Note: This page contains sample records for the topic animals including human from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results. Last update: November 12, 2013.
An agar diffusion method using microtiter plates was used to detect antibodies to the DNases produced by Staphylococcus aureus, S. intermedius, and S. hyicus. Antibodies to DNase from S. aureus were demonstrated in most of the sera from the species investigated, except dogs, only 11% of whose sera were positive. Positive titers to S. intermedius DNase were found in 84% of deg sera, 61% of Icelandic pony sera, 41% of pig sera, 21% of human sera, and 20% of cow sera but in only 2 and 4% of goat and sheep sera, respectively. Although antibodies to DNase from S. hyicus were not found in sera from humans, dogs, goats, or sheep, 84% of sera from pigs and cows and 29% of sera from Icelandic ponies were positive in this respect. The good accordance between the findings from bacteriological investigations performed elsewhere and the results of serologic tests performed in this study indicates that the results obtained with the serological method in this study properly reflect the actual antigenic exposure to and distribution of the three Staphylococcus spp. in animals and humans.
1.0. INTRODUCTION In recent years, there has been an increase in the incidence of food-borne diseases worldwide, with viruses now recognized as a major cause of these illnesses. The viruses implicated in food-borne disease are the enteric viruses, which are found in the human gut, excreted in human feces, and transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Many different viruses are found
In our previous report we speculated about the possibility that some species had high levels of spontaneous micronucleated erythrocytes (MNE) just in a juvenile stage, this is, that the MNE diminish as the reticuloendothelial system matures. Here we show this effect in species including rat, rabbit, pig, dog, cat, gray squirrel, lion, giraffe, white-tailed deer, opossum and even human. The number of spontaneous MNE that we found in 43 species is shown, and the proportions of polychromatic and normochromatic. This is our third report on spontaneous MNE in different species. We obtained 189 peripheral blood samples of mammals, birds and reptiles. From 12 species we obtained only one sample, and 16 were reported previously, but now the size of the sample has been increased. The species with the highest spontaneous MNE were the Vietnamese potbelly pig (with the highest MNE number), Bengal tiger, capuchin monkey, puma, ferret, owl, hedgehog, squirrel monkey, pig and white-tailed deer. These species could be used as monitors for genotoxic events. PMID:11423355
Zúñiga-González, G; Torres-Bugarín, O; Zamora-Perez, A; Gómez-Meda, B C; Ramos Ibarra, M L; Martínez-González, S; González-Rodríguez, A; Luna-Aguirre, J; Ramos-Mora, A; Ontiveros-Lira, D; Gallegos-Arreola, M P
Many critical public health issues require non-traditional approaches. Although many novel strategies are used, one approach not widely applied involves improving the treatment of animals. Emerging infectious diseases are pressing public health challenges that could benefit from improving the treatment of animals. Other human health issues, that overlap with animal treatment issues, and that warrant further exploration, are medical research and domestic violence. The diverse nature of these health issues and their connection with animal treatment suggest that there may be other similar intersections. Public health would benefit by including the treatment of animals as a topic of study and policy development. PMID:23803712
Dermatomycosis including dermatophytosis, sporotrichosis and cryptococcosis commonly occurs in humans and animals all and are considered to be zoonotic diseases. Recently, human cases of dermatophytosis transmitted from animals are increasing in number due to changes in the environments of human and animal life. Three species of dermatophytes, Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. verrucosum are the most important pathogens from animal to human, respectively. Therefore, it is necessary to understand their biological and ecological characteristics to correctly diagnose and treat the disease. Some human cases of sporotrichosis and cryptococcosis were reported to be transmitted from animals in Europe and America, suggesting that medical doctors should be careful in taking the history of human patients with reference to their contacts with animals. Close cooperation between medical and veterinary doctors is required in clinical studies on mycotic infection. PMID:9929576
Do non?humananimals have rights? The answer to this question depends on whether animals have morally relevant mental properties. Mindreading is the human activity of ascribing mental states to other organisms. Current knowledge about the evolution and cognitive structure of mindreading indicates that human ascriptions of mental states to non?humananimals are very inaccurate. The accuracy of human mindreading can be improved with the help of scientific studies of animal minds. However, the scientific studies do not by themselves solve the problem of how to map psychological similarities (and differences) between humans and animals onto a distinction between morally relevant and morally irrelevant mental properties. The current limitations of human mindreading—whether scientifically aided or not—have practical consequences for the rational justification of claims about which rights (if any) non?humananimals should be accorded.
The author provides brief annotated references of basic resources on the “human-animal bond,” the relationship between people and pets (“companion animals”) throughout history. Types of human-animal relationships are very diverse, and the author offers examples of many, includinganimal-assisted therapies, pet-keeping, and training styles.
One of the most impressive ways to learn about biology, particularly that which we seldom see, is through modeling. Dr. Valerie O'Loughlin and her colleagues at Indiana University have created this thoroughly impressive set of animations so that "students could better understand the complex processes that must occur in embryologic development." The site is arranged into five main areas, including: Cardiovascular Embryology, Development of the Head and Neck, Gastrointestinal Embryology, Development of the Limbs, and Urinary and Reproductive Embryology. However, the only two sections currently loaded with animations are the first two. Presumably, the rest are coming soon. Also, because these animations are part of a study of teaching efficacy, Dr. O'Loughlin asks that users participate in an optional survey. However, all animations can be accessed without taking part. As a great addition to the site, users are presented with a few questions regarding the anatomy which they are about to see, prior to viewing the animation. Undboutedly, this is related to the Indiana University course that these animations are a part of, but they serve as a great addition for visitors other than students, too.
|The current study examines 3- and 5-year-olds' representation of the concept we label "animal" and its two nested concepts--"animal"[subscript contrastive] (including only non-humananimals) and "animal"[subscript inclusive] (including both humans and non-humananimals). Building upon evidence that naming promotes object categorization, we…
Herrmann, Patricia A.; Medin, Douglas L.; Waxman, Sandra R.
Newer biological agents that are designed to have multiple effects on a host require better ways to determine both their safety and toxicity. Indeed ecologically potent factors such as agents that can alter the gut milieu and change host responses are now being realized as a viable alternative to more focused pharmaceuticals. Even in the pharmaceutical arena there is a growing awareness of the preventative and therapeutic potential of alternative agents. Probiotics and prebiotics amongst other agents fall into this category and can have both direct and indirect effects on the pathogenesis and progress of disease. This review details some of the new approaches using non-invasive tests to enable firstly a better definition of a stressed through to a damaged gastrointestinal mucosa. They constitute ways to apply dynamic function testing in animal models and humans to provide reference points to which other measurements can be related e.g. altered circulating cytokines, altered gene expression. As such this phenotypic scaffold, alone and combined with newer molecular parameters, will improve our understanding of the interaction of luminal factors within the alimentary tract and the impact that these have on physiologically challenged mucosa and in disease both at the gastrointestinal level and also in remote organs. Practically, the dynamic function tests, primarily breath tests, can now be used as diagnostic and prognostic indicators of the efficacy of new biologics such as probiotics and prebiotics that in part elicit their effects by altering the ecology of particular regions of the intestine. PMID:18537657
Homo sapiensis increasingly being studied within the evolutionary (adaptationist, selectionist) framework favoured by animal behaviour researchers. There are various labels for such work, including evolutionary psychology, human behavioural ecology and human sociobiology. Collectively, we call these areas ‘human evolutionary psychology’ (HEP) because their shared objective is an evolutionary understanding of human information processing and decision making. Sexual selection and sex
Human\\/Companion Animal Therapy is a single process in that it introduces a companion animal into the life of a person to enhance his emotional well being. There are, however, various ways in which the companion animal may be used. These are: a) as a psychotherapeutic adjunct, b) as the sole therapist, c) as a catalytic agent for change, d) as
The motion of a human platform diver was simulated using a dynamic model and a control system. Thedynamic model has 32 actuated degrees of freedom and dynamic parameters within the range of thosereported in the literature for humans. The control system uses algorithms for balance, jumping, andtwisting to initiate the dive, sequences of desired values for proportional--derivative servos to performthe
Pets, or companion animals, are said to be good for people. Until recently there has been little serious study of the effects on people's health of their interactions with companion animals. This is in spite of the fact that they have shared human lives for centuries and their beneficial effects have been known for at least 200 years. This paper
Because of a variety of caveats, the safety and effectiveness of interventions in human subjects can only be speculated from animal studies. Careful synthesis of data from multiple animal studies is needed to begin to assess the likelihood of successful cross-species translation (Fay et al., this issue). PMID:22972841
In order to develop an animal model for human clinical amnesia, the exact nature of severe mnemonic impairments existing in six rhesus monkeys that had previously sustained bilateral removals of the limbic system or rostral inferior temporal lobe was stud...
I review the direction and magnitude (effect sizes) of gender dif- ferences that have been reported in several areas of human-animal interac- tions. These include: attitudes toward the treatment of animals, attachment to pets, involvement in animal protectionism, animal hoarding, hunting, animal abuse, and bestiality. Women, on average, show higher levels of positive be- haviors and attitudes toward animals (e.g.,
Homo sapiens is increasingly being studied within the evolutionary (adaptationist, selectionist) framework favoured by animal behaviour researchers. There are various labels for such work, including evolutionary psychology, human behavioural ecology and human sociobiology. Collectively, we call these areas 'human evolutionary psychology' (HEP) because their shared objective is an evolutionary understanding of human information processing and decision making. Sexual selection and sex differences have been especially prominent in recent HEP research, but many other topics have been addressed, including parent-offspring relations, reciprocity and exploitation, foraging strategies and spatial cognition. Many HEP researchers began their scientific careers in animal behaviour, and in many ways, HEP research is scarcely distinguishable from other animal behaviour research. Currently controversial issues in HEP, such as the explanation(s) for observed levels of heritable diversity, the kinds of data needed to test adaptationist hypotheses, and the characterization of a species-typical 'environment of evolutionary adaptedness', are issues in animal behaviour as well. What gives HEP a distinct methodological flavour is that the research animal can talk, an ability that has both advantages and pitfalls for researchers. The proper use of self-reports and other verbal data in HEP might usefully become a subject of future research in its own right. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10196040
This paper proposes an intuitive wireless sensor\\/actuator based communication network for humananimal interaction for a digital zoo. In order to enhance effective observation and control over wild life, we have built a wireless sensor network. 25 video transmitting nodes are installed for animal behavior observation and experimental vibrotactile collars have been designed for effective control in an animal park.
Karin Fahlquist; Johannes Karlsson; Haibo Li; Li Liu; Keni Ren; Shafiq ur Réhman; Tim Wark
Animal studies have significantly contributed to our understanding of epileptogenesis and action mechanisms of antiepileptic drugs. The relevance of animal models to human epilepsies depend on how faithfully they reproduce the clinical and EEG features of human forms. In principle the definition of animal model of epilepsies should be reserved to animals presenting with recurrent seizures, either spontaneous of experimentally
Purpose: The scope and significance of human anti- animal antibody interference in immunological assays is reviewed with an emphasis on human anti-animal immunoglobulins, particularly human anti-mouse anti- bodies (HAMAs). Issues: Anti-animal antibodies (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE class, anti-isotype, and anti-idiotype specificity) arise as a result of iatrogenic and noniatrogenic causes and includehuman anti-mouse, -rabbit, -goat, -sheep, -cow, -pig, -rat,
What characteristics do ocean animals have that help them to survive in the ocean that are the same or different than other animals which live on the land or fly through the sky? How are they the same or different from humans? We have enjoyed learning about lots of different animals in class, but there is still so much more to learn! The websites listed below have some fun pictures and videos that will help you compare some of the characteristics of ocean animals with other land and sky animals we've learned ...
The main objective of the present study was to determined the occurrence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis, E. hellem, E. cuniculi, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Poland in animal faecal using the FISH (Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization) and multiplex FISH techniques. Additional objectives included: (1) identification of animal hosts of microsporidia that are infectious to humans amongst free-ranging, captive, livestock and domestic animals; (2) a molecular analysis of randomly selected parasite isolates and determination of their zoonotic potential; (3) evaluation of the role of animals in the dissemination of microsporidia spores in the environment, and an estimation of the potential risk of infection for other animals and humans. A total of 1340 faecal samples collected from 178 species of animals were examined using conventional staining (chromotrope-2R and calcofluor white M2R staining) and molecular techniques (FISH and multiplex FISH techniques). Microsporidian spores were detected in 33 faecal samples (2.5%) obtained from 17 animal species. Microsporidia were demonstrated more often in birds (6.1%) than in mammals (0.7%); the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.00001). In addition, the prevalence of microsporidian infections in waterfowl was significantly higher than the prevalence of microsporidian infections in other animals (p < 0.03). Animal reservoirs of human infectious microsporidia were disclosed in six of 38 sites where faecal samples were taken from animals. Three species of human virulent microsporidia were identified in animals. Spores of E. hellem were found in 25 faecal samples (1.9%) taken from 12 bird species (6 zoo bird species, 4 free-ranging bird species, 2 livestock bird species). Spores of E. intestinalis were identified in five faecal samples (0.4%) taken from two livestock bird species and two zoo mammal species. In turn, E. bieneusi spores were detected only in three faecal samples (0.2%) taken from three zoo mammal species. It was demonstrated that the new hosts of E. hellem are the following bird species: mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), greyleg goose (Anser anser), mute swan (Cygnus olor), black-necked swan (Cygnus melancoryphus), black swan (Cygnus atratus), coscoroba swan (Coscoroba coscoroba), black-crowned crane (Balearica pavonina), nicobar pigeon (Caloenas nicobarica) and carrion crow (Corvus cornix). In addition, E. hellem was found for the first time in birds from the Anseriformes and Gruiformes orders. Whereas E. intestinalis was disclosed for the first time in the domestic goose (Anser anser f. domestica), red ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata rubra) and the ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta), while the black lemur (Eulemur macaco flavifrons), mongoose lemur (Eulemur mongoz) and the Visayan warty pig (Sus cebifrons negrinus) were first found to carry E. bieneusi. The mammal species that were found to carry E. bieneusi and E. intestinalis are included in The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. The results of the present study are significant from an epidemiological point of view. The wild, livestock and zoo animals that were found to carry microsporidia live in different conditions, and thus their role as animal reservoirs for these dangerous pathogens varies. Waterfowl birds may be the main source of contamination of surface waters with E. hellem spores and the protection of surface waters is virtually impossible. Moreover, isolates of E. hellem from mute swans have SSU rRNA sequences identical to E. hellem genotype reported 10 years ago in HIV-positive patient in USA (GenBank Accession no. L19070). This result indicate that E. hellem from mute swans can be a potential source of infection for humans. The contamination of the human environment with microsporidian spores infectious to humans is also facilitated by farm and synanthropic birds, because E. hellem and E. intestinalis were found in farms pigeons, domestic goose and the carrion crow. These birds can also be the source of infectious for breeders and ornithologists. The occurrence of microsporidiosis in an
Ongoing human–long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) conflicts in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve, Singapore, have seen native macaques significantly affected, as residential development encroaches into animals' habitat, destroying important wildlife corridors. The search for a more humane treatment of these transgressive animals can be seen as an attempt to extend and include non-humananimals within humanistic notions of ethics and care, in
Materials and methods related to a transgenic non-humananimal (e.g., a transgenic non-human mammal) whose genome comprises a disrupted TIEG allele are provided. Methods for making such transgenic non-humananimals, and using them to identify and characte...
M. Subramaniam M. J. Velasquez N. M. Rajmannan T. C. Spelsberg
Animal welfare must be clearly defined and understood in all languages. Welfare means well-being, so that `bad-welfare' is contradictory. Welfare depends upon the provision of all necessary physiological and psychological requirements and the absence or control of adverse factors. Recognition of animals' sentience led to concerns for their welfare. Since animals can neither obtain nor sustain rights for themselves they
Contents Transgenic animals are more widely used for various purposes. Applications of animal transgenesis may be divided into three major categories: (i) to obtain information on gene function and regulation as well as on human diseases, (ii) to obtain high value products (recombinant pharmaceutical proteins and xeno-organs for humans) to be used for human therapy, and (iii) to improve animal products for human consumption. All these applications are directly or not related to human health. Animal transgenesis started in 1980. Important improvement of the methods has been made and are still being achieved to reduce cost as well as killing of animals and to improve the relevance of the models. This includes gene transfer and design of reliable vectors for transgene expression. This review describes the state of the art of animal transgenesis from a technical point of view. It also reports some of the applications in the medical field based on the use of transgenic animal models. The advance in the generation of pigs to be used as the source of organs for patients and in the preparation of pharmaceutical proteins from milk and other possible biological fluids from transgenic animals is described. The projects in course aiming at improving animal production by transgenesis are also depicted. Some the specific biosafety and bioethical problems raised by the different applications of transgenesis, including consumption of transgenic animal products are discussed. PMID:16008757
We want to build animated characters and robots capable of rich social interactions with humans and each other, and who are able to learn by observing those around them. An increasing amount of evidence suggests that, in animals and humans, the ability to learn by watching others, and in particular, the ability to imitate, could be crucial precursors to the
Daphna Buchsbaum; Bruce Blumberg; Cynthia Breazeal
Since its detection in 2001 the human Metapneumovirus (HMPV), a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, was observed to be a serious pathogen in human respiratory infections during childhood. Meanwhile, several animal models have been established to study the virus-host interactions and pathogenic effects. Mainly, small laboratory animals like mice and cotton rats have been used, although the usage of these
Humans have long distinguished themselves from other living organisms. Therefore, to make use of animal models for neuropsychiatric\\u000a disorders, it is important to acknowledge what has changed historically. Darwin argued that there was continuity in mind between\\u000a humans and nonhuman species, and animal experimental psychologists and others have debated the existence of consciousness\\u000a and mentality in animals ever since. Those
For millennia, relationships have developed between animals and people through the context of work, sport, companionship, or some combination of these activities. Often, a bond between animal and human results, which is based on affection and/or respect. In the research environment, it is not uncommon for a bond to develop between the investigator, veterinarian, and/or animal care technicians and the animals with which they work; and such a bond can be just as strong for a mouse as it is for a dog. Circumstances that foster the formation of these bonds include the close and frequent contact between the researchers and their animals during studies or during training of animals to particular tasks, the long periods of time many research animals live in the facilities (often years), the dependency of the animals on the animal care staff for their daily needs, and the veterinarian/patient relationship, which is not unlike that of private practitioners and client-owned animals. In addition, overlaying the fundamental relationship with the research animal are special bonds that can form with certain animals. Among those that engender a special attachment are animals that are particularly friendly, amusing, or intelligent; animals requiring extra supportive care; animals that show courage; animals that represent a milestone in a particular scientific advancement; and animals that reflect humans' own strengths and foibles. The development of these relationships is enriching to both personnel and animals inasmuch as people who care about their animals are committed to promoting and ensuring the well-being of those animals. PMID:11752725
This paper contains a brief comparative analysis of some philosophical and scientific discourses on human and animal health and welfare, focusing mainly on the welfare of sentient animals. The paper sets forth two kinds of proposals for the analysis of animal welfare which do not appear in the contemporary philosophical discussion of human welfare, viz. the coping theory of welfare and the theory of welfare in terms of natural behaviour. These proposals are scrutinized in the light of some similar theories dealing with human health and quality of life. My conclusion is that the coping theory and the natural behaviour theory are not in themselves adequate for the characterization of welfare, either for humans or for sentient animals. I contend, finally, that, in the light of the previous discussion, there are good arguments for a particular set of analyses of both animal and human welfare, viz. the ones that are based on the notions of preference satisfaction and positive subjective experiences. PMID:21298322
The regulation of human exposure to potentially carcinogenic chemicals constitutes society's most important use of animal carcinogenicity data. Environmental contaminants of greatest concern within the USA are listed in the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) chemicals database. However, of the 160 IRIS chemicals lacking even limited human exposure data but possessing animal data that had received a human carcinogenicity assessment by 1 January 2004, we found that in most cases (58.1%; 93/160), the EPA considered animal carcinogenicity data inadequate to support a classification of probable human carcinogen or non-carcinogen. For the 128 chemicals with human or animal data also assessed by the World Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), human carcinogenicity classifications were compatible with EPA classifications only for those 17 having at least limited human data (p = 0.5896). For those 111 primarily reliant on animal data, the EPA was much more likely than the IARC to assign carcinogenicity classifications indicative of greater human risk (p < 0.0001). The IARC is a leading international authority on carcinogenicity assessments, and its significantly different human carcinogenicity classifications of identical chemicals indicate that: 1) in the absence of significant human data, the EPA is over-reliant on animal carcinogenicity data; 2) as a result, the EPA tends to over-predict carcinogenic risk; and 3) the true predictivity for human carcinogenicity of animal data is even poorer than is indicated by EPA figures alone. The EPA policy of erroneously assuming that tumours in animals are indicative of human carcinogenicity is implicated as a primary cause of these errors. PMID:16522147
Knight, Andrew; Bailey, Jarrod; Balcombe, Jonathan
This paper surveys the set of techniques developed in Computer Graphics for animatinghuman walking. We first focus on the evolution from purely kinematic "knowledge-based" methods to approaches that incorporate dynamics constraints, or use dynamics simulations to generate motion. We lastly review the recent advances on motion editing, that enable the control of complex animations by interactively blending and tuning
There is renewed interest in using animal oocytes to reprogram human somatic cells. Here we compare the re- programming of human somatic nuclei using oocytes obtained from animal and human sources. Comparative analysis of gene expression in morula-stage embryos was carried out using single-embryo transcriptome am- plification and global gene expression analyses. Genomic DNA fingerprinting and PCR analysis confirmed that
Young Chung; Colin E. Bishop; Nathan R. Treff; Stephen J. Walker; Vladislav M. Sandler; Sandy Becker; Irina Klimanskaya; Wan-Song Wun; Randall Dunn; Rebecca M. Hall; Jing Su; Shi-Jiang Lu; Marc Maserati; Young-Ho Choi; Richard Scott; Anthony Atala; Ralph Dittman; Robert Lanza
Graphical simulations of human muscle motion and deformation are of great interest to medical education. In this article, the authors present a technique for simulating muscle deformations by combining physically and geometrically based computations to reduce computation cost and produce fast, accurate simulations.
...2009-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section 864...864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification. Cultured animal and human cells are in vitro cultivated cell...
...2010-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section 864...864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification. Cultured animal and human cells are in vitro cultivated cell...
...2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33...Traineeships Â§ 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...to the protection of human subjects; and ...2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2...
...2009-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.33...Traineeships Â§ 86.33 Human subjects; animal welfare. Where...to the protection of human subjects; and ...2 068 concerning animal welfare. 2...
...2009-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19...Grants Â§ 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant...to the protection of human subjects; and ...Manual 2 concerning animal welfare. 2...
...2010-10-01 false Human subjects; animal welfare. 86.19...Grants Â§ 86.19 Human subjects; animal welfare. No grant...to the protection of human subjects; and ...Manual 2 concerning animal welfare. 2...
In-depth coverage of the implanting of human cells into animals in order to make more human-like models for medical research, accompanied by instructional materials. Includes lesson plan on the ethics of chimeric research, Q-and-A with two experts, and extended interviews with researchers. Main story is provided as text, streaming video, and RealAudio.
Vaccination is one of the most important public health accomplishments. However, since vaccine preparation involves the use of materials of biological origin, vaccines are subject to contamination by micro-organisms. In fact, vaccine contamination has occurred; a historical example of vaccine contamination, for example, can be found in the early days of development of the smallpox vaccine. The introduction of new techniques of vaccine virus production on cell cultures has lead to safer vaccines, but has not completely removed the risk of virus contamination. There are several examples of vaccine contamination, for example, contamination of human vaccines against poliomyelitis by SV40 virus from the use of monkey primary renal cells. Several veterinary vaccines have been contaminated by pestiviruses from foetal calf serum. These incidents have lead industry to change certain practices and regulatory authorities to develop more stringent and detailed requirements. But the increasing number of target species for vaccines, the diversity of the origin of biological materials and the extremely high number of known and unknown viruses and their constant evolution represent a challenge to vaccine producers and regulatory authorities. PMID:20456974
We present a system for photo-realistic facial model- ing and animation, which includes several tools that fa- cilitate necessary tasks such as mesh processing, texture registration, and assembling of facial components. The resulting head model reflects the anatomical structure of the human head including skull, skin, and muscles. Semi- automatic generation of high-quality models from scan data for physics-based animation
It is one of the central aims of the philosophy of science to elucidate the meanings of scientific terms and also to think critically about their application. The focus of this essay is the scientific term predict and whether there is credible evidence that animal models, especially in toxicology and pathophysiology, can be used to predict human outcomes. Whether animals can be used to predict human response to drugs and other chemicals is apparently a contentious issue. However, when one empirically analyzes animal models using scientific tools they fall far short of being able to predict human responses. This is not surprising considering what we have learned from fields such evolutionary and developmental biology, gene regulation and expression, epigenetics, complexity theory, and comparative genomics.
Microscopic study of the human brain has revealed neural structures, enhanced wiring, and forms of connectivity among nerve cells not found in any animal, challenging the view that the human brain is simply an enlarged chimpanzee brain. On the other hand, cognitive studies have found animals to have abilities once thought unique to the human. This suggests a disparity between brain and mind. The suggestion is misleading. Cognitive research has not kept pace with neural research. Neural findings are based on microscopic study of the brain and are primarily cellular. Because cognition cannot be studied microscopically, we need to refine the study of cognition by using a different approach. In examining claims of similarity between animals and humans, one must ask: What are the dissimilarities? This approach prevents confusing similarity with equivalence. We follow this approach in examining eight cognitive cases--teaching, short-term memory, causal reasoning, planning, deception, transitive inference, theory of mind, and language--and find, in all cases, that similarities between animal and human abilities are small, dissimilarities large. There is no disparity between brain and mind. PMID:17717081
Microscopic study of the human brain has revealed neural structures, enhanced wiring, and forms of connectivity among nerve cells not found in any animal, challenging the view that the human brain is simply an enlarged chimpanzee brain. On the other hand, cognitive studies have found animals to have abilities once thought unique to the human. This suggests a disparity between brain and mind. The suggestion is misleading. Cognitive research has not kept pace with neural research. Neural findings are based on microscopic study of the brain and are primarily cellular. Because cognition cannot be studied microscopically, we need to refine the study of cognition by using a different approach. In examining claims of similarity between animals and humans, one must ask: What are the dissimilarities? This approach prevents confusing similarity with equivalence. We follow this approach in examining eight cognitive cases—teaching, short-term memory, causal reasoning, planning, deception, transitive inference, theory of mind, and language—and find, in all cases, that similarities between animal and human abilities are small, dissimilarities large. There is no disparity between brain and mind.
Research with non-humananimals is performed to solve human problems. Two different means of extrapolating from behavioral experiments with animals to human behavior are described. The structural approach emphasizes topographical similarity between the an...
Bulgaria had been free from brucellosis since 1958, but during 2005–2007, a reemergence of human and animal disease was recorded. The reemergence of this zoonosis in the country highlights the importance of maintaining an active surveillance system for infectious diseases that will require full cooperation between public health and veterinary authorities.
John Gibbon's lifetime work provided a deep understanding of the mechanisms whereby the time sense indexes the passage of time (its accumulation) and records, that is, stores, relevant time intervals in memory, enabling behavior to occur at the right time. The Scalar Expectancy Theory (SET; Gibbon, 1977) remains the most prominent of the theoretical accounts of animal and human timing.
The introduction of insulin was a breakthrough in the treatment of diabetes and it produced a remarkable increase in the life expectancy of diabetic patients. Animal-derived insulins have been used to treat pe o- ple with diabetes since insulin was first discovered and continuously subjected to various purification technologies. Genetically engineered human insulin was introduced in 1982 and now the
: This paper surveys the set of techniques developed in Computer Graphics foranimating human walking. We first focus on the evolution from purely kinematic "knowledgebased" methods to approaches that incorporate dynamics constraints, or use dynamics simulationsto generate motion. We lastly review the recent advances on motion editing, thatenable the control of complex animations by interactively blending and tuning synthetic orcaptured
Humans have many kinds of relationships with domesticated animals. To maintain relationships interactions are needed. Interactions with animals may be beneficial for humans but may also be risky. Scientific literature on effects of human-animal relationships and interactions in a workplace, health-care and residential context has been reviewed to develop ideas about the effects farm animals can have on humans. Although
Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia, Giardia intestinalis) is a protozoan organism that can infect the intestinal tract of many animal species including mammals. Genetic heterogeneity of G. duodenalis is well described but the zoonotic potential is still not clear. In this study, we analysed 100 Giardia DNA samples directly isolated from human stool specimens, to get more insight in the
J W B van der Giessen; A de Vries; M Roos; Peter Wielinga; L M Kortbeek; T G Mank
Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia, Giardia intestinalis) is a protozoan organism that can infect the intestinal tract of many animal species including mammals. Genetic heterogeneity of G. duodenalis is well described but the zoonotic potential is still not clear. In this study, we analysed 100 Giardia DNA samples directly isolated from human stool specimens, to get more insight in the
A. de Vries; M. Roos; Peter Wielinga; L. M. Kortbeek; T. G. Mankc
It is presently unknown whether our response to affective vocalizations is specific to those generated by humans or more universal, triggered by emotionally matched vocalizations generated by other species. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in normal participants to measure cerebral activity during auditory stimulation with affectively valenced animal vocalizations, some familiar (cats) and others not (rhesus monkeys). Positively versus negatively valenced vocalizations from cats and monkeys elicited different cerebral responses despite the participants' inability to differentiate the valence of these animal vocalizations by overt behavioural responses. Moreover, the comparison with human non-speech affective vocalizations revealed a common response to the valence in orbitofrontal cortex, a key component on the limbic system. These findings suggest that the neural mechanisms involved in processing human affective vocalizations may be recruited by heterospecific affective vocalizations at an unconscious level, supporting claims of shared emotional systems across species. PMID:18077254
Belin, Pascal; Fecteau, Shirley; Charest, Ian; Nicastro, Nicholas; Hauser, Marc D; Armony, Jorge L
Since June 1998, EPFL's Visible Human Slice Server (http://visiblehuman.epfl.ch) allows to extract arbitrarily oriented and positioned slices. More than 300,000 slices are extracted each year. In order to give a 3D view of anatomic structures, a new service has been added for extracting slice animations along a user-defined trajectory. This service is useful both for research and teaching purposes (http:visiblehuman.epfl.ch/animation/). Extracting slices of animations at any desired position and orientation from the Visible Human volume (Visible Man or Woman) requires both high throughput and much processing power. The I/O disk bandwidth can be increased by accessing more than one disk at the same time, i.e. by stripping data across several disks and by carrying out parallel asynchronous disk accesses. Since processing operations such as slice and animation extraction are compute- intensive, they require the program execution to be carried out in parallel on several computers. In the present contribution, we describe the new slice sequence animation service as well as the approach taken for parallelizing this service on a multi-PC multi-disk Web server.
Pheromones are a mysterious world of chemical signals involved in conspecific communication. They play a number of key functions important for preservation of life of individual organisms, for their defence, survival of offspring and preservation of species. The best-known groups of pheromones include: trail pheromones, territorial pheromones, sex pheromones, aggregation pheromones, dispersion pheromones, repellent pheromones, social pheromones and alarm pheromones. Alarm pheromones are pheromones that are emitted by animals in threatening situations and inform members of the same species of danger. The identified alarm pheromones are synthesised by insects and aquatic organisms. Also humans are able to emit and perceive pheromones. Although alarm pheromones have not been isolated and identified in man so far, there is presumably evidence for their presence in humans. Pinpointing human alarm pheromones, determinants of experienced stress and inductors of provoked fear could have widespread consequences. Their identification could also be of significant importance for the practical utilisation of results by institutions responsible for safety and defence as well as law enforcement/crime detection and antiterrorist activities. PMID:21944887
Discarded cigarette butts may present health risks to human infants and animals because of indiscriminate eating behaviours. Nicotine found in cigarette butts may cause vomiting and neurological toxicity; leachates of cigarette butts in aquatic environments may cause exposure to additional toxic chemicals including heavy metals, ethyl phenol and pesticide residues. This report reviews published and grey literature regarding cigarette butt
Thomas E Novotny; Sarah N Hardin; Lynn R Hovda; Dale J Novotny; Mary Kay McLean; Safdar Khan
The phenotypes of 153 strains belonging or related to the genus Bijidobacterium were studied. These organisms included 38 collection strains and 115 wild strains (41 strains of human origin, 56 strains of animal origin, and 18 strains obtained from rivers or sewage). Our phenotypic analysis revealed seven main groups that were subdivided into 20 subgroups. Seven subgroups contained no type
FRANCOISE GAVINI; ANNE-MARIE POURCHER; CHRISTEL NEUT; DANIEL MONGET; CHARLES ROMOND; CATHERINE OGER; DANIEL IZARD
Discarded cigarette butts may present health risks to human infants and animals because of indiscriminate eating behaviours. Nicotine found in cigarette butts may cause vomiting and neurological toxicity; leachates of cigarette butts in aquatic environments may cause exposure to additional toxic chemicals including heavy metals, ethyl phenol and pesticide residues. This report reviews published and grey literature regarding cigarette butt waste consumption by children, pets and wildlife. Although reports of human and animal exposures number in the tens of thousands, severe toxic outcomes due to butt consumption are rare. Nonetheless, the ubiquity of cigarette butt waste and its potential for adverse effects on human and animal health warrants additional research and policy interventions to reduce the stream of these pollutants in the environment. PMID:21504918
Novotny, Thomas E; Hardin, Sarah N; Hovda, Lynn R; Novotny, Dale J; McLean, Mary Kay; Khan, Safdar
SUMMARY Humane care is best defined as maintaining husbandry procedures in keeping with the traits which are species-specific to the animal farmed. It must be evaluated in relation to the ethogram of the species, and not to anthropomorphic human feelings about animal care. If humane care is pursued, some compatability may be found between what the animal behavior scien- tists
...Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing...Relating to Extralabel Use of Animal and Human Drugs in Food-Producing Animals...Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in...
\\u000a Researcher inquiries into topics such as animal welfare, animal affect, and human experiences of the human–animal bond have\\u000a historically been rooted in positivist epistemologies and reliant on quantitative measures and experiments, rather than naturalistic\\u000a observations and individual experiences (Fraser, 2009). In this chapter, I target several topic areas within human–animal\\u000a and animal research to explore the existence and benefits of
...2012-04-01 false Cultured animal and human cells. 864.2280 Section 864.2280... HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products Â§ 864.2280 Cultured animal and human cells. (a) Identification....
