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Sample records for anisotropic composite materials

  1. The anisotropic propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in composite materials and implications for practical applications.

    PubMed

    Putkis, O; Dalton, R P; Croxford, A J

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic guided wave propagation in anisotropic attenuative materials like CFRP (carbon fibre reinforced polymer) is much more complicated than in isotropic materials. Propagation phenomena need to be understood and quantified before reliable NDE (Non-destructive Evaluation)/SHM (Structural Health Monitoring) inspection systems can be realized. The propagation characteristics: energy velocity, dispersion, mode coupling, energy focusing factor and attenuation are considered in this paper. Concepts of minimum resolvable distance and sensitivity maps are extended to anisotropic attenuative materials in order to provide the means for comparison of different guided wave modes in composite materials. The paper is intended to serve as a framework for evaluating and comparing different modes and choosing the optimum operating conditions (frequency, sensor layout) for possible NDE/SHM applications on composite materials. Fundamental guided wave modes in the low frequency regime for highly anisotropic CFRP plates are investigated experimentally and theoretically and the implications for NDE/SHM are discussed. PMID:25497002

  2. Ultrasonic defect evaluation using DGS-diagrams modified for the inspection of anisotropic composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spies, Martin; Rieder, Hans; Dillhfer, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    The application of DGS-diagrams (Distance-Gain-Size) for defect sizing using ultrasonics is considered for anisotropic materials. Based on far-field formulations for transducers with circular apertures, it is shown that the general DGS-diagram for isotropic materials can be applied to anisotropic media as well, if some modifications in the evaluation are performed. The modified procedure is illustrated and validated using ultrasonic inspection data acquired at a unidirectionally carbon-fiber reinforced composite test block with flat-bottomed holes as model defects.

  3. Anisotropic thermal property measurement of carbon-fiber/epoxy composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Tian

    This work originated from a need for understanding heat transfer in carbon-fiber/epoxy natural-gas tanks undergoing rapid heating during refilling. The dissertation is focused on the determination of the anisotropic thermal properties of carbon-fiber/epoxy composite materials for in-plane and through-thickness directions. An effective anisotropic parameter estimation system consisting of the 3ω experimental technique and an anisotropic two-dimensional heat transfer model is developed. In the present work, the 3ω method, an experimental technique that has been well established to evaluate the thermal properties of isotropic materials, especially thin film materials, is extended to treat the thermal properties of bulk anisotropic materials. A platinum film deposited on the sample surface is periodically heated by a sinusoidally oscillating current at frequency ω, and thereby causes a time-harmonic electrical resistance variation at frequency 2ω. The heat-induced resistance variation at frequency 2ω coupled with the current at frequency ω produces a voltage variation component at frequency 3ω. The phase and amplitude data of the voltage signal at frequency 3ω are collected from the experiment. An impedance analysis model is employed to convert the voltage data to temperature data. The anisotropic thermal properties are deduced from an inverse parameter estimation model, which is a least-square systematic comparison between experimental data and the theoretical model. The anisotropic theoretical model is based on the Green's function approach. A careful sensitivity analysis is used to demonstrate the feasibility of simultaneous estimation of the in-plane and through-thickness thermal conductivities. Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) samples were applied as reference samples to verify the measurement system. The parameter estimation result for experimental data from PMMA samples agree very well with handbook values. Experimental results from carbon-fiber/epoxy samples are presented.

  4. Defect imaging with elastic waves in inhomogeneous-anisotropic materials with composite geometries.

    PubMed

    Shlivinski, A; Langenberg, K J

    2007-03-01

    Imaging of defects in composite structures plays an important role in non-destructive testing (NDT) with elastic waves, i.e., ultrasound. Traditionally the imaging of such defects is performed using the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) algorithm assuming homogeneous isotropic materials. However, if parts of the structure are inhomogeneous and/or anisotropic, this algorithm fail to produce correct results that are needed in order to asses the lifetime of the part under test. Here we present a modification of this algorithm which enables a correct imaging of defects in inhomogeneous and/or anisotropic composite structures, whence it is termed InASAFT. The InASAFT is based on the exact modelling of the structure in order to account for the true nature of the elastic wave propagation using travel time ray tracing techniques. The algorithm is validated upon several numerical and real life examples yielding satisfactory results for imaging of cracks. The modified algorithm suffers, though, from the same difficulties encountered in the SAFT algorithm, namely "ghost" images and eventual lack of clear focused images. However, these artifacts can be identified using a forward wave propagation analysis of the structure. PMID:17258256

  5. Stable Anisotropic Materials.

    PubMed

    Li, Yijing; Barbic, Jernej

    2015-10-01

    The Finite Element Method (FEM) is commonly used to simulate isotropic deformable objects in computer graphics. Several applications (wood, plants, muscles) require modeling the directional dependence of the material elastic properties in three orthogonal directions. We investigate linear orthotropic materials, a special class of linear anisotropic materials where the shear stresses are decoupled from normal stresses, as well as general linear (non-orthotropic) anisotropic materials. Orthotropic materials generalize transversely isotropic materials, by exhibiting different stiffness in three orthogonal directions. Orthotropic materials are, however, parameterized by nine values that are difficult to tune in practice, as poorly adjusted settings easily lead to simulation instabilities. We present a user-friendly approach to setting these parameters that is guaranteed to be stable. Our approach is intuitive as it extends the familiar intuition known from isotropic materials. Similarly to linear orthotropic materials, we also derive a stability condition for a subset of general linear anisotropic materials, and give intuitive approaches to tuning them. In order to simulate large deformations, we augment linear corotational FEM simulations with our orthotropic and general anisotropic materials. PMID:26340037

  6. Fluid-structure interaction in water-filled thin pipes of anisotropic composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Jeong Ho; Inaba, K.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of elastic anisotropy in piping materials on fluid-structure interaction are studied for water-filled carbon-fiber reinforced thin plastic pipes. When an impact is introduced to water in a pipe, there are two waves traveling at different speeds. A primary wave corresponding to a breathing mode of pipe travels slowly and a precursor wave corresponding to a longitudinal mode of pipe travels fast. An anisotropic stress-strain relationship of piping materials has been taken into account to describe the propagation of primary and precursor waves in the carbon-fiber reinforced thin plastic pipes. The wave speeds and strains in the axial and hoop directions are calculated as a function of carbon-fiber winding angles and compared with the experimental data. As the winding angle increases, the primary wave speed increases due to the increased stiffness in the hoop direction, while the precursor wave speed decreases. The magnitudes of precursor waves are much smaller than those of primary waves so that the effect of precursor waves on the deformation of pipe is not significant. The primary wave generates the hoop strain accompanying the opposite-signed axial strain through the coupling compliance of pipe. The magnitude of hoop strain induced by the primary waves decreases with increasing the winding angle due to the increased hoop stiffness of pipe. The magnitude of axial strain is small at low and high winding angles where the coupling compliance is small.

  7. Negative refraction in anisotropic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, S. T.

    2004-03-01

    Left-handed materials (LHM) are materials in which the direction of wave propagation S is opposite to the wave vector k . S <0 .[1,2,3] LHM exhibit nagative refraction. Experiments have been carried out on a medium consisting of arrays of metallic rings and wrires.[3] An example of a different class of anisotropic left-handed materials are metallic magnetic granular composites. Based on the effective medium approximation, we show that by incorporating metallic magnetic nanoparticles into an appropriate insulating matrix, it may be possible to prepare a composite medium of low eddy current loss which is left-handed for electromagnetic waves propagating in some special direction and polarization in a frequency region near the ferromagnetic resonance frequency.[4,5] This composite may be easier to make on an industrial scale. In addition, its physical properties may be easily tuned by rotating the magnetization locally. The physics involved seems to be different from the original argument.[1,2] In our argument[5], the imaginary part of the dielectric constant of the metal is much larger than the real part, opposite to the original argument. In anisotropic materials so that some of the susceptibilities are negative, the criterion for LHM may not be the same as that for negative refraction.[6] Ansiotropic materials exhibit a richer manifold of anomlous behaviour[6,7,8] and offers more flexibility in apllications.[8] More recently it was found that negative refraction can occur in anisotropic materials where all the susceptibilities are positive.[9] We found that the range of applicability of this effect is much larger than originally thought.[10] S. T. Chui was supported in part by the Office of Naval Research, by the Army Research Laboratory through the Center of Composite Materials at the University of Delaware, by DARPA and by the NSF. [1] J.B.Pendry, A.J.Holden, W.J.Stewart, and I.Youngs, Phys. Rev. Lett 76, 4773 (1996). [2] V.G.Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968). [3] D.R.Smith, W.J.Padilla, D.C.Vier, S.C.Nemet-Nasser, S.Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3578 (2000). [4] S. T. Chui and L. B. Hu, Phys. Rev. B 65, 144407 (2002), [5] S. T. Chui, L. B. Hu and Z. F. Lin, Phys. Lett. A319, 85 (2003). [6] L. B. Hu, S. T. Chui and Z. F. Lin, Phys. Rev. B66, 085108 (2002). [7] V. Lindell and coworkers, Microwave and Opt. Tech Lett. 31, 129 (2001). [8] D. R. Smith and D. Schurig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 077405-1 (2003); D. Schurig and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2215 (2003). [9] Y. Zhang, B. Fluegel and A. Mascarenhas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 157404, (2003). [10] Z. F. Lin and S. T. Chui, unpublished.

  8. Anisotropic compositional expansion in elastoplastic materials and corresponding chemical potential: Large-strain formulation and application to amorphous lithiated silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitas, Valery I.; Attariani, Hamed

    2014-09-01

    A general large-strain thermodynamic approach with anisotropic (tensorial) compositional expansion/contraction in elastoplastic material under stress tensor is developed. The dissipation rate due to compositional expansion/contraction is introduced. Adapting and utilizing a previously formulated postulate of realizability, we derived a simple equation for the deviatoric part of the compositional deformation rate. This leads to a nontrivial generalization of the concept and expression for the chemical potential. It receives a contribution from deviatoric stresses, which leads to an increase in the driving force for both the compositional expansion and contraction and to some new phenomena. Our model provides a remarkable description of the known experimental and atomistic simulation data on the biaxial stress evolution during lithiation-delithiation of LixSi on a rigid substrate with just one constant kinetic coefficient. In contrast to known approaches, it does not involve plasticity, because the yield strength is higher than the stresses generated during lithiation-delithiation. This allowed us to suggest a method for reduction in internal stresses by cyclic change in Li concentration with a small amplitude, and our simulations were in qualitative agreement with known experiments. The coupled diffusion and mechanical model was applied to lithiation and delithiation of thin-film, solid, and hollow spherical nanoparticles. The importance of the contribution of the deviatoric stress on the diffusion is demonstrated.

  9. Unit-Sphere Multiaxial Stochastic-Strength Model Applied to Anisotropic and Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Noel, N.

    2013-01-01

    Models that predict the failure probability of brittle materials under multiaxial loading have been developed by authors such as Batdorf, Evans, and Matsuo. These "unit-sphere" models assume that the strength-controlling flaws are randomly oriented, noninteracting planar microcracks of specified geometry but of variable size. This methodology has been extended to predict the multiaxial strength response of transversely isotropic brittle materials, including polymer matrix composites (PMCs), by considering (1) flaw-orientation anisotropy, whereby a preexisting microcrack has a higher likelihood of being oriented in one direction over another direction, and (2) critical strength, or K (sub Ic) orientation anisotropy, whereby the level of critical strength or fracture toughness for mode I crack propagation, K (sub Ic), changes with regard to the orientation of the microstructure. In this report, results from finite element analysis of a fiber-reinforced-matrix unit cell were used with the unit-sphere model to predict the biaxial strength response of a unidirectional PMC previously reported from the World-Wide Failure Exercise. Results for nuclear-grade graphite materials under biaxial loading are also shown for comparison. This effort was successful in predicting the multiaxial strength response for the chosen problems. Findings regarding stress-state interactions and failure modes also are provided.

  10. Improved understanding of the dynamic response in anisotropic directional composite materials through the combination of experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, C. S.; Key, C. T.; Schumacher, S. C.

    2014-05-01

    Recently there has been renewed interest in the dynamic response of composite materials; specifically low density epoxy matrix binders strengthened with continuous reinforcing fibers. This is in part due to the widespread use of carbon fiber composites in military, commercial, industrial, and aerospace applications. The design community requires better understanding of these materials in order to make full use of their unique properties. Planar impact testing was performed resulting in pressures up to 15 GPa on a unidirectional carbon fiber - epoxy composite, engineered to have high uniformity and low porosity. Results illustrate the anisotropic nature of the response under shock loading. Along the fiber direction, a two-wave structure similar to typical elastic-plastic response is observed, however, when shocked transverse to the fibers, only a single bulk shock wave is detected. At higher pressures, the epoxy matrix dissociates resulting in a loss of anisotropy. Greater understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the observed response has been achieved through numerical modeling of the system at the micromechanical level using the CTH hydrocode. From the simulation results it is evident that the observed two-wave structure in the longitudinal fiber direction is the result of a fast moving elastic precursor wave traveling in the carbon fibers ahead of the bulk response in the epoxy resin. Similarly, in the transverse direction, results show a collapse of the resin component consistent with the experimental observation of a single shock wave traveling at speeds associated with bulk carbon. Experimental and simulation results will be discussed and used to show where additional mechanisms, not fully described by the currently used models, are present.

  11. Improved understanding of the dynamic response in anisotropic directional composite materials through the combination of experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, C.

    2013-06-01

    Recently there has been renewed interest in the dynamic response of composite materials; specifically low density epoxy resin binders strengthened with continuous reinforcing fibers. This is in part due to the widespread use of carbon fiber composites in military, commercial, industrial, and aerospace applications. The design community requires better understanding of these materials in order to make full use of their unique properties. Experimental testing has been performed on a unidirectional carbon fiber - epoxy composite, engineered to have high uniformity and low porosity. Planar impact testing was performed at the Shock Thermodynamics Applied Research (STAR) facility at Sandia National Labs resulting in pressures up to 15 GPa in the composite material. Results illustrate the anisotropic nature of the response under shock loading. Along the fiber direction, a two-wave structure similar to typical elastic-plastic response is observed, however, when shocked transverse to the fibers, only a single bulk shock wave is detected. The two-wave structure persists when impact occurs at angles up to 45 degrees off the fiber direction. At higher pressures, the epoxy matrix dissociates resulting in a loss of anisotropy. Details of the experimental configurations and results will be presented and discussed. Greater understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the observed response has been achieved through the use of numerical modeling of the system at the micromechanical level using the CTH hydrocode. From the simulation results it is evident that the observed two-wave structure in the longitudinal fiber direction is the result of a fast moving elastic precursor wave traveling in the carbon fibers ahead of the bulk response in the epoxy resin. Similarly, in the transverse direction, results show a collapse of the resin component consistent with the experimental observation of a single shock wave traveling at speeds associated with bulk carbon. These results will be discussed within the context of the experiments and will be used to show where additional mechanisms, not fully described by the currently used models, are present. Sandia National Labs is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. Enhancement of non-resonant dielectric cloaks using anisotropic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takezawa, Akihiro; Kitamura, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    Cloaking techniques conceal objects by controlling the flow of electromagnetic waves to minimize scattering. Herein, the effectiveness of homogenized anisotropic materials in non-resonant dielectric multilayer cloaking is studied. Because existing multilayer cloaking by isotropic materials can be regarded as homogenous anisotropic cloaking from a macroscopic view, anisotropic materials can be efficiently designed through optimization of their physical properties. Anisotropic properties can be realized in two-phase composites if the physical properties of the material are within appropriate bounds. The optimized anisotropic physical properties are identified by a numerical optimization technique based on a full-wave simulation using the finite element method. The cloaking performance measured by the total scattering width is improved by about 2.8% and 25% in eight- and three-layer cylindrical cloaking materials, respectively, compared with multilayer cloaking by isotropic materials. In all cloaking examples, the optimized microstructures of the two-phase composites are identified as the simple lamination of two materials, which maximizes the anisotropy. The same performance as published for eight-layer cloaking by isotropic materials is achieved by three-layer cloaking using the anisotropic material. Cloaking with an approximately 50% reduction of total scattering width is achieved even in an octagonal object. Since the cloaking effect can be realized using just a few layers of the laminated anisotropic dielectric composite, this may have an advantage in the mass production of cloaking devices.

