Sample records for animals including human

  1. Antibodies to staphylococcal DNases in sera from different animal species, including humans.

    PubMed Central

    Høie, S; Fossum, K

    1989-01-01

    An agar diffusion method using microtiter plates was used to detect antibodies to the DNases produced by Staphylococcus aureus, S. intermedius, and S. hyicus. Antibodies to DNase from S. aureus were demonstrated in most of the sera from the species investigated, except dogs, only 11% of whose sera were positive. Positive titers to S. intermedius DNase were found in 84% of deg sera, 61% of Icelandic pony sera, 41% of pig sera, 21% of human sera, and 20% of cow sera but in only 2 and 4% of goat and sheep sera, respectively. Although antibodies to DNase from S. hyicus were not found in sera from humans, dogs, goats, or sheep, 84% of sera from pigs and cows and 29% of sera from Icelandic ponies were positive in this respect. The good accordance between the findings from bacteriological investigations performed elsewhere and the results of serologic tests performed in this study indicates that the results obtained with the serological method in this study properly reflect the actual antigenic exposure to and distribution of the three Staphylococcus spp. in animals and humans. PMID:2509511

  2. Pathology waste includes: Transgenic animals.

    E-print Network

    George, Steven C.

    Pathology waste includes: · Transgenic animals. · Potentially transgenic animals including, "no of as a hazardous chemical waste. The tissues or carcasses can then be disposed of as pathology waste. Labeling Requirements For Pathology Waste: · All pathology waste must be placed in a red bag and labeled with the words

  3. Human and Animal Viruses in Food (Including Taxonomy of Enteric Viruses)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail E. Greening

    1.0. INTRODUCTION In recent years, there has been an increase in the incidence of food-borne diseases worldwide, with viruses now recognized as a major cause of these illnesses. The viruses implicated in food-borne disease are the enteric viruses, which are found in the human gut, excreted in human feces, and transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Many different viruses are found

  4. Humane Treatment of Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Joan Smithey

    This booklet is designed to give teachers resource information about the humane treatment of and care for animals. The topics are presented as springboards for discussion and class activity. Topics include the care of dogs, cats, birds, horses, and fish; wildlife and ecological relationships; and careers with animals. Illustrations on some pages…

  5. Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that can infect many animals, including humans. It belongs to

    E-print Network

    Wood, Marcelo A.

    transplantation. People typically become infected by three principal routes of transmission. · Foodborne · AnimalToxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that can infect many animals, including point in their lives. Most infections are silent and have no ill effect on the patient. Occasionally

  6. Human Embryology Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This collection features animations that illustrate a variety of the processes in the development of the human embryo. The collection was designed as a tool for medical students, but can serve as a review for other health-science practitioners and students. The animations are grouped by topic: cardiovascular embryology, development of the head and neck, gastrointestinal embryology, limb development, and urinary and reproductive embryology. They include written pre- and post-tests, and online assessment materials.

  7. Human Embryology Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    O'Loughlin, Valerie

    One of the most impressive ways to learn about biology, particularly that which we seldom see, is through modeling. Dr. Valerie O'Loughlin and her colleagues at Indiana University have created this thoroughly impressive set of animations so that "students could better understand the complex processes that must occur in embryologic development." The site is arranged into five main areas, including: Cardiovascular Embryology, Development of the Head and Neck, Gastrointestinal Embryology, Development of the Limbs, and Urinary and Reproductive Embryology. However, the only two sections currently loaded with animations are the first two. Presumably, the rest are coming soon. Also, because these animations are part of a study of teaching efficacy, Dr. O'Loughlin asks that users participate in an optional survey. However, all animations can be accessed without taking part. As a great addition to the site, users are presented with a few questions regarding the anatomy which they are about to see, prior to viewing the animation. Undboutedly, this is related to the Indiana University course that these animations are a part of, but they serve as a great addition for visitors other than students, too.

  8. Human body animation: a survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dani Tost; Xavier Pueyo

    1988-01-01

    A survey of human body animation is presented dealing with its geometrical representation, motion control techniques and rendering. A classification of human body animation systems is presented according to different criteria.

  9. When Humans Become Animals: Development of the Animal Category in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Patricia A.; Medin, Douglas L.; Waxman, Sandra R.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines 3- and 5-year-olds' representation of the concept we label "animal" and its two nested concepts--"animal"[subscript contrastive] (including only non-human animals) and "animal"[subscript inclusive] (including both humans and non-human animals). Building upon evidence that naming promotes object categorization, we…

  10. (Provisional syllabus) HUMANS AMONG ANIMALS

    E-print Network

    Goldberg, Bennett

    draw between humans and animals, or culture and nature, get redrawn ­ for psychological, political1 (Provisional syllabus) HUMANS AMONG ANIMALS KHC AN101 Honors College Freshman Seminar Prof of study is emerging in human-animal relations. Based partly on ancient questions and long-debated ideas

  11. A case for integrity: gains from including more than animal welfare in animal ethics committee deliberations.

    PubMed

    Röcklinsberg, H; Gamborg, C; Gjerris, M

    2014-01-01

    From January 2013, a new EU Directive 63/2010/EU requires that research using animals must undergo a harm-benefit analysis, which takes ethical considerations into account (Art. 38 (2) d) - a so-called 'project authorization' (Art. 36). A competent authority in each member state has to ensure that no project is carried out without such a project validation process, but often delegates the actual assessment to an animal ethics committee (AEC) or its equivalent. The core task of the AEC is to formulate a justifiable balance between the animals' suffering caused by research and the potential human benefit. AECs traditionally focus on animal welfare issues, but according to the new directive other public concerns must also be taken into account. Taking the new EU Directive as a point of departure, the central aim of this paper is to discuss the evaluation process in relation to animal welfare and animal ethics through the concept of animal integrity. A further aim is to elaborate on possible improvements to project evaluation by considering animal integrity. We argue that concepts like animal integrity are often left out of project authorization processes within AECs, because animal ethics is often interpreted narrowly to include only certain aspects of animal welfare. Firstly, we describe the task of an AEC and discuss what has typically been regarded as ethically relevant in the assessment process. Secondly, we categorize four notions of integrity found in the literature to show the complexity of the concept and furthermore to indicate its strengths. Thirdly, we discuss how certain interpretations of integrity can be included in AEC assessments to encapsulate wider ethical concerns and, perhaps even increase the democratic legitimacy of AECs. PMID:24367033

  12. Gender Differences in Human–Animal Interactions: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold A. Herzog

    2007-01-01

    I review the direction and magnitude (effect sizes) of gender dif- ferences that have been reported in several areas of human-animal interac- tions. These include: attitudes toward the treatment of animals, attachment to pets, involvement in animal protectionism, animal hoarding, hunting, animal abuse, and bestiality. Women, on average, show higher levels of positive be- haviors and attitudes toward animals (e.g.,

  13. Humans and Animals Learning Together

    E-print Network

    Tennessee, University of

    Humans and Animals Learning Together HALT Fall 2011 Dogs Available for Adoption For information and Animals Learning Together) is a non-profit program supported by the University of Tennessee College Clifford-a 27 # Basset/ Spaniel mix with a distinguished face Lily-A little 9 # female Chihuahua & Italian

  14. Boron in human and animal nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Forrest H. Nielsen

    1997-01-01

    This review describes the findings from human and animal studies indicating that B is a dynamic trace element which, in physiological amounts, can affect the metabolism or utilisation of numerous other substances involved in life processes including macrominerals, energy substrates such as triglycerides and glucose, nitrogen containing substances such as amino acids and proteins, reactive oxygen species, and estrogen. Through

  15. This form must be submitted to the Graduate College prior to any activity that involves human or animal subjects, intellectual property issues, or environmental health and safety training. This form must include

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    or animal subjects, intellectual property issues, or environmental health and safety training. This form of the need to fully comply with the requirements that I must follow concerning the rights and welfare of human or animal subjects while pursuing the research f r my thesis or dissertation. I further certify

  16. Animal Model Evaluation of Dairy Goats for Milk, Fat, and Protein Yields with Crossbred Animals Included

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Wiggans

    1989-01-01

    Genetic evaluation of dairy goats was extended to include evaluation of protein yield and evaluation of Oberhasli and experimental breeds. Diverse genetic background of parents of crossbred ani- mals can be accounted for with an animal model that includes all relationships. The animal model system implemented for dairy goats differed from the one for dairy cattle in that all breeds

  17. Animated Human Agents with Motion Planning Capability

    E-print Network

    Badler, Norman I.

    Animated Human Agents with Motion Planning Capability for 3D-Space Postural Goals Moon-Ryul Jung. The human body model used in this study is anthropometrically realistic [31, 14, 19, 20, 21], and possesses In this paper, we present a method for an animated human agent to con- struct motion plans to achieve 3D

  18. The simulation of humans and lower animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzopoulos, Demetri

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a brief review of our ongoing work on the biomechanical simulation of the human body. Our comprehensive musculoskeletal model, which includes more or less all of the relevant articular bones and muscle actuators, plus soft tissue deformations, raises the challenge of simulating natural body movements by controlling hundreds of contractile muscles. We have begun to confront this problem by developing a trainable neuromuscular controller for the important special case of the neck-head-face complex. Additionally, I briefly review our relevant earlier work on the motor control of anthropomorphically articulated dynamic models, as well as the biomechanical modeling of lower animals such as fish, including motor control algorithms that enable these simulated animals to learn natural, muscle-actuated locomotion.

  19. Piperidine alkaloids: human and food animal teratogens.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Panter, Kip E; Brown, David R

    2012-06-01

    Piperidine alkaloids are acutely toxic to adult livestock species and produce musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal animals. These teratogenic effects include multiple congenital contracture (MCC) deformities and cleft palate in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Poisonous plants containing teratogenic piperidine alkaloids include poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), lupine (Lupinus spp.), and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) [including wild tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca)]. There is abundant epidemiological evidence in humans that link maternal tobacco use with a high incidence of oral clefting in newborns; this association may be partly attributable to the presence of piperidine alkaloids in tobacco products. In this review, we summarize the evidence for piperidine alkaloids that act as teratogens in livestock, piperidine alkaloid structure-activity relationships and their potential implications for human health. PMID:22449544

  20. Human Behavior: Do Animals Have the Answer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Robert J.

    1974-01-01

    Results of psychological experiments usinganimals are presented. Use of the animal-human analogy to generalize these findings to humans is discussed. Ethological studies are interpreted in light of the total environment and situation involved. The completeness of the ethological model compared to the animal-experimental model is discussed. (LS)

  1. Animating Non-Human Characters Using Human Motion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yekaterina Kharitonova

    This paper presents research in enhancing character animation using motion capture data and retargeting motion from one character model to another. Our particular interest lies in animating non-human characters and inanimate objects. The main goal of the project is to use lattice deformations to animate an object and smooth out the kinks in the animation at the bending of the

  2. Reprogramming of Human Somatic Cells Using Human and Animal Oocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young Chung; Colin E. Bishop; Nathan R. Treff; Stephen J. Walker; Vladislav M. Sandler; Sandy Becker; Irina Klimanskaya; Wan-Song Wun; Randall Dunn; Rebecca M. Hall; Jing Su; Shi-Jiang Lu; Marc Maserati; Young-Ho Choi; Richard Scott; Anthony Atala; Ralph Dittman; Robert Lanza

    2009-01-01

    There is renewed interest in using animal oocytes to reprogram human somatic cells. Here we compare the re- programming of human somatic nuclei using oocytes obtained from animal and human sources. Comparative analysis of gene expression in morula-stage embryos was carried out using single-embryo transcriptome am- plification and global gene expression analyses. Genomic DNA fingerprinting and PCR analysis confirmed that

  3. [Vaccination of animals and human health].

    PubMed

    Mayr, A

    1985-02-01

    Prophylactic immunization of animals against obligat and nonobligat pathogenic zoonoses benefit human health in many ways both directly and indirectly. Typical examples of a direct protective effect are the vaccinations of dogs, cats and foxes against rabies as well as the vaccinations against respiratory diseases in cows, horses, dogs and cats to which the most varied species of pathogens of noncompulsory zoonoses contribute. A considerable contribution to the protection of human health is made by the vaccination against salmonellosis and leptospirosis, against vesicular stomatitis, American equine encephalitis and against other zoonoses spread by arthropods, against ecthyma and stomatitis papulosa as well as against brucellosis, anthrax, Q-fever, Newcastle disease and foot-and-mouth disease. The indirect effects of prophylactic vaccination of animals on human health are very complex and still need investigation. An example of this are the vaccinations of animals against human and animal influenza A viruses which can inhibit hybridisation and recombination between human and animal influenza viruses in an ecological system. Occasionally prophylactic vaccinations of animals can do harm to human health. This is invariably a rare incidence in immuno-suppressed persons caused by live vaccines i.e. prophylactic vaccination against Newcastle disease in fowl or against orthopox in animals by the use of the common vaccinia strains, after compulsory vaccination for humans had been cancelled. Prophylactic vaccinations of animals must be constantly followed up and their action on human health must be checked. In the case of positive results prophylactic vaccinations must be carried out selectively and in a wide range. PMID:2986381

  4. Tinnitus: animal models and findings in humans.

    PubMed

    Eggermont, Jos J; Roberts, Larry E

    2015-07-01

    Chronic tinnitus (ringing of the ears) is a medically untreatable condition that reduces quality of life for millions of individuals worldwide. Most cases are associated with hearing loss that may be detected by the audiogram or by more sensitive measures. Converging evidence from animal models and studies of human tinnitus sufferers indicates that, while cochlear damage is a trigger, most cases of tinnitus are not generated by irritative processes persisting in the cochlea but by changes that take place in central auditory pathways when auditory neurons lose their input from the ear. Forms of neural plasticity underlie these neural changes, which include increased spontaneous activity and neural gain in deafferented central auditory structures, increased synchronous activity in these structures, alterations in the tonotopic organization of auditory cortex, and changes in network behavior in nonauditory brain regions detected by functional imaging of individuals with tinnitus and corroborated by animal investigations. Research on the molecular mechanisms that underlie neural changes in tinnitus is in its infancy and represents a frontier for investigation. PMID:25266340

  5. Human antibodies from transgenic animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nils Lonberg

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory mice provide a ready source of diverse, high-affinity and high-specificity monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). However, development of rodent antibodies as therapeutic agents has been impaired by the inherent immunogenicity of these molecules. One technology that has been explored to generate low immunogenicity mAbs for in vivo therapy involves the use of transgenic mice expressing repertoires of human antibody gene sequences.

  6. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from former East European countries, including Romania is sketchy. Unfortunately, in many Eastern European countries, including Romania it has been assumed that T. ...

  7. Are animal models predictive for humans?

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    It is one of the central aims of the philosophy of science to elucidate the meanings of scientific terms and also to think critically about their application. The focus of this essay is the scientific term predict and whether there is credible evidence that animal models, especially in toxicology and pathophysiology, can be used to predict human outcomes. Whether animals can be used to predict human response to drugs and other chemicals is apparently a contentious issue. However, when one empirically analyzes animal models using scientific tools they fall far short of being able to predict human responses. This is not surprising considering what we have learned from fields such evolutionary and developmental biology, gene regulation and expression, epigenetics, complexity theory, and comparative genomics. PMID:19146696

  8. Comparison of internal emitter radiobiology in animals and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.D.; Miller, S.C.; Taylor, G.N. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [and others

    1997-01-01

    Investigations of radionuclide metabolism and effects in various mammalian species revealed important similarities between animals and humans and between some animal species. These include skeletal deposition of radium and radiostrontium in bone volume; deposition on bone surfaces of plutonium and other actinides; liver deposition of actinides; induction of skeletal or liver malignancies by these radionuclides; induction of tooth and jaw abnormalities; mammary cancer induction by radium in humans and in the beagle; depression of circulating cells in blood; and induction of bone fractures. There are also inter-species differences that may not have been noted if multiple species (including humans) had not been studied. Some of these are more rapid excretion of radium in humans compared with most other mammals; induction by radium of eye melanomas in animals but not humans; rapid loss of deposited plutonium from liver in many species of mice and rats but not in humans and dog; substantial sex-related differences in skeletal plutonium retention and bone sarcoma induction in mice but not in humans or dog; and induction of head sinus carcinomas by {sup 226}Ra in humans but not the beagle. Leukemia and other related neoplasms were not induced in radionuclide-injected lifespan dogs in excess of the occurrence in control animals. Much of our current understanding of skeletal biology and radionuclide behavior in mammals was derived from this and related projects. The primary goal of the Utah experiment of estimating toxicities of bone-seeking radionuclides relative to radium has been accomplished.

  9. Improving the translation of animal ischemic stroke studies to humans.

    PubMed

    Jickling, Glen C; Sharp, Frank R

    2015-04-01

    Despite testing more than 1,026 therapeutic strategies in models of ischemic stroke and 114 therapies in human ischemic stroke, only one agent tissue plasminogen activator has successfully been translated to clinical practice as a treatment for acute stroke. Though disappointing, this immense body of work has led to a rethinking of animal stroke models and how to better translate therapies to patients with ischemic stroke. Several recommendations have been made, including the STAIR recommendations and statements of RIGOR from the NIH/NINDS. In this commentary we discuss additional aspects that may be important to improve the translational success of ischemic stroke therapies. These include use of tissue plasminogen activator in animal studies; modeling ischemic stroke heterogeneity in terms of infarct size and cause of human stroke; addressing the confounding effect of anesthesia; use of comparable therapeutic dosage between humans and animals based on biological effect; modeling the human immune system; and developing outcome measures in animals comparable to those used in human stroke trials. With additional study and improved animal modeling of factors involved in human ischemic stroke, we are optimistic that new stroke therapies will be developed. PMID:24526567

  10. Piperidine alkaloids: Human and food animal teratogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piperidine alkaloids are acutely toxic to adult livestock species and produce musculoskeletal deformities in neonatal animals. These teratogenic effects include multiple congenital contracture (MCC) deformities and cleft palate in cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats. Poisonous plants containing teratogen...

  11. Naturally Occurring Animal Models of Human Hepatitis E Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yugo, Danielle M.; Cossaboom, Caitlin M.; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus in the family Hepeviridae. Hepatitis E caused by HEV is a clinically important global disease. There are currently four well-characterized genotypes of HEV in mammalian species, although numerous novel strains of HEV likely belonging to either new genotypes or species have recently been identified from several other animal species. HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are limited to infection in humans, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 infect an expanding host range of animal species and are zoonotic to humans. Historical animal models include various species of nonhuman primates, which have been indispensable for the discovery of human HEV and for understanding its pathogenesis and course of infection. With the genetic identification and characterization of animal strains of HEV, a number of naturally occurring animal models such as swine, chicken, and rabbit have recently been developed for various aspects of HEV research, including vaccine trials, pathogenicity, cross-species infection, mechanism of virus replication, and molecular biology studies. Unfortunately, the current available animal models for HEV are still inadequate for certain aspects of HEV research. For instance, an animal model is still lacking to study the underlying mechanism of severe and fulminant hepatitis E during pregnancy. Also, an animal model that can mimic chronic HEV infection is critically needed to study the mechanism leading to chronicity in immunocompromised individuals. Genetic identification of additional novel animal strains of HEV may lead to the development of better naturally occurring animal models for HEV. This article reviews the current understanding of animal models of HEV infection in both natural and experimental infection settings and identifies key research needs and limitations. PMID:24936039

  12. Human and animal cognition: Continuity and discontinuity

    PubMed Central

    Premack, David

    2007-01-01

    Microscopic study of the human brain has revealed neural structures, enhanced wiring, and forms of connectivity among nerve cells not found in any animal, challenging the view that the human brain is simply an enlarged chimpanzee brain. On the other hand, cognitive studies have found animals to have abilities once thought unique to the human. This suggests a disparity between brain and mind. The suggestion is misleading. Cognitive research has not kept pace with neural research. Neural findings are based on microscopic study of the brain and are primarily cellular. Because cognition cannot be studied microscopically, we need to refine the study of cognition by using a different approach. In examining claims of similarity between animals and humans, one must ask: What are the dissimilarities? This approach prevents confusing similarity with equivalence. We follow this approach in examining eight cognitive cases—teaching, short-term memory, causal reasoning, planning, deception, transitive inference, theory of mind, and language—and find, in all cases, that similarities between animal and human abilities are small, dissimilarities large. There is no disparity between brain and mind. PMID:17717081

  13. Anthrax in animals and humans in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Odontsetseg, N; Sh, Tserendorj; Adiyasuren, Z; Uuganbayar, D; Mweene, A S

    2007-12-01

    Anthrax is endemic throughout Mongolia, except in the semi-desert and desert areas of the south. The prevalence of anthrax in Mongolia had drastically decreased since the 1950s due to the use of anthrax antiserum and vaccines, but the privatisation of the animal husbandry sector and changes in the structures of the veterinary and medical delivery systems in Mongolia over the last decade have resulted in challenges for disease control. Animal and human anthrax has become an increasing problem since the mid-1990s. Human cutaneous anthrax is common in Mongolia as a result of exposure to infected animals. In this paper, the authors identify potential causes forthe increase of anthrax in Mongolia. The current prevention efforts may not be adequate. Anthrax surveillance and control must be intensified, particularly in areas of high prevalence. PMID:18293618

  14. Transgenic Animals: Their Benefits To Human Welfare

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Endang Tri Margawati (Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia; )

    2003-01-01

    The issue-focused, reviewed, student article is about how transgenic animals, i.e., engineered to carry genes from other species, have the potential to improve human welfare in: agriculture, such as larger sheep that grow more wool, medicine, such as cows that produce insulin in their milk, andindustry, such as goats that produce spider silk for materials production.

  15. Which insulin to use? Human or animal?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Mohan

    The introduction of insulin was a breakthrough in the treatment of diabetes and it produced a remarkable increase in the life expectancy of diabetic patients. Animal-derived insulins have been used to treat pe o- ple with diabetes since insulin was first discovered and continuously subjected to various purification technologies. Genetically engineered human insulin was introduced in 1982 and now the

  16. Modeling, Animation, and Rendering of Human Figures

    E-print Network

    Güdükbay, Ugur

    instance of bone fracture, maybe for an orthopedical simulation, then the rules all of a sudden change, Ankara, Turkey Human body modeling and animation has long been an important and challenging area. As long as the subject excludes these non-articulated body behaviors, there is a reasonable starting point

  17. Affective neuroscience of pleasure: reward in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Pleasure and reward are generated by brain circuits that are largely shared between humans and other animals. Discussion Here, we survey some fundamental topics regarding pleasure mechanisms and explicitly compare humans and animals. Conclusion Topics surveyed include liking, wanting, and learning components of reward; brain coding versus brain causing of reward; subjective pleasure versus objective hedonic reactions; roles of orbitofrontal cortex and related cortex regions; subcortical hedonic hotspots for pleasure generation; reappraisals of dopamine and pleasure-electrode controversies; and the relation of pleasure to happiness. PMID:18311558

  18. Epidemiological review of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Romania.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Hotea, I; Olariu, T R; Jones, J L; D?r?bu?, G

    2014-03-01

    Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. However, information from eastern European countries is sketchy. In many eastern European countries, including Romania, it has been assumed that chronic T. gondii infection is a common cause of infertility and abortion. For this reason, many women in Romania with these problems were needlessly tested for T. gondii infection. Most papers on toxoplasmosis in Romania were published in Romanian in local journals and often not available to scientists in other countries. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Romania is largely unknown. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii or prevalence in animals and humans in Romania. In the present paper we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Romania. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, veterinarians and physicians. PMID:24553077

  19. Collision Detection for Clothed Human Animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongliang Zhang; Matthew Ming-fai Yuen

    2000-01-01

    We present a voxel-based collision detection method for clothed human animation. We speed up the performance of the voxel-based method by choosing an appropriate voxel size and using a fast voxelization approach. Based on the voxel method, we propose a self-collision detection method and a simplified collision detection method. First, the efficiency of self-collision detection is improved by taking advantage

  20. Qualitative Directions in Human–Animal Companion Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Shen-Miller

    \\u000a Researcher inquiries into topics such as animal welfare, animal affect, and human experiences of the human–animal bond have\\u000a historically been rooted in positivist epistemologies and reliant on quantitative measures and experiments, rather than naturalistic\\u000a observations and individual experiences (Fraser, 2009). In this chapter, I target several topic areas within human–animal\\u000a and animal research to explore the existence and benefits of

  1. Toxoplasma gondii: from animals to humans.

    PubMed

    Tenter, A M; Heckeroth, A R; Weiss, L M

    2000-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis is one of the more common parasitic zoonoses world-wide. Its causative agent, Toxoplasma gondii, is a facultatively heteroxenous, polyxenous protozoon that has developed several potential routes of transmission within and between different host species. If first contracted during pregnancy, T. gondii may be transmitted vertically by tachyzoites that are passed to the foetus via the placenta. Horizontal transmission of T. gondii may involve three life-cycle stages, i.e. ingesting infectious oocysts from the environment or ingesting tissue cysts or tachyzoites which are contained in meat or primary offal (viscera) of many different animals. Transmission may also occur via tachyzoites contained in blood products, tissue transplants, or unpasteurised milk. However, it is not known which of these routes is more important epidemiologically. In the past, the consumption of raw or undercooked meat, in particular of pigs and sheep, has been regarded as a major route of transmission to humans. However, recent studies showed that the prevalence of T. gondii in meat-producing animals decreased considerably over the past 20 years in areas with intensive farm management. For example, in several countries of the European Union prevalences of T. gondii in fattening pigs are now <1%. Considering these data it is unlikely that pork is still a major source of infection for humans in these countries. However, it is likely that the major routes of transmission are different in human populations with differences in culture and eating habits. In the Americas, recent outbreaks of acute toxoplasmosis in humans have been associated with oocyst contamination of the environment. Therefore, future epidemiological studies on T. gondii infections should consider the role of oocysts as potential sources of infection for humans, and methods to monitor these are currently being developed. This review presents recent epidemiological data on T. gondii, hypotheses on the major routes of transmission to humans in different populations, and preventive measures that may reduce the risk of contracting a primary infection during pregnancy. PMID:11113252

  2. Computer Animation of Human Walking: a Survey Franck Multon1

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Computer Animation of Human Walking: a Survey Franck Multon1 , Laure France2 , Marie-Paule Cani Animation of human walking is a crucial problem in Computer Graphics: Many synthetic scenes involve virtual fteen years ago in Computer Graphics, with the rst work on \\knowledge- based" animation of human gures

  3. Pathology of Acute Henipavirus Infection in Humans and Animals

    PubMed Central

    Wong, K. T.; Ong, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Zoonoses as causes of human infections have been increasingly reported, and many of these are viruses that cause central nervous system infections. This paper focuses on the henipaviruses (family Paramyxoviridae, genus henipavirus) that have recently emerged to cause severe encephalitis and systemic infection in humans and animals in the Asia-Pacific region. The pathological features in the human infections comprise vasculopathy (vasculitis, endothelial multinucleated syncytia, thrombosis, etc.) and parenchymal cell infection in the central nervous system, lung, kidney, and other major organs. Most animals naturally or experimentally infected show more or less similar features confirming the dual pathogenetic mechanism of vasculopathy-associated microinfarction and direct extravascular parenchymal cell infection as causes of tissue injury. The most promising animal models include the hamster, ferret, squirrel monkey, and African green monkey. With increasing evidence of infection in the natural hosts, the pteropid bats and, hence, probable future outbreaks in many more countries, a greater awareness of henipavirus infection in both humans and animals is imperative. PMID:21961078

  4. Farm Animal Serum Proteomics and Impact on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Girolamo, Francesco Di; D’Amato, Alfonsina; Lante, Isabella; Signore, Fabrizio; Muraca, Marta; Putignani, Lorenza

    2014-01-01

    Due to the incompleteness of animal genome sequencing, the analysis and characterization of serum proteomes of most farm animals are still in their infancy, compared to the already well-documented human serum proteome. This review focuses on the implications of the farm animal serum proteomics in order to identify novel biomarkers for animal welfare, early diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of infectious disease treatment, and develop new vaccines, aiming at determining the reciprocal benefits for humans and animals. PMID:25257521

  5. WORKSHOP ON THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPARABILITY OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY, WORK GROUP I REPORT: COMPARABILITY OF MEASURES OF DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY IN HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessment measures used in developmental neurotoxicology are reviewed for their comparability in humans and laboratory animals, and their ability to detect comparable, adverse effects across species. ompounds used for these comparisons include: abuse substances, anticonvulsant d...

  6. Olfactory and tissue markers of fear in mammals including humans.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Roman; Wiergowski, Marek; Kaliszan, Micha?; Gos, Tomasz; Kernbach-Wighton, Gerhard; Studniarek, Micha?; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Namie?nik, Jacek

    2011-12-01

    Pheromones are a mysterious world of chemical signals involved in conspecific communication. They play a number of key functions important for preservation of life of individual organisms, for their defence, survival of offspring and preservation of species. The best-known groups of pheromones include: trail pheromones, territorial pheromones, sex pheromones, aggregation pheromones, dispersion pheromones, repellent pheromones, social pheromones and alarm pheromones. Alarm pheromones are pheromones that are emitted by animals in threatening situations and inform members of the same species of danger. The identified alarm pheromones are synthesised by insects and aquatic organisms. Also humans are able to emit and perceive pheromones. Although alarm pheromones have not been isolated and identified in man so far, there is presumably evidence for their presence in humans. Pinpointing human alarm pheromones, determinants of experienced stress and inductors of provoked fear could have widespread consequences. Their identification could also be of significant importance for the practical utilisation of results by institutions responsible for safety and defence as well as law enforcement/crime detection and antiterrorist activities. PMID:21944887

  7. CREATING 3D ANIMATED HUMAN BEHAVIORS FOR VIRTUAL WORLDS

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    i CREATING 3D ANIMATED HUMAN BEHAVIORS FOR VIRTUAL WORLDS Jan M. Allbeck A DISSERTATION in Computer, and a scholar. #12;iv ABSTRACT CREATING 3D ANIMATED HUMAN BEHAVIORS FOR VIRTUAL WORLDS Jan M. Allbeck Norman I graphical depictions, and relieves some of the burden in creating and animating heterogeneo

  8. Mind, space and objectivity in non-human animals

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Mind, space and objectivity in non-human animals published in Erkenntnis, 51, 1, 1999, 41-58. Joëlle Proust CREA, Ecole Polytechnique Paris Mind, space and objectivity in non-human animals ---------- There are many diverse, and sometimes conflicting motives for studying animal minds. Ethology aims at describing

  9. Human health impact from antimicrobial use in food animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Tollefson; Beth E. Karp

    2004-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals has adverse human health consequences. The use of antibiotics in food animals selects for resistant pathogens and resistance genes that may be transferred to humans through the consumption or handling of foods of animal origin. Recent studies have demonstrated that antimicrobial-resistance among foodborne bacteria may cause excess cases

  10. Solubility of Haloether Anesthetics in Human and Animal Blood

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Joao H. N.; Brosnan, Robert J.; Fukushima, Fabíola B.; Hodges, Joanne; Liu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Background Anesthetic blood solubility predicts pharmacokinetics for inhaled agents and is essential for determination of blood anesthetic concentrations from end-tidal gas concentrations using Henry’s Law. Though used to model anesthetic effects in humans, there are limited interspecies solubility comparisons that include modern haloethers. This study aimed to measure hematocrit-adjusted blood:gas anesthetic partition coefficients (?B:G) for desflurane, sevoflurane, isoflurane, and methoxyflurane in humans and animals. Methods Whole blood was collected from 20 rats, 8 horses, and 4 each of cats, cattle, humans, dogs, goats, pigs, rabbits, and sheep. Plasma or cell volume was removed to adjust all samples to a packed cell volume of 40%. A single agent calibration gas headspace was added to blood in a glass syringe and was mixed and equilibrated at 37°C for 2 hours. Agent concentrations in the calibration gas and syringe headspace were measured using gas chromatography. Anesthetic solubility in saline, citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine, and olive oil were similarly measured. Results Except for goats, all animal species had at least one ?B:G measurement that differed significantly from humans. For each agent, ?B:G positively correlated with serum triglyceride concentrations, but this only explained 25% of interspecies variability. Desflurane was significantly less soluble in blood than sevoflurane in some species (e.g., humans) but not in others (e.g., rabbits). Conclusions Anesthetic partition coefficients differ significantly between humans and most animals for haloether anesthetics. Because of their similar ?B:G values, goats may be a better animal model for inhaled anesthetic pharmacokinetics in people. PMID:22510863

  11. Food Animals and Antimicrobials: Impacts on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Bonnie M.; Levy, Stuart B.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Antimicrobials are valuable therapeutics whose efficacy is seriously compromised by the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance. The provision of antibiotics to food animals encompasses a wide variety of nontherapeutic purposes that include growth promotion. The concern over resistance emergence and spread to people by nontherapeutic use of antimicrobials has led to conflicted practices and opinions. Considerable evidence supported the removal of nontherapeutic antimicrobials (NTAs) in Europe, based on the “precautionary principle.” Still, concrete scientific evidence of the favorable versus unfavorable consequences of NTAs is not clear to all stakeholders. Substantial data show elevated antibiotic resistance in bacteria associated with animals fed NTAs and their food products. This resistance spreads to other animals and humans—directly by contact and indirectly via the food chain, water, air, and manured and sludge-fertilized soils. Modern genetic techniques are making advances in deciphering the ecological impact of NTAs, but modeling efforts are thwarted by deficits in key knowledge of microbial and antibiotic loads at each stage of the transmission chain. Still, the substantial and expanding volume of evidence reporting animal-to-human spread of resistant bacteria, including that arising from use of NTAs, supports eliminating NTA use in order to reduce the growing environmental load of resistance genes. PMID:21976606

  12. Humanimalia: A journal of human/animal interface studies

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The website for the new journal Humanimalia, published by DePauw University, recently released its first issue. The appeal and importance of the journal goes beyond appearance, as the journal states that the study of the human/animal interface has been a "neglected" area of research. In the "Humanimalifesto" link, a lengthy explanation is given, and it notes that one of the main goals of the journal is "to approach animal/human interfaces without relying on stigmatizing critique of philosophical, political, or cultural antagonists." The first issue consists of articles and reviews, including an article called "Hooters for Neuters: Sexist Transgressive Animal Advocacy Campaign?" and a review of the popular Michael Pollan book, "The Omnivore's Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals". Visitors interested in submitting an article to the peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary journal should check out the guidelines in the "Call-for-Papers" link on the left side of the page. The "Notes and Bulletins" link, also on the left side of the page, has a notice of an Animal Studies meeting at NYU, and the "Links" area includes information on upcoming conferences.

  13. Perceiving Nonhumans: Human Moral Psychology and Animal Ethics

    E-print Network

    Kasperbauer, Tyler

    2014-04-17

    There are currently very few discussions of moral psychology in the animal ethics literature. This dissertation aims to fill this void. My main contention is that many theories in animal ethics hold mistaken views about the moral psychology of human...

  14. Animal Models and Bone Histomorphometry: Translational Research for the Human Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of animal models to research and inform bone morphology, in particular relating to human research in bone loss as a result of low gravity environments. Reasons for use of animal models as tools for human research programs include: time-efficient, cost-effective, invasive measures, and predictability as some model are predictive for drug effects.

  15. [Animals--humans, the physician and ethics].

    PubMed

    Barolin, G S; Barolin, A S

    1993-01-01

    Ethics and humanitarianism are indivisible. They have to refer to the entire animated and inanimate environment likewise. This has moral as well as essential ecological consequences which are of special actuality at present, with mankind being on the verge of total ecological self-destruction. Key-word: eco-ethics. The worship of the Golden Calf by name of economic growth has to be replaced at last by an acceptance of "shrinking into recovery". Unfortunately, human cruelty is not to be confined to the historical past of the Third Reich, but becomes evident continuously before our very eyes. To shut one's eyes to it is a tendency as widespread as the habit of averting one's eyes from avoidable man-made suffering of animals. We need better education and enlightenment (in the sense of resistance at the very beginning), better control and better execution of better regulations. The health professions, together with educational, ecclesiastical and military professions are called upon to direct attention to this aspect of moral hygiene. PMID:8488687

  16. Exploring host–microbiota interactions in animal models and humans

    PubMed Central

    Kostic, Aleksandar D.; Howitt, Michael R.; Garrett, Wendy S.

    2013-01-01

    The animal and bacterial kingdoms have coevolved and coadapted in response to environmental selective pressures over hundreds of millions of years. The meta'omics revolution in both sequencing and its analytic pipelines is fostering an explosion of interest in how the gut microbiome impacts physiology and propensity to disease. Gut microbiome studies are inherently interdisciplinary, drawing on approaches and technical skill sets from the biomedical sciences, ecology, and computational biology. Central to unraveling the complex biology of environment, genetics, and microbiome interaction in human health and disease is a deeper understanding of the symbiosis between animals and bacteria. Experimental model systems, including mice, fish, insects, and the Hawaiian bobtail squid, continue to provide critical insight into how host–microbiota homeostasis is constructed and maintained. Here we consider how model systems are influencing current understanding of host–microbiota interactions and explore recent human microbiome studies. PMID:23592793

  17. Epigenesis of behavioural lateralization in humans and other animals

    PubMed Central

    Schaafsma, S.M.; Riedstra, B.J.; Pfannkuche, K.A.; Bouma, A.; Groothuis, T.G.G.

    2008-01-01

    Despite several decades of research, the epigenesis of behavioural and brain lateralization is still elusive, although its knowledge is important in understanding developmental plasticity, function and evolution of lateralization, and its relationship with developmental disorders. Over the last decades, it has become clear that behavioural lateralization is not restricted to humans, but a fundamental principle in the organization of behaviour in vertebrates. This has opened the possibility of extending descriptive studies on human lateralization with descriptive and experimental studies on other vertebrate species. In this review, we therefore explore the evidence for the role of genes and environment on behavioural lateralization in humans and other animals. First, we discuss the predominant genetic models for human handedness, and conclude that their explanatory power alone is not sufficient, leaving, together with ambiguous results from adoption studies and selection experiments in animals, ample opportunity for a role of environmental factors. Next, we discuss the potential influence of such factors, including perinatal asymmetrical perception induced by asymmetrical head position or parental care, and social modulation, both in humans and other vertebrates, presenting some evidence from our own work on the domestic chick. We conclude that both perinatal asymmetrical perception and later social modulation are likely candidates in influencing the degree or strength of lateralization in both humans and other vertebrates. However, in most cases unequivocal evidence for this is lacking and we will point out further avenues for research. PMID:19064352

  18. A Developmental Psychological Perspective on the Human–Animal Bond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy A. Pachana; Bronwyn M. Massavelli; Sofia Robleda-Gomez

    \\u000a The human–animal bond contributes to well-being in a variety of ways. Our understanding of our relationship with animals,\\u000a particularly from a psychological point of view, is enhanced when viewed through the lens of a lifetime developmental perspective.\\u000a Issues of attachment and the nature of the human–animal bond vary across childhood, adulthood, and later life. These in turn\\u000a influence how animals

  19. Animating Human Athletics Jessica K. Hodgins Wayne L. Wooten

    E-print Network

    Brogan, David

    of clothing driven by the rigid-body motion of the simulated human. For each simulation, we compare and biomechanical data. Key Words and Phrases: computer animation, human motion, motion control, dynamic simulationAnimating Human Athletics Jessica K. Hodgins Wayne L. Wooten David C. Brogan James F. O

  20. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, Andrew [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU (United Kingdom); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Toxicological chemistry unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fernández, Maria-Luisa [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Carretera de la Coruña, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arcella, Davide [Unit on Data Collection and Exposure, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A43100 Parma (Italy); Bordajandi, Luisa R. [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cottrill, Bruce [Policy Delivery Group, Animal Health and Welfare, ADAS, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom); Peteghem, Carlos van [University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dorne, Jean-Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also carried out taking into account all direct and indirect sources of nitrite from the human diet, including carry-over of nitrite in animal-based products such as milk, eggs and meat products. Human exposure was then compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nitrite of 0-0.07 mg/kg b.w. per day. Overall, the low levels of nitrite in fresh animal products represented only 2.9% of the total daily dietary exposure and thus were not considered to raise concerns for human health. It is concluded that the potential health risk to animals from the consumption of feed or to man from eating fresh animal products containing nitrite, is very low.

  1. Human and Animal Dirofilariasis: the Emergence of a Zoonotic Mosaic

    PubMed Central

    Siles-Lucas, Mar; Morchón, Rodrigo; González-Miguel, Javier; Mellado, Isabel; Carretón, Elena; Montoya-Alonso, Jose Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Dirofilariasis represents a zoonotic mosaic, which includes two main filarial species (Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens) that have adapted to canine, feline, and human hosts with distinct biological and clinical implications. At the same time, both D. immitis and D. repens are themselves hosts to symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia, the study of which has resulted in a profound shift in the understanding of filarial biology, the mechanisms of the pathologies that they produce in their hosts, and issues related to dirofilariasis treatment. Moreover, because dirofilariasis is a vector-borne transmitted disease, their distribution and infection rates have undergone significant modifications influenced by global climate change. Despite advances in our knowledge of D. immitis and D. repens and the pathologies that they inflict on different hosts, there are still many unknown aspects of dirofilariasis. This review is focused on human and animal dirofilariasis, including the basic morphology, biology, protein composition, and metabolism of Dirofilaria species; the climate and human behavioral factors that influence distribution dynamics; the disease pathology; the host-parasite relationship; the mechanisms involved in parasite survival; the immune response and pathogenesis; and the clinical management of human and animal infections. PMID:22763636

  2. From Bedside to Bench and Back Again: Research Issues in Animal Models of Human Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy C. Tkacs; Hilaire J. Thompson

    2006-01-01

    To improve outcomes for patients with many serious clinical problems, multifactorial research approaches by nurse scientists, including the use of animal models, are necessary. Animal models serve as analogies for clinical problems seen in humans and must meet certain criteria, including validity and reliability, to be useful in moving research efforts forward. This article describes research considerations in the development

  3. 21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2800 Animal and human sera. (a) Identification....

  4. 21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2800 Animal and human sera. (a) Identification....

  5. 21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2800 Animal and human sera. (a) Identification....

  6. 21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2800 Animal and human sera. (a) Identification....

  7. Anxiety-induced cognitive bias in non-human animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver H. P. Burman; Richard M. A. Parker; Elizabeth S. Paul; Michael T. Mendl

    2009-01-01

    As in humans, ‘cognitive biases’ in the way in which animals judge ambiguous stimuli may be influenced by emotional state and hence a valuable new indicator of animal emotion. There is increasing evidence that animals experiencing different emotional states following exposure to long-term environmental manipulations show contrasting biases in their judgement of ambiguous stimuli. However, the specific type of induced

  8. Microsporidiosis: an emerging and opportunistic infection in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Didier, Elizabeth S

    2005-04-01

    Microsporidia have emerged as causes of infectious diseases in AIDS patients, organ transplant recipients, children, travelers, contact lens wearers, and the elderly. These organisms are small single-celled, obligate intracellular parasites that were considered to be early eukaryotic protozoa but were recently reclassified with the fungi. Of the 14 species of microsporidia currently known to infect humans, Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis are the most common causes of human infections and are associated with diarrhea and systemic disease. Species of microsporidia infecting humans have been identified in water sources as well as in wild, domestic, and food-producing farm animals, raising concerns for waterborne, foodborne, and zoonotic transmission. Current therapies for microsporidiosis include albendazole which is a benzimidazole that inhibits microtubule assembly and is effective against several microsporidia, including the Encephalitozoon species, but is less effective against E. bieneusi. Fumagillin, an antibiotic and anti-angiogenic compound produced by Aspergillus fumigatus, is more broadly effective against Encephalitozoon spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi but is toxic when administered systemically to mammals. Gene target studies have focused on methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MetAP2) for characterizing the mechanism of action and for identifying more effective, less toxic fumagillin-related drugs. Polyamine analogues have shown promise in demonstrating anti-microsporidial activity in culture and in animal models, and a gene encoding topoisomerase IV was identified in Vittaforma corneae, raising prospects for studies on fluoroquinolone efficacy against microsporidia. PMID:15777637

  9. Aging and Longevity in Animal Models and Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miriam Capri; Stefano Salvioli; Elisa Cevenini; Laura Celani; Federica Sevini; Elena Bellavista; Catia Lanzarini; Stella Lukas; Paolo Tieri; Francesco Lescai; Daniela Monti; Claudio Franceschi

    \\u000a How many animal models are adequate to study human aging? Aging is an adaptive process performed by an integrated panel of\\u000a evolutionarily selected mechanisms aimed at maintaining soma integrity. The possibility of extrapolating results from animal\\u000a models to human beings has to be addressed in an ecological context. Model systems fit basic requirements of scientific research,\\u000a and experimental animals show

  10. Natural immune systems protect animals from dangerous foreign pathogens, including bacte-

    E-print Network

    Garlan, David

    Natural immune systems protect animals from dangerous foreign pathogens, including bacte- ria computer immune systems with some of the important properties of natural immune systems, including are less well known. The immune system provides a persuasive example of how they might be implemented

  11. Real Time Animation of Virtual Humans: A Trade-off Between Naturalness and Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herwin van Welbergen; Ben J. H. van Basten; Arjan Egges; Zsófia Ruttkay; Mark H. Overmars

    2010-01-01

    Virtual humans are employed in many interactive applications using 3D virtual environments, including (serious) games. The motion of such virtual humans should look realistic (or ‘natural’) and allow interaction with the surroundings and other (virtual) humans. Current animation techniques differ in the trade-off they offer between motion naturalness and the control that can be exerted over the motion. We show

  12. Clostridium difficile genotypes other than ribotype 078 that are prevalent among human, animal and environmental isolates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Characterising the overlap of C. difficile genotypes in different reservoirs can improve our understanding of possible transmission routes of this pathogen. Most of the studies have focused on a comparison of the PCR ribotype 078 isolated from humans and animals. Here we describe for the first time a comparison of C. difficile genotypes isolated during longer time intervals from different sources including humans, animals and the non-hospital environment. Results Altogether 786 isolates from time interval 2008-2010 were grouped into 90 PCR ribotypes and eleven of them were shared among all host types and the environment. Ribotypes that were most common in humans were also present in water and different animals (014/020, 002, 029). Interestingly, non-toxigenic isolates were very common in the environment (30.8%) in comparison to humans (6.5%) and animals (7.7%). A high degree of similarity was observed for human and animal isolates with PFGE. In human isolates resistance to erithromycin, clindamycin and moxifloxacin was detected, while all animal isolates were susceptible to all antibiotics tested. Conclusion Our results show that many other types in addition to PCR Ribotype 078 are shared between humans and animals and that the most prevalent genotypes in humans have the ability to survive also in the environment and several animal hosts. The genetic relatedness observed with PFGE suggests that transmission of given genotype from one reservoir to the other is likely to occur. PMID:22452857

  13. The human, the non-human and the animal: Feminist theories and animal imagery in nanotechnology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kasi Jackson

    2010-01-01

    This presentation is part of the Metaphor and Vision track.\\u000aNanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on the molecular and atomic scales. Some have projected that it will have broad economic and social benefits; including improved energy efficiency, computing power, medical treatments, and removal of environmental pollutants. ‘Nature’ has been identified as the ultimate nanotechnologist and design elements from animal

  14. How companion animals contribute to the fight against cancer in humans.

    PubMed

    Thamm, Douglas; Dow, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Companion animals and their human guardians suffer from many of the same types of cancer and are often treated with many of the same drugs. Moreover, the overall tumour biology is much more similar between humans and companion animals than between humans and rodent tumor models. Therefore, it is proposed that pre-clinical evaluation of novel cancer therapeutics should more often include appropriately designed trials in companion animals with cancer to more accurately predict efficacy and toxicity in humans. For example, studies in dogs with cancer have been used to assess efficacy and design human clinical trials of immunotherapy, gene therapy, sustained release drug delivery and liposomal drug delivery. In the future, such studies will ultimately benefit not only humans, but also companion animals with cancer. PMID:20391394

  15. Plasmid characterization of Salmonella typhimurium transmitted from animals to humans.

    PubMed Central

    Olsvik, O; Sørum, H; Birkness, K; Wachsmuth, K; Fjølstad, M; Lassen, J; Fossum, K; Feeley, J C

    1985-01-01

    The transmission of pathogenic bacteria from animals to humans is widely studied because of its public health importance. In this study, we show the transmission of Salmonella typhimurium from cattle which had received no growth-promoting antibiotics to humans who had direct contact with the ill animals. On one cattle farm, the veterinarian attending the sick animals became ill, and two other individuals living on the farm later developed salmonellosis. The strains isolated from both humans and animals at one farm were identical as to antibiotic susceptibility and phage type, and they were specifically traced by the presence of a common 24-megadalton plasmid. Restriction enzyme digests of this plasmid from both human and animal strains were identical. At another farm, tetracycline-resistant S. typhimurium strains possessing a different profile (eight plasmids) were isolated from both animals and humans. The tetracycline-resistant clone was also isolated from animals at a third farm, but with animals and humans having no known contact with those of the other two farms. Images PMID:3900127

  16. CENSHARE - Center to Study Human Animal Relationships and Environments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Established in 1981 at the University of Minnesota's School of Public Health, the Center to Study Human Animal Relationships and Environments (CENSHARE) is an umbrella organization that supports groups that aim to educate about the human animal relationship and the environment they share. This mission of this education is to improve the quality of life for both, encourage scientific study of such relationships, and also serve as a resource for the community on these relationships. Visitors should check out the thorough explanation of "Animal Assisted Therapy" (AAT), and learn how it differs from, say, Animal Assisted Activities (AAA). As animal therapy can be stressful on the animal if it is not properly trained for such demanding work, the AAT link gives helpful tips to visitors on how to get an animal ready to be a therapy animal. Visitors will also learn from the AAT link that such animals have been evaluated and registered by national groups that specialize in therapy animals, but are not given the federal protections that specially-trained service dogs are, such as access to public transportation and public buildings. Finally, visitors should check out the "Companion Animals in Care Environments" link. Here they can read a bittersweet story titled "Lessons to be Learned from the Saga of Mae" which addresses the considerations that should be made when deciding whether to allow a resident animal in a care facility.

  17. Animal welfare in different human cultures, traditions and religious faiths.

    PubMed

    Sz?cs, E; Geers, R; Jezierski, T; Sossidou, E N; Broom, D M

    2012-11-01

    Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982) that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly. PMID:25049508

  18. Animal Welfare in Different Human Cultures, Traditions and Religious Faiths

    PubMed Central

    Sz?cs, E.; Geers, R.; Jezierski, T.; Sossidou, E. N.; Broom, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982) that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly. PMID:25049508

  19. Dis\\/Integrating Animals: Ethical Dimensions of the Genetic Engineering of Animals for Human Consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Traci Warkentin

    \\u000a Research at the intersections of feminism, biology and philosophy provides dynamic starting grounds for this discussion of\\u000a genetic technologies and animals. With a focus on animal bodies, I examine moral implications of the genetic engineering of\\u000a “domesticated” animals—primarily pigs and chickens—for the purposes of human consumption. Concepts of natural and artificial,\\u000a contamination and purity, integrity and fragmentation and mind and

  20. Dis\\/integrating animals: ethical dimensions of the genetic engineering of animals for human consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Traci Warkentin

    2006-01-01

    Research at the intersections of feminism, biology and philosophy provides dynamic starting grounds for this discussion of\\u000a genetic technologies and animals. With a focus on animal bodies, I will examine moral implications of the genetic engineering\\u000a of “domesticated” animals—primarily pigs and chickens—for the purposes of human consumption. Concepts of natural and artificial,\\u000a contamination and purity, integrity and fragmentation and mind

  1. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities, and Bibliography. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.; Long, Alison T.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population matters. The document describes 15 class sessions which integrate information for sociology, anthropology, psychology, biology, animal behavior, and education. Topics include the history of human

  2. 9 CFR 91.17 - Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. 91.17 Section 91.17 Animals...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. (a) The owner or operator of an ocean vessel carrying animals from...

  3. 9 CFR 91.17 - Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. 91.17 Section 91.17 Animals...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. (a) The owner or operator of an ocean vessel carrying animals from...

  4. 9 CFR 91.17 - Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. 91.17 Section 91.17 Animals...Accommodations for humane treatment of animals on ocean vessels. (a) The owner or operator of an ocean vessel carrying animals from...

  5. The significant human-animal bond: Pets with cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Veterinarians have responsibilities to both the animal and its owner. In the past several years there has been an increased awareness and concern about human-animal bonds. As a result, we have begun to appreciate the nature, strength, and significance of bonds that develop between humans and companion animals. It is typical for a pet to be perceived as and treated as a member of the family and as a result, animals provide special and beneficial relationships for many years. It is partly because of this role of the pet in promoting human health and happiness that we as veterinarians have an obligation to assist both owner and animal. The mark of the good practitioner concerns not only the ability to diagnose and treat accurately, but also the ability to show understanding and compassionate judgement.

  6. Social work practitioners and the human-companion animal bond: a national study.

    PubMed

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Extensive research documents powerful relationships between humans and companion animals, and 62 percent of U.S. households report having a companion animal. Social workers are likely to work with individuals and families with companion animals; thus, the inclusion of such animals in both practice and research as a natural extension of social work with humans, and their challenges, coping mechanisms, and resiliency factors, seems called for. Yet there is little in the social work literature that identifies what social workers are doing in this area. Thus, this descriptive study sought to explore nationally what social work practitioners know and are doing in the area of the human and companion animal relationships. Findings include that social work practitioners appear to have basic knowledge of the negative and positive relationships between humans and companion animals. About one-third are including questions about companion and other animals in their intake assessments, and a little less than 25 percent are including companion and other animals in their intervention practice. The vast majority have had no special training or coursework to do so. Implications for these and other findings are discussed, and recommendations for social work research, education, and practice are offered. PMID:20069939

  7. Animal Cognition and Human Cognition: A Necessary Dialogue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Aguado Aguilar

    \\u000a Psychology has held through its history an ambiguous attitude towards animal behavior. Researchers who have chosen some animal\\u000a different than man as their experimental subject have often sought to justify themselves, emphasizing the potential benefits\\u000a that the understanding of animal behavior could eventually have for understanding human behavior or even for alleviating people\\u000a suffering from psychological distress. During the behavioristic

  8. Human and Animal Infections with Mycobacterium microti, Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Emmanuel, Francis Xavier; Doig, Christine; Rayner, Alan; Claxton, Pauline; Laurenson, Ian

    2007-01-01

    During 1994–2005, we isolated Mycobacterium microti from 5 animals and 4 humans. Only 1 person was immunocompromised. Spoligotyping showed 3 patterns: vole type, llama type, and a new variant llama type. PMID:18258049

  9. Abstract muscle action procedures for human face animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadia Magnenat-thalmann; E. Primeau; Daniel Thalmann

    1988-01-01

    A new way of controlling human face animation and synchronizing speech is proposed. It is based on the concept of abstract muscle action procedure (AMA procedure). An AMA procedure is a specialized procedure which simulates the specific action of a face muscle. This paper describes the new technique and presents a methodology for animating the face of synthetic actors based

  10. Dangerous animals capture and maintain attention in humans.

    PubMed

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Penkunas, Michael J; Platt, Michael L; Coss, Richard G

    2014-01-01

    Predation is a major source of natural selection on primates and may have shaped attentional processes that allow primates to rapidly detect dangerous animals. Because ancestral humans were subjected to predation, a process that continues at very low frequencies, we examined the visual processes by which men and women detect dangerous animals (snakes and lions). We recorded the eye movements of participants as they detected images of a dangerous animal (target) among arrays of nondangerous animals (distractors) as well as detected images of a nondangerous animal (target) among arrays of dangerous animals (distractors). We found that participants were quicker to locate targets when the targets were dangerous animals compared with nondangerous animals, even when spatial frequency and luminance were controlled. The participants were slower to locate nondangerous targets because they spent more time looking at dangerous distractors, a process known as delayed disengagement, and looked at a larger number of dangerous distractors. These results indicate that dangerous animals capture and maintain attention in humans, suggesting that historical predation has shaped some facets of visual orienting and its underlying neural architecture in modern humans. PMID:25299991

  11. New animal model for human ocular toxocariasis: ophthalmoscopic observation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoko Hara Takayanagi; Nobuaki Akao; Ryoko Suzuki; Misato Tomoda; Setsuko Tsukidate; Koichiro Fujita

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND\\/AIMSAlthough human ocular toxocariasis causes severe vision defect, little is known about its aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment. To develop a new animal model for human ocular toxocariasis, ophthalmological findings of fundi in Mongolian gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus, and BALB\\/c mice were investigated following infection withToxocara canis.METHODSUsing an ophthalmoscope, which was specifically developed to observe the fundi of small animals, ocular changes

  12. Rovers minimize human disturbance in research on wild animals.

    PubMed

    Le Maho, Yvon; Whittington, Jason D; Hanuise, Nicolas; Pereira, Louise; Boureau, Matthieu; Brucker, Mathieu; Chatelain, Nicolas; Courtecuisse, Julien; Crenner, Francis; Friess, Benjamin; Grosbellet, Edith; Kernaléguen, Laëtitia; Olivier, Frédérique; Saraux, Claire; Vetter, Nathanaël; Viblanc, Vincent A; Thierry, Bernard; Tremblay, Pascale; Groscolas, René; Le Bohec, Céline

    2014-12-01

    Investigating wild animals while minimizing human disturbance remains an important methodological challenge. When approached by a remote-operated vehicle (rover) which can be equipped to make radio-frequency identifications, wild penguins had significantly lower and shorter stress responses (determined by heart rate and behavior) than when approached by humans. Upon immobilization, the rover-unlike humans-did not disorganize colony structure, and stress rapidly ceased. Thus, rovers can reduce human disturbance of wild animals and the resulting scientific bias. PMID:25362361

  13. Character Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A general discussion of the creation and animation of characters in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional character animation techniques, such as those developed by the Disney animators, and also human modelling. The section includes html pages, images and several videos.

