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Sample records for anion transporters oat1

  1. An Organic Anion Transporter 1 (OAT1)-centered Metabolic Network.

    PubMed

    Liu, Henry C; Jamshidi, Neema; Chen, Yuchen; Eraly, Satish A; Cho, Sai Yee; Bhatnagar, Vibha; Wu, Wei; Bush, Kevin T; Abagyan, Ruben; Palsson, Bernhard O; Nigam, Sanjay K

    2016-09-01

    There has been a recent interest in the broader physiological importance of multispecific "drug" transporters of the SLC and ABC transporter families. Here, a novel multi-tiered systems biology approach was used to predict metabolites and signaling molecules potentially affected by the in vivo deletion of organic anion transporter 1 (Oat1, Slc22a6, originally NKT), a major kidney-expressed drug transporter. Validation of some predictions in wet-lab assays, together with re-evaluation of existing transport and knock-out metabolomics data, generated an experimentally validated, confidence ranked set of OAT1-interacting endogenous compounds enabling construction of an "OAT1-centered metabolic interaction network." Pathway and enrichment analysis indicated an important role for OAT1 in metabolism involving: the TCA cycle, tryptophan and other amino acids, fatty acids, prostaglandins, cyclic nucleotides, odorants, polyamines, and vitamins. The partly validated reconstructed network is also consistent with a major role for OAT1 in modulating metabolic and signaling pathways involving uric acid, gut microbiome products, and so-called uremic toxins accumulating in chronic kidney disease. Together, the findings are compatible with the hypothesized role of drug transporters in remote inter-organ and inter-organismal communication: The Remote Sensing and Signaling Hypothesis (Nigam, S. K. (2015) Nat. Rev. Drug Disc. 14, 29). The fact that OAT1 can affect many systemic biological pathways suggests that drug-metabolite interactions need to be considered beyond simple competition for the drug transporter itself and may explain aspects of drug-induced metabolic syndrome. Our approach should provide novel mechanistic insights into the role of OAT1 and other drug transporters implicated in metabolic diseases like gout, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. PMID:27440044

  2. Organic anion transporter OAT1 is involved in renal handling of citrulline.

    PubMed

    Nakakariya, Masanori; Shima, Yoichiro; Shirasaka, Yoshiyuki; Mitsuoka, Keisuke; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2009-07-01

    Because citrulline plasma concentration is elevated in kidney failure, citrulline could be a biomarker of renal insufficiency, although the mechanism regulating its disposition in the kidney has not been clarified. In rat kidney slices, citrulline uptake was apparently Na(+) dependent, saturable with K(m) 556 microM, and significantly inhibited by anionic (PAH) and cationic (TEA) compounds, but not by probenecid at 1 mM. Preincubation of kidney slices with glutarate increased citrulline uptake, while such an increase was not observed after preincubation of the slices in Na(+)-free buffer. This result suggested that a sodium-dependent dicarboxylate cotransporter is involved in citrulline uptake by rat kidney slices. In studies using transporter-overexpressing cells, human organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) and rat Oat1 exhibited citrulline transport activity with K(m) values of 238 and 373 microM, respectively, while other OATs and organic cation transporters (OCTs) did not transport citrulline. Based on the relative activity factor method, the contribution of rat Oat1 to the overall uptake of citrulline in rat kidney slices was approximately 70%. Moreover, the interaction among citrulline, PAH, and probenecid uptakes via rat Oat1 suggested that there are multiple functional sites on Oat1 and that the citrulline site may be distinct from the PAH and probenecid site. Thus OAT1/Oat1 appears to be one of the major contributors to renal basolateral uptake of citrulline, and impaired activities of these transporters may contribute substantially to the increase in plasma citrulline in renal failure. Accordingly, citrulline may be useful for diagnosis of kidney function as is creatinine. PMID:19403644

  3. Untargeted metabolomics identifies enterobiome metabolites and putative uremic toxins as substrates of organic anion transporter 1 (Oat1).

    PubMed

    Wikoff, William R; Nagle, Megha A; Kouznetsova, Valentina L; Tsigelny, Igor F; Nigam, Sanjay K

    2011-06-01

    Untargeted metabolomics on the plasma and urine from wild-type and organic anion transporter-1 (Oat1/Slc22a6) knockout mice identified a number of physiologically important metabolites, including several not previously linked to Oat1-mediated transport. Several, such as indoxyl sulfate, derive from Phase II metabolism of enteric gut precursors and accumulate in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Other compounds included vitamins (pantothenic acid, 4-pyridoxic acid), urate, and metabolites in the tryptophan and nucleoside pathways. Three metabolites, indoxyl sulfate, kynurenine, and xanthurenic acid, were elevated in the plasma and interacted strongly and directly with Oat1 in vitro with IC50 of 18, 12, and 50 μM, respectively. A pharmacophore model based on several identified Oat1 substrates was used to screen the NCI database and candidate compounds interacting with Oat1 were validated in an in vitro assay. Together, the data suggest a complex, previously unidentified remote communication between the gut microbiome, Phase II metabolism in the liver, and elimination via Oats of the kidney, as well as indicating the importance of Oat1 in the handling of endogenous toxins associated with renal failure and uremia. The possibility that some of the compounds identified may be part of a larger remote sensing and signaling pathway is also discussed. PMID:21476605

  4. Bezafibrate-mizoribine interaction: Involvement of organic anion transporters OAT1 and OAT3 in rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuan; Wang, Changyuan; Liu, Qi; Meng, Qiang; Huo, Xiaokui; Liu, Zhihao; Sun, Pengyuan; Yang, Xiaobo; Sun, Huijun; Qin, Jianhua; Liu, Kexin

    2016-01-01

    A patient with rheumatoid arthritis developed rhabdomyolysis while undergoing treatment with mizoribine concomitantly with bezafibrate. The symptoms rapidly disappeared and laboratory test results normalized when she discontinued the two drugs. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the transporter-mediated molecular pharmacokinetic mechanisms of drug-drug interactions between bezafibrate and mizoribine. Comparing bezafibrate-mizoribine group with bezafibrate group, the Tmax and Cmax of bezafibrate were essentially unchanged in rats. The AUC of bezafibrate was significantly increased and t1/2β was prolonged markedly with an obviously reduction in plasma clearance and cumulative urinary excretion. The changes were similar to oral studies following intravenous co-administration. In rat kidney slices, the uptake of bezafibrate was markedly inhibited by p-aminohippurate, benzylpenicillin and probenecid but not by tetraethyl ammonium. Mizoribine not only decreased the uptake of bezafibrate, but also inhibited the uptake of p-aminohippurate and benzylpenicillin. The uptakes of bezafibrate and mizoribine were significantly higher compared to vector-HEK293 cells. The uptakes of bezafibrate and mizoribine in highest concentration were increased 1.63 and 1.46 folds in hOAT1-transfected cells, 1.43 and 1.24 folds in hOAT3-transfected cells, respectively. The Km values of bezafibrate uptake by hOAT1/3hOAT1-/hOAT3-HEK293 K293 cells were increased 1.68 fold in hOAT1-HEK293 cell and 2.12 fold in hOAT3-HEK293 cell in the presence of mizoribine with no change of Vmax. It indicated that mizoribine could inhibit the uptake of bezafibrate by hOAT1/3-HEK293 cells in a competitive way. In conclusion, OAT1 and OAT3 are the target transporters of drug-drug interactions between bezafibrate and mizoribine in pharmacokinetic aspects. PMID:26474691

  5. Distribution of organic anion transporters NaDC3 and OAT1-3 along the human nephron.

    PubMed

    Breljak, Davorka; Ljubojević, Marija; Hagos, Yohannes; Micek, Vedran; Balen Eror, Daniela; Vrhovac Madunić, Ivana; Brzica, Hrvoje; Karaica, Dean; Radović, Nikola; Kraus, Ognjen; Anzai, Naohiko; Koepsell, Hermann; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Burckhardt, Birgitta C; Sabolić, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    The initial step in renal secretion of organic anions (OAs) is mediated by transporters in the basolateral membrane (BLM). Contributors to this process are primary active Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (EC 3.6.3.9), secondary active Na(+)-dicarboxylate cotransporter 3 (NaDC3/SLC13A3), and tertiary active OA transporters (OATs) OAT1/SLC22A6, OAT2/SLC22A7, and OAT3/SLC22A8. In human kidneys, we analyzed the localization of these transporters by immunochemical methods in tissue cryosections and isolated membranes. The specificity of antibodies was validated with human embryonic kidney-293 cells stably transfected with functional OATs. Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase was immunolocalized to the BLM along the entire human nephron. NaDC3-related immunostaining was detected in the BLM of proximal tubules and in the BLM and/or luminal membrane of principal cells in connecting segments and collecting ducts. The thin and thick ascending limbs, macula densa, and distal tubules exhibited no reactivity with the anti-NaDC3 antibody. OAT1-OAT3-related immunostaining in human kidneys was detected only in the BLM of cortical proximal tubules; all three OATs were stained more intensely in S1/S2 segments compared with S3 segment in medullary rays, whereas the S3 segment in the outer stripe remained unstained. Expression of NaDC3, OAT1, OAT2, and OAT3 proteins exhibited considerable interindividual variability in both male and female kidneys, and sex differences in their expression could not be detected. Our experiments provide a side-by-side comparison of basolateral transporters cooperating in renal OA secretion in the human kidney. PMID:27053689

  6. Interaction of the metal chelator 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonate with the rabbit multispecific organic anion transporter 1 (rbOAT1).

    PubMed

    Bahn, A; Knabe, M; Hagos, Y; Rödiger, M; Godehardt, S; Graber-Neufeld, D S; Evans, K K; Burckhardt, G; Wright, S H

    2002-11-01

    The metal chelator DMPS (2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonate) is used to treat heavy metal intoxication because it increases renal excretion of these toxins, which are accumulated in proximal tubule cells. To evaluate the involvement of the organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) in the renal flux of DMPS, we examined the effect of DMPS on transport mediated by the rabbit ortholog of OAT1 and compared these characteristics with those observed in intact isolated rabbit proximal tubules. The rabbit OAT1 (rbOAT1) cDNA consisted of 2124 base pairs encoding a protein of 551 amino acids. Heterologous expression in COS-7 cells revealed rbOAT1-mediated transport of p-aminohippurate (PAH; K(t) = 16 microM). A 1 mM concentration of unlabeled PAH, alpha-ketoglutarate, urate, or probenecid inhibited [(3)H]PAH uptake by 70 to 90%. cis-Inhibition and trans-stimulation experiments using several Krebs cycle intermediates implicated alpha-ketoglutarate as the main intracellular exchange anion. Reduced DMPS inhibited rbOAT1-mediated fluorescein transport with an apparent K(i) of 102 microM. These characteristics paralleled those observed in isolated rabbit proximal tubules. PAH was transported into nonperfused single proximal tubule S(2) segments with a K(t) of 76 microM. DMPS inhibited FL uptake into single tubule segments with a K(i-app) of 71 microM. Fluorescein efflux from preloaded tubules was trans-stimulated by 1 mM PAH and 1 mM DMPS, consistent with DMPS entry into tubule cells by rbOAT1. In summary, rbOAT1 mediates basolateral uptake of DMPS into proximal tubule cells, implicating this process in the detoxification process of heavy metals in the kidneys. PMID:12391276

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of two novel human renal organic anion transporters (hOAT1 and hOAT3).

    PubMed

    Race, J E; Grassl, S M; Williams, W J; Holtzman, E J

    1999-02-16

    The cloned organic anion transporters from rat, mouse, and winter flounder (rOAT1, mOAT1, fROAT) mediate the coupled exchange of alpha-ketoglutarate with multiple organic anions, including p-aminohippurate (PAH). We have isolated two novel gene products from human kidney which bear significant homology to the known OATs and belong to the amphiphilic solute facilitator (ASF) family. The cDNAs, hOAT1 and hOAT3, encode for 550- and 568-amino-acid residue proteins, respectively. hOAT1 and hOAT3 mRNAs are expressed strongly in kidney and weakly in brain. Both genes map to chromosome 11 region q11.7. PAH uptake by Xenopus laevis oocytes injected with hOAT1 mRNA is increased 100-fold compared to water-injected oocytes. PAH uptake is chloride dependent and is not further increased by preincubation of oocytes in 5 mM glutarate. Uptake of PAH is inhibited by probenicid, alpha-ketoglutarate, bumetanide, furosemide, and losartan, but not by salicylate, urate, choline, amilioride, and hydrochlorothiazide. PMID:10049739

  8. Arsenic and Mercury Containing Traditional Chinese Medicine (Realgar and Cinnabar) Strongly Inhibit Organic Anion Transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, In Vivo in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wen-Hao; Zhang, Na; Qi, Jin-Feng; Sun, Chen; Wang, Yong-Hui; Lin, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Toxic heavy metals, including mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As), accumulate preferentially in kidneys and always cause acute renal failure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these samples affect organic anion transporters, Oat1 and Oat3, in vivo in mice kidney. Mice (n = 10) were orally treated with investigational samples. After last administration, all mice were i.v. p-aminohippuric acid (PAH), and the blood and kidneys samples were collected. The concentrations of PAH were quantified by spectrophotometry. mRNA expressions of Oat1 and Oat3 were assayed by real-time PCR. In comparison with corresponding control, major pharmacokinetic parameters of PAH in sera were significantly changed by investigational samples (p < 0.05), PAH accumulations in the kidney tissues were significantly higher (p < 0.05), PAH uptake by renal slices was greatly reduced, Oat1 and Oat3 mRNA expression were significantly inhibited in investigational sample groups. Arsenic and mercury containing traditional Chinese medicine (Realgar and Cinnabar) probably induce kidney damage through inhibiting several members of the organic anion transporters (such as OAT1 and OAT3). PMID:26788513

  9. Determination of the external loops and the cellular orientation of the N- and the C-termini of the human organic anion transporter hOAT1

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Mei; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Pan, Zui; Ma, Jianjie; You, Guofeng

    2006-01-01

    The OAT (organic anion transporter) family mediates the absorption, distribution and excretion of a diverse array of environmental toxins and clinically important drugs. OAT dysfunction significantly contributes to renal, hepatic, neurological and fetal toxicity and disease. As a first step to establish the topological model of hOAT1 (human OAT1), we investigated the external loops and the cellular orientation of the N- and the C-termini of this transporter. Combined approaches of immunofluorescence studies and site-directed chemical labelling were used for such purpose. Immunofluorescence microscopy of Myc-tagged hOAT1 expressed in cultured cells identified that both the N- and the C-termini of the transporter were located in the cytoplasm. Replacement of Lys59 in the predicted extracellular loop I with arginine resulted in a mutant (K59R), which was largely inaccessible for labelling by membrane-impermeable NHS (N-hydroxysuccinimido)-SS (dithio)-biotin present in the extracellular medium. This result suggests that loop I faces outside of the cell membrane. A single lysine residue introduced into putative extracellular loops III, V and VI of mutant K59R, which is devoid of extracellular lysine, reacted readily with membrane-impermeable NHS-SS-biotin, suggesting that these putative extracellular loops are in the extracellular domains of the protein. These studies provided the first experimental evidence on the extracellular loops and the cellular orientation of the N- and the C-termini of hOAT1. PMID:17014423

  10. Low doses of ochratoxin A upregulate the protein expression of organic anion transporters Oat1, Oat2, Oat3 and Oat5 in rat kidney cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Zlender, Vilim; Breljak, Davorka; Ljubojevic, Marija; Flajs, Dubravka; Balen, Daniela; Brzica, Hrvoje; Domijan, Ana-Marija; Peraica, Maja; Fuchs, Radovan; Anzai, Naohiko; Sabolic, Ivan

    2009-09-15

    Mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is nephrotoxic in various animal species. In rodents, OTA intoxication impairs various proximal tubule (PT) functions, including secretion of p-aminohippurate (PAH), possibly via affecting the renal organic anion (OA) transporters (Oat). However, an effect of OTA on the activity/expression of specific Oats in the mammalian kidney has not been reported. In this work, male rats were gavaged various doses of OTA every 2nd day for 10 days, and in their kidneys we studied: tubule integrity by microscopy, abundance of basolateral (rOat1, rOat3) and brush-border (rOat2, rOat5) rOat proteins by immunochemical methods, and expression of rOats mRNA by RT-PCR. The OTA treatment caused: a) dose-dependent damage of the cells in S3 segments of medullary rays, b) dual effect upon rOats in PT: low doses (50-250 {mu}g OTA/kg b.m.) upregulated the abundance of all rOats, while a high dose (500 {mu}g OTA/kg b.m.) downregulated the abundance of rOat1, and c) unchanged mRNA expression for all rOats at low OTA doses, and its downregulation at high OTA dose. Changes in the expression of renal Oats were associated with enhanced OTA accumulation in tissue and excretion in urine, whereas the indicators of oxidative stress either remained unchanged (malondialdehyde, glutathione, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine) or became deranged (microtubules). While OTA accumulation and downregulation of rOats in the kidney are consistent with the previously reported impaired renal PAH secretion in rodents intoxicated with high OTA doses, the post-transcriptional upregulation of Oats at low OTA doses may contribute to OTA accumulation and development of nephrotoxicity.

  11. Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase sgk2 stimulates the transport activity of human organic anion transporters 1 by enhancing the stability of the transporter

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Da; Huang, Haozhe; Toh, May Fern; You, Guofeng

    2016-01-01

    Human organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1) belongs to a family of organic anion transporters that play critical roles in the body disposition of clinically important drugs, including anti-viral therapeutics, anti-cancer drugs, antibiotics, antihypertensives, and anti-inflammatories. hOAT1 is abundantly expressed in the kidney and brain. In the current study, we examined the regulation of hOAT1 by serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 2 (sgk2) in the kidney COS-7 cells. We showed that sgk2 stimulated hOAT1 transport activity. Such stimulation mainly resulted from an increased cell surface expression of the transporter, kinetically revealed as an increased maximal transport velocity V max without significant change in substrate-binding affinity K m. We further showed that stimulation of hOAT1 activity by sgk2 was achieved by preventing hOAT1 degradation. Our co-immunoprecipitation experiment revealed that the effect of sgk2 on hOAT1 was through a direct interaction between these two proteins. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that sgk2 stimulates hOAT1 transport activity by enhancing the stability of the transporter. This study provides the insights into sgk2 regulation of hOAT1-mediated transport in normal physiology and disease. PMID:27335683

  12. Serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase sgk2 stimulates the transport activity of human organic anion transporters 1 by enhancing the stability of the transporter.

    PubMed

    Xu, Da; Huang, Haozhe; Toh, May Fern; You, Guofeng

    2016-01-01

    Human organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1) belongs to a family of organic anion transporters that play critical roles in the body disposition of clinically important drugs, including anti-viral therapeutics, anti-cancer drugs, antibiotics, antihypertensives, and anti-inflammatories. hOAT1 is abundantly expressed in the kidney and brain. In the current study, we examined the regulation of hOAT1 by serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 2 (sgk2) in the kidney COS-7 cells. We showed that sgk2 stimulated hOAT1 transport activity. Such stimulation mainly resulted from an increased cell surface expression of the transporter, kinetically revealed as an increased maximal transport velocity V max without significant change in substrate-binding affinity K m. We further showed that stimulation of hOAT1 activity by sgk2 was achieved by preventing hOAT1 degradation. Our co-immunoprecipitation experiment revealed that the effect of sgk2 on hOAT1 was through a direct interaction between these two proteins. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that sgk2 stimulates hOAT1 transport activity by enhancing the stability of the transporter. This study provides the insights into sgk2 regulation of hOAT1-mediated transport in normal physiology and disease. PMID:27335683

  13. Interaction of Organic Cations with Organic Anion Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sun-Young; Eraly, Satish A.; Tsigelny, Igor; Nigam, Sanjay K.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the organic anion transporters (Oats) have focused mainly on their interactions with organic anionic substrates. However, as suggested when Oat1 was originally identified as NKT (Lopez-Nieto, C. E., You, G., Bush, K. T., Barros, E. J., Beier, D. R., and Nigam, S. K. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 6471–6478), since the Oats share close homology with organic cation transporters (Octs), it is possible that Oats interact with cations as well. We now show that mouse Oat1 (mOat1) and mOat3 and, to a lesser degree, mOat6 bind a number of “prototypical” Oct substrates, including 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium. In addition to oocyte expression assays, we have tested binding of organic cations to Oat1 and Oat3 in ex vivo assays by analyzing interactions in kidney organ cultures deficient in Oat1 and Oat3. We also demonstrate that mOat3 transports organic cations such as 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium and cimetidine. A pharmacophore based on the binding affinities of the tested organic cations for Oat3 was generated. Using this pharmacophore, we screened a chemical library and were able to identify novel cationic compounds that bound to Oat1 and Oat3. These compounds bound Oat3 with an affinity higher than the highest affinity compounds in the original set of prototypical Oct substrates. Thus, whereas Oat1, Oat3, and Oat6 appear to function largely in organic anion transport, they also bind and transport some organic cations. These findings could be of clinical significance, since drugs and metabolites that under normal physiological conditions do not bind to the Oats may undergo changes in charge and become Oat substrates during pathologic conditions wherein significant variations in body fluid pH occur. PMID:19737926

  14. Molecular pharmacology of renal organic anion transporters.

    PubMed

    Van Aubel, R A; Masereeuw, R; Russel, F G

    2000-08-01

    Renal organic anion transport systems play an important role in the elimination of drugs, toxic compounds, and their metabolites, many of which are potentially harmful to the body. The renal proximal tubule is the primary site of carrier-mediated transport from blood to urine of a wide variety of anionic substrates. Recent studies have shown that organic anion secretion in renal proximal tubule is mediated by distinct sodium-dependent and sodium-independent transport systems. Knowledge of the molecular identity of these transporters and their substrate specificity has increased considerably in the past few years by cloning of various carrier proteins. However, a number of fundamental questions still have to be answered to elucidate the participation of the cloned transporters in the overall tubular secretion of anionic xenobiotics. This review summarizes the latest knowledge on molecular and pharmacological properties of renal organic anion transporters and homologs, with special reference to their nephron and plasma membrane localization, transport characteristics, and substrate and inhibitor specificity. A number of the recently cloned transporters, such as the p-aminohippurate/dicarboxylate exchanger OAT1, the anion/sulfate exchanger SAT1, the peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2, and the nucleoside transporters CNT1 and CNT2, are key proteins in organic anion handling that possess the same characteristics as has been predicted from previous physiological studies. The role of other cloned transporters, such as MRP1, MRP2, OATP1, OAT-K1, and OAT-K2, is still poorly characterized, whereas the only information that is available on the homologs OAT2, OAT3, OATP3, and MRP3-6 is that they are expressed in the kidney, but their localization, not to mention their function, remains to be elucidated. PMID:10919840

  15. Time-Dependent Inhibition of hOAT1 and hOAT3 by Anthraquinones.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liping; Qin, Yahong; Shen, Zhuowei; Hu, Haihong; Zhou, Hui; Yu, Lushan; Jiang, Huidi; Zeng, Su

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that anthraquinones (including rhein, emodin, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol and physcion) were inhibitors of human organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1) and hOAT3, causing transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions in rats. In this study, the time-dependent inhibition (TDI) of hOAT1 and hOAT3 by anthraquinones was investigated. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)-hOAT1, HEK293-hOAT3 and their parental cells were used. Preincubation with chrysophanol or physcion for 30 min significantly increased the inhibition of hOAT1, but preincubation with rhein, emodin, aloe-emodin or probenecid had no effect on hOAT1 activity. By contrast, preincubation of hOAT3 with emodin, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol or physcion for 30 min significantly increased its inhibition, but preincubation with rhein or probenecid had no effect on activity. As the incubating time lengthened, from 0 to 60 min, both the inhibition of hOAT1 by chrysophanol and physcion and the inhibition of hOAT3 by emodin, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol and physcion were observed to increase in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion, our results suggest that some anthraquinones contribute to the TDI of hOAT1 and hOAT3. An inhibition study without the preincubation procedure may underestimate the inhibitory potential of anthraquinones against hOAT1 and hOAT3. The underlying mechanisms of TDI of hOAT1 and hOAT3 need to be further investigated. PMID:26133709

  16. A three-dimensional model of human organic anion transporter 1: aromatic amino acids required for substrate transport.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jennifer L; Dembla-Rajpal, Neetu; Hall, Laura A; Pritchard, John B

    2006-12-01

    Organic anion transporters (OATs) play a critical role in the handling of endogenous and exogenous organic anions by excretory and barrier tissues. Little is known about the OAT three-dimensional structure or substrate/protein interactions involved in transport. In this investigation, a theoretical three-dimensional model was generated for human OAT1 (hOAT1) based on fold recognition to the crystal structure of the glycerol 3-phosphate transporter (GlpT) from Escherichia coli. GlpT and hOAT1 share several sequence motifs as major facilitator superfamily members. The structural hOAT1 model shows that helices 5, 7, 8, 10, and 11 surround an electronegative putative active site ( approximately 830A(3)). The site opens to the cytoplasm and is surrounded by three residues not previously examined for function (Tyr(230) (domain 5) and Lys(431) and Phe(438) (domain 10)). Effects of these residues on p-aminohippurate (PAH) and cidofovir transport were assessed by point mutations in a Xenopus oocyte expression system. Membrane protein expression was severely limited for the Y230A mutant. For the K431A and F438A mutants, [(3)H]PAH uptake was less than 30% of wild-type hOAT1 uptake after protein expression correction. Reduced V(max) values for the F438A mutant confirmed lower protein expression. In addition, the F438A mutant exhibited an increased affinity for cidofovir but was not significantly different for PAH. Differences in handling of PAH and cidofovir were also observed for the Y230F mutant. Little uptake was determined for cidofovir, whereas PAH uptake was similar to wild-type hOAT1. Therefore, the hOAT1 structural model has identified two new residues, Tyr(230) and Phe(438), which are important for substrate/protein interactions. PMID:17038320

  17. The role of Nedd4-1 WW domains in binding and regulating human organic anion transporter 1.

    PubMed

    Xu, Da; Wang, Haoxun; Gardner, Carol; Pan, Zui; Zhang, Ping L; Zhang, Jinghui; You, Guofeng

    2016-08-01

    Human organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1), expressed at the basolateral membrane of kidney proximal tubule cells, mediates the active renal secretion of a diverse array of clinically important drugs, including anti-human immunodeficiency virus therapeutics, antitumor drugs, antibiotics, antihypertensives, and anti-inflammatories. We have previously demonstrated that posttranslational modification of hOAT1 by ubiquitination is an important mechanism for the regulation of this transporter. The present study aimed at identifying the ubiquitin ligase for hOAT1 and its mechanism of action. We showed that overexpression of neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated (Nedd)4-1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, enhanced hOAT1 ubiquitination, decreased hOAT1 expression at the cell surface, and inhibited hOAT1 transport activity. In contrast, overexpression of the ubiquitin ligase-dead mutant Nedd4-1/C867S was without effects on hOAT1. Furthermore, knockdown of endogenously expressed Nedd4-1 by Nedd4-1-specific small interfering RNA reduced hOAT1 ubiquitination. Immunoprecipitation experiments in cultured cells and rat kidney slices and immunofluorescence experiments in rat kidney slices showed that there was a physical interaction between OAT1 and Nedd4-1. Nedd4-1 contains four protein-protein interacting WW domains. When these WW domains were inactivated by mutating two amino acid residues in each of the four WW domains (Mut-WW1: V210W/H212G, Mut-WW2: V367W/H369G, Mut-WW3: I440W/H442G, and Mut-WW4: I492W/H494G, respectively), only Mut-WW2 and Mut-WW3 significantly lost their ability to bind and to ubiquitinate hOAT1. As a result, Mut-WW2 and Mut-WW3 were unable to suppress hOAT1-mediated transport as effectively as wild-type Nedd4-1. In conclusion, this is the first demonstration that Nedd4-1 regulates hOAT1 ubiquitination, expression, and transport activity through its WW2 and WW3 domains. PMID:27226107

  18. Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides

    PubMed Central

    Stieger, Bruno; Hagenbuch, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides or OATPs are central transporters in the disposition of drugs and other xenobiotics. In addition, they mediate transport of a wide variety of endogenous substrates. The critical role of OATPs in drug disposition has spurred research both in academia and in the pharmaceutical industry. Translational aspects with clinical questions are the focus in academia, while the pharmaceutical industry tries to define and understand the role these transporters play in pharmacotherapy. The present overview summarizes our knowledge on the interaction of food constituents with OATPs, and on the OATP transport mechanisms. Further, it gives an update on the available information on the structure-function relationship of the OATPs, and finally, covers the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of OATPs. PMID:24745984

  19. Organic anion transporter 3- and organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B1- and 1B3-mediated transport of catalposide.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyeon-Uk; Kwon, Mihwa; Lee, Yongnam; Yoo, Ji Seok; Shin, Dae Hee; Song, Im-Sook; Lee, Hye Suk

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro transport characteristics of catalposide in HEK293 cells overexpressing organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), OAT3, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), OATP1B3, organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), OCT2, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). The transport mechanism of catalposide was investigated in HEK293 and LLC-PK1 cells overexpressing the relevant transporters. The uptake of catalposide was 319-, 13.6-, and 9.3-fold greater in HEK293 cells overexpressing OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 transporters, respectively, than in HEK293 control cells. The increased uptake of catalposide via the OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 transporters was decreased to basal levels in the presence of representative inhibitors such as probenecid, furosemide, and cimetidine (for OAT3) and cyclosporin A, gemfibrozil, and rifampin (for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3). The concentration-dependent OAT3-mediated uptake of catalposide revealed the following kinetic parameters: Michaelis constant (K m) =41.5 μM, maximum uptake rate (V max) =46.2 pmol/minute, and intrinsic clearance (CL int) =1.11 μL/minute. OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated catalposide uptake also showed concentration dependency, with low CL int values of 0.035 and 0.034 μL/minute, respectively. However, the OCT1, OCT2, OAT1, P-gp, and BCRP transporters were apparently not involved in the uptake of catalposide into cells. In addition, catalposide inhibited the transport activities of OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of 83, 200, and 235 μM, respectively. However, catalposide did not significantly inhibit the transport activities of OCT1, OCT2, OAT1, P-gp, or BCRP. In conclusion, OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 are major transporters that may regulate the pharmacokinetic properties and may cause herb-drug interactions of catalposide, although their clinical relevance awaits further evaluation. PMID:25653502

  20. Organic anion transporter 3- and organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B1- and 1B3-mediated transport of catalposide

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyeon-Uk; Kwon, Mihwa; Lee, Yongnam; Yoo, Ji Seok; Shin, Dae Hee; Song, Im-Sook; Lee, Hye Suk

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro transport characteristics of catalposide in HEK293 cells overexpressing organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), OAT3, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), OATP1B3, organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), OCT2, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). The transport mechanism of catalposide was investigated in HEK293 and LLC-PK1 cells overexpressing the relevant transporters. The uptake of catalposide was 319-, 13.6-, and 9.3-fold greater in HEK293 cells overexpressing OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 transporters, respectively, than in HEK293 control cells. The increased uptake of catalposide via the OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 transporters was decreased to basal levels in the presence of representative inhibitors such as probenecid, furosemide, and cimetidine (for OAT3) and cyclosporin A, gemfibrozil, and rifampin (for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3). The concentration-dependent OAT3-mediated uptake of catalposide revealed the following kinetic parameters: Michaelis constant (Km) =41.5 μM, maximum uptake rate (Vmax) =46.2 pmol/minute, and intrinsic clearance (CLint) =1.11 μL/minute. OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated catalposide uptake also showed concentration dependency, with low CLint values of 0.035 and 0.034 μL/minute, respectively. However, the OCT1, OCT2, OAT1, P-gp, and BCRP transporters were apparently not involved in the uptake of catalposide into cells. In addition, catalposide inhibited the transport activities of OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of 83, 200, and 235 μM, respectively. However, catalposide did not significantly inhibit the transport activities of OCT1, OCT2, OAT1, P-gp, or BCRP. In conclusion, OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 are major transporters that may regulate the pharmacokinetic properties and may cause herb–drug interactions of catalposide, although their clinical relevance awaits further evaluation. PMID:25653502

  1. Folic acid reverses uric acid crystal-induced surface OAT1 internalization by inhibiting RhoA activity in uric acid nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    WU, XINLIN; LIU, JIANXIANG; ZHANG, JIANQING; LIU, HENG; YAN, MIANSHENG; LIANG, BIRONG; XIE, HONGBO; ZHANG, SHIJUN; SUN, BAOGUO; ZHOU, HOUMING

    2016-01-01

    To investigate how organic anion transporter (OAT)-1 is involved in uric acid nephropathy (UAN), a rat model for UAN was established and the serum uric acid, blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels were all measured, and observed to be increased. It was additionally identified that in UAN rats the surface OAT1 expression levels were reduced. By treating HEK cells with monosodium urate (MSU) crystals, it was observed that the cells exhibited a reduction in OAT1 levels. Furthermore, MSU crystals were observed to recruit Ras homolog family member A (RhoA), a small guanosine triphosphatase, to the membrane and activate it. Following RhoA activation, the OAT1 internalization rate was identified to be increased. The dominant-negative RhoA N19 mutation was able to block MSU-induced OAT1 internalization, indicating that the process was RhoA-dependent. Finally, the results indicated that folic acid, a daily nutritional supplement, was capable of rescuing MSU-induced nephropathy and OAT1 internalization. These observations indicated that uric acid crystals were able to reduce the OAT1 membrane distribution through activating RhoA, and that folic acid was capable of preventing MSU-induced OAT1 relocation by inhibiting the RhoA signaling pathway. PMID:26846716

  2. Entecavir Interacts with Influx Transporters hOAT1, hCNT2, hCNT3, but Not with hOCT2: The Potential for Renal Transporter-Mediated Cytotoxicity and Drug–Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mandíková, Jana; Volková, Marie; Pávek, Petr; Navrátilová, Lucie; Hyršová, Lucie; Janeba, Zlatko; Pavlík, Jan; Bárta, Pavel; Trejtnar, František

    2016-01-01

    Entecavir (ETV) is one of the most potent agents for the treatment of the hepatitis B viral infection. The drug is principally eliminated by the kidney. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential of ETV to interact in vitro with the renal SLC transporters hOAT1, hOCT2, hCNT2 and hCNT3. Potential drug–drug interactions of ETV at the renal transporters with antiviral drugs known to be excreted by the kidney (adefovir, tenofovir, cidofovir) as well as transporter-dependent cytotoxicity were also examined. Interactions with the selected transporters along with cytotoxicity were studied in several transiently transfected cellular models using specific substrates and inhibitors. ETV was found to be both a substrate and inhibitor of hOAT1 (IC50 = 175.3 μM), hCNT2 (IC50 = 241.9 μM) and hCNT3 (IC50 = 278.4 μM) transporters, although it interacted with the transporters with relatively low affinities. ETV inhibited the cellular uptake of adefovir, tenofovir, and cidofovir by hOAT1; however, effective inhibition was shown at ETV concentrations exceeding therapeutic levels. In comparison with adefovir, tenofovir, and cidofovir, ETV displayed no transporter-mediated cytotoxicity in cells transfected with hOAT1, hCNT2, and hCNT3. No significant interaction of ETV with hOCT2 was detected. The study demonstrates interactions of ETV with several human renal transporters. For the first time, an interaction of ETV with the hCNTs was proved. We show that the potency of ETV to cause nephrotoxicity and/or clinically significant drug-drug interactions related to the tested transporters is considerably lower than that of adefovir, tenofovir, and cidofovir. PMID:26779022

  3. Nedd4-2 but not Nedd4-1 is critical for protein kinase C-regulated ubiquitination, expression, and transport activity of human organic anion transporter 1.

    PubMed

    Xu, Da; Wang, Haoxun; Zhang, Qiang; You, Guofeng

    2016-05-01

    Human organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1) expressed at the membrane of the kidney proximal tubule cells mediates the body disposition of a diverse array of clinically important drugs, including anti-HIV therapeutics, antitumor drugs, antibiotics, antihypertensives, and antiinflammatories. Therefore, understanding the regulation of hOAT1 will provide significant insights into kidney function and dysfunction. We previously established that hOAT1 transport activity is inhibited by activation of protein kinase C (PKC) through accelerating hOAT1 internalization from cell surface into intracellular endosomes and subsequent degradation. We further established that PKC-induced hOAT1 ubiquitination is an important step preceding hOAT1 internalization. In the current study, we identified two closely related E3 ubiquitin ligases, neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 4-1 and 4-2 (Nedd4-1 and Nedd4-2), as important regulators for hOAT1: overexpression of Nedd4-1 or Nedd4-2 enhanced hOAT1 ubiquitination, reduced the hOAT1 amount at the cell surface, and suppressed hOAT1 transport activity. In further exploring the relationship among PKC, Nedd4-1, and Nedd4-2, we discovered that PKC-dependent changes in hOAT1 ubiquitination, expression, and transport activity were significantly blocked in cells transfected with the ligase-dead mutant of Nedd4-2 (Nedd4-2/C821A) or with Nedd4-2-specific siRNA to knockdown endogenous Nedd4-2 but not in cells transfected with the ligase-dead mutant of Nedd4-1 (Nedd4-1/C867S) or with Nedd4-1-specific siRNA to knockdown endogenous Nedd4-1. In conclusion, this is the first demonstration that both Nedd4-1 and Nedd4-2 are important regulators for hOAT1 ubiquitination, expression, and function. Yet they play distinct roles, as Nedd4-2 but not Nedd4-1 is a critical mediator for PKC-regulated hOAT1 ubiquitination, expression, and transport activity. PMID:26823285

  4. Anion Transport with Chalcogen Bonds.

    PubMed

    Benz, Sebastian; Macchione, Mariano; Verolet, Quentin; Mareda, Jiri; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan

    2016-07-27

    In this report, we introduce synthetic anion transporters that operate with chalcogen bonds. Electron-deficient dithieno[3,2-b;2',3'-d]thiophenes (DTTs) are identified as ideal to bind anions in the focal point of the σ holes on the cofacial endocyclic sulfur atoms. Anion binding in solution and anion transport across lipid bilayers are found to increase with the depth of the σ holes of the DTT anionophores. These results introduce DTTs and related architectures as a privileged motif to engineer chalcogen bonds into functional systems, complementary in scope to classics such as 2,2'-bipyrroles or 2,2'-bipyridines that operate with hydrogen bonds and lone pairs, respectively. PMID:27433964

  5. The organic anion transporter (OAT) family: a systems biology perspective.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Sanjay K; Bush, Kevin T; Martovetsky, Gleb; Ahn, Sun-Young; Liu, Henry C; Richard, Erin; Bhatnagar, Vibha; Wu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The organic anion transporter (OAT) subfamily, which constitutes roughly half of the SLC22 (solute carrier 22) transporter family, has received a great deal of attention because of its role in handling of common drugs (antibiotics, antivirals, diuretics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), toxins (mercury, aristolochic acid), and nutrients (vitamins, flavonoids). Oats are expressed in many tissues, including kidney, liver, choroid plexus, olfactory mucosa, brain, retina, and placenta. Recent metabolomics and microarray data from Oat1 [Slc22a6, originally identified as NKT (novel kidney transporter)] and Oat3 (Slc22a8) knockouts, as well as systems biology studies, indicate that this pathway plays a central role in the metabolism and handling of gut microbiome metabolites as well as putative uremic toxins of kidney disease. Nuclear receptors and other transcription factors, such as Hnf4α and Hnf1α, appear to regulate the expression of certain Oats in conjunction with phase I and phase II drug metabolizing enzymes. Some Oats have a strong selectivity for particular signaling molecules, including cyclic nucleotides, conjugated sex steroids, odorants, uric acid, and prostaglandins and/or their metabolites. According to the "Remote Sensing and Signaling Hypothesis," which is elaborated in detail here, Oats may function in remote interorgan communication by regulating levels of signaling molecules and key metabolites in tissues and body fluids. Oats may also play a major role in interorganismal communication (via movement of small molecules across the intestine, placental barrier, into breast milk, and volatile odorants into the urine). The role of various Oat isoforms in systems physiology appears quite complex, and their ramifications are discussed in the context of remote sensing and signaling. PMID:25540139

  6. The Organic Anion Transporter (OAT) Family: A Systems Biology Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, Sanjay K.; Bush, Kevin T.; Martovetsky, Gleb; Ahn, Sun-Young; Liu, Henry C.; Richard, Erin; Bhatnagar, Vibha; Wu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The organic anion transporter (OAT) subfamily, which constitutes roughly half of the SLC22 (solute carrier 22) transporter family, has received a great deal of attention because of its role in handling of common drugs (antibiotics, antivirals, diuretics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), toxins (mercury, aristolochic acid), and nutrients (vitamins, flavonoids). Oats are expressed in many tissues, including kidney, liver, choroid plexus, olfactory mucosa, brain, retina, and placenta. Recent metabolomics and microarray data from Oat1 [Slc22a6, originally identified as NKT (novel kidney transporter)] and Oat3 (Slc22a8) knockouts, as well as systems biology studies, indicate that this pathway plays a central role in the metabolism and handling of gut microbiome metabolites as well as putative uremic toxins of kidney disease. Nuclear receptors and other transcription factors, such as Hnf4α and Hnf1α, appear to regulate the expression of certain Oats in conjunction with phase I and phase II drug metabolizing enzymes. Some Oats have a strong selectivity for particular signaling molecules, including cyclic nucleotides, conjugated sex steroids, odorants, uric acid, and prostaglandins and/or their metabolites. According to the “Remote Sensing and Signaling Hypothesis,” which is elaborated in detail here, Oats may function in remote interorgan communication by regulating levels of signaling molecules and key metabolites in tissues and body fluids. Oats may also play a major role in interorganismal communication (via movement of small molecules across the intestine, placental barrier, into breast milk, and volatile odorants into the urine). The role of various Oat isoforms in systems physiology appears quite complex, and their ramifications are discussed in the context of remote sensing and signaling. PMID:25540139

  7. Molecular evidence for an involvement of organic anion transporters (OATs) in aristolochic acid nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Bakhiya, Nadiya; Arlt, Volker M; Bahn, Andrew; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Phillips, David H; Glatt, Hansruedi

    2009-10-01

    Aristolochic acid (AA), present in Aristolochia species, is the major causative agent in the development of severe renal failure and urothelial cancers in patients with AA nephropathy. It may also be a cause of Balkan endemic nephropathy. Epithelial cells of the proximal tubule are the primary cellular target of AA. To study whether organic anion transporters (OATs) expressed in proximal tubule cells are involved in uptake of AA, we used human epithelial kidney (HEK293) cells stably expressing human (h) OAT1, OAT3 or OAT4. AA potently inhibited the uptake of characteristic substrates, p-aminohippurate for hOAT1 and estrone sulfate for hOAT3 and hOAT4. Aristolochic acid I (AAI), the more cytotoxic and genotoxic AA congener, exhibited high affinity for hOAT1 (K(i)=0.6 microM) as well as hOAT3 (K(i)=0.5 microM), and lower affinity for hOAT4 (K(i)=20.6 microM). Subsequently, AAI-DNA adduct formation (investigated by (32)P-postlabelling) was used as a measure of AAI uptake. Significantly higher levels of adducts occurred in hOAT-expressing cells than in control cells: this effect was abolished in the presence of the OAT inhibitor probenecid. In Xenopus laevis oocytes hOAT-mediated efflux of p-aminohippurate was trans-stimulated by extracellular AA, providing further molecular evidence for AA translocation by hOATs. Our study indicates that OATs can mediate the uptake of AA into proximal tubule cells and thereby participate in kidney cell damage by this toxin. PMID:19643159

  8. Tris-ureas as transmembrane anion transporters.

    PubMed

    Olivari, Martina; Montis, Riccardo; Berry, Stuart N; Karagiannidis, Louise E; Coles, Simon J; Horton, Peter N; Mapp, Lucy K; Gale, Philip A; Caltagirone, Claudia

    2016-08-01

    Nine tris-urea receptors (L(1)-L(9)) have been synthesised and shown to coordinate to a range of anionic guests both by (1)H NMR titration techniques and single crystal X-ray structural analysis. The compounds have been shown to be capable of mediating the exchange of chloride and nitrate and also chloride and bicarbonate across POPC or POPC : cholesterol 7 : 3 vesicle bilayer membranes at low transporter loadings. An interesting dependency of anion transport on the nature of the cation is evidence to suggest that a M(+)/Cl(-) cotransport process may also contribute to the release of chloride from the vesicles. PMID:27383134

  9. Renal human organic anion transporter 3 increases the susceptibility of lymphoma cells to bendamustine uptake.

    PubMed

    Hagos, Yohannes; Hundertmark, Philip; Shnitsar, Volodymyr; Marada, Venkata V V R; Wulf, Gerald; Burckhardt, Gerhard

    2015-02-15

    Chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL) is often associated with nephritic syndrome. Effective treatment of CLL by chlorambucil and bendamustine leads to the restoration of renal function. In this contribution, we sought to elucidate the impact of organic anion transporters (OATs) on the uptake of bendamustine and chlorambucil as a probable reason for the superior efficacy of bendamustine over chlorambucil in the treatment of CLL. We examined the effects of structural analogs of p-aminohippurate (PAH), melphalan, chlorambucil, and bendamustine, on OAT1-mediated [(3)H]PAH uptake and OAT3- and OAT4-mediated [(3)H]estrone sulfate (ES) uptake in stably transfected human embryonic kidney-293 cells. Melphalan had no significant inhibitory effect on any OAT, whereas chlorambucil reduced OAT1-, OAT3-, and OAT4-mediated uptake of PAH or ES down to 14.6%, 16.3%, and 66.0% of control, respectively. Bendamustine inhibited only OAT3-mediated ES uptake, which was reduced down to 14.3% of control cells, suggesting that it interacts exclusively with OAT3. The IC50 value for OAT3 was calculated to be 0.8 μM. Real-time PCR experiments demonstrated a high expression of OAT3 in lymphoma cell lines as well as primary CLL cells. OAT3-mediated accumulation of bendamustine was associated with reduced cell proliferation and an increased rate of apoptosis. We conclude that the high efficacy of bendamustine in treating CLL might be partly contributed to the expression of OAT3 in lymphoma cells and the high affinity of bendamustine for this transporter. PMID:25477469

  10. Sex-dependent expression of Oat3 (Slc22a8) and Oat1 (Slc22a6) proteins in murine kidneys.

    PubMed

    Breljak, Davorka; Brzica, Hrvoje; Sweet, Douglas H; Anzai, Naohiko; Sabolic, Ivan

    2013-04-15

    In the mouse kidney, organic anion transporter 3 (mOat3, Slc22a8) was previously localized to the basolateral membrane (BLM) of proximal tubule (PT), thick ascending limb of Henle, macula densa, distal tubule, and cortical collecting duct. However, the specificity of anti-Oat3 antibodies (Oat3-Ab) used in these studies was not properly verified. Moreover, the sex-dependent expression of mOat3, and of the functionally similar transporter mOat1 (Slc22a6), in the mouse kidney has been studied at mRNA level, whereas their protein expression is poorly documented. Here we investigated 1) specificity of Oat3-Abs by using Oat3 knockout (KO) mice, 2) cell localization of renal mOat3 with a specific mOat3-Ab, 3) sex-dependent expression of renal mOat3 and mOat1 proteins, and 4) hormone(s) responsible for observed sex differences. As previously shown, an Oat3-Ab against the rat protein stained the BLM of various nephron segments in wild-type (WT) mice, but the same staining pattern was noted along the nephron of Oat3 KO mice. However, the mOat3-Ab exclusively stained the BLM of PT in WT mice, where it colocalized with the mOat1 protein, whereas no staining of Oat3 protein was noted in the kidney of Oat3 KO mice. The expression of mOat3 protein was lower in male mice, upregulated by castration, and downregulated by testosterone treatment. The expression of mOat1 protein was stronger in males, downregulated by castration, and upregulated by testosterone treatment. Thus, at the protein level, mOat3 and mOat1 exhibit sex-dependent expression with an opposite pattern; mOat3 is female dominant due to androgen inhibition, while mOat1 is male dominant due to androgen stimulation. PMID:23389457

  11. Downregulation of organic anion transporters in rat kidney under ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute [corrected] renal failure.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, T; Watanabe, H; Yoshitome, K; Morisaki, T; Hamada, A; Nonoguchi, H; Kohda, Y; Tomita, K; Inui, K; Saito, H

    2007-03-01

    The effect of acute renal failure (ARF) induced by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) of rat kidney on the expression of organic anion transporters (OATs) was examined. The level of serum indoxyl sulfate (IS), a uremic toxin and substrate of OATs in renal tubules, shows a marked increase with the progression of ARF. However, this increase was significantly attenuated by ingestion of cobalt. The level of mRNA and protein of both rOAT1 and rOAT3 were markedly depressed in the ischemic kidney. The uptake of p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) and estrone sulfate (ES) by renal slices of ischemic rats was significantly reduced compared to control rats. Renal slices taken from ischemic rats treated with cobalt displayed significantly elevated levels of ES uptake. Cobalt intake did not affect PAH uptake, indicating the functional restoration of rOAT3 but not rOAT1. The expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was markedly depressed in the ischemic kidney, suggesting that the inward Na(+) gradient in renal tubular cells had collapsed, thereby reducing the outward gradient of alpha-ketoglutarate, a driving force of both rOATs. The decreased expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was significantly restored by cobalt treatment. Our results suggest that the downregulation of renal rOAT1 and rOAT3 could be responsible for the increase in serum IS level of ischemic rats. Cobalt treatment has a significant protective effect on ischemia-induced ARF, being accompanied by the restoration of rOAT3 and/or Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase function. PMID:17245393

  12. Potential for food-drug interactions by dietary phenolic acids on human organic anion transporters 1 (SLC22A6), 3 (SLC22A8), and 4 (SLC22A11).

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Sweet, Douglas H

    2012-10-15

    Phenolic acids exert beneficial health effects such as anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory activities and show systemic exposure after consumption of common fruits, vegetables, and beverages. However, knowledge regarding which components convey therapeutic benefits and the mechanism(s) by which they cross cell membranes is extremely limited. Therefore, we determined the inhibitory effects of nine food-derived phenolic acids, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, gallic acid, gentisic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, sinapinic acid, syringic acid, and vanillic acid, on human organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1), hOAT3, and hOAT4. In the present study, inhibition of OAT-mediated transport of prototypical substrates (1 μM) by phenolic acids (100 μM) was examined in stably expressing cell lines. All compounds significantly inhibited hOAT3 transport, while just ferulic, gallic, protocatechuic, sinapinic, and vanillic acid significantly blocked hOAT1 activity. Only sinapinic acid inhibited hOAT4 (~35%). For compounds exhibiting inhibition > ~60%, known clinical plasma concentration levels and plasma protein binding in humans were examined to select compounds to evaluate further with dose-response curves (IC(50) values) and drug-drug interaction (DDI) index determinations. IC(50) values ranged from 1.24 to 18.08 μM for hOAT1 and from 7.35 to 87.36 μM for hOAT3. Maximum DDI indices for gallic and gentisic acid (≫0.1) indicated a very strong potential for DDIs on hOAT1 and/or hOAT3. This study indicates that gallic acid from foods or supplements, or gentisic acid from salicylate-based drug metabolism, may significantly alter the pharmacokinetics (efficacy and toxicity) of concomitant therapeutics that are hOAT1 and/or hOAT3 substrates. PMID:22877817

  13. Organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3/Slc22a8) knockout mice exhibit altered clearance and distribution of penicillin G

    PubMed Central

    VanWert, Adam L.; Bailey, Rachel M.; Sweet, Douglas H.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of renal basolateral organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) with commonly used pharmacotherapeutics (e.g., NSAIDs, β-lactams, and methotrexate) has been studied extensively in vitro. However, the in vivo role of Oat3 in drug disposition, in the context of other transporters, glomerular filtration, and metabolism, has not been established. Moreover, recent investigations have identified inactive human OAT3 polymorphisms. Therefore, this investigation was designed to elucidate the in vivo role of Oat3 in the disposition of penicillin G and prototypical substrates using an Oat3 knockout mouse model. Oat3 deletion resulted in a doubling of penicillin’s half-life (P < 0.05) and a reduced volume of distribution (P < 0.01), together yielding a plasma clearance that was one-half (P < 0.05, males) to one-third (P < 0.001, females) of that in wild-type mice. Inhibition of Oat3 abolished the differences in penicillin G elimination between genotypes. Hepatic accumulation of penicillin was 2.3 times higher in male knockouts (P < 0.05) and 3.7 times higher in female knockouts (P < 0.001). Female knockouts also exhibited impaired estrone-3-sulfate clearance. Oat3 deletion did not impact p-aminohippurate elimination, providing correlative evidence to studies in Oat1 knockout mice that suggest Oat1 governs tubular uptake of p-aminohippurate. Collectively, these findings are the first to indicate that functional Oat3 is necessary for proper elimination of xenobiotic and endogenous compounds in vivo. Thus Oat3 plays a distinct role in determining the efficacy and toxicity of drugs. Dysfunctional human OAT3 polymorphisms or instances of polypharmacy involving OAT3 substrates may result in altered systemic accumulation of β-lactams and other clinically relevant compounds. PMID:17686950

  14. Anti-hyperuricemic and nephroprotective effects of Rhizoma Dioscoreae septemlobae extracts and its main component dioscin via regulation of mOAT1, mURAT1 and mOCT2 in hypertensive mice.

    PubMed

    Su, Junxia; Wei, Yuhui; Liu, Minglong; Liu, Tianxi; Li, Jianhua; Ji, Yuanchun; Liang, Jianping

    2014-10-01

    Rhizoma Dioscoreae septemlobae (RDSE) has been widely used for the treatment of hyperuricemia in China. However, the therapeutic mechanism has been unknown. This study investigated the antihyperuricemic mechanisms of the extracts obtained from RDSE and its main component dioscin (DIS) in hyperuricemic mice. Hyperuricemic mice were induced by potassium oxonate (250 mg/kg). RDSE or DIS was orally administered to hyperuricemic mice at dosages of 319.22, 638.43, 1276.86 mg/kg/day for 10 days, respectively. Uric acid or creatinine in serum and urine was determined by HPLC or HPLC-MS/MS, respectively. The xanthine oxidase (XO) activities in mice liver were examined in vitro. Protein levels of organic anion transporter 1 (mOAT1), urate transporter 1 (mURAT1) and organic cation transporter 2 (mOCT2) in the kidney were analyzed by western blotting. The results indicated that uric acid and creatinine in serum were significantly increased by potassium oxonate, as compared to that of control mice. Compared saline-treated group, after RDSE treatment in the high and middle dose, the expression of mOAT1 increased 47.98 and 54.48 %, respectively, which accompanied with the decreased expression of mURAT1 (47.63 %) in high dose. After DIS treatment in high, middle and low dose, the expression of mOAT1 increased 23.93, 32.80 and 25.28 % compared to saline-treated group, respectively, which accompanied with the decreased expression of mURAT1 (51.07, 51.42 and 51.35 %). However, RDSE and DIS displayed a weak XO inhibition activity compared with allopurinol. Therefore, RDSE and DIS processed uricosuric and nephroprotective actions by regulation of mOAT1, mURAT1 and mOCT2. PMID:24866061

  15. Meclofenamate elicits a nephropreventing effect in a rat model of ischemic acute kidney injury by suppressing indoxyl sulfate production and restoring renal organic anion transporters.

    PubMed

    Saigo, Chika; Nomura, Yui; Yamamoto, Yuko; Sagata, Masataka; Matsunaga, Rika; Jono, Hirofumi; Nishi, Kazuhiko; Saito, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    Indoxyl sulfate (IS), a putative low-molecular weight uremic toxin, is excreted in the urine under normal kidney function, but is retained in the circulation and tissues during renal dysfunction in acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. IS, which is one of the most potent inducers of oxidative stress in the kidney and cardiovascular system, is enzymatically produced in the liver from indole by cytochrome P450-mediated hydroxylation to indoxyl, followed by sulfotransferase-mediated sulfate conjugation. We used rat liver S9 fraction to identify inhibitors of IS production. After testing several compounds, including phytochemical polyphenols, we identified meclofenamate as a potent inhibitor of IS production with an apparent IC50 value of 1.34 μM. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) of rat kidney caused a marked elevation in the serum IS concentration 48 hours after surgery. However, intravenous administration of meclofenamate (10 mg/kg) significantly suppressed this increase in the serum level of IS. Moreover, IS concentrations in both kidney and liver were dramatically elevated by renal I/R treatment, but this increase was blocked by meclofenamate. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were markedly elevated in rats after renal I/R treatment, but these increases were significantly restored by administration of meclofenamate. Renal expression of both basolateral membrane-localized organic anion transporters rOAT1 and rOAT3 was downregulated by I/R treatment. However, expression of rOAT1 and rOAT3 recovered after administration of meclofenamate, which is associated with the inhibition of I/R-evoked elevation of prostaglandin E2. Our results suggest that meclofenamate inhibits hepatic sulfotransferase-mediated production of IS, thereby suppressing serum and renal accumulation of IS. Meclofenamate also prevents the prostaglandin E2-dependent downregulation of rOAT1 and rOAT3 expression. In conclusion, meclofenamate was found to elicit a nephropreventive effect in

  16. Meclofenamate elicits a nephropreventing effect in a rat model of ischemic acute kidney injury by suppressing indoxyl sulfate production and restoring renal organic anion transporters

    PubMed Central

    Saigo, Chika; Nomura, Yui; Yamamoto, Yuko; Sagata, Masataka; Matsunaga, Rika; Jono, Hirofumi; Nishi, Kazuhiko; Saito, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    Indoxyl sulfate (IS), a putative low-molecular weight uremic toxin, is excreted in the urine under normal kidney function, but is retained in the circulation and tissues during renal dysfunction in acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. IS, which is one of the most potent inducers of oxidative stress in the kidney and cardiovascular system, is enzymatically produced in the liver from indole by cytochrome P450-mediated hydroxylation to indoxyl, followed by sulfotransferase-mediated sulfate conjugation. We used rat liver S9 fraction to identify inhibitors of IS production. After testing several compounds, including phytochemical polyphenols, we identified meclofenamate as a potent inhibitor of IS production with an apparent IC50 value of 1.34 μM. Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) of rat kidney caused a marked elevation in the serum IS concentration 48 hours after surgery. However, intravenous administration of meclofenamate (10 mg/kg) significantly suppressed this increase in the serum level of IS. Moreover, IS concentrations in both kidney and liver were dramatically elevated by renal I/R treatment, but this increase was blocked by meclofenamate. Serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were markedly elevated in rats after renal I/R treatment, but these increases were significantly restored by administration of meclofenamate. Renal expression of both basolateral membrane-localized organic anion transporters rOAT1 and rOAT3 was downregulated by I/R treatment. However, expression of rOAT1 and rOAT3 recovered after administration of meclofenamate, which is associated with the inhibition of I/R-evoked elevation of prostaglandin E2. Our results suggest that meclofenamate inhibits hepatic sulfotransferase-mediated production of IS, thereby suppressing serum and renal accumulation of IS. Meclofenamate also prevents the prostaglandin E2-dependent downregulation of rOAT1 and rOAT3 expression. In conclusion, meclofenamate was found to elicit a nephropreventive effect in

  17. Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B transporters modulate hydroxyurea pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Cynthia S.; Finkelstein, David; Ware, Russell E.; Sparreboom, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyurea is currently the only FDA-approved drug that ameliorates the pathophysiology of sickle cell anemia. Unfortunately, substantial interpatient variability in the pharmacokinetics (PK) of hydroxyurea may result in variation of the drug's efficacy. However, little is known about mechanisms that modulate hydroxyurea PK. Recent in vitro studies identifying hydroxyurea as a substrate for organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP1B) transporters prompted the current investigation assessing the role of OATP1B transporters in modulating hydroxyurea PK. Using wild-type and Oatp1b knockout (Oatp1b−/−) mice, hydroxyurea PK was analyzed in vivo by measuring [14C]hydroxyurea distribution in plasma, kidney, liver, urine, or the exhaled 14CO2 metabolite. Plasma levels were significantly reduced by 20% in Oatp1b−/− mice compared with wild-type (area under the curve of 38.64 or 48.45 μg·h−1·ml−1, respectively) after oral administration, whereas no difference was observed between groups following intravenous administration. Accumulation in the kidney was significantly decreased by twofold in Oatp1b−/− mice (356.9 vs. 748.1 pmol/g), which correlated with a significant decrease in urinary excretion. Hydroxyurea accumulation in the liver was also decreased (136.6 vs. 107.3 pmol/g in wild-type or Oatp1b−/− mice, respectively) correlating with a decrease in exhaled 14CO2. These findings illustrate that deficiency of Oatp1b transporters alters the absorption, distribution, and elimination of hydroxyurea thus providing the first in vivo evidence that cell membrane transporters may play a significant role in modulating hydroxyurea PK. Future studies to investigate other transporters and their role in hydroxyurea disposition are warranted for understanding the sources of variation in hydroxyurea's PK. PMID:23986199

  18. Prestin's anion transport and voltage-sensing capabilities are independent.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jun-Ping; Surguchev, Alexei; Montoya, Simone; Aronson, Peter S; Santos-Sacchi, Joseph; Navaratnam, Dhasakumar

    2009-04-22

    The integral membrane protein prestin, a member of the SLC26 anion transporter family, is responsible for the voltage-driven electromotility of mammalian outer hair cells. It was argued that the evolution of prestin's motor function required a loss of the protein's transport capabilities. Instead, it was proposed that prestin manages only an abortive hemicycle that results in the trapped anion acting as a voltage sensor, to generate the motor's signature gating charge movement or nonlinear capacitance. We demonstrate, using classical radioactive anion ([(14)C]formate and [(14)C]oxalate) uptake studies, that in contrast to previous observations, prestin is able to transport anions. The prestin-dependent uptake of both these anions was twofold that of cells transfected with vector alone, and comparable to SLC26a6, prestin's closest phylogenetic relative. Furthermore, we identify a potential chloride-binding site in which the mutations of two residues (P328A and L326A) preserve nonlinear capacitance, yet negate anion transport. Finally, we distinguish 12 charged residues out of 22, residing within prestin's transmembrane regions, that contribute to unitary charge movement, i.e., voltage sensing. These data redefine our mechanistic concept of prestin. PMID:19383462

  19. pH-Regulated Nonelectrogenic Anion Transport by Phenylthiosemicarbazones.

    PubMed

    Howe, Ethan N W; Busschaert, Nathalie; Wu, Xin; Berry, Stuart N; Ho, Junming; Light, Mark E; Czech, Dawid D; Klein, Harry A; Kitchen, Jonathan A; Gale, Philip A

    2016-07-01

    Gated ion transport across biological membranes is an intrinsic process regulated by protein channels. Synthetic anion carriers (anionophores) have potential applications in biological research; however, previously reported examples are mostly nonspecific, capable of mediating both electrogenic and electroneutral (nonelectrogenic) transport processes. Here we show the transmembrane Cl(-) transport studies of synthetic phenylthiosemicarbazones mimicking the function of acid-sensing (proton-gated) ion channels. These anionophores have remarkable pH-switchable transport properties with up to 640-fold increase in transport efficacy on going from pH 7.2 to 4.0. This "gated" process is triggered by protonation of the imino nitrogen and concomitant conformational change of the anion-binding thiourea moiety from anti to syn. By using a combination of two cationophore-coupled transport assays, with either monensin or valinomycin, we have elucidated the fundamental transport mechanism of phenylthiosemicarbazones which is shown to be nonelectrogenic, inseparable H(+)/Cl(-) cotransport. This study demonstrates the first examples of pH-switchable nonelectrogenic anion transporters. PMID:27299473

  20. Solubility and transport of cationic and anionic patterned nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jiaye; Guo, Hongxia; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    2012-02-01

    Diffusion and transport of nanoparticles (NPs) though nanochannels is important for desalination, drug delivery, and biomedicine. Their surface composition dictate their efficiency separating them by reverse osmosis, delivering into into cells, as well as their toxicity. We analyze bulk diffusion and transport through nanochannels of NPs with different hydrophobic-hydrophilic patterns achieved by coating a fraction of the NP sites with positive or negative charges via explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations. The cationic NPs are more affected by the patterns, less water soluble, and have higher diffusion constants and fluxes than their anionic NPs counterparts. The NP-water interaction dependence on surface pattern and field strength explains these observations. For equivalent patterns, anionic NPs solubilize more than cationic NPs since the Coulomb interaction of free anionic NPs, which are much stronger than hydrophobic NP-water interactions, are about twice that of cationic NPs.

  1. Saturated anionic phospholipids enhance transdermal transport by electroporation.

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Arindam; Zhao, Ya-Li; Hui, Sek Wen

    2002-01-01

    Anionic phospholipids, but not cationic or neutral phospholipids, were found to enhance the transdermal transport of molecules by electroporation. When added as liposomes to the milieus of water-soluble molecules to be delivered through the epidermis of porcine skin by electroporation, these phospholipids enhance, by one to two orders of magnitude, the transdermal flux. Encapsulation of molecules in liposomes is not necessary. Dimyristoylphosphatidylserine (DMPS), phosphatidylserine from bovine brain (brain-PS), dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS), and dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol (DOPG) were used to test factors affecting the potency of anionic lipid transport enhancers. DMPS with saturated acyl chains was found to be a much more potent transport enhancer than those with unsaturated acyl chains (DOPS and DOPG). There was no headgroup preference. Saturated DMPS was also more effective in delaying resistance recovery after pulsing, and with a greater affinity in the epidermis after pulsing. Using fluorescent carboxyl fluorescein and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled Dextrans as test water-soluble molecules for transport, and rhodamine-labeled phospholipids to track anionic phospholipids, we found, by conventional and confocal fluorescence microscopy, that transport of water-soluble molecules was localized in local transport spots or regions (LTRs) created by the electroporation pulses. Anionic phospholipids, especially DMPS, were located at the center of the LTRs and spanned the entire thickness of the stratum corneum (SC). The degree of saturation of anionic phospholipids made no difference in the densities of LTRs created. We deduce that, after being driven into the epidermis by negative electric pulses, saturated anionic phospholipids mix and are retained better by the SC lipids. Anionic lipids prefer loose layers or vesicular rather than multilamellar forms, thereby prolonging the structural recovery of SC lipids to the native multilamellar form. In the

  2. Evidence for anionic cation transport of lithium, sodium and potassium across the human erythrocyte membrane induced by divalent anions.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, B F; Duhm, J

    1978-01-01

    1. The passive net transport of Li+ and Na+ across the human red cell membrane was accelerated by the divalent anions carbonate, sulphite, oxalate, phosphite and malonate. Phthalate, maleate, sulphate and succinate were found additionally to stimulate downhill transport of K+. Marked differences in anion efficacy and selectivity were observed. 2. The effects of these 'carbonate type' anions were reversible and fully blocked by SITS, dipyridamole and other inhibitors of anion transfer. 3. Cation transport acceleration induced by the monovalent anions salicylate, benzoate, thiocyanate and 2,4-dinitrophenol were inhibited by dipyridamole, but not affected by SITS. A great number of mono- and polyvalent anions were without detectable influence on Li+ transport. 4. Li+ net uptake induced by oxalate exhibited a pH dependence similar to that reported for halide self exchange. 5. Transport acceleration by carbonate type anions displayed a linear, 1:1 dependence on the concentrations of both the anion and the cation and was symmetric with respect to the two sides of the membrane. 6. It is concluded that the divalent carbonate type anions form singly charged, negative 1:1 ion pairs with the respective alkali metal cations, the ion pairs traversing the red cell membrane via the anion exchange pathway. This concept of anionic formation of some of the ion pairs considered. The relative efficacies and cation selectivities of polyvalent anions can largely be explained on the basis of electrostatic interactions governing ion pair formation. However, the chelating properties, structural flexibility, polarizability of the anions and the accessibility of the ion pairs to the anion exchange pathway need also be considered. 7. An exchange of NaCO-3 ion pairs for internal HCO-3 or Cl- is discussed as a possible mode of cellular pH regulation. PMID:31458

  3. SLC5 Sodium-Anion Cotransporters and Renal Urate Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mount, David B.; Kwon, Charles Y.; Plata, Consuelo; Romero, Michael F.; Zandi-Nejad, Kambiz

    2007-04-01

    Renal urate transport plays a key role in determining the concentration of circulating uric acid. The reabsorption of filtered urate by the renal proximal tubule appears to require apical sodium-dependent anion transport and the apical URAT1 urate-anion exchanger, in that sodium-dependent transport of lactate, ketoacids, nicotinate, and pyrazinoate (PZA) increases the intracellular concentration of substrates for the subsequent exchange with luminal urate. We have identified SLC5A8 and SLC5A12 as candidates for the sodium-anion cotransporter that collaborates with URAT1. Both transporters function as sodium-dependent nicotinate/monocarboxylate/PZA transporters. Localization studies reveal serial co-expression of these transporters with URAT1, with Slc5a12 in the early proximal tubule and Slc5a8 in S2 and S3 segments. Renal urate excretion is conceivably affected by changes in the activity of SLC5A8, SLC5A12, and/or URAT1, with implications for the pathogenesis of hyperuricemia, nephrolithiasis, and related disorders.

  4. Physiology, structure, and regulation of the cloned organic anion transporters

    PubMed Central

    SRIMAROENG, C.; PERRY, J. L.; PRITCHARD, J. B.

    2009-01-01

    1. The transport of negatively charged drugs, xenobiotics, and metabolites by epithelial tissues, particularly the kidney, plays critical roles in controlling their distribution, concentration, and retention in the body. Thus, organic anion transporters (OATs) impact both their therapeutic efficacy and potential toxicity. 2. This review summarizes current knowledge of the properties and functional roles of the cloned OATs, the relationships between transporter structure and function, and those factors that determine the efficacy of transport. Such factors include plasma protein binding of substrates, genetic polymorphisms among the transporters, and regulation of transporter expression. 3. Clearly, much progress has been made in the decade since the first OAT was cloned. However, unresolved questions remain. Several of these issues — drug–drug interactions, functional characterization of newly cloned OATs, tissue differences in expression and function, and details of the nature and consequences of transporter regulation at genomic and intracellular sites — are discussed in the concluding Perspectives section. PMID:18668434

  5. Aspirin and probenecid inhibit organic anion transporter 3-mediated renal uptake of cilostazol and probenecid induces metabolism of cilostazol in the rat.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Wang, Changyuan; Liu, Qi; Meng, Qiang; Cang, Jian; Sun, Huijun; Peng, Jinyong; Ma, Xiaochi; Huo, Xiaokui; Liu, Kexin

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the transporter-mediated renal excretion mechanism for cilostazol and to characterize the mechanism of drug-drug interaction (DDI) between cilostazol and aspirin or probenecid. Concentrations of cilostazol and its metabolites OPC-13015 [6-[4-(1-cyclohexyl-1H-tetrazol-5-yl)butoxy]-2(1H)-quinolinone] and OPC-13213 [3,4-dihydro-6-[4-[1-(trans-4-hydroxycyclohexyl)-1H-tetrazol-5-yl]butoxy]-2-(1H)-quinolinone] in rat biologic or cell samples were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Coadministration with probenecid, benzylpenicillin, or aspirin decreased the cumulative urinary excretion of cilostazol and renal clearance. Concentrations of cilostazol and OPC-13213 in plasma decreased, and the concentration of OPC-13015 increased in the presence of probenecid. By contrast, rat plasma cilostazol, in combination with benzylpenicillin or aspirin, sharply increased, and concentrations of OPC-13015 and OPC-13213 did not change. In urine, OPC-13015 was below the level of detection. The cumulative urinary excretion of OPC-13213 decreased in the presence of probenecid, benzylpenicillin, or aspirin. Cilostazol was distributed in the kidney and liver, with tissue to plasma partition coefficient (Kp) values of 8.4 ml/g and 16.3 ml/g, respectively. Probenecid and aspirin reduced cilostazol distribution in the kidney. Probenecid did not affect cilostazol metabolism in the kidney but increased cilostazol metabolism in the liver, and aspirin had no effect on cilostazol metabolism. Benzylpenicillin, aspirin, and cyclo-trans-4-l-hydroxyprolyl-l-serine (JBP485) reduced cilostazol uptake in kidney slices and human organic anion transporter 3 (hOAT3)-human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells, whereas p-aminohippuric acid did not. Compared with the vector, hOAT3-HEK293 cells accumulated more cilostazol, whereas hOAT1-HEK293 cells did not. OAT3 and Oat3 play a major role in cilostazol renal excretion, whereas OAT1 and Oat1 do not. Oat3 and Cyp

  6. P-gp, MRP2 and OAT1/OAT3 mediate the drug-drug interaction between resveratrol and methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yongming; Liu, Zhihao; Wang, Changyuan; Meng, Qiang; Huo, Xiaokui; Liu, Qi; Sun, Huijun; Sun, Pengyuan; Yang, Xiaobo; Ma, Xiaodong; Liu, Kexin

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of present study was to investigate the effect of resveratrol (Res) on altering methotrexate (MTX) pharmacokinetics and clarify the related molecular mechanism. Res significantly increased rat intestinal absorption of MTX in vivo and in vitro. Simultaneously, Res inhibited MTX efflux transport in MDR1-MDCK and MRP2-MDCK cell monolayers, suggesting that the target of drug interaction was MDR1 and MRP2 in the intestine during the absorption process. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in renal clearance of MTX after simultaneous intravenous administration. Similarly, MTX uptake was markedly inhibited by Res in rat kidney slices and hOAT1/3-HEK293 cell, indicating that OAT1 and OAT3 were involved in the drug interaction in the kidney. Additionally, concomitant administration of Res decreased cytotoxic effects of MTX in hOAT1/3-HEK293 cells, and ameliorated nephrotoxicity caused by MTX in rats. Conversely, intestinal damage caused by MTX was not exacerbated after Res treatment. In conclusion, Res enhanced MTX absorption in intestine and decreased MTX renal elimination by inhibiting P-gp, MRP2, OAT1 and OAT3 in vivo and in vitro. Res improved MTX-induced renal damage without increasing intestinal toxicity. PMID:27377006

  7. Epithelial Anion Transport as Modulator of Chemokine Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Schnúr, Andrea; Hegyi, Péter; Rousseau, Simon; Lukacs, Gergely L.; Veit, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The pivotal role of epithelial cells is to secrete and absorb ions and water in order to allow the formation of a luminal fluid compartment that is fundamental for the epithelial function as a barrier against environmental factors. Importantly, epithelial cells also take part in the innate immune system. As a first line of defense they detect pathogens and react by secreting and responding to chemokines and cytokines, thus aggravating immune responses or resolving inflammatory states. Loss of epithelial anion transport is well documented in a variety of diseases including cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pancreatitis, and cholestatic liver disease. Here we review the effect of aberrant anion secretion with focus on the release of inflammatory mediators by epithelial cells and discuss putative mechanisms linking these transport defects to the augmented epithelial release of chemokines and cytokines. These mechanisms may contribute to the excessive and persistent inflammation in many respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:27382190

  8. Pharmacogenetics of the organic anion transporting polypeptide 1A2

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Ryan M; Scherkenbach, Lisa A; Sparreboom, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The solute carrier, human organic anion transporting polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2, OATP-A, OATP1 and OATP) is highly expressed in the intestine, kidney, cholangiocytes and the blood–brain barrier. This localization suggests that OATP1A2 may be vitally important in the absorption, distribution and excretion of a broad array of clinically important drugs. Several nonsynonymous polymorphisms have been identified in the gene encoding OATP1A2, SLCO1A2 (SLC21A3), with some of these variants demonstrating functional changes in the transport of OATP1A2 substrates. PMID:19290786

  9. Solubility and transport of cationic and anionic patterned nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jiaye; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Guo, Hongxia

    2012-01-01

    We analyze bulk diffusion and transport through hydrophobic nanochannels of nanoparticles (NPs) with different hydrophobic-hydrophilic patterns achieved by coating a fraction of the NP sites with positive or negative charges via explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations. Ten different charge pattern types including Janus charged-hydrophobic NPs are studied. The cationic NPs are more affected by the patterns and have higher diffusion constants and fluxes than their anionic NPs counterparts. The NP-water interaction dependence on surface pattern and field strength explains these observations. The NP-water Coulomb interaction of anionic NPs in the bulk, which are much stronger than the hydrophobic NP-water interactions, are stronger for NPs with higher localized charge, and stronger than in the cationic NPs counterparts. The diffusion and transport of anionic NPs such as proteins and protein charge ladders with the same total charge but different surface charge patterns are slowest for the highest localized charge pattern, which also adsorb strongest onto surfaces. Our model demonstrates the separation (by reverse osmosis, capillary electrophoresis, or chromatography) of cationic NPs, including proteins with equal net charge but different surface charge distributions.

