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1

Human Embryology Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection features animations that illustrate a variety of the processes in the development of the human embryo. The collection was designed as a tool for medical students, but can serve as a review for other health-science practitioners and students. The animations are grouped by topic: cardiovascular embryology, development of the head and neck, gastrointestinal embryology, limb development, and urinary and reproductive embryology. They include written pre- and post-tests, and online assessment materials.

2

Animal and Human Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several misconceptions regarding the status of human communication systems relative to the systems of other animals are discussed in this paper. Arguments are offered supporting the expansion of the communication discipline to include the study of the communication systems of other species. The "communicative continuity" view which ranks man at…

Rummel, Lynda

3

Differences in the number of micronucleated erythrocytes among young and adult animals including humans. Spontaneous micronuclei in 43 species.  

PubMed

In our previous report we speculated about the possibility that some species had high levels of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) just in a juvenile stage, this is, that the MNE diminish as the reticuloendothelial system matures. Here we show this effect in species including rat, rabbit, pig, dog, cat, gray squirrel, lion, giraffe, white-tailed deer, opossum and even human. The number of spontaneous MNE that we found in 43 species is shown, and the proportions of polychromatic and normochromatic. This is our third report on spontaneous MNE in different species. We obtained 189 peripheral blood samples of mammals, birds and reptiles. From 12 species we obtained only one sample, and 16 were reported previously, but now the size of the sample has been increased. The species with the highest spontaneous MNE were the Vietnamese potbelly pig (with the highest MNE number), Bengal tiger, capuchin monkey, puma, ferret, owl, hedgehog, squirrel monkey, pig and white-tailed deer. These species could be used as monitors for genotoxic events. PMID:11423355

Zúñiga-González, G; Torres-Bugarín, O; Zamora-Perez, A; Gómez-Meda, B C; Ramos Ibarra, M L; Martínez-González, S; González-Rodríguez, A; Luna-Aguirre, J; Ramos-Mora, A; Ontiveros-Lira, D; Gallegos-Arreola, M P

2001-07-25

4

its monitoring. More generally, one could investigate the condi-tions under which animals (including humans) override their  

E-print Network

Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) within the framework of German-Israeli Project Cooperation (DIP). Significant uncertainty is common in nature Donald R. Griffin Concord Field Station- sciousness is a core function of central nervous systems. Selecting actions the animal believes will obtain

Hampton, Robert

5

Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that can infect many animals, including humans. It belongs to  

E-print Network

or transplant therapy or individuals that are positive for HIV. Biology Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan transfusion or organ transplantation . · transplacentally from mother to fetus . In the human host, the parasites form tissue cysts, most commonly in skeletal muscle, myocardium, brain, and eyes; these cysts may

Wood, Marcelo A.

6

Animating human athletics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes algorithms for the animation of men and women performing three dynamic athletic behaviors: running, bicycling, and vaulting. We animate these behaviors using control algorithms that cause a physically realistic model to perform the desired maneuver. For example, control algorithms allow the simulated humans to maintain balance while moving their arms, to run or bicycle at a variety

Jessica K. Hodgins; Wayne L. Wooten; David C. Brogan; James F. O'Brien

1995-01-01

7

The need to include animal protection in public health policies.  

PubMed

Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712

Akhtar, Aysha

2013-11-01

8

Human Embryology Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A set of animations showing changes during cardiovascular, head & neck, and gut, with limb and urogenital development coming soon. Currently includes a pre and post tests on each segment so students can assess their learning.

PhD Valerie Dean O'Loughlin (Indiana University Medical Sciences Program)

2008-01-03

9

Human Embryology Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the most impressive ways to learn about biology, particularly that which we seldom see, is through modeling. Dr. Valerie O'Loughlin and her colleagues at Indiana University have created this thoroughly impressive set of animations so that "students could better understand the complex processes that must occur in embryologic development." The site is arranged into five main areas, including: Cardiovascular Embryology, Development of the Head and Neck, Gastrointestinal Embryology, Development of the Limbs, and Urinary and Reproductive Embryology. However, the only two sections currently loaded with animations are the first two. Presumably, the rest are coming soon. Also, because these animations are part of a study of teaching efficacy, Dr. O'Loughlin asks that users participate in an optional survey. However, all animations can be accessed without taking part. As a great addition to the site, users are presented with a few questions regarding the anatomy which they are about to see, prior to viewing the animation. Undboutedly, this is related to the Indiana University course that these animations are a part of, but they serve as a great addition for visitors other than students, too.

O'Loughlin, Valerie

10

When Humans Become Animals: Development of the Animal Category in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examines 3- and 5-year-olds' representation of the concept we label "animal" and its two nested concepts--"animal"[subscript contrastive] (including only non-human animals) and "animal"[subscript inclusive] (including both humans and non-human animals). Building upon evidence that naming promotes object categorization, we…

Herrmann, Patricia A.; Medin, Douglas L.; Waxman, Sandra R.

2012-01-01

11

A case for integrity: gains from including more than animal welfare in animal ethics committee deliberations.  

PubMed

From January 2013, a new EU Directive 63/2010/EU requires that research using animals must undergo a harm-benefit analysis, which takes ethical considerations into account (Art. 38 (2) d) - a so-called 'project authorization' (Art. 36). A competent authority in each member state has to ensure that no project is carried out without such a project validation process, but often delegates the actual assessment to an animal ethics committee (AEC) or its equivalent. The core task of the AEC is to formulate a justifiable balance between the animals' suffering caused by research and the potential human benefit. AECs traditionally focus on animal welfare issues, but according to the new directive other public concerns must also be taken into account. Taking the new EU Directive as a point of departure, the central aim of this paper is to discuss the evaluation process in relation to animal welfare and animal ethics through the concept of animal integrity. A further aim is to elaborate on possible improvements to project evaluation by considering animal integrity. We argue that concepts like animal integrity are often left out of project authorization processes within AECs, because animal ethics is often interpreted narrowly to include only certain aspects of animal welfare. Firstly, we describe the task of an AEC and discuss what has typically been regarded as ethically relevant in the assessment process. Secondly, we categorize four notions of integrity found in the literature to show the complexity of the concept and furthermore to indicate its strengths. Thirdly, we discuss how certain interpretations of integrity can be included in AEC assessments to encapsulate wider ethical concerns and, perhaps even increase the democratic legitimacy of AECs. PMID:24367033

Röcklinsberg, H; Gamborg, C; Gjerris, M

2014-01-01

12

Animal lifespan and human influence  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lifespan differs radically among organisms ever lived on earth, even among those roughly similar in size, shape, form, and physiology; Yet, in general, there exists a strong positive relationship between lifespan and body size. Although lifespans of humans and human-related (domestic) animals are becoming increasingly longer than that of other animals of similar sizes, the slope of the regression (lifespan-body size) line and the intercepts have been surprisingly stable over the course of the dramatic human population growth, indicating substantial depression in lifespans of many other animals probably due to shrunk and fragmented natural habitats. This article addresses two questions related to the lifespan-size relationship: (1) what caused the exceptions (e.g., a few remote human-related animals are also located above the regression line with great residuals) and why (e.g., could brain size or intelligence be a covariate in addition to body size in predicting lifespan?), and (2) whether continued human activities can eventually alter the ' natural' regression line in the future, and if so, how much. We also suggest similar research efforts to be extended to the plant world as well.

Guo, Q.; Yang, S.

2002-01-01

13

Animal Models of Human Granulocyte Diseases  

PubMed Central

In vivo animal models have proven very useful to understand basic biological pathways of the immune system, a prerequisite for the development of innovate therapies. This manuscript addresses currently available models for defined human monogenetic defects of neutrophil granulocytes, including murine, zebrafish and larger mammalian species. Strengths and weaknesses of each system are summarized, and clinical investigators may thus be inspired to develop further lines of research to improve diagnosis and therapy by use of the appropriate animal model system. PMID:23351993

Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Klein, Christoph

2012-01-01

14

Boron in human and animal nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes the findings from human and animal studies indicating that B is a dynamic trace element which, in physiological amounts, can affect the metabolism or utilisation of numerous other substances involved in life processes including macrominerals, energy substrates such as triglycerides and glucose, nitrogen containing substances such as amino acids and proteins, reactive oxygen species, and estrogen. Through

Forrest H. Nielsen

1997-01-01

15

Rabies: Diagnosis in Animals and Humans  

MedlinePLUS

... gov . Rabies Share Compartir Diagnosis in animals and humans Diagnosis in animals A diagnosis of rabies can ... based on current public health recommendations. Diagnosis in humans Several tests are necessary to diagnose rabies ante- ...

16

Animal models and human neuropsychiatric disorders.  

PubMed

Humans have long distinguished themselves from other living organisms. Therefore, to make use of animal models for neuropsychiatric disorders, it is important to acknowledge what has changed historically. Darwin argued that there was continuity in mind between humans and nonhuman species, and animal experimental psychologists and others have debated the existence of consciousness and mentality in animals ever since. Those trained in the associationist tradition sought to eliminate the concept of mind in favor of an empiricial, behavioral approach; others trained in the introspectionist tradition sought to include mental abilities as an integral part of comparative animal psychology. The waning of behaviorism and ascendance of cognitive psychology in the mid-twentieth century renewed interest in the notion of consciousness and mind in nonhuman organisms, particularly as they related to learning impairment and neurobehavioral disorders. Moreover, advances in molecular genetics and technology facilitated development of genetically modified mouse strains that could be used to examine cognitive deficits and psychopathology. However, genetic modifications to individual genes that produce behavioral dysfunction in the mouse have not always provided clear results. In part, this is likely due to the influence of genes in addition to the targeted gene, sometimes resulting in paradoxical effects. I also examine other issues created by the use of nonhuman models of human disorders, including: language, the effect of background genetic strains, genetic-environmental interactions, and the problems associated with the complex genetics needed to produce similarly complex behavioral phenotypes. PMID:17047896

Fisch, Gene S

2007-01-01

17

[Animal reservoirs of human virulent microsporidian species].  

PubMed

The main objective of the present study was to determined the occurrence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis, E. hellem, E. cuniculi, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Poland in animal faecal using the FISH (Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization) and multiplex FISH techniques. Additional objectives included: (1) identification of animal hosts of microsporidia that are infectious to humans amongst free-ranging, captive, livestock and domestic animals; (2) a molecular analysis of randomly selected parasite isolates and determination of their zoonotic potential; (3) evaluation of the role of animals in the dissemination of microsporidia spores in the environment, and an estimation of the potential risk of infection for other animals and humans. A total of 1340 faecal samples collected from 178 species of animals were examined using conventional staining (chromotrope-2R and calcofluor white M2R staining) and molecular techniques (FISH and multiplex FISH techniques). Microsporidian spores were detected in 33 faecal samples (2.5%) obtained from 17 animal species. Microsporidia were demonstrated more often in birds (6.1%) than in mammals (0.7%); the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.00001). In addition, the prevalence of microsporidian infections in waterfowl was significantly higher than the prevalence of microsporidian infections in other animals (p < 0.03). Animal reservoirs of human infectious microsporidia were disclosed in six of 38 sites where faecal samples were taken from animals. Three species of human virulent microsporidia were identified in animals. Spores of E. hellem were found in 25 faecal samples (1.9%) taken from 12 bird species (6 zoo bird species, 4 free-ranging bird species, 2 livestock bird species). Spores of E. intestinalis were identified in five faecal samples (0.4%) taken from two livestock bird species and two zoo mammal species. In turn, E. bieneusi spores were detected only in three faecal samples (0.2%) taken from three zoo mammal species. It was demonstrated that the new hosts of E. hellem are the following bird species: mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), greyleg goose (Anser anser), mute swan (Cygnus olor), black-necked swan (Cygnus melancoryphus), black swan (Cygnus atratus), coscoroba swan (Coscoroba coscoroba), black-crowned crane (Balearica pavonina), nicobar pigeon (Caloenas nicobarica) and carrion crow (Corvus cornix). In addition, E. hellem was found for the first time in birds from the Anseriformes and Gruiformes orders. Whereas E. intestinalis was disclosed for the first time in the domestic goose (Anser anser f. domestica), red ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata rubra) and the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), while the black lemur (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), mongoose lemur (Eulemur mongoz) and the Visayan warty pig (Sus cebifrons negrinus) were first found to carry E. bieneusi. The mammal species that were found to carry E. bieneusi and E. intestinalis are included in The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The results of the present study are significant from an epidemiological point of view. The wild, livestock and zoo animals that were found to carry microsporidia live in different conditions, and thus their role as animal reservoirs for these dangerous pathogens varies. Waterfowl birds may be the main source of contamination of surface waters with E. hellem spores and the protection of surface waters is virtually impossible. Moreover, isolates of E. hellem from mute swans have SSU rRNA sequences identical to E. hellem genotype reported 10 years ago in HIV-positive patient in USA (GenBank Accession no. L19070). This result indicate that E. hellem from mute swans can be a potential source of infection for humans. The contamination of the human environment with microsporidian spores infectious to humans is also facilitated by farm and synanthropic birds, because E. hellem and E. intestinalis were found in farms pigeons, domestic goose and the carrion crow. These birds can also be the source of infectious for breeders and ornithologists. The occurrence of microsporidiosis in an

S?odkowicz-Kowalska, Anna

2009-01-01

18

Animal models are reliably mimicking human diseases? A morphological study that compares animal with human NAFLD.  

PubMed

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a clinical-pathological syndrome that includes a wide spectrum of morphological alterations. In research, animal models are crucial in evaluating not only the pathogenesis of NAFLD and its progression, but also the therapeutic effects of various agents. Investigations on the ultrastructural features of NAFLD in humans are not copious, due to the difficulty to obtain human samples and to the long time of NAFLD to evolve. Translational comparative studies on the reliability of animal models in representing the histopathologic picture as seen in humans are missing. To overcome this lack of investigations, we compared the ultrastructural NAFLD features of an animal model versus human. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a high fat diet (HFD) for 1-4 weeks, while control rats were fed with a standard diet. Human specimens were collected from patients with diagnosed fatty liver disease, undergoing liver biopsies or surgery. Rat and human samples were examined by light microscopy and by transmission and high resolution scanning electron microscopy. The present work demonstrated that NAFLD in animal model and in human, share overlapping ultrastructural features. In conclusion, animal HFD represent an appropriate tool in studying the pathogenesis of NAFLD. PMID:25044260

Solinas, Paola; Isola, Michela; Lilliu, Maria Alberta; Conti, Gabriele; Civolani, Alberto; Demelia, Luigi; Loy, Francesco; Isola, Raffaella

2014-10-01

19

CONTROL FOR SIMULATED HUMAN AND ANIMAL MOTION  

E-print Network

University of Toronto Abstract: The intelligent and graceful motion control exhibited by animals and humans, robotics, artificial intelligence, as well as computer animation. Each of these disciplines providesCONTROL FOR SIMULATED HUMAN AND ANIMAL MOTION Michiel van de Panne 1 Department of Computer Science

Panne, M. van de

20

Toward a psychology of human-animal relations.  

PubMed

Nonhuman animals are ubiquitous to human life, and permeate a diversity of social contexts by providing humans with food and clothing, serving as participants in research, improving healing, and offering entertainment, leisure, and companionship. Despite the impact that animals have on human lives and vice versa, the field of psychology has barely touched upon the topic of human-animal relations as an important domain of human activity. We review the current state of research on human-animal relations, showing how this body of work has implications for a diverse range of psychological themes including evolutionary processes, development, normative factors, gender and individual differences, health and therapy, and intergroup relations. Our aim is to highlight human-animal relations as a domain of human life that merits theoretical and empirical attention from psychology as a discipline. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25365760

Amiot, Catherine E; Bastian, Brock

2015-01-01

21

Human and animal cognition: Continuity and discontinuity  

E-print Network

Human and animal cognition: Continuity and discontinuity David Premack* University of Communicated, 2007) Microscopic study of the human brain has revealed neural struc- tures, enhanced wiring, and forms of connectivity among nerve cells not found in any animal, challenging the view that the human brain is simply

Indiana University

22

Lighted display devices for producing static or animated visual displays, including animated facial features  

DOEpatents

An illuminated display device with a base member with a plurality of cavities therein. Illumination devices illuminate the cavities and emit light through an opening of the cavities in a pattern, and a speaker can emit sounds in synchronization with the pattern. A panel with translucent portions can overly the base member and the cavities. An animated talking character can have an animated mouth cavity complex with multiple predetermined mouth lighting configurations simulative of human utterances. The cavities can be open, or optical waveguide material or positive members can be disposed therein. Reflective material can enhance internal reflectance and light emission.

Heilbron, Valerie J; Clem, Paul G; Cook, Adam Wade

2014-02-11

23

Human vs animal rights. In defense of animal research.  

PubMed

For centuries, opposition has been directed against the use of animals for the benefit of humans. For more than four centuries in Europe, and for more than a century in the United States, this opposition has targeted scientific research that involves animals. More recent movements in support of animal rights have arisen in an attempt to impede, if not prohibit, the use of animals in scientific experimentation. These movements employ various means that range from information and media campaigns to destruction of property and threats against investigators. The latter efforts have resulted in the identification of more militant animal rights bands as terrorist groups. The American Medical Association has long been a defender of humane research that employs animals, and it is very concerned about the efforts of animal rights and welfare groups to interfere with research. Recently, the Association prepared a detailed analysis of the controversy over the use of animals in research, and the consequences for research and clinical medicine if the philosophy of animal rights activists were to prevail in society. This article is a condensation of the Association's analysis. PMID:2810604

Loeb, J M; Hendee, W R; Smith, S J; Schwartz, M R

1989-11-17

24

Animal models for human herpesvirus 6 infection  

PubMed Central

Human herpesvirus (HHV)-6A and HHV-6B are two enveloped DNA viruses of ?-herpesvirus family, infecting over 90% of the population and associated with several diseases, including exanthema subitum (for HHV-6B), multiple sclerosis and encephalitis, particularly in immunosuppressed patients. Animal models are highly important to better understand the pathogenesis of viral infections. Naturally developed neutralizing antibodies to HHV-6 or a related virus were found in different species of monkeys, suggesting their susceptibility to HHV-6 infection. Both HHV-6 DNA and infectious virus were detected in experimentally infected Cynomolgus and African green monkeys, although most animals remained clinically asymptomatic. Furthermore, HHV-6A infection was shown to accelerate the progression of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in macaques and to lead to the development of neurological symptoms in the marmoset model. Humanized SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice efficiently replicated HHV-6 and were also susceptible to coinfection with HHV-6 and HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus 1). As CD46 was identified as a receptor for HHV-6, transgenic mice expressing human CD46 may present a potentially interesting model for study certain aspects of HHV-6 infection and neuroinflammation. PMID:23847599

Reynaud, Joséphine M.; Horvat, Branka

2013-01-01

25

Health and welfare in animals and humans.  

PubMed

This paper contains a brief comparative analysis of some philosophical and scientific discourses on human and animal health and welfare, focusing mainly on the welfare of sentient animals. The paper sets forth two kinds of proposals for the analysis of animal welfare which do not appear in the contemporary philosophical discussion of human welfare, viz. the coping theory of welfare and the theory of welfare in terms of natural behaviour. These proposals are scrutinized in the light of some similar theories dealing with human health and quality of life. My conclusion is that the coping theory and the natural behaviour theory are not in themselves adequate for the characterization of welfare, either for humans or for sentient animals. I contend, finally, that, in the light of the previous discussion, there are good arguments for a particular set of analyses of both animal and human welfare, viz. the ones that are based on the notions of preference satisfaction and positive subjective experiences. PMID:21298322

Nordenfelt, Lennart

2011-06-01

26

Mycotoxins in animal and human patients.  

PubMed

The majority of human food and animal feed production occurs in a highly managed agroecosystem. Management decisions include variety grown, tillage and irrigation methods and practices, fertilization, pest and disease control, harvesting methods, and storage and transportation practices. This system is generally managed for optimum returns to labor and capital investments. The spores of toxigenic fungi have ubiquitous distribution and toxigenic fungi exploit food sources when conditions of moisture and temperature are above minimums for growth. The safety margins in the agroecosystem are close and are influenced by extrinsic factors such as climatic events. Control of fungal growth is important in management of raw feedstuffs, foodstuffs, condiments-spices, botanicals, and other consumable substances as they are grown, harvested, stored, and transported. The risk factors for mycotoxin production are weather conditions during crop growth and when the crop is mature, damage to seeds before, during, and after harvest, how commodities are physically handled, the presence of weed seeds and other foreign material in grain, and how commodity moisture and temperature are managed during storage and transportation. Diversion of commodities and by-products from human consumption to animal feedstuffs can increase the risk of mycotoxicoses in animals. The toxicology of selected toxigenic fungi and the mycotoxins they produce are reviewed. PMID:19793772

Coppock, Robert W; Jacobsen, Barry J

2009-01-01

27

Humans and Animals Learning Together  

E-print Network

and Animals Learning Together) is a non-profit program supported by the University of Tennessee College the support future HALT classes. HALT is sponsored, in part, by the University of Tennessee College an arrangement with the Young- Williams Animal Center, Knoxville. The HALT program gratefully acknowledges

Tennessee, University of

28

Humans and Animals Learning Together  

E-print Network

of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine. Through a series of classes, a canine obedience instructor helps, by the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine. Addi>onal support by Ideal- Williams Animal Center, Knoxville. The HALT program gratefully acknowledges

Tennessee, University of

29

[A society for humans and animals].  

PubMed

In industrial societies, living with animals can no longer be taken for granted. The long-standing tradition of living with animals has been radically questioned by biotechnological developments in animal farming and by animal liberation theories. The goal seems to be to exclude domestic animals from our food chain and return them to the wild, a paradoxical development as, at the same time, there is a tendency to domesticate wild animals. The paradox may be explained by coming back to the issue of work: living with animals means that humans and animals not only live together but also work together, thus giving work a role to play in their mutual emancipation. PMID:23516755

Porcher, Jocelyne

2013-01-01

30

Social learning in humans and other animals  

PubMed Central

Decisions made by individuals can be influenced by what others think and do. Social learning includes a wide array of behaviors such as imitation, observational learning of novel foraging techniques, peer or parental influences on individual preferences, as well as outright teaching. These processes are believed to underlie an important part of cultural variation among human populations and may also explain intraspecific variation in behavior between geographically distinct populations of animals. Recent neurobiological studies have begun to uncover the neural basis of social learning. Here we review experimental evidence from the past few decades showing that social learning is a widespread set of skills present in multiple animal species. In mammals, the temporoparietal junction, the dorsomedial, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as the anterior cingulate gyrus, appear to play critical roles in social learning. Birds, fish, and insects also learn from others, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. We discuss the evolutionary implications of these findings and highlight the importance of emerging animal models that permit precise modification of neural circuit function for elucidating the neural basis of social learning. PMID:24765063

Gariépy, Jean-François; Watson, Karli K.; Du, Emily; Xie, Diana L.; Erb, Joshua; Amasino, Dianna; Platt, Michael L.

2014-01-01

31

Revised January 2012 Appendix I Animals (including insects and fish)  

E-print Network

conducted) 2. Will you be generating any genetically modified organisms? If yes, what animals and how? N/A 3 derivative) RG1 Farq / 123A *PHAC- Public Health Agency of Canada **CFIA- Canadian Food Inspection Agency

32

Overhearing Human and Animal Languages  

Microsoft Academic Search

In May 1990 in the Southwest Indian Ocean island of Mauritius, we recorded a twoperson performance of the tale The Animal Languages (AT 670) in the Bhojpuri language, which is spoken by about one-quarter of the Mauritian population. We present an English translation of most of the performance, with brief comments. It shows a friendly rivalry between two performers, who

Lee Haring; Dawood Auleear

2002-01-01

33

Balancing Human and Animal Health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bacteria and antibiotics have likely co-existed since the beginning of time; one seeks only to survive (bacteria) while the other (antibiotics) serves multiple functions. The discovery of antimicrobials began a ‘golden age’ in medicine as previously untreatable diseases were cured. Animals benefite...

34

Toxoplasmosis in animals and humans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

T. gondii is one of the most studied parasites.It causes disease in virtually all warm blooded animals Many scientists use T. gondii to investigate problems in cell biology and genetics. The book is divided into 19 chapters. Chapter 1 deals with biology. Chapter 2, which deals with toxoplasmosis...

35

PBS Online NewsHour: Chimeras: Animal-Human Hybrids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In-depth coverage of the implanting of human cells into animals in order to make more human-like models for medical research, accompanied by instructional materials. Includes lesson plan on the ethics of chimeric research, Q-and-A with two experts, and extended interviews with researchers. Main story is provided as text, streaming video, and RealAudio.

36

Best practices for planning events encouraging human-animal interactions.  

PubMed

Educational events encouraging human-animal interaction include the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. It is estimated that 14% of all disease in the USA caused by Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157, non-O157 STECs, Listeria monocytogenes, non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica and Yersinia enterocolitica were attributable to animal contact. This article reviews best practices for organizing events where human-animal interactions are encouraged, with the objective of lowering the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. PMID:24751220

Erdozain, G; KuKanich, K; Chapman, B; Powell, D

2015-03-01

37

Humanized animal exercise model for clinical implication.  

PubMed

Exercise and physical activity function as a patho-physiological process that can prevent, manage, and regulate numerous chronic conditions, including metabolic syndrome and age-related sarcopenia. Because of research ethics and technical difficulties in humans, exercise models using animals are requisite for the future development of exercise mimetics to treat such abnormalities. Moreover, the beneficial or adverse outcomes of a new regime or exercise intervention in the treatment of a specific condition should be tested prior to implementation in a clinical setting. In rodents, treadmill running (or swimming) and ladder climbing are widely used as aerobic and anaerobic exercise models, respectively. However, exercise models are not limited to these types. Indeed, there are no golden standard exercise modes or protocols for managing or improving health status since the types (aerobic vs. anaerobic), time (morning vs. evening), and duration (continuous vs. acute bouts) of exercise are the critical determinants for achieving expected beneficial effects. To provide insight into the understanding of exercise and exercise physiology, we have summarized current animal exercise models largely based on aerobic and anaerobic criteria. Additionally, specialized exercise models that have been developed for testing the effect of exercise on specific physiological conditions are presented. Finally, we provide suggestions and/or considerations for developing a new regime for an exercise model. PMID:24647666

Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, Sung Ryul; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Han, Jin

2014-09-01

38

The uncertain response in humans and animals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has been no comparative psychological study of uncertainty processes. Accordingly, the present experiments asked whether animals, like humans, escape adaptively when they are uncertain. Human and animal observers were given two primary responses in a visual discrimination task, and the opportunity to escape from some trials into easier ones. In one psychophysical task (using a threshold paradigm), humans escaped selectively the difficult trials that left them uncertain of the stimulus. Two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) also showed this pattern. In a second psychophysical task (using the method of constant stimuli), some humans showed this pattern but one escaped infrequently and nonoptimally. Monkeys showed equivalent individual differences. The data suggest that escapes by humans and monkeys are interesting cognitive analogs and may reflect controlled decisional processes prompted by the perceptual ambiguity at threshold.

Smith, J. D.; Shields, W. E.; Schull, J.; Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

1997-01-01

39

Are animal models predictive for humans?  

PubMed Central

It is one of the central aims of the philosophy of science to elucidate the meanings of scientific terms and also to think critically about their application. The focus of this essay is the scientific term predict and whether there is credible evidence that animal models, especially in toxicology and pathophysiology, can be used to predict human outcomes. Whether animals can be used to predict human response to drugs and other chemicals is apparently a contentious issue. However, when one empirically analyzes animal models using scientific tools they fall far short of being able to predict human responses. This is not surprising considering what we have learned from fields such evolutionary and developmental biology, gene regulation and expression, epigenetics, complexity theory, and comparative genomics. PMID:19146696

2009-01-01

40

Piperidine alkaloids: Human and food animal teratogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Piperidine alkaloids are acutely toxic to adult livestock species and produce musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal animals. These teratogenic effects include multiple congenital contracture (MCC) deformities and cleft palate in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Poisonous plants containing teratogen...

41

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

2013-10-01

42

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

2012-10-01

43

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

2014-10-01

44

42 CFR 86.33 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where the application...Administration Manual 2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2 See...

2011-10-01

45

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19 Section...OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES ...86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant award...Administration Manual 2 concerning animal welfare. 2 The...

2013-10-01

46

Effects of interactions between humans and domesticated animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans have many kinds of relationships with domesticated animals. To maintain relationships interactions are needed. Interactions with animals may be beneficial for humans but may also be risky. Scientific literature on effects of human-animal relationships and interactions in a workplace, health-care and residential context has been reviewed to develop ideas about the effects farm animals can have on humans. Although

EDDIE A. M. BOKKERS

2006-01-01

47

21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...Relating to Extralabel Use of Animal and Human Drugs in Food-Producing Animals §...

2011-04-01

48

21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...Relating to Extralabel Use of Animal and Human Drugs in Food-Producing Animals §...

2012-04-01

49

21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...Relating to Extralabel Use of Animal and Human Drugs in Food-Producing Animals §...

2014-04-01

50

21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...Relating to Extralabel Use of Animal and Human Drugs in Food-Producing Animals §...

2010-04-01

51

Naturally Occurring Animal Models of Human Hepatitis E Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus in the family Hepeviridae. Hepatitis E caused by HEV is a clinically important global disease. There are currently four well-characterized genotypes of HEV in mammalian species, although numerous novel strains of HEV likely belonging to either new genotypes or species have recently been identified from several other animal species. HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are limited to infection in humans, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 infect an expanding host range of animal species and are zoonotic to humans. Historical animal models include various species of nonhuman primates, which have been indispensable for the discovery of human HEV and for understanding its pathogenesis and course of infection. With the genetic identification and characterization of animal strains of HEV, a number of naturally occurring animal models such as swine, chicken, and rabbit have recently been developed for various aspects of HEV research, including vaccine trials, pathogenicity, cross-species infection, mechanism of virus replication, and molecular biology studies. Unfortunately, the current available animal models for HEV are still inadequate for certain aspects of HEV research. For instance, an animal model is still lacking to study the underlying mechanism of severe and fulminant hepatitis E during pregnancy. Also, an animal model that can mimic chronic HEV infection is critically needed to study the mechanism leading to chronicity in immunocompromised individuals. Genetic identification of additional novel animal strains of HEV may lead to the development of better naturally occurring animal models for HEV. This article reviews the current understanding of animal models of HEV infection in both natural and experimental infection settings and identifies key research needs and limitations. PMID:24936039

Yugo, Danielle M.; Cossaboom, Caitlin M.; Meng, Xiang-Jin

2014-01-01

52

Memory monitoring by animals and humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors asked whether animals and humans would use similarly an uncertain response to escape indeterminate memories. Monkeys and humans performed serial probe recognition tasks that produced differential memory difficulty across serial positions (e.g., primacy and recency effects). Participants were given an escape option that let them avoid any trials they wished and receive a hint to the trial's answer. Across species, across tasks, and even across conspecifics with sharper or duller memories, monkeys and humans used the escape option selectively when more indeterminate memory traces were probed. Their pattern of escaping always mirrored the pattern of their primary memory performance across serial positions. Signal-detection analyses confirm the similarity of the animals' and humans' performances. Optimality analyses assess their efficiency. Several aspects of monkeys' performance suggest the cognitive sophistication of their decisions to escape.

Smith, J. D.; Shields, W. E.; Allendoerfer, K. R.; Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

1998-01-01

53

Animal models of human mitochondrial DNA mutations  

PubMed Central

Background Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cause a variety of pathologic states in human patients. Development of animal models harboring mtDNA mutations is crucial to elucidating pathways of disease and as models for preclinical assessment of therapeutic interventions. Scope of Review This review covers the knowledge gained through animal models of mtDNA mutations and the strategies used to produce them. Animals derived from spontaneous mtDNA mutations, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), nuclear translocation of mitochondrial genes followed by mitochondrial protein targeting (allotopic expression), mutations in mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma, direct microinjection of exogenous mitochondria, and cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) embryonic stem cells (ES cells) containing exogenous mitochondria (transmitochondrial cells) are considered. Major Conclusions A wide range of strategies have been developed and utilized in attempts to mimic human mtDNA mutation in animal models. Use of these animals in research studies has shed light on mechanisms of pathogenesis in mitochondrial disorders, yet methods for engineering specific mtDNA sequences are still in development. General Significance Research animals containing mtDNA mutations are important for studies of the mechanisms of mitochondrial disease and are useful for development of clinical therapies. PMID:21854831

Dunn, David A.; Cannon, Matthew V.; Irwin, Michael H.; Pinkert, Carl A.

2011-01-01

54

Transgenic Animals: Their Benefits To Human Welfare  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, reviewed, student article is about how transgenic animals, i.e., engineered to carry genes from other species, have the potential to improve human welfare in: agriculture, such as larger sheep that grow more wool, medicine, such as cows that produce insulin in their milk, andindustry, such as goats that produce spider silk for materials production.

Endang Tri Margawati (Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia;)

2003-01-01

55

Visible human slice sequence animation Web server  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since June 1998, EPFL's Visible Human Slice Server (http://visiblehuman.epfl.ch) allows to extract arbitrarily oriented and positioned slices. More than 300,000 slices are extracted each year. In order to give a 3D view of anatomic structures, a new service has been added for extracting slice animations along a user-defined trajectory. This service is useful both for research and teaching purposes (http:visiblehuman.epfl.ch/animation/). Extracting slices of animations at any desired position and orientation from the Visible Human volume (Visible Man or Woman) requires both high throughput and much processing power. The I/O disk bandwidth can be increased by accessing more than one disk at the same time, i.e. by stripping data across several disks and by carrying out parallel asynchronous disk accesses. Since processing operations such as slice and animation extraction are compute- intensive, they require the program execution to be carried out in parallel on several computers. In the present contribution, we describe the new slice sequence animation service as well as the approach taken for parallelizing this service on a multi-PC multi-disk Web server.

Bessaud, Jean-Christophe; Hersch, Roger D.

2000-12-01

56

Tobacco and cigarette butt consumption in humans and animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discarded cigarette butts may present health risks to human infants and animals because of indiscriminate eating behaviours. Nicotine found in cigarette butts may cause vomiting and neurological toxicity; leachates of cigarette butts in aquatic environments may cause exposure to additional toxic chemicals including heavy metals, ethyl phenol and pesticide residues. This report reviews published and grey literature regarding cigarette butt

Thomas E Novotny; Sarah N Hardin; Lynn R Hovda; Dale J Novotny; Mary Kay McLean; Safdar Khan

2011-01-01

57

[Current methods for the diagnosis of human and animal clonorchiasis].  

PubMed

The paper briefly reviews the current techniques for the diagnosis of human and animal clonorchiasis, which involve visual, immunological, and polymerase chain reaction-based methods, including those extensively used in medical practice and devised in experimental research laboratories. PMID:24738233

Chelomina, G N

2014-01-01

58

Affective neuroscience of pleasure: reward in humans and animals  

PubMed Central

Introduction Pleasure and reward are generated by brain circuits that are largely shared between humans and other animals. Discussion Here, we survey some fundamental topics regarding pleasure mechanisms and explicitly compare humans and animals. Conclusion Topics surveyed include liking, wanting, and learning components of reward; brain coding versus brain causing of reward; subjective pleasure versus objective hedonic reactions; roles of orbitofrontal cortex and related cortex regions; subcortical hedonic hotspots for pleasure generation; reappraisals of dopamine and pleasure-electrode controversies; and the relation of pleasure to happiness. PMID:18311558

2010-01-01

59

Tobacco and cigarette butt consumption in humans and animals  

PubMed Central

Discarded cigarette butts may present health risks to human infants and animals because of indiscriminate eating behaviours. Nicotine found in cigarette butts may cause vomiting and neurological toxicity; leachates of cigarette butts in aquatic environments may cause exposure to additional toxic chemicals including heavy metals, ethyl phenol and pesticide residues. This report reviews published and grey literature regarding cigarette butt waste consumption by children, pets and wildlife. Although reports of human and animal exposures number in the tens of thousands, severe toxic outcomes due to butt consumption are rare. Nonetheless, the ubiquity of cigarette butt waste and its potential for adverse effects on human and animal health warrants additional research and policy interventions to reduce the stream of these pollutants in the environment. PMID:21504918

Hardin, Sarah N; Hovda, Lynn R; Novotny, Dale J; McLean, Mary Kay; Khan, Safdar

2011-01-01

60

Swarm intelligence in animals and humans.  

PubMed

Electronic media have unlocked a hitherto largely untapped potential for swarm intelligence (SI; generally, the realisation that group living can facilitate solving cognitive problems that go beyond the capacity of single animals) in humans with relevance for areas such as company management, prediction of elections, product development and the entertainment industry. SI is a rapidly developing topic that has become a hotbed for both innovative research and wild speculation. Here, we tie together approaches from seemingly disparate areas by means of a general definition of SI to unite SI work on both animal and human groups. Furthermore, we identify criteria that are important for SI to operate and propose areas in which further progress with SI research can be made. PMID:19735961

Krause, Jens; Ruxton, Graeme D; Krause, Stefan

2010-01-01

61

Scripting human animations in a virtual environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current deficiencies of virtual environment (VE) are well known: annoying lag time in drawing the current view, drastically simplified environments to reduce that time lag, low resolution and narrow field of view. Animation scripting is an application of VE technology which can be carried out successfully despite these deficiencies. The final product is a smoothly moving high resolution animation displaying detailed models. In this system, the user is represented by a human computer model with the same body proportions. Using magnetic tracking, the motions of the model's upper torso, head and arms are controlled by the user's movements (18 degrees of freedom). The model's lower torso and global position and orientation are controlled by a spaceball and keypad (12 degrees of freedom). Using this system human motion scripts can be extracted from the user's movements while immersed in a simplified virtual environment. Recorded data is used to define key frames; motion is interpolated between them and post processing adds a more detailed environment. The result is a considerable savings in time and a much more natural-looking movement of a human figure in a smooth and seamless animation.

Goldsby, Michael E.; Pandya, Abhilash K.; Maida, James C.

1994-01-01

62

THE APPLICATION OF ANIMAL BEHAVIOR AND THE HUMANE CARE OF FARM ANIMALS 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Humane care is best defined as maintaining husbandry procedures in keeping with the traits which are species-specific to the animal farmed. It must be evaluated in relation to the ethogram of the species, and not to anthropomorphic human feelings about animal care. If humane care is pursued, some compatability may be found between what the animal behavior scien- tists

R. Kilgour

2010-01-01

63

Qualitative Directions in Human–Animal Companion Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Researcher inquiries into topics such as animal welfare, animal affect, and human experiences of the human–animal bond have\\u000a historically been rooted in positivist epistemologies and reliant on quantitative measures and experiments, rather than naturalistic\\u000a observations and individual experiences (Fraser, 2009). In this chapter, I target several topic areas within human–animal\\u000a and animal research to explore the existence and benefits of

David Shen-Miller

64

21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section 864.2280... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

65

21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section 864.2280... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

66

21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section 864.2280... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

67

21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section 864.2280... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification....

2010-04-01

68

21 CFR 864.2280 - Cultured animal and human cells.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section 864.2280... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification....

2014-04-01

69

Circadian rhythms and depression: human psychopathology and animal models.  

PubMed

Most organisms (including humans) developed daily rhythms in almost every aspect of their body. It is not surprising that rhythms are also related to affect in health and disease. In the present review we present data that demonstrate the evidence for significant interactions between circadian rhythms and affect from both human studies and animal models research. A number of lines of evidence obtained from human and from animal models research clearly demonstrate relationships between depression and circadian rhythms including (1) daily patterns of depression; (2) seasonal affective disorder; (3) connections between circadian clock genes and depression; (4) relationship between sleep disorders and depression; (5) the antidepressant effect of sleep deprivation; (6) the antidepressant effect of bright light exposure; and (7) the effects of antidepressant drugs on sleep and circadian rhythms. The integration of data suggests that the relationships between the circadian system and depression are well established but the underlying biology of the interactions is far from being understood. We suggest that an important factor hindering research into the underlying mechanisms is the lack of good animal models and we propose that additional efforts in that area should be made. One step in that direction could be the attempt to develop models utilizing diurnal animals which might have a better homology to humans with regard to their circadian rhythms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'. PMID:21871466

Kronfeld-Schor, Noga; Einat, Haim

2012-01-01

70

Management of human and animal bite wound infection: An overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal and human bite wounds can lead to serious infections. The organisms recovered generally originate from the biter’s\\u000a oral cavity and the victim’s skin flora. Anaerobes were isolated from more than two thirds of human and animal bite infections.\\u000a Streptococcus pyogenes is often recovered in human bites, Pasteurella multocida in animal bites, Eikenella corrodens in animal and human, Capnocytophaga spp,

Itzhak Brook

2009-01-01

71

The Evolution of Personality Variation in Humans and Other Animals  

E-print Network

The Evolution of Personality Variation in Humans and Other Animals Daniel Nettle University of evolutionary psychology has concentrated strongly on human universals, such as jealousy, sexual attraction

Napp, Nils

72

Threat detection: behavioral practices in animals and humans.  

PubMed

In contrast to a perceptible threat that releases freezing, fleeing and fighting, abstract potential threat elicits anxiety and vigilance. The prevalent view is that the larger the animal groups the lower the individual vigilance. Vigilance is a reflection of anxiety, and here we show that anxiety is contagious in grouped social animals. In humans, anxiety frequently results in rituals that confer a sense of controllability and thereby a means to cope with anxiety. Accordingly, in mental disorders with sustained anxiety, rituals predominate the behavior and consequently reduce functionality. Finally, the adaptive value of precautionary behavior, including rituals, lies in providing individuals with the opportunity to practice defensive means safely, and thus to prepare for the eventuality of real danger. Accordingly, the prevalence of anxiety in human and animal behavior accords with the "better safe than sorry" principle. PMID:20727909

Eilam, David; Izhar, Rony; Mort, Joel

2011-03-01

73

Human Factors Aspects of Power System Flow Animation  

E-print Network

Human Factors Aspects of Power System Flow Animation Douglas A. Wiegmann, Gavin R. Essenberg experimental results associated with human factors aspects of using animation to display electric power system. Index Terms--Power System Operations and Planning, Power System Visualization, Animation, Human Factors

74

Humans, animals, robots: handling volumic data flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human visual system is properly suited for reliable and adequate volumetric perception of natural environment. Volumetric data flows coming from the outer physical space are easily acquired, transferred and processed by eye-brain system in real time. This relates also to the animals which use different complicate mechanisms of optical volumetric data acquisition and can navigate safely at high speeds. On the contrary machine vision systems utilizing currently the stereoscopic effect in attempt to achieve volumetric data presentation are very slow, bulky and in a way inelegantly devised. The stereoscopy itself seems can hardly organize the adequate, real time volumetric robot vision.

Petrov, Valery

1999-08-01

75

Translating animalTranslating animal models into human  

E-print Network

to study:Animal models are used to study: · Effects of environment (e.g., stressors) on brain and behavior · Adverse effects of genetic mutations · Gene x Environment interactions Drug effects side effects of drugs· Drug effects, side effects of drugs · Drug interactions #12;Why use animal models? Throughput Cost Ph i

Kalueff, Allan V.

76

From SARS coronavirus to novel animal and human coronaviruses  

PubMed Central

In 2003, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) caused one of the most devastating epidemics known to the developed world. There were two important lessons from this epidemic. Firstly, coronaviruses, in addition to influenza viruses, can cause severe and rapidly spreading human infections. Secondly, bats can serve as the origin and natural animal reservoir of deadly human viruses. Since then, researchers around the world, especially those in Asia where SARS-CoV was first identified, have turned their focus to find novel coronaviruses infecting humans, bats, and other animals. Two human coronaviruses, HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-NL63, were identified shortly after the SARS-CoV epidemic as common causes of human respiratory tract infections. In 2012, a novel human coronavirus, now called Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), has emerged in the Middle East to cause fatal human infections in three continents. MERS-CoV human infection is similar to SARS-CoV in having a high fatality rate and the ability to spread from person to person which resulted in secondary cases among close contacts including healthcare workers without travel history to the Middle East. Both viruses also have close relationships with bat coronaviruses. New cases of MERS-CoV infection in humans continue to occur with the origins of the virus still unknown in many cases. A multifaceted approach is necessary to control this evolving MERS-CoV outbreak. Source identification requires detailed epidemiological studies of the infected patients and enhanced surveillance of MERS-CoV or similar coronaviruses in humans and animals. Early diagnosis of infected patients and appropriate infection control measures will limit the spread in hospitals, while social distancing strategies may be necessary to control the outbreak in communities if it remained uncontrolled as in the SARS epidemic. PMID:23977429

To, Kelvin K. W.; Hung, Ivan F. N.; Chan, Jasper F. W.

