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1

Starvation Ketoacidosis: A Cause of Severe Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis in Pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Pregnancy is a diabetogenic state characterized by relative insulin resistance, enhanced lipolysis, elevated free fatty acids and increased ketogenesis. In this setting, short period of starvation can precipitate ketoacidosis. This sequence of events is recognized as “accelerated starvation.” Metabolic acidosis during pregnancy may have adverse impact on fetal neural development including impaired intelligence and fetal demise. Short periods of starvation during pregnancy may present as severe anion gap metabolic acidosis (AGMA). We present a 41-year-old female in her 32nd week of pregnancy, admitted with severe AGMA with pH 7.16, anion gap 31, and bicarbonate of 5?mg/dL with normal lactate levels. She was intubated and accepted to medical intensive care unit. Urine and serum acetone were positive. Evaluation for all causes of AGMA was negative. The diagnosis of starvation ketoacidosis was established in absence of other causes of AGMA. Intravenous fluids, dextrose, thiamine, and folic acid were administered with resolution of acidosis, early extubation, and subsequent normal delivery of a healthy baby at full term. Rapid reversal of acidosis and favorable outcome are achieved with early administration of dextrose containing fluids.

Venkatram, Sindhaghatta; Diaz-Fuentes, Gilda

2014-01-01

2

Chronic acetaminophen ingestion resulting in severe anion gap metabolic acidosis secondary to 5-oxoproline accumulation: an under diagnosed phenomenon  

PubMed Central

Anion gap metabolic acidosis is commonly caused by lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis, and ingestion of methanol, salicylates, ethylene glycol or accumulation of organic/inorganic acids. However, rare causes of metabolic acidosis from enzyme defects, such as disturbances in the ?-glutamyl cycle, are being reported in higher frequencies in the adult population. Such disturbances cause an accumulation of 5-oxoproline and ultimately an anion gap metabolic acidosis. These disturbances are often associated with acetaminophen in the setting of certain risk factors such as sepsis, malnutrition, liver disease, female gender, pregnancy or renal failure.

O'Brien, L. Morgan Nordstrom; Hooper, Michael; Flemmer, Mark; Marik, Paul Ellis

2012-01-01

3

Metabolic alkalosis from unsuspected ingestion: use of urine pH and anion gap.  

PubMed

Underlying causes of metabolic alkalosis may be evident from history, evaluation of effective circulatory volume, and measurement of urine chloride concentration. However, identification of causes may be difficult for certain conditions associated with clandestine behaviors, such as surreptitious vomiting, use of drugs or herbal supplements with mineralocorticoid activity, abuse of laxatives or diuretics, and long-term use of alkalis. In these circumstances, clinicians often are bewildered by unexplained metabolic alkalosis from an incomplete history or persistent deception by the patient, leading to misdiagnosis and poor outcome. We present a case of severe metabolic alkalosis and hypokalemia with a borderline urine chloride concentration in an alcoholic patient treated with a thiazide. The cause of the patient's metabolic alkalosis eventually was linked to surreptitious ingestion of baking soda. This case highlights the necessity of a high index of suspicion for the diverse clandestine behaviors that can cause metabolic alkalosis and the usefulness of urine pH and anion gap in its differential diagnosis. PMID:22265393

Yi, Joo-Hark; Han, Sang-Woong; Song, June-Seok; Kim, Ho-Jung

2012-04-01

4

Ion-selective electrode and anion gap range: What should the anion gap be?  

PubMed Central

Background Using flame photometry technique in the 1970s, the normal value of anion gap (AG) was determined to be 12 ± 4 meq/L. However, with introduction of the autoanalyzers using an ion-selective electrode (ISE), the anion gap value has fallen to lower levels. Methods A retrospective study of US veterans from a single medical center was performed to determine the value of the anion gap in subjects with normal renal function and normal serum albumin and in patients with lactic acidosis and end-stage renal disease on dialysis. Results In 409 patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate ?60 mL/min/1.73 m2 body surface area and serum albumin ?4 g/dL, the mean AG was 7.2 ± 2 (range 3–11) meq/L. In 299 patients with lactic acidosis (lactate level ?4 meq/L) and 68 patients with endstage renal disease on dialysis, the mean AG was 12.5 meq/L and 12.4 meq/L, respectively. A value <2 meq/L should be considered a low anion gap and a possible clue to drug intoxication and paraproteinemic disorders. Conclusion With the advent of ISE for measurement of analytes, the value of the anion gap has fallen. Physicians need to be aware of the normal AG value in their respective institutions, and laboratories need to have an established value for AG based on the type of instrument they are using.

Sadjadi, Seyed-Ali; Manalo, Rendell; Jaipaul, Navin; McMillan, James

2013-01-01

5

Strong ion gap: A methodology for exploring unexplained anions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This paper describes the calculation of the strong ion gap (SIG), a physical chemical methodology similar to the anion gap (AG), as a measure of the anion\\/cation balance exclusive of sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate. We compared the SIG and AG methodologies in three groups of subjects with and without unexplained anions. These groups were (1) healthy volunteers with

John A. Kellum; David J. Kramer; Michael R. Pinsky

1995-01-01

6

Anion gap corrected for albumin, phosphate and lactate is a good predictor of strong ion gap in critically ill patients: a nested cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective Corrected anion gap and strong ion gap are commonly used to estimate unmeasured anions. We evaluated the performance of the anion gap corrected for albumin, phosphate and lactate in predicting strong ion gap in a mixed population of critically ill patients. We hypothesized that anion gap corrected for albumin, phosphate and lactate would be a good predictor of strong ion gap, independent of the presence of metabolic acidosis. In addition, we evaluated the impact of strong ion gap at admission on hospital mortality. Methods We included 84 critically ill patients. Correlation and agreement between the anion gap corrected for albumin, phosphate and lactate and strong ion gap was evaluated by the Pearson correlation test, linear regression, a Bland-Altman plot and calculating interclass correlation coefficient. Two subgroup analyses were performed: one in patients with base-excess <-2mEq/L (low BE group - lBE) and the other in patients with base-excess >-2mEq/L (high BE group - hBE). A logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between admission strong ion gap levels and hospital mortality. Results There was a very strong correlation and a good agreement between anion gap corrected for albumin, phosphate and lactate and strong ion gap in the general population (r2=0.94; bias 1.40; limits of agreement -0.75 to 3.57). Correlation was also high in the lBE group (r2=0.94) and in the hBE group (r2=0.92). High levels of strong ion gap were present in 66% of the whole population and 42% of the cases in the hBE group. Strong ion gap was not associated with hospital mortality by logistic regression. Conclusion Anion gap corrected for albumin, phosphate and lactate and strong ion gap have an excellent correlation. Unmeasured anions are frequently elevated in critically ill patients with normal base-excess. However, there was no association between unmeasured anions and hospital mortality.

Zampieri, Fernando Godinho; Park, Marcelo; Ranzani, Otavio Tavares; Maciel, Alexandre Toledo; de Souza, Heraldo Possolo; da Cruz Neto, Luiz Monteiro; da Silva, Fabiano Pinheiro

2013-01-01

7

The association between initial anion gap and outcomes in medical intensive care unit patients?  

PubMed Central

Purpose Anion gap (AG) metabolic acidosis is common in critically ill patients. The relationship between initial AG at the time of admission to the medical intensive care unit (MICU) and mortality or length of stay (LOS) is unclear. This study was undertaken to evaluate this relationship. Materials and Method We prospectively examined the acid-base status of 100 consecutive patients at the time of MICU admission and recorded their mortality and LOS. The etiology of each AG was also recorded. Anion gap was corrected for albumin levels. The patients were divided into 4 stages based on severity of AG. Outcomes based on severity of AG were measured, and comparisons that adjusted for baseline characteristics were performed. Results This study showed that increased AG was associated with the higher mortality and that an AG more than 30 had the highest mortality. Mortality was significantly (P = .013) increased, even after accounting for AG etiology. Patients with highest AG also had the longest LOS in the MICU, and patients with normal acid-base status had the shortest MICU LOS (P < .01). Conclusion A high AG at the time of admission to the MICU was associated with higher mortality and LOS. Initial risk stratification based on AG and metabolic acidosis may help guide appropriate patient disposition (especially in patients without other definitive criteria for MICU admission) and assist with prognosis. Mixed AG metabolic acidosis with concomitant acid-base disorder was associated with increased MICU LOS.

Mehta, Hiren J.; Bhanusheli, Gautam; Nietert, Paul J.; Pastis, Nicholas J.

2012-01-01

8

Lower serum bicarbonate and a higher anion gap are associated with lower cardiorespiratory fitness in young adults  

PubMed Central

Lower levels of serum bicarbonate and a higher anion gap have been associated with insulin resistance and hypertension in the general population. Whether these associations extend to other cardiovascular disease risk factors is unknown. To clarify this, we examined the association of serum bicarbonate and anion gap with cardiorespiratory fitness in 2714 adults aged 20–49 years in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The mean serum bicarbonate was 24.6 mEq/L and the mean anion gap was 10.26 mEq/L, with fitness determined by submaximal exercise testing. After multivariable adjustment, gender, length of fasting, soft drink consumption, systolic blood pressure, serum phosphate, and hemoglobin were independently associated with both the serum bicarbonate and the anion gap. Low fitness was most prevalent among those in the lowest quartile of serum bicarbonate or highest quartile of anion gap. After multivariable adjustment, a one standard deviation higher serum bicarbonate or anion gap was associated with an odds ratio for low fitness of 0.80 (95% CI 0.70–0.91) and 1.30 (95% CI 1.15–1.48), respectively. The association of bicarbonate with fitness may be mediated by differences in lean body mass. Thus, lower levels of serum bicarbonate and higher levels of anion gap are associated with lower cardiorespiratory fitness in adults aged 20–49 years in the general population.

Abramowitz, Matthew K.; Hostetter, Thomas H.; Melamed, Michal L.

2012-01-01

9

A retrospective analysis of glycol and toxic alcohol ingestion: utility of anion and osmolal gaps  

PubMed Central

Background Patients ingesting ethylene glycol, isopropanol, methanol, and propylene glycol ('toxic alcohols') often present with non-specific signs and symptoms. Definitive diagnosis of toxic alcohols has traditionally been by gas chromatography (GC), a technique not commonly performed on-site in hospital clinical laboratories. The objectives of this retrospective study were: 1) to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the osmolal gap in screening for toxic alcohol ingestion and 2) to determine the common reasons other than toxic alcohol ingestion for elevated osmolal gaps. Methods Electronic medical records from an academic tertiary care medical center were searched to identify all patients in the time period from January 1, 1996 to September 1, 2010 who had serum/plasma ethanol, glucose, sodium, blood urea nitrogen, and osmolality measured simultaneously, and also all patients who had GC analysis for toxic alcohols. Detailed chart review was performed on all patients with osmolal gap of 9 or greater. Results In the study period, 20,669 patients had determination of serum/plasma ethanol and osmolal gap upon presentation to the hospitals. There were 341 patients with an osmolal gap greater than 14 (including correction for estimated contribution of ethanol) on initial presentation to the medical center. Seventy-seven patients tested positive by GC for one or more toxic alcohols; all had elevated anion gap or osmolal gap or both. Other than toxic alcohols, the most common causes for an elevated osmolal gap were recent heavy ethanol consumption with suspected alcoholic ketoacidosis, renal failure, shock, and recent administration of mannitol. Only 9 patients with osmolal gap greater than 50 and no patients with osmolal gap greater than 100 were found to be negative for toxic alcohols. Conclusions Our study concurs with other investigations that show that osmolal gap can be a useful diagnostic test in conjunction with clinical history and physical examination.

2012-01-01

10

Osmolal gap in alcoholic ketoacidosis.  

PubMed

Severe metabolic acidosis in the setting of alcoholism raises diagnostic and therapeutic problems [Levinsky 1994]. Alcoholic ketoacidosis and toxic alcohol ingestion can be difficult to distinguish on initial presentation [Litovitz 1986]. A high osmolal gap associated with increased anion gap acidosis is said to be indicative of toxic alcohol poisoning though this is not at all specific [Salem and Mujais 1992]. Invasive therapeutic manoeuvers as for toxic alcohol poisoning have been recommended empirically before toxicological confirmation when very high osmolarity gaps are reached. Herein, we report two cases of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with very high osmolal gap due to alcoholic ketoacidosis without any evidence of toxic alcohol ingestion. PMID:9247780

Almaghamsi, A M; Yeung, C K

1997-07-01

11

Anion exchange and volume regulation during metabolic blockade of renal cortical slices.  

PubMed Central

1. The development of swelling of rat and guinea-pig renal cortical slices was studied after metabolic blockade (hypoxia plus glycolytic blockade with iodo-acetic acid) and/or exposure to 'isotonic' high potassium, no sodium solution. 2. Swelling was greater after exposure to oxygenated high potassium solution than after metabolic blockade in physiologic Krebs-Henseleit solution. Swelling was reduced after metabolic blockade in high potassium solution compared to incubation in oxygenated high potassium solution. Increasing periods of transient metabolic blockade in Krebs-Henseleit solution progressively blunted swelling when slices were subsequently incubated in oxygenated high potassium solution. 3. Metabolic blockade in Krebs-Henseleit solution resulted in marked reductions in potassium and increases in sodium. Incubation in high potassium solution resulted in marked increases in potassium and similar low levels of sodium regardless of associated interventions. Metabolic blockade in both media resulted in significantly greater increases in renal cortical chloride than in monovalent cations (potassium plus sodium). Incubation in oxygenated high potassium solution was associated with similar increases in renal cortical chloride and total monovalent cations. 4. Renal cortical losses of solids and protein and increases in renal cortical inulin space were greater after metabolic blockade than after incubation under oxygenated conditions regardless of the incubation media. 5. These data support the conclusion that during metabolic blockade there is a significant replacement of larger intracellular anions by extracellular chloride. The loss of osmotically active intracellular anions limits the increase in renal cortical volume during metabolic inhibition and exposure to high potassium solution.

Pine, M B; Rhodes, D; Thorp, K; Tsai, Y

1979-01-01

12

Filling gaps in a metabolic network using expression information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: The metabolic models of both newly sequenced and well-studied organisms contain reactions for which the enzymes have not been identified yet. We present a computa- tional approach for identifying genes encoding such missing metabolic enzymes in a partially reconstructed metabolic network. Results: The metabolic expression placement (MEP) method relies on the coexpression properties of the metabolic network and is

Peter Kharchenko; Dennis Vitkup; George M. Church

2004-01-01

13

Point of care testing provides an accurate measurement of creatinine, anion gap, and osmolal gap in ex-vivo whole blood samples with nitromethane.  

PubMed

Abstract Context. Nitromethane interferes with Jaffé measurements of creatinine, potentially mimicking acute kidney injury. Objectives. We determined the proportional contribution of nitromethane in blood samples to creatinine measured by the Jaffé colorimetric and the point-of-care (POC) reactions and determined whether the difference can reliably estimate the concentration of nitromethane. Additionally, we determined whether the presence of nitromethane interferes with anion/osmolal gaps and ascertained the stability of nitromethane in serum after 7 days. Methods. Nitromethane was added to whole blood from four healthy volunteers to achieve concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mmol/L. The following tests were performed: creatinine (Jaffé and POC), electrolytes (associated with Jaffé and POC), osmolality and nitromethane concentration (gas chromatography [GC]). Remaining samples were refrigerated and reanalyzed using GC at 7 days. Anion and osmolal gaps were calculated. Proportional recovery and degradation of nitromethane were measured using GC. Data were analyzed for agreement with single-factor ANOVA (p = 0.05). Results. Mean creatinine for POC and Jaff methods were 0.93 vs. 0.76 mg/dL, respectively. Jaff creatinine concentrations increased linearly with increasing nitromethane concentrations (R(2) = 1, p = 0.01): measured creatinine (mg/dL) = 7.1*nitromethane (mmol/L) = 0.79. POC creatinine remained unchanged across the range of nitromethane concentrations (p = 0.99). Anion and osmolal gaps also remained unchanged. Nitromethane was reliably identified in all sample concentrations using GC on Day 0. Detection of 0.25 mmol/L nitromethane was not consistently recovered on Day 7. Nitromethane degradation was most pronounced at 2 mmol/L concentrations (81% recovery). Conclusions. Nitromethane alters apparent concentration of creatinine using the Jaffé reaction in a linear fashion but not when using the POC reaction. Measured difference between Jaffé and POC creatinine may identify the presence and estimate concentration of nitromethane. Presence of nitromethane did not alter the anion or osmolal gap; thus it would not potentially interfere with the diagnosis of co-exposure to a toxic alcohol. PMID:24844579

Cao, D; Maynard, S; Mitchell, A M; Kerns, W P; Beuhler, M

2014-07-01

14

Band-gap-confinement and image-state-recapture effects in the survival of anions scattered from metal surfaces  

SciTech Connect

The resonant charge transfer process in the collision of hydrogen anions with metal surfaces is described within a single-active-electron wave-packet propagation method. The ion-survival probability is found to be strongly enhanced at two different surface-specific perpendicular velocities of the ion. It is shown that, while the low-velocity enhancement is induced from a dynamical confinement of the ion level inside the band gap, the high-velocity enhancement is due to electron recapture from transiently populated image states. Results are presented for Li(110), Cu(111), and Pd(111) surfaces.

Schmitz, Andrew; Shaw, John; Chakraborty, Himadri S. [Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Department of Chemistry and Physics, Northwest Missouri State University, Maryville, Missouri 64468 (United States); Thumm, Uwe [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66502 (United States)

2010-04-15

15

Warburg revisited: regulation of mitochondrial metabolism by voltage-dependent anion channels in cancer cells.  

PubMed

The bioenergetics of cancer cells is characterized by a high rate of aerobic glycolysis and suppression of mitochondrial metabolism (Warburg phenomenon). Mitochondrial metabolism requires inward and outward flux of hydrophilic metabolites, including ATP, ADP and respiratory substrates, through voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) in the mitochondrial outer membrane. Although VDACs were once considered to be constitutively open, closure of the VDAC is emerging as an adjustable limiter (governator) of mitochondrial metabolism. Studies of VDACs reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers show that tubulin at nanomolar concentrations decreases VDAC conductance. In tumor cell lines, microtubule-destabilizing agents increase cytoplasmic free tubulin and decrease mitochondrial membrane potential (??(m)), whereas microtubule stabilization increases ??(m). Tubulin-dependent suppression of ??(m) is further potentiated by protein kinase A activation and glycogen synthase kinase-3? inhibition. Knockdown of different VDAC isoforms, especially of the least abundant isoform, VDAC3, also decreases ??(m), cellular ATP, and NADH/NAD+, suggesting that VDAC1 and VDAC2 are most inhibited by free tubulin. The brake on mitochondrial metabolism imposed by the VDAC governator probably is released when spindles form and free tubulin decreases as cells enter mitosis, which better provides for the high ATP demands of chromosome separation and cytokinesis. In conclusion, tubulin-dependent closure of VDACs represents a new mechanism contributing to the suppression of mitochondrial metabolism in the Warburg phenomenon. PMID:22700429

Maldonado, Eduardo N; Lemasters, John J

2012-09-01

16

Band gap reduction in GaNSb alloys due to the anion mismatch  

SciTech Connect

The structural and optoelectronic properties in GaN{sub x}Sb{sub 1-x} alloys (0{<=}x<0.02) grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on both GaSb substrates and AlSb buffer layers on GaAs substrates are investigated. High-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD) and reciprocal space mapping indicate that the GaN{sub x}Sb{sub 1-x} epilayers are of high crystalline quality and the alloy composition is found to be independent of substrate, for identical growth conditions. The band gap of the GaNSb alloys is found to decrease with increasing nitrogen content from absorption spectroscopy. Strain-induced band-gap shifts, Moss-Burstein effects, and band renormalization were ruled out by XRD and Hall measurements. The band-gap reduction is solely due to the substitution of dilute amounts of highly electronegative nitrogen for antimony, and is greater than observed in GaNAs with the same N content.

Veal, T.D.; Piper, L.F.J.; Jollands, S.; Bennett, B.R.; Jefferson, P.H.; Thomas, P.A.; McConville, C.F.; Murdin, B.N.; Buckle, L.; Smith, G.W.; Ashley, T. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); School of Electronics and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 5XH (United Kingdom); QinetiQ Ltd., St. Andrews Road, Malvern, Worcestershire, WR14 3PS (United Kingdom)

2005-09-26

17

Effect of Anionic Salts on Selenium Metabolism in Nonlactating, Pregnant Dairy Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this trial was to determine whether anionic salts in the diets of nonlactating, pregnant cows for 14 to 21 d prepartum affected measures of Se status. One of three dietary treat- ments (control, anionic salts, and anionic salts plus Se) was administered to 34 nonlactating, pregnant cows using a completely randomized design with repeated measures. The anionic

R. G. Gant; W. Sanchez; R. L. Kincaid

1998-01-01

18

Effect of the Independent Acid Base Variables on Anion Gap Variation in Cardiac Surgical Patients: A Stewart-Figge Approach  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To determine the effect of each of independent acid base variables on the anion gap (AG) value in cardiac surgical patients. Methods. This retrospective study involved 128 cardiac surgical patients admitted for postoperative care. The variation of AG (AGvar) between the day of admission and the first postoperative day was correlated via a multiple linear regression model with the respective variations of the independent acid base variables, that is, apparent strong ion difference (SIDa), strong ion gap (SIG), carbon dioxide (PCO2), and albumin and phosphate concentrations. Results. The variations of all the above variables contributed significantly to the prediction of AGvar (adjusted R2 = 0.9999, F = 201890.24, and P < 0.001). According to the standardized coefficients (?),??SIGvar (? = 0.948, P < 0.001), [Albumin]var (? = 0.260, P < 0.001), and [Phosphate]var (? = 0.191, P < 0.001) were the major determinants of AGvar with lesser contributions from SIDa,?var (? = 0.071, P < 0.001) and PCO2,?var (? = ?0.067, P < 0.001). Conclusions. All the independent acid base variables contribute to the prediction of the AG value. However, albumin and phosphate and SIG variations seem to be the most important predictors, while AG appears to be rather stable with changes in PCO2 and SIDa.

Keklikoglou, Ilias; Papoti, Sofia; Diminikos, George; Diplaris, Konstantinos

2014-01-01

19

The relationship among dietary undetermined anion, acid-base balance, and nutrient metabolism in swine.  

PubMed

Dietary undetermined anion (dUA) reflects, in part, the net acid load contributed by the diet. Although dUA is known to influence performance and nutrient metabolism of swine, a lack of knowledge impairs its application to diet formulation. This study was undertaken to separate the effects of dUA from the individual electrolytes that constitute its calculation. Eighteen 35-kg pigs were fitted with indwelling venous catheters and fed one of three barley and soybean meal-based diets: a control diet (C), an acidogenic diet containing calcium chloride (A), or a compensated acidogenic diet containing alkaline salts of sodium and potassium, as well as calcium chloride (CA). Compared with diet C, diet A lowered (P < .05) blood pH, bicarbonate, and base excess and increased (P < .05) urinary ammonium, titratable acid (TA), and net acid excretion (NAE). Diet CA returned blood acid-base values to normal and reduced urinary ammonium, TA, and NAE relative to diet A. Total nitrogen balance was unaffected by diet. Diet CA increased (P < .05) water intake and urine output. Diet A, but not CA, increased (P < .05) serum ionized Ca and C1. Apparent Ca and S digestibility and retention were reduced by diet A, but not by CA. Sodium retention was enhanced (P < .05) by diets A and CA; potassium retention was impaired (P < .05) by CA. Dietary UA altered systemic and renal acid-base balance in pigs. Mineral, but not nitrogen, metabolism was affected by both dUA and specific ion effects. PMID:9303463

Patience, J F; Chaplin, R K

1997-09-01

20

Experimental studies on the impact of an increased dose of anionic salts on the metabolism of dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was initiated to investigate the influence of a daily dose of anionic salts (AS) above the valid upper limit at present on metabolism of dairy cows. Eleven non?pregnant and non?lactating Holstein?Friesian crossbred cows with a permanent rumen cannula were used in a study with a controlled feeding design. The initial daily dose was 2500 meq\\/day, which resulted in

M. Passfeld; A. Löptien; N. Montag; W. Baumgartner; R. Staufenbiel

2006-01-01

21

Linkage of Organic Anion Transporter-1 to Metabolic Pathways through Integrated "Omics"-driven Network and Functional Analysis*  

PubMed Central

The main kidney transporter of many commonly prescribed drugs (e.g. penicillins, diuretics, antivirals, methotrexate, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) is organic anion transporter-1 (OAT1), originally identified as NKT (Lopez-Nieto, C. E., You, G., Bush, K. T., Barros, E. J., Beier, D. R., and Nigam, S. K. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 6471–6478). Targeted metabolomics in knockouts have shown that OAT1 mediates the secretion or reabsorption of many important metabolites, including intermediates in carbohydrate, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism. This observation raises the possibility that OAT1 helps regulate broader metabolic activities. We therefore examined the potential roles of OAT1 in metabolic pathways using Recon 1, a functionally tested genome-scale reconstruction of human metabolism. A computational approach was used to analyze in vivo metabolomic as well as transcriptomic data from wild-type and OAT1 knock-out animals, resulting in the implication of several metabolic pathways, including the citric acid cycle, polyamine, and fatty acid metabolism. Validation by in vitro and ex vivo analysis using Xenopus oocyte, cell culture, and kidney tissue assays demonstrated interactions between OAT1 and key intermediates in these metabolic pathways, including previously unknown substrates, such as polyamines (e.g. spermine and spermidine). A genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction generated some experimentally supported predictions for metabolic pathways linked to OAT1-related transport. The data support the possibility that the SLC22 and other families of transporters, known to be expressed in many tissues and primarily known for drug and toxin clearance, are integral to a number of endogenous pathways and may be involved in a larger remote sensing and signaling system (Ahn, S. Y., and Nigam, S. K. (2009) Mol. Pharmacol. 76, 481–490, and Wu, W., Dnyanmote, A. V., and Nigam, S. K. (2011) Mol. Pharmacol. 79, 795–805). Drugs may alter metabolism by competing for OAT1 binding of metabolites.

Ahn, Sun-Young; Jamshidi, Neema; Mo, Monica L.; Wu, Wei; Eraly, Satish A.; Dnyanmote, Ankur; Bush, Kevin T.; Gallegos, Tom F.; Sweet, Douglas H.; Palsson, Bernhard ?.; Nigam, Sanjay K.

2011-01-01

22

Effects of anionic salts in a pre-partum dairy ration on calcium metabolism.  

PubMed

The effects of anionic salts in the transition diet on serum and urine calcium at calving and on peripartal health, subsequent milk production and fertility performance were studied in a well-managed, high-producing Friesland dairy herd. Over a period of a year, approximately 21 days before the expected date of calving, 28 pre-partum heifers and 44 multiparous dry cows were randomly allocated within parity to 1 of 2 transition diets, designated control and experimental anionic diets. The anionic diet contained the same quantities of the basic transition ration fed to the control group as well as a standard anionic salt mixture containing 118 g NH4Cl, 36 g (NH4)2SO4 and 68 g MgSO4 (total 222 g) per animal per day. This reduced the DCAD to -11.68 mEq/100 g dietary dry matter compared to +13.57 for the control diet. Blood and urine were randomly sampled from 7 to 8 animals within each category within 3 hours post-partum. Serum calcium (total and ionised) and creatinine, urine calcium and creatinine and the fractional clearance of calcium were assessed. Relevant clinical, milk production, and fertility data were collected. The total serum calcium (2.07 versus 1.60 mmol/l), serum ionised calcium (1.12 vs 1.02 mmol/l), urine calcium (0.92 vs 0.10 mmol/l) and the fractional clearance of calcium (1.88 vs 0.09%) were significantly higher(P <0.01) at calving for multiparous cows fed the anionic diet compared to those fed the control diet. In the primiparous cows there were no significant differences in serum calcium levels. However, the urine calcium (1.07 vs 0.43 mmol/l) and the fractional clearance of calcium was higher (1.75 vs 0.45%) in cows fed the anionic diet (P <0.05 and 0.01 respectively). These results illustrated that there were benefits, although no differences were demonstrated with respect to health, milk production or fertility. The supplementation of diets with anionic salts in the last 2-3 weeks before calving has the potential to significantly improve parturient calcium homeostasis. PMID:11513264

van Dijk, C J; Lourens, D C

2001-06-01

23

Voltage-dependent anion channels modulate mitochondrial metabolism in cancer cells: regulation by free tubulin and erastin.  

PubMed

Respiratory substrates and adenine nucleotides cross the mitochondrial outer membrane through the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), comprising three isoforms--VDAC1, 2, and 3. We characterized the role of individual isoforms in mitochondrial metabolism by HepG2 human hepatoma cells using siRNA. With VDAC3 to the greatest extent, all VDAC isoforms contributed to the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential, but only VDAC3 knockdown decreased ATP, ADP, NAD(P)H, and mitochondrial redox state. Cells expressing predominantly VDAC3 were least sensitive to depolarization induced by increased free tubulin. In planar lipid bilayers, free tubulin inhibited VDAC1 and VDAC2 but not VDAC3. Erastin, a compound that interacts with VDAC, blocked and reversed mitochondrial depolarization after microtubule destabilizers in intact cells and antagonized tubulin-induced VDAC blockage in planar bilayers. In conclusion, free tubulin inhibits VDAC1/2 and limits mitochondrial metabolism in HepG2 cells, contributing to the Warburg phenomenon. Reversal of tubulin-VDAC interaction by erastin antagonizes Warburg metabolism and restores oxidative mitochondrial metabolism. PMID:23471966

Maldonado, Eduardo N; Sheldon, Kely L; DeHart, David N; Patnaik, Jyoti; Manevich, Yefim; Townsend, Danyelle M; Bezrukov, Sergey M; Rostovtseva, Tatiana K; Lemasters, John J

2013-04-26

24

Bridging the gap between gene expression and metabolic phenotype via kinetic models  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the close association between gene expression and metabolism, experimental evidence shows that gene expression levels alone cannot predict metabolic phenotypes, indicating a knowledge gap in our understanding of how these processes are connected. Here, we present a method that integrates transcriptome, fluxome, and metabolome data using kinetic models to create a mechanistic link between gene expression and metabolism. Results We developed a modeling framework to construct kinetic models that connect the transcriptional and metabolic responses of a cell to exogenous perturbations. The framework allowed us to avoid extensive experimental characterization, literature mining, and optimization problems by estimating most model parameters directly from fluxome and transcriptome data. We applied the framework to investigate how gene expression changes led to observed phenotypic alterations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae treated with weak organic acids (i.e., acetate, benzoate, propionate, or sorbate) and the histidine synthesis inhibitor 3-aminotriazole under steady-state conditions. We found that the transcriptional response led to alterations in yeast metabolism that mimicked measured metabolic fluxes and concentration changes. Further analyses generated mechanistic insights of how S. cerevisiae responds to these stresses. In particular, these results suggest that S. cerevisiae uses different regulation strategies for responding to these insults: regulation of two reactions accounted for most of the tolerance to the four weak organic acids, whereas the response to 3-aminotriazole was distributed among multiple reactions. Moreover, we observed that the magnitude of the gene expression changes was not directly correlated with their effect on the ability of S. cerevisiae to grow under these treatments. In addition, we identified another potential mechanism of action of 3-aminotriazole associated with the depletion of tetrahydrofolate. Conclusions Our simulation results show that the modeling framework provided an accurate mechanistic link between gene expression and cellular metabolism. The proposed method allowed us to integrate transcriptome, fluxome, and metabolome data to determine and interpret important features of the physiological response of yeast to stresses. Importantly, given its flexibility and robustness, our approach can be applied to investigate the transcriptional-metabolic response in other cellular systems of medical and industrial relevance.

2013-01-01

25

Organic anion transporter 1B1: an important factor in hepatic thyroid hormone and estrogen transport and metabolism.  

PubMed

Sulfation is an important pathway in the metabolism of thyroid hormone and estrogens. Sulfation of estrogens is reversible by estrogen sulfatase, but sulfation of thyroid hormone accelerates its degradation by the type 1 deiodinase in liver. Organic anion transporters (OATPs) are capable of transporting iodothyronine sulfates such as T4 sulfate (T4S), T3S, and rT3S or estrogen sulfates like estrone sulfate (E1S), but the major hepatic transporter for these conjugates has not been identified. A possible candidate is OATP1B1 because model substrates for this transporter include the bilirubin mimic bromosulfophthalein (BSP) and E1S, and it is highly and specifically expressed in liver. Therefore, OATP1B1-transfected COS1 cells were studied by analysis of BSP, E1S, and iodothyronine sulfate uptake and metabolism. Two Caucasian populations (155 blood donors and 1012 participants of the Rotterdam Scan Study) were genotyped for the OATP1B1-Val174Ala polymorphism and associated with bilirubin, E1S, and T4S levels. OATP1B1-transfected cells strongly induced uptake of BSP, E1S, T4S, T3S, and rT3S compared with mock-transfected cells. Metabolism of iodothyronine sulfates by cotransfected type 1 deiodinase was greatly augmented in the presence of OATP1B1. OATP1B1-Val174 showed a 40% higher induction of transport and metabolism of these substrates than OATP1B1-Ala174. Carriers of the OATP1B1-Ala174 allele had higher serum bilirubin, E1S, and T4S levels. In conclusion, OATP1B1 is an important factor in hepatic transport and metabolism of bilirubin, E1S, and iodothyronine sulfates. OATP1B1-Ala174 displays decreased transport activity and thereby gives rise to higher bilirubin, E1S, and T4S levels in carriers of this polymorphism. PMID:18499754

van der Deure, Wendy M; Friesema, Edith C H; de Jong, Frank Jan; de Rijke, Yolanda B; de Jong, Frank H; Uitterlinden, André G; Breteler, Monique M B; Peeters, Robin P; Visser, Theo J

2008-09-01

26

Cell metabolic changes of porphyrins and superoxide anions by anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate the induction of protoporphyrins IX (PpIX) activity and superoxide anions (SO) in human leukocytes exposed to anthracene (ANT) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P). The leukocyte LC(50)s for both hydrocarbons and the PpIX accumulation and SO overproduction were measured. The LC(50)s were 0.35 and 3.23?M for ANT and B(a)P, respectively. A linear relationship (r=0.97, p<0.01) between PpIX and ANT concentration was obtained. The induced accumulation of PpIX was proportional (r=0.63, p<0.01) to B(a)P concentration. SO overproduction showed a linear relationship (r=0.83, p<0.05) with ANT concentrations. The linear regression analysis of the effect of B(a)P on the superoxide anion overproduction showed a good coefficient (r=0.97, p<0.01), showed that ANT and B(a)P exposure induces PpIX accumulation, probably by disruption of the haem biosynthesis. ANT and B(a)P induce SO overproduction, perhaps through a process of redox cycling. PMID:21791370

Uribe-Hernández, Raúl; Pérez-Zapata, Aura J; Vega-Barrita, María L; Ramón-Gallegos, Eva; Amezcua-Allieri, Myriam A

2008-09-01

27

Metabolism of Some Anionic Tallow-based Detergents by Sewage Microorganisms1  

PubMed Central

A method in which the test detergent was the sole source of carbon was used to study the metabolism of several tallow-based detergents. These were tallow alcohol sulfates, long-chain ether alcohol sulfates, and esters of ?-sulfo fatty acids. Sodium p-(1-methylundecyl)benzenesulfonate (LAS) was used as a reference material. The alcohol sulfates were the most rapidly and completely metabolized (96 to 99%), and one ether alcohol sulfate was 94% degraded. The other compounds were metabolized to the extent of 61 to 87%; LAS was 80% degraded. Except for the alcohol sulfates, loss of methylene blue activity (MBAS) occurred long before the chemical oxygen demand (COD) values had reached a minimum; with the alcohol sulfates, MBAS and COD decreased simultaneously.

Cordon, Theone C.; Maurer, Elmer W.; Nunez-Ponzoa, M. V.; Stirton, A. J.

1968-01-01

28

Conventional or physicochemical approach in intensive care unit patients with metabolic acidosis  

PubMed Central

Introduction Metabolic acidosis is the most frequent acid–base disorder in the intensive care unit. The optimal analysis of the underlying mechanisms is unknown. Aim To compare the conventional approach with the physicochemical approach in quantifying complicated metabolic acidosis in patients in the intensive care unit Patients and methods We included 50 consecutive patients with a metabolic acidosis (standard base excess ? -5). We measured sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, lactate, creatinine, urea, phosphate, albumin, pH, and arterial carbon dioxide and oxygen tensions in every patient. We then calculated HCO3-, the base excess, the anion gap, the albumin-corrected anion gap, the apparent strong ion difference, the effective strong ion difference and the strong ion gap. Results Most patients had multiple underlying mechanisms explaining the metabolic acidosis. Unmeasured strong anions were present in 98%, hyperchloremia was present in 80% and elevated lactate levels were present in 62% of patients. Calculation of the anion gap was not useful for the detection of hyperlactatemia. There was an excellent relation between the strong ion gap and the albumin-corrected and lactate-corrected anion gap (r2 = 0.934), with a bias of 1.86 and a precision of 0.96. Conclusion Multiple underlying mechanisms are present in most intensive care unit patients with a metabolic acidosis. These mechanisms are reliably determined by measuring the lactate-corrected and albumin-corrected anion gap. Calculation of the more time-consuming strong ion gap according to Stewart is therefore unnecessary.

Moviat, MAM; van Haren, FMP; van der Hoeven, JG

2003-01-01

29

Thyroid hormone transport and metabolism by organic anion transporter 1C1 and consequences of genetic variation.  

PubMed

Organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1C1 has been characterized as a specific thyroid hormone transporter. Based on its expression in capillaries in different brain regions, OATP1C1 is thought to play a key role in transporting thyroid hormone across the blood-brain barrier. For this reason, we studied the specificity of iodothyronine transport by OATP1C1 in detail by analysis of thyroid hormone uptake in OATP1C1-transfected COS1 cells. Furthermore, we examined whether OATP1C1 is rate limiting in subsequent thyroid hormone metabolism in cells cotransfected with deiodinases. We also studied the effect of genetic variation in the OATP1C1 gene: polymorphisms were determined in 155 blood donors and 1192 Danish twins and related to serum thyroid hormone levels. In vitro effects of the polymorphisms were analyzed in cells transfected with the variants. Cells transfected with OATP1C1 showed increased transport of T4 and T4 sulfate (T4S), little transport of rT3, and no transport of T3 or T3 sulphate, compared with mock transfected cells. Metabolism of T4, T4S, and rT3 by cotransfected deiodinases was greatly augmented in the presence of OATP1C1. The OATP1C1-intron3C>T, Pro143Thr, and C3035T polymorphisms were not consistently associated with thyroid hormone levels, nor did they affect transport function in vitro. In conclusion, OATP1C1 mediates transport of T4, T4S, and rT3 and increases the access of these substrates to the intracellular active sites of the deiodinases. No effect of genetic variation on the function of OATP1C1 was observed. PMID:18566113

van der Deure, Wendy M; Hansen, Pia Skov; Peeters, Robin P; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Friesema, Edith C H; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Visser, Theo J

2008-10-01

30

Proton and anion transport at the tonoplast in crassulacean-acid-metabolism plants: specificity of the malate-influx system in Kalanchoë daigremontiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tonoplast vesicles were prepared from leaf mesophyll homogenates of the crassulacean-acid-metabolism plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier de la Bâthie to study the effects of anions on ATP- and inorganic-pyrophosphate (PPi)-dependent H+ transport. In the presence of gramicidin, substrate hydrolysis by the tonoplast ATPase was characteristically stimulated by chloride and inhibited by nitrate, but was unaffected by malate and a

Philip J. White; J. Andrew C. Smith

1989-01-01

31

Effects of anionic salts supplementation on blood pH and mineral status, energy metabolism, reproduction and production in transition dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of a pre-partum diet with lower than recommended (DCAD=?82mEq\\/kg of dietary DM) amounts of anionic salts on metabolism, health, reproductive performance and milk production in dairy cows. Sixty Holstein multiparous cows were enrolled 21days prior to expected calving date. The animals were randomly assigned to receive one of two rations:

Hesam A. Seifi; Mehrdad Mohri; Nima Farzaneh; Hadi Nemati; Shima Vahidi Nejhad

2010-01-01

32

Organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1a4 (Oatp1a4) is important for secondary bile acid metabolism.  

PubMed

Organic anion transporting polypeptides (human: OATPs; rodent: Oatps) were thought to have important functions in bile acid (BA) transport. Oatp1a1, 1a4, and 1b2 are the three major Oatp1 family members in rodent liver. Our previous studies have characterized the BA homeostasis in Oatp1a1-null and Oatp1b2-null mice. The present study investigated the physiological role of Oatp1a4 in BA homeostasis by using Oatp1a4-null mice. Oatp1a4 expression is female-predominant in livers of mice, and thereby it was expected that female Oatp1a4-null mice will have more prominent changes than males. Interestingly, the present study demonstrated that female Oatp1a4-null mice had no significant alterations in BA concentrations in serum or liver, though they had increased mRNA of hepatic BA efflux transporters (Mrp4 and Ost?/?) and ileal BA transporters (Asbt and Ost?/?). In contrast, male Oatp1a4-null mice showed significantly altered BA homeostasis, including increased concentrations of deoxycholic acid (DCA) in serum, liver and intestinal contents. After feeding a DCA-supplemented diet, male but not female Oatp1a4-null mice had higher concentrations of DCA in serum and livers than their WT controls. This suggested that Oatp1a4 is important for intestinal absorption of secondary BAs in male mice. Furthermore, loss of Oatp1a4 function did not decrease BA accumulation in serum or livers of bile-duct-ligated mice, suggesting that Oatp1a4 is not likely a BA uptake transporter. In summary, the present study for the first time demonstrates that Oatp1a4 does not appear to mediate the hepatic uptake of BAs, but plays an important male-predominant role in secondary BA metabolism in mice. PMID:23747753

Zhang, Youcai; Csanaky, Iván L; Selwyn, Felcy Pavithra; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D; Klaassen, Curtis D

2013-08-01

33

AMPK-associated signaling to bridge the gap between fuel metabolism and hepatocyte viability  

PubMed Central

The adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase-1 pathway may serve as a key signaling flow that regulates energy metabolism; thus, this pathway becomes an attractive target for the treatment of liver diseases that result from metabolic derangements. In addition, AMPK emerges as a kinase that controls the redox-state and mitochondrial function, whose activity may be modulated by antioxidants. A close link exists between fuel metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis. The relationship between fuel metabolism and cell survival strongly implies the existence of a shared signaling network, by which hepatocytes respond to challenges of external stimuli. The AMPK pathway may belong to this network. A series of drugs and therapeutic candidates enable hepatocytes to protect mitochondria from radical stress and increase cell viability, which may be associated with the activation of AMPK, liver kinase B1, and other molecules or components. Consequently, the components downstream of AMPK may contribute to stabilizing mitochondrial membrane potential for hepatocyte survival. In this review, we discuss the role of the AMPK pathway in hepatic energy metabolism and hepatocyte viability. This information may help identify ways to prevent and/or treat hepatic diseases caused by the metabolic syndrome. Moreover, clinical drugs and experimental therapeutic candidates that directly or indirectly modulate the AMPK pathway in distinct manners are discussed here with particular emphasis on their effects on fuel metabolism and mitochondrial function.

Yang, Yoon Mee; Han, Chang Yeob; Kim, Yoon Jun; Kim, Sang Geon

2010-01-01

34

Metabolic acidosis: pathophysiology, diagnosis and management.  

PubMed

Metabolic acidosis is characterized by a primary reduction in serum bicarbonate (HCO(3)(-)) concentration, a secondary decrease in the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO(2)) of approximately 1 mmHg for every 1 mmol/l fall in serum HCO(3)(-) concentration, and a reduction in blood pH. Acute forms (lasting minutes to several days) and chronic forms (lasting weeks to years) of the disorder can occur, for which the underlying cause/s and resulting adverse effects may differ. Acute forms of metabolic acidosis most frequently result from the overproduction of organic acids such as ketoacids or lactic acid; by contrast, chronic metabolic acidosis often reflects bicarbonate wasting and/or impaired renal acidification. The calculation of the serum anion gap, calculated as [Na(+)] - ([HCO(3)(-)] + [Cl(-)]), aids diagnosis by classifying the disorders into categories of normal (hyperchloremic) anion gap or elevated anion gap. These categories can overlap, however. Adverse effects of acute metabolic acidosis primarily include decreased cardiac output, arterial dilatation with hypotension, altered oxygen delivery, decreased ATP production, predisposition to arrhythmias, and impairment of the immune response. The main adverse effects of chronic metabolic acidosis are increased muscle degradation and abnormal bone metabolism. Using base to treat acute metabolic acidosis is controversial because of a lack of definitive benefit and because of potential complications. By contrast, the administration of base for the treatment of chronic metabolic acidosis is associated with improved cellular function and few complications. PMID:20308999

Kraut, Jeffrey A; Madias, Nicolaos E

2010-05-01

35

Filling Kinetic Gaps: Dynamic Modeling of Metabolism Where Detailed Kinetic Information Is Lacking  

PubMed Central

Background Integrative analysis between dynamical modeling of metabolic networks and data obtained from high throughput technology represents a worthy effort toward a holistic understanding of the link among phenotype and dynamical response. Even though the theoretical foundation for modeling metabolic network has been extensively treated elsewhere, the lack of kinetic information has limited the analysis in most of the cases. To overcome this constraint, we present and illustrate a new statistical approach that has two purposes: integrate high throughput data and survey the general dynamical mechanisms emerging for a slightly perturbed metabolic network. Methodology/Principal Findings This paper presents a statistic framework capable to study how and how fast the metabolites participating in a perturbed metabolic network reach a steady-state. Instead of requiring accurate kinetic information, this approach uses high throughput metabolome technology to define a feasible kinetic library, which constitutes the base for identifying, statistical and dynamical properties during the relaxation. For the sake of illustration we have applied this approach to the human Red blood cell metabolism (hRBC) and its capacity to predict temporal phenomena was evaluated. Remarkable, the main dynamical properties obtained from a detailed kinetic model in hRBC were recovered by our statistical approach. Furthermore, robust properties in time scale and metabolite organization were identify and one concluded that they are a consequence of the combined performance of redundancies and variability in metabolite participation. Conclusions/Significance In this work we present an approach that integrates high throughput metabolome data to define the dynamic behavior of a slightly perturbed metabolic network where kinetic information is lacking. Having information of metabolite concentrations at steady-state, this method has significant relevance due its potential scope to analyze others genome scale metabolic reconstructions. Thus, I expect this approach will significantly contribute to explore the relationship between dynamic and physiology in other metabolic reconstructions, particularly those whose kinetic information is practically nulls. For instances, I envisage that this approach can be useful in genomic medicine or pharmacogenomics, where the estimation of time scales and the identification of metabolite organization may be crucial to characterize and identify (dis)functional stages.

Resendis-Antonio, Osbaldo

2009-01-01

36

Functional analysis of gapped microbial genomes: Amino acid metabolism of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated Genomics, 2201 W. Campbell Park Drive, Chicago, IL 60612 Contributed by Robert Haselkorn, December 22, 1999 A gapped genome sequence of the biomining bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans strain ATCC23270 was assembled from sheared DNA fragments (3.2-times coverage) into 1,912 contigs. A total of 2,712 potential genes (ORFs) were identified in 2.6 Mbp (megabase pairs) of Thiobacillus genomic sequence. Of these

Evgeni Selkov; Ross Overbeek; Yakov Kogan; Lien Chu; Veronika Vonstein; David Holmes; Simon Silver; Robert Haselkorn; Michael Fonstein

2000-01-01

37

Effects of Altering Dietary Cation-Anion Difference on Calcium and Energy Metabolism in Peripartum Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective was to determine the effects of varying dietary cation-anion differences (DCAD: meq((Na + K) ? (Cl + S))\\/100 g of dry matter) in prepartum diets on Ca, energy, and endocrine status prepartum and postpartum. Holstein cows (n = 21) and heifers (n = 34) were fed diets with varying amounts of CaCl2, CaSO4, and MgSO4 to achieve a

S. J. Moore; M. J. VandeHaar; B. K. Sharma; T. E. Pilbeam; D. K. Beede; H. F. Bucholtz; J. S. Liesman; R. L. Horst; J. P. Goff

2000-01-01

38

Dysfunction of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 alters intestinal bacteria and bile acid metabolism in mice.  

PubMed

Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1) is predominantly expressed in liver and is able to transport bile acids (BAs) in vitro. Male Oatp1a1-null mice have increased concentrations of taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA), a secondary BA generated by intestinal bacteria, in both serum and livers. Therefore, in the present study, BA concentrations and intestinal bacteria in wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice were quantified to investigate whether the increase of secondary BAs in Oatp1a1-null mice is due to alterations in intestinal bacteria. The data demonstrate that Oatp1a1-null mice : (1) have similar bile flow and BA concentrations in bile as WT mice; (2) have a markedly different BA composition in the intestinal contents, with a decrease in conjugated BAs and an increase in unconjugated BAs; (3) have BAs in the feces that are more deconjugated, desulfated, 7-dehydroxylated, 3-epimerized, and oxidized, but less 7-epimerized; (4) have 10-fold more bacteria in the small intestine, and 2-fold more bacteria in the large intestine which is majorly due to a 200% increase in Bacteroides and a 30% reduction in Firmicutes; and (5) have a different urinary excretion of bacteria-related metabolites than WT mice. In conclusion, the present study for the first time established that lack of a liver transporter (Oatp1a1) markedly alters the intestinal environment in mice, namely the bacteria composition. PMID:22496825

Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D; Klaassen, Curtis D

2012-01-01

39

Effects of anionic salts supplementation on blood pH and mineral status, energy metabolism, reproduction and production in transition dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of a pre-partum diet with lower than recommended (DCAD=-82 mEq/kg of dietary DM) amounts of anionic salts on metabolism, health, reproductive performance and milk production in dairy cows. Sixty Holstein multiparous cows were enrolled 21 days prior to expected calving date. The animals were randomly assigned to receive one of two rations: 30 cows received anionic ration [-82 mEq (NA+K-Cl-S)/kg of DM] for 21 d to parturition and the other group (n=30) were fed a usual dry period ration (+192 mEq/kg of DM). Serum samples obtained at days -21, +3 and +21 relative to calving were analyzed for beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, chloride, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Urine pH declined from 8.4 at 21 d before calving (pre-treatment) to 6.2 at day 7 pre-partum in the treatment group. Repeated-measure mixed model analysis indicated that the concentrations of Ca were significantly increased and creatinine, and AST were significantly decreased by lowering DCAD. The concentrations of BHBA, NEFA and glucose were not affected by treatment. The incidence of milk fever and culling were 5 and 11 times higher in the control group in comparison with the treatment group, respectively. The intervals from calving to first breeding and to pregnancy were not influenced by treatment. There was no group effect on average daily milk yield or fat percentage. PMID:20153494

Seifi, Hesam A; Mohri, Mehrdad; Farzaneh, Nima; Nemati, Hadi; Nejhad, Shima Vahidi

2010-08-01

40

Delayed admission for ethylene glycol poisoning: lack of elevated serum osmol gap.  