  13. Enhancement of non-resonant dielectric cloaks using anisotropic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Takezawa, Akihiro Kitamura, Mitsuru

    2014-01-15

    Cloaking techniques conceal objects by controlling the flow of electromagnetic waves to minimize scattering. Herein, the effectiveness of homogenized anisotropic materials in non-resonant dielectric multilayer cloaking is studied. Because existing multilayer cloaking by isotropic materials can be regarded as homogenous anisotropic cloaking from a macroscopic view, anisotropic materials can be efficiently designed through optimization of their physical properties. Anisotropic properties can be realized in two-phase composites if the physical properties of the material are within appropriate bounds. The optimized anisotropic physical properties are identified by a numerical optimization technique based on a full-wave simulation using the finite element method. The cloaking performance measured by the total scattering width is improved by about 2.8% and 25% in eight- and three-layer cylindrical cloaking materials, respectively, compared with multilayer cloaking by isotropic materials. In all cloaking examples, the optimized microstructures of the two-phase composites are identified as the simple lamination of two materials, which maximizes the anisotropy. The same performance as published for eight-layer cloaking by isotropic materials is achieved by three-layer cloaking using the anisotropic material. Cloaking with an approximately 50% reduction of total scattering width is achieved even in an octagonal object. Since the cloaking effect can be realized using just a few layers of the laminated anisotropic dielectric composite, this may have an advantage in the mass production of cloaking devices.

  14. Anisotropic fiber alignment in composite structures

    DOEpatents

    Graham, Alan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Mondy, Lisa A. (Cedar Crest, NM); Guell, David C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01

    High strength material composite structures are formed with oriented fibers to provide controlled anisotropic fibers. Fibers suspended in non-dilute concentrations (e.g., up to 20 volume percent for fibers having an aspect ratio of 20) in a selected medium are oriented by moving an axially spaced array of elements in the direction of desired fiber alignment. The array elements are generally perpendicular to the desired orientation. The suspension medium may also include sphere-like particles where the resulting material is a ceramic.

  15. Anisotropic fiber alignment in composite structures

    DOEpatents

    Graham, A.L.; Mondy, L.A.; Guell, D.C.

    1993-11-16

    High strength material composite structures are formed with oriented fibers to provide controlled anisotropic fibers. Fibers suspended in non-dilute concentrations (e.g., up to 20 volume percent for fibers having an aspect ratio of 20) in a selected medium are oriented by moving an axially spaced array of elements in the direction of desired fiber alignment. The array elements are generally perpendicular to the desired orientation. The suspension medium may also include sphere-like particles where the resulting material is a ceramic. 5 figures.

  16. Anisotropic Magnetism in Field-Structured Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Robert A.; Martin, James E.; Odinek, Judy; Venturini, Eugene

    1999-06-24

    Magnetic field-structured-composites (FSCs) are made by structuring magnetic particle suspensions in uniaxial or biaxial (e.g. rotating) magnetic fields, while polymerizing the suspending resin. A uniaxial field produces chain-like particle structures, and a biaxial field produces sheet-like particle structures. In either case, these anisotropic structures affect the measured magnetic hysteresis loops, with the magnetic remanence and susceptibility increased significantly along the axis of the structuring field, and decreased slightly orthogonal to the structuring field, relative to the unstructured particle composite. The coercivity is essentially unaffected by structuring. We present data for FSCs of magnetically soft particles, and demonstrate that the altered magnetism can be accounted for by considering the large local fields that occur in FSCs. FSCS of magnetically hard particles show unexpectedly large anisotropies in the remanence, and this is due to the local field effects in combination with the large crystalline anisotropy of this material.

  17. Sound field distribution influenced by anisotropic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Erhard, A.; Boehm, R.; Wuestenberg, H.

    1993-12-31

    Sound wave distributions in isotropic materials are often described using analytical or numerical solutions of the wave equation. In opposition to this, it is more difficult to find a solution for anisotropic mediums. One possible method is the elastic finite integration technique (EFIT). With this method, scalar and vectorial calculations of the sound distribution from a line source in anisotropic materials were carried out. This method needs a powerful computer in order to keep the computation time short. In the present paper another theoretical model was used -- the pulse integration model -- with which sound field distributions for scalar waves were calculated in the sound field distribution of longitudinal waves in anisotropic materials. The principle of the model is described briefly. Different sound field pattern generated with a phased array longitudinal wave probe were calculated during the propagation in a homogeneous isotropic material and in a homogeneous anisotropic material (single crystal).

  18. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    Progress is reported in studies of constituent materials composite materials, generic structural elements, processing science technology, and maintaining long-term structural integrity. Topics discussed include: mechanical properties of high performance carbon fibers; fatigue in composite materials; experimental and theoretical studies of moisture and temperature effects on the mechanical properties of graphite-epoxy laminates and neat resins; numerical investigations of the micromechanics of composite fracture; delamination failures of composite laminates; effect of notch size on composite laminates; improved beam theory for anisotropic materials; variation of resin properties through the thickness of cured samples; numerical analysis composite processing; heat treatment of metal matrix composites, and the RP-1 and RP2 gliders of the sailplane project.

  19. Anisotropic linear elastic properties of fractal-like composites.

    PubMed

    Carpinteri, Alberto; Cornetti, Pietro; Pugno, Nicola; Sapora, Alberto

    2010-11-01

    In this work, the anisotropic linear elastic properties of two-phase composite materials, made up of square inclusions embedded in a matrix, are investigated. The inclusions present a fractal hierarchical distribution and are supposed to have the same Poisson's ratio as the matrix but a different Young's modulus. The effective elastic moduli of the medium are computed at each fractal iteration by coupling a position-space renormalization-group technique with a finite element analysis. The study allows to obtain and generalize some fundamental properties of fractal composite materials. PMID:21230552

  20. Anisotropic materials appearance analysis using ellipsoidal mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filip, Ji?; Vvra, Radomr.

    2015-03-01

    Many real-world materials exhibit significant changes in appearance when rotated along a surface normal. The presence of this behavior is often referred to as visual anisotropy. Anisotropic appearance of spatially homogeneous materials is commonly characterized by a four-dimensional BRDF. Unfortunately, due to simplicity most past research has been devoted to three dimensional isotropic BRDFs. In this paper, we introduce an innovative, fast, and inexpensive image-based approach to detect the extent of anisotropy, its main axes and width of corresponding anisotropic highlights. The method does not rely on any moving parts and uses only an off-the-shelf ellipsoidal reflector with a compact camera. We analyze our findings with a material microgeometry scan, and present how results correspond to the microstructure of individual threads in a particular fabric. We show that knowledge of a material's anisotropic behavior can be effectively used in order to design a material-dependent sampling pattern so as the material's BRDF could be measured much more precisely in the same amount of time using a common gonioreflectometer.

  1. Composite material

    DOEpatents

    Hutchens, Stacy A.; Woodward, Jonathan; Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  2. A material model for anisotropic metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vuyst, T.; Vignjevic, R.; Mirkovic, J.; Campbell, J.

    2003-09-01

    The paper describes the development of a material model, which allows for anisotropy of elastic constants, the yield surface, work hardening parameters and damage. The current failure/damage model is porosity based and allows for the modelling of tensile failure and includes the effect of anisotropy. The model accounts for non-linear behaviour at high pressures, and is implemented in the LLNL-DYNA3D. The importance of the above mentioned model features when considering the response of anisotropic materials to high strain-rate loading is illustrated by considering two examples, flyer plate impact and Taylor cylinder impact.

  3. Piezoelectric performance composition relations in anisotropic materials based on Pb0.85Ca0.15-xCdxTi0.9Zr0.1O3 phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterov, Alexey A.; Topolov, Vitaly Yu.; Panich, Anatoly E.

    2015-06-01

    The effect of processing methods and a composition of ferroelectric (FE) (piezoelectric) phases on forming a microstructure of a ceramic framework during poling is studied in a ceramic material of the composition Pb0.85Ca0.15-xCdxTi0.9Zr0.1O3. A transition from using the solid-phase method for the synthesis of powder of a particular phase to a method of bulk "chemical assembly" leads to a change in the mechanical strength of the bulk granular medium and intergranular boundaries therein. Depending on a relationship between mechanical strength parameters of the studied materials, on poling the samples with a particular composition, anisotropic piezo-active composite materials with various connectivities of Pb0.85Ca0.15-xCdxTi0.9Zr0.1O3 phases can be obtained. These materials are characterized by various combinations of electrophysical properties and demonstrate advantages over the known anisotropic PbTiO3-type ceramics. The fracture of ceramic grains during the poling process can be intensified by introducing FE phases with the composition comprising Cd2+ ions with a smaller radius and a most deformability in comparison to the Ca2+ ion.

  4. CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Effective Anisotropic Dielectric Properties of Crystal Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, En-Bo; Gu, Guo-Qing; Poon, Ying-Ming; Franklin, G. Shin

    2010-02-01

    Transformation field method (TFM) is developed to estimate the anisotropic dielectric properties of crystal composites having arbitrary shapes and dielectric properties of crystal inclusions, whose principal dielectric axis are different from those of anisotropic crystal matrix. The complicated boundary-value problem caused by inclusion shapes is circumvented by introducing a transformation electric field into the crystal composites regions, and the effective anisotropic dielectric responses are formulated in terms of the transformation field. Furthermore, the numerical results show that the effective anisotropic dielectric responses of crystal composites periodically vary as a function of the rotating angle between the principal dielectric axes of inclusion and matrix crystal materials. It is found that at larger inclusion volume fraction the inclusion shapes induce profound effect on the effective anisotropic dielectric responses.

  5. Ultrasonic assembly of anisotropic short fibre reinforced composites.

    PubMed

    Scholz, M-S; Drinkwater, B W; Trask, R S

    2014-04-01

    We report the successful manufacture of short fibre reinforced polymer composites via the process of ultrasonic assembly. An ultrasonic device is developed allowing the manufacture of thin layers of anisotropic composite material. Strands of unidirectional reinforcement are, in response to the acoustic radiation force, shown to form inside various matrix media. The technique proves suitable for both photo-initiator and temperature controlled polymerisation mechanisms. A series of glass fibre reinforced composite samples constructed in this way are subjected to tensile loading and the stress-strain response is characterised. Structural anisotropy is clearly demonstrated, together with a 43% difference in failure stress between principal directions. The average stiffnesses of samples strained along the direction of fibre reinforcement and transversely across it were 17.66±0.63MPa and 16.36±0.48MPa, respectively. PMID:24360815

  6. Thermographic Imaging of Defects in Anisotropic Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plotnikov, Y. A.; Winfree, W. P.

    2000-01-01

    Composite materials are of increasing interest to the aerospace industry as a result of their weight versus performance characteristics. One of the disadvantages of composites is the high cost of fabrication and post inspection with conventional ultrasonic scanning systems. The high cost of inspection is driven by the need for scanning systems which can follow large curve surfaces. Additionally, either large water tanks or water squirters are required to couple the ultrasonics into the part. Thermographic techniques offer significant advantages over conventional ultrasonics by not requiring physical coupling between the part and sensor. The thermographic system can easily inspect large curved surface without requiring a surface following scanner. However, implementation of Thermal Nondestructive Evaluations (TNDE) for flaw detection in composite materials and structures requires determining its limit. Advanced algorithms have been developed to enable locating and sizing defects in carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Thermal Tomography is a very promising method for visualizing the size and location of defects in materials such as CFRP. However, further investigations are required to determine its capabilities for inspection of thick composites. In present work we have studied influence of the anisotropy on the reconstructed image of a defect generated by an inversion technique. The composite material is considered as homogeneous with macro properties: thermal conductivity K, specific heat c, and density rho. The simulation process involves two sequential steps: solving the three dimensional transient heat diffusion equation for a sample with a defect, then estimating the defect location and size from the surface spatial and temporal thermal distributions (inverse problem), calculated from the simulations.

  7. Anisotropic microporous supports impregnated with polymeric ion-exchange materials

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, D.; Babcock, W.C.; Tuttle, M.

    1985-05-07

    Novel ion-exchange media are disclosed, the media comprising polymeric anisotropic microporous supports containing polymeric ion-exchange or ion-complexing materials. The supports are anisotropic, having small exterior pores and larger interior pores, and are preferably in the form of beads, fibers and sheets. 5 figs.

  8. Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Composites are lighter and stronger than metals. Aramid fibers like Kevlar and Nomex were developed by DuPont Corporation and can be combined in a honeycomb structure which can give an airplane a light, tough structure. Composites can be molded into many aerodynamic shapes eliminating rivets and fasteners. Langley Research Center has tested composites for both aerospace and non-aerospace applications. They are also used in boat hulls, military shelters, etc.

  9. The Features of Self-Assembling Organic Bilayers Important to the Formation of Anisotropic Inorganic Materials in Microgravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talham, Daniel R.; Adair, James H.

    1999-01-01

    There is a growing need for inorganic anisotropic particles in a variety of materials science applications. Structural, optical, and electrical properties can be greatly augmented by the fabrication of composite materials with anisotropic microstructures or with anisotropic particles uniformly dispersed in an isotropic matrix. Examples include structural composites, magnetic and optical recording media, photographic film, certain metal and ceramic alloys, and display technologies including flat panel displays. While considerable progress has been made toward developing an understanding of the synthesis of powders composed of monodispersed, spherical particles, these efforts have not been transferred to the synthesis of anisotropic nanoparticles. The major objective of the program is to develop a fundamental understanding of the growth of anisotropic particles at organic templates, with emphasis on the chemical and structural aspects of layered organic assemblies that contribute to the formation of anisotropic inorganic particles.

