary education in the area of food safety (including animal health, food pathogens and surveillance of foodborne diseases).

    PubMed

    Vidal, S M; Fajardo, P I; Gonzlez, C G

    2013-08-01

    The animal foodstuffs industry has changed in recent decades as a result of factors such as: human population growth and longer life expectancy, increasing urbanisation and migration, emerging zoonotic infectious diseases and foodborne diseases (FBDs), food security problems, technological advances in animal production systems, globalisation of trade and environmental changes. The Millennium Development Goals and the 'One Health' paradigm provide global guidelines on efficiently addressing the issues of consumer product safety, food security and risks associated with zoonoses. Professionals involved in the supply chain must therefore play an active role, based on knowledge and skills that meet current market requirements. Accordingly, it is necessary for the veterinary medicine curriculum, both undergraduate and postgraduate, to incorporate these skills. This article analyses the approach that veterinary education should adopt in relation to food safety, with an emphasis on animal health, food pathogens and FBD surveillance. PMID:24547647

  20. Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism

    ScienceCinema

    Shiller, Robert J [Yale University

    2010-09-01

    In his lecture, Shiller discusses the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. The book discusses how ?animal spirits,? or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today?s global financial crisis.

  1. Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism

    SciTech Connect

    Shiller, Robert J

    2010-03-02

    In his lecture, Shiller discusses the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. The book discusses how “animal spirits,” or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today’s global financial crisis.

  2. 78 FR 45729 - Foreign Supplier Verification Programs for Importers of Food for Humans and Animals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is proposing to adopt regulations on foreign supplier verification programs (FSVPs) for importers of food for humans and animals. The proposed regulations would require importers to help ensure that food imported into the United States is produced in compliance with processes and procedures, including reasonably appropriate risk-based preventive controls,......

  3. Relevance of animal models to human tardive dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Tardive dyskinesia remains an elusive and significant clinical entity that can possibly be understood via experimentation with animal models. We conducted a literature review on tardive dyskinesia modeling. Subchronic antipsychotic drug exposure is a standard approach to model tardive dyskinesia in rodents. Vacuous chewing movements constitute the most common pattern of expression of purposeless oral movements and represent an impermanent response, with individual and strain susceptibility differences. Transgenic mice are also used to address the contribution of adaptive and maladaptive signals induced during antipsychotic drug exposure. An emphasis on non-human primate modeling is proposed, and past experimental observations reviewed in various monkey species. Rodent and primate models are complementary, but the non-human primate model appears more convincingly similar to the human condition and better suited to address therapeutic issues against tardive dyskinesia. PMID:22404856

  4. Photoacoustic tomography of small-animal and human peripheral joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xueding; Chamberland, David L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Carson, Paul L.; Jamadar, David A.

    2008-02-01

    As an emerging imaging technology that combines the merits of both light and ultrasound, photoacoustic tomography (PAT) holds promise for screening and diagnosis of inflammatory joint diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, the feasibility of PAT in imaging small-animal joints and human peripheral joints in a noninvasive manner was explored. Ex vivo rat tail and fresh cadaveric human finger joints were imaged. Based on the intrinsic optical contrast, intra- and extra-articular tissue structures in the joints were visualized successfully. Using light in the near-infrared region, the imaging depth of PAT is sufficient for cross-sectional imaging of a human peripheral joint as a whole organ. PAT, as a novel imaging modality with unique advantages, may contribute significantly to the early diagnosis of inflammatory joint disorders and accurate monitoring of disease progression and response to therapy.

  5. [Anthrax--continuous threat to humans and animals].

    PubMed

    Mizak, Lidia

    2004-01-01

    Gram-positive, spore-forming, aerobic bacterium Bacillus anthracis is an etiological agent of anthrax a disease very dangerous to humans and all warm-blooded animals. The spore forms are markedly resistant to unfavourable environmental extremes of heat, cold, desiccation, chemicals, irradiation etc. The vegetative forms characterised virulence factors: the antiphagocytic poly-gamma-D-polipeptide capsule and three proteins, edema factor (EF), lethal factor (LF) and protective antigen (PA). Anthrax is mainly transmitted from animals to man through food of animal origin, animal products and contamination of the environment with B. anthracis and its spores. There are three types of this disease: cutaneous, intestinal and inhalation anthrax. Research on anthrax as a biological weapon began more then 80 years ago. Depending on the target chosen and the scale of the attack the anthrax spores may by used to contaminate of foodstuffs or liquids and water. The aerosolised release of anthrax spore can cause illness with a high fatality rate. PMID:15517814

  6. Recycling biowaste--human and animal health problems.

    PubMed

    Albihn, A

    2001-01-01

    Biowaste from the food chain is of potential benefit to use in agriculture. Agriculture in general and organic farming in particular needs alternative plant nutrients. However, the quality concerning hygiene and soil contaminants must be assured. This recycling has to be regulated in a way that harmful effects on soil, vegetation, animals and man are prevented. The problems with heavy metals and organic contaminants have been focused on. Still, maximum threshold values are continuously discussed to avoid an increase of soil concentrations. The effect on the ecosystems of residues from use of medicines needs further attention. There is also a risk for a spread of antibiotic resistant micro-organisms in the environment and then to animals and man. Infectious diseases may be spread from biowaste and new routes of disease transmission between animals and humans can be created. Zoonotic diseases in this context play a central role. Pathogens recently introduced to a country may be further spread when biowaste is recycled. The very good health status of domestic animals in the Nordic countries may then quickly change. The quality of biowaste is of enormous importance if biowaste is to gain general acceptance for agricultural use, especially for organic production. A balance needs to be maintained between risk and advantage for its use. PMID:11995393

  7. Malarial birds: modeling infectious human disease in animals.

    PubMed

    Slater, Leo B

    2005-01-01

    Through the examination of avian malarias as models of infectious human disease, this paper reveals the kinds of claims that scientists and physicians made on the basis of animal models-biological systems in the laboratory and the field-and what characteristics made for congruence between these models and human malaria. The focus is on the period between 1895 and 1945, and on the genesis and trajectory of certain animal models of malaria within specific locations, such as the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health in Baltimore and Bayer (I. G. Farben) in Elberfeld. These exemplars illustrate a diversity of approaches to malaria-as-disease, and the difficulties of framing aspects of this disease complex within an animal or laboratory system. The diversity and nearness to wild types of the birds, protozoan parasites, and mosquitoes that made up these malaria models contributed a great deal to the complexity of the models. Avian malarias, adopted with enthusiasm, were essential to the success of the U.S. antimalarial program during World War II. PMID:15965289

  8. Improving animal and human health through understanding liver fluke immunology.

    PubMed

    Piedrafita, D; Spithill, T W; Smith, R E; Raadsma, H W

    2010-08-01

    Sheep, goats and cattle represent the most numerous and economically important agricultural species worldwide used as sources for milk, fibre and red meat. In addition, in the developing world, these species often represent the sole asset base for small-holder livestock farmers and cattle/buffaloes often provide the majority of draught power for crop production. Production losses caused by helminth diseases of these animals are a major factor in extending the cycle of poverty in developing countries and a major food security issue for developed economies. Fasciola spp. are one of the most important zoonotic diseases with a global economic impact in livestock production systems and a poorly defined but direct effect on human health. Improvements in human and animal health will require a concerted research effort into the development of new accurate and simple diagnostic tests and increased vaccine and drug development against Fasciola infections. Here, the use of definitive natural host breeds with contrasting resistance to Fasciola infections is discussed as a resource to contrast parasite-host interactions and identify parasite immune evasion strategies. Such studies are likely to boost the discovery of new vaccine, drug and diagnostic candidates and provide the foundation for future genetic selection of resistant animals. PMID:20626812

  9. Chlamydiae as agents of human and animal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Schachter, J.; Storz, J.; Tarizzo, M. L.; Bgel, K.

    1973-01-01

    A brief review is given of the properties, occurrence, and public health significance of chlamydiae in man and animals and of the diagnosis and control of chlamydial infections. Chlamydiae occur naturally in a large number of avian and mammalian species. Man is the primary host of chlamydiae causing trachoma, inclusion conjunctivitis, genito-urinary tract infection, and lymphogranuloma venereum. In animals chlamydial infections have been recognized as a cause of pneumonia, encephalitis, abortion, arthritis, diarrhoea, and conjunctivitis. Chlamydial infections have been recognized in a wide range of avian hosts. Sporadic psittacosis/ornithosis in man is associated with close exposure to birds and may occur as an occupational disease. Transmission studies suggest that mammalian chlamydial strains are not very host-specific and that diseases and even chains of infection may develop in secondary hosts. There are a few well-documented cases of human infection with chlamydiae of mammalian origin. Although various chlamydial isolates have specific antigenic components, no routine test for identifying different serotypes has been generally accepted. Further investigation of the host range of chlamydiae and of their antigenic properties is essential for a more accurate assessment of the potential danger of chlamydia-infected animals to human health. The frequent occurrence of inapparent or latent infections makes it imperative to establish adequate laboratory facilities for the effective surveillance and control of chlamydial infections. PMID:4547157

  10. Biology of Human Malaria Plasmodia Including Plasmodium Knowlesi

    PubMed Central

    Antinori, Spinello; Galimberti, Laura; Milazzo, Laura; Corbellino, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a vector-borne infection caused by unicellular parasite of the genus Plasmodium. Plasmodia are obligate intracellular parasites that are able to infect and replicate within the erythrocytes after a clinically silent replication phase in the liver. Four species (P.falciparum, P.malariae, P.ovale and P.vivax) are traditionally recognized as responsible of natural infection in human beings but the recent upsurge of P.knowlesi malaria in South-East Asia has led clinicians to consider it as the fifth human malaria parasite. Recent studies in wild-living apes in Africa have revealed that P.falciparum, the most deadly form of human malaria, is not only human-host restricted as previously believed and its phylogenetic lineage is much more complex with new species identified in gorilla, bonobo and chimpanzee. Although less impressive, new data on biology of P.malariae, P.ovale and P.vivax are also emerging and will be briefly discussed in this review. PMID:22550559

  11. 29 CFR 1990.143 - General provisions for the use of human and animal data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General provisions for the use of human and animal data... provisions for the use of human and animal data. Human and animal data which are scientifically evaluated to... specified in § 1990.144 or § 1990.145. (a) Positive human studies. Positive results obtained in one or...

  12. 29 CFR 1990.143 - General provisions for the use of human and animal data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false General provisions for the use of human and animal data... provisions for the use of human and animal data. Human and animal data which are scientifically evaluated to... specified in § 1990.144 or § 1990.145. (a) Positive human studies. Positive results obtained in one or...

  13. 29 CFR 1990.143 - General provisions for the use of human and animal data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false General provisions for the use of human and animal data... provisions for the use of human and animal data. Human and animal data which are scientifically evaluated to... specified in § 1990.144 or § 1990.145. (a) Positive human studies. Positive results obtained in one or...

  14. 29 CFR 1990.143 - General provisions for the use of human and animal data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions for the use of human and animal data... provisions for the use of human and animal data. Human and animal data which are scientifically evaluated to... specified in § 1990.144 or § 1990.145. (a) Positive human studies. Positive results obtained in one or...

  15. 29 CFR 1990.143 - General provisions for the use of human and animal data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false General provisions for the use of human and animal data... provisions for the use of human and animal data. Human and animal data which are scientifically evaluated to... specified in § 1990.144 or § 1990.145. (a) Positive human studies. Positive results obtained in one or...

  16. Affective components of the human-animal relationship in animal husbandry: development and validation of a questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Porcher, Jocelyne; Cousson-Glie, Florence; Dantzer, Robert

    2004-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the main dimensions of the human-animal relationship in animal husbandry and to test the hypothesis of a coherent system linking attitudes and feelings. A second objective was to assess interindividual differences which could be linked to socioenvironmental or personal factors. The 26-item questionnaire was administered to 197 animal farmers (143 men, 54 women, 3.8% under 25 years old, 45.2% under 40 years, 44.2% under 60 years and 7.1% over 60 years). To include even farmers not in the official agricultural registries, we used a random selection procedure. A principal component analysis of responses followed by varimax rotation yielded two factors accounting for 30.7% of the total variance, a Friendship factor and a Power relationship factor. Significant differences on the Friendship factor were observed between groups by sex of farmers, education, size of the production system, and region of production. There were also differences on the Power relationship factor between groups by age and education. These results validate a questionnaire with 21 items, allowing measurement of positive and negative affects of farmers towards their animals. PMID:15460383

  17. Cryptosporidium ubiquitum n.sp. in animals and humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species, Cryptosporidium ubiquitum, previously identified as the Cryptosporidium cervine genotype is described. In published studies the cervine genotype was reported in wild and domesticated ruminants, rodents, carnivores, and primates including humans. Molecular data for C. ubiquitum have b...

  18. Mercury hazards from gold mining to humans, plants, and animals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.

    2004-01-01

    Mercury contamination of the environment from historical and ongoing mining practices that rely on mercury amalgamation for gold extraction is widespread. Contamination was particularly severe in the immediate vicinity of gold extraction and refining operations; however, mercury--especially in the form of water-soluble methylmercury--may be transported to pristine areas by rainwater, water currents, deforestation, volatilization, and other vectors. Examples of gold mining-associated mercury pollution are shown for Canada, the United States, Africa, China, the Philippines, Siberia, and South America. In parts of Brazil, for example, mercury concentrations in all abiotic materials, plants, and animals--including endangered species of mammals and reptiles--collected near ongoing mercury-amalgamation gold mining sites were far in excess of allowable mercury levels promulgated by regulatory agencies for the protection of human health and natural resources. Although health authorities in Brazil are unable to detect conclusive evidence of human mercury intoxication, the potential exists in the absence of mitigation for epidemic mercury poisoning of the mining population and environs. In the United States, environmental mercury contamination is mostly from historical gold mining practices, and portions of Nevada remain sufficiently mercury-contaminated to pose a hazard to reproduction of carnivorous fishes and fish-eating birds. Concentrations of total mercury lethal to sensitive representative natural resources range from 0.1 to 2.0 ug/L of medium for aquatic organisms; from 2200 to 31,000 ug/kg body weight (acute oral) and 4000 to 40,000 ug/kg (dietary) for birds; and from 100 to 500 ug/kg body weight (daily dose) and 1000 to 5000 ug/kg diet for mammals. Significant adverse sublethal effects were observed among selected aquatic species at water concentrations of 0.03 to 0.1 ug Hg/L. For some birds, adverse effects--mainly on reproduction--have been associated with total mercury concentrations (in ug/kg fresh weight) of 5000 in feather, 900 in egg, and 50 to 100 in diet; and with daily intakes of 640 ug/kg body weight. Sensitive nonhuman mammals showed significant adverse effects of mercury when daily intakes were 250 ug/kg body weight, when dietary levels were 1100 ug/kg, or when tissue concentrations exceeded 1100 ug/kg. Proposed mercury criteria for protection of aquatic life range from 0.012 ug/L for freshwater life to 0.025 ug/L for marine life; for birds, less than 100 ug/kg diet fresh weight; and for small mammals, less than 1100 ug/kg fresh weight diet. All of these proposed criteria provide, at best, minimal protection.

  19. Transgenic animal models of neurodegeneration based on human genetic studies

    PubMed Central

    Richie, Christopher T.; Hoffer, Barry J.; Airavaara, Mikko

    2011-01-01

    The identification of genes linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) has led to the development of animal models for studying mechanism and evaluating potential therapies. None of the transgenic models developed based on disease-associated genes have been able to fully recapitulate the behavioral and pathological features of the corresponding disease. However, there has been enormous progress made in identifying potential therapeutic targets and understanding some of the common mechanisms of neurodegeneration. In this review, we will discuss transgenic animal models for AD, ALS, HD and PD that are based on human genetic studies. All of the diseases discussed have active or complete clinical trials for experimental treatments that benefited from transgenic models of the disease. PMID:20931247

  20. Incidence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in human and animal fecal sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, R.L.; Przybyla-Kelly, K.; Shively, D.A.; Byappanahalli, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in the opportunistic pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium is well-documented in clinical research. Recently, the esp gene has been proposed as a marker of human pollution in environmental waters; however, information on its relative incidence in various human and animal fecal sources is limited. We have determined the occurrence of the esp gene in enterococci from human (n = 64) and animal (n = 233) fecal samples by polymerase chain reaction using two primer sets: one presumably specific for E. faecium (espfm) and the other for both E. faecalis and E. faecium (espfs/fm). We believe that this research is the first to explore the use of espfs/fm for the detection of human waste in natural environmental settings. The incidence in human sources was 93.1% espfm and 100% espfs/fm in raw sewage influent; 30% for both espfm and espfs/fm in septic waste; and 0% espfm and 80% espfs/fm in active pit toilets. The overall occurrence of the gene in animal feces was 7.7% (espfs/fm) and 4.7% (espfm); animal types with positive results included dogs (9/43, all espfm), gulls (10/34, espfs/fm; 2/34, espfm), mice (3/22, all espfs/fm), and songbirds (5/55, all espfs/fm). The esp gene was not detected in cat (0/34), deer (0/4), goose (0/18), or raccoon (0/23) feces. The inconsistent occurrence, especially in septic and pit toilet sewage, suggests a low statistical power of discrimination between animal and human sources, which means a large number of replicates should be collected. Both espfm and espfs/fm were common in raw sewage, but neither one efficiently differentiated between animal and other human sources.

  1. Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, B. E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

  2. Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in animals and humans

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, L. David; Khan, Asis; Ajioka, James W.; Rosenthal, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widespread parasites of domestic, wild, and companion animals, and it also commonly infects humans. Toxoplasma gondii has a complex life cycle. Sexual development occurs only in the cat gut, while asexual replication occurs in many vertebrate hosts. These features combine to create an unusual population structure. The vast majority of strains in North America and Europe fall into three recently derived, clonal lineages known as types I, II and III. Recent studies have revealed that South American strains are more genetically diverse and comprise distinct genotypes. These differences have been shaped by infrequent sexual recombination, population sweeps and biogeography. The majority of human infections that have been studied in North America and Europe are caused by type II strains, which are also common in agricultural animals from these regions. In contrast, several diverse genotypes of T. gondii are associated with severe infections in humans in South America. Defining the population structure of T. gondii from new regions has important implications for transmission, immunogenicity and pathogenesis. PMID:19687043

  3. Nitrobenzene potential human cancer risk based on animal studies.

    PubMed

    Holder, J W

    1999-08-01

    Inhaled nitrobenzene (NB) in animals produces cancer at eight sites in three rodent strains. B6C3F1 mice respond with mammary gland malignant tumors and male lung and thyroid benign tumors, and F344/N male rats respond with liver malignant tumors and thyroid and kidney benign tumors, while females respond with endometrial polyps. Male Sprague-Dawley male rats (CD strain) respond with liver benign tumors. NB is oxidized to various phenolic metabolites, while also being reduced to nitrosobenzene (NOB), phenylhydroxylamine (PH), related free radicals, and aniline (AN) in the cecum by bacteria and in the body by the microsomes. In reduction, NB first forms the nitroanion free radical, which can react with O2 to form O2*-. Repeated NB dosing produces a persistent redox couple NOB<==>PH in red blood cells that generates met-Hb and expends NAD(P)H. NOB forms activated glutathione conjugates. These biochemical effects may lead to critical redox imbalances and macromolecular binding. Known effects are hemosiderosis, methemoglobinemia, and anemia--and now dispersed cancer in rodents. Based on structural and mechanistic similarities, NB compares with other animal and human carcinogenic nitroarenes and aromatic amines. The cancer hazard evaluation of NB is that it is a probable human carcinogen by any route of exposure. The maximum response is in F344/N male rats which is used for dose-response modelling. The model to estimate the upper 95% confidence limit (UCL95%) of NB human carcinogenicity is a no-threshold, linear low-dose, and multistaged animal model (LMS). The UCL95% of cancer slope is estimated to be 0.11(6) mg/kg/day (mkd). At de minimus risk (1:10(6)), the virtually safe dose (VSD) is estimated to be 9.1 ng/kg/day (nkd). PMID:10487356

  4. Laboratory diagnosis of Taenia asiatica in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    Parija, Subhash Chandra; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol

    2013-01-01

    Taenia asiatica is a recently described species known to cause intestinal teniasis in humans and cysticercosis in animals. This species has close morphological resemblance to Taenia saginata and has a life cycle resembling Taenia solium, hence has been posing diagnostic dilemma and had been the reason for its comparatively late discovery. Recent diagnostic tools such as serological and molecular techniques have thrown light on its exact prevalence in the endemic countries. Hence introduction of utilization of these techniques in addition to the routine morphological analysis would be helpful in diagnosis of T. asiatica infections and early implementation of preventive measures. PMID:24470995

  5. Bone Research and Animal Support of Human Space Exploration: Where do we go from here?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily R.

    2004-01-01

    NASA exploration goals include returning humans to the moon by 20 15-2020 as a prelude for human exploration of Mars and beyond. The number of human flight subjects available during this very short time period is insufficient to solve high-risk problems without data from animals. This presentation will focus on three questions: What do we know? What do we need to know? Where do we go from here?: roles for animals in the exploration era. Answers to these questions are based on flight and ground-based models using humans and animals. First, what do we know? Adult humans have spent less than 1% of their lifespan in space while juvenile rats have spent almost 2%. This information suggests that our data are rather meager for projecting to a 30-month mission to Mars. The space platforms for humans have included Skylab, STS/MIR, and STS/ISS and for animals have included the unmanned Bion series and shuttle. The ground-based models include head-down bedrest in humans (BR) and hindlimb unloading in rodents (HU). We know that as gravity decreases, the impact forces generated by the body during locomotion decrease. For example, on Earth, your legs supports approximately 1 body weight (BW) when standing, 1.33BW when walking, and 3BW when jogging. On Mars, the same activity would generate 0.38BW standing, 0.5BW walking, and 1BW when jogging. In space, no impact load is generated, as gravity is minimal.

  6. Effects of virtual human animation on emotion contagion in simulated inter-personal experiences.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yanxiang; Babu, Sabarish V; Armstrong, Rowan; Bertrand, Jeffrey W; Luo, Jun; Roy, Tania; Daily, Shaundra B; Dukes, Lauren Cairco; Hodges, Larry F; Fasolino, Tracy

    2014-04-01

    We empirically examined the impact of virtual human animation on the emotional responses of participants in a medical virtual reality system for education in the signs and symptoms of patient deterioration. Participants were presented with one of two virtual human conditions in a between-subjects experiment, static (non-animated) and dynamic (animated). Our objective measures included the use of psycho-physical Electro Dermal Activity (EDA) sensors, and subjective measures inspired by social psychology research included the Differential Emotions Survey (DES IV) and Positive and Negative Affect Survey (PANAS). We analyzed the quantitative and qualitative measures associated with participants’ emotional state at four distinct time-steps in the simulated interpersonal experience as the virtual patient’s medical condition deteriorated. Results suggest that participants in the dynamic condition with animations exhibited a higher sense of co-presence and greater emotional response as compared to participants in the static condition, corresponding to the deterioration in the medical condition of the virtual patient. Negative affect of participants in the dynamic condition increased at a higher rate than for participants in the static condition. The virtual human animations elicited a stronger response in negative emotions such as anguish, fear, and anger as the virtual patient’s medical condition worsened. PMID:24650990

  7. Eating Frequency, Food Intake, and Weight: A Systematic Review of Human and Animal Experimental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Hollie A.; Goff, Matthew R.; Poole, Seletha A.; Chen, Guoxun

    2015-01-01

    Eating frequently during the day, or “grazing,” has been proposed to assist with managing food intake and weight. This systematic review assessed the effect of greater eating frequency (EF) on intake and anthropometrics in human and animal experimental studies. Studies were identified through the PubMed electronic database. To be included, studies needed to be conducted in controlled settings or use methods that carefully monitored food intake, and measure food intake or anthropometrics. Studies using human or animal models of disease states (i.e., conditions influencing glucose or lipid metabolism), aside from being overweight or obese, were not included. The 25 reviewed studies (15 human and 10 animal studies) contained varying study designs, EF manipulations (1–24 eating occasions per day), lengths of experimentation (230 min to 28 weeks), and sample sizes (3–56 participants/animals per condition). Studies were organized into four categories for reporting results: (1) human studies conducted in laboratory/metabolic ward settings; (2) human studies conducted in field settings; (3) animal studies with experimental periods <1 month; and (4) animal studies with experimental periods >1 month. Out of the 13 studies reporting on consumption, 8 (61.5%) found no significant effect of EF. Seventeen studies reported on anthropometrics, with 11 studies (64.7%) finding no significant effect of EF. Future, adequately powered, studies should examine if other factors (i.e., disease states, physical activity, energy balance and weight status, long-term increased EF) influence the relationship between increased EF and intake and/or anthropometrics. PMID:26734613

  8. Risk practices for animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md. Saiful; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Mikolon, Andrea; Parveen, Shahana; Khan, M. Salah Uddin; Haider, Najmul; Chakraborty, Apurba; Titu, Abu Mohammad Naser; Rahman, M. Waliur; Sazzad, Hossain M. S.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Gurley, Emily S.; Luby, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction From August 2009 to October 2010, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh and the Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research together investigated 14 outbreaks of anthrax which included 140 animal and 273 human cases in 14 anthrax-affected villages. Our investigation objectives were to explore the context in which these outbreaks occurred, including livestock rearing practices, human handling of sick and dead animals, and the anthrax vaccination program. Methods Field anthropologists used qualitative data-collection tools, including 15 hours of unstructured observations, 11 key informant interviews, 32 open-ended interviews, and 6 group discussions in 5 anthrax-affected villages. Results Each cattle owner in the affected communities raised a median of six ruminants on their household premises. The ruminants were often grazed in pastures and fed supplementary rice straw, green grass, water hyacinth, rice husk, wheat bran, and oil cake; lactating cows were given dicalcium phosphate. Cattle represented a major financial investment. Since Islamic law forbids eating animals that die from natural causes, when anthrax-infected cattle were moribund, farmers often slaughtered them on the household premises while they were still alive so that the meat could be eaten. Farmers ate the meat and sold it to neighbors. Skinners removed and sold the hides from discarded carcasses. Farmers discarded the carcasses and slaughtering waste into ditches, bodies of water, or open fields. Cattle in the affected communities did not receive routine anthrax vaccine due to low production, poor distribution, and limited staffing for vaccination. Conclusion Slaughtering anthrax-infected animals and disposing of butchering waste and carcasses in environments where ruminants live and graze, combined with limited vaccination, provided a context that permitted repeated anthrax outbreaks in animals and humans. Because of strong financial incentives, slaughtering moribund animals and discarding carcasses and waste products will likely continue. Long-term vaccination coverage for at-risk animal populations may reduce anthrax infection. PMID:24298326

  9. Thymoma related myasthenia gravis in humans and potential animal models.

    PubMed

    Marx, Alexander; Porubsky, Stefan; Belharazem, Djeda; Saruhan-Direskeneli, Gher; Schalke, Berthold; Strbel, Philipp; Weis, Cleo-Aron

    2015-08-01

    Thymoma-associated Myasthenia gravis (TAMG) is one of the anti-acetylcholine receptor MG (AChR-MG) subtypes. The clinico-pathological features of TAMG and its pathogenesis are described here in comparison with pathogenetic models suggested for the more common non-thymoma AChR-MG subtypes, early onset MG and late onset MG. Emphasis is put on the role of abnormal intratumorous T cell selection and activation, lack of intratumorous myoid cells and regulatory T cells as well as deficient expression of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) by neoplastic thymic epithelial cells. We review spontaneous and genetically engineered thymoma models in a spectrum of animals and the extensive clinical and immunological overlap between canine, feline and human TAMG. Finally, limitations and perspectives of the transplantation of human and murine thymoma tissue into nude mice, as potential models for TAMG, are addressed. PMID:25700911

  10. Human and Animal Vaccination Delivery to Remote Nomadic Families, Chad

    PubMed Central

    Bechir, Mahamat; Ahmed, Mahamat Abdoulaye; Wyss, Kaspar; Randolph, Thomas F.; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2007-01-01

    Vaccination services for people and livestock often fail to achieve sufficient coverages in Africas remote rural settings because of financial, logistic, and service delivery constraints. In Chad from 2000 through 2005, we demonstrated the feasibility of combining vaccination programs for nomadic pastoralists and their livestock. Sharing of transport logistics and equipment between physicians and veterinarians reduced total costs. Joint delivery of human and animal health services is adapted to and highly valued by hard-to-reach pastoralists. In intervention zones, for the first time ?10% of nomadic children (>111 months of age) were fully immunized annually and more children and women were vaccinated per day during joint vaccination rounds than during vaccination of persons only and not their livestock (130 vs. 100, p<0.001). By optimizing use of limited logistical and human resources, public health and veterinary services both become more effective, especially at the district level. PMID:17552089

  11. Relevance of experimental animal studies to the human experience

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Animal experiments are being used to examine a number of physical and biological factors that influence risk estimations though not usually in coordination with epidemiologists. It is clear that the different mechanisms involved in different types of tumors are reflected in the diversity of dose-response relationships. The forms of the dose-response relationships are influenced by both the initial events and their expression. Evidence is accumulating that many initiated cells do not get expressed as overt cancers and host factors may play a major role in the expression of potential tumor cells. There is a need for information about the relationship of the natural incidence and susceptibility to radiation induction for more tumor types. Such experiments will help answer the question of which risk estimate models are appropriate for different tumor types and can be carried out on animals. Perhaps because of the importance of host factors risk estimates as a percentage of the natural incidence appear to be similar for human beings and mice for a small number of tumor types. The elucidation of the mechanisms involved in different tissues while a slow business remains an important role of animal experiments.

  12. Giovanni Aldini: from animal electricity to human brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Parent, André

    2004-11-01

    Two hundred years ago, Giovanni Aldini published a highly influential book that reported experiments in which the principles of Luigi Galvani (animal electricity) and Alessandro Volta (bimetallic electricity) were used together for the first time. Aldini was born in Bologna in 1762 and graduated in physics at the University of his native town in 1782. As nephew and assistant of Galvani, he actively participated in a series of crucial experiments with frog's muscles that led to the idea that electricity was the long-sought vital force coursing from brain to muscles. Aldini became professor of experimental physics at the University of Bologna in 1798. He traveled extensively throughout Europe, spending much time defending the concept of his discreet uncle against the incessant attacks of Volta, who did not believe in animal electricity. Aldini used Volta's bimetallic pile to apply electric current to dismembered bodies of animals and humans; these spectacular galvanic reanimation experiments made a strong and enduring impression on his contemporaries. Aldini also treated patients with personality disorders and reported complete rehabilitation following transcranial administration of electric current. Aldini's work laid the ground for the development of various forms of electrotherapy that were heavily used later in the 19th century. Even today, deep brain stimulation, a procedure currently employed to relieve patients with motor or behavioral disorders, owes much to Aldini and galvanism. In recognition of his merits, Aldini was made a knight of the Iron Crown and a councillor of state at Milan, where he died in 1834. PMID:15595271

  13. Human-computer interface including haptically controlled interactions

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2005-10-11

    The present invention provides a method of human-computer interfacing that provides haptic feedback to control interface interactions such as scrolling or zooming within an application. Haptic feedback in the present method allows the user more intuitive control of the interface interactions, and allows the user's visual focus to remain on the application. The method comprises providing a control domain within which the user can control interactions. For example, a haptic boundary can be provided corresponding to scrollable or scalable portions of the application domain. The user can position a cursor near such a boundary, feeling its presence haptically (reducing the requirement for visual attention for control of scrolling of the display). The user can then apply force relative to the boundary, causing the interface to scroll the domain. The rate of scrolling can be related to the magnitude of applied force, providing the user with additional intuitive, non-visual control of scrolling.