PubMed

In the absence of an immediately available serum ethylene glycol (EG) assay, the diagnosis of EG poisoning is usually based on anamnesis, clinical findings and presence of metabolic acidosis with elevated serum anion gap, elevated serum osmol gap, hypocalcemia and crystalluria. We report two cases of EG poisoning, both presenting without an elevated serum osmol gap and we discuss conditions which facilitate such a presentation, especially delayed hospital admission. Finally, we confirm the fact that determination of the osmol gap can fail as a screen for EG poisoning. PMID:10447547

Darchy, B; Abruzzese, L; Pitiot, O; Figueredo, B; Domart, Y

1999-08-01

41

Modulation of metabolic communication through gap junction channels by transjunctional voltage; synergistic and antagonistic effects of gating and ionophoresis  

PubMed Central

Gap junction (GJ) channels assembled from connexin (Cx) proteins provide a structural basis for direct electrical and metabolic cell-cell communication. Here, we focus on gating and permeability properties of Cx43/Cx45 heterotypic GJs exhibiting asymmetries of both voltage-gating and transjunctional flux (Jj) of fluorescent dyes depending on transjunctional voltage (Vj). Relatively small differences in the resting potential of communicating cells can substantially reduce or enhance this flux at relative negativity or positivity on Cx45 side, respectively. Similarly, series of Vj pulses resembling bursts of action potentials (APs) reduce Jj when APs initiate in the cell expressing Cx43 and increase Jj when APs initiate in the cell expressing Cx45. Jj of charged fluorescent dyes is affected by ionophoresis and Vj-gating and the asymmetry of Jj-Vj dependence in heterotypic GJs is enhanced or reduced when ionophoresis and Vj-gating work in a synergistic or antagonistic manner, respectively. Modulation of cell-to-cell transfer of metabolites and signaling molecules by Vj may occur in excitable as well as non-excitable tissues and may be more expressed in the border between normal and pathological regions where intercellular gradients of membrane potential and concentration of ions are substantially altered.

Palacios-Prado, Nicolas; Bukauskas, Feliksas F.

2011-01-01

42

Aspirin and probenecid inhibit organic anion transporter 3-mediated renal uptake of cilostazol and probenecid induces metabolism of cilostazol in the rat.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the transporter-mediated renal excretion mechanism for cilostazol and to characterize the mechanism of drug-drug interaction (DDI) between cilostazol and aspirin or probenecid. Concentrations of cilostazol and its metabolites OPC-13015 [6-[4-(1-cyclohexyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)butoxy]-2(1H)-quinolinone] and OPC-13213 [3,4-dihydro-6-[4-[1-(trans-4-hydroxycyclohexyl)-1H-tetrazol-5-yl]butoxy]-2-(1H)-quinolinone] in rat biologic or cell samples were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Coadministration with probenecid, benzylpenicillin, or aspirin decreased the cumulative urinary excretion of cilostazol and renal clearance. Concentrations of cilostazol and OPC-13213 in plasma decreased, and the concentration of OPC-13015 increased in the presence of probenecid. By contrast, rat plasma cilostazol, in combination with benzylpenicillin or aspirin, sharply increased, and concentrations of OPC-13015 and OPC-13213 did not change. In urine, OPC-13015 was below the level of detection. The cumulative urinary excretion of OPC-13213 decreased in the presence of probenecid, benzylpenicillin, or aspirin. Cilostazol was distributed in the kidney and liver, with tissue to plasma partition coefficient (Kp) values of 8.4 ml/g and 16.3 ml/g, respectively. Probenecid and aspirin reduced cilostazol distribution in the kidney. Probenecid did not affect cilostazol metabolism in the kidney but increased cilostazol metabolism in the liver, and aspirin had no effect on cilostazol metabolism. Benzylpenicillin, aspirin, and cyclo-trans-4-l-hydroxyprolyl-l-serine (JBP485) reduced cilostazol uptake in kidney slices and human organic anion transporter 3 (hOAT3)-human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells, whereas p-aminohippuric acid did not. Compared with the vector, hOAT3-HEK293 cells accumulated more cilostazol, whereas hOAT1-HEK293 cells did not. OAT3 and Oat3 play a major role in cilostazol renal excretion, whereas OAT1 and Oat1 do not. Oat3 and Cyp3a are both targets of the DDI between cilostazol and probenecid. Aspirin inhibits OAT3-mediated uptake of cilostazol and does not influence cilostazol metabolism. PMID:24692216

Wang, Chong; Wang, Changyuan; Liu, Qi; Meng, Qiang; Cang, Jian; Sun, Huijun; Peng, Jinyong; Ma, Xiaochi; Huo, Xiaokui; Liu, Kexin

2014-06-01

43

Topiramate and metabolic acidosis.  

PubMed

Topiramate (TPM) is a novel antiepileptic medication (AED) with at least three mechanisms of action. A possible fourth mechanism, that of a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, also may contribute to its antiepileptic properties. We report a patient with intractable epilepsy and normal renal function who developed a normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, which worsened during elective surgery for temporal lobectomy. We believe this side effect of TPM can become clinically significant during surgery, concomitant use of another carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, and potentially with the ketogenic diet. PMID:10368081

Wilner, A; Raymond, K; Pollard, R

1999-06-01

44

Analysis of metabolic profiles of bile acids in urine using a lipophilic anion exchanger and computerized gas-liquid chromatorgaphy-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A method is described for quantitative analysis of bile acids in urine. Urine is acidified and bile acids are extracted on an Amberlite XAD-2 column. Bile salts are converted to acids on an Amberlyst A-15 column and are separated into groups of unconjugated, glycine, taurine, monosulfated, and polysulfated conjugates using the lipophilic anion exchanger diethylaminohydroxypropyl Sephadex LH-20 (DEAP-LH-20). After solvolysis and hydrolysis, the deconjugated bile acids are purified on DEAP-LH-20, and are converted to methyl ester trimethylsilyl ether derivatives. Identification and quantitation of the individual bile acids is accomplished by computerized gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The daily excretion of bile acids in urine from healthy subjects was 6.4-11 micro moles. The mixture of bile acids was quite complex and differed from that in bile. About 30 bile acids were identified or partially characterized. Three of these were monosubstituted: lithocholic, allolithocholic, and 3beta-hydroxy-5-cholenoic acids. Fourteen disubstituted bile acids included epimers of deoxycholic, allodeoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic, allochenodeoxycholic, and hyodeoxycholic acids. 3alpha-Hydroxy-12-keto-5beta-cholanoic acid was the major ketonic bile acid and 3beta,12alpha-dihydroxy-5-cholenoic acid was the major unsaturated bile acid in this group. Nine trihydroxy bile acids included cholic and allocholic acids, epimers of these compounds, hyocholic acid, and a 1-hydroxylated bile acid tentatively characterized as 1,3,12-trihydroxycholanoic acid. Cholestatic subjects excreted tetrahydroxycholanoates carrying hydroxyl groups in positions 1, 3, 6, 7, 12, or 23. All monohydroxy and the predominant part of dihydroxy bile acids were present in the monosulfate fraction. Exceptions were 3alpha,12beta-dihydroxy- and 3alpha-hydroxy-12-keto-5beta-cholanoic acids, which were found mainly in the glycine conjugate fraction. Most of the trihydroxy bile acids were nonsulfated, and cholic and norcholic acids were the major unconjugated bile acids. The tetrahydroxy bile acids and hyocholic acid were present mainly in the taurine conjugate fraction, while 1,3,12-trihydroxycholanoic acid was predominantly found in the glycine conjugate fraction. Sulfation of trihydroxy bile acids was increased in patients with marked cholestasis. All bile acids in the monosulfate fraction were conjugated and carried the sulfate ester group at C-3. Significant amounts of di- and trisulfates were not found. The results indicate selective mechanisms for sulfation, hydroxylation, and renal elimination of bile acid conjugates. Analysis of metabolic profiles of bile acids in urine may be a useful method in studies of the function of organs involved in bile acid metabolism. PMID:864325

Almé, B; Bremmelgaard, A; Sjövall, J; Thomassen, P

1977-05-01

45

Separation of anionic surfactants on anion exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two anion-exchange columns, PRP-X100 and IonPac AS11, that differ in anion-exchange capacity and porous properties are evaluated for applications in the separation of anionic surfactants such as alkane sulfonates, alkyl sulfates, and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates. Retention of the anionic surfactants on the anion exchangers is due to both anion-exchange processes and interactions between the anionic surfactant and exchanger polymeric matrix.

Ning Pan; Donald J. Pietrzyk

1995-01-01

46

Metabolism  

MedlinePLUS

Metabolism refers to all the physical and chemical processes in the body that convert or use energy, ... Elsas LJ II. Approach to inborn errors of metabolism. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine . ...

47

Bridging the phenotypic gap: Real-time assessment of mitochondrial function and metabolism of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Background The ATP levels of an organism are an important physiological parameter that is affected by genetic make up, ageing, stress and disease. Results We have generated luminescent C. elegans through ubiquitous, constitutive expression of firefly luciferase, widely used for in vitro ATP determination. We hypothesise that whole animal luminescence reflects its intracellular ATP levels in vivo. To test this, we characterised the bioluminescence response of C. elegans during sublethal exposure to, and recovery from azide, a treatment that inhibits mitochondrial respiration reversibly, and causes ATP depletion. Consistent with our expectations, in vivo luminescence decreased with increasing sublethal azide levels, and recovered fully when worms were removed from azide. Firefly luciferase expression levels, stability and activity did not influence the final luminescence. Bioluminescence also reflected the lowered activity of the electron transport chain achieved with RNA interference (RNAi) of genes encoding respiratory chain components. Conclusion Results indicated that C. elegans luminescence reports on ATP levels in real-time. For the first time, we are able to directly assess the metabolism of a whole, living, multicellular organism by determination of the relative ATP levels. This will enable genetic analysis based on a readily quantifiable metabolic phenotype and will provide novel insights into mechanisms of fitness and disease that are likely to be of relevance for other organisms, as well as the worm.

Lagido, Cristina; Pettitt, Jonathan; Flett, Aileen; Glover, L Anne

2008-01-01

48

Ubiquitination of Gap Junction Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gap junctions are plasma membrane domains containing arrays of channels that exchange ions and small molecules between neighboring\\u000a cells. Gap junctional intercellular communication enables cells to directly cooperate both electrically and metabolically.\\u000a Several lines of evidence indicate that gap junctions are important in regulating cell growth and differentiation and for\\u000a maintaining tissue homeostasis. Gap junction channels consist of a family

Edward Leithe; Edgar Rivedal

2007-01-01

49

Mixed Anion Heterostructure Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Inhibition of anion exchange reactions during molecular beam epitaxy is critical to the synthesis of mixed-anion heterojunction interfaces. These interfaces are the basic structural building blocks of advanced electronic and optoelectronic devices that ar...

G. S. May Z. L. Wang A. S. Brown

2004-01-01

50

Anion exchange membrane  

DOEpatents

An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

2013-05-07

51

Anions in Cometary Comae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presence of negative ions (anions) in cometary comae is known from Giotto mass spectrometry of IP/Halley. The anions 0-, OH-, C-, CH- and CN- have been detected, as well as unidentified anions with masses 22-65 and 85-110 amu (Chaizy et al. 1991). Organic molecular anions are known to have a significant impact on the charge balance of interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes and have been shown to act as catalysts for the gas-phase synthesis of larger hydrocarbon molecules in the ISM, but their importance in cometary comae has not yet been explored. We present details of the first attempt to model the chemistry of anions in cometary comae. Based on the combined chemical and hydro dynamical model of Rodgers & Charnley (2002), we investigate the role of large carbon-chain anions in cometary coma chemistry. We calculate the effects of these anions on coma thermodynamics, charge balance and examine their impact on molecule formation.

Charnley, Steven B.

2011-01-01

52

SLC17: A functionally diverse family of organic anion transporters  

PubMed Central

Molecular studies have determined that the SLC17 transporters, a family of nine proteins initially implicated in phosphate transport, mediate the transport of organic anions. While their role in phosphate transport remains uncertain, it is now clear that the transport of organic anions facilitated by this family of proteins is involved in diverse processes ranging from the vesicular storage of the neurotransmitters, to urate metabolism, to the degradation and metabolism of glycoproteins.

Reimer, Richard J.

2012-01-01

53

[Fragile site Xq27 and metabolism of monocarbons. Significant decrease of the frequency of chromosomal gaps by treatment in vitro and in vivo].  

PubMed

A decrease of frequency of a gap at the extremity of the long arm of the X chromosome (fragile site Xq27) is obtained by adjonction of monocarbons precursors to lymphocytes cultures. The efficacity of the treatments is precised by the analysis of 44 629 mitoses. For the first time, in one patient, parenteral administration of 5-formyl-tetrahydrofolate lead to a clinical improvement with concomitant disappearance of the gap. PMID:6786783

Lejeune, J; Maunoury, C; Réthoré, M O; Prieur, M; Raoul, O

1981-02-16

54

Living anionic polymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

For about 40 years living anionic polymerization has been the premier technique for the synthesis of model polymers of controlled architecture and narrow molecular weight distribution (MWD). Nowadays, despite the continuing development of new strategies for the synthesis of well-defined polymers and copolymers (e.g. group transfer polymerization, living radical polymerization, etc.), anionic polymerization continues to be the most reliable and

Kunlun Hong; David Uhrig; Jimmy W Mays

1999-01-01

55

Anion deposition into ferritin.  

PubMed

When the iron core of equine spleen ferritin is reduced, anions in solution cross the protein shell and enter the ferritin interior as part of a charge balancing reaction. Anion sequestration inside ferritin during iron core reduction was monitored using ion selective electrodes, inductively coupled plasma emission, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The requirement for anion translocation to the ferritin interior occurs because upon iron core reduction, two OH(-) ions per iron are released or neutralized inside ferritin leaving a net positive charge. Halides and oxoanions were tested as anionic substrates for this reaction. A general trend for the halides showed that the smaller halides accumulated inside ferritin in greater abundance than larger halides, presumably because the protein channels restrict the transfer of the larger anionic species. In contrast, oxoanion accumulation inside ferritin did not show selectivity based on size or charge. Vanadate and molybdate accumulated to the highest concentrations and nitrate, phosphate and tungstate showed poor accumulation inside ferritin. Fe(II) remains stably sequestered inside ferritin, as shown by electron microscopy and by column chromatography. Upon oxidation of the iron core, the anions are expelled from ferritin, and OH(-) ions coordinate to the Fe(III) to form the original Fe(O)OH mineral. Anion transport across the ferritin protein shell represents an important mechanism by which ferritin maintains proper charge balance inside the protein cavity. PMID:22265833

Hilton, Robert J; Zhang, Bo; Martineau, L Naomi; Watt, Gerald D; Watt, Richard K

2012-03-01

56

Pyroglutamic acid-induced metabolic acidosis: a case report.  

PubMed

High anion gap metabolic acidosis due to pyroglutamic acid (5-oxoproline) is a rare complication of acetaminophen treatment (which depletes glutathione stores) and is often associated with clinically moderate to severe encephalopathy. Acquired 5-oxoprolinase deficiency (penicillins) or the presence of other risk factors of glutathione depletion such as malnutrition or sepsis seems to be necessary for symptoms development. We report the case of a 55-year-old women who developed a symptomatic overproduction of 5-oxoproline during flucloxacillin treatment for severe sepsis while receiving acetaminophen for fever control. Hemodialysis accelerated the clearance of the accumulated organic acid, and was followed by a sustained clinical improvement. PMID:24694265

Luyasu, S; Wamelink, M M C; Galanti, L; Dive, A

2014-06-01

57

Gap Junctions  

PubMed Central

Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012.

Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

2013-01-01

58

pH and Bicarbonate Effects on Mitochondrial Anion Accumulation  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria from rabbit and dog renal cortex were incubated with 1 mM 14C-weak acid anions in media containing low (10 mM) or high (40 mM) concentrations of bicarbonate and the steady-state accumulation of labeled anion in the matrix was measured. In the absence of an energy source, no concentration of 14C-anion in the mitochondrial matrix space was present, but the anion concentration was significantly higher at low- than at high-bicarbonate concentration. Addition of an energy source, usually ascorbate plus tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine, led to increases in matrix space anion levels and to accentuation of the difference in anion uptake between low- and high-bicarbonate media, so that two to four times as much anion was present at low- than at high-bicarbonate concentrations. The anions affected included substrates for which inner membrane carriers are present in mitochondria, such as citrate, ?-ketoglutarate, malate, and glutamate, as well as substances which diffuse passively across the inner membrane such as acetate and formate. When a nonbicarbonate medium buffered with Hepes was used, pH change did not alter anion uptake although anion concentrations exceeding those in the medium still developed when an energy source was present. The difference in mitochondrial anion accumulation between low- and high-bicarbonate levels diminished with decreasing temperature or with increasing anion concentration in the medium. Estimation of intramitochondrial pH with [14C]5,5-dimethyl-oxazolidine-2,4-dione showed that the pH gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane was significantly greater with 10 than with 40 mM bicarbonate in the medium. A hypothesis is described that relates this effect of pH and bicarbonate on mitochondrial anion accumulation to the very rapid changes in substrate levels in renal cortex, which develop when acute metabolic acidosis or alkalosis is produced in the intact animal. It is suggested that an abrupt fall in systemic pH and bicarbonate is associated with a shift in substrate in renal cortex out of the cytoplasm and into mitochondria, where some of the added substrate is metabolized. Reduction in the size of the cytoplasmic pool of substrate occurs with relatively little accompanying change in the size of the mitochondrial pool, thus causing a net reduction in the total tissue pool. This mechanism accounts for the reduction in tissue levels of many mitochondrial substrates observed acutely in metabolic acidosis. In metabolic alkalosis, reversal of these effects leads to expansion of the cytoplasmic pool, thereby resulting in the rise in tissue levels of substrates which occurs in this condition.

Simpson, David P.; Hager, Steven R.

1979-01-01

59

Coulomb gaps and Hubbard gaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a strong unscreened Coulomb repulsion between the electrons in the impurity band of a lightly doped compensated semiconductor. This can be divided into a long-ranged 1\\/r part and a short-ranged part between two electrons on the same site. Both of these interactions may lead to gaps in the density of single-particle states, the Coulomb gap and the Hubbard

J. H. Davies

1984-01-01

60

Anion Channels in Astrocytes  

PubMed Central

The chloride/anion channels that have been so far identified in cultured astrocytes and those that have been confirmed in situ by a combination of mRNA identification, immunocyto-chemistry, and biophysical studies are reviewed. It is emphasized that we are just beginning to describe such channels and analyze their functions in astrocytes. The best-studied anion channels studied so far are those known as volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs). These, as for most channels, have been mainly studied in cultured astrocytes, but some correlative studies have been done in situ, because these channels have been emphasized as release routes for transmitters; namely, excitatory amino acids and ATP. They are activated by cell shape changes and cell swelling, and the release of amino acids and ATP and chloride currents, measured by whole cell clamping, by these processes has been well described, as is also their activation by low concentrations of extracellular ATP. However, the identity of these channels in astrocytes, as in all other cells, remains elusive. The potential involvement of VRACs in pathological states such as stroke, metastasis, and spreading depression is also discussed.

KIMELBERG, HAROLD K.; MACVICAR, BRIAN A.; SONTHEIMER, HARALD

2008-01-01

61

Characterization of Antisense Transformed Plants Deficient in the Tobacco Anionic Peroxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of the biological compounds that they metabolize, plant peroxidases have long been implicated in plant growth, cell wall biogenesis, lignification, and host defenses. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants that underexpress anionic peroxidase were generated using antisense RNA. The antisense RNA was found to be specific for the anionic isoenzyme and highly effective, re- ducing endogenous transcript

L. Mark Lagrimini; Vicki Gingas; Fernando Finger; Steven Rothstein; Ting-Ting Y. Liu

62

Anion channels in higher plants: functional characterization, molecular structure and physiological role  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anion channels are well documented in various tissues, cell types and membranes of algae and higher plants, and current evidence supports their central role in cell signaling, osmoregulation, plant nutrition and metabolism. It is the aim of this review to illustrate through a few selected examples the variety of anion channels operating in plant cells and some of their regulation

Hélène Barbier-Brygoo; Marion Vinauger; Jean Colcombet; Geneviève Ephritikhine; Jean-Marie Frachisse; Christophe Maurel

2000-01-01

63

Structure of the human voltage-dependent anion channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), also known as mitochondrial porin, is the most abundant protein in the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM). VDAC is the channel known to guide the metabolic flux across the MOM and plays a key role in mitochondrially induced apoptosis. Here, we present the 3D structure of human VDAC1, which was solved conjointly by NMR spectroscopy and

Monika Bayrhuber; Thomas Meins; Michael Habeck; Stefan Becker; Karin Giller; Saskia Villinger; Clemens Vonrhein; Christian Griesinger; Markus Zweckstetter; Kornelius Zeth

2008-01-01

64

Metabolic acidosis mimicking diabetic ketoacidosis after use of calorie-free mineral water.  

PubMed

A previously healthy boy was admitted with fever, tachycardia, dyspnea, and was vomiting. A blood test showed a severe metabolic acidosis with pH 7.08 and an anion gap of 36 mmol/L. His urine had an odor of acetone. The serum glucose was 5.6 mmol/L, and no glucosuria was found. Diabetic ketoacidosis could therefore be eliminated. Lactate level was normal. Tests for the most common metabolic diseases were negative. Because of herpes stomatitis, the boy had lost appetite and only been drinking Diet Coke and water the last days. Diet Coke or Coca-Cola Light is sweetened with a blend containing cyclamates, aspartame, and acesulfame potassium, all free of calories. The etiology of the metabolic acidosis appeared to be a catabolic situation exaggerated by fasting with no intake of calories. The elevated anion gap was due to a severe starvation ketoacidosis, mimicking a diabetic ketoacidosis. Pediatricians should recommend carbohydrate/calorie-containing fluids for rehydration of children with acute fever, diarrhea, or illness. PMID:22457081

Dahl, Gry T; Woldseth, Berit; Lindemann, Rolf

2012-09-01

65

Formation of interstellar anions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation of interstellar anions: M.L. Senent. The recent detection of negative charged species in the ISM1 has instigated enthusiasm for anions in the astrophysical community2. Many of these species are new and entail characterization. How they are formed in astrophysical sources is a question of major relevance. The anion presence in ISM was first predicted theoretically on the basis of electron affinities and on the negative linear chain molecular stabilities. Although very early, they were considered in astrochemical models3-4, their discovery is so recent because their abundances seem to be relatively low. These have to be understood in terms of molecular stabilities, reaction probabilities and radiative and collisional excitations. Then, we present our theoretical work on even carbon chains type Cn and CnH (n=2,4,6) focused to the understanding of anion abundances. We use highly correlated ab initio methods. We performed spectroscopic studies of various isomers that can play important roles as intermediates5-8. In previous papers9-10, we compared C2H and C2H- collisional rates responsible for observed line intensities. Actually, we study hydrogen attachment (Cn +H ? CnH and Cn- +H ? CnH-) and associative detachment processes (Cn- +H ? CnH +e-) for 2, 4 and 6 carbon atom chains11. [1] M.C.McCarthy, C.A.Gottlieb, H.Gupta, P.Thaddeus, Astrophys.J, 652, L141 (2006) [2] V.M.Bierbaum, J.Cernicharo, R.Bachiller, eds., 2011, pp 383-389. [3] A. Dalgarno, R.A. Mc Cray, Astrophys.J,, 181, 95 (1973) [4] E. Herbst E., Nature, 289, 656 (1981); [5] H.Massó, M.L.Senent, P.Rosmus, M.Hochlaf, J.Chem.Phys., 124, 234304 (2006) [6] M.L.Senent, M.Hochlaf, Astrophys. J. , 708, 1452(2010) [7] H.Massó, M.L.Senent, J.Phys.Chem.A, 113, 12404 (2009) [8] D. Hammoutene, M.Hochlaf, M.L.Senent, submitted. [9] A. Spielfiedel, N. Feautrier, F. Najar, D. ben Abdallah, F. Dayou, M.L. Senent, F. Lique, Mon.Not.R.Astron.Soc., 421, 1891 (2012) [10] F.Dumouchel, A, Spielfieldel , M.L.Senent, N.Feautrier, Chem. Phys. Lett., 533, 6 (2012) [11] M.L.Senent, M.Hochlaf, submitted

Senent, Maria Luisa

2012-05-01

66

Anion-? interactions in supramolecular architectures.  

PubMed

The study of the noncovalent force between ?-acidic aromatic systems and anions, referred to as the anion-? interaction, has recently emerged as a new branch of supramolecular chemistry. The anion-? contact is complementary to the cation-? interaction, a prominent noncovalent force involved in protein structure and enzyme function. Until recently, the scientific community had overlooked the anion-? interaction due to its ostensibly counterintuitive nature. Pioneering theoretical studies in 2002, however, established that anion-? interactions are energetically favorable (~20-70 kJ/mol) and prompted a flurry of reports in support of their existence. The interest in anion-? contacts was further fueled by the importance of anions in key chemical and biological processes and the involvement of ?-rings in anion recognition and transport. Anion-? interactions hold great promise for the design of selective anion receptors, hosts or scaffolds, colorimetric sensors, and catalysts and may also affect biological functions. Currently, the area of anion-? research is highly topical in the scientific community and on a meteoric rise in the chemical literature. This Account highlights our leading findings in this burgeoning area. Our work has focused on comprehensive investigations of several unprecedented supramolecular systems, in which the anions and their close anion-? contacts are the driving elements of the final architectures. We surveyed several heterocyclic ?-acidic aromatic systems amenable to anion-? contacts and explored the subtle interplay between ligand ?-acidity, anion identity, and metal ions in mediating the ensuing self-assembled architectures. The reactions we performed between solvated first-row transition metal ions and the ?-acidic ligands bptz (3,6-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine) or bmtz (3,6-bis(2-pyrimidyl)-1,2,4,5-tetrazine) resulted in unprecedented metallacycles. Our investigations revealed that the identity of the encapsulated ion dictates the metallacycle nuclearity and close anion-? contacts are critical for the metallacycle stability. Our X-ray crystallographic, NMR spectroscopic, and mass spectrometric (MS) studies demonstrated that the tetrahedral ([BF4](-), [ClO4](-)) and octahedral ([SbF6](-), [AsF6](-), [PF6](-)) anions template discrete molecular squares and pentagons, respectively. The metal ions occupy the vertices, and bptz or bmtz moieties span the edges of the metallacycles. The encapsulated anions occupy the ?-acidic cavities of the metallacycles and establish multiple close directional F/O···C(tetrazine) contacts with the edges. The observation of notable (19)F solid-state NMR chemical shifts reflects the short contacts of the encapsulated anions, findings that we corroborated by DFT calculations. The solution NMR data support the conclusion that bona fide metallacycle templation and interconversion between the metallacycles in solution occurs only in the presence of the appropriate anions. The NMR, MS, and CV data underscore the remarkable metallapentacycle stability despite the angle strain inherent in pentagons formed by octahedral metal ions. The low anion activation energies of encapsulation (?G(‡) ~ 50 kJ/mol) suggest that anion-? contacts assist the anion templation. We also studied reactions of Ag(I)X (X(-) = [PF6](-), [AsF6](-), [SbF6](-), [BF4](-)) with bptz or bppn (3,6-bis(2-pyridyl)-1,2-pyridazine) to assess the effect of the ligand ?-acidity on the preferred structures. The X-ray data revealed that the higher ?-acidity of the tetrazine ring in bptz leads to propeller-type products [Ag2(bptz)3](2+) exhibiting prominent short anion-? contacts. By contrast, the less ?-acidic bppn preferentially favors grids [Ag4(bppn)4](4+) which exhibit maximized ?-? interactions. Finally, we explored the reactions of the extended ?-acidic heterocycle HAT(CN)6 (1,4,5,8,9,12-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile) with the Cl(-), Br(-), I(-) ions which lead to highly colored solutions/crystals. X-ray crystallographic studies of the HAT(CN)6/halide complexes revealed

Chifotides, Helen T; Dunbar, Kim R

2013-04-16

67

Regulation of Gap Junctions by Phosphorylation of Connexins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gap junctions are a unique type of intercellular junction found in most animal cell types. Gap junctions permit the intercellular passage of small molecules and have been implicated in diverse biological processes, such as development, cellular metabolism, and cellular growth control. In vertebrates, gap junctions are composed of proteins from the “connexin” gene family. The majority of connexins are modified

Paul D. Lampe; Alan F. Lau

2000-01-01

68

Dynamic chemistry of anion recognition  

SciTech Connect

In the past 40 years, anion recognition by synthetic receptors has grown into a rich and vibrant research topic, developing into a distinct branch of Supramolecular Chemistry. Traditional anion receptors comprise organic scaffolds functionalized with complementary binding groups that are assembled by multistep organic synthesis. Recently, a new approach to anion receptors has emerged, in which the host is dynamically self-assembled in the presence of the anionic guest, via reversible bond formation between functional building units. While coordination bonds were initially employed for the self-assembly of the anion hosts, more recent studies demonstrated that reversible covalent bonds can serve the same purpose. In both cases, due to their labile connections, the molecular constituents have the ability to assemble, dissociate, and recombine continuously, thereby creating a dynamic combinatorial library (DCL) of receptors. The anionic guests, through specific molecular recognition, may then amplify (express) the formation of a particular structure among all possible combinations (real or virtual) by shifting the equilibria involved towards the most optimal receptor. This approach is not limited to solution self-assembly, but is equally applicable to crystallization, where the fittest anion-binding crystal may be selected. Finally, the pros and cons of employing dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) vs molecular design for developing anion receptors, and the implications of both approaches to selective anion separations, will be discussed.

Custelcean, Radu [ORNL

2012-01-01

69

Anion permselective membrane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of NAS 3-20108 was the development and evaluation of improved anion selective membranes useful as efficient separators in a redox power storage cell system being constructed. The program was divided into three parts, (a) optimization of the selected candidate membrane systems, (b) investigation of alternative membrane/polymer systems, and (c) characterization of candidate membranes. The major synthesis effort was aimed at improving and optimizing as far as possible each candidate system with respect to three critical membrane properties essential for good redox cell performance. Substantial improvements were made in 5 candidate membrane systems. The critical synthesis variables of cross-link density, monomer ratio, and solvent composition were examined over a wide range. In addition, eight alternative polymer systems were investigated, two of which attained candidate status. Three other alternatives showed potential but required further research and development. Each candidate system was optimized for selectivity.

Alexander, S.; Hodgdon, R. B.

1977-01-01

70

Bound anionic states of adenine.  

PubMed

Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the newfound anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The new valence states observed here, unlike the dipole-bound state, could exist in condensed phases and might be relevant to radiobiological damage. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of (i) an experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a combinatorial/quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules. PMID:17360375

Hara?czyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H

2007-03-20

71

Bound anionic states of adenine  

PubMed Central

Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the newfound anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The new valence states observed here, unlike the dipole-bound state, could exist in condensed phases and might be relevant to radiobiological damage. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of (i) an experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a combinatorial/quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules.

Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H.

2007-01-01

72

Bound Anionic States of Aadenine  

SciTech Connect

The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation,wehave demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the newfound anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The new valence states observed here, unlike the dipole-bound state, could exist in condensed phases and might be relevant to radiobiological damage. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of (i) an experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a combinatorial/quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules.

Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H.

2007-03-20

73

Bound Anionic States of Adenine  

SciTech Connect

The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the newfound anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The new valence states observed here, unlike the dipole-bound state, could exist in condensed phases and might be relevant to radiobiological damage. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of (i) an experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (it) a combinatorial/quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules.

Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H.

2007-03-20

74

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: A metabolic disorder?  

PubMed Central

Patient Male, 81 Final Diagnosis: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Symptoms: General weakness • hypoglycemia • metabolic acidosis Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Hematology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: B cell lymphoma constitutes 80–85% of cases of Non Hodgkin’s lymphoma in the Untied States. Metabolic complications may arise from the disease itself or through its end organ involvement. Case Report: We describe a case of a diffuse large B cell lymphoma diagnosed by abdominal computed tomography after it initially presented as hypoglycemia not correctable by dextrose infusion that instead resulted in increased anion gap metabolic acidosis with elevated lactate levels. Conclusions: The case illustrates how lymphomas can present unusually with hypoglycemia and lactic acidosis, the latter being an ominous sign that can occur without liver involvement. In this regard, the case demonstrates the metabolic sequelae of lymphoma that should raise suspicion for an underlying process. This has implications for diagnosis, treatment, and patient survival. Attention should be paid especially in the primary care setting in order to minimize delays in diagnosis.

Tanios, Georges; Aranguren, Ines M.; Goldstein, Jack S.; Patel, Chirag B.

2013-01-01

75

Hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis following open cardiac surgery  

PubMed Central

Aims: To describe acid–base derangements in children following open cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), using the Fencl–Stewart strong ion approach. Methods: Prospective observational study set in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a university children's hospital. Arterial blood gas parameters, serum electrolytes, strong ion difference, strong ion gap (SIG), and partitioned base excess (BE) were measured and calculated on admission to PICU. Results: A total of 97 children, median age 57 months (range 0.03–166), median weight 14 kg (range 2.1–50), were studied. Median CPB time was 80 minutes (range 17–232). Predicted mortality was 2% and there was a single non-survivor. These children showed mild metabolic acidosis (median standard bicarbonate 20.1 mmol/l, BE –5.1 mEq/l) characterised by hyperchloraemia (median corrected Cl 113 mmol/l), and hypoalbuminaemia (median albumin 30 g/l), but no significant excess unmeasured anions or cations (median SIG 0.7 mEq/l). The major determinants of the net BE were the chloride and albumin components (chloride effect –4.8 mEq/l, albumin effect +3.4 mEq/l). Metabolic acidosis occurred in 72 children (74%) but was not associated with increased morbidity. Hyperchloraemia was a causative factor in 53 children (74%) with metabolic acidosis. Three (4%) hyperchloraemic children required adrenaline for inotropic support, compared to eight children (28%) without hyperchloraemia. Hypoalbuminaemia was associated with longer duration of inotropic support and PICU stay. Conclusions: In these children with low mortality following open cardiac surgery, hypoalbuminaemia and hyperchloraemia were the predominant acid–base abnormalities. Hyperchloraemia was associated with reduced requirement for adrenaline therapy. It is suggested that hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis is a benign phenomenon that should not prompt escalation of haemodynamic support. By contrast, hypoalbuminaemia, an alkalinising force, was associated with prolonged requirement for intensive care.

Hatherill, M; Salie, S; Waggie, Z; Lawrenson, J; Hewitson, J; Reynolds, L; Argent, A

2005-01-01

76

Anion exchange polymer electrolytes  

DOEpatents

Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes and compositions comprising chemical compounds comprising a polymeric core, a spacer A, and a guanidine base, wherein said chemical compound is uniformly dispersed in a suitable solvent and has the structure: ##STR00001## wherein: i) A is a spacer having the structure O, S, SO.sub.2, --NH--, --N(CH.sub.2).sub.n, wherein n=1-10, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.sub.3--, wherein n=1-10, SO.sub.2-Ph, CO-Ph, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.5, R.sub.6, R.sub.7 and R.sub.8 each are independently --H, --NH.sub.2, F, Cl, Br, CN, or a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl group, or any combination of thereof; ii) R.sub.9, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, or R.sub.13 each independently are --H, --CH.sub.3, --NH.sub.2, --NO, --CH.sub.nCH.sub.3 where n=1-6, HC.dbd.O--, NH.sub.2C.dbd.O--, --CH.sub.nCOOH where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--C(NH.sub.2)--COOH where n=1-6, --CH--(COOH)--CH.sub.2--COOH, --CH.sub.2--CH(O--CH.sub.2CH.sub.3).sub.2, --(C.dbd.S)--NH.sub.2, --(C.dbd.NH)--N--(CH.sub.2).sub.nCH.sub.3, where n=0-6, --NH--(C.dbd.S)--SH, --CH.sub.2--(C.dbd.O)--O--C(CH.sub.3).sub.3, --O--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--(NH.sub.2)--COOH, where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.dbd.CH wherein n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--CN wherein n=1-6, an aromatic group such as a phenyl, benzyl, phenoxy, methylbenzyl, nitrogen-substituted benzyl or phenyl groups, a halide, or halide-substituted methyl groups; and iii) wherein the composition is suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly.

Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Lee, Kwan-Soo

2013-07-23

77

Effect of Anionic Salts in Prepartum Diets Based on Alfalfa1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared prepartum diets based on grass, alfalfa, or alfalfa and anionic salts to inves- tigate their effect on Ca metabolism, acid-base status, endocrine response, disease incidence, and lactational performance of periparturient dairy cows. Forty-five nonlactating Holstein cows in their last 3 wk of gesta- tion were fed a control diet based on grass hay with a dietary cation-anion

P. W. Joyce; W. K. Sanchez; J. P. Goff

1997-01-01

78

Hydrogen in anion vacancies of semiconductors  

SciTech Connect

Density functional calculations show that, depending on the anion size, hydrogen in anion vacancies of various II-VI semiconductors can be either two-fold or four-fold coordinated, and has either amphoteric or shallow donor character. In general, the multi-coordination of hydrogen in an anion vacancy is the indication of an anionic H, H { ion, in the relatively ionic environment. In more covalent semiconductors, H would form a single cation-H bond in the anion vacancy.

Du, Mao-Hua [ORNL; Singh, David J [ORNL

2009-01-01

79

Hydrogen in anion vacancies of semiconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density-functional calculations show that, depending on the anion size, hydrogen in anion vacancies of various II-VI semiconductors can be either twofold or fourfold coordinated and has either amphoteric or shallow donor character. In general, the multicoordination of hydrogen in an anion vacancy is the indication of an anionic H, H- ion, in the relatively ionic environment. In more covalent semiconductors, H would form a single cation-H bond in the anion vacancy.

Du, Mao-Hua; Singh, David J.

2009-05-01

80

The prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The General Antiparticle Spectrometer (GAPS) experiment is a novel approach for the detection of cosmic ray antiparticles. A prototype GAPS (pGAPS) experiment was successfully flown on a high-altitude balloon in June of 2012. The goals of the pGAPS experiment were: to test the operation of lithium drifted silicon (Si(Li)) detectors at balloon altitudes, to validate the thermal model and cooling concept needed for engineering of a full-size GAPS instrument, and to characterize cosmic ray and X-ray backgrounds. The instrument was launched from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Taiki Aerospace Research Field in Hokkaido, Japan. The flight lasted a total of 6 h, with over 3 h at float altitude (~33km). Over one million cosmic ray triggers were recorded and all flight goals were met or exceeded.

Mognet, S. A. I.; Aramaki, T.; Bando, N.; Boggs, S. E.; von Doetinchem, P.; Fuke, H.; Gahbauer, F. H.; Hailey, C. J.; Koglin, J. E.; Madden, N.; Mori, K.; Okazaki, S.; Ong, R. A.; Perez, K. M.; Tajiri, G.; Yoshida, T.; Zweerink, J.

2014-01-01

81

Neutral and anionic superhalogen hydroxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of superhalogen M(OH)k+1- anions and their M(OH) k+1 neutral parents (where M = Li, Na, K, Be, Mg, Ca, B, Al, Ga) were investigated at the ab initio CCSD(T)/6-311++G(3df,3pd)//MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. All the M(OH)k+1- anions and some of their M(OH) k+1 neutral parents ( k is the maximal formal valence of M) were found to be thermodynamically stable against the fragmentations (OH, OH -, O 2 or H 2O loss). The vertical electron detachment energies (VDE) of the M(OH)k+1- anions were calculated with the OVGF method and using the 6-311++G(3df,3pd) basis sets. The VDE values calculated for the anions studied exceed 4 eV in all cases, whereas the largest values of the electron binding energies were found for the Al(OH)4- (6.07 eV) and Ga(OH)4- anions (6.21 eV). Finally, formation of most of the species considered was predicted to be spontaneous due to the lack of kinetic barriers for these processes and their thermodynamic favorability.

?wierszcz, Iwona; Anusiewicz, Iwona

2011-05-01

82

Effect of bile anionic polypeptidic fraction on the fate of cholesterol carried by liposomes in the rat  

SciTech Connect

(/sup 14/C)Cholesterol associated with liposomes with or without anionic polypeptidic fraction was administered intravenously to the rat. The cholesterol originated from liposomes including anionic polypeptidic fraction is secreted in bile much later, is stored in liver in higher quantity, and is metabolized into bile salts in lesser quantity during the 4 hr of experimentation than the cholesterol issued from liposomes exempt of anionic polypeptidic fraction. From these results it can be postulated that the cholesterol associated with liposomes containing anionic polypeptidic fraction might be directed in a particular liver pathway.

Martigne, M.; Domingo, N.; Chanussot, F.; Nalbone, G.; Lafont, H.; Hauton, J.

1988-02-01

83

ATP release via anion channels.  

PubMed

ATP serves not only as an energy source for all cell types but as an 'extracellular messenger' for autocrine and paracrine signalling. It is released from the cell via several different purinergic signal efflux pathways. ATP and its Mg(2+) and/or H(+) salts exist in anionic forms at physiological pH and may exit cells via some anion channel if the pore physically permits this. In this review we survey experimental data providing evidence for and against the release of ATP through anion channels. CFTR has long been considered a probable pathway for ATP release in airway epithelium and other types of cells expressing this protein, although non-CFTR ATP currents have also been observed. Volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR) chloride channels are found in virtually all cell types and can physically accommodate or even permeate ATP(4-) in certain experimental conditions. However, pharmacological studies are controversial and argue against the actual involvement of the VSOR channel in significant release of ATP. A large-conductance anion channel whose open probability exhibits a bell-shaped voltage dependence is also ubiquitously expressed and represents a putative pathway for ATP release. This channel, called a maxi-anion channel, has a wide nanoscopic pore suitable for nucleotide transport and possesses an ATP-binding site in the middle of the pore lumen to facilitate the passage of the nucleotide. The maxi-anion channel conducts ATP and displays a pharmacological profile similar to that of ATP release in response to osmotic, ischemic, hypoxic and salt stresses. The relation of some other channels and transporters to the regulated release of ATP is also discussed. PMID:18404516

Sabirov, Ravshan Z; Okada, Yasunobu

2005-12-01

84

New Anionic Rearrangements. Xi. Anionic Rearrangement Of Arylhydrazines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

1,2-Anionic rearrangement of aryl groups from one nitrogen atom to another takes place in 1,1-diaryl and 1-aryl-1-methylhydrazines when the latter are converted to dianions. No migration of aryl groups takes place in arylhydrazine monoanions. The kinetics...

R. West H. F. Stewart

1969-01-01

85

NATIONAL GAP ANALYSIS PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

GAP Analysis is a rapid conservation evaluation method for assessing the current status of biodiversity at large spatial scales. GAP Analysis provides a systematic approach for evaluating the protection afforded biodiversity in given areas. It uses Geographic Information System (...

86

USGS Gap Analysis Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides the latest information on the Gap Analysis Program (GAP). The central goal of the GAP Program is to collect and integrate many levels of biological, physical, and policy information on a large scale, in order to identify gaps in current resource management plans. It is maintained by the USGS Biological Resources Division with the mission of "providing regional assessments of the conservation status of native vertebrate species and natural land cover types and to facilitate the application of this information to land management activities." This site is divided into eight sections: overview, the gap analysis handbook, state project information, gap reports/publications, a bulletin board, aquatic gap, nature mapping (an educational tool), and links to related sites. New press releases and conference poster contents are featured at the top of the site. Users can access state and regional GAP information or use the search engine to find other topics of interest.

2008-09-24

87

Behind the Pay Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Women have made remarkable gains in education during the past three decades, yet these achievements have resulted in only modest improvements in pay equity. The gender pay gap has become a fixture of the U.S. workplace and is so ubiquitous that many simply view it as normal. "Behind the Pay Gap" examines the gender pay gap for college graduates.…

Dey, Judy Goldberg; Hill, Catherine

2007-01-01

88

Anion binding in biological systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L3 (2p3/2) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

Feiters, Martin C.; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kostenko, Alexander V.; Soldatov, Alexander V.; Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P.; Bevers, Loes E.; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R.

2009-11-01

89

Towards smaller gap microbulks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small gap Micromegas detectors ( < 50 ?m) are expected to be optimal for high pressure applications. Combining the microbulk manufacturing technique with a small gap can result in attractive detectors for rare event detection, in particular double beta decay or dark matter searches. We present novel results obtained with small gap microbulks (25 and 12.5 ?m) that have been manufactured recently. For the first time for this type of detectors, we show experimentally that for each amplification gap there is an optimal pressure and that smaller gaps are more suitable for higher pressures.

Attié, D.; Boilevin-Kayl, L.; Dafni, T.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Ferry, S.; Giomataris, Y.; Herrera, D. C.; Iguaz, F. J.; Irastorza, I. G.; Kebbiri, M.; Papaevangelou, T.; de Oliveira, R.; Seguí, L.; Tomás, A.

2014-04-01

90

Metabolic Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Metabolic Syndrome? Metabolic (met-ah-BOL-ik) syndrome is the ... three metabolic risk factors to be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. A large waistline. This also is called abdominal ...

91

Ion exchange polymers for anion separations  

DOEpatents

Anion exchange resins including at least two positively charged sites and a ell-defined spacing between the positive sites are provided together with a process of removing anions or anionic metal complexes from aqueous solutions by use of such resins. The resins can be substituted poly(vinylpyridine) and substituted polystyrene.

Jarvinen, Gordon D. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Marsh, S. Fredric (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Bartsch, Richard A. (Lubbock, TX) [Lubbock, TX

1997-01-01

92

Ion exchange polymers for anion separations  

DOEpatents

Anion exchange resins including at least two positively charged sites and a well-defined spacing between the positive sites are provided together with a process of removing anions or anionic metal complexes from aqueous solutions by use of such resins. The resins can be substituted poly(vinylpyridine) and substituted polystyrene.

Jarvinen, G.D.; Marsh, S.F.; Bartsch, R.A.

1997-09-23

93

Nitrite anion stimulates ischemic arteriogenesis involving NO metabolism.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is a potential regulator of ischemic vascular remodeling, and as such therapies augmenting its bioavailability may be useful for the treatment of ischemic tissue diseases. Here we examine the effect of administering the NO prodrug sodium nitrite on arteriogenesis activity during established tissue ischemia. Chronic hindlimb ischemia was induced by permanent unilateral femoral artery and vein ligation. Five days postligation; animals were randomized to control PBS or sodium nitrite (165 ?g/kg) therapy twice daily. In situ vascular remodeling was measured longitudinally using SPY angiography and Microfil vascular casting. Delayed sodium nitrite therapy rapidly increased ischemic limb arterial vessel diameter and branching in a NO-dependent manner. SPY imaging angiography over time showed that nitrite therapy enhanced ischemic gracillis collateral vessel formation from the profunda femoris to the saphenous artery. Immunofluorescent staining of smooth muscle cell actin also confirmed that sodium nitrite therapy increased arteriogenesis in a NO-dependent manner. The NO prodrug sodium nitrite significantly increases arteriogenesis and reperfusion of established severe chronic tissue ischemia. PMID:22610173

Bir, Shyamal C; Pattillo, Christopher B; Pardue, Sibile; Kolluru, Gopi K; Docherty, John; Goyette, Dave; Dvorsky, Peter; Kevil, Christopher G

2012-07-15

94

Modeling anion adsorption on kaolinite  

SciTech Connect

Anion adsorption onto kaolinite was quantified using the triple layer surface complexation model. Fluoride adsorption data were described by both anion exchange and H-bonded complexation mechanisms. The outer-sphere complexation mechanism was used to describe the weak adsorption of Cl{sup {minus}}, Br{sup {minus}}, and I{sup {minus}} on kaolinite. The F{sup {minus}} adsorption in the presence of Br{sup {minus}} or I{sup {minus}} was decreased over a range of pH 4--5 whereas Cl{sup {minus}} showed a negligible effect. Competition for binding sites appeared to be an important factor in determining the adsorptive behavior of F{sup {minus}} in Br{sup {minus}} or I{sup {minus}} mediated systems.

Weerasooriya, R.; Wickramarathna, H.U.S. [Inst. of Fundamental Studies, Kandy (Sri Lanka). Chemical Modeling Lab.] [Inst. of Fundamental Studies, Kandy (Sri Lanka). Chemical Modeling Lab.

1999-05-15

95

The gap gene network  

PubMed Central

Gap genes are involved in segment determination during the early development of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as well as in other insects. This review attempts to synthesize the current knowledge of the gap gene network through a comprehensive survey of the experimental literature. I focus on genetic and molecular evidence, which provides us with an almost-complete picture of the regulatory interactions responsible for trunk gap gene expression. I discuss the regulatory mechanisms involved, and highlight the remaining ambiguities and gaps in the evidence. This is followed by a brief discussion of molecular regulatory mechanisms for transcriptional regulation, as well as precision and size-regulation provided by the system. Finally, I discuss evidence on the evolution of gap gene expression from species other than Drosophila. My survey concludes that studies of the gap gene system continue to reveal interesting and important new insights into the role of gene regulatory networks in development and evolution.

2010-01-01

96

The anion-binding polyanion: a molecular cobalt vanadium oxide with anion-sensitive visual response.  