There is increasing evidence in man and animals that several human viruses can damage the vestibular labyrinth. Clinical and serologic studies of patients with vestibular neuritis suggest that the viruses may play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Temporal bone studies of patients dying after vestibular neuritis have found maximal damage in the distal branches of the vestibular nerve. These changes are felt to be consistent with a viral etiology. No satisfactory animal viral model of vestibular neuritis currently exists. However, animal studies have demonstrated that several human viruses including rubeola, herpes simplex, reovirus, mouse and guinea pig cytomegalovirus, and neurotropic strains of influenza A and mumps virus, can infect the vestibular nerve and the vestibular membranous labyrinth. PMID:8470506
Experiencing the human-animal bond in the laboratory con- text can potentially improve the quality of life of animals as well as increase job satisfaction for animal caregivers. With today's centralized facilities, caregivers generally focus en- tirely on providing routine care for animals without involve- ment in experimental procedures. Results of responses to a detailed and open-ended survey of 16 caregivers
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) faces a daunting task in creating support for animal rights and convincing individuals that they share substance with animals. PETA challenges the animal\\/human divide by articulating a shared identity through discursive and visual appeals. Their advertisements invite viewers to see similarities to the Other, visually experience the Others’ world, and visually break
In 2003, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) caused one of the most devastating epidemics known to the developed world. There were two important lessons from this epidemic. Firstly, coronaviruses, in addition to influenza viruses, can cause severe and rapidly spreading human infections. Secondly, bats can serve as the origin and natural animal reservoir of deadly human viruses. Since then, researchers around the world, especially those in Asia where SARS-CoV was first identified, have turned their focus to find novel coronaviruses infecting humans, bats, and other animals. Two human coronaviruses, HCoV-HKU1 and HCoV-NL63, were identified shortly after the SARS-CoV epidemic as common causes of human respiratory tract infections. In 2012, a novel human coronavirus, now called Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), has emerged in the Middle East to cause fatal human infections in three continents. MERS-CoV human infection is similar to SARS-CoV in having a high fatality rate and the ability to spread from person to person which resulted in secondary cases among close contacts including healthcare workers without travel history to the Middle East. Both viruses also have close relationships with bat coronaviruses. New cases of MERS-CoV infection in humans continue to occur with the origins of the virus still unknown in many cases. A multifaceted approach is necessary to control this evolving MERS-CoV outbreak. Source identification requires detailed epidemiological studies of the infected patients and enhanced surveillance of MERS-CoV or similar coronaviruses in humans and animals. Early diagnosis of infected patients and appropriate infection control measures will limit the spread in hospitals, while social distancing strategies may be necessary to control the outbreak in communities if it remained uncontrolled as in the SARS epidemic. PMID:23977429
To, Kelvin K W; Hung, Ivan F N; Chan, Jasper F W; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Human population dynamics, at least until the past century, have probably been governed by homeostasis and in this resembled those of other animals. Because human population homeostasis was probably substantially weaker than among large mammals, its operation has been less obvious. Nonetheless, the empirical evidence for advanced agriculturalists is compelling. Unlike animals, the human population has tended toward equilibria that have been tending upward at an accelerating rate. The acceleration might reflect long-run positive feedback between density and technological progress, as Boserup has suggested. Because homeostasis was weak, its role in shorter run historical explantation is limited; its force was gentle and easily overwhelmed by other particular influences. Malthusian oscillation, in the sense of distinctive medium-run dynamics arising from homeostasis, probably did not occur. And because homeostasis was weak, density dependence can in principle explain only a minute proportion of the annual variation in population growth rates. Yet homeostasis plays an essential role in demographic theory. Without it, we are incapable of explaining population size and change over time except by recounting a mindless chronology of events back to the beginning of humanity--whenever that was. Without it, we cannot explain the response of population growth to economic growth. Without it, we cannot explain recovery from catastrophe or the rapid natural increase in many frontier regions. Without it, we cannot properly analyze the influence of climatic variation and other partially density-independent factors. Our basic understanding of human history requires a grasp of what homeostasis can explain and what it cannot. A homeostatic approach to population dynamics also leads to questions about the roles of reproductive norms and institutions, not just whether they encourage high or low fertility, but whether they make natural increase responsive to resource abundance. And if they do, whether they strike the balance of population and the means of subsistence at a relatively prosperous or impoverished level. Such considerations may contribute to an understanding of broad preindustrial differences among the regions of the world in densities, average levels of vital rates, and living standards--which was very much how Malthus viewed the matter. Ordinary homeostatic tendencies essentially vanish in the course of economic development, and they were probably all but gone from much of Europe by the end of the 19th century.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3322884
Although prion diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep, have long been recognized, our understanding of their epidemiology and pathogenesis is still in its early stages. Progress is hampered by the lengthy incubation periods and the lack of effective ways of monitoring and characterizing these agents. Protease-resistant conformers of the prion protein (PrP), known as the "scrapie form" (PrP(Sc)), are used as disease markers, and for taxonomic purposes, in correlation with clinical, pathological, and genetic data. In humans, prion diseases can arise sporadically (sCJD) or genetically (gCJD and others), caused by mutations in the PrP-gene (PRNP), or as a foodborne infection, with the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) causing variant CJD (vCJD). Person-to-person spread of human prion disease has only been known to occur following cannibalism (kuru disease in Papua New Guinea) or through medical or surgical treatment (iatrogenic CJD, iCJD). In contrast, scrapie in small ruminants and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids behave as infectious diseases within these species. Recently, however, so-called atypical forms of prion diseases have been discovered in sheep (atypical/Nor98 scrapie) and in cattle, BSE-H and BSE-L. These maladies resemble sporadic or genetic human prion diseases and might be their animal equivalents. This hypothesis also raises the significant public health question of possible epidemiological links between these diseases and their counterparts in humans. PMID:21598097
Tranulis, Michael A; Benestad, Sylvie L; Baron, Thierry; Kretzschmar, Hans
The present invention provides a process for making an in vivo model of human leukemia. The process includes the steps of: pre-conditioning an immunodeficient rodent by administering to the rodent a sub-lethal dose of irradiation and injecting the rodent ...
Humans face daunting challenges in the successful exploration and colonization of space, including adverse alterations in gravity and radiation. The Earth-determined biology of humans, animals and plants is significantly modified in such extraterrestrial ...
M. B. Vickerman P. A. Keith P. A. Parsons-Wingerter
The human ability to perceive and understand others' suffering is critical to reinforcing and maintaining our social bonds. What is not clear, however, is the extent to which this generalizes to nonhuman entities. Anecdotal evidence indicates that people may engage in empathy-like processes when observing suffering nonhuman entities, but psychological research suggests that we more readily empathize with those to whom we are closer and more similar. In this research, we examined neural responses in participants while they were presented with pictures of human versus dog suffering. We found that viewing human and animal suffering led to large overlapping regions of activation previously implicated in empathic responding to suffering, including the anterior cingulate gyrus and anterior insula. Direct comparisons of viewing human and animal suffering also revealed differences such that human suffering yielded significantly greater medial prefrontal activation, consistent with high-level theory of mind, whereas animal suffering yielded significantly greater parietal and inferior frontal activation, consistent with more semantic evaluation and perceptual simulation. PMID:23405957
Franklin, Robert G; Nelson, Anthony J; Baker, Michelle; Beeney, Joseph E; Vescio, Theresa K; Lenz-Watson, Aurora; Adams, Reginald B
Human attitudes toward nonhuman animals are complex and quite contradictory. Th ey can range between extremely negative (animal cruelty) to positive (treating companion animals like human surrogates). Attitudes toward animals are especially negative when people think about human creatureliness and personal mortality. Th is paper investigates people's attitudes toward highly valued animals (companion animals). Th e research presented here tested
Abstract Computer animation of human ,locomotion ,has become ,popular in recent years because,of the ,desire to use ,human ,beings as synthetic ,actors in three-dimensional simulation environments. Researchers have proposed various motion control mechanisms tosimulate human-like figure locomotion. However, most of the animation systems based on these control mechanisms,are only suitable for animatinghuman,walking on flat ground, without obstacles. For walking
There is accumulating evidence that the use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals has adverse human health consequences. The use of antibiotics in food animals selects for resistant pathogens and resistance genes that may be transferred to humans through the consumption or handling of foods of animal origin. Recent studies have demonstrated that antimicrobial-resistance among foodborne bacteria may cause excess cases
Twenty-three chemicals were selected for comparison of the carcinogenic potencies estimated from epidemiological data to those estimated from animal carcinogenesis bioassays. The chemicals were all those for which reasonably strong evidence of carcinogenicity could be found in humans or animals and for which suitable data could be obtained for quantifying carcinogenic potencies in both humans and animals. Many alternative methods
Background Anesthetic blood solubility predicts pharmacokinetics for inhaled agents and is essential for determination of blood anesthetic concentrations from end-tidal gas concentrations using Henry’s Law. Though used to model anesthetic effects in humans, there are limited interspecies solubility comparisons that include modern haloethers. This study aimed to measure hematocrit-adjusted blood:gas anesthetic partition coefficients (?B:G) for desflurane, sevoflurane, isoflurane, and methoxyflurane in humans and animals. Methods Whole blood was collected from 20 rats, 8 horses, and 4 each of cats, cattle, humans, dogs, goats, pigs, rabbits, and sheep. Plasma or cell volume was removed to adjust all samples to a packed cell volume of 40%. A single agent calibration gas headspace was added to blood in a glass syringe and was mixed and equilibrated at 37°C for 2 hours. Agent concentrations in the calibration gas and syringe headspace were measured using gas chromatography. Anesthetic solubility in saline, citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine, and olive oil were similarly measured. Results Except for goats, all animal species had at least one ?B:G measurement that differed significantly from humans. For each agent, ?B:G positively correlated with serum triglyceride concentrations, but this only explained 25% of interspecies variability. Desflurane was significantly less soluble in blood than sevoflurane in some species (e.g., humans) but not in others (e.g., rabbits). Conclusions Anesthetic partition coefficients differ significantly between humans and most animals for haloether anesthetics. Because of their similar ?B:G values, goats may be a better animal model for inhaled anesthetic pharmacokinetics in people.
Soares, Joao H. N.; Brosnan, Robert J.; Fukushima, Fabiola B.; Hodges, Joanne; Liu, Hong
The website for the new journal Humanimalia, published by DePauw University, recently released its first issue. The appeal and importance of the journal goes beyond appearance, as the journal states that the study of the human/animal interface has been a "neglected" area of research. In the "Humanimalifesto" link, a lengthy explanation is given, and it notes that one of the main goals of the journal is "to approach animal/human interfaces without relying on stigmatizing critique of philosophical, political, or cultural antagonists." The first issue consists of articles and reviews, including an article called "Hooters for Neuters: Sexist Transgressive Animal Advocacy Campaign?" and a review of the popular Michael Pollan book, "The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals". Visitors interested in submitting an article to the peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journal should check out the guidelines in the "Call-for-Papers" link on the left side of the page. The "Notes and Bulletins" link, also on the left side of the page, has a notice of an Animal Studies meeting at NYU, and the "Links" area includes information on upcoming conferences.
...MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products Â§ 864.2800 Animal...humans or other animals, that provide the necessary growth-promoting nutrients in a cell culture system. (b) Classification....
...MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products Â§ 864.2800 Animal...humans or other animals, that provide the necessary growth-promoting nutrients in a cell culture system. (b) Classification....
The animal and bacterial kingdoms have coevolved and coadapted in response to environmental selective pressures over hundreds of millions of years. The meta'omics revolution in both sequencing and its analytic pipelines is fostering an explosion of interest in how the gut microbiome impacts physiology and propensity to disease. Gut microbiome studies are inherently interdisciplinary, drawing on approaches and technical skill sets from the biomedical sciences, ecology, and computational biology. Central to unraveling the complex biology of environment, genetics, and microbiome interaction in human health and disease is a deeper understanding of the symbiosis between animals and bacteria. Experimental model systems, including mice, fish, insects, and the Hawaiian bobtail squid, continue to provide critical insight into how host–microbiota homeostasis is constructed and maintained. Here we consider how model systems are influencing current understanding of host–microbiota interactions and explore recent human microbiome studies.
Kostic, Aleksandar D.; Howitt, Michael R.; Garrett, Wendy S.
Despite several decades of research, the epigenesis of behavioural and brain lateralization is still elusive, although its knowledge is important in understanding developmental plasticity, function and evolution of lateralization, and its relationship with developmental disorders. Over the last decades, it has become clear that behavioural lateralization is not restricted to humans, but a fundamental principle in the organization of behaviour in vertebrates. This has opened the possibility of extending descriptive studies on human lateralization with descriptive and experimental studies on other vertebrate species. In this review, we therefore explore the evidence for the role of genes and environment on behavioural lateralization in humans and other animals. First, we discuss the predominant genetic models for human handedness, and conclude that their explanatory power alone is not sufficient, leaving, together with ambiguous results from adoption studies and selection experiments in animals, ample opportunity for a role of environmental factors. Next, we discuss the potential influence of such factors, including perinatal asymmetrical perception induced by asymmetrical head position or parental care, and social modulation, both in humans and other vertebrates, presenting some evidence from our own work on the domestic chick. We conclude that both perinatal asymmetrical perception and later social modulation are likely candidates in influencing the degree or strength of lateralization in both humans and other vertebrates. However, in most cases unequivocal evidence for this is lacking and we will point out further avenues for research.
The present invention features a non-humananimal model of malaria, e.g., Plasmodium, particularly Plasmodium falciparum. The model is based on a non-human, immunocompromised transgenic animal having a human-mouse chimeric liver, where the transgene provi...
A. F. Azad D. L. Tyrrell J. B. Sacci J. F. Elliott N. M. Kneteman
INTRODUCTION: In order to identify priorities for building integrated surveillance systems that effectively model and predict human risk of zoonotic diseases, there is a need for improved understanding of the practical options for linking surveillance data of animals and humans. We conducted an analysis of the literature and characterized the linkage between animal and human health data. We discuss the
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a serious public health problem in the People’s Republic of China. Although 7 sero/genotypes of hantaviruses have been found in rodents, only Hantaan virus (carried by Apodemus agrarius mice) and Seoul virus (carried by Rattus norvegicus rats) reportedly cause disease in humans. During 1950–2007, a total of 1,557,622 cases of HFRS in humans and 46,427 deaths (3%) were reported in China. HFRS has been reported in 29 of 31 provinces in China. After implementation of comprehensive preventive measures, including vaccination, in the past decade in China, incidence of HFRS has dramatically decreased; only 11,248 HFRS cases were reported in 2007. Mortality rates also declined from the highest level of 14.2% in 1969 to ?1% during 1995–2007. However, the numbers of HFRS cases and deaths in China remain the highest in the world.
Investigations of radionuclide metabolism and effects in various mammalian species revealed important similarities between animals and humans and between some animal species. These include skeletal deposition of radium and radiostrontium in bone volume; deposition on bone surfaces of plutonium and other actinides; liver deposition of actinides; induction of skeletal or liver malignancies by these radionuclides; induction of tooth and jaw abnormalities; mammary cancer induction by radium in humans and in the beagle; depression of circulating cells in blood; and induction of bone fractures. There are also inter-species differences that may not have been noted if multiple species (includinghumans) had not been studied. Some of these are more rapid excretion of radium in humans compared with most other mammals; induction by radium of eye melanomas in animals but not humans; rapid loss of deposited plutonium from liver in many species of mice and rats but not in humans and dog; substantial sex-related differences in skeletal plutonium retention and bone sarcoma induction in mice but not in humans or dog; and induction of head sinus carcinomas by 226Ra in humans but not the beagle. Leukemia and other related neoplasms were not induced in radionuclide-injected lifespan dogs in excess of the occurrence in control animals. Much of our current understanding of skeletal biology and radionuclide behavior in mammals was derived from this and related projects. The primary goal of the Utah experiment of estimating toxicities of bone-seeking radionuclides relative to radium has been accomplished. For 226Ra = 1.0, comparative toxicities (ratios) of a single injection for bone tumor induction in beagles were about 16 +/- 5 for monomeric 239Pu (32 +/- 10 for chronic exposure), 6 +/- 0.8 for 241Am, 8.5 +/- 2.3 for 228Th, 6 +/- 3 for 249Cf, 4 +/- 2 for 252Cf, 6 +/- 2 for 224Ra (16 +/- 5 for 50 weekly injections), 2 +/- 0.5 for 228Ra, and between 0.01 +/- 0.01 and 1.0 +/- 0.5 for 90Sr, depending on the dose-rate, with the lowest dose-rates approaching a ratio of zero. Corresponding ratios in mice for 226Ra = 1.0 were 16 +/- 4 for monomeric 239Pu, 5.4 +/- 2.0 for 224Ra (16 for 50 weekly injections), 4.9 +/- 1.4 for 241Am, 5.0 +/- 1.4 for 249Cf, 2.6 +/- 0.8 for 252Cf, 4.4 +/- 1.8 for 243,244Cm and about 1.0 for 90Sr at high doses, decreasing to near zero for low doses. PMID:8972834
Lloyd, R D; Miller, S C; Taylor, G N; Bruenger, F W; Angus, W; Jee, W S
Summary: Dirofilariasis represents a zoonotic mosaic, which includes two main filarial species (Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens) that have adapted to canine, feline, and human hosts with distinct biological and clinical implications. At the same time, both D. immitis and D. repens are themselves hosts to symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, the study of which has resulted in a profound shift in the understanding of filarial biology, the mechanisms of the pathologies that they produce in their hosts, and issues related to dirofilariasis treatment. Moreover, because dirofilariasis is a vector-borne transmitted disease, their distribution and infection rates have undergone significant modifications influenced by global climate change. Despite advances in our knowledge of D. immitis and D. repens and the pathologies that they inflict on different hosts, there are still many unknown aspects of dirofilariasis. This review is focused on human and animal dirofilariasis, including the basic morphology, biology, protein composition, and metabolism of Dirofilaria species; the climate and human behavioral factors that influence distribution dynamics; the disease pathology; the host-parasite relationship; the mechanisms involved in parasite survival; the immune response and pathogenesis; and the clinical management of human and animal infections.
Siles-Lucas, Mar; Morchon, Rodrigo; Gonzalez-Miguel, Javier; Mellado, Isabel; Carreton, Elena; Montoya-Alonso, Jose Alberto
Antibiotic resistance was investigated in 474 Escherichia coli isolates recovered from animal faeces (broilers, pigs, pets, bulls and horses), human faeces (patients and healthy volunteers) and food products of animal origin. E. coli isolates (3260) recovered from human significant infectious samples were also included. There was a high frequency of nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin resistance in E. coli isolates
Yolanda Sáenz; Myriam Zarazaga; Laura Briñas; Marta Lantero; Fernanda Ruiz-Larrea; Carmen Torres
As in humans, ‘cognitive biases’ in the way in which animals judge ambiguous stimuli may be influenced by emotional state and hence a valuable new indicator of animal emotion. There is increasing evidence that animals experiencing different emotional states following exposure to long-term environmental manipulations show contrasting biases in their judgement of ambiguous stimuli. However, the specific type of induced
Oliver H. P. Burman; Richard M. A. Parker; Elizabeth S. Paul; Michael T. Mendl
Human-animal contact can influence psychological and physiological parameters important to health and welfare; nevertheless, there has been relatively little research on the variables that influence or mediate those health consequences. In addition, little attention has been paid on how to create or alter the animal interactions for the betterment of people and their animals. The investigation can be guided by
Ethical reflection deals not only with the moral standing and handling of animals, it should also include a critical analysis\\u000a of the underlying relationship. Anthropological, psychological, and sociological aspects of the human–animal-relationship\\u000a should be taken into account. Two conditions, asymmetry and ambivalence, are taken as the historical and empirical basis for\\u000a reflections on the human–animal-relationship in late modern societies. These
Recent archaeological research has fundamentally altered our understanding of the scope of past human impacts on nondomesticated animal populations. Predictions derived from foraging theory concerning the abundance histories of high-return human prey and diet breadth have been met in many parts of the world. People are known to have introduced a broad variety of nondomesticated animals, from sponges to agoutis
\\u000a How many animal models are adequate to study human aging? Aging is an adaptive process performed by an integrated panel of\\u000a evolutionarily selected mechanisms aimed at maintaining soma integrity. The possibility of extrapolating results from animal\\u000a models to human beings has to be addressed in an ecological context. Model systems fit basic requirements of scientific research,\\u000a and experimental animals show
Miriam Capri; Stefano Salvioli; Elisa Cevenini; Laura Celani; Federica Sevini; Elena Bellavista; Catia Lanzarini; Stella Lukas; Paolo Tieri; Francesco Lescai; Daniela Monti; Claudio Franceschi
This presentation is part of the Metaphor and Vision track.\\u000aNanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on the molecular and atomic scales. Some have projected that it will have broad economic and social benefits; including improved energy efficiency, computing power, medical treatments, and removal of environmental pollutants. ‘Nature’ has been identified as the ultimate nanotechnologist and design elements from animal
This article takes well-known methods in robotics and combines them in order to enable the simulation and animation of the virtual human - a model of human kinematics. The virtual human consists of standard kinematic chains, that are arranged and coupled with each other to approximate the degrees of freedom of the human body. The anthropomorphic multi-robot system resulting from
Human-computer interaction in the large is an interdisciplinary area which attracts researchers, educators, and practioners from many differenf fields. Human-computer interaction studies a human and a machine in communication, it draws from supporting knowledge on both the machine and the human side. This paper is related to the human side of human-computer interaction and focuses on animations. The growing use
Golnessa Galyani Moghaddam; M. L. I. Sc; Mostafa Moballeghi
The term “osteopetrosis” is applied to a group of disorders characterized by an increased bone density, due to an inadequate\\u000a bone resorption. A considerable part of our current knowledge on osteoclast biology is based on the study of osteopetrotic\\u000a animal models. The search for mutations in these animals has unveiled many molecular mechanisms underlying osteoclast differentiation\\u000a and functioning. It also
\\u000a Research at the intersections of feminism, biology and philosophy provides dynamic starting grounds for this discussion of\\u000a genetic technologies and animals. With a focus on animal bodies, I examine moral implications of the genetic engineering of\\u000a “domesticated” animals—primarily pigs and chickens—for the purposes of human consumption. Concepts of natural and artificial,\\u000a contamination and purity, integrity and fragmentation and mind and
Research at the intersections of feminism, biology and philosophy provides dynamic starting grounds for this discussion of\\u000a genetic technologies and animals. With a focus on animal bodies, I will examine moral implications of the genetic engineering\\u000a of “domesticated” animals—primarily pigs and chickens—for the purposes of human consumption. Concepts of natural and artificial,\\u000a contamination and purity, integrity and fragmentation and mind
For millennia, relationships have developed between ani- mals and people through the context of work, sport, com- panionship, or some combination of these activities. Often, a bond between animal and human results that is based on affection and\\/or respect. In the research environment, it is not uncommon for a bond to develop between the investi- gator, veterinarian, and\\/or animal care
Farm animals and their products have a longstanding and successful history of providing significant contributions to human nutrition, clothing, facilitation of labour, research, development and medicine and have thus been essential in improving life expectancy and human health. With the advent of transgenic technologies the potential of farm animals for improving human health is growing and many areas remain to be explored. Recent breakthroughs in reproductive technologies, such as somatic cloning and in vitro embryo production, and their merger with molecular genetic tools, will further advance progress in this field. Here, we have summarized the contribution of farm animals to human health, covering the production of antimicrobial peptides, dietary supplements or functional foods, animals used as disease models and the contribution of animals to solving urgent environmental problems and challenges in medicine such as the shortage of human cells, tissues and organs and therapeutic proteins. Some of these areas have already reached the level of preclinical testing or commercial application, others will be further advanced only when the genomes of the animals concerned have been sequenced and annotated. Provided the necessary precautions are being taken, the transmission of pathogens from animals to humans can be avoided to provide adequate security. Overall, the promising perspectives of farm animals and their products warrant further research and development in this field. PMID:15158058
Twenty-three chemicals were selected for comparison of the carcinogenic potencies estimated from epidemiological data to those estimated from animal carcinogenesis bioassays. The chemicals were all those for which reasonably strong evidence of carcinogenicity could be found in humans or animals and for which suitable data could be obtained for quantifying carcinogenic potencies in both humans and animals. Many alternative methods of analyzing the bioassay data were investigated. Almost all of the methods yielded potency estimates that were highly correlated with potencies estimated from epidemiological data; correlations were highly statistically significant (p < 0.001), with the corresponding correlation coefficients ranging as high as 0.9. These findings provide support for the general use of animal data to evaluate carcinogenic potential in humans and also for the use of animal data to quantify human risk.
Established in 1981 at the University of Minnesota's School of Public Health, the Center to Study HumanAnimal Relationships and Environments (CENSHARE) is an umbrella organization that supports groups that aim to educate about the humananimal relationship and the environment they share. This mission of this education is to improve the quality of life for both, encourage scientific study of such relationships, and also serve as a resource for the community on these relationships. Visitors should check out the thorough explanation of "Animal Assisted Therapy" (AAT), and learn how it differs from, say, Animal Assisted Activities (AAA). As animal therapy can be stressful on the animal if it is not properly trained for such demanding work, the AAT link gives helpful tips to visitors on how to get an animal ready to be a therapy animal. Visitors will also learn from the AAT link that such animals have been evaluated and registered by national groups that specialize in therapy animals, but are not given the federal protections that specially-trained service dogs are, such as access to public transportation and public buildings. Finally, visitors should check out the "Companion Animals in Care Environments" link. Here they can read a bittersweet story titled "Lessons to be Learned from the Saga of Mae" which addresses the considerations that should be made when deciding whether to allow a resident animal in a care facility.
It is one thing to understand what advantages an animal such as ourselves gains by being able to exploit spectral information in its environment, but quite another to understand how the animal benefits by having conscious color experiences. Since experiences are private, how could they confer a selective advantage? Could they do so by enabling voluntary action of a sort forever beyond the resources of the most ingeniously designed wavelength-processing robot? Or is there an ancient biological link between color experience and the emotions that colors evoke in us?
The stratum corneum is the outermost layer of the skin and provides the principal barrier for the ingress of chemicals and environmental toxins into human and animal tissues. However, human skin has several advantages for the administration of therapeutic agents (transdermal drug delivery), but problems occur with the supply, storage, and biohazardous nature of human tissue. Hence, alternative animal tissues have been prepared to model drug diffusion across human skin but the molecular basis for comparison is lacking. Here, FT-Raman spectra of mammalian (human and pig) and reptilian (snake) skins have been obtained and the structural dissimilarities are correlated with drug diffusion studies across the tissues.
Barry, Brian W.; Edwards, Howell G.; Williams, Adrian C.
Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Salmonella enterica. This work focuses on the identification of Salmonella enterica clonal strains which, presenting a wide distribution potential, express resistance determinants that compromise effectiveness of the antimicrobial therapy. The screening was performed on 506 Salmonella enterica isolates from animals and humans, which were characterized by serovar and phage typing, genome macrorestriction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and detection of phenotypic and genotypic traits for antimicrobial resistance. A Salmonella Enteritidis strain with strong quinolone resistance is spread on three host environments carrying one of the four variants found for the GyrA protein: (1) Asp87Tyr, the major polymorphism found in 39 Salmonella isolates from human origin and six from poultry; (2) Ser83Phe, with four isolates from human origin and one from white stork (Ciconia ciconia); and (3) Asp87Asn or (4) Asp87Gly, with two isolates each from human origins. Several Salmonella Typhimurium strains that presented int1 elements and the classically associated pentaresistance (ACSSuT) phenotype were found distributed between two host environments: domestic animals and humans, domestics and wild animals, or wild fauna plus humans. This study points out the importance of monitoring gut microbiota and its antimicrobial resistance from wildlife, in parallel to livestock animals and humans, especially for animal species that are in close contact with people. PMID:23360170
Palomo, Gonzalo; Campos, Maria Jorge; Ugarte, María; Porrero, María Concepción; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Borge, Carmen; Vadillo, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas; Quesada, Alberto; Píriz, Segundo
An outbreak of febrile illness with rash was reported in humans and buffaloes with pox lesions in some villages of Solapur and Kolhapur districts of Maharashtra state, India. Detailed clinico-epidemiological investigations were done with collection of blood, vesicular fluid and scab from humans and animals. A total of 166 suspected human cases from Kasegaon village in Solapur district and 185 cases were reported from 21 different villages from Kolhapur district. The attack rate in humans in Kasegaon village was 6.6% while in Kolhapur district the attack rate for buffaloes was 11.7%. Pox-like lesions were associated with fever, malaise, pain at site of lesion and axillary and inguinal lymphadenopathy in the humans. Infected buffaloes had lesions on teats, udders, external ears and eyelids. Laboratory investigations included detection of Buffalopox virus (BPXV) by electron microscopy (EM), virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Presence of BPXV was confirmed in 7 human cases and one buffalo in Kasegaon and 14 human cases from Kolhapur. The virus was isolated from 3 clinical specimens and Orthopoxvirus (OPXV) particles could be observed in EM. Thus, BPXV was identified as the etiological agent of the outbreak among both humans and buffaloes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the ATI and C18L gene revealed that a single strain of virus is circulating in India. Re-emergence of OPXV like BPXV is a real danger and contingency planning is needed to define prophylactic and therapeutic strategies to prevent or stop an epidemic. Considering the productivity losses caused by buffalopox infection and its zoonotic impact, the importance of control measures in reducing the economic and public health impact cannot be underestimated. PMID:21511350
Humans have a long history of relationship with domestic animals and nowadays pets often act as "social substitutes" through bonding. There is some evidence that pet presence at home may induce well being in people and the development of social skills in children. Animal assisted therapies aim at developing these skills in patients on the basis of humananimal interactions. Experimental data obtained on animal models suggest that this is indeed a promising line. There is however a lack of clear scientific data that would help defines what the most appropriate procedures or species may be. Improvements are observed, but again sound scientific data are mostly missing. Attention must be given to the welfare of the animals being used. PMID:22194075
Human hepatitis viruses are currently the subjects of intense investigation because of the tremendous clinical impact of these agents on human health. For other viral infections, cell culture and animal models have played crucial roles in the development of vaccines and drug therapies as well as characterization of viral life cycles. However, for human hepatitis viruses, models have been limited.
Presented is a policy regarding vivisection, dissection, and other use of animals in biology classrooms. Alternative teaching techniques are stressed. The organizational responsibility regarding this issue is discussed. (CW)
Toxicity testing for regulatory purposes raises the question of test selection for a particular endpoint. Given the public's concern for animal welfare, test selection is a multi-objective decision problem that requires balancing information outcome, animal welfare loss, and monetary testing costs. This paper demonstrates the applicability of cost-effectiveness analysis as a decision-support tool for test selection in a regulatory context
Veterinarians have responsibilities to both the animal and its owner. In the past several years there has been an increased awareness and concern about human-animal bonds. As a result, we have begun to appreciate the nature, strength, and significance of bonds that develop between humans and companion animals. It is typical for a pet to be perceived as and treated as a member of the family and as a result, animals provide special and beneficial relationships for many years. It is partly because of this role of the pet in promoting human health and happiness that we as veterinarians have an obligation to assist both owner and animal. The mark of the good practitioner concerns not only the ability to diagnose and treat accurately, but also the ability to show understanding and compassionate judgement.
Humans, birds and (occasionally) apes walk bipedally. Humans, birds, many lizards and (at their highest speeds) cockroaches run bipedally. Kangaroos, some rodents and many birds hop bipedally, and jerboas and crows use a skipping gait. This paper deals only with walking and running bipeds. Chimpanzees walk with their knees bent and their backs sloping forward. Most birds walk and run with their backs and femurs sloping at small angles to the horizontal, and with their knees bent. These differences from humans make meaningful comparisons of stride length, duty factor, etc., difficult, even with the aid of dimensionless parameters that would take account of size differences, if dynamic similarity were preserved. Lizards and cockroaches use wide trackways. Humans exert a two-peaked pattern of force on the ground when walking, and an essentially single-peaked pattern when running. The patterns of force exerted by apes and birds are never as markedly two-peaked as in fast human walking. Comparisons with quadrupedal mammals of the same body mass show that human walking is relatively economical of metabolic energy, and human running is expensive. Bipedal locomotion is remarkably economical for wading birds, and expensive for geese and penguins.
The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), which was first described in 1986 in the United Kingdom but has occurred subsequently in several other countries. This Memorandum reviews the existing state of knowledge on all the known spongiform encephalopathies, and evaluates the pathways of transmission and associated hazards. The possible implications of the animal diseases, especially BSE, with regard to the use of animal tissues as animal feed, human food, and in the preparation of medicinal and other products for human use are discussed, with recommendations to national health authorities on appropriate measures to minimize the consequences of BSE to public and animal health.
\\u000a The purpose of this chapter is to explore the psychological nature of the human–animal bond, using a theory called self psychology.\\u000a In self psychology, animals who serve an essential function in maintaining a person’s cohesion and psychological well-being\\u000a are said to be serving a selfobject function. Companion animals can provide any of the three selfobject functions—mirroring,\\u000a idealizing, and twinship. This
\\u000a Psychology has held through its history an ambiguous attitude towards animal behavior. Researchers who have chosen some animal\\u000a different than man as their experimental subject have often sought to justify themselves, emphasizing the potential benefits\\u000a that the understanding of animal behavior could eventually have for understanding human behavior or even for alleviating people\\u000a suffering from psychological distress. During the behavioristic
|In this article, the authors take a very conservative view of the contribution of animal models to an understanding of human development. We do not think that homologies can be readily documented with even our most closely related relatives' behavior and psychological functioning. The major contribution of animal models is their provision of food…
Differences in exposure, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and behavior between males and females are a dominant theme in biology, transcending the plant and animal kingdoms. Yet differences due to sex and gender have not received adequate attention in human or animal toxicology nor always in epidemiology. Generalizations are often made about species’ responses to xenobiotics, without data or consideration of female\\/male
In this article, the authors take a very conservative view of the contribution of animal models to an understanding of human development. We do not think that homologies can be readily documented with even our most closely related relatives' behavior and psychological functioning. The major contribution of animal models is their provision of food for thought (hypotheses, not facts) about
A new way of controlling human face animation and synchronizing speech is proposed. It is based on the concept of abstract muscle action procedure (AMA procedure). An AMA procedure is a specialized procedure which simulates the specific action of a face muscle. This paper describes the new technique and presents a methodology for animating the face of synthetic actors based
Nadia Magnenat-thalmann; E. Primeau; Daniel Thalmann
This overview of the malignant transformation of mammalian cells in culture, includinghuman cells, describes the earliest evidence of spontaneous, virus-induced, and carcinogen-induced transformation. It discusses several systems developed to assay the carcinogen-induced transformation of highly selected infinite life span (established) cell lines as well as finite life span diploid cells. Evidence is presented to support the multistep hypothesis of the process of malignant transformation, and the theoretical requirement for acquisition of an infinite, or greatly extended, life span in culture if a cell is to become malignant is explained in light of the multistep nature of the process. The use of oncogene transfection studies to analyze the number and kinds of changes involved is discussed, with emphasis on studies using human cells. Finally, the results of earlier studies on viral- and carcinogen-induced transformation of mammalian cells (or chicken cells) are reinterpreted in the light of more recent insights into the process of carcinogenesis.
McCormick, J.J.; Maher, V.M. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))
Although water treatment processes to remove Cryptosporidium are improving and detection methods for identifying the parasite in water are becoming more sensitive, outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis continue in the human population. Animals, especially dairy calves, often become infected because C. par...
This invention relates to blood pressure measuring cuffs for humans and animals, and more particularly to a cuff wherein the pressure-transmitting parts are composed of strong, very thin, readily flexible sheet material made of polyurethane or material of...
Study of interferon production by human and animal phagocytic cells revealed that the process is more intense in cultures of macrophages than in cultures of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The amount of interferon produced was found to be directly to the nu...