2013-01-01

77

Farm animal serum proteomics and impact on human health.  

PubMed

Due to the incompleteness of animal genome sequencing, the analysis and characterization of serum proteomes of most farm animals are still in their infancy, compared to the already well-documented human serum proteome. This review focuses on the implications of the farm animal serum proteomics in order to identify novel biomarkers for animal welfare, early diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of infectious disease treatment, and develop new vaccines, aiming at determining the reciprocal benefits for humans and animals. PMID:25257521

Di Girolamo, Francesco; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Lante, Isabella; Signore, Fabrizio; Muraca, Marta; Putignani, Lorenza

2014-01-01

78

Human-Animal Bonds in the Laboratory: How Animal Behavior Affects the Perspective of Caregivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiencing the human-animal bond in the laboratory con- text can potentially improve the quality of life of animals as well as increase job satisfaction for animal caregivers. With today's centralized facilities, caregivers generally focus en- tirely on providing routine care for animals without involve- ment in experimental procedures. Results of responses to a detailed and open-ended survey of 16 caregivers

Fon T. Chang; Lynette A. Hart

79

Articulating Identity: People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals and the Animal\\/Human Divide  

Microsoft Academic Search

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) faces a daunting task in creating support for animal rights and convincing individuals that they share substance with animals. PETA challenges the animal\\/human divide by articulating a shared identity through discursive and visual appeals. Their advertisements invite viewers to see similarities to the Other, visually experience the Others’ world, and visually break

Wendy Atkins-Sayre

2010-01-01

80

Review of human-animal interactions and their impact on animal productivity and welfare  

PubMed Central

Humans and animals are in regular and at times close contact in modern intensive farming systems. The quality of human-animal interactions can have a profound impact on the productivity and welfare of farm animals. Interactions by humans may be neutral, positive or negative in nature. Regular pleasant contact with humans may result in desirable alterations in the physiology, behaviour, health and productivity of farm animals. On the contrary, animals that were subjected to aversive human contact were highly fearful of humans and their growth and reproductive performance could be compromised. Farm animals are particularly sensitive to human stimulation that occurs early in life, while many systems of the animals are still developing. This may have long-lasting impact and could possibly modify their genetic potential. The question as to how human contact can have a positive impact on responses to stressors, and productivity is not well understood. Recent work in our laboratory suggested that pleasant human contact may alter ability to tolerate various stressors through enhanced heat shock protein (hsp) 70 expression. The induction of hsp is often associated with increased tolerance to environmental stressors and disease resistance in animals. The attitude and consequent behaviour of stockpeople affect the animals’ fear of human which eventually influence animals’ productivity and welfare. Other than attitude and behaviour, technical skills, knowledge, job motivation, commitment and job satisfaction are prerequisites for high job performance. PMID:23855920

2013-01-01

81

Neural responses to perceiving suffering in humans and animals.  

PubMed

The human ability to perceive and understand others' suffering is critical to reinforcing and maintaining our social bonds. What is not clear, however, is the extent to which this generalizes to nonhuman entities. Anecdotal evidence indicates that people may engage in empathy-like processes when observing suffering nonhuman entities, but psychological research suggests that we more readily empathize with those to whom we are closer and more similar. In this research, we examined neural responses in participants while they were presented with pictures of human versus dog suffering. We found that viewing human and animal suffering led to large overlapping regions of activation previously implicated in empathic responding to suffering, including the anterior cingulate gyrus and anterior insula. Direct comparisons of viewing human and animal suffering also revealed differences such that human suffering yielded significantly greater medial prefrontal activation, consistent with high-level theory of mind, whereas animal suffering yielded significantly greater parietal and inferior frontal activation, consistent with more semantic evaluation and perceptual simulation. PMID:23405957

Franklin, Robert G; Nelson, Anthony J; Baker, Michelle; Beeney, Joseph E; Vescio, Theresa K; Lenz-Watson, Aurora; Adams, Reginald B

2013-01-01

82

WORKSHOP ON THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPARABILITY OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY, WORK GROUP I REPORT: COMPARABILITY OF MEASURES OF DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY IN HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Assessment measures used in developmental neurotoxicology are reviewed for their comparability in humans and laboratory animals, and their ability to detect comparable, adverse effects across species. ompounds used for these comparisons include: abuse substances, anticonvulsant d...

83

Clonal relationships among Escherichia coli serogroup O78 isolates from human and animal infections.  

PubMed

We investigated the clonal relationships among 63 Escherichia coli strains of antigen serogroup O78 isolated from infections in humans, cattle, sheep, pigs, and chickens. Both septicemic and enterotoxigenic isolates were included in the study. A main group of 55 E. coli strains consisting of 52 septicemic isolates and 3 human enterotoxigenic E. coli isolates were clustered in related clones. The remaining eight strains, four human and four animal isolates, were clonally heterogeneous. The main group of 55 clonally related strains included isolates from human and animal infections. This result indicates that animals are a possible source of serogroup O78 septicemic E. coli infections in humans. PMID:8051245

Chérifi, A; Contrepois, M; Picard, B; Goullet, P; Orskov, I; Orskov, F

1994-05-01

84

Clonal relationships among Escherichia coli serogroup O78 isolates from human and animal infections.  

PubMed Central

We investigated the clonal relationships among 63 Escherichia coli strains of antigen serogroup O78 isolated from infections in humans, cattle, sheep, pigs, and chickens. Both septicemic and enterotoxigenic isolates were included in the study. A main group of 55 E. coli strains consisting of 52 septicemic isolates and 3 human enterotoxigenic E. coli isolates were clustered in related clones. The remaining eight strains, four human and four animal isolates, were clonally heterogeneous. The main group of 55 clonally related strains included isolates from human and animal infections. This result indicates that animals are a possible source of serogroup O78 septicemic E. coli infections in humans. Images PMID:8051245

Chérifi, A; Contrepois, M; Picard, B; Goullet, P; Orskov, I; Orskov, F

1994-01-01

85

Congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction: human disease and animal models  

PubMed Central

Ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction is the most frequently observed cause of obstructive nephropathy in children. Neonatal and foetal animal models have been developed that mimic closely what is observed in human disease. The purpose of this review is to discuss how obstructive nephropathy alters kidney histology and function and describe the molecular mechanisms involved in the progression of the lesions, including inflammation, proliferation/apoptosis, renin–angiotensin system activation and fibrosis, based on both human and animal data. Also we propose that during obstructive nephropathy, hydrodynamic modifications are early inducers of the tubular lesions, which are potentially at the origin of the pathology. Finally, an important observation in animal models is that relief of obstruction during kidney development has important effects on renal function later in adult life. A major short-coming is the absence of data on the impact of UPJ obstruction on long-term adult renal function to elucidate whether these animal data are also valid in humans. PMID:20681980

Klein, Julie; Gonzalez, Julien; Miravete, Mathieu; Caubet, Cécile; Chaaya, Rana; Decramer, Stéphane; Bandin, Flavio; Bascands, Jean-Loup; Buffin-Meyer, Bénédicte; Schanstra, Joost P

2011-01-01

86

Humanimalia: A journal of human/animal interface studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website for the new journal Humanimalia, published by DePauw University, recently released its first issue. The appeal and importance of the journal goes beyond appearance, as the journal states that the study of the human/animal interface has been a "neglected" area of research. In the "Humanimalifesto" link, a lengthy explanation is given, and it notes that one of the main goals of the journal is "to approach animal/human interfaces without relying on stigmatizing critique of philosophical, political, or cultural antagonists." The first issue consists of articles and reviews, including an article called "Hooters for Neuters: Sexist Transgressive Animal Advocacy Campaign?" and a review of the popular Michael Pollan book, "The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals". Visitors interested in submitting an article to the peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journal should check out the guidelines in the "Call-for-Papers" link on the left side of the page. The "Notes and Bulletins" link, also on the left side of the page, has a notice of an Animal Studies meeting at NYU, and the "Links" area includes information on upcoming conferences.

87

Food Animals and Antimicrobials: Impacts on Human Health  

PubMed Central

Summary: Antimicrobials are valuable therapeutics whose efficacy is seriously compromised by the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The provision of antibiotics to food animals encompasses a wide variety of nontherapeutic purposes that include growth promotion. The concern over resistance emergence and spread to people by nontherapeutic use of antimicrobials has led to conflicted practices and opinions. Considerable evidence supported the removal of nontherapeutic antimicrobials (NTAs) in Europe, based on the “precautionary principle.” Still, concrete scientific evidence of the favorable versus unfavorable consequences of NTAs is not clear to all stakeholders. Substantial data show elevated antibiotic resistance in bacteria associated with animals fed NTAs and their food products. This resistance spreads to other animals and humans—directly by contact and indirectly via the food chain, water, air, and manured and sludge-fertilized soils. Modern genetic techniques are making advances in deciphering the ecological impact of NTAs, but modeling efforts are thwarted by deficits in key knowledge of microbial and antibiotic loads at each stage of the transmission chain. Still, the substantial and expanding volume of evidence reporting animal-to-human spread of resistant bacteria, including that arising from use of NTAs, supports eliminating NTA use in order to reduce the growing environmental load of resistance genes. PMID:21976606

Marshall, Bonnie M.; Levy, Stuart B.

2011-01-01

88

Perceiving Nonhumans: Human Moral Psychology and Animal Ethics  

E-print Network

There are currently very few discussions of moral psychology in the animal ethics literature. This dissertation aims to fill this void. My main contention is that many theories in animal ethics hold mistaken views about the moral psychology of human...

Kasperbauer, Tyler

2014-04-17

89

A Developmental Psychological Perspective on the Human–Animal Bond  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The human–animal bond contributes to well-being in a variety of ways. Our understanding of our relationship with animals,\\u000a particularly from a psychological point of view, is enhanced when viewed through the lens of a lifetime developmental perspective.\\u000a Issues of attachment and the nature of the human–animal bond vary across childhood, adulthood, and later life. These in turn\\u000a influence how animals

Nancy A. Pachana; Bronwyn M. Massavelli; Sofia Robleda-Gomez

90

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19...HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No...

2014-10-01

91

21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Animal and human sera. 864.2800 Section 864.2800...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...Culture Products § 864.2800 Animal and human sera. (a) Identification....

2012-04-01

92

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19...HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No...

2011-10-01

93

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19...HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No...

2010-10-01

94

21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Animal and human sera. 864.2800 Section 864.2800...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...Culture Products § 864.2800 Animal and human sera. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

95

21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Animal and human sera. 864.2800 Section 864.2800...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...Culture Products § 864.2800 Animal and human sera. (a) Identification....

2013-04-01

96

42 CFR 86.19 - Human subjects; animal welfare.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19...HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...and Health Training Grants § 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No...

2012-10-01

97

Linkages between animal and human health sentinel data  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: In order to identify priorities for building integrated surveillance systems that effectively model and predict human risk of zoonotic diseases, there is a need for improved understanding of the practical options for linking surveillance data of animals and humans. We conducted an analysis of the literature and characterized the linkage between animal and human health data. We discuss the

Matthew Scotch; Lynda Odofin; Peter Rabinowitz

2009-01-01

98

76 FR 67465 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Reopening of the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/ Feed Facilities; Reopening of...Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request for Comments...process, pack, or hold human food or animal food/feed (including pet food)....

2011-11-01

99

Real-time Human Hair Modeling and Animation Chuan Koon Koh and Zhiyong Huang  

E-print Network

1 Real-time Human Hair Modeling and Animation Chuan Koon Koh and Zhiyong Huang {kohchuan | huangzy and animation of hair. Various methods have been employed to model human hair, including modeling hair strands individually [1, 4]; using trigonal prisms with 2D hair distribution maps [3, 9] and more recently, volumetric

Huang, Zhiyong

100

Animal Models and Bone Histomorphometry: Translational Research for the Human Research Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the use of animal models to research and inform bone morphology, in particular relating to human research in bone loss as a result of low gravity environments. Reasons for use of animal models as tools for human research programs include: time-efficient, cost-effective, invasive measures, and predictability as some model are predictive for drug effects.

Sibonga, Jean D.

2010-01-01

101

Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health  

SciTech Connect

Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also carried out taking into account all direct and indirect sources of nitrite from the human diet, including carry-over of nitrite in animal-based products such as milk, eggs and meat products. Human exposure was then compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nitrite of 0-0.07 mg/kg b.w. per day. Overall, the low levels of nitrite in fresh animal products represented only 2.9% of the total daily dietary exposure and thus were not considered to raise concerns for human health. It is concluded that the potential health risk to animals from the consumption of feed or to man from eating fresh animal products containing nitrite, is very low.

Cockburn, Andrew [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU (United Kingdom); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Toxicological chemistry unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fernández, Maria-Luisa [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Carretera de la Coruña, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arcella, Davide [Unit on Data Collection and Exposure, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A43100 Parma (Italy); Bordajandi, Luisa R. [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cottrill, Bruce [Policy Delivery Group, Animal Health and Welfare, ADAS, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom); Peteghem, Carlos van [University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dorne, Jean-Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

2013-08-01

102

Metabolism of cefotaxime in animals and humans.  

PubMed

The metabolism of [14C]cefotaxime was studied in vivo in rats, dogs, and humans and in vitro in cells of rats and rabbits. Excretion of radioactivity was similar in all species, and greater than 80% of the dose was recovered in the urine. Approximately one-third of the dose was eliminated unchanged, and the major metabolite was desacetylcefotaxime. Under normal circumstances these two products, both with antibacterial activity, were the only materials detected in the plasma. Two further metabolites, designated M2 and M3, (formerly known as UP1 and UP2, respectively, were observed in canine and human urine. Although M2 and M3 were not present in the plasma of normal animals, they were found in the plasma and bile of nephrectomized rats. Extensive studies have shown that the metabolic pathway follows the route: cefotaxime leads to desacetylcefotaxime leads to desacetylcefotaxime lactone leads to M metabolites. The rate-limiting step is the formation of desacetylcefotaxime lactone. All of these reactions take place in the liver. It is concluded that species differences in the metabolism of cefotaxime are more likely to be quantitative than qualitative and that both rat and dog are suitable species for toxicity studies. PMID:6294781

Coombes, J D

1982-01-01

103

Prior ethical review of animal versus human subjects research.  

PubMed

During the last decade the animal rights movement has garnered widespread support that now threatens the existence of animal research. Current public sentiment demands researcher accountability and documentation of the potential value of animal research that was largely assumed in the past. One way this can be accomplished is through prior review and approval of animal research protocols by the federally mandated institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC). IACUCs, however, face more difficulty in arriving at consistent and ethically correct decisions than human subject review committees or institutional review boards (IRBs). This article explains why and draws a comparison between animal and human subjects review. PMID:3182217

Prentice, E; Jameton, A; Antonson, D; Zucker, I

1988-09-01

104

Human and Animal Dirofilariasis: the Emergence of a Zoonotic Mosaic  

PubMed Central

Summary: Dirofilariasis represents a zoonotic mosaic, which includes two main filarial species (Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens) that have adapted to canine, feline, and human hosts with distinct biological and clinical implications. At the same time, both D. immitis and D. repens are themselves hosts to symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, the study of which has resulted in a profound shift in the understanding of filarial biology, the mechanisms of the pathologies that they produce in their hosts, and issues related to dirofilariasis treatment. Moreover, because dirofilariasis is a vector-borne transmitted disease, their distribution and infection rates have undergone significant modifications influenced by global climate change. Despite advances in our knowledge of D. immitis and D. repens and the pathologies that they inflict on different hosts, there are still many unknown aspects of dirofilariasis. This review is focused on human and animal dirofilariasis, including the basic morphology, biology, protein composition, and metabolism of Dirofilaria species; the climate and human behavioral factors that influence distribution dynamics; the disease pathology; the host-parasite relationship; the mechanisms involved in parasite survival; the immune response and pathogenesis; and the clinical management of human and animal infections. PMID:22763636

Siles-Lucas, Mar; Morchón, Rodrigo; González-Miguel, Javier; Mellado, Isabel; Carretón, Elena; Montoya-Alonso, Jose Alberto

2012-01-01

105

Natural immune systems protect animals from dangerous foreign pathogens, including bacte-  

E-print Network

Natural immune systems protect animals from dangerous foreign pathogens, including bacte- ria computer immune systems with some of the important properties of natural immune systems, including are less well known. The immune system provides a persuasive example of how they might be implemented

Garlan, David

106

The Wild and the Humanized: Animals in Thai Tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual framework for the classification of the totality of settings of tourists' engagement with animals\\/based of the degree to which they are “framed,” is proposed. Four types of settings are distinguished, ranging from those offering the experience of Otherness of wild animals, to those offering entertainment by humanized animals. This framework is applied to a study of settings of

ERIK COHEN

2009-01-01

107

Structuring relationships: On science, feminism and non-human animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-human animals and their behaviour are part of the remit of what psychology studies; yet they are largely absent from feminist theory. This is in part due to earlier decades of feminist disavowal of biology and biological determinism (manifest in the sex\\/gender distinction). To exclude animals makes little sense, however, as animal societies continue to be used as models for

Lynda Birke

2010-01-01

108

Future Directions in Human-Animal Bond Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human-animal contact can influence psychological and physiological parameters important to health and welfare; nevertheless, there has been relatively little research on the variables that influence or mediate those health consequences. In addition, little attention has been paid on how to create or alter the animal interactions for the betterment of people and their animals. The investigation can be guided by

Alan M. Beck; Aaron H. Katcher

2003-01-01

109

Clinical impact of persistent Bartonella bacteremia in humans and animals.  

PubMed

Bartonella spp. are emerging vector-borne pathogens that cause persistent, often asymptomatic bacteremia in their natural hosts. As our knowledge progresses, it appears that chronic infection may actually predispose the host to mild, insidious nonspecific manifestations or induce, in selected instances, severe diseases. Persistent asymptomatic bacteremia is most common in animals that serve as the main reservoir for the specific Bartonella. In humans, these organisms are B. bacilliformis and B. quintana. Other Bartonella species, for which humans are not the natural reservoir, tend to cause persistent bacteremia only in immunodeficient individuals. In some of these individuals, endothelial cell proliferation may create lesions such as bacillary angiomatosis or bacillary peliosis. In cats, bacteremia of variable level and continuity may last for years. Some strains of B. henselae may induce clinical manifestations, including fever, mild neurological signs, reproductive disorders, whereas others do not induce clinically obvious disease. Reproductive disorders have also been reported in mice experimentally infected with B. birtlesii. Finally, canids constitute the most interesting naturally occurring animal model for the human disease. Like immunocompetent people, healthy dogs only occasionally demonstrate long-term bacteremia when infected with Bartonella spp. However, some dogs develop severe clinical manifestations, such as endocarditis, and the pathologic spectrum associated with Bartonella spp. infection in domestic dogs is rapidly expanding and resembles the infrequently reported clinical entities observed in humans. In coyotes, persistent bacteremia is more common than in domestic dogs. It will be of interest to determine if coyotes develop clinical or pathological indications of infection. PMID:12860639

Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Sykes, Jane E; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

2003-06-01

110

The human, the non-human and the animal: Feminist theories and animal imagery in nanotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation is part of the Metaphor and Vision track.\\u000aNanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on the molecular and atomic scales. Some have projected that it will have broad economic and social benefits; including improved energy efficiency, computing power, medical treatments, and removal of environmental pollutants. ‘Nature’ has been identified as the ultimate nanotechnologist and design elements from animal

Kasi Jackson

2010-01-01

111

Animal models of human placentation--a review.  

PubMed

This review examines the strengths and weaknesses of animal models of human placentation and pays particular attention to the mouse and non-human primates. Analogies can be drawn between mouse and human in placental cell types and genes controlling placental development. There are, however, substantive differences, including a different mode of implantation, a prominent yolk sac placenta, and fewer placental hormones in the mouse. Crucially, trophoblast invasion is very limited in the mouse and transformation of uterine arteries depends on maternal factors. The mouse also has a short gestation and delivers poorly developed young. Guinea pig is a good alternative rodent model and among the few species known to develop pregnancy toxaemia. The sheep is well established as a model in fetal physiology but is of limited value for placental research. The ovine placenta is epitheliochorial, there is no trophoblast invasion of uterine vessels, and the immunology of pregnancy may be quite different. We conclude that continued research on non-human primates is needed to clarify embryonic-endometrial interactions. The interstitial implantation of human is unusual, but the initial interaction between trophoblast and endometrium is similar in macaques and baboons, as is the subsequent lacunar stage. The absence of interstitial trophoblast cells in the monkey is an important difference from human placentation. However, there is a strong resemblance in the way spiral arteries are invaded and transformed in the macaque, baboon and human. Non-human primates are therefore important models for understanding the dysfunction that has been linked to pre-eclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Models that are likely to be established in the wake of comparative genomics include the marmoset, tree shrew, hedgehog tenrec and nine-banded armadillo. PMID:17196252

Carter, A M

2007-04-01

112

very year, unknown numbers of marine animals, including whales, seals, dolphins,  

E-print Network

E very year, unknown numbers of marine animals, including whales, seals, dolphins, turtles, and sea in the marine environment -- working to protect and conserve our nation's natural resources, oceans, and coastal Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act, (Title II) 33 U.S.C. §§ 1401 et seq. 4 Clean Water Act, 33 U

113

CENSHARE - Center to Study Human Animal Relationships and Environments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1981 at the University of Minnesota's School of Public Health, the Center to Study Human Animal Relationships and Environments (CENSHARE) is an umbrella organization that supports groups that aim to educate about the human animal relationship and the environment they share. This mission of this education is to improve the quality of life for both, encourage scientific study of such relationships, and also serve as a resource for the community on these relationships. Visitors should check out the thorough explanation of "Animal Assisted Therapy" (AAT), and learn how it differs from, say, Animal Assisted Activities (AAA). As animal therapy can be stressful on the animal if it is not properly trained for such demanding work, the AAT link gives helpful tips to visitors on how to get an animal ready to be a therapy animal. Visitors will also learn from the AAT link that such animals have been evaluated and registered by national groups that specialize in therapy animals, but are not given the federal protections that specially-trained service dogs are, such as access to public transportation and public buildings. Finally, visitors should check out the "Companion Animals in Care Environments" link. Here they can read a bittersweet story titled "Lessons to be Learned from the Saga of Mae" which addresses the considerations that should be made when deciding whether to allow a resident animal in a care facility.

114

Animal Welfare in Different Human Cultures, Traditions and Religious Faiths  

PubMed Central

Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982) that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly. PMID:25049508

Sz?cs, E.; Geers, R.; Jezierski, T.; Sossidou, E. N.; Broom, D. M.

2012-01-01

115

Bacteriophages: an underestimated role in human and animal health?  

PubMed Central

Metagenomic approaches applied to viruses have highlighted their prevalence in almost all microbial ecosystems investigated. In all ecosystems, notably those associated with humans or animals, the viral fraction is dominated by bacteriophages. Whether they contribute to dysbiosis, i.e., the departure from microbiota composition in symbiosis at equilibrium and entry into a state favoring human or animal disease is unknown at present. This review summarizes what has been learnt on phages associated with human and animal microbiota, and focuses on examples illustrating the several ways by which phages may contribute to a shift to pathogenesis, either by modifying population equilibrium, by horizontal transfer, or by modulating immunity. PMID:24734220

De Paepe, Marianne; Leclerc, Marion; Tinsley, Colin R.; Petit, Marie-Agnès

2014-01-01

116

Nutritional ecology of obesity: from humans to companion animals.  

PubMed

We apply nutritional geometry, a framework for modelling the interactive effects of nutrients on animals, to help understand the role of modern environments in the obesity pandemic. Evidence suggests that humans regulate the intake of protein energy (PE) more strongly than non-protein energy (nPE), and consequently will over- and under-ingest nPE on diets with low or high PE, respectively. This pattern of macronutrient regulation has led to the protein leverage hypothesis, which proposes that the rise in obesity has been caused partly by a shift towards diets with reduced PE:nPE ratios relative to the set point for protein regulation. We discuss potential causes of this mismatch, including environmentally induced reductions in the protein density of the human diet and factors that might increase the regulatory set point for protein and hence exacerbate protein leverage. Economics - the high price of protein compared with fats and carbohydrates - is one factor that might contribute to the reduction of dietary protein concentrations. The possibility that rising atmospheric CO2 levels could also play a role through reducing the PE:nPE ratios in plants and animals in the human food chain is discussed. Factors that reduce protein efficiency, for example by increasing the use of ingested amino acids in energy metabolism (hepatic gluconeogenesis), are highlighted as potential drivers of increased set points for protein regulation. We recommend that a similar approach is taken to understand the rise of obesity in other species, and identify some key gaps in the understanding of nutrient regulation in companion animals. PMID:25415804

Raubenheimer, David; Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E; Gosby, Alison K; Simpson, Stephen

2015-01-01

117

Establishing efficacy of human products using animals: the US food and drug administration's "animal rule".  

PubMed

In 2002, the US Food and Drug Administration issued regulations to allow the approval of human drugs and biological products based on animal efficacy studies when human efficacy studies would be unethical or not feasible. These regulations are intended to assist in the approval process for products aimed at preventing or treating human diseases caused by nuclear, radiological, biological, and chemical agents that have the potential to harm a significant percentage of the US population. This article discusses the criteria that must be met to use the Animal Rule to demonstrate efficacy in place of human clinical trials. PMID:20551476

Snoy, P J

2010-09-01

118

Enhanced CAPTCHAs: Using Animation to Tell Humans and Computers Apart  

E-print Network

Enhanced CAPTCHAs: Using Animation to Tell Humans and Computers Apart Elias Athanasopoulos Turing Test to tell Comput- ers and Humans Apart (CAPTCHA) is a ­rather­ simple test that can be easily answered by a human but extremely difficult to be answered by computers. CAPTCHAs have been widely used

Markatos, Evangelos P.

119

Systematic reviews of animal experiments demonstrate poor human clinical and toxicological utility.  

PubMed

The assumption that animal models are reasonably predictive of human outcomes provides the basis for their widespread use in toxicity testing and in biomedical research aimed at developing cures for human diseases. To investigate the validity of this assumption, the comprehensive Scopus biomedical bibliographic databases were searched for published systematic reviews of the human clinical or toxicological utility of animal experiments. In 20 reviews in which clinical utility was examined, the authors concluded that animal models were either significantly useful in contributing to the development of clinical interventions, or were substantially consistent with clinical outcomes, in only two cases, one of which was contentious. These included reviews of the clinical utility of experiments expected by ethics committees to lead to medical advances, of highly-cited experiments published in major journals, and of chimpanzee experiments--those involving the species considered most likely to be predictive of human outcomes. Seven additional reviews failed to clearly demonstrate utility in predicting human toxicological outcomes, such as carcinogenicity and teratogenicity. Consequently, animal data may not generally be assumed to be substantially useful for these purposes. Possible causes include interspecies differences, the distortion of outcomes arising from experimental environments and protocols, and the poor methodological quality of many animal experiments, which was evident in at least 11 reviews. No reviews existed in which the majority of animal experiments were of good methodological quality. Whilst the effects of some of these problems might be minimised with concerted effort (given their widespread prevalence), the limitations resulting from interspecies differences are likely to be technically and theoretically impossible to overcome. Non-animal models are generally required to pass formal scientific validation prior to their regulatory acceptance. In contrast, animal models are simply assumed to be predictive of human outcomes. These results demonstrate the invalidity of such assumptions. The consistent application of formal validation studies to all test models is clearly warranted, regardless of their animal, non-animal, historical, contemporary or possible future status. Likely benefits would include, the greater selection of models truly predictive of human outcomes, increased safety of people exposed to chemicals that have passed toxicity tests, increased efficiency during the development of human pharmaceuticals and other therapeutic interventions, and decreased wastage of animal, personnel and financial resources. The poor human clinical and toxicological utility of most animal models for which data exists, in conjunction with their generally substantial animal welfare and economic costs, justify a ban on animal models lacking scientific data clearly establishing their human predictivity or utility. PMID:18186670

Knight, Andrew

2007-12-01

120

9 CFR 91.17 - Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. 91.17 Section 91.17 Animals...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. (a) The owner or operator of an ocean vessel carrying animals from...

2011-01-01

121

9 CFR 91.17 - Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. 91.17 Section 91.17 Animals...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. (a) The owner or operator of an ocean vessel carrying animals from...

2013-01-01

122

9 CFR 91.17 - Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. 91.17 Section 91.17 Animals...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. (a) The owner or operator of an ocean vessel carrying animals from...

2010-01-01

123

9 CFR 91.17 - Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. 91.17 Section 91.17 Animals...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. (a) The owner or operator of an ocean vessel carrying animals from...

2014-01-01

124

9 CFR 91.17 - Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. 91.17 Section 91.17 Animals...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. (a) The owner or operator of an ocean vessel carrying animals from...

2012-01-01

125

JOINT ATTENTION IN HUMANS AND ANIMALS Malinda Carpenter  

E-print Network

JOINT ATTENTION IN HUMANS AND ANIMALS Malinda Carpenter Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary of learning. Springer. Synonyms Coordinated Joint Engagement; Declarative Pointing; Declarative Showing; Triadic Looking; Referential Looking; Joint Visual Attention Definition Joint attention is typically

Carpenter, M.alinda

126

21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2800 Animal and human...that provide the necessary growth-promoting nutrients in a cell culture system. (b) Classification. Class I...

2014-04-01

127

21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2800 Animal and human...that provide the necessary growth-promoting nutrients in a cell culture system. (b) Classification. Class I...

2010-04-01

128

Human-animal relationships: from daily life to animal-assisted therapies.  

PubMed

Humans have a long history of relationship with domestic animals and nowadays pets often act as "social substitutes" through bonding. There is some evidence that pet presence at home may induce well being in people and the development of social skills in children. Animal assisted therapies aim at developing these skills in patients on the basis of human animal interactions. Experimental data obtained on animal models suggest that this is indeed a promising line. There is however a lack of clear scientific data that would help defines what the most appropriate procedures or species may be. Improvements are observed, but again sound scientific data are mostly missing. Attention must be given to the welfare of the animals being used. PMID:22194075

Grandgeorge, Marine; Hausberger, Martine

2011-01-01

129

The Various Roles of Animal Models in Understanding Human Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors take a very conservative view of the contribution of animal models to an understanding of human development. We do not think that homologies can be readily documented with even our most closely related relatives' behavior and psychological functioning. The major contribution of animal models is their provision of food…

Gottlieb, Gilbert; Lickliter, Robert

2004-01-01

130

Early hominin diet included diverse terrestrial and aquatic animals 1.95 Ma in East Turkana, Kenya.  

PubMed

The manufacture of stone tools and their use to access animal tissues by Pliocene hominins marks the origin of a key adaptation in human evolutionary history. Here we report an in situ archaeological assemblage from the Koobi Fora Formation in northern Kenya that provides a unique combination of faunal remains, some with direct evidence of butchery, and Oldowan artifacts, which are well dated to 1.95 Ma. This site provides the oldest in situ evidence that hominins, predating Homo erectus, enjoyed access to carcasses of terrestrial and aquatic animals that they butchered in a well-watered habitat. It also provides the earliest definitive evidence of the incorporation into the hominin diet of various aquatic animals including turtles, crocodiles, and fish, which are rich sources of specific nutrients needed in human brain growth. The evidence here shows that these critical brain-growth compounds were part of the diets of hominins before the appearance of Homo ergaster/erectus and could have played an important role in the evolution of larger brains in the early history of our lineage. PMID:20534571

Braun, David R; Harris, John W K; Levin, Naomi E; McCoy, Jack T; Herries, Andy I R; Bamford, Marion K; Bishop, Laura C; Richmond, Brian G; Kibunjia, Mzalendo

2010-06-01

131

Sketch-Based Virtual Human Modelling and Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animated virtual humans created by skilled artists play a remarkable role in today’s public entertainment. However, ordinary\\u000a users are still treated as audiences due to the lack of appropriate expertise, equipment, and computer skills. We developed\\u000a a new method and a novel sketching interface, which enable anyone who can draw to “sketch-out” 3D virtual humans and animation.\\u000a We devised a

Chen Mao; Sheng Feng Qin; David Wright

2007-01-01

132

Virtual humans for animation, ergonomics, and simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last few years have seen great maturation in the computation speed and control methods needed to portray 3D virtual humans suitable for real interactive applications. We first describe the state of the art, then focus on the particular approach taken at the University of Pennsylvania with the Jack system. Various aspects of real-time virtual humans are considered such as

Norman Badler

1997-01-01

133

Research on Human-animal Entities: Ethical and Regulatory Aspects in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

To review the ethical and regulatory issues related to the research on human-animal entities at various stages. Review of\\u000a scientific publications, laws and ethical guidelines in this field up through September 2008. The article presents the overall\\u000a picture of the research on human-animal entities in Europe, including the public opinion and the country-specific regulations\\u000a and guidelines regarding such research, discusses

Kristina Hug

2009-01-01

134

Bipedal animals, and their differences from humans  

PubMed Central

Humans, birds and (occasionally) apes walk bipedally. Humans, birds, many lizards and (at their highest speeds) cockroaches run bipedally. Kangaroos, some rodents and many birds hop bipedally, and jerboas and crows use a skipping gait. This paper deals only with walking and running bipeds. Chimpanzees walk with their knees bent and their backs sloping forward. Most birds walk and run with their backs and femurs sloping at small angles to the horizontal, and with their knees bent. These differences from humans make meaningful comparisons of stride length, duty factor, etc., difficult, even with the aid of dimensionless parameters that would take account of size differences, if dynamic similarity were preserved. Lizards and cockroaches use wide trackways. Humans exert a two-peaked pattern of force on the ground when walking, and an essentially single-peaked pattern when running. The patterns of force exerted by apes and birds are never as markedly two-peaked as in fast human walking. Comparisons with quadrupedal mammals of the same body mass show that human walking is relatively economical of metabolic energy, and human running is expensive. Bipedal locomotion is remarkably economical for wading birds, and expensive for geese and penguins. PMID:15198697

Alexander, R McN

2004-01-01

135

Development in Immunoprophylaxis against Rabies for Animals and Humans  

PubMed Central

Rabies is a fatal neurological disease and a persistent global problem. It is spread primarily by domestic dogs but other canid, viverrid (skunks and raccoons) and chiropteran species are considered as the most efficient vectors of the disease. Since dogs are the main perpetuator of rabies, special attention has to be given to bring all the dogs including unauthorized stray dogs under immunization umbrella in order to control rabies. Vaccination is the only way to combat the disease before and after exposure or infection as there is no treatment available once the symptoms have appeared. After the first crude nerve tissue vaccine developed by Pasteur in 1885, a number of rabies vaccines for animal and human use have been developed with varying degree of safety and efficacy over the years. Presently, cell culture based inactivated rabies vaccines are largely used in most of the parts of the world. However, these vaccines are too expensive and unaffordable for vaccination of people and animals in developing countries. The comparatively cheaper inactivated nerve tissues vaccines can cause serious side-effects such as autoimmune encephalomyelitis in inoculated animals and production has been discontinued in several countries. Although attenuated live vaccines can efficiently elicit a protective immune response with a smaller amount of virus, they sometimes can cause rabies in the inoculated animals by its residual virulence or pathogenic mutation during viral propagation in the body. New-generation rabies vaccines generated by gene manipulation although in experimental stage may be a suitable alternative to overcome the disadvantages of the live attenuated vaccines. So, awareness must be created in general public about the disease and the cell culture based vaccines available in the market should be recommended for wide scale use to prevent and control this emerging and reemerging infectious disease in foreseeable future. PMID:23407587

Nandi, Sukdeb; Kumar, Manoj

2010-01-01

136

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Animals and Its Relevance to Human Health  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus aureus is a typical human pathogen. Some animal S. aureus lineages have derived from human strains following profound genetic adaptation determining a change in host specificity. Due to the close relationship of animals with the environmental microbiome and resistome, animal staphylococcal strains also represent a source of resistance determinants. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) emerged 50?years ago as a nosocomial pathogen but in the last decade it has also become a frequent cause of infections in the community. The recent finding that MRSA frequently colonizes animals, especially livestock, has been a reason for concern, as it has revealed an expanded reservoir of MRSA. While MRSA strains recovered from companion animals are generally similar to human nosocomial MRSA, MRSA strains recovered from food animals appear to be specific animal-adapted clones. Since 2005, MRSA belonging to ST398 was recognized as a colonizer of pigs and human subjects professionally exposed to pig farming. The “pig” MRSA was also found to colonize other species of farmed animals, including horses, cattle, and poultry and was therefore designated livestock-associated (LA)-MRSA. LA-MRSA ST398 can cause infections in humans in contact with animals, and can infect hospitalized people, although at the moment this occurrence is relatively rare. Other animal-adapted MRSA clones have been detected in livestock, such as ST1 and ST9. Recently, ST130 MRSA isolated from bovine mastitis has been found to carry a novel mecA gene that eludes detection by conventional PCR tests. Similar ST130 strains have been isolated from human infections in UK, Denmark, and Germany at low frequency. It is plausible that the increased attention to animal MRSA will reveal other strains with peculiar characteristics that can pose a risk to human health. PMID:22509176

Pantosti, Annalisa

2012-01-01

137

Character Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of the creation and animation of characters in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional character animation techniques, such as those developed by the Disney animators, and also human modelling. The section includes html pages, images and several videos.

138

What can animal aggression research tell us about human aggression?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on endocrinological correlates of aggression in laboratory animals is implicitly motivated by an expectation that the results of such studies may be applicable to human aggression as well. Research with a focus on the stimulus antecedents of aggression, its response characteristics, and its outcomes suggests a number of detailed correspondences between offensive aggression in laboratory rodents and human angry

D. Caroline Blanchard; Robert J Blanchard

2003-01-01

139

Implications of Animal Object Memory Research for Human Amnesia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Damage to structures in the human medial temporal lobe causes severe memory impairment. Animal object recognition tests gained prominence from attempts to model "global" human medial temporal lobe amnesia, such as that observed in patient HM. These tasks, such as delayed nonmatching-to-sample and spontaneous object recognition, for assessing…

Winters, Boyer D.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.

2010-01-01

140

Dead or alive: animal sampling during Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in humans  

PubMed Central

There are currently no widely accepted animal surveillance guidelines for human Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak investigations to identify potential sources of Ebolavirus (EBOV) spillover into humans and other animals. Animal field surveillance during and following an outbreak has several purposes, from helping identify the specific animal source of a human case to guiding control activities by describing the spatial and temporal distribution of wild circulating EBOV, informing public health efforts, and contributing to broader EHF research questions. Since 1976, researchers have sampled over 10,000 individual vertebrates from areas associated with human EHF outbreaks and tested for EBOV or antibodies. Using field surveillance data associated with EHF outbreaks, this review provides guidance on animal sampling for resource-limited outbreak situations, target species, and in some cases which diagnostics should be prioritized to rapidly assess the presence of EBOV in animal reservoirs. In brief, EBOV detection was 32.7% (18/55) for carcasses (animals found dead) and 0.2% (13/5309) for live captured animals. Our review indicates that for the purposes of identifying potential sources of transmission from animals to humans and isolating suspected virus in an animal in outbreak situations, (1) surveillance of free-ranging non-human primate mortality and morbidity should be a priority, (2) any wildlife morbidity or mortality events should be investigated and may hold the most promise for locating virus or viral genome sequences, (3) surveillance of some bat species is worthwhile to isolate and detect evidence of exposure, and (4) morbidity, mortality, and serology studies of domestic animals should prioritize dogs and pigs and include testing for virus and previous exposure. PMID:22558004

Olson, Sarah H.; Reed, Patricia; Cameron, Kenneth N.; Ssebide, Benard J.; Johnson, Christine K.; Morse, Stephen S.; Karesh, William B.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.; Joly, Damien O.

2012-01-01

141

Rift Valley Fever in Humans and Animals in Mayotte, an Endemic Situation?  

PubMed Central

Retrospective studies and surveillance on humans and animals revealed that Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) has been circulating on Mayotte for at least several years. A study was conducted in 2011 to estimate the seroprevalence of RVF in humans and in animals and to identify associated risk factors. Using a multistage cluster sampling method, 1420 individuals were enrolled in the human study, including 337 children aged 5 to 14 years. For the animal study, 198 seronegative ruminants from 33 randomly selected sentinel ruminant herds were followed up for more than one year. In both studies, information on environment and risk factors was collected through a standardized questionnaire. The overall weighted seroprevalence of RVFV antibodies in the general population aged ?5 years was 3.5% (95% CI 2.6–4.8). The overall seroprevalence of RVFV antibodies in the ruminant population was 25.3% (95% CI 19.8–32.2). Age (?15), gender (men), place of birth on the Comoros, living in Mayotte since less than 5 years, low educational level, farming and living close to a water source were significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity in humans. Major risk factors for RFV infection in animals were the proximity of the farm to a water point, previous two-month rainfall and absence of abortions disposal. Although resulting in few clinical cases in humans and in animals, RVFV has been circulating actively on the island of Mayotte, in a context of regular import of the virus from nearby countries through illegal animal movements, the presence of susceptible animals and a favorable environment for mosquito vectors to maintain virus transmission locally. Humans and animals share the same ways of RVFV transmission, with mosquitoes playing an important role. The studies emphasize the need for a one health approach in which humans and animals within their ecosystems are included. PMID:24098637

Jego, Maël; Desprès, Philippe; Collet, Louis; Zumbo, Betty; Tillard, Emmanuel; Girard, Sébastien; Filleul, Laurent

2013-01-01

142

What Do We Feed to Food-Production Animals? A Review of Animal Feed Ingredients and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health  

PubMed Central

Objective Animal feeding practices in the United States have changed considerably over the past century. As large-scale, concentrated production methods have become the predominant model for animal husbandry, animal feeds have been modified to include ingredients ranging from rendered animals and animal waste to antibiotics and organoarsenicals. In this article we review current U.S. animal feeding practices and etiologic agents that have been detected in animal feed. Evidence that current feeding practices may lead to adverse human health impacts is also evaluated. Data sources We reviewed published veterinary and human-health literature regarding animal feeding practices, etiologic agents present in feed, and human health effects along with proceedings from animal feed workshops. Data extraction Data were extracted from peer-reviewed articles and books identified using PubMed, Agricola, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention databases. Data synthesis Findings emphasize that current animal feeding practices can result in the presence of bacteria, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, prions, arsenicals, and dioxins in feed and animal-based food products. Despite a range of potential human health impacts that could ensue, there are significant data gaps that prevent comprehensive assessments of human health risks associated with animal feed. Limited data are collected at the federal or state level concerning the amounts of specific ingredients used in animal feed, and there are insufficient surveillance systems to monitor etiologic agents “from farm to fork.” Conclusions Increased funding for integrated veterinary and human health surveillance systems and increased collaboration among feed professionals, animal producers, and veterinary and public health officials is necessary to effectively address these issues. PMID:17520050

Sapkota, Amy R.; Lefferts, Lisa Y.; McKenzie, Shawn; Walker, Polly

2007-01-01

143

Picture recognition in animals and humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of object–picture recognition has received relatively little attention in both human and comparative psychology; a paradoxical situation given the important use of image technology (e.g. slides, digitised pictures) made by neuroscientists in their experimental investigation of visual cognition. The present review examines the relevant literature pertaining to the question of the correspondence between and\\/or equivalence of real objects

Dalila Bovet; Jacques Vauclair

2000-01-01

144

Rhesus CMV: an emerging animal model for human CMV  

PubMed Central

Human CMV is the predominant infectious cause of congenital birth defects and an opportunistic pathogen in immunosuppressed individuals, including AIDS patients. Most individuals are infected early during their life followed by life-long latent infection. During this latent phase, frequent reactivation and antigen production continue to stimulate the immune system. While the immune response is able to control the virus, it is unable to eradicate it. Moreover, super-infection by different CMV strains has been observed despite a strong immune response. Long-term immune stimulation by CMV has also been implicated in immune senescence and chronic conditions such as atherosclerosis. CMVs are highly species-specific and the relatedness of CMV genomes exactly mirrors the relatedness of their hosts. Thus, each CMV species is highly adapted to its respective host species, but is unable to infect other, even closely related hosts. While fascinating from an evolutionary perspective, this host restriction prevents studying HCMV in experimental animals. Exceptions are severely immunocompromised mice, e.g. SCID mice, or SCID/NOD mice, which might allow partial reconstitution of CMV infection in rodents. More practical however, is to study CMVs in their natural host, e.g. murine, rat or guinea pig CMVs. However, while these small animal models have many advantages, such as the availability of inbred animals as well as lower cost, the limited homology of the viral genomes with HCMV limits the functional analysis of homologous gene products. The closest relative to HCMV is chimpanzee CMV (CCMV), but this is not a practical animal model since chimps are a protected species, extremely expensive and of very limited availability. In contrast, rhesus macaques are a more widely used experimental animal species and, while more distant than CCMV, rhesus CMV (RhCMV) contains most of the HCMV gene families thus allowing the study of their role in acute and latent CMV infection. In this review we will discuss the current state of developing RhCMV as a model for HCMV. PMID:18193454

Powers, Colin

2009-01-01

145

Animal Dissection. [Fact Sheet and Resource List Information Packet from the Humane Society of the United States].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Killing animals for classroom dissection causes animal suffering, cheapens the value of life, and depletes wild animal populations, yet it remains commonplace. The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) addresses the issue in this information packet which includes a fact sheet and three resource lists "on Dissection." The fact sheet discusses…

Balcombe, Jonathan

146

Proline and hydroxyproline metabolism: implications for animal and human nutrition.  