PubMed

An anionic molecular cobalt vanadium oxide cluster, (n-Bu4N)3[Co(AcO)V4O12] and its use as anion binding site is reported. Cluster formation is controlled by an anion-dependent dynamic solution equilibrium. Reversible anion binding in solution leads to significant spectral changes, allowing the ratiometric optical detection of the anion concentration in situ, even under harsh thermal conditions (T = 90 °C). Comparative studies showed that the spectral response is dependent on the type of anion so that carboxylates, weakly coordinating anions and halides can be distinguished. PMID:24910130

Seliverstov, Andrey; Forster, Johannes; Heiland, Magdalena; Unfried, Johannes; Streb, Carsten

2014-06-24

97

Plasmalemmal VDAC controversies and maxi-anion channel puzzle.  

PubMed

The maxi-anion channel has been observed in many cell types from the very beginning of the patch-clamp era. The channel is highly conductive for chloride and thus can modulate the resting membrane potential and play a role in fluid secretion/absorption and cell volume regulation. A wide nanoscopic pore of the maxi-anion channel permits passage of excitatory amino acids and nucleotides. The channel-mediated release of these signaling molecules is associated with kidney tubuloglomerular feedback, cardiac ischemia/hypoxia, as well as brain ischemia/hypoxia and excitotoxic neurodegeneration. Despite the ubiquitous expression and physiological/pathophysiological significance, the molecular identity of the maxi-anion channel is still obscure. VDAC is primarily a mitochondrial protein; however several groups detected it on the cellular surface. VDAC in lipid bilayers reproduced the most important biophysical properties of the maxi-anion channel, such as a wide nano-sized pore, closure in response to moderately high voltages, ATP-block and ATP-permeability. However, these similarities turned out to be superficial, and the hypothesis of plasmalemmal VDAC as the maxi-anion channel did not withstand the test by genetic manipulations of VDAC protein expression. VDAC on the cellular surface could also function as a ferricyanide reductase or a receptor for plasminogen kringle 5 and for neuroactive steroids. These ideas, as well as the very presence of VDAC on plasmalemma, remain to be scrutinized by genetic manipulations of the VDAC protein expression. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: VDAC structure, function, and regulation of mitochondrial metabolism. PMID:21986486

Sabirov, Ravshan Z; Merzlyak, Petr G

2012-06-01

98

Lactate versus non-lactate metabolic acidosis: a retrospective outcome evaluation of critically ill patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acid–base abnormalities are common in the intensive care unit (ICU). Differences in outcome exist between respiratory and metabolic acidosis in similar pH ranges. Some forms of metabolic acidosis (for example, lactate) seem to have worse outcomes than others (for example, chloride). The relative incidence of each type of disorder is unknown. We therefore designed this study to determine the nature and clinical significance of metabolic acidosis in critically ill patients. Methods An observational, cohort study of critically ill patients was performed in a tertiary care hospital. Critically ill patients were selected on the clinical suspicion of the presence of lactic acidosis. The inpatient mortality of the entire group was 14%, with a length of stay in hospital of 12 days and a length of stay in the ICU of 5.8 days. Results We reviewed records of 9,799 patients admitted to the ICUs at our institution between 1 January 2001 and 30 June 2002. We selected a cohort in which clinicians caring for patients ordered a measurement of arterial lactate level. We excluded patients in which any necessary variable required to characterize an acid–base disorder was absent. A total of 851 patients (9% of ICU admissions) met our criteria. Of these, 548 patients (64%) had a metabolic acidosis (standard base excess < -2 mEq/l) and these patients had a 45% mortality, compared with 25% for those with no metabolic acidosis (p < 0.001). We then subclassified metabolic acidosis cases on the basis of the predominant anion present (lactate, chloride, or all other anions). The mortality rate was highest for lactic acidosis (56%); for strong ion gap (SIG) acidosis it was 39% and for hyperchloremic acidosis 29% (p < 0.001). A stepwise logistic regression model identified serum lactate, SIG, phosphate, and age as independent predictors of mortality. Conclusion In critically ill patients in which a measurement of lactate level was ordered, lactate and SIG were strong independent predictors of mortality when they were the major source of metabolic acidosis. Overall, patients with metabolic acidosis were nearly twice as likely to die as patients without metabolic acidosis.

Gunnerson, Kyle J; Saul, Melissa; He, Shui; Kellum, John A

2006-01-01

99

Transient Anion States of Biomolecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of the interest on electron interactions with biomolecules is related to radiation damage [Gohlke and Illenberger, Europhys. News 33, 207 (2002)]. The high energy photons employed in radiology and radiotherapy generate a large number of fast electrons in living cells. These electrons thermalize in a picosecond scale, eventually forming dissociative matestable anions with water and biomolecules. In this work, we employ the parallel version of Schwinger Multichannel Method with Pseudopotentials [Bettega et al., Phys. Rev. A 47, 1111 (1993); Santos et al., J. Phys. Chem. 136, 084307 (2012)] to investigate transient anion states of protein and nucleic acid precursors. We address glycine in both neutral and zwitterionic forms, as well as glycine-water clusters and disulfide bonds. The interest on the two forms of glycine (and other amino acids) relies on the fact that only the neutral form is stable in the gas phase, while the zwitterion is more stable in solution, pointing out limitations of standard gas-phase studies. Electron attachment to disulfide bonds also has potential impact on protein stability. Finally we address transient anion states of substituted uracil molecules in the gas phase. [4pt] In collaboration with M. H. F. Bettega, S. d'A. Sanchez, R. F. da Costa, M. A. P. Lima, J. S. dos Santos, and F. Kossoski.

Varella, Marcio

2012-10-01

100

Covalent Polymers Containing Discrete Heterocyclic Anion Receptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter covers recent advances in the development of polymeric materials containing discrete heterocyclic anion receptors, and focuses on advances in anion binding and chemosensor chemistry. The development of polymers specific for anionic species is a relatively new and flourishing area of materials chemistry. The incorporation of heterocyclic receptors capable of complexing anions through noncovalent interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions) provides a route to not only sensitive but also selective polymeric materials. Furthermore, these systems have been utilized in the development of polymers capable of extracting anionic species from aqueous media. These latter materials may lead to advances in water purification and treatment of diseases resulting from surplus ions.

Rambo, Brett M.; Silver, Eric S.; Bielawski, Christopher W.; Sessler, Jonathan L.

101

From anion receptors to transporters.  

PubMed

Cystic fibrosis is the most well-known of a variety of diseases termed channelopathies, in which the regulation of ion transport across cell membranes is so disrupted that the threshold of a pathology is passed. The human toll exacted by these diseases has led a number of research groups, including our own, to create compounds that mediate ion transport across lipid bilayers. In this Account, we discuss three classes of synthetic compounds that were refined to bind and transport anions across lipid bilayer membranes. All of the compounds were originally designed as anion receptors, that is, species that would simply create stable complexes with anions, but were then further developed as transporters. By studying structurally simple systems and varying their properties to change the degree of preorganization, the affinity for anions, or the lipophilicity, we have begun to rationalize why particular anion transport mechanisms (cotransport or antiport processes) occur in particular cases. For example, we have studied the chloride transport properties of receptors based on the closely related structures of isophthalamide and pyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide: the central ring in each case was augmented with pendant methylimidazole groups designed to cotransport H(+) and Cl(-). We observed that the more preorganized pyridine-based receptor was the more efficient transporter, a finding replicated with a series of isophthalamides in which one contained hydroxyl groups designed to preorganize the receptor. This latter class of compound, together with the natural product prodigiosin, can transport bicarbonate (as part of a chloride/bicarbonate antiport process) across lipid bilayer membranes. We have also studied the membrane transport properties of calix[4]pyrroles. Although the parent meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole functions solely as a Cs(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter, other compounds with increased anion affinities can function through an antiport process. One example is octafluoro-meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole; with its electron-withdrawing substituents, it can operate through a chloride/bicarbonate antiport process. Moreover, calix[4]pyrroles with additional hydrogen bond donors can operate through a chloride/nitrate antiport process. Thus, increasing the affinity of the receptor in these cases allows the compound to transport an anion in the absence of a cation. Finally, we have studied the transport properties of simple thioureas and shown that these compounds are highly potent chloride/bicarbonate antiport agents that function at low concentrations. In contrast, the urea analogues are inactive. The higher hydrophobicity (reflected in higher values for the logarithm of the water-octanol partition constant, or log P) and lower polar surface areas of the thiourea compounds compared to their urea analogues may provide a clue to the high potency of these compounds. This observation might serve as a basis for designing future small-molecule transporters. PMID:21207951

Gale, Philip A

2011-03-15

102

Functionalized anion exchange stationary phase for separation of anionic compounds.  

PubMed

Synthesis of the multilayered stationary phases containing quaternary ammonium functional groups on the silica support was described. Bonded phases were characterized by elemental analysis, solid state (13)C NMR spectroscopy and chromatographic methods. The surface of silica support was coated with different number of polymeric layers formed by condensation polymerization of primary amine (methylamine) with diepoxide (1,4-butanedioldiglycidyl ether). A series of stationary phases with different number of polymerized layers were tested. Separation of an inorganic anions sample (F(-), Cl(-), NO2(-), Br(-), NO3(-)) and nucleotides was performed. PMID:24913867

Bocian, Szymon; Studzi?ska, Sylwia; Buszewski, Bogus?aw

2014-09-01

103

GAP ACTIVITY TRACKING MATRIX  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The information collected serves the following purposes: (1) provides a summary of funds allocated by tribe for the GAP Program, (2) provides an overview in the types of activities the tribes are engaged in with GAP funds, and (3) allows OW to document the...

104

Senseless Extravagance, Shocking Gaps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although most people in the United States believe, at least theoretically, in educational equality, fewer and fewer appear to care about the resource gaps between affluent and poor schools, says Weissbourd. He illustrates these gaps with vivid descriptions of what he calls an "opulence arms race" among affluent independent schools, but points out…

Weissbourd, Richard; Dodge, Trevor

2012-01-01

105

Photodissociation of nitromethane cluster anions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three types of anionic fragments are observed in the photodissociation of nitromethane cluster anions, (CH3NO2)n-, n=1-6, at 355 nm: NO2-(CH3NO2)k, (CH3NO2)k-, and OH- (kanion core, CH3NO2-, solvated by n-1 neutral nitromethane molecules. The NO2-(CH3NO2)k and OH- fragments formed from these clusters are described as core-dissociation products, while the (CH3NO2)k- fragments are attributed to energy transfer from excited CH3NO2- into the solvent network or a core-dissociation-recombination (caging) mechanism. As with other cluster families, the fraction of caged photofragments shows an overall increase with increasing cluster size. The low-lying A2A' and/or B2A' electronic states of CH3NO2- are believed responsible for photoabsorption leading to dissociation to NO2- based fragments, while the C2A'' state is a candidate for the OH- pathway. Compared to neutral nitromethane, the photodissociation of CH3NO2- requires lower energy photons because the photochemically active electron occupies a high energy ?* orbital (which is vacant in the neutral). Although the electronic states in the photodissociation of CH3NO2 and CH3NO2- are different, the major fragments, CH3+NO2 and CH3+NO2-, respectively, both form via C-N bond cleavage.

Goebbert, Daniel J.; Khuseynov, Dmitry; Sanov, Andrei

2010-08-01

106

Can gap junctions deliver?  

PubMed

In vivo delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to target cells via the extracellular space has been hampered by dilution effects and immune responses. Gap junction-mediated transfer between cells avoids the extracellular space and its associated limitations. Because of these advantages cell based delivery via gap junctions has emerged as a viable alternative for siRNA or miRNA delivery. Here we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of extracellular delivery and cell to cell delivery via gap junction channels composed of connexins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The Communicating junctions, composition, structure and characteristics. PMID:21986484

Brink, Peter R; Valiunas, Virginijus; Gordon, Chris; Rosen, Michael R; Cohen, Ira S

2012-08-01

107

Patchy proteins, anions and the Hofmeister series  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate specific anion binding to a range of patchy protein models and use our results to probe protein-protein interactions for aqueous lysozyme solutions. Our molecular simulation studies show that the ion-protein interaction mechanism and strength largely depend on the nature of the interfacial amino acid residues. Via direct ion pairing, small anions interact with charged side-chains while larger anions

Mikael Lund; Pavel Jungwirth

2008-01-01

108

Organic anion transporters: discovery, pharmacology, regulation and roles in pathophysiology.  

PubMed

Our understanding of the mechanisms behind inter- and intra-patient variability in drug response is inadequate. Advances in the cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzyme field have been remarkable, but those in the drug transporter field have trailed behind. Currently, however, interest in carrier-mediated disposition of pharmacotherapeutics is on a substantial uprise. This is exemplified by the 2006 FDA guidance statement directed to the pharmaceutical industry. The guidance recommended that industry ascertain whether novel drug entities interact with transporters. This suggestion likely stems from the observation that several novel cloned transporters contribute significantly to the disposition of various approved drugs. Many drugs bear anionic functional groups, and thus interact with organic anion transporters (OATs). Collectively, these transporters are nearly ubiquitously expressed in barrier epithelia. Moreover, several reports indicate that OATs are subject to diverse forms of regulation, much like drug metabolizing enzymes and receptors. Thus, critical to furthering our understanding of patient- and condition-specific responses to pharmacotherapy is the complete characterization of OAT interactions with drugs and regulatory factors. This review provides the reader with a comprehensive account of the function and substrate profile of cloned OATs. In addition, a major focus of this review is on the regulation of OATs including the impact of transcriptional and epigenetic factors, phosphorylation, hormones and gender. PMID:19953504

VanWert, Adam L; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Sweet, Douglas H

2010-01-01

109

Adsorption affinity of anions on metal oxyhydroxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dependences of anion (phosphate, carbonate, sulfate, chromate, oxalate, tartrate, and citrate) adsorption affinity anions from geometric characteristics, acid-base properties, and complex forming ability are generalized. It is shown that adsorption depends on the nature of both the anions and the ionic medium and adsorbent. It is established that anions are generally grouped into the following series of adsorption affinity reduction: PO{4/3-}, CO{3/2-} > C2O{4/2-}, C(OH)(CH2)2(COO){3/3-}, (CHOH)2(COO){2/2-} > CrO{4/2-} ? SO{4/2-}.

Pechenyuk, S. I.; Semushina, Yu. P.; Kuz'mich, L. F.

2013-03-01

110

Fiber optic gap gauge  

DOEpatents

A lightweight, small size, high sensitivity gauge for indirectly measuring displacement or absolute gap width by measuring axial strain in an orthogonal direction to the displacement/gap width. The gap gauge includes a preferably titanium base having a central tension bar with springs connecting opposite ends of the tension bar to a pair of end connector bars, and an elongated bow spring connected to the end connector bars with a middle section bowed away from the base to define a gap. The bow spring is capable of producing an axial strain in the base proportional to a displacement of the middle section in a direction orthogonal to the base. And a strain sensor, such as a Fabry-Perot interferometer strain sensor, is connected to measure the axial strain in the base, so that the displacement of the middle section may be indirectly determined from the measurement of the axial strain in the base.

Wood, Billy E. (Livermore, CA); Groves, Scott E. (Brentwood, CA); Larsen, Greg J. (Brentwood, CA); Sanchez, Roberto J. (Pleasanton, CA)

2006-11-14

111

Crowbar-Spark GAP.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Construction of crowbar-spark gap, designed for formation of operation current impulse in induction loading of the thermonuclear installation TOR is described. To produce conditions of electric break-down used is the pulse induction decoupling circuit on ...

M. I. Kitaev A. I. Malyutin A. I. Markin

1985-01-01

112

Photodissociation of nitromethane cluster anions  

SciTech Connect

Three types of anionic fragments are observed in the photodissociation of nitromethane cluster anions, (CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}){sub n}{sup -}, n=1-6, at 355 nm: NO{sub 2}{sup -}(CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}){sub k}, (CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}){sub k}{sup -}, and OH{sup -} (kanion core, CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}{sup -}, solvated by n-1 neutral nitromethane molecules. The NO{sub 2}{sup -}(CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}){sub k} and OH{sup -} fragments formed from these clusters are described as core-dissociation products, while the (CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}){sub k}{sup -} fragments are attributed to energy transfer from excited CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}{sup -} into the solvent network or a core-dissociation--recombination (caging) mechanism. As with other cluster families, the fraction of caged photofragments shows an overall increase with increasing cluster size. The low-lying A{sup 2}A{sup '} and/or B{sup 2}A{sup '} electronic states of CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}{sup -} are believed responsible for photoabsorption leading to dissociation to NO{sub 2}{sup -} based fragments, while the C{sup 2}A{sup ''} state is a candidate for the OH{sup -} pathway. Compared to neutral nitromethane, the photodissociation of CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}{sup -} requires lower energy photons because the photochemically active electron occupies a high energy {pi}{sup *} orbital (which is vacant in the neutral). Although the electronic states in the photodissociation of CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2} and CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}{sup -} are different, the major fragments, CH{sub 3}+NO{sub 2} and CH{sub 3}+NO{sub 2}{sup -}, respectively, both form via C-N bond cleavage.

Goebbert, Daniel J.; Khuseynov, Dmitry; Sanov, Andrei [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 84721-0041 (United States)

2010-08-28

113

There Are GAPS and There Are GAPS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) transduce a very large number of cellular regulatory signals. Several recent papers have shown that the larger heterotrimeric G proteins are regulated by a class of molecules known as the RGS proteins (regulators of G protein-signaling family) that are analogous to the GAPs (GTPase activating proteins), which regulate small monomeric G proteins. Iyengar summarizes this evidence and discusses the mechanism of action of the RGS proteins.

Ravi Iyengar (Mount Sinai School of Medicine;Department of Pharmacology)

1997-01-03

114

Organic anion transporter (Slc22a) family members as mediators of toxicity.  

PubMed

Exposure of the body to toxic organic anions is unavoidable and occurs from both intentional and unintentional sources. Many hormones, neurotransmitters, and waste products of cellular metabolism, or their metabolites, are organic anions. The same is true for a wide variety of medications, herbicides, pesticides, plant and animal toxins, and industrial chemicals and solvents. Rapid and efficient elimination of these substances is often the body's best defense for limiting both systemic exposure and the duration of their pharmacological or toxicological effects. For organic anions, active transepithelial transport across the renal proximal tubule followed by elimination via the urine is a major pathway in this detoxification process. Accordingly, a large number of organic anion transport proteins belonging to several different gene families have been identified and found to be expressed in the proximal nephron. The function of these transporters, in combination with the high volume of renal blood flow, predisposes the kidney to increased toxic susceptibility. Understanding how the kidney mediates the transport of organic anions is integral to achieving desired therapeutic outcomes in response to drug interactions and chemical exposures, to understanding the progression of some disease states, and to predicting the influence of genetic variation upon these processes. This review will focus on the organic anion transporter (OAT) family and discuss the known members, their mechanisms of action, subcellular localization, and current evidence implicating their function as a determinant of the toxicity of certain endogenous and xenobiotic agents. PMID:15845414

Sweet, Douglas H

2005-05-01

115

Cd(II)-coordination framework: synthesis, anion-induced structural transformation, anion-responsive luminescence, and anion separation.  

PubMed

A series of Cd(II) coordination frameworks that are constructed from a new oxadiazole-bridged ligand 3,5-bis(3-pyridyl-3-(3'-methylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (L) and CdX2 (X = NO3(-), Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), N3(-), and SCN(-)) were synthesized. The NO3(-) anion of the solid CdL2(NO3)2·2THF (1) is able to be quantitatively exchanged with Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), SCN(-), and N3(-) in the solid state. For Cl(-) and Br(-), the anion exchange resulted in a anion-induced structural transformation to form the structures of 2 and 3, respectively. In addition, the Cd(II) structure herein exhibits the anion-responsive photoluminescence, which could be a useful method to monitor the anion-exchange process. Notably, compound 1 can recognize and completely separate SCN(-)/N3(-) with similar geometry. PMID:23461490

Hou, Shan; Liu, Qi-Kui; Ma, Jian-Ping; Dong, Yu-Bin

2013-03-18

116

Electronic structure and anion ordering in (TMTSF)2ClO4 and (TMTSF)2NO3: A first-principles study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A first-principles density functional theory study of the Bechgaard salts (TMTSF)2ClO4 and (TMTSF)2NO3, with special emphasis on the anion ordering transition, is reported. It is found that the main effect of the anion ordering on the band structure occurs through the deformations induced in the TMTSF layers and not through the Coulomb potential of the anions, as it has been almost invariably assumed. It is shown that the anion ordering in (TMTSF)2ClO4 leads to a modulation of the dimerization in successive chains and to a noteworthy polarization of the two partially filled bands around the Fermi level into either the TMTSF A or TMTSF B donors. The calculated anion ordering half gap ?AO is found to be small but definitely non-nil, ˜14 meV. The suppression of the SDW instability in the relaxed samples is attributed to the deterioration of the Fermi surface nesting in the anion ordered phase. The possible nodal structure of the superconducting gap is discussed in relation with the newly calculated split Fermi surface. Anion ordering in (TMTSF)2NO3 leads to a smaller half gap, 8.9 meV. The anion ordering in this salt leads to a larger charge transfer between the two donors but to a smaller polarization of the two partially filled electron and hole bands. The weak influence of anion ordering into the low-temperature physics of this salt is related to the different periodicity of the anion ordering which leaves the nested parts of the Fermi surface almost unaltered.

Alemany, Pere; Pouget, Jean-Paul; Canadell, Enric

2014-04-01

117

Hydrogen in anion vacancies of semiconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogen typically terminates the dangling bonds around vacancies in semiconductors, thereby, partially or completely passivating the vacancies. However, it has been shown recently that hydrogen in anion vacancies of many semiconductors, such as ZnO, MgO, InN, SnO2, and GaN, takes multi-coordinated structures and acts as shallow donors, providing n-type conductivity to the materials. We study the hydrogen in the anion vacancies of a series of II-VI and III-V semiconductors using density functional calculations. The results on these materials show that, in the anion vacancies of polar II-VI semiconductors, the hydrogen is usually anionic and is coordinated with more than one cation atoms as a result of the relatively high ionicity of the host materials. The hydrogen coordination number depends on the host anion size. On the other hand, in more covalent semiconductors such as some III-V semiconductors, the single cation-H bonding configuration may become most stable. In the anion vacancies of ZnX and CdX where X represents anions, hydrogen is typically amphoteric except for oxides, in which the small anion size prohibits the formation of the cation-cation bond that is required for the acceptor configuration.

Du, Mao-Hua; Singh, David

2009-03-01

118

New Advances in Fluorogenic Anion Chemosensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of anion chemosensors is an area of recent interest. We make here a comprehensive review of new advances on anion chemosensing, reported in the literature during the year 2004. The review follows a classification of the sensing systems based on design principles. It comprises: the binding site-signalling subunit approach, the displacement approach and the use of fluoro-chemodosimeters. The

Ramón Martínez-Máñez; Félix Sancenón

2005-01-01

119

Metabolism of chloride in halophilic prokaryotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much understanding has been achieved on the intracellular sodium and potassium concentrations of halophilic and halotolerant microorganisms and on their regulation, we know little on the metabolism of anions. Archaea of the family Halobacteriaceae contain molar concentrations of chloride, which is pumped into the cells by cotransport with sodium ions and\\/or using the light-driven primary chloride pump halorhodopsin. Most

Volker Müller; Aharon Oren

2003-01-01

120

Covalent Polymers Containing Discrete Heterocyclic Anion Receptors  

PubMed Central

This chapter covers recent advances in the development of polymeric materials containing discrete heterocyclic anion receptors, and focuses on advances in anion binding and chemosensor chemistry. The development of polymers specific for anionic species is a relatively new and flourishing area of materials chemistry. The incorporation of heterocyclic receptors capable of complexing anions through non-covalent interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions) provides a route to not only sensitive but also selective polymer materials. Furthermore, these systems have been utilized in the development of polymers capable of extracting anionic species from aqueous environments. These latter materials may lead to advances in water purification and treatment of diseases resulting from surplus ions.

Rambo, Brett M.; Silver, Eric S.; Bielawski, Christopher W.; Sessler, Jonathan L.

2010-01-01

121

Anion stripping as a general method to create cationic porous framework with mobile anions.  

PubMed

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with cationic frameworks and mobile anions have many applications from sensing, anion exchange and separation, to fast ion conductivity. Despite recent progress, the vast majority of MOFs have neutral frameworks. A common mechanism for the formation of neutral frameworks is the attachment of anionic species such as F(-) or OH(-) to the framework metal sites, neutralizing an otherwise cationic scaffolding. Here, we report a general method capable of converting such neutral frameworks directly into cationic ones with concurrent generation of mobile anions. Our method is based on the differential affinity between distinct metal ions with framework anionic species. Specifically, Al(3+) is used to strip F(-) anions away from framework Cr(3+) sites, leading to cationic frameworks with mobile Cl(-) anions. The subsequent anion exchange with OH(-) further leads to a porous network with mobile OH(-) anions. New materials prepared by anion stripping can undergo ion exchange with anionic organic dyes and also exhibit much improved ionic conductivity compared to the original unmodified MOFs. PMID:24836691

Mao, Chengyu; Kudla, Ryan A; Zuo, Fan; Zhao, Xiang; Mueller, Leonard J; Bu, Xianhui; Feng, Pingyun

2014-05-28

122

GAP Analysis. Bulletin Number 11.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2002 issue of the Gap Analysis Bulletin is the eleventh in a series of annual publications produced by the National Gap - -- Analysis Program. Gap Analysis Bulletin No. 11 features 18 articles on various aspects of gap analysis methods and results. Th...

E. S. Brackney R. Brannon K. J. Gergely M. D. Jennings

2002-01-01

123

Gap Analysis Bulletin No. 13.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 2005 issue of the Gap Analysis Bulletin is the thirteenth in a series of annual publications produced by the Gap Analysis Program. Gap Analysis Bulletin No. 13 features 12 articles on various aspects of gap analysis methods and results. Articles in th...

J. Maxwell K. Gergely J. Aycrigg D. Beard T. Sajwaj

2005-01-01

124

Maxi-anion channel and pannexin 1 hemichannel constitute separate pathways for swelling-induced ATP release in murine L929 fibrosarcoma cells.  

PubMed

The maxi-anion channel plays a classically recognized role in controlling the membrane potential through the chloride conductance. It also has novel functions as a regulated pathway for the release of the anionic signaling molecules ATP and excitatory amino acids from cells subjected to osmotic perturbation, ischemia, or hypoxia. Because hemichannels formed by pannexins and connexins have been reported to mediate ATP release from a number of cell types, these hemichannels may represent the molecular correlate of the maxi-anion channel. Here, we found that L929 fibrosarcoma cells express functional maxi-anion channels which mediate a major portion of swelling-induced ATP release, and that ATP released via maxi-anion channels facilitates the regulatory volume decrease after osmotic swelling. Also, it was found that the cells express the mRNA for pannexin 1, pannexin 2, and connexin 43. Hypotonicity-induced ATP release was partially suppressed not only by known blockers of the maxi-anion channel but also by several blockers of pannexins including the pannexin 1-specific blocking peptide (10)Panx1 and small interfering (si)RNA against pannexin 1 but not pannexin 2. The inhibitory effects of maxi-anion channel blockers and pannexin 1 antagonists were additive. In contrast, maxi-anion channel activity was not affected by pannexin 1 antagonists and siRNAs against pannexins 1 and 2. Although a connexin 43-specific blocking peptide, Gap27, slightly suppressed hypotonicity-induced ATP release, maxi-anion channel activity was not affected by Gap27 or connexin 43-specific siRNA. Thus, it is concluded that the maxi-anion channel is a molecular entity distinct from pannexin 1, pannexin 2, and connexin 43, and that the maxi-anion channel and the hemichannels constitute separate pathways for swelling-induced ATP release in L929 cells. PMID:22785119

Islam, Md Rafiqul; Uramoto, Hiromi; Okada, Toshiaki; Sabirov, Ravshan Z; Okada, Yasunobu

2012-11-01

125

Non-invasive microfluidic gap junction assay.  

PubMed

Gap junctions are protein channels between cells that allow direct electrical and metabolic coupling via the exchange of biomolecules and ions. Their expression, though ubiquitous in most mammalian cell types, is especially important for the proper functioning of cardiac and neuronal systems. Many existing methods for studying gap junction communication suffer from either unquantifiable data or difficulty of use. Here, we measure the extent of dye spread and effective diffusivities through gap junction connected cells using a quantitative microfluidic cell biology platform. After loading dye by hydrodynamic focusing of calcein/AM, dye transfer dynamics into neighboring, unexposed cells can be monitored via timelapse fluorescent microscopy. By using a selective microfluidic dye loading over a confluent layer of cells, we found that high expression of gap junctions in C6 cells transmits calcein across the monolayer with an effective diffusivity of 3.4 x 10(-13) m(2)/s, which are highly coupled by Cx43. We also found that the gap junction blocker 18alpha-GA works poorly in the presence of serum even at high concentrations (50 microM); however, it is highly effective down to 2.5 microM in the absence of serum. Furthermore, when the drug is washed out, dye spread resumes rapidly within 1 min for all doses, indicating the drug does not affect transcriptional regulation of connexins in these Cx43+ cells, in contrast to previous studies. This integrated microfluidic platform enables the in situ monitoring of gap junction communication, yielding dynamic information about intercellular molecular transfer and pharmacological inhibition and recovery. PMID:20473391

Chen, Sisi; Lee, Luke P

2010-03-01

126

Generation of superoxide anion radicals and platelet glutathione peroxidase activity in patients with schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Blood platelets are considered to be a peripheral marker in schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Oxidative stress in schizophrenia may be responsible for changes in platelet metabolism and function; therefore, the aim of this study was to examine and compare the generation of superoxide anions and activity of an antioxidant enzyme (glutathione peroxidase [GPx]) in blood platelets in patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects. The level of superoxide anions generated in platelets after thrombin and platelet-activating factor stimulation and activity of GPx in patients with schizophrenia and healthy volunteers was estimated. The results obtained from the study indicate that the generation of superoxide anions in platelets as a response of platelets in patients with schizophrenia to such activating factors as thrombin or platelet-activating factor is higher than in the response of platelets of healthy subjects. In platelets from schizophrenic patients, suppressed GPx activity of about 67% was observed.

Dietrich-Muszalska, Anna; Kwiatkowska, Anna

2014-01-01

127

Interaction between anions and substituted molecular bowls.  

PubMed

Complexes formed by anions and substituted molecular bowls were studied by means of computational methods. The bowls consisted of corannulene molecules substituted with five or ten F, Cl, or CN groups, whereas Cl(-), Br(-) and BF(4)(-) were the anions considered. Substitution with F, Cl and CN hardly affects the geometry of the bowl, but produces an inversion of the molecular electrostatic potential of the bowls, which becomes positive over the two faces of the bowl, therefore interacting favorably with anions. In all cases considered, the most stable complex presents the anion interacting with the concave side of the bowl. The strength of the interaction roughly follows the values of molecular electrostatic potential, being more stable as more positive is the potential. The preference of anions to interact with the concave side of the bowls has its origin in stronger electrostatic and dispersion interactions. Though the solvent produces an important decrease in the stability of the complexes, the results suggest the possibility of employing these substituted buckybowls as anion receptors with a preferential concave complexation, especially for large anions. PMID:22068458

García-Novo, Patxi; Campo-Cacharrón, Alba; Cabaleiro-Lago, Enrique M; Rodríguez-Otero, Jesús

2012-01-01

128

GAP Program Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's General Aviation Propulsion (GAP) program is a cooperative program between government and industry. NASA's strategic direction is described by the "Three Pillars" and their Objectives as set forth by NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin. NASA's Three Pillars are: 1) Global Civil Aviation, 2) Revolutionary Technology Leaps, and 3) Access To Space.

Burkardt, Leo

1999-01-01

129

The Gender Gap.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "ETS Policy Notes" discusses gender differences in educational achievement. The first article--"The Gender Gap in Education: How Early and How Large?"--discusses the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), which first measures achievement at age 9 years. Gender differences at that age are generally small, but significant…

ETS Policy Notes, 1989

1989-01-01

130

Crossing the Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a nation where education is funded largely by local property taxes, schools in wealthy communities have plenty of funds to spend on programs that get their kids ready for college. Schools in poor communities scrimp and save to get the job done--or hope that funding from the state will help fill in the gap. This article describes how students…

Lockette, Tim

2009-01-01

131

Band GAP of Forsterite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Optical absorption and reflectivity measurements on synthetic forsterite show that this silicate has a wide band gap of the order of 8.4 electron volts; thus it resembles other pure insulating oxides such as MgO. For natural olivines, in which divalent ca...

T. J. Shankland

1968-01-01

132

The Academic Generation Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current generation gap in academia is different--fundamentally shaped by the structural problems of academic employment. The job market has especially exacerbated tensions between senior and junior faculty by ratcheting up expectations and requirements at every stage of the academic career. The disparities have been mentioned often enough to…

Dronzek, Anna

2008-01-01

133

Estimating Gender Wage Gaps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Course research projects that use easy-to-access real-world data and that generate findings with which undergraduate students can readily identify are hard to find. The authors describe a project that requires students to estimate the current female-male earnings gap for new college graduates. The project also enables students to see to what…

McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

2011-01-01

134

Overcoming the Income Gap. The Achievement Gap: Overcoming the Income Gap. Info Brief. Number 47  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most complex aspects of the achievement gap--one that, by and large, is out of the direct control of educational leaders--is the income gap. Broadly defined, the income gap is the standard of living difference between rich and poor, but in the education system, the gap permeates deeply into many dimensions of a student's progression…

Nelson, Anne

2006-01-01

135

Metabolic Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... energy in your body tissues, such as your liver, muscles, and body fat. A metabolic disorder occurs ... metabolic disorder when some organs, such as your liver or pancreas, become diseased or do not function ...

136

Metabolic syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Metabolic syndrome is a name for a group of risk factors that occur together and increase the risk ... Metabolic syndrome is becoming more and more common in the United States. Researchers are not sure whether the ...

137

Macrophage variants in oxygen metabolism  

PubMed Central

Whereas phagocytic cells from normal individuals have the capacity to kill ingested bacteria and parasites, those from patients with several uncommon genetic deficiency diseases are known to be defective in bactericidal activity. Studies on neutrophils of these patients have revealed fundamental defects in their ability to reduce molecular oxygen and metabolize it to superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and oxygen radicals. In the present experiments, we describe a clone of a continuous murine macrophage-like cell line, J774.16, that, upon appropriate stimulation, activates the hexose monophosphate shunt, and produces superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide. With nitroblue tetrazolium to select against cells capable of being stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate to reduce the dye to polymer--formazan--which is toxic fot cells, we have selected for variants that are defective in oxygen metabolism. Four of these subclones have been characterized and found to be lacking in the ability (a) to generate superoxide anion, as measured by cytochrome c reduction; (b) to produce hydrogen peroxide, as measured by the ability to form complex I with cytochrome c peroxidase; and (c) to be stimulated to oxidize glucose via the hexose monophosphate shunt. These variants appear to represent a useful model for studying the molecular basis for macrophage cytocidal activity.

1980-01-01

138

Metabolic Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... you know? One in five Americans has the metabolic syndrome. WhO is At risk fOr the metAbOlic syndrOme? The syndrome runs in families and is more ... High blood pressure Most people who have the metabolic syndrome feel healthy and may not have any signs ...

139

Electron collisions with diatomic anions  

SciTech Connect

Electron collisions with negative ions (B{sub 2}{minus}, C{sub 2}{minus}, O{sub 2}{minus}, BN{sup {minus}}, and OH) have been performed in a merged- beams experiment at the heavy-ion storage ring ASTRID (Aarhus Storage Ring, Denmark). Absolute cross sections for detachment (e{sup {minus}}+AB{sup {minus}}{r_arrow}AB{sup 0}+2e{sup {minus}}) and detachment plus dissociation (e{sup {minus}}+AB{sup {minus}}{r_arrow}A{sup 0}+B{sup 0}+2e{sup {minus}}) are reported for energies below 40 eV. For the homonuclear ions, X{sub 2}{sup {minus}} (X=B,&hthinsp;C,&hthinsp;O), cross sections are also presented for dissociative reactions leading to an X{sup {minus}} particle in the final state. The detachment process is dominant for all investigated systems. The detachment cross section is characterized by an effective threshold larger than the electron binding energy. The shapes of the detachment cross sections are similar for the studied anions pointing to a common nonresonant mechanism for detachment. Also, the cross section for detachment plus dissociation and pure dissociation show regularities pointing to a general nonresonant mechanism. Structures are observed in the detachment cross section of C{sub 2}{sup {minus}} and BN{sup {minus}} and in the dissociation cross section of B{sub 2}{minus} and C{sub 2}{minus}. The structures are attributed to short-lived dianions (resonances) formed during the collision process. The results are supported by {ital ab initio} calculations, and it is inferred that electronic excitations are important in the resonant reactions. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

Pedersen, H.B.; Jensen, M.J.; Kella, D.; Safvan, C.P.; Vejby-Christensen, L.; Andersen, L.H. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)] [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Djuric, N. [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States)] [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0440 (United States); Schmidt, H.T. [Department of Physics, Atomic Physics, Stockholm University, S-10405 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Department of Physics, Atomic Physics, Stockholm University, S-10405 Stockholm (Sweden)

1999-10-01

140

The OH- anion acting as an acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the crystalline state, the OH- anion is shown to be capable of acting as a base or as an acid with respect to waters of crystallization to which it is linked by hydrogen bonds. We examined the OH- anion in three crystalline samples and studied its behavior using quantum mechanics. Four quantum mechanical approximations were employed (HF, B3LYP, SVWN, and MP2) to obtain the relative stability of isomers of the H3O2- molecule in the three crystals considered. In one crystal state (LICQIX), the H3O2- anion corresponds to a geometry in which OH- acts as an acid, but not so as a free molecule. The free anion H3O2- has two qualitatively different structures. In one structure, the hydrogen bond is long, while in the other structure, the hydrogen bond is shorter and the hydrogen atom lies at an equal distance between donor and acceptor oxygen atoms.

Huang, Lulu; Massa, Lou; Bernal, Ivan; Karle, Jerome

2008-01-01

141

Photoelectron imaging spectroscopy of nitroethane anions.  

PubMed

We present low-energy velocity map photoelectron imaging results for bare and Ar solvated nitroethane anions. We report an improved value for the adiabatic electron affinity of nitroethane of (191 ± 6) meV which is used to obtain a C-NO(2) bond dissociation energy of (0.589 ± 0.019) eV in nitroethane anion. We assign a weak feature at (27 ± 5) meV electron binding energy to the dipole-bound anion state of nitroethane. Photoelectron angular distributions exhibit increasing anisotropy with increasing kinetic energies. The main contributions to the photoelectron spectrum of nitroethane anion can be assigned to the vibrational modes of the nitro group. Transitions involving torsional motion around the CN bond axis lead to strong spectral congestion. Interpretation of the photoelectron spectrum is assisted by ab initio calculations and Franck-Condon simulations. PMID:21721624

Adams, Christopher L; Weber, J Mathias

2011-06-28

142

Photoelectron imaging spectroscopy of nitroethane anions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present low-energy velocity map photoelectron imaging results for bare and Ar solvated nitroethane anions. We report an improved value for the adiabatic electron affinity of nitroethane of (191 +/- 6) meV which is used to obtain a C-NO2 bond dissociation energy of (0.589 +/- 0.019) eV in nitroethane anion. We assign a weak feature at (27 +/- 5) meV electron binding energy to the dipole-bound anion state of nitroethane. Photoelectron angular distributions exhibit increasing anisotropy with increasing kinetic energies. The main contributions to the photoelectron spectrum of nitroethane anion can be assigned to the vibrational modes of the nitro group. Transitions involving torsional motion around the CN bond axis lead to strong spectral congestion. Interpretation of the photoelectron spectrum is assisted by ab initio calculations and Franck-Condon simulations.

Adams, Christopher L.; Weber, J. Mathias

2011-06-01

143

Renal elimination of organic anions in cholestasis  

PubMed Central

The disposition of most drugs is highly dependent on specialized transporters. OAT1 and OAT3 are two organic anion transporters expressed in the basolateral membrane of renal proximal tubule cells, identified as contributors to xenobiotic and endogenous organic anion secretion. It is well known that cholestasis may cause renal damage. Impairment of kidney function produces modifications in the renal elimination of drugs. Recent studies have demonstrated that the renal abundance of OAT1 and OAT3 plays an important role in the renal elimination of organic anions in the presence of extrahepatic cholestasis. Time elapsed after obstructive cholestasis has an important impact on the regulation of both types of organic anion transporters. The renal expression of OAT1 and OAT3 should be taken into account in order to improve pharmacotherapeutic efficacy and to prevent drug toxicity during the onset of this hepatic disease.

Torres, Adriana Monica

2008-01-01

144

Characterization of Antisense Transformed Plants Deficient in the Tobacco Anionic Peroxidase.  

PubMed Central

On the basis of the biological compounds that they metabolize, plant peroxidases have long been implicated in plant growth, cell wall biogenesis, lignification, and host defenses. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants that underexpress anionic peroxidase were generated using antisense RNA. The antisense RNA was found to be specific for the anionic isoenzyme and highly effective, reducing endogenous transcript levels and total peroxidase activity by as much as 1600-fold. Antisense-transformed plants appeared normal at initial observation; however, growth studies showed that plants with reduced peroxidase activity grow taller and flower sooner than control plants. In contrast, previously transformed plants overproducing anionic peroxidase were shorter and flowered later than controls. Axillary buds were more developed in antisense-transformed plants and less developed in plants overproducing this enzyme. It was found that the lignin content in leaf, stem, and root was unchanged in antisense-transformed plants, which does not support a role for anionic peroxidase in the lignification of secondary xylem vessels. However, studies of wounded tissue show some reduction in wound-induced deposition of lignin-like polymers. The data support a possible role for tobacco anionic peroxidase in host defenses but not without a reduction in growth potential.

Lagrimini, L. M.; Gingas, V.; Finger, F.; Rothstein, S.; Liu, TTY.

1997-01-01

145

Localisation and function of voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC) in bovine spermatozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sperm motility, regulation of cell volume, sperm capacitation, acrosome reaction and tight binding of spermatozoa to the zona\\u000a pellucida are crucial events in the process of fertilisation. Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC) are highly conserved\\u000a pore-forming proteins implicated in apoptosis, metabolite transport between mitochondria and cytosol, energy metabolism, and\\u000a cell volume regulation in somatic cells. Several studies have demonstrated the presence

Xenia Triphan; Viviana A. Menzel; Anna M. Petrunkina; M. Carolina Cassará; Wilhelm Wemheuer; Klaus-Dieter Hinsch; Elvira Hinsch

2008-01-01

146

Genetic strategies for dissecting mammalian and Drosophila voltage-dependent anion channel functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs), also known as mitochondrial porins, are a family of small pore-forming proteins\\u000a of the mitochondrial outer membrane that are found in all eukaryotes. VDACs are thought to play important roles in the regulated\\u000a flux of metabolites between the cytosolic and mitochondrial compartments, in overall energy metabolism via interactions with\\u000a cytosolic kinases, and a debated role in

William J. Craigen; Brett H. Graham

2008-01-01

147

Nucleotide interactions of the human voltage-dependent anion channel.  

PubMed

The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) mediates and gates the flux of metabolites and ions across the outer mitochondrial membrane and is a key player in cellular metabolism and apoptosis. Here we characterized the binding of nucleotides to human VDAC1 (hVDAC1) on a single-residue level using NMR spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis. We find that hVDAC1 possesses one major binding region for ATP, UTP, and GTP that partially overlaps with a previously determined NADH binding site. This nucleotide binding region is formed by the N-terminal ?-helix, the linker connecting the helix to the first ?-strand and adjacent barrel residues. hVDAC1 preferentially binds the charged forms of ATP, providing support for a mechanism of metabolite transport in which direct binding to the charged form exerts selectivity while at the same time permeation of the Mg(2+)-complexed ATP form is possible. PMID:24668813

Villinger, Saskia; Giller, Karin; Bayrhuber, Monika; Lange, Adam; Griesinger, Christian; Becker, Stefan; Zweckstetter, Markus

2014-05-01

148

Development of an In Silico Metabolic Simulator and Searchable Metabolism Database for Chemical Risk Assessments  

EPA Science Inventory

The US EPA is faced with long lists of chemicals that need to be assessed for hazard, and a gap in evaluating chemical risk is accounting for metabolic activation resulting in increased toxicity. The goals of this project are to develop a capability to predict metabolic maps of x...

149

Photonic Band Gap  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Boyang Liu and Professor Seng-Tiong Ho at Northwestern University, and presented by the NanoEd Resource Portal, this site covers the concept of the photonic band gap. Here, visitors will find a basic description of the concept, ideas of how to incorporate it into classroom activities, and a user's manual to walk students step-by-step through the concept. There is also a link to an interactive simulation (the link is labeled Open Visualization), which allows students to adjust the wavelength and color of the light source, particle size, and incident angle to view changes to the photonic band gap. This is a thorough and useful resource for any nanotechnology classroom.

Ho, Seng-Tiong; Liu, Boyang

2012-04-12

150

Photoelectron spectroscopy of the 6-azauracil anion.  

PubMed

We report the photoelectron spectrum of the 6-azauracil anion. The spectrum is dominated by a broad band exhibiting a maximum at an electron binding energy (EBE) of 1.2 eV. This spectral pattern is indicative of a valence anion. Our calculations were carried out using ab initio electron propagator and other many-body methods. Comparison of the anion and corresponding neutral of 6-azauracil with those of uracil shows that substituting a nitrogen atom for C-H at the C6 position of uracil gives rise to significant changes in the electronic structure of 6-azauracil versus that of uracil. The adiabatic electron affinity (AEA) of the canonical 6-azauracil tautomer is substantially larger than that of canonical uracil. Among the five tautomeric, 6-azauracil anions studied computationally, the canonical structure was found to be the most stable. The vertical detachment energies (VDE) of the canonical, valence-bound anion of 6-azauracil and its closest "very-rare" tautomer have been calculated. Electron propagator calculations on the canonical anion yield a VDE value that is in close agreement with the experimentally determined VDE value of 1.2 eV. The AEA value of 6-azauracil, assessed at the CCSD(T) level of theory to be 0.5 eV, corresponds with the EBE value of the onset of the experimental spectrum. PMID:22724557

Chen, Jing; Buonaugurio, Angela; Dolgounitcheva, Olga; Zakrzewski, V G; Bowen, Kit H; Ortiz, J V

2013-02-14

151

Adsorption of anionic surfactants onto sepiolite.  

PubMed

Anionic surfactants constitute the main ingredients of detergents and a number of surfactant formulations used in a spectrum of diverse industries. The aim of this study is to examine the amenability of natural sepiolite to the adsorption of anionic surfactants, sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS). Adsorption isotherms exhibit three regions with distinctly different slopes. The first region is characterized by the complexation of anionic surfactants with Mg2+ ions at the octahedral sheet or hydrogen bonding between the oxygen groups of anionic head groups of surfactant and H+ of the bound or zeolitic water. The Mg2+ ions released from sepiolite leads to the precipitation of magnesium salt of surfactant in the second region. The third region marks both the beginning of plateau region and micellar dissolution of the precipitate. The effect of temperature on surfactant adsorption for SDS/sepiolite system was utilized to calculate such thermodynamic parameters as the free energy of adsorption (DeltaG(ads)(degrees)) and the heat of adsorption (DeltaH(ads)(degrees)). The low value of DeltaH(ads)(degrees) (1.87 kJ/mol) is an evidence for the physical adsorption of anionic surfactants onto sepiolite. The relatively large value of entropic contribution (-TDeltaS(ads)(degrees)) indicates that the adsorption of anionic surfactants onto sepiolite is entropically governed. PMID:17293042

Ozdemir, Orhan; Cinar, Mustafa; Sabah, Eyüp; Arslan, Fatma; Celik, Mehmet Sabri

2007-08-17

152

Filling the launch gap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicles proposed to fill the gap in the U.S. space program's space transport needs for the next decade resulting from the January Challenger disaster, are discussed. Prior to the accident, the Air Force planned to purchase a Complementary Expendable Launch Vehicle system consisting of 10 single-use Titan-34D7 rockets. Another heavy lift booster now considered is the Phoenix H. Commercial launch

S. Hoeser

1986-01-01

153

Mind the Gap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new finding gets scientists one step closer to understanding what causes the gap in the Van Allen radiation belts. The discovery could help better predict fluxes of energetic particles that have the potential for damaging spacecraft and satellites and harming astronauts. An improved understanding could also give space physicists better insight into the radiation belts of other planets, including Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, all of which have strong magnetic fields.

Staedter, Tracy

2007-03-01

154

Anion encapsulation and dynamics in self-assembled coordination cages.  

PubMed

The ability of cationic coordination cages to act as anion receptors is reviewed, with an emphasis on the anion encapsulation chemistry and the dynamics of cage assembly, anion exchange, and other anion-induced structural transformations. The first part of the review describes various examples of anion-encapsulating coordination cages, categorized on the basis of their M(x)L(y) stoichiometry (M = metal cation; L = organic ligand). The second part deals with the dynamic aspects of anion encapsulation, including the kinetics and mechanism of anion binding, release, and exchange, as well as the structural evolution of the coordination complexes involved. PMID:24384869

Custelcean, Radu

2014-03-21

155

Studies of anions sorption on natural zeolites.  

PubMed

This work presents results of FT-IR spectroscopic studies of anions-chromate, phosphate and arsenate - sorbed from aqueous solutions (different concentrations of anions) on zeolites. The sorption has been conducted on natural zeolites from different structural groups, i.e. chabazite, mordenite, ferrierite and clinoptilolite. The Na-forms of sorbents were exchanged with hexadecyltrimethylammonium cations (HDTMA(+)) and organo-zeolites were obtained. External cation exchange capacities (ECEC) of organo-zeolites were measured. Their values are 17mmol/100g for chabazite, 4mmol/100g for mordenite and ferrierite and 10mmol/100g for clinoptilolite. The used initial inputs of HDTMA correspond to 100% and 200% ECEC of the minerals. Organo-modificated sorbents were subsequently used for immobilization of mentioned anions. It was proven that aforementioned anions' sorption causes changes in IR spectra of the HDTMA-zeolites. These alterations are dependent on the kind of anions that were sorbed. In all cases, variations are due to bands corresponding to the characteristic Si-O(Si,Al) vibrations (occurring in alumino- and silicooxygen tetrahedra building spatial framework of zeolites). Alkylammonium surfactant vibrations have also been observed. Systematic changes in the spectra connected with the anion concentration in the initial solution have been revealed. The amounts of sorbed CrO4(2-), AsO4(3-) and PO4(3-) ions were calculated from the difference between their concentrations in solutions before (initial concentration) and after (equilibrium concentration) sorption experiments. Concentrations of anions were determined by spectrophotometric method. PMID:25002191

Barczyk, K; Mozgawa, W; Król, M

2014-12-10

156

Understanding the forces that govern packing: a density functional theory and structural investigation of anion-?-anion and nonclassical C-H···anion interactions.  