Text Version... in humans comparable to the immune response achieved in animals that were protected by the vaccine). 11. Anthrax Vaccines: Efficacy Testing and ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials
The temporal course of the human brain dealing with flexible categorization was analyzed by using an event-related potential (ERP) technique in an animal\\/non-animal categorization task in two parallel experiments. Participants shown animal, person, mixed and non-animal images were asked if they saw ‘animals’ after being instructed to exclude humans in the category of ‘animals’ in Experiment 1, while they were
Changquan Long; Qiang Liu; Jiang Qiu; Xiaying Shen; Sensen Li; Hong Li
BACKGROUND\\/AIMSAlthough human ocular toxocariasis causes severe vision defect, little is known about its aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment. To develop a new animal model for human ocular toxocariasis, ophthalmological findings of fundi in Mongolian gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus, and BALB\\/c mice were investigated following infection withToxocara canis.METHODSUsing an ophthalmoscope, which was specifically developed to observe the fundi of small animals, ocular changes
There is evidence to suggest that animals, young infants and adult humans possess a biologically determined, domain-specific representation of number and of elementary arithmetic operations. Behavioral studies in infants and animals reveal number perception, discrimination and elementary calculation abilities in non-verbal organisms. Lesion and brain-imaging studies in humans indicate that a specific neural substrate, located in the left and right
Because chemicals from a wide range of environmental sources have been implicated in birth defects and reproductive failures, the effects on human reproduction of chemicals in air, in the terrestrial ecosystem, and in food were studied. Chemicals considered included nicotine, cadmium, polycyclic aromatic compounds, red dye number2, DES, PCB's, TCDD, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, strontium, and zinc. The most serious source of chemical exposure to pregnant women is cigarette smoke which exposes unborn babies to high levels of carbon monoxide, cadmium, nicotine, and benzo-a-pyrene. Fetal exposure to all teratogenic compounds must be minimized.
...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. 91.17 Section 91.17 Animals...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. (a) The owner or operator of an ocean vessel carrying animals from...
The use of non-human DNA typing in forensic science investigations, and specifically that from animal DNA, is ever increasing. The term animal DNA in this document refers to animal species encountered in a forensic science examination but does not includehuman DNA. Non-human DNA may either be: the trade and possession of a species, or products derived from a species, which is contrary to legislation; as evidence where the crime is against a person or property; instances of animal cruelty; or where the animal is the offender. The first instance is addressed by determining the species present, and the other scenarios can often be addressed by assigning a DNA sample to a particular individual organism. Currently there is little standardization of methodologies used in the forensic analysis of animal DNA or in reporting styles. The recommendations in this document relate specifically to animal DNA that is integral to a forensic science investigation and are not relevant to the breeding of animals for commercial purposes. This DNA commission was formed out of discussions at the International Society for Forensic Genetics 23rd Congress in Buenos Aires to outline recommendations on the use of non-human DNA in a forensic science investigation. Due to the scope of non-human DNA typing that is possible, the remit of this commission is confined to animal DNA typing only. PMID:21106449
Linacre, A; Gusmão, L; Hecht, W; Hellmann, A P; Mayr, W R; Parson, W; Prinz, M; Schneider, P M; Morling, N
|This monograph discusses the care and maintenance of animals, suggests some alternative teaching strategies, and affirms the value of teaching biology as the study of living organisms, rather than dead specimens. The lessons in this monograph are intended as guidelines that teachers should adapt for their own particular classroom needs. Chapter…
|When doing spring planting activities, what does a teacher do while waiting for the plants to grow? This waiting time is a golden opportunity to explore another side of gardening--the creatures that make it all possible. Insects are an integral part of everyday world, having existed for over 300 million years; they are the most common animal on…
The two classical forms of human trypanosomoses are sleeping sickness due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. brucei rhodesiense, and Chagas disease due to T. cruzi. However, a number of atypical human infections caused by other T. species (or sub-species) have been reported, namely due to T. brucei brucei, T. vivax, T. congolense, T. evansi, T. lewisi, and T. lewisi-like. These cases are reviewed here. Some infections were transient in nature, while others required treatments that were successful in most cases, although two cases were fatal. A recent case of infection due to T. evansi was related to a lack of apolipoprotein L-I, but T. lewisi infections were not related to immunosuppression or specific human genetic profiles. Out of 19 patients, eight were confirmed between 1974 and 2010, thanks to improved molecular techniques. However, the number of cases of atypical human trypanosomoses might be underestimated. Thus, improvement, evaluation of new diagnostic tests, and field investigations are required for detection and confirmation of these atypical cases. PMID:24069464
Truc, Philippe; Büscher, Philippe; Cuny, Gérard; Gonzatti, Mary Isabel; Jannin, Jean; Joshi, Prashant; Juyal, Prayag; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Mattioli, Raffaele; Pays, Etienne; Simarro, Pere P; Teixeira, Marta Maria Geraldes; Touratier, Louis; Vincendeau, Philippe; Desquesnes, Marc
The two classical forms of human trypanosomoses are sleeping sickness due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. brucei rhodesiense, and Chagas disease due to T. cruzi. However, a number of atypical human infections caused by other T. species (or sub-species) have been reported, namely due to T. brucei brucei, T. vivax, T. congolense, T. evansi, T. lewisi, and T. lewisi-like. These cases are reviewed here. Some infections were transient in nature, while others required treatments that were successful in most cases, although two cases were fatal. A recent case of infection due to T. evansi was related to a lack of apolipoprotein L-I, but T. lewisi infections were not related to immunosuppression or specific human genetic profiles. Out of 19 patients, eight were confirmed between 1974 and 2010, thanks to improved molecular techniques. However, the number of cases of atypical human trypanosomoses might be underestimated. Thus, improvement, evaluation of new diagnostic tests, and field investigations are required for detection and confirmation of these atypical cases.
Truc, Philippe; Buscher, Philippe; Cuny, Gerard; Gonzatti, Mary Isabel; Jannin, Jean; Joshi, Prashant; Juyal, Prayag; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Mattioli, Raffaele; Pays, Etienne; Simarro, Pere P.; Teixeira, Marta Maria Geraldes; Touratier, Louis; Vincendeau, Philippe; Desquesnes, Marc
Creation of new human faces for synthetic actors is a tedious and painful task. The situation may be improved by introducing tools for the creation. Two approaches are discussed in this paper: modification and edition of an existing synthetic actor using local transformations; generation of new synthetic actors obtained by interpolation between two existing actors; creation of a synthetic actor
Nadia Magnenat-thalmann; H. T. Minh; M. De Angelis; Daniel Thalmann
One health is a concept since early civilization, which promoted the view that there was no major distinction between animal and human medicine. Although persisting through the 19th century, this common vision was then all but forgotten in the early 20th century. It is now experiencing a renaissance, coincident with an awakening of the role that evolutionary biology plays in human and animal health, including sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A number of STIs in humans have comparable infections in animals; likewise, both humans and animals have STIs unique to each mammalian camp. These similarities and differences offer opportunities for basic medical and public health studies, including evolutionary insights that can be gleaned from ongoing interdisciplinary investigation--especially with the molecular analytical tools available--in what can become a golden age of mutually helpful discovery. PMID:21824162
Certain human diseases have been traced to exposure to environmental and occupational chemicals. In many instances the first evidence of potential adverse effects came from experimental studies and were subsequently discovered in humans. Associations of human cancers, as a diverse group of diseases, and chemicals have been made since the middle 1700s. Since then, nearly 100 chemicals, mixtures of chemicals, or exposure circumstances are now recognized as being or strongly implicated as being carcinogenic to humans. Of the less than 1000 agents evaluated adequately for carcinogenicity in laboratory animals, a varying spectrum of data from studies on humans are available for only about 20-25%. So far, more than 60 agents are linked unequivocally as causing cancer in humans, and another 50 or so are strongly suspected of being carcinogenic to humans. Not all of these have been or can be evaluated in animals because some are industrial processes or "occupations," some are environmental and cultural risk factors, and some are mixtures of agents. For those that can be studied experimentally, the qualitative concordance between humans and animals approaches unity, and in every case there is at least one common organ site of cancer in both species. The evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals preceded that observed in humans for nearly 30 agents and is the subject of this paper.
Extensive research documents powerful relationships between humans and companion animals, and 62 percent of U.S. households report having a companion animal. Social workers are likely to work with individuals and families with companion animals; thus, the inclusion of such animals in both practice and research as a natural extension of social work with humans, and their challenges, coping mechanisms, and resiliency factors, seems called for. Yet there is little in the social work literature that identifies what social workers are doing in this area. Thus, this descriptive study sought to explore nationally what social work practitioners know and are doing in the area of the human and companion animal relationships. Findings include that social work practitioners appear to have basic knowledge of the negative and positive relationships between humans and companion animals. About one-third are including questions about companion and other animals in their intake assessments, and a little less than 25 percent are including companion and other animals in their intervention practice. The vast majority have had no special training or coursework to do so. Implications for these and other findings are discussed, and recommendations for social work research, education, and practice are offered. PMID:20069939
Genetics play an important role in the development and course of alcohol abuse, and understanding the genetic contributions to this disorder may lead to improved preventative and therapeutic strategies in the future. Studies both in humans and in animal models are necessary to fully understand the neurobiology of alcoholism from the molecular to the cognitive level. By dissecting the complex facets of alcoholism into discrete, well-defined phenotypes that are measurable in both human populations and animal models of the disease, researchers will be better able to translate findings across species and integrate the knowledge obtained from various disciplines. Some of the key areas of alcoholism research where consilience between human and animal studies is possible are alcohol withdrawal severity, sensitivity to rewards, impulsivity, and dysregulated alcohol consumption.
Recent isolations of Rhodococcus equi from cavitatory pulmonary disease in patients with AIDS have aroused interest among medical microbiologists in this unusual organism. Earlier isolations from humans had also been in immunosuppressed patients following hemolymphatic tumors or renal transplantation. This organism has been recognized for many years as a cause of a serious pyogranulomatous pneumonia of young foals and is occasionally isolated from granulomatous lesions in several other species, in some cases following immunosuppression. The last decade has seen many advances in understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and immunity to infection in foals. The particular susceptibility of the foal is not understood but can be explained in part by a combination of heavy challenge through the respiratory route coinciding with declining maternally derived antibody in the absence of fully competent foal cellular immune mechanisms. R. equi is largely a soil organism but is widespread in the feces of herbivores. Its growth in soil is considerably improved by simple nutrients it obtains from herbivore manure. About one-third of human patients who have developed R. equi infections had contact in some way with herbivores or their manure. Others may have acquired infection from contact with soil or wild bird manure. R. equi is an intracellular parasite, which explains the typical pyogranulomatous nature of R. equi infections, the predisposition to infection in human patients with defective cell-mediated immune mechanisms, and the efficacy of antimicrobial drugs that penetrate phagocytic cells. Images
Cerebellar injury is increasingly recognized through advanced neonatal brain imaging as a complication of premature birth. Survivors of preterm birth demonstrate a constellation of long-term neurodevelopmental deficits, many of which are potentially referable to cerebellar injury, including impaired motor functions such as fine motor incoordination, impaired motor sequencing and also cognitive, behavioral dysfunction among older patients. This paper reviews the morphogenesis and histogenesis of the human and rodent developing cerebellum, and its more frequent injuries in preterm. Most cerebellar lesions are cerebellar hemorrhage and infarction usually leading to cerebellar abnormalities and/or atrophy, but the exact pathogenesis of lesions of the cerebellum is unknown. The different mechanisms involved have been investigated with animal models and are primarily hypoxia, ischemia, infection, and inflammation Exposure to drugs and undernutrition can also induce cerebellar abnormalities. Different models are detailed to analyze these various disturbances of cerebellar development around birth.
Biran, Valerie; Verney, Catherine; Ferriero, Donna M.
In summary, studies reported to date have largely failed to demonstrate human infection with animal and poultry retroviruses or an association between human diseases and these viruses. A number of studies, most of them serologic, have attempted to demonstrate human infection with these viruses. The lack of antibodies in apparently exposed groups of persons suggests an absence of infection. However, another possible explanation is that humans may be immunologically unresponsive to infection with these viruses. Although attempts to infect normal human cells in vitro with many of these viruses have not been reported, BLV and BIV appear to grow poorly or not at all. On the other hand, ALSV subgroup D infect and transform human cells in vitro. However, the production of infectious virus in vitro has been low or nonexistent. This may explain the absence of antibodies in human populations. Furthermore, many of the methods used to detect infection, either directly or indirectly, have either low sensitivity or problems with specificity. Several epidemiologic studies have tried to show a relationship between human and animal leukemia or lymphoma. In many of these studies the actual exposure to retroviruses is unknown and exposure to animals may merely represent exposure to other risk factors that are more important but were either not considered or are undefined; alternatively, a common exposure may be responsible for malignancy in humans and animals with no interspecies relationship. Based on the reported studies, these viruses appear unlikely to be responsible for any significant occurrence of human disease, particularly lymphoid malignancies. Although a definitive statement of no risk to human health is probably unwarranted, the evidence to date indicates that the risk is low and perhaps nonexistent. Thus, no specific public health recommendations regarding retrovirus-infected animals or poultry are warranted at this time. PMID:9071753
The phenomenon of drug resistance among bacteria, particularly Escherichia coli, has been a major research interest of the University of Bristol's departments of microbiology and veterinary medicine during the past 15 years. Tens of thousands of E coli isolates from man and farm animals have been examined in studies of both the ecology of the species and the epidemiology of their resistance to therapeutic antibacterial agents. The principal findings obtained in these investigations are described. PMID:3538639
Veterinary public health is a frontier in the fight against human disease, charged to control and eradicate zoonotic diseases that are naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and man. Currently there is a need for clinical pharmacologists and all health care givers to limit the development of bacterial resistance in humans to contain the increased health care expenditures related to morbidity
The alkaline sphingomyelinase (SMase) was first found in rat intestinal brush border. The important roles of this enzyme in digestion of sphingomyelin and in mucosal cell proliferation have been suggested. In the present work, the distribution of the alkaline SMase in the tissues of human beings and animals have been studied. By assaying the enzyme activity in human biopsy samples,
R.-D. Duan; E. Hertervig; L. Nyberg; T. Hauge; B. Sternby; J. Lillienau; A. Farooqi; Å. Nilsson
Research on endocrinological correlates of aggression in laboratory animals is implicitly motivated by an expectation that the results of such studies may be applicable to human aggression as well. Research with a focus on the stimulus antecedents of aggression, its response characteristics, and its outcomes suggests a number of detailed correspondences between offensive aggression in laboratory rodents and human angry
The teratogenicity of alcohol has been demonstrated in humans through clinical studies, behavioral studies, and epidemiologic studies, and in animals through controlled laboratory experiments. In humans exposed to alcohol during gestation the effects can range from fetal alcohol syndrome in some offspring of chronic alcoholic women to reduced average birth weight in offspring of women reporting an average consumption of
Ann Pytkowicz Streissguth; Sharon Landesman-Dwyer; Joan C. Martin; David W. Smith
|Damage to structures in the human medial temporal lobe causes severe memory impairment. Animal object recognition tests gained prominence from attempts to model "global" human medial temporal lobe amnesia, such as that observed in patient HM. These tasks, such as delayed nonmatching-to-sample and spontaneous object recognition, for assessing…
Winters, Boyer D.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.
Damage to structures in the human medial temporal lobe causes severe memory impairment. Animal object recognition tests gained prominence from attempts to model "global" human medial temporal lobe amnesia, such as that observed in patient HM. These tasks, such as delayed nonmatching-to-sample and spontaneous object recognition, for assessing…
Winters, Boyer D.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.
Though the human consumption of farmed animal products (FAPs) is rising at an unprecedented rate, the number of undernourished people exceeds 1 billion. FAPs can provide nutritional benefits, but their human health impacts, particularly how their consumption affects the health of others, have hardly been recognized. In this article the question of whether or not the consumption of FAPs causes
Human and animal hepatocytes are now being used as an in vitro technique to aid drug discovery by predicting the in vivo metabolic pathways of drugs or new chemical entities (NCEs), identifying drug-metabolizing enzymes and predicting their in vivo induction. Because of the difficulty of establishing whether the cytotoxic susceptibility of human hepatocytes to xenobiotics\\/drugs in vitro could be used
Staphylococcus aureus is a typical human pathogen. Some animal S. aureus lineages have derived from human strains following profound genetic adaptation determining a change in host specificity. Due to the close relationship of animals with the environmental microbiome and resistome, animal staphylococcal strains also represent a source of resistance determinants. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) emerged 50?years ago as a nosocomial pathogen but in the last decade it has also become a frequent cause of infections in the community. The recent finding that MRSA frequently colonizes animals, especially livestock, has been a reason for concern, as it has revealed an expanded reservoir of MRSA. While MRSA strains recovered from companion animals are generally similar to human nosocomial MRSA, MRSA strains recovered from food animals appear to be specific animal-adapted clones. Since 2005, MRSA belonging to ST398 was recognized as a colonizer of pigs and human subjects professionally exposed to pig farming. The “pig” MRSA was also found to colonize other species of farmed animals, including horses, cattle, and poultry and was therefore designated livestock-associated (LA)-MRSA. LA-MRSA ST398 can cause infections in humans in contact with animals, and can infect hospitalized people, although at the moment this occurrence is relatively rare. Other animal-adapted MRSA clones have been detected in livestock, such as ST1 and ST9. Recently, ST130 MRSA isolated from bovine mastitis has been found to carry a novel mecA gene that eludes detection by conventional PCR tests. Similar ST130 strains have been isolated from human infections in UK, Denmark, and Germany at low frequency. It is plausible that the increased attention to animal MRSA will reveal other strains with peculiar characteristics that can pose a risk to human health.
PCR procedures based on 16S rRNA genen sequence specific for 12 anaerobic bacteria that predominate in the human intestinal tract were developed and used for quantitative detection of these species in human feces and animal feces. The reported PCR procedure including the fecal sample preparation method is simplified and rapid and eliminates the DNA isolation steps.
Many infections can be transmitted between animals and humans. The epidemiological roles of different species can vary from important reservoirs to dead-end hosts. Here, we present a method to identify transmission cycles in different combinations of species from field data. We used this method to synthesise epidemiological and ecological data from Bipindi, Cameroon, a historical focus of gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness), a disease that has often been considered to be maintained mainly by humans. We estimated the basic reproduction number of gambiense HAT in Bipindi and evaluated the potential for transmission in the absence of human cases. We found that under the assumption of random mixing between vectors and hosts, gambiense HAT could not be maintained in this focus without the contribution of animals. This result remains robust under extensive sensitivity analysis. When using the distributions of species among habitats to estimate the amount of mixing between those species, we found indications for an independent transmission cycle in wild animals. Stochastic simulation of the system confirmed that unless vectors moved between species very rarely, reintroduction would usually occur shortly after elimination of the infection from human populations. This suggests that elimination strategies may have to be reconsidered as targeting human cases alone would be insufficient for control, and reintroduction from animal reservoirs would remain a threat. Our approach is broadly applicable and could reveal animal reservoirs critical to the control of other infectious diseases.
Funk, Sebastian; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Heesterbeek, Hans; Edmunds, W. John; Checchi, Francesco
In this paper we discuss several established and potential animal models for human parasitic infection, with a focus on rodent, pig and primate models and the nematodes Ascaris, Trichuris and Toxocara spp. Firstly, we discuss the relevance of choosing a suitable animal host to fit the particular study hypothesis, and the interaction between mathematical modelling and animal models. Secondly, we review the use of animal models for the study of nutrition-parasite interaction, evaluation of treatment and control strategies, and bacteria-parasite interactions. We show that rodent, pig and primate models are all very useful in parasitological research, and that each model has its limitations. However, based on recent experience with the pig-Ascaris and pig-Trichuris models, a more extensive use of the pig-parasite model is advocated, especially for the study of the interaction between human malnutrition and helminth infection, and congenital helminth infection. PMID:11386694
Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents an escalating global threat as life expectancy and disease prevalence continue to increase. There is a considerable need for earlier diagnoses to improve clinical outcomes. Fluid biomarkers measured from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood, or imaging biomarkers have considerable potential to assist in the diagnosis and management of AD. An additional important utility of biomarkers is in novel therapeutic development and clinical trials to assess efficacy and side effects of therapeutic interventions. Because many biomarkers are initially examined in animal models, the extent to which markers translate from animals to humans is an important issue. The current review highlights many existing and pipeline biomarker approaches, focusing on the degree of correspondence between AD patients and animal models. The review also highlights the need for greater translational correspondence between human and animal biomarkers. PMID:23631871
Sabbagh, Jonathan J; Kinney, Jefferson W; Cummings, Jeffrey L
All human Ebola virus outbreaks during 2001–2003 in the forest zone between Gabon and Republic of Congo resulted from handling infected wild animal carcasses. After the first outbreak, we created an Animal Mortality Monitoring Network in collaboration with the Gabonese and Congolese Ministries of Forestry and Environment and wildlife organizations (Wildlife Conservation Society and Programme de Conservation et Utilisation Rationnelle des Ecosystèmes Forestiers en Afrique Centrale) to predict and possibly prevent human Ebola outbreaks. Since August 2001, 98 wild animal carcasses have been recovered by the network, including 65 great apes. Analysis of 21 carcasses found that 10 gorillas, 3 chimpanzees, and 1 duiker tested positive for Ebola virus. Wild animal outbreaks began before each of the 5 human Ebola outbreaks. Twice we alerted the health authorities to an imminent risk for human outbreaks, weeks before they occurred.
Froment, Jean-Marc; Bermejo, Magdalena; Kilbourn, Annelisa; Karesh, William; Reed, Patricia; Kumulungui, Brice; Yaba, Philippe; Delicat, Andre; Rollin, Pierre E.; Leroy, Eric M.
Retrospective studies and surveillance on humans and animals revealed that Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) has been circulating on Mayotte for at least several years. A study was conducted in 2011 to estimate the seroprevalence of RVF in humans and in animals and to identify associated risk factors. Using a multistage cluster sampling method, 1420 individuals were enrolled in the human study, including 337 children aged 5 to 14 years. For the animal study, 198 seronegative ruminants from 33 randomly selected sentinel ruminant herds were followed up for more than one year. In both studies, information on environment and risk factors was collected through a standardized questionnaire. The overall weighted seroprevalence of RVFV antibodies in the general population aged ?5 years was 3.5% (95% CI 2.6-4.8). The overall seroprevalence of RVFV antibodies in the ruminant population was 25.3% (95% CI 19.8-32.2). Age (?15), gender (men), place of birth on the Comoros, living in Mayotte since less than 5 years, low educational level, farming and living close to a water source were significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity in humans. Major risk factors for RFV infection in animals were the proximity of the farm to a water point, previous two-month rainfall and absence of abortions disposal. Although resulting in few clinical cases in humans and in animals, RVFV has been circulating actively on the island of Mayotte, in a context of regular import of the virus from nearby countries through illegal animal movements, the presence of susceptible animals and a favorable environment for mosquito vectors to maintain virus transmission locally. Humans and animals share the same ways of RVFV transmission, with mosquitoes playing an important role. The studies emphasize the need for a one health approach in which humans and animals within their ecosystems are included. PMID:24098637
Retrospective studies and surveillance on humans and animals revealed that Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) has been circulating on Mayotte for at least several years. A study was conducted in 2011 to estimate the seroprevalence of RVF in humans and in animals and to identify associated risk factors. Using a multistage cluster sampling method, 1420 individuals were enrolled in the human study, including 337 children aged 5 to 14 years. For the animal study, 198 seronegative ruminants from 33 randomly selected sentinel ruminant herds were followed up for more than one year. In both studies, information on environment and risk factors was collected through a standardized questionnaire. The overall weighted seroprevalence of RVFV antibodies in the general population aged ?5 years was 3.5% (95% CI 2.6–4.8). The overall seroprevalence of RVFV antibodies in the ruminant population was 25.3% (95% CI 19.8–32.2). Age (?15), gender (men), place of birth on the Comoros, living in Mayotte since less than 5 years, low educational level, farming and living close to a water source were significantly associated with RVFV seropositivity in humans. Major risk factors for RFV infection in animals were the proximity of the farm to a water point, previous two-month rainfall and absence of abortions disposal. Although resulting in few clinical cases in humans and in animals, RVFV has been circulating actively on the island of Mayotte, in a context of regular import of the virus from nearby countries through illegal animal movements, the presence of susceptible animals and a favorable environment for mosquito vectors to maintain virus transmission locally. Humans and animals share the same ways of RVFV transmission, with mosquitoes playing an important role. The studies emphasize the need for a one health approach in which humans and animals within their ecosystems are included.
Background In recent years, the field of vaccines for diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) which take a heavy toll in developing countries has faced major failures. This has led to a call for more basic science research, and development as well as evaluation of new vaccine candidates. Human-animal chimeras, developed with a 'humanized' immune system could be useful to study infectious diseases, including many neglected diseases. These would also serve as an important tool for the efficient testing of new vaccine candidates to streamline promising candidates for further trials in humans. However, developing human-animal chimeras has proved to be controversial. Discussion Development of human-animal chimeras for vaccine development has been slowed down because of opposition by some philosophers, ethicists and policy makers in the west-they question the moral status of such animals, and also express discomfort about transgression of species barriers. Such opposition often uses a contemporary western world view as a reference point. Human-animal chimeras are often being created for diseases which cause significantly higher morbidity and mortality in the developing world as compared to the developed world. We argue in our commentary that given this high disease burden, we should look at socio-cultural perspectives on human-animal chimera like beings in the developing world. On examination, it's clear that such beings have been part of mythology and cultural descriptions in many countries in the developing world. Summary To ensure that important research on diseases afflicting millions like malaria, HIV, Hepatitis-C and dengue continues to progress, we recommend supporting human-animal chimera research for vaccine development in developing countries (especially China and India which have growing technical expertise in the area). The negative perceptions in some parts of the west about human-animal chimeras can be used as an opportunity for nurturing important vaccine development research in the developing world.
Heparan sulfate, keratan sulfate, chondroitin, chondroitin 4/6-sulfate (80% 4-sulfate and 20% 6-sulfate), and UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate were used as acceptors for the measurement of 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate: glycosaminoglycan sulfotransferase activities in human serum. Chromatographic fractionation of the serum followed by determination of the sulfotransferase activities demonstrated the existence of at least four different sulfotransferases capable of introducing sulfate to 1) position 6 of the internal N-acetylgalactosamine units of chondroitin, 2) position 6 of the nonreducing terminal N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate unit of chondroitin 4/6-sulfate, 3) position 2 (amino group) of the glucosamine units in heparan sulfate, and 4) the sugar units in keratan sulfate, respectively. The fourth activity was separated into two subfractions with different specificities for the structure of neighboring sugars of the sulfate-accepting sugar units. No major variations in the sulfotransferase activities on added receptors were found to occur in sera from individuals 22-41 years old. In contrast, the activities in sera of various mammalian and avian species showed a species-specific variation. With mouse skin fibroblasts cultured in serum-free medium, preferential secretion of several sulfotransferases could be demonstrated. The results, taken together, suggest that the appearance of the sulfotransferases in serum is not a fortuitous event due to nonspecific cell death, but the result of an elaborate mechanism for enzyme secretion by a cell or tissue system. PMID:3457007
Inoue, H; Otsu, K; Yoneda, M; Kimata, K; Suzuki, S; Nakanishi, Y
Explore the wonderful world of animals Listen to the animal sound. See if you can identify the animal.Animal sounds. Explore and find out about different animals.Kids Planet Create a animal report using one of the animals found in the web site.Kids Planet,SeaWorld/animals Create a picture of your animal examples are found...Your big backyard ...
Empirical research has increasingly found evidence for the coexistence of animal abuse and various forms of interpersonal\\u000a violence. Some researchers have even argued for a specific version of this relationship, namely, that individuals tend to\\u000a move from violence toward animals, particularly in childhood, to subsequent violence toward humans. Others have suggested\\u000a that the evidence for this graduation or progression hypothesis
The term human-animal bond (HAB) was used prominently in 1979 in Scotland, but the concept had been articulated by Konrad Lorenz and Boris Levinson earlier. International and national conferences in the 1970s and 1980s and their published proceedings brought wide attention to the HAB, as did media coverage of community animal-assisted activity and therapy programs and service dog training programs.
Quinn and Eimas (1998) reported an asymmetry in the exclusivity of the category representations that young infants form for\\u000a humans and nonhuman animals: category representations for nonhuman animal species were found to exclude humans, whereas a\\u000a category representation for humans was found to include nonhuman animal species (i.e., cats, horses). The present experiment\\u000a utilized the familiarization\\/novelty-preference procedure with 3- and
With the population of older adults expected to grow rapidly over the next two decades, it has become increasingly important to advance research efforts to elucidate the mechanisms associated with cognitive aging, with the ultimate goal of developing effective interventions and prevention therapies. Although there has been a vast research literature on the use of cognitive tests to evaluate the effects of aging and age-related neurodegenerative disease, the need for a set of standardized measures to characterize the cognitive profiles specific to healthy aging has been widely recognized. Here we present a review of selected methods and approaches that have been applied in human research studies to evaluate the effects of aging on cognition, including executive function, memory, processing speed, language, and visuospatial function. The effects of healthy aging on each of these cognitive domains are discussed with examples from cognitive/experimental and clinical/neuropsychological approaches. Further, we consider those measures that have clear conceptual and methodological links to tasks currently in use for non-humananimal studies of aging, as well as those that have the potential for translation to animal aging research. Having a complementary set of measures to assess the cognitive profiles of healthy aging across species provides a unique opportunity to enhance research efforts for cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intervention studies of cognitive aging. Taking a cross-species, translational approach will help to advance cognitive aging research, leading to a greater understanding of associated neurobiological mechanisms with the potential for developing effective interventions and prevention therapies for age-related cognitive decline.
Alexander, Gene E.; Ryan, Lee; Bowers, Dawn; Foster, Thomas C.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Geldmacher, David S.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.
The present invention provides transgenic, non-humananimals comprising a transgene that encodes apolipoprotein(a), which animal exhibits an atherosclerotic phenotype. The present invention further provides transgenic, non-humananimals comprising a trans...
The advantages and justifications for using small animals in human-oriented research are reviewed. Some of the pitfalls of extrapolating animal-derived data to humans are discussed. Several specific problems with animal experimentation are highlighted. (CW)
|The advantages and justifications for using small animals in human-oriented research are reviewed. Some of the pitfalls of extrapolating animal-derived data to humans are discussed. Several specific problems with animal experimentation are highlighted. (CW)|
Background Cryptosporidium spp. is a coccidian parasite infected humans and animals. Prevalence rate of Cryptosporidium spp. infection associated with is some parameters such as sampling, age, season, country and contact to domestic animals. This study aimed to determine Cryptosporidium spp. Infection in humans and some animals in rural areas of Shushtar district from Khuzestan Province, south- west of Iran. Methods In this study, Stool specimens were randomly collected from 45 cattle, 8 buffalos, 35 calves, 22 turkeys, 3 sheep, 2 geese as well as 62 humans in different seasons selected from rural areas of Shushtar district located in Khuzestan in the south- west of Iran from August 2009 to April 2011. The collected stool samples were examined by modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining method. Results Altogether, 68/115 (59.1%) domestic animals and 9/62 (14.5%) of humans were showed Cryptosporidium spp. infection in the study areas. Conclusion In this study we found the high frequency of Cryptosporidium spp. infection in the studied areas.
Heidarnegadi, SM; Mohebali, M; Maraghi, SH; Babaei, Z; Farnia, SH; Bairami, A; Rezaeian, M
Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have
Andrew Cockburn; Gianfranco Brambilla; Maria-Luisa Fernández; Davide Arcella; Luisa R. Bordajandi; Bruce Cottrill; Carlos van Peteghem; Jean-Lou Dorne
This article addresses challenges in designing Human-Animal Interaction (HAI) research. A summary of previous reviews of HAI research is presented, followed by a discussion of areas that present particular challenges to research in this field, specifically design issues, control of extraneous variables, sample selection, intervention development, and outcome measurement. Suggestions for addressing these areas also are presented.
The governance demands generated by the use of human/animal chimeras in scientific research offer both a challenge and an opportunity for the development of new forms of anticipatory governance through the novel application of bioethical expertise. Anticipatory governance can be seen to have three stages of development whereby bioethical experts move from a reactive to a proactive stance at the edge of what is scientifically possible. In the process, the ethicists move upstream in their engagement with the science of human-to-animal chimeras. To what extent is the anticipatory coestablishment of the principles and operational rules of governance at this early stage in the development of the human-to-animal research field likely to result in a framework for bioethical decision making that is in support of science? The process of anticipatory governance is characterised by the entwining of the scientific and the philosophical so that judgements against science are also found to be philosophically unfounded, and conversely, those activities that are permissible are deemed so on both scientific and ethical grounds. Through what is presented as an organic process, the emerging bioethical framework for human-to-animal chimera research becomes a legitimating framework within which ‘good’ science can safely progress. Science gives bioethical expertise access to new governance territory; bioethical expertise gives science access to political acceptability.
This paper presents a hybrid approach to the animation of human locomotion which combines goal-directed and dynamic motion control. Knowledge about a locomotion cycle is incorporated into a hierarchical control process. The desired locomotion is conveniently specified at the top level as a task (e.g. walk at speed . A system has been implemented based on these principles and has
A critical review of the literature on Al toxicity in plants, animals and humans reveals a similar mode of Al action in all living organisms, namely interference with the secondary messenger system (phosphoinositide and cytosolic Ca2+ signalling pathways) and enhanced production of reactive oxygen species resulting in oxidative stress. Aluminium uptake by plants is relatively quick (across the intact plasma
Environmental ecosystems and climate are closely linked and they affect animal and human diseases. We describe (1) the effect of ecology on vector-borne disease, (2) the role of ecology and global climate in disease forecasting, and (3) the potential use of forecasting to reduce impact and limit sp...