  14. Animal models of aging research: implications for human aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sarah J; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Longo, Dan L; de Cabo, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Aging is characterized by an increasing morbidity and functional decline that eventually results in the death of an organism. Aging is the largest risk factor for numerous human diseases, and understanding the aging process may thereby facilitate the development of new treatments for age-associated diseases. The use of humans in aging research is complicated by many factors, including ethical issues; environmental and social factors; and perhaps most importantly, their long natural life span. Although cellular models of human disease provide valuable mechanistic information, they are limited in that they may not replicate the in vivo biology. Almost all organisms age, and thus animal models can be useful for studying aging. Herein, we review some of the major models currently used in aging research and discuss their benefits and pitfalls, including interventions known to extend life span and health span. Finally, we conclude by discussing the future of animal models in aging research. PMID:25689319

  15. Cadmium-induced Cancers in Animals and in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Huff, James; Lunn, Ruth M.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Tomatis, Lorenzo; Infante, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    Discovered in the early 1800s, the use of cadmium and various cadmium salts started to become industrially important near the close of the 19th century, rapidly thereafter began to flourish, yet has diminished more recently. Most cadmium used in the United States is a byproduct from the smelting of zinc, lead, or copper ores, and is used to manufacture batteries. Carcinogenic activity of cadmium was discovered first in animals and only subsequently in humans. Cadmium and cadmium compounds have been classified as known human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the National Toxicology Program based on epidemiologic studies showing a causal association with lung cancer, and possibly prostate cancer, and studies in experimental animals, demonstrating that cadmium causes tumors at multiple tissue sites, by various routes of exposure, and in several species and strains. Epidemiologic studies published since these evaluations suggest that cadmium is also associated with cancers of the breast, kidney, pancreas, and urinary bladder. The basic metal cationic portion of cadmium is responsible for both toxic and cardinogenic activity, and the mechanism of carcinogenicity appears to be multifactorial. Available information about the carcinogenicity of cadmium and cadmium compounds is reviewed, evaluated, and discussed. PMID:17718178

  16. Plant-made vaccines for humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Rybicki, Edward P

    2010-06-01

    The concept of using plants to produce high-value pharmaceuticals such as vaccines is 20 years old this year and is only now on the brink of realisation as an established technology. The original reliance on transgenic plants has largely given way to transient expression; proofs of concept for human and animal vaccines and of efficacy for animal vaccines have been established; several plant-produced vaccines have been through Phase I clinical trials in humans and more are scheduled; regulatory requirements are more clear than ever, and more facilities exist for manufacture of clinic-grade materials. The original concept of cheap edible vaccines has given way to a realisation that formulated products are required, which may well be injectable. The technology has proven its worth as a means of cheap, easily scalable production of materials: it now needs to find its niche in competition with established technologies. The realised achievements in the field as well as promising new developments will be reviewed, such as rapid-response vaccines for emerging viruses with pandemic potential and bioterror agents. PMID:20233333

  17. An analysis of the use of animal models in predicting human toxicology and drug safety.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jarrod; Thew, Michelle; Balls, Michael

    2014-06-01

    Animal use continues to be central to preclinical drug development, in spite of a lack of its demonstrable validity. The current nadir of new drug approvals and the drying-up of pipelines may be a direct consequence of this. To estimate the evidential weight given by animal data to the probability that a new drug may be toxic to humans, we have calculated Likelihood Ratios (LRs) for an extensive data set of 2,366 drugs, for which both animal and human data are available, including tissue-level effects and MedDRA Level 1-4 biomedical observations. This was done for three preclinical species (rat, mouse and rabbit), to augment our previously-published analysis of canine data. In common with our dog analysis, the resulting LRs show: a) that the absence of toxicity in the animal provides little or virtually no evidential weight that adverse drug reactions (ADRs) will also be absent in humans; and b) that, while the presence of toxicity in these species can add considerable evidential weight for human risk, the LRs are extremely inconsistent, varying by over two orders of magnitude for different classes of compounds and their effects. Therefore, our results for these additional preclinical species have important implications for their use in predicting human toxicity, and suggest that alternative methods are urgently required. PMID:25068930

  18. Inactivation of Ricin Toxin by Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Including Evidences from Cell and Animal Toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Kai; Li, Wei; Gao, Shan; Ji, Bin; Zang, Yating; Su, Bo; Wang, Kaile; Yao, Maosheng; Zhang, Jue; Wang, Jinglin

    2016-01-01

    Ricin is one of the most toxic and easily produced plant protein toxin extracted from the castor oil plant, and it has been classified as a chemical warfare agent. Here, nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) at 30 kV/cm (pulse durations: 10 ns, 100 ns, and 300 ns) were applied to inactivating ricin up to 4.2 μg/mL. To investigate the efficacy, cells and mice were tested against the ricin treated by the nsPEFs via direct intraperitoneal injection and inhalation exposure. Results showed that nsPEFs treatments can effectively reduce the toxicity of the ricin. Without the nsPEFs treatment, 100% of mice were killed upon the 4 μg ricin injection on the first day, however 40% of the mice survived the ricin treated by the nsPEFs. Compared to injection, inhalation exposure even with higher ricin dose required longer time to observe mice fatality. Pathological observations revealed damages to heart, lung, kidney, and stomach after the ricin exposure, more pronounced for lung and kidney including severe bleeding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-PAGE) and circular dichroism (CD) analyses revealed that although the primary structure of ricin was not altered, its secondary structures (beta-sheet and beta-turn) underwent transition upon the nsPEFs treatment.

  19. Inactivation of Ricin Toxin by Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Including Evidences from Cell and Animal Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Kai; Li, Wei; Gao, Shan; Ji, Bin; Zang, Yating; Su, Bo; Wang, Kaile; Yao, Maosheng; Zhang, Jue; Wang, Jinglin

    2016-01-01

    Ricin is one of the most toxic and easily produced plant protein toxin extracted from the castor oil plant, and it has been classified as a chemical warfare agent. Here, nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) at 30 kV/cm (pulse durations: 10 ns, 100 ns, and 300 ns) were applied to inactivating ricin up to 4.2 μg/mL. To investigate the efficacy, cells and mice were tested against the ricin treated by the nsPEFs via direct intraperitoneal injection and inhalation exposure. Results showed that nsPEFs treatments can effectively reduce the toxicity of the ricin. Without the nsPEFs treatment, 100% of mice were killed upon the 4 μg ricin injection on the first day, however 40% of the mice survived the ricin treated by the nsPEFs. Compared to injection, inhalation exposure even with higher ricin dose required longer time to observe mice fatality. Pathological observations revealed damages to heart, lung, kidney, and stomach after the ricin exposure, more pronounced for lung and kidney including severe bleeding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-PAGE) and circular dichroism (CD) analyses revealed that although the primary structure of ricin was not altered, its secondary structures (beta-sheet and beta-turn) underwent transition upon the nsPEFs treatment. PMID:26728251

  20. Inactivation of Ricin Toxin by Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Including Evidences from Cell and Animal Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kai; Li, Wei; Gao, Shan; Ji, Bin; Zang, Yating; Su, Bo; Wang, Kaile; Yao, Maosheng; Zhang, Jue; Wang, Jinglin

    2016-01-01

    Ricin is one of the most toxic and easily produced plant protein toxin extracted from the castor oil plant, and it has been classified as a chemical warfare agent. Here, nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) at 30 kV/cm (pulse durations: 10 ns, 100 ns, and 300 ns) were applied to inactivating ricin up to 4.2 μg/mL. To investigate the efficacy, cells and mice were tested against the ricin treated by the nsPEFs via direct intraperitoneal injection and inhalation exposure. Results showed that nsPEFs treatments can effectively reduce the toxicity of the ricin. Without the nsPEFs treatment, 100% of mice were killed upon the 4 μg ricin injection on the first day, however 40% of the mice survived the ricin treated by the nsPEFs. Compared to injection, inhalation exposure even with higher ricin dose required longer time to observe mice fatality. Pathological observations revealed damages to heart, lung, kidney, and stomach after the ricin exposure, more pronounced for lung and kidney including severe bleeding. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis(SDS-PAGE) and circular dichroism (CD) analyses revealed that although the primary structure of ricin was not altered, its secondary structures (beta-sheet and beta-turn) underwent transition upon the nsPEFs treatment. PMID:26728251

  1. Animation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bregman, Gene

    1977-01-01

    Establishes the case for animation in projects in the art program, organized for upper elementary through the senior high school level. Describes three simple introductory activities to help students understand the basic theory of animation. (Editor/RK)

  2. When animals misbehave: analogs of human biases and suboptimal choice.

    PubMed

    Zentall, Thomas R

    2015-03-01

    Humans tend to value rewards more if they have had to work hard to obtain them (justification of effort). Similarly they tend to persist in a task even when they would be better off beginning a new one (sunk cost). Humans also often give greater value to objects of good quality than the same objects together with objects of lesser quality (the less is more effect). Commercial gambling (lotteries and slot machines) is another example of suboptimal choice by humans because on average the rewards are less than the investment. In another example of a systematic bias, when humans try to estimate the probability of the occurrence of a low probability event, they often give too much weight to the results of a test, in spite of the fact that the known probability of a false alarm reduces the predictive value of the test (base rate neglect). In each of these examples, we have found that pigeons show a similar tendency to choose suboptimally. When one can show comparable findings of suboptimal choice in animals it suggests that whereas culture may reinforce certain suboptimal behavior, the behavior is likely to result from the overgeneralization of basic behavioral processes or predisposed heuristics that may have been appropriate in natural environments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: "Tribute to Tom Zentall." PMID:25192737

  3. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs

    PubMed Central

    Verrinder, Joy M.; Ostini, Remo; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was compared with that of students in non-animal related disciplines of human medicine and arts. All students (n = 531) completed a moral reasoning test, the VetDIT, with animal and human scenarios. When compared with reasoning on human ethics issues, the combined group of students evaluating animal ethics issues showed higher levels of Universal Principles reasoning, lower levels of Personal Interest reasoning and similar levels of Maintaining Norms reasoning. Arts students showed more personal interest reasoning than students in most animal-related programs on both animal and human ethics issues, and less norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues. Medical students showed more norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues than all of the animal-related groups. There were no differences in principled reasoning on animal ethics issues between program groups. This has implications for animal-related professions and education programs showing that students’ preference for principled reasoning on animal ethics issues is not unique to animal-related disciplines, and highlighting the need to develop student (and professional) capacity to apply principled reasoning to address ethics issues in animal industries to reduce the risk of moral distress. PMID:26934582

  4. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs.

    PubMed

    Verrinder, Joy M; Ostini, Remo; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was compared with that of students in non-animal related disciplines of human medicine and arts. All students (n = 531) completed a moral reasoning test, the VetDIT, with animal and human scenarios. When compared with reasoning on human ethics issues, the combined group of students evaluating animal ethics issues showed higher levels of Universal Principles reasoning, lower levels of Personal Interest reasoning and similar levels of Maintaining Norms reasoning. Arts students showed more personal interest reasoning than students in most animal-related programs on both animal and human ethics issues, and less norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues. Medical students showed more norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues than all of the animal-related groups. There were no differences in principled reasoning on animal ethics issues between program groups. This has implications for animal-related professions and education programs showing that students' preference for principled reasoning on animal ethics issues is not unique to animal-related disciplines, and highlighting the need to develop student (and professional) capacity to apply principled reasoning to address ethics issues in animal industries to reduce the risk of moral distress. PMID:26934582

  5. Rule Learning over Consonants and Vowels in a Non-Human Animal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Mora, Daniela M.; Toro, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Perception studies have shown similarities between humans and other animals in a wide array of language-related processes. However, the components of language that make it uniquely human have not been fully identified. Here we show that nonhuman animals extract rules over speech sequences that are difficult for humans. Specifically, animals easily

  6. Rule Learning over Consonants and Vowels in a Non-Human Animal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Mora, Daniela M.; Toro, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Perception studies have shown similarities between humans and other animals in a wide array of language-related processes. However, the components of language that make it uniquely human have not been fully identified. Here we show that nonhuman animals extract rules over speech sequences that are difficult for humans. Specifically, animals easily…

  7. Articular Osteochondrosis: A Comparison of Naturally-Occurring Human and Animal Disease

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Annette M; Toth, Ferenc; Dolvik, Nils I; Ekman, Stina; Ellermann, Jutta; Olstad, Kristin; Ytrehus, Bjornar; Carlson, Cathy S

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteochondrosis (OC) is a common developmental orthopedic disease affecting both humans and animals. Despite increasing recognition of this disease among children and adolescents, its pathogenesis is incompletely understood because clinical signs are often not apparent until lesions have progressed to end-stage, and examination of cadaveric early lesions is not feasible. In contrast, both naturally-occurring and surgically-induced animal models of disease have been extensively studied, most notably in horses and swine, species in which OC is recognized to have profound health and economic implications. The potential for a translational model of human OC has not been recognized in the existing human literature. Objective The purpose of this review is to highlight the similarities in signalment, predilection sites and clinical presentation of naturally-occurring OC in humans and animals and to propose a common pathogenesis for this condition across species. Study Design Review Methods The published human and veterinary literature for the various manifestations of OC was reviewed. Peer-reviewed original scientific articles and species-specific review articles accessible in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) were eligible for inclusion. Results A broad range of similarities exists between OC affecting humans and animals, including predilection sites, clinical presentation, radiographic/MRI changes, and histological appearance of the end stage lesion, suggesting a shared pathogenesis across species. Conclusion This proposed shared pathogenesis for OC between species implies that naturally-occurring and surgically-induced models of OC in animals may be useful in determining risk factors and for testing new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions that can be used in humans. PMID:23954774

  8. Setting the One Health agenda and the human-companion animal bond.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Gregg K; Day, Michael J

    2014-11-01

    "One Health", also called "One Medicine", began as an initiative advocating greater integration of human and animal medicine, in the 1800s. This concept has recently come to prominence, driven by the recognition that 75% of the newly emerging infectious diseases will arise from animal reservoirs, and that successful control and prevention will require a coordinated human medical and veterinary approach. Consequently, many One Health discussions have centered on the surveillance of animals in order to anticipate the potential emergence of new zoonotic diseases. An area that has been given only cursory mention, are the many ways that small companion animals benefit individual, community and possibly world health. The goal of this paper is to briefly review some of the evidenced-based data concerning the benefits of having companion animals in our lives, focusing on four major areas; cancer, heart disease, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and the potential positive economic effects of the human-companion animal bond on One Health. Heart disease and cancer are the two leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, while ASD is a growing concern, not only for its individual effects, but also for its effect on family units, educational institutions, and its social implications for the community. In addition, these diseases can greatly affect the national and global cost of healthcare, as well as the economic output of a nation. It is therefore important to include and build on the concept of the Human-Animal Bond (HAB) as it relates to healthcare in these areas. PMID:25350006

  9. Setting the One Health Agenda and the Human-Companion Animal Bond

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, Gregg K.; Day, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    “One Health”, also called “One Medicine”, began as an initiative advocating greater integration of human and animal medicine, in the 1800s. This concept has recently come to prominence, driven by the recognition that 75% of the newly emerging infectious diseases will arise from animal reservoirs, and that successful control and prevention will require a coordinated human medical and veterinary approach. Consequently, many One Health discussions have centered on the surveillance of animals in order to anticipate the potential emergence of new zoonotic diseases. An area that has been given only cursory mention, are the many ways that small companion animals benefit individual, community and possibly world health. The goal of this paper is to briefly review some of the evidenced-based data concerning the benefits of having companion animals in our lives, focusing on four major areas; cancer, heart disease, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and the potential positive economic effects of the human-companion animal bond on One Health. Heart disease and cancer are the two leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, while ASD is a growing concern, not only for its individual effects, but also for its effect on family units, educational institutions, and its social implications for the community. In addition, these diseases can greatly affect the national and global cost of healthcare, as well as the economic output of a nation. It is therefore important to include and build on the concept of the Human-Animal Bond (HAB) as it relates to healthcare in these areas. PMID:25350006

  10. Chemical disposition of boron in animals and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Moseman, R F

    1994-01-01

    Elemental boron was isolated in 1808. It typically occurs in nature as borates hydrated with varying amounts of water. Important compounds are boric acid and borax. Boron compounds are also used in the production of metals, enamels, and glasses. In trace amounts, boron is essential for the growth of many plants, and is found in animal and human tissues at low concentrations. Poisoning in humans has been reported as the result of accidental ingestion or use of large amounts in the treatment of burns. Boron as boric acid is fairly rapidly absorbed and excreted from the body via urine. The half-life of boric acid in humans is on the order of 1 day. Boron does not appear to accumulate in soft tissues of animals, but does accumulate in bone. Normal levels of boron in soft tissues, urine, and blood generally range from less than 0.05 ppm to no more than 10 ppm. In poisoning incidents, the amount of boric acid in brain and liver tissue has been reported to be as high as 2000 ppm. Recent studies at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences have indicated that boron may contribute to reduced fertility in male rodents fed 9000 ppm of boric acid in feed. Within a few days, boron levels in blood and most soft tissues quickly reached a plateau of about 15 ppm. Boron in bone did not appear to plateau, reaching 47 ppm after 7 days on the diet. Cessation of exposure to dietary boron resulted in a rapid drop in bone boron.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7889870

  11. One Health and Food-Borne Disease: Salmonella Transmission between Humans, Animals, and Plants.

    PubMed

    Silva, Claudia; Calva, Edmundo; Maloy, Stanley

    2014-02-01

    There are >2,600 recognized serovars of Salmonella enterica. Many of these Salmonella serovars have a broad host range and can infect a wide variety of animals, including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and insects. In addition, Salmonella can grow in plants and can survive in protozoa, soil, and water. Hence, broad-host-range Salmonella can be transmitted via feces from wild animals, farm animals, and pets or by consumption of a wide variety of common foods: poultry, beef, pork, eggs, milk, fruit, vegetables, spices, and nuts. Broad-host-range Salmonella pathogens typically cause gastroenteritis in humans. Some Salmonella serovars have a more restricted host range that is associated with changes in the virulence plasmid pSV, accumulation of pseudogenes, and chromosome rearrangements. These changes in host-restricted Salmonella alter pathogen-host interactions such that host-restricted Salmonella organisms commonly cause systemic infections and are transmitted between host populations by asymptomatic carriers. The secondary consequences of efforts to eliminate host-restricted Salmonella serovars demonstrate that basic ecological principles govern the environmental niches occupied by these pathogens, making it impossible to thwart Salmonella infections without a clear understanding of the human, animal, and environmental reservoirs of these pathogens. Thus, transmission of S. enterica provides a compelling example of the One Health paradigm because reducing human infections will require the reduction of Salmonella in animals and limitation of transmission from the environment. PMID:26082128

  12. Mercury hazards from gold mining to humans, plants, and animals.

    PubMed

    Eisler, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Mercury contamination of the environment from historical and ongoing mining practices that rely on mercury amalgamation for gold extraction is widespread. Contamination was particularly severe in the immediate vicinity of gold extraction and refining operations; however, mercury, especially in the form of water-soluble methylmercury, may be transported to pristine areas by rainwater, water currents, deforestation, volatilization, and other vectors. Examples of gold mining-associated mercury pollution have been shown for Canada, the U.S., Africa, China, the Philippines, Siberia, and South America. In parts of Brazil, for example, mercury concentrations in all abiotic materials, plants, and animals, including endangered species of mammals and reptiles, collected near ongoing mercury amalgamation gold mining sites were far in excess of allowable mercury levels promulgated by regulatory agencies for the protection of human health and natural resources. Although health authorities in Brazil are unable to detect conclusive evidence of human mercury intoxication, the potential exists in the absence of mitigation for epidemic mercury poisoning of the mining population and environs. In the U.S., environmental mercury contamination is mostly from historical gold mining practices, and portions of Nevada remain sufficiently mercury contaminated to pose a hazard to reproduction of carnivorous fishes and fish-eating birds. Concentrations of total mercury lethal to sensitive representative natural resources range from 0.1 to 2.0 microg/L of medium for aquatic organisms; from 2,200 to 31,000 microg/kg BW (acute oral) and from 4,000 to 40,000 microg/kg (dietary) for birds; and from 100 to 500 microg/kg BW (daily dose) and from 1,000 to 5,000 microg/kg diet for mammals. Significant adverse sublethal effects were observed among selected aquatic species at water concentrations of 0.03-0.1 microg Hg/L. For some birds, adverse effects, mainly on reproduction, have been associated with total mercury concentrations (microg/kg FW) of 5,000 in feathers, 900 in eggs, and 50-100 in diet, and with daily intakes of 640 microg/kg BW. Sensitive nonhuman mammals showed significant adverse effects of mercury when daily intakes were 250 microg/kg BW, when dietary levels were 1,100 microg/kg, or when tissue concentrations exceeded 1,100 microg/kg. Proposed mercury criteria for protection of aquatic life range from 0.012 microg/L for freshwater life to 0.025 microg/L for marine life; for birds, less than 100 microg/kg diet FW; and for small mammals, less than 1,100 microg/kg FW diet. All these proposed criteria provide, at best, minimal protection. PMID:14738199

  13. Humanized mouse models for type 1 diabetes including pancreatic islet transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rahmig, S; Bornstein, S R; Chavakis, T; Jaeckel, E; Waskow, C

    2015-01-01

    We comment here on the suitability of available mouse models for type 1 diabetes research including research on therapeutic pancreatic islet transplantation. The major emphasis will be laid on models that require minimal invasive procedures. Most biological processes are too complex for a complete recapitulation in a test tube. The study of innate or even adaptive immune responses involves a number of different cell types and organs making in vitro studies unreliable but also providing extreme challenges for the use of surrogate model organisms. Studying these processes directly in humans is impossible due to ethical and technical constraints. To resolve this problem small animal models such as mice or rats are frequently used to study mechanisms of complex diseases. This has brought much insight into hematopoiesis and immune cell function including type 1 diabetes (T1D); however, 65 million years of evolution introduced striking differences between mice and humans 1. In fact, none of the many suggested therapies arising from studies using mice 2 3 that have promised prevention or even reversion of T1D made it into the clinic yet 4 5 6. The reason for this are major species-specific differences between rodents and humans regarding the immune system and beta cells. PMID:25369071

  14. Human Illnesses and Animal Deaths Associated with Freshwater Harmful Algal BloomsKansas

    PubMed Central

    Trevino-Garrison, Ingrid; DeMent, Jamie; Ahmed, Farah S.; Haines-Lieber, Patricia; Langer, Thomas; Mnager, Henri; Neff, Janet; van der Merwe, Deon; Carney, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater harmful algal bloom (FHAB) toxins can cause morbidity and mortality in both humans and animals, and the incidence of FHABs in the United States and Kansas has increased. In 2010, the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) developed a FHAB policy and response plan. We describe the epidemiology of FHAB-associated morbidity and mortality in humans and animals in Kansas. Healthcare providers and veterinarians voluntarily reported FHAB-associated cases to KDHE. An investigation was initiated for each report to determine the source of exposure and to initiate public health mitigation actions. There were 38 water bodies with a confirmed FHAB in 2011. There were 34 reports of human and animal FHAB-associated health events in 2011, which included five dog deaths and hospitalization of two human case patients. Five confirmed human illnesses, two dog illnesses and five dog deaths were associated with one lake. Four human and seven dog cases were exposed to the lake after a public health alert was issued. Public health officials and FHAB partners must ensure continued awareness of the risks to the public, educate healthcare providers and veterinarians on FHAB-related health events and encourage timely reporting to public health authorities. PMID:25647780

  15. Human illnesses and animal deaths associated with freshwater harmful algal blooms-Kansas.

    PubMed

    Trevino-Garrison, Ingrid; DeMent, Jamie; Ahmed, Farah S; Haines-Lieber, Patricia; Langer, Thomas; Mnager, Henri; Neff, Janet; van der Merwe, Deon; Carney, Edward

    2015-02-01

    Freshwater harmful algal bloom (FHAB) toxins can cause morbidity and mortality in both humans and animals, and the incidence of FHABs in the United States and Kansas has increased. In 2010, the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) developed a FHAB policy and response plan. We describe the epidemiology of FHAB-associated morbidity and mortality in humans and animals in Kansas. Healthcare providers and veterinarians voluntarily reported FHAB-associated cases to KDHE. An investigation was initiated for each report to determine the source of exposure and to initiate public health mitigation actions. There were 38 water bodies with a confirmed FHAB in 2011. There were 34 reports of human and animal FHAB-associated health events in 2011, which included five dog deaths and hospitalization of two human case patients. Five confirmed human illnesses, two dog illnesses and five dog deaths were associated with one lake. Four human and seven dog cases were exposed to the lake after a public health alert was issued. Public health officials and FHAB partners must ensure continued awareness of the risks to the public, educate healthcare providers and veterinarians on FHAB-related health events and encourage timely reporting to public health authorities. PMID:25647780

  16. Vinyl chloride-specific mutations in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Marion, M J; Boivin-Angele, S

    1999-01-01

    Vinyl chloride is a potent hepatocarcinogen which reacts with DNA to generate etheno bases. In order to determine whether mutational patterns in target genes in vivo are characteristic of vinyl chloride and could be explained by the mutagenic properties of the etheno bases, human and rat liver tumours associated with exposure to vinyl chloride were analysed for point mutations in the ras and p53 genes. In this paper, we review these data and report our latest results on animal tumours. Two alterations were found which could be attributed to a direct effect of vinyl chloride: a GC-->AT transition which leads to a GGC-->GAC mutation at codon 13 of the Ki-ras gene in human liver angiosarcomas, and lesions at AT base pairs, mostly AT-->TA transversions, which lead to mutations in the p53 gene in human and rat angiosarcomas and to a CAA-->CTA mutation at codon 61 of the Ha-ras gene in rat hepatocellular carcinomas. PMID:10626231

  17. The impact of Fusarium mycotoxins on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Antonissen, Gunther; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Verbrugghe, Elin; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Li, Shaoji; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska

    2014-02-01

    Contamination of food and feed with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. At present, acute mycotoxicosis caused by high doses is rare in humans and animals. Ingestion of low to moderate amounts of Fusarium mycotoxins is common and generally does not result in obvious intoxication. However, these low amounts may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host pathogen interactions and thus a different outcome of infection. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the impact of Fusarium mycotoxin exposure on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases. On the one hand, exposure to deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium mycotoxins generally exacerbates infections with parasites, bacteria and viruses across a wide range of animal host species. Well-known examples include coccidiosis in poultry, salmonellosis in pigs and mice, colibacillosis in pigs, necrotic enteritis in poultry, enteric septicemia of catfish, swine respiratory disease, aspergillosis in poultry and rabbits, reovirus infection in mice and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus infection in pigs. However, on the other hand, T-2 toxin has been shown to markedly decrease the colonization capacity of Salmonella in the pig intestine. Although the impact of the exposure of humans to Fusarium toxins on infectious diseases is less well known, extrapolation from animal models suggests possible exacerbation of, for instance, colibacillosis and salmonellosis in humans, as well. PMID:24476707

  18. The Impact of Fusarium Mycotoxins on Human and Animal Host Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Antonissen, Gunther; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Verbrugghe, Elin; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Li, Shaoji; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of food and feed with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. At present, acute mycotoxicosis caused by high doses is rare in humans and animals. Ingestion of low to moderate amounts of Fusarium mycotoxins is common and generally does not result in obvious intoxication. However, these low amounts may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host pathogen interactions and thus a different outcome of infection. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the impact of Fusarium mycotoxin exposure on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases. On the one hand, exposure to deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium mycotoxins generally exacerbates infections with parasites, bacteria and viruses across a wide range of animal host species. Well-known examples include coccidiosis in poultry, salmonellosis in pigs and mice, colibacillosis in pigs, necrotic enteritis in poultry, enteric septicemia of catfish, swine respiratory disease, aspergillosis in poultry and rabbits, reovirus infection in mice and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus infection in pigs. However, on the other hand, T-2 toxin has been shown to markedly decrease the colonization capacity of Salmonella in the pig intestine. Although the impact of the exposure of humans to Fusarium toxins on infectious diseases is less well known, extrapolation from animal models suggests possible exacerbation of, for instance, colibacillosis and salmonellosis in humans, as well. PMID:24476707

  19. Cost and conflict in animal signals and human language.

    PubMed

    Lachmann, M; Szamado, S; Bergstrom, C T

    2001-11-01

    The "costly signaling" hypothesis proposes that animal signals are kept honest by appropriate signal costs. We show that to the contrary, signal cost is unnecessary for honest signaling even when interests conflict. We illustrate this principle by constructing examples of cost-free signaling equilibria for the two paradigmatic signaling games of Grafen (1990) and Godfray (1991). Our findings may explain why some animal signals use cost to ensure honesty whereas others do not and suggest that empirical tests of the signaling hypothesis should focus not on equilibrium cost but, rather, on the cost of deviation from equilibrium. We use these results to apply costly signaling theory to the low-cost signals that make up human language. Recent game theoretic models have shown that several key features of language could plausibly arise and be maintained by natural selection when individuals have coincident interests. In real societies, however, individuals do not have fully coincident interests. We show that coincident interests are not a prerequisite for linguistic communication, and find that many of the results derived previously can be expected also under more realistic models of society. PMID:11687618

  20. Antiviral Activity of Resveratrol against Human and Animal Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Abba, Yusuf; Hassim, Hasliza; Hamzah, Hazilawati; Noordin, Mohamed Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is a potent polyphenolic compound that is being extensively studied in the amelioration of viral infections both in vitro and in vivo. Its antioxidant effect is mainly elicited through inhibition of important gene pathways like the NF-κβ pathway, while its antiviral effects are associated with inhibitions of viral replication, protein synthesis, gene expression, and nucleic acid synthesis. Although the beneficial roles of resveratrol in several viral diseases have been well documented, a few adverse effects have been reported as well. This review highlights the antiviral mechanisms of resveratrol in human and animal viral infections and how some of these effects are associated with the antioxidant properties of the compound. PMID:26693226

  1. Dopaminergic control of cognitive flexibility in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    Klanker, Marianne; Feenstra, Matthijs; Denys, Damiaan

    2013-01-01

    Striatal dopamine (DA) is thought to code for learned associations between cues and reinforcers and to mediate approach behavior toward a reward. Less is known about the contribution of DA to cognitive flexibility—the ability to adapt behavior in response to changes in the environment. Altered reward processing and impairments in cognitive flexibility are observed in psychiatric disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Patients with this disorder show a disruption of functioning in the frontostriatal circuit and alterations in DA signaling. In this review we summarize findings from animal and human studies that have investigated the involvement of striatal DA in cognitive flexibility. These findings may provide a better understanding of the role of dopaminergic dysfunction in cognitive inflexibility in psychiatric disorders, such as OCD. PMID:24204329

  2. Adrenomedullin and Pregnancy: Perspectives from Animal Models to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lenhart, Patricia M.; Caron, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    A healthy pregnancy requires strict coordination of genetic, physiologic, and environmental factors. The relatively common incidence of infertility and pregnancy complications has resulted in increased interest in understanding the mechanisms that underlie normal versus abnormal pregnancy. The peptide hormone adrenomedullin has recently been the focus of some exciting breakthroughs in the pregnancy field. Supported by mechanistic studies in genetic animal models, there continues to be a growing body of evidence demonstrating the importance of adrenomedullin protein levels in a variety of human pregnancy complications. With more extensive mechanistic studies and improved consistency in clinical measurements of adrenomedullin, there is great potential for the development of adrenomedullin as a clinically-relevant biomarker in pregnancy and pregnancy complications. PMID:22425034

  3. Bisphenol A, oocyte maturation, implantation, and IVF outcome: review of animal and human data.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, Ronit; Orvieto, Raoul

    2014-10-01

    Recent data have raised concerns about the detrimental effect of chronic exposure to environmental chemicals. Some chemicals affect the endocrine system (endocrine disruptors) and have been linked to several diseases, including infertility. One such endocrine disruptor is bisphenol A (BPA), a monomer widely used in the plastic industry, with nearly ubiquitous exposure. In this review, data on the effects of BPA on female fertility are summarized. Specifically, its effect is considered on folliculogenesis, oocyte maturation, embryo quality, and implantation, both in animal and human models. Animal studies have shown that BPA might impair prophase I, follicular growth, and implantation, and may be associated with spindle abnormalities. In humans, while in-vitro studies have suggested an association between BPA exposure and impaired oocyte meiosis, clinical evidence indicate possible adverse effects of BPA exposure on IVF outcomes. As human clinical data are still scarce, larger studies are required to further elucidate the effects of BPA exposure on female fertility. PMID:25154017

  4. ISSag1 in streptococcal strains of human and animal origin.

    PubMed

    Franken, Carmen; Brandt, Claudia; Brker, Gerd; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2004-10-01

    The chromosomal region of Streptococcus agalactiae harboring the C5a peptidase and the lmb genes displays the structure of a composite transposon. Its presence in a streptococcal strain is associated with the origin of this strain from a human host. In S. agalactiae it is flanked by two copies of the insertion element ISSag2, and the nucleotide sequence for a third IS element (ISSag1) can be found in this region. Based on amino acid sequence similarity of the deduced transposase ISSag1 belongs to the IS3 family. It is 1251 bp long and flanked by 37 bp imperfect inverted repeats. Horizontal gene transfer among different bacterial species is facilitated by mobile genetic elements. To investigate if ISSag1 homologues are also present in other streptococcal species, various species of pyogenic streptococci from animal and human origin were analyzed by Southern blot hybridization and PCR. Among the different streptococcal species, multiple copies of an ISSag1 homologue could only be detected in S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae strains of animal origin. All of the S. agalactiae strains harbored only a single copy, that was always found in strains with the scpB-lmb composite transposon. A single copy of an ISSag1 homologue could also be detected in some of the S. pyogenes and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strains. Nucleotide sequencing of the IS element in S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae strains revealed several different variants. One of the variants showed the features of a regular IS3 element. The other two variants that were observed displayed a 500-bp deletion and a mosaic structure composed of ISSag1 and ISSag2 homologues. This mosaic structure suggests that recombination and horizontal gene transfer events in S. dysgalactiae strains of bovine origin could have played a role in the assembly of the scpB-lmb composite transposon structure. PMID:15532982