PubMed

The ability of Ni(II) coordinated 4-pyrrolyl-3,5-di(2-pyridyl)-1,2,4-triazole (pldpt) to establish multiple anion-? interactions is analyzed. Experimentally, such complexes were previously shown to form strong anion-? interactions, including "?-pocket" and "?-sandwiched" motifs, in the crystal lattice. In the latter, the triazole ring is "sandwiched" by two anions forming a ternary anion-?-anion assembly (?-sandwich) which, surprisingly, gave about 0.2 Å shorter anion-? distances than in binary assemblies (where only one side of the triazole participates in the anion binding), indicating the possibility of cooperativity. In depth analysis, using dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT, BP86-D/def2-TZVP level of theory), shows that this ternary anion-?-anion interaction is slightly less energetically favorable than the binary anion-? interactions in isolation. Hence, the sandwich interaction is not cooperative (E(coop) is positive), but, as E(coop) contributes less than 1.5% of the total interaction energy (which is dominated by the strong electrostatic attraction of the anions to the highly ?-acidic Ni(II)-coordinated triazole ring), the presence of nonclassical C-H···anion hydrogen bonds can offset this, making the short anion-? sandwich interactions the most favorable solid state conformation. PMID:22974250

Brooker, Sally; White, Nicholas G; Bauzá, Antonio; Deyà, Pere M; Frontera, Antonio

2012-10-01

157

Poly(vinylidene fluoride) based anion conductive ionomer as a catalyst binder for application in anion exchange membrane fuel cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anion conductive polymeric ionomer incorporated into the electrodes of an anion exchange membrane fuel cell (AEMFC) can help to enhance anion transport in the catalyst layer of electrode, and thus improve the catalyst efficiency and performance of AEMFC. In this work, we report the synthesis and properties of a new type of anion conductive ionomer, which is synthesized by

Fengxiang Zhang; Huamin Zhang; Chao Qu; Junxia Ren

2011-01-01

158

ANNUAL REPORT. SUPRAMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY OF SELECTIVE ANION RECOGNITION FOR ANIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL RELEVANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

This project involves the design and synthesis of receptors for anions of environmental importance, including emphasis on high level and low activity waste. Polyammonium macrocycles as receptors and nitrate as target anion were the focus of the first phase of this project. A seco...

159

Supramolecular Chemistry of Selective Anion Recognition for Anions of Environmental Relevance  

SciTech Connect

This project have focuses on the basic chemical aspects of anion receptor design of functional pH independent systems, with the ultimate goal of targeting the selective binding of sulfate, as well as design of separations strategies for selective and efficient removal of targeted anions. Key findings include: (1) the first synthetic sulfate-selective anion-binding agents; (2) simple, structure-based methods for modifying the intrinsic anion selectivity of a given class of anion receptors; and (3) the first system capable of extracting sulfate anion from acidic, nitrate-containing aqueous media. Areas probed during the last funding period include: the design, synthesis, and physical and structural characterization of receptors and investigation of anion and dual ion pair extraction using lipophilic amide receptors for anion binding. A new collaboration has been added to the project in addition to the one with Dr. Bruce Moyer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with Professor Jonathan Sessler at the University of Texas at Austin.

Bowman-James, Kristen

2004-12-01

160

Isatinphenylsemicarbazones as efficient colorimetric sensors for fluoride and acetate anions - anions induce tautomerism.  

PubMed

The anion induced tautomerism of isatin-3-4-phenyl(semicarbazone) derivatives is studied herein. The interaction of F(-), AcO(-), H2PO4(-), Br(-) or HSO4(-) anions with E and Z isomers of isatin-3-4-phenyl(semicarbazone) and N-methylisatin-3-4-phenyl(semicarbazone) as sensors influences the tautomeric equilibrium of these sensors in the liquid phase. This tautomeric equilibrium is affected by (1) the inter- and intra-molecular interactions' modulation of isatinphenylsemicarbazone molecules due to the anion induced change in the solvation shell of receptor molecules and (2) the sensor-anion interaction with the urea hydrogens. The acid-base properties of anions and the difference in sensor structure influence the equilibrium ratio of the individual tautomeric forms. Here, the tautomeric equilibrium changes were indicated by "naked-eye" experiment, UV-VIS spectral and (1)H NMR titration, resulting in confirmation that appropriate selection of experimental conditions leads to a high degree of sensor selectivity for some investigated anions. Sensors' E and Z isomers differ in sensitivity, selectivity and sensing mechanism. Detection of F(-) or CH3COO(-) anions at high weakly basic anions' excess is possible. PMID:24418689

Jakusová, Klaudia; Donovalová, Jana; Cigá?, Marek; Gáplovský, Martin; Garaj, Vladimír; Gáplovský, Anton

2014-04-01

161

Supramolecular Chemistry of Selective Anion Recognition for Anions of Environmental Relevance  

SciTech Connect

This project involves the design and synthesis of receptors for oxoanions of environmental importance, including emphasis on high level and low activity waste. Target anions have included primarily oxoanions and a study of the basic concepts behind selective binding of target anions. A primary target has been sulfate because of its deleterious influence on the vitrification of tank wastes

Bowman-James, K.; Wilson, G.; Moyer, B. A.

2004-12-11

162

Mind the gap.  

SciTech Connect

In this summary of the application of Dyson-Schwinger equations to the theory and phenomenology of hadrons, some deductions following from a nonperturbative, symmetry-preserving truncation are highlighted, notable amongst which are results for pseudoscalar mesons. We also describe inferences from the gap equation relating to the radius of convergence of a chiral expansion, applications to heavy-light and heavy-heavy mesons, and quantitative estimates of the contribution of quark orbital angular momentum in pseudoscalar mesons; and recapitulate upon studies of nucleon electromagnetic form factors.

Bhagwat, M. S.; Krassnigg, A.; Maris, P.; Roberts, C. D.; Physics; Univ. Graz; Univ. of Pittsburgh

2007-03-01

163

Metabolic myopathies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metabolic myopathies are disorders of muscle energy production that result in skeletal muscle dysfunction. Cardiac and systemic metabolic dysfunction may coexist. Symptoms are often intermittent and provoked by exercise or changes in supply of lipid and carbohydrate fuels. Specific disorders of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in muscle are reviewed. Evaluation often requires provocative exercise testing. These tests may include ischemic forearm exercise, aerobic cycle exercise, and 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy with exercise.

Martin, A.; Haller, R. G.; Barohn, R.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

1994-01-01

164

Electron impact induced anion production in acetylene.  

PubMed

A detailed experimental investigation of electron induced anion production in acetylene, C2H2, in the energy range between 1 and 90 eV is presented. The anions are formed by two processes in this energy range: dissociative electron attachment (DEA) and dipolar dissociation (DD). DEA in C2H2 is found to lead to the formation of H(-) and C2(-)/C2H(-) through excitation of resonances in the electron energy range 1-15 eV. These anionic fragments are formed with super thermal kinetic energy and reveal no anisotropy in the angular distributions. DD in C2H2 leads to the formation of H(-), C(-)/CH(-) and C2(-)/C2H(-) with threshold energies of 15.7, 20.0 and 16.5 eV respectively. The measured anion yields have been used to calculate anion production rates for H(-), C(-)/CH(-) and C2(-)/C2H(-) in Titan's ionosphere. PMID:24343432

Szyma?ska, Ewelina; ?adež, Iztok; Krishnakumar, E; Mason, Nigel J

2014-02-28

165

Infrared spectroscopy of anionic hydrated fluorobenzenes  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the structural motifs of anionic hydrated fluorobenzenes by infrared photodissociation spectroscopy and density functional theory. Our calculations show that all fluorobenzene anions under investigation are strongly distorted from the neutral planar molecular geometries. In the anions, different F atoms are no longer equivalent, providing structurally different binding sites for water molecules and giving rise to a multitude of low-lying isomers. The absorption bands for hexa- and pentafluorobenzene show that only one isomer for the respective monohydrate complexes is populated in our experiment. For C{sub 6}F{sub 6}{sup -}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O, we can assign these bands to an isomer where water forms a weak double ionic hydrogen bond with two F atoms in the ion, in accord with the results of Bowen et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 127, 014312 (2007), following paper.] The spectroscopic motif of the binary complexes changes slightly with decreasing fluorination of the aromatic anion. For dihydrated hexafluorobenzene anions, several isomers are populated in our experiments, some of which may be due to hydrogen bonding between water molecules.

Schneider, Holger; Vogelhuber, Kristen M.; Weber, J. Mathias [JILA, NIST, and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

2007-09-21

166

Metabolic ecology.  

PubMed

Ecological theory that is grounded in metabolic currencies and constraints offers the potential to link ecological outcomes to biophysical processes across multiple scales of organization. The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) has emphasized the potential for metabolism to serve as a unified theory of ecology, while focusing primarily on the size and temperature dependence of whole-organism metabolic rates. Generalizing metabolic ecology requires extending beyond prediction and application of standardized metabolic rates to theory focused on how energy moves through ecological systems. A bibliometric and network analysis of recent metabolic ecology literature reveals a research network characterized by major clusters focused on MTE, foraging theory, bioenergetics, trophic status, and generalized patterns and predictions. This generalized research network, which we refer to as metabolic ecology, can be considered to include the scaling, temperature and stoichiometric models forming the core of MTE, as well as bioenergetic equations, foraging theory, life-history allocation models, consumer-resource equations, food web theory and energy-based macroecology models that are frequently employed in ecological literature. We conclude with six points we believe to be important to the advancement and integration of metabolic ecology, including nomination of a second fundamental equation, complementary to the first fundamental equation offered by the MTE. PMID:24028511

Humphries, Murray M; McCann, Kevin S

2014-01-01

167

Ternary Complexation on Bacterial Surfaces: Implications for Subsurface Anion Transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical, chemical, and biological controls on contaminant mobilities in aquatic ecosystems must be determined to establish the threat that contamination poses to the environment. Quantitative models of contaminant mobilities are required as a prerequisite to guide remediation efforts and to prioritize the potential hazard to the ecosystem of each contaminated site. It is well established that mineral surface adsorption is an important control on contaminant mobilities, and many studies have utilized thermodynamics to quantify metal/organic adsorption in order to yield predictive models of contaminant transport. However, these models of contaminant transport may not be representative of the reactions which control contaminant mobilities as most mineral surfaces are coated with organic acids, bacteria, and extracellular polymers. Numerous laboratory studies have demonstrated that bacterial cell walls have a high affinity for binding metal cations, and field studies indicate that a significant proportion of bacteria cells and associated extracellular matrices are coated with small scale hydrous metal oxides. The small size of bacteria, and in many cases the nanoscale of their associated mineral phases, suggests these bacteria-mineral composites may represent a large proportion of surface area exposed to fluid flow. Therefore, due to the affinity of bacterial cell walls for cations and biominerals, bacteria may also have a significant impact on anionic contaminant mobility in many natural systems. The extent of metal-bacteria adsorption reactions varies drastically as a function of pH and solution chemistry. Current adsorption models have focused on the interactions of positively charged metal cations with bacterial surfaces, however in many oxidizing environments metals such as Cr exist as anions or anionic complexes. We have studied the ability of non-metabolizing cells of the bacterial species Bacillus subtilis and Shewanella putrifaciens to adsorb aqueous Cr(VI) and I- in the presence of background electrolyte and aqueous Al (III), Cd(II), Ca(II) or cells coated with Al (oxy)hydroxide phases. We use a unique blend of XRD, electrophoretic mobility, SEM, and aqueous geochemistry measurements to quantify the mechanisms of Cr(VI) and I- removal from solution. Our results indicate the removal of both anions is highly dependent on solution pH with significant removal at low pH and diminishing removal at higher pH values, without the presence of cations or precipitates. However, in the presence of aqueous Cd(II) and Ca(II) which adsorbs strongly from pH 3.5-8, the removal of Cr(VI) and I- increases appreciably. Furthermore the loading of the cell surface with small amorphous mineral phases increases adsorption. Aging of the mineral-bacteria composites appears to decrease removal efficiency due to coarsening of the mineral phases and a decrease in charge density. Considering that many geologic environments include both cationic and anionic metal contaminants, our results suggest that mass transport of Cr(VI), I-, and other anions may be affected by ternary complexation or other cation mediated surface reactions in bacteria-bearing systems.

Maclean, L. C.; Higginbottom, C. M.; Fowle, D. A.

2002-12-01

168

The anion gap does not accurately screen for lactic acidosis in emergency department patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction Lactic acidosis portends a poor prognosis in trauma, sepsis, and other shock states and is useful for triaging and resuscitating emergency department (ED) patients. The authors sought to determine whether the AG is a reliable screen for lactic acidosis when applied specifically in the ED setting. Methods The authors performed a retrospective cohort study over a seven month period. Subjects were all ED patients that had a serum lactate obtained. Sensitivity analyses of the AG for detecting presence of lactic acidosis were calculated for the traditional AG normal value (AG <12) and for the lower AG normal value when using newer ion selective electrode assays (AG <6). Results Serum lactate levels were ordered in the ED on 440 occasions. 137 samples were excluded by protocol. Using an AG cutoff of 12, the sensitivity for detecting lactic acidosis was 58.2%, specificity was 81.0%, and the negative predictive value was 89.7%. Using the AG cutoff of 6, the sensitivity was 93.2%, the specificity was 17.3%, and the negative predictive value was 91.8%. Conclusions The traditional definition of AG >12 was insensitive for the presence of lactic acidosis. Using the revised AG of >6 is more sensitive but non?specific for lactic acidosis. The authors conclude that employing the AG as a screen for LA may be inappropriate in ED patients. Instead, they recommend ordering a serum lactate immediately upon suspicion of a shock state. A prospective study to confirm these findings is needed.

Adams, B D; Bonzani, T A; Hunter, C J

2006-01-01

169

Atomic-scale structure and band-gap bowing in Cu(In,Ga)Se2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixed systems such as the Cu(In,Ga)Se2 chalcopyrite semiconductor consist of different local atomic arrangements, that is, of different combinations of first-nearest-neighbor cations surrounding the Se anions. The anion position of Cu-III-VI2 compounds is predicted to strongly influence the material band gap. We therefore used extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to study the atomic-scale structure of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 as a function of composition. Based on these results, the anion position was modeled for all first-nearest-neighbor configurations using a valence force-field approach. We show that the atomic-scale structure strongly depends on the kind of first-nearest-neighbor atoms. Structural relaxation of the anion occurs with respect to both (i) Cu and group III atoms and (ii) In and Ga atoms. In both cases, the average anion displacement exhibits a nonlinear behavior with changing composition and thus results in two separate but significant contributions to the band gap bowing observed in Cu(In,Ga)Se2.

Schnohr, C. S.; Kämmer, H.; Stephan, C.; Schorr, S.; Steinbach, T.; Rensberg, J.

2012-06-01

170

Experimental study of the hydrothermal reactivity of organic acids and acid anions: II. Acetic acid, acetate, and valeric acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic acids and acid anions occur in substantial concentrations in many aqueous geologic fluids and are thought to take part in a variety of geochemical processes ranging from the transport of metals in ore-forming fluids to the formation of natural gas to serving as a metabolic energy source for microbes in subsurface habitats. The widespread occurrence of organic acids and their potential role in diverse geologic processes has led to numerous experimental studies of their thermal stability, yet there remain substantial gaps in our knowledge of the factors that control the rates and reaction pathways for the decomposition of these compounds under geologic conditions. In order to address some of these uncertainties, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the behavior of organic acids and acid anions under hydrothermal conditions in the presence of minerals. Reported here are results of experiments where aqueous solutions of acetic acid, sodium acetate, or valeric acid ( n-pentanoic acid) were heated at 325°C, 350 bars in the presence of the mineral assemblages hematite + magnetite + pyrite, pyrite + pyrrhotite + magnetite, and hematite + magnetite. The results indicate that aqueous acetic acid and acetate decompose by a combination of two reaction pathways: decarboxylation and oxidation. Both reactions are promoted by minerals, with hematite catalyzing the oxidation reaction while magnetite catalyzes decarboxylation. The oxidation reaction is much faster, so that oxidation dominates the decomposition of acetic acid and acetate when hematite is present. In contrast to previous reports that acetate decomposed more slowly than acetic acid, we found that acetate decomposed at slightly faster rates than the acid in the presence of minerals. Although longer-chain monocarboxylic acids are generally thought to decompose by decarboxylation, valeric acid appeared to decompose primarily by "deformylation" to 1-butene plus formic acid. Subsequent decomposition of 1-butene and formic acid generated a variety of short-chain (?C 4) hydrocarbons and moncarboxylic acids as well as CO 2. Valeric acid decomposition proceeded more rapidly (by a factor of 2) in the presence of hematite-magnetite-pyrite than with the other mineral assemblages, with the greater reaction rate apparently attributable to the effects of fluid chemistry. Valeric acid was observed to decompose at a substantially faster rate than acetic acid under similar conditions. The results suggest that decomposition of aqueous monocarboxylic acids may make a significant contribution to the conversion of petroleum to light hydrocarbons in natural gas and thermal fluids.

McCollom, Thomas M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.

2003-10-01

171

Patchy proteins, anions and the Hofmeister series  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate specific anion binding to a range of patchy protein models and use our results to probe protein-protein interactions for aqueous lysozyme solutions. Our molecular simulation studies show that the ion-protein interaction mechanism and strength largely depend on the nature of the interfacial amino acid residues. Via direct ion pairing, small anions interact with charged side-chains while larger anions are attracted to non-polar residues due to several solvent assisted mechanisms. Incorporating ion and surface specificity into a mesoscopic model for protein-protein interactions we calculate the free energy of interaction between lysozyme molecules in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride and sodium iodide. In agreement with experiment, our finding is that 'salting out' follows the reverse Hofmeister series for pH below the iso-electric point and the direct series for pH above pI.

Lund, Mikael; Jungwirth, Pavel

2008-12-01

172

Electron scattering on stored mononucleotide anions  

SciTech Connect

Collisions between electrons and deprotonated mononucleotides, AMP and UMP, were studied at the electrostatic storage ring ELISA where the two anions were stored with a 1/e lifetime of 13.5 s. It is found that the threshold energy for electron-induced reactions leading to production of neutral fragments is as high as about 12 eV for both species. The high threshold is explained within the context of a classical reaction model, applicable for atomic anions, and a high electron-binding energy of about 5 eV for the two mononucleotides. There is no evidence in the cross sections for formation of short-lived doubly charged anions.

Bluhme, H.; Jensen, M.J.; Broendsted Nielsen, S.; Pedersen, U.V.; Seiersen, K.; Svendsen, A.; Andersen, L.H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2004-08-01

173

Infrared spectroscopy of hydrated naphthalene cluster anions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present infrared spectra of mass-selected C10H8-.(H2O)n.Arm cluster anions (n = 1-6) obtained by Ar predissociation spectroscopy. The experimental spectra are compared with predicted spectra from density functional theory calculations. The OH groups of the water ligands are involved in H-bonds to other water molecules or to the ? system of the naphthalene anion, which accommodates the excess electron. The interactions in the water network are generally found to be more important than those between water molecules and the ion. For 2 <= n <= 4 the water molecules form single layer water networks on one side of the naphthalene anion, while for n = 5 and 6, cage and multilayer structures become more energetically favorable. For cluster sizes with more than 3 water molecules, multiple conformers are likely to be responsible for the experimental spectra.

Knurr, Benjamin J.; Adams, Christopher L.; Weber, J. Mathias

2012-09-01

174

Infrared spectroscopy of hydrated naphthalene cluster anions.  

PubMed

We present infrared spectra of mass-selected C(10)H(8)(-)·(H(2)O)(n)·Ar(m) cluster anions (n = 1-6) obtained by Ar predissociation spectroscopy. The experimental spectra are compared with predicted spectra from density functional theory calculations. The OH groups of the water ligands are involved in H-bonds to other water molecules or to the ? system of the naphthalene anion, which accommodates the excess electron. The interactions in the water network are generally found to be more important than those between water molecules and the ion. For 2 ? n ? 4 the water molecules form single layer water networks on one side of the naphthalene anion, while for n = 5 and 6, cage and multilayer structures become more energetically favorable. For cluster sizes with more than 3 water molecules, multiple conformers are likely to be responsible for the experimental spectra. PMID:22979855

Knurr, Benjamin J; Adams, Christopher L; Weber, J Mathias

2012-09-14

175

Adiabatically Bound Valence Anions of Guanine  

SciTech Connect

The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. It is believed that guanine, a basic component of DNA and RNA, has the smallest affinity to an excess electron among all nucleic acid bases. Our experimental and computational findings indicate, however, that many so far neglected tautomers of guanine support adiabatically bound anionic states in the gas phase. The computed values of electron vertical detachment energy for the most stable anionic tautomers are within a broad range of the dominant feature of the photoelectron spectrum. We suggest that guanine might be the strongest excess electron acceptor among nucleic acid bases. Thus it might be critical to radiobiological damage of DNA and it might contribute to those chemical transformations of DNA that proceed through bound anionic states.

Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S.; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H.

2007-12-04

176

Metabolic signatures of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis reveal insights into disease pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Metabolic dysfunction is an important modulator of disease course in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We report here that a familial mouse model (transgenic mice over-expressing the G93A mutation of the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 gene) of ALS enters a progressive state of acidosis that is associated with several metabolic (hormonal) alternations that favor lipolysis. Extensive investigation of the major determinants of H+ concentration (i.e., the strong ion difference and the strong ion gap) suggests that acidosis is also due in part to the presence of an unknown anion. Consistent with a compensatory response to avert pathological acidosis, ALS mice harbor increased accumulation of glycogen in CNS and visceral tissues. The altered glycogen is associated with fluctuations in lysosomal and neutral ?-glucosidase activities. Disease-related changes in glycogen, glucose, and ?-glucosidase activity are also found in spinal cord tissue samples of autopsied patients with ALS. Collectively, these data provide insights into the pathogenesis of ALS as well as potential targets for drug development.

Dodge, James C.; Treleaven, Christopher M.; Fidler, Jonathan A.; Tamsett, Thomas J.; Bao, Channa; Searles, Michelle; Taksir, Tatyana V.; Misra, Kuma; Sidman, Richard L.; Cheng, Seng H.; Shihabuddin, Lamya S.

2013-01-01

177

Effect of dietary potassium and anionic salts on acid-base and mineral status in periparturient cows.  

PubMed

Dry cow diets based on grassland forage from intensive production contain high amounts of K and could be responsible for a reduced ability to maintain Ca homoeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine whether a moderate anionic salt supplementation to a forage-based pre-calving diet with varying native K content affects the mineral and acid-base status in transition cows. Twenty-four dry and pregnant Holstein cows, without antecedent episodes of clinical hypocalcemia, were assigned to two diets during the last 4 weeks before estimated calving date. Twelve cows were fed a hay-based diet low in K (18 g K/kg DM), and 12, a hay-based diet high in K (35 g K/kg DM). Within each diet, six cows received anionic salts during the last 2 weeks before the estimated calving day. After calving, all cows received the high K diet ad libitum. Blood samples were taken daily from day 11 pre-partum to day 5 post-partum. Urine samples were taken on days 7 and 2 pre-partum and on day 2 post-partum. The anionic salt did not alter feed intake during the pre-partum period. Serum Ca was not influenced by the dietary treatments. Feeding pre-partum diets with low K concentrations induced a reduced metabolic alkalotic charge, as indicated by reduced pre-partum urinary base-acid quotient. Transition cows fed the low K diet including anionic salts induced a mild metabolic acidosis before calving, as indicated by higher urinary Ca, lower urinary pH and net acid-base excretion. Although serum Ca during the post-partum period was not affected by dietary treatment, feeding a low K diet moderately supplemented with anionic salts to reach a dietary cation-anion difference close to zero permitted to obtain a metabolic response in periparturient cows without altering the dry matter intake. PMID:23796109

Rérat, M; Schlegel, P

2014-06-01

178

Identification and characterization of anion binding sites in RNA  

SciTech Connect

Although RNA molecules are highly negatively charged, anions have been observed bound to RNA in crystal structures. It has been proposed that anion binding sites found within isolated RNAs represent regions of the molecule that could be involved in intermolecular interactions, indicating potential contact points for negatively charged amino acids from proteins or phosphate groups from an RNA. Several types of anion binding sites have been cataloged based on available structures. However, currently there is no method for unambiguously assigning anions to crystallographic electron density, and this has precluded more detailed analysis of RNA-anion interaction motifs and their significance. We therefore soaked selenate into two different types of RNA crystals and used the anomalous signal from these anions to identify binding sites in these RNA molecules unambiguously. Examination of these sites and comparison with other suspected anion binding sites reveals features of anion binding motifs, and shows that selenate may be a useful tool for studying RNA-anion interactions.

Kieft, Jeffrey S.; Chase, Elaine; Costantino, David A.; Golden, Barbara L. (Purdue); (Colorado)

2010-05-24

179

Filling the launch gap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vehicles proposed to fill the gap in the U.S. space program's space transport needs for the next decade resulting from the January Challenger disaster, are discussed. Prior to the accident, the Air Force planned to purchase a Complementary Expendable Launch Vehicle system consisting of 10 single-use Titan-34D7 rockets. Another heavy lift booster now considered is the Phoenix H. Commercial launch vehicle systems projected to be available in the necessary time frame include the 215,000-pound thrust 4000-pound LEO payload capacity NASA Delta, the 11,300-pound LEO payload capacity Atlas Centaur the first ICBM, and the all-solid propellant expendable 2000-pound LEO payload Conestoga rocket. Also considered is the man-rated fully reusable Phoenix vertical take-off and vertical-landing launch vehicle.

Hoeser, S.

1986-05-01

180

Redox cycling of radical anion metabolites of toxic chemicals and drugs and the Marcus theory of electron transfer.  

PubMed Central

A wide variety of aromatic compounds are enzymatically reduced to form anion free radicals that generally contain one more electron than their parent compounds. In general, the electron donor is any of a wide variety of flavoenzymes. Once formed, these anion free radicals reduce molecular oxygen to superoxide and regenerate the parent compound unchanged. The net reaction is the oxidation of the flavoenzyme's coenzymes and the reduction of molecular oxygen. This catalytic behavior has been described as futile metabolism or redox cycling. Electron transfer theory is being applied to these reactions and, in some cases, has successfully correlated Vmax and Km with the reduction potentials of the aromatic compounds.

Mason, R P

1990-01-01

181

Transmembrane anion transport by synthetic systems.  

PubMed

This highlight examines recent advances in the development of synthetic membrane transporters for anions, highlighting the underlying principles of transporter design and the promising applications of such transporters to biological systems including potential future treatments for diseases like cystic fibrosis which is caused by dysregulation of chloride transport across epithelial cell membranes. PMID:21594245

Haynes, Cally J E; Gale, Philip A

2011-08-01

182

Anion-Conducting Polymer, Composition, and Membrane  

DOEpatents

Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

Pivovar, Bryan S. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Thorn, David L. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM

2008-10-21

183

Bimetallic anionic formyl complexes: synthesis and properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three bimetallic anionic complexes, (2) lithium + dimanganese nonacarbonyl formyl⁻, (3) lithium + rhenium manganese nonacarbonyl formyl⁻, and (4) lithium + cisdirhenium nonacarbonyl formyl, are prepared by the reaction of lithium triethylboron hydride with the corresponding neutral metal carbonyl dimers, dimanganese decacarbonyl and manganese rhenium decarbonyl. 2 has a half-life of ca 8 min at room temperature, 4 is stable

Wilson Tam; Marianne Marsi; J. A. Gladysz

1983-01-01

184

Regulatory Anionic Sites and Brain Acetylcholinesterase.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of using the fluorescent lanthanide terbium as a probe of the peripheral anionic sites on mammalian brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was studied. Terbium has been used as a fluorescence probe of Ca2+ binding sites in many enzyme proteins ...

J. K. Marquis

1982-01-01

185

Superelectrophilic amidine dications: dealkylation by triflate anion.  

PubMed

Superelectrophiles: Formamides were designed that when treated with triflic anhydride would be transformed into superelectrophilic amidine dications. These dications were so electrophilic that they underwent in situ dealkylation by the triflate anion (see scheme; Tf = trifluoromethanesulfonyl). DFT calculations were used to determine the mechanistic details of the dealkylation reaction. PMID:22807275

Kovacevic, Luka S; Idziak, Christopher; Markevicius, Augustinas; Scullion, Callum; Corr, Michael J; Kennedy, Alan R; Tuttle, Tell; Murphy, John A

2012-08-20

186

Anion-conducting polymer, composition, and membrane  

DOEpatents

Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

Pivovar, Bryan S. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Thorn, David L. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM

2009-09-01

187

Photoelectron spectroscopic studies of 5-halouracil anions  

SciTech Connect

The parent negative ions of 5-chlorouracil, UCl{sup -} and 5-fluorouracil, UF{sup -} have been studied using anion photoelectron spectroscopy in order to investigate the electrophilic properties of their corresponding neutral halouracils. The vertical detachment energies (VDE) of these anions and the adiabatic electron affinities (EA) of their neutral molecular counterparts are reported. These results are in good agreement with the results of previously published theoretical calculations. The VDE values for both UCl{sup -} and UF{sup -} and the EA values for their neutral molecular counterparts are much greater than the corresponding values for both anionic and neutral forms of canonical uracil and thymine. These results are consistent with the observation that DNA is more sensitive to radiation damage when thymine is replaced by halouracil. While we also attempted to prepare the parent anion of 5-bromouracil, UBr{sup -}, we did not observe it, the mass spectrum exhibiting only Br{sup -} fragments, i.e., 5-bromouracil apparently underwent dissociative electron attachment. This observation is consistent with a previous assessment, suggesting that 5-bromouracil is the best radio-sensitizer among these three halo-nucleobases.

Radisic, Dunja; Ko, Yeon Jae; Nilles, John M.; Stokes, Sarah T.; Bowen, Kit H. [Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Sevilla, Michael D. [Department of Chemistry, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309 (United States); Rak, Janusz [Department of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

2011-01-07

188

Complex coacervation of proteins and anionic polysaccharides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coacervation of proteins and anionic polysaccharides is both of practical and theoretical interest. From a large body of literature, it seems that the phase separation is mainly entropically driven, and may most probably be attributed to the delocalisation of the counter ions of the protein and the polysaccharide. The protein and polysaccharide appear to form complexes in solution, which can

Cornelus G. de Kruif; Fanny Weinbreck; Renko de Vries

2004-01-01

189

Anion-conducting polymer, composition, and membrane  

DOEpatents

Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

Pivovar, Bryan S. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Thorn, David L. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM

2010-12-07

190

Anion-conducting polymer, composition, and membrane  

SciTech Connect

Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

Pivovar, Bryan S. (Los Alamos, NM); Thorn, David L. (Los Alamos, NM)

2011-11-22

191

Pharmacological "cross-inhibition" of connexin hemichannels and swelling activated anion channels  

PubMed Central

The study of ion channels has relied heavily on the use of pharmacological blocking agents. However, many of these agents have multiple effects, which may compromise interpretation of results when the affected mechanisms/pathways mediate similar functions. Volume regulated anion channels (VRAC) and connexin hemichannels can both mediate the release of glutamate and taurine, although these channels have distinct activation stimuli and hemichannels, but not VRAC, are permeable to Lucifer yellow (LY). It has been reported that some anion channel blockers may inhibit connexin hemichannels. We further examined the effects of classic gap junction/hemichannel blockers and anion channel blockers on these channels. The typical VRAC blockers NPPB, IAA-94 and tamoxifen blocked low divalent cation-induced glutamate and taurine release and LY loading, presumed due to hemichannel opening. The blocking action of these compounds on hemichannels was concentration dependent and fell within the same range where the drugs classically block VRACs. Conversely, carbenoxolone (CBX), the most widely used gap junction/hemichannel blocker, was an effective blocker of VRAC mediated glutamate and taurine release, and blocked these channels at similar concentrations at which it blocked hemichannels. The CBX effect on VRACs was verified using astrocytes from connexin 43 knock out (Cx43 KO) animals. In these cells, the hypotonic induced amino acid flux was retained while the low divalent cation solution flux was lost. These results extend our knowledge about ‘cross-inhibition’ of VRACs and gap junctions/hemichannels by certain pharmacological agents. Given the overlap in function of these two types of channels, great care must be exerted in using pharmacological blockers to identify one channel from the other.

Ye, Zu-Cheng; Oberheim, NancyAnn; Kettenmann, Helmut; Ransom, Bruce R.

2009-01-01

192

SUPRAMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY OF SELECTIVE ANION RECOGNITION FOR ANIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL RELEVANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The supramolecular chemistry of selective anion recognition by synthetic polyammonium macrocycles will be explored in a comprehensive, long term program designed to provide new solutions to problems critical to the environmental initiative of DOE. Highly shape- and charge selecti...

193

New Anionic Rearrangements. Viii. 1,4-Anionic Rearrangement of Silylethylenediamines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several organosilyl derivatives of ethylenediamine, N-phenylethylenediamine, and N-methylethylenediamine were prepared and characterized. In the presence of n-butyllithium, N,N'-bis(organosilyl)-N-phenylethylenediamines undergo intramolecular 1,4-anionic ...

R. West M. Ishikawa S. Murai

1968-01-01

194

Metabolic Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone your body produces to help ... into energy for your body. If you are insulin resistant, too much sugar builds up in your ...

195

Metabolism Roundup  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Laboratory rats with large amounts of type II muscle fiber, maintained health for a longer period of time. In addition, those fed artificial sweetener tended to slow down their metabolism and show weight gain.

Science Update (AAAS;)

2008-02-29

196

Experimental and theoretical studies on the electronic properties of vanadium-benzene sandwich cluster anions, VnBzn+1- (n = 1-5)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vanadium-benzene cluster anions, VnBzn+1- (Bz = C6H6) were generated by laser ablation and supersonic jet methods, and studied using photoelectron spectroscopy. The density functional theory was employed to compute their geometric and electronic structures. It is concluded that the VnBzn+1- anions exhibit multiple-decker sandwich structures similar to their corresponding neutrals, and the adiabatic electron affinity increases with the cluster size. Our computation shows that the excess electron of the anion occupies the d orbitals of the vanadium atoms and that it is delocalized one-dimensionally. Furthermore, a very large HOMO-LUMO gap difference between majority and minority spin orbitals is observed for both the neutrals and the anions, and the VnBzn+10/- clusters are found to be completely spin-polarized. These facts confirm the possibility of using VnBzn+1 clusters as spin filters.

Masubuchi, Tsugunosuke; Ohi, Katsuya; Iwasa, Takeshi; Nakajima, Atsushi

2012-12-01

197

Anion conductance of the human red cell is carried by a maxi-anion channel.  

PubMed

Historically, the anion transport through the human red cell membrane has been perceived to be mediated by Band 3, in the two-component concept with the large electroneutral anion exchange accompanied by the conductance proper, which dominated the total membrane conductance. The status of anion channels proper has never been clarified, and the informations obtained by different groups of electrophysiologists are rather badly matched. This study, using the cell-attached configuration of the patch-clamp technique, rationalizes and explains earlier confusing results by demonstrating that the diversity of anionic channel activities recorded in human erythrocytes corresponds to different kinetic modalities of a unique type of maxi-anion channel with multiple conductance levels and probably multiple gating properties and pharmacology, depending on conditions. It demonstrates the role of activator played by serum in the recruitment of multiple new conductance levels showing very complex kinetics and gating properties upon serum addition. These channels, which seem to be dormant under normal physiological conditions, are potentially activable and could confer a far higher anion conductance to the red cell than the ground leak mediated by Band 3. PMID:20226698

Glogowska, Edyta; Dyrda, Agnieszka; Cueff, Anne; Bouyer, Guillaume; Egée, Stéphane; Bennekou, Poul; Thomas, Serge L Y

2010-04-15

198

Understanding and Modeling Removal of Anionic Organic Contaminants (AOCs) by Anion Exchange Resins.  

PubMed

Ionic organic contaminants (OCs) are a growing concern for water treatment and the environment and are removed inefficiently by many existing technologies. This study examined removal of anionic OCs by anion exchange resins (AXRs) as a promising alternative. Results indicate that two polystyrene AXRs (IRA910 and IRA96) have higher sorption capacities and selectivity than a polyacrylate resin (A860). For the polystyrene resins, selectivity follows: phenolates ? aromatic dicarboxylates > aromatic monocarboxylates > benzenesulfonate > aliphatic carboxylates. This trend can be explained based on hydration energy, the number of exchange groups, and aromaticity and hydrophobicity of the nonpolar moiety (NPM) of the anions. For A860, selectivity only varies within a narrow range (0.13-1.64). Despite the importance of the NPM of the anions, neutral solutes were sorbed much less, indicating synergistic combinations of electrostatic and nonelectrostatic interactions in the overall sorption. By conducting multiple linear regression between Abraham's descriptors and nature log of selectivity, induced dipole-related interactions and electrostatic interactions were found to be the most important interaction forces for sorption of the anions, while solute H-bond basicity has a negative effect. A predictive model was then developed for carboxylates and phenolates based on the poly parameter linear free energy relationships established for a diverse range of 16 anions and 5 neutral solutes, and was validated by accurate prediction of sorption of five test solutes within a wide range of equilibrium concentrations and that of benzoate at different pH. PMID:24877792

Zhang, Huichun; Shields, Anthony J; Jadbabaei, Nastaran; Nelson, Maurice; Pan, Bingjun; Suri, Rominder P S

2014-07-01

199

Three hydroxy aurone compounds as chemosensors for cyanide anions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three new 4-hydroxy aurone compounds 1-3 with dimethylamino (1), bromine (2) and cyano (3) as terminal group have been synthesized. Their photophysical properties as well as recognition properties for cyanide anions in acetonitrile and aqueous solution have also been examined. These compounds exhibit remarkable response to cyanide anions with obvious color and fluorescence change owing to hydrogen bonding reaction between cyanide anions and the O-H moiety of the sensors, which allows naked eye detection of cyanide anions.

Chen, Huihui; Sun, Yunhui; Zhou, Chuanjian; Cao, Duxia; Liu, Zhiqiang; Ma, Lin

2013-12-01

200

Recognition of Chiral Carboxylic Anions by Artificial Receptors  

PubMed Central

Many carboxylic molecules, ranging from drugs to flavors and fragrances, contain chiral centers. As a consequence, research has been carried out in order to design and synthesize artificial receptors for carboxylic anions. Many problems have to be solved for binding anions. The results obtained in the binding of carboxylic anions by guanidine, secondary ammonium and metal-center have been selected. The last part of this review focuses on chiral recognition of carboxylic anions by organic and metal-based chiral receptors.

Dieng, Pape Sylla; Sirlin, Claude

2010-01-01

201

Field Induced Gap Infrared Detector.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A tunable infrared detector which employs a vanishing band gap semi-metal material provided with an induced band gap by a magnetic field to allow intrinsic semiconductor type infrared detection capabilities is disclosed. The semi-metal material may thus o...

C. T. Elliott

1989-01-01

202

Adsorption of DNA onto anionic lipid surfaces.  

PubMed

Currently self-assembled DNA delivery systems composed of DNA multivalent cations and anionic lipids are considered to be promising tools for gene therapy. These systems become an alternative to traditional cationic lipid-DNA complexes because of their low cytotoxicity lipids. However, currently these nonviral gene delivery methods exhibit low transfection efficiencies. This feature is in large part due to the poorly understood DNA complexation mechanisms at the molecular level. It is well-known that the adsorption of DNA onto like charged lipid surfaces requires the presence of multivalent cations that act as bridges between DNA and anionic lipids. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanisms behind such adsorption phenomenon still remain unclear. Accordingly a historical background of experimental evidence related to adsorption and complexation of DNA onto anionic lipid surfaces mediated by different multivalent cations is firstly reviewed. Next, recent experiments aimed to characterise the interfacial adsorption of DNA onto a model anionic phospholipid monolayer mediated by Ca(2+) (including AFM images) are discussed. Afterwards, modelling studies of DNA adsorption onto charged surfaces are summarised before presenting preliminary results obtained from both CG and all-atomic MD computer simulations. Our results allow us to establish the optimal conditions for cation-mediated adsorption of DNA onto negatively charged surfaces. Moreover, atomistic simulations provide an excellent framework to understand the interaction between DNA and anionic lipids in the presence of divalent cations. Accordingly,our simulation results in conjunction go beyond the macroscopic picture in which DNA is stuck to anionic membranes by using multivalent cations that form glue layers between them. Structural aspects of the DNA adsorption and molecular binding between the different charged groups from DNA and lipids in the presence of divalent cations are reported in the last part of the study. Although this research work is far from biomedical applications, we truly believe that scientific advances in this line will assist, at least in part, in the rational design and development of optimal carrier systems for genes and applicable to other drugs. PMID:24359695

Martín-Molina, Alberto; Luque-Caballero, Germán; Faraudo, Jordi; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel; Maldonado-Valderrama, Julia

2014-04-01

203

Energy gaps in ?-graphdiyne nanoribbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

?-graphdiyne is a novel predicted Dirac cone material, which is similar to graphene. But the absence of a band gap significantly limits its practical applications. In order to extend this limitation, an opening of energy gap is needed. To this end, we resort to the nanoribbon structure of ?-graphdiyne. This is a conventional proposal to open up the energy gaps in nanomaterials. The results show that both the armchair and the zigzag ?-graphdiyne nanoribbons do generate energy gaps, which are width-dependent. In addition, the underlying mechanism of this opening is explored. The former is ascribed to the combination of quantum confinement and edges' effect, while the latter arises from the edge magnetic ordering. These novel nanoribbons with opening energy gaps would be potentially used in electronic devices.

Niu, X. N.; Yang, D. Z.; Si, M. S.; Xue, D. S.

2014-04-01

204

Energy gaps in graphene nanoribbons.  

PubMed

Based on a first-principles approach, we present scaling rules for the band gaps of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) as a function of their widths. The GNRs considered have either armchair or zigzag shaped edges on both sides with hydrogen passivation. Both varieties of ribbons are shown to have band gaps. This differs from the results of simple tight-binding calculations or solutions of the Dirac's equation based on them. Our ab initio calculations show that the origin of energy gaps for GNRs with armchair shaped edges arises from both quantum confinement and the crucial effect of the edges. For GNRs with zigzag shaped edges, gaps appear because of a staggered sublattice potential on the hexagonal lattice due to edge magnetization. The rich gap structure for ribbons with armchair shaped edges is further obtained analytically including edge effects. These results reproduce our ab initio calculation results very well. PMID:17155765

Son, Young-Woo; Cohen, Marvin L; Louie, Steven G

2006-11-24

205

Energy Gaps in Graphene Nanoribbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on a first-principles approach, we present scaling rules for the band gaps of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) as a function of their widths. The GNRs considered have either armchair or zigzag shaped edges on both sides with hydrogen passivation. Both varieties of ribbons are shown to have band gaps. This differs from the results of simple tight-binding calculations or solutions of the Dirac’s equation based on them. Our ab initio calculations show that the origin of energy gaps for GNRs with armchair shaped edges arises from both quantum confinement and the crucial effect of the edges. For GNRs with zigzag shaped edges, gaps appear because of a staggered sublattice potential on the hexagonal lattice due to edge magnetization. The rich gap structure for ribbons with armchair shaped edges is further obtained analytically including edge effects. These results reproduce our ab initio calculation results very well.

Son, Young-Woo; Cohen, Marvin L.; Louie, Steven G.

2006-11-01

206

Reversible photochromism of an N-salicylidene aniline anion.  

PubMed

The first N-salicylidene aniline anion showing reversible solid state thermochromic and photochromic properties is described. The photo-isomerization involves a trans-keto form which is stabilized thanks to the local anion surrounding. This photochromic anion can be used as a guest for the preparation of hybrid materials by insertion into a cationic host matrix. PMID:24022381

Jacquemin, Pierre-Loïc; Robeyns, Koen; Devillers, Michel; Garcia, Yann

2014-01-21

207

GAP Analysis Bulletin Number 15  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mission of the Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is to promote conservation by providing broad geographic information on biological diversity to resource managers, planners, and policy makers who can use the information to make informed decisions. As part of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) ?a collaborative program to provide increased access to data and information on the nation?s biological resources--GAP data and analytical tools have been used in hundreds of applications: from basic research to comprehensive state wildlife plans; from educational projects in schools to ecoregional assessments of biodiversity. The challenge: keeping common species common means protecting them BEFORE they become threatened. To do this on a state or regional basis requires key information such as land cover descriptions, predicted distribution maps for native animals, and an assessment of the level of protection currently given to those plants and animals. GAP works cooperatively with Federal, state, and local natural resource professionals and academics to provide this kind of information. GAP activities focus on the creation of state and regional databases and maps that depict patterns of land management, land cover, and biodiversity. These data can be used to identify ?gaps? in conservation--instances where an animal or plant community is not adequately represented on the existing network of conservation lands. GAP is administered through the U.S. Geological Survey. Through building partnerships among disparate groups, GAP hopes to foster the kind of collaboration that is needed to address conservation issues on a broad scale. For more information, contact: John Mosesso National GAP Director 703-648-4079 Kevin Gergely National GAP Operations Manager 208-885-3565

Edited by Maxwell, Jill; Gergely, Kevin; Aycrigg, Jocelyn; Canonico, Gabrielle; Davidson, Anne; Coffey, Nicole

2008-01-01

208

Partial defect of neutrophil oxidative metabolism in Crohn's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymorphonuclear leucocytes of patients with untreated Crohn's disease showed a lower level of oxidative metabolism than polymorphonuclear leucocytes of treated Crohn's disease patients and controls. Whereas the production of superoxide anion (O-.2) in Crohn's disease patients was almost normal, polymorphonuclear leucocytes of untreated Crohn's disease patients showed a significantly deficient production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In the medically treated Crohn's

H W Verspaget; M A Mieremet-Ooms; I T Weterman; A S Peña

1984-01-01

209

Mind the Gap  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomers have been able to study planet-forming discs around young Sun-like stars in unsurpassed detail, clearly revealing the motion and distribution of the gas in the inner parts of the disc. This result, which possibly implies the presence of giant planets, was made possible by the combination of a very clever method enabled by ESO's Very Large Telescope. Uncovering the disc ESO PR Photo 27a/08 Planet-forming Disc Planets could be home to other forms of life, so the study of exoplanets ranks very high in contemporary astronomy. More than 300 planets are already known to orbit stars other than the Sun, and these new worlds show an amazing diversity in their characteristics. But astronomers don't just look at systems where planets have already formed - they can also get great insights by studying the discs around young stars where planets may currently be forming. "This is like going 4.6 billion years back in time to watch how the planets of our own Solar System formed," says Klaus Pontoppidan from Caltech, who led the research. Pontoppidan and colleagues have analysed three young analogues of our Sun that are each surrounded by a disc of gas and dust from which planets could form. These three discs are just a few million years old and were known to have gaps or holes in them, indicating regions where the dust has been cleared and the possible presence of young planets. The new results not only confirm that gas is present in the gaps in the dust, but also enable astronomers to measure how the gas is distributed in the disc and how the disc is oriented. In regions where the dust appears to have been cleared out, molecular gas is still highly abundant. This can either mean that the dust has clumped together to form planetary embryos, or that a planet has already formed and is in the process of clearing the gas in the disc. For one of the stars, SR 21, a likely explanation is the presence of a massive giant planet orbiting at less than 3.5 times the distance between the Earth and the Sun, while for the second star, HD 135344B, a possible planet could be orbiting at 10 to 20 times the Earth-Sun distance. The observations of the third star, TW Hydrae, may also require the presence of one or two planets. "Our observations with the CRIRES instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope clearly reveal that the discs around these three young, Sun-like stars are all very different and will most likely result in very different planetary systems," concludes Pontoppidan. "Nature certainly does not like to repeat herself" [1]. "These kinds of observations complement the future work of the ALMA observatory, which will be imaging these discs in great detail and on a larger scale," adds Ewine van Dishoeck, from Leiden Observatory, who works with Pontoppidan. To study the gaps in dust discs that are the size of the Solar System around stars that are located up to 400 light-years away is a daunting challenge that requires a clever solution and the best possible instruments [2]. "Traditional imaging cannot hope to see details on the scale of planetary distances for objects located so far away," explains van Dishoeck. "Interferometry can do better but won't allow us to follow the motion of the gas." Astronomers used a technique known as 'spectro-astrometric imaging' to give them a window into the inner regions of the discs where Earth-like planets may be forming. They were able not only to measure distances as small as one-tenth the Earth-Sun distance, but to measure the velocity of the gas at the same time [3]. "The particular configuration of the instrument and the use of adaptive optics allows astronomers to carry out observations with this technique in a very user-friendly way: as a consequence, spectro-astrometric imaging with CRIRES can now be routinely performed," says team member Alain Smette, from ESO [4].

2008-09-01

210

SIMULATING METABOLISM OF XENOBIOTIC CHEMICALS AS A PREDICTOR OF TOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA is faced with long lists of chemicals that need to be assessed for hazard. A major gap in evaluating chemical risk is accounting for metabolic activation resulting in increased toxicity. The goals of this project are to develop a capability to forecast the metabolism of xenob...

211

Connexin-43 hemichannels opened by metabolic inhibition.  

PubMed

The cause of altered ionic homeostasis leading to cell death during ischemia and metabolic inhibition is unclear. Hemichannels, which are precursors to gap junctions, are nonselective ion channels that are permeable to molecules of less than Mr 1000. We show that hemichannels open upon exposure to calcium-free solutions when they are either heterologously overexpressed in HEK293 cells or endogenously expressed in cardiac ventricular myocytes. In the presence of normal extracellular calcium, hemichannels open during metabolic inhibition. During ischemia and other forms of metabolic inhibition, activation of relatively few hemichannels will seriously compromise the cell's ability to maintain ionic homeostasis, which is an essential step promoting cell death. PMID:9867835

John, S A; Kondo, R; Wang, S Y; Goldhaber, J I; Weiss, J N

1999-01-01

212

External-anion-dependent anionic current in blastoderm cells of early medaka fish embryos.  