  10. Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The deformation and failure behavior of graphite/epoxy tubes under biaxial (axial tension and torsion) loading is being investigated. The aim of this research is to increase basic understanding of and provide design information for the biaxial response of graphite/epoxy composites.

  11. Enhanced Raman Scattering on In-plane Anisotropic Layered Materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liang, Liangbo; Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Ling, Xi; Lin, Jingjing; Zhang, Shuqing; Mao, Nannan; Zhang, Na; Tong, Lianming; Zhang, Jin

    2015-11-19

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on two-dimensional (2D) layered materials has provided a unique platform to study the chemical mechanism (CM) of the enhancement due to its natural separation from electromagnetic enhancement. The CM stems from the basic charge interactions between the substrate and molecules. Despite the extensive studies of the energy alignment between 2D materials and molecules, an understanding of how the electronic properties of the substrate are explicitly involved in the charge interaction is still unclear. Lately, a new group of 2D layered materials with anisotropic structure, including orthorhombic black phosphorus (BP) and triclinic rhenium disulphide (ReS2), has attractedmore » great interest due to their unique anisotropic electrical and optical properties. Herein, we report a unique anisotropic Raman enhancement on few-layered BP and ReS2 using copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules as a Raman probe, which is absent on isotropic graphene and h-BN. According to detailed Raman tensor analysis and density functional theory calculations, anisotropic charge interactions due to the anisotropic carrier mobilities of the 2D materials are responsible for the angular dependence of the Raman enhancement. Our findings not only provide new insights into the CM process in SERS, but also open up new avenues for the exploration and application of the electronic properties of anisotropic 2D layered materials.« less

  12. Enhanced Raman Scattering on In-plane Anisotropic Layered Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Liangbo; Meunier, Vincent; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Ling, Xi; Lin, Jingjing; Zhang, Shuqing; Mao, Nannan; Zhang, Na; Tong, Lianming; Zhang, Jin

    2015-11-19

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on two-dimensional (2D) layered materials has provided a unique platform to study the chemical mechanism (CM) of the enhancement due to its natural separation from electromagnetic enhancement. The CM stems from the basic charge interactions between the substrate and molecules. Despite the extensive studies of the energy alignment between 2D materials and molecules, an understanding of how the electronic properties of the substrate are explicitly involved in the charge interaction is still unclear. Lately, a new group of 2D layered materials with anisotropic structure, including orthorhombic black phosphorus (BP) and triclinic rhenium disulphide (ReS2), has attracted great interest due to their unique anisotropic electrical and optical properties. Herein, we report a unique anisotropic Raman enhancement on few-layered BP and ReS2 using copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules as a Raman probe, which is absent on isotropic graphene and h-BN. According to detailed Raman tensor analysis and density functional theory calculations, anisotropic charge interactions due to the anisotropic carrier mobilities of the 2D materials are responsible for the angular dependence of the Raman enhancement. Our findings not only provide new insights into the CM process in SERS, but also open up new avenues for the exploration and application of the electronic properties of anisotropic 2D layered materials.

  13. Explicit elasticity conductivity connections for composites with anisotropic inhomogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevostianov, Igor; Kachanov, Mark

    2007-10-01

    Explicit elasticity-conductivity connections for anisotropic heterogeneous materials were recently derived and verified experimentally by the present authors. The constituents were assumed isotropic, so that the overall anisotropy was due solely due to nonrandom orientations of inhomogeneities. Motivated by the materials science applications that deal with strongly anisotropic inclusions, we derive alternative elasticity-conductivity connections that cover these cases. They hold for a broad class of orientation distributionsup to three families of parallel inhomogeneities forming arbitrary angles with each other, with moderate orientation scatter allowed in each of the families. In the case of the isotropic inhomogeneities, this form has substantially better accuracy than the approximate connections derived earlier. The results are compared with experimental data on fiber-reinforced plastics. The agreement is quite good for the entire set of the effective anisotropic constants, and it is achieved without any fitting parameters.

  14. Toward anisotropic materials via forced assembly coextrusion.

    PubMed

    Burt, Tiffani M; Jordan, Alex M; Korley, LaShanda T J

    2012-10-24

    Multilayer coextrusion offers a diverse platform to examine layer dependent confinement effects on self-assembling nanomaterials via conventional extrusion technology. A triblock copolymer (BCP) with a cylindrical microstructure was processed via "forced assembly" to elucidate the effect of microdomain orientation on the mechanical behavior of multilayer films. The mechanical response was investigated in both the extrusion (ED) and transverse directions (TD) of the multilayer systems, revealing an influence of both cylinder-orientation and the interface on the mechanical response with decreasing layer thickness. The stress-strain curves for samples with the stress field along the cylinder axis revealed a sharp yielding phenomenon, while curves for specimens with the stress field applied perpendicular to the axis exhibited weak yielding behavior. The extensibility of the multilayer films stressed in the ED increases with decreasing layer thickness, but remains constant when deformed along the TD. Coextrusion technology allows for tunable mechanical toughness in industrial grade polymers via a continuous process. By altering the layer thickness of the two polymeric materials, we can tune the mechanics from strong, brittle behavior to a tough, ductile response by manipulation of the hierarchical structure. The enabling technology provides a unique platform to couple the inherent mechanical response of dissimilar polymers and allows for the design of composite materials with tailored mechanics. PMID:22991945

  15. Enhanced Raman Scattering on In-Plane Anisotropic Layered Materials.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jingjing; Liang, Liangbo; Ling, Xi; Zhang, Shuqing; Mao, Nannan; Zhang, Na; Sumpter, Bobby G; Meunier, Vincent; Tong, Lianming; Zhang, Jin

    2015-12-16

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on two-dimensional (2D) layered materials has provided a unique platform to study the chemical mechanism (CM) of the enhancement due to its natural separation from electromagnetic enhancement. The CM stems from the charge interactions between the substrate and molecules. Despite the extensive studies of the energy alignment between 2D materials and molecules, an understanding of how the electronic properties of the substrate are explicitly involved in the charge interaction is still unclear. Lately, a new group of 2D layered materials with anisotropic structures, including orthorhombic black phosphorus (BP) and triclinic rhenium disulfide (ReS2), has attracted great interest due to their unique anisotropic electrical and optical properties. Herein, we report a unique anisotropic Raman enhancement on few-layered BP and ReS2 using copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecules as a Raman probe, which is absent on isotropic graphene and h-BN. According to detailed Raman tensor analysis and density functional theory calculations, anisotropic charge interactions between the 2D materials and molecules are responsible for the angular dependence of the Raman enhancement. Our findings not only provide new insights into the CM process in SERS, but also open up new avenues for the exploration and application of the electronic properties of anisotropic 2D layered materials. PMID:26583533

  16. Investigation of Porosity Evolution and Orthotropic Axes on Anisotropic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Raheleh Mohammad

    Advancement of porosities that happens in shear deformation of anisotropic materials is investigated by Dr. Kweon. As the hydrostatic stress in shear deformation is zero, in the solid mechanics' researches it is proved several times that porosity will not be expanded in shear deformation. Dr. Kweon showed that this statement can be wrong in large deformation of simple shear. He proposed anisotropic ductile fracture model to show that hydrostatic stress becomes nonzero and porosities are increased in the simple shear deformation of anisotropic materials. This study investigates the effect of the evolution of anisotropy which means the rotation of the orthotropic axes onto the porosity changes. Hill coefficient shows that how orthotropic materials indicate different ductile fracture manners in shear deformation. Also the effect of void aspect ratio on change of porosity is investigated. It has been found that the interaction among porosity, the matrix anisotropy and void aspect ratio play a crucial role in the ductile damage of porous materials.

  17. The features of self-assembling organic bilayers important to the formation of anisotropic inorganic materials in microgravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talham, Daniel R.; Adair, James H.

    2005-01-01

    Materials with directional properties are opening new horizons in a variety of applications including chemistry, electronics, and optics. Structural, optical, and electrical properties can be greatly augmented by the fabrication of composite materials with anisotropic microstructures or with anisotropic particles uniformly dispersed in an isotropic matrix. Examples include structural composites, magnetic and optical recording media, photographic film, certain metal and ceramic alloys, and display technologies including flat panel displays. The new applications and the need for model particles in scientific investigations are rapidly out-distancing the ability to synthesize anisotropic particles with specific chemistries and narrowly distributed physical characteristics (e.g. size distribution, shape, and aspect ratio).

  18. Material nonlinear analysis of composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Y. W.

    1991-05-01

    A three dimensional analysis model was developed for the material nonlinear analysis of continuous fiber reinforced composite plates. The respective yield criterion and flow rule or each constituent, namely fiber or matrix, can be used in the model instead of those for the globally smeared anisotropic material. The respective stresses occurring on each constitutent can also be obtained directly from the present model. The model was degenerated into a plate bending analysis model and a two dimensional analysis model. A finite element formulation was derived from the analysis model. Application of the present analysis model along with the finite element formulation to the material nonlinear analyses of composites provided good solutions. Some examples of composite plate bending were solved using the present formulation.

  19. Locating point of impact in anisotropic fiber reinforced composite plates.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Tribikram; Das, Samik; Martin, Steven A; Jata, Kumar V

    2008-07-01

    The conventional triangulation technique cannot predict the point of impact in an anisotropic composite plate because the triangulation technique assumes that the wave speed is independent of the direction of propagation which is not the case for anisotropic plates. An alternative method based on the optimization scheme was proposed by Kundu et al. [T. Kundu, S. Das, K.V. Jata, Point of impact prediction in isotropic and anistropic plates from the acoustic emission data, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 2007, 2057-2066] to locate the point of impact in plates by analyzing the time of arrival of the ultrasonic signals received by the passive sensors attached to the plate. In this paper, that objective function is modified further to overcome the inherent difficulties associated with multiple singularities and to maximize the efficiency of the acoustic emission data for multiple receiving sensors. With this modified objective function the impact point on an anisotropic composite plate is predicted from the acoustic emission data. Experiments are carried out by dropping steel and ping pong balls on a graphite-epoxy composite plate and recording acoustic signals by passive transducers adhesively bonded to the plate at three different locations. The impact point is predicted by the proposed method and compared with the actual location of impact. PMID:18255117

  20. High field dielectric properties of anisotropic polymer-ceramic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Tomer, V.; Randall, C. A.

    2008-10-01

    Using dielectrophoretic assembly, we create anisotropic composites of BaTiO{sub 3} particles in a silicone elastomer thermoset polymer. We study a variety of electrical properties in these composites, i.e., permittivity, dielectric breakdown, and energy density as function of ceramic volume fraction and connectivity. The recoverable energy density of these electric-field-structured composites is found to be highly dependent on the anisotropy present in the system. Our results indicate that x-y-aligned composites exhibit higher breakdown strengths along with large recoverable energy densities when compared to 0-3 composites. This demonstrates that engineered anisotropy can be employed to control dielectric breakdown strengths and nonlinear conduction at high fields in heterogeneous systems. Consequently, manipulation of anisotropy in high-field dielectric properties can be exploited for the development of high energy density polymer-ceramic systems.

  1. Photoelastic effect and mirage deflection in anisotropic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, A.; Ang, W. T.; Gateshki, M.; Gutiérrez-Juárez, G.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.

    2002-01-01

    The collinear mirage technique is widely used to measure the thermal diffusivity of semi-transparent materials. However, in a recent paper [A. Salazar, M. Gateshki and A. Sánchez-Lavega: Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 2665 (2000)], it was shown that for isotropic materials, because of the influence of photoelastic effect, the method was sensitive to the polarization state of the probe beam. The present paper extends the previous work to include anisotropic materials. In particular, we focus on the experimental conditions under which the thermal diffusivity of each crystal system can be measured using the phase method. Our theoretical model indicates that while the thermal diffusivity of isotropic materials can be measured using an unpolarized probe beam, for anisotropic materials, even the use of an unpolarized probe beam does not guarantee the validity of the method in all crystal systems. Experimental measurements performed on cubic, hexagonal and monoclinic crystals confirm the validity of the model.

  2. Constitutive Modeling of Anisotropic Finite-Deformation Hyperelastic Behaviors of Soft Materials Reinforced by Tortuous Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Philip H; Lammers, Steven R.; Hunter, Kendall; Stenmark, Kurt R.; Shandas, Robin; Qi, H. Jerry

    2011-01-01

    Many biological materials are composites composed of a soft matrix reinforced with stiffer fibers. These stiffer fibers may have a tortuous shape and wind through the soft matrix. At small material deformation, these fibers deform in a bending mode and contribute little to the material stiffness; at large material deformation, these fibers deform in a stretching mode and induce a stiffening effect in the material behavior. The transition from bending mode deformation to stretching mode deformation yields a characteristic J-shape stress-strain curve. In addition, the spatial distribution of these fibers may render the composite an anisotropic behavior. In this paper, we present an anisotropic finite-deformation hyperelastic constitutive model for such materials. Here, the matrix is modeled as an isotropic neo-Hookean material. “The behaviors of single tortuous fiber are represented by a crimped fiber model”. The anisotropic behavior is introduced by a structure tensor representing the effective orientation distribution of crimped fibers. Parametric studies show the effect of fiber tortuosity and fiber orientation distribution on the overall stress-strain behaviors of the materials. PMID:21822502

  3. Anisotropic 2D Materials for Tunable Hyperbolic Plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemilentsau, Andrei; Low, Tony; Hanson, George

    2016-02-01

    Motivated by the recent emergence of a new class of anisotropic 2D materials, we examine their electromagnetic modes and demonstrate that a broad class of the materials can host highly directional hyperbolic plasmons. Their propagation direction can be manipulated on the spot by gate doping, enabling hyperbolic beam reflection, refraction, and bending. The realization of these natural 2D hyperbolic media opens up a new avenue in dynamic control of hyperbolic plasmons not possible in the 3D version.

  4. Anisotropic 2D Materials for Tunable Hyperbolic Plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Nemilentsau, Andrei; Low, Tony; Hanson, George

    2016-02-12

    Motivated by the recent emergence of a new class of anisotropic 2D materials, we examine their electromagnetic modes and demonstrate that a broad class of the materials can host highly directional hyperbolic plasmons. Their propagation direction can be manipulated on the spot by gate doping, enabling hyperbolic beam reflection, refraction, and bending. The realization of these natural 2D hyperbolic media opens up a new avenue in dynamic control of hyperbolic plasmons not possible in the 3D version. PMID:26919007

  5. Guided wave propagation in anisotropic materials and the practical implications for operating point selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putkis, O.; Croxford, A. J.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasonic guided wave propagation in anisotropic attenuative materials like CFRP is much more complicated than in isotropic materials. Propagation phenomena need to be understood and quantified before reliable NDE/SHM inspections systems can be realized. The propagation characteristics: energy velocity, dispersion, energy focusing factor and attenuation are considered in this paper. Concepts of minimum resolvable distance and sensitivity maps are extended to anisotropic attenuative materials in order to provide the means for comparison of different guided wave modes in composite materials. It is shown that minimum resolvable distance is a more complex phenomena in anistropic materials and care must be taken when considering the directions of propagation ultimately detection capability. Similarly when designing an inspection the distribution of energy in a structure must be considered to determine the feasibility of a given inspection.