  5. Competing conceptions of animal welfare and their ethical implications for the treatment of non-human animals.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Richard P

    2011-06-01

    Animal welfare has been conceptualized in such a way that the use of animals in science and for food seems justified. I argue that those who have done this have appropriated the concept of animal welfare, claiming to give a scientific account that is more objective than the "sentimental" account given by animal liberationists. This strategy seems to play a major role in supporting merely limited reform in the use of animals and seems to support the assumption that there are conditions under which animals may be raised and slaughtered for food that are ethically acceptable. Reformists do not need to make this assumption, but they tend to conceptualize animal welfare is such a way that death does not count as harmful to the interests of animals, nor prolonged life a benefit. In addition to this prudential value assumption, some members of this community have developed strategies for defending suitably reformed farming practices as ethical even granting that death and some other forms of constraints are harms. One such strategy is the fiction of a domestic contract. However, if one accepts the conceptualization of human welfare give by L. W. Sumner, and applies it to animals in the way that I think is justified, an accurate conceptualization of animal welfare has different implications for which uses of animals should be regarded as ethically acceptable. In this paper I give an historical and philosophical account of animal welfare conceptulization and use this account to argue that animal breeders, as custodians of the animals they breed, have the ethical responsibility to help their animal wards achieve as much autonomy as possible in choosing the form of life made available to them and to provide that life. Attempts to avoid these implications by alluding to a contract model of the relationship between custodians and their wards fail to relieve custodians of their ethical responsibilities of care. PMID:21305338

  6. Reverse Zoonotic Disease Transmission (Zooanthroponosis): A Systematic Review of Seldom-Documented Human Biological Threats to Animals

    PubMed Central

    Messenger, Ali M.; Barnes, Amber N.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Research regarding zoonotic diseases often focuses on infectious diseases animals have given to humans. However, an increasing number of reports indicate that humans are transmitting pathogens to animals. Recent examples include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, influenza A virus, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Ascaris lumbricoides. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of published literature regarding reverse zoonoses and highlight the need for future work in this area. Methods An initial broad literature review yielded 4763 titles, of which 4704 were excluded as not meeting inclusion criteria. After careful screening, 56 articles (from 56 countries over three decades) with documented human-to-animal disease transmission were included in this report. Findings In these publications, 21 (38%) pathogens studied were bacterial, 16 (29%) were viral, 12 (21%) were parasitic, and 7 (13%) were fungal, other, or involved multiple pathogens. Effected animals included wildlife (n = 28, 50%), livestock (n = 24, 43%), companion animals (n = 13, 23%), and various other animals or animals not explicitly mentioned (n = 2, 4%). Published reports of reverse zoonoses transmission occurred in every continent except Antarctica therefore indicating a worldwide disease threat. Interpretation As we see a global increase in industrial animal production, the rapid movement of humans and animals, and the habitats of humans and wild animals intertwining with great complexity, the future promises more opportunities for humans to cause reverse zoonoses. Scientific research must be conducted in this area to provide a richer understanding of emerging and reemerging disease threats. As a result, multidisciplinary approaches such as One Health will be needed to mitigate these problems. PMID:24586500

  7. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in

  8. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  9. Surveillance of Hantaviruses in Poland: A Study of Animal Reservoirs and Human Hantavirus Disease in Subcarpathia

    PubMed Central

    Niemcewicz, Marcin; Bielawska-Drzd, Agata; Nowakowska, Anna; Gawe?, Jerzy; Pitucha, Grzegorz; Joniec, Justyna; Zielonka, Katarzyna; Marciniak-Niemcewicz, Anna; Kocik, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The first cluster of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Poland was identified in 2007 in the Subcarpathian region. The natural environment of this area is a key habitat for hantavirus vectors. The animal reservoir of existing human HFRS clusters was studied to assess the occurrence of viruses (including Tula virus, Puumala virus, and DobravaBelgrade virus) among rodents. We examined 70 suspected human cases with symptoms corresponding to the clinical picture of HFRS. Serological analysis (indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunoblot) confirmed the presence of anti-hantavirus antibodies in 18 patients, which were surveyed with regard to developed symptoms and presumed rodent contact. Seroepidemiological analysis of newly confirmed human cases was performed, putative areas of human exposure were studied, and 194 rodents were subsequently captured from identified areas. Internal organs (lungs, heart, spleen, bladder, and kidneys) were collected from 64 Apodemus flavicollis, 55 Apodemus agrarius, 40 Myodes glareolus, 21 Mus musculus, and 14 Microtus arvalis and tested for the presence of hantavirus RNA by reverse transcription and subsequent real-time PCR. Positive samples were also tested by indirect immunofluorescence. Animal reservoir surveillance enabled the first detection of Puumala virus and DobravaBelgrade virus among animals in Poland. Furthermore, some places where rodents were captured correlated with areas of residence of laboratory-confirmed human cases and likely detected virus species. Moreover, three species of hantaviruses coexisting in a relatively small area were identified. PMID:24902039

  10. The Status of Human and Animal Fascioliasis in Iran: A Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    ASHRAFI, Keyhan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The public health importance of human fascioliasis has increased during last few decades due to the appearance of new emerging and re-emerging foci in many countries. Iran, as the most important focus of human disease in Asia, has been included among six countries known to have a serious problem with fascioliasis by WHO. Various aspects of the disease in Iran are discussed in this review. Methods: This narrative review covers all information about human and animal fascioliasis in Iran, which has been published in local and international journals from 1960 to 2014 using various databases including PubMed, SID, Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct. Results: During the period of the study the infection rates of 0.1% to 91.4% was noted in various livestock. Despite the higher infection rates of livestock in southern areas in past decades, human disease has been mostly encountered in northern Provinces especially in Guilan. Recent studies indicate noticeable decrease in prevalence rates of veterinary fascioliasis in Iran, however the prevalence rates of fascioliasis in livestock in northern Provinces of Guilan and Mazandaran seem to remain at a higher level in comparison to other parts. New foci of the disease have also been reported recently. Conclusion: While the prevalence of animal fascioliasis has decreased during last decades, human fascioliasis emerged as a public health problem in the country. The validity of new foci of human fascioliasis needs complementary standard studies. PMID:26622287

  11. Crazy like a fox. Validity and ethics of animal models of human psychiatric disease.

    PubMed

    Rollin, Michael D H; Rollin, Bernard E

    2014-04-01

    Animal models of human disease play a central role in modern biomedical science. Developing animal models for human mental illness presents unique practical and philosophical challenges. In this article we argue that (1) existing animal models of psychiatric disease are not valid, (2) attempts to model syndromes are undermined by current nosology, (3) models of symptoms are rife with circular logic and anthropomorphism, (4) any model must make unjustified assumptions about subjective experience, and (5) any model deemed valid would be inherently unethical, for if an animal adequately models human subjective experience, then there is no morally relevant difference between that animal and a human. PMID:24534739

  12. Animal-to-Human Transmission of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104A Variant

    PubMed Central

    Orsel, Karin; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Miko, Angelika; van Duijkeren, Engeline

    2004-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was isolated from a pig, a calf, and a child on a farm in the Netherlands. The isolates were indistinguishable by phenotyping and genotyping methods, which suggests nonfoodborne animal-to-animal and animal-to-human transmission. Persons in close contact with farm animals should be aware of this risk. PMID:15663868

  13. Social Work Practitioners and the Human-Companion Animal Bond: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Extensive research documents powerful relationships between humans and companion animals, and 62 percent of U. S. households report having a companion animal. Social workers are likely to work with individuals and families with companion animals; thus, the inclusion of such animals in both practice and research as a natural extension of social

  14. Social Work Practitioners and the Human-Companion Animal Bond: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Extensive research documents powerful relationships between humans and companion animals, and 62 percent of U. S. households report having a companion animal. Social workers are likely to work with individuals and families with companion animals; thus, the inclusion of such animals in both practice and research as a natural extension of social…

  15. Putting the Dog Back in the Park: Animal and Human Mind-in-Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurier, Eric; Maze, Ramia; Lundin, Johan

    2006-01-01

    In this article we use actual instances of human conduct with animals to reflect on the debates about animal agency in human activities. Where much of psychology, philosophy, and sociology begin with a fundamental scepticism over animal mind as the grounds for its inquiries, we join with a growing body of work that examines the continuities…

  16. Putting the Dog Back in the Park: Animal and Human Mind-in-Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurier, Eric; Maze, Ramia; Lundin, Johan

    2006-01-01

    In this article we use actual instances of human conduct with animals to reflect on the debates about animal agency in human activities. Where much of psychology, philosophy, and sociology begin with a fundamental scepticism over animal mind as the grounds for its inquiries, we join with a growing body of work that examines the continuities

  17. Strong Association Between Human and Animal Brucella Seropositivity in a Linked Study in Kenya, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Osoro, Eric Mogaka; Munyua, Peninah; Omulo, Sylvia; Ogola, Eric; Ade, Fredrick; Mbatha, Peter; Mbabu, Murithi; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Kairu, Salome; Maritim, Marybeth; Thumbi, Samuel M; Bitek, Austine; Gaichugi, Stella; Rubin, Carol; Njenga, Kariuki; Guerra, Marta

    2015-08-01

    Brucellosis is a common bacterial zoonotic infection but data on the prevalence among humans and animals is limited in Kenya. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three counties practicing different livestock production systems to simultaneously assess the seroprevalence of, and risk factors for brucellosis among humans and their livestock (cattle, sheep, camels, and goats). A two-stage cluster sampling method with random selection of sublocations and households was conducted. Blood samples were collected from humans and animals and tested for Brucella immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Human and animal individual seroprevalence was 16% and 8%, respectively. Household and herd seroprevalence ranged from 5% to 73% and 6% to 68%, respectively. There was a 6-fold odds of human seropositivity in households with a seropositive animal compared with those without. Risk factors for human seropositivity included regular ingestion of raw milk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.8-4.4), exposure to goats (herding, milking, and feeding) (aOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 2.5-3.8), and handling of animal hides (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.5-2.2). Attaining at least high school education and above was a protective factor for human seropositivity (aOR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.3-0.4). This linked study provides evidence of a strong association between human and animal seropositivity at the household level. PMID:26101275

  18. Strong Association between Human and Animal Brucella Seropositivity in a Linked Study in Kenya, 20122013

    PubMed Central

    Osoro, Eric Mogaka; Munyua, Peninah; Omulo, Sylvia; Ogola, Eric; Ade, Fredrick; Mbatha, Peter; Mbabu, Murithi; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Kairu, Salome; Maritim, Marybeth; Thumbi, Samuel M.; Bitek, Austine; Gaichugi, Stella; Rubin, Carol; Njenga, Kariuki; Guerra, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a common bacterial zoonotic infection but data on the prevalence among humans and animals is limited in Kenya. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three counties practicing different livestock production systems to simultaneously assess the seroprevalence of, and risk factors for brucellosis among humans and their livestock (cattle, sheep, camels, and goats). A two-stage cluster sampling method with random selection of sublocations and households was conducted. Blood samples were collected from humans and animals and tested for Brucella immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Human and animal individual seroprevalence was 16% and 8%, respectively. Household and herd seroprevalence ranged from 5% to 73% and 6% to 68%, respectively. There was a 6-fold odds of human seropositivity in households with a seropositive animal compared with those without. Risk factors for human seropositivity included regular ingestion of raw milk (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.84.4), exposure to goats (herding, milking, and feeding) (aOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 2.53.8), and handling of animal hides (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.52.2). Attaining at least high school education and above was a protective factor for human seropositivity (aOR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.30.4). This linked study provides evidence of a strong association between human and animal seropositivity at the household level. PMID:26101275

  19. Cremated human and animal remains of the Roman period--microscopic method of analysis (Sepkovcica, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Hincak, Zdravka; Miheli?, Damir; Bugar, Aleksandra

    2007-12-01

    Human and animal cremated osteological remains from twelve graves of Roman Period from archaeological site Sepkovcica near Velika Gorica (Turopolje region, NW Croatia) were analysed. Beside the content of urns and grave pits, fillings of grave vessels like bowls, pots and amphoras from twentytwo grave samples were included in this study. The preservation of osteological and dental remains of human and animal origin was very poor, majority of fragments hardly reach lengths of 10 mm. Weight of each specimen barely exceeds 100 g per person. Apart from traditional macroscopic methods of analysing cremated remains, microscopic method for determination of age at death was also tested. Fragments of femoral bone diaphysis of eighteen persons whose remains had been found on the site were analysed. Person's age at death was presented in the range of five or ten years, and the long bone fragments of a child (infants) were detected. Taxonomic position for each analysed specimen was determined by microscopic analysis of animal cremated bones. Analysis results confirm validity of microscopic method in determination of age at death for human remains and taxonomic qualification of cremated animal remains from archaeological sites. PMID:18217471

  20. In vitro glucuronidation kinetics of deoxynivalenol by human and animal microsomes and recombinant human UGT enzymes.

    PubMed

    Maul, Ronald; Warth, Benedikt; Schebb, Nils Helge; Krska, Rudolf; Koch, Matthias; Sulyok, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), formed by Fusarium species, is one of the most abundant mycotoxins contaminating food and feed worldwide. Upon ingestion, the majority of the toxin is excreted by humans and animal species as glucuronide conjugate. First in vitro data indicated that DON phase II metabolism is strongly species dependent. However, kinetic data on the in vitro metabolism as well as investigations on the specific enzymes responsible for DON glucuronidation in human are lacking. In the present study, the DON metabolism was investigated using human microsomal fractions and uridine-diphosphoglucuronyltransferases (UGTs) as well as liver microsomes from five animal species. Only two of the twelve tested human recombinant UGTs led to the formation of DON glucuronides with a different regiospecificity. UGT2B4 predominantly catalyzed the formation of DON-15-O-glucuronide (DON-15GlcA), while for UGT2B7 the DON-3-O-glucuronide (DON-3GlcA) metabolite prevailed. For human UGTs, liver, and intestinal microsomes, the glucuronidation activities were low. The estimated apparent intrinsic clearance (Clapp,int) for all human UGT as well as tissue homogenates was <1 mL/min mg protein. For the animal liver microsomes, moderate Clapp,int between 1.5 and 10 mL/min mg protein were calculated for carp, trout, and porcine liver. An elevated glucuronidation activity was detected for rat and bovine liver microsomes leading to Clapp,int between 20 and 80 mL/min mg protein. The obtained in vitro data points out that none of the animal models is suitable for estimating the human DON metabolism with respect to the metabolite pattern and formation rate. PMID:24927789

  1. Humans (really) are animals: picture-book reading influences 5-year-old urban childrens construal of the relation between humans and non-human animals

    PubMed Central

    Waxman, Sandra R.; Herrmann, Patricia; Woodring, Jennie; Medin, Douglas L.

    2014-01-01

    What is the relation between humans and non-human animals? From a biological perspective, we view humans as one species among many, but in the fables and films we create for children, we often offer an anthropocentric perspective, imbuing non-human animals with human-like characteristics. What are the consequences of these distinctly different perspectives on childrens reasoning about the natural world? Some have argued that children universally begin with an anthropocentric perspective and that acquiring a biological perspective requires a basic conceptual change (cf. Carey, 1985). But recent work reveals that this anthropocentric perspective, evidenced in urban 5-year-olds, is not evident in 3-year-olds (Herrmann etal., 2010). This indicates that the anthropocentric perspective is not an obligatory first step in childrens reasoning about biological phenomena. In the current paper, we introduced a priming manipulation to assess whether 5-year-olds reasoning about a novel biological property is influenced by the perspectives they encounter in childrens books. Just before participating in a reasoning task, each child read a book about bears with an experimenter. What varied was whether bears were depicted from an anthropomorphic (Berenstain Bears) or biological perspective (Animal Encyclopedia). The priming had a dramatic effect. Children reading the Berenstain Bears showed the standard anthropocentric reasoning pattern, but those reading the Animal Encyclopedia adopted a biological pattern. This offers evidence that urban 5-year-olds can adopt either a biological or a human-centered stance, depending upon the context. Thus, childrens books and other media are double-edged swords. Media may (inadvertently) support human-centered reasoning in young children, but may also be instrumental in redirecting childrens attention to a biological model. PMID:24672493

  2. Genetic Recombination between Human and Animal Parasites Creates Novel Strains of Human Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Wendy; Peacock, Lori; Ferris, Vanessa; Fischer, Katrin; Livingstone, Jennifer; Thomas, James; Bailey, Mick

    2015-01-01

    Genetic recombination between pathogens derived from humans and livestock has the potential to create novel pathogen strains, highlighted by the influenza pandemic H1N1/09, which was derived from a re-assortment of swine, avian and human influenza A viruses. Here we investigated whether genetic recombination between subspecies of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, from humans and animals can generate new strains of human pathogen, T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr) responsible for sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT) in East Africa. The trait of human infectivity in Tbr is conferred by a single gene, SRA, which is potentially transferable to the animal pathogen Tbb by sexual reproduction. We tracked the inheritance of SRA in crosses of Tbr and Tbb set up by co-transmitting genetically-engineered fluorescent parental trypanosome lines through tsetse flies. SRA was readily transferred into new genetic backgrounds by sexual reproduction between Tbr and Tbb, thus creating new strains of the human pathogen, Tbr. There was no evidence of diminished growth or transmissibility of hybrid trypanosomes carrying SRA. Although expression of SRA is critical to survival of Tbr in the human host, we show that the gene exists as a single copy in a representative collection of Tbr strains. SRA was found on one homologue of chromosome IV in the majority of Tbr isolates examined, but some Ugandan Tbr had SRA on both homologues. The mobility of SRA by genetic recombination readily explains the observed genetic variability of Tbr in East Africa. We conclude that new strains of the human pathogen Tbr are being generated continuously by recombination with the much larger pool of animal-infective trypanosomes. Such novel recombinants present a risk for future outbreaks of HAT. PMID:25816228

  3. Genetic recombination between human and animal parasites creates novel strains of human pathogen.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Wendy; Peacock, Lori; Ferris, Vanessa; Fischer, Katrin; Livingstone, Jennifer; Thomas, James; Bailey, Mick

    2015-03-01

    Genetic recombination between pathogens derived from humans and livestock has the potential to create novel pathogen strains, highlighted by the influenza pandemic H1N1/09, which was derived from a re-assortment of swine, avian and human influenza A viruses. Here we investigated whether genetic recombination between subspecies of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, from humans and animals can generate new strains of human pathogen, T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr) responsible for sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT) in East Africa. The trait of human infectivity in Tbr is conferred by a single gene, SRA, which is potentially transferable to the animal pathogen Tbb by sexual reproduction. We tracked the inheritance of SRA in crosses of Tbr and Tbb set up by co-transmitting genetically-engineered fluorescent parental trypanosome lines through tsetse flies. SRA was readily transferred into new genetic backgrounds by sexual reproduction between Tbr and Tbb, thus creating new strains of the human pathogen, Tbr. There was no evidence of diminished growth or transmissibility of hybrid trypanosomes carrying SRA. Although expression of SRA is critical to survival of Tbr in the human host, we show that the gene exists as a single copy in a representative collection of Tbr strains. SRA was found on one homologue of chromosome IV in the majority of Tbr isolates examined, but some Ugandan Tbr had SRA on both homologues. The mobility of SRA by genetic recombination readily explains the observed genetic variability of Tbr in East Africa. We conclude that new strains of the human pathogen Tbr are being generated continuously by recombination with the much larger pool of animal-infective trypanosomes. Such novel recombinants present a risk for future outbreaks of HAT. PMID:25816228

  4. Typing of human, animal, food, and environmental isolates of Listeria monocytogenes by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Boerlin, P; Piffaretti, J C

    1991-01-01

    In order to elucidate some aspects of the epidemiology of listeriosis in Switzerland, 181 strains of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from humans, animals, food, and the environment have been analyzed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis at 21 enzyme loci. The clone responsible for several recent food-borne outbreaks in Switzerland and in North America (marked by electrophoretic type 1 and serovar 4b) has been found frequently among strains isolated from animals. Thus, animals may represent a major source of diffusion of this clone in the environment and in food, in which it has been found only sporadically, however. Two other unrelated clones (including strains belonging to serovars 1/2b and 1/2c) have often been isolated from meat but not from animals. These findings indicate that contamination of meat with L. monocytogenes might originate mainly from the environment in which it is processed rather than from animals themselves. This could explain the differences in the distribution of L. monocytogenes serovars isolated from meat and from animals. PMID:1908204

  5. Dietary essentiality of "nutritionally non-essential amino acids" for animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yongqing; Yin, Yulong; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-08-01

    Based on growth or nitrogen balance, amino acids (AA) had traditionally been classified as nutritionally essential (indispensable) or non-essential (dispensable) for animals and humans. Nutritionally essential AA (EAA) are defined as either those AA whose carbon skeletons cannot be synthesized de novo in animal cells or those that normally are insufficiently synthesized de novo by the animal organism relative to its needs for maintenance, growth, development, and health and which must be provided in the diet to meet requirements. In contrast, nutritionally non-essential AA (NEAA) are those AA which can be synthesized de novo in adequate amounts by the animal organism to meet requirements for maintenance, growth, development, and health and, therefore, need not be provided in the diet. Although EAA and NEAA had been described for over a century, there are no compelling data to substantiate the assumption that NEAA are synthesized sufficiently in animals and humans to meet the needs for maximal growth and optimal health. NEAA play important roles in regulating gene expression, cell signaling pathways, digestion and absorption of dietary nutrients, DNA and protein synthesis, proteolysis, metabolism of glucose and lipids, endocrine status, men and women fertility, acid-base balance, antioxidative responses, detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous metabolites, neurotransmission, and immunity. Emerging evidence indicates dietary essentiality of "nutritionally non-essential amino acids" for animals and humans to achieve their full genetic potential for growth, development, reproduction, lactation, and resistance to metabolic and infectious diseases. This concept represents a new paradigm shift in protein nutrition to guide the feeding of mammals (including livestock), poultry, and fish. PMID:26041391

  6. Multiple Diverse Circoviruses Infect Farm Animals and Are Commonly Found in Human and Chimpanzee Feces ?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linlin; Kapoor, Amit; Slikas, Beth; Bamidele, Oderinde Soji; Wang, Chunlin; Shaukat, Shahzad; Masroor, Muhammad Alam; Wilson, Michael L.; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N.; Peeters, Martine; Gross-Camp, Nicole D.; Muller, Martin N.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Triki, Hinda; Bartkus, Joanne; Zaidi, Sohail Zahoor; Delwart, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Circoviruses are known to infect birds and pigs and can cause a wide range of severe symptoms with significant economic impact. Using viral metagenomics, we identified circovirus-like DNA sequences and characterized 15 circular viral DNA genomes in stool samples from humans in Pakistan, Nigeria, Tunisia, and the United States and from wild chimpanzees. Distinct genomic features and phylogenetic analysis indicate that some viral genomes were part of a previously unrecognized genus in the Circoviridae family we tentatively named Cyclovirus whose genetic diversity is comparable to that of all the known species in the Circovirus genus. Circoviridae detection in the stools of U.S. adults was limited to porcine circoviruses which were also found in most U.S. pork products. To determine whether the divergent cycloviruses found in non-U.S. human stools were of dietary origin, we genetically compared them to the cycloviruses in muscle tissue samples of commonly eaten farm animals in Pakistan and Nigeria. Limited genetic overlap between cycloviruses in human stool samples and local cow, goat, sheep, camel, and chicken meat samples indicated that the majority of the 25 Cyclovirus species identified might be human viruses. We show that the genetic diversity of small circular DNA viral genomes in various mammals, including humans, is significantly larger than previously recognized, and frequent exposure through meat consumption and contact with animal or human feces provides ample opportunities for cyclovirus transmission. Determining the role of cycloviruses, found in 7 to 17% of non-U.S. human stools and 3 to 55% of non-U.S. meat samples tested, in both human and animal diseases is now facilitated by knowledge of their genomes. PMID:20007276

  7. Perceiving emotions in human-human and human-animal interactions: Hemodynamic prefrontal activity (fNIRS) and empathic concern.

    PubMed

    Vanutelli, Maria Elide; Balconi, Michela

    2015-09-25

    In the last years social neuroscience research attempted to identify the neural networks underlying the human ability to perceive others' emotions, a core process in establishing meaningful social bonds. A large amount of papers arose and identified common and specific empathy-based networks with respect to stimulus type and task. Despite the great majority of studies focused on human-human contexts, we do not establish relations with only other humans, but also with non-human animals. The aim of the present work was to explore the brain mechanisms involved in empathic concern for people who interacts with both peers and other species. Participants have been assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) while viewing pictures depicting humans interacting with both other men and women (human-human condition: HH), or with dogs and cats (human-animal: HA). Results showed that aggressive HH interactions elicited greater prefrontal activity (PFC) than HA ones while, when considering HA interactions, friendly ones were related to higher cortical activity. Finally, oxy (O2Hb) and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb) increasing related to the processing of aggressive interactions positively correlated with different empathic measures, within more specific brain regions. Results were elucidated with respect to available evidence on emotion perception, empathic neural mechanisms and their functional meaning for human-animal contexts. PMID:26272301

  8. Cryptococcus gattii: an emerging fungal pathogen infecting humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Edmond J.; Bartlett, Karen H.; Perfect, John R.; Heitman, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Infectious fungi are among a broad group of microbial pathogens that has and continues to emerge concomitantly due to the global AIDS pandemic as well as an overall increase of patients with compromised immune systems. In addition, many pathogens have been emerging and reemerging, causing disease in both individuals who have an identifiable immune defect and those who do not. The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii can infect individuals with and without an identifiable immune defect, with a broad geographic range including both endemic areas and emerging outbreak regions. Infections in patients and animals can be severe and often fatal if untreated. We review the molecular epidemiology, population structure, clinical manifestations, and ecological niche of this emerging pathogen. PMID:21684347

  9. Role for animal research in the investigation of human mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, B

    1994-07-01

    Animal models of the cognitive deficiency states of mental retardation per se are underutilized. A general learning impairment model and a reasoning/insight model, both in rats, were reviewed for parallels to theories of human cognitive deficiency. Predictions were made for the relevance to human mental retardation. Although the parallel development of human mental deficiency research and animal cognition research has precluded substantial benefits at this time, a wider reading of the animal literature by human mental retardation researchers would benefit both animal cognition research and human mental retardation research. PMID:7946253

  10. The Animal-Human Bond and Ethnic Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Holley, Lynn C.; Wolf, Shapard

    2006-01-01

    Affectionate relationships with animal companions have health-enhancing effects on people and enrich their quality of life, and the majority of families with companion animals regard their animals as family members. Research has also suggested that these relationships are complicated and vary depending on a number of factors, yet there has been

  11. Features and News: The Importance of Discoveries in Animal Science to Human Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BioScience, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Five short notes describe the contributions to human welfare of animal research in reproductive physiology; ruminant nutrition; meat science research; genetics and animal breeding; and recycling food by-products. (AL)

  12. Potential animal and environmental sources of Q fever infection for humans in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Tozer, S J; Lambert, S B; Strong, C L; Field, H E; Sloots, T P; Nissen, M D

    2014-03-01

    Q fever is a vaccine-preventable disease; despite this, high annual notification numbers are still recorded in Australia. We have previously shown seroprevalence in Queensland metropolitan regions is approaching that of rural areas. This study investigated the presence of nucleic acid from Coxiella burnetii, the agent responsible for Q fever, in a number of animal and environmental samples collected throughout Queensland, to identify potential sources of human infection. Samples were collected from 129 geographical locations and included urine, faeces and whole blood from 22 different animal species; 45 ticks were removed from two species, canines and possums; 151 soil samples; 72 atmospheric dust samples collected from two locations and 50 dust swabs collected from domestic vacuum cleaners. PCR testing was performed targeting the IS1111 and COM1 genes for the specific detection of C.burnetii DNA. There were 85 detections from 1318 animal samples, giving a detection rate for each sample type ranging from 2.1 to 6.8%. Equine samples produced a detection rate of 11.9%, whilst feline and canine samples showed detection rates of 7.8% and 5.2%, respectively. Native animals had varying detection rates: pooled urines from flying foxes had 7.8%, whilst koalas had 5.1%, and 6.7% of ticks screened were positive. The soil and dust samples showed the presence of C.burnetii DNA ranging from 2.0 to 6.9%, respectively. These data show that specimens from a variety of animal species and the general environment provide a number of potential sources for C.burnetii infections of humans living in Queensland. These previously unrecognized sources may account for the high seroprevalence rates seen in putative low-risk communities, including Q fever patients with no direct animal contact and those subjects living in a low-risk urban environment. PMID:23663407

  13. Development of novel combined anticalcification protocols including immunologic modification for prolonged durability of cardiac xenograft: preclinical study using large-animal long-term circulatory models.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hong-Gook; Jeong, Saeromi; Shin, Jun-Seop; Park, Chung-Gyu; Kim, Yong Jin

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac xenografts are conventionally cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) to impart tissue stability, reduce antigenicity, and maintain tissue sterility. However, GA-fixed xenografts are prone to calcification after long-term implantation in humans, because of phospholipids, free aldehyde groups, and residual antigenicity. We evaluated preclinical safety and efficacy using large-animal long-term circulatory models for our novel combined anticalcification protocol including immunological modification, which had been proven effective in small animal experiments. Bovine/porcine xenografts were treated with decellularization, immunological modification with ?-galactosidase, GA fixation with organic solvent, and detoxification with glycine. Valve conduits made of these xenografts were transplanted into the pulmonary root of goats, and hemodynamic, radiological, immunohistopathological, and biochemical results were obtained for 12 months after implantation. Evaluation of echocardiography and cardiac catheterization demonstrated good hemodynamic status and function of the pulmonary xenograft valves. Durability of the xenografts was well preserved without calcification by specimen radiography and immunohistopathological examination. The calcium concentrations of the explanted xenografts were lower than the control xenografts. This preclinical study using large-animal long-term circulatory models demonstrated that our synergistic and simultaneous employment of multiple anticalcification therapies and novel tissue treatments, including immunological modifications, have promising safety and efficacy and should be examined further in future clinical studies. PMID:25303800

  14. Ethics and methods for biological rhythm research on animals and human beings.

    PubMed

    Portaluppi, Francesco; Smolensky, Michael H; Touitou, Yvan

    2010-10-01

    This article updates the ethical standards and methods for the conduct of high-quality animal and human biological rhythm research, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. The editors of Chronobiology International adhere to and endorse the Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE), which encourages communication of such updates at regular intervals in the journal. The journal accepts papers representing original work, no part of which was previously submitted for publication elsewhere, except as brief abstracts, as well as in-depth reviews. The majority of research papers published in Chronobiology International entails animal and human investigations. The editors and readers of the journal expect authors of submitted manuscripts to have made an important contribution to the research of biological rhythms and related phenomena using ethical methods/procedures and unbiased, accurate, and honest reporting of findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to declare all potential conflicts of interest. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of investigators to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, relating to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals, and the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, relating to the conduct of ethical research on human beings. The peer review of manuscripts by Chronobiology International thus includes judgment as to whether or not the protocols and methods conform to ethical standards. Authors are expected to show mastery of the basic methods and procedures of biological rhythm research and proper statistical assessment of data, including the appropriate application of time series data analyses, as briefly reviewed in this article. The journal editors strive to consistently achieve high standards for the research of original and review papers reported in Chronobiology International, and current examples of expectations are presented herein. PMID:20969531

  15. Reconstructed epidermis versus human and animal skin in skin absorption studies.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, S; Mahmoud, A; Vuia, A; Rübbelke, M K; Schmidt, E; Schaller, M; Kandárová, H; Haberland, A; Schäfer, U F; Bock, U; Korting, H C; Liebsch, M; Schäfer-Korting, M

    2005-09-01

    European chemical policy in general and the REACH initiative in particular will increase the number of chemical substances submitted to toxicological evaluation by several orders of magnitude compared to the current status. To limit animal exposure the resulting enormous increase in testing, however, asks for validated in vitro test systems. While the OECD favours in vitro testing for cutaneous absorption using viable human and animal skin (Guideline 428) the availability of viable human skin is already limited today. We present a comparison of various in vitro techniques suitable for routine skin absorption studies including commercially available reconstructed human epidermis which may be a reliable alternative to excised human and animal skin. In order to develop a protocol for the subsequent transfer to partner laboratories the experimental set-up was analysed stepwise using the OECD reference compounds caffeine and testosterone. Franz cell type, the donor and receptor media for hydrophilic/lipophilic substances, albumin and tensid addition, and storage conditions of the excised skins were systematically varied. A protocol has been developed which now allows to proceed to the pre-validation process. PMID:15913948

  16. Salmonella serovars and phage types in humans and animals in Australia 1987-1992.

    PubMed

    Murray, C J

    1994-03-01

    This report summarises the range of Salmonella serovars and phage types found in humans in Australia during the years 1987 to 1992 inclusive, and compares them with serovars from food animals and raw meats for the same period. It also compares the major serovars found from different animal sources with their frequency from humans. The common serovars from animal feeds are compared with their frequency from animals. PMID:8198512

  17. An animal model of human aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.; Mann, J.; Yoshida, A.

    1994-09-01

    The genetic deficiency of ALDH2, a major mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, is intimately related to alcohol sensitivity and the degree of predisposition to alcoholic diseases in humans. The ultimate biological role of ALDH2 can be exposed by knocking out the ALDH2 gene in an animal model. As the first step for this line of studies, we cloned and characterized the ALDH2 gene from mouse C57/6J strain which is associated with a high alcohol preference. The gene spans 26 kbp and is composed of 13 exons. Embryonic stem cells were transfected with a replacement vector which contains a partially deleted exon3, a positive selection cassette (pPgk Neo), exon 4 with an artificial stop codon, exons 5, 6, 7, and a negative selection cassette (pMCI-Tk). Genomic DNAs prepared from drug resistant clones were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and by Southern blot analysis to distinguish random integration from homologous recombination. Out of 132 clones examined, 8 had undergone homologous recombination at one of the ALDH2 alleles. The cloned transformed embryonic stem cells with a disrupted ALDH2 allele were injected into blastocysts. Transplantation of the blastocysts into surrogate mother mice yielded chimeric mice. The role of ALDH2 in alcohol preference, alcohol sensitivity and other biological and behavioral characteristics can be elucidated by examining the heterozygous and homozygous mutant strains produced by breeding of chimeric mice.