  10. Hydroxide Solvation and Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; Tse, Ying-Lung Steve; Lindberg, Gerrick E; Knight, Chris; Voth, Gregory A

    2016-01-27

    Understanding hydroxide solvation and transport in anion exchange membranes (AEMs) can provide important insight into the design principles of these new membranes. To accurately model hydroxide solvation and transport, we developed a new multiscale reactive molecular dynamics model for hydroxide in aqueous solution, which was then subsequently modified for an AEM material. With this model, we investigated the hydroxide solvation structure and transport mechanism in the membrane. We found that a relatively even separation of the rigid side chains produces a continuous overlapping region for hydroxide transport that is made up of the first hydration shell of the tethered cationic groups. Our results show that hydroxide has a significant preference for this overlapping region, transporting through it and between the AEM side chains with substantial contributions from both vehicular (standard diffusion) and Grotthuss (proton hopping) mechanisms. Comparison of the AEM with common proton exchange membranes (PEMs) showed that the excess charge is less delocalized in the AEM than the PEMs, which is correlated with a higher free energy barrier for proton transfer reactions. The vehicular mechanism also contributes considerably more than the Grotthuss mechanism for hydroxide transport in the AEM, while our previous studies of PEM systems showed a larger contribution from the Grotthuss mechanism than the vehicular mechanism for proton transport. The activation energy barrier for hydroxide diffusion in the AEM is greater than that for proton diffusion in PEMs, implying a more significant enhancement of ion transport in the AEM at elevated temperatures. PMID:26716727

  11. Efficient, non-toxic anion transport by synthetic carriers in cells and epithelia.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyu; Valkenier, Hennie; Judd, Luke W; Brotherhood, Peter R; Hussain, Sabir; Cooper, James A; Jurček, Ondřej; Sparkes, Hazel A; Sheppard, David N; Davis, Anthony P

    2016-01-01

    Transmembrane anion transporters (anionophores) have potential for new modes of biological activity, including therapeutic applications. In particular they might replace the activity of defective anion channels in conditions such as cystic fibrosis. However, data on the biological effects of anionophores are scarce, and it remains uncertain whether such molecules are fundamentally toxic. Here, we report a biological study of an extensive series of powerful anion carriers. Fifteen anionophores were assayed in single cells by monitoring anion transport in real time through fluorescence emission from halide-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein. A bis-(p-nitrophenyl)ureidodecalin shows especially promising activity, including deliverability, potency and persistence. Electrophysiological tests show strong effects in epithelia, close to those of natural anion channels. Toxicity assays yield negative results in three cell lines, suggesting that promotion of anion transport may not be deleterious to cells. We therefore conclude that synthetic anion carriers are realistic candidates for further investigation as treatments for cystic fibrosis. PMID:26673261

  12. Efficient, non-toxic anion transport by synthetic carriers in cells and epithelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongyu; Valkenier, Hennie; Judd, Luke W.; Brotherhood, Peter R.; Hussain, Sabir; Cooper, James A.; Jurček, Ondřej; Sparkes, Hazel A.; Sheppard, David N.; Davis, Anthony P.

    2016-01-01

    Transmembrane anion transporters (anionophores) have potential for new modes of biological activity, including therapeutic applications. In particular they might replace the activity of defective anion channels in conditions such as cystic fibrosis. However, data on the biological effects of anionophores are scarce, and it remains uncertain whether such molecules are fundamentally toxic. Here, we report a biological study of an extensive series of powerful anion carriers. Fifteen anionophores were assayed in single cells by monitoring anion transport in real time through fluorescence emission from halide-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein. A bis-(p-nitrophenyl)ureidodecalin shows especially promising activity, including deliverability, potency and persistence. Electrophysiological tests show strong effects in epithelia, close to those of natural anion channels. Toxicity assays yield negative results in three cell lines, suggesting that promotion of anion transport may not be deleterious to cells. We therefore conclude that synthetic anion carriers are realistic candidates for further investigation as treatments for cystic fibrosis.

  13. Regulation of renal peripheral benzodiazepine receptors by anion transport inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, A.S.; Lueddens, W.M.; Skolnick, P.

    1988-01-01

    The in vitro and in vivo regulation of (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 binding to peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (PBR) by ion transport/exchange inhibitors was studied in the kidney. The potencies of 9-anthroic acid, furosemide, bumetanide, hydrochlorothiazide and SITS as inhibitors of (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 binding to renal membranes were consistent with their actions as anion transport inhibitors (Ki approx. = 30 - 130 ..mu..M). In contrast, spironolactone, amiloride, acetazolamide, and ouabain were less potent (Ki=100-1000 ..mu..M). Administration of furosemide to rats for five days resulted in a profound diuresis accompanied by a significant increase in PBR density (43%) that was apparent by the fifth day of treatment. Administration of hydrochlorothiazide or Ro 5-4864 for five days also caused diuresis and increased renal PBR density. Both the diuresis and increased density of PBR produced by Ro 5-4864 were blocked by coadministration of PK 11195, which alone had no effect on either PBR density or urine volume. The equilibrium binding constants of (/sup 3/H)Ro 5-4864 to cardiac membranes were unaffected by administration of any of these drugs. These findings suggest that renal PBR may be selectively modulated in vivo and in vitro by administration of ion transport/exchange inhibitors. 36 references, 4 tables.

  14. Expression and function of renal and hepatic organic anion transporters in extrahepatic cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Brandoni, Anabel; Hazelhoff, María Herminia; Bulacio, Romina Paula; Torres, Adriana Mónica

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive jaundice occurs in patients suffering from cholelithiasis and from neoplasms affecting the pancreas and the common bile duct. The absorption, distribution and elimination of drugs are impaired during this pathology. Prolonged cholestasis may alter both liver and kidney function. Lactam antibiotics, diuretics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, several antiviral drugs as well as endogenous compounds are classified as organic anions. The hepatic and renal organic anion transport pathways play a key role in the pharmacokinetics of these compounds. It has been demonstrated that acute extrahepatic cholestasis is associated with increased renal elimination of organic anions. The present work describes the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of the expression and function of the renal and hepatic organic anion transporters in extrahepatic cholestasis, such as multidrug resistance-associated protein 2, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1, organic anion transporter 3, bilitranslocase, bromosulfophthalein/bilirubin binding protein, organic anion transporter 1 and sodium dependent bile salt transporter. The modulation in the expression of renal organic anion transporters constitutes a compensatory mechanism to overcome the hepatic dysfunction in the elimination of organic anions. PMID:23197884

  15. Transport of estrone sulfate by the novel organic anion transporter Oat6 (Slc22a20)

    PubMed Central

    Schnabolk, Gloriane W.; Youngblood, Geri L.; Sweet, Douglas H.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a novel Slc22 gene family member expressed in murine olfactory mucosa was identified and based on sequence homology proposed to be an organic anion transporter [Oat6 (Slc22a20); J. C. Monte, M. A. Nagle, S. A. Eraly, and S. K. Nigam. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 323: 429–436, 2004]. However, no functional data for Oat6 was reported. In the present study, we demonstrate that murine Oat6 mediates the inhibitable transport of estrone sulfate using both Xenopus oocyte expression assay and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably transfected with mOat6 (CHO-mOat6). Uptake was virtually eliminated by probenecid and the anionic herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate. The organic anions ochratoxin A, salicylate, penicillin G, p-aminohippurate, and urate inhibited mOat6-mediated accumulation to varying degrees. Transport of estrone sulfate by mOat6 was demonstrated to be saturable, and Km estimates of 109.8 ± 22.6 μM in oocytes and 44.8 ± 7.3 μM in CHO-mOat6 cells were obtained. Inhibitory constants for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (15.7 ± 2.0 μM), salicylate (49.0 ± 4.4 μM), probenecid (8.3 ± 2.5 μM), and penicillin G (1,450 ± 480 μM) were also determined. Accumulation of estrone sulfate mediated by mOat6 was significantly trans-stimulated by glutarate, indicating that mOat6 functions as an organic anion/dicarboxylate exchanger. These data demonstrate for the first time that the novel murine gene Oat6 (Slc22a20) encodes a functional organic anion transporter and mOat6 is indeed the newest member of the OAT gene family. PMID:16478971

  16. Synthetic ion transporters can induce apoptosis by facilitating chloride anion transport into cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Sung-Kyun; Kim, Sung Kuk; Share, Andrew; Lynch, Vincent M.; Park, Jinhong; Namkung, Wan; van Rossom, Wim; Busschaert, Nathalie; Gale, Philip A.; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Shin, Injae

    2014-10-01

    Anion transporters based on small molecules have received attention as therapeutic agents because of their potential to disrupt cellular ion homeostasis. However, a direct correlation between a change in cellular chloride anion concentration and cytotoxicity has not been established for synthetic ion carriers. Here we show that two pyridine diamide-strapped calix[4]pyrroles induce coupled chloride anion and sodium cation transport in both liposomal models and cells, and promote cell death by increasing intracellular chloride and sodium ion concentrations. Removing either ion from the extracellular media or blocking natural sodium channels with amiloride prevents this effect. Cell experiments show that the ion transporters induce the sodium chloride influx, which leads to an increased concentration of reactive oxygen species, release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria and apoptosis via caspase activation. However, they do not activate the caspase-independent apoptotic pathway associated with the apoptosis-inducing factor. Ion transporters, therefore, represent an attractive approach for regulating cellular processes that are normally controlled tightly by homeostasis.

  17. Synthetic ion transporters that work with anion-π interactions, halogen bonds, and anion-macrodipole interactions.

    PubMed

    Vargas Jentzsch, Andreas; Hennig, Andreas; Mareda, Jiri; Matile, Stefan

    2013-12-17

    The transport of ions and molecules across lipid bilayer membranes connects cells and cellular compartments with their environment. This biological process is central to a host of functions including signal transduction in neurons and the olfactory and gustatory sensing systems, the translocation of biosynthetic intermediates and products, and the uptake of nutrients, drugs, and probes. Biological transport systems are highly regulated and selectively respond to a broad range of physical and chemical stimulation. A large percentage of today's drugs and many antimicrobial or antifungal agents take advantage of these systems. Other biological transport systems are highly toxic, such as the anthrax toxin or melittin from bee venom. For more than three decades, organic and supramolecular chemists have been interested in developing new transport systems. Over time, curiosity about the basic design has evolved toward developing of responsive systems with applications in materials sciences and medicine. Our early contributions to this field focused on the introduction of new structural motifs with emphasis on rigid-rod scaffolds, artificial β-barrels, or π-stacks. Using these scaffolds, we have constructed selective systems that respond to voltage, pH, ligands, inhibitors, or light (multifunctional photosystems). We have described sensing applications that cover the three primary principles of sensor development: immunosensors that use aptamers, biosensors (an "artificial" tongue), and differential sensors (an "artificial" nose). In this Account, we focus on our recent interest in applying synthetic transport systems as analytical tools to identify the functional relevance of less common noncovalent interactions, anion-π interactions, halogen bonds, and anion-macrodipole interactions. Anion-π interactions, the poorly explored counterpart of cation-π interactions, occur in aromatic systems with a positive quadrupole moment, such as TNT or hexafluorobenzene. To observe

  18. Aza-Bambusurils En Route to Anion Transporters.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mandeep; Solel, Ephrath; Keinan, Ehud; Reany, Ofer

    2016-06-20

    Previous calculations of anion binding with various bambusuril analogs predicted that the replacement of oxygen by nitrogen atoms to produce semiaza-bambus[6]urils would award these new cavitands with multiple anion binding properties. This study validates the hypothesis by efficient synthesis, crystallography, thermogravimetric analysis and calorimetry. These unique host molecules are easily accessible from the corresponding semithio-bambusurils in a one-pot reaction, which converts a single anion receptor into a potential anion channel. Solid-state structures exhibit simultaneous accommodation of three anions, linearly positioned within the cavity along the main symmetry axis. The ability to hold anions at a short distance of about 4 Å is reminiscent of natural chloride channels in E. coli, which exhibit similar distances between their adjacent anion binding sites. The calculated transition-state energy for double-anion movement through the channel suggests that although these host-guest complexes are thermodynamically stable they enjoy high kinetic flexibility to render them efficient anion channels. PMID:27225332

  19. Preclinical and clinical evidence for the collaborative transport and renal secretion of an oxazolidinone antibiotic by organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3/SLC22A8) and multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (MATE1/SLC47A1).

    PubMed

    Lai, Yurong; Sampson, Kathleen E; Balogh, Larissa M; Brayman, Timothy G; Cox, Steven R; Adams, Wade J; Kumar, Vikas; Stevens, Jeffrey C

    2010-09-01

    N-({(5S)-3-[4-(1,1-dioxidothiomorpholin-4-yl)-3,5-difluorophenyl]-2-oxo-1,3-oxazolidin-5-yl}methyl)acetamide (PNU-288034), an oxazolidinone antibiotic, was terminated in phase I clinical development because of insufficient exposure. Analysis of the drug pharmacokinetic and elimination profiles suggested that PNU-288034 undergoes extensive renal secretion in humans. The compound was well absorbed and exhibited approximately linear pharmacokinetics in the oral dose range of 100 to 1000 mg in human. PNU-288034 was metabolically stable in liver microsomes across species, and unchanged drug was cleared in the urine by an apparent active renal secretion process in rat and monkey (two to four times glomerular filtration rate) but not dog. In vitro studies conducted to characterize the transporters involved demonstrated PNU-288034 uptake by human organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3; K(m) = 44 +/- 5 microM) and human multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1 (hMATE1; K(m) = 340 +/- 55 microM). The compound was also transported by multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein. In contrast, human organic cation transporter 2, human OAT1, and hMATE2-K did not transport PNU-288034. Coadministration of PNU-288034 and the OAT3 inhibitor probenecid significantly increased PNU-288034 plasma area under the curve (170%) and reduced both plasma and renal clearance in monkey. Coadministration of PNU-288034 and cimetidine, a MATE1 inhibitor, also reduced plasma clearance in rat to a rate comparable with probenecid coadministration. Collectively, our results demonstrated a strong in vitro-in vivo correlation for active renal secretion coordinated through the vectorial transport process of OAT3 and MATE1, which ultimately resulted in limiting the systemic exposure of PNU-288034. PMID:20519552

  20. Oxalate transport by anion exchange across rabbit ileal brush border.

    PubMed Central

    Knickelbein, R G; Aronson, P S; Dobbins, J W

    1986-01-01

    This study demonstrates the presence of oxalate transporters on the brush border membrane of rabbit ileum. We found that an inside alkaline (pH = 8.5 inside, 6.5 outside) pH gradient stimulated [14C]oxalate uptake 10-fold at 1 min with a fourfold accumulation above equilibrated uptake at 5 min. 1 mM 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (disodium salt; DIDS) profoundly inhibited the pH-gradient stimulated oxalate uptake. Using an inwardly directed K+ gradient and valinomycin, we found no evidence for potential sensitive oxalate uptake. In contrast to Cl:HCO3 exchange, HCO3 did not stimulate oxalate uptake more than was seen with a pH gradient in the absence of HCO3. An outwardly directed Cl gradient (50 mM inside, 5 mM outside) stimulated oxalate uptake 10-fold at 1 min with a fivefold accumulation above equilibrated uptake. Cl-stimulated oxalate uptake was largely inhibited by DIDS. Addition of K+ and nigericin only slightly decreased the Cl gradient-stimulated oxalate uptake, which indicates that this stimulation was not primarily due to the Cl gradient generating an inside alkaline pH gradient via Cl:OH exchange. Further, an outwardly directed oxalate gradient stimulated 36Cl uptake. These results suggested that both oxalate:OH and oxalate:Cl exchange occur on the brush border membrane. To determine if one or both of these exchanges were on contaminating basolateral membrane, the vesicle preparation was further fractionated into a brush border and basolateral component using sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Both exchangers localized to the brush border component. A number of organic anions were examined (outwardly directed gradient) to determine if they could stimulate oxalate and Cl uptake. Only formate and oxaloacetate were found to stimulate oxalate and Cl uptake. An inwardly directed Na gradient only slightly stimulated oxalate uptake, which was inhibited by DIDS. PMID:3003149

  1. Regulated traffic of anion transporters in mammalian Brunner's glands: a role for water and fluid transport

    PubMed Central

    Collaco, Anne M.; Jakab, Robert L.; Hoekstra, Nadia E.; Mitchell, Kisha A.; Brooks, Amos

    2013-01-01

    The Brunner's glands of the proximal duodenum exert barrier functions through secretion of glycoproteins and antimicrobial peptides. However, ion transporter localization, function, and regulation in the glands are less clear. Mapping the subcellular distribution of transporters is an important step toward elucidating trafficking mechanisms of fluid transport in the gland. The present study examined 1) changes in the distribution of intestinal anion transporters and the aquaporin 5 (AQP5) water channel in rat Brunner's glands following second messenger activation and 2) anion transporter distribution in Brunner's glands from healthy and disease-affected human tissues. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), AQP5, sodium-potassium-coupled chloride cotransporter 1 (NKCC1), sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1), and the proton pump vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) were localized to distinct membrane domains and in endosomes at steady state. Carbachol and cAMP redistributed CFTR to the apical membrane. cAMP-dependent recruitment of CFTR to the apical membrane was accompanied by recruitment of AQP5 that was reversed by a PKA inhibitor. cAMP also induced apical trafficking of V-ATPase and redistribution of NKCC1 and NBCe1 to the basolateral membranes. The steady-state distribution of AQP5, CFTR, NBCe1, NKCC1, and V-ATPase in human Brunner's glands from healthy controls, cystic fibrosis, and celiac disease resembled that of rat; however, the distribution profiles were markedly attenuated in the disease-affected duodenum. These data support functional transport of chloride, bicarbonate, water, and protons by second messenger-regulated traffic in mammalian Brunner's glands under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. PMID:23744739

  2. Organic anion transporter (Slc22a) family members as mediators of toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, Douglas H. . E-mail: sweetd@musc.edu

    2005-05-01

    Exposure of the body to toxic organic anions is unavoidable and occurs from both intentional and unintentional sources. Many hormones, neurotransmitters, and waste products of cellular metabolism, or their metabolites, are organic anions. The same is true for a wide variety of medications, herbicides, pesticides, plant and animal toxins, and industrial chemicals and solvents. Rapid and efficient elimination of these substances is often the body's best defense for limiting both systemic exposure and the duration of their pharmacological or toxicological effects. For organic anions, active transepithelial transport across the renal proximal tubule followed by elimination via the urine is a major pathway in this detoxification process. Accordingly, a large number of organic anion transport proteins belonging to several different gene families have been identified and found to be expressed in the proximal nephron. The function of these transporters, in combination with the high volume of renal blood flow, predisposes the kidney to increased toxic susceptibility. Understanding how the kidney mediates the transport of organic anions is integral to achieving desired therapeutic outcomes in response to drug interactions and chemical exposures, to understanding the progression of some disease states, and to predicting the influence of genetic variation upon these processes. This review will focus on the organic anion transporter (OAT) family and discuss the known members, their mechanisms of action, subcellular localization, and current evidence implicating their function as a determinant of the toxicity of certain endogenous and xenobiotic agents.

  3. Capsaicinoids regulate airway anion transporters through Rho kinase- and cyclic AMP-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hibino, Yoshitaka; Morise, Masahiro; Ito, Yasushi; Mizutani, Takefumi; Matsuno, Tadakatsu; Ito, Satoru; Hashimoto, Naozumi; Sato, Mitsuo; Kondo, Masashi; Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the effects of capsaicinoids on airway anion transporters, we recorded and analyzed transepithelial currents in human airway epithelial Calu-3 cells. Application of capsaicin (100 μM) attenuated vectorial anion transport, estimated as short-circuit currents (I(SC)), before and after stimulation by forskolin (10 μM) with concomitant reduction of cytosolic cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels. The capsaicin-induced inhibition of I(SC) was also observed in the response to 8-bromo-cAMP (1 mM, a cell-permeable cAMP analog) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (1 mM, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterases). The capsaicin-induced inhibition of I(SC) was attributed to suppression of bumetanide (an inhibitor of the basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-2 Cl(-) cotransporter 1)- and 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (an inhibitor of basolateral HCO(3)(-)-dependent anion transporters)-sensitive components, which reflect anion uptake via basolateral cAMP-dependent anion transporters. In contrast, capsaicin potentiated apical Cl(-) conductance, which reflects conductivity through the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, a cAMP-regulated Cl(-) channel. All these paradoxical effects of capsaicin were mimicked by capsazepine. Forskolin application also increased phosphorylated myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, and the phosphorylation was prevented by capsaicin and capsazepine, suggesting that these capsaicinoids assume aspects of Rho kinase inhibitors. We also found that the increments in apical Cl(-) conductance were caused by conventional Rho kinase inhibitors, Y-27632 (20 μM) and HA-1077 (20 μM), with selective inhibition of basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-2 Cl(-) cotransporter 1. Collectively, capsaicinoids inhibit cAMP-mediated anion transport through down-regulation of basolateral anion uptake, paradoxically accompanied by up-regulation of apical cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-mediated anion conductance. The latter is mediated by inhibition of Rho

  4. Chloride anion transporters inhibit growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Share, Andrew I; Patel, Khushali; Nativi, Cristina; Cho, Eun J; Francesconi, Oscar; Busschaert, Nathalie; Gale, Philip A; Roelens, Stefano; Sessler, Jonathan L

    2016-06-18

    A series of aminopyrrolic receptors were tested as anion transporters using POPC liposome model membranes. Many were found to be effective Cl(-) transporters and to inhibit clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus growth in vitro. The best transporters proved effective against the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains, Mu50 and HP1173. Tris-thiourea tren-based chloride transporters were also shown to inhibit the growth of S. aureus in vitro. PMID:27223254

  5. Na(+)-independent multispecific anion transporter mediates active transport of pravastatin into rat liver.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, M; Suzuki, H; Hanano, M; Tokui, T; Komai, T; Sugiyama, Y

    1993-01-01

    To examine whether the relatively selective inhibition of hepatic cholesterol synthesis by the hydrophilic 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitor pravastatin in vivo may be due to the existence of a specific uptake mechanism in the liver, the uptake by isolated rat hepatocytes was investigated. The uptake was composed of a saturable component [Michaelis constant (Km) 29 microM, maximal uptake rate 546 pmol.min-1.mg-1] and nonspecific diffusion (nonspecific uptake clearance 1.6 microliters.min-1.mg-1), inhibited by hypothermia, metabolic inhibitors, sulfhydryl-modifying reagents, and inhibitor of anion exchanger, whereas replacement of Na+ by choline+ or Cl- by gluconate- did not alter the uptake. Competitive inhibition was observed by a more highly lipophilic HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor simvastatin (open acid form), dibromosulfophthalein, cholate, and taurocholate. Pravastatin inhibited Na(+)-independent taurocholate uptake with an inhibition constant comparable with the Km value of pravastatin itself. Furthermore, the hepatic permeability clearance in vivo obtained with intact rats was comparable with that in vitro, indicating that the carrier-mediated active transport system we demonstrated in vitro is responsible for the hepatic uptake in vivo. These findings demonstrated that the hepatic uptake of pravastatin occurs via a carrier-mediated active transport mechanism utilizing the so-called multispecific anion transporter, which is common with the Na(+)-independent bile acid uptake system, and that this is one of the mechanisms for its selective inhibition of hepatic cholesterol synthesis in vivo. PMID:8430803

  6. Cation and anion transport in a dicationic imidazolium-based plastic crystal ion conductor.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Bryce E; Lingwood, Mark D; Lee, Minjae; Gibson, Harry W; Madsen, Louis A

    2014-02-27

    Here we investigate the organic ionic plastic crystal 1,2-bis[N-(N'-hexylimidazolium-d2(4,5))]ethane 2PF6(-) in one of its solid plastic crystal phases by means of multinuclear solid-state (SS) NMR and pulsed-field-gradient NMR diffusometry. We quantify distinct cation and anion diffusion coefficients as well as the Arrhenius diffusion activation energies (Ea) in this dicationic imidazolium-based plastic crystal. Our studies suggest a change in transport mechanism for the cation upon varying thermal and magnetic treatment (9.4 T), evidenced by differences in cation and anion Ea. Moreover, variable temperature (2)H SSNMR line shapes support a change in local molecular environment upon slow cooling in B0. We quantify the percentage of mobile anions as a function of temperature with (19)F SSNMR, wherein two distinct spectral features are present. We also comment on the Arrhenius pre-exponential factor for diffusion (D0), giving insight into the number of degrees of freedom for transport for both cation and anion as a function of thermal treatment. Given the breadth and depth of our measurements, we propose that bulk ion transport is dominated by anion diffusion in ionic-liquid-like domain boundaries separating crystallites. This study elucidates fundamental properties of this plastic crystal, and allows for a more general and deeper understanding of ion transport within such materials. PMID:24495282

  7. Interaction of sirolimus and everolimus with hepatic and intestinal organic anion-transporting polypeptide transporters.

    PubMed

    Picard, Nicolas; Levoir, Laure; Lamoureux, Fabien; Yee, Sook Wah; Giacomini, Kathleen M; Marquet, Pierre

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the interaction of the mTOR inhibitors (ImTORs) sirolimus and everolimus with the human organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) expressed in hepatocytes and enterocytes by conducting uptake experiments using (i) transfected HEK293T cells, (ii) the hepatocyte-like HepaRG cell line and (iii) the enterocyte-like Caco-2 cell line. Sirolimus and everolimus inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the uptake of [³H]-estrone sulphate by OATP1A2 and OATP1B1 and that of mycophenolic acid 7-O-glucuronide (MPAG) by OATP1B3. ImTOR apparent 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC₅₀) for OATPs were 11.9 µM (OATP1A2), 9.8 µM (OATP1B1) and 1.3 µM (OATP1B3) for sirolimus and 4.2 µM (OATP1A2), 4.1 µM (OATP1B1) and 4.3 µM (OATP1B3) for everolimus. No transport of sirolimus or everolimus by OATP1A2, OATP1B1 or OATP1B3 was observed in HEK-transfected cells and the OAT/OATP/MRP chemical inhibitor probenecid did not significantly decrease the uptake of sirolimus and everolimus in HepaRG and Caco-2 cells, but tended to increase their intracellular accumulation presumably through efflux inhibition. In conclusion, our data suggest that the major OATP transporters expressed in the liver and the intestine do not contribute to the pharmacokinetics of sirolimus and everolimus. However, ImTORs are inhibitors of these transporters. PMID:21524191

  8. Efficient transmembrane anion transport mediated by a bis(imidazolyl)-functionalized bis(choloyl) conjugate.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Deng, Li-Qun; Chen, Yun; Wu, Tao; Chen, Wen-Hua

    2016-08-01

    A bis(imidazolyl)-functionalized bis(choloyl) conjugate was synthesized and assessed for its transmembrane anionophoric activity by means of chloride ion selective electrode technique and pyranine assays. The results indicate that under the assay conditions, this conjugate was capable of mediating the symport of proton and anions, presumably via a channel mechanism. In addition, this compound was found to exhibit much higher anionophoric activity than the analogue without imidazolyl groups, revealing the significant role of the imidazolyl groups in the anion transport process. PMID:27289317

  9. Extracellular Cl(-) regulates human SO4 (2-)/anion exchanger SLC26A1 by altering pH sensitivity of anion transport.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meng; Heneghan, John F; Vandorpe, David H; Escobar, Laura I; Wu, Bai-Lin; Alper, Seth L

    2016-08-01

    Genetic deficiency of the SLC26A1 anion exchanger in mice is known to be associated with hyposulfatemia and hyperoxaluria with nephrolithiasis, but many aspects of human SLC26A1 function remain to be explored. We report here the functional characterization of human SLC26A1, a 4,4'-diisothiocyanato-2,2'-stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS)-sensitive, electroneutral sodium-independent anion exchanger transporting sulfate, oxalate, bicarbonate, thiosulfate, and (with divergent properties) chloride. Human SLC26A1-mediated anion exchange differs from that of its rodent orthologs in its stimulation by alkaline pHo and inhibition by acidic pHo but not pHi and in its failure to transport glyoxylate. SLC26A1-mediated transport of sulfate and oxalate is highly dependent on allosteric activation by extracellular chloride or non-substrate anions. Extracellular chloride stimulates apparent V max of human SLC26A1-mediated sulfate uptake by conferring a 2-log decrease in sensitivity to inhibition by extracellular protons, without changing transporter affinity for extracellular sulfate. In contrast to SLC26A1-mediated sulfate transport, SLC26A1-associated chloride transport is activated by acid pHo, shows reduced sensitivity to DIDS, and exhibits cation dependence of its DIDS-insensitive component. Human SLC26A1 resembles SLC26 paralogs in its inhibition by phorbol ester activation of protein kinase C (PKC), which differs in its undiminished polypeptide abundance at or near the oocyte surface. Mutation of SLC26A1 residues corresponding to candidate anion binding site-associated residues in avian SLC26A5/prestin altered anion transport in patterns resembling those of prestin. However, rare SLC26A1 polymorphic variants from a patient with renal Fanconi Syndrome and from a patient with nephrolithiasis/calcinosis exhibited no loss-of-function phenotypes consistent with disease pathogenesis. PMID:27125215

  10. Roles of organic anion transporters in the progression of chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Atsushi; Niwa, Toshimitsu

    2007-10-01

    Renal proximal and distal tubules carry out specialized directional transport of various solutes. The family of organic anion transporters (OATs), which belongs to the major facilitator superfamily (SLC22A), are expressed in the renal epithelial cells to regulate the excretion and the reabsorption of endogenous and exogenous organic anions that include various kinds of drugs and their metabolites. In recent years, it is revealed that indoxyl sulfate, one of uremic toxins, is a novel physiological substrate for OAT family, and its accumulation within the renal tubules via OATs induces renal dysfunction. The OATs are also expressed in the blood-brain barrier, muscle cells, and bone osteoblasts, which hint at various pathogenic roles of OAT-mediated transport of uremic toxins. In this review, we introduce and discuss the function of OATs in the context of their roles in the progression of chronic renal disease. PMID:17976081

  11. Retinal Glial Cell Glutamate Transporter is Coupled to an Anionic Conductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliasof, Scott; Jahr, Craig E.

    1996-04-01

    Application of L-glutamate to retinal glial (Muller) cells results in an inwardly rectifying current due to the net influx of one positive charge per molecule of glutamate transported into the cell. However, at positive potentials an outward current can be elicited by glutamate. This outward current is eliminated by removal of external chloride ions. Substitution of external chloride with the anions thiocyanate, perchlorate, nitrate, and iodide, which are known to be more permeant at other chloride channels, results in a considerably larger glutamate-elicited outward current at positive potentials. The large outward current in external nitrate has the same ionic dependence, apparent affinity for L-glutamate, and pharmacology as the glutamate transporter previously reported to exist in these cells. Varying the concentration of external nitrate shifts the reversal potential in a manner consistent with a conductance permeable to nitrate. Together, these results suggest that the glutamate transporter in retinal glial cells is associated with an anionic conductance. This anionic conductance may be important for preventing a reduction in the rate of transport due the depolarization that would otherwise occur as a result of electrogenic glutamate uptake.

  12. Loss of anion transport without increased sodium absorption characterizes newborn porcine cystic fibrosis airway epithelia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jeng-Haur; Stoltz, David A; Karp, Philip H; Ernst, Sarah E; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Moninger, Thomas O; Rector, Michael V; Reznikov, Leah R; Launspach, Janice L; Chaloner, Kathryn; Zabner, Joseph; Welsh, Michael J

    2010-12-10

    Defective transepithelial electrolyte transport is thought to initiate cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Yet, how loss of CFTR affects electrolyte transport remains uncertain. CFTR⁻(/)⁻ pigs spontaneously develop lung disease resembling human CF. At birth, their airways exhibit a bacterial host defense defect, but are not inflamed. Therefore, we studied ion transport in newborn nasal and tracheal/bronchial epithelia in tissues, cultures, and in vivo. CFTR⁻(/)⁻ epithelia showed markedly reduced Cl⁻ and HCO₃⁻ transport. However, in contrast to a widely held view, lack of CFTR did not increase transepithelial Na(+) or liquid absorption or reduce periciliary liquid depth. Like human CF, CFTR⁻(/)⁻ pigs showed increased amiloride-sensitive voltage and current, but lack of apical Cl⁻ conductance caused the change, not increased Na(+) transport. These results indicate that CFTR provides the predominant transcellular pathway for Cl⁻ and HCO₃⁻ in porcine airway epithelia, and reduced anion permeability may initiate CF airway disease. PMID:21145458

  13. Role of Anion Transporter SLC26A6 (CFEX) in Prevention of Hyperoxaluria and Urolithiasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronson, Peter S.

    2007-04-01

    In the proximal tubule of the kidney, a significant fraction of Cl- is transported by apical membrane Cl--formate exchange and Cl--oxalate exchange. Studies to identify the transporter(s) mediating apical membrane Cl--anion exchange in the proximal tubule led to the characterization of CFEX (SLC26A6). Functional expression of CFEX in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that the transporter is capable of mediating multiple modes of anion exchange including Cl--oxalate exchange. Comparison of wild-type and CFEX null mice with respect to transport in renal brush border vesicles and microperfused tubules demonstrated that CFEX primarily mediates Cl--oxalate exchange rather than Cl--formate exchange in the proximal tubule in vivo. CFEX null mice were observed to have a high incidence of calcium oxalate urolithiasis that was attributable to hyperoxaluria. Hyperoxaluria in CFEX null mice was found to result from a defect in oxalate secretion in the intestine, thereby causing increased net absorption of ingested oxalate and elevated plasma oxalate concentration. Thus, by mediating intestinal oxalate secretion, CFEX plays an essential role in preventing hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis.

  14. Mammalian Glucose Transporter Activity Is Dependent upon Anionic and Conical Phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Hresko, Richard C; Kraft, Thomas E; Quigley, Andrew; Carpenter, Elisabeth P; Hruz, Paul W

    2016-08-12

    The regulated movement of glucose across mammalian cell membranes is mediated by facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs) embedded in lipid bilayers. Despite the known importance of phospholipids in regulating protein structure and activity, the lipid-induced effects on the GLUTs remain poorly understood. We systematically examined the effects of physiologically relevant phospholipids on glucose transport in liposomes containing purified GLUT4 and GLUT3. The anionic phospholipids, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylinositol, were found to be essential for transporter function by activating it and stabilizing its structure. Conical lipids, phosphatidylethanolamine and diacylglycerol, enhanced transporter activity up to 3-fold in the presence of anionic phospholipids but did not stabilize protein structure. Kinetic analyses revealed that both lipids increase the kcat of transport without changing the Km values. These results allowed us to elucidate the activation of GLUT by plasma membrane phospholipids and to extend the field of membrane protein-lipid interactions to the family of structurally and functionally related human solute carriers. PMID:27302065

  15. Mammalian Glucose Transporter Activity Is Dependent upon Anionic and Conical Phospholipids*

    PubMed Central

    Hresko, Richard C.; Kraft, Thomas E.; Quigley, Andrew; Carpenter, Elisabeth P.; Hruz, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    The regulated movement of glucose across mammalian cell membranes is mediated by facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs) embedded in lipid bilayers. Despite the known importance of phospholipids in regulating protein structure and activity, the lipid-induced effects on the GLUTs remain poorly understood. We systematically examined the effects of physiologically relevant phospholipids on glucose transport in liposomes containing purified GLUT4 and GLUT3. The anionic phospholipids, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, and phosphatidylinositol, were found to be essential for transporter function by activating it and stabilizing its structure. Conical lipids, phosphatidylethanolamine and diacylglycerol, enhanced transporter activity up to 3-fold in the presence of anionic phospholipids but did not stabilize protein structure. Kinetic analyses revealed that both lipids increase the kcat of transport without changing the Km values. These results allowed us to elucidate the activation of GLUT by plasma membrane phospholipids and to extend the field of membrane protein-lipid interactions to the family of structurally and functionally related human solute carriers. PMID:27302065

  16. Slc4-like anion transporters of the larval mosquito alimentary canal

    PubMed Central

    Linser, Paul J.; Oviedo, Marco Neira; Hirata, Taku; Seron, Theresa J.; Smith, Kristin E.; Piermarini, Peter M.; Romero, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    Mosquito larvae exhibit luminal pH extremes along the axial length of their alimentary canal that range from very alkaline (pH > 10) in the anterior midgut to slightly acid in the hindgut. The principal buffer in the system is thought to be bicarbonate and/or carbonate, because the lumen is known to contain high levels of bicarbonate/carbonate and is surrounded by various epithelial cell types which express a variety of carbonic anhydrases. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for the transport of bicarbonate/carbonate into and out of the lumen are unclear. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that SLC4-like anion transporters play a role in bicarbonate/carbonate accumulation in the larval mosquito alimentary canal. Molecular, physiological and immnuohistochemical characterizations of Slc4-like transporters in the gut of larval mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae) demonstrate the presence of both a Na+-independent chloride/bicarbonate anion exchanger (AE) as well as a Na+-dependent anion exchanger (NDAE). Notably, immunolocalization experiments in Malpighian tubules show that the two proteins can be located in the same tissue, but to different cell types. Immunolabeling experiments in the gastric caecae show that the two proteins can be found in the same cells, but on opposite sides (basal vs. apical). In summary, our results indicate that the alimentary canal of larval mosquitoes exhibits robust expression of two SLC4-like transporters in locations that are consistent with a role in the regulation of luminal pH. The precise physiological contributions of each transporter remain to be determined. PMID:22251674

  17. The role of the synergistic phosphate anion in iron transport by the periplasmic iron-binding protein from Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ali G.; Shouldice, Stephen R.; Tari, Leslie W.; Schryvers, Anthony B.

    2006-01-01

    The acquisition of iron from transferrin by Gram-negative bacterial pathogens is dependent on a periplasmic ferric-ion-binding protein, FbpA. FbpA shuttles iron from the outer membrane to an inner membrane transport complex. A bound phosphate anion completes the iron co-ordination shell of FbpA and kinetic studies demonstrate that the anion plays a critical role in iron binding and release in vitro. The present study was initiated to directly address the hypothesis that the synergistic anion is required for transport of iron in intact cells. A series of site-directed mutants in the anion-binding amino acids of the Haemophilus influenzae FbpA (Gln-58, Asn-175 and Asn-193) were prepared to provide proteins defective in binding of the phosphate anion. Crystal structures of various mutants have revealed that alteration of the C-terminal domain ligands (Asn-175 or Asn-193) but not the N-terminal domain ligand (Gln-58) abrogated binding of the phosphate anion. The mutant proteins were introduced into H. influenzae to evaluate their ability to mediate iron transport. All of the single site-directed mutants (Q58L, N175L and N193L) were capable of mediating iron acquisition from transferrin and from limiting concentrations of ferric citrate. The results suggest that the transport of iron by FbpA is not dependent on binding of phosphate in the synergistic anion-binding site. PMID:17147516

  18. Anion exchange pathways for Cl sup minus transport in rabbit renal microvillus membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Karniski, L.P.; Aronson, P.S. Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT )

    1987-09-01

    The authors evaluated the mechanisms of chloride transport in microvillus membrane vesicles isolated from the rabbit renal cortex. The presence of Cl-formate exchange was confirmed. Outward gradients of oxaloacetate, HCO{sub 3}, acetate, lactate, succinate, sulfate, and p-aminohippurate (PAH) stimulated the rate of Cl uptake minimally or not at all. However, an outward gradient of oxalate stimulated Cl uptake by 70%, and an outward Cl gradient induced uphill oxalate uptake, indicting Cl-oxalate exchange. Moreover, an outward formate gradient induced uphill oxalate uptake, indicating formate-oxalate exchange. Studies of inhibitor and substrate specificity indicated the probably operation of at least two separate anion exchangers in mediating Cl transport. The Cl-formate exchanger accepted Cl and formate as substrates, had little or no affinity for oxalate, was sensitive to inhibition by furosemide, and was less sensitive to inhibition by 4,4{prime}-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid (DIDS). The Cl (formate)-oxalate exchanger also accepted Cl and formate as substrates but had high affinity for oxalate, was highly sensitive to inhibition by DIDS, and was less sensitive to inhibition by furosemide. The Cl-formate exchanger was electroneutral, whereas the Cl (formate)-oxalate exchanger was electrogenic. They conclude that at least separate anion exchangers mediating Cl transport are present on the luminal membrane of the rabbit proximal tubule cell. These exchangers may play important roles in mediating transtubular Cl and oxalate transport in this nephron segment.

  19. Inhibitory effects of chemotherapeutics on human organic anion transporter hOAT4

    PubMed Central

    Toh, May Fern; Suh, Wonmo; Wang, Haoxun; Zhou, Peter; Hu, Longqin; You, Guofeng

    2016-01-01

    Human organic anion transporter 4 (hOAT4) belongs to a family of organic anion transporters which play critical roles in the body disposition of clinically important drugs. hOAT4 is expressed in the kidney and placenta. In the current study, we examined the inhibitory effects of 101 anticancer drugs from a clinical drug library on hOAT4 transport activity. The studies were carried out in hOAT4-expressing human kidney HEK-293 cells and human placenta BeWo cells. Among these drugs, only chlorambucil and cabazitaxel demonstrated more than 50% cis-inhibitory effect on hOAT4-mediated uptake of 3H-labeled estrone sulfate, a prototypical substrate for the transporter. The IC50 values for chlorambucil and cabazitaxel were 44.28 and 3.5 µM respectively. Dixon plot analysis revealed that inhibition by chlorambucil was competitive with a Ki = 55.73 µM whereas inhibition by cabazitaxel was non-competitive with a Ki = 1.78 µM. Our results demonstrated that chlorambucil and cabazitaxel were inhibitors of hOAT4. Furthermore, by comparing our data with clinically relevant exposures of these drugs, we conclude that the propensity for chlorambucil and cabazitaxel to cause drug-drug interaction through inhibition of hOAT4 is low. PMID:27335682

  20. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to the cystic fibrosis gene inhibits anion transport in normal cultured sweat duct cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sorscher, E.J.; Kirk, K.L.; Weaver, M.L.; Jilling, T.; Blalock, J.E.; LeBoeuf, R.D. )

    1991-09-01

    The authors have tested the hypothesis that the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene product, called the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), mediates anion transport in normal human sweat duct cells. Sweat duct cells in primary culture were treated with oligodeoxynucleotides that were antisense to the CFTR gene transcript in order to block the expression of the wild-type CFTR. Anion transport in CFTR transcript antisense-treated cells was then assessed with a halide-specific dye, 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropryl)quinolinium, and fluorescent digital imaging microscopy to monitor halide influx and efflux from single sweat duct cells. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide treatment for 24 hr virtually abolished Cl{sup {minus}} transport in sweat duct cells compared with untreated cells or control cells treated with sense oligodeoxynucleotides. Br{sup {minus}} uptake into sweat duct cells was also blocked after a 24-hr CFTR transcript antisense treatments, but not after treatments for only 4 hr. Lower concentrations of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides were less effective at inhibiting Cl{sup {minus}} transport. These results indicate that oligodeoxynucleotides that are antisense to CFTR transcript inhibit sweat duct Cl{sup {minus}} permeability in both a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. This approach provides evidence that inhibition of the expression of the wild-type CFTR gene in a normal, untransfected epithelial cell results in an inhibition of Cl{sup {minus}} permeability.

  1. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to the cystic fibrosis gene inhibits anion transport in normal cultured sweat duct cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sorscher, E J; Kirk, K L; Weaver, M L; Jilling, T; Blalock, J E; LeBoeuf, R D

    1991-01-01

    We have tested the hypothesis that the cystic fibrosis (CF) gene product, called the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), mediates anion transport in normal human sweat duct cells. Sweat duct cells in primary culture were treated with oligodeoxynucleotides that were antisense to the CFTR gene transcript in order to block the expression of the wild-type CFTR. Anion transport in CFTR transcript antisense-treated cells was then assessed with a halide-specific dye, 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropyl)quinolinium, and fluorescent digital imaging microscopy to monitor halide influx and efflux from single sweat duct cells. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide treatment (3.9 or 1.3 microM) for 24 hr virtually abolished Cl- transport in sweat duct cells compared with untreated cells or control cells treated with sense oligodeoxynucleotides. Br- uptake into sweat duct cells was also blocked after a 24-hr CFTR transcript antisense treatment, but not after treatment for only 4 hr. Lower concentrations of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides were less effective at inhibiting Cl- transport. These results indicate that oligodeoxynucleotides that are antisense to CFTR transcript inhibit sweat duct Cl- permeability in both a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. This approach provides evidence that inhibition of the expression of the wild-type CFTR gene in a normal, untransfected epithelial cell results in an inhibition of Cl- permeability. Images PMID:1715578

  2. Transport activity of chimaeric AE2-AE3 chloride/bicarbonate anion exchange proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Fujinaga, Jocelyne; Loiselle, Frederick B; Casey, Joseph R

    2003-01-01

    Chloride/bicarbonate anion exchangers (AEs), found in the plasma membrane of most mammalian cells, are involved in pH regulation and bicarbonate metabolism. Although AE2 and AE3 are highly similar in sequence, AE2-transport activity was 10-fold higher than AE3 (41 versus 4 mM x min(-1) respectively), when expressed by transient transfection of HEK-293 cells. AE2-AE3 chimaeras were constructed to define the region responsible for differences in transport activity. The level of AE2 expression was approx. 30% higher than that of AE3. Processing to the cell surface, studied by chemical labelling and confocal microscopy, showed that AE2 is processed to the cell surface approx. 8-fold more efficiently than AE3. The efficiency of cell-surface processing was dependent on the cytoplasmic domain, since the AE2 domain conferred efficient processing upon the AE3 membrane domain, with a predominant role for amino acids 322-677 of AE2. AE2 that was expressed in HEK-293 cells was glycosylated, but little of AE3 was. However, AE2 expressed in the presence of the glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin, was not glycosylated, yet retained 85 +/- 8% of anion-transport activity. Therefore glycosylation has little, if any, role in the cell-surface processing or activity of AE2 or AE3. We conclude that the low anion-transport activity of AE3 in HEK-293 cells is due to low level processing to the plasma membrane, possibly owing to protein interactions with the AE3 cytoplasmic domain. PMID:12578559

  3. Roles of organic anion transporters (OATs) and a urate transporter (URAT1) in the pathophysiology of human disease.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Atsushi; Endou, Hitoshi

    2005-09-01

    Renal proximal and distal tubules are highly polarized epithelial cells that carry out the specialized directional transport of various solutes. This renal function, which is essential for homeostasis in the body, is achieved through the close pairing of apical and basolateral carriers expressed in the renal epithelial cells. The family of organic anion transporters (OATs), which belong to the major facilitator superfamily (SLC22A), are expressed in the renal epithelial cells to regulate the excretion and reabsorption of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. We now understand that these OATs are crucial components in the renal handling of drugs and their metabolites, and they are implicated in various clinically important drug interactions, and their adverse reactions. In recent years, the molecular entities of these transporters have been identified, and their function and regulatory mechanisms have been partially clarified. Workers in this field have identified URAT1 (urate transporter 1), a novel member of the OAT family that displays unique and selective substrate specificity compared with other multispecific OATs. In the OAT family, URAT1 is the main transporster responsible for human genetic diseases. In this review, we introduce and discuss some novel aspects of OATs, with special emphasis on URAT1, in the context of their biological significance, functional regulation, and roles in human disease. PMID:16189627

  4. Essential helix interactions in the anion transporter domain of prestin revealed by evolutionary trace analysis.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Lavanya; Patel, Nimish; Madabushi, Srinivasan; Goddard, Julie Anne; Anjan, Venkat; Lin, Feng; Shope, Cindy; Farrell, Brenda; Lichtarge, Olivier; Davidson, Amy L; Brownell, William E; Pereira, Fred A

    2006-12-01

    Prestin, a member of the SLC26A family of anion transporters, is a polytopic membrane protein found in outer hair cells (OHCs) of the mammalian cochlea. Prestin is an essential component of the membrane-based motor that enhances electromotility of OHCs and contributes to frequency sensitivity and selectivity in mammalian hearing. Mammalian cells expressing prestin display a nonlinear capacitance (NLC), widely accepted as the electrical signature of electromotility. The associated charge movement requires intracellular anions reflecting the membership of prestin in the SLC26A family. We used the computational approach of evolutionary trace analysis to identify candidate functional (trace) residues in prestin for mutational studies. We created a panel of mutations at each trace residue and determined membrane expression and nonlinear capacitance associated with each mutant. We observe that several residue substitutions near the conserved sulfate transporter domain of prestin either greatly reduce or eliminate NLC, and the effect is dependent on the size of the substituted residue. These data suggest that packing of helices and interactions between residues surrounding the "sulfate transporter motif" is essential for normal prestin activity. PMID:17151276

  5. Effects of cation and anion solvation on ion transport in functionalized perfluoropolyethers electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timachova, Ksenia; Chintapalli, Mahati; Olsen, Kevin; Desimone, Joseph; Balsara, Nitash

    Advances in polymer electrolytes for use in lithium batteries have been limited by the incorporation of selective lithium binding groups that provide necessary solvation for the lithium but ultimately restrict the mobility of the lithium ions relative to anions. Perfluoropolyether electrolytes (PFPE) are a new class of nonflammable liquid polymer electrolytes that have been functionalized with solvating groups for both lithium ions and fluorinated anions. PFPEs with different endgroups mixed with LiN(SO2CF3)2 salt have shown substantial differences in conductivity and allows us to investigate the effects of varying solvating environments on ion transport. To study the independent motion of cations and anions in these systems, the individual diffusion coefficients of the Li + and (SO2CF3)2 - ions were measured using pulsed-field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR). Comparing conductivity calculated using these diffusion coefficients with electrochemical measurements yields an estimation for the number of charge carrier in the system. The amount of salt dissociation, not the mobility of the salt, is the primary driver of differences in electrochemical conductivities between PFPEs with different solvating groups.

  6. Electrically silent anion transport through bilayer lipid membrane induced by tributyltin and triethyllead.

    PubMed

    Antonenko YuN

    1990-02-01

    The method of the measurement of the nonelectrogenic fluxes of hydrogen (or hydroxyl) ions (JH) based on the local proton gradients formation in the unstirred layers near a bilayer lipid membrane (BLM) is applied for recording the nonelectrogenic anion/OH- exchange on BLM induced by tributyltin (TBT) and a novel carrier (Hager, A., Moser, I., & Berthold, W. 1987. Z. Naturforsch., 42C:1116-1120), triethyllead (TEL). This method has been used previously for measuring the cation fluxes through BLM. TBT and TEL are shown to be equally efficient in the induction of Cl-/OH- exchange. JH induced by TBT is constant at 4 less than pH less than 7. JH decreases at pH less than 4 and pH greater than 7. Both ionophores have a transport sequence: I- greater than Br- greater than Cl- greater than F-. The quantitative measurements reveal that TEL better discriminates these four anions than TBT. It is concluded that this method may prove helpful in a search and study of anion/OH(-)-exchangers isolated from natural membranes. PMID:2319590

  7. Chlorpromazine, clozapine and olanzapine inhibit anionic amino acid transport in cultured human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Marchesi, C; Dall'Asta, V; Rotoli, B M; Bianchi, M G; Maggini, C; Gazzola, G C; Bussolati, O

    2006-09-01

    We report here that chlorpromazine, a first generation antipsychotic drug, inhibits anionic amino acid transport mediated by system X(-) (AG) (EAAT transporters) in cultured human fibroblasts. With 30 microM chlorpromazine, transport inhibition is detectable after 3 h of treatment, maximal after 48 h (>60%), and referable to a decrease in V(max). Chlorpromazine effect is not dependent upon changes of membrane potential and is selective for system X(-) (AG) since transport systems A and y(+) are not affected. Among antipsychotic drugs, the inhibitory effect of chlorpromazine is shared by two dibenzodiazepines, clozapine and olanzapine, while other compounds, such as risperidon, zuclopentixol, sertindol and haloperidol, are not effective. Transport inhibition by clozapine and olanzapine, but not by chlorpromazine, is reversible, suggesting that the mechanisms involved are distinct. These results indicate that a subset of antipsychotic drugs inhibits EAAT transporters in non-nervous tissues and prompt further investigation on possible alterations of glutamate transport in peripheral tissues of schizophrenic patients. PMID:16699818

  8. GABA signalling modulates plant growth by directly regulating the activity of plant-specific anion transporters

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Sunita A.; Tyerman, Stephen D.; Xu, Bo; Bose, Jayakumar; Kaur, Satwinder; Conn, Vanessa; Domingos, Patricia; Ullah, Sana; Wege, Stefanie; Shabala, Sergey; Feijó, José A.; Ryan, Peter R.; Gillham, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The non-protein amino acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) rapidly accumulates in plant tissues in response to biotic and abiotic stress, and regulates plant growth. Until now it was not known whether GABA exerts its effects in plants through the regulation of carbon metabolism or via an unidentified signalling pathway. Here, we demonstrate that anion flux through plant aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) proteins is activated by anions and negatively regulated by GABA. Site-directed mutagenesis of selected amino acids within ALMT proteins abolishes GABA efficacy but does not alter other transport properties. GABA modulation of ALMT activity results in altered root growth and altered root tolerance to alkaline pH, acid pH and aluminium ions. We propose that GABA exerts its multiple physiological effects in plants via ALMT, including the regulation of pollen tube and root growth, and that GABA can finally be considered a legitimate signalling molecule in both the plant and animal kingdoms. PMID:26219411

  9. Organic anion transporting polypeptides expressed in liver and brain mediate uptake of microcystin

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.J.; Altheimer, S.; Cattori, V.; Meier, P.J.; Dietrich, D.R. . E-mail: Daniel.Dietrich@uni-konstanz.de; Hagenbuch, B.

    2005-03-15

    Microcystins are toxins produced by freshwater cyanobacteria. They are cyclic heptapeptides that exhibit hepato- and neurotoxicity. However, the transport systems that mediate uptake of microcystins into hepatocytes and across the blood-brain barrier have not yet been identified. Using the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system we tested whether members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide superfamily (rodent: Oatps; human: OATPs) are involved in transport of the most common microcystin variant microcystin-LR by measuring uptake of a radiolabeled derivative dihydromicrocystin-LR. Among the tested Oatps/OATPs, rat Oatp1b2, human OATP1B1, human OATP1B3, and human OATP1A2 transported microcystin-LR 2- to 5-fold above water-injected control oocytes. This microcystin-LR transport was inhibited by co-incubation with the known Oatp/OATP substrates taurocholate (TC) and bromosulfophthalein (BSP). Microcystin-LR transport mediated by the human OATPs was further characterized and showed saturability with increasing microcystin-LR concentrations. The apparent K{sub m} values amounted to 7 {+-} 3 {mu}M for OATP1B1, 9 {+-} 3 {mu}M for OATP1B3, and 20 {+-} 8 {mu}M for OATP1A2. No microcystin-LR transport was observed in oocytes expressing Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, and OATP2B1. These results may explain some of the observed organ-specific toxicity of microcystin-LR. Oatp1b2, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 are responsible for microcystin transport into hepatocytes, whereas OATP1A2 mediates microcystin-LR transport across the blood-brain barrier.

  10. Structural transition, subgap states, and carrier transport in anion-engineered zinc oxynitride nanocrystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, Fenglin; Ye, Jiandong; Gu, Shulin; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2016-07-01

    In this work, anion alloying is engineered in ZnON nanocrystalline films, and the resultant evolution of the structural transition, subgap states, and carrier transport is investigated. A broad distribution of sub-gap states above the valence band maximum is introduced by nitrogen due to the hybridization of N 2p and O 2p orbitals. The phase transition from partially amorphous states to full crystallinity occurs above a characteristic growth temperature of 100 °C, and the localized states are suppressed greatly due to the reduction of nitrogen composition. The electronic properties are dominated by grain boundary scattering and electron transport across boundary barriers through thermal activation at band edge states at high temperatures. The conductivity below 130 K exhibits a weak temperature dependence, which is a signature of variable-range hopping conduction between localized states introduced by nitrogen incorporation.

  11. Anion translocation through an Slc26 transporter mediates lumen expansion during tubulogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Wei; Nies, Florian; Feuer, Anja; Bočina, Ivana; Oliver, Dominik; Jiang, Di

    2013-01-01

    Lumen formation is a critical event in biological tube formation, yet its molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Specifically, how lumen expansion is coordinated with other processes of tubulogenesis is not well known, and the role of membrane transporters in tubulogenesis during development has not been adequately addressed. Here we identify a solute carrier 26 (Slc26) family protein as an essential regulator of tubulogenesis using the notochord of the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis as a model. Ci-Slc26aα is indispensable for lumen formation and expansion, but not for apical/luminal membrane formation and lumen connection. Ci-Slc26aα acts as an anion transporter, mediating the electrogenic exchange of sulfate or oxalate for chloride or bicarbonate and electroneutral chloride:bicarbonate exchange. Mutant rescue assays show that this transport activity is essential for Ci-Slc26aα’s in vivo function. Our work reveals the consequences and relationships of several key processes in lumen formation, and establishes an in vivo assay for studying the molecular basis of the transport properties of SLC26 family transporters and their related diseases. PMID:23980138

  12. Loss of anion transport without increased sodium absorption characterizes newborn porcine cystic fibrosis airway epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jeng-Haur; Stoltz, David A.; Karp, Philip H.; Ernst, Sarah E.; Pezzulo, Alejandro A.; Moninger, Thomas O.; Rector, Michael V.; Reznikov, Leah R.; Launspach, Janice L.; Chaloner, Kathryn; Zabner, Joseph; Welsh, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Defective transepithelial electrolyte transport is thought to initiate cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Yet, how loss of CFTR affects electrolyte transport remains uncertain. CFTR−/− pigs spontaneously develop lung disease resembling human CF. At birth, their airways exhibit a bacterial host defense defect, but are not inflamed. Therefore, we studied ion transport in newborn nasal and tracheal/bronchial epithelia in tissue, cultures, and in vivo. CFTR−/− epithelia showed markedly reduced Cl− and HCO3− transport. However, in contrast to a widely held view, lack of CFTR did not increase transepithelial Na+ or liquid absorption or reduce periciliary liquid depth. Like human CF, CFTR−/− pigs showed increased amiloride-sensitive voltage and current, but lack of apical Cl− conductance caused the change, not increased Na+ transport. These results indicate that CFTR provides the predominant transcellular pathway for Cl− and HCO3− in porcine airway epithelia, and reduced anion permeability may initiate CF airway disease. PMID:21145458

  13. Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine Are Novel Inhibitors of Human Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1A2.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chenghao; Zhu, Ling; Chan, Ting; Lu, Xiaoxi; Shen, Weiyong; Madigan, Michele C; Gillies, Mark C; Zhou, Fanfan

    2016-02-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) are widely used to treat malaria and inflammatory diseases, long-term usage of which often causes severe side effects, especially retinopathy. Solute carrier transporters (SLCs) are important proteins responsible for the cellular uptake of endogenous and exogenous substances. Inhibitors competing with transporter substrates for SLCs often results in unfavorable toxicities and unsatisfactory therapeutic outcomes. We investigated the inhibitory effect of CQ and HCQ on substrate uptake mediated through a range of important SLC transporters in overexpressing human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells. Our data revealed that both CQ and HCQ potently inhibit the uptake activity of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2). We recently reported OATP1A2 to be expressed in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), where it mediates cellular uptake of all-trans-retinol (atROL), a key step in the classical visual cycle. In this study, we demonstrate that CQ and HCQ could markedly impair atROL uptake in OATP1A2-expressing HEK293 cells and more importantly, in primary human RPE cells. Our study shows that CQ and HCQ are novel inhibitors of OATP1A2 and significantly impair OATP1A2-mediated substrate uptake, particularly transport of atROL into the RPE. This effect may compromise the function of the classic visual cycle leading to vision impairment and contribute to the retinopathy observed clinically in patients using CQ or HCQ. PMID:26429523

  14. Organic anion transporting polypeptides in the hepatic uptake of PBDE congeners in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Pacyniak, Erik; Hagenbuch, Bruno; The University of Kansas Cancer Center, Kansas City, KS ; Klaassen, Curtis D.; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois; Guo, Grace L.

    2011-11-15

    BDE47, BDE99 and BDE153 are the predominant polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners detected in humans and can induce drug metabolizing enzymes in the liver. We have previously demonstrated that several human liver organic anion transporting polypeptides (humans: OATPs; rodents: Oatps) can transport PBDE congeners. Mice are commonly used to study the toxicity of chemicals like the PBDE congeners. However, the mechanism of the hepatic PBDE uptake in mice is not known. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to test the hypothesis that BDE47, BDE99, and BDE153 are substrates of mouse hepatic Oatps (Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, Oatp1b2, and Oatp2b1). We used Human Embryonic Kidney 293 (HEK293) cells transiently expressing individual Oatps and quantified the uptake of BDE47, BDE99, and BDE153. Oatp1a4, Oatp1b2, and Oatp2b1 transported all three PBDE congeners, whereas Oatp1a1 did transport none. Kinetic studies demonstrated that Oatp1a4 and Oatp1b2 transported BDE47 with the greatest affinity, followed by BDE99 and BDE153. In contrast, Oatp2b1 transported all three PBDE congeners with similar affinities. The importance of hepatic Oatps for the liver accumulation of BDE47 was confirmed using Oatp1a4-, and Oatp1b2-null mice. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PBDE congeners are substrates of OATPs expressed in human hepatocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mice are commonly used to study the toxicity of chemicals like the PBDE congeners. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oatp1a4, Oatp1b2, and Oatp2b1 transported all three PBDE congeners in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In vivo Oatp1a4 plays a minor and Oatp1b2 a major role in BDE47 liver accumulation.

  15. Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter/multidrug resistance protein 2 mediates low-affinity transport of reduced glutathione.

    PubMed Central

    Paulusma, C C; van Geer, M A; Evers, R; Heijn, M; Ottenhoff, R; Borst, P; Oude Elferink, R P

    1999-01-01

    The canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT), a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family, mediates the transport of a broad range of non-bile salt organic anions from liver into bile. cMOAT-deficient Wistar rats (TR-) are mutated in the gene encoding cMOAT, leading to defective hepatobiliary transport of a whole range of substrates, including bilirubin glucuronide. These mutants also have impaired hepatobiliary excretion of GSH and, as a result, the bile flow in these animals is reduced. In the present work we demonstrate a role for cMOAT in the excretion of GSH both in vivo and in vitro. Biliary GSH excretion in rats heterozygous for the cMOAT mutation (TR/tr) was decreased to 63% of controls (TR/TR) (114+/-24 versus 181+/-20 nmol/min per kg body weight). Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) II cells stably expressing the human cMOAT protein displayed >10-fold increase in apical GSH excretion compared with wild-type MDCKII cells (141+/-6.1 pmol/min per mg of protein versus 13.2+/-1.3 pmol/min per mg of protein in wild-type MDCKII cells). Similarly, MDCKII cells expressing the human multidrug resistance protein 1 showed a 4-fold increase in GSH excretion across the basolateral membrane. In several independent cMOAT-transfectants, the level of GSH excretion correlated with the expression level of the protein. Furthermore, we have shown, in cMOAT-transfected cells, that GSH is a low-affinity substrate for the transporter and that its excretion is reduced upon ATP depletion. In membrane vesicles isolated from cMOAT-expressing MDCKII cells, ATP-dependent S-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)glutathione uptake is competitively inhibited by high concentrations of GSH (Ki approximately 20 mM). We concluded that cMOAT mediates low-affinity transport of GSH. However, since hepatocellular GSH concentrations are high (5-10 mM), cMOAT might serve an important physiological function in maintenance of bile flow in addition to hepatic GSH turnover. PMID:10024515

  16. VDAC1-interacting anion transport inhibitors inhibit VDAC1 oligomerization and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ben-Hail, Danya; Shoshan-Barmatz, Varda

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondria-mediated apoptosis involves pro-apoptotic protein release from the mitochondria to the cytosol, triggering apoptosis. However, the mechanisms by which apoptotic initiators cross the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) remain unclear. The voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1), an OMM protein, is central to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. In previous work, we demonstrated that apoptosis induction is associated with VDAC1 oligomerization, forming a mega-pore that mediates pro-apoptotic protein release. Here, we demonstrated that several known anion transport inhibitors, DIDS, SITS, H2DIDS, DNDS, and DPC, all interact with VDAC1, as revealed by micro-scale thermophoresis and decreased conductance of bilayer-reconstituted VDAC1. These compounds inhibited apoptosis stimuli-induced release of mitochondrial pro-apoptotic proteins, apoptosis and VDAC1 oligomerization, as monitored by chemical cross-linking or in living cells by BRET2. Moreover, the compounds inhibited VDAC1 oligomerization in isolated mitochondria and as induced by VDAC1 over-expression, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of the tested compounds involved VDAC1. Finally, the compounds also inhibited apoptosis-associated increases in intracellular Ca(2+), ([Ca(2+)]i), ROS production, mitochondria membrane potential dissipation and the increase in VDAC1 expression levels. The results presented here explored a new mechanism of action for DIDS and its analogs. All inhibited apoptosis via direct interaction with VDAC1 to inhibit its oligomerization and subsequent Cyto c release and apoptosis. Such results may allow the development of a VDAC1-specific inhibitor that would offer substantial insight into the function of VDAC1 in controlling metabolism, energy production, cholesterol transport and apoptosis. Finally, inhibitors of apoptosis could serve in pathological conditions where enhanced apoptosis is found, such as neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27064145

  17. Organ, cellular, and subcellular localization of brain-specific anion transporter BSAT1.

    PubMed

    Baklaushev, V P; Kardashova, K Sh; Gurina, O I; Yusubaliyeva, G M; Zorkina, Ya A; Chekhonin, V P

    2013-08-01

    Organ, cellular, and subcellular localization of brain-specific anion transporter BSAT1 was studied in rats using antibodies to the extracellular fragment (451-557 a.a). The antibodies were shown to recognize the antigen predominantly localized in the nervous tissue, tumors of glial origin, and primordial ovarian follicles. The absence of BSAT1 immunofluorescence signal in kidney and liver sections and accumulation of (125)I labeled antibodies to BSAT1 in these organs indicate that these antibodies do not cross-react with the most common isoforms of OATP expressed in these organs. Analysis of the cellular localization suggests that in the brain, BSAT1 is localized predominantly in astrocytes, but not in endothelial cells, as was previously reported. Laser scanning confocal microscopy with a set of relevant trackers revealed membrane localization of BSAT1. Taking into account the data on the of localization, we can conclude that antibodies to BSAT1 451-557 can be used for basic research of the transport of thyroxin and prostaglandins across the blood brain barrier and for testing the systems for targeted transport of diagnostic preparations and drugs across the blood brain barrier, e.g. to astroglial tumors. PMID:24143376

  18. Rat Organic Anion Transporting Protein 1A1 (OATP1A1)

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yansen; Nieves, Edward; Angeletti, Ruth H.; Orr, George A.; Wolkoff, Allan W.

    2008-01-01

    Rat organic anion transporting protein 1a1 (oatp1a1), a hepatocyte basolateral plasma membrane protein, mediates transport of various amphipathic compounds. Our previous studies indicated that serine phosphorylation of a single tryptic peptide inhibits its transport activity without changing its cell surface content. The site of phosphorylation is unknown and was the subject of the present study. Following immunoaffinity chromatographic purification from rat liver, oatp1a1 was subjected to trypsin digestion and MALDI-TOF. Except for predicted N-glycosylated peptides, 97% of oatp1a1 tryptic peptides were observed. A single tryptic phosphopeptide was found in the C-terminus (aa 626-647), existing in unphosphorylated, singly, or doubly phosphorylated forms, and sensitive to alkaline phosphatase treatment. β-elimination reaction resulted in mass loss of 98 or 196 Da from this peptide, and subsequent Michael addition with cysteamine increased masses by the predicated 77 and 154 Da, indicating that oatp1a1 can be singly or doubly phosphorylated at serine or threonine residues in the C-terminal sequence SSATDHT (aa 634-640). Subsequent tandem MS/MS analysis revealed that phosphorylation at S634 accounted for all singly phosphorylated peptide, while phosphorylation at S634 and S635 accounted for all doubly phosphorylated peptide. These findings identify the site of oatp1a1 phosphorylation and demonstrate that it is an ordered process, in which phosphorylation at S634 precedes that at S635. The mechanism by which phosphorylation results in loss of transport activity in hepatocytes remains to be established. Whether phosphorylation near the C-terminus inhibits C-terminal oligomerization of oatp1a1, required for normal transport function, can be speculated upon, but is as yet unknown. PMID:16519530

  19. Acquisition of dietary copper: a role for anion transporters in intestinal apical copper uptake.

    PubMed

    Zimnicka, Adriana M; Ivy, Kristin; Kaplan, Jack H

    2011-03-01

    Copper is an essential micronutrient in humans and is required for a wide range of physiological processes, including neurotransmitter biosynthesis, oxidative metabolism, protection against reactive oxygen species, and angiogenesis. The first step in the acquisition of dietary copper is absorption from the intestinal lumen. The major human high-affinity copper uptake protein, human copper transporter hCTR1, was recently shown to be at the basolateral or blood side of both intestinal and renal epithelial cell lines and thus does not play a direct role in this initial step. We sought to functionally identify the major transport pathways available for the absorption of dietary copper across the apical intestinal membrane using Caco2 cells, a well-established model for human enterocytes. The initial rate of apical copper uptake into confluent monolayers of Caco2 cells is greatly elevated if amino acids and serum proteins are removed from the growth media. Uptake from buffered saline solutions at neutral pH (but not at lower pH) is inhibited by either d- or l-histidine, unaltered by the removal of sodium ions, and inhibited by ∼90% when chloride ions are replaced by gluconate or sulfate. Chloride-dependent copper uptake occurs with Cu(II) or Cu(I), although Cu(I) uptake is not inhibited by histidine, nor by silver ions. A well-characterized inhibitor of anion exchange systems, DIDS, inhibited apical copper uptake by 60-70%, while the addition of Mn(II) or Fe(II), competitive substrates for the divalent metal transporter DMT1, had no effect on copper uptake. We propose that anion exchangers play an unexpected role in copper absorption, utilizing copper-chloride complexes as pseudo-substrates. This pathway is also observed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts, human embryonic kidney cells, and Cos-7 cells. The special environment of low pH, low concentration of protein, and protonation of amino acids in the early intestinal lumen make this pathway especially important in

  20. Development of high-specificity antibodies against renal urate transporters using genetic immunization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guoshuang; Chen, Xiangmei; Wu, Di; Shi, Suozhu; Wang, Jianzhong; Ding, Rui; Hong, Quan; Feng, Zhe; Lin, Shupeng; Lu, Yang

    2006-11-30

    Recently three proteins, playing central roles in the bidirectional transport of urate in renal proximal tubules, were identified: two members of the organic anion transporter (OAT) family, OAT1 and OAT3, and a protein that designated renal urate-anion exchanger (URAT1). Antibodies against these transporters are very important for investigating their expressions and functions. With the cytokine gene as a molecular adjuvant, genetic immunization-based antibody production offers several advantages including high specificity and high recognition to the native protein compared with current methods. We fused high antigenicity fragments of the three transporters to the plasmids pBQAP-TT containing T-cell epitopes and flanking regions from tetanus toxin, respectively. Gene gun immunization with these recombinant plasmids and two other adjuvant plasmids, which express granulocyte/ macrophage colony-stimulating factor and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand, induced high level immunoglobulin G antibodies, respectively. The native corresponding proteins of URAT1, OAT1 and OAT3, in human kidney can be recognized by their specific antibodies, respectively, with Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Besides, URAT1 expression in Xenopus oocytes can also be recognized by its corresponding antibody with immuno-fluorescence. The successful production of the antibodies has provided an important tool for the study of UA transporters. PMID:17129404

  1. Topological and segmental phylogenetic analyses of the anion exchanger (band 3) family of transporters.

    PubMed

    Espanol, M J; Saier, M H

    1995-01-01

    Eleven sequenced anion exchanger (AE; band 3) proteins, including five AE1, four AE2 and two AE3 proteins, comprise the anion exchanger family (AEF) of homologous proteins. Eliminating the rat and rabbit proteins that are nearly identical to the corresponding mouse proteins, seven dissimilar members of this family were selected for study, divided into N-terminal, central and C-terminal segments (designated segments 0, 1 and 2, respectively) and analysed separately for sequence similarity and phylogenetic relatedness. Segments 0 are variable in length and sequence, are essentially lacking in some of the members of the AEF, and are not demonstrably homologous in other members of the family. All segments 1 and 2 are homologous, but they exhibit widely differing degrees of sequence divergence. Segments 2 are highly conserved in all AEF proteins. Segments 1 of the AE2 and AE3 proteins are as conserved as are segments 2, but segments 1 of the AE1 proteins have diverged from each other and from the AE2 and AE3 segments 1 much more than have segments 2 of these same proteins. The distributions of various types of amino acid residues in the putative transmembrane helical spanners of the seven dissimilar members of the AEF, based on a modification of the 14-spanner model of Wang et al. (1994) was determined, and this distribution was compared with those of other transmembrane transport proteins of known structure (bacterial rhodopsins, outer membrane porins of Gram-negative bacteria and bacterial photosynthetic reaction centres.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7795710

  2. Fruit juice, organic anion transporting polypeptides, and drug interactions in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2014-11-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are a group of membrane transport proteins that facilitate the influx of endogenous and exogenous substances across biological membranes. OATPs are found in enterocytes and hepatocytes and in brain, kidney, and other tissues. In enterocytes, OATPs facilitate the gastrointestinal absorption of certain orally administered drugs. Fruit juices such as grapefruit juice, orange juice, and apple juice contain substances that are OATP inhibitors. These fruit juices diminish the gastrointestinal absorption of certain antiallergen, antibiotic, antihypertensive, and β-blocker drugs. While there is no evidence, so far, that OATP inhibition affects the absorption of psychotropic medications, there is no room for complacency because the field is still nascent and because the necessary studies have not been conducted. Patients should therefore err on the side of caution, taking their medications at least 4 hours distant from fruit juice intake. Doing so is especially desirable with grapefruit juice, orange juice, and apple juice; with commercial fruit juices in which OATP-inhibiting substances are likely to be present in higher concentrations; with calcium-fortified fruit juices; and with medications such as atenolol and fexofenadine, the absorption of which is substantially diminished by concurrent fruit juice intake. PMID:25470100

  3. Prestin is an anion transporter dispensable for mechanical feedback amplification in Drosophila hearing.

    PubMed

    Kavlie, Ryan G; Fritz, Janice L; Nies, Florian; Göpfert, Martin C; Oliver, Dominik; Albert, Joerg T; Eberl, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, the membrane-based protein Prestin confers unique electromotile properties to cochlear outer hair cells, which contribute to the cochlear amplifier. Like mammals, the ears of insects, such as those of Drosophila melanogaster, mechanically amplify sound stimuli and have also been reported to express Prestin homologs. To determine whether the D. melanogaster Prestin homolog (dpres) is required for auditory amplification, we generated and analyzed dpres mutant flies. We found that dpres is robustly expressed in the fly's antennal ear. However, dpres mutant flies show normal auditory nerve responses, and intact non-linear amplification. Thus we conclude that, in D. melanogaster, auditory amplification is independent of Prestin. This finding resonates with prior phylogenetic analyses, which suggest that the derived motor function of mammalian Prestin replaced, or amended, an ancestral transport function. Indeed, we show that dpres encodes a functional anion transporter. Interestingly, the acquired new motor function in the phylogenetic lineage leading to birds and mammals coincides with loss of the mechanotransducer channel NompC (=TRPN1), which has been shown to be required for auditory amplification in flies. The advent of Prestin (or loss of NompC, respectively) may thus mark an evolutionary transition from a transducer-based to a Prestin-based mechanism of auditory amplification. PMID:25412730

  4. Role of organic anion-transporting polypeptides for cellular mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid) uptake.