PubMed

Proline plays important roles in protein synthesis and structure, metabolism (particularly the synthesis of arginine, polyamines, and glutamate via pyrroline-5-carboxylate), and nutrition, as well as wound healing, antioxidative reactions, and immune responses. On a per-gram basis, proline plus hydroxyproline are most abundant in collagen and milk proteins, and requirements of proline for whole-body protein synthesis are the greatest among all amino acids. Therefore, physiological needs for proline are particularly high during the life cycle. While most mammals (including humans and pigs) can synthesize proline from arginine and glutamine/glutamate, rates of endogenous synthesis are inadequate for neonates, birds, and fish. Thus, work with young pigs (a widely used animal model for studying infant nutrition) has shown that supplementing 0.0, 0.35, 0.7, 1.05, 1.4, and 2.1% proline to a proline-free chemically defined diet containing 0.48% arginine and 2% glutamate dose dependently improved daily growth rate and feed efficiency while reducing concentrations of urea in plasma. Additionally, maximal growth performance of chickens depended on at least 0.8% proline in the diet. Likewise, dietary supplementation with 0.07, 0.14, and 0.28% hydroxyproline (a metabolite of proline) to a plant protein-based diet enhanced weight gains of salmon. Based on its regulatory roles in cellular biochemistry, proline can be considered as a functional amino acid for mammalian, avian, and aquatic species. Further research is warranted to develop effective strategies of dietary supplementation with proline or hydroxyproline to benefit health, growth, and development of animals and humans. PMID:20697752

Wu, Guoyao; Bazer, Fuller W; Burghardt, Robert C; Johnson, Gregory A; Kim, Sung Woo; Knabe, Darrell A; Li, Peng; Li, Xilong; McKnight, Jason R; Satterfield, M Carey; Spencer, Thomas E

2011-04-01

147

Characterizing cognitive aging in humans with links to animal models  

PubMed Central

With the population of older adults expected to grow rapidly over the next two decades, it has become increasingly important to advance research efforts to elucidate the mechanisms associated with cognitive aging, with the ultimate goal of developing effective interventions and prevention therapies. Although there has been a vast research literature on the use of cognitive tests to evaluate the effects of aging and age-related neurodegenerative disease, the need for a set of standardized measures to characterize the cognitive profiles specific to healthy aging has been widely recognized. Here we present a review of selected methods and approaches that have been applied in human research studies to evaluate the effects of aging on cognition, including executive function, memory, processing speed, language, and visuospatial function. The effects of healthy aging on each of these cognitive domains are discussed with examples from cognitive/experimental and clinical/neuropsychological approaches. Further, we consider those measures that have clear conceptual and methodological links to tasks currently in use for non-human animal studies of aging, as well as those that have the potential for translation to animal aging research. Having a complementary set of measures to assess the cognitive profiles of healthy aging across species provides a unique opportunity to enhance research efforts for cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intervention studies of cognitive aging. Taking a cross-species, translational approach will help to advance cognitive aging research, leading to a greater understanding of associated neurobiological mechanisms with the potential for developing effective interventions and prevention therapies for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22988439

Alexander, Gene E.; Ryan, Lee; Bowers, Dawn; Foster, Thomas C.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Geldmacher, David S.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

2012-01-01

148

Life cycle assessment of the average Spanish diet including human excretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim and scope  The aim of this work is to find out to what extent human excretion is relevant in the context of a Spaniard’s overall food\\u000a intake. A case study dealing with the average Spanish diet is carried out, including the whole life cycle of food: agricultural\\u000a and animal production, industrial processing, distribution and retail, home storage and cooking,

Ivan Muñoz; Llorenç Milà i Canals; Amadeo R. Fernández-Alba

2010-01-01

149

1 Biological Invaders syllabus, fall 2012 (draft 4/13/12) Description: An introduction to biological invasions including plants, animals, and microbes.  

E-print Network

to biological invasions including plants, animals, and microbes. Biology and ecology of invasive species and traits of invaded ecosystems. Role of humans in invasions, impacts of invasions on communities and ecosystems, management of invaded natural areas. Offered every fall term. Biological invasions are a leading

Watson, Craig A.

150

A Selective Critique of Animal Experiments in Human-Orientated Biological Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The advantages and justifications for using small animals in human-oriented research are reviewed. Some of the pitfalls of extrapolating animal-derived data to humans are discussed. Several specific problems with animal experimentation are highlighted. (CW)

Webb, G. P.

1990-01-01

151

Animal versus human oral drug bioavailability: do they correlate?  

PubMed

Oral bioavailability is a key consideration in development of drug products, and the use of preclinical species in predicting bioavailability in human has long been debated. In order to clarify whether any correlation between human and animal bioavailability exist, an extensive analysis of the published literature data was conducted. Due to the complex nature of bioavailability calculations inclusion criteria were applied to ensure integrity of the data. A database of 184 compounds was assembled. Linear regression for the reported compounds indicated no strong or predictive correlations to human data for all species, individually and combined. The lack of correlation in this extended dataset highlights that animal bioavailability is not quantitatively predictive of bioavailability in human. Although qualitative (high/low bioavailability) indications might be possible, models taking into account species-specific factors that may affect bioavailability are recommended for developing quantitative prediction. PMID:23988844

Musther, Helen; Olivares-Morales, Andrés; Hatley, Oliver J D; Liu, Bo; Rostami Hodjegan, Amin

2014-06-16

152

The role of the OIE in information exchange and the control of animal diseases, including zoonoses.  

PubMed

The growing importance of animal diseases and zoonoses at a time when globalisation has increased movements of people, animals and animal products across the globe, has strengthened the role of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) in animal disease control. The OIE's mandate since its establishment in 1924 has been to facilitate the exchange of public health, animal health and scientific information, and to further the control and eradication of animal diseases. The OIE is recognised by the World Trade Organization Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures as the international reference organisation for animal diseases and zoonoses, especially for standard setting. The standards adopted by the World Assembly of OIE Delegates on veterinary public health and animal health feature in the OlE Terrestrial Animal Health Code, the Aquatic Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals and the Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The OlE is also a reference organisation for the exchange of public and animal health information among Member Countries, through an information, reporting and warning system based on transparent communication between countries. The OIE provides scientific expertise in ascertaining countries' status with regard to notifiable diseases, enabling them to secure official recognition as being free from foot and mouth disease, African horse sickness, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. The OIE also contributes its scientific expertise to stakeholder training on the surveillance and control of animal diseases and zoonoses and to the evaluation of the performance of Veterinary Services, to enhance theirwork asthe cornerstone of their countries' disease control efforts. PMID:24547648

Poissonnier, C; Teissier, M

2013-08-01

153

Animals as sentinels for human lead exposure: a case report.  

PubMed

Because human and nonhuman animals often share the same environment, there is potential concurrent exposure to toxicants. As a result, domestic animals can be used as sentinels for exposure of people to these agents. Here we present a case illustrating exposure of both humans and domestic animals to lead contamination in their environments. This case study occurred at a farm where cattle deaths were determined to have been caused by lead poisoning based on elevated postmortem tissue lead concentrations. Elevated blood lead concentrations were detected in the remaining cattle, a dog, a cat, and a pregnant woman (37.3 ?g/dL) living on the farm. The range of blood lead concentrations in the domestic animals was 8.42 (cat) to 85.41 ?g/dL (calf), although clinical signs of lead poisoning were not apparent in these animals. Further testing revealed the most likely source for lead exposure to be paint in the barn and home. Household dogs and cats have been used as sentinels for lead poisoning in humans, but cattle may also act as a sentinel species for environmental lead contamination. PMID:20238198

Bischoff, Karyn; Priest, Heather; Mount-Long, Amy

2010-06-01

154

Epidemiological characteristics of human and animal rabies in azerbaijan.  

PubMed

The Caucasus is a region of geopolitical importance, in the gateway between Europe and Asia. This geographical location makes the region equally important in the epidemiology and control of transboundary infectious diseases such as rabies. Azerbaijan is the largest country in the Caucasus, and although rabies is notifiable and considered endemic, there is little information on the burden of human and animal rabies. Here, we describe a cross-disciplinary international collaboration aimed at improving rabies control in Azerbaijan. Partial nucleoprotein gene sequences were obtained from animal rabies cases for comparison with those from surrounding areas. Reported human and animal rabies cases between 2000 and 2010 were also reviewed and analysed by region and year. Comparison of rabies virus strains circulating in Azerbaijan demonstrates more than one lineage of rabies virus circulating concurrently in Azerbaijan and illustrates the need for further sample collection and characterization. Officially reported rabies data showed an increase in human and animal rabies cases, and an increase in animal bites requiring provision of post-exposure prophylaxis, since 2006. This is despite apparently consistent levels of dog vaccination and culling of stray dogs. PMID:24845953

Zeynalova, S; Shikhiyev, M; Aliyeva, T; Ismayilova, R; Wise, E; Abdullayev, R; Asadov, K; Rustamova, S; Quliyev, F; Whatmore, A M; Marshall, E S; Fooks, A R; Horton, D L

2015-03-01

155

A Quantitative Prioritisation of Human and Domestic Animal Pathogens in Europe  

PubMed Central

Disease or pathogen risk prioritisations aid understanding of infectious agent impact within surveillance or mitigation and biosecurity work, but take significant development. Previous work has shown the H-(Hirsch-)index as an alternative proxy. We present a weighted risk analysis describing infectious pathogen impact for human health (human pathogens) and well-being (domestic animal pathogens) using an objective, evidence-based, repeatable approach; the H-index. This study established the highest H-index European pathogens. Commonalities amongst pathogens not included in previous surveillance or risk analyses were examined. Differences between host types (humans/animals/zoonotic) in pathogen H-indices were explored as a One Health impact indicator. Finally, the acceptability of the H-index proxy for animal pathogen impact was examined by comparison with other measures. 57 pathogens appeared solely in the top 100 highest H-indices (1) human or (2) animal pathogens list, and 43 occurred in both. Of human pathogens, 66 were zoonotic and 67 were emerging, compared to 67 and 57 for animals. There were statistically significant differences between H-indices for host types (humans, animal, zoonotic), and there was limited evidence that H-indices are a reasonable proxy for animal pathogen impact. This work addresses measures outlined by the European Commission to strengthen climate change resilience and biosecurity for infectious diseases. The results include a quantitative evaluation of infectious pathogen impact, and suggest greater impacts of human-only compared to zoonotic pathogens or scientific under-representation of zoonoses. The outputs separate high and low impact pathogens, and should be combined with other risk assessment methods relying on expert opinion or qualitative data for priority setting, or could be used to prioritise diseases for which formal risk assessments are not possible because of data gaps. PMID:25136810

McIntyre, K. Marie; Setzkorn, Christian; Hepworth, Philip J.; Morand, Serge; Morse, Andrew P.; Baylis, Matthew

2014-01-01

156

Some domesticated animals as sentinels of human disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past use of animal models to denote hazards in man's environment is reviewed. Examples are presented of selected species with respect to their response to exposures from certain bacteria, viruses, parasites, mineral deficiencies, plant toxins, and man?made substances analogous to the human experience. The importance of continued research in this field is emphasized in order to provide a clearer

Howard M. Hayes Jr.; Thomas J. Mason

1982-01-01

157

DIFFERENTIATING HUMAN FROM ANIMAL ISOLATES OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM  

EPA Science Inventory

We analyzed 9s Cryptosporidium parvum isolates from humans and animals by a polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method based on the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein 2 gene sequence. Used as a molecular marker, this method can differentiate ...

158

Toxicity, metabolism, and impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The worldwide contamination of foods and feeds with mycotoxins is a significant problem. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds that have adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops that result in illnesses and economic losses. Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, zearelenone, fumonisins, tremorgenic toxins, and ergot alkaloids are the mycotoxins of greatest agro-economic importance. Some molds are capable of producing more than

Hussein S Hussein; Jeffrey M Brasel

2001-01-01

159

COMPARING THE EMOTIONAL BRAINS OF HUMANS AND OTHER ANIMALS  

E-print Network

25 3 COMPARING THE EMOTIONAL BRAINS OF HUMANS AND OTHER ANIMALS Kent C. Berridge How is emotion embodied in the brain? That is the ques- tion posed by affective neuroscience (Cacioppo & Gardner, 1999 and emotion at both psychological and neurobiological levels. Evidence regarding the brain substrates

Berridge, Kent

160

Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in animals and humans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common parasites of domestic, wild, and companion animals, and it also infects approximately 25% of the world’s human population. T. gondii has a complex life cycle. Sexual development occurs only in the cat gut, while asexual replication and transmission occur i...

161

Variability Discrimination in Humans and Animals: Implications for Adaptive Action.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both humans and animals live in a rich world of events. Some events repeat themselves, whereas others constantly change. The authors propose that discriminating this stability, sameness, and uniformity from change, differentness, and diversity is fundamental to adaptive action. Evidence from many areas of behavioral science indicates that the…

Wasserman, Edward A.; Young, Michael E.; Cook, Robert G.

2004-01-01

162

Challenges in Designing Human-Animal Interaction Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses challenges in designing Human-Animal Interaction (HAI) research. A summary of previous reviews of HAI research is presented, followed by a discussion of areas that present particular challenges to research in this field, specifically design issues, control of extraneous variables, sample selection, intervention development, and outcome measurement. Suggestions for addressing these areas also are presented.

Cindy C. Wilson; Sandra B. Barker

2003-01-01

163

NITROBENZENE CARCINOGENICITY IN ANIMALS AND HUMAN HAZARD EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Nitrobenzene (NB) human cancer studies have not been reported, but animals studies have. Three rodent strains inhaling NB produce cancer at eight sites. B6C3F1 mice respond with mammary gland malignant tumors and male lung and thyroid benign tumors, F344/N male rats respond with ...

164

Anticipatory Governance: Bioethical Expertise for Human/Animal Chimeras  

PubMed Central

The governance demands generated by the use of human/animal chimeras in scientific research offer both a challenge and an opportunity for the development of new forms of anticipatory governance through the novel application of bioethical expertise. Anticipatory governance can be seen to have three stages of development whereby bioethical experts move from a reactive to a proactive stance at the edge of what is scientifically possible. In the process, the ethicists move upstream in their engagement with the science of human-to-animal chimeras. To what extent is the anticipatory coestablishment of the principles and operational rules of governance at this early stage in the development of the human-to-animal research field likely to result in a framework for bioethical decision making that is in support of science? The process of anticipatory governance is characterised by the entwining of the scientific and the philosophical so that judgements against science are also found to be philosophically unfounded, and conversely, those activities that are permissible are deemed so on both scientific and ethical grounds. Through what is presented as an organic process, the emerging bioethical framework for human-to-animal chimera research becomes a legitimating framework within which ‘good’ science can safely progress. Science gives bioethical expertise access to new governance territory; bioethical expertise gives science access to political acceptability. PMID:23576848

Harvey, Alison; Salter, Brian

2012-01-01

165

[Reference relationships between human and animal in Hildegard von Bingen].  

PubMed

In "De animalibus", the 7th book in the "Liber simplicis medicinae", Hildegard von Bingen describes the characteristics of four-footed land animals. Some of these have a special relationship with humans in that they embody moral qualities. An explanation for this is already given in the preface, which states that human intelligence recognizes these qualities, declaring that "You are this or that sort of creature". Since the relationship that animals have with nature shares a degree of similarity with that of man's, they can be regarded as symbolic representatives for particular human traits and characteristics. The article at hand presents Hildegard von Bingen's descriptions of the monkey, the lion, the bear, the rabbit, the dog, the cat, the wolf, the lynx, and the donkey. While the monkey just mimics man's behaviour and is imperfect in both settings, the lion embodies will power. The bear on the other hand stands for unbridled sexual desire, while in the rabbit the gentleness of a sheep is united with the bounce of a deer. The lynx is regarded as hedonistic, the donkey as stupid, and the wolf as surrounded by dangerous sylphs. In Hildegard's depictions, exotic and native animal species display rather extraordinary behavioural traits, and the medieval Christian world view of the author conveys unexpected relationships between humans and animals. In addition to empirical observation and experience, Hildegard also relies on folkloristic beliefs and magical practices related to explanatory models of her time. She allows largely unknown sources into her animal lore but never strays from her ultimate goal of having it serve to instruct people. In doing so, Hildegard removed herself far from the common tradition of medieval animal portraits. PMID:23155757

Riethe, Peter

2012-01-01

166

An Interactive Model of Human and Companion Animal Dynamics: The Ecology and Economics of Dog Overpopulation and the Human Costs of Addressing the Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Companion animal overpopulation is a problem of human creation with significant human costs that can only be addressed through human action. A model was constructed to understand the dynamics of canine overpopulation and the effectiveness of various policy options for reducing euthanasia. The model includes economic and ecological factors in human and dog populations. According to the model, a no-kill

Joshua Frank

2004-01-01

167

78 FR 7994 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21...Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption AGENCY: Food and...Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption'' that...

2013-02-05

168

Human task animation from performance models and natural language input  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Graphical manipulation of human figures is essential for certain types of human factors analyses such as reach, clearance, fit, and view. In many situations, however, the animation of simulated people performing various tasks may be based on more complicated functions involving multiple simultaneous reaches, critical timing, resource availability, and human performance capabilities. One rather effective means for creating such a simulation is through a natural language description of the tasks to be carried out. Given an anthropometrically-sized figure and a geometric workplace environment, various simple actions such as reach, turn, and view can be effectively controlled from language commands or standard NASA checklist procedures. The commands may also be generated by external simulation tools. Task timing is determined from actual performance models, if available, such as strength models or Fitts' Law. The resulting action specification are animated on a Silicon Graphics Iris workstation in real-time.

Esakov, Jeffrey; Badler, Norman I.; Jung, Moon

1989-01-01

169

Implications of aquatic animal health for human health.  

PubMed Central

Human health and aquatic animal health are organically related at three distinct interfaces. Aquatic animals serve as important contributors to the nutritional protein, lipid, and vitamin requirements of humans; as carriers and transmitters of many infectious and parasitic diseases to which humans are susceptible; and as indicators of toxic and carcinogenic substances that they can convey, in some part, from aquatic environments to man and other terrestrial animals. Transcending these relationships, but less visible and definable to many, is the role that aquatic animals play in the sustenance of our integrated planetary ecosystem. Up to the present, this ecosystem has been compatible with mankind's occupation of a niche within it at high but ultimately limited population levels. In the past century we have become clearly aware that human activities, particularly over-harvesting of aquatic animals together with chemical degradation of their habitats, can quite rapidly lead to perturbances that drastically shift aquatic ecosystems toward conditions of low productivity and impaired function as one of earth's vital organs. The negative values of aquatic animals as disease vectors are far outweighed by their positive values as nutritional sources and as sustainers of a relatively stable equilibrium in the global ecosystem. In the immediate future we can expect to see increased and improved monitoring of aquatic habitats to determine the extent to which aquatic animals cycle anthropogenic toxic and carcinogenic chemicals back to human consumers. In the long term, methods are particularly needed to assess the effects of these pollutants on reproductive success in aquatic communities and in human communities as well. As inputs of habitat-degrading substances change in quality and quantity, it becomes increasingly urgent to evaluate the consequences in advance, not in retrospect. A new, more realistic and comprehensive philosophy regarding aquatic environmental preservation and equally new and comprehensive technological advances reflective of this philosophy will be required. In the next century we will see a serious test of whether or not mankind has lost its ability to foresee and forestall the side effects of scientific and technological ingenuity. PMID:2205490

Dawe, C J

1990-01-01

170

Bioethical Problems: Animal Welfare, Animal Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)

March, B. E.

1984-01-01

171

Group decisions in humans and animals: a survey  

PubMed Central

Humans routinely make many decisions collectively, whether they choose a restaurant with friends, elect political leaders or decide actions to tackle international problems, such as climate change, that affect the future of the whole planet. We might be less aware of it, but group decisions are just as important to social animals as they are for us. Animal groups have to collectively decide about communal movements, activities, nesting sites and enterprises, such as cooperative breeding or hunting, that crucially affect their survival and reproduction. While human group decisions have been studied for millennia, the study of animal group decisions is relatively young, but is now expanding rapidly. It emerges that group decisions in animals pose many similar questions to those in humans. The purpose of the present issue is to integrate and combine approaches in the social and natural sciences in an area in which theoretical challenges and research questions are often similar, and to introduce each discipline to the other's key ideas, findings and successful methods. In order to make such an introduction as effective as possible, here, we briefly review conceptual similarities and differences between the sciences, and provide a guide to the present issue. PMID:19073475

Conradt, Larissa; List, Christian

2008-01-01

172

On the lack of evidence that non-human animals possess anything remotely  

E-print Network

On the lack of evidence that non-human animals possess anything remotely resembling a `theory-human minds, there is still little consensus on whether or not non-human animals understand anything about the unobservable mental states of other animals or even what it would mean for a non-verbal animal to understand

Indiana University

173

Experimental identification of chemical carcinogens, risk evaluation, and animal-to-human correlations  

PubMed Central

Experimental methods for the identification of chemical carcinogens have been extensively developed, including animal bioassay methods, animal models for cancer induction at major organ sites, models for the study of the effects of carcinogens in cells and tissues in culture and methods for the study of molecular events (metabolic activation, binding and detoxification of carcinogens; DNA damage and repair; mutagenicity). Current sources of documentation on carcinogenicity data are reviewed. The number of “known carcinogens” will vary considerably, depending on the criteria adopted for accepting evidence of carcinogenicity. Criteria for the evaluation of risks, benefits, and technological alternatives for public policy on environmental carcinogens are reviewed and the following steps discussed: registration of environmental chemical carcinogens and their uses; risk evaluation (considering sources, adequacy, quality and limits of the evidence; quantitative dose–response extrapolation within the same biological system; and species and model conversion factors); benefits evaluation; analysis of technological alternatives; comparative judgment and decision; open public documentation. The problem of animal-to-human correlations is considered, particularly for respiratory carcinogenesis. A laboratory approach is reviewed which includes: development and study of whole animal models for carcinogenesis, analysis of animal tissue responses to carcinogens in vivo and through in vitro culture methods for morphological and biochemical studies, and development of in vitro culture methods for human target tissues. This approach is aimed at providing an experimentally controlled and quantifiable method for the correlation of animal and human observations in carcinogenesis. PMID:648472

Saffiotti, Umberto

1978-01-01

174

Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism  

SciTech Connect

In his lecture, Shiller discusses the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. The book discusses how “animal spirits,” or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today’s global financial crisis.

Robert J. Shiller

2010-03-02

175

Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism  

ScienceCinema

In his lecture, Shiller discusses the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. The book discusses how ?animal spirits,? or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today?s global financial crisis.

Robert J. Shiller

2010-09-01

176

Distinct brain activity in processing negative pictures of animals and objects --- the role of human contexts  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that the amygdala is important in processing not only animate entities but also social information. It remains to be determined to what extent the factors of category and social context interact to modulate the activities of the amygdala and cortical regions. In this study, pictures depicting animals and inanimate objects in negative and neutral levels were presented. The contexts of the pictures differed in whether they included human/human parts. The factors of valence, arousal, familiarity and complexity of pictures were controlled across categories. The results showed that the amygdala activity was modulated by category and contextual information. Under the nonhuman context condition, the amygdala responded more to animals than objects for both negative and neutral pictures. In contrast, under the human context condition, the amygdala showed stronger activity for negative objects than animals. In addition to cortical regions related to object action, functional and effective connectivity analyses showed that the anterior prefrontal cortex interacted with the amygdala more for negative objects (vs. animals) in the human context condition, by a top-down modulation of the anterior prefrontal cortex to the amygdala. These results highlighted the effects of category and human contexts on modulating brain activity in emotional processing. PMID:24099847

Cao, Zhijun; Zhao, Yanbing; Tan, Tengteng; Chen, Gang; Ning, Xueling; Zhan, Lexia; Yang, Jiongjiong

2013-01-01

177

Impacts of gas drilling on human and animal health.  

PubMed

Environmental concerns surrounding drilling for gas are intense due to expansion of shale gas drilling operations. Controversy surrounding the impact of drilling on air and water quality has pitted industry and lease-holders against individuals and groups concerned with environmental protection and public health. Because animals often are exposed continually to air, soil, and groundwater and have more frequent reproductive cycles, animals can be used as sentinels to monitor impacts to human health. This study involved interviews with animal owners who live near gas drilling operations. The findings illustrate which aspects of the drilling process may lead to health problems and suggest modifications that would lessen but not eliminate impacts. Complete evidence regarding health impacts of gas drilling cannot be obtained due to incomplete testing and disclosure of chemicals, and nondisclosure agreements. Without rigorous scientific studies, the gas drilling boom sweeping the world will remain an uncontrolled health experiment on an enormous scale. PMID:22446060

Bamberger, Michelle; Oswald, Robert E

2012-01-01

178

Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Explore the wonderful world of animals Listen to the animal sound. See if you can identify the animal.Animal sounds. Explore and find out about different animals.Kids Planet Create a animal report using one of the animals found in the web site.Kids Planet,SeaWorld/animals Create a picture of your animal examples are found...Your big backyard ...

Mrs. Unsworth

2005-03-31

179

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Chemical Testing for Decision-Support: How to Include Animal Welfare?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity testing for regulatory purposes raises the question of test selection for a particular endpoint. Given the public's concern for animal welfare, test selection is a multi-objective decision problem that requires balancing information outcome, animal welfare loss, and monetary testing costs. This paper demonstrates the applicability of cost-effectiveness analysis as a decision-support tool for test selection in a regulatory context

Silke Gabbert; Ekko C. van Ierland

2010-01-01

180

Prebiotics from Marine Macroalgae for Human and Animal Health Applications  

PubMed Central

The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date. PMID:20714423

O’Sullivan, Laurie; Murphy, Brian; McLoughlin, Peter; Duggan, Patrick; Lawlor, Peadar G.; Hughes, Helen; Gardiner, Gillian E.

2010-01-01

181

ANABOLIC-ANDROGENIC STEROID DEPENDENCE? INSIGHTS FROM ANIMALS AND HUMANS  

PubMed Central

Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are drugs of abuse. They are taken in large quantities by athletes and others to increase performance, with negative health consequences. As a result, in 1991 testosterone and related AAS were declared controlled substances. However, the relative abuse and dependence liability of AAS have not been fully characterized. In humans, it is difficult to separate the direct psychoactive effects of AAS from reinforcement due to their systemic anabolic effects. However, using conditioned place preference and self-administration, studies in animals have demonstrated that AAS are reinforcing in a context where athletic performance is irrelevant. Furthermore, AAS share brain sites of action and neurotransmitter systems in common with other drugs of abuse. In particular, recent evidence links AAS with opioids. In humans, AAS abuse is associated with prescription opioid use. In animals, AAS overdose produces symptoms resembling opioid overdose, and AAS modify the activity of the endogenous opioid system. PMID:18275992

Wood, Ruth I.

2008-01-01

182

Resveratrol and diabetes: from animal to human studies.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a serious disease affecting about 5% of people worldwide. Diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia and impairment in insulin secretion and/or action. Moreover, diabetes is associated with metabolic abnormalities and serious complications. Resveratrol is a natural, biologically active polyphenol present in different plant species and known to have numerous health-promoting effects in both animals and humans. Anti-diabetic action of resveratrol has been extensively studied in animal models and in diabetic humans. In animals with experimental diabetes, resveratrol has been demonstrated to induce beneficial effects that ameliorate diabetes. Resveratrol, among others, improves glucose homeostasis, decreases insulin resistance, protects pancreatic ?-cells, improves insulin secretion and ameliorates metabolic disorders. Effects induced by resveratrol are strongly related to the capability of this compound to increase expression/activity of AMPK and SIRT1 in various tissues of diabetic subjects. Moreover, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol were shown to be also involved in its action in diabetic animals. Preliminary clinical trials show that resveratrol is also effective in type 2 diabetic patients. Resveratrol may, among others, improve glycemic control and decrease insulin resistance. These results show that resveratrol holds great potential to treat diabetes and would be useful to support conventional therapy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Resveratol: Challenges in translating pre-clincial findigns to iproved patient outcomes, guest edited by J. Dyck and P. Schrauwen. PMID:25445538

Szkudelski, Tomasz; Szkudelska, Katarzyna

2014-10-27

183

Chemotherapy of human and animal coccidioses: state and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The state and perspectives for chemotherapy of cyst-forming and non-cyst-forming coccidia in humans and animals are summarized.\\u000a In toxoplasmosis the therapeutic care of transplacental infections, which have gone out of control because of immunodeficiency,\\u000a is in the forefront of attempts at improvement. Predominant drugs in use are pyrimethamine combined with a sulfonamide or\\u000a with clindamycin, or trimethoprim plus sulfamethoxazole. For

A. Haberkorn

1996-01-01

184

Animal Health Policy and Practice: Scaling-up Community-based Animal Health Systems, Lessons from Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an extensive literature review, the author develops policy recommendations to facilitate scaling up community-based animal health systems to the national level. Noting that human and animal health services in rural areas have much in common, and that an extensive literature studies policy regarding primary healthcare for humans exists, she surveys that literature for observations and conclusions applicable to policy

Ana Riviere-Cinnamond

2005-01-01

185

Animal PerformancesAn Exploration of Intersections between Feminist Science Studies and Studies of Human\\/Animal Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feminist science studies have given scant regard to non-human animals. In this paper, we argue that it is important for feminist theory to address the complex relationships between humans and other animals, and the implications of these for feminism. We use the notion of performativity, particularly as it has been developed by Karen Barad, to explore the intersections of feminism

Lynda Birke; Mette Bryld; Nina Lykke

2004-01-01

186

Incidence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in human and animal fecal sources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The occurrence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in the opportunistic pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium is well-documented in clinical research. Recently, the esp gene has been proposed as a marker of human pollution in environmental waters; however, information on its relative incidence in various human and animal fecal sources is limited. We have determined the occurrence of the esp gene in enterococci from human (n = 64) and animal (n = 233) fecal samples by polymerase chain reaction using two primer sets: one presumably specific for E. faecium (espfm) and the other for both E. faecalis and E. faecium (espfs/fm). We believe that this research is the first to explore the use of espfs/fm for the detection of human waste in natural environmental settings. The incidence in human sources was 93.1% espfm and 100% espfs/fm in raw sewage influent; 30% for both espfm and espfs/fm in septic waste; and 0% espfm and 80% espfs/fm in active pit toilets. The overall occurrence of the gene in animal feces was 7.7% (espfs/fm) and 4.7% (espfm); animal types with positive results included dogs (9/43, all espfm), gulls (10/34, espfs/fm; 2/34, espfm), mice (3/22, all espfs/fm), and songbirds (5/55, all espfs/fm). The esp gene was not detected in cat (0/34), deer (0/4), goose (0/18), or raccoon (0/23) feces. The inconsistent occurrence, especially in septic and pit toilet sewage, suggests a low statistical power of discrimination between animal and human sources, which means a large number of replicates should be collected. Both espfm and espfs/fm were common in raw sewage, but neither one efficiently differentiated between animal and other human sources.

Whitman, R.L.; Przybyla-Kelly, K.; Shively, D.A.; Byappanahalli, M.N.

2007-01-01

187

Graphene earphones: entertainment for both humans and animals.  

PubMed

The human hearing range is from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. However, many animals can hear much higher sound frequencies. Dolphins, especially, have a hearing range up to 300 kHz. To our knowledge, there is no data of a reported wide-band sound frequency earphone to satisfy both humans and animals. Here, we show that graphene earphones, packaged into commercial earphone casings can play sounds ranging from 100 Hz to 50 kHz. By using a one-step laser scribing technology, wafer-scale flexible graphene earphones can be obtained in 25 min. Compared with a normal commercial earphone, the graphene earphone has a wider frequency response (100 Hz to 50 kHz) and a three times lower fluctuation (±10 dB). A nonlinear effect exists in the graphene-generated sound frequency spectrum. This effect could be explained by the DC bias added to the input sine waves which may induce higher harmonics. Our numerical calculations show that the sound frequency emitted by graphene could reach up to 1 MHz. In addition, we have demonstrated that a dog wearing a graphene earphone could also be trained and controlled by 35 kHz sound waves. Our results show that graphene could be widely used to produce earphones for both humans and animals. PMID:24766102

Tian, He; Li, Cheng; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Cui, Ya-Long; Mi, Wen-Tian; Yang, Yi; Xie, Dan; Ren, Tian-Ling

2014-06-24

188

Bone Research and Animal Support of Human Space Exploration: Where do we go from here?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA exploration goals include returning humans to the moon by 20 15-2020 as a prelude for human exploration of Mars and beyond. The number of human flight subjects available during this very short time period is insufficient to solve high-risk problems without data from animals. This presentation will focus on three questions: What do we know? What do we need to know? Where do we go from here?: roles for animals in the exploration era. Answers to these questions are based on flight and ground-based models using humans and animals. First, what do we know? Adult humans have spent less than 1% of their lifespan in space while juvenile rats have spent almost 2%. This information suggests that our data are rather meager for projecting to a 30-month mission to Mars. The space platforms for humans have included Skylab, STS/MIR, and STS/ISS and for animals have included the unmanned Bion series and shuttle. The ground-based models include head-down bedrest in humans (BR) and hindlimb unloading in rodents (HU). We know that as gravity decreases, the impact forces generated by the body during locomotion decrease. For example, on Earth, your legs supports approximately 1 body weight (BW) when standing, 1.33BW when walking, and 3BW when jogging. On Mars, the same activity would generate 0.38BW standing, 0.5BW walking, and 1BW when jogging. In space, no impact load is generated, as gravity is minimal.

Morey-Holton, Emily R.

2004-01-01

189

Parasitic worms, animals and human Professor John W Lewis  

E-print Network

, Royal Holloway-University of London, Egham, TW20 0EX ABSTRACT Toxocara is a large parasitic roundworm of Toxocara will pass out with the animal `s faeces and contaminate the surrounding soil, including gardens and migrate to the abdomen, liver, lungs, heart and the retina of the eye. In the eye larval Toxocara can

Royal Holloway, University of London

190

29 CFR 1990.143 - General provisions for the use of human and animal data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...144(a). (d) Non-positive animal studies. Positive results...provided. (g) Use of high doses in animal testing. Positive results for carcinogenicity...determination of whether results in human, animal or short-term studies...

2010-07-01

191

29 CFR 1990.143 - General provisions for the use of human and animal data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...144(a). (d) Non-positive animal studies. Positive results...provided. (g) Use of high doses in animal testing. Positive results for carcinogenicity...determination of whether results in human, animal or short-term studies...

2014-07-01

192

The Zoonotic Tuberculosis Syndemic: A Literature Review and Analysis of the Scientific Journals Covering a Multidisciplinary Field That Includes Clinical Medicine, Animal Science, Wildlife Management, Bacterial Evolution, and Food Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article reviews the steadily increasing literature on tuberculosis outbreaks involving Mycobacterium bovis, a bacillus traditionally associated with cattle and dairy products but in fact syndemic in a wide range of other animals including humans. Six major categories of journals cover this story: human infectious diseases and epidemiology, general human medicine, general veterinary practice, veterinary management of zoonoses and wildlife

Amy Hardin; Philip G. Crandall; Tony Stankus

2011-01-01

193

Effects of virtual human animation on emotion contagion in simulated inter-personal experiences.  

PubMed

We empirically examined the impact of virtual human animation on the emotional responses of participants in a medical virtual reality system for education in the signs and symptoms of patient deterioration. Participants were presented with one of two virtual human conditions in a between-subjects experiment, static (non-animated) and dynamic (animated). Our objective measures included the use of psycho-physical Electro Dermal Activity (EDA) sensors, and subjective measures inspired by social psychology research included the Differential Emotions Survey (DES IV) and Positive and Negative Affect Survey (PANAS). We analyzed the quantitative and qualitative measures associated with participants? emotional state at four distinct time-steps in the simulated interpersonal experience as the virtual patient?s medical condition deteriorated. Results suggest that participants in the dynamic condition with animations exhibited a higher sense of co-presence and greater emotional response as compared to participants in the static condition, corresponding to the deterioration in the medical condition of the virtual patient. Negative affect of participants in the dynamic condition increased at a higher rate than for participants in the static condition. The virtual human animations elicited a stronger response in negative emotions such as anguish, fear, and anger as the virtual patient?s medical condition worsened. PMID:24650990

Wu, Yanxiang; Babu, Sabarish V; Armstrong, Rowan; Bertrand, Jeffrey W; Luo, Jun; Roy, Tania; Daily, Shaundra B; Dukes, Lauren Cairco; Hodges, Larry F; Fasolino, Tracy

2014-04-01

194

Putting the Dog Back in the Park: Animal and Human Mind-in-Action   

E-print Network

In this article we use actual instances of human conduct with animals to reflect on the debates about animal agency in human activities. Where much of psychology, philosophy, and sociology begin with a fundamental ...

Laurier, Eric; Maze, Ramia; Lundin, Johan

2006-01-01

195

The Responsible Use of Animals in Biology Classrooms Including Alternatives to Dissection. Monograph IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph discusses the care and maintenance of animals, suggests some alternative teaching strategies, and affirms the value of teaching biology as the study of living organisms, rather than dead specimens. The lessons in this monograph are intended as guidelines that teachers should adapt for their own particular classroom needs. Chapter 1,…

Hairston, Rosalina V., Ed.

196

Creatures in the Classroom: Including Insects and Small Animals in Your Preschool Gardening Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When doing spring planting activities, what does a teacher do while waiting for the plants to grow? This waiting time is a golden opportunity to explore another side of gardening--the creatures that make it all possible. Insects are an integral part of everyday world, having existed for over 300 million years; they are the most common animal on…

Hachey, Alyse C.; Butler, Deanna

2012-01-01

197

Cryptosporidium ubiquitum n.sp. in animals and humans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A new species, Cryptosporidium ubiquitum, previously identified as the Cryptosporidium cervine genotype is described. In published studies the cervine genotype was reported in wild and domesticated ruminants, rodents, carnivores, and primates including humans. Molecular data for C. ubiquitum have b...

198

An analysis of the use of animal models in predicting human toxicology and drug safety.  

PubMed

Animal use continues to be central to preclinical drug development, in spite of a lack of its demonstrable validity. The current nadir of new drug approvals and the drying-up of pipelines may be a direct consequence of this. To estimate the evidential weight given by animal data to the probability that a new drug may be toxic to humans, we have calculated Likelihood Ratios (LRs) for an extensive data set of 2,366 drugs, for which both animal and human data are available, including tissue-level effects and MedDRA Level 1-4 biomedical observations. This was done for three preclinical species (rat, mouse and rabbit), to augment our previously-published analysis of canine data. In common with our dog analysis, the resulting LRs show: a) that the absence of toxicity in the animal provides little or virtually no evidential weight that adverse drug reactions (ADRs) will also be absent in humans; and b) that, while the presence of toxicity in these species can add considerable evidential weight for human risk, the LRs are extremely inconsistent, varying by over two orders of magnitude for different classes of compounds and their effects. Therefore, our results for these additional preclinical species have important implications for their use in predicting human toxicity, and suggest that alternative methods are urgently required. PMID:25068930

Bailey, Jarrod; Thew, Michelle; Balls, Michael

2014-06-01

199

Integrative molecular phylogeography in the context of infectious diseases on the human-animal interface.  

PubMed

The rate of new emerging infectious diseases entering the human population has increased over the past century, with pathogens originating from animals or from products of animal origin accounting for the vast majority. Primary risk factors for the emergence and spread of emerging zoonoses include expansion and intensification of animal agriculture and long-distance live animal transport, live animal markets, bushmeat consumption and habitat destruction. Developing effective control strategies is contingent upon the ability to test causative hypotheses of disease transmission within a statistical framework. Broadly speaking, molecular phylogeography offers a framework in which specific hypotheses regarding pathogen gene flow and dispersal within an ecological context can be compared. A number of different methods has been developed for this application. Here, our intent is firstly to discuss the application of a wide variety of statistically based methods (including Bayesian reconstruction, network parsimony analysis and regression) to specific viruses (influenza, salmon anaemia virus, foot and mouth disease and Rift Valley Fever) that have been associated with animal farming/movements; and secondly to place them in the larger framework of the threat of potential zoonotic events as well as the economic and biosecurity implications of pathogen outbreaks among our animal food sources. PMID:22931895

Gray, Rebecca R; Salemi, Marco

2012-12-01

200

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Humans Mimicking Animals: A Cortical Hierarchy for  

E-print Network

to represent auditory experience or "expertise" in general rather than showing exclusive sensitivity to humanBehavioral/Systems/Cognitive Humans Mimicking Animals: A Cortical Hierarchy for Human Vocal of complex human non-verbal vocalizations--human-mimicked versions of animal vocalizations--we found

201

[Effect of increasing the omega-3 fatty acid in the diets of animals on the animal products consumed by humans].  