  18. Acetaminophen-induced Liver Injury: from Animal Models to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Jaeschke, Hartmut; Xie, Yuchao; McGill, Mitchell R.

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced liver injury is an important clinical problem and a challenge for drug development. Whereas progress in understanding rare and unpredictable (idiosyncratic) drug hepatotoxicity is severely hampered by the lack of relevant animal models, enormous insight has been gained in the area of predictable hepatotoxins, in particular acetaminophen-induced liver injury, from a broad range of experimental models. Importantly, mechanisms of toxicity obtained with certain experimental systems, such as in vivo mouse models, primary mouse hepatocytes, and metabolically competent cell lines, are being confirmed in translational studies in patients and in primary human hepatocytes. Despite this progress, suboptimal models are still being used and experimental data can be confusing, leading to controversial conclusions. Therefore, this review attempts to discuss mechanisms of drug hepatotoxicity using the most studied drug acetaminophen as an example. We compare the various experimental models that are used to investigate mechanisms of acetaminophen hepatotoxicity, discuss controversial topics in the mechanisms, and assess how these experimental findings can be translated to the clinic. The success with acetaminophen in demonstrating the clinical relevance of experimental findings could serve as an example for the study of other drug toxicities. PMID:26355817

  19. A review of simulation modelling approaches used for the spread of zoonotic influenza viruses in animal and human populations.

    PubMed

    Dorjee, S; Poljak, Z; Revie, C W; Bridgland, J; McNab, B; Leger, E; Sanchez, J

    2013-09-01

    Increasing incidences of emerging and re-emerging diseases that are mostly zoonotic (e.g. severe acute respiratory syndrome, avian influenza H5N1, pandemic influenza) has led to the need for a multidisciplinary approach to tackling these threats to public and animal health. Accordingly, a global movement of 'One-Health/One-Medicine' has been launched to foster collaborative efforts amongst animal and human health officials and researchers to address these problems. Historical evidence points to the fact that pandemics caused by influenza A viruses remain a major zoonotic threat to mankind. Recently, a range of mathematical and computer simulation modelling methods and tools have increasingly been applied to improve our understanding of disease transmission dynamics, contingency planning and to support policy decisions on disease outbreak management. This review provides an overview of methods, approaches and software used for modelling the spread of zoonotic influenza viruses in animals and humans, particularly those related to the animal-human interface. Modelling parameters used in these studies are summarized to provide references for future work. This review highlights the limited application of modelling research to influenza in animals and at the animal-human interface, in marked contrast to the large volume of its research in human populations. Although swine are widely recognized as a potential host for generating novel influenza viruses, and that some of these viruses, including pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009, have been shown to be readily transmissible between humans and swine, only one study was found related to the modelling of influenza spread at the swine-human interface. Significant gaps in the knowledge of frequency of novel viral strains evolution in pigs, farm-level natural history of influenza infection, incidences of influenza transmission between farms and between swine and humans are clearly evident. Therefore, there is a need to direct additional research to the study of influenza transmission dynamics in animals and at the animal-human interface. PMID:22937896

  20. Clonal Relationship among Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Different Animal Species and Humans?

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Rodrigo A.; Sircili, Marcelo P.; Leomil, Luciana; Matt, Maria Helena; Trabulsi, Luiz R.; Elias, Waldir P.; Irino, Kinue; Pestana de Castro, Antonio F.

    2009-01-01

    Forty-nine typical and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) strains belonging to different serotypes and isolated from humans, pets (cats and dogs), farm animals (bovines, sheep, and rabbits), and wild animals (monkeys) were investigated for virulence markers and clonal similarity by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The virulence markers analyzed revealed that atypical EPEC strains isolated from animals have the potential to cause diarrhea in humans. A close clonal relationship between human and animal isolates was found by MLST and PFGE. These results indicate that these animals act as atypical EPEC reservoirs and may represent sources of infection for humans. Since humans also act as a reservoir of atypical EPEC strains, the cycle of mutual infection of atypical EPEC between animals and humans, mainly pets and their owners, cannot be ruled out since the transmission dynamics between the reservoirs are not yet clearly understood. PMID:19801470

  1. Comparative assessment of human and farm animal faecal microbiota using real-time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Furet, Jean-Pierre; Firmesse, Olivier; Gourmelon, Michle; Bridonneau, Chantal; Tap, Julien; Mondot, Stanislas; Dor, Jol; Corthier, Grard

    2009-06-01

    Pollution of the environment by human and animal faecal pollution affects the safety of shellfish, drinking water and recreational beaches. To pinpoint the origin of contaminations, it is essential to define the differences between human microbiota and that of farm animals. A strategy based on real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays was therefore developed and applied to compare the composition of intestinal microbiota of these two groups. Primers were designed to quantify the 16S rRNA gene from dominant and subdominant bacterial groups. TaqMan probes were defined for the qPCR technique used for dominant microbiota. Human faecal microbiota was compared with that of farm animals using faecal samples collected from rabbits, goats, horses, pigs, sheep and cows. Three dominant bacterial groups (Bacteroides/Prevotella, Clostridium coccoides and Bifidobacterium) of the human microbiota showed differential population levels in animal species. The Clostridium leptum group showed the lowest differences among human and farm animal species. Human subdominant bacterial groups were highly variable in animal species. Partial least squares regression indicated that the human microbiota could be distinguished from all farm animals studied. This culture-independent comparative assessment of the faecal microbiota between humans and farm animals will prove useful in identifying biomarkers of human and animal faecal contaminations that can be applied to microbial source tracking methods. PMID:19302550

  2. Circadian timing of metabolism in animal models and humans.

    PubMed

    Dibner, C; Schibler, U

    2015-05-01

    Most living beings, including humans, must adapt to rhythmically occurring daily changes in their environment that are generated by the Earth's rotation. In the course of evolution, these organisms have acquired an internal circadian timing system that can anticipate environmental oscillations and thereby govern their rhythmic physiology in a proactive manner. In mammals, the circadian timing system coordinates virtually all physiological processes encompassing vigilance states, metabolism, endocrine functions and cardiovascular activity. Research performed during the past two decades has established that almost every cell in the body possesses its own circadian timekeeper. The resulting clock network is organized in a hierarchical manner. A master pacemaker, located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, is synchronized every day to the photoperiod. In turn, the SCN determines the phase of the cellular clocks in peripheral organs through a wide variety of signalling pathways dependent on feeding cycles, body temperature rhythms, oscillating bloodborne signals and, in some organs, inputs of the peripheral nervous system. A major purpose of circadian clocks in peripheral tissues is the temporal orchestration of key metabolic processes, including food processing (metabolism and xenobiotic detoxification). Here, we review some recent findings regarding the molecular and cellular composition of the circadian timing system and discuss its implications for the temporal coordination of metabolism in health and disease. We focus primarily on metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, although circadian misalignments (shiftwork or 'social jet lag') have also been associated with the aetiology of human malignancies. PMID:25599827

  3. Severe Life Stress and Oxidative Stress in the Brain: From Animal Models to Human Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Jaquet, Vincent; Trabace, Luigia; Krause, Karl-Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Severe life stress (SLS), as opposed to trivial everyday stress, is defined as a serious psychosocial event with the potential of causing an impacting psychological traumatism. Recent Advances: Numerous studies have attempted to understand how the central nervous system (CNS) responds to SLS. This response includes a variety of morphological and neurochemical modifications; among them, oxidative stress is almost invariably observed. Oxidative stress is defined as disequilibrium between oxidant generation and the antioxidant response. Critical Issues: In this review, we discuss how SLS leads to oxidative stress in the CNS, and how the latter impacts pathophysiological outcomes. We also critically discuss experimental methods that measure oxidative stress in the CNS. The review covers animal models and human observations. Animal models of SLS include sleep deprivation, maternal separation, and social isolation in rodents, and the establishment of hierarchy in non-human primates. In humans, SLS, which is caused by traumatic events such as child abuse, war, and divorce, is also accompanied by oxidative stress in the CNS. Future Directions: The outcome of SLS in humans ranges from resilience, over post-traumatic stress disorder, to development of chronic mental disorders. Defining the sources of oxidative stress in SLS might in the long run provide new therapeutic avenues. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1475–1490. PMID:22746161

  4. Mapping and Quantification of Vascular Branching in Plants, Animals and Humans by VESGEN Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, P. A.; Vickerman, M. B.; Keith, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    Humans face daunting challenges in the successful exploration and colonization of space, including adverse alterations in gravity and radiation. The Earth-determined biology of plants, animals and humans is significantly modified in such extraterrestrial environments. One physiological requirement shared by larger plants and animals with humans is a complex, highly branching vascular system that is dynamically responsive to cellular metabolism, immunological protection and specialized cellular/tissue function. VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) Analysis has been developed as a mature beta version, pre-release research software for mapping and quantification of the fractal-based complexity of vascular branching. Alterations in vascular branching pattern can provide informative read-outs of altered vascular regulation. Originally developed for biomedical applications in angiogenesis, VESGEN 2D has provided novel insights into the cytokine, transgenic and therapeutic regulation of angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and other microvascular remodeling phenomena. Vascular trees, networks and tree-network composites are mapped and quantified. Applications include disease progression from clinical ophthalmic images of the human retina; experimental regulation of vascular remodeling in the mouse retina; avian and mouse coronary vasculature, and other experimental models in vivo. We envision that altered branching in the leaves of plants studied on ISS such as Arabidopsis thaliana cans also be analyzed.

  5. Mapping and Quantification of Vascular Branching in Plants, Animals and Humans by VESGEN Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.; Vickerman, Mary B.; Keith, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Humans face daunting challenges in the successful exploration and colonization of space, including adverse alterations in gravity and radiation. The Earth-determined biology of humans, animals and plants is significantly modified in such extraterrestrial environments. One physiological requirement shared by humans with larger plants and animals is a complex, highly branching vascular system that is dynamically responsive to cellular metabolism, immunological protection and specialized cellular/tissue function. The VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) Analysis has been developed as a mature beta version, pre-release research software for mapping and quantification of the fractal-based complexity of vascular branching. Alterations in vascular branching pattern can provide informative read-outs of altered vascular regulation. Originally developed for biomedical applications in angiogenesis, VESGEN 2D has provided novel insights into the cytokine, transgenic and therapeutic regulation of angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and other microvascular remodeling phenomena. Vascular trees, networks and tree-network composites are mapped and quantified. Applications include disease progression from clinical ophthalmic images of the human retina; experimental regulation of vascular remodeling in the mouse retina; avian and mouse coronary vasculature, and other experimental models in vivo. We envision that altered branching in the leaves of plants studied on ISS such as Arabidopsis thaliana cans also be analyzed.

  6. Role of human- and animal-sperm studies in the evaluation of male reproductive hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Gordon, L.; Watchmaker, G.

    1982-04-07

    Human sperm tests provide a direct means of assessing chemically induced spermatogenic dysfunction in man. Available tests include sperm count, motility, morphology (seminal cytology), and Y-body analyses. Over 70 different human exposures have been monitored in various groups of exposed men. The majority of exposures studied showed a significant change from control in one or more sperm tests. When carefully controlled, the sperm morphology test is statistically the most sensitive of these human sperm tests. Several sperm tests have been developed in nonhuman mammals for the study of chemical spermatotoxins. The sperm morphology test in mice has been the most widely used. Results with this test seem to be related to germ-cell mutagenicity. In general, animal sperm tests should play an important role in the identification and assessment of potential human reproductive hazards. Exposure to spermatotoxins may lead to infertility, and more importantly, to heritable genetic damage. While there are considerable animal and human data suggesting that sperm tests may be used to detect agents causing infertility, the extent to which these tests detect heritable genetic damage remains unclear. (ERB)

  7. Animal Models to Study Placental Development and Function throughout Normal and Dysfunctional Human Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Grigsby, Peta L.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities of placental development and function are known to underlie many pathologies of pregnancy, including spontaneous preterm birth, fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia. A growing body of evidence also underscores the importance of placental dysfunction in the lifelong health of both mother and offspring. However, our knowledge regarding placental structure and function throughout pregnancy remains limited. Understanding the temporal growth and functionality of the human placenta throughout the entirety of gestation is important if we are to gain a better understanding of placental dysfunction. The utilization of new technologies and imaging techniques that could enable safe monitoring of placental growth and function in vivo has become a major focus area for the National Institutes of Child Health & Human Development, as evident by the establishment of the “Human Placenta Project”. Many of the objectives of the Human Placenta Project will necessitate pre-clinical studies and testing in appropriately designed animal models that can be readily translated to the clinical setting. This review will describe the advantages and limitations of relevant animals such as the guinea pig, sheep and non-human primate models that have been used to study the role of the placenta in fetal growth disorders, preeclampsia or other maternal diseases during pregnancy. PMID:26752715

  8. Real-time algorithms for human versus animal classification using a pyroelectric sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossen, Jakir; Jacobs, Eddie; Chari, Srikant

    2013-06-01

    Classification of human and animal targets imaged by a linear pyroelectic array senor presents some unique challenges especially in target segmentation and feature extraction. In this paper, we apply two approaches to address this problem. Both techniques start with the variational energy functional level set segmentation technique to separate the object from background. After segmentation, in the first technique, we extract features such as texture, invariant moments, edge, shape information, and spectral contents of the segmented object. These features are fed to classifiers including Nave Bayesian (NB), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) for human against animal classification. In the second technique, the speeded up robust feature (SURF) extraction algorithm is applied to the segmented objects. A code book technique is used to classify objects based on SURF features. Human and animal data acquired-using the pyroelectric sensor in different terrains, are used for performance evaluation of the algorithms. The evaluation indicates that the features extracted in the first technique in conjunction with the NB classifier provide the highest classification rates. While the SURF feature plus code book approach provides a slightly lower classification rate, it provides better computational efficiency lending itself to real time implementation.

  9. Developing Educational Computer Animation Based on Human Personality Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Sajid; Ziatdinov, Rushan; Sozcu, Omer Faruk; Griffiths, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Computer animation in the past decade has become one of the most noticeable features of technology-based learning environments. By its definition, it refers to simulated motion pictures showing movement of drawn objects, and is often defined as the art in movement. Its educational application known as educational computer animation is considered…

  10. The use of animal tissues alongside human tissue: Cultural and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Kaw, Anu; Jones, D Gareth; Zhang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Teaching and research facilities often use cadaveric material alongside animal tissues, although there appear to be differences in the way we handle, treat, and dispose of human cadaveric material compared to animal tissue. This study sought to analyze cultural and ethical considerations and provides policy recommendations on the use of animal tissues alongside human tissue. The status of human and animal remains and the respect because of human and animal tissues were compared and analyzed from ethical, legal, and cultural perspectives. The use of animal organs and tissues is carried out within the context of understanding human anatomy and function. Consequently, the interests of human donors are to be pre-eminent in any policies that are enunciated, so that if any donors find the presence of animal remains unacceptable, the latter should not be employed. The major differences appear to lie in differences in our perceptions of their respective intrinsic and instrumental values. Animals are considered to have lesser intrinsic value and greater instrumental value than humans. These differences stem from the role played by culture and ethical considerations, and are manifested in the resulting legal frameworks. In light of this discussion, six policy recommendations are proposed, encompassing the nature of consent, respect for animal tissues as well as human remains, and appropriate separation of both sets of tissues in preparation and display. Clin. Anat. 29:19-24, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26475721

  11. METABOLISM AND DISPOSITION OF INORGANIC ARSENIC IN LABORATORY ANIMALS AND HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The carcinogenicity of inorganic arsenic in humans, particulary in the lung and skin, has been reasonably well established through epidemiological investigations. owever, there is no substantial experimental evidence for carcinogenicity in animals to support the human studies. tu...

  12. Animated pose templates for modeling and detecting human actions.

    PubMed

    Yao, Benjamin Z; Nie, Bruce X; Liu, Zicheng; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents animated pose templates (APTs) for detecting short-term, long-term, and contextual actions from cluttered scenes in videos. Each pose template consists of two components: 1) a shape template with deformable parts represented in an And-node whose appearances are represented by the Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) features, and 2) a motion template specifying the motion of the parts by the Histogram of Optical-Flows (HOF) features. A shape template may have more than one motion template represented by an Or-node. Therefore, each action is defined as a mixture (Or-node) of pose templates in an And-Or tree structure. While this pose template is suitable for detecting short-term action snippets in two to five frames, we extend it in two ways: 1) For long-term actions, we animate the pose templates by adding temporal constraints in a Hidden Markov Model (HMM), and 2) for contextual actions, we treat contextual objects as additional parts of the pose templates and add constraints that encode spatial correlations between parts. To train the model, we manually annotate part locations on several keyframes of each video and cluster them into pose templates using EM. This leaves the unknown parameters for our learning algorithm in two groups: 1) latent variables for the unannotated frames including pose-IDs and part locations, 2) model parameters shared by all training samples such as weights for HOG and HOF features, canonical part locations of each pose, coefficients penalizing pose-transition and part-deformation. To learn these parameters, we introduce a semi-supervised structural SVM algorithm that iterates between two steps: 1) learning (updating) model parameters using labeled data by solving a structural SVM optimization, and 2) imputing missing variables (i.e., detecting actions on unlabeled frames) with parameters learned from the previous step and progressively accepting high-score frames as newly labeled examples. This algorithm belongs to a family of optimization methods known as the Concave-Convex Procedure (CCCP) that converge to a local optimal solution. The inference algorithm consists of two components: 1) Detecting top candidates for the pose templates, and 2) computing the sequence of pose templates. Both are done by dynamic programming or, more precisely, beam search. In experiments, we demonstrate that this method is capable of discovering salient poses of actions as well as interactions with contextual objects. We test our method on several public action data sets and a challenging outdoor contextual action data set collected by ourselves. The results show that our model achieves comparable or better performance compared to state-of-the-art methods. PMID:24457502

  13. Relationship between Phylogenetic Groups, Genotypic Clusters, and Virulence Gene Profiles of Escherichia coli Strains from Diverse Human and Animal Sources?

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Satoshi; Meyer, Katriya P.; Sadowsky, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains in water may originate from various sources, including humans, farm and wild animals, waterfowl, and pets. However, potential human health hazards associated with E. coli strains present in various animal hosts are not well known. In this study, E. coli strains from diverse human and animal sources in Minnesota and western Wisconsin were analyzed for the presence of genes coding for virulence factors by using multiplex PCR and biochemical reactions. Of the 1,531 isolates examined, 31 (2%) were found to be Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains. The majority of these strains, which were initially isolated from the ruminants sheep, goats, and deer, carried the stx1c and/or stx2d, ehxA, and saa genes and belonged to E. coli phylogenetic group B1, indicating that they most likely do not cause severe human diseases. All the STEC strains, however, lacked eae. In contrast, 26 (1.7%) of the E. coli isolates examined were found to be potential enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strains and consisted of several intimin subtypes that were distributed among various human and animal hosts. The EPEC strains belonged to all four phylogenetic groups examined, suggesting that EPEC strains were relatively widespread in terms of host animals and genetic background. Atypical EPEC strains, which carried an EPEC adherence factor plasmid, were identified among E. coli strains from humans and deer. DNA fingerprint analyses, done using the horizontal, fluorophore-enhanced repetitive-element, palindromic PCR technique, indicated that the STEC, potential EPEC, and non-STEC ehxA-positive E. coli strains were genotypically distinct and clustered independently. However, some of the potential EPEC isolates were genotypically indistinguishable from nonpathogenic E. coli strains. Our results revealed that potential human health hazards associated with pathogenic E. coli strains varied among the animal hosts that we examined and that some animal species may harbor a greater number of potential pathogenic strains than other animal species. PMID:17644637

  14. Humans mimicking animals: A cortical hierarchy for human vocal communication sounds

    PubMed Central

    Talkington, William J.; Rapuano, Kristina M.; Hitt, Laura; Frum, Chris A.; Lewis, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous species possess cortical regions that are most sensitive to vocalizations produced by their own kind (conspecifics). In humans, the superior temporal sulci (STS) putatively represent homologous voice-sensitive areas of cortex. However, STS regions have recently been reported to represent auditory experience or expertise in general rather than showing exclusive sensitivity to human vocalizations per se. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a unique non-stereotypical category of complex human non-verbal vocalizations human-mimicked versions of animal vocalizations we found a cortical hierarchy in humans optimized for processing meaningful conspecific utterances. This left-lateralized hierarchy originated near primary auditory cortices and progressed into traditional speech-sensitive areas. These results suggest that the cortical regions supporting vocalization perception are initially organized by sensitivity to the human vocal tract in stages prior to the STS. Additionally, these findings have implications for the developmental time course of conspecific vocalization processing in humans as well as its evolutionary origins. PMID:22674283

  15. Baylisascariosis--infections of animals and humans with 'unusual' roundworms.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Christian

    2013-04-15

    The nematode genus Baylisascaris (order Ascaridida, superfamily Ascaridoidea) contains nine relatively host-specific, parasite species of carnivores, omnivores, herbivores, carnivorous marsupials or rodents. They have a facultative heteroxenous life cycle, at least under experimental conditions. Eggs passed in faeces embryonate in the environment and the second-stage larva infective for both definitive and intermediate hosts develops. In intermediate hosts larvae migrate extensively through tissues, where they grow and moult to the third-stage, causing extensive damage. All Baylisascaris spp. are considered a potential cause of visceral, ocular and/or neural larval migrans in mammals including humans and in birds. This paper summarises our current knowledge on the prevalence, biology, pathogenicity and zoonotic significance of three Baylisascaris species: B. transfuga, B. schroederi and B. procyonis which have as definitive hosts bears, giant pandas and raccoons (occasionally dogs), respectively. PMID:23339846

  16. An expanded One Health model: integrating social science and One Health to inform study of the human-animal interface.

    PubMed

    Woldehanna, Sara; Zimicki, Susan

    2015-03-01

    Zoonotic disease emergence is not a purely biological process mediated only by ecologic factors; opportunities for transmission of zoonoses from animals to humans also depend on how people interact with animals. While exposure is conditioned by the type of animal and the location in which interactions occur, these in turn are influenced by human activity. The activities people engage in are determined by social as well as contextual factors including gender, age, socio-economic status, occupation, social norms, settlement patterns and livelihood systems, family and community dynamics, as well as national and global influences. This paper proposes an expanded "One Health" conceptual model for human-animal exposure that accounts for social as well as epidemiologic factors. The expanded model informed a new study approach to document the extent of human exposure to animals and explore the interplay of social and environmental factors that influence risk of transmission at the individual and community level. The approach includes a formative phase using qualitative and participatory methods, and a representative, random sample survey to quantify exposure to animals in a variety of settings. The paper discusses the different factors that were considered in developing the approach, including the range of animals asked about and the parameters of exposure that are included, as well as factors to be considered in local adaptation of the generic instruments. Illustrative results from research using this approach in Lao PDR are presented to demonstrate the effect of social factors on how people interact with animals. We believe that the expanded model can be similarly operationalized to explore the interactions of other social and policy-level determinants that may influence transmission of zoonoses. PMID:25464873

  17. Characterizing interspecies uncertainty using data from studies of anti-neoplastic agents in animals and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Paul S. Keenan, Russell E.; Swartout, Jeffrey C.

    2008-11-15

    For most chemicals, the Reference Dose (RfD) is based on data from animal testing. The uncertainty introduced by the use of animal models has been termed interspecies uncertainty. The magnitude of the differences between the toxicity of a chemical in humans and test animals and its uncertainty can be investigated by evaluating the inter-chemical variation in the ratios of the doses associated with similar toxicological endpoints in test animals and humans. This study performs such an evaluation on a data set of 64 anti-neoplastic drugs. The data set provides matched responses in humans and four species of test animals: mice, rats, monkeys, and dogs. While the data have a number of limitations, the data show that when the drugs are evaluated on a body weight basis: 1) toxicity generally increases with a species' body weight; however, humans are not always more sensitive than test animals; 2) the animal to human dose ratios were less than 10 for most, but not all, drugs; 3) the current practice of using data from multiple species when setting RfDs lowers the probability of having a large value for the ratio. These findings provide insight into inter-chemical variation in animal to human extrapolations and suggest the need for additional collection and analysis of matched toxicity data in humans and test animals.

  18. ANIMAL PATHOGENS THAT MAY CAUSE HUMAN DISEASE THAT ORIGINATE FROM FARM OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recent increase in concentrated animal feeding operations in the United States has caused renewed concern regarding the infectious diseases that may be passed from farm animals to humans via the environment. It is also known that more than 20 recent epidemics among humans cou...

  19. Ethanol Consumption: How Should We Measure It? Achieving Consilience between Human and Animal Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Heilig, Markus; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Stephens, David N.; Duka, Taheodora; OMalley, Stephanie S.

    2010-01-01

    There is only modest overlap in the most common alcohol consumption phenotypes measured in animal studies and those typically studied in humans. To address this issue, we identified a number of alcohol consumption phenotypes of importance to the field that have potential for consilience between human and animal models. These phenotypes can be broken down into three categories: 1) abstinence/the decision to drink or abstain; 2) the actual amount of alcohol consumed and 3) heavy drinking. A number of suggestions for human and animal researchers are made in order to address these phenotypes and enhance consilience. Laboratory studies of the decision to drink or abstain are needed in both human and animal research. In human laboratory studies, heavy or binge drinking that meets cut-offs used in epidemiological and clinical trials should be reported. Greater attention to patterns of drinking over time is needed in both animal and human studies. Individual differences pertaining to all consumption phenotypes should be addressed in animal research. Lastly, improved biomarkers need to be developed in future research for use with both humans and animals. Greater precision in estimating blood alcohol levels in the field together with consistent measurement of breath/blood alcohol levels in human laboratory and animal studies provides one means of achieving greater consilience of alcohol consumption phenotypes. PMID:20148775

  20. Dietary boron: Progress in establishing essential roles in human and animal physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review summarizes the progress made in establishing essential roles for boron in human and animal physiology and assesses that progress in view of criteria for essentiality of elements. The evidence to date suggests that humans and at least some higher animals may use boron to support normal b...

  1. COMPARING BEHAVIORAL DOSE-EFFECT CURVES FOR HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS ACUTELY EXPOSED TO TOLUENE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility of laboratory animal data in toxicology depends upon the ability to generalize the results quantitatively to humans. To compare the acute behavioral effects of inhaled toluene in humans to those in animals, dose-effect curves were fitted by meta-analysis of published...

  2. Status and future developments in plant iron for animal and human nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant foods play a critical role in providing dietary iron to humans and other animals. Much of the world's human population subsists on diets that are predominantly vegetarian, while for those who eat limited to excessive amounts of animal food products, most of these foods come from livestock who...

  3. DETECTION OF INTRINSIC VANCOMYCIN RESISTANT ENTEROCOCCI IN ANIMAL AND HUMAN FECES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A survey was conducted to determine the occurrence of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in animal and human fecal samples. Fecal samples from 14 animal species and humans were analyzed by quantitative culture for enterococci and VRE. Over 800 VRE isolates were characterize...

  4. Quantifying light-dependent circadian disruption in humans and animal models

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Mark S.; Figueiro, Mariana G.

    2016-01-01

    Although circadian disruption is an accepted term, little has been done to develop methods to quantify the degree of disruption or entrainment individual organisms actually exhibit in the field. A variety of behavioral, physiological and hormonal responses vary in amplitude over a 24-hour period and the degree to which these circadian rhythms are synchronized to the daily light-dark cycle can be quantified with a technique known as phasor analysis. Several studies have been carried out using phasor analysis in an attempt to measure circadian disruption exhibited by animals and by humans. To perform these studies, species-specific light measurement and light delivery technologies had to be developed based upon a fundamental understanding of circadian phototransduction mechanisms in the different species. When both nocturnal rodents and diurnal humans experienced different species-specific light-dark shift schedules, they showed, based upon phasor analysis of the light-dark and activity-rest patterns, similar levels of light-dependent circadian disruption. Indeed, both rodents and humans show monotonically increasing and quantitatively similar levels of light-dependent circadian disruption with increasing shift-nights per week. Thus, phasor analysis provides a method for quantifying circadian disruption in the field and in the laboratory as well as a bridge between ecological measurements of circadian entrainment in humans and parametric studies of circadian disruption in animal models, including nocturnal rodents. PMID:25229212

  5. Combining genome-wide data from humans and animal models of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Berisha, Stela Z.; Smith, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of review Comparative genomics allows researchers to combine genome wide association data from humans with studies in animal models in order to assist in the identification of the genes and the genetic variants that modify susceptibility to dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Recent findings Association and linkage studies in human and rodent species have been successful in identifying genetic loci associated with complex traits, but have been less robust in identifying and validating the responsible gene and/or genetic variants. Recent technological advancements have assisted in the development of comparative genomic approaches, which rely on the combination of human and rodent datasets and bioinformatics tools, followed by the narrowing of concordant loci and improved identification of candidate genes and genetic variants. Additionally, candidate genes and genetic variants identified by these methods have been further validated and functionally investigated in animal models, a process that is not feasible in humans. Summary Comparative genomic approaches have lead to the identification and validation of several new genes, including a few not previously implicated, as modifiers of plasma lipid levels and atherosclerosis, yielding new insights into the biological mechanisms of these complex traits. PMID:21178769

  6. Animal Models to Study Placental Development and Function throughout Normal and Dysfunctional Human Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Grigsby, Peta L

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities of placental development and function are known to underlie many pathologies of pregnancy, including spontaneous preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, and preeclampsia. A growing body of evidence also underscores the importance of placental dysfunction in the lifelong health of both mother and offspring. However, our knowledge regarding placental structure and function throughout pregnancy remains limited. Understanding the temporal growth and functionality of the human placenta throughout the entirety of gestation is important if we are to gain a better understanding of placental dysfunction. The utilization of new technologies and imaging techniques that could enable safe monitoring of placental growth and function in vivo has become a major focus area for the National Institutes of Child Health and Human Development, as evident by the establishment of the "Human Placenta Project." Many of the objectives of the Human Placenta Project will necessitate preclinical studies and testing in appropriately designed animal models that can be readily translated to the clinical setting. This review will describe the advantages and limitations of relevant animals such as the guinea pig, sheep, and nonhuman primate models that have been used to study the role of the placenta in fetal growth disorders, preeclampsia, or other maternal diseases during pregnancy. PMID:26752715

  7. An animal model to study human muscular diseases involving mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, Hlne; Warren, Blair E

    2012-08-01

    Mitochondria are producing most of the energy needed for many cellular functions by a process named oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). It is now well recognized that mitochondrial dysfunctions are involved in several pathologies or degenerative processes, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and aging. Animal models are currently used to try to understand the role of mitochondria in human diseases but a major problem is that mitochondria from different species and tissues are variable in terms of regulation. Analysis of mitochondrial function in three species of planarian flatworms (Tricladia, Platyhelminthes) shows that they share a very rare characteristic with human mitochondria: a strong control of oxidative phosphorylation by the phosphorylation system. The ratio of coupled OXPHOS over maximal electron transport capacity after uncoupling (electron transport system; ETS) well below 1.0 indicates that the phosphorylation system is limiting the rate of OXPHOS. The OXPHOS/ETS ratios are 0.62??0.06 in Dugesia tigrina, 0.63??0.05 in D. dorotocephala and 0.62??0.05 in Procotyla fluviatilis, comparable to the value measured in human muscles. To our knowledge, no other animal model displays this peculiarity. This new model offers a venue in which to test the phosphorylation system as a potential therapeutic control point within humans. PMID:22706663

  8. Ochratoxins in Feed, a Risk for Animal and Human Health: Control Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Denli, Muzaffer; Perez, Jose F.