  6. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1985-01-01

    Various topics relating to composite structural materials for use in aircraft structures are discussed. The mechanical properties of high performance carbon fibers, carbon fiber-epoxy interface bonds, composite fractures, residual stress in high modulus and high strength carbon fibers, fatigue in composite materials, and the mechanical properties of polymeric matrix composite laminates are among the topics discussed.

  7. A beam theory for anisotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauchau, O. A.

    1985-01-01

    Beam theory plays an important role in structural analysis. The basic assumption is that initially plane sections remain plane after deformation, neglecting out-of-plane warpings. Predictions based on these assumptions are accurate for slender, solid, cross-sectional beams made out of isotropic materials. The beam theory derived in this paper from variational principles is based on the sole kinematic assumption that each section is infinitely rigid in its own plane, but free to warp out of plane. After a short review of the Bernoulli and Saint-Venant approaches to beam theory, a set of orthonormal eigenwarpings is derived. Improved solutions can be obtained by expanding the axial displacements or axial stress distribution in series of eigenwarpings and using energy principles to derive the governing equations. The improved Saint-Venant approach leads to fast converging solutions and accurate results are obtained considering only a few eigenwarping terms.

  8. Composite material dosimeters

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is a composite material containing a mix of dosimeter material powder and a polymer powder wherein the polymer is transparent to the photon emission of the dosimeter material powder. By mixing dosimeter material powder with polymer powder, less dosimeter material is needed compared to a monolithic dosimeter material chip. Interrogation is done with excitation by visible light.

  9. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1983-01-01

    Transverse properties of fiber constituents in composites, fatigue in composite materials, matrix dominated properties of high performance composites, numerical investigation of moisture effects, numerical investigation of the micromechanics of composite fracture, advanced analysis methods, compact lug design, and the RP-1 and RP-2 sailplanes projects are discussed.

  10. Tough Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vosteen, L. F. (Compiler); Johnson, N. J. (Compiler); Teichman, L. A. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    Papers and working group summaries are presented which address composite material behavior and performance improvement. Topic areas include composite fracture toughness and impact characterization, constituent properties and interrelationships, and matrix synthesis and characterization.

  11. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1979-01-01

    Technology utilization of fiber reinforced composite materials is discussed in the areas of physical properties, and life prediction. Programs related to the Composite Aircraft Program are described in detail.

  12. Determination of the dielectric tensor in anisotropic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, M. I.; Garriga, M.; Alsina, F.; Piol, S.

    1995-07-01

    We demonstrate a new approach to determine the dielectric tensor of anisotropic materials using a rotating polarizer (or analyzer) ellipsometer. The dependence of the ellipsometric parameters as a function of azimuthal angle shows characteristic patterns very sensitive to the magnitude of the dielectric tensor and its orientation with respect to the sample surface. These patterns are in general nonsinusoidal and depend strongly on the angle setting of the fixed analyzer (or polarizer). We illustrate the method with results obtained on a generic crystallographic face of a uniaxial material, namely, a single crystal of the electron-doped high-temperature superconductor Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4-? .

  13. Rectangular waveguide material characterization: anisotropic property extraction and measurement validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowgey, Benjamin Reid

    Rectangular waveguide methods are appealing for measuring isotropic and anisotropic materials because of high signal strength due to field confinement, and the ability to control the polarization of the applied electric field. As a stepping stone to developing methods for characterizing materials with fully-populated anisotropic tensor characteristics, techniques are presented in this dissertation to characterize isotropic, biaxially anisotropic, and gyromagnetic materials. Two characterization techniques are investigated for each material, and thus six different techniques are described. Additionally, a waveguide standard is introduced which may be used to validate the measurement of the permittivity and permeability of materials at microwave frequencies. The first characterization method examined is the Nicolson-Ross-Weir (NRW) technique for the extraction of isotropic parameters of a sample completely filling the cross-section of a rectangular waveguide. A second technique is proposed for the characterization of an isotropic conductor-backed sample filling the cross-section of a waveguide. If the sample is conductor-backed, and occupies the entire cross-section, a transmission measurement is not available, and thus a method must be found for providing two sufficiently different reflection measurements.The technique proposed here is to place a waveguide iris in front of the sample, exposing the sample to a spectrum of evanescent modes. By measuring the reflection coefficient with and without an iris, the necessary two data may be obtained to determine the material parameters. A mode-matching approach is used to determine the theoretical response of a sample placed behind the waveguide iris. This response is used in a root-searching algorithm to determine permittivity and permeability by comparing to measurements of the reflection coefficient. For the characterization of biaxially anisotropic materials, the first method considers an extension of the NRW technique for characterization of a sample filling the cross-section of a waveguide. Due to the rectangular nature of the waveguide, typically three different samples are manufactured from the same material in order to characterize the six complex material parameters. The second technique for measuring the electromagnetic properties of a biaxially anisotropic material sample uses a reduced-aperture waveguide sample holder designed to accommodate a cubical sample. All the tensor material parameters can then be determined by measuring the reflection and transmission coefficients of a single sample placed into several orientations. The parameters are obtained using a root-searching algorithm by comparing theoretically computed and measured reflection and transmission coefficients. The theoretical coefficients are determined using a mode matching technique. The first technique for characterizing the electromagnetic properties of gyromagnetic materials considers requires filling the cross-section of a waveguide. The material parameters are extracted from the measured reflection and transmission coefficients. Since the cross-sectional dimensions of waveguides become prohibitively large at low frequencies, and it is at these frequencies that the gyromagnetic properties are most pronounced, sufficiently large samples may not be available. Therefore, the second technique uses a reduced-aperture sample holder that does not require the sample to fill the entire cross section of the guide. The theoretical reflection and transmission coefficients for both methods are determined using a mode matching technique. A nonlinear least squares method is employed to extract the gyromagnetic material parameters. Finally, this dissertation introduces a waveguide standard that acts as a surrogate material with both electric and magnetic properties and is useful for verifying systems designed to characterize engineered materials using the NRW technique. A genetic algorithm is used to optimize the all-metallic structure to produce a surrogate with both relative permittivity and permeability near six across S-band, and with low sensitivity to changes in geometry to reduce the effects of fabrication errors.

  14. Nano-composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Pitts, J. Roland

    2010-05-25

    Nano-composite materials are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a nano-composite material may comprise co-sputtering a transition metal and a refractory metal in a reactive atmosphere. The method may also comprise co-depositing a transition metal and a refractory metal composite structure on a substrate. The method may further comprise thermally annealing the deposited transition metal and refractory metal composite structure in a reactive atmosphere.

  15. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1979-01-01

    A multifaceted program is described in which aeronautical, mechanical, and materials engineers interact to develop composite aircraft structures. Topics covered include: (1) the design of an advanced composite elevator and a proposed spar and rib assembly; (2) optimizing fiber orientation in the vicinity of heavily loaded joints; (3) failure mechanisms and delamination; (4) the construction of an ultralight sailplane; (5) computer-aided design; finite element analysis programs, preprocessor development, and array preprocessor for SPAR; (6) advanced analysis methods for composite structures; (7) ultrasonic nondestructive testing; (8) physical properties of epoxy resins and composites; (9) fatigue in composite materials, and (10) transverse thermal expansion of carbon/epoxy composites.

  16. Understanding anisotropic plasma etching of two-dimensional polystyrene opals for advanced materials fabrication.

    PubMed

    Akinoglu, Eser M; Morfa, Anthony J; Giersig, Michael

    2014-10-21

    Anisotropic deformation of polystyrene particles in an oxygenated (O2/Ar) plasma is observed for radio frequency (rf) plasma and inductively coupled plasma (ICP). A facile model based on a ratio of completely isotropic and completely anisotropic etching is presented to describe the anisotropy of the etching process and is implemented to determine the height of the spheroid-shaped polystyrene particles. In our systems, we find the plasma etching to be 54% isotropic in the rf plasma and 79% isotropic in the ICP. With this model, the maximum material deposition thickness for nanofabrication with plasma-etched nanosphere lithography or colloid lithography can be predicted. Moreover, the etching of polystyrene particles in an oxygenated plasma is investigated versus the etching time, gas flow, gas composition, temperature, substrate material, and particle size. The results of this study allow precise shape tuning during the fabrication of nanostructured surfaces with size-dependent properties for bionic, medical, and photonic applications. PMID:24580644

  17. Novel Anisotropic Magnetoelectric Effect on ?-FeO(OH)/P(VDF-TrFE) Multiferroic Composites.

    PubMed

    Martins, P; Larrea, A; Gonalves, R; Botelho, G; Ramana, E V; Mendiratta, S K; Sebastian, V; Lanceros-Mendez, S

    2015-06-01

    The past decade has witnessed increased research effort on multiphase magnetoelectric (ME) composites. In this scope, this paper presents the application of novel materials for the development of anisotropic magnetoelectric sensors based on ?-FeO(OH)/P(VDF-TrFE) composites. The composite is able to precisely determine the amplitude and direction of the magnetic field. A new ME effect is reported in this study, as it emerges from the magnetic rotation of the ?-FeO(OH) nanosheets inside the piezoelectric P(VDF-TrFE) polymer matrix. ?-FeO(OH)/P(VDF-TrFE) composites with 1, 5, 10, and 20 ?-FeO(OH) filler weight percentage in three ?-FeO(OH) alignment states (random, transversal, and longitudinal) have been developed. Results have shown that the modulus of the piezoelectric response (10-24 pCN(-1)) is stable at least up to three months, the shape and magnetization maximum value (3 emug(-1)) is dependent on ?-FeO(OH) content, and the obtained ME voltage coefficient, with a maximum of ?0.4 mVcm(-1)Oe(-1), is dependent on the incident magnetic field direction and intensity. In this way, the produced materials are suitable for innovative anisotropic sensor and actuator applications. PMID:25950199

  18. Thermoviscoplastic behaviors of anisotropic shape memory elastomeric composites for cold programmed non-affine shape change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yiqi; Robertson, Jaimee M.; Mu, Xiaoming; Mather, Patrick T.; Jerry Qi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) can fix a temporary shape and recover their permanent shape upon activation by an external stimulus. Most SMPs require programming at above their transition temperatures, normally well above the room temperature. In addition, most SMPs are programmed into shapes that are affine to the high temperature deformation. Recently, a cold-programmed anisotropic shape memory elastomeric composite was developed and showed interesting low temperature stretching induced shape memory behavior. There, simple, uniaxial stretching at low temperature transformed the composites into curled temporary shapes upon unloading. The exact geometry of the curled state depended on the microstructure of the composite, and the curled shape showed no affinity to the deformed shape. Heating the sample recovered the sample back to its original shape. This new composite consisted of an elastomeric matrix reinforced by aligned amorphous polymer fibers. By utilizing the plastic-like behavior of the amorphous polymer phase at low temperatures, a temporary shape could be fixed upon unloading since the induced plastic-like strain resists the recovery of the elastomer matrix. After heating to a high temperature, the permanent shape was recovered when the amorphous polymer softened and the elastomer matrix contracted. To set a theoretical foundation for capturing the cold-programmed shape memory effects and the dramatic non-affine shape change of this composite, a 3D anisotropic thermoviscoelastic constitutive model is developed in this paper. In this model, the matrix is modeled as a hyperelastic solid, and the amorphous phase of the fibrous mat is considered as a nonlinear thermoviscoplastic solid, whose viscous flow resistance is sensitive to both temperature and stress. The plastic-deformation like behavior demonstrated in the fiber is treated as nonlinear viscoplasticity with extremely high viscosity or long relaxation time at zero-stress state at low temperature. The anisotropic viscoplastic property of the fibrous mat is captured by an isotropic fibrous network superimposed with an oriented fibrous network. The material parameters in the model are identified from the experiments on the fibrous mat and on the composites, respectively. The cold-programmed shape memory behaviors of the composite are predicted by simulations and compared with experiments without further adjusting the material parameters. Good agreement is observed, indicating the ability of the present model to capture the anisotropic viscoplastic and shape memory behaviors. By using the developed constitutive model, effects of loading rate and fiber volume fraction on cold programmed shape memory behavior are discussed. Furthermore, the constitutive relation is applied to a mechanical model to study the cold-programmed curling of the laminates.

  19. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the RPI composites program is to develop advanced technology in the areas of physical properties, structural concepts and analysis, manufacturing, reliability and life prediction. Concommitant goals are to educate engineers to design and use composite materials as normal or conventional materials. A multifaceted program was instituted to achieve these objectives.

  20. Anisotropic Poly(Ethylene Glycol)/Polycaprolactone Hydrogel–Fiber Composites for Heart Valve Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Hubert; Puperi, Daniel S.; Kim, Eric J.; Ayoub, Salma; Shah, Jay V.; Cuchiara, Maude L.; West, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    The recapitulation of the material properties and structure of the native aortic valve leaflet, specifically its anisotropy and laminate structure, is a major design goal for scaffolds for heart valve tissue engineering. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels are attractive scaffolds for this purpose as they are biocompatible, can be modified for their mechanical and biofunctional properties, and can be laminated. This study investigated augmenting PEG hydrogels with polycaprolactone (PCL) as an analog to the fibrosa to improve strength and introduce anisotropic mechanical behavior. However, due to its hydrophobicity, PCL must be modified prior to embedding within PEG hydrogels. In this study, PCL was electrospun (ePCL) and modified in three different ways, by protein adsorption (pPCL), alkali digestion (hPCL), and acrylation (aPCL). Modified PCL of all types maintained the anisotropic elastic moduli and yield strain of unmodified anisotropic ePCL. Composites of PEG and PCL (PPCs) maintained anisotropic elastic moduli, but aPCL and pPCL had isotropic yield strains. Overall, PPCs of all modifications had elastic moduli of 3.79±0.90 MPa and 0.46±0.21 MPa in the parallel and perpendicular directions, respectively. Valvular interstitial cells seeded atop anisotropic aPCL displayed an actin distribution aligned in the direction of the underlying fibers. The resulting scaffold combines the biocompatibility and tunable fabrication of PEG with the strength and anisotropy of ePCL to form a foundation for future engineered valve scaffolds. PMID:24712446

  1. Quantifying the Nonlinear, Anisotropic Material Response of Spinal Ligaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Daniel J.

    Spinal ligaments may be a significant source of chronic back pain, yet they are often disregarded by the clinical community due to a lack of information with regards to their material response, and innervation characteristics. The purpose of this dissertation was to characterize the material response of spinal ligaments and to review their innervation characteristics. Review of relevant literature revealed that all of the major spinal ligaments are innervated. They cause painful sensations when irritated and provide reflexive control of the deep spinal musculature. As such, including the neurologic implications of iatrogenic ligament damage in the evaluation of surgical procedures aimed at relieving back pain will likely result in more effective long-term solutions. The material response of spinal ligaments has not previously been fully quantified due to limitations associated with standard soft tissue testing techniques. The present work presents and validates a novel testing methodology capable of overcoming these limitations. In particular, the anisotropic, inhomogeneous material constitutive properties of the human supraspinous ligament are quantified and methods for determining the response of the other spinal ligaments are presented. In addition, a method for determining the anisotropic, inhomogeneous pre-strain distribution of the spinal ligaments is presented. The multi-axial pre-strain distributions of the human anterior longitudinal ligament, ligamentum flavum and supraspinous ligament were determined using this methodology. Results from this work clearly demonstrate that spinal ligaments are not uniaxial structures, and that finite element models which account for pre-strain and incorporate ligament's complex material properties may provide increased fidelity to the in vivo condition.