PubMed

As shown by huge amount of assays in human as well as in animal models, w-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids play important role in the development and maintenance of different organs, primarily the brain, and could be useful in the prevention of different pathologies, mainly the cardiovascular diseases, and, as proposed recently, some psychiatric, dermatological or rheumatological disorders. For ALA, the major and cheapest source for human is rapeseed oil (canola oil), and walnut "noix de Grenoble" oil). The actual goal is first to identify which foods are naturally rich in w-3 fatty acids, and, second, to determine the true impact of the formulations (enriched in w-3 fatty acids) in chows used on farms and breeding centres on the nutritional value of the products and thus their effect on the health of consumers, thanks to quantities of either ALA, or EPA or DHA or both. This concern fish (in proportion of their lipid content, mainly mackerel, salmon, sardine and herring), eggs (wildly naturally rich in w-3 fatty acids, both ALA and DHA, or from laying hen fed ALA from linseed or rapeseed), meat from birds, mammals (from the highest concentration : rabbit, then pig and monogastrics, then polygastrics such as beef, mutton and goat) \\; in butter, milk, dairy products, cheese (all naturally poor in w-3 fatty acids)... Indeed, the nature of fatty acids of reserve triglycerides (found in more or less large amounts depending on the anatomical localisation, that is to say the butcher's cuts) can vary mainly as a function of the food received by the animal. EPA and DHA are mainly present in animal's products. The impact (qualitative and quantitative) of alterations in the lipid composition of animal foods on the nutritional value of derived products (in terms of EPA and DHA content) eaten by humans are more important in single-stomach animals than multi-stomach animals (due to their hydrogenating intestinal bacteria). The intestinal physiology of birds results in the relatively good preservation of their dietary w-3 fatty acids. The enrichment in eggs is proportional to the amount of w-3 fatty acids in the hen's diet and can be extremely important. Including ALA in fish feeds is effective only if they are, like carp, vegetarians, as they have the enzymes required to transform ALA into EPA and DHA \\; in contrast, it is probably less effective for carnivorous fish (75 % of the fish used for human), which have little of these enzymes : their feed must contain marine animals, mainly fish or fish oil. Analysis of the published results shows that, under the best conditions, feeding animals with extracts of linseed and rapeseed grains, for example, increases the level of ALA acid by 20 to 40-fold in eggs (according to the low or high level of ALA in commercial eggs), 10-fold in chicken, 6-fold in pork and less than 2-fold in beef. By feeding animals with fish extracts or algae (oils), the level of DHA is increased by 20-fold in fish, 7-fold in chicken, 3 to 6-fold in eggs, less than 2-fold in beef. In practise, the effect is considerable for fish and egg, interesting for poultry and rabbit, extremely low for beef, mutton and sheep. The effect on the price paid by the consumer is very low compared to the considerable gain in nutritional value. PMID:16115466

Bourre, Jean-Marie

2005-01-01

202

Socially tuned: brain responses differentiating human and animal motion.  

PubMed

Typical adult observers demonstrate enhanced behavioral sensitivity to human movement compared to animal movement. Yet, the neural underpinnings of this effect are unknown. We examined the tuning of brain mechanisms for the perception of biological motion to the social relevance of this category of motion by comparing neural response to human and non-human biological motion. In particular, we tested the hypothesis that the response of the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) varies according to the social relevance of the motion, responding most strongly to those biological motions with the greatest social relevance (human > dog). During a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session, typical adults viewed veridical point-light displays of human, dog, and tractor motions created from motion capture data. A conjunction analysis identified regions of significant activation during biological motion perception relative to object motion. Within each of these regions, only one brain area, the right pSTS, revealed an enhanced response to human motion relative to dog motion. This finding demonstrates that the pSTS response is sensitive to the social relevance of a biological motion stimulus. PMID:21943047

Kaiser, Martha D; Shiffrar, Maggie; Pelphrey, Kevin A

2012-01-01

203

Modeling the relationship between food animal health and human foodborne illness  

E-print Network

of food animals that are destined to enter the human food supply chain may be an important, although oftenModeling the relationship between food animal health and human foodborne illness Randall S. Singer overlooked, factor in predicting the risk of human foodborne infections. The health status of food animals

Singer, Randall

204

Rule Learning over Consonants and Vowels in a Non-Human Animal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perception studies have shown similarities between humans and other animals in a wide array of language-related processes. However, the components of language that make it uniquely human have not been fully identified. Here we show that nonhuman animals extract rules over speech sequences that are difficult for humans. Specifically, animals easily…

de la Mora, Daniela M.; Toro, Juan M.

2013-01-01

205

Local visual homing in animals and humans Local visual homing in  

E-print Network

rely on visual cues #12;Local visual homing in animals and humans Desert ants -- Experiment 1;Local visual homing in animals and humans Desert ants -- Experiment 1 Experiment 1: Results [Graham information from panoramic skyline #12;Local visual homing in animals and humans Desert ants -- Experiment 2

Moeller, Ralf

206

Transfer of human materials into animals. Approved 2/18/2009  

E-print Network

Research Protocols that describe the use of human materials in animals will follow the requirements belowTransfer of human materials into animals. Approved 2/18/2009 Institutional Biosafety Committee into animals can be done in BSL2 or ABSL2 containment. Additionally, inoculation of human materials can be done

207

Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in animals and humans  

PubMed Central

Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widespread parasites of domestic, wild, and companion animals, and it also commonly infects humans. Toxoplasma gondii has a complex life cycle. Sexual development occurs only in the cat gut, while asexual replication occurs in many vertebrate hosts. These features combine to create an unusual population structure. The vast majority of strains in North America and Europe fall into three recently derived, clonal lineages known as types I, II and III. Recent studies have revealed that South American strains are more genetically diverse and comprise distinct genotypes. These differences have been shaped by infrequent sexual recombination, population sweeps and biogeography. The majority of human infections that have been studied in North America and Europe are caused by type II strains, which are also common in agricultural animals from these regions. In contrast, several diverse genotypes of T. gondii are associated with severe infections in humans in South America. Defining the population structure of T. gondii from new regions has important implications for transmission, immunogenicity and pathogenesis. PMID:19687043

Sibley, L. David; Khan, Asis; Ajioka, James W.; Rosenthal, Benjamin M.

2009-01-01

208

Veterinary education in the area of food safety (including animal health, food pathogens and surveillance of foodborne diseases).  

PubMed

The animal foodstuffs industry has changed in recent decades as a result of factors such as: human population growth and longer life expectancy, increasing urbanisation and migration, emerging zoonotic infectious diseases and foodborne diseases (FBDs), food security problems, technological advances in animal production systems, globalisation of trade and environmental changes. The Millennium Development Goals and the 'One Health' paradigm provide global guidelines on efficiently addressing the issues of consumer product safety, food security and risks associated with zoonoses. Professionals involved in the supply chain must therefore play an active role, based on knowledge and skills that meet current market requirements. Accordingly, it is necessary for the veterinary medicine curriculum, both undergraduate and postgraduate, to incorporate these skills. This article analyses the approach that veterinary education should adopt in relation to food safety, with an emphasis on animal health, food pathogens and FBD surveillance. PMID:24547647

Vidal, S M; Fajardo, P I; González, C G

2013-08-01

209

Laboratory diagnosis of Taenia asiatica in humans and animals.  

PubMed

Taenia asiatica is a recently described species known to cause intestinal teniasis in humans and cysticercosis in animals. This species has close morphological resemblance to Taenia saginata and has a life cycle resembling Taenia solium, hence has been posing diagnostic dilemma and had been the reason for its comparatively late discovery. Recent diagnostic tools such as serological and molecular techniques have thrown light on its exact prevalence in the endemic countries. Hence introduction of utilization of these techniques in addition to the routine morphological analysis would be helpful in diagnosis of T. asiatica infections and early implementation of preventive measures. PMID:24470995

Parija, Subhash Chandra; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol

2013-07-01

210

Laboratory diagnosis of Taenia asiatica in humans and animals  

PubMed Central

Taenia asiatica is a recently described species known to cause intestinal teniasis in humans and cysticercosis in animals. This species has close morphological resemblance to Taenia saginata and has a life cycle resembling Taenia solium, hence has been posing diagnostic dilemma and had been the reason for its comparatively late discovery. Recent diagnostic tools such as serological and molecular techniques have thrown light on its exact prevalence in the endemic countries. Hence introduction of utilization of these techniques in addition to the routine morphological analysis would be helpful in diagnosis of T. asiatica infections and early implementation of preventive measures. PMID:24470995

Parija, Subhash Chandra; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol

2013-01-01

211

Human illnesses and animal deaths associated with freshwater harmful algal blooms-kansas.  

PubMed

Freshwater harmful algal bloom (FHAB) toxins can cause morbidity and mortality in both humans and animals, and the incidence of FHABs in the United States and Kansas has increased. In 2010, the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) developed a FHAB policy and response plan. We describe the epidemiology of FHAB-associated morbidity and mortality in humans and animals in Kansas. Healthcare providers and veterinarians voluntarily reported FHAB-associated cases to KDHE. An investigation was initiated for each report to determine the source of exposure and to initiate public health mitigation actions. There were 38 water bodies with a confirmed FHAB in 2011. There were 34 reports of human and animal FHAB-associated health events in 2011, which included five dog deaths and hospitalization of two human case patients. Five confirmed human illnesses, two dog illnesses and five dog deaths were associated with one lake. Four human and seven dog cases were exposed to the lake after a public health alert was issued. Public health officials and FHAB partners must ensure continued awareness of the risks to the public, educate healthcare providers and veterinarians on FHAB-related health events and encourage timely reporting to public health authorities. PMID:25647780

Trevino-Garrison, Ingrid; DeMent, Jamie; Ahmed, Farah S; Haines-Lieber, Patricia; Langer, Thomas; Ménager, Henri; Neff, Janet; van der Merwe, Deon; Carney, Edward

2015-01-01

212

The impact of Fusarium mycotoxins on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases.  

PubMed

Contamination of food and feed with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. At present, acute mycotoxicosis caused by high doses is rare in humans and animals. Ingestion of low to moderate amounts of Fusarium mycotoxins is common and generally does not result in obvious intoxication. However, these low amounts may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host pathogen interactions and thus a different outcome of infection. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the impact of Fusarium mycotoxin exposure on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases. On the one hand, exposure to deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium mycotoxins generally exacerbates infections with parasites, bacteria and viruses across a wide range of animal host species. Well-known examples include coccidiosis in poultry, salmonellosis in pigs and mice, colibacillosis in pigs, necrotic enteritis in poultry, enteric septicemia of catfish, swine respiratory disease, aspergillosis in poultry and rabbits, reovirus infection in mice and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus infection in pigs. However, on the other hand, T-2 toxin has been shown to markedly decrease the colonization capacity of Salmonella in the pig intestine. Although the impact of the exposure of humans to Fusarium toxins on infectious diseases is less well known, extrapolation from animal models suggests possible exacerbation of, for instance, colibacillosis and salmonellosis in humans, as well. PMID:24476707

Antonissen, Gunther; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Verbrugghe, Elin; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Li, Shaoji; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska

2014-02-01

213

The Impact of Fusarium Mycotoxins on Human and Animal Host Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases  

PubMed Central

Contamination of food and feed with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. At present, acute mycotoxicosis caused by high doses is rare in humans and animals. Ingestion of low to moderate amounts of Fusarium mycotoxins is common and generally does not result in obvious intoxication. However, these low amounts may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host pathogen interactions and thus a different outcome of infection. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the impact of Fusarium mycotoxin exposure on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases. On the one hand, exposure to deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium mycotoxins generally exacerbates infections with parasites, bacteria and viruses across a wide range of animal host species. Well-known examples include coccidiosis in poultry, salmonellosis in pigs and mice, colibacillosis in pigs, necrotic enteritis in poultry, enteric septicemia of catfish, swine respiratory disease, aspergillosis in poultry and rabbits, reovirus infection in mice and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus infection in pigs. However, on the other hand, T-2 toxin has been shown to markedly decrease the colonization capacity of Salmonella in the pig intestine. Although the impact of the exposure of humans to Fusarium toxins on infectious diseases is less well known, extrapolation from animal models suggests possible exacerbation of, for instance, colibacillosis and salmonellosis in humans, as well. PMID:24476707

Antonissen, Gunther; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Verbrugghe, Elin; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Li, Shaoji; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska

2014-01-01

214

Human and Animal Vaccination Delivery to Remote Nomadic Families, Chad  

PubMed Central

Vaccination services for people and livestock often fail to achieve sufficient coverages in Africa’s remote rural settings because of financial, logistic, and service delivery constraints. In Chad from 2000 through 2005, we demonstrated the feasibility of combining vaccination programs for nomadic pastoralists and their livestock. Sharing of transport logistics and equipment between physicians and veterinarians reduced total costs. Joint delivery of human and animal health services is adapted to and highly valued by hard-to-reach pastoralists. In intervention zones, for the first time ?10% of nomadic children (>1–11 months of age) were fully immunized annually and more children and women were vaccinated per day during joint vaccination rounds than during vaccination of persons only and not their livestock (130 vs. 100, p<0.001). By optimizing use of limited logistical and human resources, public health and veterinary services both become more effective, especially at the district level. PMID:17552089

Bechir, Mahamat; Ahmed, Mahamat Abdoulaye; Wyss, Kaspar; Randolph, Thomas F.; Zinsstag, Jakob

2007-01-01

215

Giovanni Aldini: from animal electricity to human brain stimulation.  

PubMed

Two hundred years ago, Giovanni Aldini published a highly influential book that reported experiments in which the principles of Luigi Galvani (animal electricity) and Alessandro Volta (bimetallic electricity) were used together for the first time. Aldini was born in Bologna in 1762 and graduated in physics at the University of his native town in 1782. As nephew and assistant of Galvani, he actively participated in a series of crucial experiments with frog's muscles that led to the idea that electricity was the long-sought vital force coursing from brain to muscles. Aldini became professor of experimental physics at the University of Bologna in 1798. He traveled extensively throughout Europe, spending much time defending the concept of his discreet uncle against the incessant attacks of Volta, who did not believe in animal electricity. Aldini used Volta's bimetallic pile to apply electric current to dismembered bodies of animals and humans; these spectacular galvanic reanimation experiments made a strong and enduring impression on his contemporaries. Aldini also treated patients with personality disorders and reported complete rehabilitation following transcranial administration of electric current. Aldini's work laid the ground for the development of various forms of electrotherapy that were heavily used later in the 19th century. Even today, deep brain stimulation, a procedure currently employed to relieve patients with motor or behavioral disorders, owes much to Aldini and galvanism. In recognition of his merits, Aldini was made a knight of the Iron Crown and a councillor of state at Milan, where he died in 1834. PMID:15595271

Parent, André

2004-11-01

216

IN SUPPORT OF AN EXPERT-NOVICE DIFFERENCE IN THE REPRESENTATION OF HUMANS VERSUS NON-HUMAN ANIMALS BY INFANTS: GENERALIZATION FROM PERSONS TO CATS OCCURS ONLY WITH UPRIGHT WHOLE IMAGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quinn (2004) reported that the asymmetry in categor ization of humans versus nonhuman animals by human infants (i.e., a represen tation for humans that includes nonhuman animals vs. a representation for nonhuman animals that excludes humans) was based on holistic information. The current research investigated how this asymmetry was affected by sti mulus inversion. Three- to 4-month-olds were familiarized with

Paul C. QUINN; Kang LEE; Olivier PASCALIS; Alan M. SLATER

217

Cadmium-induced Cancers in Animals and in Humans  

PubMed Central

Discovered in the early 1800s, the use of cadmium and various cadmium salts started to become industrially important near the close of the 19th century, rapidly thereafter began to flourish, yet has diminished more recently. Most cadmium used in the United States is a byproduct from the smelting of zinc, lead, or copper ores, and is used to manufacture batteries. Carcinogenic activity of cadmium was discovered first in animals and only subsequently in humans. Cadmium and cadmium compounds have been classified as known human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the National Toxicology Program based on epidemiologic studies showing a causal association with lung cancer, and possibly prostate cancer, and studies in experimental animals, demonstrating that cadmium causes tumors at multiple tissue sites, by various routes of exposure, and in several species and strains. Epidemiologic studies published since these evaluations suggest that cadmium is also associated with cancers of the breast, kidney, pancreas, and urinary bladder. The basic metal cationic portion of cadmium is responsible for both toxic and cardinogenic activity, and the mechanism of carcinogenicity appears to be multifactorial. Available information about the carcinogenicity of cadmium and cadmium compounds is reviewed, evaluated, and discussed. PMID:17718178

Huff, James; Lunn, Ruth M.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Tomatis, Lorenzo; Infante, Peter F.

2012-01-01

218

When animals misbehave: Analogs of human biases and suboptimal choice.  

PubMed

Humans tend to value rewards more if they have had to work hard to obtain them (justification of effort). Similarly they tend to persist in a task even when they would be better off beginning a new one (sunk cost). Humans also often give greater value to objects of good quality than the same objects together with objects of lesser quality (the less is more effect). Commercial gambling (lotteries and slot machines) is another example of suboptimal choice by humans because on average the rewards are less than the investment. In another example of a systematic bias, when humans try to estimate the probability of the occurrence of a low probability event, they often give too much weight to the results of a test, in spite of the fact that the known probability of a false alarm reduces the predictive value of the test (base rate neglect). In each of these examples, we have found that pigeons show a similar tendency to choose suboptimally. When one can show comparable findings of suboptimal choice in animals it suggests that whereas culture may reinforce certain suboptimal behavior, the behavior is likely to result from the overgeneralization of basic behavioral processes or predisposed heuristics that may have been appropriate in natural environments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: "Tribute to Tom Zentall." PMID:25192737

Zentall, Thomas R

2015-03-01

219

VERY LOW BITRATE CODING OF VIRTUAL HUMAN ANIMATION IN MPEG-4  

E-print Network

defines a Face and Body Animation object, with the goal to define synthetic human face and body models human or human- like character that allows portraying body movements adequate to achieve nonverbalVERY LOW BITRATE CODING OF VIRTUAL HUMAN ANIMATION IN MPEG-4 Tolga K. Capin1 , Eric Petajan2

Greenberg, Albert

220

Surveillance of hantaviruses in Poland: a study of animal reservoirs and human hantavirus disease in Subcarpathia.  

PubMed

The first cluster of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Poland was identified in 2007 in the Subcarpathian region. The natural environment of this area is a key habitat for hantavirus vectors. The animal reservoir of existing human HFRS clusters was studied to assess the occurrence of viruses (including Tula virus, Puumala virus, and Dobrava-Belgrade virus) among rodents. We examined 70 suspected human cases with symptoms corresponding to the clinical picture of HFRS. Serological analysis (indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunoblot) confirmed the presence of anti-hantavirus antibodies in 18 patients, which were surveyed with regard to developed symptoms and presumed rodent contact. Seroepidemiological analysis of newly confirmed human cases was performed, putative areas of human exposure were studied, and 194 rodents were subsequently captured from identified areas. Internal organs (lungs, heart, spleen, bladder, and kidneys) were collected from 64 Apodemus flavicollis, 55 Apodemus agrarius, 40 Myodes glareolus, 21 Mus musculus, and 14 Microtus arvalis and tested for the presence of hantavirus RNA by reverse transcription and subsequent real-time PCR. Positive samples were also tested by indirect immunofluorescence. Animal reservoir surveillance enabled the first detection of Puumala virus and Dobrava-Belgrade virus among animals in Poland. Furthermore, some places where rodents were captured correlated with areas of residence of laboratory-confirmed human cases and likely detected virus species. Moreover, three species of hantaviruses coexisting in a relatively small area were identified. PMID:24902039

Michalski, Aleksander; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Nowakowska, Anna; Gawe?, Jerzy; Pitucha, Grzegorz; Joniec, Justyna; Zielonka, Katarzyna; Marciniak-Niemcewicz, Anna; Kocik, Janusz

2014-07-01

221

Humanized mouse models for type 1 diabetes including pancreatic islet transplantation.  

PubMed

We comment here on the suitability of available mouse models for type 1 diabetes research including research on therapeutic pancreatic islet transplantation. The major emphasis will be laid on models that require minimal invasive procedures.Most biological processes are too complex for a complete recapitulation in a test tube. The study of innate or even adaptive immune responses involves a number of different cell types and organs making in vitro studies unreliable but also providing extreme challenges for the use of surrogate model organisms. Studying these processes directly in humans is impossible due to ethical and technical constraints. To resolve this problem small animal models such as mice or rats are frequently used to study mechanisms of complex diseases. This has brought much insight into hematopoiesis and immune cell function including type 1 diabetes (T1D); however, 65 million years of evolution introduced striking differences between mice and humans 1. In fact, none of the many suggested therapies arising from studies using mice 2 3 that have promised prevention or even reversion of T1D made it into the clinic yet 4 5 6. The reason for this are major species-specific differences between rodents and humans regarding the immune system and beta cells. PMID:25369071

Rahmig, S; Bornstein, S R; Chavakis, T; Jaeckel, E; Waskow, C

2015-01-01

222

New features of fascioliasis in human and animal infections in Ilam province, Western Iran  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of human and animal fascioliasis in Ilam Province, Iran. Background Fascioliasis, caused by Fasciola hepatica, is one of the most important zoonotic diseases. Snails are an intermediate host. Human infection with the parasite can led to hypertrophy and hyperplasia in bile duct. It also economic importance and further information is essential about the epidemiology of the parasite in Ilam province. Patients and methods The study on animals was descriptive and retrospective. All records from abattoirs were analyzed. It was conducted on 27242 indigenous animals including 17055 sheep, 5703 goats, and 4484 cattle. For the study of human Fascioliasis infection 600 human sera, from person among 5-80 year old, were collected and ELISA test was used for identification of IgG antibody to Fasciola hepatica by commercial kit. Results The overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica among 27242 slaughtered animals was 0.98%. Out of 267 domestic animals, 98 sheep, 28 goats and 141 cattle were infected with the parasite. The highest and lowest infection rate of 3.14% and 0.1% were cattle and goat, respectively. The prevalence of IgG antibody was0.66% (n = 4) against Fasciola hepatica in humans. Three infected people were living in rural areas. The highest infection rate (3 people) was found in women. Conclusion Ilam province is among the areas where the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica is low. This is probably due to the drought in the region in recent years that makes conditions difficult for the survival of snails, the intermediate hosts. But there is a risk of the disease increasing in incidence, in this region. PMID:24834263

Abdi, Jahangir; Nejad, Mohammad Rostami; Mansouri, Vahid

2013-01-01

223

78 FR 42381 - Administrative Detention of Drugs Intended for Human or Animal Use  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...2013 Part IV Department of Health and Human Services...Administrative Detention of Drugs Intended for Human or Animal Use; Draft Guidance for Industry...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...

2013-07-15

224

Crazy like a fox. Validity and ethics of animal models of human psychiatric disease.  

PubMed

Animal models of human disease play a central role in modern biomedical science. Developing animal models for human mental illness presents unique practical and philosophical challenges. In this article we argue that (1) existing animal models of psychiatric disease are not valid, (2) attempts to model syndromes are undermined by current nosology, (3) models of symptoms are rife with circular logic and anthropomorphism, (4) any model must make unjustified assumptions about subjective experience, and (5) any model deemed valid would be inherently unethical, for if an animal adequately models human subjective experience, then there is no morally relevant difference between that animal and a human. PMID:24534739

Rollin, Michael D H; Rollin, Bernard E

2014-04-01

225

Mechanisms and Genes in Human Strial Presbycusis from Animal Models  

PubMed Central

Schuknecht proposed a discrete form of presbycusis in which hearing loss results principally from degeneration of cochlear stria vascularis and decline of the endocochlear potential (EP). This form was asserted to be genetically linked, and to arise independently from age-related pathology of either the organ of Corti or cochlear neurons. Although extensive strial degeneration in humans coincides with hearing loss, EPs have never been measured in humans, and age-related EP reduction has never been verified. No human genes that promote strial presbycusis have been identified, nor is its pathophysiology well understood. Effective application of animal models to this issue requires models demonstrating EP decline, and preferably, genetically distinct strains that vary in patterns of EP decline and its cellular correlates. Until recently, only two models, Mongolian gerbils and Tyrp1B-lt mice, were known to undergo age-associated EP reduction. Detailed studies of seven inbred mouse strains have now revealed three strains (C57BL/6J, B6.CAST-Cdh23CAST, CBA/J) showing essentially no EP decline with age, and four strains ranging from modest to severe EP reduction (C57BL/6-Tyrc-2J, BALB/cJ, CBA/CaJ, NOD.NON-H2nbl/LtJ). Collectively, animal models support five basic principles regarding a strial form of presbycusis: 1) Progressive EP decline from initially normal levels as a defining characteristic; 2) Non-universality, not all age-associated hearing loss involves EP decline; 3) A clear genetic basis; 4) Modulation by environment or stochastic events; and 5) Independent strial, organ of Corti, and neural pathology. Shared features between human strial presbycusis, gerbils, and BALB/cJ and C57BL/6-Tyrc-2J mice further suggest this condition frequently begins with strial marginal cell dysfunction and loss. By contrast, NOD.NON-H2nbl mice may model a sequence more closely associated with strial microvascular disease. Additional studies of these and other inbred mouse and rat models should reveal candidate processes and genes that promote EP decline in humans. PMID:19285967

Ohlemiller, Kevin K.

2009-01-01

226

Filariasis: nutritional interactions in human and animal hosts.  

PubMed

Vector-borne nematodes of the Order Filarioidea produce chronic, debilitating human infections which are usually nonfatal but are associated with a high degree of severe morbidity. Weight loss often accompanies infection and is probably a consequence of the increased energy cost associated with filarial fever, lymphangitis and lymphadenitis. In onchocerciasis, weight loss is associated with heavy worm loads as assessed by abundant nodules and large numbers of skin microfilariae. Experimental infections using rodent filariae have confirmed these observations and have also shown that low protein diets render hosts more susceptible to infection; nevertheless, parasite growth and embryogenesis is retarded in stunted female worms from protein deficient animals. In the absence of appropriate evidence, studies of experimental filariasis suggest that human protein-energy malnutrition may delay the development of stage-specific acquired immunity with a corresponding prolongation of patency. Epidemiological and experimental evidence shows that filarial nematodes acquire certain nutrients directly from their hosts. Of major importance in this respect is vitamin A which is taken up preferentially by human and rodent filariae; in humans, symptoms of hypovitaminosis A often accompany infection and could be an aggravating factor in onchocerciasis. Filariae also appear to require other specific nutrients such as iodine, thiamine and pyridoxine; dietary levels of these nutrients affect the host-parasite relationships in filariasis and pyridoxine seems to be of particular importance in this respect. Filarial parasites obviously compete with their hosts for available nutrients and, in the real world, human filariasis is often associated with a deterioration in the plane of nutrition of infected individuals. PMID:8115179

Storey, D M

1993-01-01

227

New Directions: Challenges for Human-Animal Bond Research and the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential health effect of the human-animal bond has been explored for over 15 years with limited success. Professionals from a variety of fields have examined the benefits a companion animal can provide for persons with special needs. We examined the research related to human-animal interactions and the community- based elderly. We reviewed recommendations from the 1984 Delta Society conference

Cindy C. Wilson; F. Ellen Netting

1987-01-01

228

Virtual Human Animation Based on Movement Observation and Cognitive Behavior Models  

E-print Network

Virtual Human Animation Based on Movement Observation and Cognitive Behavior Models Norman I, and from cognitive data to autonomous attention behaviors. These two approaches to animation exemplify our Philadelphia, PA 19104­6389 Abstract Automatically animating virtual humans with actions that reflect real

Badler, Norman I.

229

Copyright: Potts & White, May 2007 New Zealand Centre for Human-Animal Studies  

E-print Network

Copyright: Potts & White, May 2007 New Zealand Centre for Human-Animal Studies Cruelty-Director: New Zealand Centre for Human-Animal Studies Te Whare Wananga o Waitaha/University of Canterbury Overview 14 Participants (according to gender & status as `NZ born' or `tauiwi') 14 Status of animal

Hickman, Mark

230

Bridging human and animal research: A comparative approach to studies of personality and health  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article evaluates a comparative approach to personality and health research. We (1) review evidence showing that personality exists and can be measured in animals, (2) illustrate the benefits of animal studies for human personality research, (3) illustrate the benefits of human studies for animal personality research, and (4) provide guidelines for making cross-species comparisons. We conclude that a comparative

Pranjal H. Mehta; Samuel D. Gosling

2008-01-01

231

Putting the Dog Back in the Park: Animal and Human Mind-in-Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we use actual instances of human conduct with animals to reflect on the debates about animal agency in human activities. Where much of psychology, philosophy, and sociology begin with a fundamental scepticism over animal mind as the grounds for its inquiries, we join with a growing body of work that examines the continuities…

Laurier, Eric; Maze, Ramia; Lundin, Johan

2006-01-01

232

Social Work Practitioners and the Human-Companion Animal Bond: A National Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extensive research documents powerful relationships between humans and companion animals, and 62 percent of U. S. households report having a companion animal. Social workers are likely to work with individuals and families with companion animals; thus, the inclusion of such animals in both practice and research as a natural extension of social…

Risley-Curtiss, Christina

2010-01-01

233

Animal-to-Human Transmission of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104A Variant  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was isolated from a pig, a calf, and a child on a farm in the Netherlands. The isolates were indistinguishable by phenotyping and genotyping methods, which suggests nonfoodborne animal-to-animal and animal-to-human transmission. Persons in close contact with farm animals should be aware of this risk. PMID:15663868

Orsel, Karin; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Miko, Angelika; van Duijkeren, Engeline

2004-01-01

234

Competing conceptions of animal welfare and their ethical implications for the treatment of non-human animals.  

PubMed

Animal welfare has been conceptualized in such a way that the use of animals in science and for food seems justified. I argue that those who have done this have appropriated the concept of animal welfare, claiming to give a scientific account that is more objective than the "sentimental" account given by animal liberationists. This strategy seems to play a major role in supporting merely limited reform in the use of animals and seems to support the assumption that there are conditions under which animals may be raised and slaughtered for food that are ethically acceptable. Reformists do not need to make this assumption, but they tend to conceptualize animal welfare is such a way that death does not count as harmful to the interests of animals, nor prolonged life a benefit. In addition to this prudential value assumption, some members of this community have developed strategies for defending suitably reformed farming practices as ethical even granting that death and some other forms of constraints are harms. One such strategy is the fiction of a domestic contract. However, if one accepts the conceptualization of human welfare give by L. W. Sumner, and applies it to animals in the way that I think is justified, an accurate conceptualization of animal welfare has different implications for which uses of animals should be regarded as ethically acceptable. In this paper I give an historical and philosophical account of animal welfare conceptulization and use this account to argue that animal breeders, as custodians of the animals they breed, have the ethical responsibility to help their animal wards achieve as much autonomy as possible in choosing the form of life made available to them and to provide that life. Attempts to avoid these implications by alluding to a contract model of the relationship between custodians and their wards fail to relieve custodians of their ethical responsibilities of care. PMID:21305338

Haynes, Richard P

2011-06-01

235

Vinyl chloride-specific mutations in humans and animals.  

PubMed

Vinyl chloride is a potent hepatocarcinogen which reacts with DNA to generate etheno bases. In order to determine whether mutational patterns in target genes in vivo are characteristic of vinyl chloride and could be explained by the mutagenic properties of the etheno bases, human and rat liver tumours associated with exposure to vinyl chloride were analysed for point mutations in the ras and p53 genes. In this paper, we review these data and report our latest results on animal tumours. Two alterations were found which could be attributed to a direct effect of vinyl chloride: a GC-->AT transition which leads to a GGC-->GAC mutation at codon 13 of the Ki-ras gene in human liver angiosarcomas, and lesions at AT base pairs, mostly AT-->TA transversions, which lead to mutations in the p53 gene in human and rat angiosarcomas and to a CAA-->CTA mutation at codon 61 of the Ha-ras gene in rat hepatocellular carcinomas. PMID:10626231

Marion, M J; Boivin-Angele, S

1999-01-01

236

Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Animation is making a splash with the recent box office hit, Shrek 2. This Topic in Depth explores how animation works, it's history and the entertaining as well as academic applications of animation. The first website provides a basic overview of digital cinema (1). More information on animation can be found on the second website (2). Digital Media FX provides this history (3 ) of animation. The Library of Congress has also put together a nice website (4 ) with some historical artifacts that for demonstrating a "a variety of elements that go into the creative process of developing and interpreting animated motion pictures." The fourth website provides an extensive list of online resources and academic uses for animation such as Chemistry, Evolution, Genetics, and Physics. (5 ). This fifth website posts the winners of the 2004 Character Animation Technologies competition (6 ). And finally, Slashdot has a nice expose on the Mathematics of Futurama (7).

237

From Bedside to Bench and Back Again: Research Issues in Animal Models of Human Disease  

PubMed Central

To improve outcomes for patients with many serious clinical problems, multifactorial research approaches by nurse scientists, including the use of animal models, are necessary. Animal models serve as analogies for clinical problems seen in humans and must meet certain criteria, including validity and reliability, to be useful in moving research efforts forward. This article describes research considerations in the development of rodent models. As the standard of diabetes care evolves to emphasize intensive insulin therapy, rates of severe hypoglycemia are increasing among patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. A consequence of this change in clinical practice is an increase in rates of two hypoglycemia-related diabetes complications: hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF) and resulting hypoglycemia unawareness. Work on an animal model of HAAF is in an early developmental stage, with several labs reporting different approaches to model this complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus. This emerging model serves as an example illustrating how evaluation of validity and reliability is critically important at each stage of developing and testing animal models to support inquiry into human disease. PMID:16766631

Tkacs, Nancy C.; Thompson, Hilaire J.

2008-01-01

238

Multiple Diverse Circoviruses Infect Farm Animals and Are Commonly Found in Human and Chimpanzee Feces ? †  

PubMed Central

Circoviruses are known to infect birds and pigs and can cause a wide range of severe symptoms with significant economic impact. Using viral metagenomics, we identified circovirus-like DNA sequences and characterized 15 circular viral DNA genomes in stool samples from humans in Pakistan, Nigeria, Tunisia, and the United States and from wild chimpanzees. Distinct genomic features and phylogenetic analysis indicate that some viral genomes were part of a previously unrecognized genus in the Circoviridae family we tentatively named “Cyclovirus” whose genetic diversity is comparable to that of all the known species in the Circovirus genus. Circoviridae detection in the stools of U.S. adults was limited to porcine circoviruses which were also found in most U.S. pork products. To determine whether the divergent cycloviruses found in non-U.S. human stools were of dietary origin, we genetically compared them to the cycloviruses in muscle tissue samples of commonly eaten farm animals in Pakistan and Nigeria. Limited genetic overlap between cycloviruses in human stool samples and local cow, goat, sheep, camel, and chicken meat samples indicated that the majority of the 25 Cyclovirus species identified might be human viruses. We show that the genetic diversity of small circular DNA viral genomes in various mammals, including humans, is significantly larger than previously recognized, and frequent exposure through meat consumption and contact with animal or human feces provides ample opportunities for cyclovirus transmission. Determining the role of cycloviruses, found in 7 to 17% of non-U.S. human stools and 3 to 55% of non-U.S. meat samples tested, in both human and animal diseases is now facilitated by knowledge of their genomes. PMID:20007276

Li, Linlin; Kapoor, Amit; Slikas, Beth; Bamidele, Oderinde Soji; Wang, Chunlin; Shaukat, Shahzad; Masroor, Muhammad Alam; Wilson, Michael L.; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N.; Peeters, Martine; Gross-Camp, Nicole D.; Muller, Martin N.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Triki, Hinda; Bartkus, Joanne; Zaidi, Sohail Zahoor; Delwart, Eric

2010-01-01

239

Dopaminergic control of cognitive flexibility in humans and animals  

PubMed Central

Striatal dopamine (DA) is thought to code for learned associations between cues and reinforcers and to mediate approach behavior toward a reward. Less is known about the contribution of DA to cognitive flexibility—the ability to adapt behavior in response to changes in the environment. Altered reward processing and impairments in cognitive flexibility are observed in psychiatric disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Patients with this disorder show a disruption of functioning in the frontostriatal circuit and alterations in DA signaling. In this review we summarize findings from animal and human studies that have investigated the involvement of striatal DA in cognitive flexibility. These findings may provide a better understanding of the role of dopaminergic dysfunction in cognitive inflexibility in psychiatric disorders, such as OCD. PMID:24204329

Klanker, Marianne; Feenstra, Matthijs; Denys, Damiaan

2013-01-01

240

Painful dilemmas: A study of the way the public's assessment of animal research balances costs to animals against human benefits.  

PubMed

The conflict between animal costs and human benefits has dominated public as well as academic debates about animal research. However, surveys of public perceptions of animal research rarely focus on this part of attitude formation. This paper traces the prevalence of different attitudes to animal research in the public when people are asked to take benefit and cost considerations into account concurrently. Results from the examination of two representative samples of the Danish public identify three reproducible attitude stances. Approximately 30-35% of people questioned approved of animal research quite strongly, and 15-20% opposed animal research. The remaining 50% were reserved in their views. Further studies will ideally use the measure developed here to make possible relatively fine-grained comparisons and understandings of differences between populations and changes in attitudes over time. PMID:23825251

Lund, Thomas Bøker; Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Lassen, Jesper; Sandøe, Peter

2014-05-01

241

Brucellosis at the animal/ecosystem/human interface at the beginning of the 21st century.  

PubMed

Following the recent discovery of new Brucella strains from different animal species and from the environment, ten Brucella species are nowadays included in the genus Brucella. Although the intracellular trafficking of Brucella is well described, the strategies developed by Brucella to survive and multiply in phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells, particularly to access nutriments during its intracellular journey, are still largely unknown. Metabolism and virulence of Brucella are now considered to be two sides of the same coin. Mechanisms presiding to the colonization of the pregnant uterus in different animal species are not known. Vaccination is the cornerstone of control programs in livestock and although the S19, RB51 (both in cattle) and Rev 1 (in sheep and goats) vaccines have been successfully used worldwide, they have drawbacks and thus the ideal brucellosis vaccine is still very much awaited. There is no vaccine available for pigs and wildlife. Animal brucellosis control strategies differ in the developed and the developing world. Most emphasis is put on eradication and on risk analysis to avoid the re-introduction of Brucella in the developed world. Information related to the prevalence of brucellosis is still scarce in the developing world and control programs are rarely implemented. Since there is no vaccine available for humans, prevention of human brucellosis relies on its control in the animal reservoir. Brucella is also considered to be an agent to be used in bio- and agroterrorism attacks. At the animal/ecosystem/human interface it is critical to reduce opportunities for Brucella to jump host species as already seen in livestock, wildlife and humans. This task is a challenge for the future in terms of veterinary public health, as for wildlife and ecosystem managers and will need a "One Health" approach to be successful. PMID:21571380

Godfroid, J; Scholz, H C; Barbier, T; Nicolas, C; Wattiau, P; Fretin, D; Whatmore, A M; Cloeckaert, A; Blasco, J M; Moriyon, I; Saegerman, C; Muma, J B; Al Dahouk, S; Neubauer, H; Letesson, J-J

2011-11-01

242

Ethics and methods for biological rhythm research on animals and human beings.  

PubMed

This article updates the ethical standards and methods for the conduct of high-quality animal and human biological rhythm research, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. The editors of Chronobiology International adhere to and endorse the Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE), which encourages communication of such updates at regular intervals in the journal. The journal accepts papers representing original work, no part of which was previously submitted for publication elsewhere, except as brief abstracts, as well as in-depth reviews. The majority of research papers published in Chronobiology International entails animal and human investigations. The editors and readers of the journal expect authors of submitted manuscripts to have made an important contribution to the research of biological rhythms and related phenomena using ethical methods/procedures and unbiased, accurate, and honest reporting of findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to declare all potential conflicts of interest. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of investigators to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, relating to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals, and the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, relating to the conduct of ethical research on human beings. The peer review of manuscripts by Chronobiology International thus includes judgment as to whether or not the protocols and methods conform to ethical standards. Authors are expected to show mastery of the basic methods and procedures of biological rhythm research and proper statistical assessment of data, including the appropriate application of time series data analyses, as briefly reviewed in this article. The journal editors strive to consistently achieve high standards for the research of original and review papers reported in Chronobiology International, and current examples of expectations are presented herein. PMID:20969531

Portaluppi, Francesco; Smolensky, Michael H; Touitou, Yvan

2010-10-01

243

In vitro glucuronidation kinetics of deoxynivalenol by human and animal microsomes and recombinant human UGT enzymes.  

PubMed

The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), formed by Fusarium species, is one of the most abundant mycotoxins contaminating food and feed worldwide. Upon ingestion, the majority of the toxin is excreted by humans and animal species as glucuronide conjugate. First in vitro data indicated that DON phase II metabolism is strongly species dependent. However, kinetic data on the in vitro metabolism as well as investigations on the specific enzymes responsible for DON glucuronidation in human are lacking. In the present study, the DON metabolism was investigated using human microsomal fractions and uridine-diphosphoglucuronyltransferases (UGTs) as well as liver microsomes from five animal species. Only two of the twelve tested human recombinant UGTs led to the formation of DON glucuronides with a different regiospecificity. UGT2B4 predominantly catalyzed the formation of DON-15-O-glucuronide (DON-15GlcA), while for UGT2B7 the DON-3-O-glucuronide (DON-3GlcA) metabolite prevailed. For human UGTs, liver, and intestinal microsomes, the glucuronidation activities were low. The estimated apparent intrinsic clearance (Clapp,int) for all human UGT as well as tissue homogenates was <1 mL/min mg protein. For the animal liver microsomes, moderate Clapp,int between 1.5 and 10 mL/min mg protein were calculated for carp, trout, and porcine liver. An elevated glucuronidation activity was detected for rat and bovine liver microsomes leading to Clapp,int between 20 and 80 mL/min mg protein. The obtained in vitro data points out that none of the animal models is suitable for estimating the human DON metabolism with respect to the metabolite pattern and formation rate. PMID:24927789

Maul, Ronald; Warth, Benedikt; Schebb, Nils Helge; Krska, Rudolf; Koch, Matthias; Sulyok, Michael

2014-06-14

244

FAO-OIE-WHO Joint Technical Consultation on Avian Influenza at the Human-Animal Interface.  

PubMed

For the past 10 years, animal health experts and human health experts have been gaining experience in the technical aspects of avian influenza in mostly separate fora. More recently, in 2006, in a meeting of the small WHO Working Group on Influenza Research at the Human Animal Interface (Meeting report available from: http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/influenza/WHO_CDS_EPR_GIP_2006_3/en/index.html) in Geneva allowed influenza experts from the animal and public health sectors to discuss together the most recent avian influenza research. Ad hoc bilateral discussions on specific technical issues as well as formal meetings such as the Technical Meeting on HPAI and Human H5N1 Infection (Rome, June, 2007; information available from: http://www.fao.org/avianflu/en/conferences/june2007/index.html) have increasingly brought the sectors together and broadened the understanding of the topics of concern to each sector. The sectors have also recently come together at the broad global level, and have developed a joint strategy document for working together on zoonotic diseases (Joint strategy available from: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/ajl37e/ajl37e00.pdf). The 2008 FAO-OIE-WHO Joint Technical Consultation on Avian Influenza at the Human Animal Interface described here was the first opportunity for a large group of influenza experts from the animal and public health sectors to gather and discuss purely technical topics of joint interest that exist at the human-animal interface. During the consultation, three influenza-specific sessions aimed to (1) identify virological characteristics of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) important for zoonotic and pandemic disease, (2) evaluate the factors affecting evolution and emergence of a pandemic influenza strain and identify existing monitoring systems, and (3) identify modes of transmission and exposure sources for human zoonotic influenza infection (including discussion of specific exposure risks by affected countries). A final session was held to discuss broadening the use of tools and systems to other emerging zoonotic diseases. The meeting was structured as short technical presentations with substantial time available for facilitated discussion, to take advantage of the vast influenza knowledge and experience available from the invited expert participants. Particularly important was the identification of gaps in knowledge that have not yet been filled by either sector. Technical discussions focused on H5N1, but included other potentially zoonotic avian and animal influenza viruses whenever possible. During the consultation, the significant threat posed by subtypes other than H5N1 was continually emphasized in a variety of contexts. It was stressed that epidemiological and virological surveillance for these other viruses should be broadening and strengthened. The important role of live bird markets (LBMs) in amplifying and sustaining AIVs in some countries was also a recurring topic, and the need for better understanding of the role of LBMs in human zoonotic exposure and infection was noted. Much is understood about the contribution of various virus mutations and gene combinations to transmissibility, infectivity, and pathogenicity, although it was agreed that the specific constellation of gene types and mutations that would characterize a potentially pandemic virus remains unclear. The question of why only certain humans have become infected with H5N1 in the face of massive exposure in some communities was frequently raised during discussion of human exposure risks. It was suggested that individual-level factors may play a role. More research is needed to address this as well as questions of mode of transmission, behaviors associated with increased risk, virological and ecological aspects, and viral persistence in the environment in order to better elucidate specific human exposure risks. It became clear that great strides have been made in recent years in collaboration between the animal health and public health sectors, especially at the global level. In some countries out

Anderson, Tara; Capua, Ilaria; Dauphin, Gwenaëlle; Donis, Ruben; Fouchier, Ron; Mumford, Elizabeth; Peiris, Malik; Swayne, David; Thiermann, Alex

2010-05-01

245

Comparison of an animal model of arteriovenous malformation with human arteriovenous malformation.  