    2010-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been shown to be a potent nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, and teratogenic compound. In farm animals, the intake of feed contaminated with OTA affects animal health and productivity, and may result in the presence of OTA in the animal products. Strategies for the control of OTA in food products require early identification and elimination of contaminated commodities from the food chain. However, current analytical protocols may fail to identify contaminated products, especially in animal feed. The present paper discusses the impact of OTA on human and animal health, with special emphasis on the potential risks of OTA residue in animal products, and control strategies applied in the feed industry. PMID:22069626

  9. Are Children with Autism More Responsive to Animated Characters? A Study of Interactions with Humans and Human-Controlled Avatars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Elizabeth J.; Williams, Diane L.; Hodgins, Jessica K.; Lehman, Jill F.

    2014-01-01

    Few direct comparisons have been made between the responsiveness of children with autism to computer-generated or animated characters and their responsiveness to humans. Twelve 4-to 8-year-old children with autism interacted with a human therapist; a human-controlled, interactive avatar in a theme park; a human actor speaking like the avatar; and…

  10. Are Children with Autism More Responsive to Animated Characters? A Study of Interactions with Humans and Human-Controlled Avatars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Elizabeth J.; Williams, Diane L.; Hodgins, Jessica K.; Lehman, Jill F.

    2014-01-01

    Few direct comparisons have been made between the responsiveness of children with autism to computer-generated or animated characters and their responsiveness to humans. Twelve 4-to 8-year-old children with autism interacted with a human therapist; a human-controlled, interactive avatar in a theme park; a human actor speaking like the avatar; and

  11. Domestic pigs as potential reservoirs of human and animal trypanosomiasis in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pig keeping is becoming increasingly common across sub-Saharan Africa. Domestic pigs from the Arusha region of northern Tanzania were screened for trypanosomes using PCR-based methods to examine the role of pigs as a reservoir of human and animal trypanosomiasis. Methods A total of 168 blood samples were obtained from domestic pigs opportunistically sampled across four districts in Tanzania (Babati, Mbulu, Arumeru and Dodoma) during December 2004. A suite of PCR-based methods was used to identify the species and sub-species of trypanosomes including: Internally Transcribed Sequence to identify multiple species; species specific PCR to identify T. brucei s. l. and T. godfreyi and a multiplex PCR reaction to distinguish T. b. rhodesiense from T. brucei s. l. Results Of the 168 domestic pigs screened for animal and human infective trypanosome DNA, 28 (16.7%) were infected with one or more species of trypanosome; these included: six pigs infected with Trypanosoma vivax (3.6%); three with Trypanosoma simiae (1.8%); two with Trypanosoma congolense (Forest) (1%) and four with Trypanosoma godfreyi (2.4%). Nineteen pigs were infected with Trypanosoma brucei s. l. (10.1%) of which eight were identified as carrying the human infective sub-species Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (4.8%). Conclusion These results show that in Tanzania domestic pigs may act as a significant reservoir for animal trypanosomiasis including the cattle pathogens T. vivax and T. congolense, the pig pathogen T. simiae, and provide a significant reservoir for T. b. rhodesiense, the causative agent of acute Rhodesian sleeping sickness. PMID:24499540

  12. The Mouse Who Couldnt Stop Washing: Pathologic Grooming in Animals and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Feusner, Jamie; Hembacher, Emily; Phillips, Katharine A.

    2010-01-01

    The basic science literature is replete with descriptions of naturally occurring or experimentally induced pathological grooming behaviors in animals, which are widely considered animal models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). These animal models rely largely on observed similarities between animal behaviors and human OCD behaviors, and on studies of animal pathological grooming disorders that respond to serotonin enhancing drugs. However, current limitations in assessment of complex cognition and affect in animals precludes the fields ability to match the driving primary processes behind observable phenomenology in animal OCD with human behavioral disorders. We propose that excessive grooming behaviors in animals may eventually prove to be equally, or possibly more relevant to, other conditions in humans that involve pathological grooming or grooming-like behaviors, such as trichotillomania, body dysmorphic disorder, olfactory reference syndrome, compulsive skin-picking, and onychophagia. Research is needed to better understand pathological grooming behaviors in both humans and animals, as animal models have the potential to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms and inform the treatment of these psychiatric conditions in humans. PMID:19890232

  13. A computer-based rotation and activity monitor for non-human primates and other animals.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, R H; Dubach, M D

    1988-07-01

    Because a unilateral lesion of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system has been found to induce rotational behavior in primates, as well as in rodents, we have designed and constructed a rotation monitoring device suitable for non-human primates. Animals are connected via a tether to a continuous-rotation potentiometer which provides a position-dependent output voltage. This voltage is interfaced via an analog-to-digital converter to an IBM PC. The rotation program then calculates the direction and amount of any turning, as well as total activity, and this data is recorded on diskfile for later analysis. Because the system can operate around the clock unattended, data can be collected over long experimental periods, and detailed circadian analysis of rotation and total activity can be made. The design is also applicable to smaller animals, including rodents, and has many advantages over previously available rotometer designs. PMID:3138505

  14. Testing human biologicals in animal host resistance models.

    PubMed

    Burleson, Gary R; Burleson, Florence G

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of immunotoxicity testing is to obtain data that is meaningful for safety assessment. Host resistance assays are the best measure of a toxicant's effect on the overall ability to mount an effective immune response and protect the host from infectious disease. An outline is presented for immunotoxicological evaluation using host resistance assays. The influenza virus host resistance model is useful to evaluate the overall health of the immune system and is one of the most thoroughly characterized host resistance models. Viral clearance requires all aspects of the immune system to work together and is the ultimate measure of the health of the immune system in this model. Mechanistic immune functions may be included while measuring viral clearance and include: cytokines, macrophage activity, natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity, and influenza-specific IgM and IgG. Measurement of these immunological functions provides an evaluation of innate immunity (macrophage or NK activity), an evaluation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) (CTL activity), and an evaluation of humoral-mediated immunity (HMI) (influenza-specific IgM or IgG). Measurement of influenza-specific IgM or IgG also provides a measurement of T-dependent antibody response (TDAR) since influenza is a T-dependent antigen. There are several targeted host resistance models that may be used to answer specific questions. Should a defect in neutrophil and/or macrophage function be suspected, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Listeria monocytogenes host resistance models are useful. Anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals or therapeutics for rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn's disease that target TNFalpha may also be evaluated for immunotoxicity using the S. pneumoniae intranasal host resistance assay. Marginal zone B (MZB) cells are required for production of antibody to T-independent antigens such as the polysaccharide capsule of the encapsulated bacteria that are so prominent in causing blood-borne infections and pneumonia. Intravenous infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae, an encapsulated bacterium, results in a blood-borne infection that requires MZB cells for clearance. The systemic S. pneumoniae host resistance assay evaluates whether a therapeutic test article exerts immunotoxicity on MZB cells and measures the T-independent antibody response (TIAR). Suppression of CMI or in some cases HMI may result in reactivation of latent virus that may result in a fatal disease such as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). The murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) reactivation model may be used to evaluate a pharmaceutical agent to determine if suppression of CMI or HMI results in reactivation of latent virus. Candida albicans is another host resistance model to test potential immunotoxicity. Host resistance assays have been the ultimate measure of immunotoxicity testing for environmental chemicals and pharmaceutical small molecules. Human biologicals are now an important component of the drug development armamentarium for biotech and pharmaceutical companies. Many human biologicals are fusions of IgG, and/or target immune mediators, immunological receptors, adhesion molecules, and/or are indicated for diseases that have immune components. It is therefore necessary to thoroughly evaluate human biological therapeutics for immunotoxicity. Numerous biologicals that are pharmacologically active in rodents can be evaluated using well-characterized rodent host resistance assays. However, biologicals not active in rodents may use surrogate biologicals for testing in rodent host resistance assays, or may use host resistance assays in genetically engineered mice that mimic the effect of the human biological pharmacological agent. PMID:18382855

  15. Adolescent sleep patterns in humans and laboratory animals

    PubMed Central

    Hagenauer, Megan Hastings; Lee, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    One of the defining characteristics of adolescence in humans is a large shift in the timing and structure of sleep. Some of these changes are easily observable at the behavioral level, such as a shift in sleep patterns from a relatively morning to a relatively evening chronotype. However, there are equally large changes in the underlying architecture of sleep, including a > 60% decrease in slow brain wave activity, which may reflect cortical pruning. In this review we examine the developmental forces driving adolescent sleep patterns using a cross-species comparison. We find that behavioral and physiological sleep parameters change during adolescence in non-human mammalian species, ranging from primates to rodents, in a manner that is often hormone-dependent. However, the overt appearance of these changes is species-specific, with polyphasic sleepers, such as rodents, showing a phase-advance in sleep timing and consolidation of daily sleep/wake rhythms. Using the classic two-process model of sleep regulation, we demonstrate via a series of simulations that many of the species-specific characteristics of adolescent sleep patterns can be explained by a universal decrease in the build-up and dissipation of sleep pressure. Moreover, and counterintuitively, we find that these changes do not necessitate a large decrease in overall sleep need, fitting the adolescent sleep literature. We compare these results to our previous review detailing evidence for adolescent changes in the regulation of sleep by the circadian timekeeping system (Hagenauer and Lee, 2012), and suggest that both processes may be responsible for adolescent sleep patterns. PMID:23998671

  16. Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why it Matters for Global Capitalism

    SciTech Connect

    Shiller, Robert J.

    2010-03-02

    In his lecture, Shiller will discuss the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. Winner of the getAbstract International Book Award and the 2009 TIAA-CREF Paul A. Samuelson Award for Outstanding Scholarly Writing on Lifelong Financial Security, the book, which has the same title as Shiller's lecture, discusses how "animal spirits," or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today's global financial crisis. John Maynard Keynes coined the phrase "animal spirits" to describe the changing psychology that led to the Great Depression and the recovery from it. Like Keynes, Shiller and Akerlof believe that government intervention is necessary to overcome the adverse effects on the economy brought about by unruly and irrational human emotions. In his talk, Shiller will explain how "animal spirits" lead to adverse economic effects, and he will outline his insights on how the global economy can recover from its recent setbacks.

  17. Characterization of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from human and animal samples in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Bendary, M M; Solyman, S M; Azab, M M; Mahmoud, N F; Hanora, A M

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) has been one of the most problematic pathogens. Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a major concern for both human and animal. Antibiotic resistance genes dissemination might be possible between human and animal bacteria. The aim of this study is to show phenotypic and genotypic diversity of human and animal MRSA isolates. Antibiogram typing and biofilm production were used as a primary phenotypic typing tool for the characterization of (40) animal and (38) human MRSA isolates. Genetic typing based on sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and virulence gene profiles were done. Antimicrobial resistance profiles of the animal isolates showed little evidence of widespread of resistance, although this was seen in many human isolates. The biofilm production was detected in higher percentage among animal isolates. Based on the genetic typing and multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index, the majority of animal isolates clustered into lineages that were not found in human isolates. Animal and human MRSA isolates showed diversity in antibiotic resistance and virulence gene profiles may be due to host adaptation or chances for contamination between the two hosts were not present in our study. PMID:26950458

  18. Using animal models to understand cancer pain in humans.

    PubMed

    Currie, Gillian L; Sena, Emily S; Fallon, Marie T; Macleod, Malcolm R; Colvin, Lesley A

    2014-06-01

    Cancer pain is not a single entity but a complex pain state involving different pain syndromes, with inflammatory, neuropathic, compressive, and ischaemic mechanisms. Current therapeutic regimens are based largely on opioids, although opioid treatment can lead to many side effects. Studies using animal models of cancer pain are aimed at understanding cancer pain and developing novel therapies. The most frequently reported models are of bone cancer pain, predominantly modelling pain associated with tumour growth within bone marrow. Here we summarise recent findings from studies using animal models of cancer pain and discuss the methodological quality of these studies. PMID:24760492

  19. Molecular Detection and Identification of Zoonotic Microsporidia Spore in Fecal Samples of Some Animals with Close-Contact to Human

    PubMed Central

    ASKARI, Zeinab; MIRJALALI, Hamed; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; ZAREI, Zabih; SHOJAEI, Saeideh; REZAEIAN, Tahereh; REZAEIAN, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Microsporidia species are obligatory intracellular agents that can infect all major animal groups including mammals, birds, fishes and insects. Whereas worldwide human infection reports are increasing, the cognition of sources of infection particularly zoonotic transmission could be helpful. We aimed to detect zoonotic microsporidia spore in fecal samples from some animals with close – contact to human. Methods: Overall, 142 fecal samples were collected from animals with closed-contact to human, during 2012-2013. Trichrome – blue staining were performed and DNA was then extracted from samples, identified positive, microscopically. Nested PCR was also carried out with primers targeting SSU rRNA gene and PCR products were sequenced. Results: From 142 stool samples, microsporidia spores have been observed microscopically in 15 (10.56%) samples. En. cuniculi was found in the faces of 3 (15%) small white mice and 1 (10%) laboratory rabbits(totally 2.81%). Moreover, E. bieneusi was detected in 3 (10%) samples of sheep, 2 (5.12%) cattle, 1 (10%) rabbit, 3 (11.53%) cats and 2 (11.76%) ownership dogs (totally 7.74%). Phylogenetic analysis showed interesting data. This is the first study in Iran, which identified E. bieneusi and En. Cuniculi in fecal samples of laboratory animals with close – contact to human as well as domesticated animal and analyzed them in phylogenetic tree. Conclusion: E. bieneusi is the most prevalent microsporidia species in animals. Our results can also alert us about potentially zoonotic transmission of microsporidiosis. PMID:26622293

  20. Novel Bacteroides host strains for detection of human- and animal-specific bacteriophages in water.

    PubMed

    Wicki, Melanie; Auckenthaler, Adrian; Felleisen, Richard; Tanner, Marcel; Baumgartner, Andreas

    2011-03-01

    Bacteriophages active against specific Bacteroides host strains were shown to be suitable for detection of human faecal pollution. However, the practical application of this finding is limited because some specific host strains were restricted to certain geographic regions. In this study, novel Bacteroides host strains were isolated that discriminate human and animal faecal pollution in Switzerland. Two strains specific for bacteriophages present in human faecal contamination and three strains specific for bacteriophages indicating animal faecal contamination were evaluated. Bacteriophages infecting human strains were exclusively found in human wastewater, whereas animal strains detected bacteriophages only in animal waste. The newly isolated host strains could be used to determine the source of surface and spring water faecal contamination in field situations. Applying the newly isolated host Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron ARABA 84 for detection of bacteriophages allowed the detection of human faecal contamination in spring water. PMID:21301124

  1. Continuing Mycobacterium bovis transmission from animals to humans in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Baker, M G; Lopez, L D; Cannon, M C; De Lisle, G W; Collins, D M

    2006-10-01

    New Zealand has a large reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis infection in wild and farmed animals. This study aimed to assess the extent of human infection with this organism and the potential contribution of these animal sources. Combined epidemiological and laboratory investigation of human tuberculosis cases over the period 1995-2002 showed that M. bovis accounted for 2.7% (54/1997) of laboratory-confirmed human tuberculosis cases, a rate of 0.2/100,000 population. M. bovis isolates from humans (23) were typed using restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) and compared with isolates from wild and domestic animals (2600). Fourteen (61%) of the human isolates had REA patterns that were identical to patterns for isolates from cattle, deer, possums, ferrets, pigs, and occasionally cats. These results suggest a low level of ongoing M. bovis transmission from animal reservoirs to humans in New Zealand. PMID:16569268

  2. Large animal induced pluripotent stem cells as pre-clinical models for studying human disease.

    PubMed

    Plews, Jordan R; Gu, Mingxia; Longaker, Michael T; Wu, Joseph C

    2012-06-01

    The path to induced pluripotency Discovery of a pan-species pluripotency network Animal iPSCs and disease modelling Issues with large animal iPSCs Conclusions The derivation of human embryonic stem cells and subsequently human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has energized regenerative medicine research and enabled seemingly limitless applications. Although small animal models, such as mouse models, have played an important role in the progression of the field, typically, they are poor representations of the human disease phenotype. As an alternative, large animal models should be explored as a potentially better approach for clinical translation of cellular therapies. However, only fragmented information regarding the derivation, characterization and clinical usefulness of pluripotent large animal cells is currently available. Here, we briefly review the latest advances regarding the derivation and use of large animal iPSCs. PMID:22212700

  3. The Nuremberg Code subverts human health and safety by requiring animal modeling

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The requirement that animals be used in research and testing in order to protect humans was formalized in the Nuremberg Code and subsequent national and international laws, codes, and declarations. Discussion We review the history of these requirements and contrast what was known via science about animal models then with what is known now. We further analyze the predictive value of animal models when used as test subjects for human response to drugs and disease. We explore the use of animals for models in toxicity testing as an example of the problem with using animal models. Summary We conclude that the requirements for animal testing found in the Nuremberg Code were based on scientifically outdated principles, compromised by people with a vested interest in animal experimentation, serve no useful function, increase the cost of drug development, and prevent otherwise safe and efficacious drugs and therapies from being implemented. PMID:22769234

  4. Novel family GH3 ?-glucosidases or ?-xylosidases of unknown function found in various animal groups, including birds and reptiles.

    PubMed

    Gabriko, Marek; Jane?ek, tefan

    2015-05-18

    Proteins from the glycoside hydrolase family 3 (GH3) are important bacterial, fungal and plant enzymes involved in cell wall remodeling, energy metabolism and pathogen defense but no animal GH3 proteins have been reported so far. In presented work we use the in silico approach to describe putative GH3 proteins of animals. Based on tertiary structure modeling, domain organization and transcriptomics data analysis, presence of catalytic and substrate binding residues and evolutionary relationship inference, we assume that there is a monophyletic group of GH3 enzymes (probably ?-xylosidases) found in various animal taxa with possible role in development. PMID:25841058

  5. The SEURAT-1 Approach towards Animal Free Human Safety Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    SEURAT-1 is a European public-private research consortium that is working towards animal-free testing of chemical compounds and the highest level of consumer protection. A research strategy was formulated based on the guiding principle to adopt a toxicological mode-of-action fram...

  6. Animal models to study neonatal nutrition in humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of neonatal nutrition on the health status of the newborn and incidence of disease in later life is a topic of intense interest. Animal models are an invaluable tool to identify mechanisms that mediate the effect of nutrition on neonatal development and metabolic function. This review hig...

  7. Contributions and complexities from the use of in vivo animal models to improve understanding of human neuroimaging signals

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Many of the major advances in our understanding of how functional brain imaging signals relate to neuronal activity over the previous two decades have arisen from physiological research studies involving experimental animal models. This approach has been successful partly because it provides opportunities to measure both the hemodynamic changes that underpin many human functional brain imaging techniques and the neuronal activity about which we wish to make inferences. Although research into the coupling of neuronal and hemodynamic responses using animal models has provided a general validation of the correspondence of neuroimaging signals to specific types of neuronal activity, it is also highlighting the key complexities and uncertainties in estimating neural signals from hemodynamic markers. This review will detail how research in animal models is contributing to our rapidly evolving understanding of what human neuroimaging techniques tell us about neuronal activity. It will highlight emerging issues in the interpretation of neuroimaging data that arise from in vivo research studies, for example spatial and temporal constraints to neuroimaging signal interpretation, or the effects of disease and modulatory neurotransmitters upon neurovascular coupling. We will also give critical consideration to the limitations and possible complexities of translating data acquired in the typical animals models used in this area to the arena of human fMRI. These include the commonplace use of anesthesia in animal research studies and the fact that many neuropsychological questions that are being actively explored in humans have limited homologs within current animal models for neuroimaging research. Finally we will highlighting approaches, both in experimental animals models (e.g. imaging in conscious, behaving animals) and human studies (e.g. combined fMRI-EEG), that mitigate against these challenges. PMID:25191214

  8. Microsporidia Detection and Genotyping Study of Human Pathogenic E. bieneusi in Animals from Spain

    PubMed Central

    Galvn-Daz, Ana Luz; Magnet, Angela; Fenoy, Soledad; Henriques-Gil, Nuno; Haro, Mara; Gordo, Francisco Ponce; Mir, Guadalupe; del guila, Carmen; Izquierdo, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Microsporidia are ubiquitous parasites infecting all animal phyla and we present evidence that supports their zoonotic potential. Fecal samples taken from domestic (cats and dogs), farm (pigs, rabbits and ostriches) and wild animals (foxes) from different provinces of Spain were evaluated for microsporidia infection by light microscopy and PCR. After Microsporidia species identification, E. bieneusi genotypes were additionally studied by sequence analysis of the ITS region. Eighty-five samples out of 159 exhibited structures that were compatible with microsporidia spores by Webe?s stain with 37 of them being confirmed by PCR. Microsporidia species identified included E. bieneusi, E. intestinalis and A. algerae. We report the first diagnosis of E. intestinalis and E. bieneusi in ostriches and A. algerae in pigs. We also provide new information on the molecular characterization of E. bieneusi isolates both in rabbits and ostriches. All of the E. bieneusi genotypes identified belonged to the zoonotic group of genotypes (Group I) including genotypes A (dogs), I (pigs), D (rabbits and foxes) and type IV (ostriches). Our results demonstrate that microsporidia are present in domestic, farm and wild animals in Spain, corroborating their potential role as a source of human infection and environmental contamination. PMID:24651457

  9. HOMOLOGOUS MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The importance of including neurodevelopmental endpoints in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive fucntion in human infants that also has a parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for largescale studies. Such a ho...

  10. Chlorella infection in a sheep in Mexico and minireview of published reports from humans and domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Ramrez-Romero, R; Rodrguez-Tovar, L E; Nevrez-Garza, A M; Lpez, A

    2010-06-01

    Algal infections are rare in humans and domestic animals. Prototheca spp. and Chlorella spp. are among the most commonly reported. Herein, we present a brief review on Chlorella spp. infections and related pathologies and discuss this information including a natural case in a sheep in Mexico with a disseminated form of the disease. PMID:20165921

  11. 76 FR 29767 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... Food/ Feed Facilities; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... ] manufacture, process, pack, or hold human food or animal food/feed (including pet food). DATES: Submit either... to assist the food and feed industries in complying with the preventive controls regulations,...

  12. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities, and Bibliography. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.; Long, Alison T.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population matters. The document describes 15 class sessions which integrate information for sociology, anthropology, psychology, biology, animal behavior, and education. Topics include the history of human…

  13. Thinking Place: Animating the Indigenous Humanities in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battiste, Marie; Bell, Lynne; Findlay, Isobel M.; Findlay, Len; Henderson, James Youngblood

    2005-01-01

    Illustrating contexts for and voices of the Indigenous humanities, this essay aims to clarify what the Indigenous humanities can mean for reclaiming education as Indigenous knowledges and pedagogies. After interrogating the visual representation of education and place in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, the essay turns to media constructions of

  14. Early Differentiation within the Animate Domain: Are Humans Something Special?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauen, Sabina

    2000-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether preverbal infants distinguish between humans and mammals. Study 1 found that 7-, 9-, and 11-month-olds distinguished humans from mammals in an object-examination task. Study 2 found that 7-month-olds but not 5-month-olds showed evidence for category discrimination with the 2-dimensional color photos of toy

  15. Colorectal carcinogenesis: Review of human and experimental animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Takuji

    2009-01-01

    This review gives a comprehensive overview of cancer development and links it to the current understanding of tumorigenesis and malignant progression in colorectal cancer. The focus is on human and murine colorectal carcinogenesis and the histogenesis of this malignant disorder. A summary of a model of colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis (an AOM/DSS model) will also be presented. The earliest phases of colorectal oncogenesis occur in the normal mucosa, with a disorder of cell replication. The large majority of colorectal malignancies develop from an adenomatous polyp (adenoma). These can be defined as well-demarcated masses of epithelial dysplasia, with uncontrolled crypt cell proliferation. When neoplastic cells pass through the muscularis mucosa and infiltrate the submucosa, they are malignant. Carcinomas usually originate from pre-existing adenomas, but this does not imply that all polyps undergo malignant changes and does not exclude de novo oncogenesis. Besides adenomas, there are other types of pre-neoplasia, which include hyperplastic polyps, serrated adenomas, flat adenomas and dysplasia that occurs in the inflamed colon in associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Colorectal neoplasms cover a wide range of pre-malignant and malignant lesions, many of which can easily be removed during endoscopy if they are small. Colorectal neoplasms and/or pre-neoplasms can be prevented by interfering with the various steps of oncogenesis, which begins with uncontrolled epithelial cell replication, continues with the formation of adenomas and eventually evolves into malignancy. The knowledge described herein will help to reduce and prevent this malignancy, which is one of the most frequent neoplasms in some Western and developed countries. PMID:19332896

  16. Arsenic hazards to humans, plants, and animals from gold mining.

    PubMed

    Eisler, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    Arsenic sources to the biosphere associated with gold mining include waste soil and rocks, residual water from ore concentrations, roasting of some types of gold-containing ores to remove sulfur and sulfur oxides, and bacterially enhanced leaching. Arsenic concentrations near gold mining operations are elevated in abiotic materials and biota: maximum total arsenic concentrations measured were 560 microg/L in surface waters, 5.16 mg/L in sediment pore waters, 5.6 mg/kg DW in bird liver, 27 mg/kg DW in terrestrial grasses, 50 mg/kg DW in soils, 79 mg/kg DW in aquatic plants, 103 mg/kg DW in bird diets, 225 mg/kg DW in soft parts of bivalve molluscs, 324 mg/L in mine drainage waters, 625 mg/kg DW in aquatic insects, 7,700 mg/kg DW in sediments, and 21,000 mg/ kg DW in tailings. Single oral doses of arsenicals that were fatal to 50% of tested species ranged from 17 to 48 mg/kg BW in birds and from 2.5 to 33 mg/kg BW in mammals. Susceptible species of mammals were adversely affected at chronic doses of 1-10 mg As/kg BW or 50 mg As/kg diet. Sensitive aquatic species were damaged at water concentrations of 19-48 microg As/L, 120 mg As/kg diet, or tissue residues (in the case of freshwater fish) > 1.3 mg/kg fresh weight. Adverse effects to crops and vegetation were recorded at 3-28 mg of water-soluble As/L (equivalent to about 25-85 mg total As/kg soil) and at atmospheric concentrations > 3.9 microg As/m3. Gold miners had a number of arsenic-associated health problems, including excess mortality from cancer of the lung, stomach, and respiratory tract. Miners and schoolchildren in the vicinity of gold mining activities had elevated urine arsenic of 25.7 microg/L (range, 2.2-106.0 microg/L). Of the total population at this location, 20% showed elevated urine arsenic concentrations associated with future adverse health effects; arsenic-contaminated drinking water is the probable causative factor of elevated arsenic in their urine. Proposed arsenic criteria to protect human health and natural resources are listed and discussed. Many of these proposed criteria do not adequately protect sensitive species. PMID:14561078

  17. Arsenic hazards to humans, plants, and animals from gold mining

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eisler, R.

    2004-01-01

    Arsenic sources to the biosphere associated with gold mining include waste soil and rocks, residual water from ore concentrations, roasting of some types of gold-containing ores to remove sulfur and sulfur oxides, and bacterially-enhanced leaching. Arsenic concentrations near gold mining operations were elevated in abiotic materials and biota: maximum total arsenic concentrations measured were 560 ug/L in surface waters, 5.16 mg/L in sediment pore waters, 5.6 mg/kg dry weight (DW) in bird liver, 27 mg/kg DW in terrestrial grasses, 50 mg/kg DW in soils, 79 mg/kg DW in aquatic plants, 103 mg/kg DW in bird diets, 225 mg/kg DW in soft parts of bivalve molluscs, 324 mg/L in mine drainage waters, 625 mg/kg DW in aquatic insects, 7700 mg/kg DW in sediments, and 21,000 mg/kg DW in tailings. Single oral doses of arsenicals that were fatal to 50% of tested species ranged from 17 to 48 mg/kg body weight (BW) in birds and from 2.5 to 33 mg/kg BW in mammals. Susceptible species of mammals were adversely affected at chronic doses of 1 to 10 mg As/kg BW, or 50 mg As/kg diet. Sensitive aquatic species were damaged at water concentrations of 19 to 48 ug As/L, 120 mg As/kg diet, or tissue residues (in the case of freshwater fish) >1.3 mg/kg fresh weight. Adverse effects to crops and vegetation were recorded at 3 to 28 mg of water-soluble As/L (equivalent to about 25 to 85 mg total As/kg soil) and at atmospheric concentrations >3.9 ug As/m3. Gold miners had a number of arsenic-associated health problems including excess mortality from cancer of the lung, stomach, and respiratory tract. Miners and schoolchildren in the vicinity of gold mining activities had elevated urine arsenic of 25.7 ug/L (range 2.2-106.0 ug/L). Of the total population at this location, 20% showed elevated urine arsenic concentrations associated with future adverse health effects; arsenic-contaminated drinking water is the probable causative factor of elevated arsenic in urine. Proposed arsenic criteria to protect human health and natural resources are listed and discussed. Many of these proposed criteria do not adequately protect sensitive species.

  18. Optical methods for noninvasive determination of carotenoids in human and animal skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darvin, Maxim E.; Meinke, Martina C.; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Juergen

    2013-06-01

    Carotenoids are important substances for human skin due to their powerful antioxidant properties in reaction of neutralization of free radicals and especially reactive oxygen species, including singlet oxygen. Concentration of carotenoids in the skin could mirror the current redox status of the skin and should be investigated in vivo. Optical methods are ideally suited for determination of carotenoids in mammalian skin in vivo as they are both noninvasive and quick. Four different optical methods could be used for in vivo measurement of carotenoids in the human or animal skin: (1) resonance Raman spectroscopy; (2) Raman microscopy; (3) reflection spectroscopy; (4) skin color measurements. The advantages, shortcomings, and limitations of the above-mentioned optical methods are discussed.

  19. The functionality of the gastrointestinal microbiome in non-human animals.

    PubMed

    Hanning, Irene; Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Due to the significance of the microbiome on human health, much of the current data available regarding microbiome functionality is centered on human medicine. For agriculturally important taxa, the functionality of gastrointestinal bacteria has been studied with the primary goals of improving animal health and production performance. With respect to cattle, the digestive functions of bacteria in cattle are unarguably critical to digestion and positively impact production performance. Conversely, some research suggests that the gastrointestinal microbiome in chickens competes with the host for nutrients and produces toxins that can harm the host resulting in decreased growth efficiency. Concerning many other species including reptiles and cetaceans, some cataloging of fecal bacteria has been conducted, but the functionality within the host remains ambiguous. These taxa could provide interesting gastrointestinal insight into functionality and symbiosis considering the extreme feeding regimes (snakes), highly specialized diets (vampire bats), and living environments (polar bears), which warrants further exploration. PMID:26552373

  20. Ginseng and Diabetes: The Evidences from In Vitro, Animal and Human Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hai-Dan; Kim, Jung Tae; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Sung Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Panax ginseng exhibits pleiotropic beneficial effects on cardiovascular system, central nervous system, and immune system. In the last decade, numerous preclinical findings suggest ginseng as a promising therapeutic agent for diabetes prevention and treatment. The mechanism of ginseng and its active components is complex and is demonstrated to either modulate insulin production/secretion, glucose metabolism and uptake, or inflammatory pathway in both insulin-dependent and insulin-independent manners. However, human studies are remained obscure because of contradictory results. While more studies are warranted to further understand these contradictions, ginseng holds promise as a therapeutic agent for diabetes prevention and treatment. This review summarizes the evidences for the therapeutic potential of ginseng and ginsenosides from in vitro studies, animal studies and human clinical trials with a focus on diverse molecular targets including an AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. PMID:23717101

  1. Profiles of Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Production of Some Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Transgenic Animals12

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Pedro Antonio

    2012-01-01

    During the decade of the 1990s and the first years of the current century, our group embarked on a project to study and synthesize human milk oligosaccharides. This report describes 2 unexpected collateral observations from that endeavor. The first observation was the detection and confirmation of 2 rare neutral human milk oligosaccharides profiles that were uncovered while assessing oligosaccharide content in hundreds of samples of human milk. One of these lacked fucosylated structures altogether, and the other lacked the oligosaccharide 3-fucosyllactose [Gal?14(Fuc?13)Glc]. We used glycoconjugate probes to determine whether the unusual profiles were mirrored by fucosylation of milk glycoproteins. The results show that the lack of fucosylated oligosaccharides in these samples corresponds to the absence of equivalent fucosylated motifs in milk glycoproteins. The second finding was a shortened and distinct lactation process in transgenic rabbits expressing the human fucosyltransferase 1. During the first day of lactation, these animals expressed milk that contained both lactose and 2?-fucosylactose, but on the second day, the production of milk was severely diminished, and by the fourth day, no lactose was detected in their milk. Meanwhile, the concentration of fucosylated glycoproteins increased from the onset of lactation through its premature termination. These 2 findings may shed light on the glycobiology of milk and perhaps on mammary gland differentiation. PMID:22585925

  2. Examining the relationship between childhood animal cruelty motives and recurrent adult violent crimes toward humans.

    PubMed

    Overton, Joshua C; Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E

    2012-03-01

    Few researchers have studied the predictive ability of childhood animal cruelty motives as they are associated with later recurrent violence toward humans. Based on a sample of 180 inmates at one medium- and one maximum-security prison in a Southern state, the present study examines the relationship among several retrospectively identified motives (fun, out of anger, hate for the animal, and imitation) for childhood animal cruelty and the later commission of violent crimes (murder, rape, assault, and robbery) against humans. Almost two thirds of the inmates reported engaging in childhood animal cruelty for fun, whereas almost one fourth reported being motivated either out of anger or imitation. Only one fifth of the respondents reported they had committed acts of animal cruelty because they hated the animal. Regression analyses revealed that recurrent animal cruelty was the only statistically significant variable in the model. Respondents who had committed recurrent childhood animal cruelty were more likely to have had committed recurrent adult violence toward humans. None of the motives for committing childhood animal cruelty had any effect on later violence against humans. PMID:22007109

  3. The Effects of Opioids and Opioid Analogs on Animal and Human Endocrine Systems

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Cassidy; Van Uum, Stan H. M.; O'Dell, Laura E.; Lutfy, Kabirullah; Friedman, Theodore C.