  2. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewy, R.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1986-01-01

    Overall emphasis is on basic long-term research in the following categories: constituent materials, composite materials, generic structural elements, processing science technology; and maintaining long-term structural integrity. Research in basic composition, characteristics, and processing science of composite materials and their constituents is balanced against the mechanics, conceptual design, fabrication, and testing of generic structural elements typical of aerospace vehicles so as to encourage the discovery of unusual solutions to present and future problems. Detailed descriptions of the progress achieved in the various component parts of this comprehensive program are presented.

  3. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Sylwester, Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  4. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1988-06-20

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  5. Composite Structural Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberly, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    The development and application of filamentary composite materials, is considered. Such interest is based on the possibility of using relatively brittle materials with high modulus, high strength, but low density in composites with good durability and high tolerance to damage. Fiber reinforced composite materials of this kind offer substantially improved performance and potentially lower costs for aerospace hardware. Much progress has been made since the initial developments in the mid 1960's. There were only limited applied to the primary structure of operational vehicles, mainly as aircrafts.

  6. Electrically conductive composite material

    DOEpatents

    Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1989-05-23

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

  7. Theoretical buckling loads of boron/aluminum and graphite/resin fiber composite anisotropic plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1971-01-01

    Theoretical results are presented for the buckling of anisotropic plates. The plates are subjected to simple and combined in-plane loading. The plates are made from fiber composite material of boron/aluminum or high-modulus graphite/resin. The results are presented in nondimensional form as buckling load against fiber orientation angle for various plate aspect ratios. The results indicate that buckling loads of boron/aluminum plates are independent of fiber direction if the plate aspect ratios are greater than about 1, and moderately dependent when this ratio is less than about 1. In addition, the results indicate that the buckling loads are independent of aspect ratio for plates with aspect ratios greater than about 2. Boron/ aluminum composite plates can resist buckling loads more efficiently than graphite/resin composites on a specific buckling stress basis. The numerical algorithm and a listing of the computer code used to obtain the results are included.

  8. Reactive liquid crystal materials for optically anisotropic patterned retarders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Richard; Gardiner, Iain; Yoon, Hyun-Jin; Perrett, Tara; Parri, Owain; Skjonnemand, Karl

    2008-11-01

    Merck has developed a range of reactive liquid crystal materials (Reactive Mesogens) that are designed to form thin, birefringent, coatable films for optical applications. Reactive Mesogen (RM) films are typically coated from solution and polymerized in-situ to form thin, optics-grade coatings. Merck RM materials are customized formulations including reactive liquid crystals, surfactants, photoinitiators and other proprietary additives. Merck have optimized the materials to achieve the optimum physical performance in each application. In this paper we focus on the optimization of RM materials to achieve the finest patterning resolution and defined feature shape whilst maintaining good physical properties of the films. Several conventional trade-offs are investigated and circumvented using novel material concepts. Different methods of patterning RM materials are discussed and the merits of each considered. Thermal annealing of non-polymerized regions can create isotropic islands within the polymerized anisotropic matrix. Alternatively, the non polymerized material can be re-dissolved in the coating solvent and rinsed away. Each of these techniques has benefits depending on the processing conditions and these are discussed in depth.

  9. An In-Depth Tutorial on Constitutive Equations for Elastic Anisotropic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nemeth, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    An in-depth tutorial on the constitutive equations for elastic, anisotropic materials is presented. Basic concepts are introduced that are used to characterize materials, and notions about how anisotropic material deform are presented. Hooke s law and the Duhamel-Neuman law for isotropic materials are presented and discussed. Then, the most general form of Hooke s law for elastic anisotropic materials is presented and symmetry requirements are given. A similar presentation is also given for the generalized Duhamel-Neuman law for elastic, anisotropic materials that includes thermal effects. Transformation equations for stress and strains are presented and the most general form of the transformation equations for the constitutive matrices are given. Then, specialized transformation equations are presented for dextral rotations about the coordinate axes. Next, concepts of material symmetry are introduced and criteria for material symmetries are presented. Additionally, engineering constants of fully anisotropic, elastic materials are derived from first principles and the specialized to several cases of practical importance.

  10. Composite Material Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javadi, Hamid (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A device to protect electronic circuitry from high voltage transients is constructed from a relatively thin piece of conductive composite sandwiched between two conductors so that conduction is through the thickness of the composite piece. The device is based on the discovery that conduction through conductive composite materials in this configuration switches to a high resistance mode when exposed to voltages above a threshold voltage.

  11. Composite Material Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javadi, Hamid (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A device to protect electronic circuitry from high voltage transients is constructed from a relatively thin piece of conductive composite sandwiched between two conductors so that conduction is through the thickness of the composite piece. The device is based on the discovery that conduction through conductive composite materials in this configuration switches to a high resistance mode when exposed to voltages above a threshold voltage.

  12. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    The promise of filamentary composite materials, whose development may be considered as entering its second generation, continues to generate intense interest and applications activity. Fiber reinforced composite materials offer substantially improved performance and potentially lower costs for aerospace hardware. Much progress has been achieved since the initial developments in the mid 1960's. Rather limited applications to primary aircraft structure have been made, however, mainly in a material-substitution mode on military aircraft, except for a few experiments currently underway on large passenger airplanes in commercial operation. To fulfill the promise of composite materials completely requires a strong technology base. NASA and AFOSR recognize the present state of the art to be such that to fully exploit composites in sophisticated aerospace structures, the technology base must be improved. This, in turn, calls for expanding fundamental knowledge and the means by which it can be successfully applied in design and manufacture.

  13. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    Research in the basic composition, characteristics, and processng science of composite materials and their constituents is balanced against the mechanics, conceptual design, fabrication, and testing of generic structural elements typical of aerospace vehicles so as to encourage the discovery of unusual solutions to problems. Detailed descriptions of the progress achieved in the various component parts of his program are presented.

  14. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewy, Robert G.; Wiberley, Stephen E.

    1987-01-01

    The development and application of composite materials to aerospace vehicle structures which began in the mid 1960's has now progressed to the point where what can be considered entire airframes are being designed and built using composites. Issues related to the fabrication of non-resin matrix composites and the micro, mezzo and macromechanics of thermoplastic and metal matrix composites are emphasized. Several research efforts are presented. They are entitled: (1) The effects of chemical vapor deposition and thermal treatments on the properties of pitch-based carbon fiber; (2) Inelastic deformation of metal matrix laminates; (3) Analysis of fatigue damage in fibrous MMC laminates; (4) Delamination fracture toughness in thermoplastic matrix composites; (5) Numerical investigation of the microhardness of composite fracture; and (6) General beam theory for composite structures.

  15. Exact results for model wave functions of anisotropic composite fermions in the fractional quantum Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balram, Ajit C.; Jain, J. K.

    2016-02-01

    The microscopic wave functions of the composite fermion theory can incorporate electron mass anisotropy by a trivial rescaling of the coordinates. These wave functions are very likely adiabatically connected to the actual wave functions of the anisotropic fractional quantum Hall states. We show in this paper that they possess the nice property that their energies can be analytically related to the previously calculated energies for the isotropic states through a universal scale factor, thus allowing an estimation of several observables in the thermodynamic limit for all fractional quantum Hall states as well as the composite fermion Fermi sea. The rather weak dependence of the scale factor on the anisotropy provides insight into why fractional quantum Hall effect and composite fermions are quite robust to electron mass anisotropy. We discuss how better, though still approximate, wave functions can be obtained by introducing a variational parameter, following Haldane [F. D. M. Haldane, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 116801 (2011), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.107.116801], but the resulting wave functions are not readily amenable to calculations. Our considerations are also applicable, with minimal modification, to the case where the dielectric function of the background material is anisotropic.

  16. Anisotropic photoelectric film assembled from mesoporous silica (MS)@CuO@FeS2 composite microspheres for improving photoelectric conversion.

    PubMed

    Zong, Jie; Zhu, Yihua; Shen, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoling; Li, Chunzhong

    2013-07-15

    We report a novel strategy for the fabrication of mesoporous silica (MS)@CuO@FeS2 composite microsphere-based anisotropic films that combine the advantages of the CuO and FeS2 materials to improve photoelectric conversion. This was achieved by aligning MS@CuO@FeS2 composite microspheres in a cross-linked gel under a homogeneous magnetic field. The MS@CuO@FeS2 composite microspheres, which were synthesized by a simple layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technique together with a solvothermal method, can absorb a wide range of light and exhibit ferromagnetic properties. In addition, the resulting MS@CuO@FeS2 composite microsphere-based anisotropic film shows photoelectric anisotropy. Such systems are promising for improving the performance of solar cells. PMID:23660025

  17. Anisotropic materials in OLEDs for high outcoupling efficiency.

    PubMed

    Callens, Michiel Koen; Yokoyama, Daisuke; Neyts, Kristiaan

    2015-08-10

    We present the results of an optical study in which we evaluate the effect of anisotropic electron transport layers (ETL) and anisotropic hole transport layers (HTL) on the outcoupling efficiency of bottom emitting organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). We demonstrate that optical anisotropy can have a profound influence on the outcoupling efficiency and introduce a number of design rules which ensure that light extraction is enhanced by anisotropic layers. PMID:26367963

  18. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  19. Modified Composite Materials Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicus, D. L. (Compiler)

    1978-01-01

    The reduction or elimination of the hazard which results from accidental release of graphite fibers from composite materials was studied at a workshop. At the workshop, groups were organized to consider six topics: epoxy modifications, epoxy replacement, fiber modifications, fiber coatings and new fibers, hybrids, and fiber release testing. Because of the time required to develop a new material and acquire a design data base, most of the workers concluded that a modified composite material would require about four to five years of development and testing before it could be applied to aircraft structures. The hybrid working group considered that some hybrid composites which reduce the risk of accidental fiber release might be put into service over the near term. The fiber release testing working group recommended a coordinated effort to define a suitable laboratory test.

  20. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1983-01-01

    Progress and plans are reported for investigations of: (1) the mechanical properties of high performance carbon fibers; (2) fatigue in composite materials; (3) moisture and temperature effects on the mechanical properties of graphite-epoxy laminates; (4) the theory of inhomogeneous swelling in epoxy resin; (5) numerical studies of the micromechanics of composite fracture; (6) free edge failures of composite laminates; (7) analysis of unbalanced laminates; (8) compact lug design; (9) quantification of Saint-Venant's principles for a general prismatic member; (10) variation of resin properties through the thickness of cured samples; and (11) the wing fuselage ensemble of the RP-1 and RP-2 sailplanes.

  1. Anisotropic Compositional Expansion and Chemical Potential for Amorphous Lithiated Silicon under Stress Tensor

    PubMed Central

    Levitas, Valery I.; Attariani, Hamed

    2013-01-01

    Si is a promising anode material for Li-ion batteries, since it absorbs large amounts of Li. However, insertion of Li leads to 334% of volumetric expansion, huge stresses, and fracture; it can be suppressed by utilizing nanoscale anode structures. Continuum approaches to stress relaxation in LixSi, based on plasticity theory, are unrealistic, because the yield strength of LixSi is much higher than the generated stresses. Here, we suggest that stress relaxation is due to anisotropic (tensorial) compositional straining that occurs during insertion-extraction at any deviatoric stresses. Developed theory describes known experimental and atomistic simulation data. A method to reduce stresses is predicted and confirmed by known experiments. Chemical potential has an additional contribution due to deviatoric stresses, which leads to increases in the driving force both for insertion and extraction. The results have conceptual and general character and are applicable to any material systems. PMID:23563528

  2. Fabrication, testing, and analysis of anisotropic carbon/glass hybrid composites: volume 1: technical report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, Kyle K. (Wetzel Engineering, Inc. Lawrence, Kansas); Hermann, Thomas M. (Wichita state University, Wichita, Kansas); Locke, James (Wichita state University, Wichita, Kansas)

    2005-11-01

    Anisotropic carbon/glass hybrid composite laminates have been fabricated, tested, and analyzed. The laminates have been fabricated using vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). Five fiber complexes and a two-part epoxy resin system have been used in the study to fabricate panels of twenty different laminate constructions. These panels have been subjected to physical testing to measure density, fiber volume fraction, and void fraction. Coupons machined from these panels have also been subjected to mechanical testing to measure elastic properties and strength of the laminates using tensile, compressive, transverse tensile, and in-plane shear tests. Interlaminar shear strength has also been measured. Out-of-plane displacement, axial strain, transverse strain, and inplane shear strain have also been measured using photogrammetry data obtained during edgewise compression tests. The test data have been reduced to characterize the elastic properties and strength of the laminates. Constraints imposed by test fixtures might be expected to affect measurements of the moduli of anisotropic materials; classical lamination theory has been used to assess the magnitude of such effects and correct the experimental data for the same. The tensile moduli generally correlate well with experiment without correction and indicate that factors other than end constraints dominate. The results suggest that shear moduli of the anisotropic materials are affected by end constraints. Classical lamination theory has also been used to characterize the level of extension-shear coupling in the anisotropic laminates. Three factors affecting the coupling have been examined: the volume fraction of unbalanced off-axis layers, the angle of the off-axis layers, and the composition of the fibers (i.e., carbon or glass) used as the axial reinforcement. The results indicate that extension/shear coupling is maximized with the least loss in axial tensile stiffness by using carbon fibers oriented 15{sup o} from the long axis for approximately two-thirds of the laminate volume (discounting skin layers), with reinforcing carbon fibers oriented axially comprising the remaining one-third of the volume. Finite element analysis of each laminate has been performed to examine first ply failure. Three failure criteria--maximum stress, maximum strain, and Tsai-Wu--have been compared. Failure predicted by all three criteria proves generally conservative, with the stress-based criteria the most conservative. For laminates that respond nonlinearly to loading, large error is observed in the prediction of failure using maximum strain as the criterion. This report documents the methods and results in two volumes. Volume 1 contains descriptions of the laminates, their fabrication and testing, the methods of analysis, the results, and the conclusions and recommendations. Volume 2 contains a comprehensive summary of the individual test results for all laminates.