Anthropomorphism is the use of human characteristics to de- scribe or explain nonhuman animals. In the present paper, we propose a model for a unified study of such anthropomorphizing. We bring together previously disparate accounts of why and how we anthropomorphize and suggest a means to analyze anthropomorphizing behavior itself. We intro- duce an analysis of bouts of dyadic play
Influenza is a zoonotic disease caused by a constantly varying RNA virus resulting in a need for continuous surveillance to update human vaccines. Our knowledge indicates that the intermittent pandemics of influenza originate from influenza viruses or gene segments from influenza viruses in lower animals and birds. These pandemics can be mild to catastrophic. While we have learned a great
Important aspects of the voiced\\/unvoiced categorization of synthetic syllable-initial stop consonants are reproduced by a two stage biocybernetic simulation of the auditory system. This behavior is emergent - it is not explicitly programmed into the model - and no fine timing information is necessary. Unlike real (human and animal) listeners, the computational auditory model can be systematically manipulated and probed
The aim of this paper is to explicate what is special about emotional information processing, emphasizing the neural foundations that underlie the experience and expression of fear. A functional, anatomical model of defense behavior in animals is presented and applications are described in cognitive and physiological studies of human affect. It is proposed that unpleasant emotions depend on the activation
The worldwide contamination of foods and feeds with mycotoxins is a significant problem. Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds that have adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops that result in illnesses and economic losses. Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, trichothecenes, zearelenone, fumonisins, tremorgenic toxins, and ergot alkaloids are the mycotoxins of greatest agro-economic importance. Some molds are capable of producing more than
A discrepancy seems to prevail with regard to the toxicity and safety of the artemisinin family of antimalarials. While these compounds have been found to be virtually void of any serious side effects in humans, their neurotoxicity in animal models has raised concerns about their use. In this paper, we present selected examples of both pre-clinical and clinical studies dealing
A geometric and kinematic model for describing the global shape and the predominant motions of the human tongue, to be applied in computer animation, is discussed. The model consists of a spatial configuration of moving points that form the vertices of a mesh of 9 3-D triangles. These triangles are interpreted as charge centres (the so-called skeleton) for a potential
We describe our ongoing research on creating a Virtual Human Interface that employs photo-realistic virtual people and animated characters to provide digital media users with information, learning services and entertainment in a highly personalized manner. Our system was designed to be able to create emotional engagement between the virtual character and the user, thus increasing the efficiency of learning and\\/or
In this paper we present a new framework for the modeling and animation of human characters from monocular videos. The modeling is performed semi-automatically using a polygonal shape model obtained from laser scanner measurements. Most of the image-based techniques use probabilistic approaches to derive the poses of a character from an image sequences; on the other hand we use a
In "De animalibus", the 7th book in the "Liber simplicis medicinae", Hildegard von Bingen describes the characteristics of four-footed land animals. Some of these have a special relationship with humans in that they embody moral qualities. An explanation for this is already given in the preface, which states that human intelligence recognizes these qualities, declaring that "You are this or that sort of creature". Since the relationship that animals have with nature shares a degree of similarity with that of man's, they can be regarded as symbolic representatives for particular human traits and characteristics. The article at hand presents Hildegard von Bingen's descriptions of the monkey, the lion, the bear, the rabbit, the dog, the cat, the wolf, the lynx, and the donkey. While the monkey just mimics man's behaviour and is imperfect in both settings, the lion embodies will power. The bear on the other hand stands for unbridled sexual desire, while in the rabbit the gentleness of a sheep is united with the bounce of a deer. The lynx is regarded as hedonistic, the donkey as stupid, and the wolf as surrounded by dangerous sylphs. In Hildegard's depictions, exotic and native animal species display rather extraordinary behavioural traits, and the medieval Christian world view of the author conveys unexpected relationships between humans and animals. In addition to empirical observation and experience, Hildegard also relies on folkloristic beliefs and magical practices related to explanatory models of her time. She allows largely unknown sources into her animal lore but never strays from her ultimate goal of having it serve to instruct people. In doing so, Hildegard removed herself far from the common tradition of medieval animal portraits. PMID:23155757
The article reviews the steadily increasing literature on tuberculosis outbreaks involving Mycobacterium bovis, a bacillus traditionally associated with cattle and dairy products but in fact syndemic in a wide range of other animalsincludinghumans. Six major categories of journals cover this story: human infectious diseases and epidemiology, general human medicine, general veterinary practice, veterinary management of zoonoses and wildlife
|Discusses various bioethical issues and problems related to animal welfare and animal rights. Areas examined include: Aristotelian views; animal welfare legislation; Darwin and evolutionary theory; animal and human behavior; and vegetarianism. A 14-point universal declaration of the rights of animals is included. (JN)|
Humans routinely make many decisions collectively, whether they choose a restaurant with friends, elect political leaders or decide actions to tackle international problems, such as climate change, that affect the future of the whole planet. We might be less aware of it, but group decisions are just as important to social animals as they are for us. Animal groups have to collectively decide about communal movements, activities, nesting sites and enterprises, such as cooperative breeding or hunting, that crucially affect their survival and reproduction. While human group decisions have been studied for millennia, the study of animal group decisions is relatively young, but is now expanding rapidly. It emerges that group decisions in animals pose many similar questions to those in humans. The purpose of the present issue is to integrate and combine approaches in the social and natural sciences in an area in which theoretical challenges and research questions are often similar, and to introduce each discipline to the other's key ideas, findings and successful methods. In order to make such an introduction as effective as possible, here, we briefly review conceptual similarities and differences between the sciences, and provide a guide to the present issue. PMID:19073475
Humans routinely make many decisions collectively, whether they choose a restaurant with friends, elect political leaders or decide actions to tackle international problems, such as climate change, that affect the future of the whole planet. We might be less aware of it, but group decisions are just as important to social animals as they are for us. Animal groups have to collectively decide about communal movements, activities, nesting sites and enterprises, such as cooperative breeding or hunting, that crucially affect their survival and reproduction. While human group decisions have been studied for millennia, the study of animal group decisions is relatively young, but is now expanding rapidly. It emerges that group decisions in animals pose many similar questions to those in humans. The purpose of the present issue is to integrate and combine approaches in the social and natural sciences in an area in which theoretical challenges and research questions are often similar, and to introduce each discipline to the other's key ideas, findings and successful methods. In order to make such an introduction as effective as possible, here, we briefly review conceptual similarities and differences between the sciences, and provide a guide to the present issue.
For avian influenza the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) has laid down international standards on notification, trade, diagnosis, surveillance and the production and use of vaccine. These standards are science- and risk-based to ensure safe trade in poultry and poultry products without unjustified barriers. The European Union, with its 27 Member States, has in place harmonised legislation in line with OIE standards. Early detection, rapid diagnosis, notification and high quality Veterinary Services are crucial for ensuring a rapid response to avian influenza outbreaks and for swiftly reducing the risk of virus spread via trade. Depending on the situation, vaccination may also be a very important tool for disease control. The use of high quality vaccines and postvaccination monitoring are essential for the successful implementation of vaccination. Compliance with international standards is of paramount importance for protecting animal and human health in the global crisis of the highly pathogenic avian influenza of the H5N1 subtype. PMID:19618641
Tissue homogenization is a prerequisite to any fractionation schedule. A plethora of hands-on methods are available to homogenize tissues. Here we report a mechanized method for homogenizing animal and human tissues rapidly and easily. The Bio-Mixer 1200 (manufactured by Innovative Products, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK) utilizes the back-and-forth movement of two motor-driven disposable syringes, connected to each other through a three-way stopcock, to homogenize animal or human tissue. Using this method, we were able to homogenize human or mouse tissues (brain, liver, heart, and salivary glands) in 5 min. From sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric enzyme assay for prolidase, we have found that the homogenates obtained were as good or even better than that obtained used a manual glass-on-Teflon (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) homogenization protocol (all-glass tube and Teflon pestle). Use of the Bio-Mixer 1200 to homogenize animal or human tissue precludes the need to stay in the cold room as is the case with the other hands-on homogenization methods available, in addition to freeing up time for other experiments. PMID:15285912
Kurien, Biji T; Porter, Andrew C; Patel, Nisha C; Kurono, Sadamu; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Scofield, R Hal
Calcium isotopes in tissues are thought to be influenced by an individual's diet, reflecting parameters such as trophic level and dairy consumption, but this has not been carefully assessed. We report the calcium isotope ratios (? 44/42Ca) of modern and archaeological animal and human bone ( n = 216). Modern sheep raised at the same location show 0.14 ± 0.08‰ higher ? 44/42Ca in females than in males, which we attribute to lactation by the ewes. In the archaeological bone samples the calcium isotope ratios of the herbivorous fauna vary by location. At a single site, the archaeological fauna do not show a trophic level effect. Humans have lower ? 44/42Ca than the mean site fauna by 0.22 ± 0.22‰, and the humans have a greater ? 44/42Ca range than the animals. No effect of sex or age on the calcium isotope ratios was found, and intra-individual skeletal ? 44/42Ca variability is negligible. We rule out dairy consumption as the main cause of the lower human ? 44/42Ca, based on results from sites pre-dating animal domestication and dairy availability, and suggest instead that individual physiology and calcium intake may be important in determining bone calcium isotope ratios.
Reynard, L. M.; Henderson, G. M.; Hedges, R. E. M.
Using the most comprehensive inhalation study available, (Wagner, et al., 1974), the dose-response effects of the four major types of asbestos fibers (amosite, anthophyllite, crocidolite, and chrysotile: Canadian, Rhodesian) for lung cancer have been determined. From linear regression analysis of the animal data and five human epidemiology studies giving a wide range of risk estimates, slopes of the curves have been determined and lifetime risk estimates made. Projected risks for rats are presented with and without surface area (s.a.) conversion factors. On the basis of cumulative exposure, the geometric mean of the point estimates for the human studies (0.0146) is quite close to the geometric mean of the animal data (0.0179 without s.a.; 0.0122 with s.a. calculations). These values also match quite well if one of the studies (McDonald, et al.) is eliminated (geometric mean = 0.031) due to qualitatively different exposure considerations (mining and milling vs. industrial environments). Animal risks based on a concentration per day basis (assuming an average 70-year lifespan for humans) are below the lowest human estimate but within 5-6 fold (less) of the projected risk from nonsmoking asbestos workers (2.2 X 10(-3) using the Hammond et al. study. PMID:3615987
Although industrialized countries have been able to contain recent outbreaks of zoonotic diseases, many resource-limited and transitioning countries have not been able to react adequately. The key for controlling zoonoses such as rabies, echinococcosis, and brucellosis is to focus on the animal reservoir. In this respect, ministries of health question whether the public health sector really benefits from interventions for livestock. Cross-sectoral assessments of interventions such as mass vaccination for brucellosis in Mongolia or vaccination of dogs for rabies in Chad consider human and animal health sectors from a societal economic perspective. Combining the total societal benefits, the intervention in the animal sector saves money and provides the economic argument, which opens new approaches for the control of zoonoses in resource-limited countries through contributions from multiple sectors.
Spontaneous tumors in companion animals (dog and cat) offer a unique opportunity as models for human cancer biology and translational cancer therapeutics. The relatively high incidence of some cancers, similar biologic behavior, large body size, comparable responses to cytotoxic agents, and shorter overall lifespan are the factors that contribute to the advantages of the companion animal model. The tumor types that offer the best comparative interest include lymphoma/leukemia, osteosarcoma, STS, melanoma, and mammary tumors. With the increase in new therapeutic agents (traditional chemotherapy, gene therapy, biologic agents, etc.), the companion animal model can provide useful populations to test new agents where efficacy and toxicity can be examined. PMID:11107448
Risk management of food-animal antibiotics has reached a crucial juncture for public health officials worldwide. While withdrawals of animal antibiotics previously used to control animal bacterial illnesses are being encouraged in many countries, the human health impacts of such withdrawals are only starting to be understood. Increases in animal and human bacterial illness rates and antibiotic resistance levels in humans
Controlled surgery in the interior of human or animal bodies in classical antiquity was allowed only under certain circumstances. Bloody animal sacrifice and its rules for the interpretation of entrails as well as the rare examples of 'ritual anatomy' presented a religious framework for the opening of bodies. Greek mythology provided several examples of medical operations, for example, the Caesarean section, transplantations and plastic surgery. Great cultic significance was given to organ votives or reproductions of human inner organs which were offered in temples ex voto or with request for their curing. The anatomical knowledge transported along with these offerings represents a separate tradition different from the state of anatomical knowledge found in medical literature of the period. PMID:7789103
It is possible to differentiate isolates of Escherichia coli using a number of techniques including the determination of the serotype, biotype and phage type and the profiles for resistance to antibacterial agents and toxic chemicals, intracellular enzymes, outer membrane proteins and plasmids and the production of enterotoxin and colicines. These methods have been used principally for the study of pathogenic E. coli and plasmid-mediated drug resistance. However they can also be used successfully for ecological purposes and the application of several of these techniques for the study of the ecology of E. coli in healthy young animalsincluding man is described. PMID:2419402
Marine algal toxins are responsible of more than 60000 intoxication\\/year, with an overall mortality of about 1.5%. Human intoxications\\u000a are due to consumption of seafood and respiratory exposure to aerosolized toxins. Algal toxins are also responsible for extensive\\u000a die-offs of fish and shellfish, as well as mortality in seabirds, marine mammals and other animals depending on marine food\\u000a web. Lots
Major advances have been made in our understanding of the role of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in the onset and development of atherosclerosis. Increasing evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that apoE is able to protect against atherosclerosis by: a) promoting efficient uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from the circulation; b) maintaining normal macrophage lipid homeostasis; c) playing a role
Jean Davignon; Jeffrey S. Cohn; Laurence Mabile; Lise Bernier
Feminist science studies have given scant regard to non-humananimals. In this paper, we argue that it is important for feminist theory to address the complex relationships between humans and other animals, and the implications of these for feminism. We use the notion of performativity, particularly as it has been developed by Karen Barad, to explore the intersections of feminism
Lectin-histochemical studies were performed on paraffin-embedded brain tissue sections to identify the specific sugar residues of undegraded “stored” substances in the cytoplasm of globoid cells from patients with globoid cell leukodystrophy. We studied brain tissues from six human patients with galactosylceramide lipidosis (i. e., Krabbe's disease) and compared them to brain tissues from animals with a similar enzyme deficiency including
This paper gives a review of chromatographic methods used for the determination of ochratoxin A (OA) in animal and human tissues and fluids. These methods are needed for example for monitoring studies of OA occurrence in the food chain and for studies dealing with the OA carry-over. In this survey, emphasis was given to HPLC methods. The review includes sampling,
The paper reviews techniques of electromagnetic dosimetry for human and animal models. Numerical techniques, analytical cylindrical models, and geometrical optics methods are described, noting the useful frequency range of each method. Analytical techniques included analysis of planar and spherical models, long-wavelength analysis of spheroids and ellipsoids and solutions of the wave equation in spheroidal coordinates. Numerical techniques involved the moment
This paper presents initial object profile classification results using range and elevation independent features from a simulated infrared profiling sensor. The passive infrared profiling sensor was simulated using a LWIR camera. A field data collection effort to yield profiles of humans and animals is reported. Range and elevation independent features based on height and width of the objects were extracted from profiles. The profile features were then used to train and test four classification algorithms to classify objects as humans or animals. The performance of NaÃ¯ve Bayesian (NB), NaÃ¯ve Bayesian with Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA+NB), K-Nearest Neighbors (K-NN), and Support Vector Machines (SVM) are compared based on their classification accuracy. Results indicate that for our data set SVM and (LDA+NB) are capable of providing classification rates as high as 98.5%. For perimeter security applications where misclassification of humans as animals (true negatives) needs to be avoided, SVM and NB provide true negative rates of 0% while maintaining overall classification rates of over 95%.
Using precautionary principles when facing incomplete facts and causal conjectures raises the possibility of a Faustian bargain. This paper applies systems dynamics based on previously unavailable data to show how well intended precautionary policies for promoting food safety may backfire unless they are informed by quantitative cause-and-effect models of how animal antibiotics affect animal and human health. We focus on European Union and United States formulations of regulatory precaution and then analyze zoonotic infections in terms of the consequences of relying on political will to justify precautionary bans. We do not attempt a political analysis of these issues; rather, we conduct a regulatory analysis of precautionary legal requirements and use Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) to assess a set of policy outcomes. Thirty-seven years ago, the Joint Committee on the Use of Antibiotics in Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine (the Swann Report) warned that uncontrolled use of similar antibiotics in humans and food animals could promote the emergence of resistant strains of foodborne bacteria that could endanger human health. Since then, many countries have either banned or restricted antibiotics as feed additives for promoting animal growth. Others, including the United States, have relied on prudent use guidelines and programs that reduce total microbial loads, rather than focusing exclusively on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In retrospect, the regulatory strategy of banning or restricting animal antibiotic uses has had limited success: it has been followed in many cases by deteriorating animal health and increases in human illnesses and resistance rates. Conversely, a combination of continued prudent use of antibiotics to prevent and control animal infections, together with HACCP and other improvements, has been followed by large improvements in the microbial safety of chickens and other food animals in the United States, leaving both animals and people better off now than they were decades ago. A quantitative risk assessment model of microbiological risks (Campylobacter because of data availability) suggests that these outcomes may be more than coincidental: prudent use of animal antibiotics may actually improve human health, while bans on animal antibiotics, intended to be precautionary, inadvertently may harm human health. PMID:18201762
Empathy and affective appraisals for conspecifics are among the hallmarks of social interaction. Using functional MRI, we hypothesized that vegetarians and vegans, who made their feeding choice for ethical reasons, might show brain responses to conditions of suffering involving humans or animals different from omnivores. We recruited 20 omnivore subjects, 19 vegetarians, and 21 vegans. The groups were matched for sex and age. Brain activation was investigated using fMRI and an event-related design during observation of negative affective pictures of human beings and animals (showing mutilations, murdered people, human/animal threat, tortures, wounds, etc.). Participants saw negative-valence scenes related to humans and animals, alternating with natural landscapes. During human negative valence scenes, compared with omnivores, vegetarians and vegans had an increased recruitment of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). More critically, during animal negative valence scenes, they had decreased amygdala activation and increased activation of the lingual gyri, the left cuneus, the posterior cingulate cortex and several areas mainly located in the frontal lobes, including the ACC, the IFG and the middle frontal gyrus. Nonetheless, also substantial differences between vegetarians and vegans have been found responding to negative scenes. Vegetarians showed a selective recruitment of the right inferior parietal lobule during human negative scenes, and a prevailing activation of the ACC during animal negative scenes. Conversely, during animal negative scenes an increased activation of the inferior prefrontal cortex was observed in vegans. These results suggest that empathy toward non conspecifics has different neural representation among individuals with different feeding habits, perhaps reflecting different motivational factors and beliefs. PMID:20520767
Filippi, Massimo; Riccitelli, Gianna; Falini, Andrea; Di Salle, Francesco; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Comi, Giancarlo; Rocca, Maria A
Empathy and affective appraisals for conspecifics are among the hallmarks of social interaction. Using functional MRI, we hypothesized that vegetarians and vegans, who made their feeding choice for ethical reasons, might show brain responses to conditions of suffering involving humans or animals different from omnivores. We recruited 20 omnivore subjects, 19 vegetarians, and 21 vegans. The groups were matched for sex and age. Brain activation was investigated using fMRI and an event-related design during observation of negative affective pictures of human beings and animals (showing mutilations, murdered people, human/animal threat, tortures, wounds, etc.). Participants saw negative-valence scenes related to humans and animals, alternating with natural landscapes. During human negative valence scenes, compared with omnivores, vegetarians and vegans had an increased recruitment of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). More critically, during animal negative valence scenes, they had decreased amygdala activation and increased activation of the lingual gyri, the left cuneus, the posterior cingulate cortex and several areas mainly located in the frontal lobes, including the ACC, the IFG and the middle frontal gyrus. Nonetheless, also substantial differences between vegetarians and vegans have been found responding to negative scenes. Vegetarians showed a selective recruitment of the right inferior parietal lobule during human negative scenes, and a prevailing activation of the ACC during animal negative scenes. Conversely, during animal negative scenes an increased activation of the inferior prefrontal cortex was observed in vegans. These results suggest that empathy toward non conspecifics has different neural representation among individuals with different feeding habits, perhaps reflecting different motivational factors and beliefs.
Filippi, Massimo; Riccitelli, Gianna; Falini, Andrea; Di Salle, Francesco; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Comi, Giancarlo; Rocca, Maria A.
The majority of emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic in origin, including recently emerging influenza viruses such as the 2009 swine-origin H1N1 influenza A epidemic. The epidemic that year affected both human and animal populations as it spread globally. In fact, before the end of 2009, 14 different countries reported H1N1 infected swine. In order to better understand the zoonotic nature of the epidemic and the relationship between human and animal disease surveillance data streams, we compared 2009 reports of H1N1 infection to define the temporal relationship between reported cases in animals and humans. Generally, human cases preceded animal cases at a country-level, supporting the potential of H1N1 infection to be a "reverse zoonosis", and the value of integrating human and animal disease report data. PMID:21912985
Scotch, Matthew; Brownstein, John S; Vegso, Sally; Galusha, Deron; Rabinowitz, Peter
The occurrence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in the opportunistic pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium is well-documented in clinical research. Recently, the esp gene has been proposed as a marker of human pollution in environmental waters; however, information on its relative incidence in various human and animal fecal sources is limited. We have determined the occurrence of the esp gene in enterococci from human (n = 64) and animal (n = 233) fecal samples by polymerase chain reaction using two primer sets: one presumably specific for E. faecium (espfm) and the other for both E. faecalis and E. faecium (espfs/fm). We believe that this research is the first to explore the use of espfs/fm for the detection of human waste in natural environmental settings. The incidence in human sources was 93.1% espfm and 100% espfs/fm in raw sewage influent; 30% for both espfm and espfs/fm in septic waste; and 0% espfm and 80% espfs/fm in active pit toilets. The overall occurrence of the gene in animal feces was 7.7% (espfs/fm) and 4.7% (espfm); animal types with positive results included dogs (9/43, all espfm), gulls (10/34, espfs/fm; 2/34, espfm), mice (3/22, all espfs/fm), and songbirds (5/55, all espfs/fm). The esp gene was not detected in cat (0/34), deer (0/4), goose (0/18), or raccoon (0/23) feces. The inconsistent occurrence, especially in septic and pit toilet sewage, suggests a low statistical power of discrimination between animal and human sources, which means a large number of replicates should be collected. Both espfm and espfs/fm were common in raw sewage, but neither one efficiently differentiated between animal and other human sources.
Whitman, R. L.; Przybyla-Kelly, K.; Shively, D. A.; Byappanahalli, M. N.
Tardive dyskinesia remains an elusive and significant clinical entity that can possibly be understood via experimentation with animal models. We conducted a literature review on tardive dyskinesia modeling. Subchronic antipsychotic drug exposure is a standard approach to model tardive dyskinesia in rodents. Vacuous chewing movements constitute the most common pattern of expression of purposeless oral movements and represent an impermanent response, with individual and strain susceptibility differences. Transgenic mice are also used to address the contribution of adaptive and maladaptive signals induced during antipsychotic drug exposure. An emphasis on non-human primate modeling is proposed, and past experimental observations reviewed in various monkey species. Rodent and primate models are complementary, but the non-human primate model appears more convincingly similar to the human condition and better suited to address therapeutic issues against tardive dyskinesia.
As an emerging imaging technology that combines the merits of both light and ultrasound, photoacoustic tomography (PAT) holds promise for screening and diagnosis of inflammatory joint diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, the feasibility of PAT in imaging small-animal joints and human peripheral joints in a noninvasive manner was explored. Ex vivo rat tail and fresh cadaveric human finger joints were imaged. Based on the intrinsic optical contrast, intra- and extra-articular tissue structures in the joints were visualized successfully. Using light in the near-infrared region, the imaging depth of PAT is sufficient for cross-sectional imaging of a human peripheral joint as a whole organ. PAT, as a novel imaging modality with unique advantages, may contribute significantly to the early diagnosis of inflammatory joint disorders and accurate monitoring of disease progression and response to therapy.
Wang, Xueding; Chamberland, David L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Carson, Paul L.; Jamadar, David A.
Sheep, goats and cattle represent the most numerous and economically important agricultural species worldwide used as sources for milk, fibre and red meat. In addition, in the developing world, these species often represent the sole asset base for small-holder livestock farmers and cattle/buffaloes often provide the majority of draught power for crop production. Production losses caused by helminth diseases of these animals are a major factor in extending the cycle of poverty in developing countries and a major food security issue for developed economies. Fasciola spp. are one of the most important zoonotic diseases with a global economic impact in livestock production systems and a poorly defined but direct effect on human health. Improvements in human and animal health will require a concerted research effort into the development of new accurate and simple diagnostic tests and increased vaccine and drug development against Fasciola infections. Here, the use of definitive natural host breeds with contrasting resistance to Fasciola infections is discussed as a resource to contrast parasite-host interactions and identify parasite immune evasion strategies. Such studies are likely to boost the discovery of new vaccine, drug and diagnostic candidates and provide the foundation for future genetic selection of resistant animals. PMID:20626812
Piedrafita, D; Spithill, T W; Smith, R E; Raadsma, H W
...144(a). (d) Non-positive animal studies. Positive results...provided. (g) Use of high doses in animal testing. Positive results for carcinogenicity...determination of whether results in human, animal or short-term studies...
Mercury contamination of the environment from historical and ongoing mining practices that rely on mercury amalgamation for gold extraction is widespread. Contamination was particularly severe in the immediate vicinity of gold extraction and refining operations; however, mercury--especially in the form of water-soluble methylmercury--may be transported to pristine areas by rainwater, water currents, deforestation, volatilization, and other vectors. Examples of gold mining-associated mercury pollution are shown for Canada, the United States, Africa, China, the Philippines, Siberia, and South America. In parts of Brazil, for example, mercury concentrations in all abiotic materials, plants, and animals--including endangered species of mammals and reptiles--collected near ongoing mercury-amalgamation gold mining sites were far in excess of allowable mercury levels promulgated by regulatory agencies for the protection of human health and natural resources. Although health authorities in Brazil are unable to detect conclusive evidence of human mercury intoxication, the potential exists in the absence of mitigation for epidemic mercury poisoning of the mining population and environs. In the United States, environmental mercury contamination is mostly from historical gold mining practices, and portions of Nevada remain sufficiently mercury-contaminated to pose a hazard to reproduction of carnivorous fishes and fish-eating birds. Concentrations of total mercury lethal to sensitive representative natural resources range from 0.1 to 2.0 ug/L of medium for aquatic organisms; from 2200 to 31,000 ug/kg body weight (acute oral) and 4000 to 40,000 ug/kg (dietary) for birds; and from 100 to 500 ug/kg body weight (daily dose) and 1000 to 5000 ug/kg diet for mammals. Significant adverse sublethal effects were observed among selected aquatic species at water concentrations of 0.03 to 0.1 ug Hg/L. For some birds, adverse effects--mainly on reproduction--have been associated with total mercury concentrations (in ug/kg fresh weight) of 5000 in feather, 900 in egg, and 50 to 100 in diet; and with daily intakes of 640 ug/kg body weight. Sensitive nonhuman mammals showed significant adverse effects of mercury when daily intakes were 250 ug/kg body weight, when dietary levels were 1100 ug/kg, or when tissue concentrations exceeded 1100 ug/kg. Proposed mercury criteria for protection of aquatic life range from 0.012 ug/L for freshwater life to 0.025 ug/L for marine life; for birds, less than 100 ug/kg diet fresh weight; and for small mammals, less than 1100 ug/kg fresh weight diet. All of these proposed criteria provide, at best, minimal protection.
The use of structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in animal models of neuropathology is of increasing interest to the neuroscience community. In this work, we present our approach to create optimal translational studies that include both animal and human neuroimaging data within the frameworks of a study of post-natal neuro-development in intra-uterine cocaine-exposure. We propose the use of non-invasive neuroimaging to study developmental brain structural and white matter pathway abnormalities via sMRI and DTI, as advanced MR imaging technology is readily available and automated image analysis methodology have recently been transferred from the human to animal imaging setting. For this purpose, we developed a synergistic, parallel approach to imaging and image analysis for the human and the rodent branch of our study. We propose an equivalent design in both the selection of the developmental assessment stage and the neuroimaging setup. This approach brings significant advantages to study neurobiological features of early brain development that are common to animals and humans but also preserve analysis capabilities only possible in animal research. This paper presents the main framework and individual methods for the proposed cross-species study design, as well as preliminary DTI cross-species comparative results in the intra-uterine cocaine-exposure study.
Gerig, Guido; Oguz, Ipek; Gouttard, Sylvain; Lee, Joohwi; An, Hongyu; Lin, Weili; McMurray, Matthew; Grewen, Karen; Johns, Josephine; Styner, Martin Andreas
The identification of genes linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) has led to the development of animal models for studying mechanism and evaluating potential therapies. None of the transgenic models developed based on disease-associated genes have been able to fully recapitulate the behavioral and pathological features of the corresponding disease. However, there has been enormous progress made in identifying potential therapeutic targets and understanding some of the common mechanisms of neurodegeneration. In this review, we will discuss transgenic animal models for AD, ALS, HD and PD that are based on human genetic studies. All of the diseases discussed have active or complete clinical trials for experimental treatments that benefited from transgenic models of the disease.
Richie, Christopher T.; Hoffer, Barry J.; Airavaara, Mikko
Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widespread parasites of domestic, wild, and companion animals, and it also commonly infects humans. Toxoplasma gondii has a complex life cycle. Sexual development occurs only in the cat gut, while asexual replication occurs in many vertebrate hosts. These features combine to create an unusual population structure. The vast majority of strains in North America and Europe fall into three recently derived, clonal lineages known as types I, II and III. Recent studies have revealed that South American strains are more genetically diverse and comprise distinct genotypes. These differences have been shaped by infrequent sexual recombination, population sweeps and biogeography. The majority of human infections that have been studied in North America and Europe are caused by type II strains, which are also common in agricultural animals from these regions. In contrast, several diverse genotypes of T. gondii are associated with severe infections in humans in South America. Defining the population structure of T. gondii from new regions has important implications for transmission, immunogenicity and pathogenesis.
Sibley, L. David; Khan, Asis; Ajioka, James W.; Rosenthal, Benjamin M.
Salmonella enterica serotype Newport isolates resistant to at least nine antimicrobials (including extended- spectrum cephalosporins), known as serotype Newport MDR-AmpC isolates, have been rapidly emerging as pathogens in both animals and humans throughout the United States. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is associated with clinical failures, including death, in patients with systemic infections. In this study, 87 Salmonella serotype Newport strains
S. Zhao; S. Qaiyumi; S. Friedman; R. Singh; S. L. Foley; D. G. White; P. F. McDermott; T. Donkar; C. Bolin; S. Munro; E. J. Baron; R. D. Walker
\\u000a Right from its inception, a main strength of Flash has been its animation capabilities. Despite the arrival of ActionScript\\u000a programming shifting the focus somewhat, animation (or tweening in Flash authoring terms) is still considered a core feature of Flash. As yet, we have no timeline functionality for animating\\u000a 3D objects aside from some limited 2.5 effects (the “postcards in space”
\\u000a Ah, animation! Where would we be without the likes of Disney, Warner Bros., Walter Lanz, Hanna-Barbera, and dozens more like\\u000a them? For many people, animation is the reason to get involved with Flash as a creative outlet. This makes perfect sense, because Flash began life more than a decade ago\\u000a as an animation tool. Supplemental features like ActionScript, XML parsing,
The rate of new emerging infectious diseases entering the human population has increased over the past century, with pathogens originating from animals or from products of animal origin accounting for the vast majority. Primary risk factors for the emergence and spread of emerging zoonoses include expansion and intensification of animal agriculture and long-distance live animal transport, live animal markets, bushmeat consumption and habitat destruction. Developing effective control strategies is contingent upon the ability to test causative hypotheses of disease transmission within a statistical framework. Broadly speaking, molecular phylogeography offers a framework in which specific hypotheses regarding pathogen gene flow and dispersal within an ecological context can be compared. A number of different methods has been developed for this application. Here, our intent is firstly to discuss the application of a wide variety of statistically based methods (including Bayesian reconstruction, network parsimony analysis and regression) to specific viruses (influenza, salmon anaemia virus, foot and mouth disease and Rift Valley Fever) that have been associated with animal farming/movements; and secondly to place them in the larger framework of the threat of potential zoonotic events as well as the economic and biosecurity implications of pathogen outbreaks among our animal food sources. PMID:22931895
More than 5 million Americans are bitten by animals, usually dogs, annually. Bite patients comprise ?1% of all patients who visit emergency departments (300,000/year), and approximately 10,000 require hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics. Ceftaroline is the bioactive component of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, which is FDA approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), including those containing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are no in vitro data about the activity of ceftaroline against Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica, other Pasteurella spp., or other bite wound isolates. We therefore studied the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against 243 animal bite isolates. MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method according to CLSI guidelines. Comparator drugs included cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, azithromycin, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). Ceftaroline was the most active agent against all 5 Pasteurella species, including P. multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica, with a maximum MIC of ?0.008 ?g/ml; more active than ceftriaxone and ertapenem (MIC(90)s, ?0.015 ?g/ml); and more active than cefazolin (MIC(90), 0.5 ?g/ml) doxycycline (MIC(90), 0.125 ?g/ml), azithromycin (MIC(90), 0.5 ?g/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (MIC(90), 0.125 ?g/ml), and SMX-TMP (MIC(90), 0.125 ?g/ml). Ceftaroline was also very active against all S. aureus isolates (MIC(90), 0.125 ?g/ml) and other Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, with a maximum MIC of 0.125 ?g/ml against all bite isolates tested. Ceftaroline has potential clinical utility against infections involving P. multocida, other Pasteurella species, and aerobic Gram-positive isolates, including S. aureus. PMID:23027193
Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Merriam, C Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L
More than 5 million Americans are bitten by animals, usually dogs, annually. Bite patients comprise ?1% of all patients who visit emergency departments (300,000/year), and approximately 10,000 require hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics. Ceftaroline is the bioactive component of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, which is FDA approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), including those containing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are no in vitro data about the activity of ceftaroline against Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica, other Pasteurella spp., or other bite wound isolates. We therefore studied the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against 243 animal bite isolates. MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method according to CLSI guidelines. Comparator drugs included cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, azithromycin, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). Ceftaroline was the most active agent against all 5 Pasteurella species, including P. multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica, with a maximum MIC of ?0.008 ?g/ml; more active than ceftriaxone and ertapenem (MIC90s, ?0.015 ?g/ml); and more active than cefazolin (MIC90, 0.5 ?g/ml) doxycycline (MIC90, 0.125 ?g/ml), azithromycin (MIC90, 0.5 ?g/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (MIC90, 0.125 ?g/ml), and SMX-TMP (MIC90, 0.125 ?g/ml). Ceftaroline was also very active against all S. aureus isolates (MIC90, 0.125 ?g/ml) and other Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, with a maximum MIC of 0.125 ?g/ml against all bite isolates tested. Ceftaroline has potential clinical utility against infections involving P. multocida, other Pasteurella species, and aerobic Gram-positive isolates, including S. aureus.
Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L.
A number of animal-associated infections occur in persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), including those due to Toxoplasma gondii, Cryptosporidium, Microsporida, Salmonella, Campylo-bacter, Giardia, Rhodococcus equi, Rochalimaea, and Listeria monocytogenes. Most of these infections, with the exception of those due to Rochalimaea, appear to be acquired by the immunosuppressed individual from sources other than exposure to animals. Drs. Glaser and colleagues review our current understanding of the role of exposure to animals, especially pets, in the natural history of these opportunistic infections. They suggest that the risk of zoonotic transmission is small and offer practical suggestions designed to reduce this low risk. They conclude that the benefits of animal companionship outweigh the risks to patients and that prohibition of pet ownership by individuals infected with HIV is not warranted. PMID:8054433
|Perception studies have shown similarities between humans and other animals in a wide array of language-related processes. However, the components of language that make it uniquely human have not been fully identified. Here we show that nonhuman animals extract rules over speech sequences that are difficult for humans. Specifically, animals…
As it is well known, bone tissue is characterized by a calcified extracellular matrix which makes this tissue suitable to support the body and protect the inner organs. Lamellar bone tissue is organized in lamellae, 3-7 microm in thickness, and arranged concentrically around vascular channels: the basic structure in this type of organization is called Haversian system or osteon and the diameter of osteons depends on the number of lamellae. Shape and regional density of osteons are related to the bone segment and the specific functional requirements to meet. Aim of this study is to correlate the compact bone tissue microstructure in various classes of mammals, includinghumans, and birds in order to find an adequate identification key. The results of our study show that in bone tissue samples from various classes of mammals, includinghumans, and birds the osteonic structure shows peculiar features, often depending on the rate of bone remodelling, different in different animal species. We conclude that a careful microscopic analysis of bone tissue and the characterization of distinctive osteonic features could give a major contribution to forensic medicine to obtain a more reliable recognition of bone findings. PMID:21898971
Vaccination services for people and livestock often fail to achieve sufficient coverages in Africa’s remote rural settings because of financial, logistic, and service delivery constraints. In Chad from 2000 through 2005, we demonstrated the feasibility of combining vaccination programs for nomadic pastoralists and their livestock. Sharing of transport logistics and equipment between physicians and veterinarians reduced total costs. Joint delivery of human and animal health services is adapted to and highly valued by hard-to-reach pastoralists. In intervention zones, for the first time ?10% of nomadic children (>1–11 months of age) were fully immunized annually and more children and women were vaccinated per day during joint vaccination rounds than during vaccination of persons only and not their livestock (130 vs. 100, p<0.001). By optimizing use of limited logistical and human resources, public health and veterinary services both become more effective, especially at the district level.