  14. Virtual humans for animation, ergonomics, and simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman Badler

    1997-01-01

    The last few years have seen great maturation in the computation speed and control methods needed to portray 3D virtual humans suitable for real interactive applications. We first describe the state of the art, then focus on the particular approach taken at the University of Pennsylvania with the Jack system. Various aspects of real-time virtual humans are considered such as

  15. What Children Think about Human-Animal Relationships: Incorporating Humane Education Goals in Science and Technology Curriculum and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a shift in the direction of biocentrism that advocates the incorporation of humane education goals. Investigates preconceptions of human-animal relationships among a group of grade 5 students with a view to understanding their readiness to embrace a biocentric perspective. Includes recommendations for science and technology curricula and…

  16. Mobile technologies for disease surveillance in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Mwabukusi, Mpoki; Karimuribo, Esron D; Rweyemamu, Mark M; Beda, Eric

    2014-01-01

    A paper-based disease reporting system has been associated with a number of challenges. These include difficulties to submit hard copies of the disease surveillance forms because of poor road infrastructure, weather conditions or challenging terrain, particularly in the developing countries. The system demands re-entry of the data at data processing and analysis points, thus making it prone to introduction of errors during this process. All these challenges contribute to delayed acquisition, processing and response to disease events occurring in remote hard to reach areas. Our study piloted the use of mobile phones in order to transmit near to real-time data from remote districts in Tanzania (Ngorongoro and Ngara), Burundi (Muyinga) and Zambia (Kazungula and Sesheke). Two technologies namely, digital and short messaging services were used to capture and transmit disease event data in the animal and human health sectors in the study areas based on a server-client model. Smart phones running the Android operating system (minimum required version: Android 1.6), and which supported open source application, Epicollect, as well as the Open Data Kit application, were used in the study. These phones allowed collection of geo-tagged data, with the opportunity of including static and moving images related to disease events. The project supported routine disease surveillance systems in the ministries responsible for animal and human health in Burundi, Tanzania and Zambia, as well as data collection for researchers at the Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania. During the project implementation period between 2011 and 2013, a total number of 1651 diseases event-related forms were submitted, which allowed reporters to include GPS coordinates and photographs related to the events captured. It was concluded that the new technology-based surveillance system is useful in providing near to real-time data, with potential for enhancing timely response in rural remote areas of Africa. We recommended adoption of the proven technologies to improve disease surveillance, particularly in the developing countries. PMID:25005126

  17. Affective consciousness: Core emotional feelings in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2005-03-01

    The position advanced in this paper is that the bedrock of emotional feelings is contained within the evolved emotional action apparatus of mammalian brains. This dual-aspect monism approach to brain-mind functions, which asserts that emotional feelings may reflect the neurodynamics of brain systems that generate instinctual emotional behaviors, saves us from various conceptual conundrums. In coarse form, primary process affective consciousness seems to be fundamentally an unconditional "gift of nature" rather than an acquired skill, even though those systems facilitate skill acquisition via various felt reinforcements. Affective consciousness, being a comparatively intrinsic function of the brain, shared homologously by all mammalian species, should be the easiest variant of consciousness to study in animals. This is not to deny that some secondary processes (e.g., awareness of feelings in the generation of behavioral choices) cannot be evaluated in animals with sufficiently clever behavioral learning procedures, as with place-preference procedures and the analysis of changes in learned behaviors after one has induced re-valuation of incentives. Rather, the claim is that a direct neuroscientific study of primary process emotional/affective states is best achieved through the study of the intrinsic ("instinctual"), albeit experientially refined, emotional action tendencies of other animals. In this view, core emotional feelings may reflect the neurodynamic attractor landscapes of a variety of extended trans-diencephalic, limbic emotional action systems-including SEEKING, FEAR, RAGE, LUST, CARE, PANIC, and PLAY. Through a study of these brain systems, the neural infrastructure of human and animal affective consciousness may be revealed. Emotional feelings are instantiated in large-scale neurodynamics that can be most effectively monitored via the ethological analysis of emotional action tendencies and the accompanying brain neurochemical/electrical changes. The intrinsic coherence of such emotional responses is demonstrated by the fact that they can be provoked by electrical and chemical stimulation of specific brain zones-effects that are affectively laden. For substantive progress in this emerging research arena, animal brain researchers need to discuss affective brain functions more openly. Secondary awareness processes, because of their more conditional, contextually situated nature, are more difficult to understand in any neuroscientific detail. In other words, the information-processing brain functions, critical for cognitive consciousness, are harder to study in other animals than the more homologous emotional/motivational affective state functions of the brain. PMID:15766890

  18. Humane killing of animals for disease control purposes.

    PubMed

    Thornber, P M; Rubira, R J; Styles, D K

    2014-04-01

    Killing for disease control purposes is an emotional issue for everyone concerned. Large-scale euthanasia or depopulation of animals may be necessary for the emergency control or eradication of animal diseases, to remove animals from a compromised situation (e.g. following flood, storm, fire, drought or a feed contamination event), to effect welfare depopulation when there is an oversupply due to a dysfunctional or closed marketing channel, or to depopulate and dispose of animals with minimal handling to decrease the risk of a zoonotic disease infecting humans. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) developed international standards to provide advice on humane killing for various species and situations. Some fundamental issues are defined, such as competency of animal handling and implementation of humane killing techniques. Some of these methods have been used for many years, but novel approaches for the mass killing of particular species are being explored. Novel vaccines and new diagnostic techniques that differentiate between vaccinated and infected animals will save many animals from being killed as part of biosecurity response measures. Unfortunately, the destruction of affected livestock will still be required to control diseases whilst vaccination programmes are activated or where effective vaccines are not available. This paper reviews the principles of humane destruction and depopulation and explores available techniques with their associated advantages and disadvantages. It also identifies some current issues that merit consideration, such as legislative conflicts (emergency disease legislation versus animal welfare legislation, occupational health and safety), media issues, opinions on the future approaches to killing for disease control, and animal welfare. PMID:25000803

  19. Dead or alive: animal sampling during Ebola hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in humans

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Sarah H.; Reed, Patricia; Cameron, Kenneth N.; Ssebide, Benard J.; Johnson, Christine K.; Morse, Stephen S.; Karesh, William B.; Mazet, Jonna A. K.; Joly, Damien O.

    2012-01-01

    There are currently no widely accepted animal surveillance guidelines for human Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak investigations to identify potential sources of Ebolavirus (EBOV) spillover into humans and other animals. Animal field surveillance during and following an outbreak has several purposes, from helping identify the specific animal source of a human case to guiding control activities by describing the spatial and temporal distribution of wild circulating EBOV, informing public health efforts, and contributing to broader EHF research questions. Since 1976, researchers have sampled over 10,000 individual vertebrates from areas associated with human EHF outbreaks and tested for EBOV or antibodies. Using field surveillance data associated with EHF outbreaks, this review provides guidance on animal sampling for resource-limited outbreak situations, target species, and in some cases which diagnostics should be prioritized to rapidly assess the presence of EBOV in animal reservoirs. In brief, EBOV detection was 32.7% (18/55) for carcasses (animals found dead) and 0.2% (13/5309) for live captured animals. Our review indicates that for the purposes of identifying potential sources of transmission from animals to humans and isolating suspected virus in an animal in outbreak situations, (1) surveillance of free-ranging non-human primate mortality and morbidity should be a priority, (2) any wildlife morbidity or mortality events should be investigated and may hold the most promise for locating virus or viral genome sequences, (3) surveillance of some bat species is worthwhile to isolate and detect evidence of exposure, and (4) morbidity, mortality, and serology studies of domestic animals should prioritize dogs and pigs and include testing for virus and previous exposure. PMID:22558004

  20. Human-animal chimeras for vaccine development: an endangered species or opportunity for the developing world?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In recent years, the field of vaccines for diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) which take a heavy toll in developing countries has faced major failures. This has led to a call for more basic science research, and development as well as evaluation of new vaccine candidates. Human-animal chimeras, developed with a 'humanized' immune system could be useful to study infectious diseases, including many neglected diseases. These would also serve as an important tool for the efficient testing of new vaccine candidates to streamline promising candidates for further trials in humans. However, developing human-animal chimeras has proved to be controversial. Discussion Development of human-animal chimeras for vaccine development has been slowed down because of opposition by some philosophers, ethicists and policy makers in the west-they question the moral status of such animals, and also express discomfort about transgression of species barriers. Such opposition often uses a contemporary western world view as a reference point. Human-animal chimeras are often being created for diseases which cause significantly higher morbidity and mortality in the developing world as compared to the developed world. We argue in our commentary that given this high disease burden, we should look at socio-cultural perspectives on human-animal chimera like beings in the developing world. On examination, it's clear that such beings have been part of mythology and cultural descriptions in many countries in the developing world. Summary To ensure that important research on diseases afflicting millions like malaria, HIV, Hepatitis-C and dengue continues to progress, we recommend supporting human-animal chimera research for vaccine development in developing countries (especially China and India which have growing technical expertise in the area). The negative perceptions in some parts of the west about human-animal chimeras can be used as an opportunity for nurturing important vaccine development research in the developing world. PMID:20482820

  1. Differentiating human from animal isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum.

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, I. M.; Xiao, L.; Yang, C.; Escalante, L.; Moore, A.; Beard, C. B.; Arrowood, M. J.; Lal, A. A.

    1998-01-01

    We analyzed 92 Cryptosporidium parvum isolates from humans and animals by a polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method based on the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein 2 gene sequence. Used as a molecular marker, this method can differentiate between the two genotypes of C. parvum and elucidate the transmission of infection to humans. PMID:9866750

  2. Does the Consumption of Farmed Animal Products Cause Human Hunger?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Deckers

    2011-01-01

    Though the human consumption of farmed animal products (FAPs) is rising at an unprecedented rate, the number of undernourished people exceeds 1 billion. FAPs can provide nutritional benefits, but their human health impacts, particularly how their consumption affects the health of others, have hardly been recognized. In this article the question of whether or not the consumption of FAPs causes

  3. Growth Animation of Human Organs Roman Durikovic Silvester Czanner

    E-print Network

    Durikovic, Roman

    Growth Animation of Human Organs Roman Durikovic Silvester Czanner , Hirofumi Inoue Computer The growth of the organs of human embryo is chang- ing significantly over a short period of time growth: First, uses a simple line segment skele- ton demonstrated on a stomach model and the other method

  4. Clinical Pharmacology of Antimicrobial Use in Humans and Animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire M. Lathers

    2002-01-01

    Veterinary public health is a frontier in the fight against human disease, charged to control and eradicate zoonotic diseases that are naturally transmitted between vertebrate animals and man. Currently there is a need for clinical pharmacologists and all health care givers to limit the development of bacterial resistance in humans to contain the increased health care expenditures related to morbidity

  5. Implications of Animal Object Memory Research for Human Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Boyer D.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Damage to structures in the human medial temporal lobe causes severe memory impairment. Animal object recognition tests gained prominence from attempts to model "global" human medial temporal lobe amnesia, such as that observed in patient HM. These tasks, such as delayed nonmatching-to-sample and spontaneous object recognition, for assessing…

  6. Human-animal bonds I: the relational significance of companion animals.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Froma

    2009-12-01

    The importance of human-animal bonds has been documented throughout history, across cultures, and in recent research. However, attachments with companion animals have been undervalued and even pathologized in the field of mental health. This article briefly surveys the evolution of human-animal bonds, reviews research on their health and mental health benefits, and examines their profound relational significance across the life course. Finally, the emerging field of animal-assisted interventions is described, noting applications in hospital and eldercare settings, and in innovative school, prison, farm, and community programs. The aim of this overview paper is to stimulate more attention to these vital bonds in systems-oriented theory, practice, and research. A companion paper in this issue focuses on the role of pets and relational dynamics in family systems and family therapy. PMID:19930433

  7. What Do We Feed to Food-Production Animals? A Review of Animal Feed Ingredients and Their Potential Impacts on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Sapkota, Amy R.; Lefferts, Lisa Y.; McKenzie, Shawn; Walker, Polly

    2007-01-01

    Objective Animal feeding practices in the United States have changed considerably over the past century. As large-scale, concentrated production methods have become the predominant model for animal husbandry, animal feeds have been modified to include ingredients ranging from rendered animals and animal waste to antibiotics and organoarsenicals. In this article we review current U.S. animal feeding practices and etiologic agents that have been detected in animal feed. Evidence that current feeding practices may lead to adverse human health impacts is also evaluated. Data sources We reviewed published veterinary and human-health literature regarding animal feeding practices, etiologic agents present in feed, and human health effects along with proceedings from animal feed workshops. Data extraction Data were extracted from peer-reviewed articles and books identified using PubMed, Agricola, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Drug Administration, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention databases. Data synthesis Findings emphasize that current animal feeding practices can result in the presence of bacteria, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, prions, arsenicals, and dioxins in feed and animal-based food products. Despite a range of potential human health impacts that could ensue, there are significant data gaps that prevent comprehensive assessments of human health risks associated with animal feed. Limited data are collected at the federal or state level concerning the amounts of specific ingredients used in animal feed, and there are insufficient surveillance systems to monitor etiologic agents “from farm to fork.” Conclusions Increased funding for integrated veterinary and human health surveillance systems and increased collaboration among feed professionals, animal producers, and veterinary and public health officials is necessary to effectively address these issues. PMID:17520050

  8. Design, transformation and animation of human faces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadia Magnenat-thalmann; H. T. Minh; M. De Angelis; Daniel Thalmann

    1989-01-01

    Creation of new human faces for synthetic actors is a tedious and painful task. The situation may be improved by introducing tools for the creation. Two approaches are discussed in this paper: modification and edition of an existing synthetic actor using local transformations; generation of new synthetic actors obtained by interpolation between two existing actors; creation of a synthetic actor

  9. Cell therapy of periodontium: from animal to human?

    PubMed Central

    Trofin, Elena A.; Monsarrat, Paul; Kémoun, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the soft and hard tissues supporting the teeth, which often leads to tooth loss. Its significant impact on the patient's general health and quality of life point to a need for more effective management of this condition. Existing treatments include scaling/root planning and surgical approaches but their overall effects are relatively modest and restricted in application. The goal of regenerative therapy of periodontal defects is to enhance endogenous progenitors and thus promote optimal wound healing. Considering that the host or tissue might be defective in the periodontitis context, it has been proposed that grafting exogenous stem cells would produce new tissues and create a suitable microenvironment for tissue regeneration. Thus, cell therapy of periodontium has been assessed in many animal models and promising results have been reported. However, the methodological diversity of these studies makes the conversion to clinical practice difficult. The aim of this review is to highlight the primary requirements to be satisfied before the leap to clinical trials can be made. We therefore review cell therapy applications for periodontal regeneration in animal models and the concerns to be addressed before undertaking human experiments. PMID:24298258

  10. Rhesus CMV: an emerging animal model for human CMV.

    PubMed

    Powers, Colin; Früh, Klaus

    2008-06-01

    Human CMV is the predominant infectious cause of congenital birth defects and an opportunistic pathogen in immunosuppressed individuals, including AIDS patients. Most individuals are infected early during their life followed by life-long latent infection. During this latent phase, frequent reactivation and antigen production continue to stimulate the immune system. While the immune response is able to control the virus, it is unable to eradicate it. Moreover, super-infection by different CMV strains has been observed despite a strong immune response. Long-term immune stimulation by CMV has also been implicated in immune senescence and chronic conditions such as atherosclerosis. CMVs are highly species-specific and the relatedness of CMV genomes exactly mirrors the relatedness of their hosts. Thus, each CMV species is highly adapted to its respective host species, but is unable to infect other, even closely related hosts. While fascinating from an evolutionary perspective, this host restriction prevents studying HCMV in experimental animals. Exceptions are severely immunocompromised mice, e.g. SCID mice, or SCID/NOD mice, which might allow partial reconstitution of CMV infection in rodents. More practical however, is to study CMVs in their natural host, e.g. murine, rat or guinea pig CMVs. However, while these small animal models have many advantages, such as the availability of inbred animals as well as lower cost, the limited homology of the viral genomes with HCMV limits the functional analysis of homologous gene products. The closest relative to HCMV is chimpanzee CMV (CCMV), but this is not a practical animal model since chimps are a protected species, extremely expensive and of very limited availability. In contrast, rhesus macaques are a more widely used experimental animal species and, while more distant than CCMV, rhesus CMV (RhCMV) contains most of the HCMV gene families thus allowing the study of their role in acute and latent CMV infection. In this review we will discuss the current state of developing RhCMV as a model for HCMV. PMID:18193454

  11. Picture recognition in animals and humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dalila Bovet; Jacques Vauclair

    2000-01-01

    The question of object–picture recognition has received relatively little attention in both human and comparative psychology; a paradoxical situation given the important use of image technology (e.g. slides, digitised pictures) made by neuroscientists in their experimental investigation of visual cognition. The present review examines the relevant literature pertaining to the question of the correspondence between and\\/or equivalence of real objects

  12. Rhodococcus equi: an animal and human pathogen.

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, J F

    1991-01-01

    Recent isolations of Rhodococcus equi from cavitatory pulmonary disease in patients with AIDS have aroused interest among medical microbiologists in this unusual organism. Earlier isolations from humans had also been in immunosuppressed patients following hemolymphatic tumors or renal transplantation. This organism has been recognized for many years as a cause of a serious pyogranulomatous pneumonia of young foals and is occasionally isolated from granulomatous lesions in several other species, in some cases following immunosuppression. The last decade has seen many advances in understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, and immunity to infection in foals. The particular susceptibility of the foal is not understood but can be explained in part by a combination of heavy challenge through the respiratory route coinciding with declining maternally derived antibody in the absence of fully competent foal cellular immune mechanisms. R. equi is largely a soil organism but is widespread in the feces of herbivores. Its growth in soil is considerably improved by simple nutrients it obtains from herbivore manure. About one-third of human patients who have developed R. equi infections had contact in some way with herbivores or their manure. Others may have acquired infection from contact with soil or wild bird manure. R. equi is an intracellular parasite, which explains the typical pyogranulomatous nature of R. equi infections, the predisposition to infection in human patients with defective cell-mediated immune mechanisms, and the efficacy of antimicrobial drugs that penetrate phagocytic cells. Images PMID:2004346

  13. Metaphysical and Ethical Perspectives on Creating Animal-Human Chimeras

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason T. Eberl; R. A. Ballard

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses several questions related to the nature, production, and use of animal-human (a-h) chimeras. At the heart of the issue is whether certain types of a-h chimeras should be brought into existence, and, if they are, how we should treat such creatures. In our current research environment, we recognize a dichotomy between research involving nonhuman animal subjects and

  14. Characterizing cognitive aging in humans with links to animal models

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Gene E.; Ryan, Lee; Bowers, Dawn; Foster, Thomas C.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Geldmacher, David S.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2012-01-01

    With the population of older adults expected to grow rapidly over the next two decades, it has become increasingly important to advance research efforts to elucidate the mechanisms associated with cognitive aging, with the ultimate goal of developing effective interventions and prevention therapies. Although there has been a vast research literature on the use of cognitive tests to evaluate the effects of aging and age-related neurodegenerative disease, the need for a set of standardized measures to characterize the cognitive profiles specific to healthy aging has been widely recognized. Here we present a review of selected methods and approaches that have been applied in human research studies to evaluate the effects of aging on cognition, including executive function, memory, processing speed, language, and visuospatial function. The effects of healthy aging on each of these cognitive domains are discussed with examples from cognitive/experimental and clinical/neuropsychological approaches. Further, we consider those measures that have clear conceptual and methodological links to tasks currently in use for non-human animal studies of aging, as well as those that have the potential for translation to animal aging research. Having a complementary set of measures to assess the cognitive profiles of healthy aging across species provides a unique opportunity to enhance research efforts for cross-sectional, longitudinal, and intervention studies of cognitive aging. Taking a cross-species, translational approach will help to advance cognitive aging research, leading to a greater understanding of associated neurobiological mechanisms with the potential for developing effective interventions and prevention therapies for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22988439

  15. Life cycle assessment of the average Spanish diet including human excretion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Muñoz; Llorenç Milà i Canals; Amadeo R. Fernández-Alba

    2010-01-01

    Background, aim and scope  The aim of this work is to find out to what extent human excretion is relevant in the context of a Spaniard’s overall food\\u000a intake. A case study dealing with the average Spanish diet is carried out, including the whole life cycle of food: agricultural\\u000a and animal production, industrial processing, distribution and retail, home storage and cooking,

  16. Intra-uterine insemination in farm animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Verberckmoes, S; Van Soom, A; de Kruif, A

    2004-06-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is the oldest and currently most common technique in the assisted reproduction of animals and humans. The introduction of AI in farm animals was forced by sanitary reasons and the first large-scale applications with a commercial goal were performed in cattle in the late 1930s of last century. After the Second World War, cryopreservation of semen facilitated distribution and AI was mainly performed for economic reasons, especially in dairy cattle industry. In humans however, AI was initially performed in cases of physiological and psychological sexual dysfunction, but later on also in cases of infertility caused by immunological problems. Currently, the most common indications for intra-uterine insemination (IUI) in humans are unexplained infertility and male subfertility. In these cases, IUI is considered as the treatment of the first choice, before more invasive techniques such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) are used. In contrast with humans, the quantity and quality of semen produced by farm animals is much higher and permits dilution and production of several insemination doses per ejaculate. However, with the introduction of sex-sorted semen in farm animals, the same problem of low-quality semen as in humans has arisen. In cattle, pigs and horses, conventional insemination with low numbers of sex-sorted spermatozoa results in a significant decrease in fertility. To improve the fertility rates with this semen, new insemination techniques have been developed in order to deposit spermatozoa closer to the site of fertilization. In sows and mares the advantage of utero-tubal junction (UTJ) insemination has already been proven; however, in cattle it is still under investigation. In this review, the differences and similarities in the application of AI between animals and humans are discussed and as AI in farm animals is most successful in cattle, the situation in this species is elaborated the most. PMID:15182297

  17. Human diarrhea infections associated with domestic animal husbandry: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano, Laura D.; Levy, Karen; Menezes, Neia P.; Freeman, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Domestic animal husbandry, a common practice globally, can lead to zoonotic transmission of enteric pathogens. However, this risk has received little attention to date. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the evidence for an association between domestic exposure to food-producing animals and cases of human diarrhea and specific enteric infections. We performed a systematic review of available literature to examine domestic livestock and poultry as risk factors for diarrhea and applied pre-determined quality criteria. Where possible, we carried out meta-analysis of specific animal–pathogen pairs. We found consistent evidence of a positive association between exposure to domestic food-producing animals and diarrheal illness across a range of animal exposures and enteric pathogens. Out of 29 studies included in the review, 20 (69.0%) reported a positive association between domestic animal exposure and diarrhea. Domestic exposure to poultry revealed a substantial association with human campylobacteriosis (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.90–3.93). Our results suggest that domestic poultry and livestock exposures are associated with diarrheal illness in humans. Failure to ascertain the microbial cause of disease may mask this effect. Exposure to domestic animals should be considered a risk factor for human diarrheal illness and additional studies may identify potential mitigation strategies to address this risk. PMID:24812065

  18. A quantitative prioritisation of human and domestic animal pathogens in Europe.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, K Marie; Setzkorn, Christian; Hepworth, Philip J; Morand, Serge; Morse, Andrew P; Baylis, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Disease or pathogen risk prioritisations aid understanding of infectious agent impact within surveillance or mitigation and biosecurity work, but take significant development. Previous work has shown the H-(Hirsch-)index as an alternative proxy. We present a weighted risk analysis describing infectious pathogen impact for human health (human pathogens) and well-being (domestic animal pathogens) using an objective, evidence-based, repeatable approach; the H-index. This study established the highest H-index European pathogens. Commonalities amongst pathogens not included in previous surveillance or risk analyses were examined. Differences between host types (humans/animals/zoonotic) in pathogen H-indices were explored as a One Health impact indicator. Finally, the acceptability of the H-index proxy for animal pathogen impact was examined by comparison with other measures. 57 pathogens appeared solely in the top 100 highest H-indices (1) human or (2) animal pathogens list, and 43 occurred in both. Of human pathogens, 66 were zoonotic and 67 were emerging, compared to 67 and 57 for animals. There were statistically significant differences between H-indices for host types (humans, animal, zoonotic), and there was limited evidence that H-indices are a reasonable proxy for animal pathogen impact. This work addresses measures outlined by the European Commission to strengthen climate change resilience and biosecurity for infectious diseases. The results include a quantitative evaluation of infectious pathogen impact, and suggest greater impacts of human-only compared to zoonotic pathogens or scientific under-representation of zoonoses. The outputs separate high and low impact pathogens, and should be combined with other risk assessment methods relying on expert opinion or qualitative data for priority setting, or could be used to prioritise diseases for which formal risk assessments are not possible because of data gaps. PMID:25136810

  19. Drug eluting stents: are human and animal studies comparable?

    PubMed Central

    Virmani, R; Kolodgie, F D; Farb, A; Lafont, A

    2003-01-01

    Animal models of stenting probably predict human responses as the stages of healing are remarkably similar. What is characteristically different is the temporal response to healing, which is substantially prolonged in humans. The prevention of restenosis in recent clinical trials of drug eluting stents may represent a near absent or incomplete phase of intimal healing. Continued long term follow up of patients with drug eluting stents for major adverse cardiac events and angiographic restenosis is therefore imperative. PMID:12527658

  20. [Effect of infectious factors on human and animal cytogenetic structures].

    PubMed

    Il'inskikh, N N

    1976-01-01

    The analysis of blood leucocyte chromosomes has been carried out on 60 patients with different infectious diseases (influenza, measles, scarlet fever, and disentery), and on 47 patients immunized against measles, tick-born encephalitis, typhoid fever and brucellosis. The mutagenic influence of viruses on the genital cells of mice and on the human somatic cells in vitro was studied. Both viruses and bacteria appeared to be able to bring about different breaks in human and animal cells. PMID:1027162

  1. Epidemiological characteristics of human and animal rabies in Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Zeynalova, S; Shikhiyev, M; Aliyeva, T; Ismayilova, R; Wise, E; Abdullayev, R; Asadov, K; Rustamova, S; Quliyev, F; Whatmore, A M; Marshall, E S; Fooks, A R; Horton, D L

    2015-03-01

    The Caucasus is a region of geopolitical importance, in the gateway between Europe and Asia. This geographical location makes the region equally important in the epidemiology and control of transboundary infectious diseases such as rabies. Azerbaijan is the largest country in the Caucasus, and although rabies is notifiable and considered endemic, there is little information on the burden of human and animal rabies. Here, we describe a cross-disciplinary international collaboration aimed at improving rabies control in Azerbaijan. Partial nucleoprotein gene sequences were obtained from animal rabies cases for comparison with those from surrounding areas. Reported human and animal rabies cases between 2000 and 2010 were also reviewed and analysed by region and year. Comparison of rabies virus strains circulating in Azerbaijan demonstrates more than one lineage of rabies virus circulating concurrently in Azerbaijan and illustrates the need for further sample collection and characterization. Officially reported rabies data showed an increase in human and animal rabies cases, and an increase in animal bites requiring provision of post-exposure prophylaxis, since 2006. This is despite apparently consistent levels of dog vaccination and culling of stray dogs. PMID:24845953

  2. Animal Models That Best Reproduce the Clinical Manifestations of Human Intoxication with Organophosphorus Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Edna F. R.; Aracava, Yasco; DeTolla, Louis J.; Beecham, E. Jeffrey; Basinger, G. William; Wakayama, Edgar J.

    2014-01-01

    The translational capacity of data generated in preclinical toxicological studies is contingent upon several factors, including the appropriateness of the animal model. The primary objectives of this article are: 1) to analyze the natural history of acute and delayed signs and symptoms that develop following an acute exposure of humans to organophosphorus (OP) compounds, with an emphasis on nerve agents; 2) to identify animal models of the clinical manifestations of human exposure to OPs; and 3) to review the mechanisms that contribute to the immediate and delayed OP neurotoxicity. As discussed in this study, clinical manifestations of an acute exposure of humans to OP compounds can be faithfully reproduced in rodents and nonhuman primates. These manifestations include an acute cholinergic crisis in addition to signs of neurotoxicity that develop long after the OP exposure, particularly chronic neurologic deficits consisting of anxiety-related behavior and cognitive deficits, structural brain damage, and increased slow electroencephalographic frequencies. Because guinea pigs and nonhuman primates, like humans, have low levels of circulating carboxylesterases—the enzymes that metabolize and inactivate OP compounds—they stand out as appropriate animal models for studies of OP intoxication. These are critical points for the development of safe and effective therapeutic interventions against OP poisoning because approval of such therapies by the Food and Drug Administration is likely to rely on the Animal Efficacy Rule, which allows exclusive use of animal data as evidence of the effectiveness of a drug against pathologic conditions that cannot be ethically or feasibly tested in humans. PMID:24907067

  3. Organismic sets. Sex in animal and human societies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Rashevsky

    1972-01-01

    The question is discussed as to the reason why some animal societies, such as bees or ants, are sexually differentiated, that\\u000a is, onlysome of its members are exhibiting reproducing activities. It is indicated that human society may be on its way to such a sexual\\u000a differentiation which may eventually come.

  4. Naturalizing Anthropomorphism: Behavioral Prompts to Our Humanizing of Animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra C. Horowitz; Marc Bekoff

    2007-01-01

    Anthropomorphism is the use of human characteristics to de- scribe or explain nonhuman animals. In the present paper, we propose a model for a unified study of such anthropomorphizing. We bring together previously disparate accounts of why and how we anthropomorphize and suggest a means to analyze anthropomorphizing behavior itself. We intro- duce an analysis of bouts of dyadic play

  5. NITROBENZENE CARCINOGENICITY IN ANIMALS AND HUMAN HAZARD EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrobenzene (NB) human cancer studies have not been reported, but animals studies have. Three rodent strains inhaling NB produce cancer at eight sites. B6C3F1 mice respond with mammary gland malignant tumors and male lung and thyroid benign tumors, F344/N male rats respond with ...

  6. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Cockburn; Gianfranco Brambilla; Maria-Luisa Fernández; Davide Arcella; Luisa R. Bordajandi; Bruce Cottrill; Carlos van Peteghem; Jean-Lou Dorne

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have

  7. DIFFERENTIATING HUMAN FROM ANIMAL ISOLATES OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM PARVUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    We analyzed 9s Cryptosporidium parvum isolates from humans and animals by a polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method based on the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein 2 gene sequence. Used as a molecular marker, this method can differentiate ...

  8. Synergies Between Human and Animal Health Syndromic Surveillance: Triple-S Outputs

    PubMed Central

    Dupuy, Céline; Perrin, Jean-Baptiste; Bronner, Anne; Calavas, Didier; Hendrikx, Pascal; Fouillet, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study, based on the Triple-S project outputs, was to present the existing synergies between human and animal health syndromic surveillance (SyS) systems in Europe and a proposal to enhance this kind of collaboration. Introduction The Triple-S project (Syndromic Surveillance Systems in Europe, www.syndromicsurveillance.eu), co-financed by the European Commission and involving twenty four organizations from fourteen countries was launched in September 2010 with the following objectives 1) performing an inventory of existing or planned SyS systems in Europe both in animal and public health, 2) building a network of experts involved in SyS 3) producing guidelines to implement SyS systems, 4) developing synergies between human and animal health SyS systems. The project is based on a cooperation between human and animal health experts, as supported by the One Health initiative [1]. Methods A network of European experts involved in SyS was identified through the Triple-S inventory of SyS systems. A meeting of human health experts was organized back to back with a similar meeting with animal health experts in Paris, September 12–14, 2011. A joint session human/animal health allowed experts to discuss the interest of synergies between both sides. The objectives were to 1) encourage experience and knowledge transfer, 2) discuss what and how information should be shared between both sides to improve respective performances. Results The results of the inventory of veterinary SyS systems showed that 40% of identified systems already shared or had planned to share information with human health sector. For these systems the collaboration between human and animal health sectors consisted in meetings on a regular basis to discuss the surveillance results. Discussions during the Triple-S meeting highlighted two reasons for enhancing synergies between both sides. First human health and animal health epidemiologists face common statistical and epidemiological issues when dealing with SyS, i.e. use of data collected for other purpose than surveillance; standardization of clinical observations; syndrome definition; anomaly detection; interpretation of unspecific signals; response to alerts. Both sides have thus interest in sharing their experiences and knowledge to improve their respective systems. Second, systems on both sides have similar objectives and target health events potentially threatening both animal and human populations: zoonoses, extreme weather events, environmental / food contamination, bioterrorist attack... For those events, animal population can play the role of sentinel for human population. Regular information flow between human and animal SyS could thus enhance the timeliness and sensitivity of SyS systems for detecting unexpected health events. Moreover, sharing information could help animal and human health experts to interpret and confirm unspecific signals, and confirm the impact of common health threats. All participants of the meeting agreed on the idea to routinely share outputs of the systems but were sceptical about sharing raw data to perform global analysis. Conclusions Each aspect of the Triple-S project includes both human and animal health and will thus contribute to build natural collaboration between both sides. Such a project has demonstrated that scientific community is more and more willing to collaborate beyond the boundaries of these two health fields. Synergies between human and animal health seem as necessary for syndromic surveillance as it is for traditional surveillance, if not more. They seem especially important for the detection of emerging zoonotic threats but not only. Sharing surveillance outputs from both sides would be the first step of collaboration but deeper synergy, e.g. sharing data and analyse them globally, could also be considered. Triple-S guidelines for implementation of SyS systems in Europe will take into account and promote synergies between human and animal health.

  9. [Reference relationships between human and animal in Hildegard von Bingen].

    PubMed

    Riethe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In "De animalibus", the 7th book in the "Liber simplicis medicinae", Hildegard von Bingen describes the characteristics of four-footed land animals. Some of these have a special relationship with humans in that they embody moral qualities. An explanation for this is already given in the preface, which states that human intelligence recognizes these qualities, declaring that "You are this or that sort of creature". Since the relationship that animals have with nature shares a degree of similarity with that of man's, they can be regarded as symbolic representatives for particular human traits and characteristics. The article at hand presents Hildegard von Bingen's descriptions of the monkey, the lion, the bear, the rabbit, the dog, the cat, the wolf, the lynx, and the donkey. While the monkey just mimics man's behaviour and is imperfect in both settings, the lion embodies will power. The bear on the other hand stands for unbridled sexual desire, while in the rabbit the gentleness of a sheep is united with the bounce of a deer. The lynx is regarded as hedonistic, the donkey as stupid, and the wolf as surrounded by dangerous sylphs. In Hildegard's depictions, exotic and native animal species display rather extraordinary behavioural traits, and the medieval Christian world view of the author conveys unexpected relationships between humans and animals. In addition to empirical observation and experience, Hildegard also relies on folkloristic beliefs and magical practices related to explanatory models of her time. She allows largely unknown sources into her animal lore but never strays from her ultimate goal of having it serve to instruct people. In doing so, Hildegard removed herself far from the common tradition of medieval animal portraits. PMID:23155757

  10. Implications of aquatic animal health for human health.

    PubMed Central

    Dawe, C J

    1990-01-01

    Human health and aquatic animal health are organically related at three distinct interfaces. Aquatic animals serve as important contributors to the nutritional protein, lipid, and vitamin requirements of humans; as carriers and transmitters of many infectious and parasitic diseases to which humans are susceptible; and as indicators of toxic and carcinogenic substances that they can convey, in some part, from aquatic environments to man and other terrestrial animals. Transcending these relationships, but less visible and definable to many, is the role that aquatic animals play in the sustenance of our integrated planetary ecosystem. Up to the present, this ecosystem has been compatible with mankind's occupation of a niche within it at high but ultimately limited population levels. In the past century we have become clearly aware that human activities, particularly over-harvesting of aquatic animals together with chemical degradation of their habitats, can quite rapidly lead to perturbances that drastically shift aquatic ecosystems toward conditions of low productivity and impaired function as one of earth's vital organs. The negative values of aquatic animals as disease vectors are far outweighed by their positive values as nutritional sources and as sustainers of a relatively stable equilibrium in the global ecosystem. In the immediate future we can expect to see increased and improved monitoring of aquatic habitats to determine the extent to which aquatic animals cycle anthropogenic toxic and carcinogenic chemicals back to human consumers. In the long term, methods are particularly needed to assess the effects of these pollutants on reproductive success in aquatic communities and in human communities as well. As inputs of habitat-degrading substances change in quality and quantity, it becomes increasingly urgent to evaluate the consequences in advance, not in retrospect. A new, more realistic and comprehensive philosophy regarding aquatic environmental preservation and equally new and comprehensive technological advances reflective of this philosophy will be required. In the next century we will see a serious test of whether or not mankind has lost its ability to foresee and forestall the side effects of scientific and technological ingenuity. PMID:2205490

  11. Human task animation from performance models and natural language input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esakov, Jeffrey; Badler, Norman I.; Jung, Moon

    1989-01-01

    Graphical manipulation of human figures is essential for certain types of human factors analyses such as reach, clearance, fit, and view. In many situations, however, the animation of simulated people performing various tasks may be based on more complicated functions involving multiple simultaneous reaches, critical timing, resource availability, and human performance capabilities. One rather effective means for creating such a simulation is through a natural language description of the tasks to be carried out. Given an anthropometrically-sized figure and a geometric workplace environment, various simple actions such as reach, turn, and view can be effectively controlled from language commands or standard NASA checklist procedures. The commands may also be generated by external simulation tools. Task timing is determined from actual performance models, if available, such as strength models or Fitts' Law. The resulting action specification are animated on a Silicon Graphics Iris workstation in real-time.

  12. Are Emotionally Attached Companion Animal Caregivers Conscientious and Neurotic? Factors That Affect the Human-Companion Animal Relationship.

    PubMed

    Reevy, Gretchen M; Delgado, Mikel M

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined how personality traits may be related to the amounts and types of attachments humans have toward companion animals (pets). In this study, 1,098 companion animal guardians (owners) completed a survey that included the Big Five Inventory, the Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale, and the Pet Attachment Questionnaire. Each participant chose whether he or she identified as a Cat Person, Dog Person, Both, or Neither. Results indicated that neuroticism, conscientiousness, choosing a dog as a favorite pet, and identifying as a Cat Person, Dog Person, or Both predicted affection for a pet. Conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness decreased avoidant attachment to pets, and neuroticism increased anxious attachment to pets. Both dogs and cats could benefit from pet owners who are conscientious, and there may be some benefits of neuroticism in pet owners. The findings of this study will advance understanding of the human-animal bond. As this understanding increases, measurements of human attachment and personality may be useful for the development of tools that could assist shelter employees and veterinarians in counseling people about pet ownership. PMID:25517173

  13. Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism

    ScienceCinema

    Robert J. Shiller

    2010-09-01

    In his lecture, Shiller discusses the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. The book discusses how ?animal spirits,? or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today?s global financial crisis.

  14. Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Shiller

    2010-03-02

    In his lecture, Shiller discusses the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. The book discusses how “animal spirits,” or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today’s global financial crisis.

  15. Causal regulations vs. political will: why human zoonotic infections increase despite precautionary bans on animal antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Cox, Louis A; Ricci, Paolo F

    2008-05-01

    Using precautionary principles when facing incomplete facts and causal conjectures raises the possibility of a Faustian bargain. This paper applies systems dynamics based on previously unavailable data to show how well intended precautionary policies for promoting food safety may backfire unless they are informed by quantitative cause-and-effect models of how animal antibiotics affect animal and human health. We focus on European Union and United States formulations of regulatory precaution and then analyze zoonotic infections in terms of the consequences of relying on political will to justify precautionary bans. We do not attempt a political analysis of these issues; rather, we conduct a regulatory analysis of precautionary legal requirements and use Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) to assess a set of policy outcomes. Thirty-seven years ago, the Joint Committee on the Use of Antibiotics in Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine (the Swann Report) warned that uncontrolled use of similar antibiotics in humans and food animals could promote the emergence of resistant strains of foodborne bacteria that could endanger human health. Since then, many countries have either banned or restricted antibiotics as feed additives for promoting animal growth. Others, including the United States, have relied on prudent use guidelines and programs that reduce total microbial loads, rather than focusing exclusively on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In retrospect, the regulatory strategy of banning or restricting animal antibiotic uses has had limited success: it has been followed in many cases by deteriorating animal health and increases in human illnesses and resistance rates. Conversely, a combination of continued prudent use of antibiotics to prevent and control animal infections, together with HACCP and other improvements, has been followed by large improvements in the microbial safety of chickens and other food animals in the United States, leaving both animals and people better off now than they were decades ago. A quantitative risk assessment model of microbiological risks (Campylobacter because of data availability) suggests that these outcomes may be more than coincidental: prudent use of animal antibiotics may actually improve human health, while bans on animal antibiotics, intended to be precautionary, inadvertently may harm human health. PMID:18201762

  16. Animal models of human disease: challenges in enabling translation.

    PubMed

    McGonigle, Paul; Ruggeri, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Animal models have historically played a critical role in the exploration and characterization of disease pathophysiology, target identification, and in the in vivo evaluation of novel therapeutic agents and treatments. In the wake of numerous clinical trial failures of new chemical entities (NCEs) with promising preclinical profiles, animal models in all therapeutic areas have been increasingly criticized for their limited ability to predict NCE efficacy, safety and toxicity in humans. The present review discusses some of the challenges associated with the evaluation and predictive validation of animal models, as well as methodological flaws in both preclinical and clinical study designs that may contribute to the current translational failure rate. The testing of disease hypotheses and NCEs in multiple disease models necessitates evaluation of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationships and the earlier development of validated disease-associated biomarkers to assess target engagement and NCE efficacy. Additionally, the transparent integration of efficacy and safety data derived from animal models into the hierarchical data sets generated preclinically is essential in order to derive a level of predictive utility consistent with the degree of validation and inherent limitations of current animal models. The predictive value of an animal model is thus only as useful as the context in which it is interpreted. Finally, rather than dismissing animal models as not very useful in the drug discovery process, additional resources, like those successfully used in the preclinical PK assessment used for the selection of lead NCEs, must be focused on improving existing and developing new animal models. PMID:23954708

  17. Calcium isotope ratios in animal and human bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynard, L. M.; Henderson, G. M.; Hedges, R. E. M.

    2010-07-01

    Calcium isotopes in tissues are thought to be influenced by an individual's diet, reflecting parameters such as trophic level and dairy consumption, but this has not been carefully assessed. We report the calcium isotope ratios (? 44/42Ca) of modern and archaeological animal and human bone ( n = 216). Modern sheep raised at the same location show 0.14 ± 0.08‰ higher ? 44/42Ca in females than in males, which we attribute to lactation by the ewes. In the archaeological bone samples the calcium isotope ratios of the herbivorous fauna vary by location. At a single site, the archaeological fauna do not show a trophic level effect. Humans have lower ? 44/42Ca than the mean site fauna by 0.22 ± 0.22‰, and the humans have a greater ? 44/42Ca range than the animals. No effect of sex or age on the calcium isotope ratios was found, and intra-individual skeletal ? 44/42Ca variability is negligible. We rule out dairy consumption as the main cause of the lower human ? 44/42Ca, based on results from sites pre-dating animal domestication and dairy availability, and suggest instead that individual physiology and calcium intake may be important in determining bone calcium isotope ratios.

  18. Animal models to study the pathogenesis of human and animal Clostridium perfringens infections.

    PubMed

    Uzal, Francisco A; McClane, Bruce A; Cheung, Jackie K; Theoret, James; Garcia, Jorge P; Moore, Robert J; Rood, Julian I

    2015-08-31

    The most common animal models used to study Clostridium perfringens infections in humans and animals are reviewed here. The classical C. perfringens-mediated histotoxic disease of humans is clostridial myonecrosis or gas gangrene and the use of a mouse myonecrosis model coupled with genetic studies has contributed greatly to our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Similarly, the use of a chicken model has enhanced our understanding of type A-mediated necrotic enteritis in poultry and has led to the identification of NetB as the primary toxin involved in disease. C. perfringens type A food poisoning is a highly prevalent bacterial illness in the USA and elsewhere. Rabbits and mice are the species most commonly used to study the action of enterotoxin, the causative toxin. Other animal models used to study the effect of this toxin are rats, non-human primates, sheep and cattle. In rabbits and mice, CPE produces severe necrosis of the small intestinal epithelium along with fluid accumulation. C. perfringens type D infection has been studied by inoculating epsilon toxin (ETX) intravenously into mice, rats, sheep, goats and cattle, and by intraduodenal inoculation of whole cultures of this microorganism in mice, sheep, goats and cattle. Molecular Koch's postulates have been fulfilled for enterotoxigenic C. perfringens type A in rabbits and mice, for C. perfringens type A necrotic enteritis and gas gangrene in chickens and mice, respectively, for C. perfringens type C in mice, rabbits and goats, and for C. perfringens type D in mice, sheep and goats. PMID:25770894

  19. Incidence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in human and animal fecal sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, R.L.; Przybyla-Kelly, K.; Shively, D.A.; Byappanahalli, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in the opportunistic pathogens Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium is well-documented in clinical research. Recently, the esp gene has been proposed as a marker of human pollution in environmental waters; however, information on its relative incidence in various human and animal fecal sources is limited. We have determined the occurrence of the esp gene in enterococci from human (n = 64) and animal (n = 233) fecal samples by polymerase chain reaction using two primer sets: one presumably specific for E. faecium (espfm) and the other for both E. faecalis and E. faecium (espfs/fm). We believe that this research is the first to explore the use of espfs/fm for the detection of human waste in natural environmental settings. The incidence in human sources was 93.1% espfm and 100% espfs/fm in raw sewage influent; 30% for both espfm and espfs/fm in septic waste; and 0% espfm and 80% espfs/fm in active pit toilets. The overall occurrence of the gene in animal feces was 7.7% (espfs/fm) and 4.7% (espfm); animal types with positive results included dogs (9/43, all espfm), gulls (10/34, espfs/fm; 2/34, espfm), mice (3/22, all espfs/fm), and songbirds (5/55, all espfs/fm). The esp gene was not detected in cat (0/34), deer (0/4), goose (0/18), or raccoon (0/23) feces. The inconsistent occurrence, especially in septic and pit toilet sewage, suggests a low statistical power of discrimination between animal and human sources, which means a large number of replicates should be collected. Both espfm and espfs/fm were common in raw sewage, but neither one efficiently differentiated between animal and other human sources.

  20. Vascular targets for cannabinoids: animal and human studies

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Christopher; O'Sullivan, Saoirse E

    2014-01-01

    Application of cannabinoids and endocannabinoids to perfused vascular beds or individual isolated arteries results in changes in vascular resistance. In most cases, the result is vasorelaxation, although vasoconstrictor responses are also observed. Cannabinoids also modulate the actions of vasoactive compounds including acetylcholine, methoxamine, angiotensin II and U46619 (thromboxane mimetic). Numerous mechanisms of action have been proposed including receptor activation, potassium channel activation, calcium channel inhibition and the production of vasoactive mediators such as calcitonin gene-related peptide, prostanoids, NO, endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor and hydrogen peroxide. The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence for the range of receptors now known to be activated by cannabinoids. Direct activation by cannabinoids of CB1, CBe, TRPV1 (and potentially other TRP channels) and PPARs in the vasculature has been observed. A potential role for CB2, GPR55 and 5-HT1A has also been identified in some studies. Indirectly, activation of prostanoid receptors (TP, IP, EP1 and EP4) and the CGRP receptor is involved in the vascular responses to cannabinoids. The majority of this evidence has been obtained through animal research, but recent work has confirmed some of these targets in human arteries. Vascular responses to cannabinoids are enhanced in hypertension and cirrhosis, but are reduced in obesity and diabetes, both due to changes in the target sites of action. Much further work is required to establish the extent of vascular actions of cannabinoids and the application of this research in physiological and pathophysiological situations. Linked ArticlesThis article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids 2013. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-6 PMID:24329566

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus gallolyticus isolated from humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, Ryohei; Tien, Le Hong Thuy; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Osawa, Ro

    2013-01-01

    Susceptibilities to some antimicrobial agents and distribution of genes associated with resistance were examined in a total of 66 Streptococcus gallolyticus isolates and reference strains from various sources. All the tested bacteria were susceptible to vancomycin, penicillin G, and ampicillin. Most of the erythromycin-resistant isolates were observed in human clinical samples. Tetracycline and doxycycline resistance was prevalent in the isolates from human patients, diseased animals, and healthy broiler chickens, while the prevalence was significantly lower in the isolates from healthy mammals. All the isolates resistant to tetracycline possessed tet(M) and/or tet(L) and/or tet(O) genes. However, most isolates from healthy animals, which were susceptible to tetracycline, possessed the above-cited resistance genes, implying the potential ability for resistance under exposure to the corresponding antimicrobial agents. PMID:23883848

  2. Blood from healthy animals and humans contains nondiscocytic erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Simpson, L O

    1989-12-01

    Blood samples (three drops) from healthy animals and humans were fixed in a 2.5% solution of glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer at pH 7.4 within seconds of being drawn. Dehydrated and gold-coated preparations were photographed at x 600 in a scanning electron microscope, then printed at x 1200. Erythrocytes were classified according to their shape and surface features into six classes, namely, normal red cells, flat cells, cells with surface changes, early cup forms, late cup forms, cells with altered margins. The size of each shape-determined class was expressed as a percentage of the total number of cells counted. Data relating to 23 healthy females and to a mouse, rat, rabbit and horse are reported. Although the presence of nondiscocytic erythrocytes in peripheral human blood has been described, the presence of similar cells in animal blood has not been reported previously. PMID:2611142

  3. Anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence? Insights from animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Wood, Ruth I

    2008-10-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are drugs of abuse. They are taken in large quantities by athletes and others to increase performance, with negative health consequences. As a result, in 1991 testosterone and related AAS were declared controlled substances. However, the relative abuse and dependence liability of AAS have not been fully characterized. In humans, it is difficult to separate the direct psychoactive effects of AAS from reinforcement due to their systemic anabolic effects. However, using conditioned place preference and self-administration, studies in animals have demonstrated that AAS are reinforcing in a context where athletic performance is irrelevant. Furthermore, AAS share brain sites of action and neurotransmitter systems in common with other drugs of abuse. In particular, recent evidence links AAS with opioids. In humans, AAS abuse is associated with prescription opioid use. In animals, AAS overdose produces symptoms resembling opioid overdose, and AAS modify the activity of the endogenous opioid system. PMID:18275992

  4. Vasovagal syncope in humans and protective reactions in animals.

    PubMed

    Blanc, Jean-Jacques; Alboni, Paolo; Benditt, David G

    2015-03-01

    Vasovagal syncope (VVS) is not known to occur in animals, although other similar reflex responses are common. This review examines the possible relation of these latter presumably protective reflexes in animals to VVS in humans. The goal is to provide practitioners, and ultimately their patients, a meaningful understanding of the origins and appropriate management of this unpredictable affliction. This report utilized review of computer databases (e.g. PubMed) addressing VVS pathophysiology and origins, spontaneous transient loss of consciousness in animals, and comparative physiology. We also examined articles cited in the publications obtained by computer search and others suggested by colleagues. Articles were chosen based on those providing original observations and/or suggestions of novel mechanisms. In animals self-preservation is directed towards protection of the body through an escalation of behaviours depending on severity and proximity to danger. In humans self-preservation is directed not only to protection of the body, but also to protection of the brain's functional integrity. By virtue of loss of postural tone, the faint causes the body to assume a gravitationally neutral position, thereby offering a better chance of restoring brain blood supply and preserving brain function. Vasovagal syncope may seem to be a disadvantageous evolutionary adaptation. However, it is a reversible condition, that while exposing risk of injury and embarrassment, ultimately favours brain self-preservation in potentially threatening circumstances. PMID:25662986

  5. Chemotherapy of human and animal coccidioses: state and perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Haberkorn

    1996-01-01

    The state and perspectives for chemotherapy of cyst-forming and non-cyst-forming coccidia in humans and animals are summarized.\\u000a In toxoplasmosis the therapeutic care of transplacental infections, which have gone out of control because of immunodeficiency,\\u000a is in the forefront of attempts at improvement. Predominant drugs in use are pyrimethamine combined with a sulfonamide or\\u000a with clindamycin, or trimethoprim plus sulfamethoxazole. For

  6. Selectivity for Animal Vocalizations in the Human Auditory Cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian F. Altmann; Oliver Doehrmann; Jochen Kaiser

    2007-01-01

    We aimed at testing the cortical representation of complex natural sounds within auditory cortex using human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To this end, we employed 2 different paradigms in the same subjects: a block-design experiment was to provide a localization of areas involved in the processing of animal vocalizations, whereas an event-related fMRI adaptation experiment was to characterize the

  7. Calcium isotope ratios in animal and human bone

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Reynard; G. M. Henderson; R. E. M. Hedges

    2010-01-01

    Calcium isotopes in tissues are thought to be influenced by an individual’s diet, reflecting parameters such as trophic level and dairy consumption, but this has not been carefully assessed. We report the calcium isotope ratios (?44\\/42Ca) of modern and archaeological animal and human bone (n=216). Modern sheep raised at the same location show 0.14±0.08‰ higher ?44\\/42Ca in females than in

  8. Synthesizing animal and human behavior research via neural network learning theory.

    PubMed

    Tryon, W W

    1995-12-01

    Animal and human research have been "divorced" since approximately 1968. Several recent articles have tried to persuade behavior therapists of the merits of animal research. Three reasons are given concerning why disinterest in animal research is so widespread: (1) functional explanations are given for animals, and cognitive explanations are given for humans; (2) serial symbol manipulating models are used to explain human behavior; and (3) human learning was assumed, thereby removing it as something to be explained. Brain-inspired connectionist neural networks, collectively referred to as neural network learning theory (NNLT), are briefly described, and a spectrum of their accomplishments from simple conditioning through speech is outlined. Five benefits that behavior therapists can derive from NNLT are described. They include (a) enhanced professional identity derived from a comprehensive learning theory, (b) improved interdisciplinary collaboration both clinically and scientifically, (c) renewed perceived relevance of animal research, (d) access to plausible proximal causal mechanisms capable of explaining operant conditioning, and (e) an inherently developmental perspective. PMID:8675717

  9. Risk practices for animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh: an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md. Saiful; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Mikolon, Andrea; Parveen, Shahana; Khan, M. Salah Uddin; Haider, Najmul; Chakraborty, Apurba; Titu, Abu Mohammad Naser; Rahman, M. Waliur; Sazzad, Hossain M. S.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Gurley, Emily S.; Luby, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction From August 2009 to October 2010, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh and the Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research together investigated 14 outbreaks of anthrax which included 140 animal and 273 human cases in 14 anthrax-affected villages. Our investigation objectives were to explore the context in which these outbreaks occurred, including livestock rearing practices, human handling of sick and dead animals, and the anthrax vaccination program. Methods Field anthropologists used qualitative data-collection tools, including 15 hours of unstructured observations, 11 key informant interviews, 32 open-ended interviews, and 6 group discussions in 5 anthrax-affected villages. Results Each cattle owner in the affected communities raised a median of six ruminants on their household premises. The ruminants were often grazed in pastures and fed supplementary rice straw, green grass, water hyacinth, rice husk, wheat bran, and oil cake; lactating cows were given dicalcium phosphate. Cattle represented a major financial investment. Since Islamic law forbids eating animals that die from natural causes, when anthrax-infected cattle were moribund, farmers often slaughtered them on the household premises while they were still alive so that the meat could be eaten. Farmers ate the meat and sold it to neighbors. Skinners removed and sold the hides from discarded carcasses. Farmers discarded the carcasses and slaughtering waste into ditches, bodies of water, or open fields. Cattle in the affected communities did not receive routine anthrax vaccine due to low production, poor distribution, and limited staffing for vaccination. Conclusion Slaughtering anthrax-infected animals and disposing of butchering waste and carcasses in environments where ruminants live and graze, combined with limited vaccination, provided a context that permitted repeated anthrax outbreaks in animals and humans. Because of strong financial incentives, slaughtering moribund animals and discarding carcasses and waste products will likely continue. Long-term vaccination coverage for at-risk animal populations may reduce anthrax infection. PMID:24298326

  10. The Zoonotic Tuberculosis Syndemic: A Literature Review and Analysis of the Scientific Journals Covering a Multidisciplinary Field That Includes Clinical Medicine, Animal Science, Wildlife Management, Bacterial Evolution, and Food Safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Hardin; Philip G. Crandall; Tony Stankus

    2011-01-01

    The article reviews the steadily increasing literature on tuberculosis outbreaks involving Mycobacterium bovis, a bacillus traditionally associated with cattle and dairy products but in fact syndemic in a wide range of other animals including humans. Six major categories of journals cover this story: human infectious diseases and epidemiology, general human medicine, general veterinary practice, veterinary management of zoonoses and wildlife

  11. 76 FR 30176 - Expedited Review for New Animal Drug Applications for Human Pathogen Reduction Claims; Withdrawal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...Expedited Review for New Animal Drug Applications for Human Pathogen Reduction Claims; Withdrawal of Guidance AGENCY: Food and...Expedited Review for New Animal Drug Applications for Human Pathogen Reduction Claims.'' The guidance predates the...

  12. Putting the Dog Back in the Park: Animal and Human Mind-in-Action 

    E-print Network

    Laurier, Eric; Maze, Ramia; Lundin, Johan

    2006-01-01

    In this article we use actual instances of human conduct with animals to reflect on the debates about animal agency in human activities. Where much of psychology, philosophy, and sociology begin with a fundamental ...