PubMed Central

1. Anionic current was studied by a whole-cell variation of the patch-clamp technique in blastoderm cells dissociated from medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos at the early blastula stage. The blastoderm cells were mechanically dissociated without using proteolytic enzymes. 2. The anionic current was deactivated by hyperpolarizing steps. The steady-state current-voltage (I-V) relationship of the anion current was accurately represented by the Boltzmann relation with z = 1.01 +/- 0.02 (+/- S.E.M., n = 4) for voltage-dependent activation when internal calcium ions were buffered at 100 nM by BAPTA-Ca2+ buffer. 3. When the internal calcium concentration was reduced to 10 nM, this anionic current became an external-calcium-dependent current and was remarkably decreased by removal of external calcium ions. Furthermore, this anionic current was almost abolished when the internal calcium concentration was greatly reduced by chelating Ca2+ ions with 10 mM BAPTA. 4. This current was not affected by replacing external Na+ with TEA+ or N-methyl-D-glucamine. The reversal potentials shifted by +58.6 mV for a 10-fold decrease in the external Cl-concentration. External Cl-ions were substituted with various anions and respective current-reversal potentials were measured. The order of permeability was I- > Br- > Cl- > F-. Both the outward and inward currents almost disappeared in external Cl(-)-free solutions. 5. The voltage dependency of the anionic current shifted in a positive direction with the reduction in the external Cl- concentration, the potentials at which half the channels were activated (V 1/2) being -59.8 +/- 1.2 mV (n = 4), -40.7 +/- 0.8 mV (n = 4), -14.9 +/- 0.7 mV (n = 4), and -0.7 +/- 0.6 mV (n = 4) for 135, 90, 67, and 45 mM Cl-, respectively. This implies that the inward current, brought by efflux of internal anions, decreases with reductions in the external Cl- concentration. In the presence of external 135 mM Br-, the voltage dependency of the anionic current shifted in the negative direction (V 1/2 = -84.5 +/- 1.0 mV and z = 0.91 +/- 0.02 (n = 3)) in comparison with that in the external Cl- medium. It further shifted in the negative direction in the presence of 135 mM I- (V 1/2 = -93.8 +/- 1.5 mV and z = 0.85 +/- 0.03 (n = 3)). The inward current of the anion channel is considered to be affected by both the type and the concentration of external halide ions. 6. At the beginning of the blastula stage, the blastocoel cavity is formed for the first time. A mechanism is necessary to transport ions to the cavity without losing them to pond water outside the embryos. Since this anion channel is external-anion dependent, the current cannot be activated in the membrane facing the pond water, where concentrations of anions are much lower than those of the intracavernous solution. Only after blastocoel formation are blastoderm cells first exposed to the extracellular fluid with high ionic concentrations. Then, the anion channel would become effective for maintaining the Cl- equilibrium potential.

Shigemoto, T; Okada, Y

1996-01-01

213

Anion photoelectron spectroscopy of radicals and clusters  

SciTech Connect

Anion photoelectron spectroscopy is used to study free radicals and clusters. The low-lying {sup 2}{Sigma} and {sup 2}{Pi} states of C{sub 2n}H (n = 1--4) have been studied. The anion photoelectron spectra yielded electron affinities, term values, and vibrational frequencies for these combustion and astrophysically relevant species. Photoelectron angular distributions allowed the author to correctly assign the electronic symmetry of the ground and first excited states and to assess the degree of vibronic coupling in C{sub 2}H and C{sub 4}H. Other radicals studied include NCN and I{sub 3}. The author was able to observe the low-lying singlet and triplet states of NCN for the first time. Measurement of the electron affinity of I{sub 3} revealed that it has a bound ground state and attachment of an argon atom to this moiety enabled him to resolve the symmetric stretching progression.

Travis, Taylor R.

1999-12-16

214

Photoinduced orientational order of dichloride anion radicals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The photo-orientation of dichloride anion radicals (Cl{2/-·}) in a glassy solution of 5 M LiCl is discussed. The quantitative characteristics of orientation of paramagnetic molecules were determined using the anisotropy of optical absorption and the angular dependence of the EPR spectrum. The orientational distribution function of ordered anion radicals was determined by joint computer modeling of the EPR spectrum recorded at different directions of the symmetry axis of a sample relative to the magnetic field of a spectrometer. It was found that the value of the order parameter (-0.1 ± 0.01), calculated from the orientational distribution function coincides with the value obtained under the measurements of the linear dichroism in the range of the detection error (-0.12 ± 0.01).

Yankova, T. S.; Chumakova, N. A.; Vorob'ev, A. Kh.

2011-04-01

215

Arylpyrrole oligomers as tunable anion receptors.  

PubMed

A novel type of arylpyrrole oligomer possessing an appropriate electropositive cavity has been designed, prepared and analysed for use as readily accessible receptors for negatively charged guests. Affinities of the receptors for various anions were determined by UV/Vis titration experiments and in depth insights into the host-guest interactions were gained by performing (1)H NMR titration experiments and X-ray crystallographic structure analyses. Experimentally determined association constants were correlated with the calculated maximum electrostatic potentials of the electropositive cavities of the receptors, allowing estimation of the strengths of host-guest associations in similar compounds. The joint contribution of aryl C-H and pyrrole N-H hydrogens was shown to be key to a strong guest association, resulting in the arylpyrrole oligomers being efficient anion receptors. PMID:24945788

Van Rossom, Wim; Terentyeva, Tatyana G; Sodeyama, Keitaro; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Hill, Jonathan P

2014-07-01

216

Modeling peptide binding to anionic membrane pores.  

PubMed

Peptide-induced pore formation in membranes can be dissected into two steps: pore formation and peptide binding to the pore. A computational method is proposed to study the second step in anionic membranes. The electrostatic potential is obtained from numerical solutions to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation and is then used in conjunction with IMM1 (implicit membrane model 1). A double charge layer model is used to incorporate the effects of the membrane dipole potential. Inhomogeneity of the charge density in the pore, characterized by explicit membrane simulations of toroidal pores, is included in the model. This approach was applied to two extensively studied peptides, magainin and melittin. In agreement with previous work, binding to toroidal pores is more favorable than binding to the flat membrane. The dependence of binding energy on anionic content exhibits different patterns for the two peptides, in correlation with the different lipid selectivity that has been observed experimentally. PMID:23580260

He, Yi; Prieto, Lidia; Lazaridis, Themis

2013-06-30

217

"Gap" or "Gaps": Challenging the Singular Definition of the Achievement Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For decades, researchers examined the "achievement gap" between minority and nonminority students. This singular definition of "achievement gap" ignores important within-group differences. This article uses National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88) data to examine within-group differences and compares those across Latino, African American,…

Carpenter, Dick M., II; Ramirez, Al; Severn, Laura

2006-01-01

218

Detection of Perchlorate Anion on Functionalized Silver Colloids Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering  

SciTech Connect

Perchlorate anion interferes with the uptake of iodide by the human thyroid gland and consequently disrupts the regulation of metabolism. Chronic exposure to high levels of perchlorate may lead to the formation of thyroid gland tumors. Although the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has not set a maximum contaminant level (MCL) for perchlorate, a draft drinking water range of 4-18 ppb based on 2 liter daily consumption of water has been established. The current EPA approved method for detecting perchlorate uses ion chromatography which has a detection limit of ~1ppb and involves lengthy analytical time in the laboratory. A unique combination of the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect and the bifunctional anion exchange resin’s high selectivity may provide an alternative way to detect perchlorate at such low concentrations and with high specificity. SERS, which uses laser excitation of adsorbed perchlorate anions on silver nanoparticles, has been shown to detect perchlorate anions at concentrations as low as 50 ppb. Normal micro-Raman analysis of perchlorate sorbed onto the resin beads has detected an even lower concentration of 10 ppb. In an effort to integrate these two effects, silver nanoparticles were coated with N-trimethoxysilylpropyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride, a functional group similar to that found on the resin bead, and subsequently inserted into different perchlorate concentration environments. This method has resulted in perchlorate detection down to ~10 ppb and a more consistent detection of perchlorate anion at ~50 ppb than that of earlier methods. As suggested by the direct insertion of functionalized silver colloids into perchlorate samples, this technique may potentially allow for the development of a probe using on-site Raman spectrometry to detect significantly low concentrations of perchlorate in situ rather than in the laboratory.

Tio, J.; Wang, W.; Gu, B.

2005-01-01

219

Empirical correlation methods for temporary anions.  

PubMed

A temporary anion is a short-lived radical anion that decays through electron autodetachment into a neutral molecule and a free electron. The energies of these metastable species are often predicted using empirical correlation methods because ab initio predictions are computationally very expensive. Empirical correlation methods can be justified in the framework of Weisskopf-Fano-Feshbach theory but tend to work well only within closely related families of molecules or within a restricted energy range. The reason for this behavior can be understood using an alternative theoretical justification in the framework of the Hazi-Taylor stabilization method, which suggests that the empirical parameters do not so much correct for the coupling of the computed state to the continuum but for electron correlation effects and that therefore empirical correlation methods can be improved by using more accurate electronic structure methods to compute the energy of the confined electron. This idea is tested by choosing a heterogeneous reference set of temporary states and comparing empirical correlation schemes based on Hartree-Fock orbital energies, Kohn-Sham orbital energies, and attachment energies computed with the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method. The results show that using more reliable energies for the confined electron indeed enhances the predictive power of empirical correlation schemes and that useful correlations can be established beyond closely related families of molecules. Certain types of ?* states are still problematic, and the reasons for this behavior are analyzed. On the other hand, preliminary results suggest that the new scheme can even be useful for predicting energies of bound anions at a fraction of the computational cost of reliable ab initio calculations. It is then used to make predictions for bound and temporary states of the furantrione and croconic acid radical anions. PMID:21591658

Sommerfeld, Thomas; Weber, Rebecca J

2011-06-23

220

Deuterium anions in inertial electrostatic confinement devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A magnetic deflection-energy analyzer and Faraday trap diagnostic have been used to make measurements of divergent deuterium anion flow in the inertial electrostatic confinement experiment at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW-IEC) [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, I. E. Radel, and A.

D. R. Boris; E. Alderson; G. Becerra; D. C. Donovan; B. Egle; G. A. Emmert; L. Garrison; G. L. Kulcinski; J. F. Santarius; C. Schuff; S. J. Zenobia

2009-01-01

221

Squarylium-based chromogenic anion sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A squarylium (SQ) dye was synthesized by the reaction between squaric acid and 2,3,3-trimethylindolenine and its anion sensing properties were investigated using absorption and emission spectroscopy. This chemosensor exhibited high selectivity for CN- as compared with F-, CHCO2-, Br-, HPO4-, Cl-, and NO3- in acetonitrile, which was attributed to the formation of a 1:1 squarylium:CN- coordination complex, the formation of which was supported by the calculated geometry of the complex.

Lee, Eun-Mi; Gwon, Seon-Yeong; Son, Young-A.; Kim, Sung-Hoon

2012-09-01

222

Discovery of anion-? interactions in the recognition mechanism of inorganic anions by 1,2,3-triazolium rings.  

PubMed

A bis(triazolium)-based receptor designed for anion recognition is presented. NMR spectroscopic data indicate that one triazolium ring is acting as a hydrogen bond donor, whereas the second triazolium ring behaves as an anion-? receptor. The simultaneous presence of two noncovalent interactions allows us to achieve a highly selective binding of the hydrogenpyrophosphate anion. PMID:24525718

Caballero, Antonio; Zapata, Fabiola; González, Lidia; Molina, Pedro; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José

2014-05-11

223

ANIONIC SITES OF HUMAN ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANES  

PubMed Central

The effects of pH, trypsin, and phospholipase C on the topographic distribution of acidic anionic residues on human erythrocytes was investigated using colloidal iron hydroxide labeling of mounted, fixed ghost membranes. After glutaraldehyde fixation at pH 6.5–7.5, the positively charged colloidal particles were bound to the membranes in small randomly distributed clusters. The clusters of anionic sites were reversibly aggregated by incubation at pH 5.5 before fixation at the same pH. These results correlate with the distribution of intramembranous particles found by Pinto da Silva (J. Cell Biol. 53:777), with the exception that the distribution of anionic sites on a majority of the fixed ghosts at pH 4.5 was aggregated instead of dispersed. The randomly distributed clusters could be nonreversibly aggregated by trypsin or phospholipase C treatment of intact ghosts before glutaraldehyde fixation. Previous glutaraldehyde fixation prevented trypsin and pH induced aggregation of the colloidal iron sites. Evidence that N-acetylneuraminic acid groups are the principal acidic residues binding colloidal iron was the elimination of greater than 85% of the colloidal iron labeling to neuraminidase-treated cell membranes. Colloidal iron binding N-acetylneuraminic acid residues may reside on membrane molecules such as glycophorin, a sialoglycoprotein which contains the majority of the N-acetylneuraminic acid found on the human erythrocyte membrane.

Nicolson, Garth L.

1973-01-01

224

Arsenic-containing chalcophosphate molecular anions.  

PubMed

We report five new discrete molecular arsenic-based chalcophosphates, K(7)As(3)(P(2)Se(6))(4) (1), K(6)As(2)(P(2)Se(6))(3) (2), Cs(6)As(2)(P(2)Se(6))(3) (3), and Cs(5)As(P(2)Q(6))(2) [Q = Se (4a) and S (4b)]. Each of the compounds contains unique complex anions comprised of common building blocks that have condensed to produce these anions. Phosphorus forms well-known [P(2)Q(6)](4-) moieties in all of the compounds that are bridged by arsenic trigonal pyramids in 1 and 2 and distorted octahedra in 3, 4a, and 4b. Although 2 and 3 have the same molecular formula, the structural difference between the two salts is attributed to the size of the alkali metal. The influence of flux basicity also seems to play a role in the formation of the molecular anion in 4a and 4b, which has been observed with other trivalent main-group elements at the octahedral position but only with the highly basic cesium alkali metal as the counterion. All structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and are discussed along with phase-purity powder X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses, electronic absorption, and Raman spectroscopy. PMID:20825231

Morris, Collin D; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

2010-10-01

225

Fluorescence quenching of etilefrine by acetate anion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid dissociation in the excited state of antihypotensor drug etilefrine [2-(ethylamino1-3-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol] is studied. Fluorescence of etilefrine decreases at pH<7 and is related to phenolic group dissociation. However, intensity of etilefrine fluorescence diminishes as the concentration of the acetate anion increases at pH>7. Analyses of the absorption and fluorescence spectra of aqueous solutions of etilefrine in the presence of acetate anions have been made. Considering the existence of an equilibrium in the excited state the values of 3.47×10 -9 and 0.216×10 -9 M -1 s -1 have been obtained for the rate constants for direct and inverse reactions, respectively. Moreover, the lifetime ( ?0'=0.58×10 -9 s) and quantum yield (0.01) of non-protonated etilefrine have been determined. Our results seem to support the existence of a dynamic quenching process based on a proton transfer mechanism induced by acetate anions. This process could represent a serious inconvenience in analytical fluorimetric techniques taking into account that the acetic acid/acetate pair is commonly used as a buffer. Additional fluorescence quenching by H + ions could be involved in acid aqueous mediums. At high concentrations of acetic acid, a value of 2.98×10 -9 M -1 s -1 for the bimolecular constant for the quenching by H + has been calculated.

Quintero Osso, B.; Carazo Rodríguez, F. M.; Morales Domingo, J. J.; Cabeza González, M. C.; Thomas Gómez, J.

1999-02-01

226

Pneumatic gap sensor and method  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for monitoring and maintaining a predetermined width in the gap between a casting nozzle and a casting wheel, wherein the gap is monitored by means of at least one pneumatic gap sensor. The pneumatic gap sensor is mounted on the casting nozzle in proximity to the casting surface and is connected by means of a tube to a regulator and a transducer. The regulator provides a flow of gas through a restictor to the pneumatic gap sensor, and the transducer translates the changes in the gas pressure caused by the proximity of the casting wheel to the pneumatic gap sensor outlet into a signal intelligible to a control device. The relative positions of the casting nozzle and casting wheel can thereby be selectively adjusted to continually maintain a predetermined distance between their adjacent surfaces. The apparatus and method enables accurate monitoring of the actual casting gap in a simple and reliable manner resistant to the extreme temperatures and otherwise hostile casting environment.

Bagdal, Karl T. (Middletown, OH); King, Edward L. (Trenton, OH); Follstaedt, Donald W. (Middletown, OH)

1992-01-01

227

Ion Engine Grid Gap Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simple technique for measuring the grid gap of an ion engine s ion optics during startup and steady-state operation was demonstrated with beam extraction. The grid gap at the center of the ion optics assembly was measured with a long distance microscope that was focused onto an alumina pin that protruded through the center accelerator grid aperture and was mechanically attached to the screen grid. This measurement technique was successfully applied to a 30 cm titanium ion optics assembly mounted onto an NSTAR engineering model ion engine. The grid gap and each grid s movement during startup from room temperature to both full and low power were measured. The grid gaps with and without beam extraction were found to be significantly different. The grid gaps at the ion optics center were both significantly smaller than the cold grid gap and different at the two power levels examined. To avoid issues associated with a small grid gap during thruster startup with titanium ion optics, a simple method was to operate the thruster initially without beam extraction to heat the ion optics. Another possible method is to apply high voltage to the grids prior to igniting the discharge because power deposition to the grids from the plasma is lower with beam extraction than without. Further testing would be required to confirm this approach.

Soulas, Gerge C.; Frandina, Michael M.

2004-01-01

228

Pneumatic gap sensor and method  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for monitoring and maintaining a predetermined width in the gap between a casting nozzle and a casting wheel, wherein the gap is monitored by means of at least one pneumatic gap sensor. The pneumatic gap sensor is mounted on the casting nozzle in proximity to the casting surface and is connected by means of a tube to a regulator and a transducer. The regulator provides a flow of gas through a restictor to the pneumatic gap sensor, and the transducer translates the changes in the gas pressure caused by the proximity of the casting wheel to the pneumatic gap sensor outlet into a signal intelligible to a control device. The relative positions of the casting nozzle and casting wheel can thereby be selectively adjusted to continually maintain a predetermined distance between their adjacent surfaces. The apparatus and method enables accurate monitoring of the actual casting gap in a simple and reliable manner resistant to the extreme temperatures and otherwise hostile casting environment. 6 figs.

Bagdal, K.T.; King, E.L.; Follstaedt, D.W.

1992-03-03

229

Anion Chemistry On Titan: Probing the Destruction Mechanisms of Nitrile Anions by Interaction with Photons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work is to study the interaction with VUV photons of mass-selected negative ions relevant for the understanding of Titan atmosphere. Characterization of their formation [1] and destruction rate is of fundamental importance for modeling Titan ionosphere chemistry and understanding the observations of heavy anions by the CAPS/ELS spectrometer on board of the CASSINI spacecraft. The objective here is to measure their transformation into smaller anions through photodissociation and their destruction through photodetachment. The parent anions CN- are produced from CH3CN in the APCI source of a commercial mass spectrometer LTQ XL (Thermo Scientific) [2,3] and reacted with HC3N in the trap to produce heavier anions through the CN-+ x HC3N(HC3N)yC2p+1 N-+ z HCN processes. These product anions are then mass-selected in the trap and irradiated with VUV photons (5-21 eV) from the DESIRS beamline. Their decay is followed as a function of irradiation time as illustrated in Figure 1.

Zabka, J.; Polášek, M.; Bradyová, M.; Flenerová, Z.; Obluková, M.; Ascenzi, D.; Vuitton, V.; Giuliani, A.; Nahon, L.; Milosavljevic, A.; Romanzin, C.; Alcaraz, C.

2013-09-01

230

Supramolecular Chemistry of Selective Anion Recognition for Anions of Environmental Relevance  

SciTech Connect

The original funded project (1996) had as its major goal the design and synthesis of polyammonium macrocyclic receptors for oxoanions of environmental importance, particularly those found in high level waste tanks. Nitrate was a major ion of focus. The project evolved over the last six years to target important and timely problems of critical interest to the EMSP mission. Emphasis was shifted from polyammonium receptors to lipophilic amide-based receptors more amenable for both separations and sensing applications in the last renewal, and significant effort was directed toward selective recognition of sulfate because of its detrimental role in the vitrification process. The last three years have been focused on the basic chemical aspects of anion receptor design of functional pH independent systems, with the ultimate goal of targeting the selective binding of sulfate, as well as design of separations strategies for selective and efficient removal of targeted anions. Key findings during these years include: (1) among the first synthetic sulfate-selective anion-binding agents; (2) simple, structure-based methods for modifying the intrinsic anion selectivity of a given class of anion receptors; and (3) two new classes of macrocyclic ligands, mixed amide/quaternary amine, thioamide-based macrocycles and cryptands.

Bowman-James, Kristin; Wilson, George S.

2003-06-01

231

Metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

Metabolic syndrome is not a disease per se, but is a term that highlights traits that may have an increased risk of disease, approximately 2-fold for cardiovascular disease and 5-fold or more for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Obesity and insulin resistance are believed to be at the core of most cases of metabolic syndrome, although further research is required to truly understand the pathophysiology behind the syndrome and the gene-environment interactions that increase susceptibility. The mainstay of treatment remains lifestyle changes with exercise and diet to induce weight loss and pharmacologic intervention to treat atherogenic dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia. PMID:24582089

Samson, Susan L; Garber, Alan J

2014-03-01

232

Relationship Between Expression of Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel (VDAC) Isoforms and Type of Hexokinase Binding Sites on Brain Mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDAC) are pore-forming proteins found in the outer mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes.\\u000a VDACs are known to play an essential role in cellular metabolism and in early stages of apoptosis. In mammals, three VDAC\\u000a isoforms have been identified. A proteomic approach was exploited to study the expression of VDAC isoforms in rat, bovine,\\u000a and chicken brain mitochondria. Given

Mirele Daiana Poleti; Andrea Cristina Tesch; Carla Rossini Crepaldi; Gustavo Henrique Martins Ferreira Souza; Marcos Nogueira Eberlin; Marcelo de Cerqueira César

2010-01-01

233

Preparation of high purity egg phosvitin using anion exchange chromatography.  

PubMed

Egg yolk phosvitin serves as a warehouse to provide metal ions for embryo development. It is significant for mineral metabolism study and also of great potential to be developed into functional foods with mineral absorption promoting ability. In this study, phosvitin was first extracted from yolk granules using 10% NaCl, dialysed and then adjusted to various pHs to remove impurities. The purity of phosvitin extracts was increased from 54.5% to 63.7% at decreasing pH from 8.0 to 5.5, and started to decrease afterwards. Both the yield and recovery were significantly decreased at decreasing pHs, especially at pHs close to its pI (pH 4.0), indicating the occurrence of co-precipitation of phosvitin with HDL. The extract prepared at pH 8.0 showed the highest recovery of 82.7%; its purity was increased from 54.5% to 97.1% by anion exchange chromatography, with a recovery of 42.0%. This simple method could be scaled up for industrial production. PMID:24731330

Ren, Jiandong; Wu, Jianping

2014-09-01

234

The Kohn-Sham gap, the fundamental gap and the optical gap: the physical meaning of occupied and virtual Kohn-Sham orbital energies.  

PubMed

A number of consequences of the presence of the exchange-correlation hole potential in the Kohn-Sham potential are elucidated. One consequence is that the HOMO-LUMO orbital energy difference in the KS-DFT model (the KS gap) is not "underestimated" or even "wrong", but that it is physically expected to be an approximation to the excitation energy if electrons and holes are close, and numerically proves to be so rather accurately. It is physically not an approximation to the difference between ionization energy and electron affinity I-A (fundamental gap or chemical hardness) and also numerically differs considerably from this quantity. The KS virtual orbitals do not possess the notorious diffuseness of the Hartree-Fock virtual orbitals, they often describe excited states much more closely as simple orbital transitions. The Hartree-Fock model does yield an approximation to I-A as the HOMO-LUMO orbital energy difference (in Koopmans' frozen orbital approximation), if the anion is bound, which is often not the case. We stress the spurious nature of HF LUMOs if the orbital energy is positive. One may prefer Hartree-Fock, or mix Hartree-Fock and (approximate) KS operators to obtain a HOMO-LUMO gap as a Koopmans' approximation to I-A (in cases where A exists). That is a different one-electron model, which exists in its own right. But it is not an "improvement" of the KS model, it necessarily deteriorates the (approximate) excitation energy property of the KS gap in molecules, and deteriorates the good shape of the KS virtual orbitals. PMID:24002107

Baerends, E J; Gritsenko, O V; van Meer, R

2013-10-21

235

Gaps below strange star crusts  

SciTech Connect

The gap caused by a strong electric field between the quark surface and nuclear crust of a strange star is studied in an improved model including gravity and pressure as well as electrostatic forces. The transition from gap to crust is followed in detail. The properties of the gap are investigated for a wide range of parameters assuming both color-flavor locked and noncolor-flavor locked strange star cores. The maximally allowed crust density is generally lower than that of neutron drip. Finite temperature is shown to increase the gap width, but the effect is significant only at extreme temperatures. Analytical approximations are derived and shown to provide useful fits to the numerical results.

Stejner, Morten; Madsen, Jes [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2005-12-15

236

Plenary 1 – Gaps in Oncology  

Cancer.gov

The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study Original Version provides background for the curriculum and identifies gaps in current and desired comprehensive cancer care.

237

Cumberland Gap Tunnel Pavement Problem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Kentucky Transportation Center was contacted by the Cumberland Gap Tunnel Authority in 2001 to conduct a Falling Weight Deflectormeter (FWD) test on the concrete pavement structure at two locations in the southbound tunnel that appeared to be settling...

B. Rister

2005-01-01

238

Gap Junctions and Heart Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The function of gap junctions in propagation of the cardiac action potential is one of the best characterized roles for intercellular\\u000a communication. Comprehending the part played by cell-to-cell dialogue in embryological processes, including development of\\u000a the heart, has proven to be a more complex problem. Nonetheless, research at the conjunction of cardiac development and gap\\u000a junctions is a diverse and

Robert G. Gourdie; Wanda H. Litchenberg; Leonard M. Eisenberg

239

Eight electrode optical readout gap  

DOEpatents

A protective device for a plurality of electrical circuits includes a pluity of isolated electrodes forming a gap with a common electrode. An output signal, electrically isolated from the circuits being monitored, is obtained by a photosensor viewing the discharge gap through an optical window. Radioactive stabilization of discharge characteristics is provided for slowly changing voltages and carbon tipped dynamic starters provide desirable discharge characteristics for rapidly varying voltages. A hydrogen permeation barrier is provided on external surfaces of the device.

Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM); Crain, Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01

240

Eight electrode optical readout gap  

DOEpatents

A protective device for a plurality of electrical circuits includes a plurality of isolated electrodes forming a gap with a common electrode. An output signal, electrically isolated from the circuits being monitored, is obtained by a photosensor viewing the discharge gap through an optical window. Radioactive stabilization of discharge characteristics is provided for slowly changing voltages and carbon tipped dynamic starters provide desirable discharge characteristics for rapidly varying voltages. A hydrogen permeation barrier is provided on external surfaces of the device.

Boettcher, G.E.; Crain, R.W.

1984-01-01

241

Metabolic Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the metabolome with coverage of all of the possibly detectable components in the sample, rather than analysis of each individual metabolite at a given time, can be accomplished by metabolic analysis. Targeted and/or nontargeted approaches are applied as needed for particular experiments. Monitoring hundreds or more metabolites at a given time requires high-throughput and high-end techniques that enable screening for relative changes in, rather than absolute concentrations of, compounds within a wide dynamic range. Most of the analytical techniques useful for these purposes use GC or HPLC/UPLC separation modules coupled to a fast and accurate mass spectrometer. GC separations require chemical modification (derivatization) before analysis, and work efficiently for the small molecules. HPLC separations are better suited for the analysis of labile and nonvolatile polar and nonpolar compounds in their native form. Direct infusion and NMR-based techniques are mostly used for fingerprinting and snap phenotyping, where applicable. Discovery and validation of metabolic biomarkers are exciting and promising opportunities offered by metabolic analysis applied to biological and biomedical experiments. We have demonstrated that GC-TOF-MS, HPLC/UPLC-RP-MS and HILIC-LC-MS techniques used for metabolic analysis offer sufficient metabolome mapping providing researchers with confident data for subsequent multivariate analysis and data mining.

Tolstikov, Vladimir V.

242

Pneumatic gap sensor and method  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes in a casting system which including an apparatus for monitoring the gap between a casting nozzle and a casting surface of a substrate during casting of molten material, wherein the molten material is provided through a channel of the casting nozzle for casting onto the casting surface of the substrate for solidification. It comprises: a pneumatic gap mounted at least partially within a cavity in the casting nozzle adjacent the channel and having a sensor face located within the gap between the nozzle and the casting surface of the substrate, means for supply gas under predetermined pressure to the inlet orifice; and means for measuring the pressure of the gas within the sensor chamber during casting procedures, whereby relative changes in the gap can be determined by corresponding changes in the measured pressure. This patent also describes a method for monitoring the gap between a casting nozzle and a casting surface of a substrate for continuous casting of molten material. It comprises: providing a casting nozzle with a channel for directing the flow of molten material, locating the nozzle and the casting surface is proximity with one another and having a predetermined gap there-between, and dressing the sensor face to correspond in conformation to the casting surface and to adjust the predetermined distance as desired; providing a molten material to the nozzle for casting onto and casting surface; supplying gas at a predetermined pressure to the inlet orifice of the sensor during casting procedures.

Bagdal, K.T.; King, E.L.; Follstaedt, D.W.

1992-03-03

243

Electronic characterization of defects in narrow gap semiconductors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We use a Green's function technique to calculate the position of deep defects in narrow gap semiconductors. We consider substitutional (including antisite), vacancy, and interstitial (self and foreign) deep defects. We also use perturbation theory to look at the effect of nonparabolic bands on shallow defect energies and find nonparabolicity can increase the binding by 10 percent or so. We consider mercury cadmium telluride (MCT), mercury zinc telluride (MZT), and mercury zinc selenide (MZS). For substitutional and interstitial defects we look at the situation with and without relaxation. For substitutional impurities in MCT, MZT, and MZS, we consider x (the concentration of Cd or Zn) in the range 0.1 less than x less than 0.3 and also consider appropriate x so E(sub g) = 0.1 eV for each of the three compounds. We consider several cation site s-like deep levels and anion site p-like levels. For E(sub g) = 0.1 eV, we also consider the effects of relaxation. Similar comments apply to the interstitial deep levels whereas no relaxation is considered for the ideal vacancy model. Relaxation effects can be greater for the interstitial than the substitutional cases. Specific results are given in figures and tables and comparison to experiment is made in a limited number of cases. We find, for example, that I, Se, S, Rn, and N are possible cation site, s-like deep levels in MCT and Zn and Mg are for anion site, p-like levels (both levels for substitutional cases). The corresponding cation and anion site levels for interstitial deep defects are (Au, Ag, Hg, Cd, Cu, Zn) and (N, Ar, O, F). For the substitutional cases we have some examples of relaxation moving the levels into the band gap, whereas for the interstitial case we have examples where relaxation moves it out of the band gap. Future work involves calculating the effects of charge state interaction and seeing the effect of relaxation on vacancy levels.

Patterson, James D.

1994-01-01

244

Oligomeric structure of brain abundant proteins GAP-43 and BASP1.  

PubMed

Brain abundant proteins GAP-43 and BASP1 participate in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton dynamics in neuronal axon terminals. The proposed mechanism suggests that the proteins sequester phosphatidylinositol-4,5-diphosphate (PIP(2)) in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane. We found that model anionic phospholipid membranes in the form of liposomes induce rapid oligomerization of GAP-43 and BASP1 proteins. Multiply charged phosphoinositides produced the most potent effect. Anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at submicellar concentration stimulated formation of similar oligomers in solution. BASP1, but not GAP-43, also formed oligomers at sufficiently high concentration in the absence of lipids and SDS. Electron microscopy study demonstrated that the oligomers have disk-shaped or annular structure of 10-30nm in diameter. BASP1 also formed higher aggregates of linear rod-like structure, with average length of about 100nm. In outward appearance, the oligomers and linear aggregates are reminiscent of oligomers and protofibrils of amyloid proteins. Both the synthetic N-terminal peptide GAP-43(1-40) and the brain-derived fragment GAP-43-3 preserved the ability to oligomerize under the action of acidic phospholipids and SDS. On the contrary, BASP1 fragment truncated by the short N-terminal myristoylated peptide was unable to form oligomers. GAP-43 and BASP1 oligomerization can be regulated by calmodulin, which disrupts the oligomers and displaces the proteins from the membrane. We suggest that in vivo, the role of membrane-bound GAP-43 and BASP1 oligomers consists in accumulation of PIP(2) in functional clusters, which become accessible for other PIP(2)-binding proteins after dissociation of the oligomers. PMID:20109554

Zakharov, Vladislav V; Mosevitsky, Mark I

2010-06-01

245

Anion-exchange displacement centrifugal partition chromatography.  

PubMed

Ion-exchange displacement chromatography has been adapted to centrifugal partition chromatography. The use of an ionic liquid, benzalkonium chloride, as a strong anion-exchanger has proven to be efficient for the preparative separation of phenolic acid regioisomers. Multigram quantities of a mixture of three hydroxycinnamic acid isomers were separated using iodide as a displacer. The displacement process was characterized by a trapezoidal profile of analyte concentration in the eluate with narrow transition zones. By taking advantage of the partition rules involved in support-free liquid-liquid chromatography, a numerical separation model is proposed as a tool for preliminary process validation and further optimization. PMID:15516108

Maciuk, Alexandre; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Margraff, Rodolphe; Trébuchet, Philippe; Zèches-Hanrot, Monique; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc

2004-11-01

246

Confocal imaging of organic anion transport in intact rat choroid plexus.  

PubMed

We used confocal microscopy and quantitative image analysis to follow the movement of the fluorescent organic anion fluorescein (FL) from bath to cell and cell to blood vessel in intact rat lateral choroid plexus. FL accumulation in epithelial cells and underlying vessels was rapid, concentrative, and reduced by other organic anions. At steady state, cell fluorescence exceeded bath fluorescence by a factor of 3-5, and vessel fluorescence exceeded cell fluorescence by a factor of approximately 2. In cells, FL distributed between diffuse and punctate compartments. Cell and vessel accumulation of FL decreased when metabolism was inhibited by KCN, when bath Na(+) was reduced from 130 to 26 mM, and when the Na(+) gradient was collapsed with ouabain. Cell and vessel accumulation increased by >50% when 1-10 microM glutarate was added to the bath. Finally, transport of FL and carboxyfluorescein (generated intracellularly from carboxyfluorescein diacetate) from cell to blood vessel was greatly diminished when medium K(+) concentration ([K(+)]) was increased 10-fold. These results 1) validate a new approach to the study of choroid plexus function, and 2) indicate a two-step mechanism for transepithelial organic anion transport: indirect coupling of uptake to Na(+) at the apical membrane and electrical potential-driven efflux at the basolateral membrane. PMID:11934698

Breen, Christopher M; Sykes, Destiny B; Fricker, Gert; Miller, David S

2002-05-01

247

PROGRESS REPORT. SUPRAMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY OF SELECTIVE ANION RECOGNITION FOR ANIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL RELEVANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

This project involves the design and synthesis of receptors for oxoanions of environmental importance and specifically those found in high level waste tanks. Polyammonium macrocycles as receptors and nitrate as anion were the focus of the first phase of this project. A second pha...

248

Charge regulation enables anionic hydroxypropyl guar-borate adsorption onto anionic and cationic polystyrene latex.  

PubMed

Reported are adsorption isotherms for guar and hydroxypropyl guar (HPG), with and without the presence of borate ions, onto surfactant free anionic polystyrene latex. Guar and HPG formed adsorbed monolayers on the hydrophobic latex. The presence of borate ions converted the nonionic guar and HPG into an anionic polyelectrolyte. However, there was no measurable influence of bound borate ions on the adsorption of guar or HPG onto anionic, hydrophobic latex. To underscore the unusual behavior of HPG-borate, a sample of HPG was oxidized to introduce carboxyl groups, and the adsorption of the carboxylated HPG onto anionic polystyrene was measured. Unlike HPG-borate, oxidized HPG did not adsorb onto negative polystyrene latex at neutral pH because of electrostatic repulsion. To explain the adsorption of negative HPG-borate onto negative latex, we proposed that as HPG-borate segments approach the latex surface, the negative electrostatic potential near the latex surface induces the detachment of the labile borate groups from HPG. PMID:21030034

Zhang, Liang; Pelton, Robert; Ketelson, Howard; Meadows, David

2011-01-15

249

Inferring the metabolism of human orphan metabolites from their metabolic network context affirms human gluconokinase activity.  

PubMed

Metabolic network reconstructions define metabolic information within a target organism and can therefore be used to address incomplete metabolic information. In the present study we used a computational approach to identify human metabolites whose metabolism is incomplete on the basis of their detection in humans but exclusion from the human metabolic network reconstruction RECON 1. Candidate solutions, composed of metabolic reactions capable of explaining the metabolism of these compounds, were then identified computationally from a global biochemical reaction database. Solutions were characterized with respect to how metabolites were incorporated into RECON 1 and their biological relevance. Through detailed case studies we show that biologically plausible non-intuitive hypotheses regarding the metabolism of these compounds can be proposed in a semi-automated manner, in an approach that is similar to de novo network reconstruction. We subsequently experimentally validated one of the proposed hypotheses and report that C9orf103, previously identified as a candidate tumour suppressor gene, encodes a functional human gluconokinase. The results of the present study demonstrate how semi-automatic gap filling can be used to refine and extend metabolic reconstructions, thereby increasing their biological scope. Furthermore, we illustrate how incomplete human metabolic knowledge can be coupled with gene annotation in order to prioritize and confirm gene functions. PMID:23067238

Rolfsson, Óttar; Paglia, Giuseppe; Magnusdóttir, Manuela; Palsson, Bernhard Ø; Thiele, Ines

2013-01-15

250

Cellular Metabolism  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the evidence for life on other planets. Learners will play a game to examine processes in cellular metabolism and explore both direct and indirect evidence for fingerprints of life. Includes teacher notes, learning objectives, and assessment of prior knowledge and preconceptions. This is Lesson 2 in Exploring Deep-Subsurface Life. Earth Analogues for Possible Life on Mars: Lessons and Activities.

251

Metabolic System  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cancer cachexia can be described as a syndrome characterized by weight loss, anorexia, muscle loss and atrophy, asthenia (general\\u000a weakness including physical and mental fatigue), and anemia that occurs in cancer patients. A recent cachexia consensus conference\\u000a agreed on a definition for cachexia: “Cachexia is a complex metabolic syndrome associated with underlying illness and characterised\\u000a by loss of muscle with

Deborah Tomlinson

252

Field induced gap infrared detector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A tunable infrared detector which employs a vanishing band gap semimetal material provided with an induced band gap by a magnetic field to allow intrinsic semiconductor type infrared detection capabilities is disclosed. The semimetal material may thus operate as a semiconductor type detector with a wavelength sensitivity corresponding to the induced band gap in a preferred embodiment of a diode structure. Preferred semimetal materials include Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te, x is less than 0.15, HgCdSe, BiSb, alpha-Sn, HgMgTe, HgMnTe, HgZnTe, HgMnSe, HgMgSe, and HgZnSe. The magnetic field induces a band gap in the semimetal material proportional to the strength of the magnetic field allowing tunable detection cutoff wavelengths. For an applied magnetic field from 5 to 10 tesla, the wavelength detection cutoff will be in the range of 20 to 50 micrometers for Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te alloys with x about 0.15. A similar approach may also be employed to generate infrared energy in a desired band gap and then operating the structure in a light emitting diode or semiconductor laser type of configuration.

Elliott, C. Thomas (inventor)

1990-01-01

253

Field induced gap infrared detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tunable infrared detector which employs a vanishing band gap semimetal material provided with an induced band gap by a magnetic field to allow intrinsic semiconductor type infrared detection capabilities is disclosed. The semimetal material may thus operate as a semiconductor type detector with a wavelength sensitivity corresponding to the induced band gap in a preferred embodiment of a diode structure. Preferred semimetal materials include Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te, x is less than 0.15, HgCdSe, BiSb, alpha-Sn, HgMgTe, HgMnTe, HgZnTe, HgMnSe, HgMgSe, and HgZnSe. The magnetic field induces a band gap in the semimetal material proportional to the strength of the magnetic field allowing tunable detection cutoff wavelengths. For an applied magnetic field from 5 to 10 tesla, the wavelength detection cutoff will be in the range of 20 to 50 micrometers for Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te alloys with x about 0.15. A similar approach may also be employed to generate infrared energy in a desired band gap and then operating the structure in a light emitting diode or semiconductor laser type of configuration.

Elliott, C. Thomas

1990-08-01

254

Zero-point energy effects in anion solvation shells.  

PubMed

By comparing classical and quantum-mechanical (path-integral-based) molecular simulations of solvated halide anions X(-) [X = F, Cl, Br and I], we identify an ion-specific quantum contribution to anion-water hydrogen-bond dynamics; this effect has not been identified in previous simulation studies. For anions such as fluoride, which strongly bind water molecules in the first solvation shell, quantum simulations exhibit hydrogen-bond dynamics nearly 40% faster than the corresponding classical results, whereas those anions which form a weakly bound solvation shell, such as iodide, exhibit a quantum effect of around 10%. This observation can be rationalized by considering the different zero-point energy (ZPE) of the water vibrational modes in the first solvation shell; for strongly binding anions, the ZPE of bound water molecules is larger, giving rise to faster dynamics in quantum simulations. These results are consistent with experimental investigations of anion-bound water vibrational and reorientational motion. PMID:24709978

Habershon, Scott

2014-05-21

255

Process for removing sulfate anions from waste water  

DOEpatents

A liquid emulsion membrane process for removing sulfate anions from waste water is disclosed. The liquid emulsion membrane process includes the steps of: (a) providing a liquid emulsion formed from an aqueous strip solution and an organic phase that contains an extractant capable of removing sulfate anions from waste water; (b) dispersing the liquid emulsion in globule form into a quantity of waste water containing sulfate anions to allow the organic phase in each globule of the emulsion to extract and absorb sulfate anions from the waste water and (c) separating the emulsion including its organic phase and absorbed sulfate anions from the waste water to provide waste water containing substantially no sulfate anions.

Nilsen, David N. (Lebanon, OR); Galvan, Gloria J. (Albany, OR); Hundley, Gary L. (Corvallis, OR); Wright, John B. (Albany, OR)

1997-01-01

256

Identification of RhoGAP22 as an Akt-Dependent Regulator of Cell Motility in Response to Insulin?‡  

PubMed Central

Insulin exerts many of its metabolic actions via the canonical phosphatidylinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, leading to phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding of key metabolic targets. We previously identified a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for Rac1 called RhoGAP22 as an insulin-responsive 14-3-3 binding protein. Insulin increased 14-3-3 binding to RhoGAP22 fourfold, and this effect was PI3K dependent. We identified two insulin-responsive 14-3-3 binding sites (pSer16 and pSer395) within RhoGAP22, and mutagenesis studies revealed a complex interplay between the phosphorylation at these two sites. Mutating Ser16 to alanine blocked 14-3-3 binding to RhoGAP22 in vivo, and phosphorylation at Ser16 was mediated by the kinase Akt. Overexpression of a mutant RhoGAP22 that was unable to bind 14-3-3 reduced cell motility in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, and this effect was dependent on a functional GAP domain. Mutation of the catalytic arginine of the GAP domain of RhoGAP22 potentiated growth factor-stimulated Rac1 GTP loading. We propose that insulin and possibly growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor may play a novel role in regulating cell migration and motility via the Akt-dependent phosphorylation of RhoGAP22, leading to modulation of Rac1 activity.

Rowland, Alexander F.; Larance, Mark; Hughes, William E.; James, David E.

2011-01-01

257

Electronic relaxation dynamics of water cluster anions.  

PubMed

The electronic relaxation dynamics of water cluster anions, (H(2)O)(n)(-), have been studied with time-resolved photoelectron imaging. In this investigation, the excess electron was excited through the p<--s transition with an ultrafast laser pulse, with subsequent electronic evolution monitored by photodetachment. All excited-state lifetimes exhibit a significant isotope effect (tau(D)2(O)/tau(H)2(O) approximately 2). Additionally, marked dynamical differences are found for two classes of water cluster anions, isomers I and II, previously assigned as clusters with internally solvated and surface-bound electrons, respectively. Isomer I clusters with n > or = 25 decay exclusively by internal conversion, with relaxation times that extrapolate linearly with 1/n toward an internal conversion lifetime of 50 fs in bulk water. Smaller isomer I clusters (13 < or = n < or = 25) decay through a combination of excited-state autodetachment and internal conversion. The relaxation of isomer II clusters shows no significant size dependence over the range of n = 60-100, with autodetachment an important decay channel following excitation of these clusters. Photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) were measured for isomer I and isomer II clusters. The large differences in dynamical trends, relaxation mechanisms, and PADs between large isomer I and isomer II clusters are consistent with their assignment to very different electron binding motifs. PMID:16248671

Bragg, Arthur E; Verlet, Jan R R; Kammrath, Aster; Cheshnovsky, Ori; Neumark, Daniel M

2005-11-01

258

Deuterium anions in inertial electrostatic confinement devices.  

PubMed

A magnetic deflection-energy analyzer and Faraday trap diagnostic have been used to make measurements of divergent deuterium anion flow in the inertial electrostatic confinement experiment at the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW-IEC) [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, I. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)], a device to confine high-energy light ions in a spherically symmetric electrostatic potential well. Deuterium anion current densities as high as 8.5 microA/cm2 have been measured at the wall of the UW-IEC device, 40 cm from the surface of the device cathode with a detector assembly of admittance area 0.7 cm2. Energy spectra obtained using a magnetic deflection-energy analyzer diagnostic indicate the presence of D2(-), and D- ions produced through thermal electron attachment near the device cathode, as well as D- ions produced via charge-transfer processes between the anode and cathode of the device. PMID:19905231

Boris, D R; Alderson, E; Becerra, G; Donovan, D C; Egle, B; Emmert, G A; Garrison, L; Kulcinski, G L; Santarius, J F; Schuff, C; Zenobia, S J

2009-09-01

259

Cation and Anion Chemistry in Interstellar Ices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum chemical cluster calculations using density functional theory were used to characterize the chemistry of cations deposited on an ice surface as well as the disposition of neutral ices to which an electron is added. In the case of cations, we find that substantial chemistry can occur. For example, HCO+ reacts with water in ice with no barrier to form protonated formic acid, which loses the proton to form the neutral carboxylic acid and solvated H3O+ as shown in Fig. 1 [Woon 2011]. When an electron is added to a neutral cluster of water and formaldehyde (H2CO), CO, or CO2, it forms the H2CO-, CO-, and CO2- anions, respectively. Interestingly, these anions are either unstable or metastable in the gas phase, but the water in ice stabilizes them. Our cluster calculations suggest that H2CO- will abstract H+ from water in the ice to form OH- and neutral H2COH, a precursor to methanol, while CO- and CO2- are less reactive and may be directly observable in laboratory studies of very low energy deposition of electrons on ice mixtures.

Woon, David. E.; Chen, Lina

2011-10-01

260

Atoms in the Anionic Domain, Z < N  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study atoms with N electrons, and nuclear charge Z. It is well known that the cationic regime, Z > N, is qualitatively described by Thomas-Fermi theory. The anionic regime, Z < N, on the other hand, is characterized by an instability threshold at Zc ? N-1, below which the atom spontaneously emits an electron. We compute the slope of the energy curve at Z = N - 1 by means of a simple model that depends on the electron affinity and the covalent radius of the neutral atom with N - 1 electrons. This slope is used in order to estimate Zc, which is compared with previous numerical results. Extrapolation of the linear behavior in the opposite direction, up to Z = N, allows us to estimate the ionization potential of the atom with N electrons. The fact that the obtained ionization potentials are qualitatively correct is an indication that, with regard to certain properties, neutral atoms are closer to the anionic instability threshold than they are to the Thomas-Fermi, large Z, region. A regularized series is written for the ionization potential that fits both, the large Z and Z ? Zc limits.

Gil, Gabriel; Gonzalez, Augusto

2013-09-01

261

Organocatalyzed anion relay leading to functionalized 2,3-dihydrofurans.  

PubMed

A DABCO-mediated organocatalyzed anion relay cascade based on 1-cinnamoylcyclopropanecarboxamides has been developed and applied in the construction of 2,3-dihydrofurans with the original alkene and amide functionalities intact. In the aza-oxy-carbanion relay process, DABCO provides both the electron source and sink. The enolate anion-triggered ring opening of the cyclopropane is ascribed to the key step in the anion relay cascade. PMID:23869601

Li, Mengru; Lin, Shaoxia; Dong, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xintong; Liang, Fushun; Zhang, Jingping

2013-08-01

262

Reducing the FCI Gender Gap  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After introducing several new elements into an introductory mechanics course for life science students, we observed a substantial reduction in the gender gap on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI). Among those students with the strongest scientific reasoning abilities, where previously the gender gap had been largest, the gender gap was completely eliminated. The course used the Thinking in Physics curriculum, an interactive engagement pedagogy aimed at developing general thinking and problem solving skills along with an understanding of physics. The new elements, designed to reduce stereotype threat and to improve the experience of female students, included giving students a self-affirmation writing exercise created by researchers at the University of Colorado, providing a learning guide, and assessing and interviewing students at the beginning of the course.

Coletta, Vincent P.

2013-12-19

263

Virtual gap dielectric wall accelerator  

DOEpatents

A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a "virtual" traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.

Caporaso, George James; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Nelson, Scott; Sullivan, Jim; Hawkins, Steven A

2013-11-05

264

Direct band gap silicon allotropes.  