Bechir, Mahamat; Ahmed, Mahamat Abdoulaye; Wyss, Kaspar; Randolph, Thomas F.; Zinsstag, Jakob
Greece has been rabies-free since 1987 with no human cases since 1970. During 2012 to 2013, rabies has re-emerged in wild and domestic animals in northern Greece. By end March 2013, rabies was diagnosed in 17 animalsincluding 14 red foxes, two shepherd dogs and one cat; 104 subsequent human exposures required post-exposure prophylaxis according to the World Health Organization criteria. Human exposures occurred within 50 km radius of a confirmed rabies case in a wild or domestic animal, and most frequently stray dogs were involved. PMID:23725773
Animal experiments are being used to examine a number of physical and biological factors that influence risk estimations though not usually in coordination with epidemiologists. It is clear that the different mechanisms involved in different types of tumors are reflected in the diversity of dose-response relationships. The forms of the dose-response relationships are influenced by both the initial events and their expression. Evidence is accumulating that many initiated cells do not get expressed as overt cancers and host factors may play a major role in the expression of potential tumor cells. There is a need for information about the relationship of the natural incidence and susceptibility to radiation induction for more tumor types. Such experiments will help answer the question of which risk estimate models are appropriate for different tumor types and can be carried out on animals. Perhaps because of the importance of host factors risk estimates as a percentage of the natural incidence appear to be similar for human beings and mice for a small number of tumor types. The elucidation of the mechanisms involved in different tissues while a slow business remains an important role of animal experiments.
21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false...Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals. 530.20 Section 530.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,...
Mast cells (MCs) play an important role in allergic hyperresponsiveness and in defending microorganism infections. Recent studies of experimental animals and humans have suggested that MCs participate in obesity and diabetes. MC distribution and activities in adipose tissues may vary, depending on the locations of different adipose tissues. In addition to releasing inflammatory mediators to affect adipose tissue extracellular matrix remodeling and to promote inflammatory cell recruitment and proliferation, MCs directly and indirectly interact and activate adipose tissue cells, including adipocytes and recruited inflammatory cells. Plasma MC protease levels are significantly higher in obese patients than in lean subjects. Experimental obese animals lose body weight after MC inactivation. MC functions in diabetes are even more complicated, and depend on the type of diabetes and on different diabetic complications. Both plasma MC proteases and MC activation essential immunoglobulin E levels are significant risk factors for human pre-diabetes and diabetes mellitus. MC stabilization prevents diet-induced diabetes and improves pre-established diabetes in experimental animals. MC depletion or inactivation can improve diet-induced type 2 diabetes and some forms of type 1 diabetes, but also can worsen other forms of type 1 diabetes, at least in experimental animals. Observations from animal and human studies have suggested beneficial effects of treating diabetic patients with MC stabilizers. Some diabetic patients may benefit from enhancing MC survival and proliferation – hypotheses that merit detailed basic researches and clinical studies.
Discovered in the early 1800s, the use of cadmium and various cadmium salts started to become industrially important near the close of the 19th century, rapidly thereafter began to flourish, yet has diminished more recently. Most cadmium used in the United States is a byproduct from the smelting of zinc, lead, or copper ores, and is used to manufacture batteries. Carcinogenic activity of cadmium was discovered first in animals and only subsequently in humans. Cadmium and cadmium compounds have been classified as known human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the National Toxicology Program based on epidemiologic studies showing a causal association with lung cancer, and possibly prostate cancer, and studies in experimental animals, demonstrating that cadmium causes tumors at multiple tissue sites, by various routes of exposure, and in several species and strains. Epidemiologic studies published since these evaluations suggest that cadmium is also associated with cancers of the breast, kidney, pancreas, and urinary bladder. The basic metal cationic portion of cadmium is responsible for both toxic and cardinogenic activity, and the mechanism of carcinogenicity appears to be multifactorial. Available information about the carcinogenicity of cadmium and cadmium compounds is reviewed, evaluated, and discussed.
Huff, James; Lunn, Ruth M.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Tomatis, Lorenzo; Infante, Peter F.
Prepulse Inhibition (PPI) of the startle response and the P50 auditory-evoked potential suppression are used to assess impairments in the regulation of the neural substrates and to determine the clinical significance of inhibitory deficits in schizophrenia. The study of gating deficits in schizophrenia and in related animal model studies have already advanced our understanding of the neural substrates of information processing abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia. Individuals with schizotypal personality disorder as well as clinically unaffected family members of patients with schizophrenia show PPI and P50 suppression deficits. These "schizophrenic spectrum" populations are not grossly psychotic, nor are they receiving antipsychotic medications. Therefore, the gating deficits are presumed to reflect core (eg, intermediate phenotypic) schizophrenia-linked information processing abnormalities. Several studies have reported that gating deficits are associated with clinical ratings of psychiatric symptoms, thought disorder, and neuropsychologic deficits in patients with schizophrenia. In addition, recent human pharmacologic studies have indicated that gating deficits can be reversed by rationally-selected compounds. Animal model studies have generally shown convergence with the human studies and may lead to improved identification of efficacious new antipsychotic medications for patients with schizophrenia. PMID:11122903
Antimicrobial resistance is a major health problem. After decades of research, numerous difficulties in tackling resistance have emerged, from the paucity of new antimicrobials to the inefficient contingency plans to reduce the use of antimicrobials; consequently, resistance to these drugs is out of control. Today we know that bacteria from the environment are often at the very origin of the acquired resistance determinants found in hospitals worldwide. Here we define the genetic components that flow from the environment to pathogenic bacteria and thereby confer a quantum increase in resistance levels, as resistance units (RU). Environmental bacteria as well as microbiomes from humans, animals, and food represent an infinite reservoir of RU, which are based on genes that have had, or not, a resistance function in their original bacterial hosts. This brief review presents our current knowledge of antimicrobial resistance and its consequences, with special focus on the importance of an ecologic perspective of antimicrobial resistance. This discipline encompasses the study of the relationships of entities and events in the framework of curing and preventing disease, a definition that takes into account both microbial ecology and antimicrobial resistance. Understanding the flux of RU throughout the diverse ecosystems is crucial to assess, prevent and eventually predict emerging scaffolds before they colonize health institutions. Collaborative horizontal research scenarios should be envisaged and involve all actors working with humans, animals, food and the environment. PMID:23847814
Prion diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) have been recognized as zoonosis since the existence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) was reported in 1996. After then, BSE became a serious social problem all over the world. The incidence of BSE in EU and UK appears declining, and the vCJD incidence also shows a tendency to decrease. On the contrary, fears for the spread of BSE became actual problems: BSE occurrence outside of EU, introduction of BSE to other ruminants, and transmission of vCJD by blood transfusion. To prevent further spread of animal prion diseases and to reduce their risk to human being, active surveillance for animal prion diseases, removal of specified risk materials from food and feed chains, and effective feed regulation for livestock should be important. For the disclosure and elimination of prion-contaminated blood, materials for medical and pharmaceutical products, it is required to improve the sensitivity of prion detection methods. Furthermore, establishment of the therapeutics for human prion diseases is urgent problem. PMID:16363697
\\u000a A variety of academics, including archaeologists, geographers, ecologists, historians, political scientists, philosophers,\\u000a and others, have been critical of the notion of “pristine, natural, or wild” areas, arguing that human impacts on environments\\u000a have been widespread over millennia (Frazier, 2009). While study of human impacts on the environment is vast and extends back\\u000a to the nineteenth century (see Grayson, 1984), over
Research has documented the effect that stockmanship has on animal welfare and shown that rough handling of animals can make them fearful of people. Interest has arisen in using measures of animals’ responses to people in on-farm welfare assessment. In this article, we discuss some of the unresolved issues that lead us to doubt whether current measures of animals’ responses
Although many animal models are used in genetic studies, the mouse is most common. Analysis of single-gene mutations, linkage analysis in crossbred strains, and gene targeting are the primary techniques used to associate obesity phenotypes with specific genes or alleles. The orthologous human gene can then be tested, either in linkage studies in families or in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), for effect on the phenotype. Frequent lack of concordance between mouse and human obesity genes may be due to the difference in phenotypes measured in humans (body mass index) versus mouse (fat mass or % body fat), lack of intermediate phenotypes, and the fact that identified genes account for only a small percentage of the heritability of common obesity, suggesting that many genes remain unknown. New technology allows analysis of individual genomes at a reasonable cost, making large-scale obesity genome projects in humans feasible. Such projects could identify common allelic variants that contribute to obesity and to variable individual response to obesity therapy. Currently, family history may be more predictive than genetics for risk of obesity, but individual testing could ultimately guide therapy and, in the aggregate, guide public health policy. The primary limitation to development of genotype-based diets is that successful randomized diet trials of widely ranging macronutrient content, adequately powered for finding rare Mendelian mutations, have not been performed. PMID:21036332
The welfare of therapy, assistance and even companion animals is important but tends to be overlooked because welfare issues in other animal sectors are so pressing. However, animals are not always guaranteed a good quality of life just because they play meaningful roles in the lives of people. The relatively new area of service animals and animal-assisted therapy is a
Elemental boron was isolated in 1808. It typically occurs in nature as borates hydrated with varying amounts of water. Important compounds are boric acid and borax. Boron compounds are also used in the production of metals, enamels, and glasses. In trace amounts, boron is essential for the growth of many plants, and is found in animal and human tissues at low concentrations. Poisoning in humans has been reported as the result of accidental ingestion or use of large amounts in the treatment of burns. Boron as boric acid is fairly rapidly absorbed and excreted from the body via urine. The half-life of boric acid in humans is on the order of 1 day. Boron does not appear to accumulate in soft tissues of animals, but does accumulate in bone. Normal levels of boron in soft tissues, urine, and blood generally range from less than 0.05 ppm to no more than 10 ppm. In poisoning incidents, the amount of boric acid in brain and liver tissue has been reported to be as high as 2000 ppm. Recent studies at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences have indicated that boron may contribute to reduced fertility in male rodents fed 9000 ppm of boric acid in feed. Within a few days, boron levels in blood and most soft tissues quickly reached a plateau of about 15 ppm. Boron in bone did not appear to plateau, reaching 47 ppm after 7 days on the diet. Cessation of exposure to dietary boron resulted in a rapid drop in bone boron.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
We report further findings of a survey of manufacturers, processors, and importers of chemicals determined by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) to be animal carcinogens, but whose carcinogenicity in humans was considered uncertain because of inadequate epidemiologic data. We requested epidemiologic studies from the companies marketing or using any of the 75 IARC animal carcinogens in commerce in the United States. Eighteen of the 75 IARC animal carcinogens had volumes listed of 10(6) lb/year or greater, with 8 of the 13 chemicals for which studies had been completed or are in progress in this ''high volume'' category. The use category with the largest number of chemicals was drugs--19 of the 75 IARC animal carcinogens were in this category. However, none of the 13 chemicals included in epidemiologic studies was a drug. Seven of the 13 chemicals included in studies were used primarily as pesticides. We received little information on dyes and dye intermediates, experimental carcinogens, and drugs, all of which are produced in relatively low volumes; these categories represent 42 of the 75 IARC animal carcinogens. Low volumes and declining usage/production appear to be barriers to performance of epidemiologic studies. Information we received suggests that sometimes the problem of low production volume may be avoided by studying users rather than production workers. Overall, however, we expect few additional epidemiologic studies of the 75 IARC animal carcinogens.
Animal welfare has been conceptualized in such a way that the use of animals in science and for food seems justified. I argue that those who have done this have appropriated the concept of animal welfare, claiming to give a scientific account that is more objective than the "sentimental" account given by animal liberationists. This strategy seems to play a major role in supporting merely limited reform in the use of animals and seems to support the assumption that there are conditions under which animals may be raised and slaughtered for food that are ethically acceptable. Reformists do not need to make this assumption, but they tend to conceptualize animal welfare is such a way that death does not count as harmful to the interests of animals, nor prolonged life a benefit. In addition to this prudential value assumption, some members of this community have developed strategies for defending suitably reformed farming practices as ethical even granting that death and some other forms of constraints are harms. One such strategy is the fiction of a domestic contract. However, if one accepts the conceptualization of human welfare give by L. W. Sumner, and applies it to animals in the way that I think is justified, an accurate conceptualization of animal welfare has different implications for which uses of animals should be regarded as ethically acceptable. In this paper I give an historical and philosophical account of animal welfare conceptulization and use this account to argue that animal breeders, as custodians of the animals they breed, have the ethical responsibility to help their animal wards achieve as much autonomy as possible in choosing the form of life made available to them and to provide that life. Attempts to avoid these implications by alluding to a contract model of the relationship between custodians and their wards fail to relieve custodians of their ethical responsibilities of care. PMID:21305338
The aim of the present study was to develop a method for predicting the concentration-time profile in humans based on pharmacokinetic data for animals. The method is based on the assumptions that concentration-time profiles of a drug are similar among species and "normalized curves" from a variety of animal species includinghumans can be superimposed. Normalized curves are obtained by normalizing the time axis with the MRT (mean residence time) and the concentration axis with dose/Vdss, where Vdss is the volume of distribution at steady state. The concentration-time profile in humans after intravenous injection can be simulated using the normalized curve for an animal and the predicted values of clearance (CL) and Vdss for humans. Although the general idea of our method is similar to the Dedrick plots, ours is superior in that it enables the use of predicted CL and Vdss values from any method. Our method was applied to some drugs using actual published data sets, and the assumption of the similarity of concentration-time profiles among species was found to be acceptable for these drugs. The results for the prediction of concentration-time profiles for humans were also acceptable. This method can be applied to any drug on the assumption that normalized curves from a variety of species can be superimposed. PMID:15176076
Interval timing in the seconds-to-minutes range is crucial to learning, memory, and decision-making. Recent findings argue for the involvement of cortico-striatal circuits that are optimized by the dopaminergic modulation of oscillatory activity and lateral connectivity at the level of cortico-striatal inputs. Striatal medium spiny neurons are proposed to detect the coincident activity of specific beat patterns of cortical oscillations, thereby permitting the discrimination of supra-second durations based upon the reoccurring patterns of subsecond neural firing. This proposal for the cortico-striatal representation of time is consistent with the observed psychophysical properties of interval timing (e.g. linear time scale and scalar variance) as well as much of the available pharmacological, lesion, patient, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging data from animals and humans (e.g. dopamine-related timing deficits in Huntington's and Parkinson's disease as well as related animal models). The conclusion is that although the striatum serves as a 'core timer', it is part of a distributed timing system involving the coordination of large-scale oscillatory networks. PMID:18708142
The presence of Q fever antibodies in the milk of cattle in Alberta is described. The incidence of positive milk samples rose from 0.8% of herds tested in 1959 to 7.7% in 1964. The largest number of infected animals is in the southern part of the province. A case of Q fever in an infant is reported. This occurred on the Duffield Indian Reserve near Edmonton in November 1963. Two of 44 blood samples collected at random from asymptomatic individuals on the Reserve in February 1965 contained complement-fixing antibodies to Q fever antigen. Studies on milk from dairy cattle in the area were negative for Q fever antibodies, and the source of human infection has not yet been determined.
Herbert, F. A.; Morgante, O.; Burchak, E. C.; Kadis, V. W.
The potential health effect of the human-animal bond has been explored for over 15 years with limited success. Professionals from a variety of fields have examined the benefits a companion animal can provide for persons with special needs. We examined the research related to human-animal interactions and the community- based elderly. We reviewed recommendations from the 1984 Delta Society conference
This article evaluates a comparative approach to personality and health research. We (1) review evidence showing that personality exists and can be measured in animals, (2) illustrate the benefits of animal studies for human personality research, (3) illustrate the benefits of human studies for animal personality research, and (4) provide guidelines for making cross-species comparisons. We conclude that a comparative
In this article we use actual instances of human conduct with animals to reflect on the debates about animal agency in human activities. Where much of psychology, philosophy, and sociology begin with a fundamental scepticism over animal mind as the grounds for its inquiries, we join with a growing body of work that examines the continuities…
The University of Missouri's College of Veterinary Medicine is home to the Research Center for Human-Animal Interaction. This center uniquely addresses a growing area of research that focuses on how the human-animal bond impacts health in people and animals. This article highlights the One Health basis for the center, several research projects, and future goals for the center. PMID:23829101
|In this article we use actual instances of human conduct with animals to reflect on the debates about animal agency in human activities. Where much of psychology, philosophy, and sociology begin with a fundamental scepticism over animal mind as the grounds for its inquiries, we join with a growing body of work that examines the continuities…
The importance of including neurodevelopmental end points in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive function in human infants that also has a homologous or parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for large-scale studies. Such a comparable test will allow researchers to observe the effect of environmental neurotoxicants in animals and relate those findings to humans. In this article, we present the results of a review of post-1990, peer-reviewed literature and current research examining measures of cognitive function that can be applied to both human infants (0-12 months old) and laboratory animals. We begin with a discussion of the definition of cognitive function and important considerations in cross-species research. We then describe identified comparable measures, providing a description of the test in human infants and animal subjects. Available information on test reliability, validity, and population norms, as well as test limitations and constraints, is also presented.
Sharbaugh, Carolyn; Viet, Susan Marie; Fraser, Alexa; McMaster, Suzanne B
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was isolated from a pig, a calf, and a child on a farm in the Netherlands. The isolates were indistinguishable by phenotyping and genotyping methods, which suggests nonfoodborne animal-to-animal and animal-to-human transmission. Persons in close contact with farm animals should be aware of this risk.
Orsel, Karin; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Miko, Angelika; van Duijkeren, Engeline
|Extensive research documents powerful relationships between humans and companion animals, and 62 percent of U. S. households report having a companion animal. Social workers are likely to work with individuals and families with companion animals; thus, the inclusion of such animals in both practice and research as a natural extension of social…
The importance of studying human–animal relationships and animal subjectivity is increasingly recognised by social and cultural geographers, particularly in agricultural pursuits. Little research, however, has been undertaken on animals in sport, resulting in a limited understanding of the perceptions and treatment of animals in society. To address this concern, we interrogate print media coverage of the construction and positioning of
The majority of emerging infectious diseases have their source in animals, and emergence occurs at the human/animal interface, when infections in animals breech the species barrier to infect humans, the population in which they are often first identified. The response is frequently characterized by a series of emergency activities to contain and manage the infection in human populations, and at the same time to identify the source of the infection in nature. If infection is found to have a source in animals, and if animals cause a continuous threat of human infection, culling is often recommended with severe economic impact. Currently, efforts are being undertaken for closer interaction at the animal/human interface through joint surveillance and risk assessment between the animal and human medicine sectors, and research is underway in geographic areas where emergence at the animal/human interface has occurred in the past. The goal of this research is to identify infectious organisms in tropical and other wild animals, to genetically sequence these organisms, and to attempt to predict which organisms have the potential to emerge in human populations. It may be more cost-effective to learn from past emergence events, and to shift the paradigm from disease surveillance, detection, and response in humans; to prevention of emergence at the source by understanding and mitigating the factors, or determinants, that influence animal infection. These determinants are clearly understood from the study of previous emergence events and includehuman-induced changes in natural environments, urban areas, and agricultural systems; raising and processing animal-based foods; and the roles of global trade, migration, and climate change. Better understanding of these factors learned from epidemiological investigation of past and present emergence events, and modeling and study of the cost-effectiveness of interventions that could result in their mitigation, could provide evidence necessary to better address the political and economic barriers to prevention of infections in animals. Such economically convincing arguments for change and mitigation are required because of the basic difference in animal health-driven by the need for profit; and human health-driven by the need to save lives. PMID:23239233
Numerous species possess cortical regions that are most sensitive to vocalizations produced by their own kind (conspecifics). In humans, the superior temporal sulci (STS) putatively represent homologous voice-sensitive areas of cortex. However, STS regions have recently been reported to represent auditory experience or “expertise” in general rather than showing exclusive sensitivity to human vocalizations per se. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a unique non-stereotypical category of complex human non-verbal vocalizations – human-mimicked versions of animal vocalizations – we found a cortical hierarchy in humans optimized for processing meaningful conspecific utterances. This left-lateralized hierarchy originated near primary auditory cortices and progressed into traditional speech-sensitive areas. These results suggest that the cortical regions supporting vocalization perception are initially organized by sensitivity to the human vocal tract in stages prior to the STS. Additionally, these findings have implications for the developmental time course of conspecific vocalization processing in humans as well as its evolutionary origins.
Talkington, William J.; Rapuano, Kristina M.; Hitt, Laura; Frum, Chris A.; Lewis, James W.
Circoviruses are known to infect birds and pigs and can cause a wide range of severe symptoms with significant economic impact. Using viral metagenomics, we identified circovirus-like DNA sequences and characterized 15 circular viral DNA genomes in stool samples from humans in Pakistan, Nigeria, Tunisia, and the United States and from wild chimpanzees. Distinct genomic features and phylogenetic analysis indicate that some viral genomes were part of a previously unrecognized genus in the Circoviridae family we tentatively named "Cyclovirus" whose genetic diversity is comparable to that of all the known species in the Circovirus genus. Circoviridae detection in the stools of U.S. adults was limited to porcine circoviruses which were also found in most U.S. pork products. To determine whether the divergent cycloviruses found in non-U.S. human stools were of dietary origin, we genetically compared them to the cycloviruses in muscle tissue samples of commonly eaten farm animals in Pakistan and Nigeria. Limited genetic overlap between cycloviruses in human stool samples and local cow, goat, sheep, camel, and chicken meat samples indicated that the majority of the 25 Cyclovirus species identified might be human viruses. We show that the genetic diversity of small circular DNA viral genomes in various mammals, includinghumans, is significantly larger than previously recognized, and frequent exposure through meat consumption and contact with animal or human feces provides ample opportunities for cyclovirus transmission. Determining the role of cycloviruses, found in 7 to 17% of non-U.S. human stools and 3 to 55% of non-U.S. meat samples tested, in both human and animal diseases is now facilitated by knowledge of their genomes. PMID:20007276
Circoviruses are known to infect birds and pigs and can cause a wide range of severe symptoms with significant economic impact. Using viral metagenomics, we identified circovirus-like DNA sequences and characterized 15 circular viral DNA genomes in stool samples from humans in Pakistan, Nigeria, Tunisia, and the United States and from wild chimpanzees. Distinct genomic features and phylogenetic analysis indicate that some viral genomes were part of a previously unrecognized genus in the Circoviridae family we tentatively named “Cyclovirus” whose genetic diversity is comparable to that of all the known species in the Circovirus genus. Circoviridae detection in the stools of U.S. adults was limited to porcine circoviruses which were also found in most U.S. pork products. To determine whether the divergent cycloviruses found in non-U.S. human stools were of dietary origin, we genetically compared them to the cycloviruses in muscle tissue samples of commonly eaten farm animals in Pakistan and Nigeria. Limited genetic overlap between cycloviruses in human stool samples and local cow, goat, sheep, camel, and chicken meat samples indicated that the majority of the 25 Cyclovirus species identified might be human viruses. We show that the genetic diversity of small circular DNA viral genomes in various mammals, includinghumans, is significantly larger than previously recognized, and frequent exposure through meat consumption and contact with animal or human feces provides ample opportunities for cyclovirus transmission. Determining the role of cycloviruses, found in 7 to 17% of non-U.S. human stools and 3 to 55% of non-U.S. meat samples tested, in both human and animal diseases is now facilitated by knowledge of their genomes.
Following the recent discovery of new Brucella strains from different animal species and from the environment, ten Brucella species are nowadays included in the genus Brucella. Although the intracellular trafficking of Brucella is well described, the strategies developed by Brucella to survive and multiply in phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells, particularly to access nutriments during its intracellular journey, are still largely unknown. Metabolism and virulence of Brucella are now considered to be two sides of the same coin. Mechanisms presiding to the colonization of the pregnant uterus in different animal species are not known. Vaccination is the cornerstone of control programs in livestock and although the S19, RB51 (both in cattle) and Rev 1 (in sheep and goats) vaccines have been successfully used worldwide, they have drawbacks and thus the ideal brucellosis vaccine is still very much awaited. There is no vaccine available for pigs and wildlife. Animal brucellosis control strategies differ in the developed and the developing world. Most emphasis is put on eradication and on risk analysis to avoid the re-introduction of Brucella in the developed world. Information related to the prevalence of brucellosis is still scarce in the developing world and control programs are rarely implemented. Since there is no vaccine available for humans, prevention of human brucellosis relies on its control in the animal reservoir. Brucella is also considered to be an agent to be used in bio- and agroterrorism attacks. At the animal/ecosystem/human interface it is critical to reduce opportunities for Brucella to jump host species as already seen in livestock, wildlife and humans. This task is a challenge for the future in terms of veterinary public health, as for wildlife and ecosystem managers and will need a "One Health" approach to be successful. PMID:21571380
Godfroid, J; Scholz, H C; Barbier, T; Nicolas, C; Wattiau, P; Fretin, D; Whatmore, A M; Cloeckaert, A; Blasco, J M; Moriyon, I; Saegerman, C; Muma, J B; Al Dahouk, S; Neubauer, H; Letesson, J-J
Q fever is a vaccine-preventable disease; despite this, high annual notification numbers are still recorded in Australia. We have previously shown seroprevalence in Queensland metropolitan regions is approaching that of rural areas. This study investigated the presence of nucleic acid from Coxiella burnetii, the agent responsible for Q fever, in a number of animal and environmental samples collected throughout Queensland, to identify potential sources of human infection. Samples were collected from 129 geographical locations and included urine, faeces and whole blood from 22 different animal species; 45 ticks were removed from two species, canines and possums; 151 soil samples; 72 atmospheric dust samples collected from two locations and 50 dust swabs collected from domestic vacuum cleaners. PCR testing was performed targeting the IS1111 and COM1 genes for the specific detection of C. burnetii DNA. There were 85 detections from 1318 animal samples, giving a detection rate for each sample type ranging from 2.1 to 6.8%. Equine samples produced a detection rate of 11.9%, whilst feline and canine samples showed detection rates of 7.8% and 5.2%, respectively. Native animals had varying detection rates: pooled urines from flying foxes had 7.8%, whilst koalas had 5.1%, and 6.7% of ticks screened were positive. The soil and dust samples showed the presence of C. burnetii DNA ranging from 2.0 to 6.9%, respectively. These data show that specimens from a variety of animal species and the general environment provide a number of potential sources for C. burnetii infections of humans living in Queensland. These previously unrecognized sources may account for the high seroprevalence rates seen in putative low-risk communities, including Q fever patients with no direct animal contact and those subjects living in a low-risk urban environment. PMID:23663407
Tozer, S J; Lambert, S B; Strong, C L; Field, H E; Sloots, T P; Nissen, M D
This article updates the ethical standards and methods for the conduct of high-quality animal and human biological rhythm research, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. The editors of Chronobiology International adhere to and endorse the Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE), which encourages communication of such updates at regular intervals in the journal. The journal accepts papers representing original work, no part of which was previously submitted for publication elsewhere, except as brief abstracts, as well as in-depth reviews. The majority of research papers published in Chronobiology International entails animal and human investigations. The editors and readers of the journal expect authors of submitted manuscripts to have made an important contribution to the research of biological rhythms and related phenomena using ethical methods/procedures and unbiased, accurate, and honest reporting of findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to declare all potential conflicts of interest. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of investigators to the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, relating to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals, and the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, relating to the conduct of ethical research on human beings. The peer review of manuscripts by Chronobiology International thus includes judgment as to whether or not the protocols and methods conform to ethical standards. Authors are expected to show mastery of the basic methods and procedures of biological rhythm research and proper statistical assessment of data, including the appropriate application of time series data analyses, as briefly reviewed in this article. The journal editors strive to consistently achieve high standards for the research of original and review papers reported in Chronobiology International, and current examples of expectations are presented herein. PMID:20969531
Portaluppi, Francesco; Smolensky, Michael H; Touitou, Yvan
Cryptococcus neoformanswas first cultivated by Sanfelice from fermenting peach juice in 1894. At the same time, Busse and Buschke reported, separately, the first case of human disease caused by this yeast. During the next years, the fungus was isolated only from lesions or secretions of men or animals. In 1951, Emmons repor- ted the isolation of C. neoformans from soils
Salmonella enterica serotype Newport isolates resistant to at least nine antimicrobials (including extended-spectrum cephalosporins), known as serotype Newport MDR-AmpC isolates, have been rapidly emerging as pathogens in both animals and humans throughout the United States. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins is associated with clinical failures, including death, in patients with systemic infections. In this study, 87 Salmonella serotype Newport strains were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing and examined for the presence of class 1 integrons and blaCMY genes. Thirty-five PFGE patterns were observed with XbaI, and three of these patterns were indistinguishable among isolates from humans and animals. Fifty-three (60%) Salmonella serotype Newport isolates were identified as serotype Newport MDR-AmpC, including 16 (53%) of 30 human isolates, 27 (93%) of 29 cattle isolates, 7 (70%) of 10 swine isolates, and 3 (30%) of 10 chicken isolates. However, 28 (32%) Salmonella serotype Newport isolates were susceptible to all 16 antimicrobials tested. The blaCMY gene was present in all serotype Newport MDR-AmpC isolates. Furthermore, the plasmid-mediated blaCMY gene was transferable via conjugation to an Escherichia coli strain. The transconjugant showed the MDR-AmpC resistance profile. Thirty-five (40%) of the isolates possessed class 1 integrons. Sequence analyses of the integrons showed that they contained aadA, which confers resistance to streptomycin, or aadA and dhfr, which confer resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. One integron from a swine isolate contained the sat-1 gene, which encodes resistance to streptothricin, an antimicrobial agent that has never been approved for use in the United States. In conclusion, Salmonella serotype Newport MDR-AmpC was commonly identified among Salmonella serotype Newport isolates recovered from humans and food animals. These findings support the possibility of transmission of this organism to humans through the food chain.
Zhao, S.; Qaiyumi, S.; Friedman, S.; Singh, R.; Foley, S. L.; White, D. G.; McDermott, P. F.; Donkar, T.; Bolin, C.; Munro, S.; Baron, E. J.; Walker, R. D.
We present a human motion model and animation for micro-sensor motion capture system. It consists of a sensor data-driven layered human motion model and an animation method using polygon group to achieve skin deformation. This method is based on biomechanics. The joints of human body were categorized according to the motion characteristics. Motion parameters estimated from sensor data are used
A large population of humans is exposed to benzene from various occupational and environmental sources. Benzene is an established human and animal carcinogen. Exposure to benzene has been associated with leukaemia in humans and several types of malignancies in animals. The exact mechanism of benzene-induced toxicity is poorly understood. It is believed that benzene exerts its adverse effects by metabolic
Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are excellent tools to aid in the extrapolation of animal data to humans. When the fate of the chemical is the same among species being compared, animal data can appropriately be considered as a model for human exposure. For methylmercury exposure, sufficient data exist to allow comparison of numerous mammalian species to humans. PBPK model
John F. Young; Walter D. Wosilait; Richard H. Luecke
The National Academy of Sciences re- cently issued voluntary guidelines to govern human embryonic stem cell research. Among other restric- tions, these guidelines prohibit certain kinds of combi- nations of human and nonhuman animal cells, and call for ethics review and oversight of any protocol involv- ing the transfer of human embryonic stem cells into nonhuman animals. In this essay,
Intensively industrialized animal agriculture, or factory farming, poses many challenges for our notions of “life” and how it should be treated. Factory farming’s mass instrumentalization and exploitation of animals potentially unsettles both our most basic notions regarding the justice of sacrificing certain lives in order to improve other lives, and our decisions about which lives belong to each category. This
|Affectionate relationships with animal companions have health-enhancing effects on people and enrich their quality of life, and the majority of families with companion animals regard their animals as family members. Research has also suggested that these relationships are complicated and vary depending on a number of factors, yet there has been…
This website contains Flash animations and real footage movies (QuickTime format) from a physical geography textbook. Animations show phenomena associated with the atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere/cryosphere. Animations are slow to download and cannot be rewound to stress important points. Users may also follow links to PowerPoint slides, interactive activities, an image library and an instructor's manual.
Strahler, Alan H.; University, Boston; Education, Wiley H.
Affectionate relationships with animal companions have health-enhancing effects on people and enrich their quality of life, and the majority of families with companion animals regard their animals as family members. Research has also suggested that these relationships are complicated and vary depending on a number of factors, yet there has been…
In the field of the pet robot and robot assisted therapy (RAT), the creatural motion is important for the robots imitated the form of various animals. This paper presents the generation method of animal gait for quadrupedal robot. Here, we have employed AIBO as experimental quadrupedal robot and created the gait of AIBO in imitation of animal gait. At first,
Spontaneous development of intestinal inflammation in many different kinds of genetically engineered mice as well as the presence of numerous susceptibility genes in humans suggests that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is mediated by more complicated mechanisms than previously predicted. The human genetic studies implicate some major pathways in the pathogenesis of IBD, including epithelial defense against commensal microbiota, the IL-23/Th17 axis, and immune regulation. Murine IBD models, which are genetically engineered to lack some susceptibility genes, have been generated, and have provided useful insights into the therapeutic potential of targeting the susceptibility genes directly or their downstream pathways indirectly for IBD. This review summarizes current information related to the function of IBD-associated genes as derived from genetically engineered mouse models.
The genetic deficiency of ALDH2, a major mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, is intimately related to alcohol sensitivity and the degree of predisposition to alcoholic diseases in humans. The ultimate biological role of ALDH2 can be exposed by knocking out the ALDH2 gene in an animal model. As the first step for this line of studies, we cloned and characterized the ALDH2 gene from mouse C57/6J strain which is associated with a high alcohol preference. The gene spans 26 kbp and is composed of 13 exons. Embryonic stem cells were transfected with a replacement vector which contains a partially deleted exon3, a positive selection cassette (pPgk Neo), exon 4 with an artificial stop codon, exons 5, 6, 7, and a negative selection cassette (pMCI-Tk). Genomic DNAs prepared from drug resistant clones were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and by Southern blot analysis to distinguish random integration from homologous recombination. Out of 132 clones examined, 8 had undergone homologous recombination at one of the ALDH2 alleles. The cloned transformed embryonic stem cells with a disrupted ALDH2 allele were injected into blastocysts. Transplantation of the blastocysts into surrogate mother mice yielded chimeric mice. The role of ALDH2 in alcohol preference, alcohol sensitivity and other biological and behavioral characteristics can be elucidated by examining the heterozygous and homozygous mutant strains produced by breeding of chimeric mice.
Chang, C.; Mann, J.; Yoshida, A. [Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA (United States)
Human sperm tests provide a direct means of assessing chemically induced spermatogenic dysfunction in man. Available tests include sperm count, motility, morphology (seminal cytology), and Y-body analyses. Over 70 different human exposures have been monitored in various groups of exposed men. The majority of exposures studied showed a significant change from control in one or more sperm tests. When carefully controlled, the sperm morphology test is statistically the most sensitive of these human sperm tests. Several sperm tests have been developed in nonhuman mammals for the study of chemical spermatotoxins. The sperm morphology test in mice has been the most widely used. Results with this test seem to be related to germ-cell mutagenicity. In general, animal sperm tests should play an important role in the identification and assessment of potential human reproductive hazards. Exposure to spermatotoxins may lead to infertility, and more importantly, to heritable genetic damage. While there are considerable animal and human data suggesting that sperm tests may be used to detect agents causing infertility, the extent to which these tests detect heritable genetic damage remains unclear. (ERB)
Investigates the effects of both computer animations of microscopic chemical processes occurring in a galvanic cell and conceptual-change instruction based on chemical demonstrations on students' conceptions of current flow in electrolyte solutions. Finds that conceptual change instruction was effective at dispelling student misconceptions but…
The LDH isoenzyme and RNase activities of hepatic or hepatopancreatic and muscle tissues were studied. The animals examined are 1 species of echinoderm, 7 species of molluscs, 2 species of arthropods, 1 species of chordate, and 6 species of vertebrate. Th...
|Investigates the effects of both computer animations of microscopic chemical processes occurring in a galvanic cell and conceptual-change instruction based on chemical demonstrations on students' conceptions of current flow in electrolyte solutions. Finds that conceptual change instruction was effective at dispelling student misconceptions but…
Ochratoxin A (OTA) exposure via ingestion and inhalation has been described in the literature to cause kidney disease in both animals and humans. This paper reviews Ochratoxin A and its relationship to human health and kidney disease with a focus on a possible association with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) in humans. Prevention and treatment strategies for OTA-induced illness are also discussed, including cholestyramine, a bile-acid-binding resin used as a sequestrant to reduce the enterohepatic recirculation of OTA.