  13. Relevance of animal models to human tardive dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Tardive dyskinesia remains an elusive and significant clinical entity that can possibly be understood via experimentation with animal models. We conducted a literature review on tardive dyskinesia modeling. Subchronic antipsychotic drug exposure is a standard approach to model tardive dyskinesia in rodents. Vacuous chewing movements constitute the most common pattern of expression of purposeless oral movements and represent an impermanent response, with individual and strain susceptibility differences. Transgenic mice are also used to address the contribution of adaptive and maladaptive signals induced during antipsychotic drug exposure. An emphasis on non-human primate modeling is proposed, and past experimental observations reviewed in various monkey species. Rodent and primate models are complementary, but the non-human primate model appears more convincingly similar to the human condition and better suited to address therapeutic issues against tardive dyskinesia. PMID:22404856

  14. Articular Osteochondrosis: A Comparison of Naturally-Occurring Human and Animal Disease

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Annette M; Toth, Ferenc; Dolvik, Nils I; Ekman, Stina; Ellermann, Jutta; Olstad, Kristin; Ytrehus, Bjornar; Carlson, Cathy S

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteochondrosis (OC) is a common developmental orthopedic disease affecting both humans and animals. Despite increasing recognition of this disease among children and adolescents, its pathogenesis is incompletely understood because clinical signs are often not apparent until lesions have progressed to end-stage, and examination of cadaveric early lesions is not feasible. In contrast, both naturally-occurring and surgically-induced animal models of disease have been extensively studied, most notably in horses and swine, species in which OC is recognized to have profound health and economic implications. The potential for a translational model of human OC has not been recognized in the existing human literature. Objective The purpose of this review is to highlight the similarities in signalment, predilection sites and clinical presentation of naturally-occurring OC in humans and animals and to propose a common pathogenesis for this condition across species. Study Design Review Methods The published human and veterinary literature for the various manifestations of OC was reviewed. Peer-reviewed original scientific articles and species-specific review articles accessible in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) were eligible for inclusion. Results A broad range of similarities exists between OC affecting humans and animals, including predilection sites, clinical presentation, radiographic/MRI changes, and histological appearance of the end stage lesion, suggesting a shared pathogenesis across species. Conclusion This proposed shared pathogenesis for OC between species implies that naturally-occurring and surgically-induced models of OC in animals may be useful in determining risk factors and for testing new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions that can be used in humans. PMID:23954774

  15. [Anthrax--continuous threat to humans and animals].

    PubMed

    Mizak, Lidia

    2004-01-01

    Gram-positive, spore-forming, aerobic bacterium Bacillus anthracis is an etiological agent of anthrax a disease very dangerous to humans and all warm-blooded animals. The spore forms are markedly resistant to unfavourable environmental extremes of heat, cold, desiccation, chemicals, irradiation etc. The vegetative forms characterised virulence factors: the antiphagocytic poly-gamma-D-polipeptide capsule and three proteins, edema factor (EF), lethal factor (LF) and protective antigen (PA). Anthrax is mainly transmitted from animals to man through food of animal origin, animal products and contamination of the environment with B. anthracis and its spores. There are three types of this disease: cutaneous, intestinal and inhalation anthrax. Research on anthrax as a biological weapon began more then 80 years ago. Depending on the target chosen and the scale of the attack the anthrax spores may by used to contaminate of foodstuffs or liquids and water. The aerosolised release of anthrax spore can cause illness with a high fatality rate. PMID:15517814

  16. Rule Learning over Consonants and Vowels in a Non-Human Animal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Mora, Daniela M.; Toro, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Perception studies have shown similarities between humans and other animals in a wide array of language-related processes. However, the components of language that make it uniquely human have not been fully identified. Here we show that nonhuman animals extract rules over speech sequences that are difficult for humans. Specifically, animals easily…

  17. Modeling the relationship between food animal health and human foodborne illness

    E-print Network

    Singer, Randall

    of food animals that are destined to enter the human food supply chain may be an important, although oftenModeling the relationship between food animal health and human foodborne illness Randall S. Singer overlooked, factor in predicting the risk of human foodborne infections. The health status of food animals

  18. [Effect of increasing the omega-3 fatty acid in the diets of animals on the animal products consumed by humans].

    PubMed

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2005-01-01

    As shown by huge amount of assays in human as well as in animal models, w-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids play important role in the development and maintenance of different organs, primarily the brain, and could be useful in the prevention of different pathologies, mainly the cardiovascular diseases, and, as proposed recently, some psychiatric, dermatological or rheumatological disorders. For ALA, the major and cheapest source for human is rapeseed oil (canola oil), and walnut "noix de Grenoble" oil). The actual goal is first to identify which foods are naturally rich in w-3 fatty acids, and, second, to determine the true impact of the formulations (enriched in w-3 fatty acids) in chows used on farms and breeding centres on the nutritional value of the products and thus their effect on the health of consumers, thanks to quantities of either ALA, or EPA or DHA or both. This concern fish (in proportion of their lipid content, mainly mackerel, salmon, sardine and herring), eggs (wildly naturally rich in w-3 fatty acids, both ALA and DHA, or from laying hen fed ALA from linseed or rapeseed), meat from birds, mammals (from the highest concentration : rabbit, then pig and monogastrics, then polygastrics such as beef, mutton and goat) \\; in butter, milk, dairy products, cheese (all naturally poor in w-3 fatty acids)... Indeed, the nature of fatty acids of reserve triglycerides (found in more or less large amounts depending on the anatomical localisation, that is to say the butcher's cuts) can vary mainly as a function of the food received by the animal. EPA and DHA are mainly present in animal's products. The impact (qualitative and quantitative) of alterations in the lipid composition of animal foods on the nutritional value of derived products (in terms of EPA and DHA content) eaten by humans are more important in single-stomach animals than multi-stomach animals (due to their hydrogenating intestinal bacteria). The intestinal physiology of birds results in the relatively good preservation of their dietary w-3 fatty acids. The enrichment in eggs is proportional to the amount of w-3 fatty acids in the hen's diet and can be extremely important. Including ALA in fish feeds is effective only if they are, like carp, vegetarians, as they have the enzymes required to transform ALA into EPA and DHA \\; in contrast, it is probably less effective for carnivorous fish (75 % of the fish used for human), which have little of these enzymes : their feed must contain marine animals, mainly fish or fish oil. Analysis of the published results shows that, under the best conditions, feeding animals with extracts of linseed and rapeseed grains, for example, increases the level of ALA acid by 20 to 40-fold in eggs (according to the low or high level of ALA in commercial eggs), 10-fold in chicken, 6-fold in pork and less than 2-fold in beef. By feeding animals with fish extracts or algae (oils), the level of DHA is increased by 20-fold in fish, 7-fold in chicken, 3 to 6-fold in eggs, less than 2-fold in beef. In practise, the effect is considerable for fish and egg, interesting for poultry and rabbit, extremely low for beef, mutton and sheep. The effect on the price paid by the consumer is very low compared to the considerable gain in nutritional value. PMID:16115466

  19. Chemotherapy of human and animal coccidioses: state and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Haberkorn, A

    1996-01-01

    The state and perspectives for chemotherapy of cyst-forming and non-cyst-forming coccidia in humans and animals are summarized. In toxoplasmosis the therapeutic care of transplacental infections, which have gone out of control because of immunodeficiency, is in the forefront of attempts at improvement. Predominant drugs in use are pyrimethamine combined with a sulfonamide or with clindamycin, or trimethoprim plus sulfamethoxazole. For reasons of tolerability in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, after 3 months of therapy a maintenance treatment on 2 days a week has recently given very positive results. In cats, monensin and toltrazuril are effective against the intestinal developmental stages of Toxoplasma gondii, the later drug affecting to a reasonable extent the extraintestinal stages as well. Attempts to treat neosporosis and sarcocystosis remain in the initial stages. The same is true for cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals. A number of highly effective drugs are available for prophylaxis of poultry coccidiosis. Increasing problems with resistance have led to new treatment schemes such as shuttle and rotation programs. In addition to a new polyether, semduramycin, a benzeneacetonitrile derivative (diclazuril) has been developed in recent years. After three decades a new drug (toltrazuril), a symmetrical triazinone derivative, has brought improvements for therapy and/or metaphylaxis in coccidiosis of poultry and mammals. The increasing possibilities for vaccination may result in new aspects for the use of chemotherapeutics, i.e., new combinations and/or shuttle or rotation programs. PMID:8801548

  20. Fumonisins: their implications for human and animal health.

    PubMed

    Marasas, W F

    1995-01-01

    Fusarium moniliforme is one of the predominant fungi associated with corn intended for human and animal consumption world-wide. Fumonisins, food-borne carcinogens that occur naturally in corn, were first isolated and chemically characterized in South Africa in 1988. The major metabolite, fumonisin B1 (FB1), was subsequently shown to cause leukoencephalomalacia (LEM) in horses, pulmonary edema syndrome (PES) in pigs, and liver cancer in rats. FB1 is also a cancer promoter and initiator in rat liver; hepatotoxic to horses, pigs, rats, and vervet monkeys; cytotoxic to mammalian cell cultures; and phytotoxic to several plants. Fumonisins in home-grown corn have been associated with an elevated risk for human esophageal cancer in Transkei and China. There is a close structural similarity between fumonisin and sphingosine, and fumonisins are the first known naturally occurring inhibitors of sphingolipid biosynthesis. The natural occurrence of FB1, together with FB2 and FB3, has been reported in commercial corn and/or corn-based feeds and foods from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Botswana, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Egypt, France, Italy, Japan, Kenya, Hungary, Nepal, Peru, South Africa, Switzerland, United States, and Zimbabwe. It is imperative that safe levels of fumonisins in human foods and animal feeds should be determined and realistic tolerance levels established as soon as possible. PMID:7582616

  1. Human illnesses and animal deaths associated with freshwater harmful algal blooms-kansas.

    PubMed

    Trevino-Garrison, Ingrid; DeMent, Jamie; Ahmed, Farah S; Haines-Lieber, Patricia; Langer, Thomas; Ménager, Henri; Neff, Janet; van der Merwe, Deon; Carney, Edward

    2015-02-01

    Freshwater harmful algal bloom (FHAB) toxins can cause morbidity and mortality in both humans and animals, and the incidence of FHABs in the United States and Kansas has increased. In 2010, the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) developed a FHAB policy and response plan. We describe the epidemiology of FHAB-associated morbidity and mortality in humans and animals in Kansas. Healthcare providers and veterinarians voluntarily reported FHAB-associated cases to KDHE. An investigation was initiated for each report to determine the source of exposure and to initiate public health mitigation actions. There were 38 water bodies with a confirmed FHAB in 2011. There were 34 reports of human and animal FHAB-associated health events in 2011, which included five dog deaths and hospitalization of two human case patients. Five confirmed human illnesses, two dog illnesses and five dog deaths were associated with one lake. Four human and seven dog cases were exposed to the lake after a public health alert was issued. Public health officials and FHAB partners must ensure continued awareness of the risks to the public, educate healthcare providers and veterinarians on FHAB-related health events and encourage timely reporting to public health authorities. PMID:25647780

  2. Human Illnesses and Animal Deaths Associated with Freshwater Harmful Algal Blooms—Kansas

    PubMed Central

    Trevino-Garrison, Ingrid; DeMent, Jamie; Ahmed, Farah S.; Haines-Lieber, Patricia; Langer, Thomas; Ménager, Henri; Neff, Janet; van der Merwe, Deon; Carney, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater harmful algal bloom (FHAB) toxins can cause morbidity and mortality in both humans and animals, and the incidence of FHABs in the United States and Kansas has increased. In 2010, the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) developed a FHAB policy and response plan. We describe the epidemiology of FHAB-associated morbidity and mortality in humans and animals in Kansas. Healthcare providers and veterinarians voluntarily reported FHAB-associated cases to KDHE. An investigation was initiated for each report to determine the source of exposure and to initiate public health mitigation actions. There were 38 water bodies with a confirmed FHAB in 2011. There were 34 reports of human and animal FHAB-associated health events in 2011, which included five dog deaths and hospitalization of two human case patients. Five confirmed human illnesses, two dog illnesses and five dog deaths were associated with one lake. Four human and seven dog cases were exposed to the lake after a public health alert was issued. Public health officials and FHAB partners must ensure continued awareness of the risks to the public, educate healthcare providers and veterinarians on FHAB-related health events and encourage timely reporting to public health authorities. PMID:25647780

  3. The Impact of Fusarium Mycotoxins on Human and Animal Host Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Antonissen, Gunther; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Verbrugghe, Elin; Vandenbroucke, Virginie; Li, Shaoji; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of food and feed with mycotoxins is a worldwide problem. At present, acute mycotoxicosis caused by high doses is rare in humans and animals. Ingestion of low to moderate amounts of Fusarium mycotoxins is common and generally does not result in obvious intoxication. However, these low amounts may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host pathogen interactions and thus a different outcome of infection. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge about the impact of Fusarium mycotoxin exposure on human and animal host susceptibility to infectious diseases. On the one hand, exposure to deoxynivalenol and other Fusarium mycotoxins generally exacerbates infections with parasites, bacteria and viruses across a wide range of animal host species. Well-known examples include coccidiosis in poultry, salmonellosis in pigs and mice, colibacillosis in pigs, necrotic enteritis in poultry, enteric septicemia of catfish, swine respiratory disease, aspergillosis in poultry and rabbits, reovirus infection in mice and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus infection in pigs. However, on the other hand, T-2 toxin has been shown to markedly decrease the colonization capacity of Salmonella in the pig intestine. Although the impact of the exposure of humans to Fusarium toxins on infectious diseases is less well known, extrapolation from animal models suggests possible exacerbation of, for instance, colibacillosis and salmonellosis in humans, as well. PMID:24476707

  4. Laboratory diagnosis of Taenia asiatica in humans and animals

    PubMed Central

    Parija, Subhash Chandra; Ponnambath, Dinoop Korol

    2013-01-01

    Taenia asiatica is a recently described species known to cause intestinal teniasis in humans and cysticercosis in animals. This species has close morphological resemblance to Taenia saginata and has a life cycle resembling Taenia solium, hence has been posing diagnostic dilemma and had been the reason for its comparatively late discovery. Recent diagnostic tools such as serological and molecular techniques have thrown light on its exact prevalence in the endemic countries. Hence introduction of utilization of these techniques in addition to the routine morphological analysis would be helpful in diagnosis of T. asiatica infections and early implementation of preventive measures. PMID:24470995

  5. Animal Science, Including Instruction in Agricultural Mechanics, Careers, Leadership, and Supervised Occupational Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Education, Jefferson City. Agricultural Education Section.

    Developed and reviewed by a committee of 16 teachers, the state supervisory staff, and the teacher education staff, this curriculum guide is for vocational agriculture teacher use with ninth grade students interested in agricultural occupations. Some objectives for this 1-year course in animal science are--(1) to develop competencies in…

  6. Creatures in the Classroom: Including Insects and Small Animals in Your Preschool Gardening Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachey, Alyse C.; Butler, Deanna

    2012-01-01

    When doing spring planting activities, what does a teacher do while waiting for the plants to grow? This waiting time is a golden opportunity to explore another side of gardening--the creatures that make it all possible. Insects are an integral part of everyday world, having existed for over 300 million years; they are the most common animal on…

  7. Bisphenol A, oocyte maturation, implantation, and IVF outcome: review of animal and human data.

    PubMed

    Machtinger, Ronit; Orvieto, Raoul

    2014-10-01

    Recent data have raised concerns about the detrimental effect of chronic exposure to environmental chemicals. Some chemicals affect the endocrine system (endocrine disruptors) and have been linked to several diseases, including infertility. One such endocrine disruptor is bisphenol A (BPA), a monomer widely used in the plastic industry, with nearly ubiquitous exposure. In this review, data on the effects of BPA on female fertility are summarized. Specifically, its effect is considered on folliculogenesis, oocyte maturation, embryo quality, and implantation, both in animal and human models. Animal studies have shown that BPA might impair prophase I, follicular growth, and implantation, and may be associated with spindle abnormalities. In humans, while in-vitro studies have suggested an association between BPA exposure and impaired oocyte meiosis, clinical evidence indicate possible adverse effects of BPA exposure on IVF outcomes. As human clinical data are still scarce, larger studies are required to further elucidate the effects of BPA exposure on female fertility. PMID:25154017

  8. Using Animal Models To Study Human Diseases Animal models are required for our understanding of human anatomy, physiology, health and life in

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    Using Animal Models To Study Human Diseases Animal models are required for our understanding the use of animal models, many advances in medicine and the overall scientific knowledge we have would observations. How many differently sized worms do you see? Draw each in the provided space. Do you see

  9. Relevance of experimental animal studies to the human experience

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Animal experiments are being used to examine a number of physical and biological factors that influence risk estimations though not usually in coordination with epidemiologists. It is clear that the different mechanisms involved in different types of tumors are reflected in the diversity of dose-response relationships. The forms of the dose-response relationships are influenced by both the initial events and their expression. Evidence is accumulating that many initiated cells do not get expressed as overt cancers and host factors may play a major role in the expression of potential tumor cells. There is a need for information about the relationship of the natural incidence and susceptibility to radiation induction for more tumor types. Such experiments will help answer the question of which risk estimate models are appropriate for different tumor types and can be carried out on animals. Perhaps because of the importance of host factors risk estimates as a percentage of the natural incidence appear to be similar for human beings and mice for a small number of tumor types. The elucidation of the mechanisms involved in different tissues while a slow business remains an important role of animal experiments.

  10. Simulating prediction markets that include human and automated agents

    E-print Network

    Chang, Wendy, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    In this work I study the interaction of sophisticated trading agents with simpler agents in a prediction market. The goal is to simulate markets with both human and computer agents, and investigate ways to maximize the ...

  11. 21 CFR 530.20 - Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false...Conditions for permitted extralabel animal and human drug use in food-producing animals. 530.20 Section 530.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION,...

  12. Cadmium-induced Cancers in Animals and in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Huff, James; Lunn, Ruth M.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Tomatis, Lorenzo; Infante, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    Discovered in the early 1800s, the use of cadmium and various cadmium salts started to become industrially important near the close of the 19th century, rapidly thereafter began to flourish, yet has diminished more recently. Most cadmium used in the United States is a byproduct from the smelting of zinc, lead, or copper ores, and is used to manufacture batteries. Carcinogenic activity of cadmium was discovered first in animals and only subsequently in humans. Cadmium and cadmium compounds have been classified as known human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the National Toxicology Program based on epidemiologic studies showing a causal association with lung cancer, and possibly prostate cancer, and studies in experimental animals, demonstrating that cadmium causes tumors at multiple tissue sites, by various routes of exposure, and in several species and strains. Epidemiologic studies published since these evaluations suggest that cadmium is also associated with cancers of the breast, kidney, pancreas, and urinary bladder. The basic metal cationic portion of cadmium is responsible for both toxic and cardinogenic activity, and the mechanism of carcinogenicity appears to be multifactorial. Available information about the carcinogenicity of cadmium and cadmium compounds is reviewed, evaluated, and discussed. PMID:17718178

  13. Wounds of the hand contaminated by human or animal saliva.

    PubMed

    Peeples, E; Boswick, J A; Scott, F A

    1980-05-01

    A prospective and retrospective evaluation of 75 patients with hand wounds contaminated by human saliva (35) or animal saliva (40) demonstrates that a program of outpatient management can be sufficient for optimal care in many patients. This series challenges the proposition that hospitalization, radiographs, and surgical debridement are necessary for most such wounds. Sixty-seven per cent did not have surgical intervention and no complications resulted. Ninety-two per cent received antibiotics. Radiographs were obtained only when bony injury or entry into a joint was suspected. Delay in seeking treatment until obvious signs of infection or pain are present is common. Literature review details the anatomic factors important in the natural history and control of these infections, and the changes with respect to modes of treatment for these potentially dangerous wounds. The injury is caused by bites with the hand extended or, in fight-bite wounds, with the metacarpal-phalangeal and interphalangeal joints flexed, allowing deeper penetration and then sealing of the wound when the first is opened. Staphylococcus and Streptococcus are the organisms most frequently found in human bites, and in animal bites; Pasteurella multocida should be considered in dog and cat bites. PMID:7365851

  14. Gene Therapy in Large Animal Models of Human Cardiovascular Genetic Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meg M. Sleeper; Lawrence T. Bish; H. Lee Sweeney

    2009-01-01

    Several naturally occurring animal models for human genetic heart diseases offer an excellent opportunity to evaluate poten- tial novel therapies, including gene therapy. Some of these diseases—especially those that result in a structural defect during development (e.g., patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonic stenosis)—would likely be diffi cult to treat with a therapeutic gene transfer approach. However, the ability to transduce a

  15. Infections at the animal/human interface: shifting the paradigm from emergency response to prevention at source.

    PubMed

    Heymann, David L; Dixon, Mathew

    2013-01-01

    The majority of emerging infectious diseases have their source in animals, and emergence occurs at the human/animal interface, when infections in animals breech the species barrier to infect humans, the population in which they are often first identified. The response is frequently characterized by a series of emergency activities to contain and manage the infection in human populations, and at the same time to identify the source of the infection in nature. If infection is found to have a source in animals, and if animals cause a continuous threat of human infection, culling is often recommended with severe economic impact. Currently, efforts are being undertaken for closer interaction at the animal/human interface through joint surveillance and risk assessment between the animal and human medicine sectors, and research is underway in geographic areas where emergence at the animal/human interface has occurred in the past. The goal of this research is to identify infectious organisms in tropical and other wild animals, to genetically sequence these organisms, and to attempt to predict which organisms have the potential to emerge in human populations. It may be more cost-effective to learn from past emergence events, and to shift the paradigm from disease surveillance, detection, and response in humans; to prevention of emergence at the source by understanding and mitigating the factors, or determinants, that influence animal infection. These determinants are clearly understood from the study of previous emergence events and include human-induced changes in natural environments, urban areas, and agricultural systems; raising and processing animal-based foods; and the roles of global trade, migration, and climate change. Better understanding of these factors learned from epidemiological investigation of past and present emergence events, and modeling and study of the cost-effectiveness of interventions that could result in their mitigation, could provide evidence necessary to better address the political and economic barriers to prevention of infections in animals. Such economically convincing arguments for change and mitigation are required because of the basic difference in animal health-driven by the need for profit; and human health-driven by the need to save lives. PMID:23239233

  16. Surveillance of hantaviruses in Poland: a study of animal reservoirs and human hantavirus disease in Subcarpathia.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Aleksander; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Nowakowska, Anna; Gawe?, Jerzy; Pitucha, Grzegorz; Joniec, Justyna; Zielonka, Katarzyna; Marciniak-Niemcewicz, Anna; Kocik, Janusz

    2014-07-01

    The first cluster of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Poland was identified in 2007 in the Subcarpathian region. The natural environment of this area is a key habitat for hantavirus vectors. The animal reservoir of existing human HFRS clusters was studied to assess the occurrence of viruses (including Tula virus, Puumala virus, and Dobrava-Belgrade virus) among rodents. We examined 70 suspected human cases with symptoms corresponding to the clinical picture of HFRS. Serological analysis (indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunoblot) confirmed the presence of anti-hantavirus antibodies in 18 patients, which were surveyed with regard to developed symptoms and presumed rodent contact. Seroepidemiological analysis of newly confirmed human cases was performed, putative areas of human exposure were studied, and 194 rodents were subsequently captured from identified areas. Internal organs (lungs, heart, spleen, bladder, and kidneys) were collected from 64 Apodemus flavicollis, 55 Apodemus agrarius, 40 Myodes glareolus, 21 Mus musculus, and 14 Microtus arvalis and tested for the presence of hantavirus RNA by reverse transcription and subsequent real-time PCR. Positive samples were also tested by indirect immunofluorescence. Animal reservoir surveillance enabled the first detection of Puumala virus and Dobrava-Belgrade virus among animals in Poland. Furthermore, some places where rodents were captured correlated with areas of residence of laboratory-confirmed human cases and likely detected virus species. Moreover, three species of hantaviruses coexisting in a relatively small area were identified. PMID:24902039

  17. When animals misbehave: analogs of human biases and suboptimal choice.

    PubMed

    Zentall, Thomas R

    2015-03-01

    Humans tend to value rewards more if they have had to work hard to obtain them (justification of effort). Similarly they tend to persist in a task even when they would be better off beginning a new one (sunk cost). Humans also often give greater value to objects of good quality than the same objects together with objects of lesser quality (the less is more effect). Commercial gambling (lotteries and slot machines) is another example of suboptimal choice by humans because on average the rewards are less than the investment. In another example of a systematic bias, when humans try to estimate the probability of the occurrence of a low probability event, they often give too much weight to the results of a test, in spite of the fact that the known probability of a false alarm reduces the predictive value of the test (base rate neglect). In each of these examples, we have found that pigeons show a similar tendency to choose suboptimally. When one can show comparable findings of suboptimal choice in animals it suggests that whereas culture may reinforce certain suboptimal behavior, the behavior is likely to result from the overgeneralization of basic behavioral processes or predisposed heuristics that may have been appropriate in natural environments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: "Tribute to Tom Zentall." PMID:25192737

  18. Chemical disposition of boron in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Moseman, R F

    1994-11-01

    Elemental boron was isolated in 1808. It typically occurs in nature as borates hydrated with varying amounts of water. Important compounds are boric acid and borax. Boron compounds are also used in the production of metals, enamels, and glasses. In trace amounts, boron is essential for the growth of many plants, and is found in animal and human tissues at low concentrations. Poisoning in humans has been reported as the result of accidental ingestion or use of large amounts in the treatment of burns. Boron as boric acid is fairly rapidly absorbed and excreted from the body via urine. The half-life of boric acid in humans is on the order of 1 day. Boron does not appear to accumulate in soft tissues of animals, but does accumulate in bone. Normal levels of boron in soft tissues, urine, and blood generally range from less than 0.05 ppm to no more than 10 ppm. In poisoning incidents, the amount of boric acid in brain and liver tissue has been reported to be as high as 2000 ppm. Recent studies at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences have indicated that boron may contribute to reduced fertility in male rodents fed 9000 ppm of boric acid in feed. Within a few days, boron levels in blood and most soft tissues quickly reached a plateau of about 15 ppm. Boron in bone did not appear to plateau, reaching 47 ppm after 7 days on the diet. Cessation of exposure to dietary boron resulted in a rapid drop in bone boron.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7889870

  19. [Ethical and legal aspects of animal experiments on non-human primates].

    PubMed

    Luy, J

    2007-03-01

    Animal experiments on non-human primates give cause for ethical concerns for three reasons (1) the inclusion of "ethical animal protection" in the German Constitution (Article 20a of the "Grundgesetz" GG, 2002) has led to real consequences for the application process with respect to the use of primates for fundamental research; (2) the legal requirements in Europe to ensure animal welfare are currently being tightened and (3) the global problem of the protection of species, especially with respect to the capturing and subsequent sale of primates is still unsolved. As a result of the way humans interpret the term justice (the principle of equality) it was to be expected that great apes, being the animals that most closely resemble humans, would play a key role in the establishment of animal protection laws. In 1997,Great Britain and Ireland made it illegal to conduct experiments on great apes. In 1999, New Zealand went even further and created a kind of basic rights for great apes. In 2003,The Netherlands forbade animal experiments using great apes as did Sweden, which also included gibbons in this ban (which is in line with current taxonomy, which considers gibbons to belong to the family Hominidae). In 2006 Austria forbade experiments carried out on chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, orang-utans, and gibbons. Only recently, a state commission on ethics in Switzerland demanded that the Swiss government do the same. And the summer of 2006 saw a debate in Spain on the inclusion of the protection of great apes in the primary goals of the state. Due to the principle of equality, a further extension (both geographically and systemically) of the exclusion of great apes from animal experiments is to be expected. Since Article 20a GG on "ethical animal protection" came into effect on August 1,2002, the regulatory authorities in Germany have the right to independently check and control animal experiments as to their ethical tenability (Administrative Court Giessen, confirmed by the Administrative Court of the State of Hessia) i.e. an authorization for experiments in the area of fundamental research may only be given by the authorities if the "ethical tenability" (according to Section 7 paragraph 3 of the German Law on Animal Welfare) is given. The "ethical tenability" of fundamental research experiments follows other rules than those that pertain to applied research. Fundamental research is granted a low to mid-level tolerance of pain and suffering as being ethically tenable; not tenable are stronger or very high doses of pain and suffering. Actually in summer 2006, a proposal for fundamental research using mon- PMID:17419539

  20. Perceiving Nonhumans: Human Moral Psychology and Animal Ethics 

    E-print Network

    Kasperbauer, Tyler

    2014-04-17

    : attributing mental states to animals, the status of animals as disgust elicitors, and our empathic responses to animals. With respect to mental state attribution, I argue that the best research to date indicates that phenomenal mental states, like pain...

  1. Potential animal and environmental sources of Q fever infection for humans in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Tozer, S J; Lambert, S B; Strong, C L; Field, H E; Sloots, T P; Nissen, M D

    2014-03-01

    Q fever is a vaccine-preventable disease; despite this, high annual notification numbers are still recorded in Australia. We have previously shown seroprevalence in Queensland metropolitan regions is approaching that of rural areas. This study investigated the presence of nucleic acid from Coxiella burnetii, the agent responsible for Q fever, in a number of animal and environmental samples collected throughout Queensland, to identify potential sources of human infection. Samples were collected from 129 geographical locations and included urine, faeces and whole blood from 22 different animal species; 45 ticks were removed from two species, canines and possums; 151 soil samples; 72 atmospheric dust samples collected from two locations and 50 dust swabs collected from domestic vacuum cleaners. PCR testing was performed targeting the IS1111 and COM1 genes for the specific detection of C. burnetii DNA. There were 85 detections from 1318 animal samples, giving a detection rate for each sample type ranging from 2.1 to 6.8%. Equine samples produced a detection rate of 11.9%, whilst feline and canine samples showed detection rates of 7.8% and 5.2%, respectively. Native animals had varying detection rates: pooled urines from flying foxes had 7.8%, whilst koalas had 5.1%, and 6.7% of ticks screened were positive. The soil and dust samples showed the presence of C. burnetii DNA ranging from 2.0 to 6.9%, respectively. These data show that specimens from a variety of animal species and the general environment provide a number of potential sources for C. burnetii infections of humans living in Queensland. These previously unrecognized sources may account for the high seroprevalence rates seen in putative low-risk communities, including Q fever patients with no direct animal contact and those subjects living in a low-risk urban environment. PMID:23663407

  2. In vitro glucuronidation kinetics of deoxynivalenol by human and animal microsomes and recombinant human UGT enzymes.

    PubMed

    Maul, Ronald; Warth, Benedikt; Schebb, Nils Helge; Krska, Rudolf; Koch, Matthias; Sulyok, Michael

    2015-06-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), formed by Fusarium species, is one of the most abundant mycotoxins contaminating food and feed worldwide. Upon ingestion, the majority of the toxin is excreted by humans and animal species as glucuronide conjugate. First in vitro data indicated that DON phase II metabolism is strongly species dependent. However, kinetic data on the in vitro metabolism as well as investigations on the specific enzymes responsible for DON glucuronidation in human are lacking. In the present study, the DON metabolism was investigated using human microsomal fractions and uridine-diphosphoglucuronyltransferases (UGTs) as well as liver microsomes from five animal species. Only two of the twelve tested human recombinant UGTs led to the formation of DON glucuronides with a different regiospecificity. UGT2B4 predominantly catalyzed the formation of DON-15-O-glucuronide (DON-15GlcA), while for UGT2B7 the DON-3-O-glucuronide (DON-3GlcA) metabolite prevailed. For human UGTs, liver, and intestinal microsomes, the glucuronidation activities were low. The estimated apparent intrinsic clearance (Clapp,int) for all human UGT as well as tissue homogenates was <1 mL/min mg protein. For the animal liver microsomes, moderate Clapp,int between 1.5 and 10 mL/min mg protein were calculated for carp, trout, and porcine liver. An elevated glucuronidation activity was detected for rat and bovine liver microsomes leading to Clapp,int between 20 and 80 mL/min mg protein. The obtained in vitro data points out that none of the animal models is suitable for estimating the human DON metabolism with respect to the metabolite pattern and formation rate. PMID:24927789

  3. Genetic recombination between human and animal parasites creates novel strains of human pathogen.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Wendy; Peacock, Lori; Ferris, Vanessa; Fischer, Katrin; Livingstone, Jennifer; Thomas, James; Bailey, Mick

    2015-03-01

    Genetic recombination between pathogens derived from humans and livestock has the potential to create novel pathogen strains, highlighted by the influenza pandemic H1N1/09, which was derived from a re-assortment of swine, avian and human influenza A viruses. Here we investigated whether genetic recombination between subspecies of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, from humans and animals can generate new strains of human pathogen, T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr) responsible for sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT) in East Africa. The trait of human infectivity in Tbr is conferred by a single gene, SRA, which is potentially transferable to the animal pathogen Tbb by sexual reproduction. We tracked the inheritance of SRA in crosses of Tbr and Tbb set up by co-transmitting genetically-engineered fluorescent parental trypanosome lines through tsetse flies. SRA was readily transferred into new genetic backgrounds by sexual reproduction between Tbr and Tbb, thus creating new strains of the human pathogen, Tbr. There was no evidence of diminished growth or transmissibility of hybrid trypanosomes carrying SRA. Although expression of SRA is critical to survival of Tbr in the human host, we show that the gene exists as a single copy in a representative collection of Tbr strains. SRA was found on one homologue of chromosome IV in the majority of Tbr isolates examined, but some Ugandan Tbr had SRA on both homologues. The mobility of SRA by genetic recombination readily explains the observed genetic variability of Tbr in East Africa. We conclude that new strains of the human pathogen Tbr are being generated continuously by recombination with the much larger pool of animal-infective trypanosomes. Such novel recombinants present a risk for future outbreaks of HAT. PMID:25816228

  4. Genetic Recombination between Human and Animal Parasites Creates Novel Strains of Human Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Wendy; Peacock, Lori; Ferris, Vanessa; Fischer, Katrin; Livingstone, Jennifer; Thomas, James; Bailey, Mick

    2015-01-01

    Genetic recombination between pathogens derived from humans and livestock has the potential to create novel pathogen strains, highlighted by the influenza pandemic H1N1/09, which was derived from a re-assortment of swine, avian and human influenza A viruses. Here we investigated whether genetic recombination between subspecies of the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei, from humans and animals can generate new strains of human pathogen, T. b. rhodesiense (Tbr) responsible for sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT) in East Africa. The trait of human infectivity in Tbr is conferred by a single gene, SRA, which is potentially transferable to the animal pathogen Tbb by sexual reproduction. We tracked the inheritance of SRA in crosses of Tbr and Tbb set up by co-transmitting genetically-engineered fluorescent parental trypanosome lines through tsetse flies. SRA was readily transferred into new genetic backgrounds by sexual reproduction between Tbr and Tbb, thus creating new strains of the human pathogen, Tbr. There was no evidence of diminished growth or transmissibility of hybrid trypanosomes carrying SRA. Although expression of SRA is critical to survival of Tbr in the human host, we show that the gene exists as a single copy in a representative collection of Tbr strains. SRA was found on one homologue of chromosome IV in the majority of Tbr isolates examined, but some Ugandan Tbr had SRA on both homologues. The mobility of SRA by genetic recombination readily explains the observed genetic variability of Tbr in East Africa. We conclude that new strains of the human pathogen Tbr are being generated continuously by recombination with the much larger pool of animal-infective trypanosomes. Such novel recombinants present a risk for future outbreaks of HAT. PMID:25816228

  5. Modeling of Human Body for Animation by Micro-sensor Motion Capture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Li; Zheng Wu; Xiaoli Meng; Jiankang Wu

    2009-01-01

    We present a human motion model and animation for micro-sensor motion capture system. It consists of a sensor data-driven layered human motion model and an animation method using polygon group to achieve skin deformation. This method is based on biomechanics. The joints of human body were categorized according to the motion characteristics. Motion parameters estimated from sensor data are used

  6. Computer Graphics Proceedings, Annual Conference Se ries, 1995 Animating Human Athletics

    E-print Network

    O'Brien, James F.

    to the animations with spring- mass simulations of clothing driven by the rigid-body motion of the simulated human the comparison of simulated and biomechanical data. Key Words and Phrases: computer animation, human motion-looking human motion. In particular, this paper describes algorithms that allow a rigid- body model of a man

  7. Staphylococcus aureus host specificity: comparative genomics of human versus animal isolates by multi-strain microarray

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia M.-L. Sung; David H. Lloyd; Jodi A. Lindsay

    2008-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a commensal and pathogen of several mammalian species, particularly humans and cattle. We aimed to (i) identify S. aureus genes associated with host specificity, (ii) determine the relatedness of human and animal isolates, and (iii) identify whether human and animal isolates typically exchanged mobile genetic elements encoding virulence and resistance genes. Using a well-validated seven-strain S. aureus

  8. Human-computer interface including haptically controlled interactions

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Thomas G.

    2005-10-11

    The present invention provides a method of human-computer interfacing that provides haptic feedback to control interface interactions such as scrolling or zooming within an application. Haptic feedback in the present method allows the user more intuitive control of the interface interactions, and allows the user's visual focus to remain on the application. The method comprises providing a control domain within which the user can control interactions. For example, a haptic boundary can be provided corresponding to scrollable or scalable portions of the application domain. The user can position a cursor near such a boundary, feeling its presence haptically (reducing the requirement for visual attention for control of scrolling of the display). The user can then apply force relative to the boundary, causing the interface to scroll the domain. The rate of scrolling can be related to the magnitude of applied force, providing the user with additional intuitive, non-visual control of scrolling.

  9. Salmonella in food animals and humans in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Padungtod, Pawin; Kaneene, John B

    2006-05-01

    A study was conducted to describe the epidemiology of Salmonella spp. in chickens, pigs, dairy cows, farm workers with and without livestock contact, and children with diarrhea. Samples were collected in the Chiangmai and Lampoon provinces of northern Thailand during 2000-2003. A total of 2141 samples were processed. The prevalences of Salmonella in chickens at the farm, slaughterhouse and chicken meat at the market were 4%, 9% and 57%, respectively. In pigs, the prevalence at the farm, slaughterhouse and pork at the market were 6%, 28% and 29%, respectively. The prevalence of Salmonella in dairy cows was 3%. Salmonella was isolated from 36% of farm workers with livestock contact and 33% of those with no livestock contact, and from 7% of diarrheal children at the hospital. The longitudinal study of Salmonella in pigs showed that the incidences of Salmonella isolation at the farm, slaughterhouse, and market were 7%, 50% and 20%, respectively. The most frequently isolated serotypes of Salmonella were Weltevreden in chickens and humans, and Rissen in pigs. Serotypes varied between farm, slaughterhouse and market for isolates from chickens and pigs. Antimicrobial resistance was present in isolates from all types of animals and humans in the study, with widespread resistance to tetracycline and nalidixic acid. The proportions of resistant organisms among Salmonella from diarrheal children were high, and higher proportions of multi-drug resistant organisms were observed among Salmonella isolates from farm workers with livestock contact than among isolates from workers with no livestock contact. PMID:16488041

  10. In-vivo animation of midazolam-induced electrocorticographic changes in humans.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Masaaki; Sood, Sandeep; Asano, Eishi

    2009-12-15

    Previous human studies have demonstrated that midazolam-induced signal changes on scalp EEG recording include widespread augmentation of sigma-oscillations and that the amplitude of such oscillations is correlated to the severity of midazolam-induced amnesia. Still unanswered questions include whether midazolam-induced sigma-augmentation also involves the medial temporal region, which plays a role in memory encoding. Taking advantage of rare and unique opportunities to monitor neuronal activities using intracranial electrocorticography (ECoG) recording, we determined how intravenous administration of midazolam elicited spectral frequency changes in the human cerebral cortex, including the medial temporal region. We studied three children with focal epilepsy who underwent subdural electrode placement and extraoperative ECoG recording for subsequent resection of the seizure focus; an intravenous bolus of midazolam was given to abort an ongoing simple partial seizure or to provide sedation prior to induction of general anesthesia. 'Midazolam-induced ECoG frequency alteration' in sites distant from the seizure focus was sequentially animated on their individual three-dimensional MR images. The common ECoG changes induced by midazolam included gradual augmentation of sigma-oscillations (12-16 Hz) in the widespread non-epileptic regions, including the medial temporal region. The spatial and temporal alteration of ECoG spectral frequency pattern can be appreciated via animation movies. Midazolam-induced sigma-augmentation was observed in the medial temporal region in our relatively small cohort of human subjects. In-vivo animation of ECoG spectral measures provided a unique situation to study the effect of midazolam on neuronal processing in the deep brain regions. PMID:19733366

  11. Severe Life Stress and Oxidative Stress in the Brain: From Animal Models to Human Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Jaquet, Vincent; Trabace, Luigia; Krause, Karl-Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Severe life stress (SLS), as opposed to trivial everyday stress, is defined as a serious psychosocial event with the potential of causing an impacting psychological traumatism. Recent Advances: Numerous studies have attempted to understand how the central nervous system (CNS) responds to SLS. This response includes a variety of morphological and neurochemical modifications; among them, oxidative stress is almost invariably observed. Oxidative stress is defined as disequilibrium between oxidant generation and the antioxidant response. Critical Issues: In this review, we discuss how SLS leads to oxidative stress in the CNS, and how the latter impacts pathophysiological outcomes. We also critically discuss experimental methods that measure oxidative stress in the CNS. The review covers animal models and human observations. Animal models of SLS include sleep deprivation, maternal separation, and social isolation in rodents, and the establishment of hierarchy in non-human primates. In humans, SLS, which is caused by traumatic events such as child abuse, war, and divorce, is also accompanied by oxidative stress in the CNS. Future Directions: The outcome of SLS in humans ranges from resilience, over post-traumatic stress disorder, to development of chronic mental disorders. Defining the sources of oxidative stress in SLS might in the long run provide new therapeutic avenues. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1475–1490. PMID:22746161

  12. Real-time algorithms for human versus animal classification using a pyroelectric sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossen, Jakir; Jacobs, Eddie; Chari, Srikant

    2013-06-01

    Classification of human and animal targets imaged by a linear pyroelectic array senor presents some unique challenges especially in target segmentation and feature extraction. In this paper, we apply two approaches to address this problem. Both techniques start with the variational energy functional level set segmentation technique to separate the object from background. After segmentation, in the first technique, we extract features such as texture, invariant moments, edge, shape information, and spectral contents of the segmented object. These features are fed to classifiers including Naïve Bayesian (NB), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) for human against animal classification. In the second technique, the speeded up robust feature (SURF) extraction algorithm is applied to the segmented objects. A code book technique is used to classify objects based on SURF features. Human and animal data acquired-using the pyroelectric sensor in different terrains, are used for performance evaluation of the algorithms. The evaluation indicates that the features extracted in the first technique in conjunction with the NB classifier provide the highest classification rates. While the SURF feature plus code book approach provides a slightly lower classification rate, it provides better computational efficiency lending itself to real time implementation.

  13. Ethical Aspects of Relationships Between Humans and Research Animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold Herzog

    2002-01-01

    People who work in biomedical and behavioral research settings sometimes form strong relationships with indi- vidual laboratory animals. Ethnographic studies indicate that it is common for these individuals to transform some animals from \\

  14. A comprehensive review of the pharmacodynamics of the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Michel, Martin C; Mayoux, Eric; Vallon, Volker

    2015-08-01

    Empagliflozin (formerly known as BI 10773) is a potent, competitive, and selective inhibitor of the sodium glucose transporter SGLT2, which mediates glucose reabsorption in the early proximal tubule and most of the glucose reabsorption by the kidney, overall. Accordingly, empagliflozin treatment increased urinary glucose excretion. This has been observed across multiple species including humans and was reported under euglycemic conditions, in obesity and, most importantly, in type 2 diabetic patients and multiple animal models of type 2 diabetes and of type 1 diabetes. This led to a reduction in blood glucose, smaller blood glucose excursions during oral glucose tolerance tests, and, upon chronic treatment, a reduction in HbA1c in animal models and patients. In rodents, such effects were observed in early and late phases of experimental diabetes and were associated with preservation of pancreatic ?-cell function. Combination studies in animals demonstrated that beneficial metabolic effects of empagliflozin may also manifest when added to other types of anti-hyperglycemic treatments including linagliptin and pioglitazone. While some anti-hyperglycemic drugs lead to weight gain, empagliflozin treatment was associated with reduced body weight in normoglycemic obese and non-obese animals despite an increased food intake, largely due to a loss of adipose tissue; on the other hand, empagliflozin preserved body weight in models of type 1 diabetes. Empagliflozin improved endothelial dysfunction in diabetic rats and arterial stiffness, reduced blood pressure in diabetic patients, and attenuated early signs of nephropathy in diabetic animal models. Taken together, the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin improves glucose metabolism by enhancing urinary glucose excretion; upon chronic administration, at least in animal models, the reductions in blood glucose levels are associated with beneficial effects on cardiovascular and renal complications of diabetes. PMID:26108304

  15. The sub-specific differentiation of Escherichia coli with particular reference to ecological studies in young animals including man.

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, M.

    1985-01-01

    It is possible to differentiate isolates of Escherichia coli using a number of techniques including the determination of the serotype, biotype and phage type and the profiles for resistance to antibacterial agents and toxic chemicals, intracellular enzymes, outer membrane proteins and plasmids and the production of enterotoxin and colicines. These methods have been used principally for the study of pathogenic E. coli and plasmid-mediated drug resistance. However they can also be used successfully for ecological purposes and the application of several of these techniques for the study of the ecology of E. coli in healthy young animals including man is described. PMID:2419402

  16. Animal Rights Versus HumanismThe Charge of Speciesism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth J. Shapiro

    1990-01-01

    The present article examines a concern I have had for some time about the compatibility of humanistic psychology with the emerging animal rights movement. Beyond working out my position, the paper has the additional educational and, frankly, political purpose of bringing animal rights issues to the attention of humanistic psychologists. The article applies certain concepts of contemporary animal rights philosophy,

  17. The Animal-Human Bond and Ethnic Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Holley, Lynn C.; Wolf, Shapard

    2006-01-01

    Affectionate relationships with animal companions have health-enhancing effects on people and enrich their quality of life, and the majority of families with companion animals regard their animals as family members. Research has also suggested that these relationships are complicated and vary depending on a number of factors, yet there has been…

  18. 76 FR 25538 - Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1 RIN 0910-AG67...Criteria Used To Order Administrative Detention of Food for Human or Animal Consumption AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION:...

  19. Ticks infesting wild and domestic animals and humans of Sri Lanka with new host records.

    PubMed

    Liyanaarachchi, D R; Rajakaruna, R S; Dikkumbura, A W; Rajapakse, R P V J

    2015-02-01

    An island-wide collection of tick species infesting humans, domesticated and wild animals and questing ticks in domestic and peridomestic environments was carried out during 2009-2011. A total of 30,461 ticks were collected from 30 different hosts and free living stages from the ground. The collection consisted of 22 tick species from 30 different hosts recording 12 tick species from humans, 19 from domesticated animals and 21 from wild animals, with a total of 97 new host records. The most common tick species on humans were Dermacentor auratus and Amblyomma testudinairum, while Haemaphysalis intermedia, Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were common in domesticated and wild animals sharing 20 host species. Among the questing ticks, immature D. auratus was the most abundant. Humans and domesticated animals were mostly infested by the nymphal stages while adult ticks were found on wild animals. High number of new host records could be due to domestic animals picking tick species from wildlife and vise versa at the human/animal interface. Habitat destruction due to forest fragmentation has lead to wild animals roaming in urban and semi-urban neighbourhoods increasing the interactions of wild animals with domesticated animals. Wild animals play a significant role as a reservoir of many tick borne infections which can easily be spread to domesticated animals and then to humans via tick infestations. Data in this paper are useful for those interested in tick infesting wild and domestic animals and humans in describing the zoonotic potential of tick borne infections. PMID:25445744

  20. Development of novel combined anticalcification protocols including immunologic modification for prolonged durability of cardiac xenograft: preclinical study using large-animal long-term circulatory models.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hong-Gook; Jeong, Saeromi; Shin, Jun-Seop; Park, Chung-Gyu; Kim, Yong Jin

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac xenografts are conventionally cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (GA) to impart tissue stability, reduce antigenicity, and maintain tissue sterility. However, GA-fixed xenografts are prone to calcification after long-term implantation in humans, because of phospholipids, free aldehyde groups, and residual antigenicity. We evaluated preclinical safety and efficacy using large-animal long-term circulatory models for our novel combined anticalcification protocol including immunological modification, which had been proven effective in small animal experiments. Bovine/porcine xenografts were treated with decellularization, immunological modification with ?-galactosidase, GA fixation with organic solvent, and detoxification with glycine. Valve conduits made of these xenografts were transplanted into the pulmonary root of goats, and hemodynamic, radiological, immunohistopathological, and biochemical results were obtained for 12 months after implantation. Evaluation of echocardiography and cardiac catheterization demonstrated good hemodynamic status and function of the pulmonary xenograft valves. Durability of the xenografts was well preserved without calcification by specimen radiography and immunohistopathological examination. The calcium concentrations of the explanted xenografts were lower than the control xenografts. This preclinical study using large-animal long-term circulatory models demonstrated that our synergistic and simultaneous employment of multiple anticalcification therapies and novel tissue treatments, including immunological modifications, have promising safety and efficacy and should be examined further in future clinical studies. PMID:25303800

  1. Transitive inference in non-human animals: An empirical and theoretical analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Vasconcelos

    2008-01-01

    Transitive inference has long been considered one of the hallmarks of human deductive reasoning. Recent reports of transitive-like behaviors in non-human animals have prompted a flourishing empirical and theoretical search for the mechanism(s) that may mediate this ability in non-humans. In this paper, I begin by describing the transitive inference tasks customarily used with non-human animals and then review the

  2. Animator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tech Directions, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Art and animation work is the most significant part of electronic game development, but is also found in television commercials, computer programs, the Internet, comic books, and in just about every visual media imaginable. It is the part of the project that makes an abstract design idea concrete and visible. Animators create the motion of life in…

  3. An animal model of human aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.; Mann, J.; Yoshida, A. [Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The genetic deficiency of ALDH2, a major mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, is intimately related to alcohol sensitivity and the degree of predisposition to alcoholic diseases in humans. The ultimate biological role of ALDH2 can be exposed by knocking out the ALDH2 gene in an animal model. As the first step for this line of studies, we cloned and characterized the ALDH2 gene from mouse C57/6J strain which is associated with a high alcohol preference. The gene spans 26 kbp and is composed of 13 exons. Embryonic stem cells were transfected with a replacement vector which contains a partially deleted exon3, a positive selection cassette (pPgk Neo), exon 4 with an artificial stop codon, exons 5, 6, 7, and a negative selection cassette (pMCI-Tk). Genomic DNAs prepared from drug resistant clones were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and by Southern blot analysis to distinguish random integration from homologous recombination. Out of 132 clones examined, 8 had undergone homologous recombination at one of the ALDH2 alleles. The cloned transformed embryonic stem cells with a disrupted ALDH2 allele were injected into blastocysts. Transplantation of the blastocysts into surrogate mother mice yielded chimeric mice. The role of ALDH2 in alcohol preference, alcohol sensitivity and other biological and behavioral characteristics can be elucidated by examining the heterozygous and homozygous mutant strains produced by breeding of chimeric mice.

  4. Hydroanalysis of Animal Lysozymes c and Human Defensins a

    E-print Network

    J. C. Phillips

    2008-08-17

    Proteins appear to be the most dramatic natural example of self-organized criticality (SOC), a concept that explains many otherwise apparently unlikely phenomena. Protein functionality is dominated by long range hydro(phobic/philic) interactions which both drive protein compaction and mediate protein-protein interactions. In contrast to previous reductionist short range hydrophobicity scales, the holistic Moret-Zebende hydrophobicity scale represents a hydroanalytic tool that bioinformatically quantifies SOC in a way fully compatible with evolution. Hydroprofiling identifies chemical trends in the activities and substrate binding abilities of model enzymes and antibiotic animal lysozymes c and antibiotic human defensins, which have been the subject of tens of thousands of experimental studies. The analysis is simple and easily performed, and immediately yields insights not obtainable by traditional methods based on short-range real-space interactions, as described either by classical force fields (CFF) used in molecular dynamics simulations (MDS), or hydrophobicity scales based on transference energies from water to organic solvents.

  5. Characterizing interspecies uncertainty using data from studies of anti-neoplastic agents in animals and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Paul S. [Dow Chemical Company, Toxicology and Environmental Research and Consulting, 1803 Building, Midland MI 48674 (United States)], E-mail: pprice@dow.com; Keenan, Russell E. [AMEC Earth and Environmental, 15 Franklin Street, Portland, ME 04101 (United States); Swartout, Jeffrey C. [National Center for Environmental Assessment U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 26 W. M. L. King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    For most chemicals, the Reference Dose (RfD) is based on data from animal testing. The uncertainty introduced by the use of animal models has been termed interspecies uncertainty. The magnitude of the differences between the toxicity of a chemical in humans and test animals and its uncertainty can be investigated by evaluating the inter-chemical variation in the ratios of the doses associated with similar toxicological endpoints in test animals and humans. This study performs such an evaluation on a data set of 64 anti-neoplastic drugs. The data set provides matched responses in humans and four species of test animals: mice, rats, monkeys, and dogs. While the data have a number of limitations, the data show that when the drugs are evaluated on a body weight basis: 1) toxicity generally increases with a species' body weight; however, humans are not always more sensitive than test animals; 2) the animal to human dose ratios were less than 10 for most, but not all, drugs; 3) the current practice of using data from multiple species when setting RfDs lowers the probability of having a large value for the ratio. These findings provide insight into inter-chemical variation in animal to human extrapolations and suggest the need for additional collection and analysis of matched toxicity data in humans and test animals.

  6. Quantifying light-dependent circadian disruption in humans and animal models.

    PubMed

    Rea, Mark S; Figueiro, Mariana G

    2014-12-01

    Although circadian disruption is an accepted term, little has been done to develop methods to quantify the degree of disruption or entrainment individual organisms actually exhibit in the field. A variety of behavioral, physiological and hormonal responses vary in amplitude over a 24-h period and the degree to which these circadian rhythms are synchronized to the daily light-dark cycle can be quantified with a technique known as phasor analysis. Several studies have been carried out using phasor analysis in an attempt to measure circadian disruption exhibited by animals and by humans. To perform these studies, species-specific light measurement and light delivery technologies had to be developed based upon a fundamental understanding of circadian phototransduction mechanisms in the different species. When both nocturnal rodents and diurnal humans, experienced different species-specific light-dark shift schedules, they showed, based upon phasor analysis of the light-dark and activity-rest patterns, similar levels of light-dependent circadian disruption. Indeed, both rodents and humans show monotonically increasing and quantitatively similar levels of light-dependent circadian disruption with increasing shift-nights per week. Thus, phasor analysis provides a method for quantifying circadian disruption in the field and in the laboratory as well as a bridge between ecological measurements of circadian entrainment in humans and parametric studies of circadian disruption in animal models, including nocturnal rodents. PMID:25229212

  7. Domestic pigs as potential reservoirs of human and animal trypanosomiasis in Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pig keeping is becoming increasingly common across sub-Saharan Africa. Domestic pigs from the Arusha region of northern Tanzania were screened for trypanosomes using PCR-based methods to examine the role of pigs as a reservoir of human and animal trypanosomiasis. Methods A total of 168 blood samples were obtained from domestic pigs opportunistically sampled across four districts in Tanzania (Babati, Mbulu, Arumeru and Dodoma) during December 2004. A suite of PCR-based methods was used to identify the species and sub-species of trypanosomes including: Internally Transcribed Sequence to identify multiple species; species specific PCR to identify T. brucei s. l. and T. godfreyi and a multiplex PCR reaction to distinguish T. b. rhodesiense from T. brucei s. l. Results Of the 168 domestic pigs screened for animal and human infective trypanosome DNA, 28 (16.7%) were infected with one or more species of trypanosome; these included: six pigs infected with Trypanosoma vivax (3.6%); three with Trypanosoma simiae (1.8%); two with Trypanosoma congolense (Forest) (1%) and four with Trypanosoma godfreyi (2.4%). Nineteen pigs were infected with Trypanosoma brucei s. l. (10.1%) of which eight were identified as carrying the human infective sub-species Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (4.8%). Conclusion These results show that in Tanzania domestic pigs may act as a significant reservoir for animal trypanosomiasis including the cattle pathogens T. vivax and T. congolense, the pig pathogen T. simiae, and provide a significant reservoir for T. b. rhodesiense, the causative agent of acute Rhodesian sleeping sickness. PMID:24499540

  8. Research and management of soil, plant, animal, and human resources in the Middle Rio Grande Basin

    E-print Network

    Research and management of soil, plant, animal, and human resources in the Middle Rio Grande Basin Deborah M. Abstract.-The Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station initiated a research program in 1994 called. "Ecology, diversity, and sustainability of soil, plant, animal, and human resources

  9. DETECTION OF INTRINSIC VANCOMYCIN RESISTANT ENTEROCOCCI IN ANIMAL AND HUMAN FECES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A survey was conducted to determine the occurrence of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in animal and human fecal samples. Fecal samples from 14 animal species and humans were analyzed by quantitative culture for enterococci and VRE. Over 800 VRE isolates were characterize...