  3. Acoustics of two-component porous materials with anisotropic tortuosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albers, Bettina; Wilmanski, Krzysztof

    2012-11-01

    The paper is devoted to the analysis of monochromatic waves in two-component poroelastic materials described by a Biot-like model whose stress-strain relations are isotropic but the permeability is anisotropic. This anisotropy is induced by the anisotropy of the tortuosity which is given by a second order symmetric tensor. This is a new feature of the model while in earlier papers only isotropic permeabilities were considered. We show that this new model describes four modes of propagation. For our special choice of orientation of the direction of propagation these are two pseudo longitudinal modes P1 and P2, one pseudo transversal mode S2 and one transversal mode S1. The latter becomes also pseudo transversal in the general case of anisotropy. We analyze the speeds of propagation and the attenuation of these waves as well as the polarization properties in dependence on the orientation of the principal directions of the tortuosity. We indicate the practical importance of different shear (transversal) modes of propagation in a possible new nondestructive test of geophysical materials.

  4. Analytical study of the structural-dynamics and sound radiation of anisotropic multilayered fibre-reinforced composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tger, Olaf; Dannemann, Martin; Hufenbach, Werner A.

    2015-04-01

    Lightweight structures for high-technology applications are designed to meet the increasing demands on low structural weight and maximum stiffness. These classical lightweight properties result in lower inertial forces that consequently lead to higher vibration amplitudes thereby increasing sound radiation. Here, special anisotropic multilayered composites offer a high vibro-acoustic lightweight potential. The authors developed analytical vibro-acoustic simulation models, which allow a material-adapted structural-dynamic and sound radiation analysis of anisotropic multilayered composite plates. Compared to numerical methods FEM/BEM these analytical models allow a quick and physically based analysis of the vibro-acoustic properties of anisotropic composite plates. This advantage can be seen by the presented extensive parameter studies, which have been performed in order to analyse the influence of composite-specific design variables on the resulting vibro-acoustic behaviour. Here, it was found that the vibro-acoustic parameters like eigenfrequency and modal damping show direction-dependent properties. Furthermore, the investigations reveal that laminated composites show a so-called damping-dominated sound radiation behaviour. Based on these studies, a vibro-acoustic design procedure is proposed and design guidelines are derived.

  5. Aerogel/polymer composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Clayton, LaNetra M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The invention provides new composite materials containing aerogels blended with thermoplastic polymer materials at a weight ratio of aerogel to thermoplastic polymer of less than 20:100. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability. The composite materials also have better flexibility and less brittleness at low temperatures than the parent thermoplastic polymer materials.

  6. Erosion of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    A model for describing the response of uncoated and coated fiber reinforced composites subjected to repeated impingements of liquid (rain) droplets is presented. The model is based on the concept that fatigue is the dominant factor in the erosion process. Algebraic expressions are provided which give the incubation period, the rate of mass loss past the incubation period, and the total mass loss of the material during rain impact. The influence of material properties on erosion damage and the protection offered by different coatings are discussed and the use of the model in the design in the design of structures and components is illustrated.

  7. Finite-element modeling of layered, anisotropic composite plates and shells: A review of recent research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, J. N.

    1981-01-01

    Finite element papers published in the open literature on the static bending and free vibration of layered, anisotropic, and composite plates and shells are reviewed. A literature review of large-deflection bending and large-amplitude free oscillations of layered composite plates and shells is also presented. Non-finite element literature is cited for continuity of the discussion.

  8. Composite material radomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, R.; Simon, J.-Y.

    1987-06-01

    The fabrication of radomes from composite materials, for naval and aeronautical applications including the Mirage II, F1, and Mirage 2000, is discussed. The diverse radioelectric and mechanical requirements of radomes are best met in the average-temperature regime by reinforced plastics, and in the elevated supersonic regime by ceramic materials. The structural criteria of radomes concerning aerodynamic, inertial, and vibrational loading, and the environmental criteria concerning temperature, sand and rain erosion, and lightning effects, are reviewed. Materials considered for radome fabrication include modified polyesters, epoxies, and thermostable resins, using glass, silica, and aramide tissues or threads as the reinforcements. The advantages and disadvantages of the various fabrication methods, and the fabrication of monolithic radomes by winding and by using preformed weaves, are also discussed.

  9. Advanced composite materials and processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Composites are generally defined as two or more individual materials, which, when combined into a single material system, results in improved physical and/or mechanical properties. The freedom of choice of the starting components for composites allows the generation of materials that can be specifically tailored to meet a variety of applications. Advanced composites are described as a combination of high strength fibers and high performance polymer matrix materials. These advanced materials are required to permit future aircraft and spacecraft to perform in extended environments. Advanced composite precursor materials, processes for conversion of these materials to structures, and selected applications for composites are reviewed.

  10. Computation of Anisotropic Bi-Material Interfacial Fracture Parameters and Delamination Creteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, W-T.; Wang, L.; Atluri, S. N.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the recent developments in methodologies for the evaluation of the integrity and durability of composite structures, including i) the establishment of a stress-intensity-factor based fracture criterion for bimaterial interfacial cracks in anisotropic materials (see Sec. 2); ii) the development of a virtual crack closure integral method for the evaluation of the mixed-mode stress intensity factors for a bimaterial interfacial crack (see Sec. 3). Analytical and numerical results show that the proposed fracture criterion is a better fracture criterion than the total energy release rate criterion in the characterization of the bimaterial interfacial cracks. The proposed virtual crack closure integral method is an efficient and accurate numerical method for the evaluation of mixed-mode stress intensity factors.

  11. Method of determining load in anisotropic non-crystalline materials using energy flux deviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H. (inventor); Kriz, Ronald D. (inventor); Fitting, Dale W. (inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An ultrasonic wave is applied to an anisotropic sample material in an initial direction and the intensity of the ultrasonic wave is measured on an opposite surface of the sample material by two adjacent receiving points located in an array of receiving points. A ratio is determined between the measured intensities of two adjacent receiving points, the ratio being indicative of an angle of flux deviation from the initial direction caused by an unknown applied load. This determined ratio is then compared to a plurality of ratios of a similarly tested, similar anisotropic reference material under a plurality of respective, known load conditions, whereby the load applied to the particular anisotropic sample material is determined. A related method is disclosed for determining the fiber orientation from known loads and a determined flux shift.

  12. Composite material and method for production of improved composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A laminated composite material with improved interlaminar strength and damage tolerance having short rods distributed evenly throughout the composite material perpendicular to the laminae. Each rod is shorter than the thickness of the finished laminate, but several times as long as the thickness of each lamina. The laminate is made by inserting short rods in layers of prepreg material, and then stacking and curing prepreg material with rods inserted therethrough.

  13. Measurement of the intrinsic attenuation of longitudinal waves in anisotropic material from uncorrected raw data.

    PubMed

    Seldis, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Among the physical parameters characterising the interaction of the ultrasonic beam with its supporting medium, ultrasonic attenuation is an important input parameter to simulate wave propagation and defect-beam phenomena. The measurement of the intrinsic attenuation in anisotropic material however is a difficult task. The paper presents an approach to determine intrinsic attenuation in anisotropic materials such as austenitic stainless steel welds and cladding. It deals with improvements on the initial device, based on measurements on two samples with different thicknesses (10mm and 20mm). A previous paper presented preliminary results with this new approach for isotropic materials. PMID:23601966

  14. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1981-01-01

    The composite aircraft program component (CAPCOMP) is a graduate level project conducted in parallel with a composite structures program. The composite aircraft program glider (CAPGLIDE) is an undergraduate demonstration project which has as its objectives the design, fabrication, and testing of a foot launched ultralight glider using composite structures. The objective of the computer aided design (COMPAD) portion of the composites project is to provide computer tools for the analysis and design of composite structures. The major thrust of COMPAD is in the finite element area with effort directed at implementing finite element analysis capabilities and developing interactive graphics preprocessing and postprocessing capabilities. The criteria for selecting research projects to be conducted under the innovative and supporting research (INSURE) program are described.

  15. Validation of an Advanced Material Model for Simulating the Impact and Shock Response of Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clegg, Richard A.; Hayhurst, Colin J.; Nahme, Hartwig

    2002-07-01

    Composite materials are now commonly used as ballistic and hypervelocity protection materials and the demand for simulation of impact on these materials is increasing. A new material model specifically designed for the shock response of anisotropic materials has been developed and implemented in the hydrocode AUTODYN. The model allows for the representation of non-linear shock effects in combination with anisotropic material stiffness and damage. The coupling of the equation of state and anisotropic response is based on the methodology proposed by Anderson et al. [2]. An overview of the coupled formulation is described in order to point out the important assumptions, key innovations and basic theoretical framework. The coupled model was originally developed by Century Dynamics and Fhg-EMI for assessing the hypervelocity impact response of composite satellite protection systems [1]. It was also identified that the developed model should also offer new possibilities and capabilities for modelling modern advanced armour materials. Validation of the advanced composite model is firstly shown via simulations of uniaxial strain flyer plate experiments on aramid and polyethylene fibre composite systems. Finally, practical application of the model as implemented in AUTODYN is demonstrated through the simulation of ballistic and hypervelocity impact events. Comparison with experiment is given where possible.

  16. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewy, Robert G.; Wiberley, Stephen E.

    1988-01-01

    A decade long program to develop critical advanced composite technology in the areas of physical properties, structural concept and analysis, manufacturing, reliability, and life predictions is reviewed. Specific goals are discussed. The status of the chemical vapor deposition effects on carbon fiber properties; inelastic deformation of metal matrix laminates; fatigue damage in fibrous MMC laminates; delamination fracture toughness in thermoplastic matrix composites; and numerical analysis of composite micromechanical behavior are presented.

  17. The M-Integral for Computing Stress Intensity Factors in Generally Anisotropic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warzynek, P. A.; Carter, B. J.; Banks-Sills, L.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a capability for computing stress intensity factors in generally anisotropic materials. These objectives have been met. The primary deliverable of this project is this report and the information it contains. In addition, we have delivered the source code for a subroutine that will compute stress intensity factors for anisotropic materials encoded in both the C and Python programming languages and made available a version of the FRANC3D program that incorporates this subroutine. Single crystal super alloys are commonly used for components in the hot sections of contemporary jet and rocket engines. Because these components have a uniform atomic lattice orientation throughout, they exhibit anisotropic material behavior. This means that stress intensity solutions developed for isotropic materials are not appropriate for the analysis of crack growth in these materials. Until now, a general numerical technique did not exist for computing stress intensity factors of cracks in anisotropic materials and cubic materials in particular. Such a capability was developed during the project and is described and demonstrated herein.

  18. Composite materials: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Design, analysis and fabrication techniques for boron-aluminum composite-structure technology is presented and a new method of joining different laminated composites without mechanical fasteners is proposed. Also discussed is a low-cost procedure for rigidifying expanded honeycomb tubing and piping simulations. A brief note on patent information is added.

  19. Anisotropic Fermi Contour of Composite Fermions in Tilted Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayegan, Mansour; Kamburov, Dobromir; Liu, Yang; Mueed, M. A.; Hasdemir, Sukret; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Kenneth; Baldwin, Kirk

    2013-03-01

    We employ surface-strain-induced commensurability oscillations of hole-flux composite fermions to study the effect of parallel magnetic field on their Fermi contours in high-quality C-doped (001) GaAs hole quantum wells. Our measurements reveal that the composite fermion Fermi contours are significantly distorted in the presence of parallel field. Along the direction of the parallel field, the Fermi wave vectors shrink while in the perpendicular direction they grow, and at 25 T parallel field, the relative distortion reaches 50%. We acknowledge support through the NSF (ECCS-1001719 and MRSEC DMR-0819860) for sample fabrication and characterization, and the DOE BES (DE-FG0200-ER45841) for measurements.

  20. Spreading of dislocation cores in elastically anisotropic body-centered-cubic materials: The case of gum metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzan, D. C.; Sherburne, M. P.; Hanlumyuang, Y.; Li, T.; Morris, J. W., Jr.

    2010-11-01

    The structure of dislocation cores in elastically anisotropic materials is considered. A definition of the dislocation core radius is introduced and used to demonstrate that the elastic anisotropy that develops near a composition driven phase transition, such as that predicted for the Ti-Nb based alloys known as gum metals, can drive dislocation core radii to infinity. Under these circumstances, dislocation cores necessarily overlap. The atomic scale structures predicted to arise from core overlap in Ti-V alloys are reminiscent of nanodisturbances observed in gum metals.

  1. Reliability of failure envelopes for composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labossiere, P.; Leblanc, S.

    1991-05-01

    Predicting the mechanical behavior of new anisotropic materials has gained an increasing importance in recent years. Thin, orthotropic composite laminae, reinforced uni-directionally or bi-directionally, are considered in this article. In most structural applications, many laminae with different orientations are assembled together to form a laminate. This one is generally subjected to bending and in-plane loading and can often be analyzed under the assumption of plane stress conditions. This requires definition of the strength properties of a particular lamina. Strength or failure theories are employed for this purpose. The application method is limited to the tensor polynomial theory. The purpose of this article is to show how the selection of parameters in a failure criterion can be made to improve this criterion's overall reliability. The proposed method is applied to paperboard.

  2. Composite structural materials. [aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of filamentary composite materials in the design and construction of primary aircraft structures is considered with emphasis on efforts to develop advanced technology in the areas of physical properties, structural concepts and analysis, manufacturing, and reliability and life prediction. The redesign of a main spar/rib region on the Boeing 727 elevator near its actuator attachment point is discussed. A composite fabrication and test facility is described as well as the use of minicomputers for computer aided design. Other topics covered include (1) advanced structural analysis methids for composites; (2) ultrasonic nondestructive testing of composite structures; (3) optimum combination of hardeners in the cure of epoxy; (4) fatigue in composite materials; (5) resin matrix characterization and properties; (6) postbuckling analysis of curved laminate composite panels; and (7) acoustic emission testing of composite tensile specimens.

  3. Piezoelectric composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiraly, L. J. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A laminated structural devices has the ability to change shape, position and resonant frequency without using discrete motive components. The laminate may be a combination of layers of a piezoelectrically active, nonconductive matrix material. A power source selectively places various levels of charge in electrically conductive filaments imbedded in the respective layers to produce various configurations in a predetermined manner. The layers may be electrically conductive having imbedded piezoelectrically active filaments. A combination of layers of electrically conductive material may be laminated to layers of piezoelectrically active material.

  4. Composite structural materials. [aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1981-01-01

    The development of composite materials for aircraft applications is addressed with specific consideration of physical properties, structural concepts and analysis, manufacturing, reliability, and life prediction. The design and flight testing of composite ultralight gliders is documented. Advances in computer aided design and methods for nondestructive testing are also discussed.

  5. Nondestructive Characterization of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Increasingly, composite materials are applied to fracture-critical structures of aircraft and spacecraft...Ultrasonics offer the most capable inspection technology and recently developed techniques appear to improve this technology significantly... Recent progress in ultrasonic NDE of composites will be reviewed.