PubMed

This study assessed the blood flow and histological changes of an animal model of arteriovenous malformation (AVM) over 84 days in 71 rats, and compared the histological findings to 17 specimens of human AVM. Carotid-jugular fistula blood flow positively correlated with time. The maximum flow rate occurred at 42 days, at which time the nidus was considered mature and was histologically similar to human AVMs. Morphological similarities between the model and human AVM vessels included heterogeneously thickened walls, splitting of the elastic lamina, thickened endothelial layers, endothelial cushions, lack of tight junctions, loss of endothelial continuity, endothelial-subendothelial adherent junctions, and luminally directed filopodia. These findings support the theory that vascular changes in human AVMs are secondary to increased flow and provide a basis for using this model in studies of AVMs. PMID:19910197

Tu, Jian; Karunanayaka, Athula; Windsor, Apsara; Stoodley, Marcus A

2010-01-01

246

Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Human and Animal Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: A total of 409 samples were investigated bacteriologically to detect the occurrence of staphylococci among the diseased animals and human, the highest isolation rate was observed in human samples (36%) followed by dog (28%), bovine (24.8%), ration (14.7%) and chicken (12%) samples. A total of 78 S. aureus isolates secured from different animals and human origins were characterized

J. El-Jakee; Ata S. Nagwa; M. Bakry; Sahar A. Zouelfakar; E. Elgabry; W. A. Gad El-Said

247

New trends in chemotherapy on human and animal blood parasites.  

PubMed

Blood-parasite protozoa are causative agents of some of the major tropical or infectious diseases for humans and animals, such as Plasmodium for malaria (about 270 million infected people), Trypanosoma cruzi for Chagas' disease (about 18-20 million individuals), African trypanosomes for human and bovine trypanosomiasis, and Babesia for cattle and dogs. The absence of efficient vaccines against these diseases, the absence or the high toxicity of the few drugs against American and African trypanosomiasis, and the emergence of chemoresistance against Plasmodium falciparum emphasize the necessity to propose new antiparasitic strategies. Among these strategies, the biological strategy is based on the identification of key molecules for parasite development such that structural analogs can be designed that are parasite-specific or sufficiently inactive for the host. This requires a careful biochemical analysis of each step of the parasite life cycle. For blood-parasite protozoa, the lipid metabolism required for membrane biogenesis, antimicrotubular drugs or inhibitors of the mitotic spindle, and drug targeting offer new trends in chemotherapy against Plasmodium, Babesia, and trypanosomes. PMID:8801568

Schrével, J; Millerioux, V; Sinou, V; Frappier, F; Santus, R; Grellier, P

1996-01-01

248

Merleau-Ponty, Deleuze, and the Question Singular: What Marks the Difference between Humans and Animals?  

E-print Network

." The human animal cannot be simply divided into two compartments, rationality and animality. This is a form of re- ductionism to which Merleau-Ponty was against since The Struc­ ture of Behavior. As Merleau-Ponty boldly puts: the "human can­ not appear..., 2003). Henceforth cited as NCF. 1 2 Merleau-Ponty discusses animals in The Structure of Behavior, however, the question of animals is thought through behavior instead of human-animal intertwining. See Maurice Merleau-Ponty, "Higher Forms of Behavior...

Memon, Arsalan

249

Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ah, animation! Where would we be without the likes of Disney, Warner Bros., Walter Lanz, Hanna-Barbera, and dozens more like\\u000a them? For many people, animation is the reason to get involved with Flash as a creative outlet. This makes perfect sense, because Flash began life more than a decade ago\\u000a as an animation tool. Supplemental features like ActionScript, XML parsing,

Tom Green; David Stiller

250

Animals as Sentinels of Human Environmental Health Hazards: An Evidence-Based Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite recognition that animals could be serving as sentinels for environmental risks to human health, there are no evidence-based guidelines for the use of animal sentinel data in human health \\u000adecision making. We performed a systematic review of the animal sentinel literature to assess the evidence linking such events to human health. A search of MEDLINE identified peer-reviewed original studies

Peter M. Rabinowitz; Zimra Gordon; Rebecca Holmes; Brynn Taylor; Matthew Wilcox; Daniel Chudnov; Prakash Nadkarni; F. Joshua Dein

2005-01-01

251

[An epidemiological investigation of eperythrozoon infection in human and animals (II)].  

PubMed

This paper reported an epidemiological investigation on human and animals infection of eperythrozoon in 1 provinces. The results showed that eperythrozoon infection appeared in human as well as in swines, sheep, cats, donkeis and chickens. Due to geographical variations, the infection rates showed a significant difference, both in human and animals. The infection rate was not associated with sex, age or occupation in human, but was associated with seasons in animals. High peak of infection rates in animals was in May, June, July and August. PMID:9387587

Shang, D Q; Li, L Y; Pei, B

1996-08-01

252

Severe Life Stress and Oxidative Stress in the Brain: From Animal Models to Human Pathology  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Severe life stress (SLS), as opposed to trivial everyday stress, is defined as a serious psychosocial event with the potential of causing an impacting psychological traumatism. Recent Advances: Numerous studies have attempted to understand how the central nervous system (CNS) responds to SLS. This response includes a variety of morphological and neurochemical modifications; among them, oxidative stress is almost invariably observed. Oxidative stress is defined as disequilibrium between oxidant generation and the antioxidant response. Critical Issues: In this review, we discuss how SLS leads to oxidative stress in the CNS, and how the latter impacts pathophysiological outcomes. We also critically discuss experimental methods that measure oxidative stress in the CNS. The review covers animal models and human observations. Animal models of SLS include sleep deprivation, maternal separation, and social isolation in rodents, and the establishment of hierarchy in non-human primates. In humans, SLS, which is caused by traumatic events such as child abuse, war, and divorce, is also accompanied by oxidative stress in the CNS. Future Directions: The outcome of SLS in humans ranges from resilience, over post-traumatic stress disorder, to development of chronic mental disorders. Defining the sources of oxidative stress in SLS might in the long run provide new therapeutic avenues. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1475–1490. PMID:22746161

Jaquet, Vincent; Trabace, Luigia; Krause, Karl-Heinz

2013-01-01

253

Mapping and Quantification of Vascular Branching in Plants, Animals and Humans by VESGEN Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Humans face daunting challenges in the successful exploration and colonization of space, including adverse alterations in gravity and radiation. The Earth-determined biology of humans, animals and plants is significantly modified in such extraterrestrial environments. One physiological requirement shared by humans with larger plants and animals is a complex, highly branching vascular system that is dynamically responsive to cellular metabolism, immunological protection and specialized cellular/tissue function. The VESsel GENeration (VESGEN) Analysis has been developed as a mature beta version, pre-release research software for mapping and quantification of the fractal-based complexity of vascular branching. Alterations in vascular branching pattern can provide informative read-outs of altered vascular regulation. Originally developed for biomedical applications in angiogenesis, VESGEN 2D has provided novel insights into the cytokine, transgenic and therapeutic regulation of angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and other microvascular remodeling phenomena. Vascular trees, networks and tree-network composites are mapped and quantified. Applications include disease progression from clinical ophthalmic images of the human retina; experimental regulation of vascular remodeling in the mouse retina; avian and mouse coronary vasculature, and other experimental models in vivo. We envision that altered branching in the leaves of plants studied on ISS such as Arabidopsis thaliana cans also be analyzed.

Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.; Vickerman, Mary B.; Keith, Patricia A.

2010-01-01

254

Using animal data to improve prediction of human decompression risk following air-saturation dives.  

PubMed

To plan for any future rescue of personnel in a disabled and pressurized submarine, the US Navy needs a method for predicting risk of decompression sickness under possible scenarios for crew recovery. Such scenarios include direct ascent from compressed air exposures with risks too high for ethical human experiments. Animal data, however, with their extensive range of exposure pressures and incidence of decompression sickness, could improve prediction of high-risk human exposures. Hill equation dose-response models were fit, by using maximum likelihood, to 898 air-saturation, direct-ascent dives from humans, pigs, and rats, both individually and combined. Combining the species allowed estimation of one, more precise Hill equation exponent (steepness parameter), thus increasing the precision associated with human risk predictions. These predictions agreed more closely with the observed data at 2 ATA, compared with a current, more general, US Navy model, although the confidence limits of both models overlapped those of the data. However, the greatest benefit of adding animal data was observed after removal of the highest risk human exposures, requiring the models to extrapolate. PMID:12070208

Lillo, R S; Himm, J F; Weathersby, P K; Temple, D J; Gault, K A; Dromsky, D M

2002-07-01

255

Role of human- and animal-sperm studies in the evaluation of male reproductive hazards  

SciTech Connect

Human sperm tests provide a direct means of assessing chemically induced spermatogenic dysfunction in man. Available tests include sperm count, motility, morphology (seminal cytology), and Y-body analyses. Over 70 different human exposures have been monitored in various groups of exposed men. The majority of exposures studied showed a significant change from control in one or more sperm tests. When carefully controlled, the sperm morphology test is statistically the most sensitive of these human sperm tests. Several sperm tests have been developed in nonhuman mammals for the study of chemical spermatotoxins. The sperm morphology test in mice has been the most widely used. Results with this test seem to be related to germ-cell mutagenicity. In general, animal sperm tests should play an important role in the identification and assessment of potential human reproductive hazards. Exposure to spermatotoxins may lead to infertility, and more importantly, to heritable genetic damage. While there are considerable animal and human data suggesting that sperm tests may be used to detect agents causing infertility, the extent to which these tests detect heritable genetic damage remains unclear. (ERB)

Wyrobek, A.J.; Gordon, L.; Watchmaker, G.

1982-04-07

256

Development of novel combined anticalcification protocols including immunologic modification for prolonged durability of cardiac xenograft: preclinical study using large-animal long-term circulatory models.  

PubMed

Cardiac xenografts are conventionally cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) to impart tissue stability, reduce antigenicity, and maintain tissue sterility. However, GA-fixed xenografts are prone to calcification after long-term implantation in humans, because of phospholipids, free aldehyde groups, and residual antigenicity. We evaluated preclinical safety and efficacy using large-animal long-term circulatory models for our novel combined anticalcification protocol including immunological modification, which had been proven effective in small animal experiments. Bovine/porcine xenografts were treated with decellularization, immunological modification with ?-galactosidase, GA fixation with organic solvent, and detoxification with glycine. Valve conduits made of these xenografts were transplanted into the pulmonary root of goats, and hemodynamic, radiological, immunohistopathological, and biochemical results were obtained for 12 months after implantation. Evaluation of echocardiography and cardiac catheterization demonstrated good hemodynamic status and function of the pulmonary xenograft valves. Durability of the xenografts was well preserved without calcification by specimen radiography and immunohistopathological examination. The calcium concentrations of the explanted xenografts were lower than the control xenografts. This preclinical study using large-animal long-term circulatory models demonstrated that our synergistic and simultaneous employment of multiple anticalcification therapies and novel tissue treatments, including immunological modifications, have promising safety and efficacy and should be examined further in future clinical studies. PMID:25303800

Lim, Hong-Gook; Jeong, Saeromi; Shin, Jun-Seop; Park, Chung-Gyu; Kim, Yong Jin

2015-01-01

257

Cryptococcus gattii: an emerging fungal pathogen infecting humans and animals  

PubMed Central

Infectious fungi are among a broad group of microbial pathogens that has and continues to emerge concomitantly due to the global AIDS pandemic as well as an overall increase of patients with compromised immune systems. In addition, many pathogens have been emerging and reemerging, causing disease in both individuals who have an identifiable immune defect and those who do not. The fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii can infect individuals with and without an identifiable immune defect, with a broad geographic range including both endemic areas and emerging outbreak regions. Infections in patients and animals can be severe and often fatal if untreated. We review the molecular epidemiology, population structure, clinical manifestations, and ecological niche of this emerging pathogen. PMID:21684347

Byrnes, Edmond J.; Bartlett, Karen H.; Perfect, John R.; Heitman, Joseph

2012-01-01

258

The Animal-Human Bond and Ethnic Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Affectionate relationships with animal companions have health-enhancing effects on people and enrich their quality of life, and the majority of families with companion animals regard their animals as family members. Research has also suggested that these relationships are complicated and vary depending on a number of factors, yet there has been…

Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Holley, Lynn C.; Wolf, Shapard

2006-01-01

259

METABOLISM AND DISPOSITION OF INORGANIC ARSENIC IN LABORATORY ANIMALS AND HUMANS  

EPA Science Inventory

The carcinogenicity of inorganic arsenic in humans, particulary in the lung and skin, has been reasonably well established through epidemiological investigations. owever, there is no substantial experimental evidence for carcinogenicity in animals to support the human studies. tu...

260

Hydroanalysis of Animal Lysozymes c and Human Defensins a  

E-print Network

Proteins appear to be the most dramatic natural example of self-organized criticality (SOC), a concept that explains many otherwise apparently unlikely phenomena. Protein functionality is dominated by long range hydro(phobic/philic) interactions which both drive protein compaction and mediate protein-protein interactions. In contrast to previous reductionist short range hydrophobicity scales, the holistic Moret-Zebende hydrophobicity scale represents a hydroanalytic tool that bioinformatically quantifies SOC in a way fully compatible with evolution. Hydroprofiling identifies chemical trends in the activities and substrate binding abilities of model enzymes and antibiotic animal lysozymes c and antibiotic human defensins, which have been the subject of tens of thousands of experimental studies. The analysis is simple and easily performed, and immediately yields insights not obtainable by traditional methods based on short-range real-space interactions, as described either by classical force fields (CFF) used in molecular dynamics simulations (MDS), or hydrophobicity scales based on transference energies from water to organic solvents.

J. C. Phillips

2008-08-17

261

Astrovirus infections in humans and animals – Molecular biology, genetic diversity, and interspecies transmissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astroviruses are small, non-enveloped, positive sense, single-stranded RNA viruses first identified in 1975 in children suffering from diarrhea and then described in a wide variety of animals. To date, the list of animal species susceptible to astrovirus infection has expanded to 22 animal species or families, including domestic, synantropic and wild animals, avian, and mammalian species in the terrestrial and

Paola De Benedictis; Stacey Schultz-Cherry; Andrew Burnham; Giovanni Cattoli

2011-01-01

262

Ticks infesting wild and domestic animals and humans of Sri Lanka with new host records.  

PubMed

An island-wide collection of tick species infesting humans, domesticated and wild animals and questing ticks in domestic and peridomestic environments was carried out during 2009-2011. A total of 30,461 ticks were collected from 30 different hosts and free living stages from the ground. The collection consisted of 22 tick species from 30 different hosts recording 12 tick species from humans, 19 from domesticated animals and 21 from wild animals, with a total of 97 new host records. The most common tick species on humans were Dermacentor auratus and Amblyomma testudinairum, while Haemaphysalis intermedia, Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were common in domesticated and wild animals sharing 20 host species. Among the questing ticks, immature D. auratus was the most abundant. Humans and domesticated animals were mostly infested by the nymphal stages while adult ticks were found on wild animals. High number of new host records could be due to domestic animals picking tick species from wildlife and vise versa at the human/animal interface. Habitat destruction due to forest fragmentation has lead to wild animals roaming in urban and semi-urban neighbourhoods increasing the interactions of wild animals with domesticated animals. Wild animals play a significant role as a reservoir of many tick borne infections which can easily be spread to domesticated animals and then to humans via tick infestations. Data in this paper are useful for those interested in tick infesting wild and domestic animals and humans in describing the zoonotic potential of tick borne infections. PMID:25445744

Liyanaarachchi, D R; Rajakaruna, R S; Dikkumbura, A W; Rajapakse, R P V J

2015-02-01

263

[An epidemiological investigation of eperythrozoon infection in human and animals. A Collaborative Research Group on Eperythrozoonosis].  

PubMed

This paper reported an epidemiological investigation on human and animal Eperythrozoons infection in five districts from three provinces in China. The results showed that Eperythrozoon infection appeaned in human as well as in swines, sheep and cats. Due to geographical variations, the infectious rates showed significantly difference both in human and in animals. The infection rate in human was not associated with sex, age or occupation. Some questions related to the epidemiology of Eperythrozoonosis were discussed in this article. PMID:7648637

Shang, D Q

1995-04-01

264

Animations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection contains animations of a nuclear chain reaction, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. It also showcases interactive models of the first atomic bombs and simulation of the "Nuclear Winter" effect.

Christopher Griffith

265

Characterizing interspecies uncertainty using data from studies of anti-neoplastic agents in animals and humans  

SciTech Connect

For most chemicals, the Reference Dose (RfD) is based on data from animal testing. The uncertainty introduced by the use of animal models has been termed interspecies uncertainty. The magnitude of the differences between the toxicity of a chemical in humans and test animals and its uncertainty can be investigated by evaluating the inter-chemical variation in the ratios of the doses associated with similar toxicological endpoints in test animals and humans. This study performs such an evaluation on a data set of 64 anti-neoplastic drugs. The data set provides matched responses in humans and four species of test animals: mice, rats, monkeys, and dogs. While the data have a number of limitations, the data show that when the drugs are evaluated on a body weight basis: 1) toxicity generally increases with a species' body weight; however, humans are not always more sensitive than test animals; 2) the animal to human dose ratios were less than 10 for most, but not all, drugs; 3) the current practice of using data from multiple species when setting RfDs lowers the probability of having a large value for the ratio. These findings provide insight into inter-chemical variation in animal to human extrapolations and suggest the need for additional collection and analysis of matched toxicity data in humans and test animals.

Price, Paul S. [Dow Chemical Company, Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting, 1803 Building, Midland MI 48674 (United States)], E-mail: pprice@dow.com; Keenan, Russell E. [AMEC Earth and Environmental, 15 Franklin Street, Portland, ME 04101 (United States); Swartout, Jeffrey C. [National Center for Environmental Assessment U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. M. L. King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

2008-11-15

266

Working with Human Cells in Animals This cubicle is currently housing _____________ (animal species) that have been injected with human cell  

E-print Network

must be performed in a biological safety cabinet. Concentration of cells must be performed administration and after: Animals must be housed in filter top cages Use a class II Biological Safety Cabinet containing the animals under the biological safety cabinet and transfer the animals into a clean cage 2

Cui, Yan

267

Modeling the relationship between food animal health and human foodborne illness.  

PubMed

To achieve further reductions in foodborne illness levels in humans, effective pre-harvest interventions are needed. The health status of food animals that are destined to enter the human food supply chain may be an important, although often overlooked, factor in predicting the risk of human foodborne infections. The health status of food animals can potentially influence foodborne pathogen levels in three ways. First, diseased animals may shed higher levels of foodborne pathogens. Second, animals that require further handling in the processing plant to remove affected parts may lead to increased microbial contamination and cross-contamination. Finally, certain animal illnesses may lead to a higher probability of mistakes in the processing plant, such as gastrointestinal ruptures, which would lead to increased microbial contamination and cross-contamination. Consequently, interventions that reduce the incidence of food animal illnesses might also help reduce bacterial contamination on meat, thereby reducing human illness. Some of these interventions, however, might also present a risk to human health. For example, the use of antibiotics in food animals can reduce rates of animal illness but can also select for antibiotic-resistant bacteria which can threaten human treatment options. In this study, we present a mathematical model to evaluate human health risks from foodborne pathogens associated with changes in animal illness. The model is designed so that potential human health risks and benefits from interventions such as the continued use of antibiotics in animal agriculture can be evaluated simultaneously. We applied the model to a hypothetical example of Campylobacter from chicken. In general, the model suggests that very minor perturbations in microbial loads on meat products could have relatively large impacts on human health, and consequently, small improvements in food animal health might result in significant reductions in human illness. PMID:17270298

Singer, Randall S; Cox, Louis A; Dickson, James S; Hurd, H Scott; Phillips, Ian; Miller, Gay Y

2007-05-16

268

Bio-resource of human and animal-derived cell materials.  

PubMed

The Cell Engineering Division of RIKEN BioResource Center is a not-for-profit public "cell bank" that accepts donations and deposits of human and animal cell materials developed by the life science research community. We examine, standardize, amplify, preserve, and provide cell materials to scientists around the world. The major cell materials used around the world have been cultured cell lines, i.e., immortalized cells. Most human cell lines are derived from tumor cells. There is no doubt that the demand for these cell lines will never cease in the field of biology. In addition, stem cell lines such as embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are of great value in current biology and medical science. Thus, we are extensively collecting such stem cell lines, aiming at contributing to the fields of developmental biology and transplantation/regenerative medicine. In addition, the demand for primary cells has recently increased. To meet this demand, we have started the banking of primary human cells including somatic stem cells, such as umbilical cord blood cells and cultured mesenchymal cells. The staff of the Cell Engineering Division conduct not only the banking of cell materials, but also research and development relating to cell materials, such as the establishment of novel human and animal-derived cell lines and the development of new technology to utilize cell materials. PMID:20224164

Nakamura, Yukio

2010-01-01

269

Are Children with Autism More Responsive to Animated Characters? A Study of Interactions with Humans and Human-Controlled Avatars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few direct comparisons have been made between the responsiveness of children with autism to computer-generated or animated characters and their responsiveness to humans. Twelve 4-to 8-year-old children with autism interacted with a human therapist; a human-controlled, interactive avatar in a theme park; a human actor speaking like the avatar; and…

Carter, Elizabeth J.; Williams, Diane L.; Hodgins, Jessica K.; Lehman, Jill F.

2014-01-01

270

Editorial: Human and Evolutionary Genomics Human Genomics has, from its outset, included a great deal of evolutionary analysis. The  

E-print Network

Editorial: Human and Evolutionary Genomics Human Genomics has, from its outset, included a great. The world now has over one hundred complete bacterial genomes, and with human, roundworm, multiple into its own. Still, one might argue that a journal of Human Genomics should focus on its main target, Homo

Pollock, David

271

Domestic pigs as potential reservoirs of human and animal trypanosomiasis in Northern Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Background Pig keeping is becoming increasingly common across sub-Saharan Africa. Domestic pigs from the Arusha region of northern Tanzania were screened for trypanosomes using PCR-based methods to examine the role of pigs as a reservoir of human and animal trypanosomiasis. Methods A total of 168 blood samples were obtained from domestic pigs opportunistically sampled across four districts in Tanzania (Babati, Mbulu, Arumeru and Dodoma) during December 2004. A suite of PCR-based methods was used to identify the species and sub-species of trypanosomes including: Internally Transcribed Sequence to identify multiple species; species specific PCR to identify T. brucei s. l. and T. godfreyi and a multiplex PCR reaction to distinguish T. b. rhodesiense from T. brucei s. l. Results Of the 168 domestic pigs screened for animal and human infective trypanosome DNA, 28 (16.7%) were infected with one or more species of trypanosome; these included: six pigs infected with Trypanosoma vivax (3.6%); three with Trypanosoma simiae (1.8%); two with Trypanosoma congolense (Forest) (1%) and four with Trypanosoma godfreyi (2.4%). Nineteen pigs were infected with Trypanosoma brucei s. l. (10.1%) of which eight were identified as carrying the human infective sub-species Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (4.8%). Conclusion These results show that in Tanzania domestic pigs may act as a significant reservoir for animal trypanosomiasis including the cattle pathogens T. vivax and T. congolense, the pig pathogen T. simiae, and provide a significant reservoir for T. b. rhodesiense, the causative agent of acute Rhodesian sleeping sickness. PMID:24499540

2013-01-01

272

Streptococcus iniae, a Human and Animal Pathogen: Specific Identification by the Chaperonin 60 Gene Identification Method  

PubMed Central

It was recently reported that Streptococcus iniae, a bacterial pathogen of aquatic animals, can cause serious disease in humans. Using the chaperonin 60 (Cpn60) gene identification method with reverse checkerboard hybridization and chemiluminescent detection, we identified correctly each of 12 S. iniae samples among 34 aerobic gram-positive isolates from animal and clinical human sources. PMID:9650992

Goh, Swee Han; Driedger, David; Gillett, Sandra; Low, Donald E.; Hemmingsen, Sean M.; Amos, Mayben; Chan, David; Lovgren, Marguerite; Willey, Barbara M.; Shaw, Carol; Smith, John A.

1998-01-01

273

Dietary boron: Progress in establishing essential roles in human and animal physiology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This review summarizes the progress made in establishing essential roles for boron in human and animal physiology and assesses that progress in view of criteria for essentiality of elements. The evidence to date suggests that humans and at least some higher animals may use boron to support normal b...

274

DETECTION OF INTRINSIC VANCOMYCIN RESISTANT ENTEROCOCCI IN ANIMAL AND HUMAN FECES  

EPA Science Inventory

A survey was conducted to determine the occurrence of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in animal and human fecal samples. Fecal samples from 14 animal species and humans were analyzed by quantitative culture for enterococci and VRE. Over 800 VRE isolates were characterize...

275

ANIMAL PATHOGENS THAT MAY CAUSE HUMAN DISEASE THAT ORIGINATE FROM FARM OPERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The recent increase in concentrated animal feeding operations in the United States has caused renewed concern regarding the infectious diseases that may be passed from farm animals to humans via the environment. It is also known that more than 20 recent epidemics among humans cou...

276

Ethanol Consumption: How Should We Measure It? Achieving Consilience between Human and Animal Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

There is only modest overlap in the most common alcohol consumption phenotypes measured in animal studies and those typically studied in humans. To address this issue, we identified a number of alcohol consumption phenotypes of importance to the field that have potential for consilience between human and animal models. These phenotypes can be broken down into three categories: 1) abstinence/the decision to drink or abstain; 2) the actual amount of alcohol consumed and 3) heavy drinking. A number of suggestions for human and animal researchers are made in order to address these phenotypes and enhance consilience. Laboratory studies of the decision to drink or abstain are needed in both human and animal research. In human laboratory studies, heavy or binge drinking that meets cut-offs used in epidemiological and clinical trials should be reported. Greater attention to patterns of drinking over time is needed in both animal and human studies. Individual differences pertaining to all consumption phenotypes should be addressed in animal research. Lastly, improved biomarkers need to be developed in future research for use with both humans and animals. Greater precision in estimating blood alcohol levels in the field together with consistent measurement of breath/blood alcohol levels in human laboratory and animal studies provides one means of achieving greater consilience of alcohol consumption phenotypes. PMID:20148775

Leeman, Robert F.; Heilig, Markus; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Stephens, David N.; Duka, Taheodora; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

2010-01-01

277

COMPARING BEHAVIORAL DOSE-EFFECT CURVES FOR HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS ACUTELY EXPOSED TO TOLUENE.  

EPA Science Inventory

The utility of laboratory animal data in toxicology depends upon the ability to generalize the results quantitatively to humans. To compare the acute behavioral effects of inhaled toluene in humans to those in animals, dose-effect curves were fitted by meta-analysis of published...

278

Genetic Diversity among Mycobacterium bovis Isolates: a Preliminary Study of Strains from Animal and Human Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycobacterium bovis has the broadest host range of species in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and is responsible for disease in humans and diverse animal species. We report on genotypic differences at multiple loci among 13 isolates derived from a range of human and animal infections. All isolates were classified as M. bovis by phenotypic analysis but could be subdivided into

M. P. U. Sales; G. M. Taylor; S. Hughes; M. Yates; G. Hewinson; D. B. Young; R. J. Shaw

2001-01-01

279

Kin ^Etre: Animating the World with the Human Body Jiawen Chen, Shahram Izadi, Andrew Fitzgibbon  

E-print Network

Kin ^Etre: Animating the World with the Human Body Jiawen Chen, Shahram Izadi, Andrew Fitzgibbon chair An animated jumping chair Possess Figure 1: Kin ^Etre allows novice users to easily and quickly down so that it can image the user's full body, and a real-time tracked human skeleton is acquired. Our

280

Guideline Regarding Significant Changes to Animal Study Proposals The Animal Welfare Regulations and the PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory  

E-print Network

and the PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (PHS Policy) require that Animal Care and Use described in an ACUC approved Animal Study Proposal (ASP). The NIH interprets significant changes to mean their responsibilities regarding changes in approved ASPs, the NIH Animal Research Advisory Committee (ARAC) offers

Bandettini, Peter A.

281

Recent insights into cerebral cavernous malformations: animal models of CCM and the human phenotype  

PubMed Central

Cerebral cavernous malformations are common vascular lesions of the central nervous system that predispose to seizures, focal neurologic deficits and potentially fatal hemorrhagic stroke. Human genetic studies have identified three genes associated with the disease and biochemical studies of these proteins have identified interaction partners and possible signaling pathways. A variety of animal models of CCM have been described to help translate the cellular and biochemical insights into a better understanding of disease mechanism. In this minireview, we discuss the contributions of animal models to our growing understanding of the biology of cavernous malformations, including the elucidation of the cellular context of CCM protein actions and the in vivo confirmation of abnormal endothelial cell–cell interactions. Challenges and progress towards developing a faithful model of CCM biology are reviewed. PMID:20096037

Chan, Aubrey C.; Li, Dean Y.; Berg, Michel J.; Whitehead, Kevin J.

2010-01-01

282

The Mouse Who Couldn’t Stop Washing: Pathologic Grooming in Animals and Humans  

PubMed Central

The basic science literature is replete with descriptions of naturally occurring or experimentally induced pathological grooming behaviors in animals, which are widely considered animal models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). These animal models rely largely on observed similarities between animal behaviors and human OCD behaviors, and on studies of animal pathological grooming disorders that respond to serotonin enhancing drugs. However, current limitations in assessment of complex cognition and affect in animals precludes the field’s ability to match the driving primary processes behind observable phenomenology in animal “OCD” with human behavioral disorders. We propose that excessive grooming behaviors in animals may eventually prove to be equally, or possibly more relevant to, other conditions in humans that involve pathological grooming or grooming-like behaviors, such as trichotillomania, body dysmorphic disorder, olfactory reference syndrome, compulsive skin-picking, and onychophagia. Research is needed to better understand pathological grooming behaviors in both humans and animals, as animal models have the potential to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms and inform the treatment of these psychiatric conditions in humans. PMID:19890232

Feusner, Jamie; Hembacher, Emily; Phillips, Katharine A.

2010-01-01

283

HOMOLOGOUS MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

The importance of including neurodevelopmental endpoints in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive fucntion in human infants that also has a parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for largescale studies. Such a ho...

284

COMPARABLE MEASURES OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN HUMAN INFANTS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS TO IDENTIFY ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RISKS TO CHILDREN  

EPA Science Inventory

The importance of including neurodevelopmental end points in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive function in human infants that also has a homologous or parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for large-scale studie...

285

The SEURAT-1 approach towards animal free human safety assessment.  

PubMed

SEURAT-1 is a European public-private research consortium that is working towards animal-free testing of chemical compounds and the highest level of consumer protection. A research strategy was formulated based on the guiding principle to adopt a toxicological mode-of-action framework to describe how any substance may adversely affect human health.The proof of the initiative will be in demonstrating the applicability of the concepts on which SEURAT-1 is built on three levels:(i) Theoretical prototypes for adverse outcome pathways are formulated based on knowledge already available in the scientific literature on investigating the toxicological mode-of-actions leading to adverse outcomes (addressing mainly liver toxicity);(ii)adverse outcome pathway descriptions are used as a guide for the formulation of case studies to further elucidate the theoretical model and to develop integrated testing strategies for the prediction of certain toxicological effects (i.e., those related to the adverse outcome pathway descriptions);(iii) further case studies target the application of knowledge gained within SEURAT-1 in the context of safety assessment. The ultimate goal would be to perform ab initio predictions based on a complete understanding of toxicological mechanisms. In the near-term, it is more realistic that data from innovative testing methods will support read-across arguments. Both scenarios are addressed with case studies for improved safety assessment. A conceptual framework for a rational integrated assessment strategy emerged from designing the case studies and is discussed in the context of international developments focusing on alternative approaches for evaluating chemicals using the new 21st century tools for toxicity testing. PMID:25372315

Gocht, Tilman; Berggren, Elisabet; Ahr, Hans Jürgen; Cotgreave, Ian; Cronin, Mark T D; Daston, George; Hardy, Barry; Heinzle, Elmar; Hescheler, Jürgen; Knight, Derek J; Mahony, Catherine; Peschanski, Marc; Schwarz, Michael; Thomas, Russell S; Verfaillie, Catherine; White, Andrew; Whelan, Maurice

2015-01-01

286

Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why it Matters for Global Capitalism  

SciTech Connect

In his lecture, Shiller will discuss the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. Winner of the getAbstract International Book Award and the 2009 TIAA-CREF Paul A. Samuelson Award for Outstanding Scholarly Writing on Lifelong Financial Security, the book, which has the same title as Shiller's lecture, discusses how "animal spirits," or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today's global financial crisis. John Maynard Keynes coined the phrase "animal spirits" to describe the changing psychology that led to the Great Depression and the recovery from it. Like Keynes, Shiller and Akerlof believe that government intervention is necessary to overcome the adverse effects on the economy brought about by unruly and irrational human emotions. In his talk, Shiller will explain how "animal spirits" lead to adverse economic effects, and he will outline his insights on how the global economy can recover from its recent setbacks.

Shiller, Robert J. (Yale) [Yale

2010-03-02

287

MUGEN mouse database; animal models of human immunological diseases.  

PubMed

The MUGEN mouse database (MMdb) (www.mugen-noe.org/database/) is a database of murine models of immune processes and immunological diseases. Its aim is to share and publicize information on mouse strain characteristics and availability from participating institutions. MMdb's basic classification of models is based on three major research application categories: Models of Human Disease, Models of Immune Processes and Transgenic Tools. Data on mutant strains includes detailed information on affected gene(s), mutant allele(s) and genetic background (DNA origin, gene targeted, host and backcross strain background). Each gene/transgene index also includes IDs and direct links to Ensembl, ArrayExpress, EURExpress and NCBI's Entrez Gene database. Phenotypic description is standardized and hierarchically structured, based on MGI's mammalian phenotypic ontology terms. Availability (e.g. live mice, cryopreserved embryos, sperm and ES cells) is clearly indicated, along with handling and genotyping details (in the form of documents or hyperlinks) and all relevant contact information (including EMMA and Jax/IMSR hyperlinks where available). MMdb's design offers a user-friendly query interface and provides instant access to the list of mutant strains and genes. Database access is free of charge and there are no registration requirements for data querying. PMID:17932065

Aidinis, V; Chandras, C; Manoloukos, M; Thanassopoulou, A; Kranidioti, K; Armaka, M; Douni, E; Kontoyiannis, D L; Zouberakis, M; Kollias, G

2008-01-01

288

Cannabinoids and gastrointestinal motility: animal and human studies.  

PubMed

The plant Cannabis has been known for centuries to be beneficial in a variety of gastrointestinal diseases, including emesis, diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease and intestinal pain. delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychotropic component of Cannabis, acts via at least two types of cannabinoid receptors, named CB1 and CB2 receptors. CB1 receptors are located primarily on central and peripheral neurons (including the enteric nervous system) where they modulate neurotransmitter release, whereas CB2 receptors are concerned with immune function, inflammation and pain. The discovery of endogenous ligands [i.e. anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG)] for these receptors indicates the presence of a functional endogenous cannabinoid system in the gastrointestinal tract. Anatomical and functional evidence suggests the presence of CB1 receptors in the myenteric plexus, which are associated with cholinergic neurons in a variety of species, including in humans. Activation of prejunctional CB1 receptors reduces excitatory enteric transmission (mainly cholinergic transmission) in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract. Consistently, in vivo studies have shown that cannabinoids reduce gastrointestinal transit in rodents through activation of CB1, but not CB2, receptors. However, in pathophysiological states, both CB1 and CB2 receptors could reduce the increase of intestinal motility induced by inflammatory stimuli. Cannabinoids also reduce gastrointestinal motility in randomized clinical trials. Overall, modulation of the gut endogenous cannabinoid system may provide a useful therapeutic target for disorders of gastrointestinal motility. PMID:18924447

Aviello, G; Romano, B; Izzo, A A

2008-08-01

289

Molecular characterization of human and animal Echinococcus granulosus isolates in Isfahan, Iran.  

PubMed

Cystic hydatid disease (CHD) is one of the most important zoonotic diseases in different parts of Iran. While it causes major health problem, there is limited information about its transmission cycles and reservoirs of human infection. Therefore we aimed to characterize the existence Echinococcus granulosus cysts in humans and animals in the province of Isfahan, central region of Iran. We collected hydatid cysts from the liver and lungs of patients who underwent surgery procedure and also cysts were obtained from domestic animals at slaughterhouses. DNA was extracted from the protoscoleces and examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of rDNA internal transcribed spacer1 (ITS1-PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). In addition, fragments of the genes coding for mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) and NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) were sequenced. Among the two different identified strains/genotypes (sheep and camel), the sheep strain was shown to be the most common genotype of E. granulosus affecting humans, sheep, cattle, goats and occasionally camels. Nine out of 26 camel samples were infected with sheep strain. However the camel genotype was observed in humans, camels and cattle. Seventeen out of 26 camel isolates, 6 out of 31 human and 5 out of 14 cattle samples were infected with the camel genotype. The camel genotypes had PCR and RFLP patterns which were different from the PCR and RFLP patterns of the rest of isolates (sheep strain). The results of this study showed that the 'camel' strain was actual source of infection to humans which circulates between intermediate hosts including camels and cattle, and it confirms the camel-dog transmission cycle in Isfahan. PMID:20858453

Shahnazi, Mojtaba; Hejazi, Hosein; Salehi, Mansour; Andalib, Ali Reza

2011-01-01

290

Laboratory animals as surrogate models of human obesity  

PubMed Central

Obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases represent a growing socioeconomic problem throughout the world. Great emphasis has been put on establishing treatments for this condition, including pharmacological intervention. However, there are many obstacles and pitfalls in the development process from pre-clinical research to the pharmacy counter, and there is no certainty that what has been observed pre-clinically will translate into an improvement in human health. Hence, it is important to test potential new drugs in a valid translational model early in their development. In the current mini-review, a number of monogenetic and polygenic models of obesity will be discussed in view of their translational character. PMID:22301857

Nilsson, Cecilia; Raun, Kirsten; Yan, Fei-fei; Larsen, Marianne O; Tang-Christensen, Mads

2012-01-01

291

Decimation of human face model for real-time animation in intelligent multimedia systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animating a complex human face model in real-time is not a trivial task in intelligent multimedia systems for next generation\\u000a environments. This paper proposes a generation scheme of a simplified model for real-time human face animation in intelligent\\u000a multimedia systems. Previous work mainly focused on the geometric features when generating a simplified human face model.\\u000a Such methods may lose the

Soo-Kyun Kim; Syung-Og An; Min Hong; Doo-Soon Park; Shin-Jin Kang

2010-01-01

292

The Nuremberg Code subverts human health and safety by requiring animal modeling  

PubMed Central

Background The requirement that animals be used in research and testing in order to protect humans was formalized in the Nuremberg Code and subsequent national and international laws, codes, and declarations. Discussion We review the history of these requirements and contrast what was known via science about animal models then with what is known now. We further analyze the predictive value of animal models when used as test subjects for human response to drugs and disease. We explore the use of animals for models in toxicity testing as an example of the problem with using animal models. Summary We conclude that the requirements for animal testing found in the Nuremberg Code were based on scientifically outdated principles, compromised by people with a vested interest in animal experimentation, serve no useful function, increase the cost of drug development, and prevent otherwise safe and efficacious drugs and therapies from being implemented. PMID:22769234

2012-01-01

293

Microsporidia Detection and Genotyping Study of Human Pathogenic E. bieneusi in Animals from Spain  

PubMed Central

Microsporidia are ubiquitous parasites infecting all animal phyla and we present evidence that supports their zoonotic potential. Fecal samples taken from domestic (cats and dogs), farm (pigs, rabbits and ostriches) and wild animals (foxes) from different provinces of Spain were evaluated for microsporidia infection by light microscopy and PCR. After Microsporidia species identification, E. bieneusi genotypes were additionally studied by sequence analysis of the ITS region. Eighty-five samples out of 159 exhibited structures that were compatible with microsporidia spores by Webe?s stain with 37 of them being confirmed by PCR. Microsporidia species identified included E. bieneusi, E. intestinalis and A. algerae. We report the first diagnosis of E. intestinalis and E. bieneusi in ostriches and A. algerae in pigs. We also provide new information on the molecular characterization of E. bieneusi isolates both in rabbits and ostriches. All of the E. bieneusi genotypes identified belonged to the zoonotic group of genotypes (Group I) including genotypes A (dogs), I (pigs), D (rabbits and foxes) and type IV (ostriches). Our results demonstrate that microsporidia are present in domestic, farm and wild animals in Spain, corroborating their potential role as a source of human infection and environmental contamination. PMID:24651457

Galván-Díaz, Ana Luz; Magnet, Angela; Fenoy, Soledad; Henriques-Gil, Nuno; Haro, María; Gordo, Francisco Ponce; Miró, Guadalupe; del Águila, Carmen; Izquierdo, Fernando

2014-01-01

294

Microsporidia detection and genotyping study of human pathogenic E. bieneusi in animals from Spain.  

PubMed

Microsporidia are ubiquitous parasites infecting all animal phyla and we present evidence that supports their zoonotic potential. Fecal samples taken from domestic (cats and dogs), farm (pigs, rabbits and ostriches) and wild animals (foxes) from different provinces of Spain were evaluated for microsporidia infection by light microscopy and PCR. After Microsporidia species identification, E. bieneusi genotypes were additionally studied by sequence analysis of the ITS region. Eighty-five samples out of 159 exhibited structures that were compatible with microsporidia spores by Webe?s stain with 37 of them being confirmed by PCR. Microsporidia species identified included E. bieneusi, E. intestinalis and A. algerae. We report the first diagnosis of E. intestinalis and E. bieneusi in ostriches and A. algerae in pigs. We also provide new information on the molecular characterization of E. bieneusi isolates both in rabbits and ostriches. All of the E. bieneusi genotypes identified belonged to the zoonotic group of genotypes (Group I) including genotypes A (dogs), I (pigs), D (rabbits and foxes) and type IV (ostriches). Our results demonstrate that microsporidia are present in domestic, farm and wild animals in Spain, corroborating their potential role as a source of human infection and environmental contamination. PMID:24651457

Galván-Díaz, Ana Luz; Magnet, Angela; Fenoy, Soledad; Henriques-Gil, Nuno; Haro, María; Gordo, Francisco Ponce; Miró, Guadalupe; del Águila, Carmen; Izquierdo, Fernando

2014-01-01

295

Why test animals to treat humans? On the validity of animal models.  

PubMed

Critics of animal modeling have advanced a variety of arguments against the validity of the practice. The point of one such form of argument is to establish that animal modeling is pointless and therefore immoral. In this article, critical arguments of this form are divided into three types, the pseudoscience argument, the disanalogy argument, and the predictive validity argument. I contend that none of these criticisms currently succeed, nor are they likely to. However, the connection between validity and morality is important, suggesting that critical efforts would be instructive if they addressed it in a more nuanced way. PMID:20934650

Shelley, Cameron

2010-09-01

296

Ethical Issues of Transplanting Organs from Transgenic Animals into Human Beings  

PubMed Central

One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human’s body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal’s organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334

Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

2014-01-01

297

Homocysteine and DNA methylation: A review of animal and human literature.  