    2010-01-01

    Opioid abuse has increased in the last decade, primarily as a result of increased access to prescription opioids. Physicians are also increasingly administering opioid analgesics for noncancer chronic pain. Thus, knowledge of the long-term consequences of opioid use/abuse has important implications for fully evaluating the clinical usefulness of opioid medications. Many studies have examined the effect of opioids on the endocrine system; however, a systematic review of the endocrine actions of opioids in both humans and animals has, to our knowledge, not been published since 1984. Thus, we reviewed the literature on the effect of opioids on the endocrine system. We included both acute and chronic effects of opioids, with the majority of the studies done on the acute effects although chronic effects are more physiologically relevant. In humans and laboratory animals, opioids generally increase GH and prolactin and decrease LH, testosterone, estradiol, and oxytocin. In humans, opioids increase TSH, whereas in rodents, TSH is decreased. In both rodents and humans, the reports of effects of opioids on arginine vasopressin and ACTH are conflicting. Opioids act preferentially at different receptor sites leading to stimulatory or inhibitory effects on hormone release. Increasing opioid abuse primarily leads to hypogonadism but may also affect the secretion of other pituitary hormones. The potential consequences of hypogonadism include decreased libido and erectile dysfunction in men, oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea in women, and bone loss or infertility in both sexes. Opioids may increase or decrease food intake, depending on the type of opioid and the duration of action. Additionally, opioids may act through the sympathetic nervous system to cause hyperglycemia and impaired insulin secretion. In this review, recent information regarding endocrine disorders among opioid abusers is presented. PMID:19903933

  4. How To Become a Top Model: Impact of Animal Experimentation on Human Salmonella Disease Research ▿

    PubMed Central

    Tsolis, Renée M.; Xavier, Mariana N.; Santos, Renato L.; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the past decades, a series of animal models have been developed to advance vaccine development, provide insights into immunity to infection, and study the pathogenesis of human Salmonella disease. The successive introduction of new animal models, each suited to interrogate previously neglected aspects of Salmonella disease, has ushered in important conceptual advances that continue to have a strong and sustained influence on the ideas driving research on Salmonella serotypes. This article reviews important milestones in the use of animal models to study human Salmonella disease and identify research needs to guide future work. PMID:21343352

  5. MetazSecKB: the human and animal secretome and subcellular proteome knowledgebase

    PubMed Central

    Meinken, John; Walker, Gary; Cooper, Chester R.; Min, Xiang Jia

    2015-01-01

    The subcellular location of a protein is a key factor in determining the molecular function of the protein in an organism. MetazSecKB is a secretome and subcellular proteome knowledgebase specifically designed for metazoan, i.e. human and animals. The protein sequence data, consisting of over 4 million entries with 121 species having a complete proteome, were retrieved from UniProtKB. Protein subcellular locations including secreted and 15 other subcellular locations were assigned based on either curated experimental evidence or prediction using seven computational tools. The protein or subcellular proteome data can be searched and downloaded using several different types of identifiers, gene name or keyword(s), and species. BLAST search and community annotation of subcellular locations are also supported. Our primary analysis revealed that the proteome sizes, secretome sizes and other subcellular proteome sizes vary tremendously in different animal species. The proportions of secretomes vary from 3 to 22% (average 8%) in metazoa species. The proportions of other major subcellular proteomes ranged approximately 21–43% (average 31%) in cytoplasm, 20–37% (average 30%) in nucleus, 3–19% (average 12%) as plasma membrane proteins and 3–9% (average 6%) in mitochondria. We also compared the protein families in secretomes of different primates. The Gene Ontology and protein family domain analysis of human secreted proteins revealed that these proteins play important roles in regulation of human structure development, signal transduction, immune systems and many other biological processes. Database URL: http://proteomics.ysu.edu/secretomes/animal/index.php PMID:26255309

  6. MetazSecKB: the human and animal secretome and subcellular proteome knowledgebase.

    PubMed

    Meinken, John; Walker, Gary; Cooper, Chester R; Min, Xiang Jia

    2015-01-01

    The subcellular location of a protein is a key factor in determining the molecular function of the protein in an organism. MetazSecKB is a secretome and subcellular proteome knowledgebase specifically designed for metazoan, i.e. human and animals. The protein sequence data, consisting of over 4 million entries with 121 species having a complete proteome, were retrieved from UniProtKB. Protein subcellular locations including secreted and 15 other subcellular locations were assigned based on either curated experimental evidence or prediction using seven computational tools. The protein or subcellular proteome data can be searched and downloaded using several different types of identifiers, gene name or keyword(s), and species. BLAST search and community annotation of subcellular locations are also supported. Our primary analysis revealed that the proteome sizes, secretome sizes and other subcellular proteome sizes vary tremendously in different animal species. The proportions of secretomes vary from 3 to 22% (average 8%) in metazoa species. The proportions of other major subcellular proteomes ranged approximately 21-43% (average 31%) in cytoplasm, 20-37% (average 30%) in nucleus, 3-19% (average 12%) as plasma membrane proteins and 3-9% (average 6%) in mitochondria. We also compared the protein families in secretomes of different primates. The Gene Ontology and protein family domain analysis of human secreted proteins revealed that these proteins play important roles in regulation of human structure development, signal transduction, immune systems and many other biological processes. Database URL: http://proteomics.ysu.edu/secretomes/animal/index.php. PMID:26255309

  7. Psychological impact of the animal-human bond in disaster preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    Hall, Molly J; Ng, Anthony; Ursano, Robert J; Holloway, Harry; Fullerton, Carol; Casper, Jacob

    2004-11-01

    The authors present an overview of the impact of the animal-human bond on disaster management and highlight the need to further examine the relationship of animals and humans in disaster response. The human connection to animals influences compliance with individual and community evacuation plans. Search and rescue teams with canine units confront physical and emotional demands that affect both handler and animal. The culling of animal populations on a scale such as occurred during the recent foot-and-mouth epidemic in the United Kingdom affects every member of rural society. Livestock farmers and their families endure enormous emotional losses, and veterinarians and government officials who must implement these programs suffer as well. A familiarity with and understanding of these issues is important for psychiatrists and other mental health professionals who are involved in disaster preparedness and response. PMID:15583518

  8. [Occurrence of Giardia species and genotypes in humans and animals in Wielkopolska region, Poland].

    PubMed

    Solarczyk, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    Giardia is the most common intestinal protozoan parasite found in humans and animals worldwide. Although it has been known for three hundred years, the nomenclature, taxonomy, host specificity, and pathogenicity of Giardia still arouse numerous controversies and ambiguities. Giardia is classified into six species, that are characterised by various ranges of hosts. The most dubious species is G. intestinalis, which includes a dozen or so genotypes, and only two of them (genotype A and B) have wide ranges of hosts, including humans. Moreover, in some genotype assemblages of G. intestinalis certain subgenotypes were distinguished and it was proven that in the same host species various subgenotypes of this parasite may occur. Bearing in mind the significant genetic heterogeneity of G. intestinalis and the fact that various genotypes and subgenotypes of this parasite are characterised by the broad or narrow host specificity, the data concerning the frequency of giardiosis occurrence are insufficient. It is necessary to use molecular biology techniques in order to define the genotype and/or the subgenotype of G. intestinalis that are found in humans and in certain animal species. Furthermore, since more and more pieces of evidence connected with a possibility of the sexual recombination of Giardia are gathered, it is unknown if genotypes and subgenotypes of this parasite are stable in time. The aim of this thesis was to define the frequency of Giardia occurrence in humans and animals in Wielkopolska region, to identify species and genotypes of Giardia that occur in humans and animals, as well as to obtain an axenic culture of the chosen isolates of Giardia from animals and to compare the sequence of the beta-giardin gene fragment obtained from the DNA isolated from cysts and trophozoites in order to check if the axenisation of G. intestinalis leads to the selection of genotypes or if Giardia genotypes are stable in time. Altogether, 2183 faecal samples were examined for the presence of Giardia cysts; 447 faecal samples were taken from 232 persons coming from 5 cities situated in Wielkopolska, and 1736 faecal samples were obtained from 123 animal species, including: 266 faecal samples from 113 species of animals kept in the Zoological Garden in Pozna?, 1286 samples from 4 species of breeding animals, 118 samples from dogs, and 66 samples from 5 species of wild animals. Faecal samples were taken from animals coming from 25 places in Wielkopolska. Moreover, seven isolates of G. intestinalis were used in the studies, which were obtained from various species of hosts and kept in an axenic in vitro culture. Microscopic, molecular and bio-informative methods were used in the studies. From each faecal sample fresh smears were made in a 0.6% solution of physiological salt and in Lugol's solution, as well as a permanent smear stained with trichrome was made. Moreover, the following molecular techniques were implemented in the studies: DNA extraction and purification, the PCR technique (two molecular markers), electrophoresis and visualisation of PCR products, and sequencing. A fragment of the beta-giardin gene was used as a molecular marker in order to define the genotype and subgenotype of Giardia. Only in the case of genotyping of two Giardia isolates obtained from Peromyscus eremicus another molecular marker (SSU rRNA)was additionally used. Some widely available computer programmes (Chromas, CAP 3, BioEdit, BLASTn, MEGA version 4.0) were utilised in the analysis of the sequence of the beta-giardin gene fragment and in the phylogenetic analysis. The culture of Giardia trophozoites was established to compare the sequence of the partial beta-giardin gene from cysts and trophozoites. Concentration and purification of Giardia cysts in the saccharose gradient, and the excystation technique were applied in the studies to obtaining an axenic in vitro culture. In this study, Giardia cysts were found in 12 faecal samples obtained from 3 persons and 5 animal species. Giardia cysts were found only in faecal samples from humans living in Pozna?

  9. Production of human lactoferrin and lysozyme in the milk of transgenic dairy animals: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Caitlin A; Maga, Elizabeth A; Murray, James D

    2015-08-01

    Genetic engineering, which was first developed in the 1980s, allows for specific additions to animals' genomes that are not possible through conventional breeding. Using genetic engineering to improve agricultural animals was first suggested when the technology was in the early stages of development by Palmiter et al. (Nature 300:611-615, 1982). One of the first agricultural applications identified was generating transgenic dairy animals that could produce altered or novel proteins in their milk. Human milk contains high levels of antimicrobial proteins that are found in low concentrations in the milk of ruminants, including the antimicrobial proteins lactoferrin and lysozyme. Lactoferrin and lysozyme are both part of the innate immune system and are secreted in tears, mucus, and throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Due to their antimicrobial properties and abundance in human milk, multiple lines of transgenic dairy animals that produce either human lactoferrin or human lysozyme have been developed. The focus of this review is to catalogue the different lines of genetically engineered dairy animals that produce either recombinant lactoferrin or lysozyme that have been generated over the years as well as compare the wealth of research that has been done on the in vitro and in vivo effects of the milk they produce. While recent advances including the development of CRISPRs and TALENs have removed many of the technical barriers to predictable and efficient genetic engineering in agricultural species, there are still many political and regulatory hurdles before genetic engineering can be used in agriculture. It is important to consider the substantial amount of work that has been done thus far on well established lines of genetically engineered animals evaluating both the animals themselves and the products they yield to identify the most effective path forward for future research and acceptance of this technology. PMID:26059245

  10. What's in a Name?Consequences of Naming Non-Human Animals

    PubMed Central

    Borkfelt, Sune

    2011-01-01

    Simple summary History teaches us that the act of naming can have various consequences for that which is named. Thus, applying labels as well as both specific and generic names to non-human animals can have consequences for our relationships to them, as various examples show. The issues of whether and how we should name other animals should therefore be given careful consideration. Abstract The act of naming is among the most basic actions of language. Indeed, it is naming something that enables us to communicate about it in specific terms, whether the object named is human or non-human, animate or inanimate. However, naming is not as uncomplicated as we may usually think and names have consequences for the way we think about animals (human and non-human), peoples, species, places, things etc. Through a blend of history, philosophy and representational theoryand using examples from, among other things, the Bible, Martin Luther, colonialism/imperialism and contemporary ways of keeping and regarding non-human animalsthis paper attempts to trace the importance of (both specific and generic) naming to our relationships with the non-human. It explores this topic from the naming of the animals in Genesis to the names given and used by scientists, keepers of companion animals, media etc. in our societies today, and asks the question of what the consequences of naming non-human animals are for us, for the beings named and for the power relations between our species and the non-human species and individuals we name. PMID:26486218

  11. Glycine metabolism in animals and humans: implications for nutrition and health.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiwei; Wu, Zhenlong; Dai, Zhaolai; Yang, Ying; Wang, Junjun; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-09-01

    Glycine is a major amino acid in mammals and other animals. It is synthesized from serine, threonine, choline, and hydroxyproline via inter-organ metabolism involving primarily the liver and kidneys. Under normal feeding conditions, glycine is not adequately synthesized in birds or in other animals, particularly in a diseased state. Glycine degradation occurs through three pathways: the glycine cleavage system (GCS), serine hydroxymethyltransferase, and conversion to glyoxylate by peroxisomal D-amino acid oxidase. Among these pathways, GCS is the major enzyme to initiate glycine degradation to form ammonia and CO2 in animals. In addition, glycine is utilized for the biosynthesis of glutathione, heme, creatine, nucleic acids, and uric acid. Furthermore, glycine is a significant component of bile acids secreted into the lumen of the small intestine that is necessary for the digestion of dietary fat and the absorption of long-chain fatty acids. Glycine plays an important role in metabolic regulation, anti-oxidative reactions, and neurological function. Thus, this nutrient has been used to: (1) prevent tissue injury; (2) enhance anti-oxidative capacity; (3) promote protein synthesis and wound healing; (4) improve immunity; and (5) treat metabolic disorders in obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, ischemia-reperfusion injuries, cancers, and various inflammatory diseases. These multiple beneficial effects of glycine, coupled with its insufficient de novo synthesis, support the notion that it is a conditionally essential and also a functional amino acid for mammals (including pigs and humans). PMID:23615880

  12. Addressing Student Misconceptions Concerning Electron Flow in Aqueous Solutions with Instruction Including Computer Animations and Conceptual Change Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the effects of both computer animations of microscopic chemical processes occurring in a galvanic cell and conceptual-change instruction based on chemical demonstrations on students' conceptions of current flow in electrolyte solutions. Finds that conceptual change instruction was effective at dispelling student misconceptions but

  13. Determination of Starch, Including Maltooligosaccharides, in Animal Feeds: Comparison of Methods and a Method Recommended for AOAC Collaborative Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discontinued production of the enzyme, Rhozyme-S, (required for AOAC method 14.075) invalidated this method for starch in animal feeds and necessitated a search for another assay. Although many starch methods are available, they vary in accuracy, replicability, and ease of use. Five enzymatic-colo...

  14. Human Brain Imaging of Tinnitus and Animal Models.

    PubMed

    Lobarinas, Edward; Sun, Wei; Stolzberg, Daniel; Lu, Jianzhong; Salvi, Richard

    2008-11-01

    Because subjective tinnitus is typically localized to the ear with hearing loss, tinnitus was traditionally thought to originate from neural hyperactivity in the damaged ear. However, most studies have found that hearing loss reduces the neural outputs from the damaged cochlea. These negative findings led to the hypothesis that rinnitus arises from aberrant neural activity in the central auditory system. Positron emission tomography imaging studies performed on tinnitus patients that could modulate their tinnitus provide evidence showing that the aberrant neural activity that gives rise to tinnitus resides in the central auditory pathway. To investigate the biological basis of tinnitus in more detail, an animal model was developed that allowed behavioral measures of tinnitus to be obtained from individual rats after inducing tinnitus with high doses of salicylate or high-intensity noise. This behavioral model was used to test the efficacy of memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist, and scopolamine, an anticholinergic, in suppressing salicylate-induced tinnitus. Neither drug completely suppressed salicylate-induced tinnitus. To detect the physiological changes associated with tinnitus, chronic microwire electrodes were implanted in the auditory cortex and measurements were obtained from the auditory cortex before and after salicylate and noise exposures known to induce tinnitus. High doses of salicylate or high-level noise exposure generally resulted in sound-evoked hyperactivity in the electrophysiological responses recorded from the auditory cortex of awake-animals. However, anesthetic tended to suppress or abolish the hyperactivity. PMID:19122834

  15. Reconciling Apparent Differences between the Responses of Humans and Other Animals to Crowding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Jonathan L.

    1979-01-01

    In this article, research on nonhuman animals is reviewed to show that there is no discontinuity between humans and other animals. For both, high density is not necessarily harmful. Rather, the effect of high density depends on other factors in the situation. (Author)

  16. Animals, Kids & Books: A Guide for Putting Humane Books into the Hands of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Barbara

    This guide for choosing humane children's books (i.e., books in which animals are not eaten, expolited, or treated with cruelty) presents reviews of over 100 books for children up to age 7. Both subtle and blatant examples of animal exploitation portrayed in children's picture books are examined. Reviews are grouped into 3 categories: kind books,…

  17. Animate and Inanimate Objects in Human Visual Cortex: Evidence for Task-Independent Category Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggett, Alison J.; Pritchard, Iwan C.; Downing, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence from neuropsychology suggests that the distinction between animate and inanimate kinds is fundamental to human cognition. Previous neuroimaging studies have reported that viewing animate objects activates ventrolateral visual brain regions, whereas inanimate objects activate ventromedial regions. However, these studies have typically

  18. Animals, Kids & Books: A Guide for Putting Humane Books into the Hands of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Barbara

    This guide for choosing humane children's books (i.e., books in which animals are not eaten, expolited, or treated with cruelty) presents reviews of over 100 books for children up to age 7. Both subtle and blatant examples of animal exploitation portrayed in children's picture books are examined. Reviews are grouped into 3 categories: kind books,

  19. Animate and Inanimate Objects in Human Visual Cortex: Evidence for Task-Independent Category Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggett, Alison J.; Pritchard, Iwan C.; Downing, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence from neuropsychology suggests that the distinction between animate and inanimate kinds is fundamental to human cognition. Previous neuroimaging studies have reported that viewing animate objects activates ventrolateral visual brain regions, whereas inanimate objects activate ventromedial regions. However, these studies have typically…

  20. Meat morals: relationship between meat consumption consumer attitudes towards human and animal welfare and moral behavior.

    PubMed

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore the relation between morality and diet choice by investigating how animal and human welfare attitudes and donation behaviors can predict a meat eating versus flexitarian versus vegetarian diet. The results of a survey study (N=299) show that animal health concerns (measured by the Animal Attitude Scale) can predict diet choice. Vegetarians are most concerned, while full-time meat eaters are least concerned, and the contrast between flexitarians and vegetarians is greater than the contrast between flexitarians and full-time meat eaters. With regards to human welfare (measured by the Moral Foundations Questionnaire), results show that attitudes towards human suffering set flexitarians apart from vegetarians and attitudes towards authority and respect distinguish between flexitarians and meat eaters. To conclude, results show that vegetarians donate more often to animal oriented charities than flexitarians and meat eaters, while no differences between the three diet groups occur for donations to human oriented charities. PMID:25282670

  1. P1 and N170 components distinguish human-like and animal-like makeup stimuli.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shuwei; Luo, Wenbo; He, Weiqi; Chen, Xu; Luo, Yuejia

    2013-06-19

    This study used event-related potentials to investigate the sensitivity of P1 and N170 components to human-like and animal-like makeup stimuli, which were derived from pictures of Peking opera characters. As predicted, human-like makeup stimuli elicited larger P1 and N170 amplitudes than did animal-like makeup stimuli. Interestingly, a right hemisphere advantage was observed for human-like but not for animal-like makeup stimuli. Dipole source analyses of 130-200-ms window showed that the bilateral fusiform face area may contribute to the differential sensitivity of the N170 component in response to human-like and animal-like makeup stimuli. The present study suggests that the amplitudes of both the P1 and the N170 are sensitive for the mouth component of face-like stimuli. PMID:23612561

  2. In Search of Memory Tests Equivalent for Experiments on Animals and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Brodziak, Andrzej; Ko?at, Estera; R?yk-Myrta, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Older people often exhibit memory impairments. Contemporary demographic trends cause aging of the society. In this situation, it is important to conduct clinical trials of drugs and use training methods to improve memory capacity. Development of new memory tests requires experiments on animals and then clinical trials in humans. Therefore, we decided to review the assessment methods and search for tests that evaluate analogous cognitive processes in animals and humans. This review has enabled us to propose 2 pairs of tests of the efficiency of working memory capacity in animals and humans. We propose a basic set of methods for complex clinical trials of drugs and training methods to improve memory, consisting of 2 pairs of tests: 1) the Novel Object Recognition Test Sternberg Item Recognition Test and 2) the Object-Location Test Visuospatial Memory Test. We postulate that further investigations of methods that are equivalent in animals experiments and observations performed on humans are necessary. PMID:25524993

  3. Serological screening of occurrence of antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi in humans and animals in Eastern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Halnov, Monika; Cislkov, Ldia; Valenckova, Alexandra; Blent, Pavol; Adam, Jozef; Trvnicek, Milan

    2003-01-01

    Encephalitozoon cuniculi is one of the mamalian microsporidian pathogens that can affect a number of different species of animals as well as humans. The presence of specific serum antibodies to Encephalitozoon cuniculi was studied in a group of animals and humans from Eastern Slovakia by the indirect immunofluorescence of antibodies (IFA). 456 people, 571 rabbits, 457 mice, 193 dogs, 72 cats, and 59 sheep were examined. Specific anti-E. cuniculi antibodies were found in 26 out of 456 human sera examined (5.7%). The highest occurrence of antimicrosporidial antibodies was found in the group of immunodeficiency patients - 37.5%. In the group of animals, the highest positivity was observed in rabbits - 41.7%, and in dogs - 37.8. The relative high prevalence, especially in rabbits and dogs as potential sources of microsporidial infection for humans, indicates the importance of performing the screening examinations in animals with aim of reducing or halting the spread of this disease. PMID:12852743

  4. FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF POLYHALOGENATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS AND HUMAN INFANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A scientific evaluation was made of functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in experimental animals and in human infants. ersistent neurobehavioral, reproductive, and endocrine alteration...

  5. [About a new biophysical approach for total vaccination of humans and animals].

    PubMed

    Karnaukhov, A V; Karnaukhov, V N

    2012-01-01

    The new method of total nonspecific vaccination of humans and animals is presented based on the experience of practical use of a powerful light pulse for air disinfection in laboratory facilities. PMID:22594298

  6. One Health and Cyanobacteria in Freshwater Systems: Animal Illnesses and Deaths are Sentinel Events for Human Health Risks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have adversely impacted human and animal health for thousands of years. Recently, the health impacts of harmful cyanobacteria blooms are becoming more frequently detected and reported. However, reports of human and animal illnesses or deaths associat...

  7. Transmission of MRSA between companion animals and infected human patients presenting to outpatient medical care facilities.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jorge Pinto; Anderson, Kevin L; Correa, Maria T; Lyman, Roberta; Ruffin, Felicia; Reller, L Barth; Fowler, Vance G

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant pathogen in both human and veterinary medicine. The importance of companion animals as reservoirs of human infections is currently unknown. The companion animals of 49 MRSA-infected outpatients (cases) were screened for MRSA carriage, and their bacterial isolates were compared with those of the infected patients using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Rates of MRSA among the companion animals of MRSA-infected patients were compared to rates of MRSA among companion animals of pet guardians attending a "veterinary wellness clinic" (controls). MRSA was isolated from at least one companion animal in 4/49 (8.2%) households of MRSA-infected outpatients vs. none of the pets of the 50 uninfected human controls. Using PFGE, patient-pets MRSA isolates were identical for three pairs and discordant for one pair (suggested MRSA inter-specie transmission p-value?=?0.1175). These results suggest that companion animals of MRSA-infected patients can be culture-positive for MRSA, representing a potential source of infection or re-infection for humans. Further studies are required to better understand the epidemiology of MRSA human-animal inter-specie transmission. PMID:22102871

  8. Human and animal research guidelines: aligning ethical constructs with new scientific developments.

    PubMed

    Ferdowsian, Hope

    2011-10-01

    Both human research and animal research operate within established standards and procedures. Although the human research environment has been criticized for its sometimes inefficient and imperfect process, reported abuses of human subjects in research served as the impetus for the establishment of the Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, and the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research and the resulting Belmont Report. No similar, comprehensive and principled effort has addressed the use of animals in research. Although published policies regarding animal research provide relevant regulatory guidance, these policies have not emerged from the process of specifying consistent and reasoned ethical principles. The lack of a fundamental effort to explore the ethical issues and principles regarding the use of animals in research has led to unclear and disparate policies. Recent studies have increased our understanding of animal cognition and emotion, suggesting that animals' potential for experiencing a wide variety of harms, such as pain and fear, is greater than has been previously appreciated. Furthermore, relationships between methods of captivity and certain laboratory procedures and the resulting adverse physical, social and psychological effects have been established. In light of this information, current protections may need to be reconsidered and modified. This paper explores the historical convergence and divergence in the creation of human and animal research guidelines, as well as opportunities to align ethical frameworks with new scientific discoveries. PMID:21929707

  9. Animal contact as a source of human non-typhoidal salmonellosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Non-typhoidal Salmonella represents an important human and animal pathogen world-wide. Most human salmonellosis cases are foodborne, but each year infections are also acquired through direct or indirect animal contact in homes, veterinary clinics, zoological gardens, farm environments or other public, professional or private settings. Clinically affected animals may exhibit a higher prevalence of shedding than apparently healthy animals, but both can shed Salmonella over long periods of time. In addition, environmental contamination and indirect transmission through contaminated food and water may complicate control efforts. The public health risk varies by animal species, age group, husbandry practice and health status, and certain human subpopulations are at a heightened risk of infection due to biological or behavioral risk factors. Some serotypes such as Salmonella Dublin are adapted to individual host species, while others, for instance Salmonella Typhimurium, readily infect a broad range of host species, but the potential implications for human health are currently unclear. Basic hygiene practices and the implementation of scientifically based management strategies can efficiently mitigate the risks associated with animal contacts. However, the general public is frequently unaware of the specific disease risks involved, and high-risk behaviors are common. Here we describe the epidemiology and serotype distribution of Salmonella in a variety of host species. In addition, we review our current understanding of the public health risks associated with different types of contacts between humans and animals in public, professional or private settings, and, where appropriate, discuss potential risk mitigation strategies. PMID:21324103

  10. Widespread endogenization of densoviruses and parvoviruses in animal and human genomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiquan; Fu, Yanping; Xie, Jiatao; Cheng, Jiasen; Ghabrial, Said A; Li, Guoqing; Peng, Youliang; Yi, Xianhong; Jiang, Daohong

    2011-10-01

    Parvoviruses infect humans and a broad range of animals, from mammals to crustaceans, and generally are associated with a variety of acute and chronic diseases. However, many others cause persistent infections and are not known to be associated with any disease. Viral persistence is likely related to the ability to integrate into the chromosomal DNA and to establish a latent infection. However, there is little evidence for genome integration of parvoviral DNA except for Adeno-associated virus (AAV). Here we performed a systematic search for homologs of parvoviral proteins in publicly available eukaryotic genome databases followed by experimental verification and phylogenetic analysis. We conclude that parvoviruses have frequently invaded the germ lines of diverse animal species, including mammals, fishes, birds, tunicates, arthropods, and flatworms. The identification of orthologous endogenous parvovirus sequences in the genomes of humans and other mammals suggests that parvoviruses have coexisted with mammals for at least 98 million years. Furthermore, some of the endogenized parvoviral genes were expressed in eukaryotic organisms, suggesting that these viral genes are also functional in the host genomes. Our findings may provide novel insights into parvovirus biology, host interactions, and evolution. PMID:21795360

  11. Widespread Endogenization of Densoviruses and Parvoviruses in Animal and Human Genomes ?

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huiquan; Fu, Yanping; Xie, Jiatao; Cheng, Jiasen; Ghabrial, Said A.; Li, Guoqing; Peng, Youliang; Yi, Xianhong; Jiang, Daohong

    2011-01-01

    Parvoviruses infect humans and a broad range of animals, from mammals to crustaceans, and generally are associated with a variety of acute and chronic diseases. However, many others cause persistent infections and are not known to be associated with any disease. Viral persistence is likely related to the ability to integrate into the chromosomal DNA and to establish a latent infection. However, there is little evidence for genome integration of parvoviral DNA except for Adeno-associated virus (AAV). Here we performed a systematic search for homologs of parvoviral proteins in publicly available eukaryotic genome databases followed by experimental verification and phylogenetic analysis. We conclude that parvoviruses have frequently invaded the germ lines of diverse animal species, including mammals, fishes, birds, tunicates, arthropods, and flatworms. The identification of orthologous endogenous parvovirus sequences in the genomes of humans and other mammals suggests that parvoviruses have coexisted with mammals for at least 98 million years. Furthermore, some of the endogenized parvoviral genes were expressed in eukaryotic organisms, suggesting that these viral genes are also functional in the host genomes. Our findings may provide novel insights into parvovirus biology, host interactions, and evolution. PMID:21795360

  12. Molecular identification and classification of Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex strains isolated from humans and selected animal species.

    PubMed

    Ziółkowska, Grażyna; Nowakiewicz, Aneta; Gnat, Sebastian; Trościańczyk, Aleksandra; Zięba, Przemysław; Dziedzic, Barbara Majer

    2015-03-01

    Species differentiation within Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex group currently poses a major diagnostic challenge, with molecular methods increasingly supplementing classical identification based on the morphological and physiological properties of the fungi. Diagnostic and epidemiological research aimed at determining the source and means of transmission of dermatophytoses in both humans and animals requires not only species differentiation of isolates but also differentiation within species. The study was conducted on 24 isolates originating in humans and various animal species with clinical symptoms of dermatophytosis. The analysis included phenotypical identification methods and molecular methods: internal transcribed spacer sequencing and ITS-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with multi-enzyme restriction. ITS sequence analysis identified the isolates to species - Trichophyton interdigitale, Arthroderma benhamiae and A. vanbreuseghemii, and ITS-RFLP detected six different genotypes. Genotypes I, II and III characterised strains belonging to A. benhamiae, genotype IV characterised the A. vanbreuseghemii strain, and genotypes V and VI occurred only within the species T. interdigitale. Strains isolated from guinea pigs were dominant within genotype I, while genotype II was found mainly in strains from foxes. Multi-enzyme restriction analysis of this region enables intraspecific differentiation, which may be useful in epidemiological research, particularly in determining the source of infections. PMID:25643744

  13. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Escherichia coli from Humans and Food Animals, United States, 19502002

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Daniel A.; Zhao, Shaohua; Tong, Emily; Ayers, Sherry; Singh, Aparna; Bartholomew, Mary J.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of Escherichia coli isolates recovered from human and food animal samples during 19502002 to assess historical changes in antimicrobial drug resistance. A total of 1,729 E. coli isolates (983 from humans, 323 from cattle, 138 from chickens, and 285 from pigs) were tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial drugs. A significant upward trend in resistance was observed for ampicillin (p<0.001), sulfonamide (p<0.001), and tetracycline (p<0.001). Animal strains showed increased resistance to 11/15 antimicrobial agents, including ampicillin (p<0.001), sulfonamide (p<0.01), and gentamicin (p<0.001). Multidrug resistance (?3 antimicrobial drug classes) in E. coli increased from 7.2% during the 1950s to 63.6% during the 2000s. The most frequent co-resistant phenotype observed was to tetracycline and streptomycin (29.7%), followed by tetracycline and sulfonamide (29.0%). These data describe the evolution of resistance after introduction of new antimicrobial agents into clinical medicine and help explain the range of resistance in modern E. coli isolates. PMID:22515968

  14. Neuro-immune interactions of neural stem cell transplants: From animal disease models to human trials

    PubMed Central

    Cossetti, Chiara; Pluchino, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell technology is a promising branch of regenerative medicine that is aimed at developing new approaches for the treatment of severely debilitating human diseases, including those affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Despite the increasing understanding of the mechanisms governing their biology, the application of stem cell therapeutics remains challenging. The initial idea that stem cell transplants work in vivo via the replacement of endogenous cells lost or damaged owing to disease has been challenged by accumulating evidence of their therapeutic plasticity. This new concept covers the remarkable immune regulatory and tissue trophic effects that transplanted stem cells exert at the level of the neural microenvironment to promote tissue healing via combination of immune modulatory and tissue protective actions, while retaining predominantly undifferentiated features. Among a number of promising candidate stem cell sources, neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) are under extensive investigation with regard to their therapeutic plasticity after transplantation. The significant impact in vivo of experimental NPC therapies in animal models of inflammatory CNS diseases has raised great expectations that these stem cells, or the manipulation of the mechanisms behind their therapeutic impact, could soon be translated to human studies. This review aims to provide an update on the most recent evidence of therapeutically-relevant neuroimmune interactions following NPC transplants in animal models of multiple sclerosis, cerebral stroke and traumas of the spinal cord, and consideration of the forthcoming challenges related to the early translation of some of these exciting experimental outcomes into clinical medicines. PMID:23507035

  15. COMPARISON OF LUNG ANTIOXIDANT LEVELS IN HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Basal lung concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA), nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH), and a-tocopherol (a-T) were determined in rabbits, guinea pigs, rats, hamsters, mice, domestic pigs and sheep, and in human lung samples obtained from cancer surgery patients. Significant differences ...