PubMed

Elemental silicon has a large impact on the economy of the modern world and is of fundamental importance in the technological field, particularly in solar cell industry. The great demand of society for new clean energy and the shortcomings of the current silicon solar cells are calling for new materials that can make full use of the solar power. In this paper, six metastable allotropes of silicon with direct or quasidirect band gaps of 0.39-1.25 eV are predicted by ab initio calculations at ambient pressure. Five of them possess band gaps within the optimal range for high converting efficiency from solar energy to electric power and also have better optical properties than the Si-I phase. These Si structures with different band gaps could be applied to multiple p-n junction photovoltaic modules. PMID:24971657

Wang, Qianqian; Xu, Bo; Sun, Jian; Liu, Hanyu; Zhao, Zhisheng; Yu, Dongli; Fan, Changzeng; He, Julong

2014-07-16

265

Polyamine sensitivity of gap junctions is required for skin pattern formation in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Gap junctions allow the direct and bidirectional transfer of small molecules between cells. Polyamine sensitivity, which has been observed for a certain gap junction in vitro, confers rectification property to gap junction. Here we report that the polyamine sensitivity of gap junctions in vivo is crucial for skin pattern formation in zebrafish. Transgenic experiments have revealed that several connexin genes were able to rescue the spot phenotype of mutant zebrafish. Mutational analyses of the N-terminal region of connexins revealed that the ExxxE motif, a hypothetical polyamine-binding site, was important for connexin's role in pattern formation. Ectopic expression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT), a polyamine metabolic enzyme, also caused stripe pattern changes, which further indicates that the polyamine sensitivity of gap junctions is crucial. This is the first report to show that polyamine sensitivity has a physiologically relevant function and is related to skin pattern formation in animals.

Watanabe, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Daisuke; Kondo, Shigeru

2012-01-01

266

Infrared photodissociation spectroscopy of mononuclear iron carbonyl anions.  

PubMed

The infrared photodissociation spectroscopy of mass-selected mononuclear iron carbonyl anions Fe(CO)(n)(-) (n = 2-8) were studied in the carbonyl stretching frequency region. The FeCO(-) anion does not fragment when excited with infrared light. Only a single IR active band was observed for the Fe(CO)(2)(-) and Fe(CO)(3)(-) anions, consistent with theoretical predictions that these complexes have linear D(?h) and planar D(3h) symmetry, respectively. The Fe(CO)(4)(-) anion is the most intense peak in the mass spectra and was characterized to have a completed coordination sphere with high stability. Anion clusters larger than n = 4 were determined to involve a Fe(CO)(4)(-) core anion that is progressively solvated by external CO molecules. Three CO stretching vibrational fundamentals were observed for the Fe(CO)(4)(-) core anion, indicating that the Fe(CO)(4)(-) anion has a C(3v) structure. All the carbonyl stretching frequencies of the Fe(CO)(n)(-) anion complexes are red-shifted with respect to those of the corresponding neutrals. PMID:22360767

Wang, Guanjun; Chi, Chaoxian; Cui, Jieming; Xing, Xiaopeng; Zhou, Mingfei

2012-03-15

267

Three hydroxy aurone compounds as chemosensors for cyanide anions.  

PubMed

Three new 4-hydroxy aurone compounds 1-3 with dimethylamino (1), bromine (2) and cyano (3) as terminal group have been synthesized. Their photophysical properties as well as recognition properties for cyanide anions in acetonitrile and aqueous solution have also been examined. These compounds exhibit remarkable response to cyanide anions with obvious color and fluorescence change owing to hydrogen bonding reaction between cyanide anions and the O-H moiety of the sensors, which allows naked eye detection of cyanide anions. PMID:23973584

Chen, Huihui; Sun, Yunhui; Zhou, Chuanjian; Cao, Duxia; Liu, Zhiqiang; Ma, Lin

2013-12-01

268

A theoretical study of aromaticity in squaramide complexes with anions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic estimation of aromaticity in squaramide complexes with anions has been studied using structural and magnetic criteria. Results based on Nucleus Independent Chemical Shift (NICS) predict that squaramide is less aromatic than its complexes with several anions. We had previously observed the same behavior in squaramide complexes with cations. This bifunctionality can be used to design ditopic receptors. In fact a 1:1:1 complex between squaramide and both ammonium cation and formiate anion is more aromatic than any of the other two 1:1 squaramide-cation/anion complexes.

Quiñonero, David; Prohens, Rafel; Garau, Carolina; Frontera, Antonio; Ballester, Pau; Costa, Antonio; Deyà, Pere M.

2002-01-01

269

Aluminum Zintl anion moieties within sodium aluminum clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have established that aluminum moieties within selected sodium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Sodium-aluminum cluster anions, NamAln-, were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on a select sub-set of stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for both cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra), and fragment molecular orbital based correlation diagrams.

Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Ganteför, Gerd; Schnöckel, Hansgeorg; Eichhorn, Bryan W.; Lee, Mal-Soon; Jena, P.; Kandalam, Anil K.; Kiran, Boggavarapu; Bowen, Kit H.

2014-02-01

270

Aluminum Zintl anion moieties within sodium aluminum clusters.  

PubMed

Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have established that aluminum moieties within selected sodium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Sodium-aluminum cluster anions, Na(m)Al(n)(-), were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on a select sub-set of stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for both cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra), and fragment molecular orbital based correlation diagrams. PMID:24511934

Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Ganteför, Gerd; Schnöckel, Hansgeorg; Eichhorn, Bryan W; Lee, Mal-Soon; Jena, P; Kandalam, Anil K; Kiran, Boggavarapu; Bowen, Kit H

2014-02-01

271

Minority Gaps Smaller in Some Pentagon Schools. The Achievement Gap.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This third in a four-part series on why academic achievement gaps exist explains how U.S. Department of Defense schools for children of military families offer lessons on how to raise academic achievement among minority students. Minority students in these schools do better than their counterparts almost anywhere in the United States on…

Viadero, Debra

2000-01-01

272

Stacked insulator induction accelerator gaps  

SciTech Connect

Stacked insulators, with alternating layers of insulating material and conducting film, have been shown to support high surface electrical field stresses. We have investigated the application of the stacked insulator technology to the design of induction accelerator modules for the Relativistic-Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator program. The rf properties of the accelerating gaps using stacked insulators, particularly the impedance at frequencies above the beam pipe cutoff frequency, are investigated. Low impedance is critical for Relativistic-Klystron Two-Beam Accelerator applications where a high current, bunched beam is trsnsported through many accelerating gaps. An induction accelerator module designs using a stacked insulator is presented.

Houck, T.I.; Westenskow, G.A.; Kim, J.S.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.S.; Vanecek, D.

1997-05-01

273

Air Gap Effects in LX17  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments done over twenty years on gaps in LX-17 are reported. For the detonation front moving parallel to the gaps, jets of gas products were seen coming from the gaps at velocities greater than the detonation velocity. A case can be made that the jet velocity increased with gap thickness but the data is scattered. For the detonation front

P C Souers; S Ault; R Avara; K L Bahl; R Boat; B Cunningham; D Gidding; J Janzen; D Kuklo; R Lee; L Lauderbach; W C Weingart; B Wu; K Winer

2005-01-01

274

Synthetic ion transporters that work with anion-? interactions, halogen bonds, and anion-macrodipole interactions.  

PubMed

The transport of ions and molecules across lipid bilayer membranes connects cells and cellular compartments with their environment. This biological process is central to a host of functions including signal transduction in neurons and the olfactory and gustatory sensing systems, the translocation of biosynthetic intermediates and products, and the uptake of nutrients, drugs, and probes. Biological transport systems are highly regulated and selectively respond to a broad range of physical and chemical stimulation. A large percentage of today's drugs and many antimicrobial or antifungal agents take advantage of these systems. Other biological transport systems are highly toxic, such as the anthrax toxin or melittin from bee venom. For more than three decades, organic and supramolecular chemists have been interested in developing new transport systems. Over time, curiosity about the basic design has evolved toward developing of responsive systems with applications in materials sciences and medicine. Our early contributions to this field focused on the introduction of new structural motifs with emphasis on rigid-rod scaffolds, artificial ?-barrels, or ?-stacks. Using these scaffolds, we have constructed selective systems that respond to voltage, pH, ligands, inhibitors, or light (multifunctional photosystems). We have described sensing applications that cover the three primary principles of sensor development: immunosensors that use aptamers, biosensors (an "artificial" tongue), and differential sensors (an "artificial" nose). In this Account, we focus on our recent interest in applying synthetic transport systems as analytical tools to identify the functional relevance of less common noncovalent interactions, anion-? interactions, halogen bonds, and anion-macrodipole interactions. Anion-? interactions, the poorly explored counterpart of cation-? interactions, occur in aromatic systems with a positive quadrupole moment, such as TNT or hexafluorobenzene. To observe these elusive interactions in action, we synthesized naphthalenediimide transporters of increasing ?-acidity up to an unprecedented quadrupole moment of +39 Buckinghams and characterized these systems in comparison with tandem mass spectrometry and computational simulations. With ?-acidic calixarenes and calixpyrroles, we have validated our results on anion-? interactions and initiated our studies of halogen bonds. Halogen bonds originate from the ?-hole that appears on top of electron-deficient iodines, bromines, and chlorines. Halogen-bond donors are ideal for anion transport because they are as strong and at least as directional as hydrogen-bond donors, but also hydrophobic. The discovery of the smallest possible organic anion transporter, trifluoroiodomethane, illustrates the power of halogen-bond donors. This molecule contains a single carbon atom and is a gas with a boiling point of -22 °C. Anion-macrodipole interactions, finally, differ significantly from anion-? interactions and halogen bonds because they are important in nature and cannot be studied with small molecules. We have used anion-transporting peptide/urea nanotubes to examine these interactions in synthetic transport systems. To facilitate the understanding of the described results, we also include an in-depth discussion of the meaning of Hill coefficients. The use of synthetic transport systems to catch less common noncovalent interactions at work is important because it helps to expand the collection of interactions available to create functional systems. Progress in this direction furthers fundamental knowledge and invites many different applications. For illustration, we briefly discuss how this knowledge could apply to the development of new catalysts. PMID:23547885

Vargas Jentzsch, Andreas; Hennig, Andreas; Mareda, Jiri; Matile, Stefan

2013-12-17

275

Structural Design Criteria for Anion Hosts: Strategies for Achieving Anion Shape Recognition through the Complementary Placement of Urea Donor Groups  

SciTech Connect

The arrangement of urea ligands about different shaped anions has been evaluated with electronic structure calculations. Geometries and binding energies are reported for urea complexes with Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, and ClO{sub 4}{sup -}. The results yield new insight into the nature of urea-anion interactions and provide structural criteria for the deliberate design of anion selective receptors containing two or more urea donor groups.

Hay, Benjamin P.; Firman, Timothy K.; Moyer, Bruce A.

2005-02-16

276

Alcohol abuse and glycoconjugate metabolism.  

PubMed

The relationship between alcohol consumption and glycoconjugate metabolism is complex and multidimensional. This review summarizes the advances in basic and clinical research on the molecular and cellular events involved in the metabolic effects of alcohol on glycoconjugates (glycoproteins, glycolipids, and proteoglycans). We summarize the action of ethanol, acetaldehyde, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nonoxidative metabolite of alcohol--fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), and the ethanol-water competition mechanism, on glycoconjugate biosynthesis, modification, transport and secretion, as well as on elimination and catabolism processes. As the majority of changes in the cellular metabolism of glycoconjugates are generally ascribed to alterations in synthesis, transport, glycosylation and secretion, the degradation and elimination processes, of which the former occurs also in extracellular matrix, seem to be underappreciated. The pathomechanisms are additionally complicated by the fact that the effect of alcohol intoxication on the glycoconjugate metabolism depends not only on the duration of ethanol exposure, but also demonstrates dose- and regional-sensitivity. Further research is needed to bridge the gap in transdisciplinary research and enhance our understanding of alcohol- and glycoconjugate-related diseases. PMID:22532130

Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szajda, S?awomir Dariusz; Zalewska, Anna; Szulc, Agata; K?pka, Alina; Minarowska, Alina; Wojewódzka-?elezniakowicz, Marzena; Konarzewska, Beata; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Ladny, Jerzy Robert; Zwierz, Krzysztof

2012-01-01

277

Fluorescence anisotropy of tyrosinate anion using one-, two- and three-photon excitation: tyrosinate anion fluorescence.  

PubMed

We examined the emission spectra and steady-state anisotropy of tyrosinate anion fluorescence with one-photon (250-310 nm), two-photon (570-620 nm) and three-photon (750-930 nm) excitation. Similar emission spectra of the neutral (pH 7.2) and anionic (pH 13) forms of N-acetyl-L-tyrosinamide (NATyrA) (pKa 10.6) were observed for all modes of excitation, with the maxima at 302 and 352 nm, respectively. Two-photon excitation (2PE) and three-photon excitation (3PE) spectra of the anionic form were the same as that for one-photon excitation (1PE). In contrast, 2PE spectrum from the neutral form showed ~30-nm shift to shorter wavelengths relative to 1PE spectrum (?max 275 nm) at two-photon energy (550 nm), the latter being overlapped with 3PE spectrum, both at two-photon energy (550 nm). Two-photon cross-sections for NATyrA anion at 565-580 nm were 10 % of that for N-acetyl-L-tryptophanamide (NATrpA), and increased to 90 % at 610 nm, while for the neutral form of NATyrA decreased from 2 % of that for NATrpA at 570 nm to near zero at 585 nm. Surprisingly, the fundamental anisotropy of NATyrA anion in vitrified solution at -60 °C was ~0.05 for 2PE at 610 nm as compared to near 0.3 for 1PE at 305 nm, and wavelength-dependence appears to be a basic feature of its anisotropy. In contrast, the 3PE anisotropy at 900 nm was about 0.5, and 3PE and 1PE anisotropy values appear to be related by the cos(6) ? to cos(2) ? photoselection factor (approx. 10/6) independently of excitation wavelength. Attention is drawn to the possible effect of tyrosinate anions in proteins on their multi-photon induced fluorescence emission and excitation spectra as well as excitation anisotropy spectra. PMID:23233051

Kierdaszuk, Borys

2013-03-01

278

The Widening Income Achievement Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Has the academic achievement gap between high-income and low-income students changed over the last few decades? If so, why? And what can schools do about it? Researcher Sean F. Reardon conducted a comprehensive analysis of research to answer these questions and came up with some striking findings. In this article, he shows that income-related…

Reardon, Sean F.

2013-01-01

279

Multiple input electrode gap controller  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for controlling vacuum arc remelting (VAR) furnaces by estimation of electrode gap based on a plurality of secondary estimates derived from furnace outputs. The estimation is preferably performed by Kalman filter. Adaptive gain techniques may be employed, as well as detection of process anomalies such as glows.

Hysinger, Christopher L. (Austin, TX); Beaman, Joseph J. (Austin, TX); Melgaard, David K. (Albuquerque, NE); Williamson, Rodney L. (Albuquerque, NE)

1999-01-01

280

Multiple input electrode gap controller  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for controlling vacuum arc remelting (VAR) furnaces by estimation of electrode gap based on a plurality of secondary estimates derived from furnace outputs. The estimation is preferably performed by Kalman filter. Adaptive gain techniques may be employed, as well as detection of process anomalies such as glows. 17 figs.

Hysinger, C.L.; Beaman, J.J.; Melgaard, D.K.; Williamson, R.L.

1999-07-27

281

The Racial Academic Achievement Gap  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Closing the racial academic achievement gap is a problem that must be solved in order for future society to properly function. Minorities including African-American and Latino students' standardized test scores are much lower than white students. By the end of fourth grade, African American, Latino, and poor students of all races are two years…

Green, Toneka M.

2008-01-01

282

Large gap magnetic suspension system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design of a large gap magnetic suspension system is discussed. Some of the topics covered include: the system configuration, permanent magnet material, levitation magnet system, superconducting magnets, resistive magnets, superconducting levitation coils, resistive levitation coils, levitation magnet system, and the nitrogen cooled magnet system.

Abdelsalam, Moustafa K.; Eyssa, Y. M.

1991-01-01

283

Closing the Gap in Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although many educators have stated that children from low socioeconomic homes do not have the opportunities to learn as much compared to those of higher income levels, government officials do not accept that argument. They say that all should achieve the proficiency level in reading. This paper outlines the following ways the reading gap might be…

Ediger, Marlow

284

Gap junction hemichannels in astrocytes of the CNS  

PubMed Central

Connexins are protein subunits that oligomerize into hexamers called connexons, gap junction hemichannels or just hemichannels. Because some gap junction channels are permeable to negatively and/or positively charged molecules up to ~ 1kDa in size, it was thought that hemichannels should not open to the extracellular space. A growing amount of evidence indicates that opening of hemichannels does occur under both physiological and pathological conditions in astrocytes and other cell types. Electrophysiological studies indicate that hemichannels have a low open probability under physiological conditions but may have a much higher open probability under certain pathological conditions. Some of the physiological behaviours of astrocytes that have been attributed to gap junctions may, in fact, be mediated by hemichannels. Hemichannels constituted of Cx43, the main connexin expressed by astrocytes, are permeable to small physiologically significant molecules, such as ATP, NAD+ and glutamate, and may mediate paracrine as well as autocrine signalling. Hemichannels tend to be closed by negative membrane potentials, high concentrations of extracellular Ca2+ and intracellular H+ ions, gap junction blockers and protein phosphorylation. Hemichannels tend to be opened by positive membrane potentials and low extracellular Ca2+, and possibly by as yet unidentified cytoplasmic signalling molecules. Exacerbated hemichannel opening occurs in metabolically inhibited cells, including cortical astrocytes, which contributes to the loss of chemical gradients across the plasma membrane and speeds cell death.

Saez, J. C.; Contreras, J. E.; Bukauskas, F. F.; Retamal, M. A.; Bennett, M. V. L.

2013-01-01

285

Once upon anion: a tale of photodetachment.  

PubMed

This contribution is very much a personal history of a journey through the wonderful world of anion chemistry, and a tale of how advances in laser technologies, theoretical methods, and computational capabilities continuously enabled advances in our understanding. It is a story of the excitement and joy that come from the opportunity to add to the fabric of science, and to do so by working as a group of excited explorers with common goals. The participants in this journey include me, my students and postdoctoral associates, my collaborators, and our many generous colleagues. It all happened, in the words of the Beatles, "with a little help from my friends." Actually, it was so much more than a little help! PMID:23216379

Lineberger, W Carl

2013-01-01

286

Simulations of zwitterionic and anionic phospholipid monolayers.  

PubMed Central

Results of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol monolayers at the air/water interface are presented. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine is zwitterionic and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol is anionic at physiological pH. NaCl and CaCl2 water subphases are simulated. The simulations are carried out at different surface densities, and a simulation cell geometry is chosen that greatly facilitates the investigation of phospholipid monolayer properties. Ensemble average monolayer properties calculated from simulation are in agreement with experimental measurements. The dependence of the properties of the monolayers on the surface density, the type of the headgroup, and the ionic environment are explained in terms of atomistically detailed pair distribution functions and electron density profiles, demonstrating the strength of simulations in investigating complex, multicomponent systems of biological importance.

Kaznessis, Yiannis N; Kim, Sangtae; Larson, Ronald G

2002-01-01

287

Metastable states of diatomic hydrogen anions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient states of the negative hydrogen molecule H?2 have drawn attention as intermediate reaction complexes in important molecular reactions like associative detachment (AD: H? + H ? H?2? H?2 + e?) and dissociative attachment (DA: e? + H2 ? H?2 ? H + H?). Recently it has been shown that metastable states of hydrogen molecular anions exist that defy both auto detachment and spontaneous dissociation for several microseconds (in the case of H?2) and even milliseconds (in the case of D?2). Here we present Coulomb explosion measurements for H?2 and D?2 that provide detailed information on the shape of the molecular wave function. We compare these experimental results with calculated wave functions obtained using a nonlocal resonance model. Our measurements confirm the predicted stabilization of H?2 and D?2 in states of high angular momentum.

Kreckel, Holger; Herwig, Philipp; Schwalm, Dirk; ?ížek, M.; Golser, Robin; Heber, Oded; Jordon-Thaden, Brandon; Wolf, Andreas

2014-04-01

288

Peroxydisulfate anion-induced crosslinking of proteins.  

PubMed

Peroxydisulfate anion in aqueous solutions is a strong oxidizing agent decomposing to sulfate free radicals and subsequently to hydroxyl radicals. In the presence of proteins, aqueous solutions of peroxydisulfate undergo more rapid induced decomposition to these free radical species, which in turn leads to oxidative attack and crosslinking and/or degradation of the protein. Under mild conditions and at low peroxydisulfate concentrations, protein crosslinking predominates over degradation. Peroxydisulfate-induced crosslinking of gelatin, fibroin, and other proteins is reviewed. The mechanism of crosslinking is interpreted in light of physical and chemical data, amino acid analyses, peroxydisulfate's known mode of decomposition, the effect of protein modification on oxidative crosslinking, and related model compound studies. PMID:579068

Needles, H L

1977-01-01

289

Cancer chemopreventive oltipraz generates superoxide anion radical.  

PubMed

The cancer chemopreventive actions of oltipraz, a member of a class of 1,2-dithiolethiones, have been primarily associated with the induction of phase 2 enzymes mediated by a 41bp enhancer element known as the anti-oxidant response element in the promoter regions of many phase 2 genes. It has been suggested that oxygen radical formation by oltipraz may be a critical mechanism by which it exerts chemoprevention. Therefore, in the present work, studies were performed to directly determine if oltipraz generates oxygen free radicals. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping demonstrated that oltipraz slowly reacts in the presence of oxygen to generate the superoxide anion radical. This formation of superoxide by oltipraz was concentration- and time-dependent. EPR oximetry studies showed that oxygen was also slowly consumed paralleling the process of superoxide formation. Thus, oltipraz induced superoxide formation occurs and could be involved in the mechanism by which it exerts chemoprotection. PMID:15680910

Velayutham, Murugesan; Villamena, Frederick A; Fishbein, James C; Zweier, Jay L

2005-03-01

290

Poly(phenylene)-based anion exchange membrane  

DOEpatents

A poly(phenylene) compound of copolymers that can be prepared with either random or multiblock structures where a first polymer has a repeat unit with a structure of four sequentially connected phenyl rings with a total of 2 pendant phenyl groups and 4 pendant tolyl groups and the second polymer has a repeat unit with a structure of four sequentially connected phenyl rings with a total of 6 pendant phenyl groups. The second polymer has chemical groups attached to some of the pendant phenyl groups selected from CH.sub.3, CH.sub.2Br, and CH.sub.2N(CH.sub.3).sub.3Br groups. When at least one group is CH.sub.2N(CH.sub.3).sub.3Br, the material functions as an anion exchange membrane.

Hibbs, Michael (Albuquerque, NM); Cornelius, Christopher J. (Albuquerque, NM); Fujimoto, Cy H. (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-02-15

291

Bimetallic anionic formyl complexes: synthesis and properties  

SciTech Connect

Three bimetallic anionic complexes, (2) lithium + dimanganese nonacarbonyl formyl/sup -/, (3) lithium + rhenium manganese nonacarbonyl formyl/sup -/, and (4) lithium + cisdirhenium nonacarbonyl formyl, are prepared by the reaction of lithium triethylboron hydride with the corresponding neutral metal carbonyl dimers, dimanganese decacarbonyl and manganese rhenium decarbonyl. 2 has a half-life of ca 8 min at room temperature, 4 is stable for days and is easily isolated as a tetrahydrofuran solvate. When 2 - 4 are treated with electrophiles such as benzaldehyde, iron pentacarbonyl, n-octyl iodide, hydride transfer occurs to produce benzyl alcohol, lithium + iron tetracarbonyl formyl/sup -/ complex, and octane, respectively. 3 is the weakest hydride donor. Reaction of 4 with methyl iodide produces ca 52% methane. The only identifiable product from the pyrolysis of 4 is dirhenium decacarbonyl; photolysis of 4 produces lithium + dirhenium nonacarbonyl hydride. 1 figure.

Tam, W.; Marsi, M.; Gladysz, J.A.

1983-05-11

292

Origins of Electronic Band Gap Reduction in Cr /N Codoped TiO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies indicated that noncompensated cation-anion codoping of wide-band-gap oxide semiconductors such as anatase TiO2 significantly reduces the optical band gap and thus strongly enhances the absorption of visible light [W. Zhu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 226401 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.226401]. We used soft x-ray spectroscopy to fully determine the location and nature of the impurity levels responsible for the extraordinarily large (˜1 eV) band gap reduction of noncompensated codoped rutile TiO2. It is shown that Cr /N codoping strongly enhances the substitutional N content, compared to single element doping. The band gap reduction is due to the formation of Cr 3d3 levels in the lower half of the gap while the conduction band minimum is comprised of localized Cr 3d and delocalized N 2p states. Band gap reduction and carrier delocalization are critical elements for efficient light-to-current conversion in oxide semiconductors. These findings thus raise the prospect of using codoped oxide semiconductors with specifically engineered electronic properties in a variety of photovoltaic and photocatalytic applications.

Parks Cheney, C.; Vilmercati, P.; Martin, E. W.; Chiodi, M.; Gavioli, L.; Regmi, M.; Eres, G.; Callcott, T. A.; Weitering, H. H.; Mannella, N.

2014-01-01

293

Organic anion transporter 3 interacts selectively with lipophilic ?-lactam antibiotics.  

PubMed

Transporters are major determinants of the disposition of xenobiotics and endogenous chemicals in the body. Organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) functions in the kidney and brain to remove metabolic waste, toxins, and drugs, and thus transports diverse chemicals. Some ?-lactam antibiotics interact with Oat3, and penicillin G exhibits a strong dependence on Oat3 for renal elimination. However, over 80 ?-lactams exist, and many have not been assessed for an interaction with Oat3. Moreover, ?-lactams continue to receive U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval. This study identified new ?-lactam-Oat3 interactions, provided a head-to-head comparison with Oat1, and characterized the physicochemical determinants of affinity for Oat3. Cells expressing mouse Oat3 (mOat3) and Oat1 (mOat1), and human OAT3 (hOAT3) were used to test inhibitors, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to measure transport. Of 26 ?-lactams tested, 12 were clear inhibitors of Oat3, and 14 exhibited poor interactions. Inhibitors exhibited a nearly identical rank-order of potency against mOat3 and hOAT3. Oat1 demonstrated a poor interaction with most ?-lactams. The majority of Oat3 inhibitors were substrates, and there were clear physicochemical differences between inhibitors and noninhibitors. That is, inhibitors had nearly 40% fewer hydrogen bond donors (P < 0.001), a lower total polar surface area (P < 0.05), and greater lipophilicity (LogP of inhibitors, +1.41; noninhibitors, -1.54; P < 0.001). Pharmacophore mapping revealed a prohibitive hydrogen bond donor group in noninhibitors adjacent to a hydrophobic moiety that was important for binding to Oat3. These findings indicate that Oat3 recognizes lipophilic ?-lactams more readily. Moreover, this study has potential implications for designing ?-lactams to avoid renal accumulation or brain efflux via Oat3. PMID:23344796

Wolman, Aaron T; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Heindel, Gregory A; Mukhija, Paran; Witkowski, Sarah; Bommareddy, Ajay; Vanwert, Adam L

2013-04-01

294

Mineral composition analysis: measuring anion uptake and anion concentrations in plant tissues.  

PubMed

This chapter describes two basic complementary methods relevant to at least three major macronutrients in plants: NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), and phosphate. The first method is the simultaneous determination of tissue content of the oxyanions, NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), and phosphate by HPLC, and the second is the determination of tissue uptake (transport) capacity for these same oxyanions. NO(3)(-), phosphate, and SO(4)(2-) , as well as other anions including chloride, malate, and nitrite are extracted from milligram quantities of plant tissue and are separated and quantified in a single chromatographic (HPLC) run. Information on uptake (flux) of these same anions through the roots may be obtained using isotopically labeled elements, enabling transport capacity of roots and subsequent translocation to shoot tissues to be determined. PMID:23073879

Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Parmar, Saroj; Buchner, Peter

2013-01-01

295

Capillary electrophoretic analysis of inorganic anions in atmospheric hailstone samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new application of capillary electrophoresis (CE) for measuring inorganic anions in hailstones was carried out. Five hailstone specimens were collected from large blocks of ice that fell in January 2000 in some provinces of Spain. Sample handling and preparation procedures were performed with care. CE analysis of anions was carried out using indirect UV detection at 254 nm with

E. Santoyo; R. Garc??a; J. Mart??nez-Fr??as; F. López-Vera; Surendra P. Verma

2002-01-01

296

A theoretical study of aromaticity in squaramide complexes with anions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic estimation of aromaticity in squaramide complexes with anions has been studied using structural and magnetic criteria. Results based on Nucleus Independent Chemical Shift (NICS) predict that squaramide is less aromatic than its complexes with several anions. We had previously observed the same behavior in squaramide complexes with cations. This bifunctionality can be used to design ditopic receptors. In

David Quiñonero; Rafel Prohens; Carolina Garau; Antonio Frontera; Pau Ballester; Antonio Costa; Pere M Deyà

2002-01-01

297

Photodetachment spectra of deprotonated fluorescent protein chromophore anions.  

PubMed

Isolated model anion chromophores of the green and cyan fluorescent proteins were generated in an electrospray ion source, and their photodetachment spectra were recorded using photoelectron imaging. Vertical photodetachment energies of 2.85(10) and 4.08(10) eV have been measured for the model green fluorescent protein chromophore anion, corresponding to photodetachment from the ground electronic state of the anion to the ground and first excited electronic states of the radical, respectively. For the model cyan fluorescent protein chromophore anion, vertical photodetachment energies of 2.88(10) and 3.96(10) eV have been measured, corresponding to detachment from the ground electronic state of the anion to the ground and first excited electronic states of the neutral radical, respectively. We also find evidence suggesting that autoionization of electronically excited states of the chromophore anions competes with direct photodetachment. For comparison and to benchmark our measurements, the vertical photodetachment energies of deprotonated phenol and indole anions have also been recorded and presented. Quantum chemistry calculations support our assignments. We discuss our results in the context of the isolated protein chromophore anions acting as electron donors, one of their potential biological functions. PMID:22738202

Mooney, Ciarán R S; Sanz, M Eugenia; McKay, Adam R; Fitzmaurice, Richard J; Aliev, Abil E; Caddick, Stephen; Fielding, Helen H

2012-08-01

298

Assignment of the optical spectra of metal phthalocyanine anions  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy was used to create a general band assignment scheme for main group and transition metal phthalocyanine anion species. The complexity of the overlapping absorption spectra of metal phthalocyanine anion species has been troublesome when creating models of the electronic structure of the phthalocyanine ring. The ZINDO program was used for molecular orbital calculations. 56 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

Mack, J.; Stillman, M.J. [Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada)] [Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada)

1997-01-29

299

8. VIEW OF GLOVE BOXES USED IN THE ANION EXCHANGE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. VIEW OF GLOVE BOXES USED IN THE ANION EXCHANGE PROCESS. THE ANION EXCHANGE PROCESS PURIFIED AND CONCENTRATED PLUTONIUM-BEARING NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS TO MAKE THEM ACCEPTABLE AS FEED FOR CONVERSION TO METAL. (6/20/60) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery & Fabrication Facility, North-central section of plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

300

Organic anions and the diarrhea of inflammatory bowel disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine if organic anions contribute to the diarrhea of inflammatory bowel disease, we measured osmolality, electrolytes, short-chain fatty acids, lactic acid, and some Krebs cycle anions in 24-hr fecal collections from 18 patients with chronic ulcerative colitis, 20 with Crohn's disease of the colon, and 16 normals. Mean lactic acid concentration was significantly elevated in ulcerative and Crohn's colitis,

P. Vernia; A. Gnaedinger; W. Hauck; R. I. Breuer

1988-01-01

301

Supramolecular Chemistry of Selective Anion Recognition for Anions of Environmental Relevance  

SciTech Connect

The major thrust of this project led by the University of Kansas (Prof. Kristin Bowman-Jones) entails the exploration of the principles of recognition and separation of sulfate by the design, synthesis, and testing of novel sulfate extractants. A key science need for the cleanup of tank wastes at Hanford has been identified in developing methods to separate those bulk waste components that have low solubilities in borosilicate glass. Sulfate has been identified as a particularly difficult and expensive problem in that its concentration in the waste is relatively high, its solubility in glass is especially low, and it interferes with the performance of both vitrification equipment and the glass waste form. The new extractants will be synthesized by the University of Kansas and the University of Texas, Austin. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is subjecting the new extractants to experiments that will determine their properties and effectiveness in separating sulfate from the major competing anions in the waste, especially nitrate. Such experiments will entail primarily liquid-liquid extraction. Current efforts focus on exciting new systems in which the anion receptors act as synergists for anion exchange.

Moyer, Bruce a.; Bostick, Debra A.; Fowler, Christopher J.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Ruas, Alexandre; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Llinares, Jose M.; Hossain, Alamgir; Kang, S. O.; Bowman-James, Kristin; Shriver, James A.; Marquez, Manuel; Sessler, Jonathan L.

2005-09-22

302

The Supramolecular Chemistry of Selective Anion Recognition for Anions of Environmental Relevance  

SciTech Connect

Work at carried out at ORNL since the inception of the project has served to demonstrate that the calix[4]pyrroles from the co-P.I.'s laboratory at the Univ. of Texas strongly enhance the extraction of sulfate by tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate or chloride in the presence of excess nitrate and chloride. Similar results were found in the case of the tetraamide macrocycles synthesized in the Bowman-James laboratory (Univ. of Kansas). Effort at the Univ. of Texas thus focused on generating new pyrrole-amide macrocycles that might combine the most favorable aspects of the calixpyrroles and the tetraamides. This culminated in the synthesis of several new receptors, which provided a ''matched set'' from whence insights into anion recognition could be inferred. As can be inferred from the data summarized in Table 1, small adjustments in the structure allow for a fine-tuning of the anion binding properties in favor of sulfate recognition, or in the case of injudicious modifications, selectivities that favor completely different classes of anionic substrates.

Sessler, Jonathan L.

2005-06-01

303

Gaps"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of daily quizzes on the performance of college students. Students in an introductory psychology course used their own wireless-enabled devices to take short Internet-based quizzes at the beginning of every class. The quiz items were drawn approximately equally from material covered in the readings and the…

What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

2013-01-01

304

Gap junctional hemichannels in the heart.  

PubMed

Upon contacting each other, cells form gap junctions, in which each cell contributes half of the channel linking their cytoplasms, enabling them to share their metabolome up to a molecular weight of 1000. Each hemichannel (or connexon) is randomly inserted into the plasma membrane and then migrates to the site of cell-to-cell contact before pairing with the neighbouring cell's hemichannel to form a communicating conduit. This review summarizes the evidence for hemichannels in heart ventricular myocytes. Morphological findings are summarized describing how hemichannels are inserted into the plasma membrane. Once in the plasma membrane, hemichannels can be functionally detected electrophysiologically or by dye uptake assays. Each technique reveals specific aspects of hemichannel function. Using dye uptake studies, it is possible to investigate the biological regulation of hemichannels in vivo. Evidence is summarized which indicates that hemichannels are normally kept closed in the presence of normal extracellular Ca because they are phosphorylated at residues in the C-terminus regulated by the MAPK signalling pathway. When hemichannels are dephosphorylated, the channels open and allow dye uptake into the cells, as well as potentially deleterious ion exchange. Biological stresses, such as hyperosmolarity and metabolic inhibition, open hemichannels by this mechanism through activating phosphatases. The resulting ion fluxes may have important roles in heart physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:12940935

John, S; Cesario, D; Weiss, J N

2003-09-01

305

Quantitative evaluation of gap junctions in rat brown adipose tissue after cold acclimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The decrease in the metabolic capacity of rat brown adipose tissue during the late postnatal period can be reversed by cold acclimation of the animals. In order to find out whether a parallel decrease in capability for intercellular communication observed during this period is also reversed by cold acclimation, gap junction size and number per unit area of cell

G. Schneider-Picard; J. L. Carpentier; L. Girardier

1984-01-01

306

Production of bulk chemicals via novel metabolic pathways in microorganisms.  

PubMed

Metabolic engineering has been playing important roles in developing high performance microorganisms capable of producing various chemicals and materials from renewable biomass in a sustainable manner. Synthetic and systems biology are also contributing significantly to the creation of novel pathways and the whole cell-wide optimization of metabolic performance, respectively. In order to expand the spectrum of chemicals that can be produced biotechnologically, it is necessary to broaden the metabolic capacities of microorganisms. Expanding the metabolic pathways for biosynthesizing the target chemicals requires not only the enumeration of a series of known enzymes, but also the identification of biochemical gaps whose corresponding enzymes might not actually exist in nature; this issue is the focus of this paper. First, pathway prediction tools, effectively combining reactions that lead to the production of a target chemical, are analyzed in terms of logics representing chemical information, and designing and ranking the proposed metabolic pathways. Then, several approaches for potentially filling in the gaps of the novel metabolic pathway are suggested along with relevant examples, including the use of promiscuous enzymes that flexibly utilize different substrates, design of novel enzymes for non-natural reactions, and exploration of hypothetical proteins. Finally, strain optimization by systems metabolic engineering in the context of novel metabolic pathways constructed is briefly described. It is hoped that this review paper will provide logical ways of efficiently utilizing 'big' biological data to design and develop novel metabolic pathways for the production of various bulk chemicals that are currently produced from fossil resources. PMID:23280013

Shin, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyun Uk; Kim, Dong In; Lee, Sang Yup

2013-11-01

307

Models for the Functions of Arf GAPs  

PubMed Central

Arf GAPs (ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase activating proteins) are essential components of Arf (ADP-ribosylation factor) signaling pathways. Arf GAPs stimulate the hydrolysis of GTP to GDP to transition Arf from the active, GTP bound, state to the inactive, GDP bound, state. Based on this activity, Arf GAPs were initially proposed to function primarily or exclusively as terminators of Arf signaling. Further studies of Arf GAPs have revealed that they also function as effectors of Arf signaling in at least a few steps or processes in which Arfs are not directly involved. In this review we discuss the non-canonical functions of Arf GAPs and address several key questions in the field, including: whether (1) Arf GAPs are terminators or effectors of Arf signaling, (2) Arf GAPs positively or negatively regulate COPI assembly, (3) Arf GAPs are involved in vesicle fission, and (4) Arf GAPs regulate vesicle uncoating.

East, Michael P.; Kahn, Richard A.

2010-01-01

308

Air Gap Effects in LX-17  

SciTech Connect

Three experiments done over twenty years on gaps in LX-17 are reported. For the detonation front moving parallel to the gaps, jets of gas products were seen coming from the gaps at velocities greater than the detonation velocity. A case can be made that the jet velocity increased with gap thickness but the data is scattered. For the detonation front moving transverse to the gap, time delays were seen. The delays roughly increase with gap width, going from 0-70 ns at 'zero gap' to around 300 ns at 0.5-1 mm gap. Larger gaps of up to 6 mm width almost certainly stopped the detonation, but this was not proved. Real-time resolution of the parallel jets and determination of the actual re-detonation or failure in the transverse case needs to be done in future experiments.

Souers, P C; Ault, S; Avara, R; Bahl, K L; Boat, R; Cunningham, B; Gidding, D; Janzen, J; Kuklo, D; Lee, R; Lauderbach, L; Weingart, W C; Wu, B; Winer, K

2005-09-26

309

Synthesis and characterisation of a new anion exchangeable layered hydroxyiodide.  

PubMed

Lu4O(OH)9I·3H2O is a new member of the anion exchangeable lanthanide hydroxyanion family of materials which has been synthesised hydrothermally. Its structure comprises positively charged [Lu4O(OH)9(H2O)3](+) layers with exchangeable charge balancing iodide anions located in the interlayer gallery. It has been found to undergo facile anion exchange reactions with dicarboxylate anions such as succinate and terephthalate at room temperature but reacts less readily with disulfonate anions such as 1,5- and 2,6-naphthalenedisulfonate under the same conditions. At reaction temperatures above 200 °C the cationic inorganic framework Lu3O(OH)6I·2H2O forms instead of the layered phase. PMID:24590319

Southworth, Faye Y; Wilson, Claire; Coles, Simon J; Fogg, Andrew M

2014-07-21

310

Superoxide Anion Production by Human Neutrophils Activated by Trichomonas vaginalis  

PubMed Central

Neutrophils are the predominant inflammatory cells found in vaginal discharges of patients infected with Trichomonas vaginalis. In this study, we examined superoxide anion (O2.-) production by neutrophils activated by T. vaginalis. Human neutrophils produced superoxide anions when stimulated with either a lysate of T. vaginalis, its membrane component (MC), or excretory-secretory product (ESP). To assess the role of trichomonad protease in production of superoxide anions by neutrophils, T. vaginalis lysate, ESP, and MC were each pretreated with a protease inhibitor cocktail before incubation with neutrophils. Superoxide anion production was significantly decreased by this treatment. Trichomonad growth was inhibited by preincubation with supernatants of neutrophils incubated for 3 hr with T. vaginalis lysate. Furthermore, myeloperoxidase (MPO) production by neutrophils was stimulated by live trichomonads. These results indicate that the production of superoxide anions and MPO by neutrophils stimulated with T. vaginalis may be a part of defense mechanisms of neutrophils in trichomoniasis.

Song, Hyun-Ouk

2013-01-01

311

Photoelectron spectroscopy and computational modeling of thymidine homodimer anions.  

PubMed

The intact thymidine homodimer anion (dT(2)(-)) was generated in the gas phase using an infrared desorption/photoemission source and recorded by a pulsed photoelectron spectrometer. The photoelectron spectrum (PES) revealed a broad signal with the maximum at electron binding energy ?2.0 eV and the threshold value at 1.1 eV. The relative energies and vertical detachment energies of the possible anion structures were calculated at the B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) level. Here we report that the most stable anion radical homodimer geometries observed in the PES are the anionic nucleoside coordinated by the O8 atom of thymine to the deoxyribose of the second neutral nucleoside. Unlike previous experimental-computational studies on anionic complexes involving nucleobases with proton donors, the electron-induced proton-transferred structures are not responsible for the shape of the PES of dT(2)(-). PMID:23140137

Storoniak, Piotr; Rak, Janusz; Ko, Yeon Jae; Wang, Haopeng; Bowen, Kit H

2012-12-01

312

Why Metabolic Syndrome Matters  

MedlinePLUS

Why Metabolic Syndrome Matters Updated:Mar 13,2014 Metabolic syndrome may be diagnosed when a patient has a cluster of risk factors for ... Syndrome • Home • About Metabolic Syndrome • Why Metabolic Syndrome Matters • Your Risk for Metabolic Syndrome • Symptoms & Diagnosis • Prevention & ...

313

Colorless to purple-red switching electrochromic anthraquinone imides with broad visible/near-IR absorptions in the radical anion state: simulation-aided molecular design.  

PubMed

The large redshift of near-infrared (NIR) absorptions of nitro-substituted anthraquinone imide (Nitro-AQI) radical anions, relative to other AQI derivatives, is rationalized based on quantum chemical calculations. Calculations reveal that the delocalization effects of electronegative substitution in the radical anion states is dramatically enhanced, thus leading to a significant decrease in the HOMO-LUMO band gap in the radical anion states. Based on this understanding, an AQI derivative with an even stronger electron-withdrawing dicyanovinyl (di-CN) substituent was designed and prepared. The resulting molecule, di-CN-AQI, displays no absorption in the Vis/NIR region in the neutral state, but absorbs intensively in the range of ?=700-1000 (?max ?860?nm) and ?=1100-1800?nm (?max ?1400?nm) upon one-electron reduction; this is accompanied by a transition from a highly transmissive colorless solution to one that is purple-red. The relationship between calculated radical anionic HOMO-LUMO gaps and the electron-withdrawing capacity of the substituents is also determined by employing Hammett parameter, which could serve as a theoretical tool for further molecular design. PMID:23630057

Chen, Fengkun; Zhang, Jie; Jiang, Hong; Wan, Xinhua

2013-07-01

314

Effect of the synergistic anion on electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of iron-transferrin anion complexes is consistent with bidentate binding of the anion.  

PubMed Central

Continuous wave (cw) X-band EPR spectra at approximately 90 K were obtained for iron-transferrin-anion complexes with 18 anions. Each anion had a carboxylate group and at least one other polar moiety. As the second polar group was varied from hydroxyl to carbonyl to amine to carboxylate, the EPR spectra changed from a dominant signal at g' approximately 4.3 with a second smaller peak at g' approximately 9 to a broad signal with intensity between g' approximately 5 and 7. Computer simulation indicated that the changes in the EPR spectra were due to changes in the zero field splitting parameter ratio, E/D, from approximately 1/3 for carbonate anion to approximately 0.04 for malonate anion. Observation of iron-13C coupling in the electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) for iron transferrin [1-13C]pyruvate indicated that the carboxylate group was bound to the iron. It is proposed that all of the anions behave as bidentate ligands, with coordination to the iron through both the carboxylate and proximal groups, and the carboxyl group serves as a bridge between the iron and a positively charged group on the protein.

Dubach, J; Gaffney, B J; More, K; Eaton, G R; Eaton, S S

1991-01-01

315

Exploiting Metabolic Differences in Glioma Therapy  

PubMed Central

Brain function depends upon complex metabolic interactions amongst only a few different cell types, with as-trocytes providing critical support for neurons. Astrocyte functions include buffering the extracellular space, providing substrates to neurons, interchanging glutamate and glutamine for synaptic transmission with neurons, and facilitating access to blood vessels. Whereas neurons possess highly oxidative metabolism and easily succumb to ischemia, astrocytes rely more on glycolysis and metabolism associated with synthesis of critical intermediates, hence are less susceptible to lack of oxygen. Astrocytoma and higher grade glioma cells demonstrate both basic metabolic mechanisms of astrocytes as well as tumors in general, e.g. they show a high glycolytic rate, lactate extrusion, ability to proliferate even under hypoxia, and opportunistic use of mechanisms to enhance metabolism and blood vessel generation, and suppression of cell death pathways. There may be differences in metabolism between neurons, normal astrocytes and astrocytoma cells, providing therapeutic opportunities against astrocytomas, including a wide range of enzyme and transporter differences, regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), glutamate uptake transporters and glutamine utilization, differential sensitivities of monocarboxylate transporters, presence of glycogen, high interlinking with gap junctions, use of NADPH for lipid synthesis, utilizing differential regulation of synthetic enzymes (e.g. isocitrate dehydrogenase, pyruvate carboxylase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, malate-aspartate NADH shuttle) and different glucose uptake mechanisms. These unique metabolic susceptibilities may augment conventional therapeutic attacks based on cell division differences and surface receptors alone, and are starting to be implemented in clinical trials.

Galeffi, Francesca; Turner, Dennis A.

2013-01-01

316

Spatial and temporal variation in organic acid anion exudation and nutrient anion uptake in the rhizosphere of Lupinus albus L  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated in situ the temporal patterns and spatial extent of organic acid anion exudation into the rhizosphere solution of Lupinus albus, and its relation with the nutrient anions phosphate, nitrate and sulfate by means of a rhizobox micro suction cup method\\u000a under P sufficient conditions. We compared the soil solution in the rhizosphere of cluster roots with that in

J. Dessureault-Rompré; B. Nowack; R. Schulin; J. Luster

2007-01-01

317

Genetic polymorphism in drug metabolism and toxicity: Linking animal research and risk assessment in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major challenges facing toxicology is to bridge the gap between animal research and risk assessment in man. In this meeting, the genetic polymorphism of drug metabolizing enzymes in relation to drug toxicity will be described.

Tetsuo Satoh

318

Electronic gap sensor and method  

DOEpatents

Disclosed are an apparatus and method for regulating the gap between a casting nozzle and a casting wheel in which the gap between the casting nozzle and the casting wheel is monitored by means of at least one sensing element protruding from the face of the casting nozzle. The sensing element is preferably connected to a voltage source and the casting wheel grounded. When the sensing element contacts the casting wheel, an electric circuit is completed. The completion of the circuit can be registered by an indicator, and the presence or absence of a completed circuit indicates the relative position of the casting nozzle to the casting wheel. The relative positions of the casting nozzle and casting wheel can thereby be selectively adjusted to continually maintain a predetermined distance between their adjacent surfaces. 5 figures.

Williams, R.S.; King, E.L.; Campbell, S.L.

1991-08-06

319

Electronic gap sensor and method  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for regulating the gap between a casting nozzle and a casting wheel in which the gap between the casting nozzle and the casting wheel is monitored by means of at least one sensing element protruding from the face of the casting nozzle. The sensing element is preferably connected to a voltage source and the casting wheel grounded. When the sensing element contacts the casting wheel, an electric circuit is completed. The completion of the circuit can be registered by an indicator, and the presence or absence of a completed circuit indicates the relative position of the casting nozzle to the casting wheel. The relative positions of the casting nozzle and casting wheel can thereby be selectively adjusted to continually maintain a predetermined distance between their adjacent surfaces.

Williams, Robert S. (Fairfield, OH); King, Edward L. (Trenton, OH); Campbell, Steven L. (Middletown, OH)

1991-01-01

320

Energy Gaps in Graphene Nanoribbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a first-principles approach, we present scaling rules for the band\\u000agaps of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) as a function of their widths. The GNRs\\u000aconsidered have either armchair or zigzag shaped edges on both sides with\\u000ahydrogen passivation. Both varieties of ribbons are shown to have band gaps.\\u000aThis differs from the results of simple tight-binding calculations or solutions

Young-Woo Son; Marvin L. Cohen; Steven G. Louie

2006-01-01

321

Homolumo gap and matrix model  

SciTech Connect

We discuss a dynamical matrix model by which probability distribution is associated with Gaussian ensembles from random matrix theory. We interpret the matrix M as a Hamiltonian representing interaction of a bosonic system with a single fermion. We show that a system of second-quantized fermions influences the ground state of the whole system by producing a gap between the highest occupied eigenvalue and the lowest unoccupied eigenvalue.

Andric, I.; Jonke, L.; Jurman, D.; Nielsen, H. B. [Theoretical Physics Division, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen DK 2100 (Denmark)

2008-06-15

322

Gallium based low-interaction anions  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides: a composition of the formula M.sup.+x (Ga(Y).sub.4.sup.-).sub.x where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium, calcium, strontium, thallium, and silver, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 1 or 2, each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide; a composition of the formula (R).sub.x Q.sup.+ Ga(Y).sub.4.sup.- where Q is selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus and oxygen, each R is a ligand selected from the group consisting of alkyl, aryl, and hydrogen, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 3 and 4 depending upon Q, and each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide; an ionic polymerization catalyst composition including an active cationic portion and a gallium based weakly coordinating anion; and bridged anion species of the formula M.sup.+x.sub.y [X(Ga(Y.sub.3).sub.z ].sup.-y.sub.x where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, cesium, calcium, strontium, thallium, and silver, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 1 or 2, X is a bridging group between two gallium atoms, y is an integer selected from the group consisting 1 and 2, z is an integer of at least 2, each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide.