  10. The metabolism and availability of essential fatty acids in animal and human tissues

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    phospholipids is unchanged in aging. Fatty acid oxidation in the liver is also likely to decreaseThe metabolism and availability of essential fatty acids in animal and human tissues J Bézard JP Summary ― Essential fatty acids (EFA), which are not synthesized in animal and human tissues

  11. Characterisation of the Wildlife Reservoir Community for Human and Animal Trypanosomiasis in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil E. Anderson; Joseph Mubanga; Eric M. Fevre; Kim Picozzi; Mark C. Eisler; Robert Thomas; Susan C. Welburn

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundAnimal and human trypanosomiasis are constraints to both animal and human health in Sub-Saharan Africa, but there is little recent evidence as to how these parasites circulate in wild hosts in natural ecosystems. The Luangwa Valley in Zambia supports high densities of tsetse flies (Glossina species) and is recognised as an historical sleeping sickness focus. The objective of this study

  12. One medicine: The dynamic relationship between animal and human medicine in history and at present

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tjaart W. Schillhorn van Veen

    1998-01-01

    The relation and collaboration of human and animal medicine had its ups and downs throughout history. The interaction between these two disciplines has been especially fruitful in the broad areas of patho-physiology and of epidemiology. An exploration of the interaction between the two disciplines, using historical and contemporary examples in comparative medicine, zoonoses, zooprophylaxis, and human-animal bond, reveals that a

  13. Ethanol Consumption: How Should We Measure It? Achieving Consilience between Human and Animal Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Heilig, Markus; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Stephens, David N.; Duka, Taheodora; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2010-01-01

    There is only modest overlap in the most common alcohol consumption phenotypes measured in animal studies and those typically studied in humans. To address this issue, we identified a number of alcohol consumption phenotypes of importance to the field that have potential for consilience between human and animal models. These phenotypes can be broken down into three categories: 1) abstinence/the decision to drink or abstain; 2) the actual amount of alcohol consumed and 3) heavy drinking. A number of suggestions for human and animal researchers are made in order to address these phenotypes and enhance consilience. Laboratory studies of the decision to drink or abstain are needed in both human and animal research. In human laboratory studies, heavy or binge drinking that meets cut-offs used in epidemiological and clinical trials should be reported. Greater attention to patterns of drinking over time is needed in both animal and human studies. Individual differences pertaining to all consumption phenotypes should be addressed in animal research. Lastly, improved biomarkers need to be developed in future research for use with both humans and animals. Greater precision in estimating blood alcohol levels in the field together with consistent measurement of breath/blood alcohol levels in human laboratory and animal studies provides one means of achieving greater consilience of alcohol consumption phenotypes. PMID:20148775

  14. When can animation improve learning? Some implications for human computer interaction and learning

    E-print Network

    it is constructed, perceived, and conceptualized. Based on cognitive science and human learning theories, this paperWhen can animation improve learning? Some implications for human computer interaction and learning illustrations with animation and narration to enhance learning has been inconclusive (Tversky et al., 2002). We

  15. Status and future developments in plant iron for animal and human nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant foods play a critical role in providing dietary iron to humans and other animals. Much of the world's human population subsists on diets that are predominantly vegetarian, while for those who eat limited to excessive amounts of animal food products, most of these foods come from livestock who...

  16. Animal models of human anthrax: The Quest for the Holy Grail

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre L. Goossens

    2009-01-01

    Anthrax is rare among humans, few data can be collected from infected individuals and they provide a fragmentary view of the dynamics of infection and human host–pathogen interactions. Therefore, the development of animal models is necessary. Anthrax has the particularity of being a toxi-infection, a combination of infection and toxemia. The ideal animal model would explore these two different facets

  17. Animal studies of amygdala function in fear and uncertainty: Relevance to human research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey B. Rosen; Melanie P. Donley

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews research in both animals and humans on the considerable progress made in elucidating a brain circuitry of fear, particularly the importance of the amygdala in fear conditioning. While there is considerable agreement about the participation of the amygdala in fear in both animals and humans, there are several issues about the function of the amygdala raised by

  18. Humane Disposability: Rethinking “Food Animals,” Animal Welfare, and Vegetarianism in Response to the Factory Farm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica L W Carey

    2011-01-01

    Intensively industrialized animal agriculture, or factory farming, poses many challenges for our notions of “life” and how it should be treated. Factory farming’s mass instrumentalization and exploitation of animals potentially unsettles both our most basic notions regarding the justice of sacrificing certain lives in order to improve other lives, and our decisions about which lives belong to each category. This

  19. Ability of Small Animal Cells to Support the Postintegration Phase of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type1 Replication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Atsushi Koito; Hironori Shigekane; Shuzo Matsushita

    2003-01-01

    We examine the potential for a broad range of small animal cells, including rodent, mink, and avian cells, from multiple tissues to support postintegration steps of HIV-1 replication. These cells were engineered so as to support a stable expression of human cyclin T1 and were further transduced with HIV-1 gag and pol genes. Viral gene expression was activated by the

  20. Contributions and complexities from the use of in vivo animal models to improve understanding of human neuroimaging signals

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Many of the major advances in our understanding of how functional brain imaging signals relate to neuronal activity over the previous two decades have arisen from physiological research studies involving experimental animal models. This approach has been successful partly because it provides opportunities to measure both the hemodynamic changes that underpin many human functional brain imaging techniques and the neuronal activity about which we wish to make inferences. Although research into the coupling of neuronal and hemodynamic responses using animal models has provided a general validation of the correspondence of neuroimaging signals to specific types of neuronal activity, it is also highlighting the key complexities and uncertainties in estimating neural signals from hemodynamic markers. This review will detail how research in animal models is contributing to our rapidly evolving understanding of what human neuroimaging techniques tell us about neuronal activity. It will highlight emerging issues in the interpretation of neuroimaging data that arise from in vivo research studies, for example spatial and temporal constraints to neuroimaging signal interpretation, or the effects of disease and modulatory neurotransmitters upon neurovascular coupling. We will also give critical consideration to the limitations and possible complexities of translating data acquired in the typical animals models used in this area to the arena of human fMRI. These include the commonplace use of anesthesia in animal research studies and the fact that many neuropsychological questions that are being actively explored in humans have limited homologs within current animal models for neuroimaging research. Finally we will highlighting approaches, both in experimental animals models (e.g. imaging in conscious, behaving animals) and human studies (e.g. combined fMRI-EEG), that mitigate against these challenges. PMID:25191214

  1. Visual Search Efficiency is Greater for Human Faces Compared to Animal Faces

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Mertins, Haley L.; Yee, Krysten; Fullerton, Alison; Jakobsen, Krisztina V.

    2015-01-01

    The Animate Monitoring Hypothesis proposes that humans and animals were the most important categories of visual stimuli for ancestral humans to monitor, as they presented important challenges and opportunities for survival and reproduction; however, it remains unknown whether animal faces are located as efficiently as human faces. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether human, primate, and mammal faces elicit similarly efficient searches, or whether human faces are privileged. In the first three experiments, participants located a target (human, primate, or mammal face) among distractors (non-face objects). We found fixations on human faces were faster and more accurate than primate faces, even when controlling for search category specificity. A final experiment revealed that, even when task-irrelevant, human faces slowed searches for non-faces, suggesting some bottom-up processing may be responsible for the human face search efficiency advantage. PMID:24962122

  2. Correlating preclinical animal studies and human clinical trials of a multifunctional, polymeric nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Eliasof, Scott; Lazarus, Douglas; Peters, Christian G; Case, Roy I; Cole, Roderic O; Hwang, Jungyeon; Schluep, Thomas; Chao, Joseph; Lin, James; Yen, Yun; Han, Han; Wiley, Devin T; Zuckerman, Jonathan E; Davis, Mark E

    2013-09-10

    Nanoparticles are currently being investigated in a number of human clinical trials. As information on how nanoparticles function in humans is difficult to obtain, animal studies that can be correlative to human behavior are needed to provide guidance for human clinical trials. Here, we report correlative studies on animals and humans for CRLX101, a 20- to 30-nm-diameter, multifunctional, polymeric nanoparticle containing camptothecin (CPT). CRLX101 is currently in phase 2 clinical trials, and human data from several of the clinical investigations are compared with results from multispecies animal studies. The pharmacokinetics of polymer-conjugated CPT (indicative of the CRLX101 nanoparticles) in mice, rats, dogs, and humans reveal that the area under the curve scales linearly with milligrams of CPT per square meter for all species. Plasma concentrations of unconjugated CPT released from CRLX101 in animals and humans are consistent with each other after accounting for differences in serum albumin binding of CPT. Urinary excretion of polymer-conjugated CPT occurs primarily within the initial 24 h after dosing in animals and humans. The urinary excretion dynamics of polymer-conjugated and unconjugated CPT appear similar between animals and humans. CRLX101 accumulates into solid tumors and releases CPT over a period of several days to give inhibition of its target in animal xenograft models of cancer and in the tumors of humans. Taken in total, the evidence provided from animal models on the CRLX101 mechanism of action suggests that the behavior of CRLX101 in animals is translatable to humans. PMID:23980155

  3. Correlating preclinical animal studies and human clinical trials of a multifunctional, polymeric nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    Eliasof, Scott; Lazarus, Douglas; Peters, Christian G.; Case, Roy I.; Cole, Roderic O.; Hwang, Jungyeon; Schluep, Thomas; Chao, Joseph; Lin, James; Yen, Yun; Han, Han; Wiley, Devin T.; Zuckerman, Jonathan E.; Davis, Mark E.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles are currently being investigated in a number of human clinical trials. As information on how nanoparticles function in humans is difficult to obtain, animal studies that can be correlative to human behavior are needed to provide guidance for human clinical trials. Here, we report correlative studies on animals and humans for CRLX101, a 20- to 30-nm-diameter, multifunctional, polymeric nanoparticle containing camptothecin (CPT). CRLX101 is currently in phase 2 clinical trials, and human data from several of the clinical investigations are compared with results from multispecies animal studies. The pharmacokinetics of polymer-conjugated CPT (indicative of the CRLX101 nanoparticles) in mice, rats, dogs, and humans reveal that the area under the curve scales linearly with milligrams of CPT per square meter for all species. Plasma concentrations of unconjugated CPT released from CRLX101 in animals and humans are consistent with each other after accounting for differences in serum albumin binding of CPT. Urinary excretion of polymer-conjugated CPT occurs primarily within the initial 24 h after dosing in animals and humans. The urinary excretion dynamics of polymer-conjugated and unconjugated CPT appear similar between animals and humans. CRLX101 accumulates into solid tumors and releases CPT over a period of several days to give inhibition of its target in animal xenograft models of cancer and in the tumors of humans. Taken in total, the evidence provided from animal models on the CRLX101 mechanism of action suggests that the behavior of CRLX101 in animals is translatable to humans. PMID:23980155

  4. Human Rabies Post-Exposure Prophylaxis and Animal Rabies in Ontario, Canada, 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Middleton, D; Johnson, K O; Rosatte, R C; Hobbs, J L; Moore, S R; Rosella, L; Crowcroft, N S

    2015-08-01

    In Ontario, Canada, the implementation of an annual rabies control programme in wildlife that began in 1989 resulted in a marked, steady decrease in the number of animal rabies cases. The number of animal rabies cases decreased from 1870 in 1989 to 183 in 2000 (Nunan et al., 2002 Emerg Infect Dis 8, 214). In our study period, the number of animal rabies cases continued to decrease from 210 in 2001 to 28 in 2012. The marked decrease in animal rabies cases since 1989 has resulted in a decrease in the risk of human infection. A concomitant decrease in the number of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (RPEP) administered was anticipated but failed to occur. The mean rate of RPEP, 13.9 RPEP administered per 100 000 persons, from 2001-2012 was approximately the same as the rate in the 1990s. Two possible reasons that the rate of RPEP administration has not decreased include strict adherence to RPEP recommendations and administration of RPEP when it is not recommended. A reduction in the number of RPEP administered, consistent with the decrease in the animal rabies cases, would provide some financial savings for the government. Ideally, an increased use of the risk assessment approach in keeping with recent guidelines, rather than adhering to previous prescriptive recommendations for RPEP administration, coupled with a continuing low incidence of animal rabies cases will result in decreased, and yet appropriate, use of RPEP. Consideration should be given to identify how guidelines could be revised to more effectively target high-risk exposures and reduce the administration of RPEP for instances in which the risk of rabies virus exposure is exceedingly low. PMID:25244148

  5. Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why it Matters for Global Capitalism

    SciTech Connect

    Shiller, Robert J. (Yale) [Yale

    2010-03-02

    In his lecture, Shiller will discuss the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. Winner of the getAbstract International Book Award and the 2009 TIAA-CREF Paul A. Samuelson Award for Outstanding Scholarly Writing on Lifelong Financial Security, the book, which has the same title as Shiller's lecture, discusses how "animal spirits," or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today's global financial crisis. John Maynard Keynes coined the phrase "animal spirits" to describe the changing psychology that led to the Great Depression and the recovery from it. Like Keynes, Shiller and Akerlof believe that government intervention is necessary to overcome the adverse effects on the economy brought about by unruly and irrational human emotions. In his talk, Shiller will explain how "animal spirits" lead to adverse economic effects, and he will outline his insights on how the global economy can recover from its recent setbacks.

  6. Animations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christopher Griffith

    This collection contains animations of a nuclear chain reaction, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. It also showcases interactive models of the first atomic bombs and simulation of the "Nuclear Winter" effect.

  7. Rule learning over consonants and vowels in a non-human animal

    PubMed Central

    de la Mora, Daniela M.; Toro, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    Perception studies have shown similarities between humans and other animals in a wide array of language-related processes. However, the components of language that make it uniquely human have not been fully identified. Here we show that nonhuman animals extract rules over speech sequences that are difficult for humans. Specifically, animals easily learn rules over both consonants and vowels, while humans do it only over vowels. In Experiment 1, rats learned a rule implemented over vowels in CVCVCV nonsense words. In Experiment 2, rats learned the rule when it was implemented over the consonants. In both experiments, rats generalized such knowledge to novel words they had not heard before. Using the same stimuli, human adults learned the rules over the vowels but not over the consonants. These results suggest differences between humans and animals on speech processing might lie on the constraints they face while extracting information from the signal. PMID:23121712

  8. Developing Educational Computer Animation Based on Human Personality Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Sajid; Ziatdinov, Rushan; Sozcu, Omer Faruk; Griffiths, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Computer animation in the past decade has become one of the most noticeable features of technology-based learning environments. By its definition, it refers to simulated motion pictures showing movement of drawn objects, and is often defined as the art in movement. Its educational application known as educational computer animation is considered…

  9. Desirable characteristics of animal products from a human health perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John MacRae; Leona O'Reilly; Peter Morgan

    2005-01-01

    Animal products, mainly meat and milk, contribute a significant proportion to the food intake of Western societies, providing good sources of essential nutrients for health. Over the past three decades, animal fat has been a hot discussion topic in terms of noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, evidence now exists for the potential health benefits of certain

  10. NASOPHARYNGEAL UPTAKE OF OZONE IN HUMANS AND ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the paper, the experimental data on Nasopharyngeal uptake of ozone in several animal species will be reviewed in the context of the model of Aharonsen et al (1974). Allometric equations relating breathing patterns among animal species will be incorporated into the model to hel...

  11. Differentiation between human and animal isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum using molecular and biological markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatih M. Awad-El-Kariem; Heidi A. Robinson; Franz Petry; Vincent McDonald; David Evans; David Casemore

    1998-01-01

    Isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum obtained from infected humans, calves and lambs were typed using arbitrary primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) and\\u000a isoenzyme electrophoresis. All animal isolates tested (n?=?17) showed similar profiles in AP-PCR and isoenzyme typing. In AP-PCR assays, 9 out of 15 human isolates showed a distinct\\u000a “human” profile while the remaining 6 isolates showed the “animal” profile. In

  12. A Simple Physics Model to Animate Human Hair Modeled in 2D Strips in Real Time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuan Koon Koh; Zhiyong Huang

    \\u000a This paper presents a simple Physics model to animate human hair modeled in 2D strips in real time. A major difficulty in\\u000a animating human hair results from the large number of individual hair strands in a hairstyle. To address this problem, we\\u000a have presented aframework of human hair modeling based on grouping hair strands into strips. Each hair strip is

  13. Microsporidia Detection and Genotyping Study of Human Pathogenic E. bieneusi in Animals from Spain

    PubMed Central

    Galván-Díaz, Ana Luz; Magnet, Angela; Fenoy, Soledad; Henriques-Gil, Nuno; Haro, María; Gordo, Francisco Ponce; Miró, Guadalupe; del Águila, Carmen; Izquierdo, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Microsporidia are ubiquitous parasites infecting all animal phyla and we present evidence that supports their zoonotic potential. Fecal samples taken from domestic (cats and dogs), farm (pigs, rabbits and ostriches) and wild animals (foxes) from different provinces of Spain were evaluated for microsporidia infection by light microscopy and PCR. After Microsporidia species identification, E. bieneusi genotypes were additionally studied by sequence analysis of the ITS region. Eighty-five samples out of 159 exhibited structures that were compatible with microsporidia spores by Webe?s stain with 37 of them being confirmed by PCR. Microsporidia species identified included E. bieneusi, E. intestinalis and A. algerae. We report the first diagnosis of E. intestinalis and E. bieneusi in ostriches and A. algerae in pigs. We also provide new information on the molecular characterization of E. bieneusi isolates both in rabbits and ostriches. All of the E. bieneusi genotypes identified belonged to the zoonotic group of genotypes (Group I) including genotypes A (dogs), I (pigs), D (rabbits and foxes) and type IV (ostriches). Our results demonstrate that microsporidia are present in domestic, farm and wild animals in Spain, corroborating their potential role as a source of human infection and environmental contamination. PMID:24651457

  14. Time-related factors in the study of risks in animals and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.S.; Park, J.F.; Buschbom, R.L. (Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Data from epidemiological studies of humans exposed to potentially harmful substances are usually analyzed using methods that account for the dependence of risks on time-related factors such as age and follow-up period. Recently developed statistical procedures allow modeling of the age-specific risks as a function of dose as well as factors such as age at exposure, time since exposure, exposure duration, and dose rate. These procedures potentially allow more rigorous inferences and clearer understanding of the patterns of risk observed in epidemiological studies than has been available in the past. Statistical procedures that consider time-related factors can also be applied to laboratory animal data, providing information that is useful for the problems involved in extrapolating from animal studies to humans. By applying such procedures to data on exposure to the same substance in different species (including humans) or to different substances in the same species, better understanding of the relationship of risks across species and across substances can be achieved. In addition, such statistical procedures allow appropriate treatment of exposure that is accumulated over time and lead to improved understanding of patterns of risk over time. The approach is illustrated using data from a lifespan study of beagle dogs exposed to inhaled Pu.

  15. Production of human lactoferrin and lysozyme in the milk of transgenic dairy animals: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Caitlin A; Maga, Elizabeth A; Murray, James D

    2015-08-01

    Genetic engineering, which was first developed in the 1980s, allows for specific additions to animals' genomes that are not possible through conventional breeding. Using genetic engineering to improve agricultural animals was first suggested when the technology was in the early stages of development by Palmiter et al. (Nature 300:611-615, 1982). One of the first agricultural applications identified was generating transgenic dairy animals that could produce altered or novel proteins in their milk. Human milk contains high levels of antimicrobial proteins that are found in low concentrations in the milk of ruminants, including the antimicrobial proteins lactoferrin and lysozyme. Lactoferrin and lysozyme are both part of the innate immune system and are secreted in tears, mucus, and throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Due to their antimicrobial properties and abundance in human milk, multiple lines of transgenic dairy animals that produce either human lactoferrin or human lysozyme have been developed. The focus of this review is to catalogue the different lines of genetically engineered dairy animals that produce either recombinant lactoferrin or lysozyme that have been generated over the years as well as compare the wealth of research that has been done on the in vitro and in vivo effects of the milk they produce. While recent advances including the development of CRISPRs and TALENs have removed many of the technical barriers to predictable and efficient genetic engineering in agricultural species, there are still many political and regulatory hurdles before genetic engineering can be used in agriculture. It is important to consider the substantial amount of work that has been done thus far on well established lines of genetically engineered animals evaluating both the animals themselves and the products they yield to identify the most effective path forward for future research and acceptance of this technology. PMID:26059245

  16. Human and animal brucellosis in Jordan between 1996 and 1998: a study.

    PubMed

    Al-Ani, F K; El-Qaderi, S; Hailat, N Q; Razziq, R; Al-Darraji, A M

    2004-12-01

    Between 1996 and 1998, a total of 2,494 samples of blood from humans and animals were collected and tested for brucellosis. This total included 1,594 samples of animal blood, collected from 1,050 sheep from 20 flocks, and 544 goats from eight herds. The serum samples were tested using the Rose Bengal test, the tube agglutination test, the complement fixation test and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, a complete history was compiled from each flock/herd. The rate of abortions in sheep due to brucellosis ranged from 0.5% to 56%, with a mean of 33.2%. The goats had a higher abortion rate. Thirty-four aborted sheep foetuses collected from these 20 flocks were bacteriologically and pathologically examined. A pure culture of Brucella melitensis biotype 3 was isolated from 21 of the aborted foetuses. The human blood samples were collected from two groups: first, from 800 apparently healthy people who were reporting to community hospitals for routine health checks and secondly, from 100 people from groups with a high-risk of contracting brucellosis, such as veterinarians, sheep-herders and laboratory technicians. The Brucella antibody titres for the 900 human serum samples were obtained using the microtitre agglutination test. The cumulative percentage of the serum samples showing a titre reading greater than 1:80 was higher in the at-risk group than among the normal population (7% compared to 4.1%). Although these results were not statistically significant, the higher percentage of positive reactors among the high-risk group may indicate an increased risk factor among professional agricultural and veterinary personnel in Jordan. It was concluded that brucellosis is common in sheep and goats in Jordan, subjecting the human population to high risks. Brucella melitensis Rev. 1 vaccination has been internationally recognised as the key to successfully controlling the disease. All animals in Jordan were repeatedly vaccinated between 1996 and 1998 on a trial basis, using a reduced dose of 1 x 10(5) colony-forming units (CFU). Cumulative data on the annual rate of human cases of brucellosis indicate that fewer people are affected each year. The same is true for the rate of abortions in animals. Such evidence strongly suggests that the vaccination programme has been successful. However, as wild strains of Brucella have also been isolated from vaccinated animals, the authors recommend increasing the amount of vaccine to a full dose of 1 to 2 x 10(9) CFU and vaccinating young female animals between the ages of three and eight months. To avoid brucellosis in humans, people should be educated about the dangers of contact with infected animals and the consumption of raw milk and milk products. PMID:15861878

  17. Human and the animal in Victorian gothic scientific literature 

    E-print Network

    McKechnie, Claire Charlotte

    2011-07-01

    This doctoral thesis examines the role of animals in nineteenth-century science and Victorian Gothic fiction of the latter half of the century. It is interdisciplinary in its exploration of the interrelationship between science writings and literary...

  18. The animal-human bond and ethnic diversity.

    PubMed

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Holley, Lynn C; Wolf, Shapard

    2006-07-01

    Affectionate relationships with animal companions have health-enhancing effects on people and enrich their quality of life, and the majority of families with companion animals regard their animals as family members. Research has also suggested that these relationships are complicated and vary depending on a number of factors, yet there has been almost no exploration of ethnic diversity in relationships with companion animals. This descriptive study explores the relationships among race and ethnicity, beliefs about companion animals, and ownership practices. Findings indicate that in many instances there were no statistical differences by ethnicity. Nonetheless, describing oneself as white, American Indian, or both was associated with being more likely to have companion animals. Those identifying themselves as of Hispanic or Spanish origin were less likely to have cats and to have their cat or dog spayed or neutered and more likely to say they get a sense of personal safety from their dog or cat. The implications of these findings are discussed, and suggestions for research and practice are offered. PMID:17076123

  19. Allometric scaling and prediction of concentration-time profiles of coagulation factors in humans from animals.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Iftekhar

    2013-09-01

    Allometric scaling is a useful tool in early drug development and can be used for the prediction of human pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters from animal PK parameters. The main objective of this work was to predict concentration-time profiles of coagulation factors in humans in a multi-compartment system using animal PK parameters. The prediction of concentration-time profiles in humans in a multi-compartment system was based on the predicted values of clearance and volumes of distribution (V(c), V(ss) and V(?)) from animals. Five coagulation factors from the literature were chosen that were described by two-compartment model in both humans and animals. Clearance and volumes of distribution from animals were allometrically scaled to humans and then were used to predict concentration-time profiles in humans. The predicted concentration-time profile for a given coagulation factor was accurate for most of the time points. Percent prediction error range varied across coagulation factors. The prediction error >50% was observed either at 1 or a maximum of two time points for a given drug. The study indicated that the allometric scaling can be useful in the prediction of concentration-time profiles of coagulation factors in humans from animals and may be helpful in designing a first-in-human study. PMID:23391211

  20. How To Become a Top Model: Impact of Animal Experimentation on Human Salmonella Disease Research ?

    PubMed Central

    Tsolis, Renée M.; Xavier, Mariana N.; Santos, Renato L.; Bäumler, Andreas J.

    2011-01-01

    Salmonella serotypes are a major cause of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the past decades, a series of animal models have been developed to advance vaccine development, provide insights into immunity to infection, and study the pathogenesis of human Salmonella disease. The successive introduction of new animal models, each suited to interrogate previously neglected aspects of Salmonella disease, has ushered in important conceptual advances that continue to have a strong and sustained influence on the ideas driving research on Salmonella serotypes. This article reviews important milestones in the use of animal models to study human Salmonella disease and identify research needs to guide future work. PMID:21343352

  1. Determination of starch, including maltooligosaccharides, in animal feeds: comparison of methods and a method recommended for AOAC collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mary B

    2009-01-01

    Starch is a nutritionally important carbohydrate in feeds that is increasingly measured and used for formulation of animal diets. Discontinued production of the enzyme Rhozyme-S required for AOAC Method 920.40 invalidated this method for starch in animal feeds. The objective of this study was to compare methods for the determination of starch as potential candidates as a replacement method and for an AOAC collaborative study. Many starch methods are available, but they vary in accuracy, replicability, and ease of use. After assays were evaluated that differed in gelatinization method, number of reagents, and sample handling, and after assays with known methodological defects were excluded, 3 enzymatic-colorimetric assays were selected for comparison. The assays all used 2-stage, heat-stable, a-amylase and amyloglucosidase hydrolyses, but they differed in the gelatinization solution (heating in water, 3-(N-morpholino) propanesulfonic acid buffer, or acetate buffer). The measured values included both starch and maltooligosaccharides. The acetate buffer-only method was performed in sealable vessels with dilution by weight; it gave greater starch values (2-6 percentage units of sample dry matter) in the analysis of feed/food substrates than did the other methods. This method is a viable candidate for a collaborative study. PMID:19382561

  2. The European ban on growth-promoting antibiotics and emerging consequences for human and animal health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Casewell; Christian Friis; Enric Marco; Paul McMullin; Ian Phillips

    2003-01-01

    Following the ban of all food animal growth-promoting antibiotics by Sweden in 1986, the European Union banned avoparcin in 1997 and bacitracin, spiramycin, tylosin and virginiamycin in 1999. Three years later, the only attributable effect in humans has been a diminution in acquired resistance in enterococci isolated from human faecal carriers. There has been an increase in human infection from

  3. Human-animal chimeras for vaccine development: an endangered species or opportunity for the developing world?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anant Bhan; Peter A Singer; Abdallah S Daar

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, the field of vaccines for diseases such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) which take a heavy toll in developing countries has faced major failures. This has led to a call for more basic science research, and development as well as evaluation of new vaccine candidates. Human-animal chimeras, developed with a 'humanized' immune system could be useful

  4. Meat, Medicine, and Materialism: A Dialectical Analysis of Human Relationships to Nonhuman Animals and Nature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano B. Longo; Nicholas Malone

    2006-01-01

    The idea that humans are innately competitive and cruel is a dominant theme throughout Western thought. These no- tions that legitimate human cruelty to each other and other animals have their origins in biological sciences and have greatly influenced the social sciences. Sociologists, particu- larly Marxist sociologists, however, have often contested this view of human nature. This notion has also

  5. Whole genome sequencing reveals potential spread of Clostridium difficile between humans and farm animals in the Netherlands, 2002 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Knetsch, C W; Connor, T R; Mutreja, A; van Dorp, S M; Sanders, I M; Browne, H P; Harris, D; Lipman, L; Keessen, E C; Corver, J; Kuijper, E J; Lawley, T D

    2014-01-01

    Farm animals are a potential reservoir for human Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), particularly PCR ribotype 078 which is frequently found in animals and humans. Here, whole genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis was used to study the evolutionary relatedness of C. difficile 078 isolated from humans and animals on Dutch pig farms. All sequenced genomes were surveyed for potential antimicrobial resistance determinants and linked to an antimicrobial resistance phenotype. We sequenced the whole genome of 65 C. difficile 078 isolates collected between 2002 and 2011 from pigs (n?=?19), asymptomatic farmers (n?=?15) and hospitalised patients (n?=?31) in the Netherlands. The collection included 12 pairs of human and pig isolates from 2011 collected at 12 different pig farms. A mutation rate of 1.1 SNPs per genome per year was determined for C. difficile 078. Importantly, we demonstrate that farmers and pigs were colonised with identical (no SNP differences) and nearly identical (less than two SNP differences) C. difficile clones. Identical tetracycline and streptomycin resistance determinants were present in human and animal C. difficile 078 isolates. Our observation that farmers and pigs share identical C. difficile strains suggests transmission between these populations, although we cannot exclude the possibility of transmission from a common environmental source. PMID:25411691

  6. The Simulation of Humans and Lower Animals Demetri Terzopoulos

    E-print Network

    Terzopoulos, Demetri

    ongoing work on the biomechanical simulation of the human body. Our comprehensive musculoskeletal model. Because of the complexity of the human body, its detailed biomechanical modeling has not received adequate first principles. 2. BIOMECHANICAL SIMULATION OF THE HUMAN BODY We have been developing a comprehensive

  7. Recommendations for Blood Pressure Measurement in Humans and Experimental Animals-Part 2

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-06-25

    This is a scientific statement on blood pressure measurement in humans and experimental animals from the Subcommittee of Professional and Public Education of the American Heart Association Council on High Blood Pressure Research

  8. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli from humans and animals differ in major phenotypical traits and virulence genes.

    PubMed

    Uber, Ana Paula; Trabulsi, Luiz R; Irino, Kinue; Beutin, Lothar; Ghilardi, Angela C R; Gomes, Tânia A T; Liberatore, Ana Maria A; de Castro, Antônio F P; Elias, Waldir P

    2006-03-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is characterized by the expression of the aggregative adherence pattern to cultured epithelial cells. In this study, we determined the phenotypic and genotypic relationships among 86 EAEC strains of human and animal (calves, piglets and horses) feces. Serotypes and the presence of EAEC virulence markers were determined, and these results were associated with ribotyping. Strains harboring aggR (typical EAEC) of human origin were found carrying several of the searched markers, while atypical EAEC harbored none or a few markers. The strains of animal origin were classified as atypical EAEC (strains lacking aggR) and harbored only irp2 or shf. Strains from humans and animals belonged to several different serotypes, although none of them prevailed. Sixteen ribotypes were determined, and there was no association with virulence genes profiles or serotypes. Relationship was not found among the strains of this study, and the assessed animals may not represent a reservoir of human pathogenic typical EAEC. PMID:16499614

  9. Neural substrates of tinnitus in animal and human cortex : cortical correlates of tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Eggermont, J J

    2015-04-01

    Animal models of tinnitus complement human findings and potentially deepen our insight into the neural substrates of tinnitus. The fact that animal data are largely based on recordings from the auditory system, in particular from subcortical structures, makes comparison with human electrophysiological data from predominantly cortical areas difficult. Electro/magnetoencephalography and imaging data extend beyond the auditory cortex. The most challenging link to be made is the one between the macroscopic data in humans and the microscopic (single neuron action potentials) and mesoscopic (local field potentials) results obtained in animal models. Since invasive recordings in humans are rare, a bridge needs to be built on the basis of changes in brain rhythms in animals with putative tinnitus. PMID:25862624

  10. 78 FR 42381 - Administrative Detention of Drugs Intended for Human or Animal Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ...Food and Drug Administration...Parts 1 and 16 Administrative Detention of Drugs Intended for Human or Animal Use; Draft...Delaying, Denying, Limiting, or Refusing a Drug Inspection; Availability; Proposed...

  11. FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF POLYHALOGENATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS AND HUMAN INFANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A scientific evaluation was made of functional aspects of developmental toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in experimental animals and in human infants. ersistent neurobehavioral, reproductive, and endocrine alteration...

  12. Animate and Inanimate Objects in Human Visual Cortex: Evidence for Task-Independent Category Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggett, Alison J.; Pritchard, Iwan C.; Downing, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence from neuropsychology suggests that the distinction between animate and inanimate kinds is fundamental to human cognition. Previous neuroimaging studies have reported that viewing animate objects activates ventrolateral visual brain regions, whereas inanimate objects activate ventromedial regions. However, these studies have typically…

  13. Animal diseases affecting human welfare in developing countries: impacts and control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Yuill

    1991-01-01

    Animal diseases adversely affect human populations by reducing the amount and quality of food and fiber, and draft power. Epizootics of diseases such as rinderpest have caused massive mortality among domestic and wild animals. Extensive outbreaks of Venezuelan equine encephalltis have caused massive mortality in equines, and significant morbidity among people. Foot-and-mouth disease can cause high morbidity and great direct

  14. Self-describing animated icons for human-computer interaction: a research note

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHERMAN R. ALPERT

    1991-01-01

    Animated icons may offer substantial advantage over static icons for human-computer communication. Nonetheless, problems and challenges remain. For example, the constant motion of animated icons can be distracting or tedious for users. Another challenge relates to the ease of learning and use of iconic interfaces in general: how can icons provide more helpful information to users regarding their intended use?

  15. Save an Animal Board Game - Impact of Human Activity or Natural Disasters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This student activity engages the students' thinking by listening to a story, brainstorming ideas in small groups about how human activity or natural disasters could possibly impact an animal's environment, and then reinforcing that thinking using a board game called Save an Animal.

  16. Causal regulations vs. political will: Why human zoonotic infections increase despite precautionary bans on animal antibiotics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louis A. Cox; Paolo F. Ricci

    2008-01-01

    Using precautionary principles when facing incomplete facts and causal conjectures raises the possibility of a Faustian bargain. This paper applies systems dynamics based on previously unavailable data to show how well intended precautionary policies for promoting food safety may backfire unless they are informed by quantitative cause-and-effect models of how animal antibiotics affect animal and human health. We focus on

  17. 2. Theories of Learning Learning in animals and humans has been intensively studied in the scientific

    E-print Network

    Witkowski, Mark

    23 Chapter 2 2. Theories of Learning Learning in animals and humans has been intensively studied undertaken during this period radically new theories describing the nature of the learning process in animals a selection. Bower and Hilgard's classic "Theories of Learning", now in its fifth edition since first

  18. Animal Models and Ethological Strategies for Early Drug-Testing in Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Dixon; H. U. Fisch

    1998-01-01

    The preclinical evaluation of psychotropic drugs relies on the use of animal tests which are thought to generate clinically relevant information concerning the psychiatric condition for which the drug can be used. Despite their importance, views on the usefulness of animal “models” vary widely, ranging from outright negation on the grounds that human minds are unique, to the more biological

  19. BALB\\/c and C57Bl\\/6 mice infected with virulent Burkholderia pseudomallei provide contrasting animal models for the acute and chronic forms of human melioidosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison K Leakey; Glen C Ulett; Robert G Hirst

    1998-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomalleiis the aetiological agent of melioidosis, a life-threatening bacterial disease occurring in many species of animals, including man. Infection in humans commonly manifests as one of three clinical presentations: acute, subacute or chronic disease. Investigations were undertaken to assess the suitability of BALB\\/c and C57Bl\\/6 mice as animal models for the different forms of human melioidosis. The course of

  20. Neuro-immune interactions of neural stem cell transplants: From animal disease models to human trials

    PubMed Central

    Cossetti, Chiara; Pluchino, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell technology is a promising branch of regenerative medicine that is aimed at developing new approaches for the treatment of severely debilitating human diseases, including those affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Despite the increasing understanding of the mechanisms governing their biology, the application of stem cell therapeutics remains challenging. The initial idea that stem cell transplants work in vivo via the replacement of endogenous cells lost or damaged owing to disease has been challenged by accumulating evidence of their therapeutic plasticity. This new concept covers the remarkable immune regulatory and tissue trophic effects that transplanted stem cells exert at the level of the neural microenvironment to promote tissue healing via combination of immune modulatory and tissue protective actions, while retaining predominantly undifferentiated features. Among a number of promising candidate stem cell sources, neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) are under extensive investigation with regard to their therapeutic plasticity after transplantation. The significant impact in vivo of experimental NPC therapies in animal models of inflammatory CNS diseases has raised great expectations that these stem cells, or the manipulation of the mechanisms behind their therapeutic impact, could soon be translated to human studies. This review aims to provide an update on the most recent evidence of therapeutically-relevant neuroimmune interactions following NPC transplants in animal models of multiple sclerosis, cerebral stroke and traumas of the spinal cord, and consideration of the forthcoming challenges related to the early translation of some of these exciting experimental outcomes into clinical medicines. PMID:23507035

  1. Digestibility of Human Foods and Animal Feeds as Measured by Experiments with Rats.

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1945-01-01

    TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION C. H. McDOWELL, ACTING DIRECTOR, College Station, Texas BULLETIN NO. 675 NOVEMBER 1945 DIGESTIBILITY OF HUMAN FOODS AND ANIMAL FEEDS AS MEASURED BY DIGESTION EXPERIMENTS WITH RATS G. S. FRAPS Division... of Chemistry AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS GIBB GILCHRIST, President [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] As part of the comprehensive investigation of the energy values of animal feeds and human foods, digestion experiments were made...

  2. Electrical signal analysis to assess the physical condition of a human or animal

    DOEpatents

    Cox, Daryl F.; Hochanadel, Charles D.; Haynes, Howard D.

    2010-06-15

    The invention is a human and animal performance data acquisition, analysis, and diagnostic system for fitness and therapy devices having an interface box removably disposed on incoming power wiring to a fitness and therapy device, at least one current transducer removably disposed on said interface box for sensing current signals to said fitness and therapy device, and a means for analyzing, displaying, and reporting said current signals to determine human and animal performance on said device using measurable parameters.

  3. Antibiotic resistance pattern among the Salmonella isolated from human, animal and meat in India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shweta Singh; Rajesh Kumar Agarwal; Suresh C. Tiwari; Himanshu Singh

    The present study was conducted to study the antibiotic resistance pattern among nontyphoidal Salmonella isolated from human, animal and meat. A total of 37 Salmonella strains isolated from clinical cases (human and animal) and meat during 2008–2009 belonging to 12 serovars were screened\\u000a for their antimicrobial resistance pattern using 25 antimicrobial agents falling under 12 different antibiotic classes. All\\u000a the

  4. Respiratory muscle injury in animal models and humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Darlene Reid; Nori A. MacGowan

    1998-01-01

    Respiratory muscle injury may result from excessive loading due to a decrease in respiratory muscle strength, an increase in the work of breathing, or an increase in the rate of ventilation. Other conditions such as hypoxemia, hypercapnia, aging, decreased nutrition, and immobilization may potentiate respiratory muscle injury. Respiratory muscle injury has been shown in animal models using direct muscle or

  5. Chapter 18 Modeling the Interaction between Humans and Animals

    E-print Network

    Ahearn, Sean

    COLLEGE, CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AND J. L. D. SMITH DEPARTMENT OF FISHERIES, WILDLIFE AND CONSERVATION animals with geographically large home ranges. As a result, much effort has gone into preserving a network and test the individual-based object models in an effort to understand ABSTRACT #12;2 18: Modeling

  6. The SEURAT-1 Approach towards Animal Free Human Safety Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    SEURAT-1 is a European public-private research consortium that is working towards animal-free testing of chemical compounds and the highest level of consumer protection. A research strategy was formulated based on the guiding principle to adopt a toxicological mode-of-action fram...

  7. [The sorption of human and animal rotaviruses by Enterosgel].

    PubMed

    Barbova, A I

    1995-01-01

    Adsorptive activity of enterosgel has been studied as applied to different strains of rotaviruses of man and animals. Optimal amounts of the sorbent and pH values of the reaction medium at which rotaviruses were most efficiently sorbed from the virus-containing liquid were determined experimentally. PMID:8563946

  8. Quantitative PCR measurements of Escherichia coli including shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) in animal feces and environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Gyawali, P; Toze, S

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were used to determine the concentrations of E. coli including shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) associated virulence genes (eaeA, stx1, stx2, and hlyA) in ten animal species (fecal sources) and environmental water samples in Southeast Queensland, Australia. The mean Log10 concentrations and standard deviations of E. coli 23S rRNA across fecal sources ranged from 1.3 ± 0.1 (horse) to 6.3 ± 0.4 (cattle wastewater) gene copies at a test concentration of 10 ng of DNA. The differences in mean concentrations of E. coli 23S rRNA gene copies among fecal source samples were significantly different from each other (P < 0.0001). Among the virulence genes, stx2 (25%, 95% CI, 17-33%) was most prevalent among fecal sources, followed by eaeA (19%, 95% CI, 12-27%), stx1 (11%, 95% CI, 5%-17%) and hlyA (8%, 95% CI, 3-13%). The Log10 concentrations of STEC virulence genes in cattle wastewater samples ranged from 3.8 to 5.0 gene copies at a test concentration of 10 ng of DNA. Of the 18 environmental water samples tested, three (17%) were positive for eaeA and two (11%) samples were also positive for the stx2 virulence genes. The data presented in this study will aid in the estimation of quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) from fecal pollution of domestic and wild animals in drinking/recreational water catchments. PMID:25648758

  9. Thinking Place: Animating the Indigenous Humanities in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battiste, Marie; Bell, Lynne; Findlay, Isobel M.; Findlay, Len; Henderson, James Youngblood

    2005-01-01

    Illustrating contexts for and voices of the Indigenous humanities, this essay aims to clarify what the Indigenous humanities can mean for reclaiming education as Indigenous knowledges and pedagogies. After interrogating the visual representation of education and place in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada, the essay turns to media constructions of…

  10. Extrapolation of animal studies to the human situation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Zapp Jr

    1977-01-01

    Every extrapolation involves a conjectured knowledge of an unknown area by inferences based on an assumed parallelism between it and what is known. In the present case we are interested in knowing what effect certain chemicals might have on humans. If the effects have been observed in humans, they can be described. If they have not been observed and described,

  11. Large animal induced pluripotent stem cells as pre-clinical models for studying human disease

    PubMed Central

    Plews, Jordan R; Gu, Mingxia; Longaker, Michael T; Wu, Joseph C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The derivation of human embryonic stem cells and subsequently human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has energized regenerative medicine research and enabled seemingly limitless applications. Although small animal models, such as mouse models, have played an important role in the progression of the field, typically, they are poor representations of the human disease phenotype. As an alternative, large animal models should be explored as a potentially better approach for clinical translation of cellular therapies. However, only fragmented information regarding the derivation, characterization and clinical usefulness of pluripotent large animal cells is currently available. Here, we briefly review the latest advances regarding the derivation and use of large animal iPSCs. PMID:22212700

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for zoonotic helminth infection among humans and animals - Jos, Nigeria, 2005-2009

    PubMed Central

    Ekong, Pius Stephen; Juryit, Raymond; Dika, Ndahi Mwapu; Nguku, Patrick; Musenero, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Background Zoonotic infections are among the most common on earth and are responsible for over 60% of human infectious diseases, some of which are caused by helminth parasites. Infection may result from ingestion of infective stage of worms with food, contaminated soil; skin penetration or direct animal contact. This study estimates the prevalence of zoonotic helminth infections (ZHI) among animals and humans in Jos and identifies associated risk factors Methods We reviewed laboratory records from five hospitals, one veterinary clinic and meat inspection record at abattoir in Jos from 2005-2009. Prevalence was defined as the observed frequency of cases of zoonotic helminth in the sampled population within the study period. Odd ratio analysis was used to identify factors associated with ZHI. Results Of 6689 humans tested, 524 (7.8%) were positive. Observed ZHI are: Ascaris species (4.5%), Taeniasis-Cysticercosis (1.5%), Schistosoma species (1.1%), Strongyloidosis (0.09%). Among animals, 3520 (18.1%) of 19508 tested/observed were positive; including Fasciola species (12.7%), Taeniasis-Cysticercosis (5.0%), Strongyloidosis (0.4%), Ascaris species (0.04%). The risk of infection was higher among humans aged 6-19 (OR: 3.2; 95% CI: 2.0-5.2) and 20-60 (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.7-3.9). Peri-urban dwellers are at higher risk (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.3-1.9); and so are farmers. Conclusion The prevalence of zoonotic helminth infection is high among humans and animals in Jos. Risk of infection are higher among human age 6-60, peri-urban dwellers and farmers. This calls for the formulation of workable collaboration between human and veterinary medical disciplines for better control of zoonotic helminth infections. PMID:22826731

  13. A Bayesian approach to quantify the contribution of animal-food sources to human salmonellosis.

    PubMed

    Hald, Tine; Vose, David; Wegener, Henrik C; Koupeev, Timour

    2004-02-01

    Based on the data from the integrated Danish Salmonella surveillance in 1999, we developed a mathematical model for quantifying the contribution of each of the major animal-food sources to human salmonellosis. The model was set up to calculate the number of domestic and sporadic cases caused by different Salmonella sero and phage types as a function of the prevalence of these Salmonella types in the animal-food sources and the amount of food source consumed. A multiparameter prior accounting for the presumed but unknown differences between serotypes and food sources with respect to causing human salmonellosis was also included. The joint posterior distribution was estimated by fitting the model to the reported number of domestic and sporadic cases per Salmonella type in a Bayesian framework using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation. The number of domestic and sporadic cases was obtained by subtracting the estimated number of travel- and outbreak-associated cases from the total number of reported cases, i.e., the observed data. The most important food sources were found to be table eggs and domestically produced pork comprising 47.1% (95% credibility interval, CI: 43.3-50.8%) and 9% (95% CI: 7.8-10.4%) of the cases, respectively. Taken together, imported foods were estimated to account for 11.8% (95% CI: 5.0-19.0%) of the cases. Other food sources considered had only a minor impact, whereas 25% of the cases could not be associated with any source. This approach of quantifying the contribution of the various sources to human salmonellosis has proved to be a valuable tool in risk management in Denmark and provides an example of how to integrate quantitative risk assessment and zoonotic disease surveillance. PMID:15028016

  14. The Post-Diploma B.A. degree program in Agricultural Studies employs a multidisciplinary perspective, including courses in Agricultural Studies, Economics, Geography, and other Humanities and Social Science

    E-print Network

    Seldin, Jonathan P.

    Agricultural Business Agricultural Production and Management (formerly Agricultural Production) Animal HealthThe Post-Diploma B.A. degree program in Agricultural Studies employs a multidisciplinary perspective, including courses in Agricultural Studies, Economics, Geography, and other Humanities and Social

  15. Path integration (PI) is part of the navigational repertoire of a wide range of animals, including mole rats (Kimchi et al.,

    E-print Network

    a complete model (Chiel and Beer, 1997) that includes an explicit representation of the animal's behaviour of performing accurate PI given the The Journal of Experimental Biology 208, 3349-3366 Published by The Company

  16. The Socioemotional Effects of a Computer-Simulated Animal on Children's Empathy and Humane Attitudes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yueh-Feng Lily Tsai; David M. Kaufman

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of using a computer-simulated animal in a handheld virtual pet videogame to improve children's empathy and humane attitudes. Also investigated was whether sex differences existed in children's development of empathy and humane attitudes resulting from play, as well as their feelings for a virtual pet. The results showed that after playing Nintendogs for 3 weeks,

  17. Realistic Rendering and Animation of a Multi-Layered Human Body Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Sahin Yesil; Uÿ gur Gudukbay

    2006-01-01

    A framework for realistic rendering of a multi-layered hu- man body model is proposed in this paper. The human model is composed of three layers: skeleton, muscle, and skin. The skeleton layer, represented by a set of joints and bones, controls the animation of the human body using in- verse kinematics. Muscles are represented with action lines that are defined

  18. Socioeconomic status and the brain: mechanistic insights from human and animal research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel A. Hackman; Martha J. Farah; Michael J. Meaney

    2010-01-01

    Human brain development occurs within a socioeconomic context and childhood socioeconomic status (SES) influences neural development — particularly of the systems that subserve language and executive function. Research in humans and in animal models has implicated prenatal factors, parent–child interactions and cognitive stimulation in the home environment in the effects of SES on neural development. These findings provide a unique

  19. Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews clinical and asymptomatic Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and other animals in the USA. Seroprevalence of T. gondii in humans and pigs is declining. Modes of transmission, epidemiology, and environmental contamination with oocysts on land and sea are discussed. ...

  20. First genotyping of Giardia lamblia from human and animal feces in Argentina, South America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta C Minvielle; Nora B Molina; Daniela Polverino; Juan A Basualdo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the genotypes of Giardia lamblia from human and animal feces and their epidemiological and clinical characteristics in Argentina, South America. Seventy isolates, 60 from humans (adults and children), eight from dogs and two from cows were processed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Data corresponding to demographic, socio-cultural and environmental variables

  1. Emotion Recognition in Animated Compared to Human Stimuli in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosnan, Mark; Johnson, Hilary; Grawmeyer, Beate; Chapman, Emma; Benton, Laura

    2015-01-01

    There is equivocal evidence as to whether there is a deficit in recognising emotional expressions in Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study compared emotion recognition in ASD in three types of emotion expression media (still image, dynamic image, auditory) across human stimuli (e.g. photo of a human face) and animated stimuli (e.g. cartoon…

  2. Caffeine physical dependence: a review of human and laboratory animal studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland R. Griffiths; Phillip P. Woodson

    1988-01-01

    Although caffeine is the most widely used behaviorally active drug in the world, caffeine physical dependence has been poorly characterized in laboratory animals and only moderately well characterized in humans. In humans, a review of 37 clinical reports and experimental studies dating back to 1833 shows that headache and fatigue are the most frequent withdrawal symptoms, with a wide variety

  3. Novel bisegmented virus (picobirnavirus) of animals, birds and humans

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Anjan; Majee, Sharmila

    2014-01-01

    Picobirnaviruses (PBVs) are novel group of small, nonenveloped, bisegmented and double stranded RNA viruses. PBVs have been identified in the faeces of a broad range of hosts by several international research groups. Since attempts to culture PBV in vitro have not been made to date and no animal model of infection and disease exists. Laboratory diagnosis relies upon electron microscopy, the detection of the double stranded RNA bisegmented genome by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. PBVs have been identified in both normal and diarrheic faeces. Although their pathogenicity is still unclear, their potential needs further investigation.

  4. Invited Commentary on Animal Models in Psychiatry: Animal Models of Non-conventional Human Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda J. Hayes; Diana Delgado

    2007-01-01

    Conventional behavior, of which linguistic behavior is the principal variety, is identified as responses having formal properties\\u000a that are not determined by the natural properties of stimulus objects, but instead by properties attributed to those objects\\u000a under the auspices of particular groups. Given the ubiquity of this type of behavior in the repertoires of human beings and\\u000a its complete absence

  5. Progress on the paternal brain: theory, animal models, human brain research, and mental health implications.

    PubMed

    Swain, J E; Dayton, C J; Kim, P; Tolman, R M; Volling, B L

    2014-01-01

    With a secure foundation in basic research across mammalian species in which fathers participate in the raising of young, novel brain-imaging approaches are outlining a set of consistent brain circuits that regulate paternal thoughts and behaviors in humans. The newest experimental paradigms include increasingly realistic baby-stimuli to provoke paternal cognitions and behaviors with coordinated hormone measures to outline brain networks that regulate motivation, reflexive caring, emotion regulation, and social brain networks with differences and similarities to those found in mothers. In this article, on the father brain, we review all brain-imaging studies on PubMed to date on the human father brain and introduce the topic with a selection of theoretical models and foundational neurohormonal research on animal models in support of the human work. We discuss potentially translatable models for the identification and treatment of paternal mood and father-child relational problems, which could improve infant mental health and developmental trajectories with potentially broad public health importance. PMID:25798491

  6. [Epidemiological aspects of human and animal rabies in the urban area of Bamako, Mali].

    PubMed

    Dao, S; Abdillahi, A M; Bougoudogo, F; Toure, K; Simbe, C

    2006-07-01

    The district of Bamako is the political and economical capital city of Mali with 1,800,000 inhabitants. The goal of the present retrospective study was to determine the frequency of animal bites, human and animal rabies on the one hand and to determine the frequency and the nature of mad animals on the other hand from January 2000 to December 2003 (4 years). To achieve this goal, we have analysed registers and documents related to rabies in the department of prevention and fight against diseases, the central veterinary laboratory, and also at the lazaret clinic involved in caring for human rabies cases. Human rabies diagnosis has been brought up based upon the following clinical arguments: agitation and lethal hydrophobia within few days following bites by known or unknown animal. Agitation and aggressiveness followed by the animals' death within an observation period of 15 days maximum, allowed to evoke the diagnosis in animals. In Bamako an average of 1470 persons have been bitten each year. In 97.1% of the cases, the mad animal was a dog; cats (1.6%), donkeys, horses, cattle and rats (1.4%) have also been identified on a total of 5870 cases of notified human bites by animals; 10 cases of notified human rabies have been recorded. The dog has been incriminated in 6 cases of human rabies out of 10, in the 4 other cases, it has not been possible to identify the mad animal. Among the 3924 mad animals in observation at the veterinary clinic, 187 have been clinically mad that is 4.8%. The rabies virus has also been researched by direct immunofluorescence in 121 specimens of dead mad animals brain. This research has been positive in 119 cases among which 116 dogs, 2 sheep and 1 cow. Anyway the vaccinal status of people bitten by mad animals has not been clearly established. According to these results, we recommend the implementation of a national specific program to eradicate rabies in Bamako. PMID:16983822

  7. Critical periods of vulnerability for the developing nervous system: evidence from humans and animal models.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, D; Barone, S

    2000-01-01

    Vulnerable periods during the development of the nervous system are sensitive to environmental insults because they are dependent on the temporal and regional emergence of critical developmental processes (i.e., proliferation, migration, differentiation, synaptogenesis, myelination, and apoptosis). Evidence from numerous sources demonstrates that neural development extends from the embryonic period through adolescence. In general, the sequence of events is comparable among species, although the time scales are considerably different. Developmental exposure of animals or humans to numerous agents (e.g., X-ray irradiation, methylazoxymethanol, ethanol, lead, methyl mercury, or chlorpyrifos) demonstrates that interference with one or more of these developmental processes can lead to developmental neurotoxicity. Different behavioral domains (e.g., sensory, motor, and various cognitive functions) are subserved by different brain areas. Although there are important differences between the rodent and human brain, analogous structures can be identified. Moreover, the ontogeny of specific behaviors can be used to draw inferences regarding the maturation of specific brain structures or neural circuits in rodents and primates, including humans. Furthermore, various clinical disorders in humans (e.g., schizophrenia, dyslexia, epilepsy, and autism) may also be the result of interference with normal ontogeny of developmental processes in the nervous system. Of critical concern is the possibility that developmental exposure to neurotoxicants may result in an acceleration of age-related decline in function. This concern is compounded by the fact that developmental neurotoxicity that results in small effects can have a profound societal impact when amortized across the entire population and across the life span of humans. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 12 Figure 14 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:10852851

  8. Active surveillance of Q fever in human and animal population of Cyprus

    PubMed Central

    Loukaides, Fidias; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Kolonia, Virginia; Ioannidou, Maria-Christina; Psaroulaki, Anna; Tselentis, Yannis

    2006-01-01

    Background A long-term active surveillance of Q fever was conducted in Cyprus organized in two phases. Methods Following serological tests and identification of seropositive humans and animals for C. burnetii in two villages (VIL1 and VIL2), all seronegative individuals were followed up for one year on a monthly basis by trained physicians to detect possible seroconversion for Q fever. In the second phase of the study, active surveillance for one year was conducted in the entire Cyprus. Physicians were following specific case definition criteria for Q fever. Standardized questionnaires, a geographical information system on a regional level, Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) examinations and shell vial technique were used. Results Eighty-one seronegative humans and 239 seronegative animals from both villages participated in the first phase surveillance period of Q fever. Despite the small number of confirmed clinical cases (2 humans and 1 goat), a significant percentage of new seropositives for C. burnetii (44.4% of human participants and 13.8% of animals) was detected at the end of the year. During the second phase of surveillance, 82 humans, 100 goats, and 76 sheep were considered suspected cases of Q fever. However, only 9 human, 8 goat, and 4 sheep cases were serologically confirmed, while C. burnetii was isolated from three human and two animal samples. The human incidence rate was estimated at 1.2 per 100,000 population per year. Conclusion A small number of confirmed clinical cases of Q fever were observed despite the high seroprevalence for C. burnetii in human and animal population of Cyprus. Most of the cases in the local population of Cyprus appear to be subclinical. Moreover further studies should investigate the role of ticks in the epidemiology of Q fever and their relation to human seropositivity. PMID:16539741

  9. Assessing gonadal hormone contributions to affective psychopathologies across humans and animal models.

    PubMed

    Mueller, S C; Grissom, E M; Dohanich, G P

    2014-08-01

    Despite increasing acknowledgement of hormonal contributions to mood and anxiety disorders, the underlying mechanisms by which gonadal hormones influence psychopathology-related behaviours remain unknown. This review focuses on recent research that examines the influence of gonadal steroid hormones, including androgens, oestrogens, and progesterone, on mood and anxiety-related behaviours in human health and disease. To this aim, the literature was surveyed for studies that assess conditions with suspected underlying hormonal imbalances in otherwise healthy participants (e.g., premenstrual dysphoric disorder, postmenopausal depression) as well as conditions linked to congenital endocrine abnormalities (e.g., Turner Syndrome, Klinefelter Syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, familial male precocious puberty, androgen insensitivity syndrome). Furthermore, to better inform clinical work and to create a translational bridge, a second goal was to set human psychopathologies and animal models of these conditions side-by-side. In the second part of the review, based on consistencies revealed in the existing literature across conditions, a new model for the impact of gonadal hormones on anxious and depressed behavioural states is proposed. Finally, we conclude by proposing directions for future research, including the development of specific tasks suitable for cross-species comparisons to increase our knowledge of the role of gonadal hormones in mood and anxiety. PMID:24882164

  10. The vulnerability of animal and human health to parasites under global change.

    PubMed

    Sutherst, R W

    2001-07-01

    The term 'global change' is used to encompass all of the significant drivers of environmental change as experienced by hosts, parasites and parasite managers. The term includes changes in climate and climate variability, atmospheric composition, land use and land cover including deforestation and urbanisation, bio-geochemistry, globalisation of trade and transport, the spread of alien species, human health and technology. A subset of land use issues relates to the management of protective technologies in relation to residues in food and the environment and the emergence of resistance. Another is the question of changing biodiversity of both parasites and their associated natural enemies, and the effects on the host--parasite relationship and on parasite management. A framework for studying impacts of global change is proposed and illustrated with field data, and CLIMEX and simulation modelling of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus in Australia. Parasitology suffers from the perception that the key impacts of global change will be driven by changes at lower trophic levels, with parasitic interactions being treated as secondary effects. This is incorrect because the environment mediates host-parasite interactions as much as it affects parasites directly. Parasitologists need to strive for holistic solutions to the management of animal and human health, within a wider context of overall management of those systems, if they are to make a meaningful contribution to global efforts aimed at coping with global change. PMID:11406142

  11. Detection of Human and Animal Rotavirus Sequences in Drinking Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Gratacap-Cavallier; O. Genoulaz; K. Brengel-Pesce; H. Soule; P. Innocenti-Francillard; M. Bost; L. Gofti; D. Zmirou; J. M. Seigneurin

    2000-01-01

    Rotavirus is the most common diarrheal pathogen in chil- dren worldwide. Rotavirus infections occur in winter epidem- ics, with a high level of interhuman transmission, which is mainly of fecal-oral origin. There are a wide variety of rotavi- ruses. The majority of human strains belong to G serotypes 1 to 4, as determined by seroneutralization of the VP7 glyco- protein.