    PubMed

    König, Jörg; Glaeser, Hartmut; Keiser, Markus; Mandery, Kathrin; Klotz, Ulrich; Fromm, Martin F

    2011-06-01

    The therapeutic effects and metabolism of mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease require intracellular accumulation of the drug in intestinal epithelial cells and hepatocytes. The molecular mechanisms of mesalazine uptake into cells have not been characterized so far. Using human embryonic kidney cells stably expressing uptake transporters of the organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) family, which are expressed in human intestine and/or liver, we found that mesalazine uptake is mediated by OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1 but not by OATP1A2 and OATP4A1. Moreover, genetic variations (*1b, *5, *15) in the SLCO1B1 gene encoding OATP1B1 reduced the K(m) value for mesalazine uptake from 55.1 to 16.3, 24.3, and 32.4 μM, respectively, and the respective V(max) values. Finally, budesonide, cyclosporine, and rifampin were identified as inhibitors of OATP1B1-, OATP1B3-, and OATP2B1-meditated mesalazine uptake. These in vitro data indicate that OATP-mediated uptake and its modification by genetic factors and comedications may play a role for mesalazine effects. PMID:21430235

  5. Posttranslational Regulation of Organic Anion Transporters by Ubiquitination: Known and Novel.

    PubMed

    Xu, Da; Wang, Haoxun; You, Guofeng

    2016-09-01

    Organic anion transporters (OATs) encoded by solute carrier 22 family are localized in the epithelia of multiple organs, where they mediate the absorption, distribution, and excretion of a diverse array of negatively charged environmental toxins and clinically important drugs. Alterations in the expression and function of OATs play important roles in intra- and interindividual variability of the therapeutic efficacy and the toxicity of many drugs. As a result, the activity of OATs must be under tight regulation so as to carry out their normal functions. The regulation of OAT transport activity in response to various stimuli can occur at several levels such as transcription, translation, and posttranslational modification. Posttranslational regulation is of particular interest, because it usually happens within a very short period of time (minutes to hours) when the body has to deal with rapidly changing amounts of substances as a consequence of variable intake of drugs, fluids, or meals as well as metabolic activity. This review article highlights the recent advances from our laboratory in uncovering several posttranslational mechanisms underlying OAT regulation. These advances offer the promise of identifying targets for novel strategies that will maximize therapeutic efficacy in drug development. PMID:27291023

  6. Understanding ion and solvent transport in anion exchange membranes under humidified conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarode, Himanshu

    Anion exchange membranes (AEM) have been studied for more than a decade for potential applications in low temperature fuel cells and other electrochemical devices. They offer the advantage of faster reaction kinetics under alkaline conditions and ability to perform without costly platinum catalyst. Inherently slow diffusion of hydroxide ions compared to protons is a primary reason for synthesizing and studying the ion transport properties in AEMs. The aim of this thesis is to understand ion transport in novel AEMs using Pulse Gradient stimulated Spin Echo Nuclear Magnetic Resonance technique (PGSE NMR), water uptake, ionic conductivity, Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) etc. All experiments were performed under humidified conditions (80--95% relative humidity) and fuel cell operating temperatures of 30--90°C. In this work, the NMR tube design was modified for humidifying the entire NMR tube evenly from our previous design. We have developed a new protocol for replacing caustic hydroxide with harmless fluoride or bicarbonate ions for 19F and 13 C NMR diffusion experiments. After performing these NMR experiments, we have obtained in-depth understanding of the morphology linked ion transport in AEMs. We have obtained the highest fluoride self-diffusion coefficient of > 1 x 10-5 cm2/sec ( 55°C) for ETFE-g-PVBTMA membrane which is a result of low tortuosity of 1 obtained for the membrane. This faster fluoride transport combined with low tortuosity of the membrane resulted in > 100mS/cm hydroxide conductivity for the membrane. Polycyclooctene (PCOE) based triblock copolymers are also studied for in-depth understanding of molecular weight, IEC, mechanical and transport properties. Effect of melting temperature of PCOE has favorable effect on increasing ion conductivity and lowering activation energy. Mechanical properties of these types of membranes were studied showing detrimental effect of water plasticization which results in unsuitable mechanical properties

  7. Selenium-containing organic nanoparticles as silent precursors for ultra-sensitive thiol-responsive transmembrane anion transport.

    PubMed

    Lang, Chao; Zhang, Xin; Dong, Zeyuan; Luo, Quan; Qiao, Shanpeng; Huang, Zupeng; Fan, Xiaotong; Xu, Jiayun; Liu, Junqiu

    2016-02-01

    An anion transporter with a selenoxide group was able to form nanoparticles in water, whose activity was fully turned off due to the aggregation effect. The formed nanoparticles have a uniform size and can be readily dispersed in water at high concentrations. Turn-on of the nanoparticles by reducing molecules is proposed to be a combined process, including the reduction of selenoxide to selenide, disassembly of the nanoparticles and location of the transporter to the lipid membrane. Accordingly, a special acceleration phase can be observed in the turn-on kinetic curves. Since turn-on of the nanoparticles is quantitatively related to the amount of reductant, the nanoparticles can be activated in a step-by-step manner. Due to the sensibility of this system to thiols, cysteine can be detected at low nanomolar concentrations. This ultra-sensitive thiol-responsive transmembrane anion transport system is quite promising in biological applications. PMID:26783054

  8. The inhibitory effects of camptothecin (CPT) and its derivatives on the substrate uptakes mediated by human solute carrier transporters (SLCs).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Chan, Ting; Zhu, Ling; Yan, Xiufeng; Cao, Zhisong; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Fanfan

    2016-09-01

    1. Camptothecin (CPT) and its derivatives are potent candidate compounds in treating cancers. However, their clinical applications are largely restricted by severe toxicities. 2. The solute carrier transporters (SLCs), particularly the organic anion transporting polypeptides and organic anion/cation transporters (OATs/OCTs) are widely expressed in human key organs and responsible for the cellular influx of many substances including endogenous substrates and many clinically important drugs. Drug-drug interactions through SLCs often result in unsatisfied therapeutic outcomes and/or unexpected toxicities. 3. This study investigated the inhibitory effects of CPT and its eight derivatives on the cellular uptake of specific substrates mediated by the essential SLCs in over-expressing Human embryonic kidney 293 cells. 4. Our data revealed that CPT, 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT), 10-methoxycamptothecin (MCPT) and 9-nitrocamptothecin (9NC) significantly inhibit the uptake activity of OAT3. 9NC also inhibited the substrate transport mediated by OAT1. The substrate uptakes of OAT1, OCTN1 and OCTN2 were significantly decreased in the presence of CZ112, while CPT-11 potently down-regulated the transport activity of OCT1 and OCT3. 5. In summary, our study demonstrated that CPT and its eight derivatives selectively inhibit the substrate uptakes mediated by the essential SLCs. This information contributes to understanding the localized toxicity of CPTs and provides novel molecular targets for the therapeutic optimization of CPTs in the future. PMID:26744836

  9. Interaction of macrolide antibiotics with intestinally expressed human and rat organic anion-transporting polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha; Haywood, Jamie; Davis, Charles B; Han, Chao; Garver, Eric; Dawson, Paul A

    2009-12-01

    The macrolide antibiotics azithromycin and clarithromycin are large molecular weight compounds that exhibit moderate to excellent oral bioavailability in preclinical species and humans. Previous concomitant dosing studies in rats using rifamycin SV, a general organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) inhibitor, suggested that the high oral absorption of azithromycin and clarithromycin may be caused by facilitative uptake by intestinal Oatps. In this study, we used OATP/Oatp-expressing cells to investigate the interaction of macrolides with rat Oatp1a5, human OATP1A2, and human/rat OATP2B1/Oatp2b1. These experiments showed that azithromycin and clarithromycin were potent inhibitors of rat Oatp1a5-mediated taurocholate uptake with apparent inhibitor constant (K(i)) values of 3.3 and 2.4 microM, respectively. The macrolides functioned as noncompetitive inhibitors but were not transport substrates for rat Oatp1a5, as assessed by direct uptake measurements of radiolabeled azithromycin and clarithromycin. cis-Inhibition and direct uptake studies further showed that azithromycin and clarithromycin were only very weak inhibitors and not substrates for human OATP1A2 and human/rat OATP2B1/Oatp2b1. In summary, these results indicate that the macrolides azithromycin and clarithromycin potently inhibit rat Oatp1a5 but do not significantly interact with OATP1A2 and OATP2B1/Oatp2b1. These intestinally expressed OATP/Oatp(s) are not responsible for the postulated facilitative uptake of azithromycin and clarithromycin, and alternative facilitative pathways must exist for their intestinal absorption. PMID:19741038

  10. Comparative bioinformatics, temporal and spatial expression analyses of Ixodes scapularis organic anion transporting polypeptides

    PubMed Central

    Radulović, Željko; Porter, Lindsay M.; Kim, Tae K.; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (Oatps) are an integral part of the detoxification mechanism in vertebrates and invertebrates. These cell surface proteins are involved in mediating the sodium-independent uptake and/or distribution of a broad array of organic amphipathic compounds and xenobiotic drugs. This study describes bioinformatics and biological characterization of 9 Oatp sequences in the Ixodes scapularis genome. These sequences have been annotated on the basis of 12 transmembrane domains, consensus motif D-X-RW-(I,V)-GAWW-X-G-(F,L)-L, and 11 conserved cysteine amino acid residues in the large extracellular loop 5 that characterize the Oatp superfamily. Ixodes scapularis Oatps may regulate non-redundant cross-tick species conserved functions in that they did not cluster as a monolithic group on the phylogeny tree and that they have orthologs in other ticks. Phylogeny clustering patterns also suggest that some tick Oatp sequences transport substrates that are similar to those of body louse, mosquito, eye worm, and filarial worm Oatps. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that all 9 I. scapularis Oatp sequences were expressed during tick feeding. Ixodes scapularis Oatp genes potentially regulate functions during early and/or late-stage tick feeding as revealed by normalized mRNA profiles. Normalized transcript abundance indicates that I. scapularis Oatp genes are strongly expressed in unfed ticks during the first 24 h of feeding and/or at the end of the tick feeding process. Except for 2 I. scapularis Oatps, which were expressed in the salivary glands and ovaries, all other genes were expressed in all tested organs, suggesting the significance of I. scapularis Oatps in maintaining tick homeostasis. Different I. scapularis Oatp mRNA expression patterns were detected and discussed with reference to different physiological states of unfed and feeding ticks. PMID:24582512

  11. Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 null mice are sensitive to cholestatic liver injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youcai; Csanaky, Iván L; Cheng, Xingguo; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2012-06-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1) is predominantly expressed in livers of mice and is thought to transport bile acids (BAs) from blood into liver. Because Oatp1a1 expression is markedly decreased in mice after bile duct ligation (BDL). We hypothesized that Oatp1a1-null mice would be protected against liver injury during BDL-induced cholestasis due largely to reduced hepatic uptake of BAs. To evaluate this hypothesis, BDL surgeries were performed in both male wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice. At 24 h after BDL, Oatp1a1-null mice showed higher serum alanine aminotransferase levels and more severe liver injury than WT mice, and all Oatp1a1-null mice died within 4 days after BDL, whereas all WT mice survived. At 24 h after BDL, surprisingly Oatp1a1-null mice had higher total BA concentrations in livers than WT mice, suggesting that loss of Oatp1a1 did not prevent BA accumulation in the liver. In addition, secondary BAs dramatically increased in serum of Oatp1a1-null BDL mice but not in WT BDL mice. Oatp1a1-null BDL mice had similar basolateral BA uptake (Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and Oatp1b2) and BA-efflux (multidrug resistance-associated protein [Mrp]-3, Mrp4, and organic solute transporter α/β) transporters, as well as BA-synthetic enzyme (Cyp7a1) in livers as WT BDL mice. Hepatic expression of small heterodimer partner Cyp3a11, Cyp4a14, and Nqo1, which are target genes of farnesoid X receptor, pregnane X receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, and NF-E2-related factor 2, respectively, were increased in WT BDL mice but not in Oatp1a1-null BDL mice. These results demonstrate that loss of Oatp1a1 function exacerbates cholestatic liver injury in mice and suggest that Oatp1a1 plays a unique role in liver adaptive responses to obstructive cholestasis. PMID:22461449

  12. Probenecid-resistant J774 cell expression of enhanced organic anion transport by a mechanism distinct from multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Cao, C; Steinberg, T H; Neu, H C; Cohen, D; Horwitz, S B; Hickman, S; Silverstein, S C

    1993-08-01

    Macrophages possess organic anion transporters that carry membrane-impermeant fluorescent dyes, such as lucifer yellow (LY) and carboxy-fluorescein, from the cytoplasm into endosomes and out of the cells. Probenecid, an organic anion transport inhibitor, blocks these processes. Prolonged incubation of J774 cells in medium containing 2.5 mM probenecid eventually kills most of these cells. To identify J774 variants that express increased organic anion transport activity, we selected probenecid-resistant (PBR) J774 cells by growing them in medium containing increasing concentrations of probenecid. When PBR and unselected J774 cells were loaded with LY by ATP4- permeabilization, the amount of LY accumulated by the PBR cells was about half that in the unselected cells. This difference was abolished by adding 10 mM probenecid to the medium in which the cells were loaded, suggesting that the diminished LY accumulation in PBR cells was due to enhanced LY secretion and that the PBR cells expressed increased organic anion transport activity. Direct comparison of LY efflux from J774 and PBR J774 cells showed a faster initial rate of secretion of LY from PBR J774 cells than from unselected J774 cells. To determine whether LY efflux is mediated by P-glycoprotein, we compared LY efflux in unselected J774 cells, PBR J774 cells, and multidrug-resistant J774 cells (J7.C1). LY efflux from J7.C1 cells was not sensitive to verapamil, which inhibits multidrug-resistance transporters, and reverses the multidrug-resistant phenotype of J7.C1 cells. The rates of LY efflux from unselected J774 and J7.C1 cells were virtually identical.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7909709

  13. Selenium-containing organic nanoparticles as silent precursors for ultra-sensitive thiol-responsive transmembrane anion transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Chao; Zhang, Xin; Dong, Zeyuan; Luo, Quan; Qiao, Shanpeng; Huang, Zupeng; Fan, Xiaotong; Xu, Jiayun; Liu, Junqiu

    2016-01-01

    An anion transporter with a selenoxide group was able to form nanoparticles in water, whose activity was fully turned off due to the aggregation effect. The formed nanoparticles have a uniform size and can be readily dispersed in water at high concentrations. Turn-on of the nanoparticles by reducing molecules is proposed to be a combined process, including the reduction of selenoxide to selenide, disassembly of the nanoparticles and location of the transporter to the lipid membrane. Accordingly, a special acceleration phase can be observed in the turn-on kinetic curves. Since turn-on of the nanoparticles is quantitatively related to the amount of reductant, the nanoparticles can be activated in a step-by-step manner. Due to the sensibility of this system to thiols, cysteine can be detected at low nanomolar concentrations. This ultra-sensitive thiol-responsive transmembrane anion transport system is quite promising in biological applications.An anion transporter with a selenoxide group was able to form nanoparticles in water, whose activity was fully turned off due to the aggregation effect. The formed nanoparticles have a uniform size and can be readily dispersed in water at high concentrations. Turn-on of the nanoparticles by reducing molecules is proposed to be a combined process, including the reduction of selenoxide to selenide, disassembly of the nanoparticles and location of the transporter to the lipid membrane. Accordingly, a special acceleration phase can be observed in the turn-on kinetic curves. Since turn-on of the nanoparticles is quantitatively related to the amount of reductant, the nanoparticles can be activated in a step-by-step manner. Due to the sensibility of this system to thiols, cysteine can be detected at low nanomolar concentrations. This ultra-sensitive thiol-responsive transmembrane anion transport system is quite promising in biological applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthetic procedure and

  14. In Vivo Linking of Membrane Lipids and the Anion Transporter Band 3 with Thiourea-modified Amphiphilic Lipid Probes

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Akihiro; Katagiri, Naohiro; Nishimura, Shinichi; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Kakeya, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins interact with membrane lipids for their structural stability and proper function. However, lipid–protein interactions are poorly understood at a molecular level especially in the live cell membrane, due to current limitations in methodology. Here, we report that amphiphilic lipid probes can be used to link membrane lipids and membrane proteins in vivo. Cholesterol and a phospholipid were both conjugated to a fluorescent tag through a linker containing thiourea. In the erythrocyte, the cholesterol probe fluorescently tagged the anion transporter band 3 via thiourea. Tagging by the cholesterol probe, but not by the phospholipid probe, was competitive with an anion transporter inhibitor, implying the presence of a specific binding pocket for cholesterol in this ~100 kDa protein. This method could prove an effective strategy for analyzing lipid–protein interactions in vivo in the live cell membrane. PMID:26616474

  15. Effect of Temperature on Nanophase-segregation and Transport in Polysulfone-Based Anion Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell: Molecular Dynamics Simulation Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Kwan; Han, Kyung; Choi, Ji; Chang, Ying; Bae, Chulsung; Jang, Seung; Georgia Tech Team; RPI Team

    2013-03-01

    The effect of temperature on hydrated polysulfone-based anion exchange membrane is studied using molecular dynamics. Various temperature conditions such as 313K, 353 K and 393K with two different water contents (10 wt % and 20 wt %) are simulated. From the viewpoint of structure-property relationship, we scrutinize the change in the nanophase-segregated structure of membrane and transport of anionic charge carrier (hydroxide) as a function of temperature. Since it is well known that the anion transport is less than the proton transport, we attempt to pursue a fundamental understanding of the difference between anion transport and proton transport. For this purpose, we simulate the polysulfone-based proton exchange membrane that has the same molecular structure and molecular weight. By analyzing the pair-correlation of charge carriers, we observe the correlation among hydroxides is much stronger than that among hydroniums. The extent of nanophase-segregation is also analyzed using structure factor profile.

  16. Ouabain Regulates CFTR-Mediated Anion Secretion and Na,K-ATPase Transport in ADPKD Cells.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Kyle; Venugopal, Jessica; Sánchez, Gladis; Magenheimer, Brenda S; Reif, Gail A; Wallace, Darren P; Calvet, James P; Blanco, Gustavo

    2015-12-01

    Cyst enlargement in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) requires the transepithelial secretion of fluid into the cyst lumen. We previously showed that physiological amounts of ouabain enhance cAMP-dependent fluid secretion and cyst growth of human ADPKD cyst epithelial cells in culture and formation of cyst-like dilations in metanephric kidneys from Pkd1 mutant mice. Here, we investigated the mechanisms by which ouabain promotes cAMP-dependent fluid secretion and cystogenesis. Ouabain (3 nM) enhanced cAMP-induced cyst-like dilations in embryonic kidneys from Pkd1 (m1Bei) mice, but had no effect on metanephroi from Pkd1 (m1Bei) mice that lack expression of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Similarly, ouabain stimulation of cAMP-induced fluid secretion and in vitro cyst growth of ADPKD cells were abrogated by CFTR inhibition, showing that CFTR is required for ouabain effects on ADPKD fluid secretion. Moreover, ouabain directly enhanced the cAMP-dependent Cl(-) efflux mediated by CFTR in ADPKD monolayers. Ouabain increased the trafficking of CFTR to the plasma membrane and up-regulated the expression of the CFTR activator PDZK1. Finally, ouabain decreased plasma membrane expression and activity of the Na,K-ATPase in ADPKD cells. Altogether, these results show that ouabain enhances net fluid secretion and cyst formation by activating apical anion secretion via CFTR and decreasing basolateral Na(+) transport via Na,K-ATPase. These results provide new information on the mechanisms by which ouabain affects ADPKD cells and further highlight the importance of ouabain as a non-genomic stimulator of cystogenesis in ADPKD. PMID:26289599

  17. Competitive anion transport in desalting of mixtures of organic acids by batch electrodialysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, P. J.; Parulekar, S. J.; Tsai, S.-P.; Energy Systems; Illinois Inst. of Tech.

    1998-04-01

    Desalting and separation of binary and quaternary acid mixtures via batch electrodialysis are investigated in this article. A monoselective cation exchange membrane and either a non-selective or a monoselective anion exchange membrane are employed in the electrodialysis stack. The effects of current density and composition of the initial feed of the electrodialysis stack (employing a non-selective anion exchange membrane) on its performance are studied in experiments involving mixtures of acetic and succinic acids. The effect of the type of the anion exchange membrane on the process performance is examined in desalting experiments involving a mixture of acetic, formic, lactic, and succinic acids. The trends observed in the experiments are interpreted in terms of species-specific parameters (such as molar concentration, charge on ionic species, molecular weight, degree of ionization, and ionic equivalent conductivity) and characteristics of anion exchange membrane used.

  18. Clinical CYP3A inhibitor alternatives to ketoconazole, clarithromycin and itraconazole, are not transported into the liver by hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides and organic cation transporter 1.

    PubMed

    Higgins, J William; Ke, Alice B; Zamek-Gliszczynski, Maciej J

    2014-11-01

    Ketoconazole is no longer available for clinical determination of worst-case victim drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential for cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A)-substrate drugs; clarithromycin and itraconazole are the proposed replacements. Ketoconazole DDIs are described by unbound systemic exposures due to absence of carrier-facilitated hepatic uptake, but this aspect of clarithromycin and itraconazole disposition has not been investigated. At present, transport of clarithromycin, itraconazole, and hydroxyitraconazole by hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) and organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1) was examined in vitro and in vivo. As for ketoconazole, uptake of clarithromycin, itraconazole, and hydroxyitraconazole into OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1, and OCT1 expressing human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells was not greater than in vector controls. Uptake into these HEK293 cells and human hepatocytes was not impaired by the prototypical OATP, OCT, and sodium/taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide inhibitors bromosulfophthalein, imipramine, and taurocholate, respectively. In contrast, uptake of the positive controls, atorvastatin for OATPs and metformin for OCT1, was significantly enhanced by relevant transporter expression, and uptake into both these HEK293 cells and human hepatocytes was significantly impaired by prototypical inhibitors. In Oatp1a/1b gene cluster knockout mice, which lack the major hepatic Oatps, and in Oct1/2 knockout mice, ketoconazole, clarithromycin, itraconazole, and hydroxyitraconazole oral exposure was not increased, and the liver-to-blood partition coefficient (Kp) was not decreased. By contrast relative to wild-type mice, in Oatp1a/1b- and Oct1/2-knockout mice, atorvastatin and metformin oral exposure was significantly increased, and liver Kp was significantly decreased. The present studies provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that, like ketoconazole, clarithromycin, itraconazole, and hydroxyitraconazole are not transported

  19. Maize ZmALMT2 is a root anion transporter that mediates constitutive root malate efflux

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a primary limitation to crop productivity on acid soils throughout the plant. Root efflux of organic acid anions constitutes a mechanism by which plants cope with toxic aluminum (Al) ions on acid soils. In this study, we have characterized ZmALMT2 (a member of aluminum-acti...

  20. Characterization of 22 Antituberculosis Drugs for Inhibitory Interaction Potential on Organic Anionic Transporter Polypeptide (OATP)-Mediated Uptake.

    PubMed

    Parvez, M Masud; Jung, Jin Ah; Shin, Ho Jung; Kim, Dong Hyun; Shin, Jae-Gook

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the inhibitory interaction potential of 22 currently marketed antituberculosis (TB) drugs on organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1)-, OATP2B1-, and OATP1B3-mediated uptake using in vitro Xenopus oocytes and HEK cells. Rifabutin, ethambutol, amoxicillin, linezolid, p-amino salicylic acid, and rifapentine exhibited mild to moderate inhibitory effects on OATP-mediated uptake of estrone-3 sulfate, estradiol 17β-d-glucuronide, and rosuvastatin. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of rifabutin, amoxicillin, ethambutol, p-amino salicylic acid, and linezolid were 35.4, 36.2, 57.6, 72.6, and 65.9 μM, respectively, for uptake mediated by organic anionic transporter polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) and 28.8, 28.9, 53.9, 31.5, and 61.0 μM, respectively, for uptake mediated by organic anionic transporter polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3). Streptomycin and linezolid showed greater inhibition of organic anionic transporter polypeptide 2B1 (OATP2B1)-mediated uptake, with IC50 values of 33.2 and 35.6 μM, respectively, along with mild inhibition of other drugs. Furthermore, rifabutin, amoxicillin, and rifapentine significantly inhibited OATP1B1-mediated rosuvastatin uptake, with IC50 values of 12.3, 13.0, and 11.0 μM, respectively, which showed a similar profile to estrone-3 sulfate uptake. The calculated R values ([I]u inlet,max/Ki, where [I]u inlet,max represents the maximum estimated inhibitor concentration inlet to the liver and Ki is the inhibition constant) as the drug-drug interaction (DDI) indexes of PAS, ethambutol, and amoxicillin were 26.1, 6.5, and 4.3 for OATP1B1 and 52.0, 8.0, and 4.6 for OATP1B3, and those for streptomycin, amikacin, and linezolid were 5.0, 4.2, and 4.4 for OATP2B1, respectively, suggesting a higher possibility of in vivo DDIs. This study is the first comprehensive report to show the novel inhibitory potential of 22 marketed anti-TB drugs on OATP-mediated uptake, providing evidence for future in vivo clinical DDI studies

  1. Evaluation of Proposed In Vivo Probe Substrates and Inhibitors for Phenotyping Transporter Activity in Humans.

    PubMed

    Momper, Jeremiah D; Tsunoda, Shirley M; Ma, Joseph D

    2016-07-01

    Drug transporters are present in various tissues and have a significant role in drug absorption, distribution, and elimination. The International Transporter Consortium has identified 7 transporters of increasing importance from evidence of clinically significant transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions. The transporters are P-glycoprotein, breast cancer resistance protein, organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1, OATP1B3, organic cation transporter 2, organic anion transporters (OAT) 1, and OAT3. Decision trees were created based on in vitro experiments to determine whether an in vivo transporter-mediated drug-drug interaction study is needed. Phenotyping is a methodology that evaluates real-time in vivo transporter activity, whereby changes in a probe substrate or probe inhibitor reflect alternations in the activity of the specified transporter. In vivo probe substrates and/or probe inhibitors have been proposed for each aforementioned transporter. In vitro findings and animal models provide the strongest evidence regarding probe specificity. However, such findings have not conclusively correlated with human phenotyping studies. Furthermore, the extent of contribution from multiple transporters in probe disposition complicates the ability to discern if study findings are the result of a specific transporter and thus provide a recommendation for a preferred probe for a drug transporter. PMID:27385182

  2. Anion Transport or Nucleotide Binding by Ucp2 Is Indispensable for Ucp2-Mediated Efferocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Suho; Moon, Hyunji; Kim, Gayoung; Cho, Jeong Hoon; Dae-Hee, Lee; Ye, Michael B.; Park, Daeho

    2015-01-01

    Rapid and efficient engulfment of apoptotic cells is an essential property of phagocytes for removal of the large number of apoptotic cells generated in multicellular organisms. To achieve this, phagocytes need to be able to continuously uptake apoptotic cells. It was recently reported that uncoupling protein 2 (Ucp2) promotes engulfment of apoptotic cells by increasing the phagocytic capacity, thereby allowing cells to continuously ingest apoptotic cells. However, the functions of Ucp2, beyond its possible role in dissipating the mitochondrial membrane potential, that contribute to elevation of the phagocytic capacity have not been determined. Here, we report that the anion transfer or nucleotide binding activity of Ucp2, as well as its dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, is necessary for Ucp2-mediated engulfment of apoptotic cells. To study these properties, we generated Ucp2 mutations that affected three different functions of Ucp2, namely, dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, transfer of anions, and binding of purine nucleotides. Mutations of Ucp2 that affected the proton leak did not enhance the engulfment of apoptotic cells. Although anion transfer and nucleotide binding mutations did not affect the mitochondrial membrane potential, they exerted a dominant-negative effect on Ucp2-mediated engulfment. Furthermore, none of our Ucp2 mutations increased the phagocytic capacity. We conclude that dissipation of the proton gradient by Ucp2 is not the only determinant of the phagocytic capacity and that anion transfer or nucleotide binding by Ucp2 is also essential for Ucp2-mediated engulfment of apoptotic cells. PMID:26082030

  3. Proton and anion transport at the tonoplast in crassulacean-acid-metabolism plants: specificity of the malate-influx system in Kalanchoë daigremontiana.

    PubMed

    White, P J; Smith, J A

    1989-09-01

    Tonoplast vesicles were prepared from leaf mesophyll homogenates of the crassulacean-acid-metabolism plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier de la Bâthie to study the effects of anions on ATP- and inorganic-pyrophosphate (PPi)-dependent H(+) transport. In the presence of gramicidin, substrate hydrolysis by the tonoplast ATPase was characteristically stimulated by chloride and inhibited by nitrate, but was unaffected by malate and a wide range of other organic-acid anions; the PPiase was anion-insensitive. Malate was more effective than chloride both in stimulating ATP- and PPi-dependent vesicle acidification (measured as quinacrine-fluorescence quenching) and in dissipating a pre-existing inside-positive membrane potential (measured as oxonol-V-fluorescence quenching), indicating that malate was more readily transported across the tonoplast. Certain other four-carbon dicarboxylates also supported high rates of vesicle acidification, their order of effectiveness being fumarate ≫ malate ∼-succinate > oxalacetate ∼- tartrate; the five-carbon dicarboxylates 2-oxoglutarate and glutarate were also transported, although at lower rates. Experiments with non-naturally occurring anions indicated that the malate transporter was not stereospecific, but that it required the trans-carboxyl configuration for transport. Shorter-chain or longer-chain dicarboxylates were not transported, and neither were monocarboxylates, the amino-acid anions aspartate and glutamate, nor the tricarboxylate isocitrate. The non-permeant anions maleate and tartronate appeared to be competitive inhibitors of malate transport but did not affect chloride transport, indicating that malate and chloride influx at the tonoplast might be mediated by separate transporters. PMID:24201527

  4. Coupled Effects of Vadose Zone Hydrodynamics and Anionic Surfactant Aerosol-22 on the Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum in Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darnault, C. J.; Jacobson, A. R.; Powelson, D.; Baveye, P.; Peng, Z.; Yu, C.

    2013-12-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a microbial pathogen that may be found in soil, surface and groundwater resources. We studied their transport behavior under conditions where both C. parvum oocysts and chemicals that may affect their mobility are present in soils. Surfactants occur widely in soils due to agricultural practices such as wastewater irrigation and application of agrichemicals. Surfactants decrease the surface tension of the soil solution, which may reduce the ability of C. parvum oocysts to be retained at gas-water interfaces. Understanding the fate and transport of C. parvum oocysts following land application of manure and use of surfactants in rural and agricultural watersheds is critical to assess the threat to water resources. We investigated the coupled effects of vadose zone hydrodynamics and an anionic surfactant Aerosol-22 on the transport of C. parvum oocysts in natural structured and non-structured agricultural or range soils from Illinois and Utah. Column transport experiments consisted of unsaturated flow subject to macropore and fingered flows resulting from simulated rainfall with and without surfactant. To assess the behavior of C. parvum oocysts in soils, the breakthrough and distribution of C. parvum oocysts in soil profiles were obtained using qPCR. We observed that surfactant enhanced the transport of C. parvum oocysts when preferential flow paths are present. However, when the interconnection between macropores is not established in the soils, surfactant limited the transport of C. parvum oocysts through the soil matrix by forming oocyst-surfactant-Ca flocs.

  5. Functional, structural and phylogenetic analysis of domains underlying the Al-sensitivity of the aluminium-activated malate/anion transporter, TaALMT1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TaALMT1 (Triticum aestivum Aluminum Activated Malate Transporter) is the founding member of a novel gene family of anion transporters (ALMTs) that mediate the efflux of organic acids. A small subgroup of root-localized ALMTs, including TaALMT1, is physiologically associated with in planta aluminum (...

  6. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1).

    PubMed

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

    2014-10-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. PMID:25088042

  7. Carbon dioxide transport in molten calcium carbonate occurs through an oxo-Grotthuss mechanism via a pyrocarbonate anion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradini, Dario; Coudert, François-Xavier; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe

    2016-05-01

    The reactivity, speciation and solvation structure of CO2 in carbonate melts are relevant for both the fate of carbon in deep geological formations and for its electroreduction to CO (to be used as fuel) when solvated in a molten carbonate electrolyte. In particular, the high solubility of CO2 in carbonate melts has been tentatively attributed to the formation of the pyrocarbonate anion, C2O52–. Here we study, by first-principles molecular dynamics simulations, the behaviour of CO2 in molten calcium carbonate. We find that pyrocarbonate forms spontaneously and the identity of the CO2 molecule is quickly lost through O2– exchange. The transport of CO2 in this molten carbonate thus occurs in a fashion similar to the Grotthuss mechanism in water, and is three times faster than molecular diffusion. This shows that Grotthuss-like transport is more general than previously thought.

  8. Carbon dioxide transport in molten calcium carbonate occurs through an oxo-Grotthuss mechanism via a pyrocarbonate anion.

    PubMed

    Corradini, Dario; Coudert, François-Xavier; Vuilleumier, Rodolphe

    2016-05-01

    The reactivity, speciation and solvation structure of CO2 in carbonate melts are relevant for both the fate of carbon in deep geological formations and for its electroreduction to CO (to be used as fuel) when solvated in a molten carbonate electrolyte. In particular, the high solubility of CO2 in carbonate melts has been tentatively attributed to the formation of the pyrocarbonate anion, C2O5(2-). Here we study, by first-principles molecular dynamics simulations, the behaviour of CO2 in molten calcium carbonate. We find that pyrocarbonate forms spontaneously and the identity of the CO2 molecule is quickly lost through O(2-) exchange. The transport of CO2 in this molten carbonate thus occurs in a fashion similar to the Grotthuss mechanism in water, and is three times faster than molecular diffusion. This shows that Grotthuss-like transport is more general than previously thought. PMID:27102679

  9. Pitavastatin is a more sensitive and selective organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B clinical probe than rosuvastatin

    PubMed Central

    Prueksaritanont, Thomayant; Chu, Xiaoyan; Evers, Raymond; Klopfer, Stephanie O; Caro, Luzelena; Kothare, Prajakti A; Dempsey, Cynthia; Rasmussen, Scott; Houle, Robert; Chan, Grace; Cai, Xiaoxin; Valesky, Robert; Fraser, Iain P; Stoch, S Aubrey

    2014-01-01

    Aims Rosuvastatin and pitavastatin have been proposed as probe substrates for the organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B, but clinical data on their relative sensitivity and selectivity to OATP1B inhibitors are lacking. A clinical study was therefore conducted to determine their relative suitability as OATP1B probes using single oral (PO) and intravenous (IV) doses of the OATP1B inhibitor rifampicin, accompanied by a comprehensive in vitro assessment of rifampicin inhibitory potential on statin transporters. Methods The clinical study comprised of two separate panels of eight healthy subjects. In each panel, subjects were randomized to receive a single oral dose of rosuvastatin (5 mg) or pitavastatin (1 mg) administered alone, concomitantly with rifampicin (600 mg) PO or IV. The in vitro transporter studies were performed using hepatocytes and recombinant expression systems. Results Rifampicin markedly increased exposures of both statins, with greater differential increases after PO vs. IV rifampicin only for rosuvastatin. The magnitudes of the increases in area under the plasma concentration–time curve were 5.7- and 7.6-fold for pitavastatin and 4.4- and 3.3-fold for rosuvastatin, after PO and IV rifampicin, respectively. In vitro studies showed that rifampicin was an inhibitor of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, breast cancer resistance protein and multidrug resistance protein 2, but not of organic anion transporter 3. Conclusions The results indicate that pitavastatin is a more sensitive and selective and thus preferred clinical OATP1B probe substrate than rosuvastatin, and that a single IV dose of rifampicin is a more selective OATP1B inhibitor than a PO dose. PMID:24617605

  10. The Effect of the Anionic Surfactant Aerosol-80 on the Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts through Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, A. R.; Powelson, D.; Darnault, C.

    2012-12-01

    Transport of the pathogenic protozoan Cryptosporidium parvum through soils threatens ground and surface waters. C. parvum may be introduced into soils in the manure of infected calves. The presence of other chemicals in the soil applied as or with amendments, may affect the transport of the C. parvum oocysts. Surfactants, which are used in many herbicide formulations, decrease water tension and may disrupt the air-water interface where oocysts are thought to accumulate. We investigate the effect of the anionic surfactant Aerosol-80, at two concentrations, on the transport of C. parvum oocysts by unsaturated flow through "undisturbed" soil columns from Illinois and Utah. Following each experiment oocysts in the leachate and distributed throughout the soil profile are quantified by real time PCR. We find that the presence of the surfactant accelerates the transport of the oocysts through preferential flow paths. On the other hand, when connected macropores are not present in the soils, the presence of the surfactant retards the transport of the oocysts through the soil matrix by straining oocyst-surfactant-Ca flocs. Surfactant efficacy is affected by soil type.

  11. Expression of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1A2 in Red Blood Cells and Its Potential Impact on Antimalarial Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hubeny, Andrea; Keiser, Markus; Oswald, Stefan; Jedlitschky, Gabriele; Kroemer, Heyo K; Siegmund, Werner; Grube, Markus

    2016-10-01

    Important antimalarial drugs, including quinolines, act against blood schizonts by interfering with hemoglobin metabolism. To reach their site of action, these compounds have to cross the plasma membrane of red blood cells (RBCs). Organic cation transporters (OCTs) and organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are important uptake transporters and interesting candidates for local drug transport. We therefore studied their interaction with antimalarial compounds (quinine, chloroquine, mefloquine, pyrimethamine, artemisinin, and artesunate) and characterized the expression of OATP1A2 and OATP2B1 in RBCs. Competition assays using transporter-overexpressing Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCKII) cells and the model substrate estrone-3-sulfate identified quinine and chloroquine as potent inhibitors of OATP1A2 function (IC50 quinine: 0.7 ± 1.2 µM; chloroquine: 1.0 ± 1.5 µM), but no or only moderate effects were observed for OATP2B1. Subsequently, quinine was identified as a substrate of OATP1A2 (Km 23.4 µM). The OATP1A2-mediated uptake was sensitive to the OATP1A2-specific inhibitor naringin. Both OATPs were expressed in human RBCs, and ex vivo transport studies demonstrated naringin-sensitive accumulation of quinine in these cells (60 pmol versus 38 pmol/5 × 10(5) RBCs). Additional transport studies using OCT1-3 and organic cation transporter novel type 1 (OCTN1) indicated only significant quinine uptake by OCT1, which was not detected in RBCs. In conclusion, our data demonstrate expression of OATP2B1 and OATP1A2 in RBCs as well as OATP1A2-mediated uptake of quinine. Therefore, modulation of OATP1A2 function may affect quinine uptake into erythrocytes. PMID:27504015

  12. Organic anion transporter 2 transcript variant 1 shows broad ligand selectivity when expressed in multiple cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Hotchkiss, Adam G.; Berrigan, Liam; Pelis, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    Organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2) is likely important for renal and hepatic drug elimination. Three variants of the OAT2 peptide sequence have been described – OAT2 transcript variant 1 (OAT2-tv1), OAT2 transcript variant 2 (OAT2-tv2), and OAT2 transcript variant 3 (OAT2-tv3). Early studies helping to define the ligand selectivity of OAT2 failed to identify the variant used, and the studies used several heterologous expression systems. In preliminary studies using OAT2-tv1, we failed to observe transport of several previously identified substrates, leading us to speculate that ligand selectivity of OAT2 differs with variant and/or heterologous expression system. The purpose was to further investigate the ligand selectivity of the OAT2 variants expressed in multiple cell types. We cloned OAT2-tv1 and OAT2-tv2, but were unsuccessful at amplifying mRNA for OAT2-tv3 from human kidney. OAT2-tv1 and OAT2-tv2 were individually expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK), Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK), or Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. mRNA for OAT2-tv1 and OAT2-tv2 was demonstrated in each cell type transfected with the respective construct, indicating their expression. OAT2-tv1 trafficked to the plasma membrane of all three cell types, but OAT2-tv2 did not. OAT2-tv1 transported penciclovir in all three cell types, but failed to transport para-aminohippurate, succinate, glutarate, estrone-3-sulfate, paclitaxel or dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate – previously identified substrates of OAT2-tv2. Not surprising given its lack of plasma membrane expression, OAT2-tv2 failed to transport any of the organic solutes examined, including penciclovir. Penciclovir transport by OAT2-tv1 was sensitive to large (e.g., cyclosporine A) and small (e.g., allopurinol) organic compounds, as well as organic anions, cations and neutral compounds, highlighting the multiselectivity of OAT2-tv1. The potencies with which indomethacin, furosemide, cyclosporine A and cimetidine inhibited OAT2

  13. Decrease of pH gradients in tonoplast vesicles by NO/sub 3//sup -/ and Cl/sup -/: evidence for H/sup +/-coupled anion transport

    SciTech Connect

    Schumaker, K.S.; Sze, H.

    1987-03-01

    Chloride or nitrate decreased a pH gradient (measured as (/sup 14/C)methylamine accumulation) in tonoplast-enriched vesicles. The ..delta..pH decrease was dependent on the anion concentration. These effects are independent of the anion-sensitive H/sup +/-ATPase of the tonoplast, since the pH gradient (acid inside) was imposed artificially using a pH jump or a K/sup +/ gradient and nigericin. 4,4'-Diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbene disulfonic acid partially prevented the decrease in pH gradient induced by Cl/sup -/. Two possible models to account for this anion-dependent decrease of ..delta..pH are: (a) H/sup +/ loss is accompanied by Cl/sup -/ or NO/sub 3//sup -/ efflux from the vesicles via H/sup +//anion symport systems on the tonoplast and (b) H/sup +/ loss is accompanied by Cl/sup -/ or NO/sub 3//sup -/ uptake into the vesicles via H/sup +//anion antiport systems. Depending on the requirements and conditions of the cell, these two systems would serve to either mobilize Cl/sup -/ and NO/sub 3//sup -/ stored in the vacuole for use in the cytoplasm or to drive anions into the vacuole. Chloride or nitrate also decreased a pH gradient in fractions containing plasma membrane and Golgi, implying that these membranes may have similar H/sup +/-coupled anion transport systems.

  14. Decrease of pH Gradients in Tonoplast Vesicles by NO3− and Cl−: Evidence for H+-Coupled Anion Transport 1

    PubMed Central

    Schumaker, Karen S.; Sze, Heven

    1987-01-01

    Chloride or nitrate decreased a pH gradient (measured as [14C]methylamine accumulation) in tonoplast-enriched vesicles. The ΔpH decrease was dependent on the anion concentration. These effects are independent of the anion-sensitive H+-ATPase of the tonoplast, since the pH gradient (acid inside) was imposed artificially using a pH jump or a K+ gradient and nigericin. 4,4′-Diisothiocyano-2,2′-stilbene disulfonic acid partially prevented the decrease in pH gradient induced by Cl−. Two possible models to account for this anion-dependent decrease of ΔpH are: (a) H+ loss is accompanied by Cl− or NO3− efflux from the vesicles via H+/anion symport systems on the tonoplast and (b) H+ loss is accompanied by Cl− or NO3− uptake into the vesicles via H+/anion antiport systems. Depending on the requirements and conditions of the cell, these two systems would serve to either mobilize Cl− and NO3− stored in the vacuole for use in the cytoplasm or to drive anions into the vacuole. Chloride or nitrate also decreased a pH gradient in fractions containing plasma membrane and Golgi, implying that these membranes may have similar H+-coupled anion transport systems. PMID:16665277

  15. Transporters involved in renal excretion of N-carbamoylglutamate, an orphan drug to treat inborn n-acetylglutamate synthase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Schwob, Elisabeth; Hagos, Yohannes; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Burckhardt, Birgitta C

    2014-12-15

    Inborn defects in N-acetylglutamate (NAG) synthase (NAGS) cause a reduction of NAG, an essential cofactor for the initiation of the urea cycle. As a consequence, blood ammonium concentrations are elevated, leading to severe neurological disorders. The orphan drug N-carbamoylglutamate (NCG; Carbaglu), efficiently overcomes NAGS deficiency. However, not much is known about the transporters involved in the uptake, distribution, and elimination of the divalent organic anion NCG. Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) as well as organic anion transporters (OATs) working in cooperation with sodium dicarboxylate cotransporter 3 (NaDC3) accept a wide variety of structurally unrelated drugs. To test for possible interactions with OATPs and OATs, the impact of NCG on these transporters in stably transfected human embryonic kidney-293 cells was measured. The two-electrode voltage-clamp technique was used to monitor NCG-mediated currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes that expressed NaDC3. Neither OATPs nor OAT2 and OAT3 interacted with NCG, but OAT1 transported NCG. In addition, NCG was identified as a high-affinity substrate of NaDC3. Preincubation of OAT4-transfected human embryonic kidney-293 cells with NCG showed an increased uptake of estrone sulfate, the reference substrate of OAT4, indicating efflux of NCG by OAT4. In summary, NaDC3 and, to a lesser extent, OAT1 are likely to be responsible for the uptake of NCG from the blood. Efflux of NCG across the luminal membrane into the tubular lumen probably occurs by OAT4 completing renal secretion of this drug. PMID:25354943

  16. Role of glutathione transport processes in kidney function

    SciTech Connect

    Lash, Lawrence H. . E-mail: l.h.lash@wayne.edu

    2005-05-01

    The kidneys are highly dependent on an adequate supply of glutathione (GSH) to maintain normal function. This is due, in part, to high rates of aerobic metabolism, particularly in the proximal tubules. Additionally, the kidneys are potentially exposed to high concentrations of oxidants and reactive electrophiles. Renal cellular concentrations of GSH are maintained by both intracellular synthesis and transport from outside the cell. Although function of specific carriers has not been definitively demonstrated, it is likely that multiple carriers are responsible for plasma membrane transport of GSH. Data suggest that the organic anion transporters OAT1 and OAT3 and the sodium-dicarboxylate 2 exchanger (SDCT2 or NaDC3) mediate uptake across the basolateral plasma membrane (BLM) and that the organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP1 and at least one of the multidrug resistance proteins mediate efflux across the brush-border plasma membrane (BBM). BLM transport may be used pharmacologically to provide renal proximal tubular cells with exogenous GSH to protect against oxidative stress whereas BBM transport functions physiologically in turnover of cellular GSH. The mitochondrial GSH pool is derived from cytoplasmic GSH by transport into the mitochondrial matrix and is mediated by the dicarboxylate and 2-oxoglutarate exchangers. Maintenance of the mitochondrial GSH pool is critical for cellular and mitochondrial redox homeostasis and is important in determining susceptibility to chemically induced apoptosis. Hence, membrane transport processes are critical to regulation of renal cellular and subcellular GSH pools and are determinants of susceptibility to cytotoxicity induced by oxidants and electrophiles.

  17. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1)

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

    2014-10-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. - Highlights: • We optimized a novel assay for determination of Oatp1d1 interactors • Oatp1d1 is the first SLC characterized fish xenobiotic transporter • PFOS, nonylphenol, diclofenac, EE2, caffeine are high affinity Oatp1d1substrates • PFOA, chlorpyrifos

  18. Expression Patterns of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3 Protein in Human Pediatric Liver.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Margaret M S; Hines, Ronald N; Schuetz, Erin G; Meibohm, Bernd

    2016-07-01

    Determining appropriate pharmacotherapy in young children can be challenging due to uncertainties in the development of drug disposition pathways. With knowledge of the ontogeny of drug-metabolizing enzymes and an emerging focus on drug transporters, the developmental pattern of the uptake transporters organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and 1B3 was assessed by relative protein quantification using Western blotting in 80 human pediatric liver specimens covering an age range from 9 days to 12 years. OATP1B3 exhibited high expression at birth, which declined over the first months of life, and then increased again in the preadolescent period. In comparison with children 6-12 years of age, the relative protein expression of highly glycosylated (total) OATP1B3 was 235% (357%) in children <3 months of age, 33% (64%) in the age group from 3 months to 2 years, and 50% (59%) in children 2-6 years of age. The fraction of highly glycosylated to total OATP1B3 increased with age, indicating ontogenic processes not only at the transcriptional level but also at the post-translational level. Similar to OATP1B3, OATP1B1 showed high interindividual variability in relative protein expression but no statistically significant difference among the studied age groups. PMID:27098745

  19. Dysfunction of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 alters intestinal bacteria and bile acid metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2012-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1) is predominantly expressed in liver and is able to transport bile acids (BAs) in vitro. Male Oatp1a1-null mice have increased concentrations of taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA), a secondary BA generated by intestinal bacteria, in both serum and livers. Therefore, in the present study, BA concentrations and intestinal bacteria in wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice were quantified to investigate whether the increase of secondary BAs in Oatp1a1-null mice is due to alterations in intestinal bacteria. The data demonstrate that Oatp1a1-null mice : (1) have similar bile flow and BA concentrations in bile as WT mice; (2) have a markedly different BA composition in the intestinal contents, with a decrease in conjugated BAs and an increase in unconjugated BAs; (3) have BAs in the feces that are more deconjugated, desulfated, 7-dehydroxylated, 3-epimerized, and oxidized, but less 7-epimerized; (4) have 10-fold more bacteria in the small intestine, and 2-fold more bacteria in the large intestine which is majorly due to a 200% increase in Bacteroides and a 30% reduction in Firmicutes; and (5) have a different urinary excretion of bacteria-related metabolites than WT mice. In conclusion, the present study for the first time established that lack of a liver transporter (Oatp1a1) markedly alters the intestinal environment in mice, namely the bacteria composition. PMID:22496825

  20. Dysfunction of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1a1 Alters Intestinal Bacteria and Bile Acid Metabolism in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youcai; Limaye, Pallavi B.; Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D.; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2012-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1 (Oatp1a1) is predominantly expressed in liver and is able to transport bile acids (BAs) in vitro. Male Oatp1a1-null mice have increased concentrations of taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA), a secondary BA generated by intestinal bacteria, in both serum and livers. Therefore, in the present study, BA concentrations and intestinal bacteria in wild-type (WT) and Oatp1a1-null mice were quantified to investigate whether the increase of secondary BAs in Oatp1a1-null mice is due to alterations in intestinal bacteria. The data demonstrate that Oatp1a1-null mice : (1) have similar bile flow and BA concentrations in bile as WT mice; (2) have a markedly different BA composition in the intestinal contents, with a decrease in conjugated BAs and an increase in unconjugated BAs; (3) have BAs in the feces that are more deconjugated, desulfated, 7-dehydroxylated, 3-epimerized, and oxidized, but less 7-epimerized; (4) have 10-fold more bacteria in the small intestine, and 2-fold more bacteria in the large intestine which is majorly due to a 200% increase in Bacteroides and a 30% reduction in Firmicutes; and (5) have a different urinary excretion of bacteria-related metabolites than WT mice. In conclusion, the present study for the first time established that lack of a liver transporter (Oatp1a1) markedly alters the intestinal environment in mice, namely the bacteria composition. PMID:22496825

  1. Classification of Inhibitors of Hepatic Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides (OATPs): Influence of Protein Expression on Drug–Drug Interactions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) influence the pharmacokinetics of several drug classes and are involved in many clinical drug–drug interactions. Predicting potential interactions with OATPs is, therefore, of value. Here, we developed in vitro and in silico models for identification and prediction of specific and general inhibitors of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1. The maximal transport activity (MTA) of each OATP in human liver was predicted from transport kinetics and protein quantification. We then used MTA to predict the effects of a subset of inhibitors on atorvastatin uptake in vivo. Using a data set of 225 drug-like compounds, 91 OATP inhibitors were identified. In silico models indicated that lipophilicity and polar surface area are key molecular features of OATP inhibition. MTA predictions identified OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 as major determinants of atorvastatin uptake in vivo. The relative contributions to overall hepatic uptake varied with isoform specificities of the inhibitors. PMID:22541068

  2. Meta-analysis of expression of hepatic organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) transporters in cellular systems relative to human liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Badée, Justine; Achour, Brahim; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Galetin, Aleksandra

    2015-04-01

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1 transporters play an important role in hepatic drug disposition. Recently, an increasing number of studies have reported proteomic expression data for OATP transporters. However, systematic analysis and understanding of the actual differences in OATP expression between liver tissue and commonly used cellular systems is lacking. In the current study, meta-analysis was performed to assess the protein expression of OATP transporters reported in hepatocytes relative to liver tissue and to identify any potential correlations in transporter expression levels in the same individual. OATP1B1 was identified as the most abundant uptake transporter at 5.9 ± 8.3, 5.8 ± 3.3, and 4.2 ± 1.7 fmol/μg protein in liver tissue, sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes (SCHH), and cryopreserved suspended hepatocytes, respectively. The rank order in average expression in liver tissue and cellular systems was OATP1B1 > OATP1B3 ≈ OATP2B1. Abundance levels of the OATP transporters investigated were not significantly different between liver and cellular systems, with the exception of OATP2B1 expression in SCHH relative to liver tissue. Analysis of OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP2B1 liver expression data in the same individuals (n = 86) identified weak (OATP1B1-OATP2B1) to moderately (OATP1B3-OATP2B1) significant correlations. A significant weak correlation was noted between OATP1B1 abundance and age of human donors, whereas expression of the OATPs investigated was independent of sex. Implications of the current analysis on the in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of transporter-mediated drug disposition using physiologically based pharmacokinetic models are discussed. PMID:25564656

  3. Active intestinal absorption of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent ciprofloxacin by organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1a5.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Hiroshi; Shirasaka, Yoshiyuki; Haga, Makoto; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2012-09-01

    Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drugs are absorbed efficiently after oral administration despite of their hydrophilic nature, implying an involvement of carrier-mediated transport in their membrane transport process. It has been that several fluoroquinolones are substrates of organic anion transporter polypeptides OATP1A2 expressed in human intestine derived Caco-2 cells. In the present study, to clarify the involvement of OATP in intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin, the contribution of Oatp1a5, which is expressed at the apical membranes of rat enterocytes, to intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin was investigated in rats. The intestinal membrane permeability of ciprofloxacin was measured by in situ and the vascular perfused closed loop methods. The disappeared and absorbed amount of ciprofloxacin from the intestinal lumen were increased markedly in the presence of 7,8-benzoflavone, a breast cancer resistance protein inhibitor, and ivermectin, a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, while it was decreased significantly in the presence of these inhibitors in combination with naringin, an Oatp1a5 inhibitor. Furthermore, the Oatp1a5-mediated uptake of ciprofloxacin was saturable with a K(m) value of 140 µm, and naringin inhibited the uptake with an IC(50) value of 18 µm by Xenopus oocytes expressing Oatp1a5. Naringin reduced the permeation of ciprofloxacin from the mucosal-to-serosal side, with an IC(50) value of 7.5 µm by the Ussing-type chamber method. The estimated IC(50) values were comparable to that of Oatp1a5. These data suggest that Oatp1a5 is partially responsible for the intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin. In conclusion, the intestinal absorption of ciprofloxacin could be affected by influx transporters such as Oatp1a5 as well as the efflux transporters such as P-gp and Bcrp. PMID:22899169

  4. JBP485 improves gentamicin-induced acute renal failure by regulating the expression and function of Oat1 and Oat3 in rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xinjin; Meng, Qiang; Liu, Qi; Wang, Changyuan; Sun, Huijun; Peng, Jinyong; Ma, Xiaochi; Kaku, Taiichi; Liu, Kexin

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effects of JBP485 (an anti-inflammatory dipeptide and a substrate of OAT) on regulation of the expression and function of renal Oat1 and Oat3, which can accelerate the excretion of accumulated uremic toxins (e.g. indoxyl sulfate) in the kidney to improve gentamicin-induced ARF in rats. JBP485 caused a significant decrease in the accumulation of endogenous substances (creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and indoxyl sulfate) in vivo, an increase in the excretion of exogenous compounds (lisinopril and inulin) into urine, and up-regulation of the expressions of renal Oat1 and Oat3 in the kidney tissues and slices via substrate induction. To determine the effect of JBP485 on the accelerated excretion of uremic toxins mediated by Oat1 and Oat3, the mRNA and protein expression levels of renal basolateral Oats were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, western blot, immunohistochemical analysis and an immunofluorescence method. Gentamicin down-regulated the expression of Oats mRNA and protein in rat kidney, and these effects were reversed after administration of JBP485. In addition, JBP485 caused a significant decrease in MPO and MDA levels in the kidney, and improved the pathological condition of rat kidney. These results indicated that JBP485 improved acute renal failure by increasing the expression and function of Oat1 and Oat3, and by decreasing overoxidation of the kidney in gentamicin-induced ARF rats. PMID:23707770

  5. Interaction of human organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2) and sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) with antineoplastic drugs.

    PubMed

    Marada, Venkata V V R; Flörl, Saskia; Kühne, Annett; Müller, Judith; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Hagos, Yohannes

    2015-01-01

    The ability of an antineoplastic drug to exert its cytostatic effect depends largely on the balance between its uptake into and extrusion from the cancer cells. ATP driven efflux transporter proteins drive the export of antineoplastic drugs and play a pivotal role in the development of chemoresistance. As regards uptake transporters, comparably less is known on their impact in drug action. In the current study, we characterized the interactions of two uptake transporter proteins, expressed mainly in the liver; the organic anion transporter 2 (OAT2, encoded by the SLC22A7 gene) and the sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP, encoded by the SLC10A1 gene), stably transfected in human embryonic kidney cells, with some antineoplastic agents that are routinely being used in cancer chemotherapy. Whereas NTCP did not show any strong interactions with the cytostatics tested, we observed a very strong inhibition of OAT2 mediated [(3)H] cGMP uptake in the presence of bendamustine, irinotecan and paclitaxel. The Ki values of OAT2 for bendamustine, irinotecan and paclitaxel were determined to be 43.3±4.33μM, 26.4±2.34μM and 10.4±0.45μM, respectively. Incubation of bendamustine with OAT2 expressing cells increased the caspase-3 activity, and this increase was inhibited by simultaneous incubation with bendamustine and probenecid, a well-known inhibitor of OATs, suggesting that bendamustine is a substrate of OAT2. A higher accumulation of irinotecan was observed in OAT2 expressing cells compared to control pcDNA cells by HPLC analysis of cell lysates. The accumulation was diminished in the presence of cGMP, the substrate we used to functionally characterize OAT2, suggesting specificity of this uptake and the fact that OAT2 mediates uptake of irinotecan. PMID:25481222

  6. JBP485 improves gentamicin-induced acute renal failure by regulating the expression and function of Oat1 and Oat3 in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Xinjin; Meng, Qiang; Liu, Qi; Wang, Changyuan; Sun, Huijun; Peng, Jinyong; Ma, Xiaochi; Kaku, Taiichi; Liu, Kexin

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effects of JBP485 (an anti-inflammatory dipeptide and a substrate of OAT) on regulation of the expression and function of renal Oat1 and Oat3, which can accelerate the excretion of accumulated uremic toxins (e.g. indoxyl sulfate) in the kidney to improve gentamicin-induced ARF in rats. JBP485 caused a significant decrease in the accumulation of endogenous substances (creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and indoxyl sulfate) in vivo, an increase in the excretion of exogenous compounds (lisinopril and inulin) into urine, and up-regulation of the expressions of renal Oat1 and Oat3 in the kidney tissues and slices via substrate induction. To determine the effect of JBP485 on the accelerated excretion of uremic toxins mediated by Oat1 and Oat3, the mRNA and protein expression levels of renal basolateral Oats were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, western blot, immunohistochemical analysis and an immunofluorescence method. Gentamicin down-regulated the expression of Oats mRNA and protein in rat kidney, and these effects were reversed after administration of JBP485. In addition, JBP485 caused a significant decrease in MPO and MDA levels in the kidney, and improved the pathological condition of rat kidney. These results indicated that JBP485 improved acute renal failure by increasing the expression and function of Oat1 and Oat3, and by decreasing overoxidation of the kidney in gentamicin-induced ARF rats. - Highlights: • JBP485 could up-regulate function and expression of Oat1 and Oat3 in kidney. • Effects of JBP485 on ARF are mediated by stimulating excretion of uremic toxins. • JBP485 protected against gentamicin-induced ARF by decreasing MPO and MDA.

  7. The Use of Transporter Probe Drug Cocktails for the Assessment of Transporter-Based Drug-Drug Interactions in a Clinical Setting-Proposal of a Four Component Transporter Cocktail.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Thomas; Ishiguro, Naoki; Taub, Mitchell E

    2015-09-01

    Probe drug cocktails are used clinically to assess the potential for drug-drug interactions (DDIs), and in particular, DDIs resulting from coadministration of substrates and inhibitors of cytochrome P450 enzymes. However, a probe drug cocktail has not been identified to assess DDIs involving inhibition of drug transporters. We propose a cocktail consisting of the following substrates to explore the potential for DDIs caused by inhibition of key transporters: digoxin (P-glycoprotein, P-gp), rosuvastatin (breast cancer resistance protein, BCRP; organic anion transporting polypeptides, OATP), metformin (organic cation transporter, OCT; multidrug and toxin extrusion transporters, MATE), and furosemide (organic anion transporter, OAT). Furosemide was evaluated in vitro, and is a substrate of OAT1 and OAT3, with Km values of 38.9 and 21.5 μM, respectively. Furosemide was also identified as a substrate of BCRP, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3. Furosemide inhibited BCRP (50% inhibition of drug transport: 170 μM), but did not inhibit OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OCT2, MATE1, and MATE2-K at concentrations below 300 μM, and P-gp at concentrations below 2000 μM. Conservative approaches for the estimation of the likelihood of in vivo DDIs indicate a remote chance of in vivo transporter inhibition by these probe drugs when administered at low single oral doses. This four component probe drug cocktail is therefore proposed for clinical evaluation. PMID:25981193

  8. Involvement of organic anion-transporting polypeptides in the hepatic uptake of dioscin in rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aijie; Wang, Changyuan; Liu, Qi; Meng, Qiang; Peng, Jinyong; Sun, Huijun; Ma, Xiaochi; Huo, Xiaokui; Liu, Kexin

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the mechanism underlying hepatic uptake of dioscin (diosgenyl 2,4-di-O-a-L-rhamnopyranosyl-p-D-glucopyranoside), an herbal ingredient with antihepatitis activity, in rats and humans. The liver uptake index (LUI) in vivo, perfused rat liver in situ, rat liver slices, isolated rat hepatocytes, and human organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)-transfected cells in vitro were used to evaluate hepatic uptake of dioscin. Values of 11.9% ± 1.6% and 15.0% ± 0.9% of dose for uptake of dioscin were observed by LUI in vivo and perfused rat livers in situ, respectively. The time course of dioscin uptake by rat liver slices was temperature-dependent. Uptake of dioscin by rat liver slices and isolated rat hepatocytes was inhibited significantly by Oatp modulators, such as ibuprofen (Oatp1a1 inhibitor), digoxin (Oatp1a4 substrate), and glycyrrhizic acid (Oatp1b2 inhibitor), but not by TEA or p-aminohippurate. Uptake of dioscin in rat hepatocytes and OATP1B3-human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells indicated a saturable process with a Km of 3.75 ± 0.51 μM and 2.08 ± 0.27 μM, respectively. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate, cyclosporin A, rifampicin, and telmisartan inhibited transport of dioscin in OATP1B3-HEK293 cells. However, transcellular transport of dioscin in OATP1B1- or OATP1B1/multidrug resistance-associated protein 2-Madin-Darby canine kidney strain II cells was not observed. These results indicate that hepatic uptake of dioscin is involved in OATP1B3 in humans, and multiple Oatps might participate in this process in rats. PMID:23396419

  9. Atorvastatin improves renal organic anion transporter 3 and renal function in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Jaikumkao, Krit; Pongchaidecha, Anchalee; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj; Promsan, Sasivimon; Arjinajarn, Phatchawan; Lungkaphin, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? This study was designed to determine the renoprotective effects of atorvastatin treatment in an experimental model of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity through modulating the Nrf2 pathway by decreasing the oxidative stress. What is the main finding and its importance? Atorvastatin exerts a nephroprotective effect by attenuating oxidative stress, protecting renal function and renal organic anion transporter 3 function from the effects of gentamicin. Atorvastatin might protect the tissues via its antioxidant property and by modulating the antioxidant enzymes through the Nrf2 signalling pathway, which may be the underlying mechanisms of these protective effects. Recent evidence demonstrates that statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, exert not only lipid-lowering effects but also antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Nephrotoxicity, a serious side-effect of gentamicin, is related to an increase in reactive oxygen species in the kidney. This study was designed to determine the renoprotective effects of atorvastatin treatment in an experimental model of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Nephrotocixity was induced by i.p. injection of gentamicin, 100 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) , for 15 days. Atorvastatin, 10 mg kg(-1)  day(-1) , was administered by gavage 30 min before gentamicin injection (pretreatment) for 15 days or only on days 10-15 (post-treatment). Renal function and renal organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) function and expression were examined. Gentamicin-treated rats demonstrated impaired renal function by attenuation of creatinine clearance and increased oxidative stress. Gentamicin treatment also decreased renal Oat3 function and expression as shown by decreased [(3) H]estrone sulfate uptake into renal cortical slices and decreased expression. The protein expressions of protein kinase C, Nrf2, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1

  10. P-glycoprotein- and organic anion-transporting polypeptide-mediated transport of periplocin may lead to drug–herb/drug–drug interactions

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Sheng; Deng, Fengchun; Xing, Haiyan; Wen, He; Shi, Xiaoyan; Martey, Orleans Nii; Koomson, Emmanuel; He, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Periplocin, an active and toxic component of the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Periploca sepium Bge, is a cardiac glycoside compound that has been implicated in various clinical accidents. This study investigated the role of transporters in the intestinal absorption and biliary excretion of periplocin, as well as the possible metabolic mechanism of periplocin in liver S9. In a bidirectional transport assay using Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and MDCK multidrug-resistance protein (MRP)-1 cell monolayers, both in situ intestinal and liver-perfusion models were used to evaluate the role of efflux and uptake transporters on the absorption and biliary excretion of periplocin. In addition, in vitro metabolism of periplocin was investigated by incubating with human/rat liver S9 homogenate fractions to evaluate its metabolic mechanisms in liver metabolic enzymes. The results showed that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was involved in the intestinal absorption of periplocin, whereas MRP2 and breast cancer-resistance protein were not. The efflux function of P-gp may be partly responsible for the low permeability and bioavailability of periplocin. Moreover, both inhibitors of P-gp and organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) increased periplocin biliary excretion. No obvious indications of metabolism were observed in the in vitro incubation system, which suggests that periplocin did not interact with the hepatic drug metabolic enzymes. The results of this study showed that the efflux and uptake transporters P-gp and OATPs were involved in the absorption and biliary excretion of periplocin, which may partially account for its low permeability and bioavailability. As a toxic compound, potential drug–herb/herb–herb interactions based on OATPs and P-gp should be taken into account when using P. sepium Bge in the clinic. PMID:24872678

  11. Glutamate transporter homolog-based model predicts that anion-π interaction is the mechanism for the voltage-dependent response of prestin.

    PubMed

    Lovas, Sándor; He, David Z Z; Liu, Huizhan; Tang, Jie; Pecka, Jason L; Hatfield, Marcus P D; Beisel, Kirk W

    2015-10-01

    Prestin is the motor protein of cochlear outer hair cells. Its unique capability to perform direct, rapid, and reciprocal electromechanical conversion depends on membrane potential and interaction with intracellular anions. How prestin senses the voltage change and interacts with anions are still unknown. Our three-dimensional model of prestin using molecular dynamics simulations predicts that prestin contains eight transmembrane-spanning segments and two helical re-entry loops and that tyrosyl residues are the structural specialization of the molecule for the unique function of prestin. Using site-directed mutagenesis and electrophysiological techniques, we confirmed that residues Tyr(367), Tyr(486), Tyr(501), and Tyr(508) contribute to anion binding, interacting with intracellular anions through novel anion-π interactions. Such weak interactions, sensitive to voltage and mechanical stimulation, confer prestin with a unique capability to perform electromechanical and mechanoelectric conversions with exquisite sensitivity. This novel mechanism is completely different from all known mechanisms seen in ion channels, transporters, and motor proteins. PMID:26283790

  12. Interplay between the nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor and the uptake transporter organic anion transporter polypeptide 1A2 selectively enhances estrogen effects in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Meyer zu Schwabedissen, Henriette E; Tirona, Rommel G; Yip, Cindy S; Ho, Richard H; Kim, Richard B

    2008-11-15

    The ligand-activated nuclear receptor pregnane X receptor (PXR) is known to play a role in the regulated expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters. Recent studies suggest a potential clinically relevant role of PXR in breast cancer. However, the relevant pathway or target genes of PXR in breast cancer biology and progression have not yet been fully clarified. In this study, we show that mRNA expression of organic anion transporter polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2), a transporter capable of mediating the cellular uptake of estrogen metabolites, is nearly 10-fold greater in breast cancer compared with adjacent healthy breast tissues. Immunohistochemistry revealed exclusive expression of OATP1A2 in breast cancer tissue. Interestingly, treatment of breast cancer cells in vitro with the PXR agonist rifampin induced OATP1A2 expression in a time-dependent and concentration-dependent manner. Consistent with its role as a hormone uptake transporter, induction of OATP1A2 was associated with increased uptake of estrone 3-sulfate. The rifampin response was abrogated after small interfering RNA targeting of PXR. We then identified a PXR response element in the human OATP1A2 promoter, located approximately 5.7 kb upstream of the transcription initiation site. The specificity of PXR-OATP1A2 promoter interaction was confirmed using chromatin immunoprecipitation. Importantly, we used a novel potent and specific antagonist of PXR (A-792611) to show the reversal of the rifampin effect on the cellular uptake of E(1)S. These data provide important new insights into the interplay between a xenobiotic nuclear receptor PXR and OATP1A2 that could contribute to the pathogenesis of breast cancer and may also prove to be heretofore unrecognized targets for breast cancer treatment. PMID:19010908

  13. The liver and kidney expression of sulfate anion transporter sat-1 in rats exhibits male-dominant gender differences.

    PubMed

    Brzica, Hrvoje; Breljak, Davorka; Krick, Wolfgang; Lovrić, Mila; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Burckhardt, Birgitta C; Sabolić, Ivan

    2009-04-01

    The sulfate anion transporter (sat-1, Slc26a1) has been cloned from rat liver, functionally characterized, and localized to the sinusoidal membrane in hepatocytes and basolateral membrane (BLM) in proximal tubules (PT). Here, we confirm previously described localization of sat-1 protein in rat liver and kidneys and report on gender differences (GD) in its expression by immunochemical, transport, and excretion studies in rats. The approximately 85-kDa sat-1 protein was localized to the sinusoidal membrane in hepatocytes and BLM in renal cortical PT, with the male-dominant expression. However, the real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction data indicated no GD at the level of sat-1 mRNA. In agreement with the protein data, isolated membranes from both organs exhibited the male-dominant exchange of radiolabeled sulfate for oxalate, whereas higher oxalate in plasma and 24-h urine indicated higher oxalate production and excretion in male rats. Furthermore, the expression of liver, but not renal, sat-1 protein was: unaffected by castration, upregulated by ovariectomy, and downregulated by estrogen or progesterone treatment in males. Therefore, GD (males > females) in the expression of sat-1 protein in rat liver (and, possibly, kidneys) are caused by the female sex-hormone-driven inhibition at the posttranscriptional level. The male-dominant abundance of sat-1 protein in liver may conform to elevated uptake of sulfate and extrusion of oxalate, causing higher plasma oxalate in males. Oxalate is then excreted by the kidneys via the basolateral sat-1 (males > females) and the apical CFEX (Slc26a6; GD unknown) in PT and eliminated in the urine (males > females), where it may contribute to the male-prevailing development of oxalate urolithiasis. PMID:19002488

  14. Epithelial anion transporter pendrin contributes to inflammatory lung pathology in mouse models of Bordetella pertussis infection.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Karen M; Gau, Yael; Zhu, Jingsong; Skerry, Ciaran; Wall, Susan M; Soleimani, Manoocher; Carbonetti, Nicholas H

    2014-10-01

    Pertussis disease, characterized by severe and prolonged coughing episodes, can progress to a critical stage with pulmonary inflammation and death in young infants. However, there are currently no effective treatments for pertussis. We previously studied the role of pertussis toxin (PT), an important Bordetella pertussis virulence factor, in lung transcriptional responses to B. pertussis infection in mouse models. One of the genes most highly upregulated in a PT-dependent manner encodes an epithelial transporter of bicarbonate, chloride, and thiocyanate, named pendrin, that contributes to asthma pathology. In this study, we found that pendrin expression is upregulated at both gene and protein levels in the lungs of B. pertussis-infected mice. Pendrin upregulation is associated with PT production by the bacteria and with interleukin-17A (IL-17A) production by the host. B. pertussis-infected pendrin knockout (KO) mice had higher lung bacterial loads than infected pendrin-expressing mice but had significantly reduced levels of lung inflammatory pathology. However, reduced pathology did not correlate with reduced inflammatory cytokine expression. Infected pendrin KO mice had higher levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines than infected pendrin-expressing mice, suggesting that these inflammatory mediators are less active in the airways in the absence of pendrin. In addition, treatment of B. pertussis-infected mice with the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide reduced lung inflammatory pathology without affecting pendrin synthesis or bacterial loads. Together these data suggest that PT contributes to pertussis pathology through the upregulation of pendrin, which promotes conditions favoring inflammatory pathology. Therefore, pendrin may represent a novel therapeutic target for treatment of pertussis disease. PMID:25069981

  15. Variability in hepatic expression of organic anion transporter 7/SLC22A9, a novel pravastatin uptake transporter: impact of genetic and regulatory factors.

    PubMed

    Emami Riedmaier, A; Burk, O; van Eijck, B A C; Schaeffeler, E; Klein, K; Fehr, S; Biskup, S; Müller, S; Winter, S; Zanger, U M; Schwab, M; Nies, A T

    2016-08-01

    Human organic anion transporter 7 (OAT7, SLC22A9) is a hepatic transport protein poorly characterized so far. We therefore sought to identify novel OAT7 substrates and factors contributing to variable hepatic OAT7 expression. Using OAT7-expressing cells, pravastatin was identified as a substrate. Hepatic SLC22A9/OAT7 mRNA and protein expression varied 28-fold and 15-fold, respectively, in 126 Caucasian liver samples. Twenty-four variants in SLC22A9 were genotyped, including three rare missense variants (rs377211288, rs61742518, rs146027075), which occurred only heterozygously. No variant significantly affected hepatic SLC22A9/OAT7 expression. The three missense variants, however, showed functional consequences when expressed in vitro. Hepatic nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4α) emerged as a major transcriptional regulator of SLC22A9 by a series of in silico and in vitro analyses. In conclusion, pravastatin is the first identified OAT7 drug substrate. Substantial inter-individual variability in hepatic OAT7 expression, majorly driven by HNF4α, may contribute to pravastatin drug disposition and might affect response.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 4 August 2015; doi:10.1038/tpj.2015.55. PMID:26239079

  16. Contribution of the organic anion transporter OAT2 to the renal active tubular secretion of creatinine and mechanism for serum creatinine elevations caused by cobicistat

    PubMed Central

    Lepist, Eve-Irene; Zhang, Xuexiang; Hao, Jia; Huang, Jane; Kosaka, Alan; Birkus, Gabriel; Murray, Bernard P; Bannister, Roy; Cihlar, Tomas; Huang, Yong; Ray, Adrian S

    2014-01-01

    Many xenobiotics including the pharmacoenhancer cobicistat increase serum creatinine by inhibiting its renal active tubular secretion without affecting the glomerular filtration rate. This study aimed to define the transporters involved in creatinine secretion, applying that knowledge to establish the mechanism for xenobiotic-induced effects. The basolateral uptake transporters organic anion transporter OAT2 and organic cation transporters OCT2 and OCT3 were found to transport creatinine. At physiologic creatinine concentrations, the specific activity of OAT2 transport was over twofold higher than OCT2 or OCT3, establishing OAT2 as a likely relevant creatinine transporter and further challenging the traditional view that creatinine is solely transported by a cationic pathway. The apical multidrug and toxin extrusion transporters MATE1 and MATE2-K demonstrated low-affinity and high-capacity transport. All drugs known to affect creatinine inhibited OCT2 and MATE1. Similar to cimetidine and ritonavir, cobicistat had the greatest effect on MATE1 with a 50% inhibition constant of 0.99 μM for creatinine transport. Trimethoprim potently inhibited MATE2-K, whereas dolutegravir preferentially inhibited OCT2. Cimetidine was unique, inhibiting all transporters that interact with creatinine. Thus, the clinical observation of elevated serum creatinine in patients taking cobicistat is likely a result of OCT2 transport, facilitating intracellular accumulation, and MATE1 inhibition. PMID:24646860

  17. Age- and sex-related differences of organic anion-transporting polypeptide gene expression in livers of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Wei-Yu; Xu, Shang-Fu; Zhu, Qiong-Ni; Lu, Yuan-Fu; Cheng, Xing-Guo; Liu, Jie

    2014-10-15

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (Oatps) play important roles in transporting endogenous substances and xenobiotics into the liver and are implicated in drug-drug interactions. Many factors could influence their expression and result in alterations in drug disposition, efficacy and toxicity. This study was aimed to examine the development-, aging-, and sex-dependent Oatps expression in livers of rats. The livers from SD rats during development (− 2, 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 60 d) and aging (60, 180, 540 and/or 800 d) were collected and total RNAs were extracted, purified, and subjected to real-time PCR analysis. Total proteins were extracted for western-blot analysis. Results showed that Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, Oatp1a5 and Oatp1b2 were all hardly detectable in fetal rat livers, low at birth, rapidly increased after weaning (21 d), and reached the peak at 60 d. The Oatps remained stable during the age between 60–180 d, and decreased at elderly (540 and/or 800 d). After birth, Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, and Oatp1b2 were all highly expressed in liver, in contrast, Oatp1a5 expression was low. Oatp expressions are male-predominant in rat livers. In the livers of aged rats, the Oatp expression decreased and shared a consistent ontogeny pattern at the mRNA and protein level. In conclusion, this study showed that in rat liver, Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, Oatp1a5 and Oatp1b2 gene expressions are influenced by age and gender, which could provide a basis of individual variation in drug transport, metabolism and toxicity in children, elderly and women. - Highlights: • Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4, Oatp1a5 and Oatp1b2 expression in livers of rats. • Ontogenic changes of Oatps at − 2, 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 60 days. • Age-related changes of Oatps at 60, 180, 540, and 800 days. • Sex-difference of Oatps at the both mRNA and protein levels.