  16. The Evolution of Personality Variation in Humans and Other Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettle, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive evolutionary framework for understanding the maintenance of heritable behavioral variation in humans is yet to be developed. Some evolutionary psychologists have argued that heritable variation will not be found in important, fitness-relevant characteristics because of the winnowing effect of natural selection. This article…

  17. ANIMALS AS SENTINELS OF HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environmnet," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxi...

  18. The Evolution of Personality Variation in Humans and Other Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettle, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive evolutionary framework for understanding the maintenance of heritable behavioral variation in humans is yet to be developed. Some evolutionary psychologists have argued that heritable variation will not be found in important, fitness-relevant characteristics because of the winnowing effect of natural selection. This article

  19. Electrical signal analysis to assess the physical condition of a human or animal

    DOEpatents

    Cox, Daryl F.; Hochanadel, Charles D.; Haynes, Howard D.

    2010-06-15

    The invention is a human and animal performance data acquisition, analysis, and diagnostic system for fitness and therapy devices having an interface box removably disposed on incoming power wiring to a fitness and therapy device, at least one current transducer removably disposed on said interface box for sensing current signals to said fitness and therapy device, and a means for analyzing, displaying, and reporting said current signals to determine human and animal performance on said device using measurable parameters.

  20. FAO-OIE-WHO Joint Technical Consultation on Avian Influenza at the Human-Animal Interface.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Tara; Capua, Ilaria; Dauphin, Gwenaëlle; Donis, Ruben; Fouchier, Ron; Mumford, Elizabeth; Peiris, Malik; Swayne, David; Thiermann, Alex

    2010-05-01

    For the past 10 years, animal health experts and human health experts have been gaining experience in the technical aspects of avian influenza in mostly separate fora. More recently, in 2006, in a meeting of the small WHO Working Group on Influenza Research at the Human Animal Interface (Meeting report available from: http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/influenza/WHO_CDS_EPR_GIP_2006_3/en/index.html) in Geneva allowed influenza experts from the animal and public health sectors to discuss together the most recent avian influenza research. Ad hoc bilateral discussions on specific technical issues as well as formal meetings such as the Technical Meeting on HPAI and Human H5N1 Infection (Rome, June, 2007; information available from: http://www.fao.org/avianflu/en/conferences/june2007/index.html) have increasingly brought the sectors together and broadened the understanding of the topics of concern to each sector. The sectors have also recently come together at the broad global level, and have developed a joint strategy document for working together on zoonotic diseases (Joint strategy available from: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/ajl37e/ajl37e00.pdf). The 2008 FAO-OIE-WHO Joint Technical Consultation on Avian Influenza at the Human Animal Interface described here was the first opportunity for a large group of influenza experts from the animal and public health sectors to gather and discuss purely technical topics of joint interest that exist at the human-animal interface. During the consultation, three influenza-specific sessions aimed to (1) identify virological characteristics of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) important for zoonotic and pandemic disease, (2) evaluate the factors affecting evolution and emergence of a pandemic influenza strain and identify existing monitoring systems, and (3) identify modes of transmission and exposure sources for human zoonotic influenza infection (including discussion of specific exposure risks by affected countries). A final session was held to discuss broadening the use of tools and systems to other emerging zoonotic diseases. The meeting was structured as short technical presentations with substantial time available for facilitated discussion, to take advantage of the vast influenza knowledge and experience available from the invited expert participants. Particularly important was the identification of gaps in knowledge that have not yet been filled by either sector. Technical discussions focused on H5N1, but included other potentially zoonotic avian and animal influenza viruses whenever possible. During the consultation, the significant threat posed by subtypes other than H5N1 was continually emphasized in a variety of contexts. It was stressed that epidemiological and virological surveillance for these other viruses should be broadening and strengthened. The important role of live bird markets (LBMs) in amplifying and sustaining AIVs in some countries was also a recurring topic, and the need for better understanding of the role of LBMs in human zoonotic exposure and infection was noted. Much is understood about the contribution of various virus mutations and gene combinations to transmissibility, infectivity, and pathogenicity, although it was agreed that the specific constellation of gene types and mutations that would characterize a potentially pandemic virus remains unclear. The question of why only certain humans have become infected with H5N1 in the face of massive exposure in some communities was frequently raised during discussion of human exposure risks. It was suggested that individual-level factors may play a role. More research is needed to address this as well as questions of mode of transmission, behaviors associated with increased risk, virological and ecological aspects, and viral persistence in the environment in order to better elucidate specific human exposure risks. It became clear that great strides have been made in recent years in collaboration between the animal health and public health sectors, especially at the global level. In some countries outbreaks of H5N1 are being investigated jointly. Even greater transparency, cooperation, and information and materials exchange would allow more timely and effective responses in emergency situations, as well as in assessment and planning phases. Ensuring sustainability was also frequently emphasized, e.g. in infrastructure and capacity development and in development of tools and systems for surveillance, assessment and response. It was suggested that one way for tools and systems built or planned to address avian influenza to become more sustainable would be to make them applicable for a broader array of existing and emerging zoonotic diseases. PMID:20491978

  1. Metazoa Ludens: Mixed Reality Interaction and Play Between Humans and Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    Although animals and pets are so important for families and society, in modern urban lifestyles we can spend little time with our animal friends. Interactive media should be aimed to enhance not only human-to-human communication, but also human-to-animal communication. Thus, we promote a new type of inter-species media interaction which allows human users to interact and play with their small pet friends (in this case hamsters) remotely via the Internet through a mixed reality based game system “Metazoa Ludens”. We scientifically examined the effectiveness of this system in a two-pronged approach. Firstly and most importantly, the positive effects to the hamsters were ensured using Body Condition Score study. Secondly, the method of Duncan was used to assess the strength of preference of the hamsters towards Metazoa Ludens. Lastly, the effectiveness of this remote interaction with respect to the human users as a interactive gaming system with their pets/friends (hamsters) was examined based on Csikszentmihalyi's (Beyond boredom and anxiety, 1975) Flow theory. The results of both studies inform of positive remote interaction between human users and their pet friends using our research system. This research is not aimed just at providing specific experimental results on the implemented research system, but is aimed as a wider lesson for human-to-animal interactive media. Thus also the lessons learned are extrapolated and detailed in this chapter as a framework in general for human-to-animal interaction systems.

  2. Blastocystis subtypes detected in humans and animals from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Juan David; Sánchez, Laura Viviana; Bautista, Diana Carolina; Corredor, Andrés Felipe; Flórez, Astrid Carolina; Stensvold, Christen Rune

    2014-03-01

    Blastocystis is a common enteric protist colonizing probably more than 1 billion people along with a large variety of non-human hosts. This protist has been linked to symptoms and diseases such as abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, flatulence and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Remarkable genetic diversity has been observed, leading to the subdivision of the genus into multiple subtypes (ST), some of which are exclusively found in non-human hosts. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of Blastocystis STs in different Colombian hosts. We obtained fecal samples positive for Blastocystis by microscopy from 277 humans, 52 birds, and 117 mammals (25 cattle, 40 opossums, 40 dogs, 10 rats and 2 howler monkeys). The samples were submitted to DNA extraction, PCR and sequencing using primers targeting the small subunit rRNA gene, and ST identification was performed according to DNA barcoding. We observed the occurrence of ST1 (34%) and ST2 (23%) and lower proportions of STs 3 (11.4%), 4 (0.8%), 6 (19.8%) and 8 (10.5%). Domesticated mammals shared the same STs as those usually seen in humans (ST1, ST2, ST3), while birds and marsupials had STs, which are usually rare in humans (ST6, ST8). Further studies implementing high-resolution molecular markers are necessary to understand the phylodynamics of Blastocystis transmission and the role of this stramenopile in health and disease in Colombian populations, and to expand on the phylogeographic differences observed so far with a view to exploring and understanding host-parasite co-evolution. PMID:23886615

  3. Whole genome sequencing reveals potential spread of Clostridium difficile between humans and farm animals in the Netherlands, 2002 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Knetsch, C W; Connor, T R; Mutreja, A; van Dorp, S M; Sanders, I M; Browne, H P; Harris, D; Lipman, L; Keessen, E C; Corver, J; Kuijper, E J; Lawley, T D

    2015-01-01

    Farm animals are a potential reservoir for human Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), particularly PCR ribotype 078 which is frequently found in animals and humans. Here, whole genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was used to study the evolutionary relatedness of C. difficile 078 isolated from humans and animals on Dutch pig farms. All sequenced genomes were surveyed for potential antimicrobial resistance determinants and linked to an antimicrobial resistance phenotype. We sequenced the whole genome of 65 C. difficile 078 isolates collected between 2002 and 2011 from pigs (n = 19), asymptomatic farmers (n = 15) and hospitalised patients (n = 31) in the Netherlands. The collection included 12 pairs of human and pig isolates from 2011 collected at 12 different pig farms. A mutation rate of 1.1 SNPs per genome per year was determined for C. difficile 078. Importantly, we demonstrate that farmers and pigs were colonised with identical (no SNP differences) and nearly identical (less than two SNP differences) C. difficile clones. Identical tetracycline and streptomycin resistance determinants were present in human and animal C. difficile 078 isolates. Our observation that farmers and pigs share identical C. difficile strains suggests transmission between these populations, although we cannot exclude the possibility of transmission from a common environmental source. PMID:25411691

  4. Whole genome sequencing reveals potential spread of Clostridium difficile between humans and farm animals in the Netherlands, 2002 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Knetsch, C W; Connor, T R; Mutreja, A; van Dorp, S M; Sanders, I M; Browne, H P; Harris, D; Lipman, L; Keessen, E C; Corver, J; Kuijper, E J; Lawley, T D

    2014-01-01

    Farm animals are a potential reservoir for human Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), particularly PCR ribotype 078 which is frequently found in animals and humans. Here, whole genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was used to study the evolutionary relatedness of C. difficile 078 isolated from humans and animals on Dutch pig farms. All sequenced genomes were surveyed for potential antimicrobial resistance determinants and linked to an antimicrobial resistance phenotype. We sequenced the whole genome of 65 C. difficile 078 isolates collected between 2002 and 2011 from pigs (n?=?19), asymptomatic farmers (n?=?15) and hospitalised patients (n?=?31) in the Netherlands. The collection included 12 pairs of human and pig isolates from 2011 collected at 12 different pig farms. A mutation rate of 1.1 SNPs per genome per year was determined for C. difficile 078. Importantly, we demonstrate that farmers and pigs were colonised with identical (no SNP differences) and nearly identical (less than two SNP differences) C. difficile clones. Identical tetracycline and streptomycin resistance determinants were present in human and animal C. difficile 078 isolates. Our observation that farmers and pigs share identical C. difficile strains suggests transmission between these populations, although we cannot exclude the possibility of transmission from a common environmental source. PMID:25411691

  5. Ethical issues of transplanting organs from transgenic animals into human beings.

    PubMed

    Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human's body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal's organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334

  6. Viral Metagenomics on Animals as a Tool for the Detection of Zoonoses Prior to Human Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Temmam, Sarah; Davoust, Bernard; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

    2014-01-01

    Many human viral infections have a zoonotic, i.e., wild or domestic animal, origin. Several zoonotic viruses are transmitted to humans directly via contact with an animal or indirectly via exposure to the urine or feces of infected animals or the bite of a bloodsucking arthropod. If a virus is able to adapt and replicate in its new human host, human-to-human transmissions may occur, possibly resulting in an epidemic, such as the A/H1N1 flu pandemic in 2009. Thus, predicting emerging zoonotic infections is an important challenge for public health officials in the coming decades. The recent development of viral metagenomics, i.e., the characterization of the complete viral diversity isolated from an organism or an environment using high-throughput sequencing technologies, is promising for the surveillance of such diseases and can be accomplished by analyzing the viromes of selected animals and arthropods that are closely in contact with humans. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of viral diversity within such animals (in particular blood-feeding arthropods, wildlife and domestic animals) using metagenomics and present its possible future application for the surveillance of zoonotic and arboviral diseases. PMID:24918293

  7. Viral metagenomics on animals as a tool for the detection of zoonoses prior to human infection?

    PubMed

    Temmam, Sarah; Davoust, Bernard; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

    2014-01-01

    Many human viral infections have a zoonotic, i.e., wild or domestic animal, origin. Several zoonotic viruses are transmitted to humans directly via contact with an animal or indirectly via exposure to the urine or feces of infected animals or the bite of a bloodsucking arthropod. If a virus is able to adapt and replicate in its new human host, human-to-human transmissions may occur, possibly resulting in an epidemic, such as the A/H1N1 flu pandemic in 2009. Thus, predicting emerging zoonotic infections is an important challenge for public health officials in the coming decades. The recent development of viral metagenomics, i.e., the characterization of the complete viral diversity isolated from an organism or an environment using high-throughput sequencing technologies, is promising for the surveillance of such diseases and can be accomplished by analyzing the viromes of selected animals and arthropods that are closely in contact with humans. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of viral diversity within such animals (in particular blood-feeding arthropods, wildlife and domestic animals) using metagenomics and present its possible future application for the surveillance of zoonotic and arboviral diseases. PMID:24918293

  8. The evolution of personality variation in humans and other animals.

    PubMed

    Nettle, Daniel

    2006-09-01

    A comprehensive evolutionary framework for understanding the maintenance of heritable behavioral variation in humans is yet to be developed. Some evolutionary psychologists have argued that heritable variation will not be found in important, fitness-relevant characteristics because of the winnowing effect of natural selection. This article propounds the opposite view. Heritable variation is ubiquitous in all species, and there are a number of frameworks for understanding its persistence. The author argues that each of the Big Five dimensions of human personality can be seen as the result of a trade-off between different fitness costs and benefits. As there is no unconditionally optimal value of these trade-offs, it is to be expected that genetic diversity will be retained in the population. PMID:16953749

  9. 21 CFR 530.13 - Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... animal and approved human drugs. 530.13 Section 530.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG... from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. (a) This part applies to...

  10. 21 CFR 530.13 - Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... animal and approved human drugs. 530.13 Section 530.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG... from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. (a) This part applies to...

  11. 21 CFR 530.13 - Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... animal and approved human drugs. 530.13 Section 530.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG... from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. (a) This part applies to...

  12. 21 CFR 530.13 - Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... animal and approved human drugs. 530.13 Section 530.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG... from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. (a) This part applies to...

  13. 21 CFR 530.13 - Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... animal and approved human drugs. 530.13 Section 530.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG... from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. (a) This part applies to...

  14. Physical and mental health outcomes of prenatal maternal stress in human and animal studies: a review of recent evidence.

    PubMed

    Beydoun, Hind; Saftlas, Audrey F

    2008-09-01

    Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) has been linked with adverse health outcomes in the offspring through experimental studies using animal models and epidemiological studies of human populations. The purpose of this review article is to establish a parallel between animal and human studies, while focusing on methodological issues and gaps in knowledge. The review examines the quality of recent evidence for prevailing PNMS theoretical models, namely the biopsychosocial model for adverse pregnancy outcomes and the fetal programming model for chronic diseases. The investigators used PubMed (2000-06) to identify recently published original articles in the English language literature. A total of 103 (60 human and 43 animal) studies were examined. Most human studies originated from developed countries, thus limiting generalisability to developing nations. Most animal studies were conducted on non-primates, rendering extrapolation of findings to pregnant women less straightforward. PNMS definition and measurement were heterogeneous across studies examining similar research questions, thus precluding the conduct of meta-analyses. In human studies, physical health outcomes were often restricted to birth complications while mental health outcomes included postnatal developmental disorders and psychiatric conditions in children, adolescents and adults. Diverse health outcomes were considered in animal studies, some being useful models for depression, schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in human populations. The overall evidence is consistent with independent effects of PNMS on perinatal and postnatal outcomes. Intervention studies and large population-based cohort studies combining repeated multi-dimensional and standardised PNMS measurements with biomarkers of stress are needed to further understand PNMS aetiology and pathophysiology in human populations. PMID:18782252

  15. Ticks collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Apanaskevich, D A; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Trinidad-Martínez, I; Reyes-Novelo, E; Esteve-Gassent, M D; Pérez de León, A A

    2016-01-15

    Domestic animals and wildlife play important roles as reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens that are transmitted to humans by ticks. Besides their role as vectors of several classes of microorganisms of veterinary and public health relevance, ticks also burden human and animal populations through their obligate blood-feeding habit. It is estimated that in Mexico there are around 100 tick species belonging to the Ixodidae and Argasidae families. Information is lacking on tick species that affect humans, domestic animals, and wildlife through their life cycle. This study was conducted to bridge that knowledge gap by inventorying tick species that infest humans, domestic animals and wildlife in the State of Yucatan, Mexico. Amblyomma ticks were observed as euryxenous vertebrate parasites because they were found parasitizing 17 animal species and human. Amblyomma mixtum was the most eryxenous species found in 11 different animal species and humans. Both A. mixtum and A. parvum were found parasitizing humans. Ixodes near affinis was the second most abundant species parasitizing six animal species (dogs, cats, horses, white-nosed coati, white-tail deer and black vulture) and was found widely across the State of Yucatan. Ixodid tick populations may increase in the State of Yucatan with time due to animal production intensification, an increasing wildlife population near rural communities because of natural habitat reduction and fragmentation. The diversity of ticks across host taxa documented here highlights the relevance of ecological information to understand tick-host dynamics. This knowledge is critical to inform public health and veterinary programs for the sustainable control of ticks and tick-borne diseases. PMID:26790745

  16. Broad scope method for creating humanized animal models for animal health and disease research through antibiotic treatment and human fecal transfer

    PubMed Central

    Hintze, Korry J; Cox, James E; Rompato, Giovanni; Benninghoff, Abby D; Ward, Robert E; Broadbent, Jeff; Lefevre, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, mouse humanization studies have used human fecal transfer to germ-free animals. This practice requires gnotobiotic facilities and is restricted to gnotobiotic mouse lines, which limits humanized mouse research. We have developed a generalizable method to humanize non germ-free mice using antibiotic treatment and human fecal transfer. The method involves depleting resident intestinal microbiota with broad-spectrum antibiotics, introducing human microbiota from frozen fecal samples by weekly gavage, and maintaining mice in HEPA-filtered microisolator cages. Pyrosequencing cecal microbiota 16S rRNA genes showed that recipient mice adopt a humanized microbiota profile analogous to their human donors, and distinct from mice treated with only antibiotics (no fecal transfer) or untreated control mice. In the humanized mice, 75% of the sequence mass was observed in their respective human donor and conversely, 68% of the donor sequence mass was recovered in the recipient mice. Principal component analyses of GC- and HPLC-separated cecal metabolites were performed to determine effects of transplanted microbiota on the metabolome. Cecal metabolite profiles of mice treated with only antibiotics (no fecal transfer) and control mice were dissimilar from each other and from humanized mice. Metabolite profiles for mice humanized from different donor samples clustered near each other, yet were sufficiently distinct that separate clusters were apparent for each donor. Also, cecal concentrations of 57 metabolites were significantly different between humanization treatments. These data demonstrate that our protocol can be used to humanize non germ-free mice and is sufficiently robust to generate metabolomic differences between mice humanized from different human donors. PMID:24637796

  17. Leptomyxid ameba, a new agent of amebic meningoencephalitis in humans and animals.

    PubMed Central

    Visvesvara, G S; Martinez, A J; Schuster, F L; Leitch, G J; Wallace, S V; Sawyer, T K; Anderson, M

    1990-01-01

    Amebae belonging to the order Leptomyxida are regarded as innocuous soil organisms incapable of infecting mammals. We report here the isolation of a leptomyxid ameba from the brain of a pregnant baboon (Papio sphinx) that died of meningoencephalitis at the San Diego Zoo Wild Animal Park. By using rabbit anti-leptomyxid serum in the immunofluorescence assay, we have identified the leptomyxid ameba in the brain sections of a number of human encephalitic cases from around the world as well as a few cases of meningoencephalitis in animals in the United States, which suggests that the leptomyxid amebae are potential etiologic agents of fatal meningoencephalitis in humans and animals. Images PMID:2280005

  18. Leptomyxid ameba, a new agent of amebic meningoencephalitis in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Visvesvara, G S; Martinez, A J; Schuster, F L; Leitch, G J; Wallace, S V; Sawyer, T K; Anderson, M

    1990-12-01

    Amebae belonging to the order Leptomyxida are regarded as innocuous soil organisms incapable of infecting mammals. We report here the isolation of a leptomyxid ameba from the brain of a pregnant baboon (Papio sphinx) that died of meningoencephalitis at the San Diego Zoo Wild Animal Park. By using rabbit anti-leptomyxid serum in the immunofluorescence assay, we have identified the leptomyxid ameba in the brain sections of a number of human encephalitic cases from around the world as well as a few cases of meningoencephalitis in animals in the United States, which suggests that the leptomyxid amebae are potential etiologic agents of fatal meningoencephalitis in humans and animals. PMID:2280005

  19. Coronaviruses: emerging and re-emerging pathogens in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Lau, Susanna K P; Chan, Jasper F W

    2015-01-01

    The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and recently emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) epidemics have proven the ability of coronaviruses to cross species barrier and emerge rapidly in humans. Other coronaviruses such as porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) are also known to cause major disease epidemics in animals wiith huge economic loss. This special issue in Virology Journal aims to highlight the advances and key discoveries in the animal origin, viral evolution, epidemiology, diagnostics and pathogenesis of the emerging and re-emerging coronaviruses in both humans and animals. PMID:26690088

  20. Control of Salmonella infections in animals and prevention of human foodborne Salmonella infections. WHO Consultation.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    In many countries the incidence of human salmonella infections has markedly increased in recent years. To discuss recent developments and current understanding on the control of salmonella infections in animals, WHO organized a Consultation on the Control of Salmonella Infections in Animals: Prevention of Foodborne Salmonella Infections in Humans, held in Jena, Germany, on 21-26 November 1993. The present article summarizes the recommendations made by the participants on the pathoimmunogenesis, diagnosis, epidemiology, and control of salmonella infections and contaminations in animal production. PMID:7867127

  1. [Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni in animals and its significance for the human].

    PubMed

    Weber, A

    1985-01-01

    The frequency of human infections caused by Campylobacter (C.) jejuni is thought to be at present as significant as that of infections with salmonella. The epidemiology of human infections with C. jejuni is not well understood, although numerous species of animals are an important reservoir for this microorganism. In an overview the occurrence of C. jejuni at different domestic animals and pets is described. There is also given a report about possible direct and indirect ways for the infections from animals to man. PMID:3895567

  2. Update on the Human Broad Tapeworm (Genus Diphyllobothrium), Including Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Tomáš; Garcia, Hector H.; Kuchta, Roman; Wicht, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Tapeworms (Cestoda) continue to be an important cause of morbidity in humans worldwide. Diphyllobothriosis, a human disease caused by tapeworms of the genus Diphyllobothrium, is the most important fish-borne zoonosis caused by a cestode parasite. Up to 20 million humans are estimated to be infected worldwide. Besides humans, definitive hosts of Diphyllobothrium include piscivorous birds and mammals, which represent a significant zoonotic reservoir. The second intermediate hosts include both freshwater and marine fish, especially anadromous species such as salmonids. The zoonosis occurs most commonly in countries where the consumption of raw or marinated fish is a frequent practice. Due to the increasing popularity of dishes utilizing uncooked fish, numerous cases of human infections have appeared recently, even in the most developed countries. As many as 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium can cause human diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum and D. nihonkaiense being the most important pathogens. In this paper, all taxa from humans reported are reviewed, with brief information on their life history and their current distribution. Data on diagnostics, epidemiology, clinical relevance, and control of the disease are also summarized. The importance of reliable identification of human-infecting species with molecular tools (sequences of mitochondrial genes) as well as the necessity of epidemiological studies aimed at determining the sources of infections are pointed out. PMID:19136438

  3. The pharmacology of resveratrol in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jung; Pezzuto, John M

    2015-06-01

    In addition to thousands of research papers related to resveratrol (RSV), approximately 300 review articles have been published. Earlier research tended to focus on pharmacological activities of RSV related to cardiovascular systems, inflammation, and carcinogenesis/cancer development. More recently, the horizon has been broadened by exploring the potential effect of RSV on the aging process, diabetes, neurological dysfunction, etc. Herein, we primarily focus on the in vivo pharmacological effects of RSV reported over the past 5 years (2009-2014). In addition, recent clinical intervention studies performed with resveratrol are summarized. Some discrepancies exist between in vivo studies with animals and clinical studies, or between clinical studies, which are likely due to disparate doses of RSV, experimental settings, and subject variation. Nevertheless, many positive indications have been reported with mammals, so it is reasonable to advocate for the conduct of more definitive clinical studies. Since the safety profile is pristine, an added advantage is the use of RSV as a dietary supplement. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Resveratrol: Challenges in translating pre-clinical findings to improved patient outcomes. PMID:25652123

  4. Immunology of membranous nephropathy: from animal models to humans.

    PubMed

    Sinico, R A; Mezzina, N; Trezzi, B; Ghiggeri, Gm; Radice, A

    2016-02-01

    Membranous nephropathy (MN), the leading cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults, is characterized by the deposition of subepithelial immune deposits that consist mainly of immunoglobulin (Ig)G and complement. Most of the cases are primary or idiopathic (iMN), while only approximately 25% of the cases are secondary to some known disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus, hepatitis B, drugs and malignancies. Most of our knowledge on the pathogenesis of iMN has relied upon old experimental models (i.e. Heymann nephritis) that have shown that immune deposits are formed in situ by the reaction of autoantibodies against the respective podocyte antigen. Recent findings indicate that podocyte proteins also act as an autoantigen in human iMN. The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) has been identified as the main target antigen, as it can be found in approximately 70% of iMN patients but only rarely in other glomerulonephritides. Podocytes damage in the experimental model of Heymann nephritis is complement-mediated. In humans, the presence of complement within the subepithelial deposits is well established, but IgG4, which does not activate complement by classical or alternative pathways, represents the predominant subclass of IgG anti-PLA2R. Some evidence suggests that IgG4 anti-PLA2R autoantibodies can bind mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and activate the lectin complement pathway. A genetic background for iMN has been demonstrated by genome-wide association studies that have shown highly significant associations of the PLA2R1 and the human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DQA1 loci with iMN. In addition to their diagnostic value, anti-PLA2R antibodies may be useful to monitor disease activity and predict response to treatment. PMID:26459770

  5. Characterization of Temperate Phages Infecting Clostridium difficile Isolates of Human and Animal Origins

    PubMed Central

    Sekulovic, Ognjen; Garneau, Julian R.; Nron, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive pathogen infecting humans and animals. Recent studies suggest that animals could represent potential reservoirs of C. difficile that could then transfer to humans. Temperate phages contribute to the evolution of most bacteria, for example, by promoting the transduction of virulence, fitness, and antibiotic resistance genes. In C. difficile, little is known about their role, mainly because suitable propagating hosts and conditions are lacking. Here we report the isolation, propagation, and preliminary characterization of nine temperate phages from animal and human C. difficile isolates. Prophages were induced by UV light from 58 C. difficile isolates of animal and human origins. Using soft agar overlays with 27 different C. difficile test strains, we isolated and further propagated nine temperate phages: two from horse isolates (?CD481-1 and ?CD481-2), three from dog isolates (?CD505, ?CD506, and ?CD508), and four from human isolates (?CD24-2, ?CD111, ?CD146, and ?CD526). Two phages are members of the Siphoviridae family (?CD111 and ?CD146), while the others are Myoviridae phages. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and restriction enzyme analyses showed that all of the phages had unique double-stranded DNA genomes of 30 to 60 kb. Phages induced from human C. difficile isolates, especially the members of the Siphoviridae family, had a broader host range than phages from animal C. difficile isolates. Nevertheless, most of the phages could infect both human and animal strains. Phage transduction of antibiotic resistance was recently reported in C. difficile. Our findings therefore call for further investigation of the potential risk of transduction between animal and human C. difficile isolates. PMID:24532062

  6. Molecular and comparative analysis of Salmonella enterica Senftenberg from humans and animals using PFGE, MLST and NARMS

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Salmonella species are recognized worldwide as a significant cause of human and animal disease. In this study the molecular profiles and characteristics of Salmonella enterica Senftenberg isolated from human cases of illness and those recovered from healthy or diagnostic cases in animals were assessed. Included in the study was a comparison with our own sequenced strain of S. Senfteberg recovered from production turkeys in North Dakota. Isolates examined in this study were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility profiling using the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) panel which tested susceptibility to 15 different antimicrobial agents. The molecular profiles of all isolates were determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and the sequence types of the strains were obtained using Multi-Locus Sequence Type (MLST) analysis based on amplification and sequence interrogation of seven housekeeping genes (aroC, dnaN, hemD, hisD, purE, sucA, and thrA). PFGE data was input into BioNumerics analysis software to generate a dendrogram of relatedness among the strains. Results The study found 93 profiles among 98 S. Senftenberg isolates tested and there were primarily two sequence types associated with humans and animals (ST185 and ST14) with overlap observed in all host types suggesting that the distribution of S. Senftenberg sequence types is not host dependent. Antimicrobial resistance was observed among the animal strains, however no resistance was detected in human isolates suggesting that animal husbandry has a significant influence on the selection and promotion of antimicrobial resistance. Conclusion The data demonstrates the circulation of at least two strain types in both animal and human health suggesting that S. Senftenberg is relatively homogeneous in its distribution. The data generated in this study could be used towards defining a pathotype for this serovar. PMID:21708021

  7. A genetic comparison of Brucella abortus isolates from animals and humans by using an MLVA assay.

    PubMed

    Her, Moon; Kang, Sung-Il; Kim, Jong-Wan; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Hwang, In-Yeong; Jung, Suk-Chan; Park, Sang Hee; Park, Mi Yeoun; Yoo, Hansang

    2010-12-01

    The MLVA assay is known to have a high ability to identify and discriminate Brucella species, so that it can be used as an epidemiological tool to discriminate Brucella isolates originating from restricted geographic sources. In this study, the genetic profiles of 38 B. abortus isolates from humans were analyzed and compared with genotypes from animal isolates in South Korea. As a result, it was found that they did not show high genetic diversity and were compacted. They were clustered together with animal isolates, showing a significant correlation to regional distributions. With its ability to prove a significant genetic correlation among B. abortus isolates from animals and humans in South Korea, the MLVA assay could be utilized as part of a program to control and eradicate brucellosis, one of the major zoonoses. This study represents the first data of genetic correlation of B. abortus isolates from humans and animals in South Korea. PMID:21193833

  8. Large animal induced pluripotent stem cells as pre-clinical models for studying human disease

    PubMed Central

    Plews, Jordan R; Gu, Mingxia; Longaker, Michael T; Wu, Joseph C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The derivation of human embryonic stem cells and subsequently human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has energized regenerative medicine research and enabled seemingly limitless applications. Although small animal models, such as mouse models, have played an important role in the progression of the field, typically, they are poor representations of the human disease phenotype. As an alternative, large animal models should be explored as a potentially better approach for clinical translation of cellular therapies. However, only fragmented information regarding the derivation, characterization and clinical usefulness of pluripotent large animal cells is currently available. Here, we briefly review the latest advances regarding the derivation and use of large animal iPSCs. PMID:22212700