There is a lack of scientific studies using farm animals in animal-assisted therapy (AAT) for persons with mental disorders. This Norwegian study used video records to study the working abilities and behaviors of 35 severely ill psychiatric patients in interacting with farm animals during a three-month intervention. The patients showed higher intensity (difference score: 0.26 ± 0.05, p < 0.0001)
Bente Berget; Ingvild Skarsaune; Øivind Ekeberg; Bjarne O. Braastad
The carcinogenicity of inorganic arsenic in humans, particulary in the lung and skin, has been reasonably well established through epidemiological investigations. owever, there is no substantial experimental evidence for carcinogenicity in animals to support the human studies. tu...
It is widely accepted that animals often experience pain and distress as a result of their use in scientific experimentation. However, unlike our consideration of human suffering, the wide range of acute, recurrent and chronic stressors and trauma on animals are rarely evaluated. In order to better understand the cumulative effects of captivity and laboratory research conditions on animals, we
In this paper, we present a fast and intuitive interface for sketching out 3D virtual humans and animation. The user draws\\u000a stick figure key frames first and chooses one for “fleshing-out” with freehand body contours. The system automatically constructs\\u000a a plausible 3D skin surface from the rendered figure, and maps it onto the posed stick figures to produce the 3D
For most chemicals, the Reference Dose (RfD) is based on data from animal testing. The uncertainty introduced by the use of animal models has been termed interspecies uncertainty. The magnitude of the differences between the toxicity of a chemical in humans and test animals and its uncertainty can be investigated by evaluating the inter-chemical variation in the ratios of the doses associated with similar toxicological endpoints in test animals and humans. This study performs such an evaluation on a data set of 64 anti-neoplastic drugs. The data set provides matched responses in humans and four species of test animals: mice, rats, monkeys, and dogs. While the data have a number of limitations, the data show that when the drugs are evaluated on a body weight basis: 1) toxicity generally increases with a species' body weight; however, humans are not always more sensitive than test animals; 2) the animal to human dose ratios were less than 10 for most, but not all, drugs; 3) the current practice of using data from multiple species when setting RfDs lowers the probability of having a large value for the ratio. These findings provide insight into inter-chemical variation in animal to human extrapolations and suggest the need for additional collection and analysis of matched toxicity data in humans and test animals.
Price, Paul S. [Dow Chemical Company, Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting, 1803 Building, Midland MI 48674 (United States)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Keenan, Russell E. [AMEC Earth and Environmental, 15 Franklin Street, Portland, ME 04101 (United States); Swartout, Jeffrey C. [National Center for Environmental Assessment U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. M. L. King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)
Purpose of review Comparative genomics allows researchers to combine genome wide association data from humans with studies in animal models in order to assist in the identification of the genes and the genetic variants that modify susceptibility to dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Recent findings Association and linkage studies in human and rodent species have been successful in identifying genetic loci associated with complex traits, but have been less robust in identifying and validating the responsible gene and/or genetic variants. Recent technological advancements have assisted in the development of comparative genomic approaches, which rely on the combination of human and rodent datasets and bioinformatics tools, followed by the narrowing of concordant loci and improved identification of candidate genes and genetic variants. Additionally, candidate genes and genetic variants identified by these methods have been further validated and functionally investigated in animal models, a process that is not feasible in humans. Summary Comparative genomic approaches have lead to the identification and validation of several new genes, including a few not previously implicated, as modifiers of plasma lipid levels and atherosclerosis, yielding new insights into the biological mechanisms of these complex traits.
Boron is a bioactive element and a number of advances have been made in satisfying the five criteria for essentiality in humans and higher animals. 1) The element is present in tissues of different animals at comparable concentrations. Plasma concentrations (ug/mL) of boron are comparable in humans ...
Plant foods play a critical role in providing dietary iron to humans and other animals. Much of the world's human population subsists on diets that are predominantly vegetarian, while for those who eat limited to excessive amounts of animal food products, most of these foods come from livestock who...
The primary objective of this review was to assess the size and consistency of Royal Jelly (RJ) effect on serum lipids in experimental animals and humans. The data from animal studies were pooled, where possible, and statistically evaluated by Student's t-test. Meta-analysis was used for the evaluation of human trials. It was found that RJ significantly decreased serum and liver
Fecal pollution of water resources is an environmental problem of increasing importance. Identification of individual host sources of fecal Escherichia coli, such as humans, pets, production animals, and wild animals, is prerequisite to formulation of remediation plans. Ribotyping has been used to distinguish fecal E. coli of human origin from pooled fecal E. coli isolates of nonhuman origin. We have
C. ANDREW CARSON; BRIAN L. SHEAR; MARK R. ELLERSIECK; AMHA ASFAW
The recent increase in concentrated animal feeding operations in the United States has caused renewed concern regarding the infectious diseases that may be passed from farm animals to humans via the environment. It is also known that more than 20 recent epidemics among humans cou...
In dealing with the incidence and impact of animal diseases on humans, particular attention is always devoted to the etiology. Whether, and how, a contagious disease is transmitted from animals to humans (and vice versa) is the most often highlighted question, because much hope rests on the idea that the search for and identifying of a pathogen and how this
This article reviews research in both animals and humans on the considerable progress made in elucidating a brain circuitry of fear, particularly the importance of the amygdala in fear conditioning. While there is considerable agreement about the participation of the amygdala in fear in both animals and humans, there are several issues about the function of the amygdala raised by
A survey was conducted to determine the occurrence of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in animal and human fecal samples. Fecal samples from 14 animal species and humans were analyzed by quantitative culture for enterococci and VRE. Over 800 VRE isolates were characterize...
Animal models of acute ischemic stroke have been criticized for failing to translate to human stroke. Nevertheless, animal\\u000a models are necessary to improve our understanding of stroke pathophysiology and to guide the development of new stroke therapies.\\u000a The rabbit embolic clot model is one animal model that has led to an effective therapy in human acute ischemic stroke, namely\\u000a tissue
Cerebral cavernous malformations are common vascular lesions of the central nervous system that predispose to seizures, focal neurologic deficits and potentially fatal hemorrhagic stroke. Human genetic studies have identified three genes associated with the disease and biochemical studies of these proteins have identified interaction partners and possible signaling pathways. A variety of animal models of CCM have been described to help translate the cellular and biochemical insights into a better understanding of disease mechanism. In this minireview, we discuss the contributions of animal models to our growing understanding of the biology of cavernous malformations, including the elucidation of the cellular context of CCM protein actions and the in vivo confirmation of abnormal endothelial cell–cell interactions. Challenges and progress towards developing a faithful model of CCM biology are reviewed.
Chan, Aubrey C.; Li, Dean Y.; Berg, Michel J.; Whitehead, Kevin J.
Because a unilateral lesion of the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system has been found to induce rotational behavior in primates, as well as in rodents, we have designed and constructed a rotation monitoring device suitable for non-human primates. Animals are connected via a tether to a continuous-rotation potentiometer which provides a position-dependent output voltage. This voltage is interfaced via an analog-to-digital converter to an IBM PC. The rotation program then calculates the direction and amount of any turning, as well as total activity, and this data is recorded on diskfile for later analysis. Because the system can operate around the clock unattended, data can be collected over long experimental periods, and detailed circadian analysis of rotation and total activity can be made. The design is also applicable to smaller animals, including rodents, and has many advantages over previously available rotometer designs. PMID:3138505
Most of the natural cases of pneumonia in feedlot cattle are characterized by a longer clinical course due to chronic lung lesions. Microscopically, these lesions include interstitial fibroplasia, bronchitis, bronchiectasis, bronchiolitis obliterans, and epithelial metaplasia of the airways. Herein, the aim was to review, under a medical perspective, the pathologic mechanisms operating in these chronic pneumonic lesions in calves. Based on the similarities of these changes to those reported in bronchiolitis obliterans/organising pneumonia (BO/OP) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in human beings, calves are proposed as an alternative animal model.
Ramirez-Romero, Rafael; Nevarez-Garza, Alicia M.; Rodriguez-Tovar, Luis E.; Wong-Gonzalez, Alfredo; Ledezma-Torres, Rogelio A.; Hernandez-Vidal, Gustavo
Milk is a very abundant source of proteins for animal and human consumption. Milk composition can be modified using transgenesis, including exogenous gene addition and endogenous gene inactivation. The study of milk protein genes has provided researchers with regulatory regions capable of efficiently and specifically driving the expression of foreign genes in milk. The projects underway are aimed at modifying milk composition, improving its nutritional value, reducing mammary infections, providing consumers with antipathogen proteins and preparing purified recombinant proteins for pharmaceutical use. The present paper summarises the current progress in this field. PMID:17107647
Nanoparticles are currently being investigated in a number of human clinical trials. As information on how nanoparticles function in humans is difficult to obtain, animal studies that can be correlative to human behavior are needed to provide guidance for human clinical trials. Here, we report correlative studies on animals and humans for CRLX101, a 20- to 30-nm-diameter, multifunctional, polymeric nanoparticle containing camptothecin (CPT). CRLX101 is currently in phase 2 clinical trials, and human data from several of the clinical investigations are compared with results from multispecies animal studies. The pharmacokinetics of polymer-conjugated CPT (indicative of the CRLX101 nanoparticles) in mice, rats, dogs, and humans reveal that the area under the curve scales linearly with milligrams of CPT per square meter for all species. Plasma concentrations of unconjugated CPT released from CRLX101 in animals and humans are consistent with each other after accounting for differences in serum albumin binding of CPT. Urinary excretion of polymer-conjugated CPT occurs primarily within the initial 24 h after dosing in animals and humans. The urinary excretion dynamics of polymer-conjugated and unconjugated CPT appear similar between animals and humans. CRLX101 accumulates into solid tumors and releases CPT over a period of several days to give inhibition of its target in animal xenograft models of cancer and in the tumors of humans. Taken in total, the evidence provided from animal models on the CRLX101 mechanism of action suggests that the behavior of CRLX101 in animals is translatable to humans.
Eliasof, Scott; Lazarus, Douglas; Peters, Christian G.; Case, Roy I.; Cole, Roderic O.; Hwang, Jungyeon; Schluep, Thomas; Chao, Joseph; Lin, James; Yen, Yun; Han, Han; Wiley, Devin T.; Zuckerman, Jonathan E.; Davis, Mark E.
Over the past 25 years, animal models of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection and transformation have provided critical knowledge about viral and host factors in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). The virus consistently infects rabbits, some non-human primates, and to a lesser extent rats. In addition to providing fundamental concepts in viral transmission and immune responses against HTLV-1 infection, these models have provided new information about the role of viral proteins in carcinogenesis. Mice and rats, in particular immunodeficient strains, are useful models to assess immunologic parameters mediating tumor outgrowth and therapeutic invention strategies against lymphoma. Genetically altered mice including both transgenic and knockout mice offer important models to test the role of specific viral and host genes in the development of HTLV-1-associated lymphoma. Novel approaches in genetic manipulation of both HTLV-1 and animal models are available to address the complex questions that remain about viral-mediated mechanisms of cell transformation and disease. Current progress in the understanding of the molecular events of HTLV-1 infection and transformation suggests that answers to these questions are approachable using animal models of HTLV-1-associated lymphoma
Zoonotic pathogens have caused the majority of emerging infectious disease events in the past 6 decades. With most emerging infectious diseases arising from animal origins, including many of the select agents identified as most likely candidates for bioterrorism, linking human and animal surveillance systems will be critical to effective disease identification and control in the future. Lack of this linkage has been the focus of a number of important policy papers in recent years. These have expressed concern over the continued lack of preparedness for addressing zoonotic threats and have called for a new approach to integrating biosurveillance. However, these studies have been mainly Western-centric in viewpoint and have overlooked the example of the Russian Federation (RF) Anti-Plague System (AP system). In this article we submit that the RF AP system has select components that effectively address recent concerns and inform the US and UK intersectoral efforts on human-animal health surveillance, forming a basis for US, UK, and RF collaboration. PMID:24041194
McNamara, Tracey; Platonov, Alexander; Elleman, Tatyana; Gresham, Louise
Stem cells derived from adult tissues or the inner cell mass (ICM) of embryos in the mammalian blastocyst (BL) stage are capable of self-renewal and have remarkable potential for undergoing lineage-specific differentiation under in vitro culturing conditions. In particular, neural stem cells (NSCs) that self-renew and differentiate into major cell types of the brain exist in the developing and adult central nervous system (CNS). The exact function and distribution of NSCs has been assessed, and they represent an interesting population that includes astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neurons. Many researchers have demonstrated functional recovery in animal models of various neurological diseases such as stroke, Parkinson's disease (PD), brain tumors, and metastatic tumors. The safety and efficacy of stem cell-based therapies (SCTs) are also being evaluated in humans. The therapeutic efficacy of NSCs has been shown in the brain disorder-induced animal models, and animal models may be well established to perform the test before clinical stage. Taken together, data from the literature have indicated that therapeutic NSCs may be useful for selectively treating diverse types of human brain diseases without incurring adverse effects.
Numerous species possess cortical regions that are most sensitive to vocalizations produced by their own kind (conspecifics). In humans, the superior temporal sulci (STSs) putatively represent homologous voice-sensitive areas of cortex. However, superior temporal sulcus (STS) regions have recently been reported to represent auditory experience or "expertise" in general rather than showing exclusive sensitivity to human vocalizations per se. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a unique non-stereotypical category of complex human non-verbal vocalizations-human-mimicked versions of animal vocalizations-we found a cortical hierarchy in humans optimized for processing meaningful conspecific utterances. This left-lateralized hierarchy originated near primary auditory cortices and progressed into traditional speech-sensitive areas. Our results suggest that the cortical regions supporting vocalization perception are initially organized by sensitivity to the human vocal tract in stages before the STS. Additionally, these findings have implications for the developmental time course of conspecific vocalization processing in humans as well as its evolutionary origins. PMID:22674283
Talkington, William J; Rapuano, Kristina M; Hitt, Laura A; Frum, Chris A; Lewis, James W
The biological classification of living species is shown to be inapplicable for the purposes of forensic medical examination. A list of the families of carnivorous animals that may be of forensic medical significance is presented. Their working classification is proposed taking into account the size and behaviour of the animals as well as their body parts and organs with which they may inflict injuries to man in various situations. The main types of wounds caused by carnivores are considered. PMID:21938936
The importance of including neurodevelopmental end points in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive function in human infants that also has a homologous or parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for large-scale studie...
The importance of including neurodevelopmental endpoints in environmental studies is clear. A validated measure of cognitive fucntion in human infants that also has a parallel test in laboratory animal studies will provide a valuable approach for largescale studies. Such a ho...
The purpose of immunotoxicity testing is to obtain data that is meaningful for safety assessment. Host resistance assays are the best measure of a toxicant's effect on the overall ability to mount an effective immune response and protect the host from infectious disease. An outline is presented for immunotoxicological evaluation using host resistance assays. The influenza virus host resistance model is useful to evaluate the overall health of the immune system and is one of the most thoroughly characterized host resistance models. Viral clearance requires all aspects of the immune system to work together and is the ultimate measure of the health of the immune system in this model. Mechanistic immune functions may be included while measuring viral clearance and include: cytokines, macrophage activity, natural killer (NK) cell activity, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity, and influenza-specific IgM and IgG. Measurement of these immunological functions provides an evaluation of innate immunity (macrophage or NK activity), an evaluation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) (CTL activity), and an evaluation of humoral-mediated immunity (HMI) (influenza-specific IgM or IgG). Measurement of influenza-specific IgM or IgG also provides a measurement of T-dependent antibody response (TDAR) since influenza is a T-dependent antigen. There are several targeted host resistance models that may be used to answer specific questions. Should a defect in neutrophil and/or macrophage function be suspected, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, or Listeria monocytogenes host resistance models are useful. Anti-inflammatory pharmaceuticals or therapeutics for rheumatoid arthritis or Crohn's disease that target TNFalpha may also be evaluated for immunotoxicity using the S. pneumoniae intranasal host resistance assay. Marginal zone B (MZB) cells are required for production of antibody to T-independent antigens such as the polysaccharide capsule of the encapsulated bacteria that are so prominent in causing blood-borne infections and pneumonia. Intravenous infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae, an encapsulated bacterium, results in a blood-borne infection that requires MZB cells for clearance. The systemic S. pneumoniae host resistance assay evaluates whether a therapeutic test article exerts immunotoxicity on MZB cells and measures the T-independent antibody response (TIAR). Suppression of CMI or in some cases HMI may result in reactivation of latent virus that may result in a fatal disease such as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). The murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) reactivation model may be used to evaluate a pharmaceutical agent to determine if suppression of CMI or HMI results in reactivation of latent virus. Candida albicans is another host resistance model to test potential immunotoxicity. Host resistance assays have been the ultimate measure of immunotoxicity testing for environmental chemicals and pharmaceutical small molecules. Human biologicals are now an important component of the drug development armamentarium for biotech and pharmaceutical companies. Many human biologicals are fusions of IgG, and/or target immune mediators, immunological receptors, adhesion molecules, and/or are indicated for diseases that have immune components. It is therefore necessary to thoroughly evaluate human biological therapeutics for immunotoxicity. Numerous biologicals that are pharmacologically active in rodents can be evaluated using well-characterized rodent host resistance assays. However, biologicals not active in rodents may use surrogate biologicals for testing in rodent host resistance assays, or may use host resistance assays in genetically engineered mice that mimic the effect of the human biological pharmacological agent. PMID:18382855
This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". One of the defining characteristics of adolescence in humans is a large shift in the timing and structure of sleep. Some of these changes are easily observable at the behavioral level, such as a shift in sleep patterns from a relatively morning to a relatively evening chronotype. However, there are equally large changes in the underlying architecture of sleep, including a >60% decrease in slow brain wave activity, which may reflect cortical pruning. In this review we examine the developmental forces driving adolescent sleep patterns using a cross-species comparison. We find that behavioral and physiological sleep parameters change during adolescence in non-human mammalian species, ranging from primates to rodents, in a manner that is often hormone-dependent. However, the overt appearance of these changes is species-specific, with polyphasic sleepers, such as rodents, showing a phase-advance in sleep timing and consolidation of daily sleep/wake rhythms. Using the classic two-process model of sleep regulation, we demonstrate via a series of simulations that many of the species-specific characteristics of adolescent sleep patterns can be explained by a universal decrease in the build-up and dissipation of sleep pressure. Moreover, and counterintuitively, we find that these changes do not necessitate a large decrease in overall sleep need, fitting the adolescent sleep literature. We compare these results to our previous review detailing evidence for adolescent changes in the regulation of sleep by the circadian timekeeping system (Hagenauer and Lee, 2012), and suggest that both processes may be responsible for adolescent sleep patterns. PMID:23998671
Isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum obtained from infected humans, calves and lambs were typed using arbitrary primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) and\\u000a isoenzyme electrophoresis. All animal isolates tested (n?=?17) showed similar profiles in AP-PCR and isoenzyme typing. In AP-PCR assays, 9 out of 15 human isolates showed a distinct\\u000a “human” profile while the remaining 6 isolates showed the “animal” profile. In
Fatih M. Awad-El-Kariem; Heidi A. Robinson; Franz Petry; Vincent McDonald; David Evans; David Casemore
Animating a complex human face model in real-time is not a trivial task in intelligent multimedia systems for next generation\\u000a environments. This paper proposes a generation scheme of a simplified model for real-time human face animation in intelligent\\u000a multimedia systems. Previous work mainly focused on the geometric features when generating a simplified human face model.\\u000a Such methods may lose the
Soo-Kyun Kim; Syung-Og An; Min Hong; Doo-Soon Park; Shin-Jin Kang
Data from epidemiological studies of humans exposed to potentially harmful substances are usually analyzed using methods that account for the dependence of risks on time-related factors such as age and follow-up period. Recently developed statistical procedures allow modeling of the age-specific risks as a function of dose as well as factors such as age at exposure, time since exposure, exposure duration, and dose rate. These procedures potentially allow more rigorous inferences and clearer understanding of the patterns of risk observed in epidemiological studies than has been available in the past. Statistical procedures that consider time-related factors can also be applied to laboratory animal data, providing information that is useful for the problems involved in extrapolating from animal studies to humans. By applying such procedures to data on exposure to the same substance in different species (includinghumans) or to different substances in the same species, better understanding of the relationship of risks across species and across substances can be achieved. In addition, such statistical procedures allow appropriate treatment of exposure that is accumulated over time and lead to improved understanding of patterns of risk over time. The approach is illustrated using data from a lifespan study of beagle dogs exposed to inhaled Pu.
Gilbert, E.S.; Park, J.F.; Buschbom, R.L. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (USA))
Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) contribute significantly to neonatal morbidity and mortality. Pulmonary function depends on the interaction between alveolar microvasculature and airspace development. While it has been shown in various animal models that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors increase in normal animal lung development, its pathophysiological role in neonatal respiratory failure is not yet entirely clear. Current animal and human studies exhibit controversial results. Though animal models are invaluable tools in the study of human lung disease, inherent differences in physiology mandate clarification of the timing of these studies to ensure that they appropriately correlate with the human stages of lung development. The purpose of this review article is to highlight the importance of considering the temporal relationship of VEGF and lung development in human neonates and developmentally-appropriate animal models with RDS and BPD.
Human giardiasis, caused by the intestinal flagellate Giardia duodenalis, is considered a zoonotic infection, although the role of animals in the transmission to humans is still unclear. Molecular characterisation of cysts of human and animal origin represents an objective means to validate or reject this hypothesis. In the present work, cysts were collected in Italy from humans (n=37) and animals
Marco Lalle; Edoardo Pozio; Gioia Capelli; Fabrizio Bruschi; Daniele Crotti; Simone M. Cacciò
The guideline sets forth acceptable conditions for use of the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test. It also describes procedures for using this methodology as an end-product endotoxin test for human injectable drugs (including biological products), animal inject...
Summary: Tapeworms (Cestoda) continue to be an important cause of morbidity in humans worldwide. Diphyllobothriosis, a human disease caused by tapeworms of the genus Diphyllobothrium, is the most important fish-borne zoonosis caused by a cestode parasite. Up to 20 million humans are estimated to be infected worldwide. Besides humans, definitive hosts of Diphyllobothrium include piscivorous birds and mammals, which represent a significant zoonotic reservoir. The second intermediate hosts include both freshwater and marine fish, especially anadromous species such as salmonids. The zoonosis occurs most commonly in countries where the consumption of raw or marinated fish is a frequent practice. Due to the increasing popularity of dishes utilizing uncooked fish, numerous cases of human infections have appeared recently, even in the most developed countries. As many as 14 valid species of Diphyllobothrium can cause human diphyllobothriosis, with D. latum and D. nihonkaiense being the most important pathogens. In this paper, all taxa from humans reported are reviewed, with brief information on their life history and their current distribution. Data on diagnostics, epidemiology, clinical relevance, and control of the disease are also summarized. The importance of reliable identification of human-infecting species with molecular tools (sequences of mitochondrial genes) as well as the necessity of epidemiological studies aimed at determining the sources of infections are pointed out.
Scholz, Tomas; Garcia, Hector H.; Kuchta, Roman; Wicht, Barbara
This review focuses on the immunization of animals as a means of preventing human diseases (zoonoses). Three frameworks for the use of vaccines in this context are described, and examples are provided of successes and failures. Framework I vaccines are used for protection of humans and economically valuable animals, where neither plays a role in the transmission cycle. The benefit of collaborations between animal health and human health industries and regulators in developing such products is discussed, and one example (West Nile vaccine) of a single product developed for use in animals and humans is described. Framework II vaccines are indicated for domesticated animals as a means of preventing disease in both animals and humans. The agents of concern are transmitted directly or indirectly (e.g. via arthropod vectors) from animals to humans. A number of examples of the use of Framework II vaccines are provided, e.g. against brucellosis, Escherischia coli O157, rabies, Rift Valley fever, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Hendra virus. Framework III vaccines are used to immunize wild animals as a means of preventing transmission of disease agents to humans and domesticated animals. Examples are reservoir-targeted, oral bait rabies, Mycobacterium bovis and Lyme disease vaccines. Given the speed and lost cost of veterinary vaccine development, some interventions based on the immunization of animals could lead to rapid and relatively inexpensive advances in public health. Opportunities for vaccine-based approaches to preventing zoonotic and emerging diseases that integrate veterinary and human medicine (the One Health paradigm) are emphasized. PMID:24060567
We have developed TransChromo (TC) technology, which enables the introduction of megabase-sized segments of DNA into cells. We have used this approach to derive mice that carry megabases of human DNA by the use of a human chromosome fragment (HCF) as a vector. TC technology has been applied to the construction of the TC Mouse,trade mark which incorporates entire human immunoglobulin (hIg) loci. TC Mouse expresses a fully diverse repertoire of hIgs, including all the subclasses of IgGs (IgG1-G4). Immunization of the TC Mouse with various human antigens produced antibody responses comprised of human antibodies. Furthermore, it was possible to obtain hybridoma clones expressing fully human antibodies specific for the target human antigen. However, because of the instability of the Igkappa locus-bearing HCF2, the efficiency of hybridoma production was less than one-tenth of that observed in normal mice. An instant solution to this problem was to cross-breed the Kirin TC Mouse carrying the HCF14, which was stable in mouse cells, with the Medarex YAC-transgenic mouse carrying about 50% of the hIgVkappa gene segments as a region that is stably integrated into the mouse genome. The resulting mouse, dubbed the KM Mouse, performed as well as normal mice with regard to immune responsiveness and efficiency of hybridoma production. Another application of TC technology is the production of polyclonal antibodies in large animals such as chickens and cows. To test the efficacy of human polyclonal antibodies derived from TC animals, feasibility studies were performed using antisera and purified gamma-globulin from TC mice immunized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), or Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). The TC mouse-derived antisera and gamma-globulin showed a much higher titer and efficacy in terms of the neutralizing activity of the pathogens in vitro and in vivo than either human serum or gamma-globulin prepared from human blood. PMID:12006160
Background and rationale This review addresses the role animal models play in contributing to our knowledge about the eating disorders anorexia nervosa\\u000a (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) and obesity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives Explore the usefulness of animal models in complex biobehavioral familial conditions, such as AN, BN, and obesity, that involve\\u000a interactions among genetic, physiologic, psychological, and cultural factors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results and conclusions The most promising
Regina C. Casper; Elinor L. Sullivan; Laurence Tecott
Panax ginseng exhibits pleiotropic beneficial effects on cardiovascular system, central nervous system, and immune system. In the last decade, numerous preclinical findings suggest ginseng as a promising therapeutic agent for diabetes prevention and treatment. The mechanism of ginseng and its active components is complex and is demonstrated to either modulate insulin production/secretion, glucose metabolism and uptake, or inflammatory pathway in both insulin-dependent and insulin-independent manners. However, human studies are remained obscure because of contradictory results. While more studies are warranted to further understand these contradictions, ginseng holds promise as a therapeutic agent for diabetes prevention and treatment. This review summarizes the evidences for the therapeutic potential of ginseng and ginsenosides from in vitro studies, animal studies and human clinical trials with a focus on diverse molecular targets including an AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.
Yuan, Hai-Dan; Kim, Jung Tae; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chung, Sung Hyun
Purpose. Secretions that are produced by meibomian glands (also known as meibum) are a major source of lipids for the ocular surface of humans and animals alike. Many animal species have been evaluated for their meibomian lipidomes. However, there have been a very small number of studies in which the animals were compared with humans side by side. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare meibum collected from humans and three typical laboratory animals, canines, mice, and rabbits, for their meibomian lipid composition in order to determine which animal species most resembles humans. Methods. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) in combination with mass spectrometry were used to evaluate lipidomes of all tested species. Results. Among three tested animal species, mice were found to be the closest match to humans in terms of their meibomian lipidomes, while canines were the second closest species. The lipids of these three species were close to each other structurally and, for most lipid classes, quantitatively. The rabbit meibomian lipidome, on the other hand, was vastly different from lipidomes of all other tested species. Interestingly, a previously described class of lipids, acylated omega-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFA), was found to be present in every tested species as the major amphiphilic component of meibum. Conclusions. Our side by side comparison of the rabbit and the human meibum demonstrated their vast differences. Thus, the rabbit seems to be a poor animal model of the human tear film, at least when studying its biochemistry and biophysics.
Butovich, Igor A.; Lu, Hua; McMahon, Anne; Eule, J. Corinna
Opioid abuse has increased in the last decade, primarily as a result of increased access to prescription opioids. Physicians are also increasingly administering opioid analgesics for noncancer chronic pain. Thus, knowledge of the long-term consequences of opioid use/abuse has important implications for fully evaluating the clinical usefulness of opioid medications. Many studies have examined the effect of opioids on the endocrine system; however, a systematic review of the endocrine actions of opioids in both humans and animals has, to our knowledge, not been published since 1984. Thus, we reviewed the literature on the effect of opioids on the endocrine system. We included both acute and chronic effects of opioids, with the majority of the studies done on the acute effects although chronic effects are more physiologically relevant. In humans and laboratory animals, opioids generally increase GH and prolactin and decrease LH, testosterone, estradiol, and oxytocin. In humans, opioids increase TSH, whereas in rodents, TSH is decreased. In both rodents and humans, the reports of effects of opioids on arginine vasopressin and ACTH are conflicting. Opioids act preferentially at different receptor sites leading to stimulatory or inhibitory effects on hormone release. Increasing opioid abuse primarily leads to hypogonadism but may also affect the secretion of other pituitary hormones. The potential consequences of hypogonadism include decreased libido and erectile dysfunction in men, oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea in women, and bone loss or infertility in both sexes. Opioids may increase or decrease food intake, depending on the type of opioid and the duration of action. Additionally, opioids may act through the sympathetic nervous system to cause hyperglycemia and impaired insulin secretion. In this review, recent information regarding endocrine disorders among opioid abusers is presented.
Vuong, Cassidy; Van Uum, Stan H. M.; O'Dell, Laura E.; Lutfy, Kabirullah; Friedman, Theodore C.
Viruses normally associated with man, or antibodies to such viruses, were found in animals in two villages in West Bengal during a 6-month survey. Eleven serotypes were isolated from the feces of seven vertebrate species and one serotype from flies. In one of the villages, echovirus 7 was most frequently isolated at the start of the study and was obtained
Imagine you are asked to produce a 3D animation of a demonic armchair terrorizing an innocent desk lamp. You may think about model rigging, skeleton deformation, and keyframing. Depending on your experience, you might imagine hours to days at the controls of Maya or Blender. But even if you have absolutely no computer graphics experience, it can be so much
Rape-like behaviour has been documented in a number of species of animals. The purpose of this paper is to explain the evolutionary perspective on this behaviour. Several key concepts of modern evolutionary theory are first explained. Then the problem of defining rape in such a way that it is amenable to scientific study is discussed. Agonistic mating, altruistic mating, forced
Respiratory muscle injury may result from excessive loading due to a decrease in respiratory muscle strength, an increase in the work of breathing, or an increase in the rate of ventilation. Other conditions such as hypoxemia, hypercapnia, aging, decreased nutrition, and immobilization may potentiate respiratory muscle injury. Respiratory muscle injury has been shown in animal models using direct muscle or
Tim Ingold's seminal article ‘From trust to domination’ introduces a hypothesis in which there is a shift from hunter-gatherer cultures to agro-pastoral cultures regarding perceptions of, and engagements with, animals. Whereas hunters regard prey as kindred brothers, farmers regard, and treat, their domestic livestock as slaves. On the basis of this hypothesis, archaeologists frequently take this to be a universal
As new drugs are developed, it is essen- tial to appropriately translate the drug dosage from one animal species to another. A misunderstanding appears to exist regarding the appropriate method for allomet- ric dose translations, especially when starting new ani- mal or clinical studies. The need for education regard- ing appropriate translation is evident from the media response regarding some
We developed a dynamic model of livestock-to-human brucellosis transmission in Mongolia. The compartmental model considers transmission within sheep and cattle populations and the transmission to humans as additive components. The model was fitted to demographic and seroprevalence data (Rose Bengal test) from livestock and annually reported new human brucellosis cases in Mongolia for 1991–1999 prior to the onset of a
J. Zinsstag; F. Roth; D. Orkhon; G. Chimed-Ochir; M. Nansalmaa; J. Kolar; P. Vounatsou
Few researchers have studied the predictive ability of childhood animal cruelty motives as they are associated with later recurrent violence toward humans. Based on a sample of 180 inmates at one medium- and one maximum-security prison in a Southern state, the present study examines the relationship among several retrospectively identified motives (fun, out of anger, hate for the animal, and imitation) for childhood animal cruelty and the later commission of violent crimes (murder, rape, assault, and robbery) against humans. Almost two thirds of the inmates reported engaging in childhood animal cruelty for fun, whereas almost one fourth reported being motivated either out of anger or imitation. Only one fifth of the respondents reported they had committed acts of animal cruelty because they hated the animal. Regression analyses revealed that recurrent animal cruelty was the only statistically significant variable in the model. Respondents who had committed recurrent childhood animal cruelty were more likely to have had committed recurrent adult violence toward humans. None of the motives for committing childhood animal cruelty had any effect on later violence against humans. PMID:22007109
Overton, Joshua C; Hensley, Christopher; Tallichet, Suzanne E
Background Salmonella (S.) enterica is the main cause of salmonellosis in humans and animals. The epidemiology of this infection involves large geographical distances, and strains related to an episode of salmonellosis therefore need to be reliably discriminated. Due to the limitations of serotyping, molecular genotyping methods have been developed, including multiple loci variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA). In our study, 11 variable number tandem-repeats markers were selected from the S. enterica Typhimurium LT2 genome to evaluate the genetic diversity of 206 S. enterica strains collected in Cambodia between 2001 and 2007. Findings Thirty one serovars were identified from three sources: humans, animals and food. The markers were able to discriminate all strains from 2 to 17 alleles. Using the genotype phylogeny repartition, MLVA distinguished 107 genotypes clustered into two main groups: S. enterica Typhi and other serovars. Four serovars (Derby, Schwarzengrund, Stanley, and Weltevreden) were dispersed in 2 to 5 phylogenic branches. Allelic variations within S. enterica serovars was represented using the minimum spanning tree. For several genotypes, we identified clonal complexes within the serovars. This finding supports the notion of endemo-epidemic diffusion within animals, food, or humans. Furthermore, a clonal transmission from one source to another was reported. Four markers (STTR3, STTR5, STTR8, and Sal20) presented a high diversity index (DI > 0.80). Conclusions In summary, MLVA can be used in the typing and genetic profiling of a large diversity of S. enterica serovars, as well as determining the epidemiological relationships of the strains with the geography of the area.