  12. COMPARISON OF LUNG ANTIOXIDANT LEVELS IN HUMANS AND LABORATORY ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Basal lung concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA), nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH), and a-tocopherol (a-T) were determined in rabbits, guinea pigs, rats, hamsters, mice, domestic pigs and sheep, and in human lung samples obtained from cancer surgery patients. Significant differences ...

  13. The Evolution of Personality Variation in Humans and Other Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettle, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive evolutionary framework for understanding the maintenance of heritable behavioral variation in humans is yet to be developed. Some evolutionary psychologists have argued that heritable variation will not be found in important, fitness-relevant characteristics because of the winnowing effect of natural selection. This article…

  14. Abusing the Human–Animal Bond: On the Making of Fighting Dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Linda Kalof; Maria Andromachi Iliopoulou

    \\u000a Among the countless animals throughout history who have been tamed to serve humans, there is only one who serves by choice\\u000a – the dog (Wilcox & Walkowicz, 1995). Dogs display “an inexhaustible willingness to form and sustain partnerships with humans”\\u000a (Hart, 1995, p. 167), and they are the only species that assist humans in various social needs as police, therapy,

  15. Blastocystis subtypes detected in humans and animals from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Juan David; Sánchez, Laura Viviana; Bautista, Diana Carolina; Corredor, Andrés Felipe; Flórez, Astrid Carolina; Stensvold, Christen Rune

    2014-03-01

    Blastocystis is a common enteric protist colonizing probably more than 1 billion people along with a large variety of non-human hosts. This protist has been linked to symptoms and diseases such as abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, flatulence and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Remarkable genetic diversity has been observed, leading to the subdivision of the genus into multiple subtypes (ST), some of which are exclusively found in non-human hosts. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of Blastocystis STs in different Colombian hosts. We obtained fecal samples positive for Blastocystis by microscopy from 277 humans, 52 birds, and 117 mammals (25 cattle, 40 opossums, 40 dogs, 10 rats and 2 howler monkeys). The samples were submitted to DNA extraction, PCR and sequencing using primers targeting the small subunit rRNA gene, and ST identification was performed according to DNA barcoding. We observed the occurrence of ST1 (34%) and ST2 (23%) and lower proportions of STs 3 (11.4%), 4 (0.8%), 6 (19.8%) and 8 (10.5%). Domesticated mammals shared the same STs as those usually seen in humans (ST1, ST2, ST3), while birds and marsupials had STs, which are usually rare in humans (ST6, ST8). Further studies implementing high-resolution molecular markers are necessary to understand the phylodynamics of Blastocystis transmission and the role of this stramenopile in health and disease in Colombian populations, and to expand on the phylogeographic differences observed so far with a view to exploring and understanding host-parasite co-evolution. PMID:23886615

  16. Behavioural defences in animals against pathogens and parasites: parallels with the pillars of medicine in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Benjamin L.

    2011-01-01

    No other theme in animal biology seems to be more central than the concept of employing strategies to survive and successfully reproduce. In nature, controlling or avoiding pathogens and parasites is an essential fitness strategy because of the ever-present disease-causing organisms. The disease-control strategies discussed here are: physical avoidance and removal of pathogens and parasites; quarantine or peripheralization of conspecifics that could be carrying potential pathogens; herbal medicine, animal style, to prevent or treat an infection; potentiation of the immune system; and care of sick or injured group members. These strategies are seen as also encompassing the pillars of human medicine: (i) quarantine; (ii) immune-boosting vaccinations; (iii) use of medicinal products; and (iv) caring or nursing. In contrast to animals, in humans, the disease-control strategies have been consolidated into a consistent and extensive medical system. A hypothesis that explains some of this difference between animals and humans is that humans are sick more often than animals. This increase in sickness in humans leading to an extensive, cognitively driven medical system is attributed to an evolutionary dietary transition from mostly natural vegetation to a meat-based diet, with an increase in health-eroding free radicals and a dietary reduction of free-radical-scavenging antioxidants. PMID:22042917

  17. Humanized” Stem Cell Culture Techniques: The Animal Serum Controversy

    PubMed Central

    Tekkatte, Chandana; Gunasingh, Gency Ponrose; Cherian, K. M.; Sankaranarayanan, Kavitha

    2011-01-01

    Cellular therapy is reaching a pinnacle with an understanding of the potential of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to regenerate damaged tissue in the body. The limited numbers of these hMSCs in currently identified sources, like bone marrow, adipose tissue, and so forth, bring forth the need for their in vitro culture/expansion. However, the extensive usage of supplements containing xenogeneic components in the expansion-media might pose a risk to the post-transplantation safety of patients. This warrants the necessity to identify and develop chemically defined or “humanized” supplements which would make in vitro cultured/processed cells relatively safer for transplantation in regenerative medicine. In this paper, we outline the various caveats associated with conventionally used supplements of xenogenic origin and also portray the possible alternatives/additives which could one day herald the dawn of a new era in the translation of in vitro cultured cells to therapeutic interventions. PMID:21603148

  18. Targeted immunotherapy in acute myeloblastic leukemia: from animals to humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie Robin; Marie-Hélène Schlageter; Christine Chomienne; Rose-Ann Padua

    2005-01-01

    Immunity against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is demonstrated in humans by the graft-versus-leukemia effect in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Specific leukemic antigens have progressively been discovered and circulating specific T lymphocytes against Wilms tumor antigen, proteinase peptide or fusion-proteins produced from aberrant oncogenic chromosomal translocations have been detected in leukemic patients. However, due to the fact that leukemic blasts

  19. Human and Animal Enteric Caliciviruses in Oysters from Different Coastal Regions of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Veronica; Loisy, Fabienne; Joens, Lynn; Le Guyader, Françoise S.; Saif, Linda J.

    2006-01-01

    Food-borne diseases are a major cause of morbidity and hospitalization worldwide. Enteric caliciviruses are capable of persisting in the environment and in the tissues of shellfish. Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) have been implicated in outbreaks linked to shellfish consumption. The genetic and antigenic relatedness between human and animal enteric caliciviruses suggests that interspecies transmission may occur. To determine the occurrence of human and animal enteric caliciviruses in United States market oysters, we surveyed regional markets. Oysters were collected from 45 bays along the United States coast during the summer and winter of 2002 and 2003. Samples were analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR, and results were confirmed by hybridization and sequence analysis. Nine samples (20%) were positive for HuNoV genogroup II after hybridization. Animal enteric caliciviruses were detected in 10 samples (22%). Seven of these samples were positive for porcine norovirus genogroup II, and one sample was positive for porcine sapovirus after hybridization and confirmation by sequencing. Bovine noroviruses were detected in two samples, and these results were confirmed by sequencing. Five HuNoV samples sequenced in the polymerase region were similar to the norovirus genogroup II US 95/96 subset (genogroup II-4) previously implicated in diarrhea outbreaks. Different seasonal and state distributions were detected. The presence of animal enteric caliciviruses was associated with states with high livestock production. Although the presence of human caliciviruses in raw oysters represents a potential risk for gastroenteritis, disease confirmation by investigation of outbreaks is required. The simultaneous detection of human and animal enteric caliciviruses raises concerns about human infection or coinfection with human and animal strains that could result in genomic recombination and the emergence of new strains. PMID:16517625

  20. Exploring human/animal intersections: Converging lines of evidence in comparative models of aging

    PubMed Central

    Trojanowski, John Q.; Hendricks, Joan C.; Jedrziewski, Kathryn; Johnson, F. Brad; Michel, Kathryn E.; Hess, Rebecka S.; Cancro, Michael P.; Sleeper, Meg M.; Pignolo, Robert; Teff, Karen L.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Lawler, Dennis F.; Pack, Allan I.; Davies, Peter F.

    2009-01-01

    At a symposium convened on March 8, 2007 by the Institute on Aging at the University of Pennsylvania, researchers from the University’s Schools of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine explored the convergence of aging research emerging from the two schools. Studies in human patients, animal models, and companion animals have revealed different but complementary aspects of the aging process, ranging from fundamental biologic aspects of aging to the treatment of age-related diseases, both experimentally and in clinical practice. Participants concluded that neither animal nor human research alone will provide answers to most questions about the aging process. Instead, an optimal translational research model supports a bidirectional flow of information from animal models to clinical research. PMID:18631944

  1. The Counting Function and Its Representation in the Parietal Cortex in Humans and Animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Varga; O. G. Pavlova; S. V. Nosova

    2010-01-01

    Current data provide evidence that the ability to assess numbers is present not only in adult humans, but also in animals\\u000a and children of preverbal age. Studies of behavior in infants and animals have demonstrated that the perception of number,\\u000a the discrimination of quantities, and elementary addition and subtraction appear during onto- and phylogenesis before the\\u000a appearance of speech. Number

  2. How to learn about teaching: An evolutionary framework for the study of teaching behavior in humans and other animals.

    PubMed

    Kline, Michelle Ann

    2014-05-23

    The human species is more reliant on cultural adaptation than any other species, but it is unclear how observational learning can give rise to the faithful transmission of cultural adaptations. One possibility is that teaching facilitates accurate social transmission by narrowing the range of inferences that learners make. However, there is wide disagreement about how to define teaching, and how to interpret the empirical evidence for teaching across cultures and species. In this paper I argue that disputes about the nature and prevalence of teaching across human societies and non-human animals are based on a number of deep-rooted theoretical differences between fields and important differences in how teaching is defined. To reconcile these disparate bodies of research, I review the three major approaches to the study of teaching-mentalistic, culture-based, and functionalist-and outline the research questions about teaching that each addresses. I then argue for a new, integrated framework that differentiates between teaching types according to the specific adaptive problems each type solves, and apply this framework to restructure current empirical evidence on teaching in human and non-human animals. This integrative framework generates novel insights, with broad implications for the study of the evolution of teaching, including the roles of cognitive constraints and cooperative dilemmas in how and when teaching evolves. Finally, I propose an explanation for why some types of teaching are uniquely human and discuss new directions for research motivated by this framework. PMID:24856634

  3. Campylobacter in food animals and humans in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Padungtod, Pawin; Kaneene, John B

    2005-12-01

    Cross-sectional, longitudinal, and case-control studies were conducted to describe the epidemiology of Campylobacter in chickens, swine, dairy cows, farm workers, nonfarm residents, and children with diarrhea. Samples were collected in Chiang Mai and Lamphung provinces of northern Thailand from 2000 through 2003. A total of 2,360 samples were processed. Results from the cross-sectional study indicated that the prevalences of Campylobacter in chickens at the farm, slaughterhouse, and market were 64, 38, and 47%, respectively. In swine, the prevalences at the farm, slaughterhouse, and market were 73, 69, and 23%, respectively. Campylobacter prevalence was 14% in dairy cows and 5% in raw milk. The prevalence of Campylobacter on farms was lower in environmental samples than in samples collected from live animals. No Campylobacter isolates were obtained from healthy nonfarm residents, but isolates were obtained from 5 and 18% of farm workers and children with diarrhea, respectively. The prevalence of Campylobacter in pigs in the longitudinal study was 61% at the farm, 46% at the slaughterhouse, and 33% at the market. The majority of Campylobacter isolates from chickens (52%), swine (98%), and farm workers (66%) were Campylobacter coli, whereas the majority of isolates from dairy cows (63%) and children with diarrhea (62%) were Campylobacter jejuni. Most Campylobacter isolates from diarrheal children had single-strand conformation polymorphism profiles similar to those of isolates from chickens. None of the risk factors for infection in children with diarrhea were significantly associated with the isolation of Campylobacter. PMID:16355821

  4. Animal Models of Pulmonary Hypertension: Matching Disease Mechanisms to Etiology of the Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Kelley L.; Yeager, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Recently a great deal of progress has been made in our understanding of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Research from the past 30 years has resulted in newer treatments that provide symptomatic improvements and delayed disease progression. Unfortunately, the cure for patients with this lethal syndrome remains stubbornly elusive. With the relative explosion of scientific literature regarding PH, confusion has arisen regarding animal models of the disease and their correlation to the human condition. This short review uniquely focuses on the clear and present need to better correlate mechanistic insights from existing and emerging animal models of PH to specific etiologies and histopathologies of human PH. A better understanding of the pathologic processes in various animal models and how they relate to the human disease should accelerate the development of newer and more efficacious therapies. PMID:25705569

  5. Emotion recognition in animated compared to human stimuli in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Brosnan, Mark; Johnson, Hilary; Grawmeyer, Beate; Chapman, Emma; Benton, Laura

    2015-06-01

    There is equivocal evidence as to whether there is a deficit in recognising emotional expressions in Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study compared emotion recognition in ASD in three types of emotion expression media (still image, dynamic image, auditory) across human stimuli (e.g. photo of a human face) and animated stimuli (e.g. cartoon face). Participants were 37 adolescents (age 11-16) with a diagnosis of ASD (33 male, 4 female). 42 males and 39 females served as typically developing, age-matched controls. Overall there was significant advantage for control groups over the ASD group for emotion recognition in human stimuli but not animated stimuli, across modalities. For static animated images specifically, those with ASD significantly outperformed controls. The findings are consistent with the ASD group using atypical explicit strategies. PMID:25567528

  6. Onco-epidemiology of domestic animals and targeted therapeutic attempts: perspectives on human oncology.

    PubMed

    Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Palmieri, Beniamino; De Vico, Gionata; Iannitti, Tommaso

    2014-11-01

    The spontaneous tumor biology has been investigated with the support of animalists using animals as a preclinical model allowing translation of results in clinical practice. This review provides an insight into the field of comparative oncology. Evidence shows that companion animal health care is impressively growing in terms of development of new therapies and diagnostic tools, nutrition and disease prevention. However, even if most animal tumors might be a reliable model to study human carcinomas, many open questions, related to the opportunities to select and recruit new models in oncology, along with their legal and ethical implications, remain unanswered. PMID:24816783

  7. How Relevant Are Imaging Findings in Animal Models of Movement Disorders to Human Disease?

    PubMed

    Bannon, Darryl; Landau, Anne M; Doudet, Doris J

    2015-08-01

    The combination of novel imaging techniques with the use of small animal models of disease is often used in attempt to understand disease mechanisms, design potential clinical biomarkers and therapeutic interventions, and develop novel methods with translatability to human clinical conditions. However, it is clear that most animal models are deficient when compared to the complexity of human diseases: they cannot sufficiently replicate all the features of multisystem disorders. Furthermore, some practical differences may affect the use or interpretation of animal imaging to model human conditions such as the use of anesthesia, various species differences, and limitations of methodological tools. Nevertheless, imaging animal models allows us to dissect, in interpretable bits, the effects of one system upon another, the consequences of variable neuronal losses or overactive systems, the results of experimental treatments, and we can develop and validate new methods. In this review, we focus on imaging modalities that are easily used in both human subjects and animal models such as positron emission and magnetic resonance imaging and discuss aging and Parkinson's disease as prototypical examples of preclinical imaging studies. PMID:26092313

  8. Molecules to modeling: Toxoplasma gondii oocysts at the human–animal–environment interface

    PubMed Central

    VanWormer, Elizabeth; Fritz, Heather; Shapiro, Karen; Mazet, Jonna A.K.; Conrad, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental transmission of extremely resistant Toxoplasma gondii oocysts has resulted in infection of diverse species around the world, leading to severe disease and deaths in human and animal populations. This review explores T. gondii oocyst shedding, survival, and transmission, emphasizing the importance of linking laboratory and landscape from molecular characterization of oocysts to watershed-level models of oocyst loading and transport in terrestrial and aquatic systems. Building on discipline-specific studies, a One Health approach incorporating tools and perspectives from diverse fields and stakeholders has contributed to an advanced understanding of T. gondii and is addressing transmission at the rapidly changing human–animal–environment interface. PMID:23218130

  9. Molecules to modeling: Toxoplasma gondii oocysts at the human-animal-environment interface.

    PubMed

    VanWormer, Elizabeth; Fritz, Heather; Shapiro, Karen; Mazet, Jonna A K; Conrad, Patricia A

    2013-05-01

    Environmental transmission of extremely resistant Toxoplasma gondii oocysts has resulted in infection of diverse species around the world, leading to severe disease and deaths in human and animal populations. This review explores T. gondii oocyst shedding, survival, and transmission, emphasizing the importance of linking laboratory and landscape from molecular characterization of oocysts to watershed-level models of oocyst loading and transport in terrestrial and aquatic systems. Building on discipline-specific studies, a One Health approach incorporating tools and perspectives from diverse fields and stakeholders has contributed to an advanced understanding of T. gondii and is addressing transmission at the rapidly changing human-animal-environment interface. PMID:23218130

  10. Enterotoxigenicity of human and animal isolates of Campylobacter jejuni in ligated rat ileal loops.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, U K; Rathore, R S; Pal, D; Das, M S

    1991-03-01

    Human and animal isolates of Campylobacter jejuni were tested for enterotoxigenicity in ligated loop of Charles-Foster rats. Of 21 isolates, 13 were proved to be toxin-positive in the initial experiments. However, the remaining 8 required one to three passages through the rat ileal loop before showing the capacity to produce enterotoxin. All isolates caused fluid accumulation comparable with the amount produced by the standard toxigenic strain of Vibrio cholerae 01 1naba 569B. The isolates of C. jejuni from human and animal sources did not show any quantitative difference in their capacity to produce enterotoxin. PMID:1869798

  11. Biochemical and morphological stress-reactions in humans and animals in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, A. I.; Kaplansky, A. S.; Durnova, G. N.; Popova, I. A.

    1997-01-01

    This article is a literary review focused on the problem of the stress-effect of microgravity. Based on the all-round analysis of data from manned missions and space experiments with rats it is concluded that microgravity as a permanent factor of space flight does not produce an intense chronic stress in either humans or animals. On the other hand, microgravity is responsible for deconditioning of a number of vital systems and of the organism as a whole. On return to Earth, the deconditioned bodies of humans and animals exaggerate the usual terrestrial loads due to gravity forces and respond by acute gravitational stress.

  12. Identification of Human and Animal Fecal Contamination after Rainfall in the Han River, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Heetae; Lee, Jung Eun; Chung, Myung-Sub; Ko, Gwang Pyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of rainfall on the levels and sources of microbial contamination in the Han River, Korea. Thirty-four samples were collected at two sampling sites located upstream and downstream in the river from July 2010 to February 2011. Various fecal indicator microorganisms, including total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., somatic and male-specific (F+) coliphage, and four major enteric viruses were analyzed. Rainfall was positively correlated with the levels of fecal coliform and norovirus at both sampling sites. Additionally, rainfall was positively correlated with the levels of total coliform, E. coli, Enterococcus spp., and F+ coliphage at the upstream site. To identify the source of fecal contamination, microbial source tracking (MST) was conducted using both male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage and the Enterococcus faecium esp gene as previously described. Our results clearly indicated that the majority of fecal contamination at the downstream Han River site was from a human source. At the upstream sampling site, contamination from human fecal matter was very limited; however, fecal contamination from non-point animal sources increased following rainfall. In conclusion, our data suggest that rainfall significantly affects the level and source of fecal contamination in the Han River, Korea. PMID:23666535

  13. The therapeutic value of the human-animal connection.

    PubMed

    Roenke, L; Mulligan, S

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics of pet therapy which promote positive experiences and health in the elderly. Data were obtained through observations of pet therapy sessions, through interviews with a pet therapy provider, and residents of a long-term care facility who participated in pet therapy, and from the reflections of my (first author) own experiences as a pet therapy volunteer. The results revealed four characteristics which contributed to the benefits received by participants: (a) humanness; (b) anticipation and continuity; (c) ability to facilitate reminiscence; and (d) social aspects. The findings supported previous research by providing evidence of the value of pet visitation. In addition, ways in which these four qualities may enhance the physical, cognitive and social-emotional benefits received by nursing home residents participating in pet therapy and other activities is discussed. PMID:23944219

  14. A COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL STUDY OF THE HUMAN KNEE AND SIX ANIMAL SPECIES

    PubMed Central

    Proffen, Benedikt L.; McElfresh, Megan; Fleming, Braden C.; Murray, Martha M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Animal models are an indispensable tool for developing and testing new clinical applications regarding the treatment of acute injuries and chronic diseases of the knee joint. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the anatomy of the intra-articular structures of the human knee to species commonly used in large animal research studies. Methods Fresh frozen cow (n=4), sheep (n=3), goat (n=4), dog (n=4), pig (n=5), rabbit (n=5), and human (n=4) cadaveric knees were used. Passive range of motion and intra-articular structure sizes of the knees were measured, the structure sizes normalized to the tibial plateau, and compared among the species. Results Statistically significant differences in the range of motion and intra-articular structure sizes were found among all the species. Only the human knee was able to attain full extension. After normalization, only the pig ACL was significantly longer than the human counterpart. The tibial insertion site of the ACL was split by the anterior lateral meniscus attachment in the cow, sheep, and pig knees. The sheep PCL had two distinct tibial insertion sites, while all the other knees had only one. Furthermore, only in human knees, both lateral meniscal attachments were located more centrally than the medial meniscal attachments. Conclusions/Clinical Relevance Despite the relatively preserved dimensions of the cruciate ligaments, menisci, and intercondylar notch amongst human and animals, structural differences in the cruciate ligament attachment sites and morphology of the menisci between humans and animals are important to consider when selecting an animal model. PMID:21852139

  15. Prediction of drug concentration-time data in humans from animals: a comparison of three methods.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Iftekhar; Goteti, Kosalaram

    2012-08-01

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate three methods to predict concentration-time data of drugs in humans in a multi-compartment system using animal pharmacokinetic parameters following intravenous administration. The prediction of concentration-time data in humans in a multi-compartment system was based on two proposed methods of Mordenti. The third method was based on the assumption that all drugs follow a single-compartment system. Ten drugs from the literature were chosen that were described by two-compartment model in both human and animals. Two-compartment model parameters (CL, V(c), V(ss), V(?), ?, A, ? and B) of at least 3 animals were scaled to humans and then were used to predict plasma concentrations-time data in humans. Allometrically scaled pharmacokinetic parameters from animals were also used to predict human profile using one-compartment model as a comparison. The results indicated that in a multi-compartment system, application of pharmacokinetic constants provided better prediction of concentration-time data in humans than the assumption that all drugs follow a single-compartment model. Both the proposed methods of Mordenti provided almost similar concentration-time profiles for most of the drugs. For some drugs, predicted ? values were substantially higher than the observed values. This prediction error in ? resulted in under-prediction of drug concentrations in distribution phase. In order to reduce the prediction error in ?, Waijma's method for the prediction of ? was modified which resulted in an improved prediction of concentration-time data in humans. Overall, Mordenti's proposed 2 methods and where necessary by modifying Waijma's method for the prediction of ? can be used for reasonably accurate prediction of concentration-time data of drugs in humans. PMID:22360447

  16. Overview: Using Mode of Action and Life Stage Information to Evaluate the Human Relevance of Animal Toxicity Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Seed; Edward W. Carney; Richard A. Corley; Kevin M. Crofton; John M. DeSesso; Paul M. D. Foster; Robert Kavlock; Gary Kimmel; James E. Klaunig; M. E. Meek; R. Julian Preston; William Slikker; Sonia Tabacova; Gary M. Williams; Jeanette Wiltse; R. Thomas Zoeller; Penelope Fenner-Crisp; Dorothy E. Patton

    2005-01-01

    A complete mode of action human relevance analysis--as distinct from mode of action (MOA) analysis alone--depends on robust information on the animal MOA, as well as systematic comparison of the animal data with corresponding information from humans. In November 2003, the International Life Sciences Institute's Risk Science Institute (ILSI RSI) published a 2-year study using animal and human MOA information

  17. Antimicrobial resistance and population structure of Staphylococcus epidermidis recovered from animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Argudín, M Angeles; Vanderhaeghen, Wannes; Vandendriessche, Stien; Vandecandelaere, Ilse; André, François-Xavier; Denis, Olivier; Coenye, Tom; Butaye, Patrick

    2015-07-01

    While Staphylococcus epidermidis, as part of the commensal flora, is a well-known human opportunistic pathogen, only little is known about the genetic relatedness of S. epidermidis carriage isolates from animal and human origin. This study aimed to compare S. epidermidis recovered from livestock, livestock-farmers and humans associated with the hospital environment. A total of 193 S. epidermidis isolates from three populations [animals (n=33), farmers (n=86) and hospital-associated (n=74)] were characterized by broth microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The overall S. epidermidis nasal colonization rate was low in animals (1-9%) but high among farmers (75%). High levels of multi-resistance were found in all populations. Tetracycline resistance was high in animal and farmer isolates; resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin and trimethoprim was high in animal and hospital-associated isolates. Methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis - MRSE isolates were found in all collections, with 22 (67%) MRSE in animals, 44 (51%) MRSE in farmers and 42 (57%) MRSE associated with the hospital-setting. Known SCCmec types and variants were detected in 79% of MRSE; the rest were non-typeable cassettes. In total 79 PFGE-types were found, of which 22 were shared between livestock, farmers and the hospital settings. Clonal complex 2 was predominant in all three populations and most STs corresponded to types previously observed in community and nosocomial S. epidermidis populations. S. epidermidis isolates from livestock, farmers and hospital-setting showed a high level of diversity, but some clones can be found in humans as well as in animals. PMID:25937145

  18. Determination of Starch, Including Maltooligosaccharides, in Animal Feeds: Comparison of Methods and a Method Recommended for AOAC Collaborative Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discontinued production of the enzyme, Rhozyme-S, (required for AOAC method 14.075) invalidated this method for starch in animal feeds and necessitated a search for another assay. Although many starch methods are available, they vary in accuracy, replicability, and ease of use. Five enzymatic-colo...

  19. Human and animal diet at Conchopata, Peru: stable isotope evidence for maize agriculture and animal management practices during the Middle Horizon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian Finucane; Patricia Maita Agurto; William H. Isbell

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports ?13C and ?15N values for human and animal skeletal remains from the Middle Horizon (AD 550–1000) site of Conchopata in the Peruvian highlands. The data indicate that maize was the dietary staple for both humans and the majority of animals at this urban site. Camelids at the site segregated into two groups according to ?13C values, reflecting

  20. Safe biotechnology (5). Recommendations for safe work with animal and human cell cultures concerning potential human pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Frommer; L. Archer; B. Boon; G. Brunius; C. H. Collins; P. Crooy; O. Doblhoff-Dier; R. Donikian; J. Economidis; C. Frontali; T. Gaal; S. Hamp; H. Haymerle; E. H. Houwink; M. T. Küenzi; P. Krämer; H. L. M. Lelieveld; M. Th. Logtenberg; J. Lupker; S. Lund; J. L. Mahler; Ch. Mosgaard; F. Normand-Plessier; F. Rudan; R. Simon; G. Tuijnenburg Muijs; S. P. Vranch; R. G. Werner

    1993-01-01

    The benefits of using animal or human cell cultures have been clearly demonstrated in diagnostic and therapeutic research and in their application for manufacturing. Cell cultures serve as a tools for the production of vaccines, receptors, enzymes, monoclonal antibodies and recombinant DNA-derived proteins. They represent an integral part of drug development for which corresponding facilities, equipment and manufacturing processes are

  1. Dissemination of cephalosporin resistance genes between Escherichia coli strains from farm animals and humans by specific plasmid lineages.

    PubMed

    de Been, Mark; Lanza, Val F; de Toro, María; Scharringa, Jelle; Dohmen, Wietske; Du, Yu; Hu, Juan; Lei, Ying; Li, Ning; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Heederik, Dick J J; Fluit, Ad C; Bonten, Marc J M; Willems, Rob J L; de la Cruz, Fernando; van Schaik, Willem

    2014-12-01

    Third-generation cephalosporins are a class of ?-lactam antibiotics that are often used for the treatment of human infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria, especially Escherichia coli. Worryingly, the incidence of human infections caused by third-generation cephalosporin-resistant E. coli is increasing worldwide. Recent studies have suggested that these E. coli strains, and their antibiotic resistance genes, can spread from food-producing animals, via the food-chain, to humans. However, these studies used traditional typing methods, which may not have provided sufficient resolution to reliably assess the relatedness of these strains. We therefore used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to study the relatedness of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli from humans, chicken meat, poultry and pigs. One strain collection included pairs of human and poultry-associated strains that had previously been considered to be identical based on Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, plasmid typing and antibiotic resistance gene sequencing. The second collection included isolates from farmers and their pigs. WGS analysis revealed considerable heterogeneity between human and poultry-associated isolates. The most closely related pairs of strains from both sources carried 1263 Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) per Mbp core genome. In contrast, epidemiologically linked strains from humans and pigs differed by only 1.8 SNPs per Mbp core genome. WGS-based plasmid reconstructions revealed three distinct plasmid lineages (IncI1- and IncK-type) that carried cephalosporin resistance genes of the Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL)- and AmpC-types. The plasmid backbones within each lineage were virtually identical and were shared by genetically unrelated human and animal isolates. Plasmid reconstructions from short-read sequencing data were validated by long-read DNA sequencing for two strains. Our findings failed to demonstrate evidence for recent clonal transmission of cephalosporin-resistant E. coli strains from poultry to humans, as has been suggested based on traditional, low-resolution typing methods. Instead, our data suggest that cephalosporin resistance genes are mainly disseminated in animals and humans via distinct plasmids. PMID:25522320

  2. Animal models of human genetic diseases: do they need to be faithful to be useful?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Louis Guénet

    2011-01-01

    With the advances in molecular genetics, animal models of human diseases are becoming more numerous and more refined every\\u000a year. Despite this, one must recognize that they generally do not faithfully and comprehensively mimic the homologous human\\u000a disease. Faced with these imperfections, some geneticists believe that these models are of little value, while for others,\\u000a on the contrary, they are

  3. The lunar cycle: effects on human and animal behavior and physiology.

    PubMed

    Zimecki, Micha?

    2006-01-01

    Human and animal physiology are subject to seasonal, lunar, and circadian rhythms. Although the seasonal and circadian rhythms have been fairly well described, little is known about the effects of the lunar cycle on the behavior and physiology of humans and animals. The lunar cycle has an impact on human reproduction, in particular fertility, menstruation, and birth rate. Melatonin levels appear to correlate with the menstrual cycle. Admittance to hospitals and emergency units because of various causes (cardiovascular and acute coronary events, variceal hemorrhage, diarrhea, urinary retention) correlated with moon phases. In addition, other events associated with human behavior, such as traffic accidents, crimes, and suicides, appeared to be influenced by the lunar cycle. However, a number of reports find no correlation between the lunar cycle and human reproduction and admittance to clinics and emergency units. Animal studies revealed that the lunar cycle may affect hormonal changes early in phylogenesis (insects). In fish the lunar clock influences reproduction and involves the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. In birds, the daily variations in melatonin and corticosterone disappear during full-moon days. The lunar cycle also exerts effects on laboratory rats with regard to taste sensitivity and the ultrastructure of pineal gland cells. Cyclic variations related to the moon's phases in the magnitude of the humoral immune response of mice to polivinylpyrrolidone and sheep erythrocytes were also described. It is suggested that melatonin and endogenous steroids may mediate the described cyclic alterations of physiological processes. The release of neurohormones may be triggered by the electromagnetic radiation and/or the gravitational pull of the moon. Although the exact mechanism of the moon's influence on humans and animals awaits further exploration, knowledge of this kind of biorhythm may be helpful in police surveillance, medical practice, and investigations involving laboratory animals. PMID:16407788

  4. Including secular philosophies such as humanism in locally agreed syllabuses for religious education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline Watson

    2010-01-01

    The 2004 National Framework for Religious Education (NFRE) innovatively recommended that secular philosophies such as humanism, or secular worldviews, be included in locally agreed syllabuses for religious education (RE) in England. However, the NFRE is a non?statutory document, and Agreed Syllabus Conferences (ASCs) and Standing Advisory Councils for Religious Education (SACREs), the bodies responsible for RE in each local authority

  5. Required courses (for all three majors) include: Biochemistry 2300 -Elements of Human Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Seldin, Jonathan P.

    Required courses (for all three majors) include: Biochemistry 2300 - Elements of Human Nutrition of the two terms in the Pre-Nutrition and Food Science program, consult an Advisor before the program change & Science (UofL) Students with an academic objective of Nutrition and Food Science at the University

  6. Large expansion of morphologically heterogeneous mammary epithelial cells, including the luminal phenotype, from human breast tumours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Krásná; D. Dudorkinová; J. Vedralová; P. Veselý; E. Pokorná; I. Kudlá?ková; A. Chaloupková; L. Petruželka; J. Daneš; E. Matoušková

    2002-01-01

    Regular expansion of heterogeneous populations of epithelial cells, including the luminal phenotype, was achieved from small biopsies of human breast tumours and cutaneous metastases by optimized feeder layer technique based on irradiated NIH 3T3 cells. Forty-one out of 47 primary tumour specimens and all three cutaneous metastases grew successfully for two to 10 passages in vitro. The main phenotypes of

  7. Chronic arsenic exposure is associated with many human health conditions, including

    E-print Network

    van Geen, Alexander

    Chronic arsenic exposure is associated with many human health conditions, including skin lesions and cancers of the liver, lung, bladder, and skin (Ahsan et al. 2000; Guha Mazumder et al. 1998; Haque et al. 2003; Smith et al. 1998), as well as other noncancer health effects, such as adverse reproductive

  8. College of Health, Education and Human Development A complete application package should include (1)

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    College of Health, Education and Human Development A complete application package should include (1 Education prepares students in one of the following specialty areas: clinical mental health counseling building level (princi- pal) certification must complete the courses offered in the Master of Education

  9. Including Secular Philosophies Such as Humanism in Locally Agreed Syllabuses for Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    The 2004 "National Framework for Religious Education" (NFRE) innovatively recommended that secular philosophies such as humanism, or secular worldviews, be included in locally agreed syllabuses for religious education (RE) in England. However, the NFRE is a non-statutory document, and Agreed Syllabus Conferences (ASCs) and Standing Advisory…

  10. Gastric Helicobacters in Domestic Animals and Nonhuman Primates and Their Significance for Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Flahou, Bram; Chiers, Koen; Baele, Margo; Meyns, Tom; Decostere, Annemie; Ducatelle, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Helicobacters other than Helicobacter pylori have been associated with gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in humans. These very fastidious microorganisms with a typical large spiral-shaped morphology were provisionally designated “H. heilmannii,” but in fact they comprise at least five different Helicobacter species, all of which are known to colonize the gastric mucosa of animals. H. suis, which has been isolated from the stomachs of pigs, is the most prevalent gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter species in humans. Other gastric non-H. pylori helicobacters colonizing the human stomach are H. felis, H. salomonis, H. bizzozeronii, and the still-uncultivable “Candidatus Helicobacter heilmannii.” These microorganisms are often detected in the stomachs of dogs and cats. “Candidatus Helicobacter bovis” is highly prevalent in the abomasums of cattle but has only occasionally been detected in the stomachs of humans. There are clear indications that gastric non-H. pylori Helicobacter infections in humans originate from animals, and it is likely that transmission to humans occurs through direct contact. Little is known about the virulence factors of these microorganisms. The recent successes with in vitro isolation of non-H. pylori helicobacters from domestic animals open new perspectives for studying these microorganisms and their interactions with the host. PMID:19366912

  11. Cadmium osteotoxicity in experimental animals: Mechanisms and relationship to human exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, Maryka H. [Environmental Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States)], E-mail: mhbhatt@anl.gov

    2009-08-01

    Extensive epidemiological studies have recently demonstrated increased cadmium exposure correlating significantly with decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture incidence in humans at lower exposure levels than ever before evaluated. Studies in experimental animals have addressed whether very low concentrations of dietary cadmium can negatively impact the skeleton. This overview evaluates results in experimental animals regarding mechanisms of action on bone and the application of these results to humans. Results demonstrate that long-term dietary exposures in rats, at levels corresponding to environmental exposures in humans, result in increased skeletal fragility and decreased mineral density. Cadmium-induced demineralization begins soon after exposure, within 24 h of an oral dose to mice. In bone culture systems, cadmium at low concentrations acts directly on bone cells to cause both decreases in bone formation and increases in bone resorption, independent of its effects on kidney, intestine, or circulating hormone concentrations. Results from gene expression microarray and gene knock-out mouse models provide insight into mechanisms by which cadmium may affect bone. Application of the results to humans is considered with respect to cigarette smoke exposure pathways and direct vs. indirect effects of cadmium. Clearly, understanding the mechanism(s) by which cadmium causes bone loss in experimental animals will provide insight into its diverse effects in humans. Preventing bone loss is critical to maintaining an active, independent lifestyle, particularly among elderly persons. Identifying environmental factors such as cadmium that contribute to increased fractures in humans is an important undertaking and a first step to prevention.

  12. IMMUNOTOXICITY - BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN ANIMAL RESEARCH AND HUMAN HEALTH EFFECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is amply evidence that a number od xenobiotics suppress various components of the immune system and enhance susceptibility to disease when tested in laboratory animals. There is much less data of effects of xenobiotics on human immune responses. The challenge is to interpre...

  13. Predicting Risk Sensitivity in Humans and Lower Animals: Risk as Variance or Coefficient of Variation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elke U. Weber; Sharoni Shafir; Ann-Renée Blais

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the statistical determinants of risk preference. In a meta-analysis of animal risk preference (foraging birds and insects), the coefficient of variation (CV), a measure of risk per unit of return, predicts choices far better than outcome variance, the risk measure of normative models. In a meta-analysis of human risk preference, the superiority of the CV over variance

  14. MACRO AND MICRO APPROACHES TO THE DETERMINATION OF PESTICIDE RESIDUES IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL TISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical approaches to the determination of pesticides and metabolites in human and animal tissues will take many forms. Several factors must be considered in choosing an analytical scheme if the results are to be meaningful. Whenever possible the residue chemist will use stand...

  15. Animated Impostors for Real-Time Display of Numerous Virtual Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amaury Aubel; Ronan Boulic; Daniel Thalmann

    1998-01-01

    Rendering and animating in real-time a multitude of articulated characters presents a real challenge and few hardware systems are up to the task. Up to now little research has been conducted to tackle the issue of real-time rendering of numerous virtual humans. However, due to the growing interest in collaborative virtual environments the demand for numerous realistic avatars is becoming

  16. HOMOLOGY OF ASSESSMENT OF VISUAL FUNCTION IN HUMAN AND ANIMAL MODELS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Compromised sensory function is an adverse consequence of toxic exposure. Given the frequency with which it occurs and the ability to measure sensory function in both humans and animals, sensory evaluations offer fertile ground for cross-species extrapolation. In some cases, id...

  17. Adipogenic Potential of Multiple Human Adenoviruses In Vivo and In Vitro in Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Leah D. Whigham (University of Wisconsin-Madison Departments of Medicine and Nutritional Sciences)

    2006-01-01

    Journal Article Â?Adipogenic potential of multiple human adenoviruses in vivo and in vitro in animals,Â? by Leah D. Whigham, Barbara A. Israel, and Richard L. Atkinson, found in the American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology.

  18. Rift Valley Fever in Humans and Animals in Mayotte, an Endemic Situation?

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Rift Valley Fever in Humans and Animals in Mayotte, an Endemic Situation? Tinne Lernout1 *. , Eric on Arboviruses and Viral Haemorrhagic fevers, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France, 5 Laboratory of the Hospital revealed that Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) has been circulating on Mayotte for at least several years

  19. Prediction of aztreonam pharmacokinetics in humans based on data from animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward A. Swabb; Daniel P. Bonner

    1983-01-01

    Interspecies correlations of pharmacokinetic parameters obtained in animals were used to predict human pharmacokinetics in order to design the first clinical study of an investigational drug. The serum pharmacokinetics of aztreonam, a novel monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic, were described for mice, rats, rabbits, and monkeys, using serum clearance and apparent volume of distribution. A one-compartment pharmacokinetic model yielded predictions for aztreonam

  20. Immunotoxicity—Bridging the Gap between Animal Research and Human Health Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MaryJane K. Selgrade; Kevin D. Cooper; Robert B. Devlin; Henk van Loveren; Raymond E. Biagini; Michael I. Luster

    1995-01-01

    Symposium Overview: Immunotoxicity—Bridging the Gap between Animal Research and Human Health Effects. Selgrade, M.-J. K., Cooper, K. D., Devlin, R. B., van Loveren, H., Biagini, R. E., and Luster, M. I. (1995). Fundam. Appl. Toxicol.24, 13-21.

  1. Developing an Animal Model of Human Amnesia: The Role of the Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesner, Raymond P.; Goodrich-Hunsaker, Naomi J.

    2010-01-01

    This review summarizes a series of experiments aimed at answering the question whether the hippocampus in rats can serve as an animal model of amnesia. It is recognized that a comparison of the functions of the rat hippocampus with human hippocampus is difficult, because of differences in methodology, differences in complexity of life experiences,…

  2. WORKSHOP ON THE QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE COMPARABILITY OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY: SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Workshop on the Qualitative and Quantitative Comparability of Human and Animal Developmental Neurotoxicity was convened by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse to address issues related to when testing should be required, wha...

  3. Problems in Diagnosing Scabies, a Global Disease in Human and Animal Populations

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Shelley F.; Currie, Bart J.

    2007-01-01

    Scabies is a worldwide disease and a major public health problem in many developing countries, related primarily to poverty and overcrowding. In remote Aboriginal communities in northern Australia, prevalences of up to 50% among children have been described, despite the availability of effective chemotherapy. Sarcoptic mange is also an important veterinary disease engendering significant morbidity and mortality in wild, domestic, and farmed animals. Scabies is caused by the ectoparasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei burrowing into the host epidermis. Clinical symptoms include intensely itchy lesions that often are a precursor to secondary bacterial pyoderma, septicemia, and, in humans, poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Although diagnosed scabies cases can be successfully treated, the rash of the primary infestation takes 4 to 6 weeks to develop, and thus, transmission to others often occurs prior to therapy. In humans, the symptoms of scabies infestations can mimic other dermatological skin diseases, and traditional tests to diagnose scabies are less than 50% accurate. To aid early identification of disease and thus treatment, a simple, cheap, sensitive, and specific test for routine diagnosis of active scabies is essential. Recent developments leading to the expression and purification of S. scabiei recombinant antigens have identified a number of molecules with diagnostic potential, and current studies include the investigation and assessment of the accuracy of these recombinant proteins in identifying antibodies in individuals with active scabies and in differentiating those with past exposure. Early identification of disease will enable selective treatment of those affected, reduce transmission and the requirement for mass treatment, limit the potential for escalating mite resistance, and provide another means of controlling scabies in populations in areas of endemicity. PMID:17428886

  4. Pharmacokinetics of radioiodinated fatty acid myocardial imaging agents in animal models and human studies.

    PubMed

    Knapp, F F; Kropp, J; Franken, P R; Visser, F C; Sloof, G W; Eisenhut, M; Yamamichi, Y; Shirakami, Y; Kusuoka, H; Nishimura, T

    1996-09-01

    Since the oxidation of long chain fatty acids is the major pathway for energy production for the normoxic myocardium, the use of radiolabeled fatty acids for myocardial imaging continues to be a major area of both basic and clinical research. This paper focuses on a discussion of the kinetics of myocardial uptake of radioiodinated fatty acids, including planar and SPECT imaging of various iodine-123-labeled analogues, and data from animal and isolated heart studies, and where possible, comparison with results of clinical studies. Key examples include iodoalkyl-substituted straight chain fatty acids such as 17-IHDA (17-iodoheptadecanoic acid). These analogues are rapidly metabolized in the myocardium, resulting in release of free radioiodide, and can only be practically used for planar imaging. Terminal iodophenyl-substituted fatty acids illustrate a successful approach of stabilizing radioiodine to overcome the release of free iodide encountered with the straight-chain analogues. These analogues, exemplified by p-IPPA [15-(p-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid], are widely used in clinical practice. Although washout can be delayed by increase in the arterial lactate levels by mild exercise, SPECT imaging must still be carefully timed. In contrast to these examples, the ortho iodide-substituted IPPA isomer (ortho- instead of para-phenyl substitution of radioiodide) is a unique example which shows rapid myocardial washout in laboratory animals but nearly irreversible retention in humans. Introduction of methyl-branching is a major important approach which has been successfully used to alter tracer kinetics of radioiodinated fatty acids by increasing myocardial retention. A key example in this class of compounds is 3-(R,S)-BMIPP [15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid], an analogue of p-IPPA in which methyl-branching has been introduced into the beta-position of the carbon chain. Although tracer washout is significantly delayed with this structural perturbation, a large number of clinical studies have shown that slow myocardial washout is still observed. Detailed biochemical studies with radioiodinated 3-BMIPP have demonstrated that initial alpha-oxidation produces a metabolite that can then be catabolized by alpha-oxidation. An unexpected and important observation with the (123I]-3-(R,S)-BMIPP agent has been the mis-match between perfusion tracer distribution and the regional BMIPP distribution which has been widely observed in jeopardized, but viable myocardial regions. Another example in the methyl-branched series is DMIPP [15-(p-iodophenyl)- 3,3-dimethylpentadecanoic acid], which has very prolonged myocardial retention and slow washout kinetics although only animal studies have been reported with this agent. Still another more recent approach has been the synthesis and laboratory animal and human evaluation of analogues containing a phenylene bridge in the fatty acid chain. One example is 3-10 [13-(4'-iodophenyl)]-3-(p-phenylene)tridecanoic acid (PHIPA 3-10), which has also proven successful in delaying myocardial tracer washout. This paper focuses on a discussion of the effects of molecular structure on the myocardial uptake and release of these various radioiodinated fatty acid analogues. PMID:8961803

  5. 78 FR 20326 - Draft Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 100.250 Food Facility Registration-Human and Animal Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-D-0126...Draft Compliance Policy Guide Sec. 100.250 Food Facility Registration--Human and Animal Food; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  6. 76 FR 29767 - Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/Feed Facilities; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0238] Preventive Controls for Registered Human Food and Animal Food/ Feed Facilities; Request for Comments AGENCY:...

  7. Noise in a laboratory animal facility from the human and mouse perspectives.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Randall P; Kinard, Will L; Degraff, Jesse J; Leverage, Ned; Norton, John N

    2010-09-01

    The current study was performed to understand the level of sound produced by ventilated racks, animal transfer stations, and construction equipment that mice in ventilated cages hear relative to what humans would hear in the same environment. Although the ventilated rack and animal transfer station both produced sound pressure levels above the ambient level within the human hearing range, the sound pressure levels within the mouse hearing range did not increase above ambient noise from either noise source. When various types of construction equipment were used 3 ft from the ventilated rack, the sound pressure level within the mouse hearing range was increased but to a lesser degree for each implement than were the sound pressure levels within the human hearing range. At more distant locations within the animal facility, sound pressure levels from the large jackhammer within the mouse hearing range decreased much more rapidly than did those in the human hearing range, indicating that less of the sound is perceived by mice than by humans. The relatively high proportion of low-frequency sound produced by the shot blaster, used without the metal shot that it normally uses to clean concrete, increased the sound pressure level above the ambient level for humans but did not increase sound pressure levels above ambient noise for mice at locations greater than 3 ft from inside of the cage, where sound was measured. This study demonstrates that sound clearly audible to humans in the animal facility may be perceived to a lesser degree or not at all by mice, because of the frequency content of the sound. PMID:20858361

  8. Elongation as a factor in artefacts of humans and other animals: an Acheulean example in comparative context

    PubMed Central

    Gowlett, J. A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Elongation is a commonly found feature in artefacts made and used by humans and other animals and can be analysed in comparative study. Whether made for use in hand or beak, the artefacts have some common properties of length, breadth, thickness and balance point, and elongation can be studied as a factor relating to construction or use of a long axis. In human artefacts, elongation can be traced through the archaeological record, for example in stone blades of the Upper Palaeolithic (traditionally regarded as more sophisticated than earlier artefacts), and in earlier blades of the Middle Palaeolithic. It is now recognized that elongation extends to earlier Palaeolithic artefacts, being found in the repertoire of both Neanderthals and more archaic humans. Artefacts used by non-human animals, including chimpanzees, capuchin monkeys and New Caledonian crows show selection for diameter and length, and consistent interventions of modification. Both chimpanzees and capuchins trim side branches from stems, and appropriate lengths of stave are selected or cut. In human artefacts, occasional organic finds show elongation back to about 0.5 million years. A record of elongation achieved in stone tools survives to at least 1.75 Ma (million years ago) in the Acheulean tradition. Throughout this tradition, some Acheulean handaxes are highly elongated, usually found with others that are less elongated. Finds from the million-year-old site of Kilombe and Kenya are given as an example. These findings argue that the elongation need not be integral to a design, but that artefacts may be the outcome of adjustments to individual variables. Such individual adjustments are seen in animal artefacts. In the case of a handaxe, the maker must balance the adjustments to achieve a satisfactory outcome in the artefact as a whole. It is argued that the need to make decisions about individual variables within multivariate objects provides an essential continuity across artefacts made by different species. PMID:24101633

  9. Model for comparison of animal and human alveolar dose and toxic effect of inhaled ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, G.E.; Koren, H.; Aissa, M.

    1988-02-01

    Present models for predicting human pulmonary toxicity of ozone from the toxic effects observed in animals rely on dosimetric measurements of ozone mass balance, and species comparisons of tissue-protective mechanisms against ozone. The goal of this study was to identify a method to directly compare ozone dose and effect in animals and humans using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid markers. Feasibility of estimating ozone dose to lung alveoli was demonstrated through assay of reaction products of oxygen-18-labeled ozone in lung surfactant and macrophage pellets of rabbits. Feasibility of using BAL protein measurements to quantify the ozone toxic response in humans was demonstrated by the finding of significantly increased BAL protein in 10 subjects exposed to 0.4 ppm ozone for 2 hr with intermittant periods of heavy exercise.

  10. Bracken-associated human and animal health hazards: chemical, biological and pathological evidence.

    PubMed

    Gil da Costa, R M; Bastos, M M S M; Oliveira, P A; Lopes, C

    2012-02-15

    Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) is a widely distributed carcinogenic fern, to whose toxins human populations are exposed through multiple routes. Animals are also affected by bracken toxins, leading to serious production losses yearly. Accordingly, several governmental reports regarding the safeguard of public health against bracken carcinogens have been recently issued. This review describes the main bioactive compounds identified in bracken and their biological effects at the molecular, cellular, pathological and populational levels, with particular emphasis on ptaquiloside, the main bracken carcinogen. Recent biopathological studies shedding further light on the genotoxicity immunotoxicity and carcinogenicity of ptaquiloside are discussed. Key steps on the long effort to understand bracken toxicology are also reviewed, along with the latest findings on new bracken toxins and human exposures routes. The presence of ptaquiloside and related terpene glycosides in milk, meat and water are of particular concern from the viewpoints of both human and animal health. PMID:22226718

  11. Direct genotyping of animal and human isolates of Toxoplasma gondii from Colombia (South America).

    PubMed

    Gallego, Carolina; Saavedra-Matiz, Carlos; Gómez-Marín, Jorge Enrique

    2006-02-01

    Genetic analysis of the SAG2 locus was performed to determine the prevalence of the main genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii (SAG2 types I, II, and III) associated with humans, cats, birds and guinea pig toxoplasmosis in Colombia. This typing was directly performed on clinical samples and autopsy material from human or animals. A total of 50 from 146 samples were positive by specific B1 Toxoplasma PCR assay and then were analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism in PCR-amplified SAG2 products. Characterization of the SAG2 gene was successful in 33 (66%) of the samples. Genotyping indicated that 31 (93.9%) were SAG2 type I, 1 was SAG2 type III and 1 was atypical. In birds and cats all samples were SAG2 type I. Results support a predominance of the Toxoplasma SAG2 type I circulating in human and animals in South America. PMID:16310753

  12. Non-Mendelian developmental defects: animal models and implications for research into human disease*

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    The major groups of malformations in man are polygenic in origin but this review deals only with defects due to non-Mendelian factors. Animal models that help in identifying the causes and in understanding the numerous and often subtle mechanisms of human malformations are of particular value. Many chemicals, physical agents, and nutritional deficiencies affect experimental species but few are teratogenic for domestic animals and even fewer for man. The known fetopathic viruses of animals and man cross the placenta to cause chronic, nonlethal fetal damage without harm to the mother. Ionizing radiations are teratogenic for all species and hyperthermia for many, but the role of the latter in human development is uncertain. The identification of more animal species with spontaneous or induced defects comparable to those found in man and of additional causative teratogens will increase the resources available for research into the causes and mechanisms of abnormal development in man. No animal species is ideal in teratological research but each has its virtues. This report comments on the present status of research in teratology and the trends that might profitably be followed in the future. PMID:413638

  13. Heavy use of prophylactic antibiotics in aquaculture: a growing problem for human and animal health and for the environment.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Felipe C

    2006-07-01

    The accelerated growth of finfish aquaculture has resulted in a series of developments detrimental to the environment and human health. The latter is illustrated by the widespread and unrestricted use of prophylactic antibiotics in this industry, especially in developing countries, to forestall bacterial infections resulting from sanitary shortcomings in fish rearing. The use of a wide variety of antibiotics in large amounts, including non-biodegradable antibiotics useful in human medicine, ensures that they remain in the aquatic environment, exerting their selective pressure for long periods of time. This process has resulted in the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in aquaculture environments, in the increase of antibiotic resistance in fish pathogens, in the transfer of these resistance determinants to bacteria of land animals and to human pathogens, and in alterations of the bacterial flora both in sediments and in the water column. The use of large amounts of antibiotics that have to be mixed with fish food also creates problems for industrial health and increases the opportunities for the presence of residual antibiotics in fish meat and fish products. Thus, it appears that global efforts are needed to promote more judicious use of prophylactic antibiotics in aquaculture as accumulating evidence indicates that unrestricted use is detrimental to fish, terrestrial animals, and human health and the environment. PMID:16817922

  14. 1 Biological Invaders syllabus, fall 2012 (draft 4/13/12) Description: An introduction to biological invasions including plants, animals, and microbes.

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    to biological invasions including plants, animals, and microbes. Biology and ecology of invasive species and ecosystems, management of invaded natural areas. Offered every fall term. Biological invasions are a leading: flory@ufl.edu Required Nature Out of Place: Biological Invasions in the Global Age. 2000 but printed

  15. Young and Older Caregivers at Homeless Animal and Human Shelters: Selfish and Selfless Motives in Helping Others

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph R. Ferrari; Michelle M. Loftus; Julia Pesek

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, young (n = 34) and older(n = 70) adult volunteers at either animal (n= 48) or human (n = 56) homeless shelters were asked to complete measures of caregiver stress\\/satisfaction, volunteer motives, and social desirability. Young compared to older volunteers assisting animals, but not humans, reported a significantly higher caseload and spending significantly more time per

  16. Epidemiological study of Q fever in humans, ruminant animals, and ticks in Cyprus using a geographical information system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Psaroulaki; C. Hadjichristodoulou; F. Loukaides; E. Soteriades; A. Konstantinidis; P. Papastergiou; M. C. Ioannidou; Y. Tselentis

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of Q fever was conducted in a representative sample of the human and animal population in Cyprus in order to assess the seroprevalence of Q fever and the prevalence of related risk factors. A total of 583 human and 974 ruminant animal serum samples were collected and tested for the detection of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii phase

  17. Analysis of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica Isolated from Animals and Humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR) foodborne bacteria are a concern in animal and human health. Identification of resistance genes in foodborne pathogens is necessary to determine similarities of resistance mechanisms in animal, food and human clinical isolates. This information will help us ...