  9. Follicular Helper CD4+ T Cells in Human Neuroautoimmune Diseases and Their Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xueli; Lin, Chenhong; Han, Jinming; Jiang, Xinmei; Zhu, Jie; Jin, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Follicular helper CD4+ T (TFH) cells play a fundamental role in humoral immunity deriving from their ability to provide help for germinal center (GC) formation, B cell differentiation into plasma cells and memory cells, and antibody production in secondary lymphoid tissues. TFH cells can be identified by a combination of markers, including the chemokine receptor CXCR5, costimulatory molecules ICOS and PD-1, transcription repressor Bcl-6, and cytokine IL-21. It is difficult and impossible to get access to secondary lymphoid tissues in humans, so studies are usually performed with human peripheral blood samples as circulating counterparts of tissue TFH cells. A balance of TFH cell generation and function is critical for protective antibody response, whereas overactivation of TFH cells or overexpression of TFH-associated molecules may result in autoimmune diseases. Emerging data have shown that TFH cells and TFH-associated molecules may be involved in the pathogenesis of neuroautoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica (NMO)/neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD), and myasthenia gravis (MG). This review summarizes the features of TFH cells, including their development, function, and roles as well as TFH-associated molecules in neuroautoimmune diseases and their animal models. PMID:26300592

  10. Epidemiology and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans, wild primates, and domesticated animals in the Greater Gombe Ecosystem, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Michele B; Travis, Dominic; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Lipende, Iddi; Roellig, Dawn M; Roellig, Dawn M Anthony; Collins, Anthony; Kamenya, Shadrack; Zhang, Hongwei; Xiao, Lihua; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2015-02-01

    Cryptosporidium is an important zoonotic parasite globally. Few studies have examined the ecology and epidemiology of this pathogen in rural tropical systems characterized by high rates of overlap among humans, domesticated animals, and wildlife. We investigated risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection and assessed cross-species transmission potential among people, non-human primates, and domestic animals in the Gombe Ecosystem, Kigoma District, Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey was designed to determine the occurrence and risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection in humans, domestic animals and wildlife living in and around Gombe National Park. Diagnostic PCR revealed Cryptosporidium infection rates of 4.3% in humans, 16.0% in non-human primates, and 9.6% in livestock. Local streams sampled were negative. DNA sequencing uncovered a complex epidemiology for Cryptosporidium in this system, with humans, baboons and a subset of chimpanzees infected with C. hominis subtype IfA12G2; another subset of chimpanzees infected with C. suis; and all positive goats and sheep infected with C. xiaoi. For humans, residence location was associated with increased risk of infection in Mwamgongo village compared to one camp (Kasekela), and there was an increased odds for infection when living in a household with another positive person. Fecal consistency and other gastrointestinal signs did not predict Cryptosporidium infection. Despite a high degree of habitat overlap between village people and livestock, our results suggest that there are distinct Cryptosporidium transmission dynamics for humans and livestock in this system. The dominance of C. hominis subtype IfA12G2 among humans and non-human primates suggest cross-species transmission. Interestingly, a subset of chimpanzees was infected with C. suis. We hypothesize that there is cross-species transmission from bush pigs (Potaochoerus larvatus) to chimpanzees in Gombe forest, since domesticated pigs are regionally absent. Our findings demonstrate a complex nature of Cryptosporidium in sympatric primates, including humans, and stress the need for further studies. PMID:25700265

  11. Epidemiology and Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in Humans, Wild Primates, and Domesticated Animals in the Greater Gombe Ecosystem, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Michele B.; Travis, Dominic; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.; Lipende, Iddi; Roellig, Dawn M. Anthony; Kamenya, Shadrack; Zhang, Hongwei; Xiao, Lihua; Gillespie, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is an important zoonotic parasite globally. Few studies have examined the ecology and epidemiology of this pathogen in rural tropical systems characterized by high rates of overlap among humans, domesticated animals, and wildlife. We investigated risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection and assessed cross-species transmission potential among people, non-human primates, and domestic animals in the Gombe Ecosystem, Kigoma District, Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey was designed to determine the occurrence and risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection in humans, domestic animals and wildlife living in and around Gombe National Park. Diagnostic PCR revealed Cryptosporidium infection rates of 4.3% in humans, 16.0% in non-human primates, and 9.6% in livestock. Local streams sampled were negative. DNA sequencing uncovered a complex epidemiology for Cryptosporidium in this system, with humans, baboons and a subset of chimpanzees infected with C. hominis subtype IfA12G2; another subset of chimpanzees infected with C. suis; and all positive goats and sheep infected with C. xiaoi. For humans, residence location was associated with increased risk of infection in Mwamgongo village compared to one camp (Kasekela), and there was an increased odds for infection when living in a household with another positive person. Fecal consistency and other gastrointestinal signs did not predict Cryptosporidium infection. Despite a high degree of habitat overlap between village people and livestock, our results suggest that there are distinct Cryptosporidium transmission dynamics for humans and livestock in this system. The dominance of C. hominis subtype IfA12G2 among humans and non-human primates suggest cross-species transmission. Interestingly, a subset of chimpanzees was infected with C. suis. We hypothesize that there is cross-species transmission from bush pigs (Potaochoerus larvatus) to chimpanzees in Gombe forest, since domesticated pigs are regionally absent. Our findings demonstrate a complex nature of Cryptosporidium in sympatric primates, including humans, and stress the need for further studies. PMID:25700265

  12. Nuclear actin activates human transcription factor genes including the OCT4 gene.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shota; Yamamoto, Koji; Tokunaga, Makio; Sakata-Sogawa, Kumiko; Harata, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    RNA microarray analyses revealed that nuclear actin activated many human transcription factor genes including OCT4, which is required for gene reprogramming. Oct4 is known to be activated by nuclear actin in Xenopus oocytes. Our findings imply that this process of OCT4 activation is conserved in vertebrates and among cell types and could be used for gene reprogramming of human cells. PMID:25355676

  13. Toward an Animal Model of the Human Tear Film: Biochemical Comparison of the Mouse, Canine, Rabbit, and Human Meibomian Lipidomes

    PubMed Central

    Butovich, Igor A.; Lu, Hua; McMahon, Anne; Eule, J. Corinna

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Secretions that are produced by meibomian glands (also known as meibum) are a major source of lipids for the ocular surface of humans and animals alike. Many animal species have been evaluated for their meibomian lipidomes. However, there have been a very small number of studies in which the animals were compared with humans side by side. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare meibum collected from humans and three typical laboratory animals, canines, mice, and rabbits, for their meibomian lipid composition in order to determine which animal species most resembles humans. Methods. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) in combination with mass spectrometry were used to evaluate lipidomes of all tested species. Results. Among three tested animal species, mice were found to be the closest match to humans in terms of their meibomian lipidomes, while canines were the second closest species. The lipids of these three species were close to each other structurally and, for most lipid classes, quantitatively. The rabbit meibomian lipidome, on the other hand, was vastly different from lipidomes of all other tested species. Interestingly, a previously described class of lipids, acylated omega-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFA), was found to be present in every tested species as the major amphiphilic component of meibum. Conclusions. Our side by side comparison of the rabbit and the human meibum demonstrated their vast differences. Thus, the rabbit seems to be a poor animal model of the human tear film, at least when studying its biochemistry and biophysics. PMID:22918629

  14. Abnormal Brain Iron Homeostasis in Human and Animal Prion Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Maradumane L.; Cohen, Mark L.; Chen, Fusong; Kong, Qingzhong; Bartz, Jason; Singh, Neena

    2009-01-01

    Neurotoxicity in all prion disorders is believed to result from the accumulation of PrP-scrapie (PrPSc), a ?-sheet rich isoform of a normal cell-surface glycoprotein, the prion protein (PrPC). Limited reports suggest imbalance of brain iron homeostasis as a significant associated cause of neurotoxicity in prion-infected cell and mouse models. However, systematic studies on the generality of this phenomenon and the underlying mechanism(s) leading to iron dyshomeostasis in diseased brains are lacking. In this report, we demonstrate that prion diseaseaffected human, hamster, and mouse brains show increased total and redox-active Fe (II) iron, and a paradoxical increase in major iron uptake proteins transferrin (Tf) and transferrin receptor (TfR) at the end stage of disease. Furthermore, examination of scrapie-inoculated hamster brains at different timepoints following infection shows increased levels of Tf with time, suggesting increasing iron deficiency with disease progression. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD)affected human brains show a similar increase in total iron and a direct correlation between PrP and Tf levels, implicating PrPSc as the underlying cause of iron deficiency. Increased binding of Tf to the cerebellar Purkinje cell neurons of sCJD brains further indicates upregulation of TfR and a phenotype of neuronal iron deficiency in diseased brains despite increased iron levels. The likely cause of this phenotype is sequestration of iron in brain ferritin that becomes detergent-insoluble in PrPSc-infected cell lines and sCJD brain homogenates. These results suggest that sequestration of iron in PrPScferritin complexes induces a state of iron bio-insufficiency in prion diseaseaffected brains, resulting in increased uptake and a state of iron dyshomeostasis. An additional unexpected observation is the resistance of Tf to digestion by proteinase-K, providing a reliable marker for iron levels in postmortem human brains. These data implicate redox-iron in prion diseaseassociated neurotoxicity, a novel observation with significant implications for prion disease pathogenesis. PMID:19283067

  15. Rickettsial Infection in Animals, Humans and Ticks in Paulicéia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, I; Martins, T F; Olegário, M M; Peterka, C; Guedes, E; Ferreira, F; Labruna, M B

    2015-11-01

    A previous study in Paulicéia Municipality, south-eastern Brazil, reported 9.7% of the Amblyomma triste ticks to be infected by Rickettsia parkeri, a bacterial pathogen that causes spotted fever in humans. These A. triste ticks were shown to be associated with marsh areas, where the marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus is a primary host for this tick species. During 2008-2009, blood serum samples were collected from 140 horses, 41 dogs, 5 opossums (Didelphis albiventris) and 26 humans in farms from Pauliceia Municipality. Ticks were collected from these animals, from vegetation and from additional wildlife in these farms. Overall, 25% (35/140) of the horses, 7.3% (3/41) of the dogs, 3.8% (1/26) of the humans and 100% (5/5) of the opossums were seroreactive (titre ≥64) to spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp. Multivariate statistical analysis indicated that horses that were allowed to forage in the marsh were 4.8 times more likely to be seroreactive to spotted fever group (SFG) Rickettsia spp than horses that did not forage in the marsh. In addition, horses that had been living in the farm for more than 8.5 years were 2.8 times more likely to be seroreactive to SFG Rickettsia spp than horses that were living for ≤8.5 years. Ticks collected from domestic animals or from vegetation included Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Dermacentor nitens and Rhipicephalus microplus. By PCR analyses, only one pool of A. coelebs ticks from the vegetation was shown to be infected by rickettsiae, for which DNA sequencing revealed to be Rickettsia amblyommii. Ticks (not tested by PCR) collected from wildlife encompassed A. cajennense and Amblyomma rotundatum on lizards (Tupinambis sp), and A. cajennense and A. triste on the bird Laterallus viridis. Our results indicate that the marsh area of Paulicéia offers risks of infection by SFG rickettsiae. PMID:25643912

  16. Early indices of deviance detection in humans and animal models.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Sabine; Escera, Carles; Nelken, Israel

    2016-04-01

    Detecting unexpected stimuli in the environment is a critical function of the auditory system. Responses to unexpected "deviant" sounds are enhanced compared to responses to expected stimuli. At the human scalp, deviance detection is reflected in the mismatch negativity (MMN) and in an enhancement of the middle-latency response (MLR). Single neurons often respond more strongly to a stimulus when rare than when common, a phenomenon termed stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA). Here we compare stimulus-specific adaptation with scalp-recorded deviance-related responses. We conclude that early markers of deviance detection in the time range of the MLR could be a direct correlate of cortical SSA. Both occur at an early level of cortical activation, both are robust findings with low-probability stimuli, and both show properties of genuine deviance detection. Their causal relation with the later scalp-recorded MMN is a key question in this field. PMID:26656286

  17. [Comparative experimental studies in animals and humans on gastrointestinal blood loss following antirheumatic pharmacotherapy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Palme, G; Koeppe, P

    1978-01-01

    The gastrointestinal blood loss caused by the two antirheumatic drugs acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) and 4-acetamidophenyl-2-acetoxybenzoate (benorilate, Benortan) was compared in experimental animals and humans by measuring the total body iron retention. In Wistar rats and humans the results indicate that the daily iron loss under ASA is significantly higher (almost by the factor 2) than that under benorilate. PMID:26360

  18. Humanizing Prisons with Animals: A Closer Look at "Cell Dogs" and Horse Programs in Correctional Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Christiane

    2005-01-01

    If correctional education aims to transform individuals and bring about change, we need to consider the whole person who comes with human needs, emotions and attitudes. In order to expand our approach, alternative programs should be explored. A somewhat unusual but very promising approach to address offenders' human needs is the use of animals in …

  19. Role for Animal Research in the Investigation of Human Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Britt

    1994-01-01

    A general learning impairment model and a reasoning insight model, both in rats, were reviewed for parallels to theories of human cognitive deficiency, leading to the conclusion that animal models of the cognitive deficiency states of mental retardation are underutilized and that human mental retardation researchers would benefit from greater

  20. Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews clinical and asymptomatic Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and other animals in the USA. Seroprevalence of T. gondii in humans and pigs is declining. Modes of transmission, epidemiology, and environmental contamination with oocysts on land and sea are discussed. ...

  1. Aspergillus flavus Genomics: Gateway to Human and Animal Health, Food Safety, and Crop Resistance to Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is an imperfect filamentous fungus that has existed in nature for thousands of years. A. flavus is an opportunistic pathogen causing invasive and non-invasive aspergillosis in humans, animals, and insects. It is also an allergen causing allergic reaction in humans. A. flavus in...

  2. The Socioemotional Effects of a Computer-Simulated Animal on Children's Empathy and Humane Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Yueh-Feng Lily; Kaufman, David M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of using a computer-simulated animal in a handheld virtual pet videogame to improve children's empathy and humane attitudes. Also investigated was whether sex differences existed in children's development of empathy and humane attitudes resulting from play, as well as their feelings for a virtual pet. The…

  3. Attitudes to animal euthanasia do not correlate with acceptance of human euthanasia or suicide.

    PubMed

    Ogden, U; Kinnison, T; May, S A

    2012-08-18

    Several reasons have been suggested for the elevated risk of suicide experienced by those in the veterinary profession. The current study aimed to investigate possible links between veterinarians' attitudes to 'convenience' or non-justified animal euthanasia and attitudes towards human euthanasia and suicide. Veterinary students and graduates had a negative attitude towards convenience animal euthanasia, but their attitudes changed over time (pre-clinical studies, clinical studies and recently graduated). A greater tolerance to euthanasia was displayed in the later years of study and post qualification - primarily by males. Attitudes towards both human euthanasia and suicide, however, remained stable over time and indicated on average a neutral stance. No correlations were found between attitudes to convenience euthanasia and either human euthanasia or suicide, suggesting a tolerance to convenience euthanasia of animals does not lead to desensitisation in valuing human life and a changed attitude to human euthanasia or suicide, or vice versa. Attitudes to human euthanasia and suicide were predictably correlated, perhaps suggesting an overarching attitude towards control over human death. The results of the current study throw into question the argument that it is the changes in attitudes to animal life that affect veterinarian's attitudes to human life and contribute to the high suicide rate. PMID:22791520

  4. Humanizing Prisons with Animals: A Closer Look at "Cell Dogs" and Horse Programs in Correctional Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Christiane

    2005-01-01

    If correctional education aims to transform individuals and bring about change, we need to consider the whole person who comes with human needs, emotions and attitudes. In order to expand our approach, alternative programs should be explored. A somewhat unusual but very promising approach to address offenders' human needs is the use of animals in

  5. Role for Animal Research in the Investigation of Human Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Britt

    1994-01-01

    A general learning impairment model and a reasoning insight model, both in rats, were reviewed for parallels to theories of human cognitive deficiency, leading to the conclusion that animal models of the cognitive deficiency states of mental retardation are underutilized and that human mental retardation researchers would benefit from greater…

  6. The Socioemotional Effects of a Computer-Simulated Animal on Children's Empathy and Humane Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Yueh-Feng Lily; Kaufman, David M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of using a computer-simulated animal in a handheld virtual pet videogame to improve children's empathy and humane attitudes. Also investigated was whether sex differences existed in children's development of empathy and humane attitudes resulting from play, as well as their feelings for a virtual pet. The

  7. Emotion Recognition in Animated Compared to Human Stimuli in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Mark; Johnson, Hilary; Grawmeyer, Beate; Chapman, Emma; Benton, Laura

    2015-01-01

    There is equivocal evidence as to whether there is a deficit in recognising emotional expressions in Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study compared emotion recognition in ASD in three types of emotion expression media (still image, dynamic image, auditory) across human stimuli (e.g. photo of a human face) and animated stimuli (e.g. cartoon…

  8. A review of necrophagous insects colonising human and animal cadavers in south-east Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Julianne F; Whittington, Andrew E; Zalucki, Myron P

    2015-12-01

    A review of insects collected from decomposing human remains in south-east Queensland yielded 32 species in three orders (Diptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera) and 11 families (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Phoridae, Sepsidae, Chironomidae, Dermestidae, Cleridae, Histeridae, Staphylinidae, Encyrtidae). There were 15 cases where remains were located indoors and five cases where remains were outdoors, in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Coleoptera were strongly associated with outdoors remains, while dipteran species composition was similar in both indoor and outdoor habitats. Some Diptera were only associated with indoors remains, while others were similarly restricted to remains recovered outdoors. Hymenopteran parasitoids were active in both habitats. Comparative collections were made from other vertebrate remains, including road-kill and farmed animals throughout south-east Queensland (Qld) and northern New South Wales (NSW) during the same period. PMID:26322495

  9. Towards an understanding of the role of Clostridium perfringens toxins in human and animal disease

    PubMed Central

    Uzal, Francisco A; Freedman, John C; Shrestha, Archana; Theoret, James R; Garcia, Jorge; Awad, Milena M; Adams, Vicki; Moore, Robert J; Rood, Julian I; McClane, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens uses its arsenal of >16 toxins to cause histotoxic and intestinal infections in humans and animals. It has been unclear why this bacterium produces so many different toxins, especially since many target the plasma membrane of host cells. However, it is now established that C. perfringens uses chromosomally encoded alpha toxin (a phospholipase C) and perfringolysin O (a pore-forming toxin) during histotoxic infections. In contrast, this bacterium causes intestinal disease by employing toxins encoded by mobile genetic elements, including C. perfringens enterotoxin, necrotic enteritis toxin B-like, epsilon toxin and beta toxin. Like perfringolysin O, the toxins with established roles in intestinal disease form membrane pores. However, the intestinal disease-associated toxins vary in their target specificity, when they are produced (sporulation vs vegetative growth), and in their sensitivity to intestinal proteases. Producing many toxins with diverse characteristics likely imparts virulence flexibility to C. perfringens so it can cause an array of diseases. PMID:24762309

  10. Dilemmatic human-animal boundaries in Britain and Romania: post-materialist and materialist dehumanization.

    PubMed

    Marcu, Afrodita; Lyons, Evanthia; Hegarty, Peter

    2007-12-01

    Theories of dehumanization generally assume a single clear-cut, value-free and non-dilemmatic boundary between the categories 'human' and 'animal'. The present study highlights the relevance of dilemmas involved in drawing that boundary. In six focus groups carried out in Romania and Britain, 42 participants were challenged to think about dilemmas pertaining to animal and human life. Four themes were identified: rational autonomy, sentience, speciesism and maintaining materialist and post-materialist values. Sentience made animals resemble humans, while humans' rational autonomy made them distinctive. Speciesism underlay the human participants' prioritization of their own interests over those of animals, and a conservative consensus that the existing social system could not change supported this speciesism when it was challenged. Romanian participants appealed to Romania's lack of modernity and British participants to Britain's modernity to justify such conservatism. The findings suggest that the human-animal boundary is not essentialized; rather it seems that such boundary is constructed in a dilemmatic and post hoc way. Implications for theories of dehumanization are discussed. PMID:17535452

  11. Comparisons of estimated human body burdens of dioxinlike chemicals and TCDD body burdens in experimentally exposed animals.

    PubMed

    DeVito, M J; Birnbaum, L S; Farland, W H; Gasiewicz, T A

    1995-09-01

    Humans are exposed to mixtures of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, and the potential health effects of these exposures are uncertain. A subset of this class of compounds produce similar spectra of toxicity in experimental animals as does 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and these chemicals have been classified as "dioxins." In this study, we compared the body burdens of dioxins that produce effects in experimental animals to body burdens associated with these effects in humans. Human body burdens were estimated from lipid-adjusted serum concentrations of dioxins, assuming dioxins are equally distributed in body fat and an adult has 22% body fat. The toxic equivalency factor (TEF) method was used to calculate body burdens of dioxins in humans. These calculations included dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls. In the general population, average background concentrations were estimated at 58 ng TCDD equivalents (TEQ)/kg serum lipid, corresponding to a body burden of 13 ng TEQ/kg body weight. Populations with known exposure to dioxins have body burdens of 96-7,000 ng TEQ/kg body weight. For effects that have been clearly associated with dioxins, such as chloracne and induction of CYP1A1, humans and animals respond at similar body burdens. Induction of cancer in animals occurs at body burdens of 944-137,000 ng TCDD/kg body weight, while noncancer effects in animals occur at body burdens of 10-12,500 ng/kg. Available human data suggest that some individuals may respond to dioxin exposures with cancer and noncancer effects at body burdens within one to two orders of magnitude of those in the general population. PMID:7498094

  12. Comparable measures of cognitive function in human infants and laboratory animals to identify environmental health risks to children.

    PubMed Central

    Sharbaugh, Carolyn; Viet, Susan Marie; Fraser, Alexa; McMaster, Suzanne B

    2003-01-01

    The importance of including neurodevelopmental end points in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive function in human infants that also has a homologous or parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for large-scale studies. Such a comparable test will allow researchers to observe the effect of environmental neurotoxicants in animals and relate those findings to humans. In this article, we present the results of a review of post-1990, peer-reviewed literature and current research examining measures of cognitive function that can be applied to both human infants (0-12 months old) and laboratory animals. We begin with a discussion of the definition of cognitive function and important considerations in cross-species research. We then describe identified comparable measures, providing a description of the test in human infants and animal subjects. Available information on test reliability, validity, and population norms, as well as test limitations and constraints, is also presented. PMID:14527843

  13. The animal and human neuroendocrinology of social cognition, motivation and behavior.

    PubMed

    McCall, Cade; Singer, Tania

    2012-05-01

    Extensive animal and recent human research have helped inform neuroendocrinological models of social cognition, motivation and behavior. In this review, we first summarize important findings regarding oxytocin, arginine vasopressin and testosterone in the domains of affiliation, social cognition, aggression and stress/anxiety. We then suggest ways in which human research can continue to profit from animal research, particularly by exploring the interactive nature of neuromodulatory effects at neurochemical, organismic and contextual levels. We further propose methods inspired by the animal literature for the ecologically valid assessment of affiliative behavior in humans. We conclude with suggestions for how human research could advance by directly assessing specific social cognitive and motivational mechanisms as intermediate variables. We advocate a more comprehensive look at the distinct networks identified by social neuroscience and the importance of a motivational state, in addition to approach and avoidance, associated with quiescence and homeostatic regulation. PMID:22504348

  14. Progress on the paternal brain: theory, animal models, human brain research, and mental health implications.

    PubMed

    Swain, J E; Dayton, C J; Kim, P; Tolman, R M; Volling, B L

    2014-01-01

    With a secure foundation in basic research across mammalian species in which fathers participate in the raising of young, novel brain-imaging approaches are outlining a set of consistent brain circuits that regulate paternal thoughts and behaviors in humans. The newest experimental paradigms include increasingly realistic baby-stimuli to provoke paternal cognitions and behaviors with coordinated hormone measures to outline brain networks that regulate motivation, reflexive caring, emotion regulation, and social brain networks with differences and similarities to those found in mothers. In this article, on the father brain, we review all brain-imaging studies on PubMed to date on the human father brain and introduce the topic with a selection of theoretical models and foundational neurohormonal research on animal models in support of the human work. We discuss potentially translatable models for the identification and treatment of paternal mood and father-child relational problems, which could improve infant mental health and developmental trajectories with potentially broad public health importance. PMID:25798491

  15. Investigations on human and animal remains from a medieval shaft well in Ayasuluk/Ephesos (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Kanz, Fabian; Pfeiffer-Taş, Şule; Forstenpointner, Gerhard; Galik, Alfred; Weissengruber, Gerald; Grossschmidt, Karl; Risser, Daniele U

    2014-01-01

    In course of the archaeological survey of Ayasuluk/Ephesos region (Turkey), a shaft well situated at the area of an extensive medieval bathing complex was excavated. In the stratum corresponding to the reign Mehmed II the well-preserved skeletons of two humans, an equine and a canine were recovered. Anthropological analysis of the human skeletons indentified two males aged 22 (± 3) and 36 (± 5) years. The skeleton of the younger individual showed signs of various antemortal conditions, including a well-healed fraction of right arc of the fifth lumbar vertebra, and a marked asymmetry of the shoulder joints. The older individual exhibited significant peri/postmortem injuries at the elbows, with evident signs of peeling and external burning. Also, the few elements of the cranium recovered showed also indications of burning. Archaeozoological characterization of the complete skeletons of the equine and canine established evidence of well cared-for animals of high value. The time of disposal of this group coincides with uprising of the formerly ruling Aydnoullar clan against the Ottomans in power. The human individuals recovered from the well may have been members of Aydnoullar tribe or men in service of the latter, suffering severe torture and/or mutilation for siding with the rebels after defeat. PMID:25775373

  16. Recognizing the Role of Skunks in Human and Animal Rabies Exposures in the Southwest.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robert; Taylor, Anissa; Garcia, Francisco; Krone, Tim; Brown, Heidi E

    2015-08-01

    Rabies is arguably the most important viral zoonotic disease worldwide with an estimated 55,000 human deaths each year. Globally, dogs are the primary animals affected. In the United States, especially on the East Coast, raccoons and bats are the primary reservoir. However, in the southwestern United States, skunk and bat rabies play a large role. We describe the epidemiology and environmental risk factors associated with rabies in the US Southwest using exposure data for 2004-2012 from one Arizona county as a case study. Unlike other parts of the country, here bats and skunks are the most commonly collected positive animals (62% and 32%, respectively). Even though most of the positive animals were bats, human and domestic animal exposures were primarily a result of skunk interactions (58% and 50%, respectively). Consequently, the majority of exposures occur early in the year, January and February, when the majority of skunk pickups also occur. Using public health surveillance data, our study highlights the importance of recognizing the role of skunks in human and animal exposures in the southwestern United States. Consistent with a "One Health" approach, our data show how wildlife and domestic animal and human exposures are associated and informative to one another. PMID:26273811

  17. Community Health Seeking Behavior for Suspected Human and Animal Rabies Cases, Gomma District, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Timely presentation to appropriate health service provider of sick animals/humans from zoonotic diseases like rabies is important for early case/outbreak detection and management. However, data on community’s health seeking practice for rabies in Ethiopia is limited. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine community’s health seeking behavior on rabies, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted from January 16-February 14, 2015 to collect data from 808 respondents where the respondents were selected using multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using interviewer administered structured questionnaire by trained epidemiology graduate level students. Data were entered to Epidata version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 for windows. Result Eight hundred three (99.4%) respondents participated in the study. Out of 28 respondents who reported their family members’ exposure to rabies, 8 of them replied that the exposed family members sought treatment from traditional healers. More than nine in ten respondents perceived that humans and domestic animals with rabies exposure should seek help of which 85% of them suggested modern health care facilities as the preferred management option for the sick humans and domestic animals. However, among those who reported sick domestic animals, near to 72% of them had either slaughtered for human consumption, sold immediately, visited traditional healer, given home care or did nothing for the sick domestic animals. Conclusion Majority of the respondents had favorable perception of seeking treatment from modern health care facilities for rabies. However, significant number of them had managed inappropriately for the sick domestic animals from rabies. Hence, raising awareness of the community about management of sick domestic animals from rabies and the need for reporting to both human and animal health service providers is needed. PMID:26959816

  18. OpenFluDB, a database for human and animal influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Liechti, Robin; Gleizes, Anne; Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Bougueleret, Lydie; Le Mercier, Philippe; Bairoch, Amos; Xenarios, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    Although research on influenza lasted for more than 100 years, it is still one of the most prominent diseases causing half a million human deaths every year. With the recent observation of new highly pathogenic H5N1 and H7N7 strains, and the appearance of the influenza pandemic caused by the H1N1 swine-like lineage, a collaborative effort to share observations on the evolution of this virus in both animals and humans has been established. The OpenFlu database (OpenFluDB) is a part of this collaborative effort. It contains genomic and protein sequences, as well as epidemiological data from more than 27 000 isolates. The isolate annotations include virus type, host, geographical location and experimentally tested antiviral resistance. Putative enhanced pathogenicity as well as human adaptation propensity are computed from protein sequences. Each virus isolate can be associated with the laboratories that collected, sequenced and submitted it. Several analysis tools including multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis and sequence similarity maps enable rapid and efficient mining. The contents of OpenFluDB are supplied by direct user submission, as well as by a daily automatic procedure importing data from public repositories. Additionally, a simple mechanism facilitates the export of OpenFluDB records to GenBank. This resource has been successfully used to rapidly and widely distribute the sequences collected during the recent human swine flu outbreak and also as an exchange platform during the vaccine selection procedure. Database URL: http://openflu.vital-it.ch. PMID:20624713

  19. Critical periods of vulnerability for the developing nervous system: evidence from humans and animal models.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, D; Barone, S

    2000-01-01

    Vulnerable periods during the development of the nervous system are sensitive to environmental insults because they are dependent on the temporal and regional emergence of critical developmental processes (i.e., proliferation, migration, differentiation, synaptogenesis, myelination, and apoptosis). Evidence from numerous sources demonstrates that neural development extends from the embryonic period through adolescence. In general, the sequence of events is comparable among species, although the time scales are considerably different. Developmental exposure of animals or humans to numerous agents (e.g., X-ray irradiation, methylazoxymethanol, ethanol, lead, methyl mercury, or chlorpyrifos) demonstrates that interference with one or more of these developmental processes can lead to developmental neurotoxicity. Different behavioral domains (e.g., sensory, motor, and various cognitive functions) are subserved by different brain areas. Although there are important differences between the rodent and human brain, analogous structures can be identified. Moreover, the ontogeny of specific behaviors can be used to draw inferences regarding the maturation of specific brain structures or neural circuits in rodents and primates, including humans. Furthermore, various clinical disorders in humans (e.g., schizophrenia, dyslexia, epilepsy, and autism) may also be the result of interference with normal ontogeny of developmental processes in the nervous system. Of critical concern is the possibility that developmental exposure to neurotoxicants may result in an acceleration of age-related decline in function. This concern is compounded by the fact that developmental neurotoxicity that results in small effects can have a profound societal impact when amortized across the entire population and across the life span of humans. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 12 Figure 14 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:10852851

  20. Phoretic mites associated with animal and human decomposition.

    PubMed

    Perotti, M Alejandra; Braig, Henk R

    2009-10-01

    Phoretic mites are likely the most abundant arthropods found on carcases and corpses. They outnumber their scavenger carriers in both number and diversity. Many phoretic mites travel on scavenger insects and are highly specific; they will arrive on a particular species of host and no other. Because of this, they may be useful as trace indicators of their carriers even when their carriers are absent. Phoretic mites can be valuable markers of time. They are usually found in a specialised transitional transport or dispersal stage, often moulting and transforming to adults shortly after arrival on a carcase or corpse. Many are characterised by faster development and generation cycles than their carriers. Humans are normally unaware, but we too carry mites; they are skin mites that are present in our clothes. More than 212 phoretic mite species associated with carcases have been reported in the literature. Among these, mites belonging to the Mesostigmata form the dominant group, represented by 127 species with 25 phoretic mite species belonging to the family Parasitidae and 48 to the Macrochelidae. Most of these mesostigmatids are associated with particular species of flies or carrion beetles, though some are associated with small mammals arriving during the early stages of decomposition. During dry decay, members of the Astigmata are more frequently found; 52 species are phoretic on scavengers, and the majority of these travel on late-arriving scavengers such as hide beetles, skin beetles and moths. Several species of carrion beetles can visit a corpse simultaneously, and each may carry 1-10 species of phoretic mites. An informative diversity of phoretic mites may be found on a decaying carcass at any given time. The composition of the phoretic mite assemblage on a carcass might provide valuable information about the conditions of and time elapsed since death. PMID:19557527