  6. Materials with constant anisotropic conductivity as a thermal cloak or concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tungyang; Weng, Chung-Ning; Tsai, Yu-Lin

    2015-02-01

    An invisibility cloak based on transformation optics often requires material with inhomogeneous, anisotropic, and possibly extreme material parameters. In the present study, on the basis of the concept of neutral inclusion, we find that a spherical cloak can be achieved using a layer with finite constant anisotropic conductivity. We show that thermal localization can be tuned and controlled by anisotropy of the coating layer. A suitable balance of the degree of anisotropy of the cloaking layer and the layer thickness provides a cloaking effect. Additionally, by reversing the conductivities in two different directions, we find that a thermal concentrating effect can be simulated. This finding is of particular value in practical implementation as a material with constant material parameters is more feasible to fabricate. In addition to the theoretical analysis, we also demonstrate our solutions in numerical simulations based on finite element calculations to validate our results.

  7. Carbon nanotube composite materials

    DOEpatents

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2015-03-24

    A material consisting essentially of a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes dissolved in a solvent. Un-functionalized carbon nanotube concentrations up to 30 wt % and hydroxylated carbon nanotube concentrations up to 40 wt % can be used with even small concentrations of each (less than 2 wt %) useful in producing enhanced conductivity properties of formed thin films.

  8. Recent advances in modeling discontinuities in anisotropic and heterogeneous materials in eddy current NDE

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrin, John C.; Sabbagh, Harold A.; Murphy, R. Kim; Sabbagh, Elias H.

    2011-06-23

    Recent advances are presented to model discontinuities in random anisotropies that arise in certain materials, such as titanium alloys. A numerical model is developed to provide a full anisotropic representation of each crystalline in a gridded region of the material. Several simulated and experimental demonstrations are presented highlighting the effect of grain noise on eddy current measurements. Agreement between VIC-3D(c) model calculations and experimental data in titanium alloy specimens with known flaws is demonstrated.

  9. Multilayer Electroactive Polymer Composite Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electroactive material comprises multiple layers of electroactive composite with each layer having unique dielectric, electrical and mechanical properties that define an electromechanical operation thereof when affected by an external stimulus. For example, each layer can be (i) a 2-phase composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation, or (ii) a 3-phase composite having the elements of the 2-phase composite and further including a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic incorporated in the polymer matrix.

  10. The effect of beam directivity on the inspection of anisotropic materials using ultrasonic arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, C. J. L.; Wilcox, P. D.

    2012-05-01

    The beam directivity from an ultrasonic transducer in isotropic materials is well documented. However, beam directivities in elastically anisotropic materials and their effect on ultrasonic NDE inspection has been investigated far less extensively. In this paper, analytical and numerical finite element models are developed to predict the beam directivity in a single crystal nickel-based superalloy. This material is highly anisotropic and is used widely in the gas-turbine industry. The developed models are used to investigate the effect of the crystallographic orientation on the beam directivity. In turn, the effect of beam directivity on defect detection sensitivity and characterization capability using an ultrasonic array is demonstrated. It is shown that the effect is particularly important for the accurate sizing of small defects.

  11. Nanophase and Composite Optical Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This talk will focus on accomplishments, current developments, and future directions of our work on composite optical materials for microgravity science and space exploration. This research spans the order parameter from quasi-fractal structures such as sol-gels and other aggregated or porous media, to statistically random cluster media such as metal colloids, to highly ordered materials such as layered media and photonic bandgap materials. The common focus is on flexible materials that can be used to produce composite or artificial materials with superior optical properties that could not be achieved with homogeneous materials. Applications of this work to NASA exploration goals such as terraforming, biosensors, solar sails, solar cells, and vehicle health monitoring, will be discussed.

  12. Composite material impregnation unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, S. P.; Marchello, J. M.; Johnston, N. J.

    1993-01-01

    This memorandum presents an introduction to the NASA multi-purpose prepregging unit which is now installed and fully operational at the Langley Research Center in the Polymeric Materials Branch. A description of the various impregnation methods that are available to the prepregger are presented. Machine operating details and protocol are provided for its various modes of operation. These include, where appropriate, the related equations for predicting the desired prepreg specifications. Also, as the prepregger is modular in its construction, each individual section is described and discussed. Safety concerns are an important factor and a chapter has been included that highlights the major safety features. Initial experiences and observations for fiber impregnation are described. These first observations have given great insight into the areas of future work that need to be addressed. Future memorandums will focus on these individual processes and their related problems.

  13. Microstructure-statistics-property relations of anisotropic polydisperse particulate composites using tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillman, A.; Matou, K.; Atkinson, S.

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, a systematic method is presented for developing microstructure-statistics-property relations of anisotropic polydisperse particulate composites using microcomputer tomography (micro-CT). Micro-CT is used to obtain a detailed three-dimensional representation of polydisperse microstructures, and an image processing pipeline is developed for identifying particles. In this work, particles are modeled as idealized shapes in order to guide the image processing steps and to provide a description of the discrete micro-CT data set in continuous Euclidean space. n-point probability functions used to describe the morphology of mixtures are calculated directly from real microstructures. The statistical descriptors are employed in the Hashin-Shtrikman variational principle to compute overall anisotropic bounds and self-consistent estimates of the thermal-conductivity tensor. We make no assumptions of statistical isotropy nor ellipsoidal symmetry, and the statistical description is obtained directly from micro-CT data. Various mixtures consisting of polydisperse ellipsoidal and spherical particles are prepared and studied to show how the morphology impacts the overall anisotropic thermal-conductivity tensor.

  14. Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose is to develop life prediction models for coated anisotropic materials used in gas temperature airfoils. Two single crystal alloys and two coatings are now being tested. These include PWA 1480; Alloy 185; overlay coating, PWA 286; and aluminide coating, PWA 273. Constitutive models are also being developed for these materials to predict the plastic and creep strain histories of the materials in the lab tests and for actual design conditions. This nonlinear material behavior is particularily important for high temperature gas turbine applications and is basic to any life prediction system.

  15. Composite materials for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawal, Suraj P.; Misra, Mohan S.; Wendt, Robert G.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of the program were to: generate mechanical, thermal, and physical property test data for as-fabricated advanced materials; design and fabricate an accelerated thermal cycling chamber; and determine the effect of thermal cycling on thermomechanical properties and dimensional stability of composites. In the current program, extensive mechanical and thermophysical property tests of various organic matrix, metal matrix, glass matrix, and carbon-carbon composites were conducted, and a reliable database was constructed for spacecraft material selection. Material property results for the majority of the as-fabricated composites were consistent with the predicted values, providing a measure of consolidation integrity attained during fabrication. To determine the effect of thermal cycling on mechanical properties, microcracking, and thermal expansion behavior, approximately 500 composite specimens were exposed to 10,000 cycles between -150 and +150 F. These specimens were placed in a large (18 cu ft work space) thermal cycling chamber that was specially designed and fabricated to simulate one year low earth orbital (LEO) thermal cycling in 20 days. With this rate of thermal cycling, this is the largest thermal cycling unit in the country. Material property measurements of the thermal cycled organic matrix composite laminate specimens exhibited less than 24 percent decrease in strength, whereas, the remaining materials exhibited less than 8 percent decrease in strength. The thermal expansion response of each of the thermal cycled specimens revealed significant reduction in hysteresis and residual strain, and the average CTE values were close to the predicted values.

  16. An improved boundary force method for analyzing cracked anisotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Paul W.; Bigelow, Catherine A.

    1988-01-01

    The Boundary Force Method (BFM), a form of indirect boundary element method, is used to analyze composite laminates with cracks. The BFM uses the orthotropic elasticity solution for a concentrated horizontal and vertical force and a moment applied at a point in a cracked, infinite sheet as the fundamental solution. The necessary stress functions for this fundamental solution were formulated using the complex variable theory of orthotropic elasticity. The current method is an improvement over a previous method using only forces and no moment. The improved method was verified by comparing it to accepted solutions for a finite-width, center-crack specimen subjected to uniaxial tension. Four graphite/epoxy laminates were used: (0 + or - 45/90)sub s, (0), (+ or - 45)sub s, and (+ or - 30)sub s. The BFM results agreed well with accepted solutions. Convergence studies showed that with the addition of the moment in the fundamental solution, the number of boundary elements required for a converged solution was significantly reduced. Parametric studies were done for two configurations for which no orthotropic solutions are currently available; a single edge crack and an inclined single edge crack.

  17. An improved boundary force method for analysing cracked anisotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, P. W.; Bigelow, C. A.

    1989-01-01

    The Boundary Force Method (BFM), a form of indirect boundary element method, is used to analyze composite laminates with cracks. The BFM uses the orthotropic elasticity solution for a concentrated horizontal and vertical force and a moment applied at a point in a cracked, infinite sheet as the fundamental solution. The necessary stress functions for this fundamental solution were formulated using the complex variables theory of orthotropic elasticity. The current method is an improvement over a previous method using only forces and no moment. The improved method was verified by comparing it to accepted solutions for a finite-width, center-crack specimen subjected to uniaxial tension. Four graphite/epoxy laminates were used: (0 + or - 45/90)sub s, (0), (+ or - 45)sub s, and (+ or - 30)sub s. The BFM results agreed well with accepted solutions. Convergence studies showed that with the addition of the moment in the fundamental solution, the number of boundary elements required for a converged solution was significantly reduced. Parametric studies were done for two configurations for which no orthotropic solutions are currently available; a single edge crack and an inclined single edge crack.

  18. Anisotropic deformation of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fong, R. W. L.

    2013-09-01

    Zr-2.5Nb alloy is used for the pressure tubes in CANDU reactor fuel channels. In reactor, the pressure tube normally operates at 300 C and experiences a primary coolant fluid internal pressure of approximately 10 MPa. Manufacturing and processing procedures generate an anisotropic state in the pressure tube which makes the tube stronger in the hoop (transverse) direction than in the axial (longitudinal) direction. This anisotropy condition is present for temperatures less than 500 C. During postulated accident conditions where the material temperature could reach 1000 C, it might be assumed that the high temperature and subsequent phase change would reduce the inherent anisotropy, and thus affect the deformation behaviour (ballooning) of the pressure tube. From constant-load, rapid-temperature-ramp, uniaxial deformation tests, the deformation rate in the longitudinal direction of the tube behaves differently than the deformation rate in the transverse direction of the tube. This anisotropic mechanical behaviour appears to persist at temperatures up to 1000 C. This paper presents the results of high-temperature deformation tests using longitudinal and transverse specimens taken from as-received Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes. It is shown that the anisotropic deformation behaviour observed at high temperatures is largely due to the stable crystallographic texture of the ?-Zr phase constituent in the material that was previously observed by neutron diffraction measurements during heating at temperatures up to 1050 C. The deformation behaviour is also influenced by the phase transformation occurring at high temperatures during heating. The effects of texture and phase transformation on the anisotropic deformation of as-received Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material are discussed in the context of the tube ballooning behaviour. Because of the high temperatures in postulated accident scenarios, any irradiation damage will be annealed from the pressure tube material and thus the unirradiated material results presented in this paper are also applicable to irradiated pressure tubes.

  19. Fiber composite materials technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Chiao, T.T.

    1980-10-23

    The FY1980 technical accomplishments from the Lawrence Livermore National laboratory (LLNL) for the Fiber Composite Materials Technology Development Task fo the MEST project are summarized. The task is divided into three areas: Engineering data base for flywheel design (Washington University will report this part separately), new materials evaluation, and time-dependent behavior of Kevlar composite strands. An epoxy matrix was formulated which can be used in composites for 120/sup 0/C service with good processing and mechanical properties. Preliminary results on the time-dependent properties of the Kevlar 49/epoxy strands indicate: Fatigue loading, as compared to sustained loading, drastically reduces the lifetime of a Kevlar composie; the more the number of on-off load cycles, the less the lifetime; and dynamic fatigue of the Kevlar composite can not be predicted by current damage theories such as Miner's Rule.

  20. Accelerating numerical modeling of wave propagation through 2-D anisotropic materials using OpenCL.

    PubMed

    Molero, Miguel; Iturrarn-Viveros, Ursula

    2013-03-01

    We present an implementation of the numerical modeling of elastic waves propagation, in 2D anisotropic materials, using the new parallel computing devices (PCDs). Our study is aimed both to model laboratory experiments and explore the capabilities of the emerging PCDs by discussing performance issues. In the experiments a sample plate of an anisotropic material placed inside a water tank is rotated and, for every angle of rotation it is subjected to an ultrasonic wave (produced by a large source transducer) that propagates in the water and through the material producing some reflection and transmission signals that are recording by a "point-like" receiver. This experiment is numerically modeled by running a finite difference code covering a set of angles ??[-50, 50], and recorded the signals for the transmission and reflection results. Transversely anisotropic and weakly orthorhombic materials are considered. We accelerated the computation using an open-source toolkit called PyOpenCL, which lets one to easily access the OpenCL parallel computation API's from the high-level programming environment of Python. A speedup factor over 19 using the GPU is obtained when compared with the execution of the same program in parallel using a CPU multi-core (in this case we use the 4-cores that has the CPU). The performance for different graphic cards and operating systems is included together with the full 2-D finite difference code with PyOpenCL. PMID:23290584

  1. Dense, finely, grained composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Dunmead, Stephen D. (Davis, CA); Holt, Joseph B. (San Jose, CA); Kingman, Donald D. (Danville, CA); Munir, Zuhair A. (Davis, CA)

    1990-01-01

    Dense, finely grained composite materials comprising one or more ceramic phase or phase and one or more metallic and/or intermetallic phase or phases are produced by combustion synthesis. Spherical ceramic grains are homogeneously dispersed within the matrix. Methods are provided, which include the step of applying mechanical pressure during or immediately after ignition, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected.

  2. Lightweight, Thermally Conductive Composite Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, G. Richard; Loftin, Timothy A.

    1990-01-01

    Aluminum reinforced with carbon fibers superior to copper in some respects. Lightweight composite material has high thermal conductivity. Consists of aluminum matrix containing graphite fibers, all oriented in same direction. Available as sheets, tubes, and bars. Thermal conductivity of composite along fibers rises above that of pure copper over substantial range of temperatures. Graphite/aluminum composite useful in variety of heat-transfer applications in which reduction of weight critical. Used to conduct heat in high-density, high-speed integrated-circuit packages for computers and in base plates for electronic equipment. Also used to carry heat away from leading edges of wings in high-speed airplanes.

  3. Material properties of PDLC composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klosowicz, Stanislaw J.

    1996-04-01

    Liquid crystal composites, i.e., two phase polymer-liquid crystal systems, are very interesting from a scientific and application point of view. Amongst them the best known is PDLC (polymer dispersed liquid crystal) structure. In this material liquid crystal (LC) droplets, diameter of 0.1 - 10 micrometer are embedded in a polymer matrix. PDLC composites are used for construction of new information displays, image projectors and optical devices. In the presented work essential material requirements for PDLC are given from an application point of view. They concern mainly well-known electro-optical effect of electrically induced transmittance. The examples of experimental results are also presented.