  18. Music notation: a new method for visualizing social interaction in animals and humans

    PubMed Central

    Chase, Ivan D

    2006-01-01

    Background Researchers have developed a variety of techniques for the visual presentation of quantitative data. These techniques can help to reveal trends and regularities that would be difficult to see if the data were left in raw form. Such techniques can be of great help in exploratory data analysis, making apparent the organization of data sets, developing new hypotheses, and in selecting effects to be tested by statistical analysis. Researchers studying social interaction in groups of animals and humans, however, have few tools to present their raw data visually, and it can be especially difficult to perceive patterns in these data. In this paper I introduce a new graphical method for the visual display of interaction records in human and animal groups, and I illustrate this method using data taken on chickens forming dominance hierarchies. Results This new method presents data in a way that can help researchers immediately to see patterns and connections in long, detailed records of interaction. I show a variety of ways in which this new technique can be used: (1) to explore trends in the formation of both group social structures and individual relationships; (2) to compare interaction records across groups of real animals and between real animals and computer-simulated animal interactions; (3) to search for and discover new types of small-scale interaction sequences; and (4) to examine how interaction patterns in larger groups might emerge from those in component subgroups. In addition, I discuss how this method can be modified and extended for visualizing a variety of different kinds of social interaction in both humans and animals. Conclusion This method can help researchers develop new insights into the structure and organization of social interaction. Such insights can make it easier for researchers to explain behavioural processes, to select aspects of data for statistical analysis, to design further studies, and to formulate appropriate mathematical models and computer simulations. PMID:17112384

  19. An inverse relationship between cortisol and BDNF levels in schizophrenia: data from human postmortem and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Issa, George; Wilson, Christina; Terry, Alvin V; Pillai, Anilkumar

    2010-09-01

    Stress and stress-induced glucocorticoids have been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. In addition, the neurotrophin, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to play an important role in stress-mediated changes in neuroplasticity, however, the exact relationship between glucocorticoid and BDNF levels in schizophrenia is unclear. Here, we measured the levels of cortisol (a major glucocorticoid hormone in humans) and BDNF in prefrontal cortex and CSF samples of postmortem schizophrenia subjects. We also assessed the levels of cortisol and BDNF in the frontal cortex and plasma from an animal model (the offspring of prenatally stressed rats), which demonstrates several behavioral and neuroendocrine abnormalities similar to schizophrenia. A significant increase in cortisol levels was found in prefrontal cortex and CSF samples from subjects with schizophrenia. The BDNF levels were significantly lower in prefrontal cortex and CSF samples of subjects with schizophrenia (compared to age-matched controls). Data from animal studies indicated that prenatally stressed offspring have significantly higher plasma and prefrontal cortex cortisol, whereas BDNF levels were significantly lower when compared to control, non-stressed offspring. Moreover, olanzapine treatment for 45 days starting at postnatal day 60 significantly attenuated prenatal stress-induced increase in cortisol levels in prefrontal cortex, but no change in BDNF levels was observed after olanzapine treatment. A significant negative correlation between BDNF and cortisol was observed in both human and animal studies. The above data from human and animal studies suggest that a negative association between stress hormone, cortisol and neuroprotective molecule, BDNF plays an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:20451611

  20. Rabies in Iraq: Trends in Human Cases 2001–2010 and Characterisation of Animal Rabies Strains from Baghdad

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Daniel L.; Ismail, Mashair Z.; Siryan, Eman S.; Wali, Abdul Raheem A.; Ab-dulla, Husam E.; Wise, Emma; Voller, Katja; Harkess, Graeme; Marston, Denise A.; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Abbas, Salah F.; Fooks, Anthony R.

    2013-01-01

    Control of rabies requires a consistent supply of dependable resources, constructive cooperation between veterinary and public health authorities, and systematic surveillance. These are challenging in any circumstances, but particularly during conflict. Here we describe available human rabies surveillance data from Iraq, results of renewed sampling for rabies in animals, and the first genetic characterisation of circulating rabies strains from Iraq. Human rabies is notifiable, with reported cases increasing since 2003, and a marked increase in Baghdad between 2009 and 2010. These changes coincide with increasing numbers of reported dog bites. There is no laboratory confirmation of disease or virus characterisation and no systematic surveillance for rabies in animals. To address these issues, brain samples were collected from domestic animals in the greater Baghdad region and tested for rabies. Three of 40 brain samples were positive using the fluorescent antibody test and hemi-nested RT-PCR for rabies virus (RABV). Bayesian phylogenetic analysis using partial nucleoprotein gene sequences derived from the samples demonstrated the viruses belong to a single virus variant and share a common ancestor with viruses from neighbouring countries, 22 (95% HPD 14–32) years ago. These include countries lying to the west, north and east of Iraq, some of which also have other virus variants circulating concurrently. These results suggest possible multiple introductions of rabies into the Middle East, and regular trans-boundary movement of disease. Although 4000 years have passed since the original description of disease consistent with rabies, animals and humans are still dying of this preventable and neglected zoonosis. PMID:23469303

  1. Understanding Animal Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Understanding Animal Research (Understanding Animal Research)

    2009-01-01

    The public debate on animal research sometimes gets so heated that the facts can be overlooked. How many animals are used in research every year? Do people know that most of them are mice or rats? Why are animals genetically modified? How is animal research regulated? How are the animals cared for? What actually happens to research animals? How does the use of animals in research and testing compare with other uses of animals by society? This website aims to answer all of these questions as well as provide information on animal research and human health, policy issues, and latest news. This website also includes a learning center. Information is geared towards learners in the U.K.

  2. A knowledge based approach to matching human neurodegenerative disease and animal models.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Sarah M; Mungall, Christopher J; Lewis, Suzanna E; Imam, Fahim T; Martone, Maryann E

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases present a wide and complex range of biological and clinical features. Animal models are key to translational research, yet typically only exhibit a subset of disease features rather than being precise replicas of the disease. Consequently, connecting animal to human conditions using direct data-mining strategies has proven challenging, particularly for diseases of the nervous system, with its complicated anatomy and physiology. To address this challenge we have explored the use of ontologies to create formal descriptions of structural phenotypes across scales that are machine processable and amenable to logical inference. As proof of concept, we built a Neurodegenerative Disease Phenotype Ontology (NDPO) and an associated Phenotype Knowledge Base (PKB) using an entity-quality model that incorporates descriptions for both human disease phenotypes and those of animal models. Entities are drawn from community ontologies made available through the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF) and qualities are drawn from the Phenotype and Trait Ontology (PATO). We generated ~1200 structured phenotype statements describing structural alterations at the subcellular, cellular and gross anatomical levels observed in 11 human neurodegenerative conditions and associated animal models. PhenoSim, an open source tool for comparing phenotypes, was used to issue a series of competency questions to compare individual phenotypes among organisms and to determine which animal models recapitulate phenotypic aspects of the human disease in aggregate. Overall, the system was able to use relationships within the ontology to bridge phenotypes across scales, returning non-trivial matches based on common subsumers that were meaningful to a neuroscientist with an advanced knowledge of neuroanatomy. The system can be used both to compare individual phenotypes and also phenotypes in aggregate. This proof of concept suggests that expressing complex phenotypes using formal ontologies provides considerable benefit for comparing phenotypes across scales and species. PMID:23717278

  3. The evolution of infectious agents in relation to sex in animals and humans: brief discussions of some individual organisms

    PubMed Central

    Reed, David L.; Currier, Russell W.; Walton, Shelley F.; Conrad, Melissa; Sullivan, Steven A.; Carlton, Jane M.; Read, Timothy D.; Severini, Alberto; Tyler, Shaun; Eberle, R.; Johnson, Welkin E.; Silvestri, Guido; Clarke, Ian N.; Lagergård, Teresa; Lukehart, Sheila A.; Unemo, Magnus; Shafer, William M.; Beasley, R. Palmer; Bergström, Tomas; Norberg, Peter; Davison, Andrew J.; Sharp, Paul M.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Blomberg, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    The following series of concise summaries addresses the evolution of infectious agents in relation to sex in animals and humans from the perspective of three specific questions: (1) what have we learned about the likely origin and phylogeny, up to the establishment of the infectious agent in the genital econiche, including the relative frequency of its sexual transmission; (2) what further research is needed to provide additional knowledge on some of these evolutionary aspects; and (3) what evolutionary considerations might aid in providing novel approaches to the more practical clinical and public health issues facing us currently and in the future? PMID:21824167

  4. Tuberculosis infection in animal and human populations in three districts of Western Gojam, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fetene, T; Kebede, N; Alem, G

    2011-02-01

    Tuberculosis concurrent infection in cattle and their respective owners in North-western Ethiopia had been investigated. Two hundred and ten cattle owners and 1220 heads of their cattle were included in the study to determine degree of tuberculosis infection in cattle owned by tuberculosis patients and tuberculosis patients. Comparative intradermal tuberculin test, bacteria culturing, acid fast staining and biochemical tests were used to conduct the study. The prevalence of tuberculosis was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in cattle owned by tuberculosis patients than in cattle owned by non-tuberculosis owners, and infection with tuberculosis was threefold greater in cattle owned by tuberculosis-positive owners. Further more, cattle owners who consumed raw milk were at higher risk (P < 0.001, OR = 3.23) for tuberculosis infection than those who consumed boiled milk. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (15.4%), Mycobacterium bovis (44.1%) and atypical mycobacteria (38.5%) were identified from milk collected from tuberculin-positive cows using biochemical tests. Similarly M. tuberculosis (74.5%), M. bovis (14.9%) and atypical mycobacteria (8.5%) were identified from sputum and fine needle aspiration specimens of tuberculosis patient cattle owners. Mutual transmission of mycobacterium from animals to humans and vice versa has been signified. PMID:19912606

  5. Reverse zoonosis of influenza to swine: new perspectives on the human-animal interface.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Martha I; Vincent, Amy L

    2015-03-01

    The origins of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in swine are unknown, highlighting gaps in our understanding of influenza A virus (IAV) ecology and evolution. We review how recently strengthened influenza virus surveillance in pigs has revealed that influenza virus transmission from humans to swine is far more frequent than swine-to-human zoonosis, and is central in seeding swine globally with new viral diversity. The scale of global human-to-swine transmission represents the largest 'reverse zoonosis' of a pathogen documented to date. Overcoming the bias towards perceiving swine as sources of human viruses, rather than recipients, is key to understanding how the bidirectional nature of the human-animal interface produces influenza threats to both hosts. PMID:25564096

  6. Epidemiology, Phylogeny, and Evolution of Emerging Enteric Picobirnaviruses of Animal Origin and Their Relationship to Human Strains

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Yashpal S.; Kumar, Naveen; Sharma, Kuldeep; Shabbir, Muhammad Zubair; Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Banyai, Krisztian

    2014-01-01

    Picobirnavirus (PBV) which has been included in the list of viruses causing enteric infection in animals is highly versatile because of its broad host range and genetic diversity. PBVs are among the most recent and emerging small, nonenveloped viruses with a bisegmented double-stranded RNA genome, classified under a new family “Picobirnaviridae.” PBVs have also been detected from respiratory tract of pigs, but needs further close investigation for their inhabitant behavior. Though, accretion of genomic data of PBVs from different mammalian species resolved some of the ambiguity, quite a few questions and hypotheses regarding pathogenesis, persistence location, and evolution of PBVs remain unreciprocated. Evolutionary analysis reveals association of PBVs with partitiviruses especially fungi partitiviruses. Although, PBVs may have an ambiguous clinical implication, they do pose a potential public health concern in humans and control of PBVs mainly relies on nonvaccinal approach. Based upon the published data, from 1988 to date, generated from animal PBVs across the globe, this review provides information and discussion with respect to genetic analysis as well as evolution of PBVs of animal origin in relation to human strains. PMID:25136620

  7. An efficient genotyping method for genome-modified animals and human cells generated with CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Yajie; Yu, Shanshan; Lu, Lu; Ding, Mingqin; Cheng, Jing; Song, Guoxu; Gao, Xing; Yao, Liangming; Fan, Dongdong; Meng, Shu; Zhang, Xuewen; Hu, Shengdi; Tian, Yong

    2014-01-01

    The rapid generation of various species and strains of laboratory animals using CRISPR/Cas9 technology has dramatically accelerated the interrogation of gene function in vivo. So far, the dominant approach for genotyping of genome-modified animals has been the T7E1 endonuclease cleavage assay. Here, we present a polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-based (PAGE) method to genotype mice harboring different types of indel mutations. We developed 6 strains of genome-modified mice using CRISPR/Cas9 system, and utilized this approach to genotype mice from F0 to F2 generation, which included single and multiplexed genome-modified mice. We also determined the maximal detection sensitivity for detecting mosaic DNA using PAGE-based assay as 0.5%. We further applied PAGE-based genotyping approach to detect CRISPR/Cas9-mediated on- and off-target effect in human 293T and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Thus, PAGE-based genotyping approach meets the rapidly increasing demand for genotyping of the fast-growing number of genome-modified animals and human cell lines created using CRISPR/Cas9 system or other nuclease systems such as TALEN or ZFN. PMID:25236476

  8. Overlap of food addiction and substance use disorders definitions: analysis of animal and human studies.

    PubMed

    Hone-Blanchet, Antoine; Fecteau, Shirley

    2014-10-01

    Food has both homeostatic and hedonic components, which makes it a potent natural reward. Food related reward could therefore promote an escalation of intake and trigger symptoms associated to withdrawal, suggesting a behavioral parallel with substance abuse. Animal and human theoretical models of food reward and addiction have emerged, raising further interrogations on the validity of a bond between Substance Use Disorders, as clinically categorized in the DSM 5, and food reward. These models propose that highly palatable food items, rich in sugar and/or fat, are overly stimulating to the brain's reward pathways. Moreover, studies have also investigated the possibility of causal link between food reward and the contemporary obesity epidemic, with obesity being potentiated and maintained due to this overwhelming food reward. Although natural rewards are a hot topic in the definition and categorization of Substance Use Disorders, proofs of concept and definite evidence are still inconclusive. This review focuses on available results from experimental studies in animal and human models exploring the concept of food addiction, in an effort to determine if it depicts a specific phenotype and if there is truly a neurobiological similarity between food addiction and Substance Use Disorders. It describes results from sugar, fat and sweet-fat bingeing in rodent models, and behavioral and neurobiological assessments in different human populations. Although pieces of behavioral and neurobiological evidence supporting a food addiction phenotype in animals and humans are interesting, it seems premature to conclude on its validity. PMID:24863044

  9. Psychosocial and Psychophysiological Effects of Human-Animal Interactions: The Possible Role of Oxytocin

    PubMed Central

    Beetz, Andrea; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin; Julius, Henri; Kotrschal, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade it has become more widely accepted that pet ownership and animal assistance in therapy and education may have a multitude of positive effects on humans. Here, we review the evidence from 69 original studies on human-animal interactions (HAI) which met our inclusion criteria with regard to sample size, peer-review, and standard scientific research design. Among the well-documented effects of HAI in humans of different ages, with and without special medical, or mental health conditions are benefits for: social attention, social behavior, interpersonal interactions, and mood; stress-related parameters such as cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure; self-reported fear and anxiety; and mental and physical health, especially cardiovascular diseases. Limited evidence exists for positive effects of HAI on: reduction of stress-related parameters such as epinephrine and norepinephrine; improvement of immune system functioning and pain management; increased trustworthiness of and trust toward other persons; reduced aggression; enhanced empathy and improved learning. We propose that the activation of the oxytocin system plays a key role in the majority of these reported psychological and psychophysiological effects of HAI. Oxytocin and HAI effects largely overlap, as documented by research in both, humans and animals, and first studies found that HAI affects the oxytocin system. As a common underlying mechanism, the activation of the oxytocin system does not only provide an explanation, but also allows an integrative view of the different effects of HAI. PMID:22866043

  10. Animal models of human anthrax: the Quest for the Holy Grail.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Pierre L

    2009-12-01

    Anthrax is rare among humans, few data can be collected from infected individuals and they provide a fragmentary view of the dynamics of infection and human host-pathogen interactions. Therefore, the development of animal models is necessary. Anthrax has the particularity of being a toxi-infection, a combination of infection and toxemia. The ideal animal model would explore these two different facets and mimic human disease as much as possible. In the past decades, the main effort has been focused on modelling of inhalational anthrax and the perception of specific aspects of the infection has evolved in recent years. In this review, we consider criteria which can lead to the most appropriate choice of a given animal species for modelling human anthrax. We will highlight the positive input and limitations of different models and show that they are not mutually exclusive. On the contrary, their contribution to anthrax research can be more rewarding when taken in synergy. We will also present a reappraisal of inhalational anthrax and propose reflections on key points, such as portal of entry, connections between mediastinal lymph nodes, pleura and lymphatic drainage. PMID:19665473

  11. Characterization and biofilm forming ability of diarrhoeagenic enteroaggregative Escherichia coli isolates recovered from human infants and young animals.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Deepthi; Dhaka, Pankaj; Vergis, Jess; Negi, Mamta; Mohan, Vysakh; Kumar, Manesh; Doijad, Swapnil; Poharkar, Krupali; Kumar, Ashok; Malik, Satyaveer Singh; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo Baliram; Rawool, Deepak B

    2015-02-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an important pathotype that causes infection in humans and animals. EAEC isolates (n=86) recovered from diarrhoeal cases in human infants (37) and young animals (49) were characterized as 'typical' and/or 'atypical' EAEC strains employing PCR for virulence associated genes (cvd432, aaiA, astA, pilS, irp2, ecp, pic, aggR, aafA, aggA, and agg3A). Besides, biofilm formation ability of human and animal EAEC isolates was assessed using microtiter plate assay. In addition, the transcriptional profile of biofilm associated genes (fis and ecp) was also evaluated and correlated with biofilm formation assay for few selected EAEC isolates of human and animal origins. Overall, a diverse virulence gene profile was observed for the EAEC isolates of human and animal origins as none of the EAEC isolates revealed the presence of all the genes that were targeted. Nine 'typical' EAEC isolates were identified (6 from humans and 3 from animals) while, the majority of the isolates were 'atypical' EAEC strains. Isolation and identification of three 'typical' EAEC isolates from animals (canines) appears to be the first report globally. Further, based on the observations of the biofilm formation assay, the study suggested that human EAEC isolates in particular were comparatively more biofilm producers than that of the animal EAEC isolates. The fis gene was highly expressed in majority of 'typical' EAEC isolates and the ecp gene in 'atypical' EAEC isolates. PMID:25529123

  12. Evidence of an Association Between Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Food Animals and Antimicrobial Resistance Among Bacteria Isolated from Humans and the Human Health Consequences of Such Resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Angulo; V. N. Nargund; T. C. Chiller

    2004-01-01

    Summary Several lines of evidence indicate that the use of anti- microbial agents in food animals is associated with anti- microbial resistance among bacteria isolated from humans. The use of anti-microbial agents in food animals is most clearly associated with anti-microbial resistance among Sal- monella and Campylobacter isolated from humans, but also appears likely among enterococci, Escherichia coli and other

  13. In vivo animal stroke models: a rationale for rodent and non-human primate models.

    PubMed

    Tajiri, Naoki; Dailey, Travis; Metcalf, Christopher; Mosley, Yusef I; Lau, Tsz; Staples, Meaghan; van Loveren, Harry; Kim, Seung U; Yamashima, Tetsumori; Yasuhara, Takao; Date, Isao; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesario V

    2013-06-01

    On average, every four minutes an individual dies from a stroke, accounting for 1 out of every 18 deaths in the United States. Approximately 795,000 Americans have a new or recurrent stroke each year, with just over 600,000 of these being first attack [1]. There have been multiple animal models of stroke demonstrating that novel therapeutics can help improve the clinical outcome. However, these results have failed to show the same outcomes when tested in human clinical trials. This review will discuss the current in vivo animal models of stroke, advantages and limitations, and the rationale for employing these animal models to satisfy translational gating items for examination of neuroprotective, as well as neurorestorative strategies in stroke patients. An emphasis in the present discussion of therapeutics development is given to stem cell therapy for stroke. PMID:23682299

  14. In vivo animal stroke models: a rationale for rodent and non-human primate models

    PubMed Central

    Tajiri, Naoki; Dailey, Travis; Metcalf, Christopher; Mosley, Yusef I.; Lau, Tsz; Staples, Meaghan; van Loveren, Harry; Kim, Seung U.; Yamashima, Tetsumori; Yasuhara, Takao; Date, Isao; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesario V.

    2013-01-01

    On average, every four minutes an individual dies from a stroke, accounting for 1 out of every 18 deaths in the United States. Apporximately 795,000 Americans have a new or recurrent stroke each year, with just over 600,000 of these being first attack [1]. There have been multiple animal models of stroke demonstrating that novel therapeutics can help improve the clinical outcome. However, these results have failed to show the same outcomes when tested in human clinical trials. This review will discuss the current in vivo animal models of stroke, advantages and limitations, and the rationale for employing these animal models to satisfy translational gating items for examination of neuroprotective, as well as neurorestorative strategies in stroke patients. An emphasis in the present discussion of therapeutics development is given to stem cell therapy for stroke. PMID:23682299

  15. Emergence of a novel subpopulation of CC398 Staphylococcus aureus infecting animals is a serious hazard for humans

    PubMed Central

    van der Mee-Marquet, Nathalie L.; Corvaglia, Anna; Haenni, Marisa; Bertrand, Xavier; Franck, Jean-Baptiste; Kluytmans, Jan; Girard, Myriam; Quentin, Roland; François, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, Staphylococcus aureus from clonal complex (CC)398 were mostly described as colonizing asymptomatic raised pigs and pig-farmers. Currently, the epidemiology of the CC398 lineage is becoming more complex. CC398 human-adapted isolates are increasingly being identified in bloodstream infections in humans living in animal-free environments. In addition, CC398 isolates are increasingly responsible for invasive infections in various animals. CC398 isolates that colonize asymptomatic pigs and the isolates that infect humans living in animal-free environments (human-adapted isolates) both lack several clinically important S. aureus–associated virulence factors but differ on the basis of their prophage content. Recent findings have provided insight into the influence of a ?MR11-like helper prophage on the ability of CC398 isolates to infect humans. To assess the recent spread of the CC398 lineage to various animal species and to investigate the links between the ?MR11-like prophage and the emergence of CC398 isolates infecting animals, we studied 277 isolates causing infections in unrelated animals. The prevalence of CC398 isolates increased significantly between 2007 and 2013 (p < 0.001); 31.8% of the animal isolates harbored the ?MR11-like prophage. High-density DNA microarray experiments with 37 representative infected-animal isolates positive for ?MR11-like DNA established that most infected-animal isolates carried many genetic elements related to antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, and a ?3 prophage encoding immune-modulating proteins and associated with animal-to-human jumps. Our findings suggest recent clonal expansion and dissemination of a new subpopulation of CC398 isolates, responsible for invasive infections in various animals, with a considerable potential to colonize and infect humans, probably greater than that of human-adapted CC398 isolates, justifying active surveillance. PMID:25538688

  16. Chlorine gas inhalation: human clinical evidence of toxicity and experience in animal models.

    PubMed

    White, Carl W; Martin, James G

    2010-07-01

    Humans can come into contact with chlorine gas during short-term, high-level exposures due to traffic or rail accidents, spills, or other disasters. By contrast, workplace and public (swimming pools, etc.) exposures are more frequently long-term, low-level exposures, occasionally punctuated by unintentional transient increases. Acute exposures can result in symptoms of acute airway obstruction including wheezing, cough, chest tightness, and/or dyspnea. These findings are fairly nonspecific, and might be present after exposures to a number of inhaled chemical irritants. Clinical signs, including hypoxemia, wheezes, rales, and/or abnormal chest radiographs may be present. More severely affected individuals may suffer acute lung injury (ALI) and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Up to 1% of exposed individuals die. Humidified oxygen and inhaled beta-adrenergic agents are appropriate therapies for victims with respiratory symptoms while assessments are underway. Inhaled bicarbonate and systemic or inhaled glucocorticoids also have been reported anecdotally to be beneficial. Chronic sequelae may include increased airways reactivity, which tends to diminish over time. Airways hyperreactivity may be more of a problem among those survivors that are older, have smoked, and/or have pre-existing chronic lung disease. Individuals suffering from irritant-induced asthma (IIA) due to workplace exposures to chlorine also tend to have similar characteristics, such as airways hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, and to be older and to have smoked. Other workplace studies, however, have indicated that workers exposed to chlorine dioxide/sulfur dioxide have tended to have increased risk for chronic bronchitis and/or recurrent wheezing attacks (one or more episodes) but not asthma, while those exposed to ozone have a greater incidence of asthma. Specific biomarkers for acute and chronic exposures to chlorine gas are currently lacking. Animal models for chlorine gas inhalation have demonstrated evidence of oxidative injury and inflammation. Early epithelial injury, airways hyperresponsiveness, and airway remodeling, likely diminishing over time, have been shown. As in humans, ALI/ARDS can occur, becoming more likely when the upper airways are bypassed. Inhalation models of chlorine toxicity provide unique opportunities for testing potential pharmacologic rescue agents. PMID:20601629

  17. Opposing views on animal experimentation: do animals have rights?

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Tom L

    1997-01-01

    Animals have moral standing; that is, they have properties (including the ability to feel pain) that qualify them for the protections of morality. It follows from this that humans have moral obligations toward animals, and because rights are logically correlative to obligations, animals have rights. PMID:11655126

  18. Chemical, Physical and Biological Approaches to Prevent Ochratoxin Induced Toxicoses in Humans and Animals

    PubMed Central

    Varga, János; Kocsubé, Sándor; Péteri, Zsanett; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Tóth, Beáta

    2010-01-01

    Ochratoxins are polyketide derived fungal secondary metabolites with nephrotoxic, immunosuppressive, teratogenic, and carcinogenic properties. Ochratoxin-producing fungi may contaminate agricultural products in the field (preharvest spoilage), during storage (postharvest spoilage), or during processing. Ochratoxin contamination of foods and feeds poses a serious health hazard to animals and humans. Several strategies have been investigated for lowering the ochratoxin content in agricultural products. These strategies can be classified into three main categories: prevention of ochratoxin contamination, decontamination or detoxification of foods contaminated with ochratoxins, and inhibition of the absorption of consumed ochratoxins in the gastrointestinal tract. This paper gives an overview of the strategies that are promising with regard to lowering the ochratoxin burden of animals and humans. PMID:22069658

  19. Studies to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution using F-RNA coliphages and faecal sterols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Sundram; N Jumanlal; W John; M M Ehlers

    Human enteric viral infections are considered to be predominantly associated with human wastes, as opposed to animal wastes, and a distinction between these has benefits for water quality control and risk assessment. A variety of techniques have been described to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution of water. F-RNA (male-specific) coliphages have been classified into four sero-groups and evidence

  20. Behavioral toxicology of cognition: extrapolation from experimental animal models to humans: behavioral toxicology symposium overview.

    PubMed

    Paule, Merle G; Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel; Alvarado, Maria; Bachevalier, Jocelyne; Schneider, Jay S; Schantz, Susan L

    2012-03-01

    A variety of behavioral instruments are available for assessing important aspects of cognition in both animals and humans and, in many cases, the same instruments can be used in both. While nonhuman primates are phylogenetically closest to humans, rodents, pigeons and other animals also offer behaviors worthy of note. Delay Discounting procedures are as useful as any in studies of impulsivity and may have utility in shedding light on processes associated with drug abuse. Specific memory tests such as Visual Paired Comparisons tasks (similar to the Fagan test of infant intelligence) can be modified to allow for assessment of different aspects of memory such as spatial memory. Use of these and other specific memory tasks can be used to directly monitor aspects of cognitive development in infant animals, particularly in nonhuman primates such as monkeys, and children and to draw inferences with respect to possible neuroanatomical substrates sub-serving their functions. Tasks for assessing working memory such as Variable Delayed Response (VDR), modified VDR and Spatial Working Memory tasks are now known to be affected in Parkinson's disease (PD). These and other cognitive function tasks are being used in a monkey model of PD to assess the ability of anti-Parkinson's disease therapies to ameliorate these cognitive deficits without diminishing their therapeutic effects on motor dysfunction. Similarly, in a rat model of the cognitive deficits associated with perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), clear parallels with children can be seen in at least two areas of executive function: cognitive flexibility and response inhibition. In the rat model, discrimination reversal tasks were utilized to assess cognitive flexibility, a function often assessed in humans using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task. Response inhibition was assessed using performance in a Differential Reinforcement of Low Response Rates (DRL) task. As the data continue to accumulate, it becomes more clear that our attempts to adapt animal-appropriate tasks for the study of important aspects of human cognition have proven to be very fruitful. PMID:22311110

  1. PRION DISEASES OF HUMANS AND ANIMALS: Their Causes and Molecular Basis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Collinge; MRC Prion Unit

    2001-01-01

    n Abstract Priori diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative conditions that in- clude Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and bovine spongiform encephalopa- thy (BSE) and scrapie in animals. Prions appear to be composed principally or entirely of abnormal isoforms of a host-encoded glycoprotein, prion protein. Prion propagation involves recruitment of host cellular prion protein, composed primarily of a-helical structure, into a disease

  2. Comparative genetic characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from human and animal listeriosis cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory T. Jeffers; James L. Bruce; Patrick L. McDonough; Janet Scarlett; Kathryn J. Boor; Martin Wiedmann

    2001-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes isolates from human sporadic and epidemic cases (n fl 119) and from animal cases (n fl 76) were characterized by automated ribotyping and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) typing of the virulence genes actA and hly. This combination of typing methods differentiated 39 distinctive strains, each reflecting a unique combination of ribotypes, hly and actA alleles. Simpson's index

  3. Attachment and Entry of Recombinant Norwalk Virus Capsids to Cultured Human and Animal Cell Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LAURA J. WHITE; JUDITH M. BALL; MICHELE E. HARDY; TOMOYUKI N. TANAKA; NORITOSHI KITAMOTO; ANDMARY K. ESTES

    1996-01-01

    Norwalk virus (NV) is the prototype strain of a group of noncultivable human caliciviruses responsible for epidemic outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis. While these viruses do not grow in tissue culture cells or animal models, expression of the capsid protein in insect cells results in the self-assembly of recombinant Norwalk virus-like particles (rNV VLPs) that are morphologically and antigenically similar to

  4. The Riboflavin Content of Some Animal Feeds and Some Human Foods. 

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Kemmerer, A. R. (Arthur Russell)

    1945-01-01

    AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS GIBB GILCHRPST, President . . [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] Riboflavin, also called vitamin G or vitamin BL, is of considei practical importance in the nutrition of human beings, and some 1 animals. Swine, horses... of hens egg production, but only 3 contained the amounts recommended as quate by the Sub-committee on Poultry Nutrition of the Nati Research Council which contains an allowance of 20% for safety and cake orts. were corn seen- neal, lined...

  5. Associative theories of goal-directed behaviour: a case for animal–human translational models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanne de Wit; Anthony Dickinson

    2009-01-01

    Associative accounts of goal-directed action, developed in the fields of human ideomotor action and that of animal learning,\\u000a can capture cognitive belief-desire psychology of human decision-making. Whereas outcome-response accounts can account for\\u000a the fact that the thought of a goal can call to mind the action that has previously procured this goal, response-outcome accounts\\u000a capture decision-making processes that start out

  6. CRISPR Diversity in E. coli Isolates from Australian Animals, Humans and Environmental Waters.

    PubMed

    Sheludchenko, Maxim S; Huygens, Flavia; Stratton, Helen; Hargreaves, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Seventy four SNP genotypes and 54 E. coli genomes from kangaroo, Tasmanian devil, reptile, cattle, dog, horse, duck, bird, fish, rodent, human and environmental water sources were screened for the presence of the CRISPR 2.1 loci flanked by cas2 and iap genes. CRISPR 2.1 regions were found in 49% of the strains analysed. The majority of human E. coli isolates lacked the CRISPR 2.1 locus. We described 76 CRISPR 2.1 positive isolates originating from Australian animals and humans, which contained a total of 764 spacer sequences. CRISPR arrays demonstrated a long history of phage attacks especially in isolates from birds (up to 40 spacers). The most prevalent spacer (1.6%) was an ancient spacer found mainly in human, horse, duck, rodent, reptile and environmental water sources. The sequence of this spacer matched the intestinal P7 phage and the pO111 plasmid of E. coli. PMID:25946192

  7. Performance-driven facial animation: basic research on human judgments of emotional state in facial avatars.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, A A; Neumann, U; Enciso, R; Fidaleo, D; Noh, J Y

    2001-08-01

    Virtual reality is rapidly evolving into a pragmatically usable technology for mental health (MH) applications. As the underlying enabling technologies continue to evolve and allow us to design more useful and usable structural virtual environments (VEs), the next important challenge will involve populating these environments with virtual representations of humans (avatars). This will be vital to create mental health VEs that leverage the use of avatars for applications that require human-human interaction and communication. As Alessi et al.1 pointed out at the 8th Annual Medicine Meets Virtual Reality Conference (MMVR8), virtual humans have mainly appeared in MH applications to "serve the role of props, rather than humans." More believable avatars inhabiting VEs would open up possibilities for MH applications that address social interaction, communication, instruction, assessment, and rehabilitation issues. They could also serve to enhance realism that might in turn promote the experience of presence in VR. Additionally, it will soon be possible to use computer-generated avatars that serve to provide believable dynamic facial and bodily representations of individuals communicating from a distance in real time. This could support the delivery, in shared virtual environments, of more natural human interaction styles, similar to what is used in real life between people. These techniques could enhance communication and interaction by leveraging our natural sensing and perceiving capabilities and offer the potential to model human-computer-human interaction after human-human interaction. To enhance the authenticity of virtual human representations, advances in the rendering of facial and gestural behaviors that support implicit communication will be needed. In this regard, the current paper presents data from a study that compared human raters' judgments of emotional expression between actual video clips of facial expressions and identical expressions rendered on a three-dimensional avatar using a performance-driven facial animation (PDFA) system developed at the University of Southern California Integrated Media Systems Center. PDFA offers a means for creating high-fidelity visual representations of human faces and bodies. This effort explores the feasibility of sensing and reproducing a range of facial expressions with a PDFA system. In order to test concordance of human ratings of emotional expression between video and avatar facial delivery, we first had facial model subjects observe stimuli that were designed to elicit naturalistic facial expressions. The emotional stimulus induction involved presenting text-based, still image, and video clips to subjects that were previously rated to induce facial expressions for the six universals2 of facial expression (happy, sad, fear, anger, disgust, and surprise), in addition to attentiveness, puzzlement and frustration. Videotapes of these induced facial expressions that best represented prototypic examples of the above emotional states and three-dimensional avatar animations of the same facial expressions were randomly presented to 38 human raters. The raters used open-end, forced choice and seven-point Likert-type scales to rate expression in terms of identification. The forced choice and seven-point ratings provided the most usable data to determine video/animation concordance and these data are presented. To support a clear understanding of this data, a website has been set up that will allow readers to view the video and facial animation clips to illustrate the assets and limitations of these types of facial expression-rendering methods (www. USCAvatars.com/MMVR). This methodological first step in our research program has served to provide valuable human user-centered feedback to support the iterative design and development of facial avatar characteristics for expression of emotional communication. PMID:11708727

  8. Silkworm feeding as the source of the animal protein for human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunan, Y.; Tang, L.; Liu, H.

    Controlled Ecological Life-Support System CELSS which is also called Bioregenerative Life Support System has been considered now as the most advanced and complicated Closed Ecological System in the world Based on the construction principle of the CELSS the resources could be permanently regenerated so the flexibility and security for long-term spaceflight and lunar-base missions could be improved The cost could be also decreased CELSS is more appropriated for long-term manned spaceflight and applied for the possibility of long-term space missions or planetary probe in the lower cost The increasing closure and reliability is considered as the development and integrality direction of Life-Support System LSS The LSS closure and configuration is mainly depended on the human space diet composition Vast researches have been carried on this aspect but these researches mainly concentrate on the space vegetable protein exploitation The animal protein supply is still a problem the solution should be found and the LSS constitution analysis also deserves being explored Many animals have been taken into account to provide the animal proteins nowadays world-wide animals selection mainly focus on the poultry for instance sheep chicken fish etc But the poultry feeding exist many problems such as the long growth periods low efficiency complex feeding procedures and capacious feeding space and these animals also cause the water and air pollution The complete food composition is often depended on the features of the nation diet habit Chinese have

  9. Risk assessment of coccidostatics during feed cross-contamination: Animal and human health aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [European Food Safety Authority, Unit on Contaminants in the Food Chain, Parma (Italy); Fernández-Cruz, M.L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Madrid (Spain); Bertelsen, U. [European Food Safety Authority, Unit on Contaminants in the Food Chain, Parma (Italy); Renshaw, D.W. [Food Standards Agency, London (United Kingdom); Peltonen, K. [Finnish Food Safety Authority, EVIRA, Helsinki (Finland); Anadon, A. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Veterinaria, Madrid (Spain); Feil, A. [ForschungsinstitutFuttermitteltechnik, Braunschweig (Germany); Sanders, P. [AFSSA, LERMVD, Fougères (France); Wester, P. [RIVM, Food and Consumer Safety, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    Coccidiosis, an intestinal plasmodium infection, is a major infectious disease in poultry and rabbits. Eleven different coccidiostats are licensed in the EU for the prevention of coccidiosis in these animal species. According to their chemical nature and main biological activity, these compounds can be grouped as ionophoric (monensin, lasalocid sodium, salinomycin, narasin, maduramicin and semduramicin) or non-ionophoric (robenidine, decoquinate, nicarbazin, diclazuril, and halofuginone) substances. Coccidiostats are used as feed additives, mixed upon request into the compounded feed. During the technical process of commercial feed production, cross-contamination of feed batches can result in the exposure of non-target animals and induce adverse health effects in these animals due to a specific sensitivity of mammalian species as compared to poultry. Residue formation in edible tissues of non-target species may result in unexpected human exposure through the consumption of animal products. This review presents recent risk assessments performed by the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The health risk to non-target species that would result from the consumption of cross-contaminated feed with coccidostats at levels of 2, 5 or 10% was found to be negligible for most animal species with the exception of salinomycin and monensin in horses because of the particular sensitivity for which toxicity may occur when cross-contamination exceeds 2% and 5% respectively. Kinetic data and tissue analyses showed that residues of coccidiostats may occur in the liver and eggs in some cases. However, the level of residues of each coccidiostat in edible animal tissues remained sufficiently low that the aggregate exposure of consumers would not exceed the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) of each coccidiostat. It could be concluded that technical cross-contamination of animal feeds would not be expected to adversely affect the health of consumers.

  10. Baby schema in human and animal faces induces cuteness perception and gaze allocation in children

    PubMed Central

    Borgi, Marta; Cogliati-Dezza, Irene; Brelsford, Victoria; Meints, Kerstin; Cirulli, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The baby schema concept was originally proposed as a set of infantile traits with high appeal for humans, subsequently shown to elicit caretaking behavior and to affect cuteness perception and attentional processes. However, it is unclear whether the response to the baby schema may be extended to the human-animal bond context. Moreover, questions remain as to whether the cute response is constant and persistent or whether it changes with development. In the present study we parametrically manipulated the baby schema in images of humans, dogs, and cats. We analyzed responses of 3–6 year-old children, using both explicit (i.e., cuteness ratings) and implicit (i.e., eye gaze patterns) measures. By means of eye-tracking, we assessed children’s preferential attention to images varying only for the degree of baby schema and explored participants’ fixation patterns during a cuteness task. For comparative purposes, cuteness ratings were also obtained in a sample of adults. Overall our results show that the response to an infantile facial configuration emerges early during development. In children, the baby schema affects both cuteness perception and gaze allocation to infantile stimuli and to specific facial features, an effect not simply limited to human faces. In line with previous research, results confirm human positive appraisal toward animals and inform both educational and therapeutic interventions involving pets, helping to minimize risk factors (e.g., dog bites). PMID:24847305

  11. An animal-to-human scaling law for blast-induced traumatic brain injury risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Jean, Aurélie; Nyein, Michelle K; Zheng, James Q; Moore, David F; Joannopoulos, John D; Radovitzky, Raúl

    2014-10-28

    Despite recent efforts to understand blast effects on the human brain, there are still no widely accepted injury criteria for humans. Recent animal studies have resulted in important advances in the understanding of brain injury due to intense dynamic loads. However, the applicability of animal brain injury results to humans remains uncertain. Here, we use advanced computational models to derive a scaling law relating blast wave intensity to the mechanical response of brain tissue across species. Detailed simulations of blast effects on the brain are conducted for different mammals using image-based biofidelic models. The intensity of the stress waves computed for different external blast conditions is compared across species. It is found that mass scaling, which successfully estimates blast tolerance of the thorax, fails to capture the brain mechanical response to blast across mammals. Instead, we show that an appropriate scaling variable must account for the mass of protective tissues relative to the brain, as well as their acoustic impedance. Peak stresses transmitted to the brain tissue by the blast are then shown to be a power function of the scaling parameter for a range of blast conditions relevant to TBI. In particular, it is found that human brain vulnerability to blast is higher than for any other mammalian species, which is in distinct contrast to previously proposed scaling laws based on body or brain mass. An application of the scaling law to recent experiments on rabbits furnishes the first physics-based injury estimate for blast-induced TBI in humans. PMID:25267617

  12. Revisiting vocal perception in non-human animals: a review of vowel discrimination, speaker voice recognition, and speaker normalization

    PubMed Central

    Kriengwatana, Buddhamas; Escudero, Paola; ten Cate, Carel

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which human speech perception evolved by taking advantage of predispositions and pre-existing features of vertebrate auditory and cognitive systems remains a central question in the evolution of speech. This paper reviews asymmetries in vowel perception, speaker voice recognition, and speaker normalization in non-human animals – topics that have not been thoroughly discussed in relation to the abilities of non-human animals, but are nonetheless important aspects of vocal perception. Throughout this paper we demonstrate that addressing these issues in non-human animals is relevant and worthwhile because many non-human animals must deal with similar issues in their natural environment. That is, they must also discriminate between similar-sounding vocalizations, determine signaler identity from vocalizations, and resolve signaler-dependent variation in vocalizations from conspecifics. Overall, we find that, although plausible, the current evidence is insufficiently strong to conclude that directional asymmetries in vowel perception are specific to humans, or that non-human animals can use voice characteristics to recognize human individuals. However, we do find some indication that non-human animals can normalize speaker differences. Accordingly, we identify avenues for future research that would greatly improve and advance our understanding of these topics. PMID:25628583

  13. Zoonotic disease surveillance--inventory of systems integrating human and animal disease information.

    PubMed

    Wendt, A; Kreienbrock, L; Campe, A

    2015-02-01

    Although 65% of recent major disease outbreaks throughout the world have a zoonotic origin, there is still a sharp division among the disciplines into the human and animal health sectors. In the last few decades, a global integrative concept, often referred to as 'One Health', has been strongly endorsed. Surveillance and monitoring efforts are major components for effective disease prevention and control. As human health and animal health are inextricably linked, it is assumed that a cross-sectoral data interpretation of zoonotic disease information will improve their prevention, prediction and control. To provide an overview of existing systems throughout the world which integrate information from humans and animals on zoonotic diseases, a literature review was conducted. Twenty projects were identified and described regarding their concepts and realization. They all vary widely depending on their surveillance purpose, their structure and the source of information they use. What they have in common is that they quite often use data which have already been collected for another purpose. Therefore, the challenges of how to make use of such secondary data are of great interest. PMID:24712724

  14. Behavioural comparison of human–animal (dog) and human–robot (AIBO) interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kerepesi; E. Kubinyi; G. K. Jonsson; M. S. Magnusson; Á. Miklósi

    2006-01-01

    The behavioural analysis of human–robot interactions can help in developing socially interactive robots. The current study analyzes human–robot interaction with Theme software and the corresponding pattern detection algorithm. The method is based on the analysis of the temporal structure of the interactions by detecting T-patterns in the behaviour. We have compared humans’ (children and adults) play behaviour interacting either with

  15. Neuropeptide co-expression in hypothalamic kisspeptin neurons of laboratory animals and the human

    PubMed Central

    Skrapits, Katalin; Borsay, Beáta Á.; Herczeg, László; Ciofi, Philippe; Liposits, Zsolt; Hrabovszky, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Hypothalamic peptidergic neurons using kisspeptin (KP) and its co-transmitters for communication are critically involved in the regulation of mammalian reproduction and puberty. This article provides an overview of neuropeptides present in KP neurons, with a focus on the human species. Immunohistochemical studies reveal that large subsets of human KP neurons synthesize neurokinin B, as also shown in laboratory animals. In contrast, dynorphin described in KP neurons of rodents and sheep is found rarely in KP cells of human males and postmenopausal females. Similarly, galanin is detectable in mouse, but not human, KP cells, whereas substance P, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and proenkephalin-derived opioids are expressed in varying subsets of KP neurons in humans, but not reported in ARC of other species. Human KP neurons do not contain neurotensin, cholecystokinin, proopiomelanocortin-derivatives, agouti-related protein, neuropeptide Y, somatostatin or tyrosine hydroxylase (dopamine). These data identify the possible co-transmitters of human KP cells. Neurochemical properties distinct from those of laboratory species indicate that humans use considerably different neurotransmitter mechanisms to regulate fertility. PMID:25713511

  16. Human umbilical cord-derived MSC culture: the replacement of animal sera with human cord blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yan; Yang, Hua; Feng, Jing Bo; Qiu, Ying; Li, Dong Sheng; Zeng, Yi

    2013-12-01

    Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) hold great potential for their therapeutic use in various clinical diseases. Many publications have reported on human blood-derived alternatives to animal serum for culturing mesenchymal stem cells, such as human serum, allogenic umbilical cord blood serum, and human platelet derivatives. However, it is not clear whether human umbilical cord blood plasma (UCBP), as the surplusage of umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cell extraction, could be used. In this study, in order to make the best of umbilical cord blood, the human UCBP was dialyzed to replace fetal bovine serum (FBS) in the culture medium. hUC-MSCs were cultured in the new medium. Cell growth rate, specific biomarkers, and differentiation properties were detected to characterize the cell proliferation and MSC-specific properties. The hUC-MSCs cultured in such derived medium were verified with proliferation rate, cluster differentiation markers, cell cycle, as well as differentiation capabilities. Such dialyzed human UCBP is fully comparable with, if not superior to, FBS in deriving and culturing hUC-MSCs. PMID:24043577

  17. Characteristics of adherence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli to human and animal mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, T; Endo, S; Yokota, T; Echeverria, P

    1991-01-01

    An Escherichia coli strain (serotype O127a:H2) that had been isolated from a child with diarrhea in Thailand and that was negative for the virulence factors of the four categories of diarrheagenic E. coli (enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, enteroinvasive, and enterohemorrhagic) and that showed an aggregative pattern of adherence to HeLa cells was investigated for adherence to native or Formalin-fixed human and animal mucosa. The hemagglutinating activity and adherence ability of the bacteria were resistant to D-mannose and were strictly regulated by environmental conditions. Genetic data supported the close relation between the hemagglutinating activity and adherence ability. In accordance with the adherence pattern on tissue-cultured cells, the bacteria adhered to human and animal mucosa, as evidenced by a direct gold-labeling analysis. In human intestines, Formalin-fixed mucous coatings, epithelial cells of colonic mucosa, epithelial cells of ileal single lymphoid follicles and Peyer's patches, and the absorptive cells of jejunal or ileal villi provided adherence targets. Adherence to M cells in the Peyer's patch-associated epithelium was also confirmed. The adherence levels to native jejunal or ileal human villi were low, as was the case with the corresponding Formalin-fixed villi. In human urinary tract, the superficial epithelial cells of both native and Formalin-fixed ureter provided striking adherence targets. In animal (porcine and rabbit) small intestines, the bacteria adhered to the native villi to a lesser extent than to the Formalin-fixed villi. The adherence levels were compared with those of enterotoxigenic E. coli with colonization factor antigen (CFA)/I pili or CFA/II pili. The data suggested unique mucosa adherence characteristics of the enteroaggregative E. coli strain. The possibility of the adherence ability as a virulence factor was discussed. Images PMID:1680107

  18. Serotype distribution of Salmonella isolates from food animals after slaughter differs from that of isolates found in humans.

    PubMed

    Sarwari, A R; Magder, L S; Levine, P; McNamara, A M; Knower, S; Armstrong, G L; Etzel, R; Hollingsworth, J; Morris, J G

    2001-04-15

    If raw meat and poultry are the primary point of entry for Salmonella species into human populations, a correlation might be expected between the serotype distribution of Salmonella species isolated from animals at the time of slaughter and that of isolates found in humans. For 1990-1996, sufficient national data were available to permit such a comparison. A mathematical model was developed to predict serotype distributions of Salmonella isolates among humans on the basis of animal data. There was a significant mismatch between the serotype distributions among humans predicted by the model and those actually observed. This mismatch raises questions about the validity of the "standard" assumptions about Salmonella transmission on which the model was based-namely, that raw animal products are the primary source for human salmonellosis, that the risk of transmission to humans is equal for all food product categories, and that all Salmonella serotypes have an equal ability to cause human illness. PMID:11262216

  19. Internalization and Dissemination of Human Norovirus and Animal Caliciviruses in Hydroponically Grown Romaine Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    DiCaprio, Erin; Ma, Yuanmei; Purgianto, Anastasia; Hughes, John

    2012-01-01

    Fresh produce is a major vehicle for the transmission of human norovirus (NoV) because it is easily contaminated during both pre- and postharvest stages. However, the ecology of human NoV in fresh produce is poorly understood. In this study, we determined whether human NoV and its surrogates can be internalized via roots and disseminated to edible portions of the plant. The roots of romaine lettuce growing in hydroponic feed water were inoculated with 1 × 106 RNA copies/ml of a human NoV genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) strain or 1 × 106 to 2 × 106 PFU/ml of animal caliciviruses (Tulane virus [TV] and murine norovirus [MNV-1]), and plants were allowed to grow for 2 weeks. Leaves, shoots, and roots were homogenized, and viral titers and/or RNA copies were determined by plaque assay and/or real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. For human NoV, high levels of viral-genome RNA (105 to 106 RNA copies/g) were detected in leaves, shoots, and roots at day 1 postinoculation and remained stable over the 14-day study period. For MNV-1 and TV, relatively low levels of infectious virus particles (101 to 103 PFU/g) were detected in leaves and shoots at days 1 and 2 postinoculation, but virus reached a peak titer (105 to 106 PFU/g) at day 3 or 7 postinoculation. In addition, human NoV had a rate of internalization comparable with that of TV as determined by real-time RT-PCR, whereas TV was more efficiently internalized than MNV-1 as determined by plaque assay. Taken together, these results demonstrated that human NoV and animal caliciviruses became internalized via roots and efficiently disseminated to the shoots and leaves of the lettuce. PMID:22729543

  20. Animal models of human prostate cancer: The Consensus Report of the New York Meeting of the Mouse Models of Human Cancers Consortium Prostate Pathology Committee

    PubMed Central

    Ittmann, Michael; Huang, Jiaoti; Radaelli, Enrico; Martin, Philip; Signoretti, Sabina; Sullivan, Ruth; Simons, Brian W.; Ward, Jerrold M.; Robinson, Brian D.; Chu, Gerald C.; Loda, Massimo; Thomas, George; Borowsky, Alexander; Cardiff, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models, particularly mouse models, play a central role in the study of the etiology, prevention and treatment of human prostate cancer (PCa). While tissue culture models are extremely useful in understanding the biology of PCa, they cannot recapitulate the complex cellular interactions within the tumor microenvironment that play a key role in cancer initiation and progression. The NCI Mouse Models of Human Cancers Consortium convened a group of human and veterinary pathologists to review the current animal models of PCa and make recommendations regarding the pathological analysis of these models. Over 40 different models with 439 samples were reviewed including genetically engineered mouse models, xenograft, rat and canine models. Numerous relevant models have been developed over the last 15 years and each approach has strengths and weaknesses. Analysis of multiple genetically engineered models has shown that reactive stroma formation is present in all the models developing invasive carcinomas. In addition, numerous models with multiple genetic alterations display aggressive phenotypes characterized by sarcomatoid carcinomas and metastases, which is presumably a histological manifestation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The significant progress in development of improved models of PCa has already accelerated our understanding the complex biology of PCa and promises to enhance development of new approaches to prevention, detection and treatment of this common malignancy. PMID:23610450

  1. Effect of Variation in hemorheology between human and animal blood on the binding efficacy of vascular-targeted carriers.

    PubMed

    Namdee, K; Carrasco-Teja, M; Fish, M B; Charoenphol, P; Eniola-Adefeso, O

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are extensively used to evaluate the in vivo functionality of novel drug delivery systems (DDS). However, many variations likely exist in vivo between the animals and human physiological environment that significantly alter results obtained with animal models relative to human system. To date, it is not clear if the variation in hemorheology and hemodynamics between common animal and human models affect the functionality of DDS. This study investigates the role of hemorheology of humans and various animal models in dictating the binding efficiency of model vascular-targeted carriers (VTCs) to the wall in physiological blood flows. Specifically, the adhesion of sLe(A)-coated nano- and micro-spheres to inflamed endothelial cells monolayers were conducted via a parallel plate flow chamber assay with steady and disturbed red blood cells (RBCs)-in-buffer and whole blood flows of common animal models. Our results suggest that the ratio of carrier size to RBC size dictate particle binding in blood flow. Additionally, the presence of white blood cells affects the trend of particle adhesion depending on the animal species. Overall, this work sheds light on some deviation in VTC vascular wall interaction results obtained with in vivo animal experimentation from expected outcome and efficiency in vivo in human. PMID:26113000

  2. Effect of Variation in hemorheology between human and animal blood on the binding efficacy of vascular-targeted carriers

    PubMed Central

    Namdee, K.; Carrasco-Teja, M.; Fish, M. B.; Charoenphol, P.; Eniola-Adefeso, O.

    2015-01-01

    Animal models are extensively used to evaluate the in vivo functionality of novel drug delivery systems (DDS). However, many variations likely exist in vivo between the animals and human physiological environment that significantly alter results obtained with animal models relative to human system. To date, it is not clear if the variation in hemorheology and hemodynamics between common animal and human models affect the functionality of DDS. This study investigates the role of hemorheology of humans and various animal models in dictating the binding efficiency of model vascular-targeted carriers (VTCs) to the wall in physiological blood flows. Specifically, the adhesion of sLeA-coated nano- and micro-spheres to inflamed endothelial cells monolayers were conducted via a parallel plate flow chamber assay with steady and disturbed red blood cells (RBCs)-in-buffer and whole blood flows of common animal models. Our results suggest that the ratio of carrier size to RBC size dictate particle binding in blood flow. Additionally, the presence of white blood cells affects the trend of particle adhesion depending on the animal species. Overall, this work sheds light on some deviation in VTC vascular wall interaction results obtained with in vivo animal experimentation from expected outcome and efficiency in vivo in human. PMID:26113000

  3. [Animals as a source of infections for humans--diseases caused by EHEC].