Background The animal efficacy rule addressing development of drugs for selected disease categories has pointed out the need to develop alternative large animal models. Based on this rule, the pathophysiology of the disease in the animal model must be well characterized and must reflect that in humans. So far, manifestations of the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) have been extensively studied only in two large animal models, the non-human primate (NHP) and the canine. We are evaluating the suitability of the minipig as an additional large animal model for development of radiation countermeasures. We have previously shown that the Gottingen minipig manifests hematopoietic ARS phases and symptoms similar to those observed in canines, NHPs, and humans. Principal Findings We establish here the LD50/30 dose (radiation dose at which 50% of the animals succumb within 30 days), and show that at this dose the time of nadir and the duration of cytopenia resemble those observed for NHP and canines, and mimic closely the kinetics of blood cell depletion and recovery in human patients with reversible hematopoietic damage (H3 category, METREPOL approach). No signs of GI damage in terms of diarrhea or shortening of villi were observed at doses up to 1.9 Gy. Platelet counts at days 10 and 14, number of days to reach critical platelet values, duration of thrombocytopenia, neutrophil stress response at 3 hours and count at 14 days, and CRP-to-platelet ratio were correlated with survival. The ratios between neutrophils, lymphocytes and platelets were significantly correlated with exposure to irradiation at different time intervals. Significance As a non-rodent animal model, the minipig offers a useful alternative to NHP and canines, with attractive features including ARS resembling human ARS, cost, and regulatory acceptability. Use of the minipig may allow accelerated development of radiation countermeasures.
Moroni, Maria; Lombardini, Eric; Salber, Rudolph; Kazemzedeh, Mehdi; Nagy, Vitaly; Olsen, Cara; Whitnall, Mark H.
The sterol content of faeces from humans and 14 species of animals common to rural or urban environments were examined. The major human faecal sterol was the 5?-stanol, coprostanol which constituted ? 60% of the total sterols found in human faeces. The sterol profiles of herbivores were dominated by C29 sterols and 5?-stanols were generally in equal or greater abundance
Following the ban of all food animal growth-promoting antibiotics by Sweden in 1986, the European Union banned avoparcin in 1997 and bacitracin, spiramycin, tylosin and virginiamycin in 1999. Three years later, the only attributable effect in humans has been a diminution in acquired resistance in enterococci isolated from human faecal carriers. There has been an increase in human infection from
Mark Casewell; Christian Friis; Enric Marco; Paul McMullin; Ian Phillips
Male-specific bacteriophage (MSB) densities were determined in animal and human fecal wastes to assess their potential impact on aquatic environments. Fecal samples (1,031) from cattle, chickens, dairy cows, dogs, ducks, geese, goats, hogs, horses, seagulls, sheep, and humans as well as 64 sewerage samples were examined for MSB. All animal species were found to harbor MSB, although the great majority excreted these viruses at very low levels. The results from this study demonstrate that in areas affected by both human and animal wastes, wastewater treatment plants are the principal contributors of MSB to fresh, estuarine, and marine waters. PMID:9835602
Calci, K R; Burkhardt, W; Watkins, W D; Rippey, S R
Non-human primates have been used to model psychiatric disease for several decades. The success of this paradigm has issued from comparable cognitive skills, brain morphology, and social complexity in adult monkeys and humans. Recently, interest in biological psychiatry has focused on similar brain, social, and emotional developmental processes in monkeys. In part, this is related to evidence that early postnatal
In this work we propose a modelling technique for producing cyclic motions of human body. The surface of the human body has been created from a set of pre-configured curves that were used as the set of boundary conditions to solve a number of partial differential equations (PDE). These boundary curves are attached to a skeletal system that holds the
Michael Athanasopoulos; Gabriela González Castro; Hassan Ugail
In an attempt to understand the applicability of various animal models to dyslipidemia in humans and to identify improved preclinical models for target discovery and validation for dyslipidemia, we measured comprehensive plasma lipid profiles in 24 models. These included five mouse strains, six other nonprimate species, and four nonhuman primate (NHP) species, and both healthy animals and animals with metabolic disorders. Dyslipidemic humans were assessed by the same measures. Plasma lipoprotein profiles, eight major plasma lipid fractions, and FA compositions within these lipid fractions were compared both qualitatively and quantitatively across the species. Given the importance of statins in decreasing plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol for treatment of dyslipidemia in humans, the responses of these measures to simvastatin treatment were also assessed for each species and compared with dyslipidemic humans. NHPs, followed by dog, were the models that demonstrated closest overall match to dyslipidemic humans. For the subset of the dyslipidemic population with high plasma triglyceride levels, the data also pointed to hamster and db/db mouse as representative models for practical use in target validation. Most traditional models, including rabbit, Zucker diabetic fatty rat, and the majority of mouse models, did not demonstrate overall similarity to dyslipidemic humans in this study.
\\u000a Research into people’s response to the death of a companion animal demonstrates considerable variability among individuals,\\u000a ranging from minimal reaction to extreme and protracted distress, and that pet owners themselves may be surprised at their\\u000a own reaction. Two questions arise from this. First, how can we best predict who is likely to suffer extreme distress at the\\u000a loss of a
We developed a dynamic model of livestock-to-human brucellosis transmission in Mongolia. The compartmental model considers transmission within sheep and cattle populations and the transmission to humans as additive components. The model was fitted to demographic and seroprevalence data (Rose Bengal test) from livestock and annually reported new human brucellosis cases in Mongolia for 1991-1999 prior to the onset of a mass livestock-vaccination campaign (S19 Brucella abortus for cattle and Rev 1 Brucella melitensis for sheep and goat). The vaccination effect was fitted to livestock- and human-brucellosis data from the first 3 years of the vaccination campaign (2000-2002). Parameters were optimized on the basis of the goodness-of-fit (assessed by the deviance). The simultaneously fitted sheep-human and cattle-human contact rates show that 90% of human brucellosis was small-ruminant derived. Average effective reproductive ratios for the year 1999 were 1.2 for sheep and 1.7 for cattle. PMID:15899298
Zinsstag, J; Roth, F; Orkhon, D; Chimed-Ochir, G; Nansalmaa, M; Kolar, J; Vounatsou, P
Inclusion of certain aspects of animal-human relationships (AHR), such as animal abuse and animal-assisted interventions, can enhance child welfare practice and there are resources available to promote such inclusion. However, there is little knowledge of whether this is being accomplished. This study sought to fill this gap by conducting a national survey of state public child welfare agencies to examine AHR in child protective services practice, their assessment tools, and cross-reporting policies. PMID:21319475
Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Zilney, Lisa Anne; Hornung, Rebecca
During the decade of the 1990s and the first years of the current century, our group embarked on a project to study and synthesize human milk oligosaccharides. This report describes 2 unexpected collateral observations from that endeavor. The first observation was the detection and confirmation of 2 rare neutral human milk oligosaccharides profiles that were uncovered while assessing oligosaccharide content in hundreds of samples of human milk. One of these lacked fucosylated structures altogether, and the other lacked the oligosaccharide 3-fucosyllactose [Gal?1-4(Fuc?1-3)Glc]. We used glycoconjugate probes to determine whether the unusual profiles were mirrored by fucosylation of milk glycoproteins. The results show that the lack of fucosylated oligosaccharides in these samples corresponds to the absence of equivalent fucosylated motifs in milk glycoproteins. The second finding was a shortened and distinct lactation process in transgenic rabbits expressing the human fucosyltransferase 1. During the first day of lactation, these animals expressed milk that contained both lactose and 2'-fucosylactose, but on the second day, the production of milk was severely diminished, and by the fourth day, no lactose was detected in their milk. Meanwhile, the concentration of fucosylated glycoproteins increased from the onset of lactation through its premature termination. These 2 findings may shed light on the glycobiology of milk and perhaps on mammary gland differentiation. PMID:22585925
|This guide for choosing humane children's books (i.e., books in which animals are not eaten, expolited, or treated with cruelty) presents reviews of over 100 books for children up to age 7. Both subtle and blatant examples of animal exploitation portrayed in children's picture books are examined. Reviews are grouped into 3 categories: kind books,…
|Evidence from neuropsychology suggests that the distinction between animate and inanimate kinds is fundamental to human cognition. Previous neuroimaging studies have reported that viewing animate objects activates ventrolateral visual brain regions, whereas inanimate objects activate ventromedial regions. However, these studies have typically…
Wiggett, Alison J.; Pritchard, Iwan C.; Downing, Paul E.
We have devised a method to extrapolate biological equilibrium levels between animal species and subsequently to humans. Our initial premise was based on the observation that radionuclide retention is normally a function of metabolism so that direct or indirect measures could be described by a power law based on body weights of test animal species. However, we found that such
This guide for choosing humane children's books (i.e., books in which animals are not eaten, expolited, or treated with cruelty) presents reviews of over 100 books for children up to age 7. Both subtle and blatant examples of animal exploitation portrayed in children's picture books are examined. Reviews are grouped into 3 categories: kind books,…
Oncogenic viruses are important pathogens in farm and companion animals. These original pathogens are classified in various virus families, such as Retroviridae, Papillomaviridae, and Herpesviridae. Besides a role as pathogens for its original host, animal viruses serve as valuable models for viruses affecting humans, such as hepatitis B virus, and issues of immunity, therapy, but also basic pathophysiological mechanisms, can
Glyphosate is the active ingredient of several widely used herbicide formulations. Glyphosate targets the shikimate metabolic pathway, which is found in plants but not in animals. Despite the relative safety of glyphosate, various adverse developmental and reproductive problems have been alleged as a result of exposure in humans and animals. To assess the developmental and reproductive safety of glyphosate, an
Amy Lavin Williams; Rebecca E. Watson; John M. DeSesso
This survey is a compendium of information retrieved on carcinogenicity in animals and humans of 535 marketed pharmaceuticals whose expected clinical use is continuous for at least 6 months or intermittent over an extended period of time. Of the 535 drugs, 530 have the result of at least one carcinogenicity assay in animals, and 279 (52.1%) of them gave a
Giovanni Brambilla; Francesca Mattioli; Luigi Robbiano; Antonietta Martelli
For decades, research comparing the effectiveness of text and static illustrations with animation and narration to enhance learning has been inconclusive (Tversky et al., 2002). We argue that the failure to ascertain the benefits of animation in learning may relate to the way it is constructed, perceived, and conceptualized. Based on cognitive science and human learning theories, this paper proposes
Iron is an essential nutrient for humans and other animals, and must be consumed in adequate amounts to ensure proper growth and development, as well as good health of the organism. Dietary sources of iron can be divided into two types: non-heme iron, mostly provided by plant foods, and heme iron, present in animal foods. Heme iron intake is usually
|In this article, research on nonhuman animals is reviewed to show that there is no discontinuity between humans and other animals. For both, high density is not necessarily harmful. Rather, the effect of high density depends on other factors in the situation. (Author)|
The list of introduced vertebrate species now legally considered to be pests in New Zealand numbers nearly 50. Their common and Latin names are given in Table1. These pests, and the methods by which they are controlled, have significant impacts, both intentional and unintentional, on people, animals and the environment. The control of animals that threaten human health, safety or
The role of individual factors in behavioural neuroscience is an important, but still neglected area of research. The present review aims to give, first, an outline of the most elaborated theory on animal behaviour, and second, an overview of systematic approaches of historic and present animal models of human psychopathology based on individual differences. This overview will be focused on
Cornelius R. Pawlak; Ying-Jui Ho; Rainer K. W. Schwarting
The adverse effects of ozone have been amply demonstrated in animal toxicology, human clinical, and epidemiology studies. Each of these research approaches has various strengths and weaknesses, but together the coherence is remarkable. This paper interprets the effects of ozone as demonstrated and inferred from laboratory animal toxicology studies. The major classes of ozone effects are: decrements in pulmonary function
The present research investigated the need to distinguish humans from animals and tested the hypothesis derived from terror management theory that this need stems in part from existential mortality concerns. Specifically, the authors suggest that being an animal is threatening because it reminds people of their vulnerability to death; therefore, reminding people of their mortality was hypothesized to increase the
Jamie L. Goldenberg; Tom Pyszczynski; Jeff Greenberg; Sheldon Solomon; Benjamin Kluck; Robin Cornwell
A scientific evaluation was made of functionalspects of developmental toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in experimental animals and in human infants. Persistent neurobehavioral, reproductive and endocrine alterations were observed in experimental animals, following in utero and lactational exposure to PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs. The lowest observable adverse effect levels (LOAELs) for developmental neurobehavioral
Abraham Brouwer; Ulf G. Ahlborg; Martin Van den Berg; Linda S. Birnbaum; E. Ruud Boersma; Bart Bosveld; Michael S. Denison; L. Earl Gray; Lars Hagmar; Edel Holene; Marcel Huisman; Sandra W. Jacobson; Joseph L. Jacobson; Corine Koopman-Esseboom; Janna G. Koppe; Beverly M. Kulig; Dennis C. Morse; Gina Muckle; Richard E. Peterson; Pieter J. J. Sauer; Richard F. Seegal; Annette E. Smits-Van Prooije; Bert C. L. Touwen; Nynke Weisglas-Kuperus; Gerhard Winneke
The purpose of the report was (1) to study the human health effects of subtherapeutic use of penicillin and tetracycline (chloretracycline and oxytetracycline) in animal feeds; (2) to review and analyze published and unpublished epidemiological data and o...
A scientific evaluation was made of functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in experimental animals and in human infants. ersistent neurobehavioral, reproductive, and endocrine alteration...
The study reviews the human health consequences and risk associated with the use of penicillin and tetracyclines at subtherapeutic concentrations in animal feed. The study discusses the biological impact of resistance to antimicrobial agents; the quantifi...
...carcinogen, whether or not there is direct evidence that it induces tumors in humans or experimental animals. Evidence for such metabolism will normally be derived from in vivo studies in mammals. In appropriate circumstances, evidence may be derived from...
Over the last years, there has been a lot of interest in the area of Interactive Virtual Humans\\u000a(IVHs). Virtual characters who interact naturally with users in mixed realities have many different\\u000aapplications, such as interactive video games, virtual training and rehabilitation, or virtual\\u000aheritage. The main purpose of using interactive virtual humans in such applications is to increase\\u000athe
We conducted a retrospective study of Escherichia coli isolates recovered from human and food animal samples during 1950–2002 to assess historical changes in antimicrobial drug resistance. A total of 1,729 E. coli isolates (983 from humans, 323 from cattle, 138 from chickens, and 285 from pigs) were tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial drugs. A significant upward trend in resistance was observed for ampicillin (p<0.001), sulfonamide (p<0.001), and tetracycline (p<0.001). Animal strains showed increased resistance to 11/15 antimicrobial agents, including ampicillin (p<0.001), sulfonamide (p<0.01), and gentamicin (p<0.001). Multidrug resistance (?3 antimicrobial drug classes) in E. coli increased from 7.2% during the 1950s to 63.6% during the 2000s. The most frequent co-resistant phenotype observed was to tetracycline and streptomycin (29.7%), followed by tetracycline and sulfonamide (29.0%). These data describe the evolution of resistance after introduction of new antimicrobial agents into clinical medicine and help explain the range of resistance in modern E. coli isolates.
Tadesse, Daniel A.; Zhao, Shaohua; Tong, Emily; Ayers, Sherry; Singh, Aparna; Bartholomew, Mary J.
Parvoviruses infect humans and a broad range of animals, from mammals to crustaceans, and generally are associated with a variety of acute and chronic diseases. However, many others cause persistent infections and are not known to be associated with any disease. Viral persistence is likely related to the ability to integrate into the chromosomal DNA and to establish a latent infection. However, there is little evidence for genome integration of parvoviral DNA except for Adeno-associated virus (AAV). Here we performed a systematic search for homologs of parvoviral proteins in publicly available eukaryotic genome databases followed by experimental verification and phylogenetic analysis. We conclude that parvoviruses have frequently invaded the germ lines of diverse animal species, including mammals, fishes, birds, tunicates, arthropods, and flatworms. The identification of orthologous endogenous parvovirus sequences in the genomes of humans and other mammals suggests that parvoviruses have coexisted with mammals for at least 98 million years. Furthermore, some of the endogenized parvoviral genes were expressed in eukaryotic organisms, suggesting that these viral genes are also functional in the host genomes. Our findings may provide novel insights into parvovirus biology, host interactions, and evolution. PMID:21795360
Parvoviruses infect humans and a broad range of animals, from mammals to crustaceans, and generally are associated with a variety of acute and chronic diseases. However, many others cause persistent infections and are not known to be associated with any disease. Viral persistence is likely related to the ability to integrate into the chromosomal DNA and to establish a latent infection. However, there is little evidence for genome integration of parvoviral DNA except for Adeno-associated virus (AAV). Here we performed a systematic search for homologs of parvoviral proteins in publicly available eukaryotic genome databases followed by experimental verification and phylogenetic analysis. We conclude that parvoviruses have frequently invaded the germ lines of diverse animal species, including mammals, fishes, birds, tunicates, arthropods, and flatworms. The identification of orthologous endogenous parvovirus sequences in the genomes of humans and other mammals suggests that parvoviruses have coexisted with mammals for at least 98 million years. Furthermore, some of the endogenized parvoviral genes were expressed in eukaryotic organisms, suggesting that these viral genes are also functional in the host genomes. Our findings may provide novel insights into parvovirus biology, host interactions, and evolution.
Stem cell technology is a promising branch of regenerative medicine that is aimed at developing new approaches for the treatment of severely debilitating human diseases, including those affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Despite the increasing understanding of the mechanisms governing their biology, the application of stem cell therapeutics remains challenging. The initial idea that stem cell transplants work in vivo via the replacement of endogenous cells lost or damaged owing to disease has been challenged by accumulating evidence of their therapeutic plasticity. This new concept covers the remarkable immune regulatory and tissue trophic effects that transplanted stem cells exert at the level of the neural microenvironment to promote tissue healing via combination of immune modulatory and tissue protective actions, while retaining predominantly undifferentiated features. Among a number of promising candidate stem cell sources, neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) are under extensive investigation with regard to their therapeutic plasticity after transplantation. The significant impact in vivo of experimental NPC therapies in animal models of inflammatory CNS diseases has raised great expectations that these stem cells, or the manipulation of the mechanisms behind their therapeutic impact, could soon be translated to human studies. This review aims to provide an update on the most recent evidence of therapeutically-relevant neuro-immune interactions following NPC transplants in animal models of multiple sclerosis, cerebral stroke and traumas of the spinal cord, and consideration of the forthcoming challenges related to the early translation of some of these exciting experimental outcomes into clinical medicines. PMID:23507035
In a handset MIMO (Multiple Input and Multiple Output) antenna, small number of elements and ports are desired. To achieve large channel capacity in above situations, adjustment of radiation patterns is important. We focus on analog techniques, and apply phase difference feeding to a handset MIMO antenna includinghuman body effects. The phase difference is decided and fixed based on
Abstract In this paper, we examine the determinants of risk-sensitivity exhibited by humans and other animals. Our dependent measure is the proportion of respondents who choose a sure option over a risky option with equal expected value. We present a meta-analysis of human risk-preference data and compare it to the results of a similar meta-analysis of animal data by Shafir
Making and maintaining human-pet-bonds is the most essential task for pet robots. To realize this task, the authors propose a methodology of linking psychological interactions between a person and a pet robot. Production of an animal-likeness impression toward a person is one of the most important objectives for interactive pet robots. Animal-like impression can have power to effect human psychological
The present study was conducted to study the antibiotic resistance pattern among nontyphoidal Salmonella isolated from human, animal and meat. A total of 37 Salmonella strains isolated from clinical cases (human and animal) and meat during 2008–2009 belonging to 12 serovars were screened\\u000a for their antimicrobial resistance pattern using 25 antimicrobial agents falling under 12 different antibiotic classes. All\\u000a the
Shweta Singh; Rajesh Kumar Agarwal; Suresh C. Tiwari; Himanshu Singh
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a significant pathogen in both human and veterinary medicine. The importance of companion animals as reservoirs of human infections is currently unknown. The companion animals of 49 MRSA-infected outpatients (cases) were screened for MRSA carriage, and their bacterial isolates were compared with those of the infected patients using Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Rates of MRSA
Jorge Pinto Ferreira; Kevin L. Anderson; Maria T. Correa; Roberta Lyman; Felicia Ruffin; L. Barth Reller; Vance G. Fowler
Studies of nicotine self-administration in animal and human subjects are discussed with respect to the behavioral paradigms\\u000a employed, the effects of nicotine dose manipulations and nicotinic agonist\\/antagonist pre-treatment, and the role of neurochemical\\u000a processes mediating reinforcement. Animal models have focused on intravenous nicotine self-administration, while most studies\\u000a in human subjects have studied cigarette smoking behavior. Despite procedural differences, data from
The impact of n-3 fatty acids (FA) on blood lipoprotein levels has been examined in many studies over the last 15 yr in both\\u000a animals and humans. Studies in humans first demonstrated the potent triglyceride-lowering effect of n-3 FA, and these were\\u000a followed up with animal studies to unravel the mechanism of action. This paper reviews the reported effects of
Although animals and pets are so important for families and society, in modern urban lifestyles we can spend little time with our animal friends. Interactive media should be aimed to enhance not only human-to-human communication, but also human-to-animal communication. Thus, we promote a new type of inter-species media interaction which allows human users to interact and play with their small pet friends (in this case hamsters) remotely via the Internet through a mixed reality based game system “Metazoa Ludens”. We scientifically examined the effectiveness of this system in a two-pronged approach. Firstly and most importantly, the positive effects to the hamsters were ensured using Body Condition Score study. Secondly, the method of Duncan was used to assess the strength of preference of the hamsters towards Metazoa Ludens. Lastly, the effectiveness of this remote interaction with respect to the human users as a interactive gaming system with their pets/friends (hamsters) was examined based on Csikszentmihalyi's (Beyond boredom and anxiety, 1975) Flow theory. The results of both studies inform of positive remote interaction between human users and their pet friends using our research system. This research is not aimed just at providing specific experimental results on the implemented research system, but is aimed as a wider lesson for human-to-animal interactive media. Thus also the lessons learned are extrapolated and detailed in this chapter as a framework in general for human-to-animal interaction systems.
Transitive inference has long been considered one of the hallmarks of human deductive reasoning. Recent reports of transitive-like behaviors in non-humananimals have prompted a flourishing empirical and theoretical search for the mechanism(s) that may mediate this ability in non-humans. In this paper, I begin by describing the transitive inference tasks customarily used with non-humananimals and then review the empirical findings. Transitive inference has been demonstrated in a wide variety of species, and the signature effects that usually accompany transitive inference in humans (the serial position effect and the symbolic distance effect) have also been found in non-humans. I then critically analyze the most prominent models of this ability in non-humananimals. Some models are cognitive, proposing for instance that animals use the rules of formal logic or form mental representations of the premises to solve the task, others are based on associative mechanisms such as value transfer and reinforcement and non-reinforcement. Overall, I argue that the reinforcement-based models are in a much better empirical and theoretical position. Hence, transitive inference in non-humananimals should be considered a property of reinforcement history rather than of inferential processes. I finalize by shedding some light on some promising lines of research. PMID:18423898
Prenatal maternal stress (PNMS) has been linked with adverse health outcomes in the offspring through experimental studies using animal models and epidemiological studies of human populations. The purpose of this review article is to establish a parallel between animal and human studies, while focusing on methodological issues and gaps in knowledge. The review examines the quality of recent evidence for prevailing PNMS theoretical models, namely the biopsychosocial model for adverse pregnancy outcomes and the fetal programming model for chronic diseases. The investigators used PubMed (2000-06) to identify recently published original articles in the English language literature. A total of 103 (60 human and 43 animal) studies were examined. Most human studies originated from developed countries, thus limiting generalisability to developing nations. Most animal studies were conducted on non-primates, rendering extrapolation of findings to pregnant women less straightforward. PNMS definition and measurement were heterogeneous across studies examining similar research questions, thus precluding the conduct of meta-analyses. In human studies, physical health outcomes were often restricted to birth complications while mental health outcomes included postnatal developmental disorders and psychiatric conditions in children, adolescents and adults. Diverse health outcomes were considered in animal studies, some being useful models for depression, schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in human populations. The overall evidence is consistent with independent effects of PNMS on perinatal and postnatal outcomes. Intervention studies and large population-based cohort studies combining repeated multi-dimensional and standardised PNMS measurements with biomarkers of stress are needed to further understand PNMS aetiology and pathophysiology in human populations. PMID:18782252
...from compounding of approved new animal and approved human drugs. 530.13 Section...compounding of a product from approved animal or human drugs by a veterinarian or...compounding of approved new animal or human drugs is permitted if:...
Recent regulatory guidance suggests that drug metabolites identified in human plasma should be present at equal or greater levels in at least one of the animal species used in safety assessments (MIST). Often synthetic standards for the metabolites do not exist, thus this has introduced multiple challenges regarding the quantitative comparison of metabolites between human and animals. Various bioanalytical approaches are described to evaluate the exposure of metabolites in animal vs. human. A simple LC/MS/MS peak area ratio comparison approach is the most facile and applicable approach to make a first assessment of whether metabolite exposures in animals exceed that in humans. In most cases, this measurement is sufficient to demonstrate that an animal toxicology study of the parent drug has covered the safety of the human metabolites. Methods whereby quantitation of metabolites can be done in the absence of chemically synthesized authentic standards are also described. Only in rare cases, where an actual exposure measurement of a metabolite is needed, will a validated or qualified method requiring a synthetic standard be needed. The rigor of the bioanalysis is increased accordingly based on the results of animal:human ratio measurements. This data driven bioanalysis strategy to address MIST issues within standard drug development processes is described. PMID:21434861
The design and development of a visual computer system for the modelling and simulation of human movements are described. A multimedia language named HAL (HumanAnimation Language) allows human figure movements to be generated in a graphical and intuitive way, accomplishing human-computer interaction through a 3D icon-graphic interface. In the language implementation, the object-oriented programming methodology is used. In order
Daniel Meziat; J. López; I. Rodríguez; M. Carbajo; A. Casillas; José Luis Bosque
1.1. The classic animal models for human psychiatric conditions involves rodents As prey species, their normal behaviors of avoidance would be considered pathological in humans and dogs. Hence, such models may not be homologous for similar behaviors found in psychiatric pathology in humans.2.2. Dogs exhibit pathological behavioral conditions that may be equivalent to certain human psychiatric conditions. These canine conditions
The analysis of nine macrolides is presented, including tulathromycin A (Draxxin), in beef, poultry, and pork muscle with a simple multiresidue extraction and analysis method using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The sample preparation method involves extraction with acetonitrile and defatting with hexane followed by dilution of the extracts for analysis. Separation of the nine macrolides was performed using an Atlantis dC 18, 3 mum, 3.9 mm x 20 mm minicolumn (guard column). Detection was carried out with two multiple reaction monitoring experiments per macrolide. The method detection limits (MDLs) were based on three times standard deviation of eight repeat spikes at 3.0 ng/g of a mix of the nine macrolides in the various tissues. The MDLs and retention times for the macrolides were as follows: lincomycin, 0.19 ng/g (t R = 5.00 min); tulathromycin, 0.46 ng/g (t R = 5.63 min); spiramycin, 0.21 ng/g (t R = 6.06 min); pirlimycin, 0.10 ng/g (t R = 6.04 min); clindamycin, 0.16 ng/g (t R = 6.20 min); tilmicosin, 0.29 ng/g (t R = 6.38 min); erythromycin, 0.19 ng/g (t R = 6.62 min); tylosin, 0.10 ng/g (t R = 6.72 min); and josamycin, 0.09 ng/g (t R = 6.98 min). Precision at 25 ng/g (n = 4) ranged from 2.3 to 9.4% for the compounds from beef muscle. Of interest is the detection of incurred residues of tulathromycin A in edible calf tissue at 0.10-7 mug/g, which is presented here for the first time. PMID:18778062
Because subjective tinnitus is typically localized to the ear with hearing loss, tinnitus was traditionally thought to originate from neural hyperactivity in the damaged ear. However, most studies have found that hearing loss reduces the neural outputs from the damaged cochlea. These negative findings led to the hypothesis that rinnitus arises from aberrant neural activity in the central auditory system. Positron emission tomography imaging studies performed on tinnitus patients that could modulate their tinnitus provide evidence showing that the aberrant neural activity that gives rise to tinnitus resides in the central auditory pathway. To investigate the biological basis of tinnitus in more detail, an animal model was developed that allowed behavioral measures of tinnitus to be obtained from individual rats after inducing tinnitus with high doses of salicylate or high-intensity noise. This behavioral model was used to test the efficacy of memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist, and scopolamine, an anticholinergic, in suppressing salicylate-induced tinnitus. Neither drug completely suppressed salicylate-induced tinnitus. To detect the physiological changes associated with tinnitus, chronic microwire electrodes were implanted in the auditory cortex and measurements were obtained from the auditory cortex before and after salicylate and noise exposures known to induce tinnitus. High doses of salicylate or high-level noise exposure generally resulted in sound-evoked hyperactivity in the electrophysiological responses recorded from the auditory cortex of awake-animals. However, anesthetic tended to suppress or abolish the hyperactivity.
Lobarinas, Edward; Sun, Wei; Stolzberg, Daniel; Lu, Jianzhong; Salvi, Richard
Background Salmonella species are recognized worldwide as a significant cause of human and animal disease. In this study the molecular profiles and characteristics of Salmonella enterica Senftenberg isolated from human cases of illness and those recovered from healthy or diagnostic cases in animals were assessed. Included in the study was a comparison with our own sequenced strain of S. Senfteberg recovered from production turkeys in North Dakota. Isolates examined in this study were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility profiling using the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) panel which tested susceptibility to 15 different antimicrobial agents. The molecular profiles of all isolates were determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and the sequence types of the strains were obtained using Multi-Locus Sequence Type (MLST) analysis based on amplification and sequence interrogation of seven housekeeping genes (aroC, dnaN, hemD, hisD, purE, sucA, and thrA). PFGE data was input into BioNumerics analysis software to generate a dendrogram of relatedness among the strains. Results The study found 93 profiles among 98 S. Senftenberg isolates tested and there were primarily two sequence types associated with humans and animals (ST185 and ST14) with overlap observed in all host types suggesting that the distribution of S. Senftenberg sequence types is not host dependent. Antimicrobial resistance was observed among the animal strains, however no resistance was detected in human isolates suggesting that animal husbandry has a significant influence on the selection and promotion of antimicrobial resistance. Conclusion The data demonstrates the circulation of at least two strain types in both animal and human health suggesting that S. Senftenberg is relatively homogeneous in its distribution. The data generated in this study could be used towards defining a pathotype for this serovar.
We investigated the animal and human baby schema effect (BSE) in relation to gender, parental status, and individual features. In three, independent online surveys, conducted during three consecutive years, (Ntotal=1389), ratings of photographs of human and animal infants as well as of adults, sociodemographic variables (age, gender, parental status) and personality attributes (empathy, attachment, interpersonal closeness, narcissism, and need to belong) were assessed. We demonstrated that humans are sensitive to the baby schemata of both humans and animals and that both are weakly positively correlated. BSE is positively associated with female gender and (affective) empathy. Higher interpersonal closeness and need to belong were additionally connected specifically to the human BSE. In contrast, narcissism and insecure attachment were not related to the BSE, suggesting a robustness of this phenomenon to possible negative influences of these two personality attributes. PMID:23353724
Lehmann, Vicky; Huis in't Veld, Elisabeth M J; Vingerhoets, Ad J J M
Amebae belonging to the order Leptomyxida are regarded as innocuous soil organisms incapable of infecting mammals. We report here the isolation of a leptomyxid ameba from the brain of a pregnant baboon (Papio sphinx) that died of meningoencephalitis at the San Diego Zoo Wild Animal Park. By using rabbit anti-leptomyxid serum in the immunofluorescence assay, we have identified the leptomyxid ameba in the brain sections of a number of human encephalitic cases from around the world as well as a few cases of meningoencephalitis in animals in the United States, which suggests that the leptomyxid amebae are potential etiologic agents of fatal meningoencephalitis in humans and animals. Images
Visvesvara, G S; Martinez, A J; Schuster, F L; Leitch, G J; Wallace, S V; Sawyer, T K; Anderson, M
The frequency of human infections caused by Campylobacter (C.) jejuni is thought to be at present as significant as that of infections with salmonella. The epidemiology of human infections with C. jejuni is not well understood, although numerous species of animals are an important reservoir for this microorganism. In an overview the occurrence of C. jejuni at different domestic animals and pets is described. There is also given a report about possible direct and indirect ways for the infections from animals to man. PMID:3895567
The Eurasian-African H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus has caused an unprecedented epizootic affecting mainly poultry, but has crossed multiple species barriers to infect captive and wild birds, carnivorous mammals and humans. There is still great concern over the continued infecti...
|A comprehensive evolutionary framework for understanding the maintenance of heritable behavioral variation in humans is yet to be developed. Some evolutionary psychologists have argued that heritable variation will not be found in important, fitness-relevant characteristics because of the winnowing effect of natural selection. This article…
A workshop titled "Using Sentinel Species Data to Address the Potential Human Health Effects of Chemicals in the Environmnet," sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research, the National Center for Environmental Assessment of the EPA, and the Agency for Toxi...
The fascioliasis situation in humans and livestock of Iranian Mazandaran is analysed for the first time. Coprological studies showed 7.3% and 25.4% global prevalences in sheep and cattle, respectively. Studies in slaughterhouses indicate that sheep and cattle may be the main reservoir species, buffaloes may play local roles in the transmission, and goats and horses probably only participate sporadically. Morphometric
A. S. Moghaddam; J. Massoud; M. Mahmoodi; A. H. Mahvi; M. V. Periago; P. Artigas; M. V. Fuentes; M. D. Bargues; S. Mas-Coma
A comprehensive evolutionary framework for understanding the maintenance of heritable behavioral variation in humans is yet to be developed. Some evolutionary psychologists have argued that heritable variation will not be found in important, fitness-relevant characteristics because of the winnowing effect of natural selection. This article propounds the opposite view. Heritable variation is ubiquitous in all species, and there are a
Rotavirus is the most common diarrheal pathogen in chil- dren worldwide. Rotavirus infections occur in winter epidem- ics, with a high level of interhuman transmission, which is mainly of fecal-oral origin. There are a wide variety of rotavi- ruses. The majority of human strains belong to G serotypes 1 to 4, as determined by seroneutralization of the VP7 glyco- protein.
B. Gratacap-Cavallier; O. Genoulaz; K. Brengel-Pesce; H. Soule; P. Innocenti-Francillard; M. Bost; L. Gofti; D. Zmirou; J. M. Seigneurin
Despite the pre-eminence of the mouse in modelling human disease, several aspects of murine biology limit its routine use in large-scale genetic and therapeutic screening. Many researchers who are interested in an embryologically and genetically tractable disease model have now turned to zebrafish. Zebrafish biology allows ready access to all developmental stages, and the optical clarity of embryos and larvae
Anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS) are drugs of abuse. They are taken in large quantities by athletes and others to increase performance, with negative health consequences. As a result, in 1991 testosterone and related AAS were declared controlled substances. However, the relative abuse and dependence liability of AAS have not been fully characterized. In humans, it is difficult to separate the direct
Virtual Actors now play an important role in Computer-generated films, Virtual Environments, Telecooperative work, and multimedia. In order to make these actors realistic, it is essential to represent their body shape during the motion. In this paper, we present different methods for representing realistic deformations for virtual humans with various characteristics: sex, age, height, weight. Our methods based on a
This paper demonstrates a new visual motion estimation technique that is able to recover high degree-of- freedom articulated human body configurations in complex video sequences. We introduce the use and integration of a mathematical technique, the product of exponential maps and twist motions, into a differential motion estimation. This results in solving simple linear systems, and enables us to recover
Christoph Bregler; Jitendra Malik; Katherine Pullen
Why are sustained energy budgets of humans and other vertebrates limited to not more than about seven times resting metabolic rate? The answer to this question has potential applications to growth rates, foraging ecology, biogeography, plant metabolism, burn patients and sports medicine.