King, Wayne A. (Santa Fe, NM); Kubas, Gregory J. (Santa Fe, NM)

2000-01-01

323

Complex gap in color superconductivity  

SciTech Connect

We solve the gap equation for color-superconducting quark matter in the 2SC phase, including both the energy and the momentum dependence of the gap, {phi}={phi}(k{sub 0},k). For that purpose a complex Ansatz for {phi} is made. The calculations are performed within an effective theory for cold and dense quark matter. The solution of the complex gap equation is valid to subleading order in the strong-coupling constant g and in the limit of zero temperature. We find that, for momenta sufficiently close to the Fermi surface and for small energies, the dominant contribution to the imaginary part of {phi} arises from Landau-damped magnetic gluons. Further away from the Fermi surface and for larger energies the other gluon sectors have to be included into Im{phi}. We confirm that Im{phi} contributes a correction of order g to the prefactor of {phi} for on-shell quasiquarks sufficiently close to the Fermi surface, whereas further away from the Fermi surface Im{phi} and Re{phi} are of the same order. Finally, we discuss the relevance of Im{phi} for the damping of quasiquark excitations.

Reuter, Philipp T. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, D-60054 Frankfurt (Germany); Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1560 (United States); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada)

2006-11-15

324

Gap junctions and chagas disease.  

PubMed

Gap junction channels provide intercellular communication between cells. In the heart, these channels coordinate impulse propagation along the conduction system and through the contractile musculature, thereby providing synchronous and optimal cardiac output. As in other arrhythmogenic cardiac diseases, chagasic cardiomyopathy is associated with decreased expression of the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) and its gene. Our studies of cardiac myocytes infected with Trypanosoma cruzi have revealed that synchronous contraction is greatly impaired and gap junction immunoreactivity is lost in infected cells. Such changes are not seen for molecules forming tight junctions, another component of the intercalated disc in cardiac myocytes. Transcriptomic studies of hearts from mouse models of Chagas disease and from acutely infected cardiac myocytes in vitro indicate profound remodelling of gene expression patterns involving heart rhythm determinant genes, suggesting underlying mechanisms of the functional pathology. One curious feature of the altered expression of Cx43 and its gene expression is that it is limited in both extent and location, suggesting that the more global deterioration in cardiac function may result in part from spread of damage signals from more seriously compromised cells to healthier ones. PMID:21884887

Adesse, Daniel; Goldenberg, Regina Coeli; Fortes, Fabio S; Jasmin; Iacobas, Dumitru A; Iacobas, Sanda; Campos de Carvalho, Antonio Carlos; de Narareth Meirelles, Maria; Huang, Huan; Soares, Milena B; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Garzoni, Luciana Ribeiro; Spray, David C

2011-01-01

325

Band gap engineering in BiNbO{sub 4} for visible-light photocatalysis  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the electronic structure of anionic mono- (S, N, and C) and co-doping (N-N, C-N, S-C, and S-N) on BiNbO{sub 4} for the visible-light photocatalysis. The maximum band gap reduction of pure BiNbO{sub 4} is possible with the (C-S) co-doping and minimum with N mono-doping. The calculated binding energies show that the co-doped systems are more stable than their mono-doped counterparts. Our optical absorption curves indicate that the mono- (C) and co-anionic doped (N-N and C-S) BiNbO{sub 4} systems are promising materials for visible light photocatalysis.

Wang, B. C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), S-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Nisar, J.; Pathak, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 530, Uppsala University, S-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Kang, T. W. [QSRC, Department of Physics, Dongguk University, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Ahuja, R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), S-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 530, Uppsala University, S-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

2012-04-30

326

Electronic structure and properties of neutral, anionic and cationic silicon-nitrogen nanoclusters.  

PubMed

We performed a G3 investigation of the possible stable structures of silicon-nitrogen SinNm clusters where m = 1-4, n = 1-4, m + n = 2-5. We considered the neutral, anionic and cationic molecular species in the singlet, doublet and triplet states, as appropriate. For neutral clusters, our data confirm previous DFT and post Hartree-Fock findings. For charged clusters, our results represent predictions. Several molecular properties related to the experimental data, such as the electronic energy, equilibrium geometry, binding energy (BE), HOMO-LUMO gap (HLG), and spin contamination mathematical left angle bracket S? mathematical right angle bracket were computed. We also derived the vertical electron attachment (VEA), the adiabatic electron affinity (AEA), and the vertical ionization energy (VIE), of the neutral clusters. Similar to their carbon-nitrogen counterparts, the lowest energy structures for neutral and cationic silicon-nitrogen clusters are found to be linear or quasilinear. In contrast, anionic silicon-nitrogen clusters tend to form 3D structures as the size of the cluster increases. PMID:23529179

Al Mogren, Muneerah M; El-Azhary, Adel A; Alkiali, Wad Z; Hochlaf, Majdi

2013-06-01

327

Zintl-phase compounds with SnSb4 tetrahedral anions: electronic structure and thermoelectric properties  

SciTech Connect

We report the investigation of Zintl-phase Na(K){sub 8}SnSb{sub 4} and related compounds that contain SnSb{sub 4} tetrahedral anions using first principles electronic structure, Boltzmann transport, and density functional phonon calculations. We find that these compounds are narrow-gap semiconductors and there is a combination of heavy and light bands at valence band edge, which may lead to a combination of high thermopower and reasonable conductivity. High values of the thermopower are found for p-type doping within the Boltzmann transport theory. Furthermore, these materials are expected to have low thermal conductivity due to their structures that consist of a network of weakly coupled SnSb{sub 4} clusters, which leads to low phonon frequencies. In particular, we find low-frequency optical phonons that should effectively scatter the heat-carrying acoustic phonons. These results are discussed in terms of the structure, which consists of anionic clusters. Based on the results, it is suggested that such compounds may represent a useful paradigm for finding new thermoelectric materials.

Zhang, Lijun [ORNL; Du, Mao-Hua [ORNL; Singh, David J [ORNL

2010-01-01

328

Zintl-phase compounds with SnSb4 tetrahedral anions: Electronic structure and thermoelectric properties  

SciTech Connect

We report the investigation of Zintl-phase Na(K){sub 8}SnSb{sub 4} and related compounds that contain SnSb{sub 4} tetrahedral anions using first principles electronic structure, Boltzmann transport, and density functional phonon calculations. We find that these compounds are narrow-gap semiconductors and there is a combination of heavy and light bands at valence band edge, which may lead to a combination of high thermopower and reasonable conductivity. High values of the thermopower are found for p-type doping within the Boltzmann transport theory. Furthermore, these materials are expected to have low thermal conductivity due to their structures that consist of a network of weakly coupled SnSb{sub 4} clusters, which leads to low phonon frequencies. In particular, we find low-frequency optical phonons that should effectively scatter the heat-carrying acoustic phonons. These results are discussed in terms of the structure, which consists of anionic clusters. Based on the results, it is suggested that such compounds may represent a useful paradigm for finding new thermoelectric materials.

Zhang, Lijun; Du, Mao-Hua; Singh, David J.

2010-01-01

329

MIRAGE: a functional genomics-based approach for metabolic network model reconstruction and its application to cyanobacteria networks  

PubMed Central

Genome-scale metabolic network reconstructions are considered a key step in quantifying the genotype-phenotype relationship. We present a novel gap-filling approach, MetabolIc Reconstruction via functionAl GEnomics (MIRAGE), which identifies missing network reactions by integrating metabolic flux analysis and functional genomics data. MIRAGE's performance is demonstrated on the reconstruction of metabolic network models of E. coli and Synechocystis sp. and validated via existing networks for these species. Then, it is applied to reconstruct genome-scale metabolic network models for 36 sequenced cyanobacteria amenable for constraint-based modeling analysis and specifically for metabolic engineering. The reconstructed network models are supplied via standard SBML files.

2012-01-01

330

Closing the Prescription Drug Coverage Gap  

MedlinePLUS

... does the coverage gap discount work for brand-name drugs? Companies that make brand-name prescription drugs ... the coverage gap, will all Medicare-covered brand-name prescription drugs be discounted? If a drug company ...

331

Direct band gap wurtzite gallium phosphide nanowires.  

PubMed

The main challenge for light-emitting diodes is to increase the efficiency in the green part of the spectrum. Gallium phosphide (GaP) with the normal cubic crystal structure has an indirect band gap, which severely limits the green emission efficiency. Band structure calculations have predicted a direct band gap for wurtzite GaP. Here, we report the fabrication of GaP nanowires with pure hexagonal crystal structure and demonstrate the direct nature of the band gap. We observe strong photoluminescence at a wavelength of 594 nm with short lifetime, typical for a direct band gap. Furthermore, by incorporation of aluminum or arsenic in the GaP nanowires, the emitted wavelength is tuned across an important range of the visible light spectrum (555-690 nm). This approach of crystal structure engineering enables new pathways to tailor materials properties enhancing the functionality. PMID:23464761

Assali, S; Zardo, I; Plissard, S; Kriegner, D; Verheijen, M A; Bauer, G; Meijerink, A; Belabbes, A; Bechstedt, F; Haverkort, J E M; Bakkers, E P A M

2013-04-10

332

In situ gelling properties of anionic thiomers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate in situ crosslinking systems of anionic thiolated polymers. In order to accelerate the increase in dynamic viscosity of thiolated polymers (thiomers), they were combined with hydrogen peroxide, carbamide peroxide and ammonium persulfate. Thiomers (pectin-cysteine (Pec-Cys), sodium carboxymethylcellulose-cysteine (NaCMC-Cys) and poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine (PAA-Cys)) were synthesized via amide bond formation between the carboxylic acid group of polymers and the primary amino group of l-cysteine. The rheological properties of 1% (m/v) thiomer solutions with oxidizing agents were compared by oscillatory measurements over time (120?min). Pec-Cys and NaCMC-Cys with hydrogen and carbamide peroxide showed a sol-gel phase transition within a few minutes and scored up to 13,000-fold increase in dynamic viscosity. Furthermore, only thiomers exhibiting a polysaccharide backbone (Pec-Cys and NaCMC-Cys) showed a significant increase in viscosity (p?

Hintzen, Fabian; Laffleur, Flavia; Sakloetsakun, Duangkamon; Leithner, Katharina; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

2012-12-01

333

In situ anion diffusion experiments using radiotracers.  

PubMed

Diffusion experiments in compacted bentonite have been carried out in situ using the borehole laboratory CHEMLAB. The "ordinary" anion iodide and the redox-sensitive pertechnetate ion have been investigated. In spite of strongly reducing groundwater conditions, technetium was found to diffuse mostly unreduced as TcO4-, although in some spots in the compacted clay, the activity was significantly higher, which may be explained by reduction of some TcO4- by iron-containing minerals in the bentonite. The measured concentration profiles in the clay cannot be accommodated by assuming one single diffusion process. The experimental data are modeled assuming two diffusion paths, intralamellar diffusion and diffusion in external water. The apparent diffusivity for the intralamellar diffusion was found to be 8.6 x 10(-11) m2 s(-1) for iodide with a capacity factor of 0.1, while the apparent diffusivity for the diffusion in external water was found to be 5 x 10(-14) m2 s(-1) with alpha=2.26. The corresponding values for Tc were found to be Da= 6 x 10(-11) m2 s(-1), alpha=0.1 and Da= 1 x 10(-13) m2 s(-1), alpha=0.46, respectively. The diffusion constants and capacity factors obtained in this study are in accordance with data from laboratory experiments. PMID:14734245

Jansson, Mats; Eriksen, Trygve E

2004-02-01

334

The rheology of anionic aqueous polyurethane dispersions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Driven by environmental regulations, water-borne coatings and adhesives are of steadily growing importance. One system being developed to satisfy this need is aqueous polyurethane. Aqueous polyurethane particles have a very unique structure, which lies somewhere between that of polymer chains and traditional colloidal particles. In this fundamental study, we attempt to characterize and understand the flow behavior of these unique electrostatically stabilized polymer colloids from a colloidal perspective. We examine the rheological behavior of anionic aqueous polyurethane dispersions from the dilute to the concentrated regime. At dilute to intermediate concentrations these systems behave as standard electrostatically stabilized particles. However at higher concentrations, standard models for electrostatically stabilized hard particles fail at predicting both the magnitudes and the trends exhibited by these systems. The flow behavior observed for concentrated aqueous polyurethane systems is attributed to a complex interplay of electrostatics, sterics, and particle deformation. This study represents the first attempt to fully characterize and understand the rheological behavior of these systems from a fundamental perspective. The results of this study lay the ground work for future work, which should ultimately result in a more concise picture of the particle morphology and better more advance models for predicting the observed behavior.

Flickinger, Gregory Lee

335

Ionic Block Copolymers for Anion Exchange Membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells have regained interest because it allows the use of non-noble metal catalysts. Until now, most of the studies on AEM were based on random polyelectrolytes. In this work, Poly(vinylbenzyltrimethylammonium bromide)-b- (methylbutylene) ([PVBTMA][Br]-b-PMB) was studied by SAXS, TEM and dielectric spectroscopy to understand the fundamental structure-conductivity relationship of ion transport mechanisms within well-ordered block copolymers. The ionic conductivity and the formation of order structure were dependent on the casting solvent. Higher ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the membranes showed higher conductivity at as IEC values below 1.8mmol/g, as above this, the ionic conductivity decreases due to more water uptake leading to dilution of charge density. The humidity dependence of morphology exhibited the shifting of d-spacing to higher value and the alteration in higher characteristic peak of SAXS plot as the humidity increase from the dry to wet state. This phenomenon can be further explained by a newly developed polymer brush theory. Three ionic conduction pathways with different conduction mechanism within the membranes can be confirmed by broadband electric spectroscopy.

Tsai, Tsung-Han; Herbst, Dan; Giffin, Guinevere A.; di Noto, Vito; Witten, Tom; Coughlin, E. Bryan

2013-03-01

336

Neptunium Valence Chemistry in Anion Exchange Processing  

SciTech Connect

The current anion resin in use in HB-Line Phase II, Reillex{trademark} HPQ, was tested in the laboratory under expected plant conditions for Np processing and was found to load between 50 and 70 g Np per liter of resin. Losses varied from 0.2 to 15 percent depending on a number of parameters. Hydrazine in the feed at 0.02 to 0.05 M appeared to keep the Np from oxidizing and increasing the losses within four to seven days after the FS addition. Losses of up to three percent were observed five days after FS addition when hydrazine was not used in the feed, compared with 0.3 percent when the feed was loaded immediately after FS addition. Based on these test results the following processing conditions are recommended: (1) Feed conditions: 8 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.02 M hydrazine, 0.05 M excess FS, less than 5 days storage of solution after FS addition. (2) Wash conditions: 100 liters of 8 M HNO{sub 3}, no FS, no hydrazine. (3) Elution conditions: 0.17 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.05 M hydrazine, no FS. (4) Precipitation feed conditions: 0.03 M excess ascorbic acid, no additional hydrazine, no FS, precipitation within three days.

KYSER, EDWARD

2003-02-01

337

Spark gap with low breakdown voltage jitter  

DOEpatents

Novel spark gap devices and electrodes are disclosed. The novel spark gap devices and electrodes are suitable for use in a variety of spark gap device applications. The shape of the electrodes gives rise to local field enhancements and reduces breakdown voltage jitter. Breakdown voltage jitter of approximately 5% has been measured in spark gaps according the invention. Novel electrode geometries and materials are disclosed. 13 figs.

Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.

1996-04-23

338

Spark gap with low breakdown voltage jitter  

DOEpatents

Novel spark gap devices and electrodes are disclosed. The novel spark gap devices and electrodes are suitable for use in a variety of spark gap device applications. The shape of the electrodes gives rise to local field enhancements and reduces breakdown voltage jitter. Breakdown voltage jitter of approximately 5% has been measured in spark gaps according the invention. Novel electrode geometries and materials are disclosed.

Rohwein, Gerald J. (Albuquerque, NM); Roose, Lars D. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-01-01

339

High Temperature Gas-Gap Thermal Switch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Device set to allow heat to flow across gap (switch "on") or decrease rate of transfer of heat to relatively low value (switch "off"). Operates at temperatures in approximate range of 100 to 1,500 degree C. Central cylindrical object thermally connected to (or disconnected from) environment by filling gap between inner and outer sleeves of switch (or evacuating gap) to increase (or decrease) thermal conduction across gap.

Bard, Steven

1989-01-01

340

Gap Year: Time off, with a Plan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A gap year allows people to step off the usual educational or career path and reassess their future. According to people who have taken a gap year, the time away can be well worth it. This article can help a person decide whether to take a gap year and how to make the most of his time off. It describes what a gap year is, including its pros and…

Torpey, Elka Maria

2009-01-01

341

The GAP Online LGBT Mental Health Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe the development and publication of an online curriculum to teach psychiatry trainees about important topics in LGBT mental health (www.aglp.org\\/gap). The curriculum was written by members of the LGBT Committee of the Group for Advancement of Psychiatry (GAP, www.ourgap.org). This paper outlines the history and mission of GAP and the history of the GAP LGBT Committee. The

Mary E. Barber; Jack Drescher; Vernon Rosario

2012-01-01

342

Mössbauer studies of anion-substituted iron chlorophylls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic structure of anion-substituted iron chlorophyll a [Fe(Chl-a)X] and b [Fe(Chl-b)X] (X=Cl-, NCS-, Br-, I-, CH3COO-) has been characterized by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The central iron ion in these complexes is in a ferric high-spin state. The ?-donation from the anion plays an important role in the bonding between the iron ion and the anion. The quadrupole splitting reflects the structural difference between iron chlorophylls and iron porphyrins.

Hori, H.; Kadono, K.; Inoue, H.; Shirai, H.; Fluck, E.

1990-07-01

343

Cooperative anion binding and electrochemical sensing by modular podands  

PubMed Central

A series of podands based on two or three hydrogen bonding “arms” situated in mutually ortho, meta, or para relationships about an aryl core have been prepared, and their affinities for simple inorganic anions were measured. Of the two-arm hosts the meta compound and to a lesser extent the ortho host exhibit a cooperative anion binding effect. The two arms function essentially independently in the para derivative. The mutually meta three-arm host shows dramatically enhanced cooperative binding. Conformational changes within the meta two-arm host result in significantly enhanced electrochemical anion sensing compared with the more conformationally rigid three-arm host.

Abouderbala, Lagili O.; Belcher, Warwick J.; Boutelle, Martyn G.; Cragg, Peter J.; Steed, Jonathan W.; Turner, David R.; Wallace, Karl J.

2002-01-01

344

Theoretical study of the superoxide anion assisted firefly oxyluciferin formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This a theoretical Letter based on density functional theory, on the role of superoxide anion in firefly chemiluminescence in DMSO. We have found that this anion can attack luciferin radical molecules, thus forming a luciferin-like trianion. This latter molecule transfers an oxygen atom, which results in the formation of oxyluciferyl radical dianion and carbon dioxide molecules. Oxyluciferin is finally formed after an electron transfer from oxyluciferyl radical dianion to tert-BuO radical molecules. Thus, we have found evidence that firefly oxyluciferin can be formed in a energetically favorable superoxide anion-assisted reaction, without the need for the formation of firefly dioxetanone.

Pinto da Silva, Luís; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C. G.

2013-12-01

345

Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oklahoma, 2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oklahoma for 2010. Oklahoma made progress in narrowing achievement gaps for most major subgroups on the End-of-Instruction (EOI) test in Algebra I. Trends in achievement gaps could not be determined for other grades in math, or for any grades in reading, because the state…

Center on Education Policy, 2010

2010-01-01

346

Low band gap polymers for organic photovoltaics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low band gap polymer materials and their application in organic photovoltaics (OPV) are reviewed. We detail the synthetic approaches to low band gap polymer materials starting from the early methodologies employing quinoid homopolymer structures to the current state of the art that relies on alternating copolymers of donor and acceptor groups where strategies for band gap design are possible. Current

Eva Bundgaard; Frederik C. Krebs

2007-01-01

347

Mechanism of the insulin-releasing action of alpha-ketoisocaproate and related alpha-keto acid anions.  

PubMed

Alpha-ketoisocaproate directly inhibits the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (K(ATP) channel) in pancreatic beta-cells, but it is unknown whether direct K(ATP) channel inhibition contributes to insulin release by alpha-ketoisocaproate and related alpha-keto acid anions, which are generally believed to act via beta-cell metabolism. In membranes from HIT-T15 beta-cells and COS-1 cells expressing sulfonylurea receptor 1, alpha-keto acid anions bound to the sulfonylurea receptor site of the K(ATP) channel with affinities increasing in the order alpha-ketoisovalerate < alpha-ketovalerate < alpha-ketoisocaproate < alpha-ketocaproate < beta-phenylpyruvate. Patch-clamp experiments revealed a similar order for the K(ATP) channel-inhibitory potencies of the compounds (applied at the cytoplasmic side of inside-out patches from mouse beta-cells). These findings were compared with the insulin secretion stimulated in isolated mouse islets by alpha-keto acid anions (10 mM). When all K(ATP) channels were closed by the sulfonylurea glipizide, alpha-keto acid anions amplified the insulin release in the order beta-phenylpyruvate < alpha-ketoisovalerate < alpha-ketovalerate approximately alpha-ketocaproate < alpha-ketoisocaproate. The differences in amplification apparently reflected special features of the metabolism of the individual alpha-keto acid anions. In islets with active K(ATP) channels, the first peak of insulin secretion triggered by alpha-keto acid anions was similar for alpha-ketoisocaproate, alpha-ketocaproate, and beta-phenylpyruvate but lower for alpha-ketovalerate and insignificant for alpha-ketoisovalerate. This difference from the above orders indicates that direct K(ATP) channel inhibition is not involved in the secretory responses to alpha-ketoisovalerate and alpha-ketovalerate, moderately contributes to initiation of insulin secretion by alpha-ketoisocaproate and alpha-ketocaproate, and is a major component of the insulin-releasing property of beta-phenylpyruvate. PMID:16014804

Heissig, Henrike; Urban, Karin A; Hastedt, Katja; Zünkler, Bernd J; Panten, Uwe

2005-10-01

348

Specific anion effect in water-nonaqueous solvent mixtures: interplay of the interactions between anion, solvent, and polymer.  

PubMed

Ethanol (EtOH) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) are polar protic and aprotic organic solvents, respectively. In the present work, we have investigated the anion-specific lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and upper critical solution temperature (UCST) behaviors of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) in the H2O-EtOH and H2O-DMSO mixtures. The turbidity and differential scanning calorimetry studies show that the LCST for the anions follows the Hofmeister series at the molar fraction of EtOH (xE) or DMSO (xD) of 6%. At xE of 26%, the UCST for the anions also follows the Hofmeister series because the dominating interactions for the UCST behavior are similar to that for the LCST behavior in the H2O-EtOH mixtures. In the H2O-DMSO mixture at xD of 70%, an inverted V-shaped anion series is observed for the UCST behavior of PNIPAM. Our studies demonstrate that the specific anion effect on the phase transition behaviors of PNIPAM is influenced not only by the anionic polarization of hydrogen bonding between solvent molecules and PNIPAM but also by the anion adsorption on the PNIPAM chain surface. PMID:23980605

Liu, Lvdan; Wang, Tao; Liu, Chang; Lin, Ke; Liu, Guangming; Zhang, Guangzhao

2013-09-19

349

Vacuolar malate uptake is mediated by an anion-selective inward rectifier.  

PubMed

Electrophysiological studies using the patch-clamp technique were performed on isolated vacuoles from leaf mesophyll cells of the crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana to characterize the malate transport system responsible for nocturnal malic acid accumulation. In the presence of malate on both sides of the membrane, the current-voltage relations of the tonoplast were dominated by a strongly inward-rectifying anion-selective channel that was active at cytoplasmic-side negative voltages. Rectification of the macroscopic conductance was reflected in the voltage-dependent gating of a 3-pS malate-selective ion channel, which showed a half-maximal open probability at -43 mV. Also, the time-averaged unitary currents following a step to a negative voltage corresponded to the time-dependent kinetics of the macroscopic currents, suggesting that the activity of this channel underlies the anion-selective inward rectifier. The inward rectifier showed saturation kinetics with respect to malate (apparent Km of 2.5 mm malate2- activity), a selectivity sequence of fumarate2- > malate2- > Cl- > maleate2- approximately citrate3-, and greater activity at higher pH values (with an apparent pK of 7.1 and maximum activity at around pH 8.0). All these properties were in close agreement with the characteristics of malate transport observed in isolated tonoplast vesicles. Further, 100 microM niflumate reversibly blocked the activity of the 3-pS channel and inhibited both macroscopic currents and malate transport into tonoplast vesicles to the same extent. The macroscopic current densities recorded at physiological voltages and the estimated channel density of 0.2 microm-2 are sufficient to account for the observed rates of nocturnal malic acid accumulation in this CAM plant, suggesting that the 3-pS, inward-rectifying, anion-selective channel represents the principal pathway for malate influx into the vacuole. PMID:12834407

Hafke, Jens B; Hafke, Yuliya; Smith, J Andrew C; Lüttge, Ulrich; Thiel, Gerhard

2003-07-01

350

Intestinal anion exchange in teleost water balance.  

PubMed

Simultaneous measurements of all major electrolytes including HCO3(-) and H+ as well as water demonstrated that fluids absorbed by the anterior intestine of the marine gulf toadfish under in vivo-like conditions on an overall net basis are hypertonic at 380 mOsm and acidic ([H+] = 27 mM). This unusual composition of fluids absorbed across the intestinal epithelium is due to the unusual intestinal fluid chemistry resulting from seawater ingestion and selective ion and water absorption along the gastro-intestinal tract. Measurement under near symmetrical conditions with high NaCl concentrations and low MgSO4 concentrations revealed absorption of iso-osmotic and much less acidic fluids by the intestinal epithelium, a situation resembling that of other water absorbing leaky vertebrate epithelia. Reduced luminal NaCl concentrations seen in vivo results in lower absolute water absorption rates but higher Cl-/HCO3(-) exchange rates which are associated with higher net H+ absorption rates. It appears that apical anion exchange is important for net Cl- uptake by the marine teleost intestine especially when luminal NaCl concentrations are low and/or when MgSO4 concentrations are high. Observations indicate that fluid absorption from solutions of low NaCl but high MgSO4 concentrations is energetically more demanding than absorption from NaCl rich solutions at the level of the intestinal epithelium. Furthermore, the high luminal MgSO4 concentration which is an unavoidable consequence of seawater ingestion projects a demand for renal and branchial compensation for intestinal MgSO4 uptake and absorption of hypertonic and acidic fluid by the intestine. PMID:17142078

Grosell, Martin; Taylor, Josi R

2007-09-01

351

The OH-anion acting as an acid.  

PubMed

In the crystalline state, the OH- anion is shown to be capable of acting as a base or as an acid with respect to waters of crystallization to which it is linked by hydrogen bonds. We examined the OH- anion in three crystalline samples and studied its behavior using quantum mechanics. Four quantum mechanical approximations were employed (HF, B3LYP, SVWN, and MP2) to obtain the relative stability of isomers of the H3O2- molecule in the three crystals considered. In one crystal state (LICQIX), the H3O2- anion corresponds to a geometry in which OH- acts as an acid, but not so as a free molecule. The free anion H3O2- has two qualitatively different structures. In one structure, the hydrogen bond is long, while in the other structure, the hydrogen bond is shorter and the hydrogen atom lies at an equal distance between donor and acceptor oxygen atoms. PMID:18205462

Huang, Lulu; Massa, Lou; Bernal, Ivan; Karle, Jerome

2008-01-14

352

DETERMINATION OF TRACE ANIONS IN WATER BY MULTIDIMENSIONAL ION CHROMATOGRAPHY  

EPA Science Inventory

Selenate, selenite, and arsenate ions were separated from the major anions chloride, nitrate, and sulfate in drinking water, surface water, and groundwater sources by collecting a selected portion of the ion chromatogram, after suppression, on a concentrator column and reinjectin...

353

Preparation and evaluation of anion exchange open tubular column.  

PubMed

An anion open tubular column (OTC) by coating cationic latex particle onto the silica capillary with surface sulfonate functionalized has been prepared and evaluated. The performance of the OTC was observed to be superior to that of those prepared by the bare silica capillary without sulfonation in term of separation efficiency. To increase the surface area of the capillary, acid and base-based etching method for treating silica capillary wall was carried out and compared. An OTC with multiple layers was prepared by alternatively coating cationic and anionic latex particles aiming to further increase the column capacity. The anion OTC with size of 50 ?m i.d. × 1 m long demonstrated good separation of common inorganic anions with high efficiency (e.g. for NO(2)(-), its theory plate number is 11655 plate/m). PMID:23158296

Diao, Xuefang; Zhang, Feifang; Feng, Feng; Yang, Bingcheng; Liang, Xinmiao; Chu, Xiaogang

2012-11-15

354

Tambjamine alkaloids and related synthetic analogs: efficient transmembrane anion transporters.  

PubMed

The tambjamine alkaloids and related synthetic analogs are potent transmembrane anion tranporters promoting bicarbonate/chloride exchange in model phospholipid liposomes and discharging pH gradients in living cells. PMID:21528145

Iglesias Hernández, Paulina; Moreno, Daniel; Javier, Anatalia Araujo; Torroba, Tomás; Pérez-Tomás, Ricardo; Quesada, Roberto

2012-02-01

355

Survey of Organic Acid Eluents for Anion Chromatography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Of all the potential eluents surveyed (including aromatic, sulfonic, phosphonic, among other acids), only the carboxylic acids and the nitrophenols are recommended as eluents for anion chromatography. The concentration of the eluent should be in the range...

D. E. Book

1981-01-01

356

Collisional Detachment of Anions using Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (FTMS) is used to make energy resolved ion-neutral reaction measurements at high translational energies (up to several hundred eV). The technique is demonstrated for collisional detachment of anions, and should be easil...

K. B. Riehl

1992-01-01

357

Adsorption of anionic dyes on ammonium-functionalized MCM-41.  

PubMed

Investigations were conducted in a batch reactor system to study the adsorption behavior of four anionic dyes (Methyl orange (MO), Orange IV (OIV), Reactive brilliant red X-3B (X-3B), and Acid fuchsine (AF)) on ammonium-functionalized MCM-41 (NH(3)(+)-MCM-41) from aqueous medium by varying the parameters such as contact time, initial dye concentration, pH and competitive anions. Dye adsorption was broadly independent of initial dye concentration. The intraparticle diffusion model was the best in describing the adsorption kinetics for the four anionic dyes on NH(3)(+)-MCM-41. The adsorption data for the four dyes were well fitted with the Langmuir model. The electrostatic interaction was considered to be the main mechanism for the dye adsorption. Finally, it was observed that the anion of soft acid inhibited the adsorption capacity significantly. PMID:18571846

Qin, Qingdong; Ma, Jun; Liu, Ke

2009-02-15

358

Visible light-induced electron ejection from anions  

SciTech Connect

Resonance stabilized anions (A/sup -/) often strongly absorb visible light, giving rise to photoreactivity initiated by primary photochemical electron transfer. In the absence of reactive electron acceptors, this electron ejection is often followed by rapid thermal collapse of the radical-electron pair to regenerate the anionic starting material. Thus, the observation of solution phase photochemistry in carbanions depends directly on inhibition of electron recapture. Since this inhibition is a key feature of photoelectrochemistry at semiconductor electrodes, it is anticipated that a parallel may exist between photocurrent production in anion-sensitized photogalvanic cells and relative quantum efficiency for homogeneous photoreactions of such anions. This paper describes the photochemistry of carbanions at the surface of a doped n-TiO/sub 2/ electrode.

Fox, M.A.; Hohman, J.R.; Owen, R.C.

1980-01-01

359

Inhibition of the catalase reaction of Photosystem II by anions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new binding site for anions which inhibit the water oxidizing complex (WOC) of Photosystem II in spinach has been identified. Anions which bind to this site inhibit the flash-induced S2\\/S0 catalase reaction (2H2O2?2H2O+O2) of the WOC by displacing hydrogen peroxide. Using a mass spectrometer and gas permeable membrane to detect the 32O2 product, the yield and lifetime of the

Junichi Mano; Kunio Kawamoto; G. Charles Dismukes; Kozi Asada

1993-01-01

360

Catalytic conjugate addition of acyl anion equivalents promoted by fluorodesilylation.  

PubMed

The conjugate addition of acyl anion equivalents derived from 2-silyl-1,3-dithianes to ?,?-unsaturated ketones and esters has been achieved using a substoichiometric amount of TBAF. High yields and short reaction times are observed for the addition of aryl-1,3-dithianes to a variety of cyclic and acyclic ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl acceptors. Observation of the reactive anion by (13)C NMR spectroscopy and extension to an asymmetric variant is also presented. PMID:24328533

Denmark, Scott E; Cullen, Lindsey R

2014-01-01

361

Characterization of a proton-activated, outwardly rectifying anion channel  

PubMed Central

Anion channels are present in every mammalian cell and serve many different functions, including cell volume regulation, ion transport across epithelia, regulation of membrane potential and vesicular acidification. Here we characterize a proton-activated, outwardly rectifying current endogenously expressed in HEK293 cells. Binding of three to four protons activated the anion permeable channels at external pH below 5.5 (50% activation at pH 5.1). The proton-activated current is strongly outwardly rectifying, due to an outwardly rectifying single channel conductance and an additional voltage dependent facilitation at depolarized membrane potentials. The anion channel blocker 4,4?-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2?-disulphonic acid (DIDS) rapidly and potently inhibited the channel (IC50: 2.9 ?m). Flufenamic acid blocked this channel only slowly, while mibefradil and amiloride at high concentrations had no effect. As determined from reversal potential measurements under bi-ionic conditions, the relative permeability sequence of this channel was SCN?> I?> NO3?> Br?> Cl?. None of the previously characterized anion channel matches the properties of the proton-activated, outwardly rectifying channel. Specifically, the proton-activated and the volume-regulated anion channels are two distinct and separable populations of ion channels, each having its own set of biophysical and pharmacological properties. We also demonstrate endogenous proton-activated currents in primary cultured hippocampal astrocytes. The proton-activated current in astrocytes is also carried by anions, strongly outwardly rectifying, voltage dependent and inhibited by DIDS. Proton-activated, outwardly rectifying anion channels therefore may be a broadly expressed part of the anionic channel repertoire of mammalian cells.

Lambert, Sachar; Oberwinkler, Johannes

2005-01-01

362

Boron compounds as anion binding agents for nonaqueous battery electrolytes  

DOEpatents

Novel fluorinated boron-based compounds which act as anion receptors in non-aqueous battery electrolytes are provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the fluorinated boron-based compounds of the invention enhance ionic conductivity and cation transference number of non-aqueous electrolytes. The fluorinated boron-based anion receptors include borane and borate compounds bearing different fluorinated alkyl and aryl groups.

Lee, Hung Sui (East Setauket, NY); Yang, Xia-Oing (Port Jefferson Station, NY); McBreen, James (Bellport, NY); Xiang, Caili (Upton, NY)

2000-02-08

363

Permeant Anions Control Gating of Calcium-dependent Chloride Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of external anions (SCN?, NO3?, I?, Br?, F?, glutamate, and aspartate) on gating of Ca2+-dependent Cl? channels from rat parotid acinar cells were studied using the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique. Shifts in the reversal potential of the current induced by replacement of external Cl? with foreign anions, gave the following selectivity sequence based on permeability ratios

P. Perez-Cornejo; J. A. De Santiago; J. Arreola

2004-01-01

364

Modification of MSW fly ash by anionic chelating surfactant  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper elucidates a study on the re-utilization and stabilization of municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ash in producing a high value-added product by the surface modification of anionic chelating surfactant on the particles. After modification, MSW fly ash can be expected using as a filler of ultra-high molecular weight polymers. The effects of anionic chelating surfactants (ACS) on surface

Guangren Qian; Houhu Zhang; Xiaolan Zhang; Peng-Cheong Chui

2005-01-01

365

Target-aimed synthesis of anion-deficient perovskites.  

PubMed

The brownmillerite-type A 2B 2O 5 structure is considered as a parent one, giving rise to different derivatives: layered double perovskites, A-site and anion-vacancy-ordered perovskites, and the perovskite-like compounds with crystallographic shear planes. The structural relationships and synthesis pathways for these classes of materials are discussed with particular attention to the ordering at the A or B sublattices, anion vacancy ordering, and their mutual interaction. PMID:18821820

Antipov, Evgeny V; Abakumov, Artem M; Istomin, Sergey Ya

2008-10-01

366

Human organic anion transporter MRP4 (ABCC4) is an efflux pump for the purine end metabolite urate with multiple allosteric substrate binding sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The end product of human purine metabolism is urate, which is produced primarily in the liver and excreted by the kidney through a well-defined basolateral blood-to-cell uptake step. However, the apical cell-to-urine efflux mechanism is as yet unidentified. Here, we show that the renal apical organic anion efflux transporter human multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4), but not apical MRP2, mediates

R. A. M. H. van Aubel; P. H. E. Smeets; J. J. T. M. Heuvel; F. G. M. Russel

2005-01-01

367

[Assessment of rate of hydroxyl anions production by Helicobacter pylori in stomach].  

PubMed

Production of hydroxyl anions by tissue samples of pylorus mucous membrane obtained from 45 patients with gastric or duodenal ulcers was investigated. The production was estimated using the recently developed method based on measurement of rate of pH change in urea-containing reaction mixture. The rate of [OH-] generation as a result of H. pylori metabolism accounted on pylorus square varied from 0.4 to 1318.9 mcmol [OH-]/min, and in 90.2% of cases it did not exceed 128.1 mcmol [OH-]/min. This rate is comparable to mean rate of [H+] generation in stomach of healthy man--114.2-238.4 mcmol [H+]/min. Obtained results allow to conclude that this bacterium may participate in regulation of stomach acid-base balance. PMID:19004294

Vartanova, N O; Arzumanian, V G

2008-01-01

368

Gap Junctional Communication in Morphogenesis  

PubMed Central

Gap junctions permit the direct passage of small molecules from the cytosol of one cell to that of its neighbor, and thus form a system of cell-cell communication that exists alongside familiar secretion/receptor signaling. Because of the rich potential for regulation of junctional conductance, and directional and molecular gating (specificity), gap junctional communication (GJC) plays a crucial role in many aspects of normal tissue physiology. However, the most exciting role for GJC is in the regulation of information flow that takes place during embryonic development, regeneration, and tumor progression. The molecular mechanisms by which GJC establishes local and long-range instructive morphogenetic cues are just beginning to be understood. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the involvement of GJC in the patterning of both vertebrate and invertebrate systems and discusses in detail several morphogenetic systems in which the properties of this signaling have been molecularly characterized. One model consistent with existing data in the fields of vertebrate left-right patterning and anterior-posterior polarity in flatworm regeneration postulates electrophoretically-guided movement of small molecule morphogens through long-range GJC paths. The discovery of mechanisms controlling embryonic and regenerative GJC-mediated signaling, and identification of the downstream targets of GJC-permeable molecules, represent exciting next areas of research in this fascinating field.

Levin, Michael

2007-01-01

369

Anion recognition by hydrogen bonding: urea-based receptors.  

PubMed

Since 1992 a variety of urea-based anion receptors have been synthesised, of varying complexity and sophistication. This critical review will focus on some distinctive aspects of anion recognition by urea derivatives, with a special reference to: (i) design and synthesis, (ii) methodologies for the investigation of the receptor-anion interaction in solution, (iii) the interpretation of the solution behaviour on the basis of the structural interplay between the receptor and the anion. It will be shown that the efficiency of urea as a receptor subunit depends on the presence of two proximate polarised N-H fragments, capable (i) of chelating a spherical anion or (ii) of donating two parallel H-bonds to the oxygen atoms of a carboxylate or of an inorganic oxoanion, a property which is shared with other diamides, e.g. squaramide. The wide use of urea in the design of neutral anion receptors seems to depends on the ease of its synthesis, in particular through the reaction of a primary amine group with an isocyanate, which allows the high-yield preparation of symmetrically and unsymmetrically substituted derivatives (83 references). PMID:20818452

Amendola, Valeria; Fabbrizzi, Luigi; Mosca, Lorenzo

2010-10-01

370

Ligandless, anionic, arylpalladium halide intermediates in the Heck reaction.  

PubMed

We report the isolation and reactivity of a series of "ligandless," anionic arylpalladium complexes of the general structure [Pd(Ar)Br(2)](2)(2-) by the reaction of ((t)Bu(3)P)Pd(Ar)(Br) and bromide. These anionic complexes insert olefins at room temperature, and these fast insertions indicate that the anionic complexes are kinetically competent to be intermediates in Heck-Mizoroki reactions conducted under "ligandless" conditions (lacking added dative ligand). Kinetic studies showed that the anionic complexes insert olefins much faster than the corresponding neutral, P(t-Bu)(3)-ligated complexes. Addition of halide to the reaction of the neutral complex ((t)Bu(3)P)Pd(Ar)(Br) and styrene led to a significant rate acceleration, suggesting that the anionic complex forms rapidly and reversibly in situ from the neutral species prior to migratory insertion. These data, along with studies on the regioselectivity for reaction of aryl halides with butyl vinyl ether in the presence of the different starting catalysts, are consistent with the intermediacy of the same anionic, arylpalladium intermediates in Heck reactions catalyzed by palladium complexes containing bulky trialkylphosphine ligands as in reactions conducted under ligandless conditions. PMID:20014842

Carrow, Brad P; Hartwig, John F

2010-01-13

371

Anionic Dicyanamide Frameworks as Possible Components of Multifunctional Materials  

SciTech Connect

The dicyanamide anion, [N(CN){sub 2}]{sup -} (hereafter abbreviated dca), has been shown to be a versatile building block for the assembly of coordination polymers which are components of molecular superconductors, magnets and conducting/magnetic hybrid materials. Significantly different anion topologies have been observed. We report the first study of the use of alkylammonium cations as templates for [M(dca){sub 3}]{sup -} (M = Mn and Ni) anionic networks, including a novel three-dimensional anionic structure in the (Bu{sub 3}NH){sub 4}[Mn{sub 3}(dca){sub 10}] salt. The molecular superconductors with the highest superconducting transition temperature, {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}[Cu(dca)X] [X = Cl, Br; ET, commonly abbreviated as BEDT-TTF, is bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene] contain chains of diamagnetic Cu(I) ions linked by dca anions. The successful introduction of magnetically active transition metals into the charge-compensating dca layer will also be discussed. Specifically, we have synthesized and characterized the (ET){sub 2}[Mn(dca){sub 3}] salt that contain a novel triangular, spin frustrated, anion lattice separated by conducting layers of ET radical cations.

Schlueter, J. A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Geiser, U. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Manson, Jamie L [ORNL

2004-01-01

372

Counterion-mediated pattern formation in membranes containing anionic lipids.  

PubMed

Most lipid components of cell membranes are either neutral, like cholesterol, or zwitterionic, like phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. Very few lipids, such as sphingosine, are cationic at physiological pH. These generally interact only transiently with the lipid bilayer, and their synthetic analogs are often designed to destabilize the membrane for drug or DNA delivery. However, anionic lipids are common in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cell membranes. The net charge per anionic phospholipid ranges from -1 for the most abundant anionic lipids such as phosphatidylserine, to near -7 for phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5 trisphosphate, although the effective charge depends on many environmental factors. Anionic phospholipids and other negatively charged lipids such as lipopolysaccharides are not randomly distributed in the lipid bilayer, but are highly restricted to specific leaflets of the bilayer and to regions near transmembrane proteins or other organized structures within the plane of the membrane. This review highlights some recent evidence that counterions, in the form of monovalent or divalent metal ions, polyamines, or cationic protein domains, have a large influence on the lateral distribution of anionic lipids within the membrane, and that lateral demixing of anionic lipids has effects on membrane curvature and protein function that are important for biological control. PMID:24556233

Slochower, David R; Wang, Yu-Hsiu; Tourdot, Richard W; Radhakrishnan, Ravi; Janmey, Paul A

2014-06-01

373

Ligandless, Anionic, Arylpalladium Halide Intermediates in the Heck Reaction  

PubMed Central

We report the isolation and reactivity of a series of “ligandless,” anionic arylpalladium complexes of the general structure [Pd(Ar)Br2]22- by the reaction of (tBu3P)Pd(Ar)(Br) and bromide. These anionic complexes insert olefins at room temperature, and these fast insertions indicate that the anionic complexes are kinetically competent as intermediates in Heck-Mizoroki reactions conducted under “ligandless” conditions (lacking added dative ligand). Kinetic studies showed that the anionic complexes insert olefins much faster than the corresponding neutral, P(t-Bu)3-ligated complexes. Addition of halide to the reaction of the neutral complex (tBu3P)Pd(Ar)(Br) and styrene led to a significant rate acceleration, suggesting that the anionic complex forms rapidly and reversibly in situ from the neutral species prior to migratory insertion. These data, along with studies on the regioselectivity for reaction of aryl halides with butyl vinyl ether in the presence of the different starting catalysts, are consistent with the intermediacy of the same anionic, arylpalladium intermediates in Heck reactions catalyzed by palladium complexes containing bulky trialkylphosphine ligands as in reactions conducted under ligandless conditions.

Carrow, Brad P.

2010-01-01

374

Thermodynamics of mixed anionic/nonionic surfactant adsorption on alumina.  

PubMed

The adsorption of sodium dodecyl sulfate and a polyethoxylated nonylphenol, and well defined mixtures thereof, was measured on gamma-alumina. A pseudo-phase separation model to describe mixed anionic/nonionic admicelle (adsorbed surfactant aggregate) formation was developed, analogous to the pseudo-phase separation model frequently used to describe mixed micelle formation. In this model, regular solution theory was used to describe the anionic/nonionic surfactant interactions in the mixed admicelle and a patch-wise adsorption model was used to describe surfactant adsorption on a heterogeneous solid surface. The formation of mixed anionic/nonionic admicelles in the absence of micelles was accurately described by regular solution theory; mixed admicelle formation exhibited stronger negative deviations from ideality than mixed micelle formation. An adequate description of mixed anionic/nonionic admicelle formation in the presence of mixed micelles was obtained through a simultaneous solution of the pseudo-phase separation models for mixed admicelle and mixed micelle formation, and the appropriate mass balance equations. Anionic/nonionic mixed adsorption in the presence of mixed micelles was shown to correspond to an admicelle composition of approximately a 1:1 anionic/nonionic mole ratio throughout Regions II and III of the adsorption isotherm. PMID:19963226

Lopata, Jeffrey J; Werts, Kendall M; Scamehorn, John F; Harwell, Jeffrey H; Grady, Brian P

2010-02-15

375

Grain boundary mobility in anion doped MgO  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Certain anions OH(-), F(-) and Gl(-) are shown to enhance grain growth in MgO. The magnitude of their effect decreases in the order in which the anions are listed and depends on their location (solid-solution, second phase) in the MgO lattice. As most anions exhibit relatively high vapor pressures at sintering temperatures, they retard densification and invariably promote residual porosity. The role of anions on grain growth rates was studied in relation to their effect on pore mobility and pore removal; the atomic process controlling the actual rates was determined from observed kinetics in conjunction with the microstructural features. With respect to controlling mechanisms, the effects of all anions are not the same. OH(-) and F(-) control behavior through creation of a defect structure and a grain boundary liquid phase while Cl(-) promotes matter transport within pores by evaporation-condensation. Studies on an additional anion, S to the minus 2nd power gave results which were no different from undoped MgO, possibly because of evaporative losses during hot pressing. Hence, the effect of sulphur is negligible or undetermined.

Kapadia, C. M.; Leipold, M. H.

1973-01-01

376

Multiphoton Localization and Propagating Quantum Gap Solitons in a Frequency Gap Medium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The many-particle spectrum of an isotropic frequency gap medium doped with impurity resonance atoms is studied using the Bethe ansatz technique. The spectrum is shown to contain pairs of quantum correlated ``gap excitations'' and their heavy bound complexes (``gap solitons''), enabling the propagation of quantum information within the classically forbidden gap. In addition, multiparticle localization of the radiation and the medium polarization occurs when such a gap soliton is pinned to the impurity atom.

John, Sajeev; Rupasov, Valery I.

1997-08-01

377

Uranyl nitrate-exposed rat alveolar macrophages cell death: Influence of superoxide anion and TNF ? mediators  

SciTech Connect

Uranium compounds are widely used in the nuclear fuel cycle, military and many other diverse industrial processes. Health risks associated with uranium exposure include nephrotoxicity, cancer, respiratory, and immune disorders. Macrophages present in body tissues are the main cell type involved in the internalization of uranium particles. To better understand the pathological effects associated with depleted uranium (DU) inhalation, we examined the metabolic activity, phagocytosis, genotoxicity and inflammation on DU-exposed rat alveolar macrophages (12.5–200 ?M). Stability and dissolution of DU could differ depending on the dissolvent and in turn alter its biological action. We dissolved DU in sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3} 100 mM) and in what we consider a more physiological vehicle resembling human internal media: sodium chloride (NaCl 0.9%). We demonstrate that uranyl nitrate in NaCl solubilizes, enters the cell, and elicits its cytotoxic effect similarly to when it is diluted in NaHCO{sub 3}. We show that irrespective of the dissolvent employed, uranyl nitrate impairs cell metabolism, and at low doses induces both phagocytosis and generation of superoxide anion (O{sub 2}{sup ?}). At high doses it provokes the secretion of TNF? and through all the range of doses tested, apoptosis. We herein suggest that at DU low doses O{sub 2}{sup ?} may act as the principal mediator of DNA damage while at higher doses the signaling pathway mediated by O{sub 2}{sup ?} may be blocked, prevailing damage to DNA by the TNF? route. The study of macrophage functions after uranyl nitrate treatment could provide insights into the pathophysiology of uranium?related diseases. -- Highlights: ? Uranyl nitrate effect on cultured macrophages is linked to the doses and independent of its solubility. ? At low doses uranyl nitrate induces generation of superoxide anion. ? At high doses uranyl nitrate provokes secretion of TNF?. ? Uranyl nitrate induces apoptosis through all the range of doses tested.