PubMed

Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sulfur-containing non-protein forming amino acid, which is synthesized from methionine as an important intermediate in the one-carbon pathway. High concentrations of Hcy in a condition called hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) are an independent risk factor for several disorders including cardiovascular diseases and osteoporotic fractures. Since Hcy is produced as a byproduct of the methyltransferase reaction, alteration in DNA methylation is studied as one of the underlying mechanisms of HHcy-associated disorders. In animal models, elevated Hcy concentrations are induced either by diet (high methionine, low B-vitamins, or both), gene knockouts (Mthfr, Cbs, Mtrr or Mtr) or combination of both to investigate their effects on DNA methylation or its markers. In humans, most of the literature involves case-control studies concerning patients. The focus of this review is to study existing literature on HHcy and its role in relation to DNA methylation. Apart from this, a few studies investigated the effect of Hcy-lowering trials on restoring DNA methylation patterns, by giving a folic acid or B-vitamin supplemented diet. These studies which were conducted in animal models as well as humans were included in this review. PMID:25456744

Mandaviya, Pooja R; Stolk, Lisette; Heil, Sandra G

2014-12-01

298

Occurrence of Male-Specific Bacteriophage in Feral and Domestic Animal Wastes, Human Feces, and Human-Associated Wastewaters  

PubMed Central

Male-specific bacteriophage (MSB) densities were determined in animal and human fecal wastes to assess their potential impact on aquatic environments. Fecal samples (1,031) from cattle, chickens, dairy cows, dogs, ducks, geese, goats, hogs, horses, seagulls, sheep, and humans as well as 64 sewerage samples were examined for MSB. All animal species were found to harbor MSB, although the great majority excreted these viruses at very low levels. The results from this study demonstrate that in areas affected by both human and animal wastes, wastewater treatment plants are the principal contributors of MSB to fresh, estuarine, and marine waters. PMID:9835602

Calci, Kevin R.; Burkhardt, William; Watkins, William D.; Rippey, Scott R.

1998-01-01

299

Epidemiological study of Q fever in humans, ruminant animals, and ticks in Cyprus using a geographical information system.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study of Q fever was conducted in a representative sample of the human and animal population in Cyprus in order to assess the seroprevalence of Q fever and the prevalence of related risk factors. A total of 583 human and 974 ruminant animal serum samples were collected and tested for the detection of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii phase II antigen using an indirect immunofluorescent assay. One hundred forty-one ticks were collected from the infested animals examined; the polymerase chain reaction and the shell-vial technique were used to detect and isolate C. burnetii. Standardized questionnaires were used to obtain information concerning inhabitants and their animals. A geographical information system was used to identify high-risk regions. The prevalence of IgG antibodies against C. burnetii phase II antigen was estimated at 52.7% for humans, 48.2% for goats, 18.9% for sheep, and 24% for bovines. C. burnetii was detected in 11 (7.8%) ticks. Using the geographical information system, two villages were identified as high-risk regions on the basis of high seroprevalence rates of IgG antibodies in humans and animals. Risk factors related to Q fever seropositivity were identified by logistic regression analysis and included age, residence, occupation, use of manure in the garden, ownership of animals (especially goats), and the presence of tick-infested or aborting animals. Q fever poses an occupational hazard to humans living in close contact with sheep and/or goats. In parallel, ticks should be considered an important aspect in the epidemiology of Q fever and should be further studied to better elucidate their role. PMID:16915398

Psaroulaki, A; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Loukaides, F; Soteriades, E; Konstantinidis, A; Papastergiou, P; Ioannidou, M C; Tselentis, Y

2006-09-01

300

The Effects of Opioids and Opioid Analogs on Animal and Human Endocrine Systems  

PubMed Central

Opioid abuse has increased in the last decade, primarily as a result of increased access to prescription opioids. Physicians are also increasingly administering opioid analgesics for noncancer chronic pain. Thus, knowledge of the long-term consequences of opioid use/abuse has important implications for fully evaluating the clinical usefulness of opioid medications. Many studies have examined the effect of opioids on the endocrine system; however, a systematic review of the endocrine actions of opioids in both humans and animals has, to our knowledge, not been published since 1984. Thus, we reviewed the literature on the effect of opioids on the endocrine system. We included both acute and chronic effects of opioids, with the majority of the studies done on the acute effects although chronic effects are more physiologically relevant. In humans and laboratory animals, opioids generally increase GH and prolactin and decrease LH, testosterone, estradiol, and oxytocin. In humans, opioids increase TSH, whereas in rodents, TSH is decreased. In both rodents and humans, the reports of effects of opioids on arginine vasopressin and ACTH are conflicting. Opioids act preferentially at different receptor sites leading to stimulatory or inhibitory effects on hormone release. Increasing opioid abuse primarily leads to hypogonadism but may also affect the secretion of other pituitary hormones. The potential consequences of hypogonadism include decreased libido and erectile dysfunction in men, oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea in women, and bone loss or infertility in both sexes. Opioids may increase or decrease food intake, depending on the type of opioid and the duration of action. Additionally, opioids may act through the sympathetic nervous system to cause hyperglycemia and impaired insulin secretion. In this review, recent information regarding endocrine disorders among opioid abusers is presented. PMID:19903933

Vuong, Cassidy; Van Uum, Stan H. M.; O'Dell, Laura E.; Lutfy, Kabirullah; Friedman, Theodore C.

2010-01-01

301

How to become a top model: impact of animal experimentation on human Salmonella disease research.  

PubMed

Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the past decades, a series of animal models have been developed to advance vaccine development, provide insights into immunity to infection, and study the pathogenesis of human Salmonella disease. The successive introduction of new animal models, each suited to interrogate previously neglected aspects of Salmonella disease, has ushered in important conceptual advances that continue to have a strong and sustained influence on the ideas driving research on Salmonella serotypes. This article reviews important milestones in the use of animal models to study human Salmonella disease and identify research needs to guide future work. PMID:21343352

Tsolis, Renée M; Xavier, Mariana N; Santos, Renato L; Bäumler, Andreas J

2011-05-01

302

Fourier principles for emotion-based human figure animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the method for modeling human figure locomotions with emotions. Fourier expansions of experimental data of actual human behaviors serve as a basis from which the method can interpolate or extrapolate the human locomotions. This means, for instance, that transition from a walk to a run is smoothly and realistically performed by the method. Moreover an individual's character

Munetoshi Unuma; Ken-ichi Anjyo; Ryozo Takeuchi

1995-01-01

303

Meat, Medicine, and Materialism: A Dialectical Analysis of Human Relationships to Nonhuman Animals and Nature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that humans are innately competitive and cruel is a dominant theme throughout Western thought. These no- tions that legitimate human cruelty to each other and other animals have their origins in biological sciences and have greatly influenced the social sciences. Sociologists, particu- larly Marxist sociologists, however, have often contested this view of human nature. This notion has also

Stefano B. Longo; Nicholas Malone

2006-01-01

304

Hydrodynamic gene delivery of baboon trypanosome lytic factor eliminates both animal and human-  

E-print Network

Hydrodynamic gene delivery of baboon trypanosome lytic factor eliminates both animal and humanL-I. Unlike humans, baboons are not susceptible to infection by T. b. rhodesiense due to previously unidentified serum factors. Here, we show that baboons have a TLF complex that contains orthologs of Hpr

Arnold, Jonathan

305

When can animation improve learning? Some implications for human computer interaction and learning  

E-print Network

When can animation improve learning? Some implications for human computer interaction and learning in the literature of mental model construction and human-computer interaction (HCI) (Carroll, 2003; de Kleer & Brown on the findings of this study, we present some implications for learning and human-computer interaction

306

Whole genome sequencing reveals potential spread of Clostridium difficile between humans and farm animals in the Netherlands, 2002 to 2011.  

PubMed

Farm animals are a potential reservoir for human Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), particularly PCR ribotype 078 which is frequently found in animals and humans. Here, whole genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was used to study the evolutionary relatedness of C. difficile 078 isolated from humans and animals on Dutch pig farms. All sequenced genomes were surveyed for potential antimicrobial resistance determinants and linked to an antimicrobial resistance phenotype. We sequenced the whole genome of 65 C. difficile 078 isolates collected between 2002 and 2011 from pigs (n?=?19), asymptomatic farmers (n?=?15) and hospitalised patients (n?=?31) in the Netherlands. The collection included 12 pairs of human and pig isolates from 2011 collected at 12 different pig farms. A mutation rate of 1.1 SNPs per genome per year was determined for C. difficile 078. Importantly, we demonstrate that farmers and pigs were colonised with identical (no SNP differences) and nearly identical (less than two SNP differences) C. difficile clones. Identical tetracycline and streptomycin resistance determinants were present in human and animal C. difficile 078 isolates. Our observation that farmers and pigs share identical C. difficile strains suggests transmission between these populations, although we cannot exclude the possibility of transmission from a common environmental source. PMID:25411691

Knetsch, C W; Connor, T R; Mutreja, A; van Dorp, S M; Sanders, I M; Browne, H P; Harris, D; Lipman, L; Keessen, E C; Corver, J; Kuijper, E J; Lawley, T D

2014-01-01

307

[Occurrence of Giardia species and genotypes in humans and animals in Wielkopolska region, Poland].  

PubMed

Giardia is the most common intestinal protozoan parasite found in humans and animals worldwide. Although it has been known for three hundred years, the nomenclature, taxonomy, host specificity, and pathogenicity of Giardia still arouse numerous controversies and ambiguities. Giardia is classified into six species, that are characterised by various ranges of hosts. The most dubious species is G. intestinalis, which includes a dozen or so genotypes, and only two of them (genotype A and B) have wide ranges of hosts, including humans. Moreover, in some genotype assemblages of G. intestinalis certain subgenotypes were distinguished and it was proven that in the same host species various subgenotypes of this parasite may occur. Bearing in mind the significant genetic heterogeneity of G. intestinalis and the fact that various genotypes and subgenotypes of this parasite are characterised by the broad or narrow host specificity, the data concerning the frequency of giardiosis occurrence are insufficient. It is necessary to use molecular biology techniques in order to define the genotype and/or the subgenotype of G. intestinalis that are found in humans and in certain animal species. Furthermore, since more and more pieces of evidence connected with a possibility of the sexual recombination of Giardia are gathered, it is unknown if genotypes and subgenotypes of this parasite are stable in time. The aim of this thesis was to define the frequency of Giardia occurrence in humans and animals in Wielkopolska region, to identify species and genotypes of Giardia that occur in humans and animals, as well as to obtain an axenic culture of the chosen isolates of Giardia from animals and to compare the sequence of the beta-giardin gene fragment obtained from the DNA isolated from cysts and trophozoites in order to check if the axenisation of G. intestinalis leads to the selection of genotypes or if Giardia genotypes are stable in time. Altogether, 2183 faecal samples were examined for the presence of Giardia cysts; 447 faecal samples were taken from 232 persons coming from 5 cities situated in Wielkopolska, and 1736 faecal samples were obtained from 123 animal species, including: 266 faecal samples from 113 species of animals kept in the Zoological Garden in Pozna?, 1286 samples from 4 species of breeding animals, 118 samples from dogs, and 66 samples from 5 species of wild animals. Faecal samples were taken from animals coming from 25 places in Wielkopolska. Moreover, seven isolates of G. intestinalis were used in the studies, which were obtained from various species of hosts and kept in an axenic in vitro culture. Microscopic, molecular and bio-informative methods were used in the studies. From each faecal sample fresh smears were made in a 0.6% solution of physiological salt and in Lugol's solution, as well as a permanent smear stained with trichrome was made. Moreover, the following molecular techniques were implemented in the studies: DNA extraction and purification, the PCR technique (two molecular markers), electrophoresis and visualisation of PCR products, and sequencing. A fragment of the beta-giardin gene was used as a molecular marker in order to define the genotype and subgenotype of Giardia. Only in the case of genotyping of two Giardia isolates obtained from Peromyscus eremicus another molecular marker (SSU rRNA)was additionally used. Some widely available computer programmes (Chromas, CAP 3, BioEdit, BLASTn, MEGA version 4.0) were utilised in the analysis of the sequence of the beta-giardin gene fragment and in the phylogenetic analysis. The culture of Giardia trophozoites was established to compare the sequence of the partial beta-giardin gene from cysts and trophozoites. Concentration and purification of Giardia cysts in the saccharose gradient, and the excystation technique were applied in the studies to obtaining an axenic in vitro culture. In this study, Giardia cysts were found in 12 faecal samples obtained from 3 persons and 5 animal species. Giardia cysts were found only in faecal samples from humans living in Pozna?

Solarczyk, Piotr

2009-01-01

308

Profiles of Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Production of Some Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Transgenic Animals12  

PubMed Central

During the decade of the 1990s and the first years of the current century, our group embarked on a project to study and synthesize human milk oligosaccharides. This report describes 2 unexpected collateral observations from that endeavor. The first observation was the detection and confirmation of 2 rare neutral human milk oligosaccharides profiles that were uncovered while assessing oligosaccharide content in hundreds of samples of human milk. One of these lacked fucosylated structures altogether, and the other lacked the oligosaccharide 3-fucosyllactose [Gal?1–4(Fuc?1–3)Glc]. We used glycoconjugate probes to determine whether the unusual profiles were mirrored by fucosylation of milk glycoproteins. The results show that the lack of fucosylated oligosaccharides in these samples corresponds to the absence of equivalent fucosylated motifs in milk glycoproteins. The second finding was a shortened and distinct lactation process in transgenic rabbits expressing the human fucosyltransferase 1. During the first day of lactation, these animals expressed milk that contained both lactose and 2?-fucosylactose, but on the second day, the production of milk was severely diminished, and by the fourth day, no lactose was detected in their milk. Meanwhile, the concentration of fucosylated glycoproteins increased from the onset of lactation through its premature termination. These 2 findings may shed light on the glycobiology of milk and perhaps on mammary gland differentiation. PMID:22585925

Prieto, Pedro Antonio

2012-01-01

309

Prediction of human pharmacokinetics of panipenem-betamipron, a new carbapenem, from animal data.  

PubMed Central

The pharmacokinetic behavior of panipenem (PAPM)-betamipron (BP), a new carbapenem, in humans was successfully predicted from data collected from six animal species. PAPM and BP were biphasically eliminated from plasma after intravenous (i.v.) administration of PAPM-BP to mice, guinea pigs, rats, rabbits, monkeys, and dogs. Elimination rates of PAPM and BP were correlated with animal size: the larger the animal was, the slower the elimination was. As for PAPM and BP, log-log plots of total plasma clearance (CLtot) versus body weight and log-log plots of distribution volume at steady state (VSS) versus body weight for six animal species were linear, with high correlation coefficients. These allometric equations were extrapolated to predict CLtot and VSS for PAPM and BP in humans. In addition, concentration in plasma-time profiles for humans were predicted by using two-exponent equations fitted to the complex Dedrick plot of animal data. Predicted values for CLtot and VSS for PAPM and BP in humans agreed well with observed values in humans given 750/750 mg of PAPM-BP as an i.v. drip infusion for 30 min. Predicted concentration in plasma-time profiles for humans approximated observed profiles. Thus, the pharmacokinetics of PAPM-BP extrapolated well from animal species to humans when allometric equations and the complex Dedrick plot were used. PMID:1416872

Kurihara, A; Naganuma, H; Hisaoka, M; Tokiwa, H; Kawahara, Y

1992-01-01

310

21 CFR 530.13 - Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. 530.13 Section 530.13...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. (a) This part applies to...

2011-04-01

311

21 CFR 530.13 - Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. 530.13 Section 530.13...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. (a) This part applies to...

2013-04-01

312

21 CFR 530.13 - Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. 530.13 Section 530.13...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. (a) This part applies to...

2010-04-01

313

21 CFR 530.13 - Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. 530.13 Section 530.13...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. (a) This part applies to...

2012-04-01

314

21 CFR 530.13 - Extralabel use from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. 530.13 Section 530.13...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS...compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. (a) This part applies to...

2014-04-01

315

RAPE IN NON-HUMAN ANIMALS: AN EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rape-like behaviour has been documented in a number of species of animals. The purpose of this paper is to explain the evolutionary perspective on this behaviour. Several key concepts of modern evolutionary theory are first explained. Then the problem of defining rape in such a way that it is amenable to scientific study is discussed. Agonistic mating, altruistic mating, forced

CHARLES CRAWFORD; BIRUTE M. F. GALDIKAS

1986-01-01

316

[The sorption of human and animal rotaviruses by Enterosgel].  

PubMed

Adsorptive activity of enterosgel has been studied as applied to different strains of rotaviruses of man and animals. Optimal amounts of the sorbent and pH values of the reaction medium at which rotaviruses were most efficiently sorbed from the virus-containing liquid were determined experimentally. PMID:8563946

Barbova, A I

1995-01-01

317

Animal models of human cardiovascular disease, heart failure and hypertrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress made in our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of congestive heart failure (CHF) would not have been possible without a number of animal models of heart failure and hypertrophy, each one having unique advantages as well as disadvantages. The species and interventions used to create CHF depends on the scientific question as well as on factors such

Gerd Hasenfuss

318

Animal models to study neonatal nutrition in humans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The impact of neonatal nutrition on the health status of the newborn and incidence of disease in later life is a topic of intense interest. Animal models are an invaluable tool to identify mechanisms that mediate the effect of nutrition on neonatal development and metabolic function. This review hig...

319

Fast Simplification of Scanned 3D Human Body for Animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

D scanned technology has found its increasing application in computer animated movie and game. Due to the over density of scanned data, simplification becomes a crucial process. Many researches have been done in mesh-based (i.e. triangulated faces) simplifications. However, few are focused on preserving the completeness of skeleton semantic. And in sharply simplification case, the losing of skeleton semantic can

Xiao-dong Sun; Hong-bin Zhang

2011-01-01

320

In Search of Memory Tests Equivalent for Experiments on Animals and Humans  

PubMed Central

Older people often exhibit memory impairments. Contemporary demographic trends cause aging of the society. In this situation, it is important to conduct clinical trials of drugs and use training methods to improve memory capacity. Development of new memory tests requires experiments on animals and then clinical trials in humans. Therefore, we decided to review the assessment methods and search for tests that evaluate analogous cognitive processes in animals and humans. This review has enabled us to propose 2 pairs of tests of the efficiency of working memory capacity in animals and humans. We propose a basic set of methods for complex clinical trials of drugs and training methods to improve memory, consisting of 2 pairs of tests: 1) the Novel Object Recognition Test – Sternberg Item Recognition Test and 2) the Object-Location Test – Visuospatial Memory Test. We postulate that further investigations of methods that are equivalent in animals experiments and observations performed on humans are necessary. PMID:25524993

Brodziak, Andrzej; Ko?at, Estera; Ró?yk-Myrta, Alicja

2014-01-01

321

Recommendations for Blood Pressure Measurement in Humans and Experimental Animals-Part 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a scientific statement on blood pressure measurement in humans and experimental animals from the Subcommittee of Professional and Public Education of the American Heart Association Council on High Blood Pressure Research

2008-06-25

322

29 CFR 1990.143 - General provisions for the use of human and animal data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...carcinogen, whether or not there is direct evidence that it induces tumors in humans or experimental animals. Evidence for such metabolism will normally be derived from in vivo studies in mammals. In appropriate circumstances, evidence may be derived from...

2013-07-01

323

29 CFR 1990.143 - General provisions for the use of human and animal data.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...carcinogen, whether or not there is direct evidence that it induces tumors in humans or experimental animals. Evidence for such metabolism will normally be derived from in vivo studies in mammals. In appropriate circumstances, evidence may be derived from...

2011-07-01

324

78 FR 45729 - Foreign Supplier Verification Programs for Importers of Food for Humans and Animals  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...us to establish a system for the recognition of accreditation bodies that can accredit...third-party accreditation system in accordance with...Importers of Food for Humans and Animals, and...Auditors/ Certification Bodies to Conduct Food...

2013-07-29

325

Hunters, Herders, and Hamburgers: The Past and Future of Human-Animal Relationships (review)  

E-print Network

College in Claremont, California. He and the late John Rae coauthored The Engineer in History. Hunters, Herders, and Hamburgers: The Past and Future of Human–Animal Relationships. By Richard W. Bulliett. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005. Pp. 264...

Russell, Edmund P.

2007-02-01

326

Animate and Inanimate Objects in Human Visual Cortex: Evidence for Task-Independent Category Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence from neuropsychology suggests that the distinction between animate and inanimate kinds is fundamental to human cognition. Previous neuroimaging studies have reported that viewing animate objects activates ventrolateral visual brain regions, whereas inanimate objects activate ventromedial regions. However, these studies have typically…

Wiggett, Alison J.; Pritchard, Iwan C.; Downing, Paul E.

2009-01-01

327

The acute effects of corticosteroids on cognition: integration of animal and human model studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive deficits following acute administration of corticosteroids have been described in experimental animals and humans. In both populations, an inverted-U shape relationship has been reported between the dose of corticosteroids administered and the nature and extent of the cognitive deficits induced by corticosteroids. Further studies in animals have revealed a two-level recognition system for adrenal steroids, which was later more

Sonia J. Lupien; Bruce S. McEwen

1997-01-01

328

Save an Animal Board Game - Impact of Human Activity or Natural Disasters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This student activity engages the students' thinking by listening to a story, brainstorming ideas in small groups about how human activity or natural disasters could possibly impact an animal's environment, and then reinforcing that thinking using a board game called Save an Animal.

329

Developmental and Reproductive Outcomes in Humans and Animals After Glyphosate Exposure: A Critical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glyphosate is the active ingredient of several widely used herbicide formulations. Glyphosate targets the shikimate metabolic pathway, which is found in plants but not in animals. Despite the relative safety of glyphosate, various adverse developmental and reproductive problems have been alleged as a result of exposure in humans and animals. To assess the developmental and reproductive safety of glyphosate, an

Amy Lavin Williams; Rebecca E. Watson; John M. DeSesso

2012-01-01

330

Human-induced changes in animal populations and distributions, and the subsequent effects on fluvial systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans have profoundly altered hydrological pathways and fluvial systems through their near-extirpation of native populations of animal species that strongly influenced hydrology and removal of surface sediment, and through the introduction of now-feral populations of animals that bring to bear a suite of different geomorphic effects on the fluvial system. In the category of effects of extirpation, examples are offered

David R. Butler

2006-01-01

331

Widespread Endogenization of Densoviruses and Parvoviruses in Animal and Human Genomes ? †  

PubMed Central

Parvoviruses infect humans and a broad range of animals, from mammals to crustaceans, and generally are associated with a variety of acute and chronic diseases. However, many others cause persistent infections and are not known to be associated with any disease. Viral persistence is likely related to the ability to integrate into the chromosomal DNA and to establish a latent infection. However, there is little evidence for genome integration of parvoviral DNA except for Adeno-associated virus (AAV). Here we performed a systematic search for homologs of parvoviral proteins in publicly available eukaryotic genome databases followed by experimental verification and phylogenetic analysis. We conclude that parvoviruses have frequently invaded the germ lines of diverse animal species, including mammals, fishes, birds, tunicates, arthropods, and flatworms. The identification of orthologous endogenous parvovirus sequences in the genomes of humans and other mammals suggests that parvoviruses have coexisted with mammals for at least 98 million years. Furthermore, some of the endogenized parvoviral genes were expressed in eukaryotic organisms, suggesting that these viral genes are also functional in the host genomes. Our findings may provide novel insights into parvovirus biology, host interactions, and evolution. PMID:21795360

Liu, Huiquan; Fu, Yanping; Xie, Jiatao; Cheng, Jiasen; Ghabrial, Said A.; Li, Guoqing; Peng, Youliang; Yi, Xianhong; Jiang, Daohong

2011-01-01

332

Neuro-immune interactions of neural stem cell transplants: From animal disease models to human trials  

PubMed Central

Stem cell technology is a promising branch of regenerative medicine that is aimed at developing new approaches for the treatment of severely debilitating human diseases, including those affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Despite the increasing understanding of the mechanisms governing their biology, the application of stem cell therapeutics remains challenging. The initial idea that stem cell transplants work in vivo via the replacement of endogenous cells lost or damaged owing to disease has been challenged by accumulating evidence of their therapeutic plasticity. This new concept covers the remarkable immune regulatory and tissue trophic effects that transplanted stem cells exert at the level of the neural microenvironment to promote tissue healing via combination of immune modulatory and tissue protective actions, while retaining predominantly undifferentiated features. Among a number of promising candidate stem cell sources, neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) are under extensive investigation with regard to their therapeutic plasticity after transplantation. The significant impact in vivo of experimental NPC therapies in animal models of inflammatory CNS diseases has raised great expectations that these stem cells, or the manipulation of the mechanisms behind their therapeutic impact, could soon be translated to human studies. This review aims to provide an update on the most recent evidence of therapeutically-relevant neuroimmune interactions following NPC transplants in animal models of multiple sclerosis, cerebral stroke and traumas of the spinal cord, and consideration of the forthcoming challenges related to the early translation of some of these exciting experimental outcomes into clinical medicines. PMID:23507035

Cossetti, Chiara; Pluchino, Stefano

2014-01-01

333

Human and animal research guidelines: aligning ethical constructs with new scientific developments.  

PubMed

Both human research and animal research operate within established standards and procedures. Although the human research environment has been criticized for its sometimes inefficient and imperfect process, reported abuses of human subjects in research served as the impetus for the establishment of the Nuremberg Code, Declaration of Helsinki, and the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research and the resulting Belmont Report. No similar, comprehensive and principled effort has addressed the use of animals in research. Although published policies regarding animal research provide relevant regulatory guidance, these policies have not emerged from the process of specifying consistent and reasoned ethical principles. The lack of a fundamental effort to explore the ethical issues and principles regarding the use of animals in research has led to unclear and disparate policies. Recent studies have increased our understanding of animal cognition and emotion, suggesting that animals' potential for experiencing a wide variety of harms, such as pain and fear, is greater than has been previously appreciated. Furthermore, relationships between methods of captivity and certain laboratory procedures and the resulting adverse physical, social and psychological effects have been established. In light of this information, current protections may need to be reconsidered and modified. This paper explores the historical convergence and divergence in the creation of human and animal research guidelines, as well as opportunities to align ethical frameworks with new scientific discoveries. PMID:21929707

Ferdowsian, Hope

2011-10-01

334

Prediction of the volumes of distribution of basic drugs in humans based on data from animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparent volume of distribution-after distribution equilibrium and the ratio of distributive tissue volume to the unbound fraction in the tissue (VT\\/fuT)of 10 weak basic drugs, i.e., chlorpromazine, imipramine, propranolol, disopyramide, lidocaine, quinidine, meperidine, pentazocine, chlorpheniramine, and methacyclin were compared in animal species and humans. In these two parameters, a statistically significant correlation between animals and humans was obtained, when

Yasufumi Sawada; Manabu Hanano; Yuichi Sugiyama; Hideyoshi Harashima; Tatsuji Iga

1984-01-01

335

Metazoa Ludens: Mixed Reality Interaction and Play Between Humans and Animals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although animals and pets are so important for families and society, in modern urban lifestyles we can spend little time with our animal friends. Interactive media should be aimed to enhance not only human-to-human communication, but also human-to-animal communication. Thus, we promote a new type of inter-species media interaction which allows human users to interact and play with their small pet friends (in this case hamsters) remotely via the Internet through a mixed reality based game system “Metazoa Ludens”. We scientifically examined the effectiveness of this system in a two-pronged approach. Firstly and most importantly, the positive effects to the hamsters were ensured using Body Condition Score study. Secondly, the method of Duncan was used to assess the strength of preference of the hamsters towards Metazoa Ludens. Lastly, the effectiveness of this remote interaction with respect to the human users as a interactive gaming system with their pets/friends (hamsters) was examined based on Csikszentmihalyi's (Beyond boredom and anxiety, 1975) Flow theory. The results of both studies inform of positive remote interaction between human users and their pet friends using our research system. This research is not aimed just at providing specific experimental results on the implemented research system, but is aimed as a wider lesson for human-to-animal interactive media. Thus also the lessons learned are extrapolated and detailed in this chapter as a framework in general for human-to-animal interaction systems.

Cheok, Adrian David

336

Colorectal carcinogenesis: Review of human and experimental animal studies  

PubMed Central

This review gives a comprehensive overview of cancer development and links it to the current understanding of tumorigenesis and malignant progression in colorectal cancer. The focus is on human and murine colorectal carcinogenesis and the histogenesis of this malignant disorder. A summary of a model of colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis (an AOM/DSS model) will also be presented. The earliest phases of colorectal oncogenesis occur in the normal mucosa, with a disorder of cell replication. The large majority of colorectal malignancies develop from an adenomatous polyp (adenoma). These can be defined as well-demarcated masses of epithelial dysplasia, with uncontrolled crypt cell proliferation. When neoplastic cells pass through the muscularis mucosa and infiltrate the submucosa, they are malignant. Carcinomas usually originate from pre-existing adenomas, but this does not imply that all polyps undergo malignant changes and does not exclude de novo oncogenesis. Besides adenomas, there are other types of pre-neoplasia, which include hyperplastic polyps, serrated adenomas, flat adenomas and dysplasia that occurs in the inflamed colon in associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Colorectal neoplasms cover a wide range of pre-malignant and malignant lesions, many of which can easily be removed during endoscopy if they are small. Colorectal neoplasms and/or pre-neoplasms can be prevented by interfering with the various steps of oncogenesis, which begins with uncontrolled epithelial cell replication, continues with the formation of adenomas and eventually evolves into malignancy. The knowledge described herein will help to reduce and prevent this malignancy, which is one of the most frequent neoplasms in some Western and developed countries. PMID:19332896

Tanaka, Takuji

2009-01-01

337

Early Differentiation within the Animate Domain: Are Humans Something Special?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments investigated whether preverbal infants distinguish between humans and mammals. Study 1 found that 7-, 9-, and 11-month-olds distinguished humans from mammals in an object-examination task. Study 2 found that 7-month-olds but not 5-month-olds showed evidence for category discrimination with the 2-dimensional color photos of toy…

Pauen, Sabina

2000-01-01

338

Thinking Place: Animating the Indigenous Humanities in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrating contexts for and voices of the Indigenous humanities, this essay aims to clarify what the Indigenous humanities can mean for reclaiming education as Indigenous knowledges and pedagogies. After interrogating the visual representation of education and place in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, the essay turns to media constructions of…

Battiste, Marie; Bell, Lynne; Findlay, Isobel M.; Findlay, Len; Henderson, James Youngblood

2005-01-01

339

Enhanced CAPTCHAs: Using Animation to Tell Humans and Computers Apart  

Microsoft Academic Search

Completely Automated Public Turing Test to tell Comput- ers and Humans Apart (CAPTCHA) is a -rather- simple test that can be easily answered by a human but extremely difficult to be answered by computers. CAPTCHAs have been widely used for practical security reasons, like preventing automated registration in Web-based services. However, all deployed CAPTCHAs are based on the static identification

Elias Athanasopoulos; Spyros Antonatos

2006-01-01

340

Arsenic hazards to humans, plants, and animals from gold mining  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Arsenic sources to the biosphere associated with gold mining include waste soil and rocks, residual water from ore concentrations, roasting of some types of gold-containing ores to remove sulfur and sulfur oxides, and bacterially-enhanced leaching. Arsenic concentrations near gold mining operations were elevated in abiotic materials and biota: maximum total arsenic concentrations measured were 560 ug/L in surface waters, 5.16 mg/L in sediment pore waters, 5.6 mg/kg dry weight (DW) in bird liver, 27 mg/kg DW in terrestrial grasses, 50 mg/kg DW in soils, 79 mg/kg DW in aquatic plants, 103 mg/kg DW in bird diets, 225 mg/kg DW in soft parts of bivalve molluscs, 324 mg/L in mine drainage waters, 625 mg/kg DW in aquatic insects, 7700 mg/kg DW in sediments, and 21,000 mg/kg DW in tailings. Single oral doses of arsenicals that were fatal to 50% of tested species ranged from 17 to 48 mg/kg body weight (BW) in birds and from 2.5 to 33 mg/kg BW in mammals. Susceptible species of mammals were adversely affected at chronic doses of 1 to 10 mg As/kg BW, or 50 mg As/kg diet. Sensitive aquatic species were damaged at water concentrations of 19 to 48 ug As/L, 120 mg As/kg diet, or tissue residues (in the case of freshwater fish) >1.3 mg/kg fresh weight. Adverse effects to crops and vegetation were recorded at 3 to 28 mg of water-soluble As/L (equivalent to about 25 to 85 mg total As/kg soil) and at atmospheric concentrations >3.9 ug As/m3. Gold miners had a number of arsenic-associated health problems including excess mortality from cancer of the lung, stomach, and respiratory tract. Miners and schoolchildren in the vicinity of gold mining activities had elevated urine arsenic of 25.7 ug/L (range 2.2-106.0 ug/L). Of the total population at this location, 20% showed elevated urine arsenic concentrations associated with future adverse health effects; arsenic-contaminated drinking water is the probable causative factor of elevated arsenic in urine. Proposed arsenic criteria to protect human health and natural resources are listed and discussed. Many of these proposed criteria do not adequately protect sensitive species.

Eisler, R.

2004-01-01

341

BALB\\/c and C57Bl\\/6 mice infected with virulent Burkholderia pseudomallei provide contrasting animal models for the acute and chronic forms of human melioidosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burkholderia pseudomalleiis the aetiological agent of melioidosis, a life-threatening bacterial disease occurring in many species of animals, including man. Infection in humans commonly manifests as one of three clinical presentations: acute, subacute or chronic disease. Investigations were undertaken to assess the suitability of BALB\\/c and C57Bl\\/6 mice as animal models for the different forms of human melioidosis. The course of

Alison K Leakey; Glen C Ulett; Robert G Hirst

1998-01-01

342

Viral metagenomics on animals as a tool for the detection of zoonoses prior to human infection?  

PubMed

Many human viral infections have a zoonotic, i.e., wild or domestic animal, origin. Several zoonotic viruses are transmitted to humans directly via contact with an animal or indirectly via exposure to the urine or feces of infected animals or the bite of a bloodsucking arthropod. If a virus is able to adapt and replicate in its new human host, human-to-human transmissions may occur, possibly resulting in an epidemic, such as the A/H1N1 flu pandemic in 2009. Thus, predicting emerging zoonotic infections is an important challenge for public health officials in the coming decades. The recent development of viral metagenomics, i.e., the characterization of the complete viral diversity isolated from an organism or an environment using high-throughput sequencing technologies, is promising for the surveillance of such diseases and can be accomplished by analyzing the viromes of selected animals and arthropods that are closely in contact with humans. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of viral diversity within such animals (in particular blood-feeding arthropods, wildlife and domestic animals) using metagenomics and present its possible future application for the surveillance of zoonotic and arboviral diseases. PMID:24918293

Temmam, Sarah; Davoust, Bernard; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Raoult, Didier; Desnues, Christelle

2014-01-01

343

Natural animal models of human psychiatric conditions: assessment of mechanism and validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. The classic animal models for human psychiatric conditions involves rodents As prey species, their normal behaviors of avoidance would be considered pathological in humans and dogs. Hence, such models may not be homologous for similar behaviors found in psychiatric pathology in humans.2.2. Dogs exhibit pathological behavioral conditions that may be equivalent to certain human psychiatric conditions. These canine conditions

Karen L. Overall

2000-01-01

344

Sepsis in Old Age: Review of Human and Animal Studies  

PubMed Central

Sepsis is a serious problem among the geriatric population as its incidence and mortality rates dramatically increase with advanced age. Despite a large number of ongoing clinical and basic research studies, there is currently no effective therapeutic strategy that rescues elderly patients with severe sepsis. Recognition of this problem is relatively low as compared to other age-associated diseases. The disparity between clinical and basic studies is a problem, and this is likely due, in part, to the fact that most laboratory animals used for sepsis research are not old while the majority of sepsis cases occur in the geriatric population. The objective of this article is to review recent epidemiological studies and clinical observations, and compare these with findings from basic laboratory studies which have used aged animals in experimental sepsis. PMID:24729938

Starr, Marlene E; Saito, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

345

Interactive control of avatars animated with human motion data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Real-time control of three-dimensional avatars is an important problem in the context of computer games and virtual environments. Avatar animation and control is difficult, however, because a large repertoire of avatar behaviors must be made available, and the user must be able to select from this set of behaviors, possibly with a low-dimensional input device. One appealing approach to obtaining

Jehee Lee; Jinxiang Chai; Paul S. A. Reitsma; Jessica K. Hodgins; Nancy S. Pollard

2002-01-01

346

Comparisons of estimated human body burdens of dioxinlike chemicals and TCDD body burdens in experimentally exposed animals.  

PubMed Central

Humans are exposed to mixtures of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, and the potential health effects of these exposures are uncertain. A subset of this class of compounds produce similar spectra of toxicity in experimental animals as does 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and these chemicals have been classified as "dioxins." In this study, we compared the body burdens of dioxins that produce effects in experimental animals to body burdens associated with these effects in humans. Human body burdens were estimated from lipid-adjusted serum concentrations of dioxins, assuming dioxins are equally distributed in body fat and an adult has 22% body fat. The toxic equivalency factor (TEF) method was used to calculate body burdens of dioxins in humans. These calculations included dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls. In the general population, average background concentrations were estimated at 58 ng TCDD equivalents (TEQ)/kg serum lipid, corresponding to a body burden of 13 ng TEQ/kg body weight. Populations with known exposure to dioxins have body burdens of 96-7,000 ng TEQ/kg body weight. For effects that have been clearly associated with dioxins, such as chloracne and induction of CYP1A1, humans and animals respond at similar body burdens. Induction of cancer in animals occurs at body burdens of 944-137,000 ng TCDD/kg body weight, while noncancer effects in animals occur at body burdens of 10-12,500 ng/kg. Available human data suggest that some individuals may respond to dioxin exposures with cancer and noncancer effects at body burdens within one to two orders of magnitude of those in the general population. PMID:7498094

DeVito, M J; Birnbaum, L S; Farland, W H; Gasiewicz, T A

1995-01-01

347

Computer animation of human figures in conversation and action  

E-print Network

Viable articulated computer-graphic representations of the human figure have recently been developed by O'Rourke, Zeltzer, and others. In this work, a figure implemented by Maxwell provides the starting point for the ...

Lewis, John Peter

1984-01-01

348

Characterization of Temperate Phages Infecting Clostridium difficile Isolates of Human and Animal Origins  

PubMed Central

Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive pathogen infecting humans and animals. Recent studies suggest that animals could represent potential reservoirs of C. difficile that could then transfer to humans. Temperate phages contribute to the evolution of most bacteria, for example, by promoting the transduction of virulence, fitness, and antibiotic resistance genes. In C. difficile, little is known about their role, mainly because suitable propagating hosts and conditions are lacking. Here we report the isolation, propagation, and preliminary characterization of nine temperate phages from animal and human C. difficile isolates. Prophages were induced by UV light from 58 C. difficile isolates of animal and human origins. Using soft agar overlays with 27 different C. difficile test strains, we isolated and further propagated nine temperate phages: two from horse isolates (?CD481-1 and ?CD481-2), three from dog isolates (?CD505, ?CD506, and ?CD508), and four from human isolates (?CD24-2, ?CD111, ?CD146, and ?CD526). Two phages are members of the Siphoviridae family (?CD111 and ?CD146), while the others are Myoviridae phages. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and restriction enzyme analyses showed that all of the phages had unique double-stranded DNA genomes of 30 to 60 kb. Phages induced from human C. difficile isolates, especially the members of the Siphoviridae family, had a broader host range than phages from animal C. difficile isolates. Nevertheless, most of the phages could infect both human and animal strains. Phage transduction of antibiotic resistance was recently reported in C. difficile. Our findings therefore call for further investigation of the potential risk of transduction between animal and human C. difficile isolates. PMID:24532062

Sekulovic, Ognjen; Garneau, Julian R.; Néron, Audrey

2014-01-01

349

Novel bisegmented virus (picobirnavirus) of animals, birds and humans  

PubMed Central

Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) are novel group of small, nonenveloped, bisegmented and double stranded RNA viruses. PBVs have been identified in the faeces of a broad range of hosts by several international research groups. Since attempts to culture PBV in vitro have not been made to date and no animal model of infection and disease exists. Laboratory diagnosis relies upon electron microscopy, the detection of the double stranded RNA bisegmented genome by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. PBVs have been identified in both normal and diarrheic faeces. Although their pathogenicity is still unclear, their potential needs further investigation.

Mondal, Anjan; Majee, Sharmila

2014-01-01

350

The complete mitochondrial genomes for three Toxocara species of human and animal health significance  

PubMed Central

Background Studying mitochondrial (mt) genomics has important implications for various fundamental areas, including mt biochemistry, physiology and molecular biology. In addition, mt genome sequences have provided useful markers for investigating population genetic structures, systematics and phylogenetics of organisms. Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Toxocara malaysiensis cause significant health problems in animals and humans. Although they are of importance in human and animal health, no information on the mt genomes for any of Toxocara species is available. Results The sizes of the entire mt genome are 14,322 bp for T. canis, 14029 bp for T. cati and 14266 bp for T. malaysiensis, respectively. These circular genomes are amongst the largest reported to date for all secernentean nematodes. Their relatively large sizes relate mainly to an increased length in the AT-rich region. The mt genomes of the three Toxocara species all encode 12 proteins, two ribosomal RNAs and 22 transfer RNA genes, but lack the ATP synthetase subunit 8 gene, which is consistent with all other species of Nematode studied to date, with the exception of Trichinella spiralis. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T, but low in G and C. The contents of A+T of the complete genomes are 68.57% for T. canis, 69.95% for T. cati and 68.86% for T. malaysiensis, among which the A+T for T. canis is the lowest among all nematodes studied to date. The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. The mt genome structures for three Toxocara species, including genes and non-coding regions, are in the same order as for Ascaris suum and Anisakis simplex, but differ from Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus and Caenorhabditis elegans only in the location of the AT-rich region, whereas there are substantial differences when compared with Onchocerca volvulus,Dirofiliria immitis and Strongyloides stercoralis. Phylogenetic analyses based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes revealed that the newly described species T. malaysiensis was more closely related to T. cati than to T. canis, consistent with results of a previous study using sequences of nuclear internal transcribed spacers as genetic markers. Conclusion The present study determined the complete mt genome sequences for three roundworms of human and animal health significance, which provides mtDNA evidence for the validity of T. malaysiensis and also provides a foundation for studying the systematics, population genetics and ecology of these and other nematodes of socio-economic importance. PMID:18482460

Li, Ming-Wei; Lin, Rui-Qing; Song, Hui-Qun; Wu, Xiang-Yun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

2008-01-01

351

Animal models of pancreatitis: Can it be translated to human pain study?  

PubMed Central

Chronic pancreatitis affects many individuals around the world, and the study of the underlying mechanisms leading to better treatment possibilities are important tasks. Therefore, animal models are needed to illustrate the basic study of pancreatitis. Recently, animal models of acute and chronic pancreatitis have been thoroughly reviewed, but few reviews address the important aspect on the translation of animal studies to human studies. It is well known that pancreatitis is associated with epigastric pain, but the understanding regarding to mechanisms and appropriate treatment of this pain is still unclear. Using animal models to study pancreatitis associated visceral pain is difficult, however, these types of models are a unique way to reveal the mechanisms behind pancreatitis associated visceral pain. In this review, the animal models of acute, chronic and un-common pancreatitis are briefly outlined and animal models related to pancreatitis associated visceral pain are also addressed. PMID:24259952

Zhao, Jing-Bo; Liao, Dong-Hua; Nissen, Thomas Dahl

2013-01-01

352

Towards an understanding of the role of Clostridium perfringens toxins in human and animal disease  

PubMed Central

Clostridium perfringens uses its arsenal of >16 toxins to cause histotoxic and intestinal infections in humans and animals. It has been unclear why this bacterium produces so many different toxins, especially since many target the plasma membrane of host cells. However, it is now established that C. perfringens uses chromosomally encoded alpha toxin (a phospholipase C) and perfringolysin O (a pore-forming toxin) during histotoxic infections. In contrast, this bacterium causes intestinal disease by employing toxins encoded by mobile genetic elements, including C. perfringens enterotoxin, necrotic enteritis toxin B-like, epsilon toxin and beta toxin. Like perfringolysin O, the toxins with established roles in intestinal disease form membrane pores. However, the intestinal disease-associated toxins vary in their target specificity, when they are produced (sporulation vs vegetative growth), and in their sensitivity to intestinal proteases. Producing many toxins with diverse characteristics likely imparts virulence flexibility to C. perfringens so it can cause an array of diseases. PMID:24762309

Uzal, Francisco A; Freedman, John C; Shrestha, Archana; Theoret, James R; Garcia, Jorge; Awad, Milena M; Adams, Vicki; Moore, Robert J; Rood, Julian I; McClane, Bruce A

2014-01-01

353

IncA/C plasmids: An emerging threat to human and animal health?  