  18. Cysteinyl Leukotriene Receptor 1/2 Antagonists Nonselectively Modulate Organic Anion Transport by Multidrug Resistance Proteins (MRP1-4).

    PubMed

    Csandl, Mark A; Conseil, Gwenaëlle; Cole, Susan P C

    2016-06-01

    Active efflux of both drugs and organic anion metabolites is mediated by the multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs). MRP1 (ABCC1), MRP2 (ABCC2), MRP3 (ABCC3), and MRP4 (ABCC4) have partially overlapping substrate specificities and all transport 17β-estradiol 17-(β-d-glucuronide) (E217βG). The cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLT1R) antagonist MK-571 inhibits all four MRP homologs, but little is known about the modulatory effects of newer leukotriene modifiers (LTMs). Here we examined the effects of seven CysLT1R- and CysLT2R-selective LTMs on E217βG uptake into MRP1-4-enriched inside-out membrane vesicles. Their effects on uptake of an additional physiologic solute were also measured for MRP1 [leukotriene C4 (LTC4)] and MRP4 [prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)]. The two CysLT2R-selective LTMs studied were generally more potent inhibitors than CysLT1R-selective LTMs, but neither class of antagonists showed any MRP selectivity. For E217βG uptake, LTM IC50s ranged from 1.2 to 26.9 μM and were most comparable for MRP1 and MRP4. The LTM rank order inhibitory potencies for E217βG versus LTC4 uptake by MRP1, and E217βG versus PGE2 uptake by MRP4, were also similar. Three of four CysLT1R-selective LTMs also stimulated MRP2 (but not MRP3) transport and thus exerted a concentration-dependent biphasic effect on MRP2. The fourth CysLT1R antagonist, LY171883, only stimulated MRP2 (and MRP3) transport but none of the MRPs were stimulated by either CysLT2R-selective LTM. We conclude that, in contrast to their CysLTR selectivity, CysLTR antagonists show no MRP homolog selectivity, and data should be interpreted cautiously if obtained from LTMs in systems in which more than one MRP is present. PMID:27068271

  19. Changes in expression of renal Oat1, Oat3 and Mrp2 in cisplatin-induced acute renal failure after treatment of JBP485 in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Tao; Meng, Qiang; Wang, Changyuan; Liu, Qi; Guo, Xinjin; Sun, Huijun; Peng, Jinyong; and others

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the effect of cyclo-trans-4-L-hydroxyprolyl-L-serine (JBP485) on acute renal failure (ARF) induced by cisplatin is related to change in expression of renal Oat1, Oat3 and Mrp2 in rats. JBP485 reduced creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and indoxyl sulfate (IS) in plasma and malondialdehyde (MDA) in kidney, and recovered the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cisplatin-treated rats. The plasma concentration of PAH (para-aminohippurate) determined by LC–MS/MS was increased markedly after intravenous administration of cisplatin, whereas cumulative urinary excretion of PAH and the uptake of PAH in kidney slices were significantly decreased. qRT-PCR and Western-blot showed a decrease in mRNA and protein of Oat1 and Oat3, an increase in mRNA and protein of Mrp2 in cisplatin-treated rats, and an increase in IS (a uremic toxin) after co-treatment with JBP485. It indicated that JBP485 promoted urinary excretion of toxins by upregulating renal Mrp2. This therefore gives in part the explanation about the mechanism by which JBP485 improves ARF induced by cisplatin in rats. -- Highlights: ► Cisplatin induces acute renal failure (ARF). ► The expression of Oat1, Oat3 and Mrp2 were changed during ARF. ► The regulated expression of Oat1, Oat3 and Mrp2 is an adaptive protected response. ► JBP485 could facilitate the adaptive protective action.

  20. Comparison of inhibitory duration of grapefruit juice on organic anion-transporting polypeptide and cytochrome P450 3A4.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Shimako; Uchida, Shinya; Miyakawa, Sachiko; Inui, Naoki; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Namiki, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a new type of interaction has been reported in which fruit juices diminish oral drug bioavailability through inhibition of organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP). In this study, we aimed to clarify the duration of OATP inhibition by grapefruit juice (GFJ), and to compare it with the duration of GFJ-induced inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 activity. Seven healthy volunteers were enrolled in this open-label, single-sequence study. They were orally administered celiprolol (100 mg) and midazolam (15 µg/kg) with water on the control day. Three days later, they ingested GFJ (200 mL) 3 times a day for 3 d. On day 1, the same drugs were administered with GFJ. On days 3 and 7, the same drugs were administered with water. Pharmacokinetics of both drugs were evaluated on each trial day. The peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 8 h (AUC0-8) of celiprolol significantly decreased on day 1, and the mean ratios of these values and the corresponding control-day values were 0.18 and 0.25, respectively. The Cmax and AUC0-8 returned to the control levels on days 3 and 7. In contrast, AUC0-8 of midazolam were higher on days 1 and 3 than on the control day (mean ratio, 2.12 and 1.47, respectively). The AUC0-8 returned to the control level on day 7. In conclusion, results of this study indicated that the OATP inhibition caused by GFJ dissipated faster than GFJ-mediated alterations in CYP3A4 activity, which were sustained for at least 48 h. PMID:24292052

  1. Simulated diabetic ketoacidosis therapy in vitro elicits brain cell swelling via sodium-hydrogen exchange and anion transport.

    PubMed

    Rose, Keeley L; Watson, Andrew J; Drysdale, Thomas A; Cepinskas, Gediminas; Chan, Melissa; Rupar, C Anthony; Fraser, Douglas D

    2015-08-15

    A common complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus is diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a state of severe insulin deficiency. A potentially harmful consequence of DKA therapy in children is cerebral edema (DKA-CE); however, the mechanisms of therapy-induced DKA-CE are unknown. Our aims were to identify the DKA treatment factors and membrane mechanisms that might contribute specifically to brain cell swelling. To this end, DKA was induced in juvenile mice with the administration of the pancreatic toxins streptozocin and alloxan. Brain slices were prepared and exposed to DKA-like conditions in vitro. Cell volume changes were imaged in response to simulated DKA therapy. Our experiments showed that cell swelling was elicited with isolated DKA treatment components, including alkalinization, insulin/alkalinization, and rapid reductions in osmolality. Methyl-isobutyl-amiloride, a nonselective inhibitor of sodium-hydrogen exchangers (NHEs), reduced cell swelling in brain slices elicited with simulated DKA therapy (in vitro) and decreased brain water content in juvenile DKA mice administered insulin and rehydration therapy (in vivo). Specific pharmacological inhibition of the NHE1 isoform with cariporide also inhibited cell swelling, but only in the presence of the anion transport (AT) inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid. DKA did not alter brain NHE1 isoform expression, suggesting that the cell swelling attributed to the NHE1 was activity dependent. In conclusion, our data raise the possibility that brain cell swelling can be elicited by DKA treatment factors and that it is mediated by NHEs and/or coactivation of NHE1 and AT. PMID:26081282

  2. Molecular-weight-dependent, anionic-substrate-preferential transport of β-lactam antibiotics via multidrug resistance-associated protein 4.

    PubMed

    Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Uchida, Yasuo; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Kamiie, Jun-ichi; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Hosoya, Ken-ichi

    2011-01-01

    β-Lactam antibiotics have cerebral and peripheral adverse effects. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4) has been reported to transport several β-lactam antibiotics, and its expression at the blood-brain barrier also serves to limit their distribution to the brain. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to clarify the structure-activity relationship of MRP4-mediated transport of β-lactam antibiotics using MRP4-expressing Sf9 membrane vesicles. The transport activity was evaluated as MRP4-mediated transport per MRP4 protein [nL/(min·fmol MRP4 protein)] based on measurement of MRP4 protein expression by means of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Cefotiam showed the greatest MRP4-mediated transport activity [8.90 nL/(min·fmol MRP4 protein)] among the β-lactam antibiotics examined in this study. Measurements of differential transport activity of MRP4 for various β-lactam antibiotics indicated that (i) cephalosporins were transported via MRP4 at a greater rate than were penams, β-lactamase inhibitors, penems, or monobactams; (ii) MRP4-mediated transport activity of anionic cephalosporins was greater than that of zwitterionic cephalosporins; and (iii) higher-molecular-weight anionic β-lactam antibiotics showed greater MRP4-mediated transport activity than lower-molecular-weight ones, whereas zwitterionic β-lactam antibiotics did not show molecular weight dependency of MRP4-mediated transport. These quantitative data should prove useful for understanding MRP-related adverse effects of β-lactam antibiotics and their derivatives. PMID:21897051

  3. Inhibition of the organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 by quercetin: an in vitro and in vivo assessment

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lan-Xiang; Guo, Cheng-Xian; Chen, Wang-Qing; Yu, Jing; Qu, Qiang; Chen, Yao; Tan, Zhi-Rong; Wang, Guo; Fan, Lan; Li, Qing; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2012-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effect of quercetin on organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) activities in vitro and on the pharmacokinetics of pravastatin, a typical substrate for OATP1B1 in healthy Chinese-Han male subjects. METHODS Using human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells stably expressing OATP1B1, we observed the effect of quercetin on OATP1B1-mediated uptake of estrone-3-sulphate (E3S) and pravastatin. The influence of quercetin on the pharmacokinetics of pravastatin was measured in 16 healthy Chinese-Han male volunteers receiving a single dose of pravastatin (40 mg orally) after co-administration of placebo or 500 mg quercetin capsules (once daily orally for 14 days). RESULTS Quercetin competitively inhibited OATP1B1-mediated E3S uptake with a Ki value of 17.9 ± 4.6 µm and also inhibited OATP1B1-mediated pravastatin uptake in a concentration dependent manner (IC50, 15.9 ± 1.4 µm). In healthy Chinese-Han male subjects, quercetin increased the pravastatin area under the plasma concentration – time curve (AUC(0,10 h) and the peak plasma drug concentration (Cmax) to 24% (95% CI 15, 32%, P < 0.001) and 31% (95% CI 20, 42%, P < 0.001), respectively. After administration of quercetin, the elimination half-life (t1/2) of pravastatin was prolonged by 14% (95% CI 4, 24%, P = 0.027), with no change in the time to reach Cmax (tmax). Moreover, quercetin decreased the apparent clearance (CL/F) of pravastatin by 18% (95% CI 75, 89%, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that quercetin inhibits the OATP1B1-mediated transport of E3S and pravastatin in vitro and also has a modest inhibitory influence on the pharmacokinetics of pravastatin in healthy Chinese-Han male volunteers. The effects of quercetin on other OATP1B1 substrate drugs deserve further investigation. PMID:22114872

  4. Development of a Support Vector Machine-Based System to Predict Whether a Compound Is a Substrate of a Given Drug Transporter Using Its Chemical Structure.

    PubMed

    Ose, Atsushi; Toshimoto, Kota; Ikeda, Kazushi; Maeda, Kazuya; Yoshida, Shuya; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Hashida, Mitsuru; Ishida, Takashi; Akiyama, Yutaka; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an in silico prediction system to assess which of 7 categories of drug transporters (organic anion transporting polypeptide [OATP] 1B1/1B3, multidrug resistance-associated protein [MRP] 2/3/4, organic anion transporter [OAT] 1, OAT3, organic cation transporter [OCT] 1/2/multidrug and toxin extrusion [MATE] 1/2-K, multidrug resistance protein 1 [MDR1], and breast cancer resistance protein [BCRP]) can recognize compounds as substrates using its chemical structure alone. We compiled an internal data set consisting of 260 compounds that are substrates for at least 1 of the 7 categories of drug transporters. Four physicochemical parameters (charge, molecular weight, lipophilicity, and plasma unbound fraction) of each compound were used as the basic descriptors. Furthermore, a greedy algorithm was used to select 3 additional physicochemical descriptors from 731 available descriptors. In addition, transporter nonsubstrates tend not to be in the public domain; we, thus, tried to compile an expert-curated data set of putative nonsubstrates for each transporter using personal opinions of 11 researchers in the field of drug transporters. The best prediction was finally achieved by a support vector machine based on 4 basic and 3 additional descriptors. The model correctly judged that 364 of 412 compounds (internal data set) and 111 of 136 compounds (external data set) were substrates, indicating that this model performs well enough to predict the specificity of transporter substrates. PMID:27262201

  5. Borate as a synergistic anion for Marinobacter algicola ferric binding protein, FbpA: a role for boron in iron transport in marine life.

    PubMed

    Weerasinghe, Aruna J; Amin, Shady A; Barker, Ryan A; Othman, Thaer; Romano, Ariel N; Parker Siburt, Claire J; Tisnado, Jerrell; Lambert, Lisa A; Huxford, Tom; Carrano, Carl J; Crumbliss, Alvin L

    2013-10-01

    Boron in the ocean is generally considered a nonbiological element due to its relatively high concentration (0.4 mM) and depth independent concentration profile. Here we report an unexpected role for boron in the iron transport system of the marine bacterium Marinobacter algicola. Proteome analysis under varying boron concentrations revealed that the periplasmic ferric binding protein (Mb-FbpA) was among the proteins whose expression was most affected, strongly implicating the involvement of boron in iron utilization. Here we show that boron facilitates Fe(3+) sequestration by Mb-FbpA at pH 8 (oceanic pH) by acting as a synergistic anion (B(OH)4(1-)). Fe(3+) sequestration does not occur at pH 6.5 where boric acid (B(OH)3; pK(a) = 8.55) is the predominant species. Borate anion is also shown to bind to apo-Mb-FbpA with mM affinity at pH 8, consistent with the biological relevance implied from boron's oceanic concentration (0.4 mM). Borate is among those synergistic anions tested which support the strongest Fe(3+) binding to Mb-FbpA, where the range of anion dependent affinity constants is log K'(eff) = 21-22. Since the pKa of boric acid (8.55) lies near the pH of ocean water, changes in oceanic pH, as a consequence of fluctuations in atmospheric CO2, may perturb iron uptake in many marine heterotrophic bacteria due to a decrease in oceanic borate anion concentration. PMID:24028339

  6. Xenobiotic, Bile Acid, and Cholesterol Transporters: Function and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Aleksunes, Lauren M.

    2010-01-01

    Transporters influence the disposition of chemicals within the body by participating in absorption, distribution, and elimination. Transporters of the solute carrier family (SLC) comprise a variety of proteins, including organic cation transporters (OCT) 1 to 3, organic cation/carnitine transporters (OCTN) 1 to 3, organic anion transporters (OAT) 1 to 7, various organic anion transporting polypeptide isoforms, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter, peptide transporters (PEPT) 1 and 2, concentrative nucleoside transporters (CNT) 1 to 3, equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) 1 to 3, and multidrug and toxin extrusion transporters (MATE) 1 and 2, which mediate the uptake (except MATEs) of organic anions and cations as well as peptides and nucleosides. Efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily, such as ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), multidrug resistance proteins (MDR) 1 and 2, bile salt export pump, multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP) 1 to 9, breast cancer resistance protein, and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G members 5 and 8, are responsible for the unidirectional export of endogenous and exogenous substances. Other efflux transporters [ATPase copper-transporting β polypeptide (ATP7B) and ATPase class I type 8B member 1 (ATP8B1) as well as organic solute transporters (OST) α and β] also play major roles in the transport of some endogenous chemicals across biological membranes. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of these transporters (both rodent and human) with regard to tissue distribution, subcellular localization, and substrate preferences. Because uptake and efflux transporters are expressed in multiple cell types, the roles of transporters in a variety of tissues, including the liver, kidneys, intestine, brain, heart, placenta, mammary glands, immune cells, and testes are discussed. Attention is also placed upon a variety of regulatory

  7. Downregulation of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 Transport Function by Lysosomotropic Drug Chloroquine: Implication in OATP-Mediated Drug-Drug Interactions.

    PubMed

    Alam, Khondoker; Pahwa, Sonia; Wang, Xueying; Zhang, Pengyue; Ding, Kai; Abuznait, Alaa H; Li, Lang; Yue, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 mediates the hepatic uptake of many drugs including lipid-lowering statins. Decreased OATP1B1 transport activity is often associated with increased systemic exposure of statins and statin-induced myopathy. Antimalarial drug chloroquine (CQ) is also used for long-term treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. CQ is lysosomotropic and inhibits protein degradation in lysosomes. The current studies were designed to determine the effects of CQ on OATP1B1 protein degradation, OATP1B1-mediated transport in OATP1B1-overexpressing cell line, and statin uptake in human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH). Treatment with lysosome inhibitor CQ increased OATP1B1 total protein levels in HEK293-OATP1B1 cells and in human SCH as determined by OATP1B1 immunoblot. In HEK293-FLAG-tagged OATP1B1 stable cell line, co-immunofluorescence staining indicated that intracellular FLAG-OATP1B1 is colocalized with lysosomal associated membrane glycoprotein (LAMP)-2, a marker protein of late endosome/lysosome. Enlarged LAMP-2-positive vacuoles with FLAG-OATP1B1 protein retained inside were readily detected in CQ-treated cells, consistent with blocking lysosomal degradation of OATP1B1 by CQ. In HEK293-OATP1B1 cells, without pre-incubation, CQ concentrations up to 100 μM did not affect OATP1B1-mediated [(3)H]E217G accumulation. However, pre-incubation with CQ at clinically relevant concentration(s) significantly decreased [(3)H]E217G and [(3)H]pitavastatin accumulation in HEK293-OATP1B1 cells and [(3)H]pitavastatin accumulation in human SCH. CQ pretreatment (25 μM, 2 h) resulted in ∼1.9-fold decrease in Vmax without affecting Km of OATP1B1-mediated [(3)H]E217G transport in HEK293-OATP1B1 cells. Pretreatment with monensin and bafilomycin A1, which also have lysosome inhibition activity, significantly decreased OATP1B1-mediated transport in HEK293-OATP1B1 cells. Pharmacoepidemiologic studies using data from the U.S. Food

  8. Constitutive expression of various xenobiotic and endobiotic transporter mRNAs in the choroid plexus of rats.

    PubMed

    Choudhuri, Supratim; Cherrington, Nathan J; Li, Ning; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively determine the constitutive expression levels of various transporter mRNAs in rat choroid plexus. To provide a reference for the relative expression levels, the expression of various transporter mRNAs in choroid plexus were compared with that in liver, kidney, and ileum. The mRNA levels of multidrug resistance protein (Mrp)1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6; multidrug resistance (Mdr)1a, 1b, and 2; organic anion transporting polypeptide (Oatp)1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 12, and Oat-K (1/2); organic anion transporter (Oat)1, 2, and 3; organic cation transporter (Oct)1, 2, 3, N1, and N2; bile acid transporters sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp), bile salt excretory protein (Bsep), and ileal bile acid transporter (Ibat); divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1), Menke's and Wilson's metal transporters; equilibrative nucleotide transporters (Ent) 1 and 2, and constitutive nucleotide transporters (Cnt)1 and 2; peptide transporters (Pept)1 and 2; as well as ATP-binding cassette (Abc)G5 and 8 were measured in choroid plexus by the branched DNA signal amplification method. Mrp1, 4, and 5, Oatp3, Menke's transporter, DMT1, Ent1, and Pept2 mRNAs were expressed in choroid plexus at higher levels than in liver, kidney, or ileum. OctN1 and N2, Oatp2, Oat2 and 3, and Cnt1 and 2 mRNAs expressions were detectable in choroid plexus, but the levels were lower compared with that in liver, kidney, or ileum. The remaining transporters [Mrp2, Mrp3, Oct1, Oct2, Oatp1, Oatp4, Oatp5, Oatp12, Oat-K (1/2), Ntcp, Bsep, Ibat, Mdr1a, Mdr1b, Mdr2, Oat1, Ent2, Pept1, AbcG5, AbcG8] were expressed at very low levels in choroid plexus. The constitutive expression levels of different transporters in choroid plexus may provide an insight into the range of xenobiotics that can potentially be transported by the choroid plexus, thereby providing a means of xenobiotic detoxification in the brain. PMID:14570765

  9. Loss of Slc26a9 anion transporter alters intestinal electrolyte and HCO3(-) transport and reduces survival in CFTR-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuemei; Li, Taolang; Riederer, Brigitte; Lenzen, Henrike; Ludolph, Lisa; Yeruva, Sunil; Tuo, Biguang; Soleimani, Manoocher; Seidler, Ursula

    2015-06-01

    Slc26a9 is an anion transporter that is strongly expressed in the stomach and lung. Slc26a9 variants were recently found associated with a higher incidence of meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis (CF) infants, raising the question whether Slc26a9 is expressed in the intestine and what its functional role is. Slc26a9 messenger RNA (mRNA) was found highly expressed in the mucosae of the murine and human upper gastrointestinal tract, with an abrupt decrease in expression levels beyond the duodenum. Absence of SLC26a9 expression strongly increased the intestinally related mortality in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient mice. Proximal duodenal JHCO3(-) and fluid secretion were reduced in the absence of Slc26a9 expression. In the proximal duodenum of young Slc26a9 KO mice, the glands and villi/crypts were elongated and proliferation was enhanced. This difference was lost with ageing, as were the alterations in fluid movement, whereas the reduction in JHCO3(-) remained. Laser dissection followed by qPCR suggested Slc26a9 expression to be crypt-predominant in the duodenum. In summary, deletion of Slc26a9 caused bicarbonate secretory and fluid absorptive changes in the proximal duodenal mucosa and increased the postweaning death rates in CFTR-deficient mice. Functional alterations in the duodenum were most prominent at young ages. We assume that the association of meconium ileus and Slc26a9 variants may be related to maldigestion and impaired downstream signaling caused by loss of upper GI tract digestive functions, aggravating the situation of lack of secretion and sticky mucus at the site of obstruction in CF intestine. PMID:24965066

  10. Short-term and long-term effects of protein kinase C on the trafficking and stability of human organic anion transporter 3

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Suh, Wonmo; Pan, Zui; You, Guofeng

    2012-01-01

    Human organic anion transporter 3 (hOAT3) belongs to a family of organic anion transporters that play critical roles in the body disposition of numerous clinically important drugs. Therefore, understanding the regulation of this transporter has profound clinical significance. In the current study, we investigated the short-term and long-term regulation of hOAT3 by protein kinase C (PKC). We showed that short-term activation of PKC by phobol 12-Myristate 13-Acetate (PMA) inhibited hOAT3 activity through accelerating its internalization from cell surface to intracellular recycling endosomes. The colocalization of hOAT3 with EEA1-positive recycling endosomes was demonstrated by immunolocalization with confocal microscopy. Furthermore, we showed that long-term activation of PKC resulted in the enhanced degradation of cell surface hOAT3. The pathways for hOAT3 degradation were further examined using proteasomal and lysosomal inhibitors. Our results showed that both proteasomal inhibitors and the lysosomal inhibitors significantly blocked hOAT3 degradation. These results demonstrate that PKC plays critical roles in the trafficking and the stability of hOAT3. PMID:22773962

  11. Electrodialytic Transport Properties of Anion-Exchange Membranes Prepared from Poly(vinyl alcohol) and Poly(vinyl alcohol-co-methacryloyl aminopropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride)

    PubMed Central

    Jikihara, Atsushi; Ohashi, Reina; Kakihana, Yuriko; Higa, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Random-type anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) have been prepared by blending poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and the random copolymer-type polycation, poly(vinyl alcohol-co-methacryloyl aminopropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride) at various molar percentages of anion-exchange groups to vinyl alcohol groups, Cpc, and by cross-linking the PVA chains with glutaraldehyde (GA) solution at various GA concentrations, CGA. The characteristics of the random-type AEMs were compared with blend-type AEMs prepared in our previous study. At equal molar percentages of the anion exchange groups, the water content of the random-type AEMs was lower than that of the blend-type AEMs. The effective charge density of the random-type AEMs increased with increasing Cpc and reached a maximum value. Further, the maximum value of the effective charge density increased with increasing CGA. The maximum value of the effective charge density, 0.42 mol/dm3, was obtained for the random-type AEM with Cpc = 4.2 mol % and CGA = 0.15 vol %. A comparison of the random-type and blend-type AEMs with almost the same Cpc showed that the random-type AEMs had lower membrane resistance than the blend-type ones. The membrane resistance and dynamic transport number of the random-type AEM with Cpc = 6.0 mol % and CGA = 0.15 vol % were 4.8 Ω cm2 and 0.83, respectively. PMID:24958543

  12. Lack of Interactions Between an Antisense Oligonucleotide with 2'-O-(2-Methoxyethyl) Modifications and Major Drug Transporters.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rosie Z; Warren, Mark S; Watanabe, Tanya; Nichols, Brandon; Jahic, Mirza; Huang, Jane; Burkey, Jennifer; Geary, Richard S; Henry, Scott P; Wang, Yanfeng

    2016-04-01

    ISIS 141923 is a model compound of 2'-O-(2-methoxyethyl) (2'-MOE) modified antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs). The purpose of this study is to determine whether ISIS 141923 is a substrate or an inhibitor against a panel of nine major uptake or efflux drug transporters, namely breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), organic anion transporter (OAT)1, OAT3, organic cation transporter (OCT)1, OCT2, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B (OATP1B)1, OATP1B3, and bile salt export pump (BSEP), in vitro. The uptake test system for transporters in the solute carrier (SLC) family (OAT1, OAT3, OCT1, OCT2, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3) was studied in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK)-II cells transfected to express the transporters of interest. BCRP was studied using carcinoma colon-2 (Caco-2) cells with endogenously expressed BCRP. P-gp transporter was studied in MDCK-multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1) cells, while BSEP was studied using Spodoptera frugiperda 9 (Sf9) membrane vesicles containing human BSEP. The ISIS 141293 concentrations evaluated were 10 and 100 μM for the substrate and inhibition study, respectively. Cellular uptake of ISIS 141923 was analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method, while concentrations of known substrates (used as positive controls) of each transporters evaluated were determined by radiometric detection. At 10 μM ISIS 141923, there was no significant transporter-mediated uptake of ISIS 141923 (P > 0.05) in the SLC family, and the efflux ratios were not above 2.0 for either BCRP or P-gp. Therefore, no transporter-mediated uptake of ISIS 141923 was observed by any of the nine transporters studied. At 100 μM ISIS 141923, the % inhibition was in the range of -16.0% to 19.0% for the nine transporters evaluated. Therefore, ISIS 141923 is not considered as an inhibitor of the nine transporters studied. Overall, the results from this study suggest that it is unlikely that ISIS 141923 or similar 2

  13. A study on the electron transport properties of ZnON semiconductors with respect to the relative anion content

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jozeph; Kim, Yang Soo; Ok, Kyung-Chul; Park, Yun Chang; Kim, Hyun You; Park, Jin-Seong; Kim, Hyun-Suk

    2016-01-01

    High-mobility zinc oxynitride (ZnON) semiconductors were grown by RF sputtering using a Zn metal target in a plasma mixture of Ar, N2, and O2 gas. The RF power and the O2 to N2 gas flow rates were systematically adjusted to prepare a set of ZnON films with different relative anion contents. The carrier density was found to be greatly affected by the anion composition, while the electron mobility is determined by a fairly complex mechanism. First-principles calculations indicate that excess vacant nitrogen sites (VN) in N-rich ZnON disrupt the local electron conduction paths, which may be restored by having oxygen anions inserted therein. The latter are anticipated to enhance the electron mobility, and the exact process parameters that induce such a phenomenon can only be found experimentally. Contour plots of the Hall mobility and carrier density with respect to the RF power and O2 to N2 gas flow rate ratio indicate the existence of an optimum region where maximum electron mobility is obtained. Using ZnON films grown under the optimum conditions, the fabrication of high-performance devices with field-effect mobility values exceeding 120 cm2/Vs is demonstrated based on simple reactive RF sputtering methods. PMID:27098656

  14. A study on the electron transport properties of ZnON semiconductors with respect to the relative anion content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jozeph; Kim, Yang Soo; Ok, Kyung-Chul; Park, Yun Chang; Kim, Hyun You; Park, Jin-Seong; Kim, Hyun-Suk

    2016-04-01

    High-mobility zinc oxynitride (ZnON) semiconductors were grown by RF sputtering using a Zn metal target in a plasma mixture of Ar, N2, and O2 gas. The RF power and the O2 to N2 gas flow rates were systematically adjusted to prepare a set of ZnON films with different relative anion contents. The carrier density was found to be greatly affected by the anion composition, while the electron mobility is determined by a fairly complex mechanism. First-principles calculations indicate that excess vacant nitrogen sites (VN) in N-rich ZnON disrupt the local electron conduction paths, which may be restored by having oxygen anions inserted therein. The latter are anticipated to enhance the electron mobility, and the exact process parameters that induce such a phenomenon can only be found experimentally. Contour plots of the Hall mobility and carrier density with respect to the RF power and O2 to N2 gas flow rate ratio indicate the existence of an optimum region where maximum electron mobility is obtained. Using ZnON films grown under the optimum conditions, the fabrication of high-performance devices with field-effect mobility values exceeding 120 cm2/Vs is demonstrated based on simple reactive RF sputtering methods.

  15. A study on the electron transport properties of ZnON semiconductors with respect to the relative anion content.

    PubMed

    Park, Jozeph; Kim, Yang Soo; Ok, Kyung-Chul; Park, Yun Chang; Kim, Hyun You; Park, Jin-Seong; Kim, Hyun-Suk

    2016-01-01

    High-mobility zinc oxynitride (ZnON) semiconductors were grown by RF sputtering using a Zn metal target in a plasma mixture of Ar, N2, and O2 gas. The RF power and the O2 to N2 gas flow rates were systematically adjusted to prepare a set of ZnON films with different relative anion contents. The carrier density was found to be greatly affected by the anion composition, while the electron mobility is determined by a fairly complex mechanism. First-principles calculations indicate that excess vacant nitrogen sites (VN) in N-rich ZnON disrupt the local electron conduction paths, which may be restored by having oxygen anions inserted therein. The latter are anticipated to enhance the electron mobility, and the exact process parameters that induce such a phenomenon can only be found experimentally. Contour plots of the Hall mobility and carrier density with respect to the RF power and O2 to N2 gas flow rate ratio indicate the existence of an optimum region where maximum electron mobility is obtained. Using ZnON films grown under the optimum conditions, the fabrication of high-performance devices with field-effect mobility values exceeding 120 cm(2)/Vs is demonstrated based on simple reactive RF sputtering methods. PMID:27098656

  16. A scheme of simultaneous cationic–anionic substitution in CuCrO2 for transparent and superior p-type transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Prasanta; Mazumder, Nilesh; Saha, Subhajit; Ghorai, Uttam Kumar; Roy, Rajarshi; Das, Gopes Chandra; Chattopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Considering CuCrO2 to be a promising p-type transparent conducting oxide, unprecedented simultaneous cationic–anionic doping is carried out to achieve superior hole transport while maintaining its transparency. Magnesium and sulphur are doped at Cr and O-sites respectively by solid-state approach (CuCr1‑x Mg x O1‑y S y , x, y ranging 0–5 atomic %) with significant doping confirmed by Rietveld refinement. UV–Vis spectroscopy is observed to imply promising optical properties of engineered materials. DC conductivity of co-doped CuCr0.95Mg0.05O1.9S0.1 is observed to be twice as large compared to CuCr0.95Mg0.05O2 at 300 K, which is consistent with the lower frequency shift of the negative differential susceptance (-Δ B ) and the admittance peak, indicating higher ‘metallicity’ upon co-doping. Hole mobility of 16.26 cm2 V‑1 s‑1 at 300 K is observed for the co-doped CuCrO2. This strategy combines an established doping scheme at the cationic site with our newly developed anionic chalcogen doping, aiming to overcome a long-standing transport bottleneck in the field of semiconductor oxides.

  17. Transcriptional regulation of organic anion transporting polypeptide SLCO4C1 as a new therapeutic modality to prevent chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takehiro; Toyohara, Takafumi; Akiyama, Yasutoshi; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Mishima, Eikan; Suzuki, Chitose; Ito, Sadayoshi; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Abe, Takaaki

    2011-09-01

    Uremic toxins accumulate in patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKDs) and cause further progression of renal damage and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it was reported that some of the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) and the organic anion transporters (OATs) are involved in the renal elimination of uremic toxins. SLCO4C1 is the only OATP expressed at the basolateral side of proximal tubular cells in human kidney, and it mediates the excretion of uremic toxins. The overexpression of human SLCO4C1 in rat kidney promotes the renal excretion of uremic toxins and reduces hypertension, cardiomegaly, and renal inflammation in renal failure. Statins induce SLCO4C1 expression thorough transcriptional factor Aryl hydrocarbon receptor through binding of the xenobiotic responsive element at its promoter region. The administration of statin in a rat renal failure model facilitated the elimination of uremic toxins and mitigated organ damage. In addition, metabolomic analysis of rat renal failure models and patients with CKD by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry is a useful method for identifying new uremic solutes and explores surrogate biomarkers for detecting the progression of early stage CKD. PMID:21656517

  18. Influence of counter-anions during electrochemical deposition of ZnO on the charge transport dynamics in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Richter, Christoph; Beu, Max; Schlettwein, Derck

    2015-01-21

    Porous ZnO/EosinY films have been electrochemically deposited by oxygen reduction in the presence of a zinc salt from EosinY-containing aqueous solutions, with either chloride or perchlorate as the counter anion. EosinY was removed and the films were sensitised by D149. These electrodes were used for dye-sensitised solar cells (DSCs), and charge transport in the porous network was studied by intensity modulated current/voltage spectroscopy (IMVS/IMPS) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) under illumination. Doping of ZnO during the electrodeposition could be proven by changes in the charge transport in ZnO and could be shown to occur when chloride was used as the counter ion. By using perchlorate as the counter ion, on the other hand, a more reproducible occupation of trap levels was obtained at, however, slightly lower voltages in DSCs whose origin is discussed in detail. PMID:25474267

  19. Handling of Drugs, Metabolites, and Uremic Toxins by Kidney Proximal Tubule Drug Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Bush, Kevin T.; Hoenig, Melanie P.; Blantz, Roland C.; Bhatnagar, Vibha

    2015-01-01

    The proximal tubule of the kidney plays a crucial role in the renal handling of drugs (e.g., diuretics), uremic toxins (e.g., indoxyl sulfate), environmental toxins (e.g., mercury, aristolochic acid), metabolites (e.g., uric acid), dietary compounds, and signaling molecules. This process is dependent on many multispecific transporters of the solute carrier (SLC) superfamily, including organic anion transporter (OAT) and organic cation transporter (OCT) subfamilies, and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. We review the basic physiology of these SLC and ABC transporters, many of which are often called drug transporters. With an emphasis on OAT1 (SLC22A6), the closely related OAT3 (SLC22A8), and OCT2 (SLC22A2), we explore the implications of recent in vitro, in vivo, and clinical data pertinent to the kidney. The analysis of murine knockouts has revealed a key role for these transporters in the renal handling not only of drugs and toxins but also of gut microbiome products, as well as liver-derived phase 1 and phase 2 metabolites, including putative uremic toxins (among other molecules of metabolic and clinical importance). Functional activity of these transporters (and polymorphisms affecting it) plays a key role in drug handling and nephrotoxicity. These transporters may also play a role in remote sensing and signaling, as part of a versatile small molecule communication network operative throughout the body in normal and diseased states, such as AKI and CKD. PMID:26490509

  20. Handling of Drugs, Metabolites, and Uremic Toxins by Kidney Proximal Tubule Drug Transporters.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Sanjay K; Wu, Wei; Bush, Kevin T; Hoenig, Melanie P; Blantz, Roland C; Bhatnagar, Vibha

    2015-11-01

    The proximal tubule of the kidney plays a crucial role in the renal handling of drugs (e.g., diuretics), uremic toxins (e.g., indoxyl sulfate), environmental toxins (e.g., mercury, aristolochic acid), metabolites (e.g., uric acid), dietary compounds, and signaling molecules. This process is dependent on many multispecific transporters of the solute carrier (SLC) superfamily, including organic anion transporter (OAT) and organic cation transporter (OCT) subfamilies, and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. We review the basic physiology of these SLC and ABC transporters, many of which are often called drug transporters. With an emphasis on OAT1 (SLC22A6), the closely related OAT3 (SLC22A8), and OCT2 (SLC22A2), we explore the implications of recent in vitro, in vivo, and clinical data pertinent to the kidney. The analysis of murine knockouts has revealed a key role for these transporters in the renal handling not only of drugs and toxins but also of gut microbiome products, as well as liver-derived phase 1 and phase 2 metabolites, including putative uremic toxins (among other molecules of metabolic and clinical importance). Functional activity of these transporters (and polymorphisms affecting it) plays a key role in drug handling and nephrotoxicity. These transporters may also play a role in remote sensing and signaling, as part of a versatile small molecule communication network operative throughout the body in normal and diseased states, such as AKI and CKD. PMID:26490509

  1. [Dynamics of ultrastructure changes in sheet plate fiber flax with braking transport assimilate by nitrate-anion].

    PubMed

    Abdrakhimov, F A; Batasheva, S N; Bakirova, G G; Chikov, V I

    2008-01-01

    Changes in leaf mesophyll cell ultrastructure under nitrate feeding into the apoplast of common flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) in the form of 50 mM KNO3 solution were studied. In 30 min after the beginning of nitrate feeding through the transpiration water stream, swelling of mitochondrial and microbodies, clarification of their matrices, and curling of dictyosome discs into annular structures were observed. These events characterized symplastic domain formed by mesophyll, bundle sheath and phloem parenchyma cells, and were not found in companion cell-sieve element complex. Simultaneously, formation of large central vacuoles in companion cells was noted. Restoration of organelle structures in assimilating cells and phloem parenchyma in 1-2 h after treatment was accompanied by enhancement of morphological changes in phloem elements and companion cells and signs of plasmolysis in the mesophyll cells. It was supposed that the two-phase character of changes in leaf organelle ultrastructure and photosynthesis might reflect duality of leaf cell response to nitrate ion. The rapid alterations of the structure can be coupled with direct influence of the anion on cell metabolism and(or) with signal-regulatory functions of oxidized nitrogen forms, while the slower ones reflect the result of suppression of photoassimilate export from leaves by the anion. PMID:18822790

  2. Electrogenic proton transport across lipid bilayer membranes mediated by cationic derivatives of rhodamine 19: comparison with anionic protonophores.

    PubMed

    Rokitskaya, Tatyana I; Ilyasova, Tatyana M; Severina, Inna I; Antonenko, Yuri N; Skulachev, Vladimir P

    2013-06-01

    Protonophores can be considered as candidates for anti-obesity drugs and tools to prevent excessive reactive oxygen species production in mitochondria by means of a limited decrease in the mitochondrial potential. Experimentally used protonophores are weak acids that can carry protons across a membrane in a neutral (protonated) form, and they come back in an anionic (deprotonated) form. A cationic derivative of rhodamine 19 and plastoquinone (SkQR1) was recently shown to possess uncoupling activity in mitochondria and in intact cells. In this article, we studied the mechanism of action of SkQR1 and its plastoquinone-lacking analog (C12R1) on a planar bilayer lipid membrane by applying voltage jumps. The steady-state current was proportional to the C12R1 concentration in a manner as if the monomeric form of the carrier were operative. As predicted by the carrier model, at high pH, when rhodamines were mainly deprotonated, the current changed immediately following a jump in the applied potential and then remained constant. By contrast, at low pH, the current relaxed from an initially high value to a lower value since the protonated carrier cations were redistributed in the membrane. An inverse pH dependence was revealed with the anionic protonophore CCCP. The dependence of the SkQR1 protonophorous activity on voltage exhibited an increase at high voltages, an effect that might facilitate mild (self-limited) uncoupling of mitochondria. PMID:23558512

  3. Effect of SLC26 anion transporter disease-causing mutations on the stability of the homologous STAS domain of E. coli DauA (YchM).

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiaoyun; Moraes, Trevor F; Reithmeier, Reinhart A F

    2016-03-01

    The human solute carrier 26 (SLC26) family of anion transporters consists of ten members that are found in various organs in the body including the stomach, intestine, kidney, thyroid and ear where they transport anions including bicarbonate, chloride and sulfate, typically in an exchange mode. Mutations in these genes cause a plethora of diseases such as diastrophic dysplasia affecting sulfate uptake into chondrocytes (SLC26A2), congenital chloride-losing diarrhoea (SLC26A3) affecting chloride secretion in the intestine and Pendred's syndrome (SLC26A4) resulting in hearing loss. To understand how these mutations affect the structures of the SLC26 membrane proteins and their ability to function properly, 12 human disease-causing mutants from SLC26A2, SLC26A3 and SLC26A4 were introduced into the equivalent sites of the sulfate transporter anti-sigma factor antagonist (STAS) domain of a bacterial homologue SLC26 protein DauA (YchM). Biophysical analyses including size-exclusion chromatography, circular dichroism (CD), differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) and tryptophan fluorescence revealed that most mutations caused protein instability and aggregation. The mutation A463K, equivalent to N558K in human SLC26A4, which is located within α-helix 1 of the DauA STAS domain, stabilized the protein. CD measurements showed that most disease-related mutants had a mildly reduced helix content, but were more sensitive to thermal denaturation. Fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the mutants had more open structures and were more readily denatured by urea, whereas DSF indicated more labile folds. Overall, we conclude that the disease-associated mutations destabilized the STAS domain resulting in an increased propensity to misfold and aggregate. PMID:26635355

  4. IRIP, a New Ischemia/Reperfusion-Inducible Protein That Participates in the Regulation of Transporter Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Prokopenko, Olga; Wong, Lawrence; Inouye, Masayori; Mirochnitchenko, Oleg

    2005-01-01

    We report the identification and characterization of a new ischemia/reperfusion-inducible protein (IRIP), which belongs to the SUA5/YrdC/YciO protein family. IRIP cDNA was isolated in a differential display analysis of an ischemia/reperfusion-treated kidney RNA sample. Mouse IRIP mRNA was expressed in all tissues tested, the highest level being in the testis, secretory, and endocrine organs. Besides ischemia/reperfusion, endotoxemia also activated the expression of IRIP in the liver, lung, and spleen. The transporter regulator RS1 was identified as an IRIP-interacting protein in yeast two-hybrid screening. The interaction between IRIP and RS1 was further confirmed in coimmunoprecipitation assays. A possible role of IRIP in regulating transporter activity was subsequently investigated. IRIP overexpression inhibited endogenous 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) uptake activity in HeLa cells. The activities of exogenous organic cation transporters (OCT2 and OCT3), organic anion transporter (OAT1), and monoamine transporters were also inhibited by IRIP. Conversely, inhibition of IRIP expression by small interfering RNA or antisense RNA increased MPP+ uptake. We measured transport kinetics of OCT2-mediated uptake and demonstrated that IRIP overexpression significantly decreased Vmax but did not affect Km. On the basis of these results, we propose that IRIP regulates the activity of a variety of transporters under normal and pathological conditions. PMID:16024787

  5. Fructus Gardenia Extract ameliorates oxonate-induced hyperuricemia with renal dysfunction in mice by regulating organic ion transporters and mOIT3.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qing-Hua; Zhu, Ji-Xiao; Ji, Jing; Wei, Lin-Lin; Miao, Ming-Xing; Ji, Hui

    2013-01-01

    The potent anti-hyperuricemia activities of Fructus Gardenia Extract (FGE) have been well reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the uricosuric and nephro-protective effects of FGE and explore its possible mechanisms of action in oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice. FGE was orally administered to hyperuricemic and normal mice for 1 week. Serum and urinary levels of uric acid, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and fractional excretion of uric acid (FEUA) were measured. The mRNA and protein levels of mouse urate transporter 1 (mURAT1), glucose transporter 9 (mGLUT9), ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G, 2 (mABCG2), organic anion transporter 1 (mOAT1), mOAT3, oncoprotein induced transcript 3 (mOIT3), organic cation/carnitine transporters in the kidney were analyzed. Simultaneously, Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein (THP) levels in urine and kidney were detected. FGE significantly reduced serum urate levels and increased urinary urate levels and FEUA in hyperuricemic mice. It could also effectively reverse oxonate-induced alterations in renal mURAT1, mGLUT9, mOAT1 and mOIT3 expressions, as well as THP levels, resulting in the enhancement of renal uric acid excretion. Moreover, FGE decreased serum creatinine and BUN levels, and up-regulated expression of organic cation/carnitine transporters, improving renal dysfunction in this model. Furthermore, FGE decreased renal mABCG2 expressions in hyperuricemic mice, contributing to its beneficial actions. However, further investigation is needed in clinical trials of FGE and its bioactive components. PMID:23899832

  6. Genetic polymorphisms and function of the organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1A2 and its clinical relevance in drug disposition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yinhui; Yuan, Jingjing; Li, Zhisong; Wang, Zhongyu; Cheng, Dan; Du, Yingying; Li, Wenlu; Kan, Quancheng; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The solute carrier organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are a family of transporter proteins that have been extensively recognized as key determinants of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of various drugs because of their broad substrate specificity and wide tissue distribution as well as the involvement of drug-drug interaction. Human OATP1A2 is a drug uptake transporter known for its broad substrate specificity, including many drugs in clinical use. OATP1A2 expression has been detected in the intestine, liver, brain and kidney. A considerable number of single nucleotide polymorphisms have been found for the OATP1A2 gene. A number of studies have shown that the cellular uptake and pharmacokinetic behavior of some drugs may be impaired in the case of certain OATP1A2 variants. Interestingly, some studies show that the mRNA expression of OATP1A2 is nearly 10-fold higher in breast cancer compared with adjacent healthy breast tissues. This review is, therefore, focused on the genetic polymorphisms, function and clinical relevance of OATP1A2 as well as on the substrates transported by it. PMID:25924632

  7. Identification of novel inhibitors of the steroid sulfate carrier 'sodium-dependent organic anion transporter' SOAT (SLC10A6) by pharmacophore modelling.

    PubMed

    Grosser, Gary; Baringhaus, Karl-Heinz; Döring, Barbara; Kramer, Werner; Petzinger, Ernst; Geyer, Joachim

    2016-06-15

    The sodium-dependent organic anion transporter SOAT specifically transports sulfated steroid hormones and is supposed to play a role in testicular steroid regulation and male fertility. The present study aimed to identify novel specific SOAT inhibitors for further in vitro and in vivo studies on SOAT function. More than 100 compounds of different molecular structures were screened for inhibition of the SOAT-mediated transport of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in stably transfected SOAT-HEK293 cells. Twenty-five of these with IC50 values covering four orders of magnitude were selected as training set for 3D pharmacophore modelling. The SOAT pharmacophore features were calculated by CATALYST and consist of three hydrophobic sites and two hydrogen bond acceptors. By substrate database screening, compound T 0511-1698 was predicted as a novel SOAT inhibitor with an IC50 of 15 μM. This value was confirmed by cell-based transport assays. Therefore, the developed SOAT pharmacophore model demonstrated its suitability in predicting novel SOAT inhibitors. PMID:27033324

  8. pH-sensitive interaction of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) with organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1.

    PubMed

    Varma, Manthena V; Rotter, Charles J; Chupka, Jonathan; Whalen, Kevin M; Duignan, David B; Feng, Bo; Litchfield, John; Goosen, Theunis C; El-Kattan, Ayman F

    2011-08-01

    The human organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1 (OATP2B1, SLCO2B1) is ubiquitously expressed and may play an important role in the disposition of xenobiotics. The present study aimed to examine the role of OATP2B1 in the intestinal absorption and tissue uptake of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins). We first investigated the functional affinity of statins to the transporter as a function of extracellular pH, using OATP2B1-transfeced HEK293 cells. The results indicate that OATP2B1-mediated transport is significant for rosuvastatin, fluvastatin and atorvastatin, at neutral pH. However, OATP2B1 showed broader substrate specificity as well as enhanced transporter activity at acidic pH. Furthermore, uptake at acidic pH was diminished in the presence of proton ionophore, suggesting proton gradient as the driving force for OATP2B1 activity. Notably, passive transport rates are predominant or comparable to active transport rates for statins, except for rosuvastatin and fluvastatin. Second, we studied the effect of OATP modulators on statin uptake. At pH 6.0, OATP2B1-mediated transport of atorvastatin and cerivastatin was not inhibitable, while rosuvastatin transport was inhibited by E-3-S, rifamycin SV and cyclosporine with IC(50) values of 19.7 ± 3.3 μM, 0.53 ± 0.2 μM and 2.2 ± 0.4 μM, respectively. Rifamycin SV inhibited OATP2B1-mediated transport of E-3-S and rosuvastatin with similar IC(50) values at pH 6.0 and 7.4, suggesting that the inhibitor affinity is not pH-dependent. Finally, we noted that OATP2B1-mediated transport of E-3-S, but not rosuvastatin, is pH sensitive in intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells. However, uptake of E-3-S and rosuvastatin by Caco-2 cells was diminished in the presence of proton ionophore. The present results indicate that OATP2B1 may be involved in the tissue uptake of rosuvastatin and fluvastatin, while OATP2B1 may play a significant role in the intestinal absorption of several

  9. Isolation of Modulators of the Liver-Specific Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptides (OATPs) 1B1 and 1B3 from Rollinia emarginata Schlecht (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Megan; Araya, Juan J.; Timmermann, Barbara N.

    2011-01-01

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3 (OATP1B1 and OATP1B3) are liver-specific transporters that mediate the uptake of a broad range of drugs into hepatocytes, including statins, antibiotics, and many anticancer drugs. Compounds that alter transport by one or both of these OATPs could potentially be used to target drugs to hepatocytes or improve the bioavailability of drugs that are cleared by the liver. In this study, we applied a bioassay-guided isolation approach to identify such compounds from the organic extract of Rollinia emarginata Schlecht (Annonaceae). Fractions of the plant extract were screened for effects on OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated transport of the model substrates estradiol-17β-glucuronide and estrone-3-sulfate. We isolated three compounds, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, and 8-trans-p-coumaroyloxy-α-terpineol, which inhibited estradiol-17β-glucuronide uptake by OATP1B1 but not OATP1B3. In addition, a rare compound, quercetin 3-O-α-l-arabinopyranosyl(1→2) α-l-rhamnopyranoside, was identified that had distinct effects on each OATP. OATP1B1 was strongly inhibited, as was OATP1B3-mediated transport of estradiol-17β-glucuronide. However, OATP1B3-mediated uptake of estrone-3-sulfate was stimulated 4- to 5-fold. Kinetic analysis of this stimulation revealed that the apparent affinity for estrone-3-sulfate was increased (decreased Km), whereas the maximal rate of transport (Vmax) was significantly reduced. These results demonstrate a mechanism through which the hepatic uptake of drug OATP substrates could be stimulated. PMID:21846839

  10. Multivariate analysis of the transport in an ion exchange membrane bioreactor for removal of anionic micropollutants from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, A R; Velizarov, S; Crespo, J G; Reis, M A M

    2011-01-01

    The present study focuses on investigating the effects of biological compartment conditions on the transport of nitrate and perchlorate in an Ion Exchange Membrane Bioreactor (IEMB). In this hybrid process, the transport depends not only on the membrane properties but also on the biological compartment conditions. The experiments were planned according to the Plackett-Burman statistical design in order to cover a broader range of experimental conditions, under which a previously developed mechanistic transport model was not able to predict correctly the transport fluxes of the target pollutants. Using Principal Component Analysis, it was possible to identify not only the concentrations of target (nitrate and perchlorate) and of major driving counter-ion (chloride) but also those of some biomedium components (e.g. ammonia, ethanol and sulphate) as variables that affect the transport rate of micropollutants across the membrane. These conclusions are based on the loadings of the two first principal components that describe 84% of the data variance. The present study also revealed that the hydraulic retention time and the hydrodynamic conditions in the biocompartment have a minor contribution to the micropollutants transport. The results obtained are important for process optimization purposes. PMID:21977639

  11. Regulation of Renal Organic Anion Transporter 3 (SLC22A8) Expression and Function by the Integrity of Lipid Raft Domains and their Associated Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Srimaroeng, Chutima; Cecile, Jennifer Perry; Walden, Ramsey; Pritchard, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims In humans and rodents, organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) is highly expressed on the basolateral membrane of renal proximal tubules and mediates the secretion of exogenous and endogenous anions. Regulation of Oat3 expression and function has been observed in both expression system and intact renal epithelia. However, information on the local membrane environment of Oat3 and its role is limited. Lipid raft domains (LRD; cholesterol-rich domains of the plasma membrane) play important roles in membrane protein expression, function and targeting. In the present study, we have examined the role of LRD-rich membranes and their associated cytoskeletal proteins on Oat3 expression and function. Methods LRD-rich membranes were isolated from rat renal cortical tissues and from HEK-293 cells stably expressing human OAT3 (hOAT3) by differential centrifugation with triton X-100 extraction. Western blots were subsequently analyzed to determine protein expression. In addition, the effect of disruption of LRD-rich membranes was examined on functional Oat3 mediated estrone sulfate (ES) transport in rat renal cortical slices. Cytoskeleton disruptors were investigated in both hOAT3 expressing HEK-293 cells and rat renal cortical slices. Results Lipid-enriched membranes from rat renal cortical tissues and hOAT3-expressing HEK-293 cells showed co-expression of rOat3/hOAT3 and several lipid raft-associated proteins, specifically caveolin 1 (Cav1), β-actin and myosin. Moreover, immunohistochemistry in hOAT3-expressing HEK-293 cells demonstrated that these LRD-rich proteins co-localized with hOAT3. Potassium iodide (KI), an inhibitor of protein-cytoskeletal interaction, effectively detached cytoskeleton proteins and hOAT3 from plasma membrane, leading to redistribution of hOAT3 into non-LRD-rich compartments. In addition, inhibition of cytoskeleton integrity and membrane trafficking processes significantly reduced ES uptake mediated by both human and rat Oat3. Cholesterol

  12. Effects of renal failure on drug transport and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong; Frassetto, Lynda; Benet, Leslie Z

    2006-01-01

    Renal failure not only alters the renal elimination, but also the non-renal disposition of drugs that are extensively metabolized by the liver. Although reduced metabolic enzyme activity in some cases can be responsible for the reduced drug clearance, alterations in the transporter systems may also be involved in the process. With the development of renal failure, the renal secretion of organic ions mediated by organic anion transporters (OATs) and organic cation transporters (OCTs) is decreased. 3-Carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (CMPF) and other organic anionic uremic toxins may directly inhibit the renal excretion of various drugs and endogenous organic acids by competitively inhibiting OATs. In addition, the expression of OAT1 and OCT2 was reduced in chronic renal failure (CRF) rats. Renal failure also impairs the liver uptake of drugs and organic anions, such as bromosulphophthalein (BSP), indocyanine green (ICG), and thyroxine, where organic anion transport polypeptides (OATPs) are the major transporters. Most previous studies have been done in animals or cell culture, very often in rat models, but these are presumed to reflect the presentation of advanced renal disease in humans as well. Recent studies demonstrate that the uremic toxins CMPF and indoxyl sulfate (IS) can directly inhibit rOatp2 and hOATP-C in hepatocytes. The protein content of the liver uptake transporters Oatp1, 2, and 4 were significantly decreased in CRF rats. Decreased activity of the intestinal efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), was also observed in CRF rats, with no significant change of protein content, suggesting that uremic toxins may suppress P-gp function. However, increased protein levels of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 in the kidney and MRP3 in the liver were found in CRF rats, suggesting an adaptive response that may serve as a protective mechanism. Increases in drug areas under the curve (AUCs) in subjects with advanced renal disease

  13. Massive excretion of calcium oxalate from late prepupal salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster demonstrates active nephridial-like anion transport.

    PubMed

    Farkaš, Robert; Pečeňová, Ludmila; Mentelová, Lucia; Beňo, Milan; Beňová-Liszeková, Denisa; Mahmoodová, Silvia; Tejnecký, Václav; Raška, Otakar; Juda, Pavel; Svidenská, Silvie; Hornáček, Matúš; Chase, Bruce A; Raška, Ivan

    2016-08-01

    The Drosophila salivary glands (SGs) were well known for the puffing patterns of their polytene chromosomes and so became a tissue of choice to study sequential gene activation by the steroid hormone ecdysone. One well-documented function of these glands is to produce a secretory glue, which is released during pupariation to fix the freshly formed puparia to the substrate. Over the past two decades SGs have been used to address specific aspects of developmentally-regulated programmed cell death (PCD) as it was thought that they are doomed for histolysis and after pupariation are just awaiting their fate. More recently, however, we have shown that for the first 3-4 h after pupariation SGs undergo tremendous endocytosis and vacuolation followed by vacuole neutralization and membrane consolidation. Furthermore, from 8 to 10 h after puparium formation (APF) SGs display massive apocrine secretion of a diverse set of cellular proteins. Here, we show that during the period from 11 to 12 h APF, the prepupal glands are very active in calcium oxalate (CaOx) extrusion that resembles renal or nephridial excretory activity. We provide genetic evidence that Prestin, a Drosophila homologue of the mammalian electrogenic anion exchange carrier SLC26A5, is responsible for the instantaneous production of CaOx by the late prepupal SGs. Its positive regulation by the protein kinases encoded by fray and wnk lead to increased production of CaOx. The formation of CaOx appears to be dependent on the cooperation between Prestin and the vATPase complex as treatment with bafilomycin A1 or concanamycin A abolishes the production of detectable CaOx. These data demonstrate that prepupal SGs remain fully viable, physiologically active and engaged in various cellular activities at least until early pupal period, that is, until moments prior to the execution of PCD. PMID:27397870

  14. Nitrite Uptake into Intact Pea Chloroplasts : II. Influence of Electron Transport Regulators, Uncouplers, ATPase and Anion Uptake Inhibitors and Protein Binding Reagents.

    PubMed

    Brunswick, P; Cresswell, C F

    1988-02-01

    The relationship between net nitrite uptake and its reduction in intact pea chloroplasts was investigated employing electron transport regulators, uncouplers, and photophosphorylation inhibitors. Observations confirmed the dependence of nitrite uptake on stromal pH and nitrite reduction but also suggested a partial dependance upon PSI phosphorylation. It was also suggested that ammonia stimulates nitrogen assimilation in the dark by association with stromal protons. Inhibition of nitrite uptake by N-ethylmaleimide and dinitrofluorobenzene could not be completely attributed to their inhibition of carbon dioxide fixation. Other protein binding reagents which inhibited photosynthesis showed no effect on nitrite uptake, except for p-chlormercuribenzoate which stimulated nitrite uptake. The results with N-ethylmaleimide and dinitrofluorobenzene tended to support the proposed presence of a protein permeation channel for nitrite uptake in addition to HNO(2) penetration. On the basis of a lack of effect by known anion uptake inhibitors, it was concluded that the nitrite uptake mechanism was distinct from that of phosphate and chloride/sulfate transport. PMID:16665917

  15. Defects in a New Class of Sulfate/Anion Transporter Link Sulfur Acclimation Responses to Intracellular Glutathione Levels and Cell Cycle Control1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Su-Chiung; Chung, Chin-Lin; Chen, Chun-Han; Lopez-Paz, Cristina; Umen, James G.

    2014-01-01

    We previously identified a mutation, suppressor of mating type locus3 15-1 (smt15-1), that partially suppresses the cell cycle defects caused by loss of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor-related protein encoded by the MAT3 gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. smt15-1 single mutants were also found to have a cell cycle defect leading to a small-cell phenotype. SMT15 belongs to a previously uncharacterized subfamily of putative membrane-localized sulfate/anion transporters that contain a sulfate transporter domain and are found in a widely distributed subset of eukaryotes and bacteria. Although we observed that smt15-1 has a defect in acclimation to sulfur-limited growth conditions, sulfur acclimation (sac) mutants, which are more severely defective for acclimation to sulfur limitation, do not have cell cycle defects and cannot suppress mat3. Moreover, we found that smt15-1, but not sac mutants, overaccumulates glutathione. In wild-type cells, glutathione fluctuated during the cell cycle, with highest levels in mid G1 phase and lower levels during S and M phases, while in smt15-1, glutathione levels remained elevated during S and M. In addition to increased total glutathione levels, smt15-1 cells had an increased reduced-to-oxidized glutathione redox ratio throughout the cell cycle. These data suggest a role for SMT15 in maintaining glutathione homeostasis that impacts the cell cycle and sulfur acclimation responses. PMID:25361960

  16. Inhibition of phosphate transport in rat heart mitochondria by 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine due to stimulation of superoxide anion mitochondrial production.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Daniela; Atlante, Anna; Barile, Maria; Passarella, Salvatore

    2002-07-15

    In order to gain some insight into the mechanism by which 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) damages mitochondria, we investigated whether externally added AZT can stimulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by rat heart mitochondria (RHM). An increase in superoxide anion ((O(2)(.-)) production was measured in RHM added with AZT, by using a photometrically method which allows an early O(2)(.-) detection by following the absorbance increase at 550 nm due to the ferricytochrome c reduction. Such an increase was found to be prevented from externally added superoxide dismutase. The stimulation of O(2)(.-) mitochondrial production induced by AZT was found to occur under conditions in which mitochondrial oxygen consumption was prevented by both inhibitors of electron flow and ATP synthesis. Since ROS can cause mitochondrial carrier impairment, we investigated whether AZT can affect mitochondrial permeability in virtue of its capability to stimulate ROS production. In this regard, we studied the transport of phosphate (P(i)), by measuring the mitochondrial shrinkage that takes place as a result of P(i) uptake by RHM previously swollen in a calcium acetate medium. As a result of the AZT-dependent O(2)(.-) production, uncompetitive inhibition of the rate of P(i) transport in RHM was found (K(i) of about 10 microM), consistently, such an inhibition was found to prevent by certain known ROS scavengers, i.e. superoxide dismutase, the antioxidant Vitamin C and reduced gluthatione. PMID:12123740

  17. A particle-based model of size or anion exclusion with application to microbial transport in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Wood, Brian D.

    2003-04-02

    This paper presents a novel approach to the quantification of pore-scale exclusion processes, based on the truncation of the distribution of local dispersive displacements in a random-walk particle model. This approach increases the mean velocity of colloidal-sized particles relative to inert solute tracers, and decreases the apparent dispersion. An equivalent continuum (concentration-based) model, with modified velocity and dispersion parameters, is derived. The model was applied to the results of laboratory experiments on bacterial transport in intact cores from a research site near Oyster, Virginia. The significant observed decrease in bacterial arrival times relative to a bromide tracer was closely reproduced by the particle-based model with modest degrees of truncation (8% maximum). The approach provides a conceptually consistent means of incorporating the exclusion process into groundwater transport models.

  18. Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide (OATP)2B1 Contributes to Gastrointestinal Toxicity of Anticancer Drug SN-38, Active Metabolite of Irinotecan Hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Daichi; Saito, Yoshimasa; Nakanishi, Takeo; Tamai, Ikumi

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal toxicity, such as late-onset diarrhea, is a significant concern in irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11)-containing regimens. Prophylaxis of late-onset diarrhea has been reported with use of Japanese traditional (Kampo) medicine containing baicalin and with the antibiotic cefixime, and this has been explained in terms of inhibition of bacterial deconjugation of SN-38-glucuronide since unconjugated SN-38 (active metabolite of CPT-11) is responsible for the gastrointestinal toxicity. It is also prerequisite for SN-38 to be accumulated in intestinal tissues to exert toxicity. Based on the fact that liver-specific organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1, a member of the same family as OATP2B1, is known to be involved in hepatic transport of SN-38, we hypothesized that intestinal transporter OATP2B1 contributes to the accumulation of SN-38 in gastrointestinal tissues, and its inhibition would help prevent associated toxicity. We found that uptake of SN-38 by OATP2B1-expressing Xenopus oocytes was significantly higher than that by control oocytes. OATP2B1-mediated uptake of SN-38 was saturable, pH dependent, and decreased in the presence of baicalin, cefixime, or fruit juices such as apple juice. In vivo gastrointestinal toxicity of SN-38 in mice caused by oral administration for consecutive 5 days was prevented by coingestion of apple juice. Thus, OATP2B1 contributes to the uptake of SN-38 by intestinal tissues, triggering gastrointestinal toxicity. So, in addition to the reported inhibition of bacterial β-glucuronidase by cefixime or baicalin, inhibition of OATP2B1 may also contribute to prevention of gastrointestinal toxicity. Apple juice may be helpful for prophylaxis of late-onset diarrhea observed in CPT-11 therapy without disturbance of the intestinal microflora. PMID:26526067

  19. Casein Kinase 2 Is a Novel Regulator of the Human Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ting; Cheung, Florence Shin Gee; Zheng, Jian; Lu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Ling; Grewal, Thomas; Murray, Michael; Zhou, Fanfan

    2016-01-01

    Human organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) mediate the influx of many important drugs into cells. Casein kinase 2 (CK2) is a critical protein kinase that phosphorylates >300 protein substrates and is dysregulated in a number of disease states. Among the CK2 substrates are several transporters, although whether this includes human OATPs has not been evaluated. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the regulation of human OATP1A2 by CK2. HEK-239T cells in which OATP1A2 was overexpressed were treated with CK2 specific inhibitors or transfected with CK2 specific siRNA, and the activity, expression, and subcellular trafficking of OATP1A2 was evaluated. CK2 inhibition decreased the uptake of the prototypic OATP1A2 substrate estrone-3-sulfate (E3S). Kinetic studies revealed that this was due to a decrease in the maximum velocity (Vmax) of E3S uptake, while the Michaelis constant was unchanged. The cell surface expression, but not the total cellular expression of OATP1A2, was impaired by CK2 inhibition and knockdown of the catalytic α-subunits of CK2. CK2 inhibition decreased the internalization of OATP1A2 via a clathrin-dependent pathway, decreased OATP1A2 recycling, and likely impaired OATP1A2 targeting to the cell surface. Consistent with these findings, CK2 inhibition also disrupted the colocalization of OATP1A2 and Rab GTPase (Rab)4-, Rab8-, and Rab9-positive endosomal and secretory vesicles. Taken together, CK2 has emerged as a novel regulator of the subcellular trafficking and stability of OATP1A2. Because OATP1A2 transports many molecules of physiological and pharmacological importance, the present data may inform drug selection in patients with diseases in which CK2 and OATP1A2 are dysregulated. PMID:26580496

  20. Molecular Switch Controlling the Binding of Anionic Bile Acid Conjugates to Human Apical Sodium-dependent Bile Acid Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Rais, Rana; Acharya, Chayan; Tririya, Gasirat; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Polli, James E.

    2010-01-01

    The human apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (hASBT) may serve as a prodrug target for oral drug absorption. Synthetic, biological, NMR and computational approaches identified the structure-activity relationships of mono- and dianionic bile acid conjugates for hASBT binding. Experimental data combined with a conformationally-sampled pharmacophore/QSAR modeling approach (CSP-SAR) predicted that dianionic substituents with intramolecular hydrogen bonding between hydroxyls on the cholane skeleton and the acid group on the conjugate's aromatic ring increased conjugate hydrophobicity and improved binding affinity. Notably, the model predicted the presence of a conformational molecular switch, where shifting the carboxylate substituent on an aromatic ring by a single position controlled binding affinity. Model validation was performed by effectively shifting the spatial location of the carboxylate by inserting a methylene adjacent to the aromatic ring, resulting in the predicted alteration in binding affinity. This work illustrates conformation as a determinant of ligand binding affinity to a biological transporter. PMID:20504026

  1. The Antimicrobial Agent Fusidic Acid Inhibits Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide-Mediated Hepatic Clearance and May Potentiate Statin-Induced Myopathy.

    PubMed

    Eng, Heather; Scialis, Renato J; Rotter, Charles J; Lin, Jian; Lazzaro, Sarah; Varma, Manthena V; Di, Li; Feng, Bo; West, Michael; Kalgutkar, Amit S

    2016-05-01

    Chronic treatment of methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureusstrains with the bacteriostatic agent fusidic acid (FA) is frequently associated with myopathy including rhabdomyolysis upon coadministration with statins. Because adverse effects with statins are usually the result of drug-drug interactions, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of FA against human CYP3A4 and clinically relevant drug transporters such as organic anion transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3, multidrug resistant protein 1, and breast cancer resistance protein, which are involved in the oral absorption and/or systemic clearance of statins including atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin. FA was a weak reversible (IC50= 295 ± 1.0μM) and time-dependent (KI= 216 ± 41μM andkinact= 0.0179 ± 0.001 min(-1)) inhibitor of CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam-1'-hydroxylase activity in human liver microsomes. FA demonstrated inhibition of multidrug resistant protein 1-mediated digoxin transport with an IC50value of 157 ± 1.0μM and was devoid of breast cancer resistance protein inhibition (IC50> 500μM). In contrast, FA showed potent inhibition of OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-specific rosuvastatin transport with IC50values of 1.59μM and 2.47μM, respectively. Furthermore, coadministration of oral rosuvastatin and FA to rats led to an approximately 19.3-fold and 24.6-fold increase in the rosuvastatin maximum plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration-time curve, respectively, which could be potentially mediated through inhibitory effects of FA on rat Oatp1a4 (IC50= 2.26μM) and Oatp1b2 (IC50= 4.38μM) transporters, which are responsible for rosuvastatin uptake in rat liver. The potent inhibition of human OATP1B1/OATP1B3 by FA could attenuate hepatic uptake of statins, resulting in increased blood and tissue concentrations, potentially manifesting in musculoskeletal toxicity. PMID:26888941

  2. PDZK1 and NHERF1 Regulate the Function of Human Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) by Modulating Its Subcellular Trafficking and Stability

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jian; Chan, Ting; Cheung, Florence Shin Gee; Zhu, Ling; Murray, Michael; Zhou, Fanfan

    2014-01-01

    The human organic anion transporting polypeptide 1A2 (OATP1A2) is an important membrane protein that mediates the cellular influx of various substances including drugs. Previous studies have shown that PDZ-domain containing proteins, especially PDZK1 and NHERF1, regulate the function of related membrane transporters in other mammalian species. This study investigated the role of PDZK1 and NHERF1 in the regulation of OATP1A2 in an in vitro cell model. Transporter function and protein expression were assessed in OATP1A2-transfected HEK-293 cells that co-expressed PDZK1 or NHERF1. Substrate (estrone-3-sulfate) uptake by OATP1A2 was significantly increased to ∼1.6- (PDZK1) and ∼1.8- (NHERF1) fold of control; this was dependent on the putative PDZ-binding domain within the C-terminus of OATP1A2. The functional increase of OATP1A2 following PDZK1 or NHERF1 over-expression was associated with increased transporter expression at the plasma membrane and in the whole cell, and was reflected by an increase in the apparent maximal velocity of estrone-3-sulfate uptake (Vmax: 138.9±4.1 (PDZK1) and 181.4±16.7 (NHERF1) versus 55.5±3.2 pmol*(µg*4 min)−1 in control; P<0.01). Co-immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that the regulatory actions of PDZK1 and NHERF1 were mediated by direct interaction with OATP1A2 protein. In further experiments PDZK1 and NHERF1 modulated OATP1A2 expression by decreasing its internalization in a clathrin-dependent (but caveolin-independent) manner. Additionally, PDZK1 and NHERF1 enhanced the stability of OATP1A2 protein in HEK-293 cells. The present findings indicated that PDZK1 and NHERF1 regulate the transport function of OATP1A2 by modulating protein internalization via a clathrin-dependent pathway and by enhancing protein stability. PMID:24728453

  3. Molecular physiology of EAAT anion channels.

    PubMed

    Fahlke, Christoph; Kortzak, Daniel; Machtens, Jan-Philipp

    2016-03-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. After release from presynaptic nerve terminals, glutamate is quickly removed from the synaptic cleft by a family of five glutamate transporters, the so-called excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT1-5). EAATs are prototypic members of the growing number of dual-function transport proteins: they are not only glutamate transporters, but also anion channels. Whereas the mechanisms underlying secondary active glutamate transport are well understood at the functional and at the structural level, mechanisms and cellular roles of EAAT anion conduction have remained elusive for many years. Recently, molecular dynamics simulations combined with simulation-guided mutagenesis and experimental analysis identified a novel anion-conducting conformation, which accounts for all experimental data on EAAT anion currents reported so far. We here review recent findings on how EAATs accommodate a transporter and a channel in one single protein. PMID:26687113

  4. Photosynthesis-dependent/independent control of stomatal responses to CO2 in mutant barley with surplus electron transport capacity and reduced SLAH3 anion channel transcript.

    PubMed

    Córdoba, Javier; Molina-Cano, José-Luis; Pérez, Pilar; Morcuende, Rosa; Moralejo, Marian; Savé, Robert; Martínez-Carrasco, Rafael

    2015-10-01

    The mechanisms of stomatal sensitivity to CO2 are yet to be fully understood. The role of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic factors in stomatal responses to CO2 was investigated in wild-type barley (Hordeum vulgare var. Graphic) and in a mutant (G132) with decreased photochemical and Rubisco capacities. The CO2 and DCMU responses of stomatal conductance (gs), gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and levels of ATP, with a putative transcript for stomatal opening were analysed. G132 had greater gs than the wild-type, despite lower photosynthesis rates and higher intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci). The mutant had Rubisco-limited photosynthesis at very high CO2 levels, and higher ATP contents than the wild-type. Stomatal sensitivity to CO2 under red light was lower in G132 than in the wild-type, both in photosynthesizing and DCMU-inhibited leaves. Under constant Ci and red light, stomatal sensitivity to DCMU inhibition was higher in G132. The levels of a SLAH3-like slow anion channel transcript, involved in stomatal closure, decreased sharply in G132. The results suggest that stomatal responses to CO2 depend partly on the balance of photosynthetic electron transport to carbon assimilation capacities, but are partially regulated by the CO2 signalling network. High gs can improve the adaptation to climate change in well-watered conditions. PMID:26398787

  5. The volume-regulated anion channel is formed by LRRC8 heteromers – molecular identification and roles in membrane transport and physiology.