Basal lung concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA), nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH), and a-tocopherol (a-T) were determined in rabbits, guinea pigs, rats, hamsters, mice, domestic pigs and sheep, and in human lung samples obtained from cancer surgery patients. Significant differences ...
Metabolic disposition of drugs and other xenobiotics includes glucuronidation reactions that are catalyzed by the uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs). The most common glucuronidation reactions are O- and N-glucuronidation and in this review, we discuss both, while the emphasis is on N-glucuronidation. Interspecies difference in glucuronidation is another central issue in this review due to its importance in drug development. Accordingly, the available data on glucuronidation in different animals comes mainly from the species that are used in preclinical studies to assess the safety of drugs under development. Both O- and N-glucuronidation reactions are chemically diverse. Different O-glucuronidation reactions are described and discussed, and many drugs that undergo such reactions are indicated. The compounds that undergo N-glucuronidation include primary aromatic amines, hydroxylamines, amides, tertiary aliphatic amines, and aromatic N-heterocycles. The interspecies variability in N-glucuronidation is particularly high, above all when it comes to aliphatic tertiary amines and aromatic N-heterocycles. The N-glucuronidation rates in humans are typically much higher than in animals, largely due to the activity of two enzymes, the extensively studied UGT1A4, and the more recently identified as a main player in N-glucuronidation, UGT2B10. We discuss both enzymes and review the findings that revealed the role of UGT2B10 in N-glucuronidation. PMID:21434773
Humans are exposed to mixtures of polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, and the potential health effects of these exposures are uncertain. A subset of this class of compounds produce similar spectra of toxicity in experimental animals as does 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and these chemicals have been classified as "dioxins." In this study, we compared the body burdens of dioxins that produce effects in experimental animals to body burdens associated with these effects in humans. Human body burdens were estimated from lipid-adjusted serum concentrations of dioxins, assuming dioxins are equally distributed in body fat and an adult has 22% body fat. The toxic equivalency factor (TEF) method was used to calculate body burdens of dioxins in humans. These calculations included dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls. In the general population, average background concentrations were estimated at 58 ng TCDD equivalents (TEQ)/kg serum lipid, corresponding to a body burden of 13 ng TEQ/kg body weight. Populations with known exposure to dioxins have body burdens of 96-7,000 ng TEQ/kg body weight. For effects that have been clearly associated with dioxins, such as chloracne and induction of CYP1A1, humans and animals respond at similar body burdens. Induction of cancer in animals occurs at body burdens of 944-137,000 ng TCDD/kg body weight, while noncancer effects in animals occur at body burdens of 10-12,500 ng/kg. Available human data suggest that some individuals may respond to dioxin exposures with cancer and noncancer effects at body burdens within one to two orders of magnitude of those in the general population.
DeVito, M J; Birnbaum, L S; Farland, W H; Gasiewicz, T A
The presence and characteristics of Clostridium difficile were investigated in 839 faecal samples from seven different animal species in the Netherlands. The number of positive samples ranged from 3.4% (cattle) to 25.0% (dogs). Twenty-two different PCR ribotypes were identified. Among 96 isolates, 53% harboured toxin genes. All C. difficile isolates from pigs, cattle and poultry were toxinogenic, whereas the majority of isolates from pet animals consisted of non-toxinogenic PCR ribotypes 010 and 039. Ribotype 012 was most prevalent in cattle and ribotype 078 in pigs. No predominant ribotypes were present in horse and poultry samples. Overall, PCR ribotypes 012, 014 and 078 were the most frequently recovered toxinogenic ribotypes from animal samples. Comparison with human isolates from the Dutch Reference Laboratory for C. difficile at Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC) showed that these types were also recovered from human hospitalized patients in 2009/2010, encompassing 0.8%, 11.4% and 9.8% of all isolates, respectively. Application of multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis indicated a genotypic relation of animal and human ribotype 078 strains, but a clear genotypic distinction for ribotypes 012 and 014. We conclude that toxinogenic C. difficile PCR ribotypes found in animals correspond to PCR ribotypes associated with human disease in hospitalized patients in the Netherlands. Contrary to PCR ribotype 078, significant genetic differences were observed between animal and human PCR ribotype 012 and 014 isolates. PMID:21919997
Koene, M G J; Mevius, D; Wagenaar, J A; Harmanus, C; Hensgens, M P M; Meetsma, A M; Putirulan, F F; van Bergen, M A P; Kuijper, E J
Burkholderia pseudomalleiis the aetiological agent of melioidosis, a life-threatening bacterial disease occurring in many species of animals, including man. Infection in humans commonly manifests as one of three clinical presentations: acute, subacute or chronic disease. Investigations were undertaken to assess the suitability of BALB\\/c and C57Bl\\/6 mice as animal models for the different forms of human melioidosis. The course of
Human Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide. Disease transmission often occurs through the handling of domestic livestock, as well as ingestion of unpasteurized milk and cheese, but can have enhanced infectivity if aerosolized. Because there is no human vaccine available, rising concerns about the threat of Brucellosis to human health and its inclusion in the Center for Disease Control's Category B Bioterrorism/Select Agent List make a better understanding of the dose-response relationship of this microbe necessary. Through an extensive peer-reviewed literature search, candidate dose-response data were appraised so as to surpass certain standards for quality. The statistical programming language, "R," was used to compute the maximum likelihood estimation to fit two models, the exponential and the approximate beta-Poisson (widely used for quantitative risk assessment) to dose-response data. Dose-response models were generated for prevalent species of Brucella: Br. suis, Br. melitensis, and Br. abortus. Dose-response models were created for aerosolized Br. suis exposure to guinea pigs from pooled studies. A parallel model for guinea pigs inoculated through both aerosol and subcutaneous routes with Br. melitensis showed that the median infectious dose corresponded to a 30 colony-forming units (CFU) dose of Br. suis, much less than the N(50) dose of about 94 CFU for Br. melitensis organisms. When Br. melitensis was tested subcutaneously on mice, the N(50) dose was higher, 1,840 CFU. A dose-response model was constructed from pooled data for mice, rhesus macaques, and humans inoculated through three routes (subcutaneously/aerosol/intradermally) with Br. melitensis. PMID:21449960
Teske, Sondra S; Huang, Yin; Tamrakar, Sushil B; Bartrand, Timothy A; Weir, Mark H; Haas, Charles N
Breast-milk has a well-known anti-microbial effect, which is in part due to the many different carbohydrate structures expressed. This renders it a position as a potential therapeutic for treatment of infection by different pathogens, thus avoiding the drawbacks of many antibiotics. The plethora of carbohydrate epitopes in breast-milk is known to differ between species, with human milk expressing the most
Anki Gustafsson; Imre Kacskovics; Michael E. Breimer; Lennart Hammarström; Jan Holgersson
New applications in virtual reality, robotics and medicine are impelling the dynamics-based methods for the human body simulation.\\u000a The dynamics allows to establish global solutions of motion in virtual autonomous agents, in the locomotion of biped robots\\u000a and in the development of intelligent prosthesis for motor disabilities recovery. This paper presents the conceptual design\\u000a of a software laboratory for the
Francisco Rojas; Sandra Baldassarri; Francisco J. Serón
We present a system for the automatic generation of bottom-up visual attention behaviours in virtual humans. Bottom-up attention refers to the way in which the environment solicits one's attention without regard to task-level goals. Our framework is based on the interactions of multiple components: a synthetic vision system for perceiving the virtual world, a model of bottom-up attention for early
Immunity against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is demonstrated in humans by the graft-versus-leukemia effect in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Specific leukemic antigens have progressively been discovered and circulating specific T lymphocytes against Wilms tumor antigen, proteinase peptide or fusion-proteins produced from aberrant oncogenic chromosomal translocations have been detected in leukemic patients. However, due to the fact that leukemic blasts
Marie Robin; Marie-Hélène Schlageter; Christine Chomienne; Rose-Ann Padua
Abstract: A high-level motion control system for the animationof human-like figures is introduced which generates awide variety of individual running styles in real time. Sequencessuch as a leisurely jog, a fast sprint or a bouncyrun are conveniently obtained by interactively setting thevalues of "running" parameters such as desired velocity,step length, "flight" height or "heel\\/toe" strike while observinga running figure on
The third complement component (C3) is a multifunctional glycoprotein that interacts with numerous serum proteins, cell surface receptors, and membrane-associated regulatory proteins. Deficiencies of C3 have been reported in several human kindred of different ethnic backgrounds and from different geographic regions. In addition, inherited C3 deficiency has been discovered in certain strains of guinea pigs, dogs, and rabbits, and has
In order to meet the generally high quality requirements for the pharmaceutical manufacturing process, medicaments of animal or human origin specifically have to undergo a substantial viral safety test program. This procedure has been narrowly defined in numerous internationally valid guidelines; in addition, registration authorities are available in an advisory capacity. In order to bring about the experimental evidence, thorough planning, virological expertise and infrastructure, as well as close cooperation between process engineers and virologists, is necessary. Generally, generic studies are not accepted by the registration authorities. However, in coordination with the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medicinal Devices (BfArM), a special arrangement for homoeopathic preparations could be agreed upon and the efficacy of selected production stages proven beyond doubt. Therefore, combined with the careful execution and evaluation of the validation studies, a high technical status for biopharmaceuticals including homoeopathic preparations guarantees a very high degree of viral safety. PMID:17694646
Incompatibility group IncA/C plasmids are large, low copy, theta-replicating plasmids that have been described in the literature for over 40 years. However, they have only recently been intensively studied on the genomic level because of their associations with the emergence of multidrug resistance in enteric pathogens of humans and animals. These plasmids are unique among other enterobacterial plasmids in many aspects, including their modular structure and gene content. While the IncA/C plasmid genome structure has now been well defined, many questions remain pertaining to their basic biological mechanisms of dissemination and regulation. Here, we discuss the history of IncA/C plasmids in light of our recent understanding of their population distribution, genomics, and effects on host bacteria. PMID:22754754
Several reasons have been suggested for the elevated risk of suicide experienced by those in the veterinary profession. The current study aimed to investigate possible links between veterinarians' attitudes to 'convenience' or non-justified animal euthanasia and attitudes towards human euthanasia and suicide. Veterinary students and graduates had a negative attitude towards convenience animal euthanasia, but their attitudes changed over time (pre-clinical studies, clinical studies and recently graduated). A greater tolerance to euthanasia was displayed in the later years of study and post qualification - primarily by males. Attitudes towards both human euthanasia and suicide, however, remained stable over time and indicated on average a neutral stance. No correlations were found between attitudes to convenience euthanasia and either human euthanasia or suicide, suggesting a tolerance to convenience euthanasia of animals does not lead to desensitisation in valuing human life and a changed attitude to human euthanasia or suicide, or vice versa. Attitudes to human euthanasia and suicide were predictably correlated, perhaps suggesting an overarching attitude towards control over human death. The results of the current study throw into question the argument that it is the changes in attitudes to animal life that affect veterinarian's attitudes to human life and contribute to the high suicide rate. PMID:22791520
Use of similar or identical antibiotics in both human and veterinary medicine has come under increasing scrutiny by regulators concerned that bacteria resistant to animal antibiotics will infect people and resist treatment with similar human antibiotics, leading to excess illnesses and deaths. Scientists, regulators, and interest groups in the United States and Europe have urged bans on nontherapeutic and some
Although caffeine is the most widely used behaviorally active drug in the world, caffeine physical dependence has been poorly characterized in laboratory animals and only moderately well characterized in humans. In humans, a review of 37 clinical reports and experimental studies dating back to 1833 shows that headache and fatigue are the most frequent withdrawal symptoms, with a wide variety
Risks for the consumer regarding the acquisition of resistant bacteria and\\/or resistance genes via the consumption of pork are discussed. In general, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli that originate from animals do not easily transfer their resistance genes to the resident intestinal flora of humans. The prevalence of resistant E. coli in humans seems more associated with being a vegetarian
B. R. Berends; A. E. J. M. Van Den Bogaard; F. Van Knapen; J. M. A. Snijders
Fecal pollution is a serious environmental problem that affects many coastal and inland waters worldwide. Both human and animal fecal pollution impose risks to human health from exposure to pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. To assist authorities with the implementation of the changes suggested by more restricted legislation concerning water quality in Europe, methods are needed which can identify more
An animatedhuman model to be used in an electromagnetic simulation software, XFdtd, has been created using a 3D scanned surface of a real person combined with body movement data captured from a motion capture system. Investigations are carried out to verify the accuracy of the human body simulation for different mesh sizes. A study of the effect of body
|This study investigated the potential of using a computer-simulated animal in a handheld virtual pet videogame to improve children's empathy and humane attitudes. Also investigated was whether sex differences existed in children's development of empathy and humane attitudes resulting from play, as well as their feelings for a virtual pet. The…
Electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry has allowed the unambiguous identification and quantification of individual lens phospholipids in human and six animal models. Using this approach ca. 100 unique phospholipids have been characterised. Parallel analysis of the same lens extracts by a novel direct-insertion electron-ionization technique found the cholesterol content of human lenses to be significantly higher (ca. 6 times) than
Jane M. Deeley; Todd W. Mitchell; Xiaojia Wei; John Korth; Jessica R. Nealon; Stephen J. Blanksby; Roger J. W. Truscott
Phencyclidine (PCP) produces a psychotic reaction in humans which closely resembles an acute episode of schizophrenia and has therefore been given an increasing amount of attention as a model for schizophrenia. The present article reviews the behavioral and neurochemical effects of PCP in both humans and animals. Where possible, comparisons are made between the effects of PCP and amphetamine. The
A framework for realistic rendering of a multi-layered hu- man body model is proposed in this paper. The human model is composed of three layers: skeleton, muscle, and skin. The skeleton layer, represented by a set of joints and bones, controls the animation of the human body using in- verse kinematics. Muscles are represented with action lines that are defined
Objective To assess the cost effectiveness of including preadolescent boys in a routine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme for preadolescent girls.Design Cost effectiveness analysis from the societal perspective.Setting United States.Population Girls and boys aged 12 years.Interventions HPV vaccination of girls alone and of girls and boys in the context of screening for cervical cancer.Main outcome measure Incremental cost effectiveness ratios,
This book compromises 53 data profiles, one for each metal or metalloid for which the major toxic effects are not due to radiation. Data on tissue levels and levels in body fluids, especially blood and urine are emphasized. Data on human exposure, both environment and occupational, are presented, including levels in air, water, and diet, along with body balance and body burden information. An effects section summarizes acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, biochemistry, specific organs and systems, teratogenicity, mutangenicity, and carcinogenicity.
Chromosome 11, although average in size, is one of the most gene- and disease-rich chromosomes in the human genome. Initial gene annotation indicates an average gene density of 11.6 genes per megabase, including 1,524 protein-coding genes, some of which were identified using novel methods, and 765 pseudogenes. One-quarter of the protein-coding genes shows overlap with other genes. Of the 856
Hideki Noguchi; Yasushi Totoki; Atsushi Toyoda; Yoko Kuroki; Ken Dewar; Christine Lloyd; Takehiko Itoh; Tadayuki Takeda; Dae-Won Kim; Xinwei She; Karen F. Barlow; Toby Bloom; Elspeth Bruford; Jean L. Chang; Christina A. Cuomo; Evan Eichler; Michael G. FitzGerald; David B. Jaffe; Kurt LaButti; Robert Nicol; Hong-Seog Park; Christopher Seaman; Carrie Sougnez; Xiaoping Yang; Andrew R. Zimmer; Michael C. Zody; Bruce W. Birren; Chad Nusbaum; Asao Fujiyama; Masahira Hattori; Jane Rogers; Eric S. Lander; Todd D. Taylor; Yoshiyuki Sakaki
Although research on influenza lasted for more than 100 years, it is still one of the most prominent diseases causing half a million human deaths every year. With the recent observation of new highly pathogenic H5N1 and H7N7 strains, and the appearance of the influenza pandemic caused by the H1N1 swine-like lineage, a collaborative effort to share observations on the evolution of this virus in both animals and humans has been established. The OpenFlu database (OpenFluDB) is a part of this collaborative effort. It contains genomic and protein sequences, as well as epidemiological data from more than 27 000 isolates. The isolate annotations include virus type, host, geographical location and experimentally tested antiviral resistance. Putative enhanced pathogenicity as well as human adaptation propensity are computed from protein sequences. Each virus isolate can be associated with the laboratories that collected, sequenced and submitted it. Several analysis tools including multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis and sequence similarity maps enable rapid and efficient mining. The contents of OpenFluDB are supplied by direct user submission, as well as by a daily automatic procedure importing data from public repositories. Additionally, a simple mechanism facilitates the export of OpenFluDB records to GenBank. This resource has been successfully used to rapidly and widely distribute the sequences collected during the recent human swine flu outbreak and also as an exchange platform during the vaccine selection procedure. Database URL: http://openflu.vital-it.ch.
Liechti, Robin; Gleizes, Anne; Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Bougueleret, Lydie; Le Mercier, Philippe; Bairoch, Amos; Xenarios, Ioannis
Advancements in clinical human embryo culture over the last 30-40 years have been supported by research conducted with embryos from rodent and domestic species. The mouse has been the primary rodent species that has contributed to improved embryo culture outcomes. Numerous parameters applied in the beginning of experiments, during progress of experiments, and as end-point measures provide varying degrees of rigor and interpretive strength and/or complexity. A nonexhaustive discussion of these parameters is presented with important emphasis on experimental design to obtain the greatest power of intraexperimental interpretation of inferior, equivalent, or improved culture conditions in the mouse model. Additionally, data are presented demonstrating the inherent flaw of overinterpretation of interexperimental outcome comparisons and caution of expectations of data translation from the mouse to the human embryo culture scenario. Finally, a materials, methods, and notes discussion enumerates important steps in use of mouse embryos as a bioassay tool, independent of whether they are being used in an experiment focused on quality control or improving culture conditions. PMID:22829366
Background Zoonotic infections are among the most common on earth and are responsible for over 60% of human infectious diseases, some of which are caused by helminth parasites. Infection may result from ingestion of infective stage of worms with food, contaminated soil; skin penetration or direct animal contact. This study estimates the prevalence of zoonotic helminth infections (ZHI) among animals and humans in Jos and identifies associated risk factors Methods We reviewed laboratory records from five hospitals, one veterinary clinic and meat inspection record at abattoir in Jos from 2005-2009. Prevalence was defined as the observed frequency of cases of zoonotic helminth in the sampled population within the study period. Odd ratio analysis was used to identify factors associated with ZHI. Results Of 6689 humans tested, 524 (7.8%) were positive. Observed ZHI are: Ascaris species (4.5%), Taeniasis-Cysticercosis (1.5%), Schistosoma species (1.1%), Strongyloidosis (0.09%). Among animals, 3520 (18.1%) of 19508 tested/observed were positive; including Fasciola species (12.7%), Taeniasis-Cysticercosis (5.0%), Strongyloidosis (0.4%), Ascaris species (0.04%). The risk of infection was higher among humans aged 6-19 (OR: 3.2; 95% CI: 2.0-5.2) and 20-60 (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.7-3.9). Peri-urban dwellers are at higher risk (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.3-1.9); and so are farmers. Conclusion The prevalence of zoonotic helminth infection is high among humans and animals in Jos. Risk of infection are higher among human age 6-60, peri-urban dwellers and farmers. This calls for the formulation of workable collaboration between human and veterinary medical disciplines for better control of zoonotic helminth infections.
Taphonomic studies regularly employ animal analogues for human decomposition due to ethical restrictions relating to the use of human tissue. However, the validity of using animal analogues in soil decomposition studies is still questioned. This study compared the decomposition of skeletal muscle tissues (SMTs) from human (Homo sapiens), pork (Sus scrofa), beef (Bos taurus), and lamb (Ovis aries) interred in soil microcosms. Fixed interval samples were collected from the SMT for microbial activity and mass tissue loss determination; samples were also taken from the underlying soil for pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient (potassium, phosphate, ammonium, and nitrate) analysis. The overall patterns of nutrient fluxes and chemical changes in nonhuman SMT and the underlying soil followed that of human SMT. Ovine tissue was the most similar to human tissue in many of the measured parameters. Although no single analogue was a precise predictor of human decomposition in soil, all models offered close approximations in decomposition dynamics. PMID:23550805
Neurotoxicity in all prion disorders is believed to result from the accumulation of PrP-scrapie (PrP(Sc)), a beta-sheet rich isoform of a normal cell-surface glycoprotein, the prion protein (PrP(C)). Limited reports suggest imbalance of brain iron homeostasis as a significant associated cause of neurotoxicity in prion-infected cell and mouse models. However, systematic studies on the generality of this phenomenon and the underlying mechanism(s) leading to iron dyshomeostasis in diseased brains are lacking. In this report, we demonstrate that prion disease-affected human, hamster, and mouse brains show increased total and redox-active Fe (II) iron, and a paradoxical increase in major iron uptake proteins transferrin (Tf) and transferrin receptor (TfR) at the end stage of disease. Furthermore, examination of scrapie-inoculated hamster brains at different timepoints following infection shows increased levels of Tf with time, suggesting increasing iron deficiency with disease progression. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD)-affected human brains show a similar increase in total iron and a direct correlation between PrP and Tf levels, implicating PrP(Sc) as the underlying cause of iron deficiency. Increased binding of Tf to the cerebellar Purkinje cell neurons of sCJD brains further indicates upregulation of TfR and a phenotype of neuronal iron deficiency in diseased brains despite increased iron levels. The likely cause of this phenotype is sequestration of iron in brain ferritin that becomes detergent-insoluble in PrP(Sc)-infected cell lines and sCJD brain homogenates. These results suggest that sequestration of iron in PrP(Sc)-ferritin complexes induces a state of iron bio-insufficiency in prion disease-affected brains, resulting in increased uptake and a state of iron dyshomeostasis. An additional unexpected observation is the resistance of Tf to digestion by proteinase-K, providing a reliable marker for iron levels in postmortem human brains. These data implicate redox-iron in prion disease-associated neurotoxicity, a novel observation with significant implications for prion disease pathogenesis. PMID:19283067
\\u000a Among the countless animals throughout history who have been tamed to serve humans, there is only one who serves by choice\\u000a – the dog (Wilcox & Walkowicz, 1995). Dogs display “an inexhaustible willingness to form and sustain partnerships with humans”\\u000a (Hart, 1995, p. 167), and they are the only species that assist humans in various social needs as police, therapy,
Microsatellites are highly mutable, repetitive sequences commonly used as genetic markers, but they have never been studied en masse. Using a custom microarray to measure hybridization intensities of every possible repetitive nucleotide motif from 1-mers to 6-mers, we examined 25 genomes. Here, we show that global microsatellite content varies predictably by species, as measured by array hybridization signal intensities, correlating with established taxonomic relationships, and particular motifs are characteristic of one species versus another. For instance, hominid-specific microsatellite motifs were identified despite alignment of the human reference, Celera, and Venter genomic sequences indicating substantial variation (30–50%) among individuals. Differential microsatellite motifs were mainly associated with genes involved in developmental processes, whereas those found in intergenic regions exhibited no discernible pattern. This is the first description of a method for evaluating microsatellite content to classify individual genomes.
No other theme in animal biology seems to be more central than the concept of employing strategies to survive and successfully reproduce. In nature, controlling or avoiding pathogens and parasites is an essential fitness strategy because of the ever-present disease-causing organisms. The disease-control strategies discussed here are: physical avoidance and removal of pathogens and parasites; quarantine or peripheralization of conspecifics that could be carrying potential pathogens; herbal medicine, animal style, to prevent or treat an infection; potentiation of the immune system; and care of sick or injured group members. These strategies are seen as also encompassing the pillars of human medicine: (i) quarantine; (ii) immune-boosting vaccinations; (iii) use of medicinal products; and (iv) caring or nursing. In contrast to animals, in humans, the disease-control strategies have been consolidated into a consistent and extensive medical system. A hypothesis that explains some of this difference between animals and humans is that humans are sick more often than animals. This increase in sickness in humans leading to an extensive, cognitively driven medical system is attributed to an evolutionary dietary transition from mostly natural vegetation to a meat-based diet, with an increase in health-eroding free radicals and a dietary reduction of free-radical-scavenging antioxidants.
CONTEXT Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is suspected of being a causative factor in psychiatric disorders based on case reports or studies involving large structural anomalies. OBJECTIVE To determine the involvement of BDNF in human psychopathology. DESIGN Case-control study. SETTING Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization data from 7 molecular diagnostic centers including 38 550 affected subjects and 28 705 unaffected subjects. PATIENTS Subjects referred to diagnostic screening centers for microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization for physical or cognitive impairment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Genomic copy number gains and losses. RESULTS We report 5 individuals with psychopathology and genomic deletion of a critical region including BDNF. The defined critical region was never disrupted in control subjects or diagnostic cases without developmental abnormalities. CONCLUSION Hemizygosity of the BDNF region contributes to variable psychiatric phenotypes including anxiety, behavioral, and mood disorders. PMID:23044507
Ernst, Carl; Marshall, Christian R; Shen, Yiping; Metcalfe, Kay; Rosenfeld, Jill; Hodge, Jennelle C; Torres, Alcy; Blumenthal, Ian; Chiang, Colby; Pillalamarri, Vamsee; Crapper, Liam; Diallo, Alpha B; Ruderfer, Douglas; Pereira, Shahrin; Sklar, Pamela; Purcell, Shaun; Wildin, Robert S; Spencer, Anne C; Quade, Bradley F; Harris, David J; Lemyre, Emanuelle; Wu, Bai-Lin; Stavropoulos, Dimitri J; Geraghty, Michael T; Shaffer, Lisa G; Morton, Cynthia C; Scherer, Stephen W; Gusella, James F; Talkowski, Michael E
Obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases represent a growing socioeconomic problem throughout the world. Great emphasis has been put on establishing treatments for this condition, including pharmacological intervention. However, there are many obstacles and pitfalls in the development process from pre-clinical research to the pharmacy counter, and there is no certainty that what has been observed pre-clinically will translate into an
Animal models provide myriad benefits to both experimental and clinical research. Unfortunately, in many situations, they fall short of expected results or provide contradictory results. In part, this can be the result of traditional molecular biological approaches that are relatively inefficient in elucidating underlying molecular mechanism. To improve the efficacy of animal models, a technological breakthrough is required. The growing availability and application of the high-throughput methods make systematic comparisons between human and animal models easier to perform. In the present study, we introduce the concept of the comparative systems biology, which we define as "comparisons of biological systems in different states or species used to achieve an integrated understanding of life forms with all their characteristic complexity of interactions at multiple levels". Furthermore, we discuss the applications of RNA-seq and ChIP-seq technologies to comparative systems biology between human and animal models and assess the potential applications for this approach in the future studies. PMID:23572365
This research paper presents findings from an experimental investigation of the attitudes that people hold towards animals when they are reminded of the fact that humans and animals are creatures alike. We tested the hypothesis that mortality salience (MS) would lead participants reminded of human creatureliness to evaluate animals more negatively, especially when they reported lower self-esteem. Student participants were
Purpose of the investigation was to study feasibility to include solid and liquid human discharges in the turnover of bioregenerative life support systems for physical/chemical and biological treatment. Human exometabolites were mineralized by way of wet process in hydrogen peroxide in alternating electromagnetic field. The resultant solutions were used to water plants cultivated on a soil-like substrate or haydite. Given that urea as a source of nitrogen for BLSS is undesirable, in one of the experiments mineralization was followed by enzymatic urea decomposition with soybean flour urease. The experiments showed no difference in the productivity of plants cultivated on a standard mineral medium and with the use of mineralized exometabolites. PMID:19621807
Ushakova, S A; Tikhomirov, A A; Kudenko, Iu A; Tikhomirova, N A; Anishchenko, O V
Animal use in medical research is widely accepted on the basis that it may help to save human lives and improve their quality of life. Recently, however, objections have been made specifically to the use of animals in scientific investigation of human obesity. This paper discusses two arguments for the view that this form of animal use, unlike some other forms of animal-based medical research, cannot be defended. The first argument leans heavily on the notion that people themselves are responsible for developing obesity and so-called 'lifestyle' diseases; the second involves the claim that animal studies of obesity's causes and therapies distract attention from preventive efforts. Drawing on both empirical data and moral reasoning, we argue that the relevant attributions of responsibility and claims about distraction are not plausible, and that, therefore, there is no reason to single out the use of animals in obesity research as especially problematic. PMID:23709177
Lund, Thomas Bøker; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Olsson, I Anna S; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Sandøe, Peter
Background: This study investigates the changes in human flu viruses in areas where unique animal flu viruses or epidemics were isolated in Taiwan and Kinmen islet. Materials and methods: Sentinel physicians obtained throat swabs from patients presenting with flu-like illness and two-step RT-PCR, using five sets of primers for matrix (M) and HA2, to detect all the animal influenza viruses
Yie-Jen Liao; Ching-Ping Tsai; Ming-Chu Cheng; Chuan-Liang Kao; N Cox; Chwan-Chuen King
We present a robotic tail interface for enabling a robot to communicate its state to people. Our interface design follows an animal-inspired methodology where we map the robot's state to its tail output, leveraging people's existing knowledge of and experiences with animals for human-robot interaction. In this paper we detail our robotic-tail design approach and our prototype implementations, and outline
Drugs and environmental chemicals can adversely affect the reproductive system. Currently, available data indicate that the consequences of exposure depend on the nature of the chemical, its target, and the timing of exposure relative to critical windows in development of the reproductive system. The reproductive system is designed to produce gametes in far greater excess than would seem to be necessary for the survival of species. Ten to hundreds of millions of spermatozoa are generated daily by most adult male mammals, yet very few of these germ cells succeed in transmitting their genetic material to the next generation. Although the number of oocytes produced in mammalian females is more limited, and their production occurs only during fetal life, most ovaries contain several orders of magnitude more oocytes than ever will be fertilized. Toxicant exposures may affect critical events in the development of the reproductive system, ranging from early primordial germ cell determination to gonadal differentiation, gametogenesis, external genitalia, or signaling events regulating sexual behavior. Although there are differences between the human reproductive system and that of the usual animal models, such models have been extremely useful in assessing risks for key human reproductive and developmental processes. The objectives for future studies should include the elucidation of the specific cellular and molecular targets of known toxicants; the design of a systematic approach to the identification of reproductive toxicants; and the development of sensitive, specific, and predictive animal models, minimally invasive surrogate markers, or in vitro tests to assess reproductive system function during embryonic, postnatal, and adult life. Images Figure 1 Figure 2
Pryor, J L; Hughes, C; Foster, W; Hales, B F; Robaire, B
Phoretic mites are likely the most abundant arthropods found on carcases and corpses. They outnumber their scavenger carriers in both number and diversity. Many phoretic mites travel on scavenger insects and are highly specific; they will arrive on a particular species of host and no other. Because of this, they may be useful as trace indicators of their carriers even when their carriers are absent. Phoretic mites can be valuable markers of time. They are usually found in a specialised transitional transport or dispersal stage, often moulting and transforming to adults shortly after arrival on a carcase or corpse. Many are characterised by faster development and generation cycles than their carriers. Humans are normally unaware, but we too carry mites; they are skin mites that are present in our clothes. More than 212 phoretic mite species associated with carcases have been reported in the literature. Among these, mites belonging to the Mesostigmata form the dominant group, represented by 127 species with 25 phoretic mite species belonging to the family Parasitidae and 48 to the Macrochelidae. Most of these mesostigmatids are associated with particular species of flies or carrion beetles, though some are associated with small mammals arriving during the early stages of decomposition. During dry decay, members of the Astigmata are more frequently found; 52 species are phoretic on scavengers, and the majority of these travel on late-arriving scavengers such as hide beetles, skin beetles and moths. Several species of carrion beetles can visit a corpse simultaneously, and each may carry 1-10 species of phoretic mites. An informative diversity of phoretic mites may be found on a decaying carcass at any given time. The composition of the phoretic mite assemblage on a carcass might provide valuable information about the conditions of and time elapsed since death. PMID:19557527
To characterize human exposures to vaccines intended for animals, evaluate the human risk due to these exposures and determine whether there is sufficient surveillance in place to monitor them. Retrospective analysis of surveillance data (2000-2009). Information collected by poison specialists during calls reporting human exposure to an animal vaccine product, made to one of the 57 United States Poison Control Centers. Data from the National Poison Data System were analysed to determine the number of calls due to human exposures to animal vaccines, and descriptive statistics were generated to characterize the exposures by age, gender, medical outcome, exposure site, exposure route, vaccine type and intended species, aetiologic agent, call date and exposure reason. Overall, the human health effects were minor, primarily due to unintentional parenteral exposure. Less than 15% of the reports were classified as occupational, and 80% of the exposures took place outside of a workplace or healthcare facility. Almost 60% of calls were due to exposure to the West Nile Virus vaccine; the others distributed among a variety of vaccines. Unintentional exposure to animal vaccines appears to occur almost exclusively among untrained individuals who may benefit from more effective education about the risks and benefits of administering vaccines. Improved reporting of adverse outcomes is essential to adequately define the extent of human exposure and risks associated with availability of new vaccines. PMID:23551869
Edison, L; Schulte, J; Schauben, J; Kay, R; Rubin, C
There are many animals that are in danger of becoming extinct. Humans are largely to blame for their endangerment. Over-hunting and habitat destruction are only a couple of ways that humans are endangering animals.
The objective of this work was to present a compartmental deterministic mathematical model for representing the dynamics of HLB disease in a citrus orchard, including delay in the disease's incubation phase in the plants, and a delay period on the nymphal stage of Diaphorina citri, the most important HLB insect vector in Brazil. Numerical simulations were performed to assess the possible impacts of human detection efficiency of symptomatic plants, as well as the influence of a long incubation period of HLB in the plant.
Vilamiu, Raphael G. d'A.; Ternes, Sonia; Braga, Guilherme A.; Laranjeira, Francisco F.
Lipid composition of blood serum and total lipids of low density lipoproteins (LDL) and high density lipoproteins (HDL2 and HDL3) were studied in human (donors, patients with ischemic heart disease, bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive bronchitis, as well as with a combined pathology), in mammals predisposed to atherosclerosis (pig, rabbit) and resistant to atherosclerosis (rat, mink, Arctic fox), in birds (hen, pigeon), in teleost fish (white fish, pikeperch, pike, bream, burbot) and cartilaginous fish (sturgeon, housen). It has been established that the most enriched in lipids is the blood serum of animals, particularly of cartilaginous fish. Twice lower is the lipid content in blood serum of donors than of animals. However, in the vascular, bronchial-pulmonary, and combined human pathologies the lipid level rises statistically significantly. In human and in animals predisposed to atherosclerosis the main mass of lipid is located in LDL, whereas in animals resistant to this disease--in HDL. The ratio of the human lipid content in LDL/HDL increases from 1.4 (in donors) to 2.7 in pathological states--in ischemic heart disease and its combination with chronic obstructive disease. In animals, a decrease of this ratio is noted from 1.0 to 0.2 in cartilaginous fish. By the example of one taxon (fish) there is established a regularity that indicates that evolution of lipoproteins occurred with an increase of the lipid amount in the "younger" LDL and with a decrease of concentration of the "colder" HDL. PMID:18959212
Lizenko, M V; Regerand, T I; Bakhirev, A M; Lizenko, E I