PubMed

Incompatibility group IncA/C plasmids are large, low copy, theta-replicating plasmids that have been described in the literature for over 40 years. However, they have only recently been intensively studied on the genomic level because of their associations with the emergence of multidrug resistance in enteric pathogens of humans and animals. These plasmids are unique among other enterobacterial plasmids in many aspects, including their modular structure and gene content. While the IncA/C plasmid genome structure has now been well defined, many questions remain pertaining to their basic biological mechanisms of dissemination and regulation. Here, we discuss the history of IncA/C plasmids in light of our recent understanding of their population distribution, genomics, and effects on host bacteria. PMID:22754754

Johnson, Timothy J; Lang, Kevin S

2012-01-01

354

Prevalence and risk factors for zoonotic helminth infection among humans and animals - Jos, Nigeria, 2005-2009  

PubMed Central

Background Zoonotic infections are among the most common on earth and are responsible for over 60% of human infectious diseases, some of which are caused by helminth parasites. Infection may result from ingestion of infective stage of worms with food, contaminated soil; skin penetration or direct animal contact. This study estimates the prevalence of zoonotic helminth infections (ZHI) among animals and humans in Jos and identifies associated risk factors Methods We reviewed laboratory records from five hospitals, one veterinary clinic and meat inspection record at abattoir in Jos from 2005-2009. Prevalence was defined as the observed frequency of cases of zoonotic helminth in the sampled population within the study period. Odd ratio analysis was used to identify factors associated with ZHI. Results Of 6689 humans tested, 524 (7.8%) were positive. Observed ZHI are: Ascaris species (4.5%), Taeniasis-Cysticercosis (1.5%), Schistosoma species (1.1%), Strongyloidosis (0.09%). Among animals, 3520 (18.1%) of 19508 tested/observed were positive; including Fasciola species (12.7%), Taeniasis-Cysticercosis (5.0%), Strongyloidosis (0.4%), Ascaris species (0.04%). The risk of infection was higher among humans aged 6-19 (OR: 3.2; 95% CI: 2.0-5.2) and 20-60 (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.7-3.9). Peri-urban dwellers are at higher risk (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.3-1.9); and so are farmers. Conclusion The prevalence of zoonotic helminth infection is high among humans and animals in Jos. Risk of infection are higher among human age 6-60, peri-urban dwellers and farmers. This calls for the formulation of workable collaboration between human and veterinary medical disciplines for better control of zoonotic helminth infections. PMID:22826731

Ekong, Pius Stephen; Juryit, Raymond; Dika, Ndahi Mwapu; Nguku, Patrick; Musenero, Monica

2012-01-01

355

Quantifying Potential Human Health Impacts of Animal Antibiotic Use: Enrofloxacin and Macrolides in Chickens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of similar or identical antibiotics in both human and veterinary medicine has come under increasing scrutiny by regulators concerned that bacteria resistant to animal antibiotics will infect people and resist treatment with similar human antibiotics, leading to excess illnesses and deaths. Scientists, regulators, and interest groups in the United States and Europe have urged bans on nontherapeutic and some

Douglas A. Popken

2006-01-01

356

Caffeine physical dependence: a review of human and laboratory animal studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although caffeine is the most widely used behaviorally active drug in the world, caffeine physical dependence has been poorly characterized in laboratory animals and only moderately well characterized in humans. In humans, a review of 37 clinical reports and experimental studies dating back to 1833 shows that headache and fatigue are the most frequent withdrawal symptoms, with a wide variety

Roland R. Griffiths; Phillip P. Woodson

1988-01-01

357

The Socioemotional Effects of a Computer-Simulated Animal on Children's Empathy and Humane Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the potential of using a computer-simulated animal in a handheld virtual pet videogame to improve children's empathy and humane attitudes. Also investigated was whether sex differences existed in children's development of empathy and humane attitudes resulting from play, as well as their feelings for a virtual pet. The results showed that after playing Nintendogs for 3 weeks,

Yueh-Feng Lily Tsai; David M. Kaufman

2009-01-01

358

Breathe easy: Model and control of human respiration for computer animation  

E-print Network

Breathe easy: Model and control of human respiration for computer animation Victor B. Zordan model of the human torso designed for the visual simulation of respiration using a mixed system of rigid for respiration becomes the generation of periodic contraction signals for a minimal set of two muscle groups. We

Zordan, Victor

359

The Socioemotional Effects of a Computer-Simulated Animal on Children's Empathy and Humane Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the potential of using a computer-simulated animal in a handheld virtual pet videogame to improve children's empathy and humane attitudes. Also investigated was whether sex differences existed in children's development of empathy and humane attitudes resulting from play, as well as their feelings for a virtual pet. The…

Tsai, Yueh-Feng Lily; Kaufman, David M.

2009-01-01

360

Discrimination of source (human or animal) of fecal pollution of water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fecal pollution is a serious environmental problem that affects many coastal and inland waters worldwide. Both human and animal fecal pollution impose risks to human health from exposure to pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. To assist authorities with the implementation of the changes suggested by more restricted legislation concerning water quality in Europe, methods are needed which can identify more

Apostolos Vantarakis

361

Analysis of human and animal fecal microbiota for microbial source tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial compositions of human and animal feces from South Korea were analyzed and characterized. In total, 38 fecal samples (14 healthy adult humans, 6 chickens, 6 cows, 6 pigs and 6 geese) were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing of the V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Four major phyla, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were identified in the samples. Principal

Jung Eun Lee; Sunghee Lee; Joohon Sung; GwangPyo Ko; G-P Ko

2011-01-01

362

Scaling Pharmacodynamics from In Vitro and Preclinical Animal Studies to Humans  

PubMed Central

Summary An important feature of mechanism-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models is the identification of drug- and system-specific factors that determine the intensity and time-course of pharmacological effects. This provides an opportunity to integrate information obtained from in vitro bioassays and preclinical pharmacological studies in animals to anticipate the clinical and adverse responses to drugs in humans. The fact that contemporary PK/PD modeling continues to evolve and seeks to emulate systems level properties should provide enhanced capabilities to scale-up pharmacodynamic data. Critical steps in drug discovery and development, such as lead compound and first in human dose selection, may become more efficient with the implementation and further refinement of translational PK/PD modeling. In this review, we highlight fundamental principles in pharmacodynamics and the basic expectations for in vitro bioassays and traditional allometric scaling in PK/PD modeling. Discussion of PK/PD modeling efforts for recombinant human erythropoietin is also included as a case study showing the potential for advanced systems analysis to facilitate extrapolations and improve understanding of inter-species differences in drug responses. PMID:19252333

Mager, Donald E.; Woo, Sukyung; Jusko, William J.

2013-01-01

363

West Nile: worldwide current situation in animals and humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Nile (WN) virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is native to Africa, Europe, and Western Asia. It mainly circulates among birds, but can infect many species of mammals, as well as amphibians and reptiles. Epidemics can occur in rural as well as urban areas. Transmission of WN virus, sometimes involving significant mortality in humans and horses, has been documented

Gwenaëlle Dauphin; Stéphan Zientara; Hervé Zeller; Bernadette Murgue

2004-01-01

364

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza: Intersecting Humans, Animals, and the Environment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Eurasian-African H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus has caused an unprecedented epizootic affecting mainly poultry, but has crossed multiple species barriers to infect captive and wild birds, carnivorous mammals and humans. There is still great concern over the continued infecti...

365

COMPARISON OF LUNG ANTIOXIDANT LEVELS IN HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Basal lung concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA), nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH), and a-tocopherol (a-T) were determined in rabbits, guinea pigs, rats, hamsters, mice, domestic pigs and sheep, and in human lung samples obtained from cancer surgery patients. Significant differences ...

366

ANIMALS AS SENTINELS OF HUMAN HEALTH HAZARDS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS  

EPA Science Inventory

A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environmnet," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxi...

367

The Evolution of Personality Variation in Humans and Other Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive evolutionary framework for understanding the maintenance of heritable behavioral variation in humans is yet to be developed. Some evolutionary psychologists have argued that heritable variation will not be found in important, fitness-relevant characteristics because of the winnowing effect of natural selection. This article propounds the opposite view. Heritable variation is ubiquitous in all species, and there are a

Daniel Nettle

2006-01-01

368

Exemplar Selection Methods to Distinguish Human from Animal Footsteps  

E-print Network

), but that the self-training method shows promise for the task of learning to distinguish between the discrete of learning a classifier from a mixture of unlabeled and labeled training data, under the constraint that labeled training data exist for only N-1 of the N target classes. The task of distinguishing human from

Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark

369

OpenFluDB, a database for human and animal influenza virus  

PubMed Central

Although research on influenza lasted for more than 100 years, it is still one of the most prominent diseases causing half a million human deaths every year. With the recent observation of new highly pathogenic H5N1 and H7N7 strains, and the appearance of the influenza pandemic caused by the H1N1 swine-like lineage, a collaborative effort to share observations on the evolution of this virus in both animals and humans has been established. The OpenFlu database (OpenFluDB) is a part of this collaborative effort. It contains genomic and protein sequences, as well as epidemiological data from more than 27 000 isolates. The isolate annotations include virus type, host, geographical location and experimentally tested antiviral resistance. Putative enhanced pathogenicity as well as human adaptation propensity are computed from protein sequences. Each virus isolate can be associated with the laboratories that collected, sequenced and submitted it. Several analysis tools including multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis and sequence similarity maps enable rapid and efficient mining. The contents of OpenFluDB are supplied by direct user submission, as well as by a daily automatic procedure importing data from public repositories. Additionally, a simple mechanism facilitates the export of OpenFluDB records to GenBank. This resource has been successfully used to rapidly and widely distribute the sequences collected during the recent human swine flu outbreak and also as an exchange platform during the vaccine selection procedure. Database URL: http://openflu.vital-it.ch. PMID:20624713

Liechti, Robin; Gleizes, Anne; Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Bougueleret, Lydie; Le Mercier, Philippe; Bairoch, Amos; Xenarios, Ioannis

2010-01-01

370

Human versus animal: contrasting decomposition dynamics of mammalian analogues in experimental taphonomy.  

PubMed

Taphonomic studies regularly employ animal analogues for human decomposition due to ethical restrictions relating to the use of human tissue. However, the validity of using animal analogues in soil decomposition studies is still questioned. This study compared the decomposition of skeletal muscle tissues (SMTs) from human (Homo sapiens), pork (Sus scrofa), beef (Bos taurus), and lamb (Ovis aries) interred in soil microcosms. Fixed interval samples were collected from the SMT for microbial activity and mass tissue loss determination; samples were also taken from the underlying soil for pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient (potassium, phosphate, ammonium, and nitrate) analysis. The overall patterns of nutrient fluxes and chemical changes in nonhuman SMT and the underlying soil followed that of human SMT. Ovine tissue was the most similar to human tissue in many of the measured parameters. Although no single analogue was a precise predictor of human decomposition in soil, all models offered close approximations in decomposition dynamics. PMID:23550805

Stokes, Kathryn L; Forbes, Shari L; Tibbett, Mark

2013-05-01

371

The vulnerability of animal and human health to parasites under global change.  

PubMed

The term 'global change' is used to encompass all of the significant drivers of environmental change as experienced by hosts, parasites and parasite managers. The term includes changes in climate and climate variability, atmospheric composition, land use and land cover including deforestation and urbanisation, bio-geochemistry, globalisation of trade and transport, the spread of alien species, human health and technology. A subset of land use issues relates to the management of protective technologies in relation to residues in food and the environment and the emergence of resistance. Another is the question of changing biodiversity of both parasites and their associated natural enemies, and the effects on the host--parasite relationship and on parasite management. A framework for studying impacts of global change is proposed and illustrated with field data, and CLIMEX and simulation modelling of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus in Australia. Parasitology suffers from the perception that the key impacts of global change will be driven by changes at lower trophic levels, with parasitic interactions being treated as secondary effects. This is incorrect because the environment mediates host-parasite interactions as much as it affects parasites directly. Parasitologists need to strive for holistic solutions to the management of animal and human health, within a wider context of overall management of those systems, if they are to make a meaningful contribution to global efforts aimed at coping with global change. PMID:11406142

Sutherst, R W

2001-07-01

372

Assessing gonadal hormone contributions to affective psychopathologies across humans and animal models.  

PubMed

Despite increasing acknowledgement of hormonal contributions to mood and anxiety disorders, the underlying mechanisms by which gonadal hormones influence psychopathology-related behaviours remain unknown. This review focuses on recent research that examines the influence of gonadal steroid hormones, including androgens, oestrogens, and progesterone, on mood and anxiety-related behaviours in human health and disease. To this aim, the literature was surveyed for studies that assess conditions with suspected underlying hormonal imbalances in otherwise healthy participants (e.g., premenstrual dysphoric disorder, postmenopausal depression) as well as conditions linked to congenital endocrine abnormalities (e.g., Turner Syndrome, Klinefelter Syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, familial male precocious puberty, androgen insensitivity syndrome). Furthermore, to better inform clinical work and to create a translational bridge, a second goal was to set human psychopathologies and animal models of these conditions side-by-side. In the second part of the review, based on consistencies revealed in the existing literature across conditions, a new model for the impact of gonadal hormones on anxious and depressed behavioural states is proposed. Finally, we conclude by proposing directions for future research, including the development of specific tasks suitable for cross-species comparisons to increase our knowledge of the role of gonadal hormones in mood and anxiety. PMID:24882164

Mueller, S C; Grissom, E M; Dohanich, G P

2014-08-01

373

Genetically-modified-animal models for human infections: the Listeria paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several human pathogens exhibit a restricted host-tropism, relying on the species-specific interaction of microbial ligand(s) with host receptor(s). This specificity accounts for some of the difficulties in modeling human infections in animals. The discovery of L. monocytogenes host-specificity and elucidation of the underlying mechanism has led to the generation of transgenic mice expressing one of its human receptors, E-cadherin. This

Marc Lecuit; Pascale Cossart

2002-01-01

374

Humanized” Stem Cell Culture Techniques: The Animal Serum Controversy  

PubMed Central

Cellular therapy is reaching a pinnacle with an understanding of the potential of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to regenerate damaged tissue in the body. The limited numbers of these hMSCs in currently identified sources, like bone marrow, adipose tissue, and so forth, bring forth the need for their in vitro culture/expansion. However, the extensive usage of supplements containing xenogeneic components in the expansion-media might pose a risk to the post-transplantation safety of patients. This warrants the necessity to identify and develop chemically defined or “humanized” supplements which would make in vitro cultured/processed cells relatively safer for transplantation in regenerative medicine. In this paper, we outline the various caveats associated with conventionally used supplements of xenogenic origin and also portray the possible alternatives/additives which could one day herald the dawn of a new era in the translation of in vitro cultured cells to therapeutic interventions. PMID:21603148

Tekkatte, Chandana; Gunasingh, Gency Ponrose; Cherian, K. M.; Sankaranarayanan, Kavitha

2011-01-01

375

PURDUE EXTENSION Animal Damage Management  

E-print Network

blindness, paralysis, unusual behavior, and death. Altered behaviors of infected animals may include inability to walk or climb, loss of fear (of humans or other animals), rolling on the ground, falling over

Ginzel, Matthew

376

Animal and human dose-response models for Brucella species.  

PubMed

Human Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide. Disease transmission often occurs through the handling of domestic livestock, as well as ingestion of unpasteurized milk and cheese, but can have enhanced infectivity if aerosolized. Because there is no human vaccine available, rising concerns about the threat of Brucellosis to human health and its inclusion in the Center for Disease Control's Category B Bioterrorism/Select Agent List make a better understanding of the dose-response relationship of this microbe necessary. Through an extensive peer-reviewed literature search, candidate dose-response data were appraised so as to surpass certain standards for quality. The statistical programming language, "R," was used to compute the maximum likelihood estimation to fit two models, the exponential and the approximate beta-Poisson (widely used for quantitative risk assessment) to dose-response data. Dose-response models were generated for prevalent species of Brucella: Br. suis, Br. melitensis, and Br. abortus. Dose-response models were created for aerosolized Br. suis exposure to guinea pigs from pooled studies. A parallel model for guinea pigs inoculated through both aerosol and subcutaneous routes with Br. melitensis showed that the median infectious dose corresponded to a 30 colony-forming units (CFU) dose of Br. suis, much less than the N(50) dose of about 94 CFU for Br. melitensis organisms. When Br. melitensis was tested subcutaneously on mice, the N(50) dose was higher, 1,840 CFU. A dose-response model was constructed from pooled data for mice, rhesus macaques, and humans inoculated through three routes (subcutaneously/aerosol/intradermally) with Br. melitensis. PMID:21449960

Teske, Sondra S; Huang, Yin; Tamrakar, Sushil B; Bartrand, Timothy A; Weir, Mark H; Haas, Charles N

2011-10-01

377

Novel and emerging therapies safeguarding health of humans and their companion animals: a review.  

PubMed

Modern medicine has helped to a great extent to eradicate and cure several diseases of mankind and animals. But the existence of incurable diseases like cancer, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis, side effects of allopathic medicine, increasing trend of antibiotic resistance and chemicals and biopesticides causing dietary risk have made the situation more critical than ever before. Thus, it has become a matter of concern for the scientists and researchers to develop novel therapies. Bacteriophage therapy to treat pathogenic bacterial infections, virophage therapy for conservation of global system and avian egg yolk antibody therapy for designing prophylactic strategies against Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are interesting approaches. Others include the use of cytokines as adjunctive immunomodulators, gene therapy focusing on diseases caused by single gene defects, RNAi technology to suppress specific gene of interest and apoptins for cancer treatment. Stem cell therapy against several diseases and ailments has also been discussed. The use of nanoparticles for better drug delivery, even though costly, has been given equal importance. Nevertheless, immunomodulation, be it through physiological, chemical or microbial products, or through essential micronutrients, probiotics, herbs or cow therapy prove to be cost-effective, causing minimum adverse reactions when compared to allopathy. Development in the field of molecular biology has created an enormous impact on vaccine development. The present review deals with all these novel and emerging therapies essential to safeguard the health of humans and companion animals. PMID:24171271

Dhama, Kuldeep; Chakraborty, Sandip; Mahima; Wani, Mohd Yaqoob; Verma, Amit Kumar; Deb, Rajib; Tiwari, Ruchi; Kapoor, Sanjay

2013-02-01

378

[Human nutrition with reference to animals as sources of protein (author's transl)].  

PubMed

In achieving adequate nutrition for all people in the world foods of animal origin are indispensable to supply sufficient protein and essential nutrients. All foods of animal origin have a number of characteristics in common, in view of which they should be regarded as highly valuable human food because of the considerable biological value of the proteins, their ready digestibility and their palatability. A number of nutritional features of animal versus vegetable protein are discussed. Several queries have to be placed against the health aspects of the copious consumption of animal protein as has increasingly become the practice in Europe. The consumption of dishes prepared from food of animal origin high in protein will inevitably be associated with a high fat content. It is not likely that, specifically, the incidence of human cancer will also be increased by the allegedly carcinogenic effects of meat persé, however using nitrite in meats may be hazardous when consumption of meat is considerable because of the carcinogenic effects of nitrosamines. In addition, there are drawbacks to the copious consumption of food of animal origin as part of the daily diet because of the high fat content and low dietary fibre content of this food. A conference of managers in the animal-food industry and experts from the professional medical and dietetic organizations would be a desirable improvement in achieving an optimum situation. Sufficient production and distribution will not fully ensure adequate nutrition of animal origin. Its valuable nutrients must be available from food which is acceptable to the individual consumer. Those factors which decide what is eaten and why, are not known to a sufficient extent. Cultural and environmental factors also play a highly decisive role in the matter. There are religious rules regarding food of animal origin, which obtain for large sections of the population all over the world. Other practices concerning the consumption of food of animal origin are also determined by the pressure of society regarding the attitude towards animals. PMID:7222001

de Wijn, J F

1981-03-01

379

Characterisation of the Wildlife Reservoir Community for Human and Animal Trypanosomiasis in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia  

PubMed Central

Background Animal and human trypanosomiasis are constraints to both animal and human health in Sub-Saharan Africa, but there is little recent evidence as to how these parasites circulate in wild hosts in natural ecosystems. The Luangwa Valley in Zambia supports high densities of tsetse flies (Glossina species) and is recognised as an historical sleeping sickness focus. The objective of this study was to characterise the nature of the reservoir community for trypanosomiasis in the absence of influence from domesticated hosts. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional survey of trypanosome prevalence in wildlife hosts was conducted in the Luangwa Valley from 2005 to 2007. Samples were collected from 418 animals and were examined for the presence of Trypanosoma brucei s.l., T. b. rhodesiense, Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma vivax using molecular diagnostic techniques. The overall prevalence of infection in all species was 13.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.71–17.57%). Infection was significantly more likely to be detected in waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) (Odds ratio [OR]?=?10.5, 95% CI: 2.36–46.71), lion (Panthera leo) (OR?=?5.3, 95% CI: 1.40–19.69), greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) (OR?=?4.7, 95% CI: 1.41–15.41) and bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) (OR?=?4.5, 95% CI: 1.51–13.56). Bushbucks are important hosts for T. brucei s.l. while the Bovidae appear the most important for T. congolense. The epidemiology of T. vivax was less clear, but parasites were detected most frequently in waterbuck. Human infective T. b. rhodesiense were identified for the first time in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and T. brucei s.l. in leopard (Panthera pardus). Variation in infection rates was demonstrated at species level rather than at family or sub-family level. A number of significant risk factors interact to influence infection rates in wildlife including taxonomy, habitat and blood meal preference. Conclusion and Significance Trypanosoma parasites circulate within a wide and diverse host community in this bio-diverse ecosystem. Consistent land use patterns over the last century have resulted in epidemiological stability, but this may be threatened by the recent influx of people and domesticated livestock into the mid-Luangwa Valley. PMID:21713019

Anderson, Neil E.; Mubanga, Joseph; Fevre, Eric M.; Picozzi, Kim; Eisler, Mark C.; Thomas, Robert; Welburn, Susan C.

2011-01-01

380

Addressing Student Misconceptions Concerning Electron Flow in Aqueous Solutions with Instruction Including Computer Animations and Conceptual Change Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the effects of both computer animations of microscopic chemical processes occurring in a galvanic cell and conceptual-change instruction based on chemical demonstrations on students' conceptions of current flow in electrolyte solutions. Finds that conceptual change instruction was effective at dispelling student misconceptions but…

Sanger, Michael J.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.

2000-01-01

381

[Toxicological effects of nitrate: biological study in human and animal].  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the effects of the nitrates toxicity, a study has been carried out on 45 workers of storage and distribution agricultural manures, exposed to nitrate derivatives. Another experimental study has carried out in laboratory on male Albinos wistar rats. These latter were treated with ammonium nitrate (NH(4)NO(3)) introduced by gavage with three increasing concentrations 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg of body weight during three weeks. The biochemical and hematological results on workers showed that no poisoning was announced within this complex, in spite of the observation of kidneys inflammations among about 50% of the population. The chemical treatment of the rats causes a variation in the biochemical and biological parameters: an increase of the hepato-somatic ratio especially in the rats treated by important doses. Moreover, the serum concentration in glucose, cholesterol, creatinin, lactate dehydrogenase and in transaminases (GOT, GPT) was increased significantly compared to the witness in all the treated rats. At the end, the results obtained highlight the detoxifier potential expressed by the reduction in the glutathione level in the deferent organs such as the liver, the kidneys, the spleen, the intestines and the testicles. According to the obtained results, it can be concluded that: (1) living organism can adapt to the lows doses of nitrate for a long time. This is observed in the workers exposed to deferent derivatives of nitrates; (2) high nitrate amounts involve important biological variations even if the exposure time is short. This is proven in the laboratory animals. PMID:17627919

Boukerche, S; Aouacheri, W; Saka, S

2007-01-01

382

Animal Models of Pulmonary Hypertension: Matching Disease Mechanisms to Etiology of the Human Disease  

PubMed Central

Recently a great deal of progress has been made in our understanding of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Research from the past 30 years has resulted in newer treatments that provide symptomatic improvements and delayed disease progression. Unfortunately, the cure for patients with this lethal syndrome remains stubbornly elusive. With the relative explosion of scientific literature regarding PH, confusion has arisen regarding animal models of the disease and their correlation to the human condition. This short review uniquely focuses on the clear and present need to better correlate mechanistic insights from existing and emerging animal models of PH to specific etiologies and histopathologies of human PH. A better understanding of the pathologic processes in various animal models and how they relate to the human disease should accelerate the development of newer and more efficacious therapies.

Colvin, Kelley L.; Yeager, Michael E.

2015-01-01

383

Abnormal Brain Iron Homeostasis in Human and Animal Prion Disorders  

PubMed Central

Neurotoxicity in all prion disorders is believed to result from the accumulation of PrP-scrapie (PrPSc), a ?-sheet rich isoform of a normal cell-surface glycoprotein, the prion protein (PrPC). Limited reports suggest imbalance of brain iron homeostasis as a significant associated cause of neurotoxicity in prion-infected cell and mouse models. However, systematic studies on the generality of this phenomenon and the underlying mechanism(s) leading to iron dyshomeostasis in diseased brains are lacking. In this report, we demonstrate that prion disease–affected human, hamster, and mouse brains show increased total and redox-active Fe (II) iron, and a paradoxical increase in major iron uptake proteins transferrin (Tf) and transferrin receptor (TfR) at the end stage of disease. Furthermore, examination of scrapie-inoculated hamster brains at different timepoints following infection shows increased levels of Tf with time, suggesting increasing iron deficiency with disease progression. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD)–affected human brains show a similar increase in total iron and a direct correlation between PrP and Tf levels, implicating PrPSc as the underlying cause of iron deficiency. Increased binding of Tf to the cerebellar Purkinje cell neurons of sCJD brains further indicates upregulation of TfR and a phenotype of neuronal iron deficiency in diseased brains despite increased iron levels. The likely cause of this phenotype is sequestration of iron in brain ferritin that becomes detergent-insoluble in PrPSc-infected cell lines and sCJD brain homogenates. These results suggest that sequestration of iron in PrPSc–ferritin complexes induces a state of iron bio-insufficiency in prion disease–affected brains, resulting in increased uptake and a state of iron dyshomeostasis. An additional unexpected observation is the resistance of Tf to digestion by proteinase-K, providing a reliable marker for iron levels in postmortem human brains. These data implicate redox-iron in prion disease–associated neurotoxicity, a novel observation with significant implications for prion disease pathogenesis. PMID:19283067

Mohan, Maradumane L.; Cohen, Mark L.; Chen, Fusong; Kong, Qingzhong; Bartz, Jason; Singh, Neena

2009-01-01

384

A Review of the Diagnosis and Treatment of Ochratoxin A Inhalational Exposure Associated with Human Illness and Kidney Disease including Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Ochratoxin A (OTA) exposure via ingestion and inhalation has been described in the literature to cause kidney disease in both animals and humans. This paper reviews Ochratoxin A and its relationship to human health and kidney disease with a focus on a possible association with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in humans. Prevention and treatment strategies for OTA-induced illness are also discussed, including cholestyramine, a bile-acid-binding resin used as a sequestrant to reduce the enterohepatic recirculation of OTA. PMID:22253638

Hope, Janette H.; Hope, Bradley E.

2012-01-01

385

Onco-epidemiology of domestic animals and targeted therapeutic attempts: perspectives on human oncology.  

PubMed

The spontaneous tumor biology has been investigated with the support of animalists using animals as a preclinical model allowing translation of results in clinical practice. This review provides an insight into the field of comparative oncology. Evidence shows that companion animal health care is impressively growing in terms of development of new therapies and diagnostic tools, nutrition and disease prevention. However, even if most animal tumors might be a reliable model to study human carcinomas, many open questions, related to the opportunities to select and recruit new models in oncology, along with their legal and ethical implications, remain unanswered. PMID:24816783

Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Palmieri, Beniamino; De Vico, Gionata; Iannitti, Tommaso

2014-11-01

386

Is it acceptable to use animals to model obese humans? A critical discussion of two arguments against the use of animals in obesity research.  

PubMed

Animal use in medical research is widely accepted on the basis that it may help to save human lives and improve their quality of life. Recently, however, objections have been made specifically to the use of animals in scientific investigation of human obesity. This paper discusses two arguments for the view that this form of animal use, unlike some other forms of animal-based medical research, cannot be defended. The first argument leans heavily on the notion that people themselves are responsible for developing obesity and so-called 'lifestyle' diseases; the second involves the claim that animal studies of obesity's causes and therapies distract attention from preventive efforts. Drawing on both empirical data and moral reasoning, we argue that the relevant attributions of responsibility and claims about distraction are not plausible, and that, therefore, there is no reason to single out the use of animals in obesity research as especially problematic. PMID:23709177

Lund, Thomas Bøker; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Olsson, I Anna S; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Sandøe, Peter

2014-05-01

387

Global Microsatellite Content Distinguishes Humans, Primates, Animals, and Plants  

PubMed Central

Microsatellites are highly mutable, repetitive sequences commonly used as genetic markers, but they have never been studied en masse. Using a custom microarray to measure hybridization intensities of every possible repetitive nucleotide motif from 1-mers to 6-mers, we examined 25 genomes. Here, we show that global microsatellite content varies predictably by species, as measured by array hybridization signal intensities, correlating with established taxonomic relationships, and particular motifs are characteristic of one species versus another. For instance, hominid-specific microsatellite motifs were identified despite alignment of the human reference, Celera, and Venter genomic sequences indicating substantial variation (30–50%) among individuals. Differential microsatellite motifs were mainly associated with genes involved in developmental processes, whereas those found in intergenic regions exhibited no discernible pattern. This is the first description of a method for evaluating microsatellite content to classify individual genomes. PMID:19717526

McIver, L.J.; McCormick, J.F.; Skinner, M.A.; Xie, Y.; Gelhausen, R.A.; Ng, K.; Kumar, N.M.; Garner, H.R.

2009-01-01

388

Molecules to modeling: Toxoplasma gondii oocysts at the human–animal–environment interface  

PubMed Central

Environmental transmission of extremely resistant Toxoplasma gondii oocysts has resulted in infection of diverse species around the world, leading to severe disease and deaths in human and animal populations. This review explores T. gondii oocyst shedding, survival, and transmission, emphasizing the importance of linking laboratory and landscape from molecular characterization of oocysts to watershed-level models of oocyst loading and transport in terrestrial and aquatic systems. Building on discipline-specific studies, a One Health approach incorporating tools and perspectives from diverse fields and stakeholders has contributed to an advanced understanding of T. gondii and is addressing transmission at the rapidly changing human–animal–environment interface. PMID:23218130

VanWormer, Elizabeth; Fritz, Heather; Shapiro, Karen; Mazet, Jonna A.K.; Conrad, Patricia A.

2013-01-01

389

Genetic diversity among Mycobacterium bovis isolates: a preliminary study of strains from animal and human sources.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium bovis has the broadest host range of species in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and is responsible for disease in humans and diverse animal species. We report on genotypic differences at multiple loci among 13 isolates derived from a range of human and animal infections. All isolates were classified as M. bovis by phenotypic analysis but could be subdivided into five distinct genotypes based on polymorphisms at the pncA and oxyR loci, the status of the RD5 deletion region, and the spoligotype pattern. These findings suggest the existence of a spectrum of strains with genotypic characteristics between those of M. tuberculosis and M. bovis. PMID:11724883

Sales, M P; Taylor, G M; Hughes, S; Yates, M; Hewinson, G; Young, D B; Shaw, R J

2001-12-01

390

Children's understanding of false belief in humans and animals  

E-print Network

Belief Tasks . . . . . . . . . . 36 6 Correlations Between Number of Pets and Performance on False Belief Tasks . . . . . . INTRODUCTION How and when do children come to understand their own mental states and those of others'? How do they distinguish... were recruited from one of eight local area preschools that had pets in the classroom areas. Included in the pets of the eleven classrooms used were three guinea pigs, two rabbits, two hamsters, two fish, two hedgehogs, two mice, one gerbil, and one...

Saunders, Katherine Nuttall

2012-06-07

391

Acoustic sequences in non-human animals: a tutorial review and prospectus  

E-print Network

of multiple 91 distinct acoustic units. Apart from the well-known example of birdsong, other animals such as 92 insects, amphibians, and mammals (including bats, rodents, primates, and cetaceans) also 93 generate complex acoustic sequences. Occasionally...

Kershenbaum, Arik; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Roch, Marie A.; Akçay, Ça?lar; Backus, Gregory; Bee, Mark A.; Bohn, Kirsten; Cao, Yan; Carter, Gerald; Cäsar, Cristiane; Coen, Michael; DeRuiter, Stacy L.; Doyle, Laurance; Edelman, Shimon; Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon; Freeberg, Todd M.; Garland, Ellen C.; Gustison, Morgan; Harley, Heidi E.; Huetz, Chloé; Hughes, Melissa; Bruno, Julia Hyland; Ilany, Amiyaal; Jin, Dezhe Z.; Johnson, Michael; Ju, Chenghui; Karnowski, Jeremy; Lohr, Bernard; Manser, Marta B.; McCowan, Brenda; Mercado, Eduardo, III; Narins, Peter M.; Piel, Alex; Rice, Megan; Salmi, Roberta; Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Sayigh, Laela; Shiu, Yu; Taylor, Charles; Vallejo, Edgar E.; Waller, Sara; Zamora-Gutierrez, Veronica

2014-01-01

392

Identification of human and animal fecal contamination after rainfall in the Han River, Korea.  

PubMed

We investigated the effect of rainfall on the levels and sources of microbial contamination in the Han River, Korea. Thirty-four samples were collected at two sampling sites located upstream and downstream in the river from July 2010 to February 2011. Various fecal indicator microorganisms, including total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., somatic and male-specific (F+) coliphage, and four major enteric viruses were analyzed. Rainfall was positively correlated with the levels of fecal coliform and norovirus at both sampling sites. Additionally, rainfall was positively correlated with the levels of total coliform, E. coli, Enterococcus spp., and F+ coliphage at the upstream site. To identify the source of fecal contamination, microbial source tracking (MST) was conducted using both male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage and the Enterococcus faecium esp gene as previously described. Our results clearly indicated that the majority of fecal contamination at the downstream Han River site was from a human source. At the upstream sampling site, contamination from human fecal matter was very limited; however, fecal contamination from non-point animal sources increased following rainfall. In conclusion, our data suggest that rainfall significantly affects the level and source of fecal contamination in the Han River, Korea. PMID:23666535

Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Heetae; Lee, Jung Eun; Chung, Myung-Sub; Ko, Gwang Pyo

2013-01-01

393

Identification of Human and Animal Fecal Contamination after Rainfall in the Han River, Korea  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effect of rainfall on the levels and sources of microbial contamination in the Han River, Korea. Thirty-four samples were collected at two sampling sites located upstream and downstream in the river from July 2010 to February 2011. Various fecal indicator microorganisms, including total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., somatic and male-specific (F+) coliphage, and four major enteric viruses were analyzed. Rainfall was positively correlated with the levels of fecal coliform and norovirus at both sampling sites. Additionally, rainfall was positively correlated with the levels of total coliform, E. coli, Enterococcus spp., and F+ coliphage at the upstream site. To identify the source of fecal contamination, microbial source tracking (MST) was conducted using both male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage and the Enterococcus faecium esp gene as previously described. Our results clearly indicated that the majority of fecal contamination at the downstream Han River site was from a human source. At the upstream sampling site, contamination from human fecal matter was very limited; however, fecal contamination from non-point animal sources increased following rainfall. In conclusion, our data suggest that rainfall significantly affects the level and source of fecal contamination in the Han River, Korea. PMID:23666535

Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Heetae; Lee, Jung Eun; Chung, Myung-Sub; Ko, Gwang Pyo

2013-01-01

394

Essential veterinary education in emerging infections, modes of introduction of exotic animals, zoonotic diseases, bioterrorism, implications for human and animal health and disease manifestation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A fundamental role of the veterinary profession is the protection of human health through wholesome food and control of diseases of animal origin, especially zoonoses. Therefore, training of veterinary students worldwide needs to face the new challenges posed by emerging infections, both from wildlife and domestic animals, as well as risks from bio\\/agroterrorism. New courses emphasising recognition, response, recovery

B. B. Chomel; N. Marano

395

Clonal relationships among Escherichia coli serogroup 06 isolates from human and animal infections.  

PubMed

The clonal relationship of thirty E. coli strains of 0 antigen serotype 06 isolated from human, dog, pig or cow infections were investigated. Two main clones with serotypes 06 : H1 or 06 : H31, H- were identified. Isolates from humans, dogs, pigs and cows were found in both clones, indicating that animals are a possible source for human extraintestinal Escherichia coli strains. Two human ETEC (06 : H16) and two pig isolates (06 : H10) were not related to the 06 : H1 or 06 : H31, H- E. coli clones. PMID:1884980

Cherifi, A; Contrepois, M; Picard, B; Goullet, P; Orskov, I; Orskov, F; De Rycke, J

1991-05-15

396

Systematic discovery of regulatory motifs in conserved regions of the human genome, including thousands  

E-print Network

, §Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, and Department of Biology, Massachusetts InstituteSystematic discovery of regulatory motifs in conserved regions of the human genome, including of Technology and Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA 02142; Division of Health Sciences and Technology

Kellis, Manolis

397

Chronic arsenic exposure is associated with many human health conditions, including  

E-print Network

water. Arsenic contamination has had a profound impact at both the individual and community levelsChronic arsenic exposure is associated with many human health conditions, including skin lesions Community Hospital Trust 2005). Although > 20 countries have been affected by As contamination of drinking

van Geen, Alexander

398

including cell-cycle regulation, and, along with hTERT, can immortalize human cells6  

E-print Network

including cell-cycle regulation, and, along with hTERT, can immortalize human cells6 . So it is possible that a central effect of these two pro- teins is to activate the cell-division machinery in chromosomes), thereby facilitating reprogramming. Are the iPS cells that Park et al. generated, or indeed

Balibar, Sébastien

399

Facing the Challenge of Data Transfer from Animal Models to Humans: the Case of Persistent Organohalogens  

PubMed Central

A well-documented fact for a group of persistent, bioaccumulating organohalogens contaminants, namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is that appropriate regulation was delayed, on average, up to 50 years. Some of the delay may be attributed to the fact that the science of toxicology was in its infancy when PCBs were introduced in 1920's. Nevertheless, even following the development of modern toxicology this story repeats itself 45 years later with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) another compound of concern for public health. The question is why? One possible explanation may be the low coherence between experimental studies of toxic effects in animal models and human studies. To explore this further, we reviewed a total of 807 PubMed abstracts and full texts reporting studies of toxic effects of PCB and PBDE in animal models. Our analysis documents that human epidemiological studies of PBDE stand to gain little from animal studies due to the following: 1) the significant delay between the commercialisation of a substance and studies with animal models; 2) experimental exposure levels in animals are several orders of magnitude higher than exposures in the general human population; 3) the limited set of evidence-based endocrine endpoints; 4) the traditional testing sequence (adult animals – neonates – foetuses) postpones investigation of the critical developmental stages; 5) limited number of animal species with human-like toxicokinetics, physiology of development and pregnancy; 6) lack of suitable experimental outcomes for the purpose of epidemiological studies. Our comparison of published PCB and PBDE studies underscore an important shortcoming: history has, unfortunately, repeated itself. Broadening the crosstalk between the various branches of toxicology should therefore accelerate accumulation of data to enable timely and appropriate regulatory action. PMID:19014546

Suvorov, Alexander; Takser, Larissa

2008-01-01

400

Adhesion patterns of commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli from humans and wild animals on human and porcine epithelial cell lines  

PubMed Central

Background Different strategies of colonization or infection by E. coli result in formation of certain adhesion patterns which help also in classifying intestinal E. coli into pathotypes. Little is known about adhesion patterns and host- and tissue adaption of commensal E. coli and about E. coli originating in clinically healthy hosts carrying pathotype-specific virulence-associated genes. Findings Adhesion pattern of E. coli (n?=?282) from humans and from 18 animal species were verified on intestinal human Caco-2 and porcine IPEC-J2 cells and, furthermore, for comparison on human urinary bladder 5637, porcine kidney PK-15 epithelial and HEp-2 cells. The analysis was carried out on 150,000 images of adhesion assays. Adhesion patterns were very diverse; 88 isolates were completely non-adherent, whereas 194 adhered to at least one cell line with the dominant adhesion patterns “diffusely distributed” and “microcolony formation”. Adhesion patterns “chains” and “clumps” were also visible. Chain formation was mediated by the presence of epithelial cells. Clump formation was very specific on only the 5637 cell line. All enteropathogenic (eae+) E. coli (EPEC; n?=?14) were able to form microcolonies which was cell line specific for each isolate. Most EPEC formed microcolonies on intestinal IPEC-J2 and Caco-2 but several also on urinary tract cells. Shigatoxin-producing (stx+) E. coli (n?=?10) showed no specific adhesion patterns. Conclusions E. coli isolates were highly diverse. Commensal and pathogenic isolates can adhere in various forms, including diffuse distribution, microcolonies, chains and clumps. Microcolony formation seems to be a global adhesion strategy also for commensal E. coli. PMID:24188314

2013-01-01

401

Safe biotechnology (5). Recommendations for safe work with animal and human cell cultures concerning potential human pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The benefits of using animal or human cell cultures have been clearly demonstrated in diagnostic and therapeutic research and in their application for manufacturing. Cell cultures serve as a tools for the production of vaccines, receptors, enzymes, monoclonal antibodies and recombinant DNA-derived proteins. They represent an integral part of drug development for which corresponding facilities, equipment and manufacturing processes are

W. Frommer; L. Archer; B. Boon; G. Brunius; C. H. Collins; P. Crooy; O. Doblhoff-Dier; R. Donikian; J. Economidis; C. Frontali; T. Gaal; S. Hamp; H. Haymerle; E. H. Houwink; M. T. Küenzi; P. Krämer; H. L. M. Lelieveld; M. Th. Logtenberg; J. Lupker; S. Lund; J. L. Mahler; Ch. Mosgaard; F. Normand-Plessier; F. Rudan; R. Simon; G. Tuijnenburg Muijs; S. P. Vranch; R. G. Werner

1993-01-01

402

Overview movement as an index of anesthetic depth in humans and experimental animals.  

PubMed

Anesthesia is used widely in animal research, but there are diverse opinions regarding acceptable anesthetic depth. Excessive anesthesia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, researchers have been taught that animal movement during surgical and experimental procedures indicates that the animal is 'underanesthetized.' Complex movement, however, can be initiated and propagated within the spinal cord, with little input from supraspinal structures. For example, frogs with high spinal-cord transections still maintain the wiping reflex, whereby the hindlimb can move to the forelimb to wipe away a noxious stimulus. Rats that have been decerebrated can perform complex tasks, such as grooming. Brain-dead humans can have spontaneous movement of the arms, legs, and head. Consistent with these phenomena, emerging evidence suggests that, in anesthetized animals, movement in response to noxious stimulation is abolished primarily via anesthetic action in the spinal cord. When isoflurane, halothane, or thiopental is delivered selectively to the brain circulation in goats, substantially greater anesthetic concentrations in brain are needed to ablate movement, as compared with those required upon delivery of anesthetic to the entire body. Rats that have had a precollicular decerebration require the same isoflurane concentrations to prevent movement as compared to intact rats. Furthermore, data from both humans and animals indicate that memory and awareness are ablated at anesthetic concentrations that are < 50% of those needed to abolish movement. Collectively, these data indicate that animals can be anesthetized at depths that, although they do not abolish movement, still produce unconsciousness and amnesia. PMID:16270896

Antognini, Joseph F; Barter, Linda; Carstens, Earl

2005-10-01

403

The lunar cycle: effects on human and animal behavior and physiology.  