Orona, N.S. [School of Science and Technology, National University of General Martín, Avda Gral Paz 5445 (1650) San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [School of Science and Technology, National University of General Martín, Avda Gral Paz 5445 (1650) San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, D.R., E-mail: deborah.tasat@unsam.edu.ar [School of Science and Technology, National University of General Martín, Avda Gral Paz 5445 (1650) San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); School of Dentistry, University of Buenos Aires, M. T. de Alvear 2142 (1122), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2012-06-15

378

On the origin of alternating bond distortions and the emergence of chirality in polyoxometalate anions.  

PubMed

Alternating short and long bond length (ABL) distortions observed within the ring structures of molecular metal oxide anions or polyoxometalates (POMs) are reminiscent of the cooperative linear ABL distortions in perovskite d(0) metal oxides. We show herein that these distortions have a common origin: a pseudo Jahn-Teller (PJT) vibronic instability. Four POM structural types with different M(n)O(n) ring sizes are investigated herein using density functional theoretical methods: Lindqvist [M6O19](q-) (n = 4), Keggin alpha-[XM12O40](q-) (n = 6), Wells-Dawson alpha-[X2M18O62](q-) (n = 8), and Preyssler [(Na)P5W30O110](14-) (n = 10), where M = Mo(VI) and W(VI) and X = Si(IV), Ge(IV), P(V), As(V), S(VI), and Se(VI). Chirality is induced within the latter three structural types by the ABL ring distortions. The calculations confirm the PJT vibronic origin of the ABL distortions with good agreement between calculated geometries and published single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. Both theory and experiment show that the vibronic interaction and distortion magnitude increase for (1) molybdates relative to that of tungstates, (2) larger M(n)O(n) ring sizes, (3) increases in negative charge of the internalized fragments (O(2-) or XO4(q-)), and (4) d(0) versus d(n) metal oxidation states. The PJT vibronic coupling model explains these observations in terms of the energy gap between Kohn-Sham frontier molecular orbitals (MOs) concomitant with the propensity for metal-oxygen pi-bonding within the M(n)O(n) rings. The frontier MOs for the undistorted nuclear configurations are largely nonbonding pi-O(p) (occupied) and pi-M(d) (unoccupied) in character, where smaller HOMO-LUMO (H-L) gap energies lead to greater metal-oxygen pi-orbital mixing under the influence of the nuclear distortion. A reduction in pi-bond order decreases the distortion in mixed-valence POMs. Of the tungstates examined, only the Preyssler anion shows pronounced ABL ring distortions, which derive from its large ring size and concomitant small H-L gap. PMID:18528985

Yan, Likai; López, Xavier; Carbó, Jorge J; Sniatynsky, Richard; Duncan, Dean C; Poblet, Josep M

2008-07-01

379

Gap Structure around Planets in Protoplanetary Disks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a protoplanetary disk, a large planet is able to create a gap, which is a low surface density annulus region along the planet orbit, by a gravitational interaction with the disk. If the planet is massive enough, the gap terminates the gaseous inflow across the orbit of planet. Thus, the gap formation is thought to be a possible mechanism that creates the transitional disks with the inner holes, which have been revealed by SED observations and direct imaging. The formation of the disk gap also influences the planet itself. Because of the gap formation, the mode of the planet migration changes from Type I to II. The gap also fairly reduces the gas accretion into the planet. Since such a co-evolution of a protoplanetary disk and planets would be a key process that governs the origin of the diversity of exo-planetary systems, it has been studied by many authors. However, the co-evolution of a protoplanetary disk and planets still has a large uncertainty because of the complexity of the gap formation. In this study, we examined the surface density profile of the gap, by using one-dimensional viscous accretion disk model with a simple model of a planet torque. In our calculation, we did not assume the Keplerian disk rotation, and took into account the disk rotation law altered by the steep surface density gradient in the gap, in a self-consistent way. We found that the altered rotation law significantly affects the resultant surface density profile especially for narrow and deep gaps. Furthermore, we checked our one-dimensional gap calculation by performing two-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of gap formation with the FARGO code, for various planet masses, and disk parameters (i.e., the disk scale height and the viscosity). Our one-dimensional gap calculation can reproduce precisely results of the hydrodynamic simulations for wide range of the planet mass and disk parameters.

Kanagawa, Kazuhiro; Muto, Takayuki; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Tanigawa, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Taku

2013-07-01

380

Squaramide-based tripodal receptors for selective recognition of sulfate anion.  

PubMed

Squaramide-based tripodal anion receptors have been prepared and their anion binding properties with various inorganic anions were investigated. Receptor formed a dimeric complex in solid state and a 1 : 1 complex in solution with SO(4)(2-). All receptors could selectively encapsulate SO(4)(2-)via hydrogen bonds over other examined anions. PMID:23376886

Jin, Can; Zhang, Man; Wu, Lin; Guan, Yangfan; Pan, Yi; Jiang, Juli; Lin, Chen; Wang, Leyong

2013-03-11

381

Partially Screened Gap in Pulsars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the Partially Screened Gap (PSG) model of the pulsar inner accelerator, which implies that the temperature of the polar cap surface is almost equal to the so called critical temperature, which is defined by the strength of the magnetic field at the neutron star surface. Observations of thermal X-ray emission point out an important correlation between the hot spot area and the temperature derived from the blackbody fit. The implied magnetic field at the pole is usually much higher than the conventional dipolar values. Therefore, we believe that the surface magnetic field in radio pulsars is non-dipolar in nature. We argue that major characteristics of the pulsar radiation, including correlation between observed features of X-ray and radio emissions can be naturally explained in the framework of PSG model.

Gil, Janusz; Melikidze, George

2011-09-01

382

Narrow gap electronegative capacitive discharges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Narrow gap electronegative (EN) capacitive discharges are widely used in industry and have unique features not found in conventional discharges. In this paper, plasma parameters are determined over a range of decreasing gap length L from values for which an electropositive (EP) edge exists (2-region case) to smaller L-values for which the EN region connects directly to the sheath (1-region case). Parametric studies are performed at applied voltage Vrf=500 V for pressures of 10, 25, 50, and 100 mTorr, and additionally at 50 mTorr for 1000 and 2000 V. Numerical results are given for a parallel plate oxygen discharge using a planar 1D3v (1 spatial dimension, 3 velocity components) particle-in-cell (PIC) code. New interesting phenomena are found for the case in which an EP edge does not exist. This 1-region case has not previously been investigated in detail, either numerically or analytically. In particular, attachment in the sheaths is important, and the central electron density ne0 is depressed below the density nesh at the sheath edge. The sheath oscillations also extend into the EN core, creating an edge region lying within the sheath and not characterized by the standard diffusion in an EN plasma. An analytical model is developed using minimal inputs from the PIC results, and compared to the PIC results for a base case at Vrf=500 V and 50 mTorr, showing good agreement. Selected comparisons are made at the other voltages and pressures. A self-consistent model is also developed and compared to the PIC results, giving reasonable agreement.

Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.

2013-10-01

383

Narrow gap electronegative capacitive discharges  

SciTech Connect

Narrow gap electronegative (EN) capacitive discharges are widely used in industry and have unique features not found in conventional discharges. In this paper, plasma parameters are determined over a range of decreasing gap length L from values for which an electropositive (EP) edge exists (2-region case) to smaller L-values for which the EN region connects directly to the sheath (1-region case). Parametric studies are performed at applied voltage V{sub rf}=500 V for pressures of 10, 25, 50, and 100 mTorr, and additionally at 50 mTorr for 1000 and 2000 V. Numerical results are given for a parallel plate oxygen discharge using a planar 1D3v (1 spatial dimension, 3 velocity components) particle-in-cell (PIC) code. New interesting phenomena are found for the case in which an EP edge does not exist. This 1-region case has not previously been investigated in detail, either numerically or analytically. In particular, attachment in the sheaths is important, and the central electron density n{sub e0} is depressed below the density n{sub esh} at the sheath edge. The sheath oscillations also extend into the EN core, creating an edge region lying within the sheath and not characterized by the standard diffusion in an EN plasma. An analytical model is developed using minimal inputs from the PIC results, and compared to the PIC results for a base case at V{sub rf}=500 V and 50 mTorr, showing good agreement. Selected comparisons are made at the other voltages and pressures. A self-consistent model is also developed and compared to the PIC results, giving reasonable agreement.

Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2013-10-15

384

The intraoperative gap difference (flexion gap minus extension gap) is altered by insertion of the trial femoral component.  

PubMed

A Tensor/Balancer device has been recently developed in order to assess soft tissue balancing in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) under more physiological conditions. This device allows us to measure the joint gap with a trial femoral component in place with the patella reduced. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether the placement of the component changes the intraoperative gap difference (flexion gap distance minus extension gap distance). We prospectively investigated the extension (0°) and flexion (90°) gaps in 73 posterior-stabilized TKAs under 30 lb of joint distraction force. Then, we compared the gap difference with and without the trial femoral component in place. Our results showed that the intraoperative gap difference with the trial femoral component in place was larger than the intraoperative gap difference without the trial component (p=0.00003; with the trial component: mean 4.7 mm (standard deviation (SD): 3.0mm); without the trial component: mean 2.7 mm (SD: 3.3mm)). We consider that the change in gap difference with or without femoral component was caused by a relative difference in the elasticity and/or tightness of the soft tissue in extension versus flexion. Surgeons should be aware of this effect of the femoral component when considering intraoperative soft tissue balancing which leads to postoperative stability of the knee joint consequently. PMID:21889347

Hananouchi, Takehito; Yamamoto, Kengo; Ando, Wataru; Fudo, Kazumasa; Ohzono, Kenji

2012-10-01

385

Intracellular anion fluorescence assay for sodium/iodide symporter substrates.  

PubMed

The sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) is primarily responsible for iodide accumulation in the thyroid gland for the synthesis of thyroid hormones; however, it can also transport other lyotropic anions in the thyroid gland and nonthyroid tissues. Some NIS substrates have important physiological or clinical roles, and others are environmental contaminants with health-related consequences. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of a yellow fluorescent protein variant, YFP-H148Q/I152L, as a biosensor to monitor the cellular uptake of NIS substrates, including thiocyanate (SCN(-)), nitrate (NO(3)(-)), chlorate (ClO(3)(-)), perchlorate (ClO(4)(-)), and perrhenate (ReO(4)(-)). The fluorescence of purified YFP-H148Q/I152L was suppressed by anions with an order of potency of ReO(4)(-)>ClO(4)(-)=I(-)=SCN(-)=ClO(3)(-)>NO(3)(-)?Cl(-). Anions also suppressed the fluorescence of YFP-H148Q/I152L expressed in FRTL-5, a thyroid cell line with high NIS expression. Quantitation of intracellular concentrations revealed differences among anions in the affinity and maximal velocity of NIS-mediated uptake as well as in the rate constant for passive efflux. These results suggest that YFP-H148Q/I152L can serve as an intracellular biosensor of NIS-transported anions and may be useful to study the physiology of endogenous anions as well as the health-related consequences of environmental anions. PMID:21545783

Di Bernardo, Julie; Iosco, Carmela; Rhoden, Kerry J

2011-08-01

386

The role of catalyst precursor anions in coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

The aims of the proposed project are to enrich our understanding of the roles of various aqueous soluble catalyst precursor anions on the surface electrical properties of coal and to ascertain the influence of the surface charge on the adsorption, dispersion, and activities of calcium and potassium. These goals will be achieved by impregnating a North Dakota lignite (PSOC 1482) and its demineralized derivative with calcium or potassium catalyst precursors containing acetate (CH{sub 3}COO{sup {minus}}), chloride (Cl{sup {minus}}), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}), and carbonate (CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}) anions. Catalyst loading will be conducted under well-controlled conditions of solution pH and ionic strength. In the last quarter, the surface charge properties of the coal was determined as a function of acetate (CH{sub 3}COO{sup {minus}}), chloride (Cl{sup {minus}}), nitrate (NO{sup 3}{sup {minus}}), carbonate (CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}) or sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}})concentration using the respective potassium salts of these anions. In general, low anion concentrations (10{sup {minus}3} or 10{sup {minus}2} mol/L) had little effect on the zeta potentials of the coals. However, the surface charge densities of the coal become less negative at 10-1 mol/L of the nitrate, carbonate or sulfate anions. These trends suggest that the surface charge density of the coal is controlled by the adsorption of potassium ions (K{sup +}) onto the coal particles. The net negative charge on the coal panicles creates a repulsive force between the anions and the coal surface and prevents the anions from exerting any significant effect on the coal's electrokinetic properties.

Abotsi, G.M.K.

1992-08-28

387

Anion Separation by Selective Crystallization of Metal-Organic-Frameworks  

SciTech Connect

A novel approach for the separation of anions from aqueous mixtures was demonstrated, which involves their selective crystallization with metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) containing urea functional groups. Self-assembly of Zn{sup 2+} with the N,N{prime}-bis(m-pyridyl)urea (BPU) linker results in the formation of one-dimensional MOFs including various anions for charge balance, which interact to different extents with the zinc nodes and the urea hydrogen-bonding groups, depending on their coordinating abilities. Thus, Cl{sup -}, Br{sup -}, I{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, in the presence of BPU and Zn{sup 2+}, form MOFs from water, in which the anions coordinate the zinc and are hydrogen-bonded to the urea groups, whereas NO{sub 3}{sup -} and ClO{sub 4}{sup -} anions either do not form MOFs or form water-soluble discrete coordination complexes under the same conditions. X-ray diffraction, FTIR, and elemental analysis of the coordination polymers precipitated from aqueous mixtures containing equivalent amounts of these anions indicated total exclusion of the oxoanions and selective crystallization of the halides in the form of solid solutions with the general composition ZnCl{sub x}Br{sub y}I{sub z} {center_dot} BPU (x + y + z = 2), with an anti-Hofmeister selectivity. The concomitant inclusion of the halides in the same structural frameworks facilitates the rationalization of the observed selectivity on the basis of the diminishing interactions with the zinc and urea acidic centers in the MOFs when going from Cl{sup -} to I{sup -}, which correlates with decreasing anionic charge density in the same order. The overall crystal packing efficiency of the coordination frameworks, which ultimately determines their solubility, also plays an important role in the anion crystallization selectivity under thermodynamic equilibration.

Custelcean, Radu [ORNL

2006-01-01

388

National GAP Conference 2007-Discussion Groups Report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We led two discussion groups during the 2007 National GAP Conference. These discussion groups provided information to help develop a survey of National Gap Analysis Program (GAP) data users. One group discussed technical issues, and the second group discussed the use of GAP data for decisionmaking. Themes emerging from the technical issues group included concerns about data quality, need for information on how to use data, and passive data distribution. The decisionmaking discussion included a wide range of topics including the need to understand presentation of information, the need to connect with and understand users of data, the revision of GAP's mission, and the adaptability of products and data. The decisionmaking group also raised concerns regarding technical issues. One conclusion is that a deep commitment to ongoing information transfer and support is a key component of success for the GAP program.

Ratz, Joan M.; Lamb, Berton Lee

2010-01-01

389

A modified simplified coherent potential approximation model of band gap energy of III-V ternary alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the modification of the simplified coherent potential approximation (SCPA), a model is developed to calculate the composition dependence of the band gap energy of III-V ternary alloys with the same anion. The derived equation is used to fit the experimental band gap energy of In x Al1- x N, In x Ga1- x N and Al x Ga1- x N with x from 0 to 1. It is found that the fitting results are better than those done by using SCPA. The fitting results are also better than those obtained by using the formula with a small bowing coefficient, especially for In x Al1- x N. In addition, our model can also be used to describe the composition dependence of band gap energy of other III-V ternary alloys.

Zhao, ChuanZhen; Zhang, Rong; Liu, Bin; Fu, DeYi; Li, Ming; Xiu, XiangQian; Xie, ZiLi; Zheng, YouDou

2012-03-01

390

Fragmentation of Aluminum-Cluster Anions in Collision with a Solid Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamical processes involved in the scattering of aluminum-cluster anions, AlN- (4<=N<=25), from a silicon surface were investigated. The scattered anions observed were fragment cluster anions, Aln- (n<=N). The recoil velocities of these fragment anions were evaluated by analyzing both the angular dependence of their intensity and the collision-energy dependence of their time-of-flight. The recoil energy of each fragment anion thus

A. Terasaki; T. Tsukuda; H. Yasumatsu; T. Sugai; T. Kondow

1996-01-01

391

Gap between active and passive solar heating  

SciTech Connect

The gap between active and passive solar could hardly be wider. The reasons for this are discussed and advantages to narrowing the gap are analyzed. Ten years of experience in both active and passive systems are reviewed, including costs, frequent problems, performance prediction, performance modeling, monitoring, and cooling concerns. Trends are analyzed, both for solar space heating and for service water heating. A tendency for the active and passive technologies to be converging is observed. Several recommendations for narrowing the gap are presented.

Balcomb, J.D.

1985-01-01

392

On the Psychology of Truth-Gaps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bonini et al. [2] present psychological data that they take to support an 'epistemic' account of how vague predicates are used in natural language. We argue that their data more strongly supports a 'gap' theory of vagueness, and that their arguments against gap theories are flawed. Additionally, we present more experimental evidence that supports gap theories, and argue for a semantic/pragmatic alternative that unifies super- and subvaluationary approaches to vagueness.

Alxatib, Sam; Pelletier, Jeff

393

The pGAPS experiment: An engineering balloon flight of prototype GAPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The General Anti-Particle Spectrometer (GAPS) project is being carried out to search for primary cosmic-ray antiparticles especially for antideuterons produced by cold dark matter. GAPS plans to realize the science observation by Antarctic long duration balloon flights in the late 2010s. In preparation for the Antarctic science flights, an engineering balloon flight using a prototype of the GAPS instrument, "pGAPS", was successfully carried out in June 2012 in Japan to verify the basic performance of each GAPS subsystem. The outline of the pGAPS flight campaign is briefly reported.

Fuke, H.; Ong, R. A.; Aramaki, T.; Bando, N.; Boggs, S. E.; Doetinchem, P. v.; Gahbauer, F. H.; Hailey, C. J.; Koglin, J. E.; Madden, N.; Mognet, S. A. I.; Mori, K.; Okazaki, S.; Perez, K. M.; Yoshida, T.; Zweerink, J.

2014-05-01

394

Large-gap magnetic suspension systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The classification of magnetic suspension devices into small-gap and large-gap categories is addressed. The relative problems of position sensing, control systems, power supplies, electromagnets, and magnetic field or force analysis are discussed. The similarity of all systems from a controls standpoint is qualified. Some applications where large-gap technology is being applied to systems with a physically small air-gap are mentioned. Finally, the applicability of some other suspension approaches, such as electrodynamic or superconducting are briefly addressed.

Britcher, Colin P.

1992-01-01

395

Oxidation of silicon surface with atomic oxygen radical anions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface oxidation of silicon (Si) wafers by atomic oxygen radical anions (O- anions) and the preparation of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors on the O- -oxidized Si substrates have been examined for the first time. The O- anions are generated from a recently developed O- storage-emission material of [Ca24Al28O64]4+.4O-(C12A7-O- for short). After it has been irradiated by an O- anion beam (0.5 ?A/cm2) at 300°C for 1-10 hours, the Si wafer achieves an oxide layer with a thickness ranging from 8 to 32 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results reveal that the oxide layer is of a mixture of SiO2, Si2O3, and Si2O distributed in different oxidation depths. The features of the MOS capacitor of < Al electrode/SiOx/SI > are investigated by measuring capacitance-voltage (C — V) and current-voltage (I — V) curves. The oxide charge density is about 6.0 × 1011 cm-2 derived from the C — V curves. The leakage current density is in the order of 10-6A/cm2 below 4MV/cm, obtained from the I — V curves. The O- anions formed by present method would have potential applications to the oxidation and the surface-modification of materials together with the preparation of semiconductor devices.

Wang, Lian; Song, Chong-Fu; Sun, Jian-Qiu; Hou, Ying; Li, Xiao-Guang; Li, Quan-Xin

2008-06-01

396

Anion-induced shuttling of a naphthalimide triazolium rotaxane.  

PubMed

The anion-templated synthesis of a rotaxane structure, incorporating the new naphthalimide triazolium motif, is described and the interlocked host shown to exhibit selective, uni-directional, anion-induced shuttling. Initial pseudorotaxane investigations demonstrate the ability of a naphthalimide triazolium threading component to form interpenetrated assemblies with counter-anion-dependent co-conformations. (1)H NMR studies reveal that the shuttling behaviour of the analogous rotaxane host system is controlled by selective anion binding and by the nature of the solvent conditions. Complete macrocycle translocation only occurs upon the recognition of the smaller halide anions (chloride and bromide). The rotaxane solid-state crystal structure in the presence of chloride is in agreement with the solution-phase co-conformation. The sensitivity of the axle naphthalimide absorbance band to the position of the macrocycle component within the interlocked structure enabled the molecular motion to be observed by UV/Vis spectroscopy, and the chloride-induced shuttling of the rotaxane was reversed upon silver hexafluorophosphate addition. PMID:22550020

Spence, Graeme T; Pitak, Mateusz B; Beer, Paul D

2012-06-01

397

Water clusters in mixed ionic complexes with metal dipicolinate anions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formations of three different types of hydrogen-bonded water clusters in the interstices of mixed ionic complexes with metal dipicolinate anions are reported. In the complex [Co(phen)2(H2O)2][Zn(dpa)2]?7H2O (1) (where phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, dpa = dipicolinate), both the cation and anion is hydrophilic in nature, exhibits an unusual 2D infinite cyclic water decamers (H2O)10 stabilized by four identical zinc dipicolinato complex anions. Modulating the cationic unit to a hydrophobic environment by replacing the aqua ligand with 2,2'-bipyridine ligand the water cluster can be modified. The complex [Ni(phen)2?bpy][Co(dpa)2]?8H2O (2) (where bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) has unprecedented discrete hydrogen bonded hexadecameric (H2O)16 water clusters encapsulated between eight anionic units. A rare wavelike infinite water chain (H2O)n is observed in complex [Co(phen)3][Mn(dpa)2]?12H2O (3), in this case the water chain fills the interstitial space created by packing of large hydrophilic anionic units and hydrophobic cationic units. The reported clusters are indefinitely stable in their respective complex at ambient temperature, but the water loss is irreversible when thermally decomposed.

Das, Babulal; Baruah, Jubaraj B.

2013-02-01

398

Reversible Intercalation of Fluoride-Anion Receptor Complexes in Graphite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have demonstrated a route to reversibly intercalate fluoride-anion receptor complexes in graphite via a nonaqueous electrochemical process. This approach may find application for a rechargeable lithium-fluoride dual-ion intercalating battery with high specific energy. The cell chemistry presented here uses graphite cathodes with LiF dissolved in a nonaqueous solvent through the aid of anion receptors. Cells have been demonstrated with reversible cathode specific capacity of approximately 80 mAh/g at discharge plateaus of upward of 4.8 V, with graphite staging of the intercalant observed via in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction during charging. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and B-11 nuclear magnetic resonance studies suggest that cointercalation of the anion receptor with the fluoride occurs during charging, which likely limits the cathode specific capacity. The anion receptor type dictates the extent of graphite fluorination, and must be further optimized to realize high theoretical fluorination levels. To find these optimal anion receptors, we have designed an ab initio calculations-based scheme aimed at identifying receptors with favorable fluoride binding and release properties.

West, William C.; Whitacre, Jay F.; Leifer, Nicole; Greenbaum, Steve; Smart, Marshall; Bugga, Ratnakumar; Blanco, Mario; Narayanan, S. R.

2007-01-01

399

Vertical detachment energies of anionic thymidine: Microhydration effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density functional theory has been employed to investigate microhydration effects on the vertical detachment energy (VDE) of the thymidine anion by considering the various structures of its monohydrates. Structures were located using a random searching procedure. Among 14 distinct structures of the anionic thymidine monohydrate, the low-energy structures, in general, have the water molecule bound to the thymine base unit. The negative charge developed on the thymine moiety increases the strength of the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the water and base units. The computed VDE values of the thymidine monohydrate anions are predicted to range from 0.67 to 1.60 eV and the lowest-energy structure has a VDE of 1.32 eV. The VDEs of the monohydrates of the thymidine anion, where the N1-H hydrogen of thymine has been replaced by a 2'-deoxyribose ring, are greater by ~0.30 eV, compared to those of the monohydrates of the thymine anion. The results of the present study are in excellent agreement with the accompanying experimental results of Bowen and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 133, 144304 (2010)].

Kim, Sunghwan; Schaefer, Henry F.

2010-10-01

400

On the importance of the band gap bowing in Boron-based III V ternary alloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical band gap bowing of eighteen III-V compound alloys containing boron is calculated by means of a recent phenomenological model [M. Ferhat, Phys. Status Solidi b 241 (2004) R38]. The optical band gap bowing is found to be strong for the all studied III-V boron alloys. In particular, we find that BNSb shows an important optical band gap bowing of 19.78 eV. Parallel to this, we also introduce ab initio pseudopotential plane wave calculations with large relaxed supercells to check the validity of our phenomenological model for BNSb. This gives an optical bowing of 21.19 eV, in fairly good agreement with the model used. Results suggest that the III-V boron alloys are characterized by a strong competition between the volume deformation (b), charge transfer (b), and structural relaxation (b) effects. For the common cation alloys b dominates b, and b is relatively weak; whereas for the common anion alloys, the structural effect ( b and b) appears to control the total optical band gap bowing.

Azzi, S.; Zaoui, A.; Ferhat, M.

2007-11-01

401

Pathophysiology of Metabolic Alkalosis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The generation of experimental metabolic alkalosis by the kidney was found to require the presence of excess mineralocorticoid hormone and potassium deficiency. Once generated, metabolic alkalosis could be maintained in the absence of excess mineralocorti...

M. G. White N. A. Kurtzman P. W. Rogers

1972-01-01

402

Inborn errors of metabolism  

MedlinePLUS

Inborn errors of metabolism are rare genetic disorders in which the body cannot properly turn food into energy. The disorders are usually caused by defects in specific proteins (enzymes) that help break down (metabolize) parts ...

403

Metabolism of Carbamate Insecticides.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results of studies conducted to determine the metabolic fate of carbamate insecticides and its toxicological significance are presented. Methomyl metabolism in rats was investigated in detail as was Croneton in the rat, cow, pig and chicken. Carbaryl ...

H. W. Dorough

1977-01-01

404

Some reactions and properties of nitro radical-anions important in biology and medicine.  

PubMed

Nitroaromatic compounds, ArNO2 have widespread actual or potential use in medicine and cancer therapy. There is direct proof that free-radical metabolites are involved in many applications, and an appreciation of the conceptual basis for their therapeutic differential; however, an understanding of the detailed mechanisms involved is lacking. Redox properties control most biological responses of nitro compounds, and the characteristics of the one-electron couple: ArNO2/ArNO2- are detailed. The "futile metabolism" of nitroaryl compounds characteristic of most aerobic nitroreductase systems reflects competition between natural radical-decay pathways and a one-electron transfer reaction to yield superoxide ion, O2-. Prototropic properties control the rate of radical decay, and redox properties control the rate of electron transfer to O2 or other acceptors. There are clear parallels in the chemistry of ArNO2- and O2-. While nitro radicals have frequently been invoked as damaging species, they are very unreactive (except as simple reductants). It seems likely that reductive metabolism of nitroaryl compounds, although generally involving nitro radical-anions as obligate intermediates (and this is required for therapeutic selectivity towards anaerobes), results in biological damage via reductive metabolites of higher reduction order than the one-electron product. PMID:3830700

Wardman, P

1985-12-01

405

Some reactions and properties of nitro radical-anions important in biology and medicine.  

PubMed Central

Nitroaromatic compounds, ArNO2 have widespread actual or potential use in medicine and cancer therapy. There is direct proof that free-radical metabolites are involved in many applications, and an appreciation of the conceptual basis for their therapeutic differential; however, an understanding of the detailed mechanisms involved is lacking. Redox properties control most biological responses of nitro compounds, and the characteristics of the one-electron couple: ArNO2/ArNO2- are detailed. The "futile metabolism" of nitroaryl compounds characteristic of most aerobic nitroreductase systems reflects competition between natural radical-decay pathways and a one-electron transfer reaction to yield superoxide ion, O2-. Prototropic properties control the rate of radical decay, and redox properties control the rate of electron transfer to O2 or other acceptors. There are clear parallels in the chemistry of ArNO2- and O2-. While nitro radicals have frequently been invoked as damaging species, they are very unreactive (except as simple reductants). It seems likely that reductive metabolism of nitroaryl compounds, although generally involving nitro radical-anions as obligate intermediates (and this is required for therapeutic selectivity towards anaerobes), results in biological damage via reductive metabolites of higher reduction order than the one-electron product.

Wardman, P

1985-01-01

406

Cellular Uptake of Ribonuclease A Relies on Anionic Glycans†  

PubMed Central

Bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A) can enter human cells, even though it lacks a cognate cell-surface receptor protein. Here, we report on the biochemical basis for its cellular uptake. Analyses in vitro and in cellulo revealed that RNase A interacts tightly with abundant cell-surface proteoglycans containing glycosaminoglycans, such as heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, as well as with sialic acid-containing glycoproteins. The uptake of RNase A correlates with cell anionicity, as quantified by measuring electrophoretic mobility. The cellular binding and uptake of RNase A contrast with those of Onconase®, an amphibian homologue that does not interact tightly with anionic cell-surface glycans. As anionic glycans are especially abundant on human tumor cells, our data predicate utility for mammalian ribonucleases as cancer chemotherapeutic agents.

Chao, Tzu-Yuan; Lavis, Luke D.; Raines, Ronald T.

2010-01-01

407

Conformational relaxation of ?-conjugated polymer radical anion on picosecond scale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the conformational relaxation of poly[bis(p-n-butylphenyl)silane] (PBPS) radical anion measured by near-ultraviolet-enhanced picosecond pulse radiolysis in tetrahydrofuran solutions. The peak shift and increase in optical density of the transient photoabsorption spectra were investigated by kinetic analysis including reactions of PBPS with solvated/presolvated electrons, peak extraction protocol, and diffusion theory, demonstrating the correspondence in the rate constant (5+/-1×102 ps) between the peak shift and increase in oscillator strength. The results were examined by density functional theory and molecular dynamics simulations, where the modeled oligosilane radical anion shows more planner conformation relative to its neutral state and a relaxation time of 8 ps. The difference of the time scale is discussed from the viewpoints of actual experimental factors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the direct observation of the conformational dynamics of rodlike ?-conjugated polymer: PBPS radical anion.

Ohnishi, Yuko; Saeki, Akinori; Seki, Shu; Tagawa, Seiichi

2009-05-01

408

Analysis of anions in hydrofluoro ethers by ion chromatography.  

PubMed

Hydrofluoro ethers (HFES) are considered to be an ideal cleaning solvent in applications like vapor degreasing and wet cleaning. It is also a good solvent replacement for CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons), HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons) and chlorinated solvents because they have a short atmospheric lifetime and low global warming potential. Based upon their properties, hydrofluoro ethers are ideally suited for the demands of the electronics industry. However, the electronics industry requires these solvents to have high purity, especially in the area of residual anions. This paper will present information on an extraction methodology for the transfer of anions from the hydrofluoro ether to water. Then, an analytical method utilizing ion chromatography that is capable of detection of 10 anions (fluoride, acetate, formate, chloride, nitrite, bromide, nitrate, sulfate, oxalate, and phosphate) in the part per billion level will be demonstrated. PMID:15250412

Hulteen, John C; Schaible, Sandi M

2004-06-11

409

Effect of anions on the electrochemistry of zinc tetraphenylporphyrin  

SciTech Connect

Accurate measurements of porphyrin redox potentials are essential for the prediction and rationalization of the rates of electron transfer reactions involving these biologically important electron-donating and accepting chromophores. The present work describes a survey of redox potentials of zinc tetraphenylporphyrin obtained by cyclic voltammetry in dichloromethane, with tetrabutylammonium salts containing a variety of anions as electrolytes. Of the anions tested, hexafluorophosphate appears to have the least ability to ligate the metal, so that potentials measured in its presence as electrolyte should most closely approach those of the unligated porphyrin. With perchlorate electrolyte, the potential for one-electron oxidation is approximately 80 mV lower, enough to affect the interpretation of photochemical electron transfer rates. In general, anions bind much more strongly to the cation radical than to zinc tetraphenylporphyrin itself. The use of reference redox systems based on thymoquinone and ferrocene carboxylate enabled comparison of potentials measured with different electrolytes. 30 refs., 2 tabs.

Seely, G.R.; Gust, D.; Moore, T.A.; Moore, A.L. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States))

1994-10-13

410

Adsorption and desorption kinetics of anionic dyes on doped polyaniline.  

PubMed

In this study, we report an approach for the adsorption and desorption of anionic (sulfonated) dyes from aqueous solution by doped polyaniline. In this study, we have synthesized PANI with two dopants, namely, p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) and camphorsulfonic acid (CSA), and used these to adsorb various dyes. It was found that the doped PANI selectively adsorbs anionic dyes and does not adsorb cationic dyes. The adsorption of anionic dyes causes the variation in electrical conductivity of PANI, indicating its potential as a conductometric sensor for these dyes at very low concentration. The adsorbed dyes were desorbed from the polymer by using a basic aqueous solution. The adsorption and desorption kinetics of the dye in the presence of doped PANI were also determined. PMID:19195986

Mahanta, Debajyoti; Madras, Giridhar; Radhakrishnan, S; Patil, Satish

2009-02-26

411

Free radical scavenging activity of morin 2'-O(-) phenoxide anion.  

PubMed

Due to intramolecular H-atom transfer, deprotonation of the most acidic 3-OH group of morin yields 2'-O(-) phenoxide anion. The reaction enthalpies related to mechanisms of free radical scavenging activity of this dominant species at a physiological pH of 7.4 were calculated by PM6 and DFT methods in gas-phase, water, benzene and DMSO. Results indicate the 4'-OH group of 2'-O(-) phenoxide anion is the active site for radical inactivation. The thermodynamically favoured mechanism depends on the polarity of the reaction media: in polar solvents (water and DMSO), the sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) mechanism is preferred while in non-polar benzene (and in gas-phase), the hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanism is responsible for the free radical scavenging activity of the morin phenoxide anion. Results show that the fast, semiempirical PM6 method fairly mimics more accurate, though time-consuming DFT methodologies. PMID:22953958

Markovi?, Zoran; Milenkovi?, Dejan; Dorovi?, Jelena; Dimitri? Markovi?, Jasmina M; Stepani?, Višnja; Lu?i?, Bono; Ami?, Dragan

2012-12-01

412

Adsorption behavior of anionic polyelectrolyte for chemical mechanical polishing (CMP).  

PubMed

In this work, we investigated the adsorption characteristics of anionic polyelectrolytes, which are used in shallow trench isolation chemical mechanical polishing with ceria abrasives. Specifically, the adsorption isotherms and chain conformation of anionic polyelectrolytes were studied in order to elucidate the difference in removal rates of silicon dioxide (SiO2) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) layers and the high selectivity characteristics of ceria slurry. Adsorption isotherms, FT-IR spectroscopy and contact angle measurements revealed that the anionic polyelectrolyte additives had much better adsorption affinities for the Si3N4 surface than for the SiO2 surface. Moreover, blanket wafer polishing results were successfully correlated with the adsorption isotherms of polyelectrolytes on the oxide particle suspensions. PMID:18078949

Kim, Sarah; So, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Jun; Yang, Seung-Man

2008-03-01

413

Metabolic liver disease.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of metabolic liver disease requires a high level of diagnostic suspicion. Diet is usually the primary treatment for metabolic liver disease. Where indicated, liver transplantation provides lifelong functional correction of liver-based metabolic defects. Liver cell therapy warrants further study for the future treatment of metabolic liver disease. All families should receive genetic advice and pre-emptive management of future affected siblings. PMID:22521124

McKiernan, Pat

2012-06-01

414

Sensitivity of the plant vacuolar malate channel to pH, Ca2+ and anion-channel blockers.  

PubMed

The organic anion malate is accumulated in the central vacuole of most plant cells. Malate has several important roles in plant vacuoles, such as the maintenance of charge balance and pH regulation, as an osmolyte involved in the generation of cell turgor, and as a storage form of CO2. Transport of malate across the vacuolar membrane is important for the regulation of cytoplasmic pH and the control of cellular metabolism, particularly in plants showing crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), in which large fluxes of malate occur during the day/night cycle. By applying the patch-clamp technique, in the whole-vacuole configuration, to isolated vacuoles from leaf mesophyll cells of the CAM plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana, we studied the regulation of the vacuolar malate channel by pH and Ca2+, as well as its sensitivity to anion-channel blockers. Malate currents were found to be insensitive to Ca2+ on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane over a range from approximately 10(-8) M to 10(-4) M. In contrast, decreasing cytoplasmic pH below 7.5 had a significant modulatory effect on channel activity, reducing malate currents by 40%, whereas increasing cytoplasmic pH above 7.5 resulted in no change in current. Several known Cl?-channel blockers inhibited the vacuolar malate currents: niflumic acid and indanoyloxyacetic acid (IAA-94) proved to be the most effective inhibitors, exerting half-maximal effects at concentrations of approximately 20 mM, suggesting that the plant vacuolar malate channel may share certain similarities with other classes of known anion channels. PMID:11891587

Pantoja, O; Smith, J A C

2002-03-01

415

Addressing the vaccine confidence gap.  

PubMed

Vaccines--often lauded as one of the greatest public health interventions--are losing public confidence. Some vaccine experts have referred to this decline in confidence as a crisis. We discuss some of the characteristics of the changing global environment that are contributing to increased public questioning of vaccines, and outline some of the specific determinants of public trust. Public decision making related to vaccine acceptance is neither driven by scientific nor economic evidence alone, but is also driven by a mix of psychological, sociocultural, and political factors, all of which need to be understood and taken into account by policy and other decision makers. Public trust in vaccines is highly variable and building trust depends on understanding perceptions of vaccines and vaccine risks, historical experiences, religious or political affiliations, and socioeconomic status. Although provision of accurate, scientifically based evidence on the risk-benefit ratios of vaccines is crucial, it is not enough to redress the gap between current levels of public confidence in vaccines and levels of trust needed to ensure adequate and sustained vaccine coverage. We call for more research not just on individual determinants of public trust, but on what mix of factors are most likely to sustain public trust. The vaccine community demands rigorous evidence on vaccine efficacy and safety and technical and operational feasibility when introducing a new vaccine, but has been negligent in demanding equally rigorous research to understand the psychological, social, and political factors that affect public trust in vaccines. PMID:21664679

Larson, Heidi J; Cooper, Louis Z; Eskola, Juhani; Katz, Samuel L; Ratzan, Scott

2011-08-01

416

NEN Division Funding Gap Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The work in NEN Division revolves around proliferation detection. The sponsor funding model seems to have shifted over the last decades. For the past three lustra, sponsors are mainly interested in funding ideas and detection systems that are already at a technical readiness level 6 (TRL 6 -- one step below an industrial prototype) or higher. Once this level is reached, the sponsoring agency is willing to fund the commercialization, implementation, and training for the systems (TRL 8, 9). These sponsors are looking for a fast turnaround (1-2 years) technology development efforts to implement technology. To support the critical national and international needs for nonprolifertion solutions, we have to maintain a fluent stream of subject matter expertise from the fundamental principals of radiation detection through prototype development all the way to the implementation and training of others. NEN Division has large funding gaps in the Valley of Death region. In the current competitive climate for nuclear nonproliferation projects, it is imminent to increase our lead in this field.

Esch, Ernst I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goettee, Jeffrey D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Desimone, David J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lakis, Rollin E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miko, David K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-09-05

417

Electron and anion mobility in low density hydrogen cyanide gas. II. Evidence for the formation of anionic clusters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the drift mobility of anions in low-density hydrogen cyanide (HCN) gas. They are formed by attachment of photoinjected excess electrons to HCN molecules. Mobility isotherms for the temperatures 294, 333, and 373 K were determined in the HCN number density range 9.36×1017<=n<=1.21×1020 cm-3.The density-normalized mobility (?anionn) of the anions shows a rather strong density dependence. At least in the limit of very low density the value (?anionn)0 of some postulated anions can be tested by the statistical adiabatic channel model (SACM) for ion-dipole molecule capture processes published recently by Troe [J. Chem. Phys. 105, 6249 (1996)]. The observed density variation can be explained by cluster anion formation. But additionally one has to consider the influence of HCN dimer formation in the drift gas on the anion mobility. It is further shown that the experimental mobilities recently obtained for cluster ions like NO+(CH3CN)2 and NO+(CH3CN)3 in acetonitrile are in total contradiction not only to our experimental results but also to theory.

Klahn, Th.; Krebs, P.

1998-07-01

418

Neuronal-Astrocyte Metabolic Interactions: Understanding the Transition into Abnormal Astrocytoma Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Brain function depends upon complex metabolic interactions amongst only a few different cell types, with astrocytes providing critical support for neurons. Astrocyte functions include buffering the extracellular space, providing substrates to neurons, interchanging glutamate and glutamine for synaptic transmission with neurons, and facilitating access to blood vessels. Whereas neurons possess highly oxidative metabolism and easily succumb to ischemia, astrocytes rely more on glycolytic metabolism and hence are less susceptible to lack of oxygen. Astrocytoma cells appear to retain basic metabolic mechanisms of astrocytes, for example, they show a high glycolytic rate, lactate extrusion, ability to flourish under hypoxia, and opportunistic use of mechanisms to enhance cell division and maintain growth. Differences in metabolism between neurons and astrocytes may also extend to astrocytoma cells, providing therapeutic opportunities against astrocytomas, including sensitivity to acetate, a high rate of glycolysis and lactate extrusion, glutamate uptake transporters, differential sensitivities of monocarboxylate transporters, presence of glycogen, high interlinking with gap junctions, use of NADPH for lipid synthesis, utilizing different isoforms of synthetic enzymes (e.g. isocitrate dehydrogenase, pyruvate carboxylase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase) and different glucose uptake mechanisms. These unique metabolic susceptibilities may augment conventional therapeutic attacks based on cell division differences and surface receptors alone.

Turner, Dennis A.; Adamson, David Cory

2011-01-01

419

Photochemistry of fumaronitrile radical anion and its clusters.  

PubMed

The photodetachment and photochemistry of the radical anion of fumaronitrile (trans-1,2-dicyanoethylene) and its clusters are investigated using photoelectron imaging and photofragment spectroscopy. We report the first direct spectroscopic determination of the adiabatic electron affinity (EA) of fumaronitrile (fn) in the gas phase, EA = 1.21 ± 0.02 eV. This is significantly smaller than one-half the EA of tetracyanoethylene (TCNE). The singlet-triplet splitting in fumaronitrile is determined to be ?ES-T ? 2.6 eV, consistent with the known properties. An autodetachment transition is observed at 392 and 355 nm and assigned to the (2)Bu anionic resonance in the vicinity of 3.3 eV. The results are in good agreement with the predictions of the CCSD(T) and EOM-XX-CCSD(dT) (XX = IP, EE) calculations. The H2O and Ar solvation energies of fn(-) are found to be similar to the corresponding values for the anion of TCNE. In contrast, a very large (0.94 eV) photodetachment band shift, relative to fn(-), is observed for (fn)2(-). In addition, while the photofragmentation of fn(-), fn(-)·Ar, and fn(-)(H2O)1,2 yielded only the CN(-) fragment ions, the dominant anionic photofragment of (fn)2(-) is the fn(-) monomer anion. The band shift, exceeding the combined effect of two water molecules, and the fragmentation pattern, inconsistent with an intact fn(-) chromophore, rule out an electrostatically solvated fn(-)·fn structure of (fn)2(-) and favor a covalently bound dimer anion. A C2 symmetry (fn)2(-) structure, involving a covalent bond between the two fn moieties, is proposed. PMID:24904970

Khuseynov, Dmitry; Dixon, Andrew R; Dokuchitz, Daniel J; Sanov, Andrei

2014-06-26

420

Anionic solid lipid nanoparticles supported on protamine/DNA complexes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to design novel anionic ternary nanoparticles for gene delivery. These ternary nanoparticles were equipped with protamine/DNA binary complexes (150-200 nm) as the support, and the anionic formation was achieved by absorption of anionic solid lipid nanoparticles (<=20 nm) onto the surface of the binary complexes. The small solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were prepared by a modified film dispersion-ultrasonication method, and adsorption of the anionic SLNs onto the binary complexes was typically carried out in water via electrostatic interaction. The formulated ternary nanoparticles were found to be relatively uniform in size (257.7 ± 10.6 nm) with a 'bumpy' surface, and the surface charge inversion from 19.28 ± 1.14 mV to -17.16 ± 1.92 mV could be considered as evidence of the formation of the ternary nanoparticles. The fluorescence intensity measurements from three batches of the ternary nanoparticles gave a mean adsorption efficiency of 96.75 ± 1.13%. Circular dichroism spectra analysis showed that the protamine/DNA complexes had been coated by small SLNs, and that the anionic ternary nanoparticles formed did not disturb the construction of the binary complexes. SYBR Green I analysis suggested that the ternary nanoparticles could protect the DNA from nuclease degradation, and cell viability assay results showed that they exhibit lower cytotoxicity to A549 cells compared with the binary complexes and lipofectamine. The transfection efficiency of the ternary nanoparticles was better than that of naked DNA and the binary complexes, and almost equal to that of lipofectamine/DNA complexes, as revealed by inversion fluorescence microscope observation. These results indicated that the anionic ternary nanoparticles could facilitate gene transfer in cultured cells, and might alleviate the drawbacks of the conventional cationic vector/DNA complexes for gene delivery in vivo.

Ye, Jiesheng; Wang, Aihua; Liu, Chunxi; Chen, Zhijin; Zhang, Na

2008-07-01

421

Genome-scale models of plant metabolism.  

PubMed

A genome-scale model (GSM) is an in silico metabolic model comprising hundreds or thousands of chemical reactions that constitute the metabolic inventory of a cell, tissue, or organism. A complete, accurate GSM, in conjunction with a simulation technique such as flux balance analysis (FBA), can be used to comprehensively predict cellular metabolic flux distributions for a given genotype and given environmental conditions. Apart from enabling a user to quantitatively visualize carbon flow through metabolic pathways, these flux predictions also facilitate the hypothesis of new network properties. By simulating the impacts of environmental stresses or genetic interventions on metabolism, GSMs can aid the formulation of nontrivial metabolic engineering strategies. GSMs for plants and other eukaryotes are significantly more complicated than those for prokaryotes due to their extensive compartmentalization and size. The reconstruction of a GSM involves creating an initial model, curating the model, and then rendering the model ready for FBA. Model reconstruction involves obtaining organism-specific reactions from the annotated genome sequence or organism-specific databases. Model curation involves determining metabolite protonation status or charge, ensuring that reactions are stoichiometrically balanced, assigning reactions to appropriate subcellular compartments, deleting generic reactions or creating specific versions of them, linking dead-end metabolites, and filling of pathway gaps to complete the model. Subsequently, the model requires the addition of transport, exchange, and biomass synthesis reactions to make it FBA-ready. This cycle of editing, refining, and curation has to be performed iteratively to obtain an accurate model. This chapter outlines the reconstruction and curation of GSMs with a focus on models of plant metabolism. PMID:24218218

Simons, Margaret; Misra, Ashish; Sriram, Ganesh

2014-01-01

422

Inflammation and metabolic disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic and immune systems are among the most fundamental requirements for survival. Many metabolic and immune response pathways or nutrient- and pathogen-sensing systems have been evolutionarily conserved throughout species. As a result, immune response and metabolic regulation are highly integrated and the proper function of each is dependent on the other. This interface can be viewed as a central homeostatic

Gökhan S. Hotamisligil

2006-01-01

423

A new twist in anion binding: metallo-helicate hosts for anionic guests.  

PubMed

The condensation of 5-chlorocarbonyl-2,2'-bipyridine with a variety of rigid aromatic diamines, L, gave a series of new bisamido-2,2'-bipyridine based ligands (L = 4,4'-methylenediamine, L1; L = 1,1-bis(4-aminophenyl)cyclohexane, L2; L = 1,1-bis(4-amino-3,5-dimethylphenyl)cyclohexane, L3) capable of forming dinuclear triple helicate complexes on coordination to Fe(II). The reaction of various Fe(II) salts with gave: {[Fe2(L1)3](BF4)4, 1; [Fe2(L1)3](ClO4)4, 2; [Fe2(L1)3]Cl4, 3; [Fe2(L1)3](SO4)2, 4; [Fe2(L2)3](BF4)4, 5; [Fe2(L2)3]Cl4, 6; [Fe2(L3)3](BF4)4; 7; [Fe2(L3)3]Cl4, 8; and [Fe2(L3)3](SO4)2, 9, as determined by UV-Vis, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy, electrospray mass spectrometry (ESMS) and elemental analyses. A UV-Vis complexometric titration experiment between L3 and Fe(BF4)2 established conclusively a [Fe2(L3)3]4+ product species. 1H NMR spectroscopy showed that the complexes exist as both rac-(helical) and meso-(non-helical) isomers in DMSO-d6 solution at 298 K. L1-L3 were designed such that following complexation, six amide hydrogen atoms would line an inter-strand intrahelical cavity of sufficient size to facilitate the binding of guest species within it. Indeed, ESMS studies showed characteristic peaks typical of complex-anion species in solution. Furthermore, 1H NMR titration experiments showed that anions bind within the intrahelical cavity as titration of 1, 5 and 7 with Bu4NCl showed significant downfield shifts in the amide and bipyridyl H6 proton resonances to yield a species of 1 : 2 host to guest stoichiometry. Moreover, addition of Bu4NCl to 1, 5 and 7 shifted the rac-/meso-species distribution from 1 : 2 in favour of the meso- to 100% in favour of the rac-isomer, showing that Cl- ions favour the formation of the triple helicate species in DMSO-d6 solution. PMID:16505906

Goetz, Sandrine; Kruger, Paul E

2006-03-14

424

Infant Auditory Temporal Acuity: Gap Detection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed auditory temporal acuity among infants of 3, 6, and 12 months of age and adults. Gap detection thresholds were quite poor in infants. Effects of restricting the range of frequencies available for detecting gaps were qualitatively similar for infants and adults. (GLR)

Werner, Lynne A.; And Others

1992-01-01

425