    PubMed

    Stauber, Tobias

    2015-09-01

    Cellular volume regulation is fundamental for numerous physiological processes. The volume-regulated anion channel, VRAC, plays a crucial role in regulatory volume decrease. This channel, which is ubiquitously expressed in vertebrates, has been vastly characterized by electrophysiological means. It opens upon cell swelling and conducts chloride and arguably organic osmolytes. VRAC has been proposed to be critically involved in various cellular and organismal functions, including cell proliferation and migration, apoptosis, transepithelial transport, swelling-induced exocytosis and intercellular communication. It may also play a role in pathological states like cancer and ischemia. Despite many efforts, the molecular identity of VRAC had remained elusive for decades, until the recent discovery of heteromers of LRRC8A with other LRRC8 family members as an essential VRAC component. This identification marks a starting point for studies on the structure-function relation, for molecular biological investigations of its cell biology and for re-evaluating the physiological roles of VRAC. This review recapitulates the identification of LRRC8 heteromers as VRAC components, depicts the similarities between LRRC8 proteins and pannexins, and discussed whether VRAC conducts larger osmolytes. Furthermore, proposed physiological functions of VRAC and the present knowledge about the physiological significance of LRRC8 proteins are summarized and collated. PMID:25868000

  6. Comparative effects of nodularin and microcystin-LR in zebrafish: 1. Uptake by organic anion transporting polypeptide Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1).

    PubMed

    Faltermann, Susanne; Prétôt, René; Pernthaler, Jakob; Fent, Karl

    2016-02-01

    Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and nodularin are hepatotoxins produced by several cyanobacterial species. Their toxicity is based on active cellular uptake and subsequent inhibition of protein phosphatases PP1/2A, leading to hyperphosphorylation and cell death. To date, uptake of MC-LR and nodularin in fish is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of the organic anion transporting polypeptide Oatp1d1 in zebrafish (drOatp1d1, Slco1d1) in cellular uptake in zebrafish. We stably transfected CHO and HEK293 cell lines expressing drOatp1d1. In both transfectants, uptake of MC-LR and nodularin was demonstrated by competitive inhibition of uptake with fluorescent substrate lucifer yellow. Direct uptake of MC-LR was demonstrated by immunostaining, and indirectly by the high cytotoxicity in stable transfectants. By means of a synthesized fluorescent labeled MC-LR derivative, direct uptake was further confirmed in HEK293 cells expressing drOatp1d1. Additionally, uptake and toxicity was investigated in the permanent zebrafish liver cell line ZFL. These cells had only a low relative abundance of drOatp1d1, drOatp2b1 and drOatp1f transcripts, which correlated with the lack of MC-LR induced cytotoxicity and transcriptional changes of genes indicative of endoplasmic reticulum stress, a known effect of this toxin. Our study demonstrates that drOatp1d1 functions as an uptake transporter for both MC-LR and nodularin in zebrafish. PMID:26769064

  7. The Epithelial Anion Transporter Pendrin Is Induced by Allergy and Rhinovirus Infection, Regulates Airway Surface Liquid, and Increases Airway Reactivity and Inflammation in an Asthma Model1

    PubMed Central

    Nakagami, Yasuhiro; Favoreto, Silvio; Zhen, Guohua; Park, Sung-Woo; Nguyenvu, Louis T.; Kuperman, Douglas A.; Dolganov, Gregory M.; Huang, Xiaozhu; Boushey, Homer A.; Avila, Pedro C.; Erle, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Asthma exacerbations can be triggered by viral infections or allergens. The Th2 cytokines IL-13 and IL-4 are produced during allergic responses and cause increases in airway epithelial cell mucus, electrolyte and water secretion into the airway surface liquid (ASL). Since ASL dehydration can cause airway inflammation and obstruction, ion transporters could play a role in pathogenesis of asthma exacerbations. We previously reported that expression of the epithelial cell anion transporter pendrin is markedly increased in response to IL-13. Here we show that pendrin plays a role in allergic airway disease and in regulation of ASL thickness. Pendrin-deficient mice had less allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity and inflammation than control mice although other aspects of the Th2 response were preserved. In cultures of IL-13-stimulated mouse tracheal epithelial cells, pendrin deficiency caused an increase in ASL thickness, suggesting that reductions in allergen-induced hyperreactivity and inflammation in pendrin-deficient mice result from improved ASL hydration. To determine whether pendrin might also play a role in virus-induced exacerbations of asthma, we measured pendrin mRNA expression in human subjects with naturally occurring common colds caused by rhinovirus and found a 4.9-fold-increase in mean expression during colds. Studies of cultured human bronchial epithelial cells indicated that this increase could be explained by the combined effects of rhinovirus and IFN-γ, a Th1 cytokine induced during virus infection. We conclude that pendrin regulates ASL thickness and may be an important contributor to asthma exacerbations induced by viral infections or allergens. PMID:18641360

  8. Evaluation of the transporter-mediated herb-drug interaction potential of DA-9801, a standardized dioscorea extract for diabetic neuropathy, in human in vitro and rat in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug transporters play important roles in the absorption, distribution, and elimination of drugs and thereby, modulate drug efficacy and toxicity. With a growing use of poly pharmacy, concurrent administration of herbal extracts that modulate transporter activities with drugs can cause serious adverse reactions. Therefore, prediction and evaluation of drug-drug interaction potential is important in the clinic and in the drug development process. DA-9801, comprising a mixed extract of Dioscoreae rhizoma and Dioscorea nipponica Makino, is a new standardized extract currently being evaluated for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in a phase II clinical study. Method The inhibitory effects of DA-9801 on the transport functions of organic cation transporter (OCT)1, OCT2, organic anion transporter (OAT)1, OAT3, organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1, OATP1B3, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) were investigated in HEK293 or LLC-PK1 cells. The effects of DA-9801 on the pharmacokinetics of relevant substrate drugs of these transporters were also examined in vivo in rats. Results DA-9801 inhibited the in vitro transport activities of OCT1, OCT2, OAT3, and OATP1B1, with IC50 values of 106, 174, 48.1, and 273 μg/mL, respectively, while the other transporters were not inhibited by 300 μg/mL DA-9801. To investigate whether this inhibitory effect of DA-9801 on OCT1, OCT2, and OAT3 could change the pharmacokinetics of their substrates in vivo, we measured the pharmacokinetics of cimetidine, a substrate for OCT1, OCT2, and OAT3, and of furosemide, a substrate for OAT1 and OAT3, by co-administration of DA-9801 at a single oral dose of 1,000 mg/kg. Pre-dose of DA-9801 5 min or 2 h prior to cimetidine administration decreased the Cmax of cimetidine in rats. However, DA-9801 did not affect the elimination parameters such as half-life, clearance, or amount excreted in the urine, suggesting that it did not inhibit elimination

  9. Coproporphyrins in Plasma and Urine Can Be Appropriate Clinical Biomarkers to Recapitulate Drug-Drug Interactions Mediated by Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yurong; Mandlekar, Sandhya; Shen, Hong; Holenarsipur, Vinay K; Langish, Robert; Rajanna, Prabhakar; Murugesan, Senthilkumar; Gaud, Nilesh; Selvam, Sabariya; Date, Onkar; Cheng, Yaofeng; Shipkova, Petia; Dai, Jun; Humphreys, William G; Marathe, Punit

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, an open-label, three-treatment, three-period clinical study of rosuvastatin (RSV) and rifampicin (RIF) when administered alone and in combination was conducted in 12 male healthy subjects to determine if coproporphyrin I (CP-I) and coproporphyrin III (CP-III) could serve as clinical biomarkers for organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) and 1B3 that belong to the solute carrier organic anion gene subfamily. Genotyping of the human OATP1B1 gene was performed in all 12 subjects and confirmed absence of OATP1B1*5 and OATP1B1*15 mutations. Average plasma concentrations of CP-I and CP-III prior to drug administration were 0.91 ± 0.21 and 0.15 ± 0.04 nM, respectively, with minimum fluctuation over the three periods. CP-I was passively eliminated, whereas CP-III was actively secreted from urine. Administration of RSV caused no significant changes in the plasma and urinary profiles of CP-I and CP-III. RIF markedly increased the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of CP-I and CP-III by 5.7- and 5.4-fold (RIF) or 5.7- and 6.5-fold (RIF+RSV), respectively, as compared with the predose values. The area under the plasma concentration curves from time 0 to 24 h (AUC0-24h) of CP-I and CP-III with RIF and RSV increased by 4.0- and 3.3-fold, respectively, when compared with RSV alone. In agreement with this finding, Cmax and AUC0-24h of RSV increased by 13.2- and 5.0-fold, respectively, when RIF was coadministered. Collectively, we conclude that CP-I and CP-III in plasma and urine can be appropriate endogenous biomarkers specifically and reliably reflecting OATP inhibition, and thus the measurement of these molecules can serve as a useful tool to assess OATP drug-drug interaction liabilities in early clinical studies. PMID:27317801

  10. Application of Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling to Explore the Role of Kidney Transporters in Renal Reabsorption of Perfluorooctanoic Acid in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Worley, Rachel Rogers; Fisher, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Renal elimination and the resulting clearance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) from the serum exhibit pronounced sex differences in the adult rat. The literature suggests that this is largely due to hormonally regulated expression of organic anion transporters (OATs) on the apical and basolateral membranes of the proximal tubule cells that facilitate excretion and reabsorption of PFOA from the filtrate into the blood. Previously developed PBPK models of PFOA exposure in the rat have not been parameterized to specifically account for transporter-mediated renal elimination. We developed a PBPK model for PFOA in the male and female rat to explore the role of Oat1, Oat3, and Oatp1a1 in sex-specific renal reabsorption and excretion of PFOA. Descriptions of the kinetic behavior of these transporters were extrapolated from in vitro studies and the model was used to simulate time-course serum, liver, and urine data for intravenous (IV) and oral exposures in both sexes. Model predicted concentrations of PFOA in the liver, serum, and urine showed good agreement with experimental data for both the male and female rat indicating that in vitro derived physiological descriptions of transporter-mediated renal reabsorption can successfully predict sex-dependent excretion of PFOA in the rat. This study supports the hypothesis that sex-specific serum half-lives for PFOA are largely driven by expression of transporters in the kidney and contributes to the development of PBPK modeling as a tool for evaluating the role of transporters in renal clearance. PMID:26522833

  11. PVD9902, a porcine vas deferens epithelial cell line that exhibits neurotransmitter-stimulated anion secretion and expresses numerous HCO3(-) transporters.

    PubMed

    Carlin, Ryan W; Sedlacek, Roger L; Quesnell, Rebecca R; Pierucci-Alves, Fernando; Grieger, David M; Schultz, Bruce D

    2006-06-01

    Epithelial ion transport disorders, including cystic fibrosis, adversely affect male reproductive function by nonobstructive mechanisms and by obstruction of the distal duct. Continuous cell lines that could be used to define ion transport mechanisms in this tissue are not readily available. In the present study, porcine vas deferens epithelial cells were isolated by standard techniques, and the cells spontaneously immortalized to form a porcine vas deferens epithelial cell line that we have titled PVD9902. Cells were maintained in continuous culture for >4 yr and 200 passages in a typical growth medium. Frozen stocks were generated, and thawed cells exhibited growth characteristics indistinguishable from their nonfrozen counterparts. Molecular and immunocytochemical studies confirmed the origin and epithelial nature of these cells. When seeded on permeable supports, PVD9902 cells grew as electrically tight (>6,000 ohms x cm2), confluent monolayers that responded to forskolin with an increase in short-circuit current (I(sc); 8 +/- 1 microA/cm2) that required Cl-, HCO3(-), and Na+, and was partially sensitive to bumetanide. mRNA was expressed for a number of anion transporters, including CFTR, electrogenic Na+-HCO3(-) cotransporter 1b (NBCe1b), downregulated in adenoma, pendrin, and Cl-/formate exchanger. Both forskolin and isoproterenol caused an increase in cellular cAMP levels. In addition, PVD9902 cell monolayers responded to physiological (i.e., adenosine, norepinephrine) and pharmacological [i.e., 5'-(N-ethylcarboxamido)adenosine, isoproterenol] agonists with increases in I(sc). Unlike their freshly isolated counterparts, however, PVD9902 cells did not respond to glucocorticoid exposure with an increase in amiloride-sensitive I(sc). RT-PCR analysis revealed the presence of both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA as well as mRNA for the alpha- and gamma-subunits of the epithelia Na+ channels (alpha- and gamma-ENaC), but not beta

  12. Lack of Contribution of Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein and Organic Anion-transporting Polypeptide to Pharmacokinetics of Regorafenib, a Novel Multi-Kinase Inhibitor, in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Kazuo; Ueyama, Jun; Tatsumi, Yasuaki; Tsukiyama, Ikuto; Sugiura, Yuka; Saito, Hiroko; Matsuura, Katsuhiko; Hasegawa, Takaaki

    2015-09-01

    We investigated whether hepatic multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (ABCC2) is involved in the hepatobiliary excretion of regorafenib, a novel multi-kinase inhibitor, using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats (EHBR) lacking the efflux transporter ABCC2. The involvement of organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1 (OATP1; OATP in humans) and OATP2 in the hepatic uptake of regorafenib and their protein levels in the liver were also investigated in the two rat groups. When regorafenib (5 mg/kg) was administered intravenously, the plasma concentrations of regorafenib were higher in EHBR than those in SD rats. However, the slope of the plasma concentration-time curves was the same for the two groups. Although the apparent biliary clearance of regorafenib in EHBR was lower than that of SD rats, no significant difference in the biliary excretion rate was observed between them, suggesting that regorafenib is not a substrate for ABCC2 and is not excreted into bile by ABCC2. It was also found that the contribution of biliary excretion to the systemic elimination of regorafenib is small. The protein-binding profiles of regorafenib were found to be linear in both rat groups. The binding potency, which was very high in both rat groups (>99.5%), was significantly higher in EHBR than that in SD rats. No significant differences in the plasma concentrations of unbound regorafenib were observed between the two rat groups, suggesting that the differences observed in the pharmacokinetic behaviors of regorafenib between the two rat groups were due to differences in protein-binding. When the protein levels of hepatic OATP1 and OATP2 were measured by immunoblot analysis, the expression of both transporters in EHBR was less than 40% of that in SD rats. The present results suggest that regorafenib is not a substrate for OATP1 and OATP2. These findings suggest the possibility that ABCC2-mediated hepatobiliary excretion and OATP1/OATP2-mediated hepatic uptake do

  13. Investigation of the impact of substrate selection on in vitro organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 inhibition profiles for the prediction of drug-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Saki; Nozaki, Yoshitane; Maeda, Kazuya; Komori, Takafumi; Takenaka, Osamu; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2015-02-01

    The risk assessment of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) is an indispensable part of drug development. We previously reported that in vitro inhibitory potencies of several inhibitors on OATP1B1 depend on the substrates when prototypical substrates, estradiol-17β-glucuronide (E₂G), estrone-3-sulfate, and sulfobromophthalein were used as test substrates. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively investigate this substrate-dependent inhibition of OATP1B1 using clinically relevant OATP1B1 inhibitors and substrate drugs. Effects of cyclosporine A (CsA), rifampin, and gemfibrozil on OATP1B1-mediated uptake of 12 substrate drugs were examined in OATP1B1-expressing human embryonic kidney 293 cells. The Ki values (μM) for CsA varied from 0.0771 to 0.486 (6.3-fold), for rifampin from 0.358 to 1.23 (3.4-fold), and for gemfibrozil from 9.65 to 252 (26-fold). Except for the inhibition of torasemide uptake by CsA and that of nateglinide uptake by gemfibrozil, the Ki values were within 2.8-fold of those obtained using E₂G as a substrate. Preincubation potentiated the inhibitory effect of CsA on OATP1B1 with similar magnitude regardless of the substrates. R values calculated based on a static model showed some variation depending on the Ki values determined with various substrates, and such variability could have an impact on the DDI predictions particularly for a weak-to-moderate inhibitor (gemfibrozil). OATP1B1 substrate drugs except for torasemide and nateglinide, or E₂G as a surrogate, is recommended as an in vitro probe in the inhibition experiments, which will help mitigate the risk of false-negative DDI predictions potentially caused by substrate-dependent Ki variation. PMID:25414411

  14. The glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) mediates L-glutamate-stimulated ascorbate-release via swelling-activated anion channels in cultured neonatal rodent astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Lane, Darius J R; Lawen, Alfons

    2013-03-01

    Vitamin C (ascorbate) plays important neuroprotective and neuromodulatory roles in the mammalian brain. Astrocytes are crucially involved in brain ascorbate homeostasis and may assist in regenerating extracellular ascorbate from its oxidised forms. Ascorbate accumulated by astrocytes can be released rapidly by a process that is stimulated by the excitatory amino acid, L-glutamate. This process is thought to be neuroprotective against excitotoxicity. Although of potential clinical interest, the mechanism of this stimulated ascorbate-release remains unknown. Here, we report that primary cultures of mouse and rat astrocytes release ascorbate following initial uptake of dehydroascorbate and accumulation of intracellular ascorbate. Ascorbate-release was not due to cellular lysis, as assessed by cellular release of the cytosolic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, and was stimulated by L-glutamate and L-aspartate, but not the non-excitatory amino acid L-glutamine. This stimulation was due to glutamate-induced cellular swelling, as it was both attenuated by hypertonic and emulated by hypotonic media. Glutamate-stimulated ascorbate-release was also sensitive to inhibitors of volume-sensitive anion channels, suggesting that the latter may provide the conduit for ascorbate efflux. Glutamate-stimulated ascorbate-release was not recapitulated by selective agonists of either ionotropic or group I metabotropic glutamate receptors, but was completely blocked by either of two compounds, TFB-TBOA and UCPH-101, which non-selectively and selectively inhibit the glial Na(+)-dependent excitatory amino acid transporter, GLAST, respectively. These results suggest that an impairment of astrocytic ascorbate-release may exacerbate neuronal dysfunction in neurodegenerative disorders and acute brain injury in which excitotoxicity and/or GLAST deregulation have been implicated. PMID:22886112

  15. CrVI exposure and biomarkers: Cr in erythrocytes in relation to exposure and polymorphisms of genes encoding anion transport proteins

    PubMed Central

    QU, QINGSHAN; LI, XIAOMEI; AN, FEIYUN; JIA, GUANG; LIU, LANZENG; WATANABE-MESERVE, HIROKO; KOENIG, KAREN; COHEN, BEVERLY; COSTA, MAX; ROY, NIRMAL; ZHONG, MIANHUA; CHI CHEN, LUNG; LIU, SUHUA; YAN, LEI

    2010-01-01

    A total of 195 subjects, including 141 exposed workers and 54 farmers, were recruited in China to evaluate the usefulness of chromium (Cr) in erythrocytes as a biomarker of exposure to CrVI. The levels of Cr in red blood cells (RBC) were remarkably elevated even in a group of workers routinely exposed to CrVI as low as 5–15 μg m−3 and showed a significant exposure–response trend over the exposure range from 0.002 to 1152 μg m−3 (p<0.0001). Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that age and cigarette smoke were not associated with Cr in RBC. However, female subjects had lower Cr in RBC compared with their male counterparts for about the same exposure levels (p<0.05). The genotypes of band III, which encodes for anion transport protein and may regulate CrO4−2 across cell membranes, were also identified and included for analysis. The ratios of Cr in RBC to CrVI exposure were higher in subjects with a wild genotype than in those who had heterozygous or homozygous variant alleles. However, the difference was not statistically significant probably due to the limited number of participating subjects. In addition, 15 of the 141 workers were selected for multiple exposure monitoring and blood sample collections to evaluate the inter- and intraindividual variations of Cr in RBC. Compared with the personal exposure levels, Cr in RBC had small intraindividual variations with a reliability coefficient of 0.88. The study suggests that Cr in RBC may serve as a sensitive and reliable biomarker for long-term exposure to CrVI. PMID:18979639

  16. The impact of Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptides (OATPs) on disposition and toxicity of antitumor drugs: Insights from knockout and humanized mice.

    PubMed

    Durmus, Selvi; van Hoppe, Stéphanie; Schinkel, Alfred H

    2016-07-01

    It is now widely accepted that organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs), especially members of the OATP1A/1B family, can have a major impact on the disposition and elimination of a variety of endogenous molecules and drugs. Owing to their prominent expression in the sinusoidal plasma membrane of hepatocytes, OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 play key roles in the hepatic uptake and plasma clearance of a multitude of structurally diverse anti-cancer and other drugs. Here, we present a thorough assessment of the currently available OATP1A and OATP1B knockout and transgenic mouse models as key tools to study OATP functions in vivo. We discuss recent studies using these models demonstrating the importance of OATPs, primarily in the plasma and hepatic clearance of anticancer drugs such as taxanes, irinotecan/SN-38, methotrexate, doxorubicin, and platinum compounds. We further discuss recent work on OATP-mediated drug-drug interactions in these mouse models, as well as on the role of OATP1A/1B proteins in the phenomenon of hepatocyte hopping, an efficient and flexible way of liver detoxification for both endogenous and exogenous substrates. Interestingly, glucuronide conjugates of both the heme breakdown product bilirubin and the protein tyrosine kinase-targeted anticancer drug sorafenib are strongly affected by this process. The clinical relevance of variation in OATP1A/1B activity in patients has been previously revealed by the effects of polymorphic variants and drug-drug interactions on drug toxicity. The development of in vivo tools to study OATP1A/1B functions has greatly advanced our mechanistic understanding of their functional role in drug pharmacokinetics, and their implications for therapeutic efficacy and toxic side effects of anticancer and other drug treatments. PMID:27449599

  17. Diclofenac and Its Acyl Glucuronide: Determination of In Vivo Exposure in Human Subjects and Characterization as Human Drug Transporter Substrates In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yueping; Han, Yong-Hae; Putluru, Siva Prasad; Matta, Murali Krishna; Kole, Prashant; Mandlekar, Sandhya; Furlong, Michael T; Liu, Tongtong; Iyer, Ramaswamy A; Marathe, Punit; Yang, Zheng; Lai, Yurong; Rodrigues, A David

    2016-03-01

    Although the metabolism and disposition of diclofenac (DF) has been studied extensively, information regarding the plasma levels of its acyl-β-d-glucuronide (DF-AG), a major metabolite, in human subjects is limited. Therefore, DF-AG concentrations were determined in plasma (acidified blood derived) of six healthy volunteers following a single oral DF dose (50 mg). Levels of DF-AG in plasma were high, as reflected by a DF-AG/DF ratio of 0.62 ± 0.21 (Cmax mean ± S.D.) and 0.84 ± 0.21 (area under the concentration-time curve mean ± S.D.). Both DF and DF-AG were also studied as substrates of different human drug transporters in vitro. DF was identified as a substrate of organic anion transporter (OAT) 2 only (Km = 46.8 µM). In contrast, DF-AG was identified as a substrate of numerous OATs (Km = 8.6, 60.2, 103.9, and 112 µM for OAT2, OAT1, OAT4, and OAT3, respectively), two organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP1B1, Km = 34 µM; OATP2B1, Km = 105 µM), breast cancer resistance protein (Km = 152 µM), and two multidrug resistance proteins (MRP2, Km = 145 µM; MRP3, Km = 196 µM). It is concluded that the disposition of DF-AG, once formed, can be mediated by various candidate transporters known to be expressed in the kidney (basolateral, OAT1, OAT2, and OAT3; apical, MRP2, BCRP, and OAT4) and liver (canalicular, MRP2 and BCRP; basolateral, OATP1B1, OATP2B1, OAT2, and MRP3). DF-AG is unstable in plasma and undergoes conversion to parent DF. Therefore, caution is warranted when assessing renal and hepatic transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions with DF and DF-AG. PMID:26714763

  18. Multiple human isoforms of drug transporters contribute to the hepatic and renal transport of olmesartan, a selective antagonist of the angiotensin II AT1-receptor.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Akihiro; Maeda, Kazuya; Kamiyama, Emi; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Kondo, Tsunenori; Shiroyanagi, Yoshiyuki; Nakazawa, Hayakazu; Okano, Teruo; Adachi, Masashi; Schuetz, John D; Adachi, Yasuhisa; Hu, Zhuohan; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2007-12-01

    Olmesartan, a novel angiotensin II AT1-receptor antagonist, is excreted into both bile and urine, with minimal metabolism. Because olmesartan is a hydrophilic anionic compound, some transporters could be involved in its hepatic and renal clearance. In this study, we characterized the role of human drug transporters in the pharmacokinetics of olmesartan and determined the contribution of each transporter to the overall clearance of olmesartan. Olmesartan was significantly taken up into human embryonic kidney 293 cells expressing organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1, OATP1B3, organic anion transporter (OAT) 1, and OAT3. We also observed its saturable uptake into human hepatocytes and kidney slices. Estimated from the relative activity factor method and application of specific inhibitors, the relative contributions of OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 to the uptake of olmesartan in human hepatocytes were almost the same, whereas OAT3 was predominantly involved in its uptake in kidney slices. The vectorial transport of olmesartan was observed in OATP1B1/multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2 double transfectants, but not in OATP1B1/multidrug resistance (MDR) 1 and OATP1B1/breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) transfectants. ATP-dependent transport into membrane vesicles expressing human MRP2 and MRP4 was clearly observed, with K(m) values of 14.9 and 26.2 microM, respectively, whereas the urinary excretion of olmesartan in Mrp4-knockout mice was not different from that of control mice. We also investigated the transcellular transport of olmesartan medoxomil, a prodrug of olmesartan. Vectorial basal-to-apical transport was observed in OATP1B1/MRP2, OATP1B1/MDR1 double, and OATP1B1/BCRP double transfectants, suggesting the possible involvement of MRP2, MDR1, and BCRP in the limit of intestinal absorption of olmesartan medoxomil. From these results, we suggest that multiple transporters make a significant contribution to the pharmacokinetics of olmesartan and

  19. Activity and distribution of intracellular carbonic anhydrase II and their effects on the transport activity of anion exchanger AE1/SLC4A1

    PubMed Central

    Al-Samir, Samer; Papadopoulos, Symeon; Scheibe, Renate J; Meißner, Joachim D; Cartron, Jean-Pierre; Sly, William S; Alper, Seth L; Gros, Gerolf; Endeward, Volker

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the previously published ‘metabolon hypothesis’ postulating that a close association of the anion exchanger 1 (AE1) and cytosolic carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) exists that greatly increases the transport activity of AE1. We study whether there is a physical association of and direct functional interaction between CAII and AE1 in the native human red cell and in tsA201 cells coexpressing heterologous fluorescent fusion proteins CAII-CyPet and YPet-AE1. In these doubly transfected tsA201 cells, YPet-AE1 is clearly associated with the cell membrane, whereas CAII-CyPet is homogeneously distributed throughout the cell in a cytoplasmic pattern. Förster resonance energy transfer measurements fail to detect close proximity of YPet-AE1 and CAII-CyPet. The absence of an association of AE1 and CAII is supported by immunoprecipitation experiments using Flag-antibody against Flag-tagged AE1 expressed in tsA201 cells, which does not co-precipitate native CAII but co-precipitates coexpressed ankyrin. Both the CAII and the AE1 fusion proteins are fully functional in tsA201 cells as judged by CA activity and by cellular HCO3− permeability () sensitive to inhibition by 4,4′-Diisothiocyano-2,2′-stilbenedisulfonic acid. Expression of the non-catalytic CAII mutant V143Y leads to a drastic reduction of endogenous CAII and to a corresponding reduction of total intracellular CA activity. Overexpression of an N-terminally truncated CAII lacking the proposed site of interaction with the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of AE1 substantially increases intracellular CA activity, as does overexpression of wild-type CAII. These variously co-transfected tsA201 cells exhibit a positive correlation between cellular and intracellular CA activity. The relationship reflects that expected from changes in cytoplasmic CA activity improving substrate supply to or removal from AE1, without requirement for a CAII–AE1 metabolon involving physical interaction. A functional

  20. Inhibition of hepatic organic anion-transporting polypeptide by RNA interference in sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes: an in vitro model to assess transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Liao, Mingxiang; Raczynski, Arek R; Chen, Michael; Chuang, Bei-Ching; Zhu, Qing; Shipman, Rob; Morrison, Jodi; Lee, David; Lee, Frank W; Balani, Suresh K; Xia, Cindy Q

    2010-09-01

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs), members of the SLCO/SLC21 family, mediate the transport of various endo- and xenobiotics. In human liver, OATP1B1, 1B3, and 2B1 are located at the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes and are involved in hepatic drug uptake and biliary elimination. Clinically significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) mediated by hepatic OATPs have drawn great attention from clinical practitioners and researchers. However, there are considerable challenges to prospectively understanding the extent of OATP-mediated DDIs because of the lack of specific OATP inhibitors or substrates and the limitations of in vitro tools. In the present study, a novel RNA interference knockdown sandwich-cultured human hepatocyte model was developed and validated. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction, microarray and immunoblotting analyses, along with uptake assays, illustrated that the expression and transport activity of hepatic OATPs were reduced by small interfering (siRNA) efficiently and specifically in this model. Although OATP siRNA decreased only 20 to 30% of the total uptake of cerivastatin into human hepatocytes, it caused a 50% reduction in cerivastatin metabolism, which was observed by monitoring the formation of the two major metabolites of cerivastatin. The results suggest that coadministration of a drug that is a hepatic OATP inhibitor could significantly alter the pharmacokinetic profile of cerivastatin in clinical studies. Further studies with this novel model demonstrated that OATP and cytochrome P450 have a synergistic effect on cerivastatin-gemfibrozil interactions. The siRNA knockdown sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes may provide a new powerful model for evaluating DDIs. PMID:20516252

  1. Pu Anion Exchange Process Intensification

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2015-10-08

    This project seeks to improve the efficiency of the plutonium anion-exchange process for purifying Pu through the development of alternate ion-exchange media. The objective of the project in FY15 was to develop and test a porous foam monolith material that could serve as a replacement for the current anion-exchange resin, Reillex® HPQ, used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for purifying Pu. The new material provides advantages in efficiency over the current resin by the elimination of diffusive mass transport through large granular resin beads. By replacing the large resin beads with a porous foam there is much more efficient contact between the Pu solution and the anion-exchange sites present on the material. Several samples of a polystyrene based foam grafted with poly(4-vinylpyridine) were prepared and the Pu sorption was tested in batch contact tests.

  2. Anion permselective membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgdon, R. B.; Waite, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The synthesis and fabrication of polymeric anion permselective membranes for redox systems are discussed. Variations of the prime candidate anion membrane formulation to achieve better resistance and/or lower permeability were explored. Processing parameters were evaluated to lower cost and fabricate larger sizes. The processing techniques to produce more membranes per batch were successfully integrated with the fabrication of larger membranes. Membranes of about 107 cm x 51 cm were made in excellent yield. Several measurements were made on the larger sample membranes. Among the data developed were water transport and transference numbers for these prime candidate membranes at 20 C. Other work done on this system included characterization of a number of specimens of candidate membranes which had been returned after service lives of up to sixteen months. Work with new polymer constituents, with new N.P.'s, catalysts and backing fabrics is discussed. Some work was also done to evaluate other proportions of the ingredients of the prime candidate system. The adoption of a flow selectivity test at elevated temperature was explored.

  3. Anion binding in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiters, Martin C.; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Kostenko, Alexander V.; Soldatov, Alexander V.; Leblanc, Catherine; Michel, Gurvan; Potin, Philippe; Küpper, Frithjof C.; Hollenstein, Kaspar; Locher, Kaspar P.; Bevers, Loes E.; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2009-11-01

    We compare aspects of biological X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies of cations and anions, and report on some examples of anion binding in biological systems. Brown algae such as Laminaria digitata (oarweed) are effective accumulators of I from seawater, with tissue concentrations exceeding 50 mM, and the vanadate-containing enzyme haloperoxidase is implicated in halide accumulation. We have studied the chemical state of iodine and its biological role in Laminaria at the I K edge, and bromoperoxidase from Ascophyllum nodosum (knotted wrack) at the Br K edge. Mo is essential for many forms of life; W only for certain archaea, such as Archaeoglobus fulgidus and the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, and some bacteria. The metals are bound and transported as their oxo-anions, molybdate and tungstate, which are similar in size. The transport protein WtpA from P. furiosus binds tungstate more strongly than molybdate, and is related in sequence to Archaeoglobus fulgidus ModA, of which a crystal structure is known. We have measured A. fulgidus ModA with tungstate at the W L3 (2p3/2) edge, and compared the results with the refined crystal structure. XAS studies of anion binding are feasible even if only weak interactions are present, are biologically relevant, and give new insights in the spectroscopy.

  4. Solute Carrier Family of the Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptides 1A2- Madin-Darby Canine Kidney II: A Promising In Vitro System to Understand the Role of Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptide 1A2 in Blood-Brain Barrier Drug Penetration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Houfu; Yu, Na; Lu, Sijie; Ito, Sumito; Zhang, Xuan; Prasad, Bhagwat; He, Enuo; Lu, Xinyan; Li, Yang; Wang, Fei; Xu, Han; An, Gang; Unadkat, Jashvant D; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Sahi, Jasminder

    2015-07-01

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1A2 has the potential to be a target for central nervous system drug delivery due to its luminal localization at the human blood-brain barrier and broad substrate specificity. We found OATP1A2 mRNA expression in the human brain to be comparable to breast cancer resistance protein and OATP2B1 and much higher than P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and confirmed greater expression in the brain relative to other tissues. The goal of this study was to establish a model system to explore OATP1A2-mediated transcellular transport of substrate drugs and the interplay with P-gp. In vitro (human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably expressing Oatp1a4, the closest murine isoform) and in vivo (naïve and Oatp1a4 knock-out mice) studies with OATP1A2 substrate triptan drugs demonstrated that these drugs were not Oatp1a4 substrates. This species difference demonstrates that the rodent is not a good model to investigate the active brain uptake of potential OATP1A2 substrates. Thus, we constructed a novel OATP1A2 expressing Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) II wild type and an MDCKII-multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) system using BacMam virus transduction. The spatial expression pattern of OATP1A2 after transduction in MDCKII-MDR1 cells was superimposed to P-gp, confirming apical membrane localization. OATP1A2-mediated uptake of zolmitriptan, rosuvastatin, and fexofenadine across monolayers increased with increasing OATP1A2 protein expression. OATP1A2 counteracted P-gp efflux for cosubstrates zolmitriptan and fexofenadine. A three-compartment model incorporating OATP1A2-mediated influx was used to quantitatively describe the time- and concentration-dependent apical-to-basolateral transcellular transport of rosuvastatin across OATP1A2 expressing the MDCKII monolayer. This novel, simple and versatile experimental system is useful for understanding the contribution of OATP1A2-mediated transcellular transport across barriers, such as the blood

  5. Benzyl [(11)C]Hippurate as an Agent for Measuring the Activities of Organic Anion Transporter 3 in the Brain and Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein 4 in the Heart of Mice.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Okamura, Toshimitsu; Okada, Maki; Ogawa, Masanao; Suzuki, Chie; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Yui, Joji; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Gee, Antony D; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2016-06-23

    Multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4) and organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3) mediate the efflux of organic anions from the brain and heart. In this study, we have developed a probe for estimating the activity of these transporters in these tissues using positron emission tomography. Several (11)C-labeled hippuric acid ester derivatives were screened with the expectation that they would be hydrolyzed in situ to form the corresponding (11)C-labeled organic acids in target tissues. Among the compounds screened, benzyl [(11)C]hippurate showed favorable hydrolysis rates and uptake properties in the target tissues of mice. Subsequent evaluation using transporter knockout mice revealed that radioactivity was retained in the brain and heart of Oat3(-/-) and Mrp4(-/-) mice, respectively, compared with that of control mice after the intravenous administration of benzyl [(11)C]hippurate. Benzyl [(11)C]hippurate could therefore be used as a probe for estimating the activities of OAT3 and MRP4 in mouse brain and heart, respectively. PMID:27232368

  6. Anion exchange membrane

    DOEpatents

    Verkade, John G; Wadhwa, Kuldeep; Kong, Xueqian; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus

    2013-05-07

    An anion exchange membrane and fuel cell incorporating the anion exchange membrane are detailed in which proazaphosphatrane and azaphosphatrane cations are covalently bonded to a sulfonated fluoropolymer support along with anionic counterions. A positive charge is dispersed in the aforementioned cations which are buried in the support to reduce the cation-anion interactions and increase the mobility of hydroxide ions, for example, across the membrane. The anion exchange membrane has the ability to operate at high temperatures and in highly alkaline environments with high conductivity and low resistance.

  7. Anions in Cometary Comae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, Steven B.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of negative ions (anions) in cometary comae is known from Giotto mass spectrometry of IP/Halley. The anions 0-, OH-, C-, CH- and CN- have been detected, as well as unidentified anions with masses 22-65 and 85-110 amu (Chaizy et al. 1991). Organic molecular anions are known to have a significant impact on the charge balance of interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes and have been shown to act as catalysts for the gas-phase synthesis of larger hydrocarbon molecules in the ISM, but their importance in cometary comae has not yet been explored. We present details of the first attempt to model the chemistry of anions in cometary comae. Based on the combined chemical and hydro dynamical model of Rodgers & Charnley (2002), we investigate the role of large carbon-chain anions in cometary coma chemistry. We calculate the effects of these anions on coma thermodynamics, charge balance and examine their impact on molecule formation.

  8. Anion Solvation in Carbonate Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2015-11-16

    With the correlation between Li+ solvation and interphasial chemistry on anodes firmly established in Li-ion batteries, the effect of cation–solvent interaction has gone beyond bulk thermodynamic and transport properties and become an essential element that determines the reversibility of electrochemistry and kinetics of Li-ion intercalation chemistries. As of now, most studies are dedicated to the solvation of Li+, and the solvation of anions in carbonate-based electrolytes and its possible effect on the electrochemical stability of such electrolytes remains little understood. As a mirror effort to prior Li+ solvation studies, this work focuses on the interactions between carbonate-based solvents and two anions (hexafluorophosphate, PF6–, and tetrafluoroborate, BF4–) that are most frequently used in Li-ion batteries. The possible correlation between such interaction and the interphasial chemistry on cathode surface is also explored.

  9. Anion solvation in alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Jonah, C.D.; Xujia, Zhang; Lin, Yi

    1996-03-01

    Anion solvation is measured in alcohols using pump-probe pulse radiolysis and the activation energy of solvation is determined. Solvation of an anion appears to be different than excited state solvation. The continuum dielectric model does not appear to explain the results.

  10. Modification of the charge transport properties of the copper phthalocyanine/poly(vinyl alcohol) interface using cationic or anionic surfactant for field-effect transistor performance enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jastrombek, Diana; Nawaz, Ali; Koehler, Marlus; Meruvia, Michelle S.; Hümmelgen, Ivo A.

    2015-08-01

    We report on the performance enhancement of organic field-effect transistors prepared using cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) as gate dielectric and copper phthalocyanine as channel semiconductor through gate dielectric surface treatment. The gate dielectric surface was treated using either a cationic surfactant, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), or an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). We determined the charge-carrier field-effect mobility ( μ FET) in these transistors as a function of the effective channel thickness in the channel bottleneck, near to the transistor source. When compared to the untreated devices, in the devices treated with CTAB or SDS, the channel formation occurs at lower gate voltage and the carrier mobility in the thinnest channel region, corresponding to the immediate vicinity of the insulator/semiconductor interface, is significantly higher. The surfactant treatment leads to a tenfold increase in μ FET and significant enhancement in capacitance, on/off current ratio and transconductance of the transistor.

  11. Differential Mechanisms of Tenofovir and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Cellular Transport and Implications for Topical Preexposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Crooker, Kerry; Park, Sung Hyun; Su, Jonathan T.; Ott, Adina; Cheshenko, Natalia; Szleifer, Igal; Kiser, Patrick F.; Frank, Bruce; Mesquita, Pedro M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Intravaginal rings releasing tenofovir (TFV) or its prodrug, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), are being evaluated for HIV and herpes simplex virus (HSV) prevention. The current studies were designed to determine the mechanisms of drug accumulation in human vaginal and immune cells. The exposure of vaginal epithelial or T cells to equimolar concentrations of radiolabeled TDF resulted in over 10-fold higher intracellular drug levels than exposure to TFV. Permeability studies demonstrated that TDF, but not TFV, entered cells by passive diffusion. TDF uptake was energy independent but its accumulation followed nonlinear kinetics, and excess unlabeled TDF inhibited radiolabeled TDF uptake in competition studies. The carboxylesterase inhibitor bis-nitrophenyl phosphate reduced TDF uptake, suggesting saturability of intracellular carboxylesterases. In contrast, although TFV uptake was energy dependent, no competition between unlabeled and radiolabeled TFV was observed, and the previously identified transporters, organic anion transporters (OATs) 1 and 3, were not expressed in human vaginal or T cells. The intracellular accumulation of TFV was reduced by the addition of endocytosis inhibitors, and this resulted in the loss of TFV antiviral activity. Kinetics of drug transport and metabolism were monitored by quantifying the parent drugs and their metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Results were consistent with the identified mechanisms of transport, and the exposure of vaginal epithelial cells to equimolar concentrations of TDF compared to TFV resulted in ∼40-fold higher levels of the active metabolite, tenofovir diphosphate. Together, these findings indicate that substantially lower concentrations of TDF than TFV are needed to protect cells from HIV and HSV-2. PMID:26711762

  12. Differential Mechanisms of Tenofovir and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate Cellular Transport and Implications for Topical Preexposure Prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Taneva, Ekaterina; Crooker, Kerry; Park, Sung Hyun; Su, Jonathan T; Ott, Adina; Cheshenko, Natalia; Szleifer, Igal; Kiser, Patrick F; Frank, Bruce; Mesquita, Pedro M M; Herold, Betsy C

    2016-03-01

    Intravaginal rings releasing tenofovir (TFV) or its prodrug, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), are being evaluated for HIV and herpes simplex virus (HSV) prevention. The current studies were designed to determine the mechanisms of drug accumulation in human vaginal and immune cells. The exposure of vaginal epithelial or T cells to equimolar concentrations of radiolabeled TDF resulted in over 10-fold higher intracellular drug levels than exposure to TFV. Permeability studies demonstrated that TDF, but not TFV, entered cells by passive diffusion. TDF uptake was energy independent but its accumulation followed nonlinear kinetics, and excess unlabeled TDF inhibited radiolabeled TDF uptake in competition studies. The carboxylesterase inhibitor bis-nitrophenyl phosphate reduced TDF uptake, suggesting saturability of intracellular carboxylesterases. In contrast, although TFV uptake was energy dependent, no competition between unlabeled and radiolabeled TFV was observed, and the previously identified transporters, organic anion transporters (OATs) 1 and 3, were not expressed in human vaginal or T cells. The intracellular accumulation of TFV was reduced by the addition of endocytosis inhibitors, and this resulted in the loss of TFV antiviral activity. Kinetics of drug transport and metabolism were monitored by quantifying the parent drugs and their metabolites by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Results were consistent with the identified mechanisms of transport, and the exposure of vaginal epithelial cells to equimolar concentrations of TDF compared to TFV resulted in ∼40-fold higher levels of the active metabolite, tenofovir diphosphate. Together, these findings indicate that substantially lower concentrations of TDF than TFV are needed to protect cells from HIV and HSV-2. PMID:26711762

  13. Functional interaction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator with members of the SLC26 family of anion transporters (SLC26A8 and SLC26A9): physiological and pathophysiological relevance.

    PubMed

    El Khouri, Elma; Touré, Aminata

    2014-07-01

    The solute carrier 26 (SLC26) proteins are transmembrane proteins located at the plasma membrane of the cells and transporting a variety of monovalent and divalent anions, including chloride, bicarbonate, sulfate and oxalate. In humans, 11 members have been identified (SLC26A1 to SLC26A11) and although part of them display a very restricted tissue expression pattern, altogether they are widely expressed in the epithelial cells of the body where they contribute to the composition and the pH regulation of the secreted fluids. Importantly, mutations in SLC26A2, A3, A4, and A5 have been associated with distinct human genetic recessive disorders (i.e. diastrophic dysplasia, congenital chloride diarrhea, Pendred syndrome and deafness, respectively), demonstrating their essential and non-redundant functions in many tissues. During the last decade, physical and functional interactions of SLC26 members with the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) have been highly documented, leading to the model of a crosstalk based on the binding of the SLC26 STAS domain to the CFTR regulatory domain. In this review, we will focus on the functional interaction of SLC26A8 and SLC26A9 with the CFTR channel. In particular we will highlight the newly published studies indicating that mutations in SLC26A8 and SLC26A9 proteins are associated with a deregulation of the CFTR anion transport activity in the pathophysiological context of the sperm and the pulmonary cells. These studies confirm the physiological relevance of SLC26 and CFTR cross-regulation, opening new gates for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. PMID:24530837

  14. Anion-π Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this report, we introduce artificial enzymes that operate with anion-π interactions, an interaction that is essentially new to nature. The possibility to stabilize anionic intermediates and transition states on an π-acidic surface has been recently demonstrated, using the addition of malonate half thioesters to enolate acceptors as a biologically relevant example. The best chiral anion-π catalysts operate with an addition/decarboxylation ratio of 4:1, but without any stereoselectivity. To catalyze this important but intrinsically disfavored reaction stereoselectively, a series of anion-π catalysts was equipped with biotin and screened against a collection of streptavidin mutants. With the best hit, the S112Y mutant, the reaction occurred with 95% ee and complete suppression of the intrinsically favored side product from decarboxylation. This performance of anion-π enzymes rivals, if not exceeds, that of the best conventional organocatalysts. Inhibition of the S112Y mutant by nitrate but not by bulky anions supports that contributions from anion-π interactions exist and matter, also within proteins. In agreement with docking results, K121 is shown to be essential, presumably to lower the pKa of the tertiary amine catalyst to operate at the optimum pH around 3, that is below the pKa of the substrate. Most importantly, increasing enantioselectivity with different mutants always coincides with increasing rates and conversion, i.e., selective transition-state stabilization. PMID:27413782

  15. Anion-π Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Cotelle, Yoann; Lebrun, Vincent; Sakai, Naomi; Ward, Thomas R; Matile, Stefan

    2016-06-22

    In this report, we introduce artificial enzymes that operate with anion-π interactions, an interaction that is essentially new to nature. The possibility to stabilize anionic intermediates and transition states on an π-acidic surface has been recently demonstrated, using the addition of malonate half thioesters to enolate acceptors as a biologically relevant example. The best chiral anion-π catalysts operate with an addition/decarboxylation ratio of 4:1, but without any stereoselectivity. To catalyze this important but intrinsically disfavored reaction stereoselectively, a series of anion-π catalysts was equipped with biotin and screened against a collection of streptavidin mutants. With the best hit, the S112Y mutant, the reaction occurred with 95% ee and complete suppression of the intrinsically favored side product from decarboxylation. This performance of anion-π enzymes rivals, if not exceeds, that of the best conventional organocatalysts. Inhibition of the S112Y mutant by nitrate but not by bulky anions supports that contributions from anion-π interactions exist and matter, also within proteins. In agreement with docking results, K121 is shown to be essential, presumably to lower the pK a of the tertiary amine catalyst to operate at the optimum pH around 3, that is below the pK a of the substrate. Most importantly, increasing enantioselectivity with different mutants always coincides with increasing rates and conversion, i.e., selective transition-state stabilization. PMID:27413782

  16. Effect of Structure on Transport Properties (Viscosity, Ionic Conductivity, and Self-Diffusion Coefficient) of Aprotic Heterocyclic Anion (AHA) Room Temperature Ionic Liquids. 2. Variation of Alkyl Chain Length in the Phosphonium Cation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liyuan; Morales-Collazo, Oscar; Xia, Han; Brennecke, Joan F

    2016-06-30

    A series of room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) composed of triethyl(alkyl)phosphonium cations paired with three different aprotic heterocyclic anions (AHAs) (alkyl = butyl ([P2224](+)) and octyl ([P2228](+))) were prepared to investigate the effect of cationic alkyl chain length on transport properties. The transport properties and density of these ILs were measured from 283.15 to 343.15 K at ambient pressure. The dependence of the transport properties (viscosity, ionic conductivity, diffusivity, and molar conductivity) on temperature can be described by the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) equation. The ratio of the molar conductivity obtained from the molar concentration and ionic conductivity measurements to that calculated from self-diffusion coefficients (measured by pulsed gradient spin-echo nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) using the Nernst-Einstein equation was used to quantify the ionicity of these ILs. The molar conductivity ratio decreases with increasing number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain, indicating that the reduced Coulombic interactions resulting from lower density are more than balanced by the increased van der Waals interactions between the alkyl chains. The results of this study may provide insight into the design of ILs with enhanced dynamics that may be suitable as electrolytes in lithium ion batteries and other electrochemical applications. PMID:27243107

  17. Impaired Clearance of Methotrexate in Organic Anion Transporter 3 (Slc22a8) Knockout Mice: A Gender Specific Impact of Reduced Folates

    PubMed Central

    VanWert, Adam L.; Sweet, Douglas H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate the role of the renal basolateral transporter, Oat3, in the disposition of methotrexate. Materials and Methods Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing mouse Oat3 were used to determine kinetics and specificity of inhibition of methotrexate transport. Methotrexate clearance was then examined in vivo in wildtype and Oat3 knockout mice. Results NSAIDs, ß-lactams, and uremic toxins inhibited mOat3-mediated methotrexate uptake by 70–100%, while folate, leucovorin, and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate inhibited transport by 25–50%. A Km of 60.6±9.3 μM for methotrexate transport was determined. Oat3 knockout mice exhibited reduced methotrexate-to-inulin clearance ratios versus wildtype. Male wildtype mice, but not knockouts or females, demonstrated significantly accelerated methotrexate clearance in response to reduced folates. Reduced folates also markedly inhibited hepatic methotrexate accumulation in males, but not females, and the response was independent of Oat3 function. Conclusions Oat3 contributes to methotrexate clearance, but represents only one component responsible for methotrexate's elimination. Therefore, in patients, dysfunctional hOAT3 polymorphisms or drug competition for hOAT3 transport may severely impact methotrexate elimination only when redundant means of methotrexate removal are also compromised. Furthermore, the present findings suggest that reduced-folate administration only influences methotrexate disposition in males, with the renal reduced-folate response influenced by OAT3 function. PMID:17660957

  18. Intrinsic anion oxidation potentials.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Patrik

    2006-11-01

    Anions of lithium battery salts have been investigated by electronic structure calculations with the objective to find a computational measure to correlate with the observed (in)stability of nonaqueous lithium battery electrolytes vs oxidation often encountered in practice. Accurate prediction of intrinsic anion oxidation potentials is here made possible by computing the vertical free energy difference between anion and neutral radical (Delta Gv) and further strengthened by an empirical correction using only the anion volume as a parameter. The 6-311+G(2df,p) basis set, the VSXC functional, and the C-PCM SCRF algorithm were used. The Delta Gv calculations can be performed using any standard computational chemistry software. PMID:17078600

  19. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik

    2015-06-02

    Anion exchange polymer electrolytes that include guanidinium functionalized polymers may be used as membranes and binders for electrocatalysts in preparation of anodes for electrochemical cells such as solid alkaline fuel cells.

  20. The Altered Renal and Hepatic Expression of Solute Carrier Transporters (SLCs) in Type 1 Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chenghao; Zhu, Ling; Chan, Ting; Lu, Xiaoxi; Shen, Weiyong; Gillies, Mark C.; Zhou, Fanfan

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder that significantly affects human health and well-being. The Solute carrier transporters (SLCs), particularly the Organic anion/cation transporters (Oats/Octs/Octns), Organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps) and Oligopeptide transporters (Pepts) are essential membrane proteins responsible for cellular uptake of many endogenous and exogenous substances such as clinically important drugs. They are widely expressed in mammalian key organs especially the kidney and liver, in which they facilitate the influx of various drug molecules, thereby determining their distribution and elimination in body. The altered expression of SLCs in diabetes mellitus could have a profound and clinically significant influence on drug therapies. In this study, we extensively investigated the renal and hepatic expression of twenty essential SLCs in the type 1 diabetic Ins2Akita murine model that develops both hyperglycemia and diabetes-related complications using real-time PCR and immunoblotting analysis. We found that the renal expression of mOatp1a1, mOatp1a6, mOat1, mOat3, mOat5, mOct2 and mPept2 was decreased; while that of mPept1 was increased at the mRNA level in the diabetic mice compared with non-diabetic controls. We found up-regulated mRNA expression of mOatp1a4, mOatp1c1, mOctn2, mOct3 and mPept1 as well as down-regulation of mOatp1a1 in the livers of diabetic mice. We confirmed the altered protein expression of several SLCs in diabetic mice, especially the decreased renal and hepatic expression of mOatp1a1. We also found down-regulated protein expression of mOat3 and mOctn1 in the kidneys as well as increased protein expression of mOatp1a4 and mOct3 in the livers of diabetic mice. Our findings contribute to better understanding the modulation of SLC transporters in type 1 diabetes mellitus, which is likely to affect the pharmacokinetic performance of drugs that are transported by these transporters and therefore, forms the

  1. Evolutionary Analysis and Classification of OATs, OCTs, OCTNs, and Other SLC22 Transporters: Structure-Function Implications and Analysis of Sequence Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Date, Rishabh C.; Bush, Kevin T.; Springer, Stevan A.; Saier, Milton H.; Wu, Wei; Nigam, Sanjay K.

    2015-01-01

    The SLC22 family includes organic anion transporters (OATs), organic cation transporters (OCTs) and organic carnitine and zwitterion transporters (OCTNs). These are often referred to as drug transporters even though they interact with many endogenous metabolites and signaling molecules (Nigam, S.K., Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 14:29–44, 2015). Phylogenetic analysis of SLC22 supports the view that these transporters may have evolved over 450 million years ago. Many OAT members were found to appear after a major expansion of the SLC22 family in mammals, suggesting a physiological and/or toxicological role during the mammalian radiation. Putative SLC22 orthologs exist in worms, sea urchins, flies, and ciona. At least six groups of SLC22 exist. OATs and OCTs form two Major clades of SLC22, within which (apart from Oat and Oct subclades), there are also clear Oat-like, Octn, and Oct-related subclades, as well as a distantly related group we term “Oat-related” (which may have different functions). Based on available data, it is arguable whether SLC22A18, which is related to bacterial drug-proton antiporters, should be assigned to SLC22. Disease-causing mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and other functionally analyzed mutations in OAT1, OAT3, URAT1, OCT1, OCT2, OCTN1, and OCTN2 map to the first extracellular domain, the large central intracellular domain, and transmembrane domains 9 and 10. These regions are highly conserved within subclades, but not between subclades, and may be necessary for SLC22 transporter function and functional diversification. Our results not only link function to evolutionarily conserved motifs but indicate the need for a revised sub-classification of SLC22. PMID:26536134

  2. Compounds having aromatic rings and side-chain amide-functionality and a method for transporting monovalent anions across biological membranes using the same

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Jeffery T.; Sidorov, Vladimir; Kotch, Frank W.

    2008-04-08

    A compound containing at least two aromatic rings covalently bonded together, with each aromatic ring containing at least one oxyacetamide-based side chain, the compound being capable of forming a chloride ion channel across a lipid bilayer, and transporting chloride ion across the lipid bilayer.

  3. pH-responsive ion transport in polyelectrolyte multilayers of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC) and poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) (PSS-MA) bearing strong- and weak anionic groups.

    PubMed

    Maza, Eliana; Tuninetti, Jimena S; Politakos, Nikolaos; Knoll, Wolfgang; Moya, Sergio; Azzaroni, Omar

    2015-11-28

    The layer-by-layer construction of interfacial architectures displaying stimuli-responsive control of mass transport is attracting increasing interest in materials science. In this work, we describe the creation of interfacial architectures displaying pH-dependent ionic transport properties which until now have not been observed in polyelectrolyte multilayers. We describe a novel approach to create pH-controlled ion-rectifying systems employing polyelectrolyte multilayers assembled from a copolymer containing both weakly and strongly charged pendant groups, poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) (PSS-MA), alternately deposited with poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC). The conceptual framework is based on the very contrasting and differential interactions of PSS and MA units with PDADMAC. In our setting, sulfonate groups play a structural role by conferring stability to the multilayer due to the strong electrostatic interactions with the polycations, while the weakly interacting MA groups remain "silent" within the film and then act as on-demand pH-responsive units. When these multilayers are combined with a strong cationic capping layer that repels the passage of cationic probes, a pH-gateable rectified transport of anions is observed. Concomitantly, we also observed that these functional properties are significantly affected when multilayers are subjected to extensive pH cycling as a consequence of irreversible morphological changes taking place in the film. We envision that the synergy derived from combining weak and strong interactions within the same multilayer will play a key role in the construction of new interfacial architectures displaying tailorable ion transport properties. PMID:26489595

  4. Identification of Novel Inhibitors of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3 (OATP1B1 and OATP1B3) Using a Consensus Vote of Six Classification Models

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides 1B1 and 1B3 are transporters selectively expressed on the basolateral membrane of the hepatocyte. Several studies reveal that they are involved in drug–drug interactions, cancer, and hyperbilirubinemia. In this study, we developed a set of classification models for OATP1B1 and 1B3 inhibition based on more than 1700 carefully curated compounds from literature, which were validated via cross-validation and by use of an external test set. After combining several sets of descriptors and classifiers, the 6 best models were selected according to their statistical performance and were used for virtual screening of DrugBank. Consensus scoring of the screened compounds resulted in the selection and purchase of nine compounds as potential dual inhibitors and of one compound as potential selective OATP1B3 inhibitor. Biological testing of the compounds confirmed the validity of the models, yielding an accuracy of 90% for OATP1B1 and 80% for OATP1B3, respectively. Moreover, at least half of the new identified inhibitors are associated with hyperbilirubinemia or hepatotoxicity, implying a relationship between OATP inhibition and these severe side effects. PMID:26469880

  5. Substrate-dependent drug-drug interactions between gemfibrozil, fluvastatin and other organic anion-transporting peptide (OATP) substrates on OATP1B1, OATP2B1, and OATP1B3.

    PubMed

    Noé, Johannes; Portmann, Renée; Brun, Marie-Elise; Funk, Christoph

    2007-08-01

    Hepatic uptake carriers of the organic anion-transporting peptide (OATP) family of solute carriers are more and more recognized as being involved in hepatic elimination of many drugs and potentially associated drug-drug interactions. The gemfibrozil-statin interaction was studied at the level of active hepatic uptake as a model for such drug-drug interactions. Active, temperature-dependent uptake of fluvastatin into primary human hepatocytes was shown. Multiple transporters are involved in this uptake as Chinese hamster ovary or HEK293 cells expressing either OATP1B1 (K(m) = 1.4-3.5 microM), OATP2B1 (K(m) = 0.7-0.8 microM), or OATP1B3 showed significant fluvastatin uptake relative to control cells. For OATP1B1 the inhibition by gemfibrozil was substrate-dependent as the transport of fluvastatin (IC(50) of 63 microM), pravastatin, simvastatin, and taurocholate was inhibited by gemfibrozil, whereas the transport of estrone-3-sulfate and troglitazone sulfate (both used at 3 microM) was not affected. The OATP1B1- but not OATP2B1-mediated transport of estrone-3-sulfate displayed biphasic saturation kinetics, with two distinct affinity components for estrone-3-sulfate (0.23 and 45 microM). Only the high-affinity component was inhibited by gemfibrozil. Recombinant OATP1B1-, OATP2B1-, and OATP1B3-mediated fluvastatin transport was inhibited to 97, 70, and 62% by gemfibrozil (200 microM), respectively, whereas only a small inhibitory effect by gemfibrozil (200 microM) on fluvastatin uptake into primary human hepatocytes was observed (27% inhibition). The results indicate that the in vitro engineered systems can not always predict the behavior in more complex systems such as freshly isolated primary hepatocytes. Therefore, selection of substrate, substrate concentration, and in vitro transport system are critical for the conduct of in vitro interaction studies involving individual liver OATP carriers. PMID:17470528

  6. Anion-π catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yingjie; Beuchat, César; Domoto, Yuya; Gajewy, Jadwiga; Wilson, Adam; Mareda, Jiri; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan

    2014-02-01

    The introduction of new noncovalent interactions to build functional systems is of fundamental importance. We here report experimental and theoretical evidence that anion-π interactions can contribute to catalysis. The Kemp elimination is used as a classical tool to discover conceptually innovative catalysts for reactions with anionic transition states. For anion-π catalysis, a carboxylate base and a solubilizer are covalently attached to the π-acidic surface of naphthalenediimides. On these π-acidic surfaces, transition-state stabilizations up to ΔΔGTS = 31.8 ± 0.4 kJ mol(-1) are found. This value corresponds to a transition-state recognition of KTS = 2.7 ± 0.5 μM and a catalytic proficiency of 3.8 × 10(5) M(-1). Significantly increasing transition-state stabilization with increasing π-acidity of the catalyst, observed for two separate series, demonstrates the existence of "anion-π catalysis." In sharp contrast, increasing π-acidity of the best naphthalenediimide catalysts does not influence the more than 12 000-times weaker substrate recognition (KM = 34.5 ± 1.6 μM). Together with the disappearance of Michaelis-Menten kinetics on the expanded π-surfaces of perylenediimides, this finding supports that contributions from π-π interactions are not very important for anion-π catalysis. The linker between the π-acidic surface and the carboxylate base strongly influences activity. Insufficient length and flexibility cause incompatibility with saturation kinetics. Moreover, preorganizing linkers do not improve catalysis much, suggesting that the ideal positioning of the carboxylate base on the π-acidic surface is achieved by intramolecular anion-π interactions rather than by an optimized structure of the linker. Computational simulations are in excellent agreement with experimental results. They confirm, inter alia, that the stabilization of the anionic transition states (but not the neutral ground states) increases with the π-acidity of the

  7. The role of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs/SLCOs) in the toxicity of different microcystin congeners in vitro: A comparison of primary human hepatocytes and OATP-transfected HEK293 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, A.; Hoeger, S.J.; Stemmer, K.; Feurstein, D.J.; Knobeloch, D.; Nussler, A.; Dietrich, D.R.

    2010-05-15

    Cellular uptake of microcystins (MCs), a family of cyclic cyanobacterial heptapeptide toxins, occurs via specific organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs), where MCs inhibit serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase (PP). Despite comparable PP-inhibitory capacity, MCs differ greatly in their acute toxicity, thus raising the question whether this discrepancy results from MC-specific toxikokinetic rather than toxicodynamic differences. OATP-mediated uptake of MC congeners MCLR, -RR, -LW and -LF was compared in primary human hepatocytes and HEK293 cells stably expressing recombinant human OATP1B1/SLCO1B1 and OATP1B3/SLCO1B3 in the presence/absence of OATP substrates taurocholate (TC) and bromosulfophthalein (BSP) and measuring PP-inhibition and cytotoxicity. Control vector expressing HEK293 were resistant to MC cytotoxicity, while TC and BSP competition experiments reduced MC cytotoxicity in HEK293-OATP transfectants, thus confirming the requirement of OATPs for trans-membrane transport. Despite comparable PP-inhibiting capabilities, MCLW and -LF elicited cytotoxic effects at lower equimolar concentrations than MCLR and MCRR, hence suggesting congener selective transport into HEK293-OATP transfectants and primary human hepatocytes. Primary human hepatocytes appeared one order of magnitude more sensitive to MC congeners than the corresponding HEK293 -OATP transfectants. Although the latter maybe due to a much lower level of PPs in primary human hepatocytes, the presence of OATPs other than 1B1 or 1B3 may have added to an increased uptake of MCs. In view of the high sensitivity of human hepatocytes and currently MCLR-only based risk calculations, the actual risk of human MC-intoxication and ensuing liver damage could be underestimated in freshwater cyanobacterial blooms where MCLW and-LF predominate.

  8. Halogen bonding anion recognition.

    PubMed

    Brown, Asha; Beer, Paul D

    2016-07-01

    A halogen bond is an attractive non-covalent interaction between an electrophilic region in a covalently bonded halogen atom and a Lewis base. While these interactions have long been exploited as a tool in crystal engineering their powerful ability to direct supramolecular self-assembly and molecular recognition processes in solution has, until recently, been overlooked. During the last decade however an ever-increasing number of studies on solution-phase halogen-bond-mediated anion recognition processes has emerged. This Feature Article summarises advancements which have been made thus far in this rapidly developing research area. We survey the use of iodoperfluoroarene, haloimidazolium and halotriazole/triazolium halogen-bond-donor motifs in anion receptor design, before providing an account of our research into the application of mechanically interlocked rotaxane and catenane frameworks as halogen bonding anion host systems. PMID:27273600

  9. Vanadogermanate cluster anions.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, T; Wang, X; Jacobson, A J

    2003-06-16

    Three novel vanadogermanate cluster anions have been synthesized by hydrothermal reactions. The cluster anions are derived from the (V(18)O(42)) Keggin cluster shell by substitution of V=O(2+) "caps" by Ge(2)O(OH)(2)(4+) species. In Cs(8)[Ge(4)V(16)O(42)(OH)(4)].4.7H(2)O, 1, (monoclinic, space group C2/c (No. 15), Z = 8, a = 44.513(2) A, b = 12.7632(7) A, c = 22.923(1) A, beta = 101.376(1) degrees ) and (pipH(2))(4)(pipH)(4)[Ge(8)V(14)O(50).(H(2)O)] (pip = C(4)N(2)H(10)), 2 (tetragonal, space group P4(2)/nnm (No. 134), Z = 2, a = 14.9950(7) A, c = 18.408(1) A), two and four VO(2+) caps are replaced, respectively, and each cluster anion encapsulates a water molecule. In K(5)H(8)Ge(8)V(12)SO(52).10H(2)O, 3, (tetragonal, space group I4/m (No. 87), Z = 2, a = 15.573(1) A, c = 10.963(1) A), four VO(2+) caps are replaced by Ge(2)O(OH)(2)(4+) species, and an additional two are omitted. The cluster ion in 3 contains a sulfate anion disordered over two positions. The cluster anions are analogous to the vanadoarsenate anions [V(18)(-)(n)()As(2)(n)()O(42)(X)](m)(-) (X = SO(3), SO(4), Cl; n = 3, 4) previously reported. PMID:12793808

  10. Electroosmotic Flow Hysteresis for Dissimilar Anionic Solutions.

    PubMed

    Lim, An Eng; Lim, Chun Yee; Lam, Yee Cheong

    2016-08-16

    Electroosmotic flow (EOF) with two or more fluids is often encountered in various microfluidic applications. However, no investigation has hitherto been conducted to investigate the hysteretic or flow direction-dependent behavior during displacement flow of solutions with dissimilar anion species. In this investigation, EOF of dissimilar anionic solutions was studied experimentally through the current monitoring method and numerically through finite element simulations. As opposed to other conventional displacement flows, EOF involving dissimilar anionic solutions exhibits counterintuitive behavior, whereby the current-time curve does not reach the steady-state value of the displacing electrolyte. Two distinct mechanics have been identified as the causes for this observation: (a) ion concentration adjustment when the displacing anions migrate upstream against EOF due to competition between the gradients of electromigrative and convective fluxes and (b) ion concentration readjustment induced by the static diffusive interfacial region between the dissimilar fluids which can only be propagated throughout the entire microchannel with the presence of EOF. The resultant ion distributions lead to the flow rate to be directional-dependent, indicating that the flow conditions are asymmetric between these two different flow directions. The outcomes of this investigation contribute to the in-depth understanding of flow behavior in microfluidic systems involving inhomogeneous fluids, particularly dissimilar anionic solutions. The understanding of EOF hysteresis is fundamentally important for the accurate prediction of analytes transport in microfluidic devices under EOF. PMID:27426052

  11. Multispecific Drug Transporter Slc22a8 (Oat3) Regulates Multiple Metabolic and Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wei; Jamshidi, Neema; Eraly, Satish A.; Liu, Henry C.; Bush, Kevin T.; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2013-01-01

    Multispecific drug transporters of the solute carrier and ATP-binding cassette families are highly conserved through evolution, but their true physiologic role remains unclear. Analyses of the organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3; encoded by Slc22a8/Oat3, originally Roct) knockout mouse have confirmed its critical role in the renal handling of common drugs (e.g., antibiotics, antivirals, diuretics) and toxins. Previous targeted metabolomics of the knockout of the closely related Oat1 have demonstrated a central metabolic role, but the same approach with Oat3 failed to reveal a similar set of endogenous substrates. Nevertheless, the Oat3 knockout is the only Oat described so far with a physiologically significant phenotype, suggesting the disturbance of metabolic or signaling pathways. Here we analyzed global gene expression in Oat3 knockout tissue, which implicated OAT3 in phase I and phase II metabolism (drug metabolizing enzymes or DMEs), as well as signaling pathways. Metabolic reconstruction with the recently developed “mouse Recon1” supported the involvement of Oat3 in the aforementioned pathways. Untargeted metabolomics were used to determine whether the predicted metabolic alterations could be confirmed. Many significant changes were observed; several metabolites were tested for direct interaction with mOAT3, whereas others were supported by published data. Oat3 thus appears critical for the handling of phase I (hydroxylation) and phase II (glucuronidation) metabolites. Oat3 also plays a role in bioenergetic pathways (e.g., the tricarboxylic acid cycle), as well as those involving vitamins (e.g., folate), steroids, prostaglandins, gut microbiome products, uremic toxins, cyclic nucleotides, amino acids, glycans, and possibly hyaluronic acid. The data seemingly consistent with the Remote Sensing and Signaling Hypothesis (Ahn and Nigam, 2009; Wu et al., 2011), also suggests that Oat3 is essential for the handling of dietary flavonoids and antioxidants. PMID

  12. ION CHROMATOGRAPHY OF ANIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Dionex Model 10 Ion Chromatograph was evaluated for the measurement of anionic species in water. The theoretical effect of hydrogen ion activity (pH) on the elution time of phosphate and arsenate was tested and empirical selectivity coefficients were determined for the major pr...

  13. Expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP), but not human canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT), genes correlates with exposure of human lung cancers to platinum drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Oguri, T.; Fujiwara, Y.; Isobe, T.; Katoh, O.; Watanabe, H.; Yamakido, M.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the steady-state levels of mRNA for gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) and human canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT) in human lung cancer specimens to elucidate their roles in relation to platinum drug resistance in vivo. Seventy-six autopsy samples (38 primary tumours and their corresponding normal lung tissues) obtained from 38 patients were analysed using the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Both subunits (heavy and light subunits) of gamma-GCS expression levels of normal lung and tumour tissues exposed to platinum drugs during life were significantly higher than those of non-exposed tissues, whereas only the MRP expression levels of tumours were elevated in association with ante-mortem platinum drug exposure. The gamma-GCS and MRP expression levels correlated significantly. The cMOAT expression levels did not correlate with ante-mortem platinum drug exposure. Next, we monitored gamma-GCS heavy subunit expression levels in peripheral mononuclear cells of eight previously untreated lung cancer patients after platinum drug administration, which revealed that these drugs induced gamma-GCS expression in vivo. These results suggest that gamma-GCS expression is induced by platinum drugs in vivo and/or the physiological stress response to xenobiotics. PMID:9569044

  14. Novel Mechanism of Impaired Function of Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptide 1B3 in Human Hepatocytes: Post-Translational Regulation of OATP1B3 by Protein Kinase C Activation

    PubMed Central

    Powell, John; Farasyn, Taleah; Köck, Kathleen; Meng, Xiaojie; Pahwa, Sonia; Brouwer, Kim L. R.

    2014-01-01

    The organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B3 is a membrane transport protein that mediates hepatic uptake of many drugs and endogenous compounds. Currently, determination of OATP-mediated drug-drug interactions in vitro is focused primarily on direct substrate inhibition. Indirect inhibition of OATP1B3 activity is under-appreciated. OATP1B3 has putative protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation sites. Studies were designed to determine the effect of PKC activation on OATP1B3-mediated transport in human hepatocytes using cholecystokinin-8 (CCK-8), a specific OATP1B3 substrate, as the probe. A PKC activator, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), did not directly inhibit [3H]CCK-8 accumulation in human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH). However, pretreatment with PMA for as little as 10 minutes rapidly decreased [3H]CCK-8 accumulation. Treatment with a PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide (BIM) I prior to PMA treatment blocked the inhibitory effect of PMA, indicating PKC activation is essential for downregulating OATP1B3 activity. PMA pretreatment did not affect OATP1B3 mRNA or total protein levels. To determine the mechanism(s) underlying the indirect inhibition of OATP1B3 activity upon PKC activation, adenoviral vectors expressing FLAG-Myc-tagged OATP1B3 (Ad-OATP1B3) were transduced into human hepatocytes; surface expression and phosphorylation of OATP1B3 were determined by biotinylation and by an anti–phosphor-Ser/Thr/Tyr antibody, respectively. PMA pretreatment markedly increased OATP1B3 phosphorylation without affecting surface or total OATP1B3 protein levels. In conclusion, PKC activation rapidly decreases OATP1B3 transport activity by post-translational regulation of OATP1B3. These studies elucidate a novel indirect inhibitory mechanism affecting hepatic uptake mediated by OATP1B3, and provide new insights into predicting OATP-mediated drug interactions between OATP substrates and kinase modulator drugs/endogenous compounds. PMID:25200870

  15. Relationship of net chloride flow across the human erythrocyte membrane to the anion exchange mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Knauf, P.A.; Law, F.Y.; Marchant, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    The parallel effects of the anion transport inhibitor DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'disulfonate) on net chloride flow and on chloride exchange suggest that a major portion of net chloride flow takes place through the anion exchange system. The ''slippage'' model postulates that the rate of net anion flow is determined by the movement of the unloaded anion transport site across the membrane. Both the halide selectivity of net anion flow and the dependence of net chloride flux on chloride concentration over the range of 75 to 300 mM are inconsistent with the slippage model. Models in which the divalent form of the anion exchange carrier or water pores mediate net anion flow are also inconsistent with the data. The observations that net chloride flux increases with chloride concentration and that the DIDS-sensitive component tends to saturate suggest a model in which net anion flow involves ''transit'' of anions through the diffusion barriers in series with the transport site, without any change in transport site conformation such as normally occurs during the anion exchange process. This model is successful in predicting that the anion exchange inhibitor NAP-taurine, which binds to the modifier site and inhibits the conformational change, has less effect on net chloride flow than on chloride exchange.

  16. Effect of chronic accumulation of aluminum on renal function, cortical renal oxidative stress and cortical renal organic anion transport in rats.

    PubMed

    Mahieu, Stella T; Gionotti, Marisa; Millen, Néstor; Elías, María Mónica

    2003-11-01

    induces alterations in renal tubular PAH transport, together with an impairment in sodium and water balance only detected under conditions of water deprivation, without other evident changes in glomerular filtration rate or other global functions measured by clearance techniques at least at this time of chronic toxicity. PMID:12928767

  17. Studies of oxide anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castleman, A. W., Jr.

    1991-06-01

    Several metal and metal oxide anion sources were used to investigate the formation and reactivity of species of relevance to the AFGL program. A new class of reactions were identified between anions of the form H(x)M(y)O(z) for several metals including M=W, Ta, Ti, Mo, and HCl. The reactions have analogy to acid-base reactions. In another series of experiments, reactions of Al(n)(-), and these clusters bound with V and or Nb, with O2 were investigated. It was found that the Jellium model, though by no means a compendious concept, provides a good guide to the electronic structure of clusters and their general patterns of reactivity.

  18. Hydrated hydride anion clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Han Myoung; Kim, Dongwook; Singh, N. Jiten; Kołaski, Maciej; Kim, Kwang S.

    2007-10-01

    On the basis of density functional theory (DFT) and high level ab initio theory, we report the structures, binding energies, thermodynamic quantities, IR spectra, and electronic properties of the hydride anion hydrated by up to six water molecules. Ground state DFT molecular dynamics simulations (based on the Born-Oppenheimer potential surface) show that as the temperature increases, the surface-bound hydride anion changes to the internally bound structure. Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations are also carried out for the spectral analysis of the monohydrated hydride. Excited-state ab initio molecular dynamics simulations show that the photoinduced charge-transfer-to-solvent phenomena are accompanied by the formation of the excess electron-water clusters and the detachment of the H radical from the clusters. The dynamics of the detachment process of a hydrogen radical upon the excitation is discussed.