    PubMed

    Baljer, G; Wieler, L H

    1999-08-01

    EHEC (enterohaemorrhagic E. coli) bacteria are new, only since 1982 recognized zoonotic pathogens. EHEC differ from E. coli intestinal commensales by the fact that they are lysogenic infected with bacteriophages, which carry the genetic information for the production of shigatoxins (Stx type 1 and/or 2). Due to the obligatory released Stx EHEC are classified also among the Shigatoxin producing E. coli (STEC). EHEC are capable of causing a Hemorrhagic Colitis and some sequelae of diseases such as the haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Due to their virulence factors they can be divided into typical and non-typical EHEC. Typical EHEC possess a pathogenicity island (Locus of Enterocyte Effacement) harboring genes, which apart from the characteristic necrotic activity of Stx enable the pathogens to closely attach to the epithelial cells of the intestinal mucosa and to destruct the microvilli. Additionally a so-called virulence plasmid codes for the production of a haemolysin, a peroxidase-katalase, an enterotoxin as well as a serine protease. EHEC are one of the world-wide most important causes of foodborne infections. Depending upon the country, most of the incidences in 1998 varied between 1 to 3 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Since EHEC are only notifiable in a few countries, one must count however on substantially higher numbers. In Germany the estimated incidence is about 13 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Since the first EHEC outbreaks were recognized in humans, studies investigating the prevalence of EHEC within animals were repeatedly performed. From the outset one assumed that cattle are a possible reservoir. Actually EHEC were isolated from fecal samples world-wide (typical and non-typical EHEC) from a large percentage of cattle (> 50%). Besides EHEC were isolated sporadically from fecal samples of other animals and healthy humans. The EHEC bacteria are shed by infected humans and animals, in particular by infected ruminants. They are spread over manure, slurry, sewage etc. Humans can get infected directly by contact with infected persons or animals or indirectly by contaminated food, water etc. The clinical outcome within humans appears as aqueous to bloody diarrhea. Beyond that approximately 5 to 10% of the patients develop the haemolytic uraemic syndrome. In contrast to humans, animals are mostly infected clinically inapparent. The therapy is based upon a symptomatic treatment. At present in man the control of EHEC infections concentrates on a particularly strict hand hygiene after the contact with infected humans and animals (above all ruminants). Since EHEC are heat sensitive, the prophylaxis by sufficient heating of risk food (raw milk, ground beef) is of special importance. In veterinary medicine above all EHEC infections must be controlled in ruminants, which are the primary reservoir. Due to the wide spread of EHEC in the ruminant population it is not realistic to demand an EHEC free cattle stock. Since EHEC are spread only via fecal excretion, at present it is most important to reduce the fecal shedding and to avoid fecal contamination of food of animal origin. In detail prophylactic hygienic measures concerning the farm management, the feeding hygiene, the food hygiene, the meat hygiene as well as the food hygiene are available. PMID:10488639

  4. Abstract The ability of animals to use behavioral/facial cues in detection of human attention has been widely in-

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    between two eating humans based on either the visibility of the eyes or direction of the face. Our resultsAbstract The ability of animals to use behavioral/facial cues in detection of human attention has been widely in- vestigated. In this test series we studied the ability of dogs to recognize human

  5. Culture in Animals: The Case of a Non-human Primate Culture of Low Aggression and High Affiliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapolsky, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Philosophers often consider what it is that makes individuals human. For biologists considering the same, the answer is often framed in the context of what are the key differences between humans and other animals. One vestige of human uniqueness still often cited by anthropologists is culture. However, this notion has been challenged in recent…

  6. Do humans and nonhuman animals share the grouping principles of the Iambic - Trochaic Law?

    PubMed Central

    de la Mora, Daniela M.; Nespor, Marina; Toro, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    The Iambic-Trochaic Law describes humans’ tendency to form trochaic groups over sequences varying in pitch or intensity (i.e., the loudest or highest sound marks group beginnings), and iambic groups over sequences varying in duration (i.e., the longest sound marks group endings). The extent to which these perceptual biases are shared by humans and nonhuman animals is yet unclear. In Experiment 1, we trained rats to discriminate pitch-alternating sequences of tones from sequences randomly varying in pitch. In Experiment 2, rats were trained to discriminate duration-alternating sequences of tones from sequences randomly varying in duration. We found that nonhuman animals group as trochees sequences based on pitch variations, but they do not group as iambs sequences varying in duration. Importantly, humans grouped the same stimuli following the principles of the Iambic-Trochaic Law (Experiment 3). These results suggest an early emergence of the trochaic rhythmic grouping bias based on pitch, possibly relying on perceptual abilities shared by humans and other mammals as well, whereas the iambic rhythmic grouping bias based on duration might depend on language experience. PMID:22956287

  7. Critical windows of exposure for children's health: cancer in human epidemiological studies and neoplasms in experimental animal models.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, L M; Diwan, B A; Fear, N T; Roman, E

    2000-01-01

    In humans, cancer may be caused by genetics and environmental exposures; however, in the majority of instances the identification of the critical time window of exposure is problematic. The evidence for exposures occurring during the preconceptional period that have an association with childhood or adulthood cancers is equivocal. Agents definitely related to cancer in children, and adulthood if exposure occurs in utero, include: maternal exposure to ionizing radiation during pregnancy and childhood leukemia and certain other cancers, and maternal use of diethylstilbestrol during pregnancy and clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina of their daughters. The list of environmental exposures that occur during the perinatal/postnatal period with potential to increase the risk of cancer is lengthening, but evidence available to date is inconsistent and inconclusive. In animal models, preconceptional carcinogenesis has been demonstrated for a variety of types of radiation and chemicals, with demonstrated sensitivity for all stages from fetal gonocytes to postmeiotic germ cells. Transplacental and neonatal carcinogenesis show marked ontogenetic stage specificity in some cases. Mechanistic factors include the number of cells at risk, the rate of cell division, the development of differentiated characteristics including the ability to activate and detoxify carcinogens, the presence of stem cells, and possibly others. Usefulness for human risk estimation would be strengthened by the study of these factors in more than one species, and by a focus on specific human risk issues. Images Figure 1 PMID:10852857

  8. Colorado animal-based plague surveillance systems: relationships between targeted animal species and prediction efficacy of areas at risk for humans.

    PubMed

    Lowell, Jennifer L; Eisen, Rebecca J; Schotthoefer, Anna M; Xiaocheng, Liang; Montenieri, John A; Tanda, Dale; Pape, John; Schriefer, Martin E; Antolin, Michael F; Gage, Kenneth L

    2009-06-01

    Human plague risks (Yersinia pestis infection) are greatest when epizootics cause high mortality among this bacterium's natural rodent hosts. Therefore, health departments in plague-endemic areas commonly establish animal-based surveillance programs to monitor Y. pestis infection among plague hosts and vectors. The primary objectives of our study were to determine whether passive animal-based plague surveillance samples collected in Colorado from 1991 to 2005 were sampled from high human plague risk areas and whether these samples provided information useful for predicting human plague case locations. By comparing locations of plague-positive animal samples with a previously constructed GIS-based plague risk model, we determined that the majority of plague-positive Gunnison's prairie dogs (100%) and non-prairie dog sciurids (85.82%), and moderately high percentages of sigmodontine rodents (71.4%), domestic cats (69.3%), coyotes (62.9%), and domestic dogs (62.5%) were recovered within 1 km of the nearest area posing high peridomestic risk to humans. In contrast, the majority of white-tailed prairie dog (66.7%), leporid (cottontailed and jack rabbits) (71.4%), and black-tailed prairie dog (93.0%) samples originated more than 1 km from the nearest human risk habitat. Plague-positive animals or their fleas were rarely (one of 19 cases) collected within 2 km of a case exposure site during the 24 months preceding the dates of illness onset for these cases. Low spatial accuracy for identifying epizootic activity prior to human plague cases suggested that other mammalian species or their fleas are likely more important sources of human infection in high plague risk areas. To address this issue, epidemiological observations and multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analyses (MLVA) were used to preliminarily identify chipmunks as an under-sampled, but potentially important, species for human plague risk in Colorado. PMID:20836802

  9. Considerations for the assessment of the safety of genetically modified animals used for human food or animal feed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gijs A Kleter; Harry A Kuiper

    2002-01-01

    Genetically modified food and feed crops have entered the Western market, and genetically modified animals may follow in the near future. The issues that are commonly addressed in the assessment of the safety of genetically modified crops are discussed, as well as the analogous issues that may arise for genetically modified animals. For safety assessment, the degree of substantial equivalence

  10. Ticks of Australia. The species that infest domestic animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Barker, Stephen C; Walker, Alan R

    2014-01-01

    The book Australian Ticks by F.H.S. Roberts (1970) is a land-mark in Australian tick biology. But it is time for a new and improved book on the ticks of Australia. The present book has identification guides and accounts of the biology and diseases associated with the 16 species of ticks that may feed on domestic animals and humans in Australia. These comprise five argasid (soft) ticks: Argas persicus (poultry tick), Argas robertsi (Robert's bird tick), Ornithodoros capensis (seabird soft tick), O. gurneyi (kangaroo soft tick), Otobius megnini (spinose ear tick); and 11 ixodid (hard) ticks, Amblyomma triguttatum (ornate kangaroo tick), Bothriocroton auruginans (wombat tick), B. hydrosauri (southern reptile tick), Haemaphysalis bancrofti (wallaby tick), H. longicornis (bush tick), Ixodes cornuatus (southern paralysis tick), I. hirsti (Hirst's marsupial tick), I. holocyclus (paralysis tick), I. tasmani (common marsupial tick), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) australis (Australian cattle tick) and R. sanguineus (brown dog tick).  We use an image-matching system to identify ticks, much like the image-matching systems used in field-guides for birds and flowers. Ticks may be identified by drawings that emphasise unique matrices of uniformly defined morphological characters that, together, allow these 16 ticks to be identified by morphology unequivocally. The species accounts have seven sections: (i) General; (ii)  Differential diagnosis; (iii) Hosts; (iv) Life-cycle and seasonality; (v) Disease; (vi) Habitat and geographic distribution; (vii) Genes and genomes; and (viii) Other information. There are 71 figures and tables, including a glossary character matrices, drawings of life-cycles, drawings of genera, species, and colour photographs of tick biology. PMID:24943801

  11. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Dorne, J.L.C.M., E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Emerging Risk Unit, Via Carlo Magno 1A, 43126 Parma (Italy); Fink-Gremmels, J. [Utrecht University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Yalelaan 104, 3584 CM Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ? Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ? Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ? Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ? Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment.

  12. Complex etiology, prophylaxis and hygiene control in mycotoxic nephropathies in farm animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Stoev, Stoycho D

    2008-04-01

    Various etiological factors contributing to the development of mycotoxic nephropathy in farm animals and humans are reviewed. The possible synergistic effect between ochratoxin A (OTA) and other mycotoxins, as penicillic acid (PA) and fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)), contributing to this nephropathy is also considered and discussed. The most convenient ways of prophylaxis and various preventive measures against OTA contamination of feeds or foods are reviewed. A reference is made concerning the most successful methods of veterinary hygiene control in the slaughterhouses in order to prevent the entering of OTA in commercial channels with a view to human health. The economic efficacy of these prophylactic procedures is also considered. An evaluation of human exposure to OTA is made. PMID:19325772

  13. Omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids in human and animal health: an African perspective.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, B S; Bosire, R V; Deckelbaum, R J

    2014-12-01

    Lipids are essential for plant and animal development, growth and nutrition and play critical roles in health and reproduction. The dramatic increase in the human population has put increasing pressure on human food sources, especially of those sources of food which contain adequate levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and more importantly, sources of food which have favorable ratios of the n-3 (18-carbon, ?-linolenic acid, ALA) to n-6 (18-carbon linoleic acid, LA) PUFAs. Recent studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of the n-3 PUFAs in diets as well as potentially negative effects of excessive levels of n-6 PUFAs in diets. This review discusses these human health issues relating to changes in diets based on environmental and industrial changes as well as strategies in East Africa for improving lipid composition of food using indigenous sources. PMID:25458696

  14. Assuring safety without animal testing: the case for the human testis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chapin, Robert E; Boekelheide, Kim; Cortvrindt, Rita; van Duursen, Majorie B M; Gant, Tim; Jegou, Bernard; Marczylo, Emma; van Pelt, Ans M M; Post, Janine N; Roelofs, Maarke J E; Schlatt, Stefan; Teerds, Katja J; Toppari, Jorma; Piersma, Aldert H

    2013-08-01

    From 15 to 17 June 2011, a dedicated workshop was held on the subject of in vitro models for mammalian spermatogenesis and their applications in toxicological hazard and risk assessment. The workshop was sponsored by the Dutch ASAT initiative (Assuring Safety without Animal Testing), which aims at promoting innovative approaches toward toxicological hazard and risk assessment on the basis of human and in vitro data, and replacement of animal studies. Participants addressed the state of the art regarding human and animal evidence for compound mediated testicular toxicity, reviewed existing alternative assay models, and brainstormed about future approaches, specifically considering tissue engineering. The workshop recognized the specific complexity of testicular function exemplified by dedicated cell types with distinct functionalities, as well as different cell compartments in terms of microenvironment and extracellular matrix components. This complexity hampers quick results in the realm of alternative models. Nevertheless, progress has been achieved in recent years, and innovative approaches in tissue engineering may open new avenues for mimicking testicular function in vitro. Although feasible, significant investment is deemed essential to be able to bring new ideas into practice in the laboratory. For the advancement of in vitro testicular toxicity testing, one of the most sensitive end points in regulatory reproductive toxicity testing, such an investment is highly desirable. PMID:23612449

  15. Puberty as a Critical Risk Period for Eating Disorders: A Review of Human and Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Klump, Kelly L.

    2013-01-01

    Puberty is one of the most frequently discussed risk periods for the development of eating disorders. Prevailing theories propose environmentally mediated sources of risk arising from the psychosocial effects (e.g., increased body dissatisfaction, decreased self-esteem) of pubertal development in girls. However, recent research highlights the potential role of ovarian hormones in phenotypic and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. The goal of this paper is to review data from human and animal studies in support of puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders and evaluate the evidence for hormonal contributions. Data are consistent in suggesting that both pubertal status and pubertal timing significantly impact risk for most eating disorders in girls, such that advanced pubertal development and early pubertal timing are associated with increased rates of eating disorders and their symptoms in both cross-sectional and longitudinal research. Findings in boys have been much less consistent and suggest a smaller role for puberty in risk for eating disorders in boys. Twin and animal studies indicate that at least part of the female-specific risk is due to genetic factors associated with estrogen activation at puberty. In conclusion, data thus far support a role for puberty in risk for eating disorders and highlight the need for additional human and animal studies of hormonal and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. PMID:23998681

  16. Optical coherence tomography technique for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring: phantom, animal, and human studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, Kirill V.; Ashitkov, Taras V.; Larina, Irina V.; Petrova, Irina Y.; Eledrisi, Mohsen S.; Motamedi, Massoud; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2002-06-01

    Continuous noninvasive monitoring of blood glucose concentration can improve management of Diabetes Mellitus, reduce mortality, and considerably improve quality of life of diabetic patients. Recently, we proposed to use the OCT technique for noninvasive glucose monitoring. In this paper, we tested noninvasive blood glucose monitoring with the OCT technique in phantoms, animals, and human subjects. An OCT system with the wavelength of 1300 nm was used in our experiments. Phantom studies performed on aqueous suspensions of polystyrene microspheres and milk showed 3.2% decrease of exponential slope of OCT signals when glucose concentration increased from 0 to 100 mM. Theoretical calculations based on the Mie theory of scattering support the results obtained in phantoms. Bolus glucose injections and glucose clamping experiments were performed in animals (New Zealand rabbits and Yucatan micropigs). Good correlation between changes in the OCT signal slope and actual blood glucose concentration were observed in these experiments. First studies were performed in healthy human subjects (using oral glucose tolerance tests). Dependence of the slope of the OCT signals on the actual blood glucose concentration was similar to that obtained in animal studies. Our studies suggest that the OCT technique can potentially be used for noninvasive blood glucose monitoring.

  17. Incidence of aflatoxin M1 in human and animal milk in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Omar, Sharaf S

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in animal milk. In addition, exposure of infants to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and lactating mothers to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was examined using AFM1 in breast milk as a biomarker for exposure to AFB1. In total, 100 samples of fresh animal milk and fermented milk (buttermilk) and 80 samples of human breast milk were collected during the period 2011-2012. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the analysis of milk samples. AFM1 was detected in all animal fresh and fermented milk samples. The concentrations of AFM1 in 70 samples of fresh and fermented milk were higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union and the United States of 50 ng/kg. In human milk samples the average concentration of AFM1 was higher than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by the European Union and the United States of 25 ng/kg. Logistic regression analysis failed to show a correlation between AFM1 and type and amount of dairy consumption, vegetables, fruits, and meat. However, an association between AFM1 and cereal consumption was detected. This study is the first to report on the occurrence of AFM1 in milk consumed by the Jordanian population. PMID:23095158

  18. Puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders: a review of human and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Klump, Kelly L

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Puberty is one of the most frequently discussed risk periods for the development of eating disorders. Prevailing theories propose environmentally mediated sources of risk arising from the psychosocial effects (e.g., increased body dissatisfaction, decreased self-esteem) of pubertal development in girls. However, recent research highlights the potential role of ovarian hormones in phenotypic and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. The goal of this paper is to review data from human and animal studies in support of puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders and evaluate the evidence for hormonal contributions. Data are consistent in suggesting that both pubertal status and pubertal timing significantly impact risk for most eating disorders in girls, such that advanced pubertal development and early pubertal timing are associated with increased rates of eating disorders and their symptoms in both cross-sectional and longitudinal research. Findings in boys have been much less consistent and suggest a smaller role for puberty in risk for eating disorders in boys. Twin and animal studies indicate that at least part of the female-specific risk is due to genetic factors associated with estrogen activation at puberty. In conclusion, data thus far support a role for puberty in risk for eating disorders and highlight the need for additional human and animal studies of hormonal and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. PMID:23998681

  19. [Contemporary animal nutrition and its potential hazards to human health (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Somogyi, A; Malick, L E; Langenbach, R; Sallach, K

    1976-01-01

    The growing challenge to secure wholesome food of animal origin in quantities sufficient to feed the ever increasing world population leads to the compelling need of search for new means to enhance animal production. Such an endeavor often involves the use of pharmacologically active agents. As new substances are continuously introduced into agriculture, the necessity clearly arises to reassess the requirements for the approval of compounds likely to appear in the food of man via the edible tissues of animals. Since a number of animal drugs and feed additives have been recently found to show carcinogenic potency, using examples from their own research, the authors discuss problems encountered while planning animal studies for the safety evaluation of chemicals. Among the most important factors to be reckoned with is the metabolism of the test substance. Most carcinogens require metabolic transformation in order to react with macromolecules and, thus, exert their biological action. Similarly, residues of many drugs in animal tissues appear to be various metabolites rather than the parent compounds themselves. At present, it is not known whether many chemical residues are simply stored in different compartments of the carcass as a result of their physico-chemical properties or whether they are covalently bound to vital macromolecules (e.g., nucleic acids). Hence, their biological significance is not quite clear. The enzyme system which metabolizes numerous drugs, pesticides, as well as other endogenous and exogenous substrates is responsible for both the activation and detoxification of carcinogenic chemicals. The delicate balance between these two processes of opposing toxicological consequence is determined by genetic and environmental factors. Depending upon the metabolic profile of chemicals, certain compounds are carcinogenic in one animal species while not in others. The manipulation of their metabolism by physiological (e.g., stress) or pharmacological (e.g., inducers or inhibitors of microsomal enzymes) means can result in a profound change of various biological actions of chemicals (e.g., cytotoxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity). To ascertain that potential toxicological hazards to human health by animal drugs and feed additives will be recognized during the phase of testing, appropriate test animals have to be selected with great care. It is indispensible that the metabolic break-down of the investigational substance proceeds via similar pathways in both test animals and the target species. This will assure that the same metabolites which, in the form of residues in food, man might be exposed to will have ample opportunity to exert their possible adverse effects to the experimental animals during a life-long feeding of the test substance. Therefore, it can, with a reasonable certainty, be assumed that, in experiments performed under such precautionary measures, toxico-pharmacological properties relevant to human safety evaluation will not remain undetected. PMID:827880

  20. Effects of antipsychotic D2 antagonists on long-term potentiation in animals and implications for human studies.

    PubMed

    Price, Rae; Salavati, Bahar; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Blumberger, Daniel M; Mulsant, Benoit H; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Rajji, Tarek K

    2014-10-01

    In people with schizophrenia, cognitive abilities - including memory - are strongly associated with functional outcome. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a form of neuroplasticity that is believed to be the physiological basis for memory. It has been postulated that antipsychotic medication can impair long-term potentiation and cognition by altering dopaminergic transmission. Thus, a systematic review was performed in order to assess the relationship between antipsychotics and D2 antagonists on long-term potentiation. The majority of studies on LTP and antipsychotics have found that acute administration of antipsychotics was associated with impairments in LTP in wild-type animals. In contrast, chronic administration and acute antipsychotics in animal models of schizophrenia were not. Typical and atypical antipsychotics and other D2 antagonists behaved similarly, with the exception of clozapine and olanzapine. Clozapine caused potentiation independent of tetanization, while olanzapine facilitated tetanus-induced potentiation. These studies are limited in their ability to model the effects of antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia as they were largely performed in wild-type animals as opposed to humans with schizophrenia, and assessed after acute rather than chronic treatment. Further studies using patients with schizophrenia receiving chronic antipsychotic treatment are needed to better understand the effects of these medications in this population. PMID:24819820

  1. Social learning enables both human and nonhuman ani-mals to acquire information relevant to many biologically

    E-print Network

    Galef Jr., Bennett G.

    , identification of social learning in free-living populations of animals is a necessary first step in our quest adaptive (Boyd & Richerson, 1985; Laland, 2004), its frequent roles in the development in animals of both of social learning as an inheritance system may be responsible for the disparity between human and nonhuman

  2. Rapporteur report: Cellular, animal and epidemiological studies of the effects of static magnetic fields relevant to human health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dariusz Leszczynski

    2005-01-01

    Three talks were presented in the session on “Cellular, Animal and Epidemiological Studies of the Effects of Static Magnetic Fields Relevant to Human Health”. The first talk presented the in vitro effects of static magnetic fields on cell cultures. The second talk presented the in vivo evidence obtained from animal studies. The final, third talk, presented the evidence obtained from

  3. Aluminum in the central nervous system (CNS): toxicity in humans and animals, vaccine adjuvants, and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Shaw, C A; Tomljenovic, L

    2013-07-01

    We have examined the neurotoxicity of aluminum in humans and animals under various conditions, following different routes of administration, and provide an overview of the various associated disease states. The literature demonstrates clearly negative impacts of aluminum on the nervous system across the age span. In adults, aluminum exposure can lead to apparently age-related neurological deficits resembling Alzheimer's and has been linked to this disease and to the Guamanian variant, ALS-PDC. Similar outcomes have been found in animal models. In addition, injection of aluminum adjuvants in an attempt to model Gulf War syndrome and associated neurological deficits leads to an ALS phenotype in young male mice. In young children, a highly significant correlation exists between the number of pediatric aluminum-adjuvanted vaccines administered and the rate of autism spectrum disorders. Many of the features of aluminum-induced neurotoxicity may arise, in part, from autoimmune reactions, as part of the ASIA syndrome. PMID:23609067

  4. Rodents on pig and chicken farms – a potential threat to human and animal health

    PubMed Central

    Backhans, Annette; Fellström, Claes

    2012-01-01

    Rodents can cause major problems through spreading various diseases to animals and humans. The two main species of rodents most commonly found on farms around the world are the house mouse (Mus musculus) and the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus). Both species are omnivorous and can breed year-round under favourable conditions. This review describes the occurrence of pathogens in rodents on specialist pig and chicken farms, which are usually closed units with a high level of bio-security. However, wild rodents may be difficult to exclude completely, even from these sites, and can pose a risk of introducing and spreading pathogens. This article reviews current knowledge regarding rodents as a hazard for spreading disease on farms. Most literature available regards zoonotic pathogens, while the literature regarding pathogens that cause disease in farm animals is more limited. PMID:22957130

  5. Increased biological activity of deglycosylated recombinant human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor produced by yeast or animal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Moonen, P; Mermod, J J; Ernst, J F; Hirschi, M; DeLamarter, J F

    1987-01-01

    Human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) produced by several recombinant sources including Escherichia coli, yeast, and animal cells was studied. Recombinant animal cells produced hGM-CSF in low quantities and in multiple forms of varying size. Mammalian hGM-CSF was purified 200,000-fold using immunoaffinity and lectin chromatography. Partially purified proteins produced in yeast and mammalian cells were assayed for the effects of deglycosylation. Following enzymatic deglycosylation, immunoreactivity was measured by radioimmunoassay and biological activity was measured in vitro on responsive human primary cells. Removal of N-linked oligosaccharides from both proteins increased their immunoreactivities by 4- to 8-fold. Removal of these oligosaccharides also increased their specific biological activities about 20-fold, to reach approximately the specific activity of recombinant hGM-CSF from E. coli. The E. coli produced-protein--lacking any carbohydrate--had by far the highest specific activity observed for the recombinant hGM-CSFs. Images PMID:3299366

  6. Ultrastructure appearance of atherosclerosis in human and experimentally-induced animal models.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, H; Ohtsubo, K

    1992-01-01

    We describe here the basic structure of the aorta, the changes with aging and ultrastructural appearance of atherosclerosis of human and animal models. The architecture of the aortic wall is highly organized, for adaptation to changes of blood pressure. The main cells composing the vessel are endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. They maintain the integrity and homeostasis of the aorta along with the extracellular matrix of collagen fibrils, elastic fibers and glycosaminoglycans. The structural changes with aging and atherogenesis are a compensative or degenerative phenomenon caused by many factors. Three major cells are the endothelial cell, smooth muscle cell and monocyte-derived macrophages (as well as platelets) all of which are involved in atherogenesis. Foam cells in atheromatous lesions are derived from macrophages and smooth muscle cells. Recently, the molecular biological nature and function of these cells and their derived-factors have been thoroughly investigated in cell culture and in experimental animal models caused by a mechanical injury of the endothelium or by a dietary induced hypercholesterolemia. However, the mechanism of the endothelial injury in vivo as well as formation of atheromatous cores of human atherosclerosis is not exactly understood. Some structural and functional changes inherent to the arterial wall during aging may play an important role in initiation or progression of human atherosclerosis. PMID:1730074

  7. Comparison of the photodynamic effect in human and animal tumor cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoykova, Elena; Alexandrova, Radostina; Nedkova, Kristina; Ivanova, Elena; Sabotinov, Ognian; Zdravkov, Kaloian; Minchev, Georgi

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the present work is to compare the photodynamic effect in vitro for permanent cell lines established from some of the most common and invasive human cancers (breast cancer and brain glioblastoma) as well as for animal cell lines obtained from virus-induced transplantable tumors. The cytotoxicity assessment was performed for human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7, human glioblastoma 8-MG-BA, and two virus-induced animal tumor cell lines: a cell line LSCC-SF-Mc29, obtained from a transplantable chicken hepatoma induced by the myelocytomatosis virus Mc20, and a line LSR-SF- SR, obtained from a transplantable sarcoma in rat induced by Rous sarcoma virus strain Schmidt-Ruppin. We used in the experiments a PS produced by NIOPIK, Russia) [www.tech-db.ru/istc/db/inst.nsf/wu] with peak absorption around 670 nm. The photodynamic effect was assessed by a neutral red uptake cytotoxicity test. To activate the photosensitizer we used a semiconductor laser that emitted at 672 nm at irradiance of 120 mW/cm2; the latter value had been chosen after comparison of the photodynamic effect at 12, 60 and 120 mW/cm2.

  8. The genomics of preterm birth: from animal models to human studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth (delivery at less than 37 weeks of gestation) is the leading cause of infant mortality worldwide. So far, the application of animal models to understand human birth timing has not substantially revealed mechanisms that could be used to prevent prematurity. However, with amassing data implicating an important role for genetics in the timing of the onset of human labor, the use of modern genomic approaches, such as genome-wide association studies, rare variant analyses using whole-exome or genome sequencing, and family-based designs, holds enormous potential. Although some progress has been made in the search for causative genes and variants associated with preterm birth, the major genetic determinants remain to be identified. Here, we review insights from and limitations of animal models for understanding the physiology of parturition, recent human genetic and genomic studies to identify genes involved in preterm birth, and emerging areas that are likely to be informative in future investigations. Further advances in understanding fundamental mechanisms, and the development of preventative measures, will depend upon the acquisition of greater numbers of carefully phenotyped pregnancies, large-scale informatics approaches combining genomic information with information on environmental exposures, and new conceptual models for studying the interaction between the maternal and fetal genomes to personalize therapies for mothers and infants. Information emerging from these advances will help us to identify new biomarkers for earlier detection of preterm labor, develop more effective therapeutic agents, and/or promote prophylactic measures even before conception. PMID:23673148

  9. Beagle: an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating the organ distribution pattern of Th in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, N.P.; Zimmerman, C.J.; Taylor, G.N.; Wrenn, M.E.

    1988-03-01

    The concentrations and the organ distribution patterns of 228Th, 230Th and 232Th in two 9-y-old dogs of our beagle colony were determined. The dogs were exposed only to background environmental levels of Th isotopes through ingestion (food and water) and inhalation as are humans. The organ distribution patterns of the isotopes in the beagles were compared to the organ distribution patterns in humans to determine if it is appropriate to extrapolate the beagle organ burden data to humans. Among soft tissues, only the lungs, lymph nodes, kidney and liver, and skeleton contained measurable amounts of Th isotopes. The organ distribution pattern of Th isotopes in humans and dog are similar, the majority of Th being in the skeleton of both species. The average skeletal concentrations of 228Th in dogs were 30 to 40 times higher than the average skeletal concentrations of the parent 232Th, whereas the concentration of 228Th in human skeleton was only four to five times higher than 232Th. This suggests that dogs have a higher intake of 228Ra through food than humans. There is a similar trend in the accumulations of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in the lungs of dog and humans. The percentages of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in human lungs are 26, 9.7 and 4.8, respectively, compared to 4.2, 2.6 and 0.48, respectively, in dog lungs. The larger percentages of Th isotopes in human lungs may be due simply to the longer life span of humans. If the burdens of Th isotopes in human lungs are normalized to an exposure time of 9.2 y (mean age of dogs at the time of sacrifice), the percent burden of 232Th, 230Th and 228Th in human lungs are estimated to be 3.6, 1.3 and 0.66, respectively. These results suggest that the beagle may be an appropriate experimental animal for extrapolating the organ distribution pattern of Th in humans.

  10. Acceptance of evolutionary explanations as they are applied to plants, animals, and humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanukos, Anastasia

    In four investigations using Likert-scale questionnaires and think-aloud protocols with 173 university students in total, the willingness to accept evolutionary explanations regarding plant, animal, and human characteristics was examined. Participants were presented with evolutionary explanations for features and behaviors and were asked to rate how much they agreed with evolution as an explanation for each scenario. Some were also asked to explain their reasoning in think-aloud protocols or to discuss item ratings with one another. Overall, participants thought evolutionary explanations appropriate, with median ratings in the upper quarter of the rating scale. They were slightly more willing to ascribe evolutionary explanations to plant than to human phenomena; however, this general effect was mediated by more specific aspects of the evolutionary scenarios in question. Participants who were generally negative regarding evolution were particularly negative towards human evolution. Those who were positive or neutral towards evolution in general were more willing to accept human evolution, but were more likely to use evolution to explain similarities between humans and other species than to explain particular human adaptations. For example, they were more likely to agree that evolution is responsible for the DNA similarities between humans and chimpanzees than that evolution is responsible for human behavioral characteristics, such as the fight or flight response. Think-aloud protocols suggest that, while people are more familiar with human evolutionary relationships than plant evolutionary relationships, they may be less likely to see human characteristics as adaptively valuable. One plausible explanation for these patterns is that an evolutionary explanation is judged jointly by its availability in an individual's memory and its plausibility (i.e., its congruence with the individual's worldview). Popular media coverage, with its focus on controversy and litigation, makes it likely that awareness of human evolution is high, compared with plant evolution (which may not even "enter the radar screen" when most people think of evolution). Some aspects of human evolution, such as the basic relationship between all primates, may have become so pedestrian that they do not threaten many individuals' worldviews. However, even for those positively disposed towards evolution, extending the ramifications of human evolution by suggesting that evolution shapes our behaviors and physical traits may pose a threat to their sense of personal agency. This threat is not associated with plant evolution.

  11. The Voice of Emotion across Species: How Do Human Listeners Recognize Animals' Affective States?

    PubMed Central

    Scheumann, Marina; Hasting, Anna S.; Kotz, Sonja A.; Zimmermann, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Voice-induced cross-taxa emotional recognition is the ability to understand the emotional state of another species based on its voice. In the past, induced affective states, experience-dependent higher cognitive processes or cross-taxa universal acoustic coding and processing mechanisms have been discussed to underlie this ability in humans. The present study sets out to distinguish the influence of familiarity and phylogeny on voice-induced cross-taxa emotional perception in humans. For the first time, two perspectives are taken into account: the self- (i.e. emotional valence induced in the listener) versus the others-perspective (i.e. correct recognition of the emotional valence of the recording context). Twenty-eight male participants listened to 192 vocalizations of four different species (human infant, dog, chimpanzee and tree shrew). Stimuli were recorded either in an agonistic (negative emotional valence) or affiliative (positive emotional valence) context. Participants rated the emotional valence of the stimuli adopting self- and others-perspective by using a 5-point version of the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM). Familiarity was assessed based on subjective rating, objective labelling of the respective stimuli and interaction time with the respective species. Participants reliably recognized the emotional valence of human voices, whereas the results for animal voices were mixed. The correct classification of animal voices depended on the listener's familiarity with the species and the call type/recording context, whereas there was less influence of induced emotional states and phylogeny. Our results provide first evidence that explicit voice-induced cross-taxa emotional recognition in humans is shaped more by experience-dependent cognitive mechanisms than by induced affective states or cross-taxa universal acoustic coding and processing mechanisms. PMID:24621604

  12. High Throughput Multiple Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) of Staphylococcus aureus from Human, Animal and Food Sources

    PubMed Central

    Sobral, Daniel; Schwarz, Stefan; Bergonier, Dominique; Brisabois, Anne; Feßler, Andrea T.; Gilbert, Florence B.; Kadlec, Kristina; Lebeau, Benoit; Loisy-Hamon, Fabienne; Treilles, Michaël; Pourcel, Christine; Vergnaud, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen, a relevant pathogen in veterinary medicine, and a major cause of food poisoning. Epidemiological investigation tools are needed to establish surveillance of S. aureus strains in humans, animals and food. In this study, we investigated 145 S. aureus isolates recovered from various animal species, disease conditions, food products and food poisoning events. Multiple Locus Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA), known to be highly efficient for the genotyping of human S. aureus isolates, was used and shown to be equally well suited for the typing of animal S. aureus isolates. MLVA was improved by using sixteen VNTR loci amplified in two multiplex PCRs and analyzed by capillary electrophoresis ensuring a high throughput and high discriminatory power. The isolates were assigned to twelve known clonal complexes (CCs) and –a few singletons. Half of the test collection belonged to four CCs (CC9, CC97, CC133, CC398) previously described as mostly associated with animals. The remaining eight CCs (CC1, CC5, CC8, CC15, CC25, CC30, CC45, CC51), representing 46% of the animal isolates, are common in humans. Interestingly, isolates responsible for food poisoning show a CC distribution signature typical of human isolates and strikingly different from animal isolates, suggesting a predominantly human origin. PMID:22567085

  13. All farming operations that land apply manure or agricultural process wastewater, whether they generate the manure or import it from another operation, must have a written Manure Management Plan. All farming operations that include an Animal Concentra-

    E-print Network

    Guiltinan, Mark

    farming operations that include an Animal Concentra- tion Area (ACA) or pasture must have a written Manure Management Plan. For farms not defined as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) or Concentrated Animal Operations (CAOs), Manure Management Plans can be prepared by the farmer, although the farmer may

  14. Development of a large-scale isolation chamber system for the safe and humane care of medium-sized laboratory animals harboring infectious diseases*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xin; Qi, Jian-cheng; Long, Ming; Liang, Hao; Chen, Xiao; Li, Han; Li, Guang-bo; Zheng, Hao

    2010-01-01

    The close phylogenetic relationship between humans and non-human primates makes non-human primates an irreplaceable model for the study of human infectious diseases. In this study, we describe the development of a large-scale automatic multi-functional isolation chamber for use with medium-sized laboratory animals carrying infectious diseases. The isolation chamber, including the transfer chain, disinfection chain, negative air pressure isolation system, animal welfare system, and the automated system, is designed to meet all biological safety standards. To create an internal chamber environment that is completely isolated from the exterior, variable frequency drive blowers are used in the air-intake and air-exhaust system, precisely controlling the filtered air flow and providing an air-barrier protection. A double door transfer port is used to transfer material between the interior of the isolation chamber and the outside. A peracetic acid sterilizer and its associated pipeline allow for complete disinfection of the isolation chamber. All of the isolation chamber parameters can be automatically controlled by a programmable computerized menu, allowing for work with different animals in different-sized cages depending on the research project. The large-scale multi-functional isolation chamber provides a useful and safe system for working with infectious medium-sized laboratory animals in high-level bio-safety laboratories. PMID:20872984

  15. Modern principles of classification and development of nutrient media for culturing of human and animal cells.

    PubMed

    Tabakov, V Yu; Schepkina, Yu V; Chestkov, V V

    2013-05-01

    Analysis of the main principles of classification and development of nutrient media used for culturing of human and animal cells in biology and medicine is presented. The key moments of induction and regulation of mitogenic cascades and their differences in cells of continuous lines, diploid cells, and primary cultures are discussed. Some variants of classification of nutrient media for various cell culture types are described. Peculiarities of composition and the prospects of using serum-free media are discussed. Practical results obtained by the authors in the development of diverse purpose nutrient media are presented. PMID:23667896

  16. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction: Graphics and Animation Components for Interface Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipolla Ficarra, Francisco V.; Nicol, Emma; Cipolla-Ficarra, Miguel; Richardson, Lucy

    We present an analysis of communicability methodology in graphics and animation components for interface design, called CAN (Communicability, Acceptability and Novelty). This methodology has been under development between 2005 and 2010, obtaining excellent results in cultural heritage, education and microcomputing contexts. In studies where there is a bi-directional interrelation between ergonomics, usability, user-centered design, software quality and the human-computer interaction. We also present the heuristic results about iconography and layout design in blogs and websites of the following countries: Spain, Italy, Portugal and France.

  17. Clinical Significance of ?-Tricalcium Phosphate and Polyphosphate for Mastoid Cavity Obliteration during Middle Ear Surgery: Human and Animal Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Han-Bin; Lim, Hye Jin; Cho, Minhyuk; Yang, Suk-Min; Park, Keehyun; Park, Hun Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Mastoid obliteration is used to obliterate the mastoid cavity following a mastoidectomy or to prevent the formation of a retraction pocket. This study evaluated the effectiveness of ?-tricalcium phosphate and polyphosphate (?-TPP) for mastoid obliteration in middle ear surgeries in prospective human and animal studies. Methods Twenty patients with chronic otitis media underwent mastoid obliteration using ?-TPP after a intact canal wall mastoidectomy or simple mastoidectomy. The clinical data were prospectively evaluated including: the diagnosis, temporal bone computed tomography (TBCT), otoscopic findings, pure tone audiogram, and complications. In the animal experiment, ?-TPP was applied into the right bulla in five rats, and the opposite bulla was used as the control in the non-obliterated state. The skulls of five other rats were drilled out and the holes were obliterated with ?-TPP. TBCT were obtained at 3, 6, and 9 months after the obliteration and histologic analysis was done at 3 and 9 months after surgery. Results In the human study, fourteen TBCTs were obtained at 12 months after the surgery. All demonstrated no bone resorption in the obliterated mastoids. Among the 15 cases displaying retracted tympanic membranes preoperatively, 11 showed no retraction, 2 showed retraction postoperatively, 1 was lost to follow-up and 1 was a case of postoperative wound infection. Among 20 cases, one case developed a postoperative infection that necessitated a second operation. Sixteen underwent ossiculoplasty; hearing improvements were obtained in 15 cases and 1 case showed decreased hearing. In the animal study, new bone formation without significant bone resorption in the radiologic and histologic findings were noted in both the skull and bulla groups. Conclusion Although ?-TPP is a foreign material having the possibility of infection, mastoid obliteration with it can be a treatment option in middle ear surgeries to prevent retraction pockets or the recurrence of diseases. PMID:24069514

  18. A Learning-Based High-Level Human Computer Interface for Face Modeling and Animation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Blanz

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a system for animation and modeling of faces in images or in 3D. It provides high-level control of facial\\u000a appearance to users, due to a learning-based approach that extracts class-specific information from a database of 3D scans.\\u000a The modification tools include changes of facial attributes, such as body weight, masculine or feminine look, or overall head\\u000a shape.

  19. Ability of small animal cells to support the postintegration phase of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Koito, Atsushi; Shigekane, Hironori; Matsushita, Shuzo

    2003-01-01

    We examine the potential for a broad range of small animal cells, including rodent, mink, and avian cells, from multiple tissues to support postintegration steps of HIV-1 replication. These cells were engineered so as to support a stable expression of human cyclin T1 and were further transduced with HIV-1 gag and pol genes. Viral gene expression was activated by the presence of human cyclin T1, but, with the exception of mink cells, was not at the level seen in human cells. Furthermore, there were considerable defects in p24 CA release, in particular in the case of rodent cells. Fractionation of Gag proteins by sucrose floatation revealed that the Gag in human cells trafficked to membrane fractions and was processed to p24 CA and p17 MA efficiently. Confocal imaging demonstrated that Gag was localized in a punctate pattern at the plasma membrane as well as intracellular membrane trans-Golgi cisternae in these cells. In contrast, the majority of Gag in rodent cells was largely present in cytosolic complexes and remained unprocessed. Labeling with [9,10(n)-(3)H]myristic acid showed a similar degree of N-myristoylated Pr55(gag) in rodent and human cells, indicating that while N-myristoylation of Gag was essential for membrane binding, it was not sufficient to confer membrane targeting specificity. Remarkably, despite the reduced level of intracellular Gag processing, mink Mv.1.Lu cells did not appear to differ significantly from human cells in support of virion assembly and release. Analysis of reciprocal heterokaryons suggested that the cellular factor(s) required for efficient assembly and release of infectious virions is lacking in murine cells but appears to be functionally present in mink as well as human cells. Our findings confirm and extend previous reports of multiple blocks to HIV replication in nonhuman cells that are most profound in murine cells. They also raise the possibility that other small animals, such as mink, could serve as novel model systems for studying HIV-1 infection and disease. PMID:12504551

  20. Animal Ownership and Touching Enrich the Context of Social Contacts Relevant to the Spread of Human Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kifle, Yimer Wasihun; Goeyvaerts, Nele; Van Kerckhove, Kim; Willem, Lander; Faes, Christel; Leirs, Herwig; Hens, Niel; Beutels, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Many human infectious diseases originate from animals or are transmitted through animal vectors. We aimed to identify factors that are predictive of ownership and touching of animals, assess whether animal ownership influences social contact behavior, and estimate the probability of a major zoonotic outbreak should a transmissible influenza-like pathogen be present in animals, all in the setting of a densely populated European country. A diary-based social contact survey (n = 1768) was conducted in Flanders, Belgium, from September 2010 until February 2011. Many participants touched pets (46%), poultry (2%) or livestock (2%) on a randomly assigned day, and a large proportion of participants owned such animals (51%, 15% and 5%, respectively). Logistic regression models indicated that larger households are more likely to own an animal and, unsurprisingly, that animal owners are more likely to touch animals. We observed a significant effect of age on animal ownership and touching. The total number of social contacts during a randomly assigned day was modeled using weighted-negative binomial regression. Apart from age, household size and day type (weekend versus weekday and regular versus holiday period), animal ownership was positively associated with the total number of social contacts during the weekend. Assuming that animal ownership and/or touching are at-risk events, we demonstrate a method to estimate the outbreak potential of zoonoses. We show that in Belgium animal-human interactions involving young children (0–9 years) and adults (25–54 years) have the highest potential to cause a major zoonotic outbreak. PMID:26193480

  1. Kin-selected cooperation without lifetime monogamy: human insights and animal implications.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Karen L; Russell, Andrew F

    2014-11-01

    Recent phylogenetic analyses suggest that monogamy precedes the evolution of cooperative breeding involving non-breeding helpers. The rationale: only through monogamy can helper-recipient relatedness coefficients match those of parent-offspring. Given that humans are cooperative breeders, these studies imply a monogamy bottleneck during hominin evolution. However, evidence from multiple sources is not compelling. In reconciliation, we propose that selection against cooperative breeding under alternative mating patterns will be mitigated by: (i) kin discrimination, (ii) reduced birth-intervals, and (iii) constraints on independent breeding, particularly for premature and post-fertile individuals. We suggest that such alternatives require consideration to derive a complete picture of the selection pressures acting on the evolution of cooperative breeding in humans and other animals. PMID:25267298

  2. Human pharmacokinetic prediction of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase substrates with an animal scale-up approach.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, Tsuneo; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Kurihara, Atsushi; Igeta, Katsuhiro; Ikenaga, Hidenori; Fusegawa, Keiichi; Suzuki, Norio; Murata, Shinji; Hirouchi, Masakazu; Furuta, Yoshitake; Iwasaki, Masaru; Okazaki, Osamu; Izumi, Takashi

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the accuracy of allometric scaling methods for drugs metabolized by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), such as ketoprofen, imipramine, lorazepam, levofloxacin, zidovudine, diclofenac, furosemide, raloxifene, gemfibrozil, mycophenolic acid, indomethacin, and telmisartan. Human plasma clearance (CL) predictions were conducted from preclinical in vivo data by using multiple-species allometry with the rule of exponents and single-species allometric scaling (SSS) of mice, rats, monkeys, or dogs. Distribution volume at a steady state (V(ss)) was predicted by multiple-species allometry or SSS of V(ss). Oral plasma clearance (CL(po)) was calculated under the assumption that F(a) × F(g) was equivalent across species. Each of the results was compared with the observed parameter calculated from the clinical data after intravenous or oral administration. Multiple-species allometry and SSS of mice, rats, and dogs resulted in a similar accuracy of CL and CL(po) predictions. Monkeys tended to provide the most accurate predictions of human CL and CL(po). The ability to predict the half-life, which was determined from CL and V(ss) predictions, was more accurate in SSS of rats and monkeys. The in vivo fraction metabolized by glucuronidation (f(m,UGT)) in bile duct-cannulated monkeys was relatively similar to that of humans compared with other animal species, which likely contributed to the highest accuracy of SSS prediction of monkeys. On the basis of the current results, monkeys would be more reliable than other animal species in predicting human pharmacokinetics and f(m,UGT) for drugs metabolized by UGTs. PMID:21282406

  3. Mobile Robot Navigation for Moving Obstacles with Unpredictable Direction Changes, Including Humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lingqi Zeng; Gary M. Bone

    2012-01-01

    In many service applications, mobile robots need to share their work areas with obstacles. Avoiding moving obstacles with unpredictable direction changes, such as humans, is more challenging than avoiding moving obstacles whose motion can be predicted. Precise information on the future moving directions of humans is unobtainable for use in navigation algorithms. Furthermore, humans should be able to pursue their

  4. Chimpanzees as an animal model for human norovirus infection and vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    Bok, Karin; Parra, Gabriel I.; Mitra, Tanaji; Abente, Eugenio; Shaver, Charlene K.; Boon, Denali; Engle, Ronald; Yu, Claro; Kapikian, Albert Z.; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.; Purcell, Robert H.; Green, Kim Y.

    2011-01-01

    Noroviruses are global agents of acute gastroenteritis, but the development of control strategies has been hampered by the absence of a robust animal model. Studies in chimpanzees have played a key role in the characterization of several fastidious hepatitis viruses, and we investigated the feasibility of such studies for the noroviruses. Seronegative chimpanzees inoculated i.v. with the human norovirus strain Norwalk virus (NV) did not show clinical signs of gastroenteritis, but the onset and duration of virus shedding in stool and serum antibody responses were similar to that observed in humans. NV RNA was detected in intestinal and liver biopsies concurrent with the detection of viral shedding in stool, and NV antigen expression was observed in cells of the small intestinal lamina propria. Two infected chimpanzees rechallenged 4, 10, or 24 mo later with NV were resistant to reinfection, and the presence of NV-specific serum antibodies correlated with protection. We evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of virus-like particles (VLPs) derived from NV (genogroup I, GI) and MD145 (genogroup II, GII) noroviruses as vaccines. Chimpanzees vaccinated intramuscularly with GI VLPs were protected from NV infection when challenged 2 and 18 mo after vaccination, whereas chimpanzees that received GII VLPs vaccine or a placebo were not. This study establishes the chimpanzee as a viable animal model for the study of norovirus replication and immunity, and shows that NV VLP vaccines could induce protective homologous immunity even after extended periods of time. PMID:21173246

  5. Gene Expression Changes Induced by PPAR Gamma Agonists in Animal and Human Liver

    PubMed Central

    Rogue, Alexandra; Spire, Catherine; Brun, Manuel; Claude, Nancy; Guillouzo, André

    2010-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones are a class of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor ? (PPAR?) agonists that reduce insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients. Although no detectable hepatic toxicity has been evidenced in animal studies during preclinical trials, these molecules have nevertheless induced hepatic adverse effects in some treated patients. The mechanism(s) of hepatotoxicity remains equivocal. Several studies have been conducted using PCR analysis and microarray technology to identify possible target genes and here we review the data obtained from various in vivo and in vitro experimental models. Although PPAR? is expressed at a much lower level in liver than in adipose tissue, PPAR? agonists exert various PPAR?-dependent effects in liver in addition to PPAR?-independent effects. Differences in effects are dependent on the choice of agonist and experimental conditions in rodent animal studies and in rodent and human liver cell cultures. These effects are much more pronounced in obese and diabetic liver. Moreover, our own recent studies have shown major interindividual variability in the response of primary human hepatocyte populations to troglitazone treatment, supporting the occurrence of hepatotoxicity in only some individuals. PMID:20981297

  6. Occurrence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, and distribution of enterococcal clonal complex 17 from animals and human beings in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ka Hee; Hwang, Sun Young; Moon, Bo Youn; Park, Young Kyung; Shin, Sook; Hwang, Cheol-Yong; Park, Yong Ho

    2012-09-01

    Enterococci are major zoonotic bacteria that cause opportunistic infections in human beings and animals. Moreover, pathogenic strains can be disseminated between human beings and animals, particularly companion animals that come into frequent contact with people. Recently, Enterococcus faecium clonal complex 17 (CC17) has emerged as a pandemic clone. Most CC17 strains are ampicillin resistant and possess virulence genes such as esp and hyl. Despite the possible dissemination of CC17 between human beings and animals, prevalence data about CC17 in animals is limited. In the present study, the phenotypes and genotypes of antimicrobial resistance were compared, as well as virulence gene profiles from 184 enterococci strains isolated from chickens, pigs, companion animals, and human patients in Korea. Ampicillin-resistant E. faecium (AREF) strains were selected, and multilocus sequence typing was performed to investigate the dispersion of CC17 among animals and human beings. The companion animal and human isolates showed high resistance rates to ampicillin and ciprofloxacin, whereas food animal isolates showed high tetracycline and erythromycin resistance rates. Ampicillin-resistant E. faecium was only detected in human (21/21 E. faecium, 100%) and companion animal (3/5 E. faecium, 60%) isolates, and all human AREF strains and 1 canine AREF strain were confirmed as CC17. In conclusion, the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, and the distribution of enterococcal CC17 in companion animal enterococcal strains were similar to those of human strains rather than to those of food animal strains. PMID:22855376

  7. Separation of recombinant human protein C from transgenic animal milk using immobilized metal affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dalton, J C; Bruley, D F; Kang, K A; Drohan, W N

    1997-01-01

    Protein C is an important serine protease due to its ability to proteolytically cleave activated Factors V and VIII. Excess coagulation and blood agglutination can lead to plugged capillaries, thereby reducing oxygen transport to interstitial tissues. To treat patients with hereditary and acquired protein C deficiency would require a greater amount of Protein C than that available from human plasma. However, the potential demand for this protein could be met by the production of human protein C from transgenic animal mammary glands. Thus, research into inexpensive, efficient methods to purify proteins from transgenic animal milk will be a critical area of study for the large scale production of protein C. Immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) is a novel method for the purification of protein C. A proposed method of purification is to take advantage of protein C's strong metal ion binding characteristics with IMAC to assist in the separation from transgenic animal milk. The separation procedure is benchmarked against current systems in use by the American Red Cross for purification of Protein C from transgenic porcine milk. Common problems in developing separation schemes for new therapeutics are the initial availability of the product (protein), and time-to-market concerns. Extensive experimental tests for scaleable purification schemes are often cost and time prohibitive. In order to optimize an IMAC protocol with minimal waste of time and resources, total quality management tools have been adopted. Initial experiments were designed to choose buffer conditions, eluents, immobilized valence metals, and flow rates using Taguchi experimental design, which is a total quality management (TQM) tool. One of the values of Taguchi methods lies in the use of Latin orthogonal sets. Through the use of the orthogonal sets, the total number of experiments may be reduced, shortening the focus time on optimal conditions. PMID:9269458

  8. The human and animal health impacts of introduction and spread of an exotic strain of West Nile virus in Australia.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Jover, Marta; Roche, Sharon; Ward, Michael P

    2013-05-01

    Vector-borne diseases can have substantial impacts on human and animal health, including major epidemics. West Nile virus (WNV) is of particular international importance due to its recent emergence and impact in the Western Hemisphere. Despite the presence of a sub-type of WNV (Kunjin virus, KUN) in Australia, a potential ecological niche could be occupied by an exotic strain of WNV of the North American type. This study assesses the probability an exotic strain of WNV enters Australia via an infected mosquito in an aircraft from the United States (U.S.) landing at Sydney airport, the probability it spreads to susceptible species and the impact of the resulting outbreak on human and animal health. A release, exposure and consequence assessment were conducted using expert opinion and scientific literature to parameterise the inputs for the models (OIE, 2009). Following establishment of WNV in Australia, the spatio-temporal spread of WNV was predicted over a six year period based on the Australian human and equine populations at-risk, the known distribution of other mosquito-borne flaviviruses in Australia, climatic factors, and the spread of WNV in the U.S. following it's incursion in New York City in 1999. The impact of this spread was measured as a multiplier of human and equine demographics using the U.S. incidence and case fatality rates as a reference. For an 8 month period from September to April (considering seasonal impact on mosquito activity during the coldest months in Australia and the U.S.), and assuming WNV is endemic in the U.S., the median probability an infected mosquito is introduced is 0.17, and the median number of infected mosquitoes introduced is predicted to be zero, with a 95th percentile range of one. The overall probability of a WNV outbreak (WNV released into Australia, susceptible hosts exposed and the virus spread) occurring in the human and the horse population during this time period is estimated to be 7.0×10(-6) and 3.9×10(-6), respectively. These values are largely influenced by the presence of mosquitoes in aircrafts and whether the introduced infected mosquito contacts wild birds. Results of this study suggest there is a low risk of introduction and spread of an exotic strain of WNV from the U.S via aircraft, and provides an insight into the magnitude and impact of the spread among human and horse populations. The generic framework presented could be applied to assess the potential introduction of other mosquito-borne diseases (which involve a wild bird transmission cycle) via international aircraft movements. PMID:23098914

  9. Comparative analysis of ESBL-positive Escherichia coli isolates from animals and humans from the UK, The Netherlands and Germany.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guanghui; Day, Michaela J; Mafura, Muriel T; Nunez-Garcia, Javier; Fenner, Jackie J; Sharma, Meenaxi; van Essen-Zandbergen, Alieda; Rodríguez, Irene; Dierikx, Cindy; Kadlec, Kristina; Schink, Anne-Kathrin; Chattaway, Marie; Wain, John; Helmuth, Reiner; Guerra, Beatriz; Schwarz, Stefan; Threlfall, John; Woodward, Martin J; Woodford, Neil; Coldham, Nick; Mevius, Dik

    2013-01-01

    The putative virulence and antimicrobial resistance gene contents of extended spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-positive E. coli (n=629) isolated between 2005 and 2009 from humans, animals and animal food products in Germany, The Netherlands and the UK were compared using a microarray approach to test the suitability of this approach with regard to determining their similarities. A selection of isolates (n=313) were also analysed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Isolates harbouring bla(CTX-M-group-1) dominated (66%, n=418) and originated from both animals and cases of human infections in all three countries; 23% (n=144) of all isolates contained both bla(CTX-M-group-1) and bla(OXA-1-like) genes, predominantly from humans (n=127) and UK cattle (n=15). The antimicrobial resistance and virulence gene profiles of this collection of isolates were highly diverse. A substantial number of human isolates (32%, n=87) did not share more than 40% similarity (based on the Jaccard coefficient) with animal isolates. A further 43% of human isolates from the three countries (n=117) were at least 40% similar to each other and to five isolates from UK cattle and one each from Dutch chicken meat and a German dog; the members of this group usually harboured genes such as mph(A), mrx, aac(6')-Ib, catB3, bla(OXA-1-like) and bla(CTX-M-group-1). forty-four per cent of the MLST-typed isolates in this group belonged to ST131 (n=18) and 22% to ST405 (n=9), all from humans. Among animal isolates subjected to MLST (n=258), only 1.2% (n=3) were more than 70% similar to human isolates in gene profiles and shared the same MLST clonal complex with the corresponding human isolates. The results suggest that minimising human-to-human transmission is essential to control the spread of ESBL-positive E. coli in humans. PMID:24086522

  10. Interaction of Actinomyces Organisms with Cationic Polypeptides I. Histochemical Studies of Infected Human and Animal Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, James J.

    1971-01-01

    Histochemical techniques were used to study the nature of acidophilic hyaline clubs arranged radially at the peripheries of Actinomyces colonies in infected lung tissues of two persons. Concentrations of arginine-rich polypeptides were demonstrated in the acidophilic areas and in the cytoplasm of granulocytic leukocytes surrounding the colonies. Exposure of Actinomyces organisms to strongly cationic polypeptides (protamine, histone) in vitro killed the organisms and caused them to develop acidophilic staining. Weakly cationic proteins, ribonuclease, and hemoglobin produced no such effects. No acidophilic component could be detected in fresh broth-grown organisms themselves. Viable and nonviable colonies of the test strain lacking hyaline clubs were injected beneath the skin of guinea pigs. Agrinine-rich cationic polypeptides were evident in the cytoplasm of surrounding leukocytes and permeating the microbial colonies. In light of current evidence pertaining to leukocyte lysosomes and capsule production by Actinomyces and related organisms, the acidophilic hyaline clubs observed in human tissues appear to be a combination of a capsular component of the actinomycete and a cationic polypeptide component of host leukocytes. Organisms deeper in the human tissue colonies retained their normal basophilic reaction, suggesting a protective role for the peripheral hyaline club matrix. The acidophilic club complexes serve to indicate the reaction of cationic polypeptides in response of the human host to infecting Actinomyces organisms. These observations also support a broader concept that antimicrobial polypeptides of leukocyte lysosomes are an important factor in response of both the human and animal host to infecting bacteria. Images PMID:4117293

  11. When Violence Pays: A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Aggressive Behavior in Animals and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Georgiev, Alexander V.; Klimczuk, Amanda C. E.; Traficonte, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    An optimization analysis of human behavior from a comparative perspective can improve our understanding of the adaptiveness of human nature. Intra-specific competition for resources provides the main selective pressure for the evolution of violent aggression toward conspecifics, and variation in the fitness benefits and costs of aggression can account for inter-specific and inter-individual differences in aggressiveness. When aggression reflects competition for resources, its benefits vary in relation to the characteristics of the resources (their intrinsic value, abundance, spatial distribution, and controllability) while its costs vary in relation to the characteristics of organisms and how they fight (which, in turn, affects the extent to which aggression entails risk of physical injury or death, energetic depletion, exposure to predation, psychological and physiological stress, or damage to social relationships). Humans are a highly aggressive species in comparison to other animals, probably as a result of an unusually high benefit-to-cost ratio for intra-specific aggression. This conclusion is supported by frequent and widespread occurrence of male-male coalitionary killing and by male-female sexual coercion. Sex differences in violent aggression in humans and other species probably evolved by sexual selection and reflect different optimal competitive strategies for males and females. PMID:23864299

  12. Introducing a large animal model to create urethral strictures similar to human stricture disease: A comparative experimental microscopic study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K.-D. Sievert; C. Selent-Stier; J. Wiedemann; T.-O. Greiner; B. Amend; A. Stenzl; G. Feil; J. Seibold

    PurposeThe aim of this tissue engineering study was to investigate urethral stricture formation for evaluating different treatment modalities in the large animal model and to validate the most current, comparable effect of human stricture development for use in successful human clinical application.