PubMed

Human and animal physiology are subject to seasonal, lunar, and circadian rhythms. Although the seasonal and circadian rhythms have been fairly well described, little is known about the effects of the lunar cycle on the behavior and physiology of humans and animals. The lunar cycle has an impact on human reproduction, in particular fertility, menstruation, and birth rate. Melatonin levels appear to correlate with the menstrual cycle. Admittance to hospitals and emergency units because of various causes (cardiovascular and acute coronary events, variceal hemorrhage, diarrhea, urinary retention) correlated with moon phases. In addition, other events associated with human behavior, such as traffic accidents, crimes, and suicides, appeared to be influenced by the lunar cycle. However, a number of reports find no correlation between the lunar cycle and human reproduction and admittance to clinics and emergency units. Animal studies revealed that the lunar cycle may affect hormonal changes early in phylogenesis (insects). In fish the lunar clock influences reproduction and involves the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. In birds, the daily variations in melatonin and corticosterone disappear during full-moon days. The lunar cycle also exerts effects on laboratory rats with regard to taste sensitivity and the ultrastructure of pineal gland cells. Cyclic variations related to the moon's phases in the magnitude of the humoral immune response of mice to polivinylpyrrolidone and sheep erythrocytes were also described. It is suggested that melatonin and endogenous steroids may mediate the described cyclic alterations of physiological processes. The release of neurohormones may be triggered by the electromagnetic radiation and/or the gravitational pull of the moon. Although the exact mechanism of the moon's influence on humans and animals awaits further exploration, knowledge of this kind of biorhythm may be helpful in police surveillance, medical practice, and investigations involving laboratory animals. PMID:16407788

Zimecki, Micha?

2006-01-01

404

Dissemination of cephalosporin resistance genes between Escherichia coli strains from farm animals and humans by specific plasmid lineages.  

PubMed

Third-generation cephalosporins are a class of ?-lactam antibiotics that are often used for the treatment of human infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, especially Escherichia coli. Worryingly, the incidence of human infections caused by third-generation cephalosporin-resistant E. coli is increasing worldwide. Recent studies have suggested that these E. coli strains, and their antibiotic resistance genes, can spread from food-producing animals, via the food-chain, to humans. However, these studies used traditional typing methods, which may not have provided sufficient resolution to reliably assess the relatedness of these strains. We therefore used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to study the relatedness of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli from humans, chicken meat, poultry and pigs. One strain collection included pairs of human and poultry-associated strains that had previously been considered to be identical based on Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, plasmid typing and antibiotic resistance gene sequencing. The second collection included isolates from farmers and their pigs. WGS analysis revealed considerable heterogeneity between human and poultry-associated isolates. The most closely related pairs of strains from both sources carried 1263 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) per Mbp core genome. In contrast, epidemiologically linked strains from humans and pigs differed by only 1.8 SNPs per Mbp core genome. WGS-based plasmid reconstructions revealed three distinct plasmid lineages (IncI1- and IncK-type) that carried cephalosporin resistance genes of the Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)- and AmpC-types. The plasmid backbones within each lineage were virtually identical and were shared by genetically unrelated human and animal isolates. Plasmid reconstructions from short-read sequencing data were validated by long-read DNA sequencing for two strains. Our findings failed to demonstrate evidence for recent clonal transmission of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli strains from poultry to humans, as has been suggested based on traditional, low-resolution typing methods. Instead, our data suggest that cephalosporin resistance genes are mainly disseminated in animals and humans via distinct plasmids. PMID:25522320

de Been, Mark; Lanza, Val F; de Toro, María; Scharringa, Jelle; Dohmen, Wietske; Du, Yu; Hu, Juan; Lei, Ying; Li, Ning; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Heederik, Dick J J; Fluit, Ad C; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; de la Cruz, Fernando; van Schaik, Willem

2014-12-01

405

Dissemination of Cephalosporin Resistance Genes between Escherichia coli Strains from Farm Animals and Humans by Specific Plasmid Lineages  

PubMed Central

Third-generation cephalosporins are a class of ?-lactam antibiotics that are often used for the treatment of human infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, especially Escherichia coli. Worryingly, the incidence of human infections caused by third-generation cephalosporin-resistant E. coli is increasing worldwide. Recent studies have suggested that these E. coli strains, and their antibiotic resistance genes, can spread from food-producing animals, via the food-chain, to humans. However, these studies used traditional typing methods, which may not have provided sufficient resolution to reliably assess the relatedness of these strains. We therefore used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to study the relatedness of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli from humans, chicken meat, poultry and pigs. One strain collection included pairs of human and poultry-associated strains that had previously been considered to be identical based on Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, plasmid typing and antibiotic resistance gene sequencing. The second collection included isolates from farmers and their pigs. WGS analysis revealed considerable heterogeneity between human and poultry-associated isolates. The most closely related pairs of strains from both sources carried 1263 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) per Mbp core genome. In contrast, epidemiologically linked strains from humans and pigs differed by only 1.8 SNPs per Mbp core genome. WGS-based plasmid reconstructions revealed three distinct plasmid lineages (IncI1- and IncK-type) that carried cephalosporin resistance genes of the Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)- and AmpC-types. The plasmid backbones within each lineage were virtually identical and were shared by genetically unrelated human and animal isolates. Plasmid reconstructions from short-read sequencing data were validated by long-read DNA sequencing for two strains. Our findings failed to demonstrate evidence for recent clonal transmission of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli strains from poultry to humans, as has been suggested based on traditional, low-resolution typing methods. Instead, our data suggest that cephalosporin resistance genes are mainly disseminated in animals and humans via distinct plasmids. PMID:25522320

de Toro, María; Scharringa, Jelle; Dohmen, Wietske; Du, Yu; Hu, Juan; Lei, Ying; Li, Ning; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Heederik, Dick J. J.; Fluit, Ad C.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Willems, Rob J. L.; de la Cruz, Fernando; van Schaik, Willem

2014-01-01

406

Gastric Helicobacters in Domestic Animals and Nonhuman Primates and Their Significance for Human Health  

PubMed Central

Summary: Helicobacters other than Helicobacter pylori have been associated with gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in humans. These very fastidious microorganisms with a typical large spiral-shaped morphology were provisionally designated “H. heilmannii,” but in fact they comprise at least five different Helicobacter species, all of which are known to colonize the gastric mucosa of animals. H. suis, which has been isolated from the stomachs of pigs, is the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species in humans. Other gastric non-H. pylori helicobacters colonizing the human stomach are H. felis, H. salomonis, H. bizzozeronii, and the still-uncultivable “Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii.” These microorganisms are often detected in the stomachs of dogs and cats. “Candidatus Helicobacter bovis” is highly prevalent in the abomasums of cattle but has only occasionally been detected in the stomachs of humans. There are clear indications that gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter infections in humans originate from animals, and it is likely that transmission to humans occurs through direct contact. Little is known about the virulence factors of these microorganisms. The recent successes with in vitro isolation of non-H. pylori helicobacters from domestic animals open new perspectives for studying these microorganisms and their interactions with the host. PMID:19366912

Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Flahou, Bram; Chiers, Koen; Baele, Margo; Meyns, Tom; Decostere, Annemie; Ducatelle, Richard

2009-01-01

407

i The institutional review board is an impediment to human research: the result is more animal-based research  

PubMed Central

Biomedical research today can be generally classified as human-based or nonhuman animal-based, each with separate and distinct review boards that must approve research protocols. Researchers wishing to work with humans or human tissues have become frustrated by the required burdensome approval panel, the Institutional Review Board. However, scientists have found it is much easier to work with the animal-based research review board, the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Consequently, animals are used for investigations even when scientists believe these studies should be performed with humans or human tissue. This situation deserves attention from society and more specifically the animal protection and patient advocate communities, as neither patients nor animals are well served by the present situation. PMID:21649895

2011-01-01

408

Tuberculosis at the human-animal interface: an emerging disease of elephants.  

PubMed

Over the past 15 years, cases of infection with organisms of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex have been diagnosed among captive elephants in the United States and worldwide. Outbreak investigations have documented that among staff employed at facilities housing infected animals, skin test conversion to purified protein derivative have been documented. Clonal spread among animals in close contact and even inter-species spread between elephant and human has been documented. Detection of actively infected animals relies on samples obtained by trunk wash. Diagnosis has been augmented by the development of a multi-antigen serologic assay with excellent specificity and sensitivity. Treatment regimens are still in development with efficacy largely unknown due to a paucity of both premortem follow-up and necropsy data of treated animals. The epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in elephants require additional careful study of clinical data. PMID:21397564

Mikota, Susan K; Maslow, Joel N

2011-05-01

409

The implications of naturally occurring levels of fumonisins in corn for human and animal health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of corn with the fungus Fusarium moniliforme and its secondary metabolites, the fumonisins, has been associated with several human and animal diseases. This paper summarizes present knowledge and presents new data on the levels of fumonisins present in foods and feeds associated with these diseases as well as in commercial corn and corn-based products. The doses of fumonisins to

Pieter G. Thiel; Walter F. O. Marasas; Eric W. Sydenham; Gordon S. Shephard; Wentzel C. A. Gelderblom

1992-01-01

410

Human Face Animation Based on Video Analysis, with Applications to Mobile Entertainment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a novel non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) muscle system for the simulation of human facial expressions and talking animation based on features extracted from video sequences. We construct the facial muscles based on anatomical knowledge and NURBS models. We use 43 feature points to represent facial expressions and apply a lip contour extraction technique to determine

John Sy-sen Tang; Alan Wee-Chung Liew; Hong Yan

2005-01-01

411

Sketching-out virtual humans: from 2D storyboarding to immediate 3D character animation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual beings are playing a remarkable role in today's public entertainment, while ordinary users are still treated as audiences due to the lack of appropriate expertise, equipment, and computer skills. In this paper, we present a fast and intuitive storyboarding interface, which enables users to sketch-out 3D virtual humans, 2D\\/3D animations, and character intercommunication. We devised an intuitive \\

Chen Mao; Sheng Feng Qin; David K. Wright

2006-01-01

412

Toward an Animal Model for Antisocial Behavior: Parallels Between Mice and Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this article is to examine whether mouse lines genetically selected for short and long attack latencies are good animal models for antisocial behavior in humans. To this end, we compared male Short and Long Attack Latency mice (SAL and LAL, respectively) with the extremes of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (men who persistently displayed antisocial

Frans Sluyter; Louise Arseneault; Terrie E. Moffitt; Alexa H. Veenema; Sietse de Boer; Jaap M. Koolhaas

2003-01-01

413

Estrogen-regulated non-reproductive behaviors and breast cancer risk: Animal models and human studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible role of personality patterns and psychosocial factors in breast cancer has been studied extensively, through both human and animal experiments. The data are conflicting, and the conclusions controversial. This review will serve two purposes. First, we present evidence that behavioral patterns most commonly linked to breast cancer risk are at least partly regulated by estrogens. This section will

Leena Hilakivi-Clarke

1997-01-01

414

Animal models of genetic hypertension: what can we learn for human hypertension?  

PubMed

1. The dissection of the genetic components of common complex diseases, such as hypertension, represents a major investigational challenge. The use of inbred experimental animal models of the disease represents a time-honoured approach to reducing the difficulty of this task. 2. Recent progress in molecular genetics has raised expectations that the application of powerful new techniques to established animal models of hereditary hypertension may provide important new insights into the genetic basis of human hypertension and perhaps direct access to genes involved in human hypertension. 3. These methods provide exciting opportunities, but to recognize their full potential will require the revision of many traditional and established strategies used in hypertension research. There can be little doubt that these methods, if applied wisely, will make an important contribution to our understanding of hypertension as a disease that is the result of the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. 4. Whether the applicability of results obtained in experimental animals is primarily conceptual, furthering our understanding primarily of disease mechanisms, or whether newly recognized disease-relevant genes will directly identify their human homologues as being involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension in humans cannot be predicted with certainty. Either possibility fully justifies efforts and resources directed into the application of molecular genetic research to experimental animal models. PMID:8846502

Rubattu, S; Struk, B; Kreutz, R; Volpe, M; Lindpaintner, K

1995-12-01

415

Healthy Skin of Many Animal Species Harbors Papillomaviruses Which Are Closely Related to Their Human Counterparts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Papillomaviruses associated with clinical symptoms have been found in many vertebrate species. In this study, we have used an L1 gene consensus PCR test designed to detect a broad spectrum of human skin papillomaviruses to analyze swab samples from healthy skin of 111 animals belonging to 19 vertebrate species. In eight of the species, papillomavirus DNA was found with the

Annika Antonsson; Bengt Goran Hansson

2002-01-01

416

Revisiting the flight of Icarus: making human organs from PSCs with large animal chimeras.  

PubMed

While cell therapies hold great potential for treating many conditions, their utility for treating patients that require whole organ replacement is unclear. To address this challenge, we propose using genetically engineered "organ niches" in large animals to generate human organs from pluripotent stem cells and discuss the hurdles facing such strategies. PMID:25280216

Rashid, Tamir; Kobayashi, Toshihiro; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

2014-10-01

417

Animal Rights and Human Growth: Intellectual Courage and Extending the Moral Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the ethical dimension of human-animal relationships has become a legitimate, rich subject for contemporary moral philosophers, scholars of moral education, and to a large extent, philosophers of education, have remained surprisingly silent on this subject. The primary purpose of this essay is to illustrate the relationship between the moral…

Rowe, Bradley D.

2009-01-01

418

LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT STRUCTURE OF LABORATORY ANIMALS AND HUMANS: DOSIMETRY IMPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Significant differences in lower respiratory tract structure exist both within an animal and between species at each level of anatomy. rregular bipodial and tripodial branching patterns of airways are present in human an nonhuman primate lungs. n contrast, the dog and common labo...

419

Effectiveness of Three-Dimensional Digital Animation in Teaching Human Anatomy in an Authentic Classroom Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three-dimensional (3D) digital animations were used to teach the human musculoskeletal system to first year kinesiology students. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of this method by comparing two groups from two different academic years during two of their official required anatomy examinations (trunk and upper limb…

Hoyek, Nady; Collet, Christian; Di Rienzo, Franck; De Almeida, Mickael; Guillot, Aymeric

2014-01-01

420

Classification of human and animal strains of Fusobacterium necrophorum by their pathogenic effects in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-six strains of Fusobacterium necrophorum, 24 from animals and 22 of human origin, were examined by pathogenicity tests in mice, while the same strains were being examined in laboratories elsewhere by other methods. The pathogenicity tests consisted of (1) subcutaneous inoculation with a large dose of a pure culture, (2) subcutaneous inoculation with a small dose of E necrophorum mixed

G. R. SMITH; E. A. THORNTON

1997-01-01

421

STATUS AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS INVOLVING PLANT IRON IN ANIMAL AND HUMAN NUTRITION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Iron is an essential nutrient for humans and other animals, and must be consumed in adequate amounts to ensure proper growth and development, as well as good health of the organism. Dietary sources of iron can be divided into two types: non-heme iron, mostly provided by plant foods, and heme iron, ...

422

Immunotoxicity—Bridging the Gap between Animal Research and Human Health Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symposium Overview: Immunotoxicity—Bridging the Gap between Animal Research and Human Health Effects. Selgrade, M.-J. K., Cooper, K. D., Devlin, R. B., van Loveren, H., Biagini, R. E., and Luster, M. I. (1995). Fundam. Appl. Toxicol.24, 13-21.

MaryJane K. Selgrade; Kevin D. Cooper; Robert B. Devlin; Henk van Loveren; Raymond E. Biagini; Michael I. Luster

1995-01-01

423

Giardia and Cryptosporidium in animals and in the environment: Progress on research to safeguard human health  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis are gastrointestinal diseases of humans and many animals caused by protozoan parasites. Cryptosporidium has become a very important pathogen in drinking water, detected in over 90% of the surface waters tested in the United States and found in surface waters worldwi...

424

IMMUNOTOXICITY - BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN ANIMAL RESEARCH AND HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS  

EPA Science Inventory

There is amply evidence that a number od xenobiotics suppress various components of the immune system and enhance susceptibility to disease when tested in laboratory animals. There is much less data of effects of xenobiotics on human immune responses. The challenge is to interpre...

425

MACRO AND MICRO APPROACHES TO THE DETERMINATION OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL TISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Analytical approaches to the determination of pesticides and metabolites in human and animal tissues will take many forms. Several factors must be considered in choosing an analytical scheme if the results are to be meaningful. Whenever possible the residue chemist will use stand...

426

Adipogenic Potential of Multiple Human Adenoviruses In Vivo and In Vitro in Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Journal Article ÃÂAdipogenic potential of multiple human adenoviruses in vivo and in vitro in animals,ÃÂ by Leah D. Whigham, Barbara A. Israel, and Richard L. Atkinson, found in the American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.

Leah D. Whigham (University of Wisconsin-Madison Departments of Medicine and Nutritional Sciences); MD Richard L. Atkinson (Obetech Obesity Research Center); Barbara A. Israel (University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Pathological Sciences)

2006-01-01

427

Biodiversity of emerging pathogenic and invasive fungi in plants, animals and humans in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last 30 years the spread of emerging and invasive fungal pathogens has had a profound impact on plants, animals and humans, causing crop losses and damaging their health with economic and social impact. Awareness of the biodiversity of these pathogens is essential for their detection, identification, and control. In this paper their diversity in Italy is reviewed taking

A. M. Picco; P. Angelini; C. Ciccarone; A. Franceschini; A. Ragazzi; M. Rodolfi; G. C. Varese; M. Zotti

2011-01-01

428

A distinction fundamental to our understanding of human and animal memory systems is that between ref-  

E-print Network

and Demas used a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the expected tendencies of the bees to revisit locationsA distinction fundamental to our understanding of human and animal memory systems is that between-duration reference memory system, whereas a relatively small-capacity and often short-duration sys- tem is used

Cook, Robert

429

Problems in Diagnosing Scabies, a Global Disease in Human and Animal Populations  

PubMed Central

Scabies is a worldwide disease and a major public health problem in many developing countries, related primarily to poverty and overcrowding. In remote Aboriginal communities in northern Australia, prevalences of up to 50% among children have been described, despite the availability of effective chemotherapy. Sarcoptic mange is also an important veterinary disease engendering significant morbidity and mortality in wild, domestic, and farmed animals. Scabies is caused by the ectoparasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei burrowing into the host epidermis. Clinical symptoms include intensely itchy lesions that often are a precursor to secondary bacterial pyoderma, septicemia, and, in humans, poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Although diagnosed scabies cases can be successfully treated, the rash of the primary infestation takes 4 to 6 weeks to develop, and thus, transmission to others often occurs prior to therapy. In humans, the symptoms of scabies infestations can mimic other dermatological skin diseases, and traditional tests to diagnose scabies are less than 50% accurate. To aid early identification of disease and thus treatment, a simple, cheap, sensitive, and specific test for routine diagnosis of active scabies is essential. Recent developments leading to the expression and purification of S. scabiei recombinant antigens have identified a number of molecules with diagnostic potential, and current studies include the investigation and assessment of the accuracy of these recombinant proteins in identifying antibodies in individuals with active scabies and in differentiating those with past exposure. Early identification of disease will enable selective treatment of those affected, reduce transmission and the requirement for mass treatment, limit the potential for escalating mite resistance, and provide another means of controlling scabies in populations in areas of endemicity. PMID:17428886

Walton, Shelley F.; Currie, Bart J.

2007-01-01

430

Noise in a Laboratory Animal Facility from the Human and Mouse Perspectives  

PubMed Central

The current study was performed to understand the level of sound produced by ventilated racks, animal transfer stations, and construction equipment that mice in ventilated cages hear relative to what humans would hear in the same environment. Although the ventilated rack and animal transfer station both produced sound pressure levels above the ambient level within the human hearing range, the sound pressure levels within the mouse hearing range did not increase above ambient noise from either noise source. When various types of construction equipment were used 3 ft from the ventilated rack, the sound pressure level within the mouse hearing range was increased but to a lesser degree for each implement than were the sound pressure levels within the human hearing range. At more distant locations within the animal facility, sound pressure levels from the large jackhammer within the mouse hearing range decreased much more rapidly than did those in the human hearing range, indicating that less of the sound is perceived by mice than by humans. The relatively high proportion of low-frequency sound produced by the shot blaster, used without the metal shot that it normally uses to clean concrete, increased the sound pressure level above the ambient level for humans but did not increase sound pressure levels above ambient noise for mice at locations greater than 3 ft from inside of the cage, where sound was measured. This study demonstrates that sound clearly audible to humans in the animal facility may be perceived to a lesser degree or not at all by mice, because of the frequency content of the sound. PMID:20858361

Reynolds, Randall P; Kinard, Will L; Degraff, Jesse J; Leverage, Ned; Norton, John N

2010-01-01

431

Antibiotic resistance pattern among the Salmonella isolated from human, animal and meat in India.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to study the antibiotic resistance pattern among nontyphoidal Salmonella isolated from human, animal and meat. A total of 37 Salmonella strains isolated from clinical cases (human and animal) and meat during 2008-2009 belonging to 12 serovars were screened for their antimicrobial resistance pattern using 25 antimicrobial agents falling under 12 different antibiotic classes. All the Salmonella isolates tested showed multiple drug resistance varying from 5.40% to 100% with 16 of the 25 antibiotics tested. None of the isolates were sensitive to erythromycin and metronidazole. Resistance was also observed against clindamycin (94.59%), ampicillin (86.49%), co-trimoxazole (48.65%), colistin (45.94%), nalidixic acid (35.10%), amoxyclave (18.90%), cephalexin, meropenem, tobramycin, nitrofurantoin, tetracycline, amoxicillin (8.10% each), sparfloxacin and streptomycin (5.40% each). Isolates from clinical cases of animals were resistant to as many as 16 antibiotics, whereas isolates from human clinical cases and meat were resistant to 9 and 14 antibiotics, respectively. Overall, 19 resistotypes were recorded. Analysis of multiple antibiotic resistance index (MARI) indicated that clinical isolates from animals had higher MARI (0.25) as compared to isolates from food (0.22) and human (0.21). Among the different serotypes studied for antibiogram, Paratyhi B isolates, showed resistance to three to 13 antibiotics, whereas Typhimurium strains were resistant to four to seven antibiotics. Widespread multidrug resistance among the isolates from human, animal and meat was observed. Some of the uncommon serotypes exhibited higher resistance rate. Considerable changes in the resistance pattern were also noted. An interesting finding was the reemergence of sensitivity to some of the old antibiotics (chloromphenicol, tetracycline). PMID:21853412

Singh, Shweta; Agarwal, Rajesh Kumar; Tiwari, Suresh C; Singh, Himanshu

2012-03-01

432

Convergent Functional Genomics of Bipolar Disorder: From Animal Model Pharmacogenomics to Human Genetics and Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Progress in understanding the genetic and neurobiological basis of bipolar disorder(s) has come from both human studies and animal model studies. Until recently, the lack of concerted integration between the two approaches has been hindering the pace of discovery, or more exactly, constituted a missed opportunity to accelerate our understanding of this complex and heterogeneous group of disorders. Our group has helped overcome this “lost in translation” barrier by developing an approach called Convergent Functional Genomics (CFG). The approach integrates animal model gene expression data with human genetic linkage/association data, as well as human tissue (postmortem brain, blood) data. This Bayesian strategy for cross-validating findings extracts meaning from large datasets, and prioritizes candidate genes, pathways and mechanisms for subsequent targeted, hypothesis-driven research. The CFG approach may also be particularly useful for identification of blood biomarkers of the illness. PMID:17614132

Le-Niculescu, H.; McFarland, M. J.; Mamidipalli, S.; Ogden, C. A.; Kuczenski, R.; Kurian, S. M.; Salomon, D. R.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Nurnberger, J. I.; Niculescu, A. B.

2009-01-01

433

Molecular epidemiological studies of Mycobacterium bovis infections in humans and animals in Sweden.  

PubMed Central

Forty-nine isolates of Mycobacterium bovis from humans and animals in Sweden were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns probed by the insertion element IS6110. Most isolates had patterns indicating the presence of only one or two genomic copies of the IS6110 insertion element. This simple type of pattern was found in all human isolates. In contrast, isolates from M. bovis infections in five herds of farmed deer in Sweden showed a specific RFLP pattern with seven bands, indicating seven copies of the IS6110 sequence. In 1958, Sweden was declared free from M. bovis in cattle. However, in 1987, M. bovis was reintroduced with imported farmed deer, and since 1991, 11 outbreaks in deer herds, but not in other livestock or wildlife, have been diagnosed. Continued RFLP studies of the new Swedish M. bovis isolates can reveal possible transmission of this deer strain to other animals or humans. PMID:8586698

Szewzyk, R; Svenson, S B; Hoffner, S E; Bölske, G; Wahlström, H; Englund, L; Engvall, A; Källenius, G

1995-01-01

434

Pleuromutilins: use in food-producing animals in the European Union, development of resistance and impact on human and animal health.  

PubMed

Pleuromutilins (tiamulin and valnemulin) are antimicrobial agents that are used mainly in veterinary medicine, especially for swine and to a lesser extent for poultry and rabbits. In pigs, tiamulin and valnemulin are used to treat swine dysentery, spirochaete-associated diarrhoea, porcine proliferative enteropathy, enzootic pneumonia and other infections where Mycoplasma is involved. There are concerns about the reported increases in the MICs of tiamulin and valnemulin for porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates from different European countries, as only a limited number of antimicrobials are available for the treatment of swine dysentery where resistance to these antimicrobials is already common and widespread. The loss of pleuromutilins as effective tools to treat swine dysentery because of further increases in resistance or as a consequence of restrictions would present a considerable threat to pig health, welfare and productivity. In humans, only one product containing pleuromutilins (retapamulin) is authorized currently for topical use; however, products for oral and intravenous administration to humans with serious multidrug-resistant skin infections and respiratory infections, including those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), are being developed. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the usage of pleuromutilins, resistance development and the potential impact of this resistance on animal and human health. PMID:24793902

van Duijkeren, Engeline; Greko, Christina; Pringle, Märit; Baptiste, Keith Edward; Catry, Boudewijn; Jukes, Helen; Moreno, Miguel A; Pomba, M Constança Matias Ferreira; Pyörälä, Satu; Rantala, Merja; Ružauskas, Modestas; Sanders, Pascal; Teale, Christopher; Threlfall, E John; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Törneke, Karolina

2014-08-01

435

Elongation as a factor in artefacts of humans and other animals: an Acheulean example in comparative context  

PubMed Central

Elongation is a commonly found feature in artefacts made and used by humans and other animals and can be analysed in comparative study. Whether made for use in hand or beak, the artefacts have some common properties of length, breadth, thickness and balance point, and elongation can be studied as a factor relating to construction or use of a long axis. In human artefacts, elongation can be traced through the archaeological record, for example in stone blades of the Upper Palaeolithic (traditionally regarded as more sophisticated than earlier artefacts), and in earlier blades of the Middle Palaeolithic. It is now recognized that elongation extends to earlier Palaeolithic artefacts, being found in the repertoire of both Neanderthals and more archaic humans. Artefacts used by non-human animals, including chimpanzees, capuchin monkeys and New Caledonian crows show selection for diameter and length, and consistent interventions of modification. Both chimpanzees and capuchins trim side branches from stems, and appropriate lengths of stave are selected or cut. In human artefacts, occasional organic finds show elongation back to about 0.5 million years. A record of elongation achieved in stone tools survives to at least 1.75 Ma (million years ago) in the Acheulean tradition. Throughout this tradition, some Acheulean handaxes are highly elongated, usually found with others that are less elongated. Finds from the million-year-old site of Kilombe and Kenya are given as an example. These findings argue that the elongation need not be integral to a design, but that artefacts may be the outcome of adjustments to individual variables. Such individual adjustments are seen in animal artefacts. In the case of a handaxe, the maker must balance the adjustments to achieve a satisfactory outcome in the artefact as a whole. It is argued that the need to make decisions about individual variables within multivariate objects provides an essential continuity across artefacts made by different species. PMID:24101633

Gowlett, J. A. J.

2013-01-01

436

Non-Mendelian developmental defects: animal models and implications for research into human disease*  

PubMed Central

The major groups of malformations in man are polygenic in origin but this review deals only with defects due to non-Mendelian factors. Animal models that help in identifying the causes and in understanding the numerous and often subtle mechanisms of human malformations are of particular value. Many chemicals, physical agents, and nutritional deficiencies affect experimental species but few are teratogenic for domestic animals and even fewer for man. The known fetopathic viruses of animals and man cross the placenta to cause chronic, nonlethal fetal damage without harm to the mother. Ionizing radiations are teratogenic for all species and hyperthermia for many, but the role of the latter in human development is uncertain. The identification of more animal species with spontaneous or induced defects comparable to those found in man and of additional causative teratogens will increase the resources available for research into the causes and mechanisms of abnormal development in man. No animal species is ideal in teratological research but each has its virtues. This report comments on the present status of research in teratology and the trends that might profitably be followed in the future. PMID:413638

1977-01-01

437

Pharmacological manipulations in animal models of anorexia and binge eating in relation to humans.  

PubMed

Eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorders (BED), are described as abnormal eating habits that usually involve insufficient or excessive food intake. Animal models have been developed that provide insight into certain aspects of eating disorders. Several drugs have been found efficacious in these animal models and some of them have eventually proven useful in the treatment of eating disorders. This review will cover the role of monoaminergic neurotransmitters in eating disorders and their pharmacological manipulations in animal models and humans. Dopamine, 5-HT (serotonin) and noradrenaline in hypothalamic and striatal regions regulate food intake by affecting hunger and satiety and by affecting rewarding and motivational aspects of feeding. Reduced neurotransmission by dopamine, 5-HT and noradrenaline and compensatory changes, at least in dopamine D2 and 5-HT(2C/2A) receptors, have been related to the pathophysiology of AN in humans and animal models. Also, in disorders and animal models of BN and BED, monoaminergic neurotransmission is down-regulated but receptor level changes are different from those seen in AN. A hypofunctional dopamine system or overactive ?2-adrenoceptors may contribute to an attenuated response to (palatable) food and result in hedonic binge eating. Evidence for the efficacy of monoaminergic treatments for AN is limited, while more support exists for the treatment of BN or BED with monoaminergic drugs. PMID:24866852

van Gestel, M A; Kostrzewa, E; Adan, R A H; Janhunen, S K

2014-10-01

438

Light microscopic and scanning electron microscopic retrieval analyses of implanted biomaterials retrieved from humans and experimental animals.  

PubMed

This paper reports analysis obtained from 200 implant cases retrieved from humans and submitted to the American Academy of Implant Dentistry Research Foundation, Medical College of Georgia implant retrieval center. The samples that were not decalcified were embedded in polymethylmethacrylate and examined with scanning electron microscopy and routine light, polarized, or Nomarski microscopy. Cases included both orthopedic and dental implants, as well as entire mandibles and portions of maxillae obtained at autopsy. A significant number of submitted implants had substantial amounts of adhered bone, which permitted evaluation of human bone remodeling to osseointegrated implants. These implants failed because of implant fracture. As was observed with animal studies, healthy bone supported these implants, with the bone containing an interdigitating canaliculi network that provided communication between interfacial osteocytes and osteocytes deeper within the remodeled osteonal and trabecular bone. Early dental implants containing a coating of beads showed a connective tissue interface, which corresponded to the bead surface of specific orthopedic implants that underwent some degree of micromovement. This is in contrast with the excellent response reported for successful contemporary beaded implants. Significant numbers of osseointegrated fractured hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated dental implants demonstrated the adequate serviceability of these implants before biomaterial fracture. In contrast, the HA coating was dissociated from retrieved orthopedic implants, leading to extensive cup loosening and case failure. This study, therefore, underscores the need for evaluation of failed human dental and orthopedic implants. Correlations can be drawn between human retrieval and experimental animal studies. PMID:11326542

Steflik, D E; Corpe, R S; Young, T R; Parr, G R; Tucker, M; Sims, M; Tinley, J; Sisk, A; McDaniel, M

2001-01-01

439

Epidemiological study of Q fever in humans, ruminant animals, and ticks in Cyprus using a geographical information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional study of Q fever was conducted in a representative sample of the human and animal population in Cyprus in order to assess the seroprevalence of Q fever and the prevalence of related risk factors. A total of 583 human and 974 ruminant animal serum samples were collected and tested for the detection of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii phase

A. Psaroulaki; C. Hadjichristodoulou; F. Loukaides; E. Soteriades; A. Konstantinidis; P. Papastergiou; M. C. Ioannidou; Y. Tselentis

2006-01-01

440

LAHVA: Linked Animal-Human Health Visual Analytics Ross Maciejewski Benjamin Tyner Yun Jang Cheng Zheng Rimma V. Nehme  

E-print Network

LAHVA: Linked Animal-Human Health Visual Analytics Ross Maciejewski Benjamin Tyner Yun Jang Cheng of Medicine ABSTRACT Coordinated animal-human health monitoring can provide an early warning system with fewer false alarms for naturally occurring dis- ease outbreaks, as well as biological, chemical and environmen

Maciejewski, Ross

441

A knowledge based approach to matching human neurodegenerative disease and animal models.  

PubMed

Neurodegenerative diseases present a wide and complex range of biological and clinical features. Animal models are key to translational research, yet typically only exhibit a subset of disease features rather than being precise replicas of the disease. Consequently, connecting animal to human conditions using direct data-mining strategies has proven challenging, particularly for diseases of the nervous system, with its complicated anatomy and physiology. To address this challenge we have explored the use of ontologies to create formal descriptions of structural phenotypes across scales that are machine processable and amenable to logical inference. As proof of concept, we built a Neurodegenerative Disease Phenotype Ontology (NDPO) and an associated Phenotype Knowledge Base (PKB) using an entity-quality model that incorporates descriptions for both human disease phenotypes and those of animal models. Entities are drawn from community ontologies made available through the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) and qualities are drawn from the Phenotype and Trait Ontology (PATO). We generated ~1200 structured phenotype statements describing structural alterations at the subcellular, cellular and gross anatomical levels observed in 11 human neurodegenerative conditions and associated animal models. PhenoSim, an open source tool for comparing phenotypes, was used to issue a series of competency questions to compare individual phenotypes among organisms and to determine which animal models recapitulate phenotypic aspects of the human disease in aggregate. Overall, the system was able to use relationships within the ontology to bridge phenotypes across scales, returning non-trivial matches based on common subsumers that were meaningful to a neuroscientist with an advanced knowledge of neuroanatomy. The system can be used both to compare individual phenotypes and also phenotypes in aggregate. This proof of concept suggests that expressing complex phenotypes using formal ontologies provides considerable benefit for comparing phenotypes across scales and species. PMID:23717278

Maynard, Sarah M; Mungall, Christopher J; Lewis, Suzanna E; Imam, Fahim T; Martone, Maryann E

2013-01-01

442

A knowledge based approach to matching human neurodegenerative disease and animal models  

PubMed Central

Neurodegenerative diseases present a wide and complex range of biological and clinical features. Animal models are key to translational research, yet typically only exhibit a subset of disease features rather than being precise replicas of the disease. Consequently, connecting animal to human conditions using direct data-mining strategies has proven challenging, particularly for diseases of the nervous system, with its complicated anatomy and physiology. To address this challenge we have explored the use of ontologies to create formal descriptions of structural phenotypes across scales that are machine processable and amenable to logical inference. As proof of concept, we built a Neurodegenerative Disease Phenotype Ontology (NDPO) and an associated Phenotype Knowledge Base (PKB) using an entity-quality model that incorporates descriptions for both human disease phenotypes and those of animal models. Entities are drawn from community ontologies made available through the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) and qualities are drawn from the Phenotype and Trait Ontology (PATO). We generated ~1200 structured phenotype statements describing structural alterations at the subcellular, cellular and gross anatomical levels observed in 11 human neurodegenerative conditions and associated animal models. PhenoSim, an open source tool for comparing phenotypes, was used to issue a series of competency questions to compare individual phenotypes among organisms and to determine which animal models recapitulate phenotypic aspects of the human disease in aggregate. Overall, the system was able to use relationships within the ontology to bridge phenotypes across scales, returning non-trivial matches based on common subsumers that were meaningful to a neuroscientist with an advanced knowledge of neuroanatomy. The system can be used both to compare individual phenotypes and also phenotypes in aggregate. This proof of concept suggests that expressing complex phenotypes using formal ontologies provides considerable benefit for comparing phenotypes across scales and species. PMID:23717278

Maynard, Sarah M.; Mungall, Christopher J.; Lewis, Suzanna E.; Imam, Fahim T.; Martone, Maryann E.

2013-01-01

443

Characterizing cognitive aging of recognition memory and related processes in animal models and in humans  

PubMed Central

Analyses of complex behaviors across the lifespan of animals can reveal the brain regions that are impacted by the normal aging process, thereby, elucidating potential therapeutic targets. Recent data from rats, monkeys, and humans converge, all indicating that recognition memory and complex visual perception are impaired in advanced age. These cognitive processes are also disrupted in animals with lesions of the perirhinal cortex, indicating that the the functional integrity of this structure is disrupted in old age. This current review summarizes these data, and highlights current methodologies for assessing perirhinal cortex-dependent behaviors across the lifespan. PMID:22988437

Burke, Sara N.; Ryan, Lee; Barnes, Carol A.

2012-01-01

444

Human and animal research into sex-specific effects of child abuse.  

PubMed

Child abuse is the most potent experiential risk factor for developing a mood disorder later in life. The effects of child abuse are also more severe in girls and women than in men. In this review, we explore the origins of this epidemiological sex difference. We begin by offering the hypothesis that a sex-specific risk factor that influences how social cues are perceived and remembered makes girls more susceptible to the effects of child abuse. We then discuss the neural systems that mediate emotion and stress, and, how child abuse and/or mood disorders like anxiety and depression affect them. Drawing upon human and animal research, several candidates for such a risk factor are discussed. They include glucocorticoid receptor trafficking and corticotropin releasing factor receptor binding and signaling. Our own research shows that the morphometry of the prepubertal amygdala is sexually dimorphic, and could contribute to a sex difference in stimulus appraisal. We have also found that the brain of juvenile female rats is less selective than males' for threatening social stimuli. Thus, one way that women may be more vulnerable to the effects of child abuse is that they are more likely to perceive objectively benign stimuli as threatening. This bias in perception could compound with the genuinely traumatic memories caused by child abuse; the burden of traumatic memories and the increasingly reactive stress response systems could then dispose more women than men to develop depression and/or anxiety. PMID:24657521

Cooke, Bradley M; Weathington, Jill M

2014-04-01

445

Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae, a bacterium pathogenic for marine animals and humans  

PubMed Central

Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae (formerly Vibrio damsela) is a pathogen of a variety of marine animals including fish, crustaceans, molluscs, and cetaceans. In humans, it can cause opportunistic infections that may evolve into necrotizing fasciitis with fatal outcome. Although the genetic basis of virulence in this bacterium is not completely elucidated, recent findings demonstrate that the phospholipase-D Dly (damselysin) and the pore-forming toxins HlyApl and HlyAch play a main role in virulence for homeotherms and poikilotherms. The acquisition of the virulence plasmid pPHDD1 that encodes Dly and HlyApl has likely constituted a main driving force in the evolution of a highly hemolytic lineage within the subspecies. Interestingly, strains that naturally lack pPHDD1 show a strong pathogenic potential for a variety of fish species, indicating the existence of yet uncharacterized virulence factors. Future and deep analysis of the complete genome sequence of Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae will surely provide a clearer picture of the virulence factors employed by this bacterium to cause disease in such a varied range of hosts. PMID:24093021

Rivas, Amable J.; Lemos, Manuel L.; Osorio, Carlos R.

2013-01-01

446

The evolution of infectious agents in relation to sex in animals and humans: brief discussions of some individual organisms  

PubMed Central

The following series of concise summaries addresses the evolution of infectious agents in relation to sex in animals and humans from the perspective of three specific questions: (1) what have we learned about the likely origin and phylogeny, up to the establishment of the infectious agent in the genital econiche, including the relative frequency of its sexual transmission; (2) what further research is needed to provide additional knowledge on some of these evolutionary aspects; and (3) what evolutionary considerations might aid in providing novel approaches to the more practical clinical and public health issues facing us currently and in the future? PMID:21824167

Reed, David L.; Currier, Russell W.; Walton, Shelley F.; Conrad, Melissa; Sullivan, Steven A.; Carlton, Jane M.; Read, Timothy D.; Severini, Alberto; Tyler, Shaun; Eberle, R.; Johnson, Welkin E.; Silvestri, Guido; Clarke, Ian N.; Lagergård, Teresa; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Unemo, Magnus; Shafer, William M.; Beasley, R. Palmer; Bergström, Tomas; Norberg, Peter; Davison, Andrew J.; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Blomberg, Jonas

2013-01-01

447

Understanding Animal Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The public debate on animal research sometimes gets so heated that the facts can be overlooked. How many animals are used in research every year? Do people know that most of them are mice or rats? Why are animals genetically modified? How is animal research regulated? How are the animals cared for? What actually happens to research animals? How does the use of animals in research and testing compare with other uses of animals by society? This website aims to answer all of these questions as well as provide information on animal research and human health, policy issues, and latest news. This website also includes a learning center. Information is geared towards learners in the U.K.

Understanding Animal Research (Understanding Animal Research)

2009-01-01

448

Animal models of human anthrax: the Quest for the Holy Grail.  

PubMed

Anthrax is rare among humans, few data can be collected from infected individuals and they provide a fragmentary view of the dynamics of infection and human host-pathogen interactions. Therefore, the development of animal models is necessary. Anthrax has the particularity of being a toxi-infection, a combination of infection and toxemia. The ideal animal model would explore these two different facets and mimic human disease as much as possible. In the past decades, the main effort has been focused on modelling of inhalational anthrax and the perception of specific aspects of the infection has evolved in recent years. In this review, we consider criteria which can lead to the most appropriate choice of a given animal species for modelling human anthrax. We will highlight the positive input and limitations of different models and show that they are not mutually exclusive. On the contrary, their contribution to anthrax research can be more rewarding when taken in synergy. We will also present a reappraisal of inhalational anthrax and propose reflections on key points, such as portal of entry, connections between mediastinal lymph nodes, pleura and lymphatic drainage. PMID:19665473

Goossens, Pierre L

2009-12-01

449

Psychosocial and Psychophysiological Effects of Human-Animal Interactions: The Possible Role of Oxytocin  

PubMed Central

During the last decade it has become more widely accepted that pet ownership and animal assistance in therapy and education may have a multitude of positive effects on humans. Here, we review the evidence from 69 original studies on human-animal interactions (HAI) which met our inclusion criteria with regard to sample size, peer-review, and standard scientific research design. Among the well-documented effects of HAI in humans of different ages, with and without special medical, or mental health conditions are benefits for: social attention, social behavior, interpersonal interactions, and mood; stress-related parameters such as cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure; self-reported fear and anxiety; and mental and physical health, especially cardiovascular diseases. Limited evidence exists for positive effects of HAI on: reduction of stress-related parameters such as epinephrine and norepinephrine; improvement of immune system functioning and pain management; increased trustworthiness of and trust toward other persons; reduced aggression; enhanced empathy and improved learning. We propose that the activation of the oxytocin system plays a key role in the majority of these reported psychological and psychophysiological effects of HAI. Oxytocin and HAI effects largely overlap, as documented by research in both, humans and animals, and first studies found that HAI affects the oxytocin system. As a common underlying mechanism, the activation of the oxytocin system does not only provide an explanation, but also allows an integrative view of the different effects of HAI. PMID:22866043

Beetz, Andrea; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin; Julius, Henri; Kotrschal, Kurt