  19. Frequencies of two functionally significant SNPs and their haplotypes of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 SLCO1B1 gene in six ethnic groups of Pakistani population

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Tausif Ahmed; Naveed, Abdul Khaliq; Khan, Shakir; Farooqi, Zia-Ur-Rehman

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Organic anion transporter polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) encoded by solute carrier organic transporter 1B1 (SLCO1B1) gene; a transporter involved in the uptake of drugs and endogenous compounds is present in hepatocyte sinusoidal membrane. Aim of this study was to investigate the frequencies of functionally significant SNPs (388A>G and 521T>C) and their haplotypes in 6 ethnic groups of Pakistani population through the development of rapid and efficient Tetra amplification refractory mutation system (T. ARMS) genotyping assay. Materials and Methods: Frequencies of alleles, genotype, and haplotypes of two functionally significant Single nucleotide polymorphism in 180 healthy Pakistani subjects and distributions in six ethnic groups by using a single step T. ARMS genotyping assay. Results: The allelic frequency for 388A>G SNP was 50% in total Pakistani population with Single nucleotide polymorphism distributions of 9.7%, 15.1%, 19.4%, 16.1%, 18.3%, and 21.5% in Punjabi, Sindhi, Balouchi, Pathan, Kashmiri and Hazara/Baltistan groups respectively; and for 521T>C SNP it was 23.9% in total Pakistani population with distributions of 11.1%, 8.9%, 15.6%, 11.1%, 31.1% and 22.2% in Punjabi, Sindhi, Balouchi, Pathan, Kashmiri, and Hazara/Baltistan groups. Both functionally significant SNPs occurred in four major haplotypes with a frequency of 35.5% for 388A/521T (*1A), 40.5% for 388G/521T (*1B), 14.4% for 388A/521C (*5), and 9.4% for 388G/521C (*15) with varying distributions among six ethnic groups. Conclusion: The 388A>G and 521T>C genotypes and corresponding haplotypes are present at varying frequencies in various ethnic groups of Pakistani population. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiling is needed to assess and characterize the effects of these haplotypes in our population. PMID:25140206

  20. Anion permselective membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgdon, R. B.; Waite, W. A.; Alexander, S. S.

    1984-01-01

    Two polymer ion exchange membranes were synthesized to fulfill the needs of both electrical resistivity and anolyte/catholyte separation for utility load leveling utilizing the DOE/NASA mixed electrolyte REDOX battery. Both membranes were shown to meet mixed electrolyte utility load leveling criteria. Several modifications of an anion exchange membrane failed to meet utility load leveling REDOX battery criteria using the unmixed electrolyte REDOX cell.

  1. Anion permselective membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgdon, R. B.; Waite, W. A.; Alexander, S. S.

    1984-07-01

    Two polymer ion exchange membranes were synthesized to fulfill the needs of both electrical resistivity and anolyte/catholyte separation for utility load leveling utilizing the DOE/NASA mixed electrolyte REDOX battery. Both membranes were shown to meet mixed electrolyte utility load leveling criteria. Several modifications of an anion exchange membrane failed to meet utility load leveling REDOX battery criteria using the unmixed electrolyte REDOX cell.

  2. Experimental investigation of anion-π interactions--applications and biochemical relevance.

    PubMed

    Giese, M; Albrecht, M; Rissanen, K

    2016-01-31

    Anion-π interactions, intuitively repulsive forces, turned from controversial to a well-established non-covalent interaction over the past quarter of a century. Within this time frame the question "Anion-π interactions. Do they exist?" could be answered and even more importantly its functional relevance was proven. The present feature article summarizes the experimental findings of anion-π studies in the gas phase, solution and in the solid state and highlights the application of anion-π interactions in anion recognition, sensing and transport as well as in catalysis. Moreover, the biochemical relevance of this weak intermolecular force is comprehensively reviewed. PMID:26697947

  3. Anion permselective membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodgdon, R. B.; Waite, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    The efforts on the synthesis of polymer anion redox membranes were mainly concentrated in two areas, membrane development and membrane fabrication. Membrane development covered the preparation and evaluation of experimental membranes systems with improved resistance stability and/or lower permeability. Membrane fabrication covered the laboratory scale production of prime candidate membranes in quantities of up to two hundred and sizes up to 18 inches x 18 inches (46 cm x 46 cm). These small (10 in x 11 in) and medium sized membranes were mainly for assembly into multicell units. Improvements in processing procedures and techniques for preparing such membrane sets lifted yields to over 90 percent.

  4. Pseudorotation in fullerene anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Janette L.; Hands, Ian D.; Bates, Colin A.

    2007-07-01

    Jahn-Teller (JT) problems are often characterised by an adiabatic potential energy surface (APES) containing either a set of isoenergetic wells or a trough of equivalent-energy points, which may be warped by higher-order coupling terms or anisotropic effects. In all three cases, the JT effect will be dynamic. Either tunnelling between the wells or rotation (of a distortion) around the trough will restore the original symmetry of the system. This motion is referred to as pseudorotation. It should be possible to observe a JT system in a distorted geometry if measurements are made on a sufficiently short timescale. In various cubic systems, this timescale has been calculated to be the order of picoseconds. Such timescales are accessible using modern methods of ultrafast spectroscopy. Measurements of pseudorotation rates can lead to important information on the strength and nature of the JT coupling present. We will present analytical calculations that allow the rate of pseudorotation to be determined in terms of the vibronic coupling parameters. We will show how these results can be applied to E ⊗ e systems and then to the more complicated system applicable to C60- anions. This is of particular interest because of the high icosahedral symmetry of fullerene ions and also because of the many potential uses of materials containing these ions. We conclude by outlining experiments that should be capable of measuring pseudorotation in C 60 anions.

  5. Dynamic chemistry of anion recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Custelcean, Radu

    2012-01-01

    In the past 40 years, anion recognition by synthetic receptors has grown into a rich and vibrant research topic, developing into a distinct branch of Supramolecular Chemistry. Traditional anion receptors comprise organic scaffolds functionalized with complementary binding groups that are assembled by multistep organic synthesis. Recently, a new approach to anion receptors has emerged, in which the host is dynamically self-assembled in the presence of the anionic guest, via reversible bond formation between functional building units. While coordination bonds were initially employed for the self-assembly of the anion hosts, more recent studies demonstrated that reversible covalent bonds can serve the same purpose. In both cases, due to their labile connections, the molecular constituents have the ability to assemble, dissociate, and recombine continuously, thereby creating a dynamic combinatorial library (DCL) of receptors. The anionic guests, through specific molecular recognition, may then amplify (express) the formation of a particular structure among all possible combinations (real or virtual) by shifting the equilibria involved towards the most optimal receptor. This approach is not limited to solution self-assembly, but is equally applicable to crystallization, where the fittest anion-binding crystal may be selected. Finally, the pros and cons of employing dynamic combinatorial chemistry (DCC) vs molecular design for developing anion receptors, and the implications of both approaches to selective anion separations, will be discussed.

  6. Anion permselective membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, S.; Hodgdon, R. B.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of NAS 3-20108 was the development and evaluation of improved anion selective membranes useful as efficient separators in a redox power storage cell system being constructed. The program was divided into three parts, (a) optimization of the selected candidate membrane systems, (b) investigation of alternative membrane/polymer systems, and (c) characterization of candidate membranes. The major synthesis effort was aimed at improving and optimizing as far as possible each candidate system with respect to three critical membrane properties essential for good redox cell performance. Substantial improvements were made in 5 candidate membrane systems. The critical synthesis variables of cross-link density, monomer ratio, and solvent composition were examined over a wide range. In addition, eight alternative polymer systems were investigated, two of which attained candidate status. Three other alternatives showed potential but required further research and development. Each candidate system was optimized for selectivity.

  7. Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with transportation and energy use. Its objective is for the student to be able to discuss the implication of energy usage as it applies to the area of transportation. Some topics covered are efficiencies of various transportation…

  8. Chemical Modeling of Cometary Anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordiner, Martin; Charnley, S. B.

    2009-09-01

    The presence of negative ions (anions) in cometary comae is known from Giotto mass spectrometry of 1P/Halley. The anions O-, OH-, C-, CH- and CN- have been detected, as well as unidentified anions with masses 22-65 and 85-110 amu (Chaizy et al. 1991). Organic molecular anions are known to have a significant impact on the charge balance of interstellar clouds and circumstellar envelopes and have been shown to act as catalysts for the gas-phase synthesis of larger hydrocarbon molecules in the ISM, but their importance in cometary comae has not previously been explored. We present details of the first attempt to model the chemistry of anions in cometary comae. Based on the combined chemical and hydrodynamical model of Rodgers & Charnley (2002), we investigate the role of the hydrocarbon and nitrile anions Cn-, CnH- and CnN- in the coma. We calculate the effects of these anions on the charge balance and examine their impact on cometary coma chemistry. References: Chaizy, P. et al. 1991, Nature, 349, 393 Rodgers, S.D. & Charnley, S.B. 2002, MNRAS, 330, 660

  9. Stabilizing electrodeposition in elastic solid electrolytes containing immobilized anions.

    PubMed

    Tikekar, Mukul D; Archer, Lynden A; Koch, Donald L

    2016-07-01

    Ion transport-driven instabilities in electrodeposition of metals that lead to morphological instabilities and dendrites are receiving renewed attention because mitigation strategies are needed for improving rechargeability and safety of lithium batteries. The growth rate of these morphological instabilities can be slowed by immobilizing a fraction of anions within the electrolyte to reduce the electric field at the metal electrode. We analyze the role of elastic deformation of the solid electrolyte with immobilized anions and present theory combining the roles of separator elasticity and modified transport to evaluate the factors affecting the stability of planar deposition over a wide range of current densities. We find that stable electrodeposition can be easily achieved even at relatively high current densities in electrolytes/separators with moderate polymer-like mechanical moduli, provided a small fraction of anions are immobilized in the separator. PMID:27453943

  10. Novel technology to measure dissolved anions on-site and on-line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continuous measurements of anions in water offers key insight in to the transport and sources of pollutants such as phosphate and nitrate. We are developing a new technology that can be deployed at remote locations to measure dissolved anions in flowing water over 15-30 minute intervals. The techn...

  11. Grain boundary mobility in anion doped MgO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapadia, C. M.; Leipold, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    Certain anions OH(-), F(-) and Gl(-) are shown to enhance grain growth in MgO. The magnitude of their effect decreases in the order in which the anions are listed and depends on their location (solid-solution, second phase) in the MgO lattice. As most anions exhibit relatively high vapor pressures at sintering temperatures, they retard densification and invariably promote residual porosity. The role of anions on grain growth rates was studied in relation to their effect on pore mobility and pore removal; the atomic process controlling the actual rates was determined from observed kinetics in conjunction with the microstructural features. With respect to controlling mechanisms, the effects of all anions are not the same. OH(-) and F(-) control behavior through creation of a defect structure and a grain boundary liquid phase while Cl(-) promotes matter transport within pores by evaporation-condensation. Studies on an additional anion, S to the minus 2nd power gave results which were no different from undoped MgO, possibly because of evaporative losses during hot pressing. Hence, the effect of sulphur is negligible or undetermined.

  12. Anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Lee, Kwan-Soo

    2013-07-23

    Solid anion exchange polymer electrolytes and compositions comprising chemical compounds comprising a polymeric core, a spacer A, and a guanidine base, wherein said chemical compound is uniformly dispersed in a suitable solvent and has the structure: ##STR00001## wherein: i) A is a spacer having the structure O, S, SO.sub.2, --NH--, --N(CH.sub.2).sub.n, wherein n=1-10, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.sub.3--, wherein n=1-10, SO.sub.2-Ph, CO-Ph, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.5, R.sub.6, R.sub.7 and R.sub.8 each are independently --H, --NH.sub.2, F, Cl, Br, CN, or a C.sub.1-C.sub.6 alkyl group, or any combination of thereof; ii) R.sub.9, R.sub.10, R.sub.11, R.sub.12, or R.sub.13 each independently are --H, --CH.sub.3, --NH.sub.2, --NO, --CH.sub.nCH.sub.3 where n=1-6, HC.dbd.O--, NH.sub.2C.dbd.O--, --CH.sub.nCOOH where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--C(NH.sub.2)--COOH where n=1-6, --CH--(COOH)--CH.sub.2--COOH, --CH.sub.2--CH(O--CH.sub.2CH.sub.3).sub.2, --(C.dbd.S)--NH.sub.2, --(C.dbd.NH)--N--(CH.sub.2).sub.nCH.sub.3, where n=0-6, --NH--(C.dbd.S)--SH, --CH.sub.2--(C.dbd.O)--O--C(CH.sub.3).sub.3, --O--(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--(NH.sub.2)--COOH, where n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH.dbd.CH wherein n=1-6, --(CH.sub.2).sub.n--CH--CN wherein n=1-6, an aromatic group such as a phenyl, benzyl, phenoxy, methylbenzyl, nitrogen-substituted benzyl or phenyl groups, a halide, or halide-substituted methyl groups; and iii) wherein the composition is suitable for use in a membrane electrode assembly.

  13. Ambident reactivities of pyridone anions.

    PubMed

    Breugst, Martin; Mayr, Herbert

    2010-11-01

    The kinetics of the reactions of the ambident 2- and 4-pyridone anions with benzhydrylium ions (diarylcarbenium ions) and structurally related Michael acceptors have been studied in DMSO, CH(3)CN, and water. No significant changes of the rate constants were found when the counterion was varied (Li(+), K(+), NBu(4)(+)) or the solvent was changed from DMSO to CH(3)CN, whereas a large decrease of nucleophilicity was observed in aqueous solution. The second-order rate constants (log k(2)) correlated linearly with the electrophilicity parameters E of the electrophiles according to the correlation log k(2) = s(N + E) (Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl. 1994, 33, 938-957), allowing us to determine the nucleophilicity parameters N and s for the pyridone anions. The reactions of the 2- and 4-pyridone anions with stabilized amino-substituted benzhydrylium ions and Michael acceptors are reversible and yield the thermodynamically more stable N-substituted pyridones exclusively. In contrast, highly reactive benzhydrylium ions (4,4'-dimethylbenzhydrylium ion), which react with diffusion control, give mixtures arising from N- and O-attack with the 2-pyridone anion and only O-substituted products with the 4-pyridone anion. For some reactions, rate and equilibrium constants were determined in DMSO, which showed that the 2-pyridone anion is a 2-4 times stronger nucleophile, but a 100 times stronger Lewis base than the 4-pyridone anion. Quantum chemical calculations at MP2/6-311+G(2d,p) level of theory showed that N-attack is thermodynamically favored over O-attack, but the attack at oxygen is intrinsically favored. Marcus theory was employed to develop a consistent scheme which rationalizes the manifold of regioselectivities previously reported for the reactions of these anions with electrophiles. In particular, Kornblum's rationalization of the silver ion effect, one of the main pillars of the hard and soft acid/base concept of ambident reactivity, has been revised. Ag(+) does not

  14. Bound anionic states of adenine

    SciTech Connect

    Haranczyk, Maciej; Gutowski, Maciej S; Li, Xiang; Bowen, Kit H

    2007-03-20

    Anionic states of nucleic acid bases are involved in DNA damage by low-energy electrons and in charge transfer through DNA. Previous gas phase studies of free, unsolvated nucleic acid base parent anions probed only dipole-bound states, which are not present in condensed phase environments, but did not observe valence anionic states, which for purine bases, are thought to be adiabatically unbound. Contrary to this expectation, we have demonstrated that some thus far ignored tautomers of adenine, which result from enamine-imine transformations, support valence anionic states with electron vertical detachment energies as large as 2.2 eV, and at least one of these anionic tautomers is adiabatically bound. Moreover, we predict that the new anionic tautomers should also dominate in solutions and should be characterized by larger values of electron vertical detachment energy than the canonical valence anion. All of the new-found anionic tautomers might be formed in the course of dissociative electron attachment followed by a hydrogen atom attachment to a carbon atom, and they might affect the structure and properties of DNA and RNA exposed to low-energy electrons. The discovery of these valence anionic states of adenine was facilitated by the development of: (i) a new experimental method for preparing parent anions of nucleic acid bases for photoelectron experiments, and (ii) a new combinatorial/ quantum chemical approach for identification of the most stable tautomers of organic molecules. The computational portion of this work was supported by the: (i) Polish State Committee for Scientific Research (KBN) Grants: DS/8000-4-0140-7 (M.G.) and N204 127 31/2963 (M.H.), (ii) European Social Funds (EFS) ZPORR/2.22/II/2.6/ARP/U/2/05 (M.H.), and (iii) US DOE Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Low Dose Radiation Research Program (M.G.). M.H. holds the Foundation for Polish Science (FNP) award for young scientists. The calculations were performed at the Academic

  15. Electron localization of anions probed by nitrile vibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Mani, Tomoyasu; Grills, David C.; Newton, Marshall D.; Miller, John R.

    2015-08-02

    Localization and delocalization of electrons is a key concept in chemistry, and is one of the important factors determining the efficiency of electron transport through organic conjugated molecules, which have potential to act as “molecular wires”. This, in turn, substantially influences the efficiencies of organic solar cells and other molecular electronic devices. It is also necessary to understand the electronic energy landscape and the dynamics of electrons through molecular chain that govern their transport capabilities in one-dimensional conjugated chains so that we can better define the design principles of conjugated molecules for their applications. We show that nitrile ν(C≡N) vibrations respond to the degree of electron localization in nitrile-substituted organic anions by utilizing time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection combined with pulse radiolysis. Measurements of a series of aryl nitrile anions allow us to construct a semi-empirical calibration curve between the changes in the ν(C≡N) IR shifts and the changes in the electronic charges from the neutral to the anion states in the nitriles; more electron localization in the nitrile anion results in larger IR shifts. Furthermore, the IR linewidth in anions can report a structural change accompanying changes in the electronic density distribution. Probing the shift of the nitrile ν(C≡N) IR vibrational bands enables us to determine how the electron is localized in anions of nitrile-functionalized oligofluorenes, considered as organic mixed-valence compounds. We estimate the diabatic electron transfer distance, electronic coupling strengths, and energy barriers in these organic mixed-valence compounds. The analysis reveals a dynamic picture, showing that the electron is moving back and forth within the oligomers with a small activation energy of ≤ kBT, likely controlled by the movement of dihedral angles between monomer units. Thus, implications for the electron transport

  16. Electron localization of anions probed by nitrile vibrations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mani, Tomoyasu; Grills, David C.; Newton, Marshall D.; Miller, John R.

    2015-08-02

    Localization and delocalization of electrons is a key concept in chemistry, and is one of the important factors determining the efficiency of electron transport through organic conjugated molecules, which have potential to act as “molecular wires”. This, in turn, substantially influences the efficiencies of organic solar cells and other molecular electronic devices. It is also necessary to understand the electronic energy landscape and the dynamics of electrons through molecular chain that govern their transport capabilities in one-dimensional conjugated chains so that we can better define the design principles of conjugated molecules for their applications. We show that nitrile ν(C≡N) vibrationsmore » respond to the degree of electron localization in nitrile-substituted organic anions by utilizing time-resolved infrared (TRIR) detection combined with pulse radiolysis. Measurements of a series of aryl nitrile anions allow us to construct a semi-empirical calibration curve between the changes in the ν(C≡N) IR shifts and the changes in the electronic charges from the neutral to the anion states in the nitriles; more electron localization in the nitrile anion results in larger IR shifts. Furthermore, the IR linewidth in anions can report a structural change accompanying changes in the electronic density distribution. Probing the shift of the nitrile ν(C≡N) IR vibrational bands enables us to determine how the electron is localized in anions of nitrile-functionalized oligofluorenes, considered as organic mixed-valence compounds. We estimate the diabatic electron transfer distance, electronic coupling strengths, and energy barriers in these organic mixed-valence compounds. The analysis reveals a dynamic picture, showing that the electron is moving back and forth within the oligomers with a small activation energy of ≤ kBT, likely controlled by the movement of dihedral angles between monomer units. Thus, implications for the electron transport capability

  17. Hydrogen in anion vacancies of semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Mao-Hua; Singh, David J

    2009-01-01

    Density functional calculations show that, depending on the anion size, hydrogen in anion vacancies of various II-VI semiconductors can be either two-fold or four-fold coordinated, and has either amphoteric or shallow donor character. In general, the multi-coordination of hydrogen in an anion vacancy is the indication of an anionic H, H { ion, in the relatively ionic environment. In more covalent semiconductors, H would form a single cation-H bond in the anion vacancy.

  18. Stabilizing electrodeposition in elastic solid electrolytes containing immobilized anions

    PubMed Central

    Tikekar, Mukul D.; Archer, Lynden A.; Koch, Donald L.

    2016-01-01

    Ion transport–driven instabilities in electrodeposition of metals that lead to morphological instabilities and dendrites are receiving renewed attention because mitigation strategies are needed for improving rechargeability and safety of lithium batteries. The growth rate of these morphological instabilities can be slowed by immobilizing a fraction of anions within the electrolyte to reduce the electric field at the metal electrode. We analyze the role of elastic deformation of the solid electrolyte with immobilized anions and present theory combining the roles of separator elasticity and modified transport to evaluate the factors affecting the stability of planar deposition over a wide range of current densities. We find that stable electrodeposition can be easily achieved even at relatively high current densities in electrolytes/separators with moderate polymer-like mechanical moduli, provided a small fraction of anions are immobilized in the separator. PMID:27453943

  19. Aquaporins with anion/monocarboxylate permeability: mechanisms, relevance for pathogen–host interactions

    PubMed Central

    Rambow, Janis; Wu, Binghua; Rönfeldt, Deike; Beitz, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Classically, aquaporins are divided based on pore selectivity into water specific, orthodox aquaporins and solute-facilitating aquaglyceroporins, which conduct, e.g., glycerol and urea. However, more aquaporin-passing substrates have been identified over the years, such as the gasses ammonia and carbon dioxide or the water-related hydrogen peroxide. It became apparent that not all aquaporins clearly fit into one of only two subfamilies. Furthermore, certain aquaporins from both major subfamilies have been reported to conduct inorganic anions, such as chloride, or monoacids/monocarboxylates, such as lactic acid/lactate. Here, we summarize the findings on aquaporin anion transport, analyze the pore layout of such aquaporins in comparison to prototypical non-selective anion channels, monocarboxylate transporters, and formate–nitrite transporters. Finally, we discuss in which scenarios anion conducting aquaporins may be of physiological relevance. PMID:25225485

  20. Ion exchange polymers for anion separations

    DOEpatents

    Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Marsh, S. Fredric; Bartsch, Richard A.

    1997-01-01

    Anion exchange resins including at least two positively charged sites and a ell-defined spacing between the positive sites are provided together with a process of removing anions or anionic metal complexes from aqueous solutions by use of such resins. The resins can be substituted poly(vinylpyridine) and substituted polystyrene.

  1. Ion exchange polymers for anion separations

    DOEpatents

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Marsh, S.F.; Bartsch, R.A.

    1997-09-23

    Anion exchange resins including at least two positively charged sites and a well-defined spacing between the positive sites are provided together with a process of removing anions or anionic metal complexes from aqueous solutions by use of such resins. The resins can be substituted poly(vinylpyridine) and substituted polystyrene.

  2. Alkaline Anion-Exchange Membranes Containing Mobile Ion Shuttles.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiaolin; He, Yubin; Guiver, Michael D; Wu, Liang; Ran, Jin; Yang, Zhengjin; Xu, Tongwen

    2016-05-01

    A new class of alkaline anion-exchange membranes containing mobile ion shuttles is developed. It is achieved by threading ionic linear guests into poly(crown ether) hosts via host-guest molecular interaction. The thermal- and pH-triggered shuttling of ionic linear guests remarkably increases the solvation-shell fluctuations in inactive hydrated hydroxide ion complexes (OH(-) (H2 O)4 ) and accelerates the OH(-) transport. PMID:26972938

  3. Polymerization of anionic wormlike micelles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiyuan; González, Yamaira I; Xu, Hangxun; Kaler, Eric W; Liu, Shiyong

    2006-01-31

    Polymerizable anionic wormlike micelles are obtained upon mixing the hydrotropic salt p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) with the reactive anionic surfactant sodium 4-(8-methacryloyloxyoctyl)oxybenzene sulfonate (MOBS). Polymerization captures the cross-sectional radius of the micelles (approximately 2 nm), induces micellar growth, and leads to the formation of a stable single-phase dispersion of wormlike micellar polymers. The unpolymerized and polymerized micelles were characterized using static and dynamic laser light scattering, small-angle neutron scattering, 1H NMR, and stopped-flow light scattering. Stopped-flow light scattering was also used to measure the average lifetime of the unpolymerized wormlike micelles. A comparison of the average lifetime of unpolymerized wormlike micelles with the surfactant monomer propagation rate was used to elucidate the mechanism of polymerization. There is a significant correlation between the ratio of the average lifetime to the monomer propagation rate and the average aggregation number of the polymerized wormlike micelles. PMID:16430253

  4. Aza compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.Q.; McBreen, J.

    1998-01-06

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of Li{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

  5. Aza compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xiao-Qing; McBreen, James

    1998-01-06

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of Li.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

  6. Transient Anion States of Biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varella, Marcio

    2012-10-01

    Much of the interest on electron interactions with biomolecules is related to radiation damage [Gohlke and Illenberger, Europhys. News 33, 207 (2002)]. The high energy photons employed in radiology and radiotherapy generate a large number of fast electrons in living cells. These electrons thermalize in a picosecond scale, eventually forming dissociative matestable anions with water and biomolecules. In this work, we employ the parallel version of Schwinger Multichannel Method with Pseudopotentials [Bettega et al., Phys. Rev. A 47, 1111 (1993); Santos et al., J. Phys. Chem. 136, 084307 (2012)] to investigate transient anion states of protein and nucleic acid precursors. We address glycine in both neutral and zwitterionic forms, as well as glycine-water clusters and disulfide bonds. The interest on the two forms of glycine (and other amino acids) relies on the fact that only the neutral form is stable in the gas phase, while the zwitterion is more stable in solution, pointing out limitations of standard gas-phase studies. Electron attachment to disulfide bonds also has potential impact on protein stability. Finally we address transient anion states of substituted uracil molecules in the gas phase. [4pt] In collaboration with M. H. F. Bettega, S. d'A. Sanchez, R. F. da Costa, M. A. P. Lima, J. S. dos Santos, and F. Kossoski.

  7. Interaction of Ethambutol with human organic cation transporters of the SLC22 family indicates potential for drug-drug interactions during antituberculosis therapy.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaolei; Wang, Li; Gründemann, Dirk; Sweet, Douglas H

    2013-10-01

    According to the 2012 WHO global tuberculosis (TB) report (http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/75938/1/9789241564502_eng.pdf), the death rate for tuberculosis was over 1.4 million patients in 2011, with ∼9 million new cases diagnosed. Moreover, the frequency of comorbidity with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and with diabetes is on the rise, increasing the risk of these patients for experiencing drug-drug interactions (DDIs) due to polypharmacy. Ethambutol is considered a first-line antituberculosis drug. Ethambutol is an organic cation at physiological pH, and its major metabolite, 2,2'-(ethylenediimino)dibutyric acid (EDA), is zwitterionic. Therefore, we assessed the effects of ethambutol and EDA on the function of human organic cation transporter 1 (hOCT1), hOCT2, and hOCT3 and that of EDA on organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1) and hOAT3. Potent inhibition of hOCT1- and hOCT2-mediated transport by ethambutol (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 92.6 ± 10.9 and 253.8 ± 90.8 μM, respectively) was observed. Ethambutol exhibited much weaker inhibition of hOCT3 (IC50 = 4.1 ± 1.6 mM); however, significant inhibition (>80%) was observed at physiologically relevant concentrations in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract after oral dosing. EDA failed to exhibit any inhibitory effects that warranted further investigation. DDI analysis indicated a strong potential for ethambutol interaction on hOCT1 expressed in enterocytes and hepatocytes and on hOCT3 in enterocytes, which would alter absorption, distribution, and excretion of coadministered cationic drugs, suggesting that in vivo pharmacokinetic studies are necessary to confirm drug safety and efficacy. In particular, TB patients with coexisting HIV or diabetes might experience significant DDIs in situations of coadministration of ethambutol and clinical therapeutics known to be hOCT1/hOCT3 substrates (e.g., lamivudine or metformin). PMID:23917312

  8. Interaction of Ethambutol with Human Organic Cation Transporters of the SLC22 Family Indicates Potential for Drug-Drug Interactions during Antituberculosis Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaolei; Gründemann, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    According to the 2012 WHO global tuberculosis (TB) report (http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/75938/1/9789241564502_eng.pdf), the death rate for tuberculosis was over 1.4 million patients in 2011, with ∼9 million new cases diagnosed. Moreover, the frequency of comorbidity with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and with diabetes is on the rise, increasing the risk of these patients for experiencing drug-drug interactions (DDIs) due to polypharmacy. Ethambutol is considered a first-line antituberculosis drug. Ethambutol is an organic cation at physiological pH, and its major metabolite, 2,2′-(ethylenediimino)dibutyric acid (EDA), is zwitterionic. Therefore, we assessed the effects of ethambutol and EDA on the function of human organic cation transporter 1 (hOCT1), hOCT2, and hOCT3 and that of EDA on organic anion transporter 1 (hOAT1) and hOAT3. Potent inhibition of hOCT1- and hOCT2-mediated transport by ethambutol (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 92.6 ± 10.9 and 253.8 ± 90.8 μM, respectively) was observed. Ethambutol exhibited much weaker inhibition of hOCT3 (IC50 = 4.1 ± 1.6 mM); however, significant inhibition (>80%) was observed at physiologically relevant concentrations in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract after oral dosing. EDA failed to exhibit any inhibitory effects that warranted further investigation. DDI analysis indicated a strong potential for ethambutol interaction on hOCT1 expressed in enterocytes and hepatocytes and on hOCT3 in enterocytes, which would alter absorption, distribution, and excretion of coadministered cationic drugs, suggesting that in vivo pharmacokinetic studies are necessary to confirm drug safety and efficacy. In particular, TB patients with coexisting HIV or diabetes might experience significant DDIs in situations of coadministration of ethambutol and clinical therapeutics known to be hOCT1/hOCT3 substrates (e.g., lamivudine or metformin). PMID:23917312

  9. The CFTR Ion Channel: Gating, Regulation, and Anion Permeation

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Tzyh-Chang; Kirk, Kevin L.

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ATP-gated anion channel with two remarkable distinctions. First, it is the only ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that is known to be an ion channel—almost all others function as transport ATPases. Second, CFTR is the only ligand-gated channel that consumes its ligand (ATP) during the gating cycle—a consequence of its enzymatic activity as an ABC transporter. We discuss these special properties of CFTR in the context of its evolutionary history as an ABC transporter. Other topics include the mechanisms by which CFTR gating is regulated by phosphorylation of its unique regulatory domain and our current view of the CFTR permeation pathway (or pore). Understanding these basic operating principles of the CFTR channel is central to defining the mechanisms of action of prospective cystic fibrosis drugs and to the development of new, rational treatment strategies. PMID:23284076

  10. The CFTR ion channel: gating, regulation, and anion permeation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tzyh-Chang; Kirk, Kevin L

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ATP-gated anion channel with two remarkable distinctions. First, it is the only ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that is known to be an ion channel--almost all others function as transport ATPases. Second, CFTR is the only ligand-gated channel that consumes its ligand (ATP) during the gating cycle--a consequence of its enzymatic activity as an ABC transporter. We discuss these special properties of CFTR in the context of its evolutionary history as an ABC transporter. Other topics include the mechanisms by which CFTR gating is regulated by phosphorylation of its unique regulatory domain and our current view of the CFTR permeation pathway (or pore). Understanding these basic operating principles of the CFTR channel is central to defining the mechanisms of action of prospective cystic fibrosis drugs and to the development of new, rational treatment strategies. PMID:23284076

  11. Metalloporphyrin chloride ionophores: induction of increased anion permeability in lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    El-Etri, M; Cuppoletti, J

    1996-03-01

    5,10,15,20-Tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine manganese (III) chloride [TPPMn(III)] is a positively charged lipophilic anion carrier that is widely used as a Cl- sensor. TPPMn(III) increased anion permeability of cultured mouse lung epithelial (MLE) cells as measured by short-circuit current (ISC) to a level similar to that induced by forskolin analogues. Anion permeability was also studied in cultured human lung epithelial (A549) cells by measurement of the rates of change of fluorescence of the anion sensitive fluorescent dye, 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropyl)quinolinium (SPQ). In these studies, cells were incubated with SPQ in SO2-4- medium, washed free of extracellular SPQ, and then perfused with medium containing anions that are known to quench SPQ fluorescence. The effect of TPPMn(III) on anion transport was then determined either microscopically in single cell studies or using cell monolayers mounted in a front face fluorimeter. TPPMn(III) in the range from 1 to 100 micrograms/ml induced a dose-dependent increase in Br- transport. The half-maximal quenching effect was estimated to be approximate 5 micrograms/ml. TPPMn(III) increased the rates of fluorescence quench of anions by up to fourfold. TPPMn(III) was without effect on -Ca2+-i level in A549 cells as measured with fura 2-AM. This indicates that TPPMn(III) effects were not mediated through effects on Ca+2 -activated Cl- channels, or by compromise of energy metabolism or membrane integrity of the cells. This study suggests that TPPMn(III) and, by extension, other lipophilic Mn(III) or Co(III) derivatives wherein the selectivity of lipophilicity is altered, could increase the anion permeability of biological membranes, and suggests a new approach for treatment of diseases such as cystic fibrosis, where transport of Cl- is defective. PMID:8638731

  12. Adsorption affinity of anions on metal oxyhydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechenyuk, S. I.; Semushina, Yu. P.; Kuz'mich, L. F.

    2013-03-01

    The dependences of anion (phosphate, carbonate, sulfate, chromate, oxalate, tartrate, and citrate) adsorption affinity anions from geometric characteristics, acid-base properties, and complex forming ability are generalized. It is shown that adsorption depends on the nature of both the anions and the ionic medium and adsorbent. It is established that anions are generally grouped into the following series of adsorption affinity reduction: PO{4/3-}, CO{3/2-} > C2O{4/2-}, C(OH)(CH2)2(COO){3/3-}, (CHOH)2(COO){2/2-} > CrO{4/2-} ≫ SO{4/2-}.

  13. The STAS domain of mammalian SLC26A5 prestin harbours an anion-binding site.

    PubMed

    Lolli, Graziano; Pasqualetto, Elisa; Costanzi, Elisa; Bonetto, Greta; Battistutta, Roberto

    2016-02-15

    Prestin is a unique ATP- and Ca(2+)-independent molecular motor with piezoelectric characteristics responsible for the electromotile properties of mammalian cochlear outer hair cells, i.e. the capacity of these cells to modify their length in response to electric stimuli. This 'electromotility' is at the basis of the exceptional sensitivity and frequency selectivity distinctive of mammals. Prestin belongs to the SLC26 (solute carrier 26) family of anion transporters and needs anions to function properly, particularly Cl(-). In the present study, using X-ray crystallography we reveal that the STAS (sulfate transporter and anti-sigma factor antagonist) domain of mammalian prestin, considered an 'incomplete' transporter, harbours an unanticipated anion-binding site. In parallel, we present the first crystal structure of a prestin STAS domain from a non-mammalian vertebrate prestin (chicken) that behaves as a 'full' transporter. Notably, in chicken STAS, the anion-binding site is lacking because of a local structural rearrangement, indicating that the presence of the STAS anion-binding site is exclusive to mammalian prestin. PMID:26635354

  14. Ionic Block Copolymers for Anion Exchange Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Herbst, Dan; Giffin, Guinevere A.; di Noto, Vito; Witten, Tom; Coughlin, E. Bryan

    2013-03-01

    Anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells have regained interest because it allows the use of non-noble metal catalysts. Until now, most of the studies on AEM were based on random polyelectrolytes. In this work, Poly(vinylbenzyltrimethylammonium bromide)-b- (methylbutylene) ([PVBTMA][Br]-b-PMB) was studied by SAXS, TEM and dielectric spectroscopy to understand the fundamental structure-conductivity relationship of ion transport mechanisms within well-ordered block copolymers. The ionic conductivity and the formation of order structure were dependent on the casting solvent. Higher ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the membranes showed higher conductivity at as IEC values below 1.8mmol/g, as above this, the ionic conductivity decreases due to more water uptake leading to dilution of charge density. The humidity dependence of morphology exhibited the shifting of d-spacing to higher value and the alteration in higher characteristic peak of SAXS plot as the humidity increase from the dry to wet state. This phenomenon can be further explained by a newly developed polymer brush theory. Three ionic conduction pathways with different conduction mechanism within the membranes can be confirmed by broadband electric spectroscopy. US Army MURI (W911NF1010520)

  15. Conformation of oligodeoxynucleotides associated with anionic liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Siddhesh D.; Rhodes, David G.

    2000-01-01

    There has been significant progress in the development of antisense therapeutics for a wide range of medicinal applications. Further improvement will require better understanding of cellular internalization, intracellular distribution mechanisms and interactions of oligodeoxynucleotides with cellular organelles. In many of these processes interactions of oligodeoxynucleotides with lipid assemblies may have a significant influence on their function. Divalent cations have been shown to assist cellular internalization of certain oligodeoxynucleotides and to affect their conformation. In this work we have investigated conformational changes of phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides upon divalent cation-mediated interaction with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) liposomes. For the sequences investigated here the native conformation underwent significant change in the presence of anionic DPPG liposomes only when divalent cations were present. This change is sequence-specific, ion-selective and distinct from previously reported changes in oligodeoxynucleotide structure due to divalent cations alone. The conformation of one oligodeoxynucleotide in the presence of calcium and DPPG yields circular dichroism spectra which suggest C-DNA but which also have characteristics unlike any previously reported spectra of liposome-associated DNA structure. The data suggest the possibility of a unique conformation of liposome-associated ODNs and reflect a surprisingly strong tendency of single-stranded DNA to retain a characteristic conformation even when adsorbed to a surface. This conformation may be related to cellular uptake, transport of oligodeoxynucleotides in cells and/or function. PMID:11058108

  16. Tripodal Receptors for Cation and Anion Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Nuriman; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David N.

    2006-01-01

    This review discusses different types of artificial tripodal receptors for the selective recognition and sensing of cations and anions. Examples on the relationship between structure and selectivity towards cations and anions are described. Furthermore, their applications as potentiometric ion sensing are emphasised, along with their potential applications in optical sensors or optodes.

  17. Gels based on anion recognition between triurea receptor and phosphate anion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cuiling; Wu, Biao; Chen, Yongming; Zhang, Ke

    2015-04-01

    Anion recognition between the triurea receptor and phosphate anion is demonstrated as the cross-linkage to build supramolecular polymer gels for the first time. A novel multi-block copolymer (3) is designed to have functional triurea groups as cross-linking units along the polymer main chain. By virtue of anion coordination between the triurea receptor and phosphate anion with a binding mode of 2:1, supramolecular polymer gels are then prepared based on anion recognition using 3 as the building block. PMID:25694389

  18. Counterintuitive interaction of anions with benzene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiñonero, David; Garau, Carolina; Frontera, Antonio; Ballester, Pau; Costa, Antonio; Deyà, Pere M.

    2002-06-01

    Ab initio calculations were carried out on complexes between 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB) and anions, where the anion is positioned over the ring along the C3 axis. This study combines crystallographic and computational evidences to demonstrate an attractive interaction between the anion and the π-cloud of TNB. This interaction is rationalized based on the important role of the quadrupole moment of TNB and the anion-induced polarization. In addition, this study has been extended to 1,3,5-trifluorobenzene (TFB), which possesses a very small quadrupole moment. As a result, minimum energy complexes have been found between TFB and both anions and cations due to the stabilization obtained from the ion-induced polarization.

  19. Covalent Polymers Containing Discrete Heterocyclic Anion Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Rambo, Brett M.; Silver, Eric S.; Bielawski, Christopher W.; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter covers recent advances in the development of polymeric materials containing discrete heterocyclic anion receptors, and focuses on advances in anion binding and chemosensor chemistry. The development of polymers specific for anionic species is a relatively new and flourishing area of materials chemistry. The incorporation of heterocyclic receptors capable of complexing anions through non-covalent interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions) provides a route to not only sensitive but also selective polymer materials. Furthermore, these systems have been utilized in the development of polymers capable of extracting anionic species from aqueous environments. These latter materials may lead to advances in water purification and treatment of diseases resulting from surplus ions. PMID:20871791

  20. Creating molecular macrocycles for anion recognition

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary The creation and functionality of new classes of macrocycles that are shape persistent and can bind anions is described. The genesis of triazolophane macrocycles emerges out of activity surrounding 1,2,3-triazoles made using click chemistry; and the same triazoles are responsible for anion capture. Mistakes made and lessons learnt in anion recognition provide deeper understanding that, together with theory, now provides for computer-aided receptor design. The lessons are acted upon in the creation of two new macrocycles. First, cyanostars are larger and like to capture large anions. Second is tricarb, which also favors large anions but shows a propensity to self-assemble in an orderly and stable manner, laying a foundation for future designs of hierarchical nanostructures. PMID:27340452

  1. Picosecond dynamics of benzophenone anion solvation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Y.; Jonah, C.D. )

    1993-01-14

    The dynamics of benzophenone anion solvation in alcohols are studied by pulse-radiolysis techniques. The solvation process is characterized by the blue shift of the transient absorption spectrum of the anion and is faster for the smaller alcohols. The anion is solvated more slowly than the electron in the same solvent, but the solvation times of both are similar to [tau][sub 2], the solvent dielectric relaxation time. The familiar phenomenological two-state model of solvation was found to be inappropriate for describing the anion solvation process. A multistate process appears to be a more appropriate description. The authors modeled the kinetics of the spectral relaxation. In most cases, nearly quantitative agreement between the calculated and observed spectra is achieved. The characteristic relaxation times for the alcohol solvents around the anions were also reproduced. 50 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Interactions between anionic and neutral bromine and rare gas atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Buchachenko, Alexei A.; Grinev, Timur A.; Wright, Timothy G.; Viehland, Larry A.

    2008-02-14

    High-quality, ab initio potential energy functions are obtained for the interaction of bromine atoms and anions with atoms of the six rare gases (Rg) from He to Rn. The potentials of the nonrelativistic {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +} and {sup 2}{pi} electronic states arising from the ground-state Br({sup 2}P)-Rg interactions are computed over a wide range of internuclear separations using a spin-restricted version of the coupled cluster method with single and double excitations and noniterative correction to triple excitations [RCCSD(T)] with an extrapolation to the complete basis set limit, from basis sets of d-aug-cc-pVQZ and d-aug-cc-pV5Z quality. These are compared with potentials derived previously from experimental measurements and ab initio calculations. The same approach is used also to refine the potentials of the Br{sup -}-Rg anions obtained previously [Buchachenko et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 064305 (2006)]. Spin-orbit coupling in the neutral species is included both ab initio and via an atomic approximation; deviations between two approaches that are large enough to affect the results significantly are observed only in the Br-Xe and Br-Rn systems. The resulting relativistic potentials are used to compute anion zero electron kinetic energy photoelectron spectra, differential scattering cross sections, and the transport coefficients of trace amounts of both anionic and neutral bromine in the rare gases. Comparison with available experimental data for all systems considered proves a very high precision of the present potentials.

  3. Anion conductance selectivity mechanism of the CFTR chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Linsdell, Paul

    2016-04-01

    All ion channels are able to discriminate between substrate ions to some extent, a process that involves specific interactions between permeant anions and the so-called selectivity filter within the channel pore. In the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion-selective channel, both anion relative permeability and anion relative conductance are dependent on anion free energy of hydration--anions that are relatively easily dehydrated tend to show both high permeability and low conductance. In the present work, patch clamp recording was used to investigate the relative conductance of different anions in CFTR, and the effect of mutations within the channel pore. In constitutively-active E1371Q-CFTR channels, the anion conductance sequence was Cl(-) > NO3(-) > Br(-) > formate > SCN(-) > I(-). A mutation that disrupts anion binding in the inner vestibule of the pore (K95Q) disrupted anion conductance selectivity, such that anions with different permeabilities showed almost indistinguishable conductances. Conversely, a mutation at the putative narrowest pore region that is known to disrupt anion permeability selectivity (F337A) had minimal effects on anion relative conductance. Ion competition experiments confirmed that relatively tight binding of permeant anions resulted in relatively low conductance. These results suggest that the relative affinity of ion binding in the inner vestibule of the pore controls the relative conductance of different permeant anions in CFTR, and that the pore has two physically distinct anion selectivity filters that act in series to control anion conductance selectivity and anion permeability selectivity respectively. PMID:26779604

  4. Photoelectron spectroscopy of nitromethane anion clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruitt, Carrie Jo M.; Albury, Rachael M.; Goebbert, Daniel J.

    2016-08-01

    Nitromethane anion and nitromethane dimer, trimer, and hydrated cluster anions were studied by photoelectron spectroscopy. Vertical detachment energies, estimated electron affinities, and solvation energies were obtained from the photoelectron spectra. Cluster structures were investigated using theoretical calculations. Predicted detachment energies agreed with experiment. Calculations show water binds to nitromethane anion through two hydrogen bonds. The dimer has a non-linear structure with a single ionic Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond. The trimer has two different solvent interactions, but both involve the weak Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond.

  5. Ketoprofen as a photoinitiator for anionic polymerization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Hsuan; Wan, Peter

    2015-06-01

    A new photoinitiating system for anionic polymerization of acrylates based on the efficient photodecarboxylation of Ketoprofen (1) and the related derivatives 3 and 4 that generate the corresponding carbanion intermediates is presented. Carbanion intermediates are confirmed by deuterium incorporation in the trapped Michael adducts and by spectroscopic detection using laser flash photolysis (LFP). This novel anionic initiating system features excitation in the near UV and visible regions, potential characteristics of photocontrolled living polymerization, and metal-free photoinitiators generated from photoexcitation, different from typical anionic polymerization where the polymerizations are initiated by heat and strong base containing alkali metals. PMID:25917384

  6. Kinetics and mechanism of exogenous anion exchange in FeFbpA-NTA: significance of periplasmic anion lability and anion binding activity of ferric binding protein A.

    PubMed

    Heymann, Jared J; Gabricević, Mario; Mietzner, Timothy A; Crumbliss, Alvin L

    2010-02-01

    The bacterial transferrin ferric binding protein A (FbpA) requires an exogenous anion to facilitate iron sequestration, and subsequently to shuttle the metal across the periplasm to the cytoplasmic membrane. In the diverse conditions of the periplasm, numerous anions are known to be present. Prior in vitro experiments have demonstrated the ability of multiple anions to fulfill the synergistic iron-binding requirement, and the identity of the bound anion has been shown to modulate important physicochemical properties of iron-bound FbpA (FeFbpA). Here we address the kinetics and mechanism of anion exchange for the FeFbpA-nitrilotriacetate (NTA) assembly with several biologically relevant anions (citrate, oxalate, phosphate, and pyrophosphate), with nonphysiologic NTA serving as a representative synergistic anion/chelator. The kinetic data are consistent with an anion-exchange process that occurs in multiple steps, dependent on the identity of both the entering anion and the leaving anion. The exchange mechanism may proceed either as a direct substitution or through an intermediate FeFbpA-X* assembly based on anion (X) identity. Our kinetic results further develop an understanding of exogenous anion lability in the periplasm, as well as address the final step of the iron-free FbpA (apo-FbpA)/Fe(3+) sequestration mechanism. Our results highlight the kinetic significance of the FbpA anion binding site, demonstrating a correlation between apo-FbpA/anion affinity and the FeFbpA rate of anion exchange, further supporting the requirement of an exogenous anion to complete tight sequestration of iron by FbpA, and developing a mechanism for anion exchange within FeFbpA that is dependent on the identity of both the entering anion and the leaving anion. PMID:19813031

  7. Experimental evidence for the functional relevance of anion-π interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Ryan E.; Hennig, Andreas; Weimann, Dominik P.; Emery, Daniel; Ravikumar, Velayutham; Montenegro, Javier; Takeuchi, Toshihide; Gabutti, Sandro; Mayor, Marcel; Mareda, Jiri; Schalley, Christoph A.; Matile, Stefan

    2010-07-01

    Attractive in theory and confirmed to exist, anion-π interactions have never really been seen at work. To catch them in action, we prepared a collection of monomeric, cyclic and rod-shaped naphthalenediimide transporters. Their ability to exert anion-π interactions was demonstrated by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry in combination with theoretical calculations. To relate this structural evidence to transport activity in bilayer membranes, affinity and selectivity sequences were recorded. π-acidification and active-site decrowding increased binding, transport and chloride > bromide > iodide selectivity, and supramolecular organization inverted acetate > nitrate to nitrate > acetate selectivity. We conclude that anion-π interactions on monomeric surfaces are ideal for chloride recognition, whereas their supramolecular enhancement by π,π-interactions appears perfect to target nitrate. Chloride transporters are relevant to treat channelopathies, and nitrate sensors to monitor cellular signaling and cardiovascular diseases. A big impact on organocatalysis can be expected from the stabilization of anionic transition states on chiral π-acidic surfaces.

  8. Laboratory investigation of boundary condition impacts on nitrate anion exclusion in an unsaturated soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transient unsaturated horizontal column experiments were conducted with a loam soil, under variable boundary conditions, to obtain added insight on anion exclusion processes that impact nitrate transport in soil. The boundary conditions evaluated were column inlet soil water content, initial soil w...

  9. A new class of organocatalysts: sulfenate anions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengnan; Jia, Tiezheng; Yin, Haolin; Carroll, Patrick J; Schelter, Eric J; Walsh, Patrick J

    2014-09-26

    Sulfenate anions are known to act as highly reactive species in the organic arena. Now they premiere as organocatalysts. Proof of concept is offered by the sulfoxide/sulfenate-catalyzed (1-10 mol%) coupling of benzyl halides in the presence of base to generate trans-stilbenes in good to excellent yields (up to 99%). Mechanistic studies support the intermediacy of sulfenate anions, and the deprotonated sulfoxide was determined to be the resting state of the catalyst. PMID:25111259

  10. Simple model can explain self-inhibition of red cell anion exchange.

    PubMed Central

    Tanford, C

    1985-01-01

    Ion translocation in red cell anion exchange is assumed to occur by means of an alternating access mechanism, in which a critical binding site for the transported ion alternates between two conformational states, each accessible from only one side of the membrane. If this alternating site is located within the transport protein at some distance from one or both surfaces of the membrane, an access channel is required to connect the alternating site to the adjacent bulk solution. This automatically leads to inhibition of transport at high concentrations of the transported ion because release of the ion from the alternating site can occur only via unoccupied channel sites. PMID:2579684

  11. Novel pseudo-delocalized anions for lithium battery electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Jónsson, Erlendur; Armand, Michel; Johansson, Patrik

    2012-05-01

    A novel anion concept of pseudo-delocalized anions, anions with distinct positive and negative charge regions, has been studied by a computer aided synthesis using DFT calculations. With the aim to find safer and better performing lithium salts for lithium battery electrolytes two factors have been evaluated: the cation-anion interaction strength via the dissociation reaction LiAn ⇌ Li(+) + An(-) and the anion oxidative stability via a vertical ionisation from anion to radical. Based on our computational results some of these anions have shown promise to perform well as lithium salts for modern lithium batteries and should be interesting synthetic targets for future research. PMID:22441354

  12. Pollen Tube Growth Regulation by Free Anions Depends on the Interaction between the Anion Channel SLAH3 and Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases CPK2 and CPK20[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Gutermuth, Timo; Lassig, Roman; Portes, Maria-Teresa; Maierhofer, Tobias; Romeis, Tina; Borst, Jan-Willem; Hedrich, Rainer; Feijó, José A.; Konrad, Kai R.

    2013-01-01

    Apical growth in pollen tubes (PTs) is associated with the presence of tip-focused ion gradients and fluxes, implying polar localization or regulation of the underlying transporters. The molecular identity and regulation of anion transporters in PTs is unknown. Here we report a negative gradient of cytosolic anion concentration focused on the tip, in negative correlation with the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. We hypothesized that a possible link between these two ions is based on the presence of Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CPKs). We characterized anion channels and CPK transcripts in PTs and analyzed their localization. Yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) tagging of a homolog of SLOW ANION CHANNEL-ASSOCIATED1 (SLAH3:YFP) was widespread along PTs, but, in accordance with the anion efflux, CPK2/CPK20/CPK17/CPK34:YFP fluorescence was strictly localized at the tip plasma membrane. Expression of SLAH3 with either CPK2 or CPK20 (but not CPK17/CPK34) in Xenopus laevis oocytes elicited S-type anion channel currents. Interaction of SLAH3 with CPK2/CPK20 (but not CPK17/CPK34) was confirmed by Förster-resonance energy transfer fluorescence lifetime microscopy in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplasts and bimolecular fluorescence complementation in living PTs. Compared with wild-type PTs, slah3-1 and slah3-2 as well as cpk2-1 cpk20-2 PTs had reduced anion currents. Double mutant cpk2-1 cpk20-2 and slah3-1 PTs had reduced extracellular anion fluxes at the tip. Our studies provide evidence for a Ca2+-dependent CPK2/CPK20 regulation of the anion channel SLAH3 to regulate PT growth. PMID:24280384

  13. Studies of anions sorption on natural zeolites.

    PubMed

    Barczyk, K; Mozgawa, W; Król, M

    2014-12-10

    This work presents results of FT-IR spectroscopic studies of anions-chromate, phosphate and arsenate - sorbed from aqueous solutions (different concentrations of anions) on zeolites. The sorption has been conducted on natural zeolites from different structural groups, i.e. chabazite, mordenite, ferrierite and clinoptilolite. The Na-forms of sorbents were exchanged with hexadecyltrimethylammonium cations (HDTMA(+)) and organo-zeolites were obtained. External cation exchange capacities (ECEC) of organo-zeolites were measured. Their values are 17mmol/100g for chabazite, 4mmol/100g for mordenite and ferrierite and 10mmol/100g for clinoptilolite. The used initial inputs of HDTMA correspond to 100% and 200% ECEC of the minerals. Organo-modificated sorbents were subsequently used for immobilization of mentioned anions. It was proven that aforementioned anions' sorption causes changes in IR spectra of the HDTMA-zeolites. These alterations are dependent on the kind of anions that were sorbed. In all cases, variations are due to bands corresponding to the characteristic Si-O(Si,Al) vibrations (occurring in alumino- and silicooxygen tetrahedra building spatial framework of zeolites). Alkylammonium surfactant vibrations have also been observed. Systematic changes in the spectra connected with the anion concentration in the initial solution have been revealed. The amounts of sorbed CrO4(2-), AsO4(3-) and PO4(3-) ions were calculated from the difference between their concentrations in solutions before (initial concentration) and after (equilibrium concentration) sorption experiments. Concentrations of anions were determined by spectrophotometric method. PMID:25002191

  14. ANNUAL REPORT. SUPRAMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY OF SELECTIVE ANION RECOGNITION FOR ANIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL RELEVANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project involves the design and synthesis of receptors for anions of environmental importance, including emphasis on high level and low activity waste. Polyammonium macrocycles as receptors and nitrate as target anion were the focus of the first phase of this project. A seco...

  15. Supramolecular Chemistry of Selective Anion Recognition for Anions of Environmental Relevance

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman-James, K.; Wilson, G.; Moyer, B. A.

    2004-12-11

    This project involves the design and synthesis of receptors for oxoanions of environmental importance, including emphasis on high level and low activity waste. Target anions have included primarily oxoanions and a study of the basic concepts behind selective binding of target anions. A primary target has been sulfate because of its deleterious influence on the vitrification of tank wastes

  16. Supramolecular Chemistry of Selective Anion Recognition for Anions of Environmental Relevance

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman-James, Kristen

    2004-12-01

    This project have focuses on the basic chemical aspects of anion receptor design of functional pH independent systems, with the ultimate goal of targeting the selective binding of sulfate, as well as design of separations strategies for selective and efficient removal of targeted anions. Key findings include: (1) the first synthetic sulfate-selective anion-binding agents; (2) simple, structure-based methods for modifying the intrinsic anion selectivity of a given class of anion receptors; and (3) the first system capable of extracting sulfate anion from acidic, nitrate-containing aqueous media. Areas probed during the last funding period include: the design, synthesis, and physical and structural characterization of receptors and investigation of anion and dual ion pair extraction using lipophilic amide receptors for anion binding. A new collaboration has been added to the project in addition to the one with Dr. Bruce Moyer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with Professor Jonathan Sessler at the University of Texas at Austin.

  17. Correction of the anion gap for albumin in order to detect occult tissue anions in shock

    PubMed Central

    Hatherill, M; Waggie, Z; Purves, L; Reynolds, L; Argent, A

    2002-01-01

    Background: It is believed that hypoalbuminaemia confounds interpretation of the anion gap (AG) unless corrected for serum albumin in critically ill children with shock. Aim: To compare the ability of the AG and the albumin corrected anion gap (CAG) to detect the presence of occult tissue anions. Methods: Prospective observational study in children with shock in a 22 bed multidisciplinary paediatric intensive care unit of a university childrenrsquo;s hospital. Blood was sampled at admission and at 24 hours, for acid-base parameters, serum albumin, and electrolytes. Occult tissue anions (lactate + truly "unmeasured" anions) were calculated from the strong ion gap. The anion gap ((Na + K) - (Cl + bicarbonate)) was corrected for serum albumin using the equation of Figge: AG + (0.25 x (44 - albumin)). Occult tissue anions (TA) predicted by the anion gap were calculated by (anion gap - 15 mEq/l). Optimal cut off values of anion gap were compared by means of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Ninety three sets of data from 55 children (median age 7 months, median weight 4.9 kg) were analysed. Data are expressed as mean (SD), and mean bias (limits of agreement). Results: The incidence of hypoalbuminaemia was 76% (n = 42/55). Mean serum albumin was 25 g/l (SD 8). Mean AG was 15.0 mEq/l (SD 6.1), compared to the CAG of 19.9 mEq/l (SD 6.6). Mean TA was 10.2 mmol/l (SD 6.3). The AG underestimated TA with mean bias 10.2 mmol/l (4.1–16.1), compared to the CAG, mean bias 5.3 mmol/l (0.4–10.2). A clinically significant increase of TA >5 mmol/l was present in 83% (n = 77/93) of samples, of which the AG detected 48% (n = 36/77), and the CAG 87% (n = 67/77). Post hoc ROC analysis revealed optimal cut off values for detection of TA >5 mmol/l to be AG >10 mEq/l, and CAG >15.5 mEq/l. Conclusion: Hypoalbuminaemia is common in critically ill children with shock, and is associated with a low observed anion gap that may fail to detect clinically significant amounts of

  18. Electron impact induced anion production in acetylene.

    PubMed

    Szymańska, Ewelina; Čadež, Iztok; Krishnakumar, E; Mason, Nigel J

    2014-02-28

    A detailed experimental investigation of electron induced anion production in acetylene, C2H2, in the energy range between 1 and 90 eV is presented. The anions are formed by two processes in this energy range: dissociative electron attachment (DEA) and dipolar dissociation (DD). DEA in C2H2 is found to lead to the formation of H(-) and C2(-)/C2H(-) through excitation of resonances in the electron energy range 1-15 eV. These anionic fragments are formed with super thermal kinetic energy and reveal no anisotropy in the angular distributions. DD in C2H2 leads to the formation of H(-), C(-)/CH(-) and C2(-)/C2H(-) with threshold energies of 15.7, 20.0 and 16.5 eV respectively. The measured anion yields have been used to calculate anion production rates for H(-), C(-)/CH(-) and C2(-)/C2H(-) in Titan's ionosphere. PMID:24343432

  19. Infrared spectroscopy of anionic hydrated fluorobenzenes

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Holger; Vogelhuber, Kristen M.; Weber, J. Mathias

    2007-09-21

    We investigate the structural motifs of anionic hydrated fluorobenzenes by infrared photodissociation spectroscopy and density functional theory. Our calculations show that all fluorobenzene anions under investigation are strongly distorted from the neutral planar molecular geometries. In the anions, different F atoms are no longer equivalent, providing structurally different binding sites for water molecules and giving rise to a multitude of low-lying isomers. The absorption bands for hexa- and pentafluorobenzene show that only one isomer for the respective monohydrate complexes is populated in our experiment. For C{sub 6}F{sub 6}{sup -}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O, we can assign these bands to an isomer where water forms a weak double ionic hydrogen bond with two F atoms in the ion, in accord with the results of Bowen et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 127, 014312 (2007), following paper.] The spectroscopic motif of the binary complexes changes slightly with decreasing fluorination of the aromatic anion. For dihydrated hexafluorobenzene anions, several isomers are populated in our experiments, some of which may be due to hydrogen bonding between water molecules.

  20. Highly Conductive Anion-Exchange Membranes from Microporous Tröger's Base Polymers.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengjin; Guo, Rui; Malpass-Evans, Richard; Carta, Mariolino; McKeown, Neil B; Guiver, Michael D; Wu, Liang; Xu, Tongwen

    2016-09-12

    The development of polymeric anion-exchange membranes (AEMs) combining high ion conductivity and long-term stability is a major challenge for materials chemistry. AEMs with regularly distributed fixed cationic groups, based on the formation of microporous polymers containing the V-shape rigid Tröger's base units, are reported for the first time. Despite their simple preparation, which involves only two synthetic steps using commercially available precursors, the polymers provide AEMs with exceptional hydroxide conductivity at relatively low ion-exchange capacity, as well as a high swelling resistance and chemical stability. An unprecedented hydroxide conductivity of 164.4 mS cm(-1) is obtained at a relatively a low ion-exchange capacity of 0.82 mmol g(-1) under optimal operating conditions. The exceptional anion conductivity appears related to the intrinsic microporosity of the charged polymer matrix, which facilitates rapid anion transport. PMID:27505421

  1. Infrared Spectroscopy of Hydrated Nitromethane Anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcum, Jesse C.; Weber, J. Mathias

    2009-06-01

    The hydration of molecular anions is still not as thoroughly explored as for atomic anions. We present IR spectra and quantum chemical calculations of hydrated nitromethane anions. In the monohydrate, the nitro group of the ion interacts with the water molecule via two hydrogen bonds, one from each O atom. This motif is partially conserved in the dihydrate. Adding the third water molecule results in a ring-like structure of the water ligands, each of which forms one H bond to one of the O atoms of the nitro group and another to a neighboring water ligand, reminiscent of the hydration motif of the heavier halides. Interestingly, while the methyl group is not directly involved in the interaction with the water ligands, its infrared signature is strongly affected by the changes in the intramolecular charge distribution through hydration.

  2. An anionic surfactant for EOR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagir, Muhammad; Tan, Isa M.; Mushtaq, Muhammad

    2014-10-01

    This work is to investigate the new anionic surfactants for the Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) application. Sulfonated anionic surfactant was produced by attaching SO3 to an ethoxylated alcohol to increase the performance of the surfactant. Methallyl chloride and ethoxylated alcohol was reacted followed by the reaction with sodium bisulfite to produce anionic sulfonated surfactant in 80.3 % yield. The sulfonation reaction parameters such as reactants mole ratio, reaction temperature and catalyst amount were optimized. The generation and stability of foam from the synthesized surfactant is also tested and results are reported. The synthesized novel surfactant was further investigated for the effect on the CO2 mobility in porous media and the findings are presented here. This in house developed surfactant has a great potential for CO2- EOR applications.

  3. Adsorbate-Induced Anchoring Transitions of Liquid Crystals on Surfaces Presenting Metal Salts with Mixed Anions

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Jacob T.; Abbott, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    We report that metal salts composed of mixtures of anions of differing coordination strength can be used to increase the sensitivity and selectivity of adsorbate-induced anchoring transitions of liquid crystals (LCs) supported on surfaces decorated with the metal salts. Specifically, the dynamics of anchoring transitions triggered by the adsorbate dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) on surfaces of aluminum (III) salts were analyzed within the framework of a model for mass transport to reveal that the sensitivity of a nitrile-containing nematic LC to DMMP increased from 250 parts-per- billion (ppb) to 25 ppb when the composition of the (counter) anion was changed from 100% perchlorate to 90% nitrate and 10% perchlorate (by mole percent). To provide insight into these observations, Polarization-Modulation Infrared Reflectance-Absorbance Spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) was used to show that the intensity of the absorption band in the IR spectrum corresponding to the coordinated state of the nitrile group (but not the position of the peak) decreased with increase in mole fraction of the strongly coordinating anion (nitrate) in the anion mixture, thus suggesting that the addition of the strongly coordinating anion decreased the number of coordination interactions (per unit area of the interface) but not the strength of the individual coordination interactions between the metal cation and the LC. We also measured the incorporation of the nitrate anion into the metal salt to decrease the effect of humidity on the dynamic response of the LC to DMMP, a result that is consistent with weaker interactions between the nitrate anion and water as compared to the perchlorate anion and water. Finally, the bidentate anion acetylacetonate was measured to cause a similar increase in sensitivity to DMMP when mixed with perchlorate in a 1:1 ratio (the resulting sensitivity of the system to DMMP was 100 ppb). Overall, these results suggest that tailoring the identity of the anion represents a

  4. Identification and characterization of anion binding sites in RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, Jeffrey S.; Chase, Elaine; Costantino, David A.; Golden, Barbara L.

    2010-05-24

    Although RNA molecules are highly negatively charged, anions have been observed bound to RNA in crystal structures. It has been proposed that anion binding sites found within isolated RNAs represent regions of the molecule that could be involved in intermolecular interactions, indicating potential contact points for negatively charged amino acids from proteins or phosphate groups from an RNA. Several types of anion binding sites have been cataloged based on available structures. However, currently there is no method for unambiguously assigning anions to crystallographic electron density, and this has precluded more detailed analysis of RNA-anion interaction motifs and their significance. We therefore soaked selenate into two different types of RNA crystals and used the anomalous signal from these anions to identify binding sites in these RNA molecules unambiguously. Examination of these sites and comparison with other suspected anion binding sites reveals features of anion binding motifs, and shows that selenate may be a useful tool for studying RNA-anion interactions.

  5. Electron anions and the glass transition temperature.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Lewis E; Sushko, Peter V; Tomota, Yudai; Hosono, Hideo

    2016-09-01

    Properties of glasses are typically controlled by judicious selection of the glass-forming and glass-modifying constituents. Through an experimental and computational study of the crystalline, molten, and amorphous [Ca12Al14O32](2+) ⋅ (e(-))2, we demonstrate that electron anions in this system behave as glass modifiers that strongly affect solidification dynamics, the glass transition temperature, and spectroscopic properties of the resultant amorphous material. The concentration of such electron anions is a consequential control parameter: It invokes materials evolution pathways and properties not available in conventional glasses, which opens a unique avenue in rational materials design. PMID:27559083

  6. Anionic polymerization of azo substituted methacrylates

    SciTech Connect

    Dimov, D.K.; Dalton, L.R.; Hogen-Esch, T.E.

    1993-12-31

    The anionic polymerization of 4-phenylazophenyl methacrylate (PAM) and 6-(4-phenylazophenoxy)-hexyl methacrylate (PAHM) initiated by {open_quotes}living{close_quotes} PMMA with lithium counterion was studied in THF at {minus}78{degrees}C. The polymerization of PAM was prevented by a side termination reaction. The polymerization of PAHM proceeded smoothly to furnish PMMA/azopolymer block copolymers. The process showed features typical of {open_quotes}living{close_quotes} anionic polymerization. No phase transitions could be detected by DSC to prove liquid crystalline mesophase formation by the block copolymers.

  7. Negative Ion Photoelectron Spectra of Halomethyl Anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelhuber, Kristen M.; Wren, Scott W.; McCoy, Anne B.; Ervin, Kent M.; Lineberger, W. Carl

    2009-06-01

    Halomethyl anions undergo a significant geometry change upon electron photodetachment, resulting in multiple extended vibrational progressions in the photoelectron spectra. The normal mode analysis that successfully models photoelectron spectra when geometry changes are modest is unable to reproduce the experimental data using physically reasonable parameters. A three-dimensional anharmonic coupled-mode analysis was employed to accurately reproduce the observed vibrational structure. We present the 364 nm negative ion photoelectron spectra of the halomethyl anions CHX_2^- and CDX_2^- (X = Cl, Br, I) and report electron affinities, vibrational frequencies, and geometries.

  8. Hofmeister effect of anions on calcium translocation by sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco; Moncelli, Maria Rosa; Peruzzi, Niccolò; Ninham, Barry W.; Dei, Luigi; Nostro, Pierandrea Lo

    2015-10-01

    The occurrence of Hofmeister (specific ion) effects in various membrane-related physiological processes is well documented. For example the effect of anions on the transport activity of the ion pump Na+, K+-ATPase has been investigated. Here we report on specific anion effects on the ATP-dependent Ca2+ translocation by the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA). Current measurements following ATP concentration jumps on SERCA-containing vesicles adsorbed on solid supported membranes were carried out in the presence of different potassium salts. We found that monovalent anions strongly interfere with ATP-induced Ca2+ translocation by SERCA, according to their increasing chaotropicity in the Hofmeister series. On the contrary, a significant increase in Ca2+ translocation was observed in the presence of sulphate. We suggest that the anions can affect the conformational transition between the phosphorylated intermediates E1P and E2P of the SERCA cycle. In particular, the stabilization of the E1P conformation by chaotropic anions seems to be related to their adsorption at the enzyme/water and/or at the membrane/water interface, while the more kosmotropic species affect SERCA conformation and functionality by modifying the hydration layers of the enzyme.

  9. Roles of Organic Acid Anion Secretion in Aluminium Tolerance of Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Chen, Li-Song

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the world's total land area and over 50% of the world's potential arable lands are acidic. Furthermore, the acidity of the soils is gradually increasing as a result of the environmental problems including some farming practices and acid rain. At mildly acidic or neutral soils, aluminium(Al) occurs primarily as insoluble deposits and is essentially biologically inactive. However, in many acidic soils throughout the tropics and subtropics, Al toxicity is a major factor limiting crop productivity. The Al-induced secretion of organic acid (OA) anions, mainly citrate, oxalate, and malate, from roots is the best documented mechanism of Al tolerance in higher plants. Increasing evidence shows that the Al-induced secretion of OA anions may be related to the following several factors, including (a) anion channels or transporters, (b) internal concentrations of OA anions in plant tissues, (d) temperature, (e) root plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, (f) magnesium (Mg), and (e) phosphorus (P). Genetically modified plants and cells with higher Al tolerance by overexpressing genes for the secretion and the biosynthesis of OA anions have been obtained. In addition, some aspects needed to be further studied are also discussed. PMID:23509687

  10. Roles of organic acid anion secretion in aluminium tolerance of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin-Tong; Qi, Yi-Ping; Jiang, Huan-Xin; Chen, Li-Song

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the world's total land area and over 50% of the world's potential arable lands are acidic. Furthermore, the acidity of the soils is gradually increasing as a result of the environmental problems including some farming practices and acid rain. At mildly acidic or neutral soils, aluminium (Al) occurs primarily as insoluble deposits and is essentially biologically inactive. However, in many acidic soils throughout the tropics and subtropics, Al toxicity is a major factor limiting crop productivity. The Al-induced secretion of organic acid (OA) anions, mainly citrate, oxalate, and malate, from roots is the best documented mechanism of Al tolerance in higher plants. Increasing evidence shows that the Al-induced secretion of OA anions may be related to the following several factors, including (a) anion channels or transporters, (b) internal concentrations of OA anions in plant tissues, (d) temperature, (e) root plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase, (f) magnesium (Mg), and (e) phosphorus (P). Genetically modified plants and cells with higher Al tolerance by overexpressing genes for the secretion and the biosynthesis of OA anions have been obtained. In addition, some aspects needed to be further studied are also discussed. PMID:23509687

  11. The properties, functions, and pathophysiology of maxi-anion channels.

    PubMed

    Sabirov, Ravshan Z; Merzlyak, Petr G; Islam, Md Rafiqul; Okada, Toshiaki; Okada, Yasunobu

    2016-03-01

    The maxi-anion channels (MACs) with a unitary conductance of 200-500 pS are detected in virtually every part of the whole body and found in cells from mammals to amphibia. The channels are normally silent but can be activated by physiologically/pathophysiologically relevant stimuli, such as osmotic, salt, metabolic, oxidative, and mechanical stresses, receptor activation, serum, heat, and intracellular Ca(2+) rise. In some MACs, protein dephosphorylation is associated with channel activation. Among MACs so far studied, around 60 % (designated here as Maxi-Cl) possess, in common, the following phenotypical biophysical properties: (1) unitary conductance of 300-400 pS, (2) a linear current-voltage relationship, (3) high anion-to-cation selectivity with PCl/Pcation of >8, and (4) inactivation at positive and negative potentials over a certain level (usually ±20 mV). The pore configuration of the Maxi-Cl is asymmetrical with extracellular and intracellular radii of ∼1.42 and ∼1.16 nm, respectively, and a medial constriction down to ∼0.55-0.75 nm. The classical function of MACs is control of membrane potential and fluid movement. Permeability to ATP and glutamate turns MACs to signaling channels in purinergic and glutamatergic signal transduction defining them as a perspective target for drug discovery. The molecular identification is an urgent task that would greatly promote the developments in this field. A possible relationship between these channels and some transporters is discussed. PMID:26733413

  12. Molecular biology of the anion exchanger gene family.

    PubMed

    Kopito, R R

    1990-01-01

    The gene family of anion exchangers consists of at least four or five members, of which three have been characterized at the cDNA level. AE1-3 encode polypeptides that share significant homology with the erythrocyte anion exchanger, band 3 (AE1). Expression of cDNAs encoding these genes in heterologous systems confirms that this sequence similarity is reflected in the capacity to mediate reversible Cl/HCO3 exchange. While the NH2-terminal domain of band 3 is known to interact with several cytoplasmic proteins in erythrocytes, the function of the analogous domains of AE2 and AE3 remains unknown. The AE1 gene is expressed coordinately with other erythroid genes during erythropoiesis in both avian and mammalian erythroid progenitor cells. In addition, AE1 is expressed at the basolateral plasma membrane of the acid-secreting intercalated cells of the kidney. AE2 is expressed in a number of epithelial and nonepithelial cells; it may be expressed in the Golgi apparatus of some of these cells. AE3 is expressed in excitable tissues, including neurons and muscle. It is likely that these proteins play a role in regulation of intracellular pH and chloride in their respective tissue. Understanding of the physiological roles of these proteins, both for ion transport and for plasma membrane organization, remains a central issue. PMID:2289848

  13. Energy and structure of bonds in the interaction of organic anions with layered double hydroxide nanosheets: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukanov, A. A.; Psakhie, S. G.

    2016-01-01

    The application of hybrid and hierarchical nanomaterials based on layered hydroxides and oxyhydroxides of metals is a swiftly progressing field in biomedicine. Layered double hydroxides (LDH) possess a large specific surface area, significant surface electric charge and biocompatibility. Their physical and structural properties enable them to adsorb various kinds of anionic species and to transport them into cells. However, possible side effects resulting from the interaction of LDH with anions of the intercellular and intracellular medium need to be considered, since such interaction can potentially disrupt ion transport, signaling processes, apoptosis, nutrition and proliferation of living cells. In the present paper molecular dynamics is used to determine the energies of interaction of organic anions (aspartic acid, glutamic acid and bicarbonate) with a fragment of layered double hydroxide Mg/Al-LDH. The average number of hydrogen bonds between the anions and the hydroxide surface and characteristic binding configurations are determined. Possible effects of LDH on the cell resulting from binding of protein fragments and replacement of native intracellular anions with delivered anions are considered.

  14. Energy and structure of bonds in the interaction of organic anions with layered double hydroxide nanosheets: A molecular dynamics study

    PubMed Central

    Tsukanov, A.A.; Psakhie, S.G.