  13. Social Order and Adaptability in Animal and Human Cultures as Analogues for Agent Communities: Toward a Policy-Based Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Feltovich; Jeffrey M. Bradshaw; Renia Jeffers; Niranjan Suri; Andrzej Uszok

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we discuss some of the ways social order is maintained in animal and human realms, with the goal of enriching our thinking about mechanisms that might be employed in developing similar means of ordering communities of agents. We present examples from our current work in human- agent teamwork, and we speculate about some new directions this kind

  14. Subgrouping of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli from animal and human sources: an approach to quantify the distribution of ESBL types between different reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Lars; Sharp, Hannah; Hille, Katja; Seibt, Uwe; Fischer, Jennie; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Michael, Geovana Brenner; Nickel, Silke; Schmiedel, Judith; Falgenhauer, Linda; Friese, Anika; Bauerfeind, Rolf; Roesler, Uwe; Imirzalioglu, Can; Chakraborty, Trinad; Helmuth, Reiner; Valenza, Giuseppe; Werner, Guido; Schwarz, Stefan; Guerra, Beatriz; Appel, Bernd; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2014-10-01

    Escherichia (E.) coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) are an increasing problem for public health. The success of ESBLs may be due to spread of ESBL-producing bacterial clones, transfer of ESBL gene-carrying plasmids or exchange of ESBL encoding genes on mobile elements. This makes it difficult to identify transmission routes and sources for ESBL-producing bacteria. The objectives of this study were to compare the distribution of genotypic and phenotypic properties of E. coli isolates from different animal and human sources collected in studies in the scope of the national research project RESET. ESBL-producing E. coli from two longitudinal and four cross-sectional studies in broiler, swine and cattle farms, a cross-sectional and a case-control study in humans and diagnostic isolates from humans and animals were used. In the RESET consortium, all laboratories followed harmonized methodologies for antimicrobial susceptibility testing, confirmation of the ESBL phenotype, specific PCR assays for the detection of bla(TEM), bla(CTX), and bla(SHV) genes and sequence analysis of the complete ESBL gene as well as a multiplex PCR for the detection of the four major phylogenetic groups of E. coli. Most ESBL genes were found in both, human and non-human populations but quantitative differences for distinct ESBL-types were detectable. The enzymes CTX-M-1 (63.3% of all animal isolates, 29.3% of all human isolates), CTX-M-15 (17.7% vs. 48.0%) and CTX-M-14 (5.3% vs. 8.7%) were the most common ones. More than 70% of the animal isolates and more than 50% of the human isolates contained the broadly distributed ESBL genes bla(CTX-M-1), bla(CTX-M-15), or the combinations bla(SHV-12)+bla(TEM) or bla(CTX-M-1)+bla(TEM). While the majority of animal isolates carried bla(CTX-M-1) (37.5%) or the combination bla(CTX-M-1)+bla(TEM) (25.8%), this was the case for only 16.7% and 12.6%, respectively, of the human isolates. In contrast, 28.2% of the human isolates carried bla(CTX-M-15) compared to 10.8% of the animal isolates. When grouping data by ESBL types and phylogroups bla(CTX-M-1) genes, mostly combined with phylogroup A or B1, were detected frequently in all settings. In contrast, bla(CTX-M-15) genes common in human and animal populations were mainly combined with phylogroup A, but not with the more virulent phylogroup B2 with the exception of companion animals, where a few isolates were detectable. When E. coli subtype definition included ESBL types, phylogenetic grouping and antimicrobial susceptibility data, the proportion of isolates allocated to common clusters was markedly reduced. Nevertheless, relevant proportions of same subtypes were detected in isolates from the human and livestock and companion animal populations included in this study, suggesting exchange of bacteria or bacterial genes between these populations or a common reservoir. In addition, these results clearly showed that there is some similarity between ESBL genes, and bacterial properties in isolates from the different populations. Finally, our current approach provides good insight into common and population-specific clusters, which can be used as a basis for the selection of ESBL-producing isolates from interesting clusters for further detailed characterizations, e.g. by whole genome sequencing. PMID:25213631

  15. ANIMAL RESERVOIRS, VECTORS, AND TRANSMISSION OF MICROSPORIDIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fourteen species of microsporidia have been identified as opportunistic or emerging pathogens of humans. Several genotypes of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, the most frequently diagnosed species in humans, have been identified in Europe in farm and companion animals including pigs, cat...

  16. Evaluation of drug-induced QT interval prolongation in animal and human studies: a literature review of concordance.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Hugo M; Bass, Alan S; Koerner, John; Matis-Mitchell, Sherri; Pugsley, Michael K; Skinner, Matthew; Burnham, Matthew; Bridgland-Taylor, Matthew; Pettit, Syril; Valentin, Jean-Pierre

    2015-08-01

    Evaluating whether a new medication prolongs QT intervals is a critical safety activity that is conducted in a sensitive animal model during non-clinical drug development. The importance of QT liability detection has been reinforced by non-clinical [International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) S7B] and clinical (ICH E14) regulatory guidance from the International Conference on Harmonization. A key challenge for the cardiovascular safety community is to understand how the finding from a non-clinical in vivo?QT assay in animals predicts the outcomes of a clinical QT evaluation in humans. The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute Pro-Arrhythmia Working Group performed a literature search (1960-2011) to identify both human and non-rodent animal studies that assessed QT signal concordance between species and identified drugs that prolonged or did not prolong the QT interval. The main finding was the excellent agreement between QT results in humans and non-rodent animals. Ninety-one percent (21 of 23) of drugs that prolonged the QT interval in humans also did so in animals, and 88% (15 of 17) of drugs that did not prolong the QT interval in humans had no effect on animals. This suggests that QT interval data derived from relevant non-rodent models has a 90% chance of predicting QT findings in humans. Disagreement can occur, but in the limited cases of QT discordance we identified, there appeared to be plausible explanations for the underlying disconnect between the human and non-rodent animal QT outcomes. PMID:26031452

  17. Replicon typing of plasmids carrying blaCTX-M-1 in Enterobacteriaceae of animal, environmental and human origin

    PubMed Central

    Zurfluh, Katrin; Jakobi, Gianna; Stephan, Roger; Hächler, Herbert; Nüesch-Inderbinen, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this work was to determine the plasmid replicon profiles of a collection of blaCTX-M-1-positive enterobacterial strains. The isolates originated from chicken in the production pyramid, healthy food-producing animals at slaughter (chicken, calves, and pigs), chicken retail meat, environmental isolates originating from water bodies, and isolates from humans. A selection of IncI and IncN plasmids were characterized by multilocus sequence typing in order to determine their epidemiological relatedness. Methods: Transconjugants of 74 blaCTX-M-1-positive isolates were analyzed by PCR-based replicon typing and by PCR-based plasmid multilocus sequence typing. Results: The incompatibility groups detected among the blaCTX-M-1-harboring plasmids included IncI1, IncN, IncHI1B, IncF, IncFIIS, IncFIB, and IncB/O, with plasmid lineage IncI1/ST3 predominating in isolates from chicken and from humans. Lineage IncN/ST1 was detected mainly in isolates from pigs. For the first time, blaCTX-M-1 genes encoded on IncHI1 plasmids were detected in isolates from cattle and from water bodies. Conclusions: This study identifies plasmid lineages that are contributing to the dissemination of blaCTX-M-1 genes in the food chain, the environment, and humans. PMID:25400623

  18. Animal health surveillance: navigation amidst the flotsam of human frailty and fiscal inertia.

    PubMed

    Kellar, J A

    2012-07-01

    National veterinary services monitor endemic, emerging and exotic disease situations. They intervene when epidemic tendencies demand. They unravel complex disease situations. They do so as monopolies, in environments of political influence and budgetary restraint. When human, animal health and trade protection dictate, they design import or domestic disease control programs. As much as 80% of program expenditures are on surveillance. Their initiatives are scrutinized by treasuries from which they seek funding, industries from which they seek collaboration and trading partners from whom they seek recognition. In democracies, surveillance and control programs are often the products of a complicated consultative process. It involves individuals who have both a commitment to improving an existing animal health situation and access to the required resources. The generations that designed traditionally risk-averse national surveillance and control programs have given way to a new one which is more epidemiologically informed. Their successors design programs bearing epidemiologically based improvements. The transition, however, has not been overwhelmingly welcomed. Expenditures on surveillance are tolerated out of fear during outbreaks of foreign or re-emergence of indigenous disease. Between epidemics, they decline at the hands of producers' unwillingness and budgetary restraint. Human nature responds to the high cost of surveillance in forms ranging from naïveté through to conspiracy. While legislation cannot subdue such human frailty, several other opportunities exist. Education can remove the majority of problems caused by ignorance, leaving the minority that arise intentionally. Technology decreases the high cost of testing which tempts individuals to cut corners. International standards assist National Veterinary Services to overcome domestic resistance. PMID:22310236

  19. Animal Cloning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lee, Amy.

    2002-01-01

    The past few years have seen many changes in the field of genetics, including the ability to genetically clone mammals, first achieved in 1997 with a sheep named Dolly. Still a relatively new phenomenon, news stories are continually detailing new advances in cloning, reasons why cloning is important, and concerns about the safety and ethics of cloning. This week's Topic In Depth highlights some recent news articles and Web sites that address the topic of animal cloning. The first site is a recent article from the Washington Post about the sheep named Dolly, the world's first cloned mammal, who has developed arthritis at a relatively young age and has caused some to question whether cloning can have adverse health effects. An ABC news.com article details the recent birth of five cloned piglets whose parent had been genetically engineered to remove a gene that causes human bodies to reject transplanted animal organs. An Associated Press article discusses some concerns raised by scientists and ethicists surrounding the idea of xenotransplantation (animal to human transplantation). For users who need a primer on what exactly cloning means and why it is done, check out the Cloning Fact Sheet. Developed by the Human Genome Project, it provides short, non-technical explanations of the different types of cloning and some links to other cloning related Web sites. Those users looking for more detailed information about cloning technology will find the next two sites interesting. PPL Therapeutics, which created the five piglets and collaborated with the Roslin Institute to clone Dolly, provides news articles and technical descriptions of cloning and related genetic technology. The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America's Web site provides links to a tremendous amount of information surrounding all aspects of cloning, including recent congressional activity, news, and general resources. Although focused more heavily on human cloning, The American Journal of Bioethics Online has a Web page with links to various articles relating to the ethical issues involved with cloning and genetics.

  20. Veterinary aspects of ecological monitoring: the natural history of emerging infectious diseases of humans, domestic animals and wildlife

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael H. Woodford

    2009-01-01

    Proliferation of disease pathogens capable of affecting humans, domestic livestock and wildlife increasingly threatens environmental\\u000a security and biodiversity. Livestock and wild animals in proximity to human beings are often in the chain of transmission\\u000a and infection. Globalization of industrial livestock production (especially poultry upon which so much of the burgeoning human\\u000a population depends) often permits transcontinental disease spread. Rapidly expanding

  1. International Society of Human and Animal Mycology (ISHAM)-ITS reference DNA barcoding database--the quality controlled standard tool for routine identification of human and animal pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Irinyi, Laszlo; Serena, Carolina; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Arabatzis, Michael; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Vu, Duong; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Arthur, Ian; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Giraldo, Alejandra; da Cunha, Keith Cassia; Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Hendrickx, Marijke; Nishikaku, Angela Satie; de Azevedo Melo, Analy Salles; Merseguel, Karina Bellinghausen; Khan, Aziza; Parente Rocha, Juliana Alves; Sampaio, Paula; da Silva Briones, Marcelo Ribeiro; e Ferreira, Renata Carmona; de Medeiros Muniz, Mauro; Castañón-Olivares, Laura Rosio; Estrada-Barcenas, Daniel; Cassagne, Carole; Mary, Charles; Duan, Shu Yao; Kong, Fanrong; Sun, Annie Ying; Zeng, Xianyu; Zhao, Zuotao; Gantois, Nausicaa; Botterel, Françoise; Robbertse, Barbara; Schoch, Conrad; Gams, Walter; Ellis, David; Halliday, Catriona; Chen, Sharon; Sorrell, Tania C; Piarroux, Renaud; Colombo, Arnaldo L; Pais, Célia; de Hoog, Sybren; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Taylor, Maria Lucia; Toriello, Conchita; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria; Delhaes, Laurence; Stubbe, Dirk; Dromer, Françoise; Ranque, Stéphane; Guarro, Josep; Cano-Lira, Jose F; Robert, Vincent; Velegraki, Aristea; Meyer, Wieland

    2015-05-01

    Human and animal fungal pathogens are a growing threat worldwide leading to emerging infections and creating new risks for established ones. There is a growing need for a rapid and accurate identification of pathogens to enable early diagnosis and targeted antifungal therapy. Morphological and biochemical identification methods are time-consuming and require trained experts. Alternatively, molecular methods, such as DNA barcoding, a powerful and easy tool for rapid monophasic identification, offer a practical approach for species identification and less demanding in terms of taxonomical expertise. However, its wide-spread use is still limited by a lack of quality-controlled reference databases and the evolving recognition and definition of new fungal species/complexes. An international consortium of medical mycology laboratories was formed aiming to establish a quality controlled ITS database under the umbrella of the ISHAM working group on "DNA barcoding of human and animal pathogenic fungi." A new database, containing 2800 ITS sequences representing 421 fungal species, providing the medical community with a freely accessible tool at http://www.isham.org/ and http://its.mycologylab.org/ to rapidly and reliably identify most agents of mycoses, was established. The generated sequences included in the new database were used to evaluate the variation and overall utility of the ITS region for the identification of pathogenic fungi at intra-and interspecies level. The average intraspecies variation ranged from 0 to 2.25%. This highlighted selected pathogenic fungal species, such as the dermatophytes and emerging yeast, for which additional molecular methods/genetic markers are required for their reliable identification from clinical and veterinary specimens. PMID:25802363

  2. From Humans to Rats and Back Again: Bridging the Divide between Human and Animal Studies of Recognition Memory with Receiver Operating Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koen, Joshua D.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2011-01-01

    Receiver operating characteristics (ROCs) have been used extensively to study the processes underlying human recognition memory, and this method has recently been applied in studies of rats. However, the extent to which the results from human and animal studies converge is neither entirely clear, nor is it known how the different methods used to…

  3. Risk assessment of the amnesic shellfish poison, domoic acid, on animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K Prem; Kumar, Sreeletha Prem; Nair, G Achuthan

    2009-05-01

    Risk assessment of the amnesic shellfish poison, domoic acid, a potent neurotoxin, is evaluated based on its current knowledge and its harmful effects, and is presented under four headings, viz., (1) hazard identification, (2) dose response assessment, (3) exposure assessment and (4) risk characterization. Domoic acid binds the glutamate receptor site of the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and causes depolarization of neurons and an increase in cellularcalcium. In nature, domoic acid is produced by the algae, Pseudonitzschia spp. and they enter into the body of shellfish through their consumption. This toxin is reported to cause gastroenteritis, renal insufficiency confusion and memory loss in humans, since it affects the hippocampus of the brain. In rats, intraperitonial and oral administration of domoic acid result in scratching, tremor and convulsions, and in monkeys, the toxic symptoms like mastication, salivation, projectile vomiting, weakness, teeth grinding and lethargy are apparent. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) in animals reveals that pure toxin is more effective than those isolated from shellfish. Based on LD50 values, it is found that intraperitonial administration of this toxin in animals is 31 fold more effective than oral administration. Low levels of domoic acid (0.20-0.75 ppm) show no toxic symptoms in non-human primates, but clinical effects are apparent in them and in humans, at a concentration of 1.0 ppm. The tolerable daily intake (TDI) of domoic acid for humans is calculated as 0.075 ppm, whereas for razor clams and crabs, the TDI are 19.4 and 31.5 ppm respectively. The hazard quotient (HQ) is found to be 2. Being an irreversible neurotoxin, domoic acid has severe public health implications. Death occurs in those above 68 years old. In order to ensure adequate protection to public health, the concentration of domoic acid in shellfish and shellfish parts at point of sale shall not exceed the current permissible limit of 20 microg g(-1) tissue. While processing shellfish, it maybe advisable to pay attention to factors such as environmental conditions, inter-organ variability in concentrations of domoic acid and cross contaminations. PMID:20120452

  4. Animal cytomegaloviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Staczek, J

    1990-01-01

    Cytomegaloviruses are agents that infect a variety of animals. Human cytomegalovirus is associated with infections that may be inapparent or may result in severe body malformation. More recently, human cytomegalovirus infections have been recognized as causing severe complications in immunosuppressed individuals. In other animals, cytomegaloviruses are often associated with infections having relatively mild sequelae. Many of these sequelae parallel symptoms associated with human cytomegalovirus infections. Recent advances in biotechnology have permitted the study of many of the animal cytomegaloviruses in vitro. Consequently, animal cytomegaloviruses can be used as model systems for studying the pathogenesis, immunobiology, and molecular biology of cytomegalovirus-host and cytomegalovirus-cell interactions. PMID:2170830

  5. The cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) as an animal model for respiratory tract infections with human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Green, M Gia; Huey, Devra; Niewiesk, Stefan

    2013-05-01

    Respiratory viral infection is a great human health concern, resulting in disease, death and economic losses. Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) have been particularly useful in the study of the pathogenesis of human respiratory virus infections, including the development and testing of antiviral compounds and vaccines. In this article, the authors outline the advantages of the cotton rat compared with the mouse as a model for infection with measles virus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, human parainfluenza virus and human metapneumovirus. From the literature and their own experience, the authors summarize guidelines for handling, maintaining and breeding cotton rats. In addition, they offer technical tips for carrying out infection experiments and provide information about the large array of immunological assays and reagents available for the study of immune responses (macrophages, dendritic cells, T cells, B cells, antibodies, chemokines and cytokines) in cotton rats. PMID:23604159

  6. [Studies On The Inducing Possibility Of Human Visceral Larva Migrans Associated With Eating Habit Of Raw Liver Of Domestic Animals

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun Tae; Min, Hong Ki; Chung, Pyung Rim; Chang, Jae Kyung

    1976-06-01

    To observe the possibility of human visceral larva migrans due to eating of raw liver of domestic animals, especially of cattle, and also to serve as a good reference for adequate sanitary measures, the investigation survey was carried out from May 1975 to May 1976. From the subjects of a l,048 inhabitants (male 558, female 490) in five localities including two Provinces and three different cities, food habit was studied by questionnaire mannual. Larvae isolated from liver tissues of cattle, and pig were identified. Experimental observation on the chicken and mice infected with Toxocara canis was undertaken to draw a assumption of possibility inducing human visceral larva migrans. The results obtained from the present study are summarized. 1. A part of Korean people has the habit to eat the livers of cattle, fowl, pig and dog raw. Eating rate of raw beef liver was 37.8% out of l,048 inhabitants, and its rate was higher markedly in male(57.7%) than in female (15. 1%), and the highest rate among the group of 31-40 years old. Eating rate of raw liver of fowl was 5.9%, pig 5.3%, and dog 2.5%. 2. Larva recovery rate from beef liver was 11.8% out of 195 samples and 72.0% of total detected 1arvae were identified as Toxocara(=Neoascaris) vitulorum. From pig liver, larvae of nematoda were found in 6.4% out of 109 samples but no larva was detected from 120 fowl livers. 3. Larvae detected from one-half of tissues and organs of infected chicken with about 2,000 Toxocara canis eggs were 8-245 in number, and 85-100% of recovered larvae were from their 1iver tissues. 4. Toxocara canis larvae, 45, 31, 42 and 23 in number at 3rd, 14th, 25th and 55th day in one-half of the tissues and organs after infection respectively, were demonstrated from the mice infected with 500 larvae collected from infected chicken liver. Most of the larvae were recovered from the carcass of the mouse. It was approved the larvae isolated from chicken possess infectivity to the mice. 5. Typical eosinophilic granulomatous change was not observed in the liver tissue of the infected chicken at 20th day after infection. As it summarized above, the liver of various domestic animals is the favorite tissue for migration of nematodes larvae. Therefore, the possibility of human visceral larva migrans may be induced due to eating of raw liver of domestic animals. PMID:12913451

  7. Alternating electric fields arrest cell proliferation in animal tumor models and human brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kirson, Eilon D.; Dbalý, Vladimír; Tovaryš, František; Vymazal, Josef; Soustiel, Jean F.; Itzhaki, Aviran; Mordechovich, Daniel; Steinberg-Shapira, Shirley; Gurvich, Zoya; Schneiderman, Rosa; Wasserman, Yoram; Salzberg, Marc; Ryffel, Bernhard; Goldsher, Dorit; Dekel, Erez; Palti, Yoram

    2007-01-01

    We have recently shown that low intensity, intermediate frequency, electric fields inhibit by an anti-microtubule mechanism of action, cancerous cell growth in vitro. Using implanted electrodes, these fields were also shown to inhibit the growth of dermal tumors in mice. The present study extends these findings to additional cell lines [human breast carcinoma; MDA-MB-231, and human non-small-cell lung carcinoma (H1299)] and to animal tumor models (intradermal B16F1 melanoma and intracranial F-98 glioma) using external insulated electrodes. These findings led to the initiation of a pilot clinical trial of the effects of TTFields in 10 patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM). Median time to disease progression in these patients was 26.1 weeks and median overall survival was 62.2 weeks. These time to disease progression and OS values are more than double the reported medians of historical control patients. No device-related serious adverse events were seen after >70 months of cumulative treatment in all of the patients. The only device-related side effect seen was a mild to moderate contact dermatitis beneath the field delivering electrodes. We conclude that TTFields are a safe and effective new treatment modality which effectively slows down tumor growth in vitro, in vivo and, as demonstrated here, in human cancer patients. PMID:17551011

  8. Cognitive Analysis of Chinese-English Metaphors of Animal and Human Body Part Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Meiying

    2009-01-01

    Metaphorical cognition arises from the mapping of two conceptual domains onto each other. According to the "Anthropocentrism", people tend to know the world first by learning about their bodies including Apparatuses. Based on that, people begin to know the material world, and the human body part metaphorization emerges as the times…

  9. Human Artificial Chromosomes for Gene Delivery and the Development of Animal Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhiro Kazuki; Mitsuo Oshimura

    2011-01-01

    Random integration of conventional gene delivery vectors such as viruses, plasmids, P1 phage-derived artificial chromosomes, bacterial artificial chromosomes and yeast artificial chromosomes can be associated with transgene silencing. Furthermore, integrated viral sequences can activate oncogenes adjacent to the insertion site resulting in cancer. Various human artificial chromosomes (HACs) exhibit several potential characteristics desired for an ideal gene delivery vector, including

  10. Copper and zinc body levels in inflammation: An overview of the data obtained from animal and human studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto Milanino; Mauro Marrella; Roberta Gasperini; Mara Pasqualicchio; Giampaolo Velo

    1993-01-01

    The development of acute and chronic inflammatory processes induces, in the laboratory animal, a net accumulation of both copper and zinc in many body compartments, the inflammed area included. In rheumatoid arthritis, as well as in animal models, only plasma zinc concentration seems to be significantly correlated with disease severity, while the increase in total plasma copper could be described

  11. Animal Activities: A Handbook of Humane Education Ideas, Resources and Materials for Elementary School Teachers. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Dottie, Comp.; Ryther, Sherry, Comp.

    The information and activities in this handbook are designed to help children focus on the special needs that animals (wild and domestic) have and what children can do to help meet these needs. The following are included: (1) activities and games on the care of domestic animals; (2) instructions for making a book which shows the similarities…

  12. Fraud Prediction and the Human Factor: An Approach to Include Human Behavior in an Automated Fraud Audit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Hoyer; Halyna Zakhariya; Thorben Sandner; Michael H. Breitner

    2012-01-01

    Every year, fraud as a subset of insider threats causes billions US dollar of damage worldwide. We suggest a generic architectural model to unify the classic fraud audit approach with human behavior taking into account the fraud triangle in order to achieve better fraud detection and prevention. The human factor is extensively integrated into the audit as a qualitative component,

  13. Computer Animation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A general discussion of computer animation. This section includes principles of camera animation, character animation and special effects such as particle systems. There is also a discussion of artificial life techniques such as the flocking algorithm and the graphical simulation of different types of life. This section includes html pages, images and several videos.

  14. [Animal corynosomosis is a potential human helminthiasis in the Republic of Belarus].

    PubMed

    Shimalov, V V

    2008-01-01

    In the Republic of Belarus, one representative of the genus Corynosoma - C. strumosum (Rudolphi, 1802) that is a causative agent of corynosomosis and that is of medical value is parasitic on animals. In Belarus, this proboscis worm has been encountered only in European and American minks. The author of the paper found this helminth in 2 of the 50 examined American minks in Byelorussian Polesye in 1980-2001. In this region, there were no C. strumosum larvae in fishes (1394 fishes of 21 species were studied). It is noted that the American mink plays a dominant role in the circulation of invasion and the attention of medical workers ofBelarus is drawn to the existing risk of human infection with the pathogen of Corynosomosis. PMID:18557363

  15. Focus on: human adverse events to companion animal spot-ons and sprays.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the Veterinary Products Committee has taken great interest in the number of human adverse events reported following the use of companion animal products that are applied topically to prevent and treat parasite infestations. One particular question it has is whether the legal category of some of these products means that current point of sale advice is insufficient to influence pet owner behaviour in preventing these incidents. This article by the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD) seeks to respond to these concerns, and to remind veterinary professionals of their responsibility to inform clients how to use the products supplied to them in a manner that is safe, not only for their pets, but also for themselves. PMID:25556134

  16. Inhaled particles in human disease and animal models: use of electron beam instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Brody, A.R.

    1984-06-01

    The mineral pneumoconioses (lung disease caused by inhalation of inorganic dust) have been an important disease entity for centuries. In the last several decades, the electron microscope has been used to elucidate the distribution and identification of inhaled minerals, to aid in establishing etiologic factors, and less commonly, to determine the basic biologic mechanisms through which inhaled minerals cause lung disease. In this section, the author reviews instrumentation and tissue preparation currently used to address some modern problems in particle-induced lung disease. For example, human pneumoconioses of undetermined etiology can be clarified by electron microscopy and X-ray energy spectrometry. In addition, the initial deposition patterns of asbestos and silica are demonstrated in animal models, and the contributions of electron microscopy in establishing the initial lesions of asbestosis are described. 52 references, 14 figures.

  17. Determination of volatile pollutants in human and animal milk by GC-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Kroneld, R. (Abolands Hospital, Abo (Finland)); Reunanen, M. (Institute of Wood Chemistry, Abo (Finland))

    1990-06-01

    Volatile pollutants could readily be analyzed in drinking water and blood samples. These substances are toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic. Because of their lipophilic nature they accumulate in the body and can also be analyzed in animal tissues. Although there are no reports of volatile halocarbons in milk samples, several papers deal with organochlorine compounds in milk samples. Therefore, the authors considered it reasonable to modify and adapt their method for water and blood samples for analyses of possible volatile pollutants in milk samples and milk products. Twenty-five milk samples of human origin and ten samples from cows, pigs and sheep were collected both from the suburban area of Turku and from the countryside.

  18. Rhythmic cognition in humans and animals: distinguishing meter and pulse perception

    PubMed Central

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines a cognitive and comparative perspective on human rhythmic cognition that emphasizes a key distinction between pulse perception and meter perception. Pulse perception involves the extraction of a regular pulse or “tactus” from a stream of events. Meter perception involves grouping of events into hierarchical trees with differing levels of “strength”, or perceptual prominence. I argue that metrically-structured rhythms are required to either perform or move appropriately to music (e.g., to dance). Rhythms, from this metrical perspective, constitute “trees in time.” Rhythmic syntax represents a neglected form of musical syntax, and warrants more thorough neuroscientific investigation. The recent literature on animal entrainment clearly demonstrates the capacity to extract the pulse from rhythmic music, and to entrain periodic movements to this pulse, in several parrot species and a California sea lion, and a more limited ability to do so in one chimpanzee. However, the ability of these or other species to infer hierarchical rhythmic trees remains, for the most part, unexplored (with some apparent negative results from macaques). The results from this animal comparative research, combined with new methods to explore rhythmic cognition neurally, provide exciting new routes for understanding not just rhythmic cognition, but hierarchical cognition more generally, from a biological and neural perspective. PMID:24198765

  19. Viability of decision-making systems in human and animal groups.

    PubMed

    Sueur, Cédric

    2012-08-01

    Shared and unshared consensuses are present in both human and animal societies. To date, few studies have applied an evolutionary perspective to the viability of these systems. This study therefore aimed to assess if decision-making allows group members to satisfy all their needs and to survive, decision after decision, day after day. The novelty of this study is the inclusion of multiple decision-making events with varying conditions and the parameterization of the model based on data in macaques, bringing the model closer to ecologically reality. The activity budgets of group members in the model did not differ significantly from those observed in macaques, making the model robust and providing mechanistic insight. Three different decision-making systems were then tested: (1) One single leader, (2) Leading according to needs and (3) Voting process. Results show that when individuals have equal needs, all decision-making systems are viable. However, one single leader cannot impose its decision when the needs of other group members differ too much from its own needs. The leading according to needs system is always viable whatever the group heterogeneity. However, the individual with the highest body mass decides in the majority of cases. Finally, the voting process also appears to be viable, with a majority threshold that differs according to group size and to different individual needs. This study is the first clear prediction of the different types of consensus in animal groups used in various different conditions. PMID:22554449

  20. Small Animal Models for Human Metapneumovirus: Cotton Rat is More Permissive than Hamster and Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Niewiesk, Stefan; Li, Jianrong

    2014-01-01

    Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is the second most prevalent causative agent of pediatric respiratory infections worldwide. Currently, there are no vaccines or antiviral drugs against this virus. One of the major hurdles in hMPV research is the difficulty to identify a robust small animal model to accurately evaluate the efficacy and safety of vaccines and therapeutics. In this study, we compared the replication and pathogenesis of hMPV in BALB/c mice, Syrian golden hamsters, and cotton rats. It was found that BALB/c mice are not permissive for hMPV infection despite the use of a high dose (6.5 log10 PFU) of virus for intranasal inoculation. In hamsters, hMPV replicated efficiently in nasal turbinates but demonstrated only limited replication in lungs. In cotton rats, hMPV replicated efficiently in both nasal turbinate and lung when intranasally administered with three different doses (4, 5, and 6 log10 PFU) of hMPV. Lungs of cotton rats infected by hMPV developed interstitial pneumonia with mononuclear cells infiltrates and increased lumen exudation. By immunohistochemistry, viral antigens were detected at the luminal surfaces of the bronchial epithelial cells in lungs. Vaccination of cotton rats with hMPV completely protected upper and lower respiratory tract from wildtype challenge. The immunization also elicited elevated serum neutralizing antibody. Collectively, these results demonstrated that cotton rat is a robust small animal model for hMPV infection. PMID:25438015

  1. Abstract Beringia, including Alaska and North-Eastern Siberia, has long been a focal point for biogeographical research in a wide range of plant and animal taxa.

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Lee

    for biogeographical research in a wide range of plant and animal taxa. Whether boreal forest refugia existed of the ancient flora and fauna (Budantsev 1992; Graham 1999). During glacial maxima, plants, fungi and animals research in a wide range of plant and animal taxa. This high level of interest arises for two principal

  2. Trivalent chromium: assessing the genotoxic risk of an essential trace element and widely used human and animal nutritional supplement.

    PubMed

    Eastmond, David A; Macgregor, James T; Slesinski, Ronald S

    2008-01-01

    Trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] is recognized as an essential nutrient, and is widely used as a nutritional supplement for humans and animals. Recent reports of the induction of genetic damage in cultured cells exposed to Cr(III) compounds in vitro have heightened the concern that Cr(III) compounds may exert genotoxic effects under certain conditions, raising the question of the relative benefit versus risk of dietary and feed supplementation practices. We have reviewed the literature since 1990 on genotoxic effects of Cr(III) compounds to determine whether recent findings provide a sufficient weight of evidence to modify the conclusions about the safety of this dietary supplement reached in the several comprehensive reviews conducted during the period 1990-2004. The extensive literature on genotoxic effects of Cr(III) compounds includes many instances of conflicting information, with both negative and positive findings often reported in similar test systems. Outcomes of in vitro tests conducted with Cr(III) in cultured cells are quite variable regardless of the chemical form of the chromium compound tested. The in vitro data show that Cr(III) has the potential to react with DNA and to cause DNA damage in cell culture systems, but under normal circumstances, restricted access of Cr(III) to cells in vivo limits or prevents genotoxicity in biological systems. The available in vivo evidence suggests that genotoxic effects are very unlikely to occur in humans or animals exposed to nutritional or to moderate recommended supplemental levels of Cr(III). However, excessive intake of Cr(III) supplements does not appear to be warranted at this time. Thus, like other nutrients that have exhibited genotoxic effects in vitro under high exposure conditions, nutritional benefits appear to outweigh the theoretical risk of genotoxic effects in vivo at normal or modestly elevated physiological intake levels. PMID:18324515

  3. Animal models.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Antonietta; Moshé, Solomon L

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy accounts for a significant portion of the dis-ease burden worldwide. Research in this field is fundamental and mandatory. Animal models have played, and still play, a substantial role in understanding the patho-physiology and treatment of human epilepsies. A large number and variety of approaches are available, and they have been applied to many animals. In this chapter the in vitro and in vivo animal models are discussed,with major emphasis on the in vivo studies. Models have used phylogenetically different animals - from worms to monkeys. Our attention has been dedicated mainly to rodents.In clinical practice, developmental aspects of epilepsy often differ from those in adults. Animal models have often helped to clarify these differences. In this chapter, developmental aspects have been emphasized.Electrical stimulation and chemical-induced models of seizures have been described first, as they represent the oldest and most common models. Among these models, kindling raised great interest, especially for the study of the epileptogenesis. Acquired focal models mimic seizures and occasionally epilepsies secondary to abnormal cortical development, hypoxia, trauma, and hemorrhage.Better knowledge of epileptic syndromes will help to create new animal models. To date, absence epilepsy is one of the most common and (often) benign forms of epilepsy. There are several models, including acute pharmacological models (PTZ, penicillin, THIP, GBL) and chronic models (GAERS, WAG/Rij). Although atypical absence seizures are less benign, thus needing more investigation, only two models are so far available (AY-9944,MAM-AY). Infantile spasms are an early childhood encephalopathy that is usually associated with a poor out-come. The investigation of this syndrome in animal models is recent and fascinating. Different approaches have been used including genetic (Down syndrome,ARX mutation) and acquired (multiple hit, TTX, CRH,betamethasone-NMDA) models.An entire section has been dedicated to genetic models, from the older models obtained with spontaneous mutations (GEPRs) to the new engineered knockout, knocking, and transgenic models. Some of these models have been created based on recently recognized patho-genesis such as benign familial neonatal epilepsy, early infantile encephalopathy with suppression bursts, severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy, the tuberous sclerosis model, and the progressive myoclonic epilepsy. The contribution of animal models to epilepsy re-search is unquestionable. The development of further strategies is necessary to find novel strategies to cure epileptic patients, and optimistically to allow scientists first and clinicians subsequently to prevent epilepsy and its consequences. PMID:22938964

  4. Cross-Species Affective Neuroscience Decoding of the Primal Affective Experiences of Humans and Related Animals

    PubMed Central

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2011-01-01

    Background The issue of whether other animals have internally felt experiences has vexed animal behavioral science since its inception. Although most investigators remain agnostic on such contentious issues, there is now abundant experimental evidence indicating that all mammals have negatively and positively-valenced emotional networks concentrated in homologous brain regions that mediate affective experiences when animals are emotionally aroused. That is what the neuroscientific evidence indicates. Principal Findings The relevant lines of evidence are as follows: 1) It is easy to elicit powerful unconditioned emotional responses using localized electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB); these effects are concentrated in ancient subcortical brain regions. Seven types of emotional arousals have been described; using a special capitalized nomenclature for such primary process emotional systems, they are SEEKING, RAGE, FEAR, LUST, CARE, PANIC/GRIEF and PLAY. 2) These brain circuits are situated in homologous subcortical brain regions in all vertebrates tested. Thus, if one activates FEAR arousal circuits in rats, cats or primates, all exhibit similar fear responses. 3) All primary-process emotional-instinctual urges, even ones as complex as social PLAY, remain intact after radical neo-decortication early in life; thus, the neocortex is not essential for the generation of primary-process emotionality. 4) Using diverse measures, one can demonstrate that animals like and dislike ESB of brain regions that evoke unconditioned instinctual emotional behaviors: Such ESBs can serve as ‘rewards’ and ‘punishments’ in diverse approach and escape/avoidance learning tasks. 5) Comparable ESB of human brains yield comparable affective experiences. Thus, robust evidence indicates that raw primary-process (i.e., instinctual, unconditioned) emotional behaviors and feelings emanate from homologous brain functions in all mammals (see Appendix S1), which are regulated by higher brain regions. Such findings suggest nested-hierarchies of BrainMind affective processing, with primal emotional functions being foundational for secondary-process learning and memory mechanisms, which interface with tertiary-process cognitive-thoughtful functions of the BrainMind. PMID:21915252

  5. Critical soil concentrations of cadmium, lead, and mercury in view of health effects on humans and animals.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Wim; Römkens, Paul F A M; Schütze, Gudrun

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of the risk of elevated soil metal concentrations requires appropriate critical limits for metal concentrations in soil in view of ecological and human toxicological risks. This chapter presents an overview of methodologies to derive critical total metal concentrations in soils for Cd, Pb, and Hg as relevant to health effects on animals and humans, taking into account the effect of soil properties. The approach is based on the use of nonlinear relationships for metals in soil, soil solution, plants, and soil invertebrates, including soil properties that affect metal availability in soil. Results indicate that the impact of soil properties on critical soil metal concentrations is mainly relevant for Cd because of significant soil-plant, soil-solution, and soil-worm relationships. Critical Cd levels in soil thus derived are sometimes lower than those related to ecotoxicological impacts on soil organisms/processes and plants, which is especially true for critical soil Cd concentrations in view of food quality criteria for wheat, drinking water quality, and acceptable daily intakes of worm-eating birds and mammals. There are, however, large uncertainties involved in the derivation from assumptions made in the calculation and uncertainties in acceptable daily intakes and in relationships for Cd in soil, soil solution, plants, and soil invertebrates. Despite these uncertainties, the analyses indicate that present Cd concentrations in parts of the rural areas are in excess of the critical levels at which effects in both agricultural and nonagricultural systems can occur. PMID:17708073

  6. Sociality and health: impacts of sociality on disease susceptibility and transmission in animal and human societies

    PubMed Central

    Kappeler, Peter M.; Cremer, Sylvia; Nunn, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a theme issue presenting the latest developments in research on the impacts of sociality on health and fitness. The articles that follow cover research on societies ranging from insects to humans. Variation in measures of fitness (i.e. survival and reproduction) has been linked to various aspects of sociality in humans and animals alike, and variability in individual health and condition has been recognized as a key mediator of these relationships. Viewed from a broad evolutionary perspective, the evolutionary transitions from a solitary lifestyle to group living have resulted in several new health-related costs and benefits of sociality. Social transmission of parasites within groups represents a major cost of group living, but some behavioural mechanisms, such as grooming, have evolved repeatedly to reduce this cost. Group living also has created novel costs in terms of altered susceptibility to infectious and non-infectious disease as a result of the unavoidable physiological consequences of social competition and integration, which are partly alleviated by social buffering in some vertebrates. Here, we define the relevant aspects of sociality, summarize their health-related costs and benefits, and discuss possible fitness measures in different study systems. Given the pervasive effects of social factors on health and fitness, we propose a synthesis of existing conceptual approaches in disease ecology, ecological immunology and behavioural neurosciences by adding sociality as a key factor, with the goal to generate a broader framework for organismal integration of health-related research. PMID:25870402

  7. Robust modelling, measurement and analysis of human and animal metabolic systems.

    PubMed

    van Beek, Johannes H G M; Hauschild, Anne-Christin; Hettling, Hannes; Binsl, Thomas W

    2009-05-28

    Modelling human and animal metabolism is impeded by the lack of accurate quantitative parameters and the large number of biochemical reactions. This problem may be tackled by: (i) study of modules of the network independently; (ii) ensemble simulations to explore many plausible parameter combinations; (iii) analysis of 'sloppy' parameter behaviour, revealing interdependent parameter combinations with little influence; (iv) multiscale analysis that combines molecular and whole network data; and (v) measuring metabolic flux (rate of flow) in vivo via stable isotope labelling. For the latter method, carbon transition networks were modelled with systems of ordinary differential equations, but we show that coloured Petri nets provide a more intuitive graphical approach. Analysis of parameter sensitivities shows that only a few parameter combinations have a large effect on predictions. Model analysis of high-energy phosphate transport indicates that membrane permeability, inaccurately known at the organellar level, can be well determined from whole-organ responses. Ensemble simulations that take into account the imprecision of measured molecular parameters contradict the popular hypothesis that high-energy phosphate transport in heart muscle is mostly by phosphocreatine. Combining modular, multiscale, ensemble and sloppy modelling approaches with in vivo flux measurements may prove indispensable for the modelling of the large human metabolic system. PMID:19380321

  8. Human-animal anthrax outbreak in the Luangwa valley of Zambia in 2011.

    PubMed

    Hang'ombe, Mudenda B; Mwansa, James C L; Muwowo, Sergio; Mulenga, Phillip; Kapina, Muzala; Musenga, Eric; Squarre, David; Mataa, Liywali; Thomas, Suzuki Y; Ogawa, Hirohito; Sawa, Hirofumi; Higashi, Hideaki

    2012-07-01

    There has been a reduction of incidences of anthrax in the developed countries but it is still a public health problem in the developing countries where communities live in interface areas with wildlife. An outbreak of anthrax in Hippopotamus amphibious was observed in Zambia. Following the death of hippopotamuses, suspected human cases were reported. The objective of this study was to isolate and confirm Bacillus anthracis and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility for the management of the disease. Of the specimens collected, 29.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.4-56.0) were from humans, 42.1% (95% CI, 21.1-66.0) were from hippopotamuses and 20.0% (95% CI, 6.61-44.3) from the soil were found to be positive were for B. anthracis. An antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed that all the isolates were found to be sensitive to the recommended antibiotics. The disease control was achieved by case management and by explaining to the communities that they should avoid contact with animals that die from unknown causes. PMID:22472314

  9. Subtilisin Sub3 is involved in adherence of Microsporum canis to human and animal epidermis.

    PubMed

    B?gu?, Elena Tatiana; Baldo, Aline; Mathy, Anne; Cambier, Ludivine; Antoine, Nadine; Cozma, Vasile; Mignon, Bernard

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of the secreted keratinolytic subtilisin-like protease Sub3 in adherence of Microsporum canis to epidermis from various susceptible species, in addition to cat for which this role was recently demonstrated. Firstly, we showed by immunostaining that Sub3 is not expressed in arthroconidia from an M. canis SUB3 RNA-silenced strain but is present on the surface of arthroconidia from a SUB3 non-silenced parental strain. Secondly, comparative adherence assays using arthroconidia from both M. canis strains and skin explants from humans, dogs, horses, rabbits, guinea pigs, mice and cats revealed that only 8-16% of arthroconidia from the SUB3 silenced strain adhered to different types of epidermis when compared to the control strain. Attempts to restore fungal adherence by the addition of recombinant Sub3 failed in the tested conditions. Overall results show for the first time that Sub3 is necessary for the adherence of M. canis arthroconidia to epidermis from humans and other animal species than cat, supporting the idea that Sub3 plays a central role in colonization of keratinized host structures by M. canis, whatever the host. PMID:22770520

  10. Antigenic typing of Brazilian rabies virus samples isolated from animals and humans, 1989-2000.

    PubMed

    Favoretto, Silvana Regina; Carrieri, Maria Luiza; Cunha, Elenice Maria S; Aguiar, Elizabeth A C; Silva, Luzia Helena Q; Sodre, Miriam M; Souza, Maria Conceição A M; Kotait, Ivanete

    2002-01-01

    Animal and human rabies samples isolated between 1989 and 2000 were typified by means of a monoclonal antibody panel against the viral nucleoprotein. The panel had been previously established to study the molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in the Americas. Samples were isolated in the Diagnostic Laboratory of the Pasteur Institute and in other rabies diagnostic centers in Brazil. In addition to the fixed virus samples CVS-31/96-IP, preserved in mouse brain, and PV-BHK/97, preserved in cell culture, a total of 330 rabies virus samples were isolated from dogs, cats, cattle, horses, bats, sheep, goat, swine, foxes, marmosets, coati and humans. Six antigenic variants that were compatible with the pre-established monoclonal antibodies panel were defined: numbers 2 (dog), 3 (Desmodus rotundus), 4 (Tadarida brasiliensis), 5 (vampire bat from Venezuela), 6 (Lasiurus cinereus) and Lab (reacted to all used antibodies). Six unknown profiles, not compatible with the panel, were also found. Samples isolated from insectivore bats showed the greatest variability and the most commonly isolated variant was variant-3 (Desmodus rotundus). These findings may be related to the existence of multiple independent transmission cycles, involving different bat species. PMID:12048546

  11. [Mechanisms of enhanced vascular contractility in experimental animals and humans in atherosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Hurkovs'ka, A V; Plyska, O I; Bury?, V O; Hokina, N I

    2000-01-01

    Contractile and electrical responses of muscle strips from rabbit aorta to 5-HT and hyper K solution were compared in controls group of rabbits fed a normal diet, and atherosclerotic animals fed 1% cholesterol diet for 12 weeks (atherosclerotic group). A study of vascular responses of human popliteal artery was also carried out. It was shown that smooth muscle cells from arteriosclerotic vessels of both rabbits and human exhibit an increased sensitivity to contractile action of hyperpotassium solution and 5-HT. We found no significant difference in the densities of L-type Ca2+ channel current as well as voltage dependent K+ channels current measured by patch clamp method in single smooth muscle cells from control and atherosclerotic rabbit aorta. Removal of endothelium from the vascular strips resulted in an enhanced vascular contractility in control but not in atherosclerotic group. The dose response curves for endothelium-free muscle strips for both 5-HT and hyper K solution were not significantly different between the two groups. Our result suggest that the enhanced vascular responses to 5-HT and hyper K under condition of arteriosclerosis could be attributed to an impaired function of endothelium which is a source of substances particularly nitric oxide that mediates vascular relaxation and provides a compensatory mechanism to keep peripheral resistance at lower level. PMID:11424570

  12. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii Infection in Humans Occupationally Exposed to Animals in Poland.

    PubMed

    Szyma?ska-Czerwi?ska, Monika; Gali?ska, El?bieta Monika; Niemczuk, Krzysztof; Knap, Józef Piotr

    2015-04-01

    Coxiella burnetii is the etiological agent of Q fever, and outbreaks of Q fever have been reported in different parts of Europe both in animals and humans. Human infections are mostly associated with infections in ruminants, e.g., sheep, goats, and cows. Various professional groups are occupationally exposed to infection with C. burnetii. The aim of this study was investigate the prevalence of C. burnetii in farm workers. Serum samples were collected from 151 persons from six different regions of Poland. The serum samples were tested using three serological methods-complement fixation test (CFT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA). A total of 71 samples of blood were also tested by real-time PCR. The results showed that antibodies against C. burnetii were present in the tested sera. Average percentages of seropositive samples in IFA, ELISA, and CFT were 31.12%, 39.07%, and 15.23%, respectively. Positive results were noted in each testing center. Of the three test types, IFA results were considered the most sensitive. Real-time PCR confirmed the presence of DNA specific for C. burnetii in 10 patients. The farming workforce constitutes an occupational risk group with an increased risk for C. burnetii infection, presumably because of their contact with infected livestock. PMID:25897813

  13. FLOTAC: new multivalent techniques for qualitative and quantitative copromicroscopic diagnosis of parasites in animals and humans.

    PubMed

    Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura; Maurelli, Maria Paola; Utzinger, Jürg

    2010-03-01

    Accurate diagnosis of parasitic infections is of pivotal importance for both individual patient management and population-based studies, such as drug efficacy trials and surveillance of parasitic disease control and elimination programs, in both human and veterinary public health. In this study, we present protocols for the FLOTAC basic, dual and double techniques, which are promising new multivalent, sensitive, accurate and precise methods for qualitative and quantitative copromicroscopic analysis. These various methods make use of the FLOTAC apparatus, a cylindrical device with two 5-ml flotation chambers, which allows up to 1 g of stool to be prepared for microscopic analysis. Compared with currently more widely used diagnostic methods for parasite detection in animals (e.g., McMaster and Wisconsin techniques) and humans (e.g., Kato-Katz and ether-based concentration techniques), the FLOTAC techniques show higher sensitivity and accuracy. All FLOTAC techniques can be performed on fresh fecal material as well as preserved stool samples, and require approximately 12-15 min of preparation time before microscopic analysis. PMID:20203667

  14. Lead (Pb) in sheep exposed to mining pollution: implications for animal and human health.

    PubMed

    Pareja-Carrera, Jennifer; Mateo, Rafael; Rodríguez-Estival, Jaime

    2014-10-01

    Livestock from the ancient mining area of Sierra Madrona and Alcudia Valley (Spain) is exposed to elevated levels of lead (Pb), as previous studies based on blood monitoring have revealed. Here we have studied blood, liver and muscle Pb levels in sheep in order to know if Pb exposure could represent a risk for human consumers of the meat and offal of these animals. A cross-sectional study was conducted with ?4 years old (adults) ewes from the mining area (n=46) and a control area (n=21). Blood samples were taken before the sacrifice at the slaughterhouse, and liver and muscle samples were taken thereafter. At the same time, 2-3 year old rams (subadults, n=17) were blood sampled in the mining area. Blood, liver and muscle Pb levels were higher in the mining than in the control area. Blood Pb concentration in the mining area (n= 44, mean: 6.7?g/dl in ewes and 10.9?g/dl in rams) was above background levels (>6?g/dl) in 73.3 percent of animals. Liver Pb concentration in 68 percent of sheep from the mining area (n=32, mean: 6.16?g/g dry weight, d.w.) exceeded the minimum level associated with toxic exposure (5µg/g d.w.) and 87.5 percent of liver samples were above European Union Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) established for offal destined for human consumption (0.5µg/g w.w.~1.4µg/g d.w.). On the contrary, none of the muscle samples in ewes exceeded the EU MRL (0.1µg/g w.w.~0.34µg/g d.w.) established for meat, which may be related to the decline of blood Pb levels with age observed in the present study. These results suggest a potential health effect for sheep exposed to Pb pollution in this area and implications for food safety, but further research with lamb meat may be necessary to refine the risk assessment for human consumers. PMID:25086824

  15. p53 gene mutations in human astrocytic brain tumors including pilocytic astrocytomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Patt; H Gries; M Giraldo; J Cervos-Navarro; H Martin; W Jänisch; J Brockmoller

    1996-01-01

    Recent molecular biological studies have shown evidence for a distinct pathogenesis of pilocytic astrocytomas based on alterations other than mutations of the tumor suppressor gene p53. To prove these data, the authors screened a series of 42 astrocytic human brain tumors with a relatively high proportion (16.6%) of the pilocytic variant for the presence of p53 mutations, using the polymerase

  16. Risk assessment of diesel exhaust and lung cancer: combining human and animal studies after adjustment for biases in epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Risk assessment requires dose-response data for the evaluation of the relationship between exposure to an environmental stressor and the probability of developing an adverse health effect. Information from human studies is usually limited and additional results from animal studies are often needed for the assessment of risks in humans. Combination of risk estimates requires an assessment and correction of the important biases in the two types of studies. In this paper we aim to illustrate a quantitative approach to combining data from human and animal studies after adjusting for bias in human studies. For our purpose we use the example of the association between exposure to diesel exhaust and occurrence of lung cancer. Methods Firstly, we identify and adjust for the main sources of systematic error in selected human studies of the association between occupational exposure to diesel exhaust and occurrence of lung cancer. Evidence from selected animal studies is also accounted for by extrapolating to average ambient, occupational exposure concentrations of diesel exhaust. In a second stage, the bias adjusted effect estimates are combined in a common effect measure through meta-analysis. Results The random-effects pooled estimate (RR) for exposure to diesel exhaust vs. non-exposure was found 1.37 (95% C.I.: 1.08-1.65) in animal studies and 1.59 (95% C.I.: 1.09-2.10) in human studies, whilst the overall was found equal to 1.49 (95% C.I.: 1.21-1.78) with a greater contribution from human studies. Without bias adjustment in human studies, the pooled effect estimate was 1.59 (95% C.I.: 1.28-1.89). Conclusions Adjustment for the main sources of uncertainty produced lower risk estimates showing that ignoring bias leads to risk estimates potentially biased upwards. PMID:21481231

  17. Assessment of bioburden on human and animal tissues: Part 1—Results of method development and validation studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John B. KowalskiGregg; Gregg A. Mosley; Karen Merritt; Joel Osborne

    Recovered human and animal tissues are used extensively in surgery for wound repair and reconstruction. In preparation for\\u000a the validation of chemical disinfection and radiation sterilization processes, studies were performed on the development and\\u000a validation of quantitative bioburden recovery methods for human bone and soft tissue and also for porcine dermis. The use\\u000a of a swab-based method was not considered

  18. Acoustic sequences in non-human animals: a tutorial review and prospectus.

    PubMed

    Kershenbaum, Arik; Blumstein, Daniel T; Roch, Marie A; Akçay, Ca?lar; Backus, Gregory; Bee, Mark A; Bohn, Kirsten; Cao, Yan; Carter, Gerald; Cäsar, Cristiane; Coen, Michael; DeRuiter, Stacy L; Doyle, Laurance; Edelman, Shimon; Ferrer-I-Cancho, Ramon; Freeberg, Todd M; Garland, Ellen C; Gustison, Morgan; Harley, Heidi E; Huetz, Chloé; Hughes, Melissa; Hyland Bruno, Julia; Ilany, Amiyaal; Jin, Dezhe Z; Johnson, Michael; Ju, Chenghui; Karnowski, Jeremy; Lohr, Bernard; Manser, Marta B; McCowan, Brenda; Mercado, Eduardo; Narins, Peter M; Piel, Alex; Rice, Megan; Salmi, Roberta; Sasahara, Kazutoshi; Sayigh, Laela; Shiu, Yu; Taylor, Charles; Vallejo, Edgar E; Waller, Sara; Zamora-Gutierrez, Veronica

    2014-11-26

    Animal acoustic communication often takes the form of complex sequences, made up of multiple distinct acoustic units. Apart from the well-known example of birdsong, other animals such as insects, amphibians, and mammals (including bats, rodents, primates, and cetaceans) also generate complex acoustic sequences. Occasionally, such as with birdsong, the adaptive role of these sequences seems clear (e.g. mate attraction and territorial defence). More often however, researchers have only begun to characterise - let alone understand - the significance and meaning of acoustic sequences. Hypotheses abound, but there is little agreement as to how sequences should be defined and analysed. Our review aims to outline suitable methods for testing these hypotheses, and to describe the major limitations to our current and near-future knowledge on questions of acoustic sequences. This review and prospectus is the result of a collaborative effort between 43 scientists from the fields of animal behaviour, ecology and evolution, signal processing, machine learning, quantitative linguistics, and information theory, who gathered for a 2013 workshop entitled, 'Analysing vocal sequences in animals'. Our goal is to present not just a review of the state of the art, but to propose a methodological framework that summarises what we suggest are the best practices for research in this field, across taxa and across disciplines. We also provide a tutorial-style introduction to some of the most promising algorithmic approaches for analysing sequences. We divide our review into three sections: identifying the distinct units of an acoustic sequence, describing the different ways that information can be contained within a sequence, and analysing the structure of that sequence. Each of these sections is further subdivided to address the key questions and approaches in that area. We propose a uniform, systematic, and comprehensive approach to studying sequences, with the goal of clarifying research terms used in different fields, and facilitating collaboration and comparative studies. Allowing greater interdisciplinary collaboration will facilitate the investigation of many important questions in the evolution of communication and sociality. PMID:25428267

  19. Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation

    E-print Network

    Treuille, Adrien

    #12;Traditional Animation: The Process · Story board ­ Sequence of drawings with descriptions ­ Story board ­ Animatic ­ Final Animation #12;Traditional Animation: The Process · Key Frames ­ Draw a fewAnimation Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward

  20. Specification of RegionSpecific Neurons Including Forebrain Glutamatergic Neurons from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Zeng; Min Guo; Kristen Martins-Taylor; Xiaofang Wang; Zheng Zhang; Jung Woo Park; Shuning Zhan; Mark S. Kronenberg; Alexander Lichtler; Hui-Xia Liu; Fang-Ping Chen; Lixia Yue; Xue-Jun Li; Ren-He Xu; Thomas A. Reh

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundDirected differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) into functional, region-specific neural cells is a key step to realizing their therapeutic promise to treat various neural disorders, which awaits detailed elucidation.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe analyzed neural differentiation from various hiPSC lines generated by others and ourselves. Although heterogeneity in efficiency of neuroepithelial (NE) cell differentiation was observed among different hiPSC lines,