    2016-01-01

    The application of hybrid and hierarchical nanomaterials based on layered hydroxides and oxyhydroxides of metals is a swiftly progressing field in biomedicine. Layered double hydroxides (LDH) possess a large specific surface area, significant surface electric charge and biocompatibility. Their physical and structural properties enable them to adsorb various kinds of anionic species and to transport them into cells. However, possible side effects resulting from the interaction of LDH with anions of the intercellular and intracellular medium need to be considered, since such interaction can potentially disrupt ion transport, signaling processes, apoptosis, nutrition and proliferation of living cells. In the present paper molecular dynamics is used to determine the energies of interaction of organic anions (aspartic acid, glutamic acid and bicarbonate) with a fragment of layered double hydroxide Mg/Al-LDH. The average number of hydrogen bonds between the anions and the hydroxide surface and characteristic binding configurations are determined. Possible effects of LDH on the cell resulting from binding of protein fragments and replacement of native intracellular anions with delivered anions are considered. PMID:26817816

  15. Energy and structure of bonds in the interaction of organic anions with layered double hydroxide nanosheets: A molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Tsukanov, A A; Psakhie, S G

    2016-01-01

    The application of hybrid and hierarchical nanomaterials based on layered hydroxides and oxyhydroxides of metals is a swiftly progressing field in biomedicine. Layered double hydroxides (LDH) possess a large specific surface area, significant surface electric charge and biocompatibility. Their physical and structural properties enable them to adsorb various kinds of anionic species and to transport them into cells. However, possible side effects resulting from the interaction of LDH with anions of the intercellular and intracellular medium need to be considered, since such interaction can potentially disrupt ion transport, signaling processes, apoptosis, nutrition and proliferation of living cells. In the present paper molecular dynamics is used to determine the energies of interaction of organic anions (aspartic acid, glutamic acid and bicarbonate) with a fragment of layered double hydroxide Mg/Al-LDH. The average number of hydrogen bonds between the anions and the hydroxide surface and characteristic binding configurations are determined. Possible effects of LDH on the cell resulting from binding of protein fragments and replacement of native intracellular anions with delivered anions are considered. PMID:26817816

  16. Photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical studies of anion-π interactions: binding strength and anion specificity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Bin; Sun, Zhen-Rong; Wang, Xue-Bin

    2015-02-01

    Proposed in theory and then their existence confirmed, anion-π interactions have been recognized as new and important non-covalent binding forces. Despite extensive theoretical studies, numerous crystal structural identifications, and a plethora of solution phase investigations, anion-π interaction strengths that are free from complications of condensed-phase environments have not been directly measured in the gas phase. Herein we present a joint photoelectron spectroscopic and theoretical study on this subject, in which tetraoxacalix[2]arene[2]triazine 1, an electron-deficient and cavity self-tunable macrocyclic, was used as a charge-neutral molecular host to probe its interactions with a series of anions with distinctly different shapes and charge states (spherical halides Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), linear thiocyanate SCN(-), trigonal planar nitrate NO3(-), pyramidic iodate IO3(-), and tetrahedral sulfate SO4(2-)). The binding energies of the resultant gaseous 1 : 1 complexes (1·Cl(-), 1·Br(-), 1·I(-), 1·SCN(-), 1·NO3(-), 1·IO3(-) and 1·SO4(2-)) were directly measured experimentally, exhibiting substantial non-covalent interactions with pronounced anion-specific effects. The binding strengths of Cl(-), NO3(-), IO3(-) with 1 are found to be strongest among all singly charged anions, amounting to ca. 30 kcal mol(-1), but only about 40% of that between 1 and SO4(2-). Quantum chemical calculations reveal that all the anions reside in the center of the cavity of 1 with an anion-π binding motif in the complexes' optimized structures, where 1 is seen to be able to self-regulate its cavity structure to accommodate anions of different geometries and three-dimensional shapes. Electron density surface and charge distribution analyses further support anion-π binding formation. The calculated binding energies of the anions and 1 nicely reproduce the experimentally estimated electron binding energy increase. This work illustrates that size-selective photoelectron

  17. Abscisic acid influx into human nucleated cells occurs through the anion exchanger AE2.

    PubMed

    Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Zocchi, Elena; Fresia, Chiara; Booz, Valeria; Guida, Lucrezia

    2016-06-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a hormone conserved from cyanobacteria to higher plants, where it regulates responses to environmental stimuli. ABA also plays a role in mammalian physiology, pointedly in inflammatory responses and in glycemic control. As the animal ABA receptor is on the intracellular side of the plasma membrane, a transporter is required for the hormone's action. Here we demonstrate that ABA transport in human nucleated cells occurs via the anion exchanger AE2. Together with the recent demonstration that ABA influx into human erythrocytes occurs via Band 3, this result identifies the AE family members as the mammalian ABA transporters. PMID:27015766

  18. Anion-conducting polymer, composition, and membrane

    DOEpatents

    Pivovar, Bryan S.; Thorn, David L.

    2011-11-22

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  19. Anion-conducting polymer, composition, and membrane

    DOEpatents

    Pivovar, Bryan S.; Thorn, David L.

    2010-12-07

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  20. Anion-conducting polymer, composition, and membrane

    DOEpatents

    Pivovar, Bryan S.; Thorn, David L.

    2009-09-01

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  1. Anion-Conducting Polymer, Composition, and Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Pivovar, Bryan S.; Thorn, David L.

    2008-10-21

    Anion-conducing polymers and membranes with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a polymer backbone with attached sulfonium, phosphazenium, phosphazene, and guanidinium residues. Compositions also with enhanced stability to aqueous alkali include a support embedded with sulfonium, phosphazenium, and guanidinium salts.

  2. Pharmacological characterization of volume-sensitive, taurine permeable anion channels in rat supraoptic glial cells

    PubMed Central

    Brès, Vanessa; Hurbin, Amandine; Duvoid, Anne; Orcel, Hélène; Moos, Françoise C; Rabié, Alain; Hussy, Nicolas

    2000-01-01

    To characterize the volume-sensitive, osmolyte permeable anion channels responsible for the osmodependent release of taurine from supraoptic nucleus (SON) astrocytes, we investigated the pharmacological properties of the [3H]-taurine efflux from acutely isolated SON.Taurine release induced by hypotonic stimulus (250 mosmol l−1) was not antagonized by the taurine transporter blocker guanidinoethyl sulphonate, confirming the lack of implication of the transporter.The osmodependent release of taurine was blocked by a variety of Cl− channel inhibitors with the order of potency: NPPB>niflumic acid>DPC>DIDS>ATP. On the other hand, release of taurine was only weakly affected by other compounds (dideoxyforskolin, 4-bromophenacyl bromide, mibefradil) known to block volume-activated anion channels in other cell preparations, and was completely insensitive to tamoxifen, a broad inhibitor of these channels.Although the molecular identity of volume-sensitive anion channels is not firmly established, a few genes have been postulated as potential candidates to encode such channels. We checked the expression in the SON of three of them, ClC3, phospholemman and VDAC1, and found that the transcripts of these genes are found in SON neurons, but not in astrocytes. Similar observation was previously reported for ClC2.In conclusion, the osmodependent taurine permeable channels of SON astrocytes display a particular pharmacological profile, suggesting the expression of a particular type or subtype of volume-sensitive anion channel, which is likely to be formed by yet unidentified proteins. PMID:10952690

  3. Pharmacological characterization of volume-sensitive, taurine permeable anion channels in rat supraoptic glial cells.

    PubMed

    Brès, V; Hurbin, A; Duvoid, A; Orcel, H; Moos, F C; Rabié, A; Hussy, N

    2000-08-01

    To characterize the volume-sensitive, osmolyte permeable anion channels responsible for the osmodependent release of taurine from supraoptic nucleus (SON) astrocytes, we investigated the pharmacological properties of the [(3)H]-taurine efflux from acutely isolated SON. Taurine release induced by hypotonic stimulus (250 mosmol l(-1)) was not antagonized by the taurine transporter blocker guanidinoethyl sulphonate, confirming the lack of implication of the transporter. The osmodependent release of taurine was blocked by a variety of Cl(-) channel inhibitors with the order of potency: NPPB>niflumic acid>DPC>DIDS>ATP. On the other hand, release of taurine was only weakly affected by other compounds (dideoxyforskolin, 4-bromophenacyl bromide, mibefradil) known to block volume-activated anion channels in other cell preparations, and was completely insensitive to tamoxifen, a broad inhibitor of these channels. Although the molecular identity of volume-sensitive anion channels is not firmly established, a few genes have been postulated as potential candidates to encode such channels. We checked the expression in the SON of three of them, ClC(3), phospholemman and VDAC(1), and found that the transcripts of these genes are found in SON neurons, but not in astrocytes. Similar observation was previously reported for ClC(2). In conclusion, the osmodependent taurine permeable channels of SON astrocytes display a particular pharmacological profile, suggesting the expression of a particular type or subtype of volume-sensitive anion channel, which is likely to be formed by yet unidentified proteins. PMID:10952690

  4. SUPRAMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY OF SELECTIVE ANION RECOGNITION FOR ANIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL RELEVANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The supramolecular chemistry of selective anion recognition by synthetic polyammonium macrocycles will be explored in a comprehensive, long term program designed to provide new solutions to problems critical to the environmental initiative of DOE. Highly shape- and charge selecti...

  5. Bipyrrole-Strapped Calix[4]pyrroles: Strong Anion Receptors That Extract the Sulfate Anion

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sung Kuk; Lee, Juhoon; Williams, Neil J; Lynch, Vincent M.; Hay, Benjamin; Moyer, Bruce A; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2014-01-01

    Cage-type calix[4]pyrroles 2 and 3 bearing two additional pyrrole groups on the strap have been synthesized. Compared with the parent calix[4]pyrrole (1), they were found to exhibit remarkably enhanced affinities for anions, including the sulfate anion (TBA+ salts), in organic media (CD2Cl2). This increase is ascribed to participation of the bipyrrole units in anion binding. Receptors 2 and 3 extract the hydrophilic sulfate anion (as the methyltrialkyl(C8-10)ammonium (A336+) salt)) from aqueous media into a chloroform phase with significantly improved efficiency (>10-fold relative to calix[4]pyrrole 1). These two receptors also solubilize into chloroform the otherwise insoluble sulfate salt, (TMA)2SO4 (tetramethylammonium sulfate).

  6. SLAC1 is required for plant guard cell S-type anion channel function in stomatal signalling

    PubMed Central

    Vahisalu, Triin; Kollist, Hannes; Wang, Yong-Fei; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Chan, Wai-Yin; Valerio, Gabriel; Lamminmäki, Airi; Brosché, Mikael; Moldau, Heino; Desikan, Radhika; Schroeder, Julian I.; Kangasjärvi, Jaakko

    2010-01-01

    Stomatal pores, formed by two surrounding guard cells in the epidermis of plant leaves, allow influx of atmospheric carbon dioxide in exchange for transpirational water loss. Stomata also restrict the entry of ozone—an important air pollutant that has an increasingly negative impact on crop yields, and thus global carbon fixation1 and climate change2. The aperture of stomatal pores is regulated by the transport of osmotically active ions and metabolites across guard cell membranes3,4. Despite the vital role of guard cells in controlling plant water loss3,4, ozone sensitivity1,2 and CO2 supply2,5–7, the genes encoding some of the main regulators of stomatal movements remain unknown. It has been proposed that guard cell anion channels function as important regulators of stomatal closure and are essential in mediating stomatal responses to physiological and stress stimuli3,4,8. However, the genes encoding membrane proteins that mediate guard cell anion efflux have not yet been identified. Here we report the mapping and characterization of an ozone-sensitive Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, slac1. We show that SLAC1 (SLOW ANION CHANNEL-ASSOCIATED 1) is preferentially expressed in guard cells and encodes a distant homologue of fungal and bacterial dicarboxylate/malic acid transport proteins. The plasma membrane protein SLAC1 is essential for stomatal closure in response to CO2, abscisic acid, ozone, light/dark transitions, humidity change, calcium ions, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide. Mutations in SLAC1 impair slow (S-type) anion channel currents that are activated by cytosolic Ca2+ and abscisic acid, but do not affect rapid (R-type) anion channel currents or Ca2+ channel function. A low homology of SLAC1 to bacterial and fungal organic acid transport proteins, and the permeability of S-type anion channels to malate9 suggest a vital role for SLAC1 in the function of S-type anion channels. PMID:18305484

  7. Supramolecular Chemistry of Selective Anion Recognition for Anions of Environmental Relevance

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan L. Sessler

    2007-09-21

    The major thrust of this project, led by the University of Kansas (Prof. Kristin Bowman-James), entails an exploration of the basic determinants of anion recognition and their application to the design, synthesis, and testing of novel sulfate extractants. A key scientific inspiration for the work comes from the need, codified in simple-to-appreciate terms by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory component of the team (viz. Dr. Bruce Moyer), for chemical entities that can help in the extractive removal of species that have low solubilities in borosilicate glass. Among such species, sulfate anion, has been identified as particularly insidious. Its presence interferes with the vitrification process, thus rendering the remediation of tank waste from, e.g., the Hanford site far more difficult and expensive. The availability of effective extractants, that would allow for the separation of separating sulfate from the major competing anions in the waste, especially nitrate, could allow for pre-vitrification removal of sulfate via liquid-liquid extraction. The efforts at The University of Texas, the subject of this report, have thus concentrated on the development of new sulfate receptors. These systems are designed to increase our basic understanding of anion recognition events and set the stage for the development of viable sulfate anion extractants. In conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) members of the research team, several of these new receptors were studied as putative extractants, with two of the systems being shown to act as promising synergists for anion exchange.

  8. Understanding and modeling removal of anionic organic contaminants (AOCs) by anion exchange resins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huichun; Shields, Anthony J; Jadbabaei, Nastaran; Nelson, Maurice; Pan, Bingjun; Suri, Rominder P S

    2014-07-01

    Ionic organic contaminants (OCs) are a growing concern for water treatment and the environment and are removed inefficiently by many existing technologies. This study examined removal of anionic OCs by anion exchange resins (AXRs) as a promising alternative. Results indicate that two polystyrene AXRs (IRA910 and IRA96) have higher sorption capacities and selectivity than a polyacrylate resin (A860). For the polystyrene resins, selectivity follows: phenolates ≥ aromatic dicarboxylates > aromatic monocarboxylates > benzenesulfonate > aliphatic carboxylates. This trend can be explained based on hydration energy, the number of exchange groups, and aromaticity and hydrophobicity of the nonpolar moiety (NPM) of the anions. For A860, selectivity only varies within a narrow range (0.13-1.64). Despite the importance of the NPM of the anions, neutral solutes were sorbed much less, indicating synergistic combinations of electrostatic and nonelectrostatic interactions in the overall sorption. By conducting multiple linear regression between Abraham's descriptors and nature log of selectivity, induced dipole-related interactions and electrostatic interactions were found to be the most important interaction forces for sorption of the anions, while solute H-bond basicity has a negative effect. A predictive model was then developed for carboxylates and phenolates based on the poly parameter linear free energy relationships established for a diverse range of 16 anions and 5 neutral solutes, and was validated by accurate prediction of sorption of five test solutes within a wide range of equilibrium concentrations and that of benzoate at different pH. PMID:24877792

  9. High Yield C-Derivatization of Weakly Coordinating Carborane Anions

    PubMed Central

    Nava, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    Unlike the “parent” carborane anion CHB11H11−, halogenated carborane anions such as CHB11H5Br6− can be readily C-functionalized in high yield and purity, enhancing their utility as weakly coordinating anions. PMID:20450167

  10. Reversible photochromism of an N-salicylidene aniline anion.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, Pierre-Loïc; Robeyns, Koen; Devillers, Michel; Garcia, Yann

    2014-01-21

    The first N-salicylidene aniline anion showing reversible solid state thermochromic and photochromic properties is described. The photo-isomerization involves a trans-keto form which is stabilized thanks to the local anion surrounding. This photochromic anion can be used as a guest for the preparation of hybrid materials by insertion into a cationic host matrix. PMID:24022381

  11. Evaluation of cation-anion interaction strength in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ana M; Rocha, Marisa A A; Freire, Mara G; Marrucho, Isabel M; Coutinho, João A P; Santos, Luís M N B F

    2011-04-14

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry with variable collision induced dissociation of the isolated [(cation)(2)anion](+) and/or [(anion)(2)cation](-) ions of imidazolium-, pyridinium-, pyrrolidinium-, and piperidinium-based ionic liquids (ILs) combined with a large set of anions, such as chloride, tetrafluoroborate, hexafluorophosphate, trifluoromethanesulfonate, and bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide, was used to carry out a systematic and comprehensive study on the ionic liquids relative interaction energies. The results are interpreted in terms of main influences derived from the structural characteristics of both anion and cation. On the basis of quantum chemical calculations, the effect of the anion upon the dissociation energies of the ionic liquid pair, and isolated [(cation)(2)anion](+) and/or [(anion)(2)cation](-) aggregates, were estimated and are in good agreement with the experimental data. Both experimental and computational results indicate an energetic differentiation between the cation and the anion to the ionic pair. Moreover, it was found that the quantum chemical calculations can describe the trend obtained for the electrostatic cation-anion attraction potential. The impact of the cation-anion interaction strengths in the surface tension of ionic liquids is further discussed. The surface tensions dependence on the cation alkyl chain length, and on the anion nature, follows an analogous pattern to that of the relative cation-anion interaction energies determined by mass spectrometry. PMID:21425809

  12. Ionic resistance and permselectivity tradeoffs in anion exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Geise, Geoffrey M; Hickner, Michael A; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-10-23

    Salinity gradient energy technologies, such as reverse electrodialysis (RED) and capacitive mixing based on Donnan potential (Capmix CDP), could help address the global need for noncarbon-based energy. Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) are a key component in these systems, and improved AEMs are needed in order to optimize and extend salinity gradient energy technologies. We measured ionic resistance and permselectivity properties of quaternary ammonium-functionalized AEMs based on poly(sulfone) and poly(phenylene oxide) polymer backbones and developed structure-property relationships between the transport properties and the water content and fixed charge concentration of the membranes. Ion transport and ion exclusion properties depend on the volume fraction of water in the polymer membrane, and the chemical nature of the polymer itself can influence fine-tuning of the transport properties to obtain membranes with other useful properties, such as chemical and dimensional stability. The ionic resistance of the AEMs considered in this study decreased by more than 3 orders of magnitude (i.e., from 3900 to 1.6 Ω m) and the permselectivity decreased by 6% (i.e., from 0.91 to 0.85) as the volume fraction of water in the polymer was varied by a factor of 3.8 (i.e., from 0.1 to 0.38). Water content was used to rationalize a tradeoff relationship between the permselectivity and ionic resistance of these AEMs whereby polymers with higher water content tend to have lower ionic resistance and lower permselectivity. The correlation of ion transport properties with water volume fraction and fixed charge concentration is discussed with emphasis on the importance of considering water volume fraction when interpreting ion transport data. PMID:24040962

  13. Anionic charge concentration of rat kidney glomeruli and glomerular basement membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Comper, W D; Lee, A S; Tay, M; Adal, Y

    1993-01-01

    Estimates of levels of glomerular and glomerular-basement-membrane anion charge should serve as useful quantitative markers for the integrity of the tissues in health and disease. We have developed a simple, rapid, technique to measure this charge through the use of ion exchange with radioisotopes 22Na+ and 36Cl- at low ionic strengths in phosphate buffer. When this technique is used, normal glomeruli isolated from rat have a measured net anion charge concentration of 17.4 +/- 3.7 p-equiv. per glomerulus (n = 20). Perfused rat kidneys that lose approximately half of their glomerular heparan [35S]sulphate content (owing to oxygen-radical damage) exhibited a lower anion charge, of 7.5 +/- 1.6 p-equiv. per glomerulus (n = 5). Glomerular basement membranes prepared from rat glomeruli by a sonication-centrifugation procedure in the presence of enzyme inhibitors had a charge concentration of 6.3 +/- 0.7 mu-equiv./g wet wt. of tissue (n = 4), whereas membranes prepared by sonication, centrifugation, DNAse and detergent treatment had a charge concentration of 7.1 +/- 1.6 mu-equiv./g wet wt. (n = 4). Isotope-dilution experiments with 3H2O on these detergent-prepared glomerular basement membranes demonstrated that they had a water content of approx. 93%, which would then give a net anion charge concentration of 7.6 +/- 1.7 m-equiv./l (n = 4). These values are in good agreement with those obtained by others using titration techniques [Bray and Robinson (1984) Kidney Int. 25, 527-533]. The relatively low magnitude of glomerular anion charge in normal kidneys is consistent with other recent findings that glomerular anion charge is too low to affect the glomerular transport of charged molecules in a direct, passive, biophysical manner through electrostatic interactions. PMID:8435064

  14. Measurement of the distribution of anion exchange function in normal human red cells.

    PubMed Central

    Raftos, J E; Bookchin, R M; Lew, V L

    1997-01-01

    1. The aim of the present work was to investigate cell-to-cell variation in anion exchange turnover in normal human red cells. Red cells permeabilized to protons and K+ dehydrate extremely rapidly by processes that are rate-limited by the induced K+ permeability or by anion exchange turnover. Conditions were designed to render dehydration rate-limited by anion exchange turnover. Cell-to-cell variation in anion exchange function could then be measured from the distribution of delay times required for dehydrating cells to attain resistance to haemolysis in a selected hypotonic medium. 2. Red cells were suspended at 10% haematocrit in a low-K+ solution and, after a brief preincubation with 20 microM SITS at 4 degrees C, were warmed to 24 degrees C, and the protonophore CCCP was added (20 microM) followed 2 min later by valinomycin (60 microM). Delay times for cells to become resistant to lysis were measured from the instant of valinomycin addition by sampling suspension aliquots into thirty volumes of 35 mM NaCl. After centrifugation the per cent lysis was estimated by measuring the haemoglobin concentration in the supernatant. Typical median delay times with this standardized method were 4-5 min. 3. The statistical parameters of the delay time distributions report the population spread in the transport function that was limiting to dehydration. In the absence of SITS and CCCP, dehydration was limited by the diffusional Cl- permeability (PCl). Delay time distributions for PCl- and anion exchange-limited dehydration were measured in red cells from three normal donors. For both distributions, the coefficients of variation ranged between 13.0 and 15.2%, indicating a high degree of uniformity in PCl and anion exchange function among individual red cells. PMID:9061637

  15. The chemistry of gold as an anion.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Martin

    2008-09-01

    Due to relativistic and classical shell structure effects, the 6s orbital of gold is significantly contracted and energetically stabilized. This is reflected by a strikingly high electron affinity, and a distinct tendency to adopt negatively polarized valence states. This tutorial review focuses on the chemistry of gold as an anion, displaying the integral ionic charge number of 1-. Two synthetic approaches to compounds containing monoatomic gold anions have become available: (1) reacting elemental gold with molten caesium and an oxide, e.g. Cs2O; (2) metathesis reactions involving Au- dissolved in liquid ammonia. Both procedures have proven to be rather versatile. Aurides synthesized along these routes are surveyed, in particular with respect to their structures and bonding properties. PMID:18762832

  16. Anion photoelectron spectroscopy of radicals and clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, Taylor R.

    1999-12-16

    Anion photoelectron spectroscopy is used to study free radicals and clusters. The low-lying {sup 2}{Sigma} and {sup 2}{Pi} states of C{sub 2n}H (n = 1--4) have been studied. The anion photoelectron spectra yielded electron affinities, term values, and vibrational frequencies for these combustion and astrophysically relevant species. Photoelectron angular distributions allowed the author to correctly assign the electronic symmetry of the ground and first excited states and to assess the degree of vibronic coupling in C{sub 2}H and C{sub 4}H. Other radicals studied include NCN and I{sub 3}. The author was able to observe the low-lying singlet and triplet states of NCN for the first time. Measurement of the electron affinity of I{sub 3} revealed that it has a bound ground state and attachment of an argon atom to this moiety enabled him to resolve the symmetric stretching progression.

  17. Specific anion effects in Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Lo Nostro, Pierandrea; Ninham, Barry W; Carretti, Emiliano; Dei, Luigi; Baglioni, Piero

    2015-09-01

    The specific anion effect on the vitality of Artemia salina was investigated by measuring the Lethal Time LT50 of the crustaceans in the presence of different sodium salts solutions at room temperature and at the same ionic strength as natural seawater. Fluoride, thiocyanate and perchlorate are the most toxic agents, while chloride, bromide and sulfate are well tolerated. The rates of oxygen consumption of brine shrimps were recorded in mixed NaCl+NaF or NaCl+NaSCN solutions as a function of time. The results are discussed in terms of the Hofmeister series, and suggest that, besides the biochemical processes that involve F(-), SCN(-) and ClO4(-), the different physico-chemical properties of the strong kosmotropic and chaotropic anions may contribute in determining their strong toxicity for A. salina. PMID:25978674

  18. Anion formation by neutral resonant ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, John S.

    2015-10-01

    A collision-radiation model of the cesium plasma that forms within a pitted or recessed sample in a Middleton-type sputter ion source showed that excited states of Cs formed. These excited states of neutral Cs undergo resonant electron transfer with neutral sputtered atoms of AMS samples to produce the accelerated anions. Numerous reported effects from over 30 years are readily explained by this mechanism, including several that puzzled Middleton.

  19. Cooling dynamics of carbon cluster anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiromaru, H.; Furukawa, T.; Ito, G.; Kono, N.; Tanuma, H.; Matsumoto, J.; Goto, M.; Majima, T.; Sundén, A. E. K.; Najafian, K.; Pettersson, M. S.; Dynefors, B.; Hansen, K.; Azuma, T.

    2015-09-01

    A series of ion storage experiments on small carbon cluster anions was conducted to understand size-dependent cooling processes. The laser-induced delayed electron detachment time profile show clear even/odd alternation due to the presence of the electronic cooling. The time evolution of the internal energy distribution was simulated for Cn- (n=4 to 7) with a common procedure taking vibrational and electronic cooling into account.

  20. Lowest autodetachment state of the water anion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houfek, Karel; Čížek, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The potential energy surface of the ground state of the water anion H2O- is carefully mapped using multireference CI calculations for a large range of molecular geometries. Particular attention is paid to a consistent description of both the O-+H2 and OH-+H asymptotes and to a relative position of the anion energy to the ground state energy of the neutral molecule. The autodetachment region, where the anion state crosses to the electronic continuum is identified. The local minimum in the direction of the O- + H2 channel previously reported by Werner et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 87, 2913 (1987)] is found to be slighly off the linear geometry and is separated by a saddle from the autodetachment region. The autodetachment region is directly accessible from the OH-+H asymptote. For the molecular geometries in the autodetachment region and in its vicinity we also performed fixed-nuclei electron-molecule scattering calculations using the R-matrix method. Tuning of consistency of a description of the correlation energy in both the multireference CI and R-matrix calculations is discussed. Two models of the correlation energy within the R-matrix method that are consistent with the quantum chemistry calculations are found. Both models yield scattering quantities in a close agreement. The results of this work will allow a consistent formulation of the nonlocal resonance model of the water anion in a future publication. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.

  1. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xiao-Oing; McBreen, James

    1998-08-04

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

  2. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.O.; McBreen, J.

    1998-08-04

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

  3. Effect of anionic amphophiles on erythrocyte properties.

    PubMed

    McMillan, D E; Utterback, N G; Wujek, J J

    1983-01-01

    This preliminary study describes effects of two pharmacologic agents on erythrocyte behavior. Increased erythrocyte aggregation has been proposed as important in the pathogenesis of a number of disorders, but the exact mechanism by which it plays a role in disease production remains unclear. Several anionic amphophiles have been reported to benefit diabetic vascular disease and atherosclerosis. If anionic amphophiles enter the erythrocyte plasma membrane they can increase its negative charge, reducing the energy of attraction between red blood cells and diminishing erythrocyte aggregation. Erythrocytes were studied after suspension in phosphate-buffered saline containing dextran as an aggregation-promoting agent. A marginal reduction of the suspension's viscosity was found at low shear rate when 2,5- dihydroxybenzene sulfonate was added. Additionally, erythrocyte sedimentation rate was marginally influenced. Both dihydroxybenzene sulfonate and acetylsalicylate protected human erythrocytes from hemolysis at concentrations from 10(-3) to 10(-5) M. The removal of erythrocyte sialic acid using neuraminidase to reduce surface negative charge led to unequivocal interference with aggregation (MAI technique of CHIEN et al., J. Gen. Physiol., 1973) by both anionic amphophiles were studied. Dihydroxybenzene sulfonate and actylsalicylate reduced the aggregation propensity of sialic-free erythrocytes, suggesting that the effect on the low shear rate viscosity of sialic acid-containing erythrocytes, though modest, is real. PMID:6587820

  4. Electronically excited states of PANH anions.

    PubMed

    Theis, Mallory L; Candian, Alessandra; Tielens, Alexander G G M; Lee, Timothy J; Fortenberry, Ryan C

    2015-06-14

    The singly deprotonated anion derivatives of nitrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PANHs) are investigated for their electronically excited state properties. These include single deprotonation of the two unique arrangements of quinoline producing fourteen different isomers. This same procedure is also undertaken for single deprotonation of the three nitrogenation isomers of acridine and the three of pyrenidine. It is shown quantum chemically that the quinoline-class of PANH anion derivatives can only produce a candidate dipole-bound excited state each, a state defined as the interaction of an extra electron with the dipole moment of the corresponding neutral. However, the acridine- and pyrenidine-classes possess valence excited states as well as the possible dipole-bound excited states where the latter is only possible if the dipole moment is sufficiently large to retain the extra electron; the valence excitation is independent of the radical dipolar strength. As a result, the theoretical vertically computed electronic spectra of deprotonated PANH anion derivatives is fairly rich in the 1.5 eV to 2.5 eV range significantly opening the possibilities for these molecules to be applied to longer wavelength studies of visible and near-IR spectroscopy. Lastly, the study of these systems is also enhanced by the inclusion of informed orbital arrangements in a simply constructed basis set that is shown to be more complete and efficient than standard atom-centered functions. PMID:25975430

  5. Several hemicyanine dyes as fluorescence chemosensors for cyanide anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Muhan; Wang, Kangnan; Guan, Ruifang; Liu, Zhiqiang; Cao, Duxia; Wu, Qianqian; Shan, Yanyan; Xu, Yongxiao

    2016-05-01

    Four hemicyanine dyes as chemosensors for cyanide anions were synthesized easily. Their photophysical properties and recognition properties for cyanide anions were investigated. The results indicate that all the dyes can recognize cyanide anions with obvious color, absorption and fluorescence change. The recognition mechanism analysis basing on in situ 1H NMR and Job plot data indicates that to the compounds with hydroxyl group, the recognition mechanism is intramolecular hydrogen bonding interaction. However, to the compounds without hydroxyl group, cyanide anion is bonded to carbon-carbon double bond in conjugated bridge and induces N+ CH3 to neutral NCH3. Fluorescence of the compounds is almost quenched upon the addition of cyanide anions.

  6. The 2-Arsaethynolate Anion: Synthesis and Reactivity Towards Heteroallenes.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Alexander; Goicoechea, Jose M

    2016-07-18

    The synthesis and isolation of the 2-arsaethynolate anion, AsCO(-) , and its subsequent reactivity towards heteroallenes is reported. Reactions with ketenes and carbodiimides afford four-membered anionic heterocycles in formal [2+2] cycloaddition reactions. By contrast, reaction with an isocyanate yielded a 1,4,2-diazaarsolidine-3,5-dionide anion and the unprecedented cluster anions As10 (2-) and As12 (4-) . These preliminary reactivity studies hint at the enormous potential synthetic utility of this novel anion, which may be employed as an arsenide (As(-) ) source. PMID:27093942

  7. Phosphorylation of the vacuolar anion exchanger AtCLCa is required for the stomatal response to abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Wege, Stefanie; De Angeli, Alexis; Droillard, Marie-Jo; Kroniewicz, Laetitia; Merlot, Sylvain; Cornu, David; Gambale, Franco; Martinoia, Enrico; Barbier-Brygoo, Hélène; Thomine, Sébastien; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Filleur, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic anion/proton exchangers of the CLC (chloride channel) family mediate anion fluxes across intracellular membranes. The Arabidopsis thaliana anion/proton exchanger AtCLCa is involved in vacuolar accumulation of nitrate. We investigated the role of AtCLCa in leaf guard cells, a specialized plant epidermal cell that controls gas exchange and water loss through pores called stomata. We showed that AtCLCa not only fulfilled the expected role of accumulating anions in the vacuole during stomatal opening but also mediated anion release during stomatal closure in response to the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA). We found that this dual role resulted from a phosphorylation-dependent change in the activity of AtCLCa. The protein kinase OST1 (also known as SnRK2.6) is a key signaling player and central regulator in guard cells in response to ABA. Phosphorylation of Thr(38) in the amino-terminal cytoplasmic domain of AtCLCa by OST1 increased the outward anion fluxes across the vacuolar membrane, which are essential for stomatal closure. We provide evidence that bidirectional activities of an intracellular CLC exchanger are physiologically relevant and that phosphorylation regulates the transport mode of this exchanger. PMID:25005229

  8. Relationship between anion binding and anion permeability revealed by mutagenesis within the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel pore

    PubMed Central

    Linsdell, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Anion binding within the pores of wild-type and mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channels, expressed in two different mammalian cell lines, was assayed using patch clamp recording. Specifically, experiments measured both the conductance of different anions and the ability of other permeant anions to block Cl− permeation through the pore. Under symmetrical ionic conditions, wild-type CFTR channels showed the conductance sequence Cl− >NO3− >Br−≥formate >F− >SCN−≈ ClO4−. High SCN− conductance was not observed, nor was there an anomalous mole fraction effect of SCN− on conductance under the conditions used. Iodide currents could not be measured under symmetrical ionic conditions, but under bi-ionic conditions I− conductance appeared low. Chloride currents through CFTR channels were blocked by low concentrations (10 mM) of SCN−, I− and ClO4−, implying relatively tight binding of these anions within the pore. Two mutations in CFTR which alter the anion permeability sequence, F337S and T338A, also altered the anion conductance sequence. Furthermore, block by SCN−, I− and ClO4− were weakened in both mutants. Both these effects are consistent with altered anion binding within the pore. The effects of mutations on anion permeability and relative anion conductance suggested that, for most anions, increased permeability was associated with increased conductance. This indicates that the CFTR channel pore does not achieve its anion selectivity by selective anion binding within the mutated region. Instead, it is suggested that entry of anions into the region around F337 and T338 facilitates their passage through the pore. In wild-type CFTR channels, anion entry into this crucial pore region is probably dominated by anion hydration energies. PMID:11179391

  9. Relationship between anion binding and anion permeability revealed by mutagenesis within the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel pore.

    PubMed

    Linsdell, P

    2001-02-15

    1. Anion binding within the pores of wild-type and mutant cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channels, expressed in two different mammalian cell lines, was assayed using patch clamp recording. Specifically, experiments measured both the conductance of different anions and the ability of other permeant anions to block Cl- permeation through the pore. 2. Under symmetrical ionic conditions, wild-type CFTR channels showed the conductance sequence Cl- > NO3- > Br- > or = formate > F- > SCN- congruent to ClO4-. 3. High SCN- conductance was not observed, nor was there an anomalous mole fraction effect of SCN- on conductance under the conditions used. Iodide currents could not be measured under symmetrical ionic conditions, but under bi-ionic conditions I- conductance appeared low. 4. Chloride currents through CFTR channels were blocked by low concentrations (10 mM) of SCN-, I- and ClO4-, implying relatively tight binding of these anions within the pore. 5. Two mutations in CFTR which alter the anion permeability sequence, F337S and T338A, also altered the anion conductance sequence. Furthermore, block by SCN-, I- and ClO4- were weakened in both mutants. Both these effects are consistent with altered anion binding within the pore. 6. The effects of mutations on anion permeability and relative anion conductance suggested that, for most anions, increased permeability was associated with increased conductance. This indicates that the CFTR channel pore does not achieve its anion selectivity by selective anion binding within the mutated region. Instead, it is suggested that entry of anions into the region around F337 and T338 facilitates their passage through the pore. In wild-type CFTR channels, anion entry into this crucial pore region is probably dominated by anion hydration energies. PMID:11179391

  10. Hydroxy double salt anion exchange kinetics: effects of precursor structure and anion size.

    PubMed

    Kandare, Everson; Hossenlopp, Jeanne M

    2005-05-01

    (1)H NMR spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction have been used to explore the details of anion exchange reactions of two layered hydroxy double salts (HDSs), zinc copper hydroxy acetate (ZCA), nickel zinc hydroxy acetate (NZA), and a related layered material, zinc hydroxy acetate (ZHA), at room temperature (21-22 degrees C). Reactions that followed Avrami-Erofe'ev kinetics with respect to temporal profiles for acetate release, ZCA with butyrate (k = 1.7 x 10(-3) s(-1)), and octanoate (k = 0.79 x 10(-3) s(-1)) anions, as well as ZHA with octanoate (k = 2.6 x 10(-3) s(-1)), demonstrate that rate constants for acetate release are influenced by the exchange anion relative size as well as by the solid precursor structure/composition. The reaction of NZA with octanoate deviated from expected Avrami-Erofe'ev behavior, with evidence for an intermediate species in the solid phase that may influence the rate of acetate release into solution. The reaction of ZCA with formate anions exhibited a unique zeroth-order kinetics release of acetate, providing the possibility of developing tunable nanostructured anion release sources by use of variations in the size of the exchange species. PMID:16851994

  11. The benzene radical anion: A computationally demanding prototype for aromatic anions

    SciTech Connect

    Bazante, Alexandre P. Bartlett, Rodney J.; Davidson, E. R.

    2015-05-28

    The benzene radical anion is studied with ab initio coupled-cluster theory in large basis sets. Unlike the usual assumption, we find that, at the level of theory investigated, the minimum energy geometry is non-planar with tetrahedral distortion at two opposite carbon atoms. The anion is well known for its instability to auto-ionization which poses computational challenges to determine its properties. Despite the importance of the benzene radical anion, the considerable attention it has received in the literature so far has failed to address the details of its structure and shape-resonance character at a high level of theory. Here, we examine the dynamic Jahn-Teller effect and its impact on the anion potential energy surface. We find that a minimum energy geometry of C{sub 2} symmetry is located below one D{sub 2h} stationary point on a C{sub 2h} pseudo-rotation surface. The applicability of standard wave function methods to an unbound anion is assessed with the stabilization method. The isotropic hyperfine splitting constants (A{sub iso}) are computed and compared to data obtained from experimental electron spin resonance experiments. Satisfactory agreement with experiment is obtained with coupled-cluster theory and large basis sets such as cc-pCVQZ.

  12. The benzene radical anion: A computationally demanding prototype for aromatic anions.

    PubMed

    Bazante, Alexandre P; Davidson, E R; Bartlett, Rodney J

    2015-05-28

    The benzene radical anion is studied with ab initio coupled-cluster theory in large basis sets. Unlike the usual assumption, we find that, at the level of theory investigated, the minimum energy geometry is non-planar with tetrahedral distortion at two opposite carbon atoms. The anion is well known for its instability to auto-ionization which poses computational challenges to determine its properties. Despite the importance of the benzene radical anion, the considerable attention it has received in the literature so far has failed to address the details of its structure and shape-resonance character at a high level of theory. Here, we examine the dynamic Jahn-Teller effect and its impact on the anion potential energy surface. We find that a minimum energy geometry of C2 symmetry is located below one D2h stationary point on a C2h pseudo-rotation surface. The applicability of standard wave function methods to an unbound anion is assessed with the stabilization method. The isotropic hyperfine splitting constants (Aiso) are computed and compared to data obtained from experimental electron spin resonance experiments. Satisfactory agreement with experiment is obtained with coupled-cluster theory and large basis sets such as cc-pCVQZ. PMID:26026444

  13. Anion Chemistry On Titan: Probing the Destruction Mechanisms of Nitrile Anions by Interaction with Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabka, J.; Polášek, M.; Bradyová, M.; Flenerová, Z.; Obluková, M.; Ascenzi, D.; Vuitton, V.; Giuliani, A.; Nahon, L.; Milosavljevic, A.; Romanzin, C.; Alcaraz, C.

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this work is to study the interaction with VUV photons of mass-selected negative ions relevant for the understanding of Titan atmosphere. Characterization of their formation [1] and destruction rate is of fundamental importance for modeling Titan ionosphere chemistry and understanding the observations of heavy anions by the CAPS/ELS spectrometer on board of the CASSINI spacecraft. The objective here is to measure their transformation into smaller anions through photodissociation and their destruction through photodetachment. The parent anions CN- are produced from CH3CN in the APCI source of a commercial mass spectrometer LTQ XL (Thermo Scientific) [2,3] and reacted with HC3N in the trap to produce heavier anions through the CN-+ x HC3N(HC3N)yC2p+1 N-+ z HCN processes. These product anions are then mass-selected in the trap and irradiated with VUV photons (5-21 eV) from the DESIRS beamline. Their decay is followed as a function of irradiation time as illustrated in Figure 1.

  14. SLAH3-type anion channel expressed in poplar secretory epithelia operates in calcium kinase CPK-autonomous manner.

    PubMed

    Jaborsky, Mario; Maierhofer, Tobias; Olbrich, Andrea; Escalante-Pérez, María; Müller, Heike M; Simon, Judy; Krol, Elzbieta; Cuin, Tracey Ann; Fromm, Jörg; Ache, Peter; Geiger, Dietmar; Hedrich, Rainer

    2016-05-01

    Extrafloral nectaries secrete a sweet sugar cocktail that lures predator insects for protection from foraging herbivores. Apart from sugars and amino acids, the nectar contains the anions chloride and nitrate. Recent studies with Populus have identified a type of nectary covered by apical bipolar epidermal cells, reminiscent of the secretory brush border epithelium in animals. Border epithelia operate transepithelial anion transport, which is required for membrane potential and/or osmotic adjustment of the secretory cells. In search of anion transporters expressed in extrafloral nectaries, we identified PttSLAH3 (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides SLAC1 Homologue3), an anion channel of the SLAC/SLAH family. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, PttSLAH3 displayed the features of a voltage-dependent anion channel, permeable to both nitrate and chloride. In contrast to the Arabidopsis SLAC/SLAH family members, the poplar isoform PttSLAH3 is independent of phosphorylation activation by protein kinases. To understand the basis for the autonomous activity of the poplar SLAH3, we generated and expressed chimera between kinase-independent PttSLAH3 and kinase-dependent Arabidopsis AtSLAH3. We identified the N-terminal tail and, to a lesser extent, the C-terminal tail as responsible for PttSLAH3 kinase-(in)dependent action. This feature of PttSLAH3 may provide the secretory cell with a channel probably controlling long-term nectar secretion. PMID:26831448

  15. Human anion exchanger1 mutations and distal renal tubular acidosis.

    PubMed

    Yenchitsomanus, Pa-thai

    2003-09-01

    The human anion exchanger 1 (AE1 or SLC4A1) gene encodes anion exchanger 1 (or band 3) protein in erythrocytes and in alpha-intercalated cells of the kidney. Thus, AE1 mutations show pleiotrophic effects resulting in two distinct and seemingly unrelated defects, an erythrocyte abnormality and distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). Southeast Asian ovalocytosis (SAO), a well-known red blood cell (RBC) defect, which is widespread in Southeast Asian regions, is caused by AE1 mutation due to a deletion of 27 base pairs in codons 400-408 (delta400-408) leading to an in-frame 9 amino-acid loss in the protein. Co-existence of SAO and dRTA is usually not seen in the same individual. However, the two conditions can co-exist as the result of compound heterozygosities between delta400-408 and other mutations. The reported genotypes include delta400-408/G701D, delta400-408/R602H, delta400-408/deltaV850, and delta400-408/A858D. The presence of dRTA, with or without RBC abnormalities, may occur from homozygous or compound heterozygous conditions of recessive AE1 mutations (eg G701D/G701D, V488M/V488M, deltaV850/deltaV850, deltaV850/A858D, G701D/S773P) or heterozygous dominant AE1 mutations (eg R598H, R589C, R589S, S613F, R901X). Codon 589 of this gene seems to be a 'mutational hot-spot' since repeated mutations at this codon occurring in different ethnic groups and at least two de novo (R589H and R589C) mutations have been observed. Therefore, AE1 mutations can result in both recessive and dominant dRTA, possibly depending on the position of the amino acid change in the protein. As several mutant AE1 proteins still maintain a significant anion transport function but are defective in targeting to the cell surface, impaired intracellular trafficking of the mutant AE1 is an important molecular mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of dRTA associated with AE1 mutations. PMID:15115146

  16. Experimental alkali feldspar dissolution at 100 degree C by carboxylic acids and their anions

    SciTech Connect

    Stoessell, R.K. ); Pittman, E.D. )

    1990-05-01

    Feldspar dissolution will enhance sandstone porosity if the released aluminum can be transported away in the subsurface waters. Carboxylic acids have been proposed to provide hydrogen ions to promote dissolution and anions to complex aqueous aluminum to keep it in solution. However, the hydrogen ions should react quickly following acid generation in source beds, leaving monocarboxylic anions with lesser amounts of dicarboxylic acids and their anions on feldspar dissolution and the apparent complexing of aluminum in solution. Two-week dissolution experiments of alkali feldspar were run at 100{degree}C and 300 bars in acetic acid, oxalic acid, and sodium salt solutions of chloride, acetate, propionate, oxalate, and malonate. Extrapolation of the results, to reservoir conditions during sandstone diagenesis, implies that concentrations of aluminum-organic complexes are not significant for acetate and propionate and are possibly significant for oxalate and malonate, depending upon fluid compositions. Propionate appeared to inhibit feldspar dissolution and hence might decrease secondary porosity formation. Increases in aluminum concentrations in the presence of oxalic and acetic acid solutions appear to be due to enhanced dissolution kinetics and greater aluminum solubility under low-pH conditions. Such low-pH fluids are generally absent in subsurface reservoirs, making this an unlikely mechanism for enhancing porosity. Furthermore, the observed thermal instability of oxalate and malonate anions explains their general low concentrations in subsurface fluids which limits their aluminum complexing potential in reservoirs during late diagenesis.

  17. Susceptibility of antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-sensitive foodborne pathogens to acid anionic sanitizers.

    PubMed

    Lopes, J A

    1998-10-01

    Acid anionic sanitizers for treatment of fruits and vegetables were prepared using ingredients generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration or anionic surfactants and organic acid food additives. They met the regulatory definition as sanitizers by showing bactericidal efficacy of 99.999% in 30 s against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and Escherichia coli ATCC 11229. These sanitizers showed a broad spectrum of microbicidal activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotic-sensitive and resistant strains of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium were equally susceptible to these sanitizers. The acid anionic sanitizers showed microbicidal efficacy equal to that of hypochlorite against Aeromonas hydrophila, E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. typhimurium, and S. aureus. Unlike most other sanitizers, these agents do not covalently react with organic components of food; unlike cationic agents, they do not leave residues. The acid anionic sanitizers are prepared using stable, biodegradable, and nontoxic ingredients. Rapid microbicidal activity and the ease of storage, transportation, and use make these sanitizers an attractive alternative to hypochlorite for sanitizing fruits and vegetables. PMID:9798163

  18. How Phosphorylation and ATPase Activity Regulate Anion Flux though the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR).

    PubMed

    Zwick, Matthias; Esposito, Cinzia; Hellstern, Manuel; Seelig, Anna

    2016-07-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, ABCC7), mutations of which cause cystic fibrosis, belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family and works as a channel for small anions, such as chloride and bicarbonate. Anion channel activity is known to depend on phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and CFTR-ATPase activity. Whereas anion channel activity has been extensively investigated, phosphorylation and CFTR-ATPase activity are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the two processes can be measured in a label-free and non-invasive manner in real time in live cells, stably transfected with CFTR. This study reveals three key findings. (i) The major contribution (≥90%) to the total CFTR-related ATP hydrolysis rate is due to phosphorylation by PKA and the minor contribution (≤10%) to CFTR-ATPase activity. (ii) The mutant CFTR-E1371S that is still conductive, but defective in ATP hydrolysis, is not phosphorylated, suggesting that phosphorylation requires a functional nucleotide binding domain and occurs in the post-hydrolysis transition state. (iii) CFTR-ATPase activity is inversely related to CFTR anion flux. The present data are consistent with a model in which CFTR is in a closed conformation with two ATPs bound. The open conformation is induced by ATP hydrolysis and corresponds to the post-hydrolysis transition state that is stabilized by phosphorylation and binding of chloride channel potentiators. PMID:27226582

  19. Specific inhibition of the plasmodial surface anion channel by dantrolene.

    PubMed

    Lisk, Godfrey; Kang, Myungsa; Cohn, Jamieson V; Desai, Sanjay A

    2006-11-01

    The plasmodial surface anion channel (PSAC), induced on human erythrocytes by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is an important target for antimalarial drug development because it may contribute to parasite nutrient acquisition. However, known antagonists of this channel are quite nonspecific, inhibiting many other channels and carriers. This lack of specificity not only complicates drug development but also raises doubts about the exact role of PSAC in the well-known parasite-induced permeability changes. We recently identified a family of new PSAC antagonists structurally related to dantrolene, an antagonist of muscle Ca++ release channels. Here, we explored the mechanism of dantrolene's actions on parasite-induced permeability changes. We found that dantrolene inhibits the increased permeabilities of sorbitol, two amino acids, an organic cation, and hypoxanthine, suggesting a common pathway shared by these diverse solutes. It also produced parallel reductions in PSAC single-channel and whole-cell Cl- currents. In contrast to its effect on parasite-induced permeabilities, dantrolene had no measurable effect on five other classes of anion channels, allaying concerns of poor specificity inherent to other known antagonists. Our studies indicate that dantrolene binds PSAC at an extracellular site distinct from the pore, where it inhibits the conformational changes required for channel gating. Its affinity for this site depends on ionic strength, implicating electrostatic interactions in dantrolene binding. In addition to the potential therapeutic applications of its derivatives, dantrolene's specificity and its defined mechanism of action on PSAC make it a useful tool for transport studies of infected erythrocytes. PMID:16950925

  20. Optimized anion exchange membranes for vanadium redox flow batteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongyang; Hickner, Michael A; Agar, Ertan; Kumbur, E Caglan

    2013-08-14

    In order to understand the properties of low vanadium permeability anion exchange membranes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs), quaternary ammonium functionalized Radel (QA-Radel) membranes with three ion exchange capacities (IECs) from 1.7 to 2.4 mequiv g(-1) were synthesized and 55-60 μm thick membrane samples were evaluated for their transport properties and in-cell battery performance. The ionic conductivity and vanadium permeability of the membranes were investigated and correlated to the battery performance through measurements of Coulombic efficiency, voltage efficiency and energy efficiency in single cell tests, and capacity fade during cycling. Increasing the IEC of the QA-Radel membranes increased both the ionic conductivity and VO(2+) permeability. The 1.7 mequiv g(-1) IEC QA-Radel had the highest Coulombic efficiency and best cycling capacity maintenance in the VRFB, while the cell's voltage efficiency was limited by the membrane's low ionic conductivity. Increasing the IEC resulted in higher voltage efficiency for the 2.0 and 2.4 mequiv g(-1) samples, but the cells with these membranes displayed reduced Coulombic efficiency and faster capacity fade. The QA-Radel with an IEC of 2.0 mequiv g(-1) had the best balance of ionic conductivity and VO(2+) permeability, achieving a maximum power density of 218 mW cm(-2) which was higher than the maximum power density of a VRFB assembled with a Nafion N212 membrane in our system. While anion exchange membranes are under study for a variety of VRFB applications, this work demonstrates that the material parameters must be optimized to obtain the maximum cell performance. PMID:23799776

  1. Supramolecular chemistry of selective anion recognition for anions of environmental relevance. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman-James, K.; Wilson, G.S.; Kuczera, K.; Moyer, B.

    1998-06-01

    'This project has as its focus the design and synthesis of polyammonium macrocyclic receptors for oxoanions of environmental importance. The basic research aspects of this project involve: (1) synthesis (and the search for improved synthetic methods); (2) solid state structure determination and thermodynamics studies (to ascertain structural criteria for and strength of anion binding); and (3) molecular dynamics simulations (to assess solution characteristics of the interactions between anions and their receptors). Applications-oriented goals include the fabrication of more selective anion-selective electrodes and the use of these compounds in liquid-liquid separations. The latter goal comprises the subcontract with Dr. Bruce Moyer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This report summarizes work after 1 year and 7 months of a 3-year project. To date, the authors have focussed on the design and synthesis of selective receptors for nitrate and phosphate.'

  2. Expanded Porphyrin-Anion Supramolecular Assemblies: Environmentally Responsive Sensors for Organic Solvents and Anions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhan; Kim, Dong Sub; Lin, Chung-Yon; Zhang, Huacheng; Lammer, Aaron D; Lynch, Vincent M; Popov, Ilya; Miljanić, Ognjen Š; Anslyn, Eric V; Sessler, Jonathan L

    2015-06-24

    Porphyrins have been used frequently to construct supramolecular assemblies. In contrast, noncovalent ensembles derived from expanded porphyrins, larger congeners of naturally occurring tetrapyrrole macrocycles, are all but unknown. Here we report a series of expanded porphyrin-anion supramolecular assemblies. These systems display unique environmentally responsive behavior. Addition of polar organic solvents or common anions to the ensembles leads to either a visible color change, a change in the fluorescence emission features, or differences in solubility. The actual response, which could be followed easily by the naked eye, was found to depend on the specifics of the assembly, as well as the choice of analyte. Using the ensembles of this study, it proved possible to differentiate between common solvents, such as diethyl ether, THF, ethyl acetate, acetone, alcohol, acetonitrile, DMF, and DMSO, identify complex solvent systems, as well as distinguish between the fluoride, chloride, bromide, nitrate, and sulfate anions. PMID:25965790

  3. The nature of the link between potassium transport and phosphate transport in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, L M; Rosenberg, H

    1980-01-01

    A series of mutants of Escherichia coli, combining defects in either of the two phosphate transport systems with defects in one or more of the potassium transport systems, was used to study the nature of the previously observed obligatory requirement for each one of these ions in the transport of the other. The results show that no pair of systems is obligatorily linked, and that either ion can be transported by any one of its systems, provided that a means of entry for the other ion is available. Furthermore, in the total absence of Pi, K+ entry accompanies the transport of other anions, such as aspartate, glutamate, sn-glycero-3-phosphate and glucose 6-phosphate. The results indicate that Pi and the other anions enter by symport with protons, and that a simultaneous K+/H+ exchange, which would serve to maintain the intracellular pH, is responsible for the observed K+ 'symport' with these anions. PMID:6258560

  4. Antidiabetic and Renoprotective Effects of Cladophora glomerata Kützing Extract in Experimental Type 2 Diabetic Rats: A Potential Nutraceutical Product for Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Srimaroeng, Chutima; Ontawong, Atcharaporn; Saowakon, Naruwan; Vivithanaporn, Pornpun; Pongchaidecha, Anchalee; Amornlerdpison, Doungporn; Soodvilai, Sunhapas; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj

    2015-01-01

    Cladophora glomerata extract (CGE) has been shown to exhibit antigastric ulcer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hypotensive, and antioxidant activities. The present study investigated antidiabetic and renoprotective effects of CGE in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. The rats were induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin and supplemented daily with 1 g/kg BW of CGE for 12 weeks. The renal transport function was assessed by the uptake of para-aminohippurate mediated organic anion transporters 1 (Oat1) and 3 (Oat3), using renal cortical slices. These two transporters were known to be upregulated by insulin and PKCζ while they were downregulated by PKCα activation. Compared to T2DM, CGE supplemented rats had significantly improved hyperglycaemia, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and renal morphology. The baseline uptake of para-aminohippurate was not different among experimental groups and was correlated with Oat1 and 3 mRNA expressions. Nevertheless, while insulin-stimulated Oat1 and 3 functions in renal slices were blunted in T2DM rats, they were improved by CGE supplementation. The mechanism of CGE-restored insulin-stimulated Oat1 and 3 functions was clearly shown to be associated with upregulated PKCζ and downregulated PKCα expressions and activations. These findings indicate that CGE has antidiabetic effect and suggest it may prevent diabetic nephropathy through PKCs in a T2DM rat model. PMID:25883984

  5. Antidiabetic and renoprotective effects of Cladophora glomerata Kützing extract in experimental type 2 diabetic rats: a potential nutraceutical product for diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Srimaroeng, Chutima; Ontawong, Atcharaporn; Saowakon, Naruwan; Vivithanaporn, Pornpun; Pongchaidecha, Anchalee; Amornlerdpison, Doungporn; Soodvilai, Sunhapas; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj

    2015-01-01

    Cladophora glomerata extract (CGE) has been shown to exhibit antigastric ulcer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hypotensive, and antioxidant activities. The present study investigated antidiabetic and renoprotective effects of CGE in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. The rats were induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin and supplemented daily with 1 g/kg BW of CGE for 12 weeks. The renal transport function was assessed by the uptake of para-aminohippurate mediated organic anion transporters 1 (Oat1) and 3 (Oat3), using renal cortical slices. These two transporters were known to be upregulated by insulin and PKCζ while they were downregulated by PKCα activation. Compared to T2DM, CGE supplemented rats had significantly improved hyperglycaemia, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and renal morphology. The baseline uptake of para-aminohippurate was not different among experimental groups and was correlated with Oat1 and 3 mRNA expressions. Nevertheless, while insulin-stimulated Oat1 and 3 functions in renal slices were blunted in T2DM rats, they were improved by CGE supplementation. The mechanism of CGE-restored insulin-stimulated Oat1 and 3 functions was clearly shown to be associated with upregulated PKCζ and downregulated PKCα expressions and activations. These findings indicate that CGE has antidiabetic effect and suggest it may prevent diabetic nephropathy through PKCs in a T2DM rat model. PMID:25883984

  6. Probes for anionic cell surface detection

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Bradley D.

    2013-03-05

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally directed to compositions comprising a class of molecular probes for detecting the presence of anionic cell surfaces. Embodiments include compositions that are enriched for these compositions and preparations, particularly preparations suitable for use as laboratory/clinical reagents and diagnostic indicators, either alone or as part of a kit. An embodiment of the invention provides for a highly selective agent useful in the discernment and identification of dead or dying cells, such as apoptotic cells, in a relatively calcium-free environment. An embodiment of the invention provides a selective agent for the identification of bacteria in a mixed population of bacterial cells and nonbacterial cells.

  7. Mechanism of ochratoxin A transport in kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Sokol, P.P.; Ripich, G.; Holohan, P.D.; Ross, C.R.

    1988-08-01

    The effect of the fungal metabolite (mycotoxin) Ochratoxin A (OTA) on the transport of p-amino(/sup 3/H)hippurate (PAH), a prototypic organic anion, was examined in renal brush border (BBMV) and basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV). OTA was as effective an inhibitor of PAH uptake in both membranes as probenecid. The dose response curves for OTA in BBMV and BLMV gave IC50 values of 20 +/- 6 and 32 +/- 7 microM, respectively. The effect was specific since the transport of the organic cation N1-methylnicotinamide was not affected. The phenomenon of counterflow was studied to establish that OTA is translocated. OTA produced trans stimulation of PAH transport in both BBMV and BLMV, demonstrating that OTA is transported across both these membranes. The data suggest that OTA interacts with the PAH transport system in both BBMV and BLMV. We conclude that OTA transport in the kidney is mediated via the renal organic anion transport system.

  8. Effect of anionic surfactant concentration on the variable range hopping conduction in polypyrrole nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawal, Ishpal; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of charge transport in polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles prepared with different concentrations (5 to 30 mM) of anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) is reported. Transmission electron microscopy technique confirms the formation of PPy nanoparticles of sizes ˜52 to 28 nm under surfactant directed approach. The room temperature electrical conductivity of the prepared nanoparticles found to increase from 3 to 22 S/cm with surfactant concentration. The temperature dependent activation energy rules out the possibility of band conduction mechanism in the prepared PPy nanoparticles and thus the synthesized nanoparticles are analyzed under variable range hopping (VRH) model for conduction mechanism. The PPy nanoparticles, reduced with liquid ammonia, hold 3D VRH conduction mechanism for the charge transport. However, in the doped samples, some deviation from 3D VRH conduction behavior at higher temperatures (>150 K) has been observed. This may be attributed to the presence of anionic surfactant in these samples. The doping of anionic surfactant causes rise in conducting islands, which may lead to the change in the shape/distribution of density of states governed by Gaussian or exponential type near Fermi level.

  9. Effect of anionic surfactant concentration on the variable range hopping conduction in polypyrrole nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rawal, Ishpal; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2014-01-28

    The mechanism of charge transport in polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticles prepared with different concentrations (5 to 30 mM) of anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) is reported. Transmission electron microscopy technique confirms the formation of PPy nanoparticles of sizes ∼52 to 28 nm under surfactant directed approach. The room temperature electrical conductivity of the prepared nanoparticles found to increase from 3 to 22 S/cm with surfactant concentration. The temperature dependent activation energy rules out the possibility of band conduction mechanism in the prepared PPy nanoparticles and thus the synthesized nanoparticles are analyzed under variable range hopping (VRH) model for conduction mechanism. The PPy nanoparticles, reduced with liquid ammonia, hold 3D VRH conduction mechanism for the charge transport. However, in the doped samples, some deviation from 3D VRH conduction behavior at higher temperatures (>150 K) has been observed. This may be attributed to the presence of anionic surfactant in these samples. The doping of anionic surfactant causes rise in conducting islands, which may lead to the change in the shape/distribution of density of states governed by Gaussian or exponential type near Fermi level.

  10. Charge regulation enables anionic hydroxypropyl guar-borate adsorption onto anionic and cationic polystyrene latex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Pelton, Robert; Ketelson, Howard; Meadows, David

    2011-01-15

    Reported are adsorption isotherms for guar and hydroxypropyl guar (HPG), with and without the presence of borate ions, onto surfactant free anionic polystyrene latex. Guar and HPG formed adsorbed monolayers on the hydrophobic latex. The presence of borate ions converted the nonionic guar and HPG into an anionic polyelectrolyte. However, there was no measurable influence of bound borate ions on the adsorption of guar or HPG onto anionic, hydrophobic latex. To underscore the unusual behavior of HPG-borate, a sample of HPG was oxidized to introduce carboxyl groups, and the adsorption of the carboxylated HPG onto anionic polystyrene was measured. Unlike HPG-borate, oxidized HPG did not adsorb onto negative polystyrene latex at neutral pH because of electrostatic repulsion. To explain the adsorption of negative HPG-borate onto negative latex, we proposed that as HPG-borate segments approach the latex surface, the negative electrostatic potential near the latex surface induces the detachment of the labile borate groups from HPG. PMID:21030034

  11. PROGRESS REPORT. SUPRAMOLECULAR CHEMISTRY OF SELECTIVE ANION RECOGNITION FOR ANIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL RELEVANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project involves the design and synthesis of receptors for oxoanions of environmental importance and specifically those found in high level waste tanks. Polyammonium macrocycles as receptors and nitrate as anion were the focus of the first phase of this project. A second pha...

  12. Functional anion concept: effect of fluorine anion on hydrogen storage of sodium alanate.

    PubMed

    Yin, Li-Chang; Wang, Ping; Kang, Xiang-Dong; Sun, Cheng-Hua; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2007-03-28

    Doping NaAlH(4) with Ti-catalyst has produced a promising hydrogen storage system that can be reversibly operated at moderate temperature conditions. Of the various dopant precursors, TiCl(3) was well recognized due to its pronounced catalytic effect on the reversible dehydrogenation processes of sodium aluminium hydrides. Quite recently we experimentally found that TiF(3) was even better than TiCl(3) in terms of the critical hydrogen storage properties of the doped hydrides, in particular the dehydriding performance at Na(3)AlH(6)/NaH + Al step at moderate temperature. We present here the DFT calculation results of the TiF(3) or TiCl(3) doped Na(3)AlH(6). Our computational studies have demonstrated that F(-) and Cl(-) anions differ substantially from each other with regard to the state and function in the doped sodium aluminium hydride. In great contrast to the case of chloride doping where Cl(-) anion constitutes the "dead weight" NaCl, the fluoride doping results in a substitution of H(-) by F(-) anion in the hydride lattice and accordingly, a favorable thermodynamics adjustment. These results well explain the observed dehydriding performance associated with TiF(3)/TiCl(3)-doping. More significantly, the coupled computational and experimental efforts allow us to put forward a "functional anion" concept. This renews the current mechanism understanding in the catalytically enhanced sodium alanate. PMID:17356758

  13. Perspective: Electrospray photoelectron spectroscopy: From multiply-charged anions to ultracold anions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2015-07-28

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) has become an essential tool in chemical physics and physical chemistry for the production of novel molecular ions from solution samples for a variety of spectroscopic experiments. ESI was used to produce free multiply-charged anions (MCAs) for photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) in the late 1990 s, allowing many interesting properties of this class of exotic species to be investigated. Free MCAs are characterized by strong intramolecular Coulomb repulsions, which create a repulsive Coulomb barrier (RCB) for electron emission. The RCB endows many fascinating properties to MCAs, giving rise to meta-stable anions with negative electron binding energies. Recent development in the PES of MCAs includes photoelectron imaging to examine the influence of the RCB on the electron emission dynamics, pump-probe experiments to examine electron tunneling through the RCB, and isomer-specific experiments by coupling PES with ion mobility for biological MCAs. The development of a cryogenically cooled Paul trap has led to much better resolved PE spectra for MCAs by creating vibrationally cold anions from the room temperature ESI source. Recent advances in coupling the cryogenic Paul trap with PE imaging have allowed high-resolution PE spectra to be obtained for singly charged anions produced by ESI. In particular, the observation of dipole-bound excited states has made it possible to conduct vibrational autodetachment spectroscopy and resonant PES, which yield much richer vibrational spectroscopic information for dipolar free radicals than traditional PES. PMID:26233095

  14. Perspective: Electrospray photoelectron spectroscopy: From multiply-charged anions to ultracold anions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2015-07-28

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) has become an essential tool in chemical physics and physical chemistry for the production of novel molecular ions from solution samples for a variety of spectroscopic experiments. ESI was used to produce free multiply-charged anions (MCAs) for photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) in the late 1990 s, allowing many interesting properties of this class of exotic species to be investigated. Free MCAs are characterized by strong intramolecular Coulomb repulsions, which create a repulsive Coulomb barrier (RCB) for electron emission. The RCB endows many fascinating properties to MCAs, giving rise to meta-stable anions with negative electron binding energies. Recent development in the PES of MCAs includes photoelectron imaging to examine the influence of the RCB on the electron emission dynamics, pump-probe experiments to examine electron tunneling through the RCB, and isomer-specific experiments by coupling PES with ion mobility for biological MCAs. The development of a cryogenically cooled Paul trap has led to much better resolved PE spectra for MCAs by creating vibrationally cold anions from the room temperature ESI source. Recent advances in coupling the cryogenic Paul trap with PE imaging have allowed high-resolution PE spectra to be obtained for singly charged anions produced by ESI. In particular, the observation of dipole-bound excited states has made it possible to conduct vibrational autodetachment spectroscopy and resonant PES, which yield much richer vibrational spectroscopic information for dipolar free radicals than traditional PES.

  15. The chemistry of molecular anions in circumstellar sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agúndez, Marcelino; Cernicharo, José; Guélin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The detection of negatively charged molecules in the interstellar and circumstellar medium in the past four years has been one of the most impacting surprises in the area of molecular astrophysics. It has motivated the interest of astronomers, physicists, and chemists on the study of the spectroscopy, chemical kinetics, and prevalence of molecular anions in the different astronomical regions. Up to six different molecular anions have been discovered in space to date, the last one being the small ion CN-, which has been observed in the envelope of the carbon star IRC +10216 and which contrary to the other larger anions is not formed by electron attachment to CN, but through reactions of large carbon anions with nitrogen atoms. Here we briefly review the current status of our knowledge of the chemistry of molecular anions in space, with particular emphasis on the circumstellar source IRC +10216, which to date is the astronomical source harboring the largest variety of anions.

  16. Process for removing sulfate anions from waste water

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen, David N.; Galvan, Gloria J.; Hundley, Gary L.; Wright, John B.

    1997-01-01

    A liquid emulsion membrane process for removing sulfate anions from waste water is disclosed. The liquid emulsion membrane process includes the steps of: (a) providing a liquid emulsion formed from an aqueous strip solution and an organic phase that contains an extractant capable of removing sulfate anions from waste water; (b) dispersing the liquid emulsion in globule form into a quantity of waste water containing sulfate anions to allow the organic phase in each globule of the emulsion to extract and absorb sulfate anions from the waste water and (c) separating the emulsion including its organic phase and absorbed sulfate anions from the waste water to provide waste water containing substantially no sulfate anions.

  17. The chemistry of molecular anions in circumstellar sources

    SciTech Connect

    Agúndez, Marcelino; Cernicharo, José; Guélin, Michel

    2015-01-22

    The detection of negatively charged molecules in the interstellar and circumstellar medium in the past four years has been one of the most impacting surprises in the area of molecular astrophysics. It has motivated the interest of astronomers, physicists, and chemists on the study of the spectroscopy, chemical kinetics, and prevalence of molecular anions in the different astronomical regions. Up to six different molecular anions have been discovered in space to date, the last one being the small ion CN{sup −}, which has been observed in the envelope of the carbon star IRC +10216 and which contrary to the other larger anions is not formed by electron attachment to CN, but through reactions of large carbon anions with nitrogen atoms. Here we briefly review the current status of our knowledge of the chemistry of molecular anions in space, with particular emphasis on the circumstellar source IRC +10216, which to date is the astronomical source harboring the largest variety of anions.

  18. Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Theoretical Studies of Anion-pi Interactions: Binding Strength and Anion Specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Bin; Sun, Zhenrong; Wang, Xue B.

    2015-01-01

    Proposed in theory and confirmed to exist, anion–π interactions have been recognized as new and important non-covalent binding forces. Despite extensive theoretical studies, numerous crystal structural identifications, and a plethora of solution phase investigations, intrinsic anion–π interaction strengths that are free from complications of condensed phases’ environments, have not been directly measured in the gas phase. Herein we present a joint photoelectron spectroscopic and theoretical study on this subject, in which tetraoxacalix[2]arene[2]triazine 1, an electron-deficient and cavity self-tunable macrocyclic was used as a charge-neutral molecular host to probe its interactions with a series of anions with distinctly different shapes and charge states (spherical halides Cl⁻, Br⁻, I⁻, linear thiocyanate SCN⁻, trigonal planar nitrate NO₃⁻, pyramidic iodate IO₃⁻, and tetrahedral sulfate SO₄²⁻). The binding energies of the resultant gaseous 1:1 complexes (1•Cl⁻,1•Br⁻, 1•I⁻, 1•SCN⁻, 1•NO₃⁻, 1•IO₃⁻ and 1•SO₄²⁻) were directly measured experimentally, exhibiting substantial non-covalent interactions with pronounced anion specific effects. The binding strengths of Cl⁻, NO₃⁻, IO₃⁻ with 1 are found to be strongest among all singly charged anions, amounting to ca. 30 kcal/mol, but only about 40% of that between 1 and SO₄²⁻. Quantum chemical calculations reveal that all anions reside in the center of the cavity of 1 with anion–π binding motif in the complexes’ optimized structures, where 1 is seen to be able to self-regulate its cavity structure to accommodate anions of different geometries and three-dimensional shapes. Electron density surface and natural bond orbital charge distribution analysis further support anion–π binding formation. The calculated binding energies of the anions and 1 nicely reproduce the experimentally estimated electron binding energy increase. This work

  19. Preorganized anion traps for exploiting anion-π interactions: an experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Bretschneider, Anne; Andrada, Diego M; Dechert, Sebastian; Meyer, Steffen; Mata, Ricardo A; Meyer, Franc

    2013-12-01

    1,3-Bis(pentafluorophenyl-imino)isoindoline (A(F)) and 3,6-di-tert-butyl-1,8-bis(pentafluorophenyl)-9H-carbazole (B(F)) have been designed as preorganized anion receptors that exploit anion-π interactions, and their ability to bind chloride and bromide in various solvents has been evaluated. Both receptors A(F) and B(F) are neutral but provide a central NH hydrogen bond that directs the halide anion into a preorganized clamp of the two electron-deficient appended arenes. Crystal structures of host-guest complexes of A(F) with DMSO, Cl(-), or Br(-) (A(F):DMSO, A(F):Cl(-), and A(2)(F):Br(-)) reveal that in all cases the guest is located in the cleft between the perfluorinated flaps, but NMR spectroscopy shows a more complex situation in solution because of E,Z/Z,Z isomerism of the host. In the case of the more rigid receptor B(F), Job plots evidence 1:1 complex formation with Cl(-) and Br(-), and association constants up to 960 M(-1) have been determined depending on the solvent. Crystal structures of B(F) and B(F):DMSO visualize the distinct preorganization of the host for anion-π interactions. The reference compounds 1,3-bis(2-pyrimidylimino)isoindoline (A(N)) and 3,6-di-tert-butyl-1,8-diphenyl-9H-carbazole (B(H)), which lack the perfluorinated flaps, do not show any indication of anion binding under the same conditions. A detailed computational analysis of the receptors A(F) and B(F) and their host-guest complexes with Cl(-) or Br(-) was carried out to quantify the interactions in play. Local correlation methods were applied, allowing for a decomposition of the ring-anion interactions. The latter were found to contribute significantly to the stabilization of these complexes (about half of the total energy). Compounds A(F) and B(F) represent rare examples of neutral receptors that are well preorganized for exploiting anion-π interactions, and rare examples of receptors for which the individual contributions to the binding energy have been quantified. PMID

  20. Nanoheterostructure Cation Exchange: Anionic Framework Conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Prashant K.; Amirav, Lilac; Aloni, Shaul; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2010-05-11

    In ionic nanocrystals the cationic sub-lattice can be replaced with a different metal ion via a fast, simple, and reversible place-exchange, allowing post-synthetic modification of the composition of the nanocrystal, while preserving its size and shape. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that during such an exchange, the anionic framework of the crystal is preserved. When applied to nanoheterostructures, this phenomenon ensures that compositional interfaces within the heterostructure are conserved throughout the transformation. For instance, a morphology composed of a CdSe nanocrystal embedded in a CdS rod (CdSe/CdS) was exchanged to a PbSe/PbS nanorod via a Cu2Se/Cu2S structure. During every exchange cycle, the seed size and position within the nanorod were preserved, as evident by excitonic features, Z-contrast imaging, and elemental line-scans. Anionic framework conservation extends the domain of cation exchange to the design of more complex and unique nanostructures.

  1. An intracellular anion channel critical for pigmentation

    PubMed Central

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Escobar, Iliana E; Lefkovith, Ariel J; Marks, Michael S; Oancea, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular ion channels are essential regulators of organellar and cellular function, yet the molecular identity and physiological role of many of these channels remains elusive. In particular, no ion channel has been characterized in melanosomes, organelles that produce and store the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanosome function cause albinism, characterized by vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired retinal development, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. The most common form of albinism is caused by mutations in oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), a melanosome-specific transmembrane protein with unknown function. Here we used direct patch-clamp of skin and eye melanosomes to identify a novel chloride-selective anion conductance mediated by OCA2 and required for melanin production. Expression of OCA2 increases organelle pH, suggesting that the chloride channel might regulate melanin synthesis by modulating melanosome pH. Thus, a melanosomal anion channel that requires OCA2 is essential for skin and eye pigmentation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04543.001 PMID:25513726

  2. Anions in laser-induced plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabanov, S. V.; Gornushkin, I. B.

    2016-07-01

    The equation of state for plasmas containing negative atomic and molecular ions (anions) is modeled. The model is based on the assumption that all ionization processes and chemical reactions are at local thermal equilibrium and the Coulomb interaction in the plasma is described by the Debye-Hückel theory. In particular, the equation of state is obtained for plasmas containing the elements Ca, Cl, C, Si, N, and Ar. The equilibrium reaction constants are calculated using the latest experimental and ab initio data of spectroscopic constants for the molecules CaCl_2, CaCl, Cl_2, N_2, C_2, Si_2, CN, SiN, SiC, and their positive and negative ions. The model is applied to laser-induced plasmas (LIPs) by including the equation of state into a fluid dynamic numerical model based on the Navier-Stokes equations describing an expansion of LIP plumes into an ambient gas as a reactive viscous flow with radiative losses. In particular, the formation of anions Cl-, C-, Si-, {{Cl}}2^{ - }, {{Si}}2^{ - }, {{C}}2^{ - }, CN-, SiC-, and SiN- in LIPs is investigated in detail.

  3. Multiple-anion nonvolatile acetal (MANA) resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevremont, Jeffrey M.; Brainard, Robert L.; Reeves, Scott D.; Zhou, Xin; Nguyen, Thinh B.; Mackevich, Joseph F.; Anderson, Erik H.; Taylor, Gary N.

    2001-08-01

    New acetal or ketal blocking reagents were investigated for use in e-beam lithography and compared with the performance of ethyl vinyl either (EVE). Three blocking groups, (alpha) -Angelicalactone (AL), 6-methylene-5,6-benzo-1,4- dioxane (MBD), and MANA50 (an undisclosed blocking group used to show the potential of this chemistry) were reacted with poly(p-hydroxystyrene) (PHS) under acid catalyzed conditions to form AL-PHS, MBD-PHS, MANA50-PHS. The performance objectives pursued in the design of these new materials was to use acetal (ketal) chemistry to deliver wide process latitudes (e.g. good PED performance and minimal PEB sensitivity), use high molecular weight blocking groups to eliminate outgassing, and use the novel concept of multiple anions to deliver lithographic performance. These new materials are called Multiple Anion Nonvolatile Acetal (MANA) resists. Resists films were exposed with 50kV electrons, post exposure baked (PEB), and developed with 0.26 N TMAH. Resists prepared with the third blocking group, MANA50, gave contrast and imaging performance independent of PEB humidity and were relatively insensitive to PEB temperature and post exposure delay (PED). These resists gave the best resolution (90 nm) and profiles of all the materials tested, as well as showing no outgassing (as measured by film thickness loss).

  4. Anionic derivatives of uracil: fragmentation and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Cole, Callie A; Wang, Zhe-Chen; Snow, Theodore P; Bierbaum, Veronica M

    2014-09-01

    Uracil is an essential biomolecule for terrestrial life, yet its prebiotic formation mechanisms have proven elusive for decades. Meteorites have been shown to contain uracil and the interstellar abundance of aromatic species and nitrogen-containing molecules is well established, providing support for uracil's presence in the interstellar medium (ISM). The ion chemistry of uracil may provide clues to its prebiotic synthesis and role in the origin of life. The fragmentation of biomolecules provides valuable insights into their formation. Previous research focused primarily on the fragmentation and reactivity of cations derived from uracil. In this study, we explore deprotonated uracil-5-carboxylic acid and its anionic fragments to elucidate novel reagents of uracil formation and to characterize the reactivity of uracil's anionic derivatives. The structures of these fragments are identified through theoretical calculations, further fragmentation, experimental acidity bracketing, and reactivity with several detected and potential interstellar species (SO2, OCS, CS2, NO, N2O, CO, NH3, O2, and C2H4). Fragmentation is achieved through collision induced dissociation (CID) in a commercial ion trap mass spectrometer, and all reaction rate constants are measured using a modification of this instrument. Experimental data are supported by theoretical calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. Lastly, the astrochemical implications of the observed fragmentation and reaction processes are discussed. PMID:25036757

  5. Isobar Separator for Anions: Current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alary, Jean-François; Javahery, Gholamreza; Kieser, William; Zhao, Xiao-Lei; Litherland, Albert; Cousins, Lisa; Charles, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    The Isobar Separator for Anions (ISA) is an emerging separation technique of isobars applied first to the selective removal of 36S from 36Cl, achieving a relative suppression ratio of 6 orders of magnitude. Using a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) column incorporating low energy gas cells, this innovative technique enables the use of a wide range of low energy ion-molecule reactions and collisional-induced dissociation processes for suppressing specific atomic of molecular anions with a high degree of selectivity. Other elemental pairs (analyte/isobar) successfully separated at AMS level include Ca/K, Sr/(Y, Zr), Cs/Ba, Hf/W and Pu/U. In view of these initial successes, an effort to develop a version of the ISA that can be used as a robust technique for routine AMS analysis has been undertaken. We will discuss the detailed layout of a practical ISA and the functional requirements that a combined ISA/AMS should meet. These concepts are currently being integrated in a pre-commercial ISA system that will be installed soon at the newly established A.E. Lalonde Laboratory in Ottawa, Canada.

  6. Porating anion-responsive copolymeric gels.

    PubMed

    England, Dustin; Yan, Feng; Texter, John

    2013-09-24

    A polymerizable ionic liquid surfactant, 1-(11-acryloyloxyundecyl)-3-methylimidiazolium bromide (ILBr), was copolymerized with methyl methacrylate (MMA) in aqueous microemulsions at 30% (ILBr w/w) and various water to MMA ratios. The ternary phase diagram of the ILBr/MMA/water system was constructed at 25 and 60 °C. Homopolymers and copolymers of ILBr and MMA were produced by thermally initiated chain radical microemulsion polymerization at various compositions in bicontinuous and reverse microemulsion subdomains. Microemulsion polymerization reaction products varied from being gel-like to solid, and these materials were analyzed by thermal and scanning electron microscopy methods. Microemulsion polymerized materials were insoluble in all solvents tested, consistent with light cross-linking. Ion exchange between Br(-) and PF6(-) in these copolymeric materials resulted in the formation of open-cell porous structures in some of these materials, as was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Several compositions illustrate the capture of prepolymerization nanoscale structure by thermally initiated polymerization, expanding the domain of compositions exhibiting this feat and yet to be demonstrated in any other system. Regular cylindrical pores in interpenetrating ILBr-co-MMA and PMMA networks are produced by anion exchange in the absence of templates. A percolating cluster/bicontinuous transition is "captured" by SEM after using anion exchange to visualize the mixed cluster/pore morphology. Some design principles for achieving this capture and for obtaining stimuli responsive solvogels are articulated, and the importance of producing solvogels in capturing the nanoscale is highlighted. PMID:23968242

  7. An intracellular anion channel critical for pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Bellono, Nicholas W; Escobar, Iliana E; Lefkovith, Ariel J; Marks, Michael S; Oancea, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular ion channels are essential regulators of organellar and cellular function, yet the molecular identity and physiological role of many of these channels remains elusive. In particular, no ion channel has been characterized in melanosomes, organelles that produce and store the major mammalian pigment melanin. Defects in melanosome function cause albinism, characterized by vision and pigmentation deficits, impaired retinal development, and increased susceptibility to skin and eye cancers. The most common form of albinism is caused by mutations in oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), a melanosome-specific transmembrane protein with unknown function. Here we used direct patch-clamp of skin and eye melanosomes to identify a novel chloride-selective anion conductance mediated by OCA2 and required for melanin production. Expression of OCA2 increases organelle pH, suggesting that the chloride channel might regulate melanin synthesis by modulating melanosome pH. Thus, a melanosomal anion channel that requires OCA2 is essential for skin and eye pigmentation. PMID:25513726

  8. Advancements in Anion Exchange Membrane Cations

    SciTech Connect

    Sturgeon, Matthew R.; Long, Hai; Park, Andrew M.; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2015-10-15

    Anion-exchange membrane fuel cells (AME-FCs) are of increasingly popular interest as they enable the use of non-Pt fuel cell catalysts, the primary cost limitation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Benzyltrimethyl ammonium (BTMA) is the standard cation that has historically been utilized as the hydroxide conductor in AEMs. Herein we approach AEMs from two directions. First and foremost we study the stability of several different cations in a hydroxide solution at elevated temperatures. We specifically targeted BTMA and methoxy and nitro substituted BTMA. We've also studied the effects of adding an akyl spacer units between the ammonium cation and the phenyl group. In the second approach we use computational studies to predict stable ammonium cations, which are then synthesized and tested for stability. Our unique method to study cation stability in caustic conditions at elevated temperatures utilizes Teflon Parr reactors suitable for use under various temperatures and cation concentrations. NMR analysis was used to determine remaining cation concentrations at specific time points with GCMS analysis verifying product distribution. We then compare the experimental results with calculated modeling stabilities. Our studies show that the electron donating methoxy groups slightly increase stability (compared to that of BTMA), while the electron withdrawing nitro groups greatly decrease stability in base. These results give insight into possible linking strategies to be employed when tethering a BTMA like ammonium cation to a polymeric backbone; thus synthesizing an anion exchange membrane.

  9. Protein Camouflage: Supramolecular Anion Recognition by Ubiquitin.

    PubMed

    Mallon, Madeleine; Dutt, Som; Schrader, Thomas; Crowley, Peter B

    2016-04-15

    Progress in the field of bio-supramolecular chemistry, the bottom-up assembly of protein-ligand systems, relies on a detailed knowledge of molecular recognition. To address this issue, we have characterised complex formation between human ubiquitin (HUb) and four supramolecular anions. The ligands were: pyrenetetrasulfonic acid (4PSA), p-sulfonato-calix[4]arene (SCLX4), bisphosphate tweezers (CLR01) and meso-tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TPPS), which vary in net charge, size, shape and hydrophobicity. All four ligands induced significant changes in the HSQC spectrum of HUb. Chemical shift perturbations and line-broadening effects were used to identify binding sites and to quantify affinities. Supporting data were obtained from docking simulations. It was found that these weakly interacting ligands bind to extensive surface patches on HUb. A comparison of the data suggests some general indicators for the protein-binding specificity of supramolecular anions. Differences in binding were observed between the cavity-containing and planar ligands. The former had a preference for the arginine-rich, flexible C terminus of HUb. PMID:26818656

  10. Isatin phenylhydrazones: anion enhanced photochromic behaviour.

    PubMed

    Cigáň, M; Jakusová, K; Gáplovský, M; Filo, J; Donovalová, J; Gáplovský, A

    2015-11-01

    The photochemical properties of two basic easily synthesized isatin N(2)-phenylhydrazones were investigated. Contrary to the corresponding isatin N(2)-diphenylhydrazones, only Z-isomers were isolated from the reaction mixtures during the synthesis due to their stabilization by intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Although the presence of the C=N double bond creates conditions for the formation of a simple on-off photoswitch, the low photochemical quantum yield and particularly the low switching amplitude in absorbance hamper their photochromic applications. However, the addition of strongly basic anions to phenylhydrazone solutions leads to isatin NH group deprotonation and creates a new diazene T-type Vis-Vis photochromic system with sufficiently separated absorption maxima. Interestingly, although the thermally stable A-form is also photostable in ambient light, its irradiation with a stronger LED source leads to thermally unstable B-form formation which rapidly isomerizes back to the corresponding A-form. The process is reversible and switching cycles can be repeated in both directions. The important advantages of this two-component organic chromophore-inorganic anion photochromic system are its easy synthesis, easy handling due to its insensitivity to room light, easy further structural modification and reversibility. The corresponding photochemical quantum yield, however, remains relatively low (Φ ∼ 0.001). The theoretically calculated properties are in agreement with the obtained experimental results and support the proposed reaction mechanism. PMID:26412034

  11. Nonvalence correlation-bound anion states of spherical fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Voora, Vamsee K; Jordan, Kenneth D

    2014-08-13

    We present a one-electron model Hamiltonian for characterizing nonvalence correlation-bound anion states of fullerene molecules. These states are the finite system analogs of image potential states of metallic surfaces. The model potential accounts for both atomic and charge-flow polarization and is used to characterize the nonvalence correlation-bound anion states of the C60, (C60)2, C240, and C60@C240 fullerene systems. Although C60 is found to have a single (s-type) nonvalence correlation-bound anion state, the larger fullerenes are demonstrated to have multiple nonvalence correlation-bound anion states. PMID:24978808

  12. Identification and characterization of anion binding sites in RNA.

    PubMed

    Kieft, Jeffrey S; Chase, Elaine; Costantino, David A; Golden, Barbara L

    2010-06-01

    Although RNA molecules are highly negatively charged, anions have been observed bound to RNA in crystal structures. It has been proposed that anion binding sites found within isolated RNAs represent regions of the molecule that could be involved in intermolecular interactions, indicating potential contact points for negatively charged amino acids from proteins or phosphate groups from an RNA. Several types of anion binding sites have been cataloged based on available structures. However, currently there is no method for unambiguously assigning anions to crystallographic electron density, and this has precluded more detailed analysis of RNA-anion interaction motifs and their significance. We therefore soaked selenate into two different types of RNA crystals and used the anomalous signal from these anions to identify binding sites in these RNA molecules unambiguously. Examination of these sites and comparison with other suspected anion binding sites reveals features of anion binding motifs, and shows that selenate may be a useful tool for studying RNA-anion interactions. PMID:20410239

  13. Approach to the Patient With a Negative Anion Gap.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Michael

    2016-01-01

    When anion gap calculation generates a very small or negative number, an explanation must be sought. Sporadic (nonreproducible) measurement errors and systematic (reproducible) laboratory errors must be considered. If an error is ruled out, 2 general possibilities exist. A true anion gap reduction can be generated by either reduced concentrations of unmeasured anions such as albumin or increased concentrations of unmeasured cations such as magnesium, calcium, or lithium. This teaching case describes a patient with aspirin (salicylate) poisoning whose anion gap was markedly reduced (-47 mEq/L). The discussion systematically reviews the possibilities and provides the explanation for this unusual laboratory result. PMID:26363848

  14. Anion recognition by oligo-(thio)urea-based receptors.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chuandong; Zuo, Wei; Zhang, Dan; Yang, Xiao-Juan; Wu, Biao

    2016-07-26

    Oligo-(thio)ureas have proven to be a promising class of receptors that are widely applied in anion recognition. This article aims to present some recent progress in the construction of oligoureas and their anion coordination (recognition) chemistry. Typical examples of metal-coordination assisted and covalently connected oligo-(thio)urea receptors are summarized, with focus on geometry characteristics required for achieving complementary binding of a target anion. Special emphasis is given to ortho-phenylene-connected oligoureas in the application of anion binding and the self-assembly of important supramolecular architectures, including helicates, tetrahedral cages, and so on. PMID:27352298

  15. Purification Or Organic Acids Using Anion Exchange Chromatography.

    DOEpatents

    Ponnampalam; Elankovan

    2001-09-04

    Disclosed is a cost-effective method for purifying and acidifying carboxylic acids, including organic acids and amino acids. The method involves removing impurities by allowing the anionic form of the carboxylic acid to bind to an anion exchange column and washing the column. The carboxylic anion is displaced as carboxylic acid by washing the resin with a strong inorganic anion. This method is effective in removing organic carboxylic acids and amino acids from a variety of industrial sources, including fermentation broths, hydrolysates, and waste streams.

  16. Aluminum Zintl anion moieties within sodium aluminum clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Ganteför, Gerd; Bowen, Kit H. E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu; Schnöckel, Hansgeorg; Eichhorn, Bryan W.; Lee, Mal-Soon; Jena, P.; Kandalam, Anil K. E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu; Kiran, Boggavarapu E-mail: kiran@mcneese.edu

    2014-02-07

    Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have established that aluminum moieties within selected sodium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Sodium–aluminum cluster anions, Na{sub m}Al{sub n}{sup −}, were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on a select sub-set of stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for both cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra), and fragment molecular orbital based correlation diagrams.

  17. Aluminum Zintl anion moieties within sodium aluminum clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Ganteför, Gerd; Schnöckel, Hansgeorg; Eichhorn, Bryan W.; Lee, Mal-Soon; Jena, P.; Kandalam, Anil K.; Kiran, Boggavarapu; Bowen, Kit H.

    2014-02-01

    Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have established that aluminum moieties within selected sodium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Sodium-aluminum cluster anions, NamAln-, were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on a select sub-set of stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for both cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra), and fragment molecular orbital based correlation diagrams.

  18. Aluminum Zintl anion moieties within sodium aluminum clusters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haopeng; Zhang, Xinxing; Ko, Yeon Jae; Grubisic, Andrej; Li, Xiang; Ganteför, Gerd; Schnöckel, Hansgeorg; Eichhorn, Bryan W; Lee, Mal-Soon; Jena, P; Kandalam, Anil K; Kiran, Boggavarapu; Bowen, Kit H

    2014-02-01

    Through a synergetic combination of anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory based calculations, we have established that aluminum moieties within selected sodium-aluminum clusters are Zintl anions. Sodium-aluminum cluster anions, Na(m)Al(n)(-), were generated in a pulsed arc discharge source. After mass selection, their photoelectron spectra were measured by a magnetic bottle, electron energy analyzer. Calculations on a select sub-set of stoichiometries provided geometric structures and full charge analyses for both cluster anions and their neutral cluster counterparts, as well as photodetachment transition energies (stick spectra), and fragment molecular orbital based correlation diagrams. PMID:24511934

  19. Inhibition of nuclear waste solutions containing multiple aggressive anions

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, J.W.

    1988-05-01

    The inhibition of localized corrosion of carbon steel in caustic, high-level radioactive waste solutions was studied using cyclic potentiodynamic polarization scans supplemented by partially immersed coupon tests. The electrochemical tests provided a rapid and accurate means of determining the relationship between the minimum inhibitor requirements and the concentration of the aggressive anions in this system. Nitrate, sulfate, chloride, and fluoride were identified as aggressive anions; however, no synergistic effects were observed between these anions. This observation may have important theoretical implications because it tends to contradict the behavior of aggressive anions as predicted by existing theories for localized corrosion.

  20. Making a match for Valinomycin: steroidal scaffolds in the design of electroneutral, electrogenic anion carriers.

    PubMed

    Valkenier, Hennie; Davis, Anthony P

    2013-12-17

    The natural product Valinomycin is a well-known transmembrane cation carrier. Despite being uncharged, this molecule can extract potassium ions from water without counterions and ferry them through a membrane interior. Because it only transports positive ions, it is electrogenic, mediating a flow of charge across the membrane. Equivalent agents for anions would be valuable research tools and may have therapeutic applications, especially in the treatment of "channelopathies" such as cystic fibrosis. However, no such molecules have been found in nature. In this Account, we describe our research toward synthetic and rationally designed "anti-Valinomycins". As our core approach to this problem, we used the steroid nucleus, provided by cholic acid, as a scaffold for the assembly of anion receptors. By positioning H-bond donors on this framework, especially urea and thiourea groups in conformationally constrained axial positions, we created binding sites capable of exceptionally high affinities (up to 10(11) M(-1) for R4N(+)Cl(-) in chloroform). The extended hydrocarbon surface of the steroid helped to maintain compatibility with nonpolar media. When we tested these "cholapods" for chloride transport in vesicles, they provided the first evidence for electrogenic anion transport mediated by electroneutral organic carriers: in other words, they are the first authenticated anti-Valinomycins. They also proved active in live cells that we grew and assayed in an Ussing chamber. In subsequent work, we have shown that the cholapods can exhibit very high activities, with transport observed down to carrier/lipid ratios of 1:250,000. We also understand some of the effects of structure on the activity of these molecules. For example, in most cases, powerful transporters also act as powerful receptors. On the other hand, some modifications which favor binding do not promote transport. We gained functional advantages by cyclizing the cholapod architecture, which encloses the anion

  1. Mechanism of anion selectivity and stoichiometry of the Na+/I- symporter (NIS).

    PubMed

    Paroder-Belenitsky, Monika; Maestas, Matthew J; Dohán, Orsolya; Nicola, Juan Pablo; Reyna-Neyra, Andrea; Follenzi, Antonia; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Eskandari, Sepehr; Amzel, L Mario; Carrasco, Nancy

    2011-11-01

    I(-) uptake in the thyroid, the first step in thyroid hormone biosynthesis, is mediated by the Na(+)/I(-) symporter (NIS) with an electrogenic 2Na(+):1I(-) stoichiometry. We have obtained mechanistic information on NIS by characterizing the congenital I(-) transport defect-causing NIS mutant G93R. This mutant is targeted to the plasma membrane but is inactive. Substitutions at position 93 show that the longer the side chain of the neutral residue at this position, the higher the K(m) for the anion substrates. Unlike WT NIS, which mediates symport of Na(+) and the environmental pollutant perchlorate electroneutrally, G93T/N/Q/E/D NIS, strikingly, do it electrogenically with a 21 stoichiometry. Furthermore, G93E/Q NIS discriminate between anion substrates, a discovery with potential clinical relevance. A 3D homology model of NIS based on the structure of the bacterial Na(+)/galactose transporter identifies G93 as a critical player in the mechanism of the transporter: the changes from an outwardly to an inwardly open conformation during the transport cycle use G93 as a pivot. PMID:22011571

  2. Mechanism of anion selectivity and stoichiometry of the Na+/I- symporter (NIS)

    PubMed Central

    Paroder-Belenitsky, Monika; Maestas, Matthew J.; Dohán, Orsolya; Nicola, Juan Pablo; Reyna-Neyra, Andrea; Follenzi, Antonia; Dadachova, Ekaterina; Eskandari, Sepehr; Amzel, L. Mario; Carrasco, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    I- uptake in the thyroid, the first step in thyroid hormone biosynthesis, is mediated by the Na+/I- symporter (NIS) with an electrogenic 2Na+ : 1I- stoichiometry. We have obtained mechanistic information on NIS by characterizing the congenital I- transport defect-causing NIS mutant G93R. This mutant is targeted to the plasma membrane but is inactive. Substitutions at position 93 show that the longer the side chain of the neutral residue at this position, the higher the Km for the anion substrates. Unlike WT NIS, which mediates symport of Na+ and the environmental pollutant perchlorate electroneutrally, G93T/N/Q/E/D NIS, strikingly, do it electrogenically with a 2∶1 stoichiometry. Furthermore, G93E/Q NIS discriminate between anion substrates, a discovery with potential clinical relevance. A 3D homology model of NIS based on the structure of the bacterial Na+/galactose transporter identifies G93 as a critical player in the mechanism of the transporter: the changes from an outwardly to an inwardly open conformation during the transport cycle use G93 as a pivot. PMID:22011571

  3. Structural Design Criteria for Anion Hosts: Strategies for Achieving Anion Shape Recognition through the Complementary Placement of Urea Donor Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, Benjamin P.; Firman, Timothy K.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2005-02-16

    The arrangement of urea ligands about different shaped anions has been evaluated with electronic structure calculations. Geometries and binding energies are reported for urea complexes with Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, and ClO{sub 4}{sup -}. The results yield new insight into the nature of urea-anion interactions and provide structural criteria for the deliberate design of anion selective receptors containing two or more urea donor groups.

  4. Chromophore/protein and chromophore/anion interactions in halorhodopsin.

    PubMed Central

    Lanyi, J K; Zimányi, L; Nakanishi, K; Derguini, F; Okabe, M; Honig, B

    1988-01-01

    Halorhodopsin (HR), the light-driven chloride transport pigment of Halobacterium halobium, was bleached and reconstituted with retinal analogues with the pi electron system interrupted at different locations (dihydroretinals). The absorption maxima of the artificial pigments formed with the dihydroretinals are found to be very similar to those of the corresponding pigments formed by reconstitution of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and sensory rhodopsin (SR). This strongly suggests that the distribution of charges around the retinal is similar in all three bacterial rhodopsins. Comparison of the primary, and proposed secondary, structures for HR and BR reveal conserved asparagine (asp) and arginine (arg) residues, which are likely candidates for the ionizable amino acids that interact with the retinal. In a second set of experiments absorption shifts due to the binding of anions to Sites I and II in HR, reconstituted with different retinal analogues, were used to estimate the locations of these binding sites relative to the retinal. Site I is localized near the Schiff base, and Site II near the ionone ring. On the basis of these results a structural model for HR is proposed, which accounts for the spectroscopic properties of HR in terms of the three buried arg residues and two of the buried asp residues in the protein. PMID:3345330

  5. Separation of Fission Products Based on Ionic Liquids: Anion Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Huimin; Dai, Sheng; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2004-03-28

    The applications of ionic liquids (ILs) as new separation media have been actively investigated recently. The most commonly studied class of ILs for such applications is based on dialkyl imidazolium cations. In comparison with conventional molecular solvents, ILs exhibit enhanced distribution coefficients for a number of complexing neutral ligands in extraction of metal ions from aqueous solutions. The effect of the alkyl chain length of imidazolium cations on the distribution coefficients of solvent extraction using crown ethers was the subject of a number of the previous investigations. The distribution coefficients have been found to decrease with the alkyl chain length of the IL cations. This observation implies that the extraction process also involves the exchange of the IL cations with metal ions. The longer the alkyl chain lengths of the IL cations are, the more hydrophobic the IL cations are and the more difficult to be transported into aqueous phases via ion exchange. Accordingly, the ion-exchange process is another unique property of IL-based extractions involving charged species. Here, we report the investigation about the effect of the variation of IL anions on the solvent extraction of metal ions using crown ethers as extractants. The elucidation of different solvation effects involved in ionic liquids could lead to optimized separation media for these novel solvents.

  6. Simulations of zwitterionic and anionic phospholipid monolayers.

    PubMed

    Kaznessis, Yiannis N; Kim, Sangtae; Larson, Ronald G

    2002-04-01

    Results of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol monolayers at the air/water interface are presented. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine is zwitterionic and dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol is anionic at physiological pH. NaCl and CaCl2 water subphases are simulated. The simulations are carried out at different surface densities, and a simulation cell geometry is chosen that greatly facilitates the investigation of phospholipid monolayer properties. Ensemble average monolayer properties calculated from simulation are in agreement with experimental measurements. The dependence of the properties of the monolayers on the surface density, the type of the headgroup, and the ionic environment are explained in terms of atomistically detailed pair distribution functions and electron density profiles, demonstrating the strength of simulations in investigating complex, multicomponent systems of biological importance. PMID:11916834

  7. Advanced polymer chemistry of organometallic anions

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlin, R.M.; Abney, K.D.; Balaich, G.J.; Fino, S.A.

    1997-11-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of the project was to prepare and characterize new polymers incorporating cobalt dicarbollide. Specific goals were to prepare polymerizable cobalt dicarbollide monomers using the nucleophilic substitution route discovered in laboratories and to establish the reaction conditions required to form polymers from these complexes. This one-year project resulted in two publications (in press), and provided the foundation for further investigations into polymer synthesis and characterization using cobalt dicarbollide and other metallocarboranes. Interest in synthesizing organometallic polymers containing the cobalt bis(dicarbollide) anion is motivated by their possible application as cation exchange materials for the remediation of cesium-137 and strontium-90 from nuclear wastes.

  8. Anion selectivity and pumping mechanism of halorhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Otomo, J

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of the amino acid sequences in the A-B and B-C interhelical loop segments in all bacteriorhodopsins and halorhodopsins has shed light on the anion selectivity and pumping mechanism of halorhodopsin. The nucleotide sequences of two haloopsins from two new halobacterial strains, shark and port, have been determined, and shark halorhodopsin was functionally overexpressed in Halobacterium halobium. Although a series of six amino acid residues (EMPAGH) in the B-C interhelical loop segment was substituted by QMPPGH, all putative charged residues were conserved. It was also shown that His-95 mutants had lower pumping activity in low chloride concentrations. These results further support the hypothesis that His-95 is important in the halorhodopsin function. PMID:7662863

  9. Living anionic polymerization using a microfluidic reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, Kazunori; Chastek, Thomas Q.; Beers, Kathryn L.; Cavicchi, Kevin A.; Chun, Jaehun; Fasolka, Michael J.

    2009-02-01

    Living anionic polymerizations were conducted within aluminum-polyimide microfluidic devices. Polymerizations of styrene in cyclohexane were carried out at various conditions, including elevated temperature (60 °C) and high monomer concentration (42%, by volume). The reactions were safely maintained at a controlled temperature at all points in the reactor. Conducting these reactions in a batch reactor results in uncontrolled heat generation with potentially dangerous rises in pressure. Moreover, the microfluidic nature of these devices allows for flexible 2D designing of the flow channel. Four flow designs were examined (straight, periodically pinched, obtuse zigzag, and acute zigzag channels). The ability to use the channel pattern to increase the level of mixing throughout the reactor was evaluated. When moderately high molecular mass polymers with increased viscosity were made, the patterned channels produced polymers with narrower PDI, indicating that passive mixing arising from the channel design is improving the reaction conditions.

  10. Poly(phenylene)-based anion exchange membrane

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Michael; Cornelius, Christopher J.; Fujimoto, Cy H.

    2011-02-15

    A poly(phenylene) compound of copolymers that can be prepared with either random or multiblock structures where a first polymer has a repeat unit with a structure of four sequentially connected phenyl rings with a total of 2 pendant phenyl groups and 4 pendant tolyl groups and the second polymer has a repeat unit with a structure of four sequentially connected phenyl rings with a total of 6 pendant phenyl groups. The second polymer has chemical groups attached to some of the pendant phenyl groups selected from CH.sub.3, CH.sub.2Br, and CH.sub.2N(CH.sub.3).sub.3Br groups. When at least one group is CH.sub.2N(CH.sub.3).sub.3Br, the material functions as an anion exchange membrane.

  11. Structural evolution of small ruthenium cluster anions

    SciTech Connect

    Waldt, Eugen; Hehn, Anna-Sophia; Ahlrichs, Reinhart; Kappes, Manfred M.; Schooss, Detlef

    2015-01-14

    The structures of ruthenium cluster anions have been investigated using a combination of trapped ion electron diffraction and density functional theory computations in the size range from eight to twenty atoms. In this size range, three different structural motifs are found: Ru{sub 8}{sup −}–Ru{sub 12}{sup −} have simple cubic structures, Ru{sub 13}{sup −}–Ru{sub 16}{sup −} form double layered hexagonal structures, and larger clusters form close packed motifs. For Ru{sub 17}{sup −}, we find hexagonal close packed stacking, whereas octahedral structures occur for Ru{sub 18}{sup −}–Ru{sub 20}{sup −}. Our calculations also predict simple cubic structures for the smaller clusters Ru{sub 4}{sup −}–Ru{sub 7}{sup −}, which were not accessible to electron diffraction measurements.

  12. Gating mechanisms of a natural anion channelrhodopsin

    PubMed Central

    Sineshchekov, Oleg A.; Govorunova, Elena G.; Li, Hai; Spudich, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Anion channelrhodopsins (ACRs) are a class of light-gated channels recently identified in cryptophyte algae that provide unprecedented fast and powerful hyperpolarizing tools for optogenetics. Analysis of photocurrents generated by Guillardia theta ACR 1 (GtACR1) and its mutants in response to laser flashes showed that GtACR1 gating comprises two separate mechanisms with opposite dependencies on the membrane voltage and pH and involving different amino acid residues. The first mechanism, characterized by slow opening and fast closing of the channel, is regulated by Glu-68. Neutralization of this residue (the E68Q mutation) specifically suppressed this first mechanism, but did not eliminate it completely at high pH. Our data indicate the involvement of another, yet-unidentified pH-sensitive group X. Introducing a positive charge at the Glu-68 site (the E68R mutation) inverted the channel gating so that it was open in the dark and closed in the light, without altering its ion selectivity. The second mechanism, characterized by fast opening and slow closing of the channel, was not substantially affected by the E68Q mutation, but was controlled by Cys-102. The C102A mutation reduced the rate of channel closing by the second mechanism by ∼100-fold, whereas it had only a twofold effect on the rate of the first. The results show that anion conductance by ACRs has a fundamentally different structural basis than the relatively well studied conductance by cation channelrhodopsins (CCRs), not attributable to simply a modification of the CCR selectivity filter. PMID:26578767

  13. 8. VIEW OF GLOVE BOXES USED IN THE ANION EXCHANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF GLOVE BOXES USED IN THE ANION EXCHANGE PROCESS. THE ANION EXCHANGE PROCESS PURIFIED AND CONCENTRATED PLUTONIUM-BEARING NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS TO MAKE THEM ACCEPTABLE AS FEED FOR CONVERSION TO METAL. (6/20/60) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery & Fabrication Facility, North-central section of plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. Interaction between biphenols and anions: selective receptor for dihydrogenphosphate.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kazuaki; Nishiki, Makoto; Ohba, Yoshihiro

    2005-10-01

    Biphenol was shown to bind dihydrogenphosphate (H2PO4-) selectively over various other anions (MeCO2-, Cl-, Br-, I-, NO3-, HSO4-). The highly selectivity of biphenol toward dihydrogenphosphate is explained in terms of the basicity and shape of the guest anion. PMID:16205002

  15. An anion sensor based on an organic field effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Minami, Tsuyoshi; Minamiki, Tsukuru; Tokito, Shizuo

    2015-06-11

    We propose an organic field effect transistor (OFET)-based sensor design as a new and innovative platform for anion detection. OFETs could be fabricated on low-cost plastic film substrates using printing technologies, suggesting that OFETs can potentially be applied to practical supramolecular anion sensor devices in the near future. PMID:25966040

  16. Triflyloxy-substituted carboranes as useful weakly coordinating anions.

    PubMed

    Press, Loren P; McCulloch, Billy J; Gu, Weixing; Chen, Chun-Hsing; Foxman, Bruce M; Ozerov, Oleg V

    2015-09-25

    New carborane anions carrying one or three triflyloxy substituents are described. The mono-triflyloxy substituted carborane can be halogenated to give pentabromo and decachloro derivatives with preservation of the B-OTf linkage. The use of [HCB11Cl10OTf](-) as a weakly coordinating anion is demonstrated. PMID:26251850

  17. The Supramolecular Chemistry of Selective Anion Recognition for Anions of Environmental Relevance

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2004-12-01

    In this first year of funding, progress has been made towards the stated project goal of generating useful sulfate extractants. A new series of bispyrrole-pyridine sulfate anion receptors was discovered and found to show very high sulfate-to-nitrate selectivity, a key prerequisite to generating a useful extractant. Progress was made towards developing the synthetic methodology needed to solubilize this system and other known receptors prepared by project collaborator, Prof. Kristin Bowman-James.

  18. Extraction of monoclonal antibodies (IgG1) using anionic and anionic/nonionic reverse micelles.

    PubMed

    George, Daliya A; Stuckey, David C

    2010-01-01

    Purification schemes for antibody production based on affinity chromatography are trying to keep pace with increases in cell culture expression levels and many current research initiatives are focused on finding alternatives to chromatography for the purification of Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). In this article, we have investigated an alternative separation technique based on liquid-liquid extraction called the reverse micellar extraction. We extracted MAb (IgG1) using reverse micelles of an anionic surfactant, sodium bis 2-ethyl-hexyl sulfosuccinate (AOT) and a combination of anionic (AOT) and nonionic surfactants (Brij-30, Tween-85, Span-85) using isooctane as the solvent system. The extraction efficiency of IgG1 was studied by varying parameters, such as pH of the aqueous phase, cation concentration, and type and surfactant concentration. Using the AOT/Isooctane reverse micellar system, we could achieve good overall extraction of IgG1 (between 80 and 90%), but only 30% of the bioactivity of IgG1 could be recovered at the end of the extraction by using its binding to affinity chromatography columns as a surrogate measure of activity. As anionic surfactants were suspected as being one of the reasons for the reduced activity, we decided to combine a nonionic surfactant with an anionic surfactant and then study its effect on the extraction efficiency and bioactivity. The best results were obtained using an AOT/Brij-30/Isooctane reverse micellar system, which gave an overall extraction above 90 and 59% overall activity recovery. An AOT/Tween-85/Isooctane reverse micellar system gave an overall extraction of between 75 and 80% and overall activity recovery of around 40-45%. The results showed that the activity recovery of IgG1 can be significantly enhanced using different surfactant combination systems, and if the recovery of IgG1 can be further enhanced, the technique shows considerable promise for the downstream purification of MAbs. PMID:20665658

  19. P-Glycoprotein Limits Oral Availability, Brain Penetration, and Toxicity of an Anionic Drug, the Antibiotic Salinomycin▿

    PubMed Central

    Lagas, Jurjen S.; Sparidans, Rolf W.; van Waterschoot, Robert A. B.; Wagenaar, Els; Beijnen, Jos H.; Schinkel, Alfred H.

    2008-01-01

    Salinomycin is a polyether organic anion that is extensively used as a coccidiostatic antibiotic in poultry and commonly fed to ruminant animals to improve feed efficiency. However, salinomycin also causes severe toxicity when accidentally fed to animals in high doses. In addition, humans are highly sensitive to salinomycin and severe toxicity has been reported. Multidrug efflux transporters like P-glycoprotein (P-gp), BCRP, and MRP2 are highly expressed in the intestine and can restrict the oral uptake and tissue penetration of xenobiotics. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the anionic drug salinomycin is a substrate for one or more of these efflux pumps. Salinomycin was actively transported by human MDR1 P-gp expressed in polarized MDCK-II monolayers but not by the known organic anion transporters human MRP2 and murine Bcrp1. Using P-gp-deficient mice, we found a marked increase in plasma salinomycin concentrations after oral administration and decreased plasma clearance after intravenous administration. Furthermore, absence of P-gp resulted in significantly increased brain penetration. P-gp-deficient mice also displayed clearly increased susceptibility to salinomycin toxicity. Thus far, P-gp was thought to affect mainly hydrophobic, positively charged or neutral drugs in vivo. Our data show that P-gp can also be a major determinant of the pharmacokinetic behavior and toxicity of an organic anionic drug. Variation in P-gp activity might thus directly affect the effective exposure to salinomycin and possibly to other anionic drugs and toxin substrates. Individuals with reduced or absent P-gp activity could therefore be more susceptible to salinomycin toxicity. PMID:18195061

  20. Functional characterization of three novel tissue-specific anion exchangers SLC26A7, -A8, and -A9.

    PubMed

    Lohi, Hannes; Kujala, Minna; Makela, Siru; Lehtonen, Eero; Kestila, Marjo; Saarialho-Kere, Ulpu; Markovich, Daniel; Kere, Juha

    2002-04-19

    A second distinct family of anion exchangers, SLC26, in addition to the classical SLC4 (or anion exchanger) family, has recently been delineated. Particular interest in this gene family is stimulated by the fact that the SLC26A2, SLC26A3, and SLC26A4 genes have been recognized as the disease genes mutated in diastrophic dysplasia, congenital chloride diarrhea, and Pendred syndrome, respectively. We report the expansion of the SLC26 gene family by characterizing three novel tissue-specific members, named SLC26A7, SLC26A8, and SLC26A9, on chromosomes 8, 6, and 1, respectively. The SLC26A7-A9 proteins are structurally very similar at the amino acid level to the previous family members and show tissue-specific expression in kidney, testis, and lung, respectively. More detailed characterization by immunohistochemistry and/or in situ hybridization localized SLC26A7 to distal segments of nephrons, SLC26A8 to developing spermatocytes, and SLC26A9 to the lumenal side of the bronchiolar and alveolar epithelium of lung. Expression of SLC26A7-A9 proteins in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated chloride, sulfate, and oxalate transport activity, suggesting that they encode functional anion exchangers. The functional characterization of the novel tissue-specific members may provide new insights to anion transport physiology in different parts of body. PMID:11834742

  1. Supramolecular Chemistry of Selective Anion Recognition for Anions of Environmental Relevance

    SciTech Connect

    Moyer, Bruce a.; Bostick, Debra A.; Fowler, Christopher J.; Kang, Hyun-Ah; Ruas, Alexandre; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Llinares, Jose M.; Hossain, Alamgir; Kang, S. O.; Bowman-James, Kristin; Shriver, James A.; Marquez, Manuel; Sessler, Jonathan L.

    2005-09-22

    The major thrust of this project led by the University of Kansas (Prof. Kristin Bowman-Jones) entails the exploration of the principles of recognition and separation of sulfate by the design, synthesis, and testing of novel sulfate extractants. A key science need for the cleanup of tank wastes at Hanford has been identified in developing methods to separate those bulk waste components that have low solubilities in borosilicate glass. Sulfate has been identified as a particularly difficult and expensive problem in that its concentration in the waste is relatively high, its solubility in glass is especially low, and it interferes with the performance of both vitrification equipment and the glass waste form. The new extractants will be synthesized by the University of Kansas and the University of Texas, Austin. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is subjecting the new extractants to experiments that will determine their properties and effectiveness in separating sulfate from the major competing anions in the waste, especially nitrate. Such experiments will entail primarily liquid-liquid extraction. Current efforts focus on exciting new systems in which the anion receptors act as synergists for anion exchange.

  2. Several hemicyanine dyes as fluorescence chemosensors for cyanide anions.

    PubMed

    Liang, Muhan; Wang, Kangnan; Guan, Ruifang; Liu, Zhiqiang; Cao, Duxia; Wu, Qianqian; Shan, Yanyan; Xu, Yongxiao

    2016-05-01

    Four hemicyanine dyes as chemosensors for cyanide anions were synthesized easily. Their photophysical properties and recognition properties for cyanide anions were investigated. The results indicate that all the dyes can recognize cyanide anions with obvious color, absorption and fluorescence change. The recognition mechanism analysis basing on in situ (1)H NMR and Job plot data indicates that to the compounds with hydroxyl group, the recognition mechanism is intramolecular hydrogen bonding interaction. However, to the compounds without hydroxyl group, cyanide anion is bonded to carbon-carbon double bond in conjugated bridge and induces N(+)CH3 to neutral NCH3. Fluorescence of the compounds is almost quenched upon the addition of cyanide anions. PMID:26921604

  3. Selectivity Control in Synergistic Liquid-Liquid Anion Exchange of Univalent Anions via Structure-Specific Cooperativity between Quaternary Ammonium Cations and Anion Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Borman, Christopher J; Bonnesen, Peter V; Moyer, Bruce A

    2012-01-01

    Two anion receptors enhance liquid-liquid anion exchange when added to quaternary alkylammonium chloride anion exchangers, but with a striking dependence upon the structure of the alkylammonium cation. Two anion receptors were investigated, meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole (C4P) and the bisthiourea tweezer 1,1'-(propane-1,3-diyl)bis(3-(4-sec-butylphenyl)thiourea (BTU). C4P has the unique ability in its cone anion-binding conformation to accept an appropriately sized electropositive species in the resulting cup formed by its four electron-rich pyrrole groups, while BTU is not expected to be predisposed for a specific host-guest interaction with the quaternary ammonium cations. It was therefore hypothesized that synergism between C4P and methyltri(C8,10)alkylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) would be uniquely pronounced owing to insertion of the methyl group of the Aliquat cation into the C4P cup, and we present herein data supporting this expectation. While synergism is comparatively weak for both exchangers with the BTU receptor, synergism between C4P and Aliquat 336 is indeed so strong that anion exchange prefers chloride over more extractable nitrate and trifluoroacetate, effectively overcoming the ubiquitous Hofmeister bias. A thermochemical analysis of synergistic anion exchange has been provided for the first time, unraveling the observed selectivity behavior and resulting in the estimation of binding constants for C4P with the ion pairs of A336+ with Cl , Br , OAcF3 , NO3 , and I . The uniquely strong positive cooperativity between A336 and C4P underscores the advantage of a supramolecular approach in the design of synergistic anion exchange systems.

  4. Selectivity control in synergistic liquid-liquid anion exchange of univalent anions via structure-specific cooperativity between quaternary ammonium cations and anion receptors.

    PubMed

    Borman, Christopher J; Bonnesen, Peter V; Moyer, Bruce A

    2012-10-01

    Two anion receptors enhance liquid-liquid anion exchange when added to quaternary alkylammonium chloride anion exchangers, but with a striking dependence on the structure of the alkylammonium cation that suggests a supramolecular cooperative effect. Two anion receptors were investigated, meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole (C4P) and the bisthiourea tweezer 1,1'-(propane-1,3-diyl)bis(3-(4-sec-butylphenyl)thiourea (BTU). Whereas synergism is comparatively weak when either methyltri(C(8,10))alkylammonium chloride (Aliquat 336) or tetraheptylammonium chloride is used with the BTU receptor, synergism between C4P and Aliquat 336 is so pronounced that anion exchange prefers chloride over more extractable nitrate and trifluoroacetate, effectively overcoming the ubiquitous Hofmeister bias. A thermochemical analysis of synergistic anion exchange has been provided for the first time, resulting in the estimation of binding constants for C4P with the ion pairs of A336(+) with Cl(-), Br(-), OAc(F3)(-), NO(3)(-), and I(-). PMID:22931168

  5. K4[Fe(CN)6] immobilized anion sensitive protonated amine functionalized polysilsesquioxane films for ultra-low electrochemical detection of dsDNA.

    PubMed

    Silambarasan, Krishnamoorthy; Narendra Kumar, Alam Venugopal; Joseph, James

    2016-03-14

    Charge transport in polymeric films bound by redox reagents is a topic of current interest. The dynamics of electroinactive ions across the interface is studied by immobilizing ferrocyanide anion in a polysilsesquioxanes (PSQs) modified electrode. Redox reagents can stay in the polymeric film by either physical forces or electrostatic binding. The present work describes the immobilization of ferro/ferricyanide redox couples in PSQ films possessing protonated amine functional groups by electrostatic interactions. Charge transport in [Fe(CN)6](4-)-PSQs film was found to be anion dependent, and its formal potential value varied with the relative hydrophilic or hydrophobic nature of the anion used in the supporting electrolyte, unlike the observed dependence on solution cation for electrodes modified with metal hexacyanoferrates (Prussian Blue analogues). The [Fe(CN)6](4-) bound PSQs films were extensively characterized by varying different supporting electrolytes anions using cyclic voltammetry. The redox peak currents were linearly proportional to the square root of the scan rate, implying that the transport of charge carriers is accompanied with redox ion diffusion and electron hopping in a confined space. dsDNA molecules were found to interact with this polymer matrix through anionic phosphate groups. Both voltammetry and A.C. impedance spectroscopy studies revealed that these interactions could be exploited for the determination of ultra-low level (0.5 attomolar) of dsDNA present in aqueous solution. PMID:26898169

  6. Vacuolar malate uptake is mediated by an anion-selective inward rectifier.

    PubMed

    Hafke, Jens B; Hafke, Yuliya; Smith, J Andrew C; Lüttge, Ulrich; Thiel, Gerhard

    2003-07-01

    Electrophysiological studies using the patch-clamp technique were performed on isolated vacuoles from leaf mesophyll cells of the crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana to characterize the malate transport system responsible for nocturnal malic acid accumulation. In the presence of malate on both sides of the membrane, the current-voltage relations of the tonoplast were dominated by a strongly inward-rectifying anion-selective channel that was active at cytoplasmic-side negative voltages. Rectification of the macroscopic conductance was reflected in the voltage-dependent gating of a 3-pS malate-selective ion channel, which showed a half-maximal open probability at -43 mV. Also, the time-averaged unitary currents following a step to a negative voltage corresponded to the time-dependent kinetics of the macroscopic currents, suggesting that the activity of this channel underlies the anion-selective inward rectifier. The inward rectifier showed saturation kinetics with respect to malate (apparent Km of 2.5 mm malate2- activity), a selectivity sequence of fumarate2- > malate2- > Cl- > maleate2- approximately citrate3-, and greater activity at higher pH values (with an apparent pK of 7.1 and maximum activity at around pH 8.0). All these properties were in close agreement with the characteristics of malate transport observed in isolated tonoplast vesicles. Further, 100 microM niflumate reversibly blocked the activity of the 3-pS channel and inhibited both macroscopic currents and malate transport into tonoplast vesicles to the same extent. The macroscopic current densities recorded at physiological voltages and the estimated channel density of 0.2 microm-2 are sufficient to account for the observed rates of nocturnal malic acid accumulation in this CAM plant, suggesting that the 3-pS, inward-rectifying, anion-selective channel represents the principal pathway for malate influx into the vacuole. PMID:12834407

  7. The anion-transfer system of erythrocyte membranes. N-(7-Nitrobenzofurazan-4-yl)taurine, a fluorescent substrate-analogue of the system.

    PubMed Central

    Eidelman, O; Zangvill, M; Razin, M; Ginsburg, H; Cabantchik, Z I

    1981-01-01

    The fluorescent probe Nbd-Tau [N-(7-nitrobenzofurazan-4-yl)taurine] was synthesized and evaluated as a potential substrate of the anion-transport system of human erythrocyte membrane. The probe inhibited Cl- exchange in a competitive manner from either surface of the membrane, displaying Ki values in the mM range at the inner surface and in the microM range at the outer surface. Inhibition from within cells was via interaction with Cl--transport sites, whereas from it was via interaction with sites of unidentified nature. Nbd-Tau efflux from cells was monitored fluorimetrically in a continuous mode by a novel method that circumvents separation of the cells from the medium. Using this method, it is shown that Nbd-Tau efflux fulfils the following criteria of a substrate of the anion transport system: (a) susceptibility to classical and specific inhibitors of the system; (b) competitive inhibition with Cl- for anion-transport sites; and (c) temperature coefficient comparable with that of Cl- exchange. The fluorometric method is highly sensitive, versatile, and kinetically informative. With minor modifications it can be used for measuring anion transport across "ghost" and isolated membrane vesicles. PMID:7316966

  8. Donnan dialysis of transition metal ions using anion exchange membrane modified with Xylenol Orange

    SciTech Connect

    Sawicka, B.; Brajter, K.; Trojanowicz, M.; Kado, B. )

    1991-01-01

    A chelating ion-exchange membrane was obtained by modification of a PTFE-based anion-exchange membrane with Xylenol Orange. Its utility for dialysis of Cu(II), Ni(II), Mn(II), and Zn(II) was investigated by using receiver solutions without and with iminodiacetate. 1,2-diaminocyclohexanetetraacetic acid, and tetraethylenepentamine. In comparison to commercial PTFE cation-exchange membranes, modified chelating membranes exhibit for the metal ions investigated a larger differentiation of retention in the membrane phase and transport-to-receiver solution depending on the modifier used and the composition of the receiver solution.

  9. Gallium based low-interaction anions

    DOEpatents

    King, Wayne A.; Kubas, Gregory J.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides: a composition of the formula M.sup.+x (Ga(Y).sub.4.sup.-).sub.x where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium, calcium, strontium, thallium, and silver, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 1 or 2, each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide; a composition of the formula (R).sub.x Q.sup.+ Ga(Y).sub.4.sup.- where Q is selected from the group consisting of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus and oxygen, each R is a ligand selected from the group consisting of alkyl, aryl, and hydrogen, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 3 and 4 depending upon Q, and each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide; an ionic polymerization catalyst composition including an active cationic portion and a gallium based weakly coordinating anion; and bridged anion species of the formula M.sup.+x.sub.y [X(Ga(Y.sub.3).sub.z ].sup.-y.sub.x where M is a metal selected from the group consisting of lithium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, cesium, calcium, strontium, thallium, and silver, x is an integer selected from the group consisting of 1 or 2, X is a bridging group between two gallium atoms, y is an integer selected from the group consisting 1 and 2, z is an integer of at least 2, each Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl, hydride and halide with the proviso that at least one Y is a ligand selected from the group consisting of aryl, alkyl and halide.

  10. Interaction of saposin D with membranes: effect of anionic phospholipids and sphingolipids.

    PubMed

    Ciaffoni, Fiorella; Tatti, Massimo; Salvioli, Rosa; Vaccaro, Anna Maria

    2003-08-01

    Saposin (Sap) D is an endolysosomal protein that, together with three other similar proteins, Sap A, Sap B and Sap C, is involved in the degradation of sphingolipids and, possibly, in the solubilization and transport of gangliosides. We found that Sap D is able to destabilize and disrupt membranes containing each of the three anionic phospholipids most abundant in the acidic endolysosomal compartment, namely lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylserine (PS). The breakdown of the membranes, which occurs when the Sap D concentration on the lipid surface reaches a critical value, is a slow process that gives rise to small particles. The Sap D-particle complexes formed in an acidic milieu can be dissociated by an increase in pH, suggesting a dynamic association of Sap D with membranes. The presence of anionic phospholipids is required also for the Sap D-induced perturbation and solubilization of membranes containing a neutral sphingolipid such as ceramide or a ganglioside such as G(M1). At appropriate Sap D concentrations Cer and G(M1) are solubilized as constituents of small phospholipid particles. Our findings imply that most functions of Sap D are dependent on its interaction with anionic phospholipids, which mediate the Sap D effect on other components of the membrane such as sphingolipids. On consideration of the properties of Sap D we propose that Sap D might have a role in the definition of the structure and function of membranes, such as the intra-endolysosomal membranes, that are rich in anionic phospholipids. PMID:12733985

  11. Superoxide anion radical scavenging property of catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Kładna, Aleksandra; Berczyński, Paweł; Kruk, Irena; Michalska, Teresa; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2013-01-01

    The direct effect of the four catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine and isoproterenol) on superoxide anion radicals (O2•) was investigated. The reaction between 18-crown-6-ether and potassium superoxide in dimethylsulfoxide was used as a source of O2•. The reactivity of catecholamines with O2• was examined using chemiluminescence, reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium and electron paramagnetic resonance spin-trapping techniques. 5,5-Dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide was included as the spin trap. The results showed that the four catecholamines were effective and efficient in inhibiting chemiluminescence accompanying the potassium superoxide/18-crown-6-ether system in a dose-dependent manner over the range 0.05-2 mM in the following order: adrenaline > noradrenaline > dopamine > isoproterenol, with, IC50 = 0.15 ± 0.02 mM 0.21 ± 0.03 mM, 0.27 ± 0.03 mM and 0.50 ± 0.04 mM, respectively. The catecholamines examined also exhibited a strong scavenging effect towards O2• when evaluated this property by the inhibition of nitroblue tetrazolium reduction (56-73% at 1 M concentration). A very similar capacity of O2• scavenging was monitored in the 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide spin-trapping assay. The results suggest that catecholamines tested may involve a direct effect on scavenging O2- radicals. PMID:23319391

  12. Neptunium Valence Chemistry in Anion Exchange Processing

    SciTech Connect

    KYSER, EDWARD

    2003-02-01

    The current anion resin in use in HB-Line Phase II, Reillex{trademark} HPQ, was tested in the laboratory under expected plant conditions for Np processing and was found to load between 50 and 70 g Np per liter of resin. Losses varied from 0.2 to 15 percent depending on a number of parameters. Hydrazine in the feed at 0.02 to 0.05 M appeared to keep the Np from oxidizing and increasing the losses within four to seven days after the FS addition. Losses of up to three percent were observed five days after FS addition when hydrazine was not used in the feed, compared with 0.3 percent when the feed was loaded immediately after FS addition. Based on these test results the following processing conditions are recommended: (1) Feed conditions: 8 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.02 M hydrazine, 0.05 M excess FS, less than 5 days storage of solution after FS addition. (2) Wash conditions: 100 liters of 8 M HNO{sub 3}, no FS, no hydrazine. (3) Elution conditions: 0.17 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.05 M hydrazine, no FS. (4) Precipitation feed conditions: 0.03 M excess ascorbic acid, no additional hydrazine, no FS, precipitation within three days.

  13. In situ anion diffusion experiments using radiotracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansson, Mats; Eriksen, Trygve E.

    2004-02-01

    Diffusion experiments in compacted bentonite have been carried out in situ using the borehole laboratory CHEMLAB. The "ordinary" anion iodide and the redox-sensitive pertechnetate ion have been investigated. In spite of strongly reducing groundwater conditions, technetium was found to diffuse mostly unreduced as TcO 4-, although in some spots in the compacted clay, the activity was significantly higher, which may be explained by reduction of some TcO 4- by iron-containing minerals in the bentonite. The measured concentration profiles in the clay cannot be accommodated by assuming one single diffusion process. The experimental data are modeled assuming two diffusion paths, intralamellar diffusion and diffusion in external water. The apparent diffusivity for the intralamellar diffusion was found to be 8.6×10 -11 m 2 s -1 for iodide with a capacity factor of 0.1, while the apparent diffusivity for the diffusion in external water was found to be 5×10 -14 m 2 s -1 with α=2.26. The corresponding values for Tc were found to be Da=6×10 -11 m 2 s -1, α=0.1 and Da=1×10 -13 m 2 s -1, α=0.46, respectively. The diffusion constants and capacity factors obtained in this study are in accordance with data from laboratory experiments.

  14. Interactions of anionic surfactants with methemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Gebicka, Lidia; Banasiak, Ewa

    2011-03-01

    Interactions of two anionic surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) at concentrations below and above critical micelle concentration with methemoglobin (metHb) have been investigated by conventional as well as by stopped-flow absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The absorption spectra of metHb in AOT reverse micelles have been also analyzed. Both surfactants in their monomeric form convert metHb to reversible hemichrome. This is connected with a diminution of peroxidase-like activity of metHb and with an increase of the susceptibility of heme for a damage by H(2)O(2). In micellar solutions of AOT and SDS as well as in AOT reverse micelles pentacoordinated ferric species seems to be the predominant form of this protein. It has been concluded, basing on a kinetic analysis, that conformational changes in the heme environment of metHb as induced by both surfactants occur independently of the alterations in the tertiary structure of this protein. PMID:21131182

  15. Anion binding to the ubiquitin molecule.

    PubMed Central

    Makhatadze, G. I.; Lopez, M. M.; Richardson, J. M.; Thomas, S. T.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of different salts (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2, GdmCl, NaBr, NaClO4, NaH2PO4, Na2SO4) on the stability of the ubiquitin molecule at pH 2.0 have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry, circular dichroism, and Tyr fluorescence spectroscopies. It is shown that all of the salts studied significantly increase the thermostability of the ubiquitin molecule, and that this stabilization can be interpreted in terms of anion binding. Estimated thermodynamic parameters of binding for Cl- show that this binding is relatively weak (Kd = 0.15 M) and is characterized by a negative enthalpy of -15 kJ/mol per site. Particularly surprising was the observed stabilizing effect of GdmCl through the entire concentration range studied (0.01-2 M), however, to a lesser extent than stabilization by NaCl. This stabilizing effect of GdmCl appears to arise from the binding of Cl- ions. Analysis of the observed changes in the stability of the ubiquitin molecule in the presence of GdmCl can be adequately described by combining the thermodynamic model of denaturant binding with Cl- binding effects. PMID:9541401

  16. Theoretical study of the superoxide anion assisted firefly oxyluciferin formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto da Silva, Luís; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C. G.

    2013-12-01

    This a theoretical Letter based on density functional theory, on the role of superoxide anion in firefly chemiluminescence in DMSO. We have found that this anion can attack luciferin radical molecules, thus forming a luciferin-like trianion. This latter molecule transfers an oxygen atom, which results in the formation of oxyluciferyl radical dianion and carbon dioxide molecules. Oxyluciferin is finally formed after an electron transfer from oxyluciferyl radical dianion to tert-BuOrad radical molecules. Thus, we have found evidence that firefly oxyluciferin can be formed in a energetically favorable superoxide anion-assisted reaction, without the need for the formation of firefly dioxetanone.

  17. Anion, cation, and zwitterion selectivity of phospholemman channel molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Kowdley, G C; Ackerman, S J; Chen, Z; Szabo, G; Jones, L R; Moorman, J R

    1997-01-01

    Phospholemman (PLM), a 72-amino acid membrane protein with a single transmembrane domain, forms taurine-selective ion channels in lipid bilayers. Because taurine forms zwitterions, a taurine-selective channel might have binding sites for both anions and cations. Here we show that PLM channels indeed allow fluxes of both cations and anions, making instantaneous and voltage-dependent transitions among conformations with drastically different ion selectivity characteristics. This surprising and novel ion channel behavior offers a molecular explanation for selective taurine flux across cell membranes and may explain why molecules in the phospholemman family can induce cation- or anion-selective conductances when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. PMID:8994599

  18. Survey of organic acid eluents for anion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Book, D.E.

    1981-10-01

    Of all the potential eluents surveyed (including aromatic, sulfonic, phosphonic, among other acids), only the carboxylic acids and the nitrophenols are recommended as eluents for anion chromatography. The concentration of the eluent should be in the range 5 x 10/sup -5/ to 1 x 10/sup -3/ M. The eluent should have the same charge as inorganic anions, a higher charge than organic acid samples. Choice of eluents for separation of halides, chloride and sulfate, multivalent inorganic anions, small alkyl acids, and aromatic acids is discussed. (DLC)

  19. Photoelectron spectroscopic study of the ethyl cyanoacrylate anion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinxing; Tang, Xin; Bowen, Kit

    2013-09-01

    Anion photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory have been utilized to study the parent, ethyl cyanoacrylate molecular anion, ECA-. The measured electron affinity (0.9 ± 0.2 eV), vertical detachment energy (1.3 ± 0.1 eV), and anion-to-triplet neutral, photodetachment transition energies (4.0 ± 0.1 eV and 4.5 ± 0.1 eV) all compare well with their calculated values. The relatively high electron affinity of the ECA monomer is responsible for the fact that its “anionic” polymerization mechanism proceeds even with weak nucleophiles, such as water.

  20. Anion Photoelectron Angular Distributions: Electron Scattering Resonances in Photodetachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabbs, Richard

    2012-06-01

    To a large degree the photoelectron angular distributions (PAD) of anionic species represent signatures of the bound parent orbital. However, these angular distributions are also influenced by interaction of the outgoing electron with the neutral (atomic, molecular or cluster) residue. The electron kinetic energy evolution (eKE) of the PAD is presented for a number of different species (from molecular to cluster anion), showing the often striking effect of excitation of temporary excited anionic states. These cases highlight the influence of different types of electron-molecule scattering resonances in photodetachment dynamics. Additionally, the possibility of using the eKE evolution of the PAD for structural elucidation is discussed.

  1. Bile acid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

    2009-01-01

    In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OSTα-OSTβ. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

  2. ELECTROACTIVE MATERIALS FOR ANION SEPARATION-TECHNETIUM FROM NITRATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proposed research will provide the basis for using electroactive ion exchange materials to remove anionic contaminants from HLW wastes and process streams. An ion exchange process using electroactive materials sorbs contaminants selectively and then expels (elutes) them elec...

  3. An anion channel in Arabidopsis hypocotyls activated by blue light.

    PubMed Central

    Cho, M H; Spalding, E P

    1996-01-01

    A rapid, transient depolarization of the plasma membrane in seedling stems is one of the earliest effects of blue light detected in plants. It appears to play a role in transducing blue light into inhibition of hypocotyl (stem) elongation, and perhaps other responses. The possibility that activation of a Cl- conductance is part of the depolarization mechanism was raised previously and addressed here. By patch clamping hypocotyl cells isolated from dark-grown (etiolated) Arabidopsis seedlings, blue light was found to activate an anion channel residing at the plasma membrane. An anion-channel blocker commonly known as NPPB 15-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid] potently and reversibly blocked this anion channel. NPPB also blocked the blue-light-induced depolarization in vivo and decreased the inhibitory effect of blue light on hypocotyl elongation. These results indicate that activation of this anion channel plays a role in transducing blue light into growth inhibition. PMID:8755616

  4. New anion-exchange polymers for improved separations

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvinen, G.D.; Barr, M.E.; Marsh, S.F.

    1997-08-01

    Objective is to improve the understanding of how the structure of a new class of anion-exchange polymers controls the binding of anionic actinide complexes from solution. This is needed to develop practical separation systems that will reduce the cost of actinide processing operations within the DOE complex. In addition anion exchange is widely used in industry. Several new series of bifunctional anion- exchange polymers have been designed, synthesized, and tested for removing Pu(IV), Am(III), and U(VI) from nitric acid. The polymers contain a pyridinium site derived from the host poly(4-vinylpyridine) and a second cationic site attached through a chain of 2 to 6 methylene groups. The new polymers removed Pu four to ten times more efficiently than the best commercial materials.

  5. An anion channel in Arabidopsis hypocotyls activated by blue light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, M. H.; Spalding, E. P.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    A rapid, transient depolarization of the plasma membrane in seedling stems is one of the earliest effects of blue light detected in plants. It appears to play a role in transducing blue light into inhibition of hypocotyl (stem) elongation, and perhaps other responses. The possibility that activation of a Cl- conductance is part of the depolarization mechanism was raised previously and addressed here. By patch clamping hypocotyl cells isolated from dark-grown (etiolated) Arabidopsis seedlings, blue light was found to activate an anion channel residing at the plasma membrane. An anion-channel blocker commonly known as NPPB 15-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid] potently and reversibly blocked this anion channel. NPPB also blocked the blue-light-induced depolarization in vivo and decreased the inhibitory effect of blue light on hypocotyl elongation. These results indicate that activation of this anion channel plays a role in transducing blue light into growth inhibition.

  6. Nitrate anion exchange in 238Pu aqueous scrap recovery operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pansoy-Hjelvik, M. E.; Silver, G. L.; Reimus, M. A. H.; Ramsey, K. B.

    1999-01-01

    Strong base, nitrate anion exchange (IX) is crucial to the purification of 238Pu solution feedstocks with gross levels of impurities. This paper discusses the work involved in bench scale experiments to optimize the nitrate anion exchange process. In particular, results are presented of experiments conducted to a) demonstrate that high levels of impurities can be separated from 238Pu solutions via nitrate anion exchange and, b) work out chemical pretreatment methodology to adjust and maintain 238Pu in the IV oxidation state to optimize the Pu(IV)-hexanitrato anionic complex sorption to Reillex-HPQ resin. Additional experiments performed to determine the best chemical treatment methodology to enhance recovery of sorbed Pu from the resin and VIS-NIR absorption studies to determine the steady state equilibrium of Pu(IV), Pu(III), and Pu(VI) in nitric acid are discussed.

  7. Unmeasured anions and mortality in critically ill patients in 2016.

    PubMed

    Kotake, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The presence of acid-base disturbances, especially metabolic acidosis may negatively affect the outcome of critically ill patients. Lactic acidosis is the most frequent etiology and has largest impact on the prognosis. Since lactate measurement might not have always been available at bedside, it had been regarded as one of the unmeasured anions. Therefore, anion gap and strong ion gap has been used to as a surrogate of lactate concentration. From this perspective, the relationship between either anion gap or strong ion gap and mortality has been explored. Then, lactate became routinely measurable at bedside and the direct comparison between directly measured lactate and these surrogate parameters can be possible. Currently available evidence suggests that directly measured lactate has larger prognostic ability for mortality than albumin-corrected anion gap and strong ion gap without lactate. In this commentary, the rationale and possible clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27429758

  8. Is Nitrate Anion Photodissociation Mediated by Singlet-Triplet Absorption?

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Ondřej; Slavíček, Petr

    2014-06-01

    Photolysis of the nitrate anion is involved in the oxidation processes in the hydrosphere, cryosphere, and stratosphere. While it is known that the nitrate photolysis in the long-wavelength region proceeds with a very low quantum yield, the mechanism of the photodissociation remains elusive. Here, we present the quantitative modeling of singlet-singlet and singlet-triplet absorption spectra in the atmospherically relevant region around 300 nm, and we argue that a spin-forbidden transition between the singlet ground state and the first triplet state contributes non-negligibly to the nitrate anion photolysis. We further propose that the nitrate anion excited into the first singlet excited state relaxes nonradiatively into its ground state. The full understanding of the nitrate anion photolysis can improve modeling of the asymmetric solvation in the atmospheric processes, e.g., photolysis on the surfaces of ice or snow. PMID:26273880

  9. A carbohydrate-anion recognition system in aprotic solvents.

    PubMed

    Ren, Bo; Dong, Hai; Ramström, Olof

    2014-05-01

    A carbohydrate-anion recognition system in nonpolar solvents is reported, in which complexes form at the B-faces of β-D-pyranosides with H1-, H3-, and H5-cis patterns similar to carbohydrate-π interactions. The complexation effect was evaluated for a range of carbohydrate structures; it resulted in either 1:1 carbohydrate-anion complexes, or 1:2 complex formation depending on the protection pattern of the carbohydrate. The interaction was also evaluated with different anions and solvents. In both cases it resulted in significant binding differences. The results indicate that complexation originates from van der Waals interactions or weak CH⋅⋅⋅A(-) hydrogen bonds between the binding partners and is related to electron-withdrawing groups of the carbohydrates as well as increased hydrogen-bond-accepting capability of the anions. PMID:24616327

  10. Characterization of an anion-permeable channel from sugar beet vacuoles: effect of inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hedrich, Rainer; Kurkdjian, Armen

    1988-01-01

    The vacuole occupies 25-95% of the plant cell volume and plays an essential role in maintaining cytoplasmic homeostasis of nutrients and ions. Recent patch-clamp studies identified ion channels and electrogenic pumps as pathways for the movement of ions and metabolites across the vacuolar membrane (tonoplast). At high cytoplasmic Ca2+ (>10-6 M) and negative potentials (inside the vacuole) non-selective channels of the `slow-vacuolar (SV)-type' were activated resulting in anion release or cation influx. In the present study these vacuolar channels were characterized pharmacologically by ion channel inhibitors. The cation-transport inhibitors Ba2+, TEA+ and amiloride caused only partial and reversible block of the `SV-type'channels, whereas anion-transport inhibitors strongly affected the vacuolar channels. Pyridoxalphosphate and the dimethylaminecarboxylate derivates anthracene-9-carboxylic acid and C 144 reversibly blocked the channels up to 70% and Zncl2 up to 95%. DIDS and SITS inhibited this channel irreversibly up to 95%. The block developed under a variety of experimental conditions using solutions containing combinations of permanent cations and anions. The DIDS binding site is located on the cytoplasmic surface of the tonoplast, as intravacuolar DIDS did not block the channels. DIDS concentrations in the micromolar range, efficient in blocking 70—80% of the `SV-type' channels did not significantly affect ATP-induced or pyrophosphate-induced proton-pumps. Stilbene derivatives may therefore be useful tools for studies on the substrate binding site on this vacuolar channel and for channel isolation. PMID:16453861

  11. Faropenem Transport across the Renal Epithelial Luminal Membrane via Inorganic Phosphate Transporter Npt1

    PubMed Central

    Uchino, Hiroshi; Tamai, Ikumi; Yabuuchi, Hikaru; China, Kayoko; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Takeda, Eiji; Tsuji, Akira

    2000-01-01

    We previously showed that the mouse inorganic phosphate transporter Npt1 operates in the hepatic sinusoidal membrane transport of anionic drugs such as benzylpenicillin and mevalonic acid. In the present study, the mechanism of renal secretion of penem antibiotics was examined by using a Xenopus oocyte expression system. Faropenem (an oral penem antibiotic) was transported via Npt1 with a Michaelis-Menten constant of 0.77 ± 0.34 mM in a sodium-independent but chloride ion-sensitive manner. When the concentration of chloride ions was increased, the transport activity of faropenem by Npt1 was decreased. Since the concentration gradient of chloride ions is in the lumen-to-intracellular direction, faropenem is expected to be transported from inside proximal tubular cells to the lumen. So, we tested the release of faropenem from Xenopus oocytes. The rate of efflux of faropenem from Npt1-expressing oocytes was about 9.5 times faster than that from control water-injected Xenopus oocytes. Faropenem transport by Npt1 was significantly inhibited by β-lactam antibiotics such as benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, cephalexin, and cefazolin to 24.9, 40.5, 54.4, and 26.2% of that for the control, respectively. Zwitterionic β-lactam antibiotics showed lesser inhibitory effects on faropenem uptake than anionic derivatives, indicating that Npt1 preferentially transports anionic compounds. Other anionic compounds, such as indomethacin and furosemide, and the anion transport inhibitor 4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid significantly inhibited faropenem uptake mediated by Npt1. In conclusion, our results suggest that Npt1 participates in the renal secretion of penem antibiotics. PMID:10681320

  12. Faropenem transport across the renal epithelial luminal membrane via inorganic phosphate transporter Npt1.

    PubMed

    Uchino, H; Tamai, I; Yabuuchi, H; China, K; Miyamoto, K; Takeda, E; Tsuji, A

    2000-03-01

    We previously showed that the mouse inorganic phosphate transporter Npt1 operates in the hepatic sinusoidal membrane transport of anionic drugs such as benzylpenicillin and mevalonic acid. In the present study, the mechanism of renal secretion of penem antibiotics was examined by using a Xenopus oocyte expression system. Faropenem (an oral penem antibiotic) was transported via Npt1 with a Michaelis-Menten constant of 0.77 +/- 0.34 mM in a sodium-independent but chloride ion-sensitive manner. When the concentration of chloride ions was increased, the transport activity of faropenem by Npt1 was decreased. Since the concentration gradient of chloride ions is in the lumen-to-intracellular direction, faropenem is expected to be transported from inside proximal tubular cells to the lumen. So, we tested the release of faropenem from Xenopus oocytes. The rate of efflux of faropenem from Npt1-expressing oocytes was about 9.5 times faster than that from control water-injected Xenopus oocytes. Faropenem transport by Npt1 was significantly inhibited by beta-lactam antibiotics such as benzylpenicillin, ampicillin, cephalexin, and cefazolin to 24.9, 40. 5, 54.4, and 26.2% of that for the control, respectively. Zwitterionic beta-lactam antibiotics showed lesser inhibitory effects on faropenem uptake than anionic derivatives, indicating that Npt1 preferentially transports anionic compounds. Other anionic compounds, such as indomethacin and furosemide, and the anion transport inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid significantly inhibited faropenem uptake mediated by Npt1. In conclusion, our results suggest that Npt1 participates in the renal secretion of penem antibiotics. PMID:10681320

  13. Characterization of a Saturated and Flexible Aliphatic Polyol Anion Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Shokri, Alireza; Schmidt, Jacob C.; Wang, Xue B.; Kass, Steven R.

    2012-10-17

    Nature employs flexible molecules to bind anions in a variety of physiologically important processes whereas supramolecular chemists have been designing rigid substrates that minimize or eliminate intramolecular hydrogen bond interactions to carry out anion recogni-tion. Herein, the association of a flexible polyhydroxy alkane with chloride ion is described and the bound re-ceptor is characterized by infrared and photoelectron spectroscopy in the gas phase, computations, and its bind-ing constant as a function of temperature in acetonitrile.

  14. Gas-Grain Models for Interstellar Anion Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Charnely, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    Long-chain hydrocarbon anions C(sub n) H(-) (n = 4, 6, 8) have recently been found to be abundant in a variety of interstellar clouds. In order to explain their large abundances in the denser (prestellar/protostellar) environments, new chemical models are constructed that include gas-grain interactions. Models including accretion of gas-phase species onto dust grains and cosmic-ray-induced desorption of atoms are able to reproduce the observed anion-to-neutral ratios, as well as the absolute abundances of anionic and neutral carbon chains, with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Due to their destructive effects, the depletion of oxygen atoms onto dust results in substantially greater polyyne and anion abundances in high-density gas (with n(sub H2) approx > / cubic cm). The large abundances of carbon-chain-bearing species observed in the envelopes of protostars such as L1527 can thus be explained without the need for warm carbon-chain chemistry. The C6H(-) anion-to-neutral ratio is found to be most sensitive to the atomic O and H abundances and the electron density. Therefore, as a core evolves, falling atomic abundances and rising electron densities are found to result in increasing anion-to-neutral ratios. Inclusion of cosmic-ray desorption of atoms in high-density models delays freeze-out, which results in a more temporally stable anion-to-neutral ratio, in better agreement with observations. Our models include reactions between oxygen atoms and carbon-chain anions to produce carbon-chain-oxide species C6O, C7O, HC6O, and HC7O, the abundances of which depend on the assumed branching ratios for associative electron detachment

  15. Boron compounds as anion binding agents for nonaqueous battery electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xia-Oing; McBreen, James; Xiang, Caili

    2000-02-08

    Novel fluorinated boron-based compounds which act as anion receptors in non-aqueous battery electrolytes are provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the fluorinated boron-based compounds of the invention enhance ionic conductivity and cation transference number of non-aqueous electrolytes. The fluorinated boron-based anion receptors include borane and borate compounds bearing different fluorinated alkyl and aryl groups.

  16. Effects of various anions on the Raman spectrum of halorhodopsin.

    PubMed Central

    Pande, C; Lanyi, J K; Callender, R H

    1989-01-01

    Resonance Raman experiments were conducted to probe and understand the effect of various anions on halorhodopsin. These included monoatomic anions Cl- and Br-, which bind to the so-called halorhodopsin binding sites I and II, and polyatomic anions NO3- and ClO4-, which bind to site I only. The two types of ions clearly show different effects on the vibrational spectrum of the chromophore. The differences are not localized to the Schiff base region of the molecule, but extend to the chromophore structure-sensitive fingerprint region as well. We find that the protonated Schiff base frequency is at 1,633 cm-1 for Cl- and Br- ions, as reported previously for Cl-. However, we find that two Schiff base frequencies characterize halorhodopsin upon binding of the polyatomic anions. One frequency lies at the same location as that found for the monoatomic anions and the other is at 1,645 cm-1. Halorhodopsin with bound NO3- and ClO4- thus may consist of two heterogeneous structures in equilibrium. This heterogeneity does not seem to correlate with a retinal isomeric heterogeneity, which we can also demonstrate in these samples. The results suggest that anions binding to site I do not bind to the Schiff base directly, but can influence chromophore and/or protein conformational states. PMID:2930828

  17. Theoretical studies of nonvalence correlation-bound anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voora, Vamsee; Jordan, Kenneth

    2015-03-01

    Nonvalence correlation-bound anion states have been investigated using state-of-the-art ab ini