  4. Impact response of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Srinivasan, K.

    1991-01-01

    Composite materials composed of carbon fibers and resin matrices offer great promise in reducing the weight of aerospace structures. However they remain extremely vulnerable to out of plane impact loads, which lead to severe losses in strength and stiffness. The results of an experimental program, undertaken to investigate the low velocity impact damage tolerance of composite materials is presented. The objectives were to identify key neat resin/composite properties that lead to enhancement of composite impact damage tolerance and to find a small scale test that predicts compression after impact properties of panels. Five materials were selected for evaluation. These systems represented different classes of material behavior such as brittle epoxy, modified epoxies, and amorphous and semicrystalling thermoplastics. The influence of fiber properties on the impact performance was also studied in one material, i.e., in polyether ether ketone (PEEK). Several 24 and 48 ply quasi-isotropic and 24 ply orthotropic laminates were examined using an instrumented drop weight impactor. Correlations with post impact compression behavior were made.

  5. Delamination growth in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, J. W., Jr.; Carlson, L. A.; Pipes, R. B.; Rothschilds, R.; Trethewey, B.; Smiley, A.

    1985-01-01

    Research related to growth of an imbedded through-width delamination (ITWD) in a compression loaded composite structural element is presented. Composites with widely different interlaminar fracture resistance were examined, viz., graphite/epoxy (CYCOM 982) and graphite/PEEK (APC-2). The initial part of the program consisted of characterizing the material in tension, compression and shear mainly to obtain consistent material properties for analysis, but also as a check of the processing method developed for the thermoplastic APC-2 material. The characterization of the delamination growth in the ITWD specimen, which for the unidirectional case is essentially a mixed Mode 1 and 2 geometry, requires verified mixed-mode growth criteria for the two materials involved. For this purpose the main emphasis during this part of the investigation was on Mode 1 and 2 fracture specimens, namely the Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) and End Notched Flexure (ENF) specimens.

  6. Anisotropic reversible piezoresistivity in magnetic-metallic/polymer structured elastomeric composites: modelling and experiments.

    PubMed

    Mietta, José Luis; Tamborenea, Pablo I; Martin Negri, R

    2016-01-14

    Structured elastomeric composites (SECs) with electrically conductive fillers display anisotropic piezoresistivity. The fillers do not form string-of-particle structures but pseudo-chains formed by grouping micro-sized clusters containing nanomagnetic particles surrounded by noble metals (e.g. silver, Ag). The pseudo-chains are formed when curing or preparing the composite in the presence of a uniform magnetic field, thus pseudo-chains are aligned in the direction of the field. The electrical conduction through pseudo-chains is analyzed and a constitutive model for the anisotropic reversible piezoresistivity in SECs is proposed. Several effects and characteristics, such as electron tunnelling, conduction inside the pseudo-chains, and chain-contact resistivity, are included in the model. Experimental results of electrical resistance, R, as a function of the normal stress applied in the direction of the pseudo-chains, P, are very well fitted by the model in the case of Fe3O4[Ag] microparticles magnetically aligned while curing in polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS. The cross sensitivity of different parameters (like the potential barrier and the effective distance for electron tunnelling) is evaluated. The model predicts the presence of several gaps for electron tunnelling inside the pseudo-chains. Estimates of those parameters for the mentioned experimental system under strains up to 20% are presented. Simulations of the expected response for other systems are performed showing the influence of Young's modulus and other parameters on the predicted piezoresistivity. PMID:26477664

  7. Joining of polymer composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Magness, F.H.

    1990-11-01

    Under ideal conditions load bearing structures would be designed without joints, thus eliminating a source of added weight, complexity and weakness. In reality the need for accessibility, repair, and inspectability, added to the size limitations imposed by the manufacturing process and transportation/assembly requirements mean that some minimum number of joints will be required in most structures. The designer generally has two methods for joining fiber composite materials, adhesive bonding and mechanical fastening. As the use of thermoplastic materials increases, a third joining technique -- welding -- will become more common. It is the purpose of this document to provide a review of the available sources pertinent to the design of joints in fiber composites. The primary emphasis is given to adhesive bonding and mechanical fastening with information coming from documentary sources as old as 1961 and as recent as 1989. A third, shorter section on composite welding is included in order to provide a relatively comprehensive treatment of the subject.

  8. Durability of aircraft composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dextern, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    Confidence in the long term durability of advanced composites is developed through a series of flight service programs. Service experience is obtained by installing secondary and primary composite components on commercial and military transport aircraft and helicopters. Included are spoilers, rudders, elevators, ailerons, fairings and wing boxes on transport aircraft and doors, fairings, tail rotors, vertical fins, and horizontal stabilizers on helicopters. Materials included in the evaluation are boron/epoxy, Kevlar/epoxy, graphite/epoxy and boron/aluminum. Inspection, maintenance, and repair results for the components in service are reported. The effects of long term exposure to laboratory, flight, and outdoor environmental conditions are reported for various composite materials. Included are effects of moisture absorption, ultraviolet radiation, and aircraft fuels and fluids.

  9. Predicting Properties Of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naik, Rajiv A.

    1994-01-01

    Micromechanical Combined Stress Analysis (MICSTRAN) computer code provides materials engineers with easy-to-use personal-computer-based software tool to calculate overall properties of composite, given properties of fibers and matrix. Computes overall thermoelastic parameters and stresses by micromechanical analysis. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  10. Welds in thermoplastic composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, N. S.

    Welding methods are reviewed that can be effectively used for joining of thermoplastic composites and continuous-fiber thermoplastics. Attention is given to the use of ultrasonic, vibration, hot-plate, resistance, and induction welding techniques. The welding techniques are shown to provide complementary weld qualities for the range of thermoplastic materials that are of interest to industrial and technological applications.

  11. Composite Materials: An Educational Need.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saliba, Tony E.; Snide, James A.

    1990-01-01

    Described is the need to incorporate the concepts and applications of advanced composite materials into existing chemical engineering programs. Discussed are the justification for, and implementation of topics including transport phenomena, kinetics and reactor design, unit operations, and product and process design. (CW)

  12. Composite containing coated fibrous material

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.N.; Gaddipati, A.R.

    1989-12-26

    This patent describes a process for producing a composite containing at least about 10% by volume of boron nitride coated fibrous material and having a porosity of less than about 20% by volume. It comprises: forming a slurry of infiltration-promoting material and organic binding material in a liquid medium; depositing a coating of boron nitride on fibrous material leaving no significant portion thereof exposed; depositing a silicon-wettable coating on the boron nitride-coated fibrous material leaving no significant portion of the boron nitride exposed; providing the resulting coated fibrous material substantially as a layer; casting the slurry onto the coated fibrous material in an amount sufficient to form a tape therewith; evaporating the liquid medium forming a tape; firing the tape to remove the organic binding material producing a porous body; providing an infiltrant comprised of boron and silicon containing elemental boron in solution in silicon in an amount of at least about 0.1% by weight of elemental silicon; contacting the porous body with infiltrant associated infiltrating means whereby the infiltrant is infiltrated into the porous body; heating the resulting assembly in a partial vacuum to a temperature at which the infiltrant is molten and infiltrating the molten infiltrant into the porous body to produce an infiltrated product; and cooling the product producing the composite.

  13. Mechanical properties of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, H. Richard; Cornwell, L. R.

    1993-01-01

    A composite material incorporates high strength, high modulus fibers in a matrix (polymer, metal, or ceramic). The fibers may be oriented in a manner to give varying in-plane properties (longitudinal, transverse-stress, strain, and modulus of elasticity). The lay-up of the composite laminates is such that a center line of symmetry and no bending moment exist through the thickness. The laminates are tabbed, with either aluminum or fiberglass, and are ready for tensile testing. The determination of the tensile properties of resin matrix composites, reinforced by continuous fibers, is outlined in ASTM standard D 3039, Tensile Properties of Oriented Fiber Composites. The tabbed flat tensile coupons are placed into the grips of a tensile machine and load-deformation curves plotted. The load-deformation data are translated into stress-strain curves for determination of mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength and modulus of elasticity).

  14. Graphene aerogel/epoxy composites with exceptional anisotropic structure and properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenyu; Shen, Xi; Akbari Garakani, Mohammad; Lin, Xiuyi; Wu, Ying; Liu, Xu; Sun, Xinying; Kim, Jang-Kyo

    2015-03-11

    3D interconnected graphene aerogels (GAs) are prepared through one-step chemical reduction and rational assembly of graphene oxide (GO) sheets, so that the difficulties to uniformly disperse the individual graphene sheets in the polymer matrixes are avoided. Apart from ultralow density, high porosity, high electrical conductivity, and excellent compressibility, the resulting GAs possess a cellular architecture with a high degree of alignment when the graphene content is above a threshold, ∼0.5 wt %. The composites prepared by infiltrating GA with epoxy resin present excellent electrical conductivities, together with high mechanical properties and fracture toughness. The unusual anisotropic structure gives rise to ∼67% and ∼113% higher electrical conductivity and fracture toughness of the composites, respectively, in the alignment direction than that transverse to it. PMID:25691257

  15. Methods of determining loads and fiber orientations in anisotropic non-crystalline materials using energy flux deviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H. (inventor); Kriz, Ronald D. (inventor); Fitting, Dale W. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An ultrasonic wave is applied to an anisotropic sample material in an initial direction and an angle of flux deviation of the ultrasonic wave front is measured from this initial direction. This flux deviation angle is induced by the unknown applied load. The flux shift is determined between this flux deviation angle and a previously determined angle of flux deviation of an ultrasonic wave applied to a similar anisotropic reference material under an initial known load condition. This determined flux shift is then compared to a plurality of flux shifts of a similarly tested, similar anisotropic reference material under a plurality of respective, known load conditions, whereby the load applied to the particular anisotropic sample material is determined. A related method is disclosed for determining the fiber orientation from known loads and a determined flux shift.

  16. Polarization artefacts of an FTIR microscope and the consequences for intensity measurements on anisotropic materials.

    PubMed

    Coats, A M; Hukins, D W L; Imrie, C T; Aspden, R M

    2003-07-01

    The infrared beam on both the main Nicolet Nexus bench and the attached Spectra-Tech Continuum microscope has been shown to be partially polarized. The degree of polarization is approximately 30%. Although the state of polarization of the infrared beam is of no consequence when measuring the spectra of isotropic materials (gases, liquids), there is a potential problem when considering the spectra of anisotropic materials. Single band intensities are particularly prone to error as small changes in sample thickness or orientation directly affect the intensity. Thickness effects can be overcome by measuring intensity ratios. However, because of the partially polarized nature of the infrared beam, even intensity ratios, illustrated here by the ratio amide I/II of collagen fibres, vary with sample orientation. If overlooked, this effect can be problematic when measuring infrared spectra with an FTIR microscope from samples that are anisotropic or contain anisotropic domains, even though they may appear isotropic on a macroscopic scale. Because dichroic ratios remain unaffected, the intensity ratio from two bands with different transition moments may be used to give a strong indication of the orientation of the sample. This work is illustrated by reference to the FTIR spectra of orientated polyethylene, collagen tape and human trabecular bone. PMID:12839552

  17. Energy absorption of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    Results of a study on the energy absorption characteristics of selected composite material systems are presented and the results compared with aluminum. Composite compression tube specimens were fabricated with both tape and woven fabric prepreg using graphite/epoxy (Gr/E), Kevlar (TM)/epoxy (K/E) and glass/epoxy (Gl/E). Chamfering and notching one end of the composite tube specimen reduced the peak load at initial failure without altering the sustained crushing load, and prevented catastrophic failure. Static compression and vertical impact tests were performed on 128 tubes. The results varied significantly as a function of material type and ply orientation. In general, the Gr/E tubes absorbed more energy than the Gl/E or K/E tubes for the same ply orientation. The 0/ + or - 15 Gr/E tubes absorbed more energy than the aluminum tubes. Gr/E and Gl/E tubes failed in a brittle mode and had negligible post crushing integrity, whereas the K/E tubes failed in an accordian buckling mode similar to the aluminum tubes. The energy absorption and post crushing integrity of hybrid composite tubes were not significantly better than that of the single material tubes.

  18. Identification of structural defects in graphitic materials by gas-phase anisotropic etching.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuang; Yang, Rong; Shi, Dongxia; Zhang, Guangyu

    2012-03-21

    We developed a method of identifying the structural defects in graphitic materials by an anisotropic etching technique. Intrinsic and oxygen- or argon- plasma induced artificial defects' density and domain size can be obtained easily and precisely. It was inferred, through our investigations, that the grade ZYA highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) sample has a better crystal quality, with a lower defect density, while the Kish graphite has a larger grain size and higher defect density. Defect types and lattice orientations can also be extracted by this technique. Furthermore, this method could apply to various graphitic materials including graphene. PMID:22318671

  19. Fracture mechanics for delamination problems in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S. S.

    1983-01-01

    A fracture mechanics approach to the well-known delamination problem in composite materials is presented. Based on the theory of anisotropic laminate elasticity and interlaminar fracture mechanics concepts, the composite delamination problem is formulated and solved. The exact order of the delamination crack-tip stress singularity is determined. Asymptotic stress and displacement fields for an interlaminar crack are obtained. Fracture mechanics parameters such as mixed-mode stress intensity factors, KI, KII, KIII, and the energy release rate, G, for composite delamination problems are defined. To illustrate the fundamental nature of the delamination crack behavior, solutions for edge-delaminated graphite-epoxy composites under uniform axial extension are presented. Effects of fiber orientation, ply thickness, and delamination length on the interlaminar fracture are examined.

  20. Toward Anisotropic Hybrid Materials: Directional Crystallization of Amphiphilic Polyoxazoline-Based Triblock Terpolymers.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Tobias; von der Lhe, Moritz; Hartlieb, Matthias; Norsic, Sebastien; Schubert, Ulrich S; Boisson, Christophe; D'Agosto, Franck; Schacher, Felix H

    2015-10-27

    We present the design and synthesis of a linear ABC triblock terpolymer for the bottom-up synthesis of anisotropic organic/inorganic hybrid materials: polyethylene-block-poly(2-(4-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)amino)butyl-2-oxazoline)-block-poly(2-iso-propyl-2-oxazoline) (PE-b-PBocAmOx-b-PiPrOx). The synthesis was realized via the covalent linkage of azide-functionalized polyethylene and alkyne functionalized poly(2-alkyl-2-oxazoline) (POx)-based diblock copolymers exploiting copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) chemistry. After purification of the resulting triblock terpolymer, the middle block was deprotected, resulting in a primary amine in the side chain. In the next step, solution self-assembly into core-shell-corona micelles in aqueous solution was investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Subsequent directional crystallization of the corona-forming block, poly(2-iso-propyl-2-oxazoline), led to the formation of anisotropic superstructures as demonstrated by electron microscopy (SEM and TEM). We present hypotheses concerning the aggregation mechanism as well as first promising results regarding the selective loading of individual domains within such anisotropic nanostructures with metal nanoparticles (Au, Fe3O4). PMID:26372093

  1. Asymmetric Dielectric Elastomer Composite Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Brian K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of the invention provide a dielectric elastomer composite material comprising a plurality of elastomer-coated electrodes arranged in an assembly. Embodiments of the invention provide improved force output over prior DEs by producing thinner spacing between electrode surfaces. This is accomplished by coating electrodes directly with uncured elastomer in liquid form and then assembling a finished component (which may be termed an actuator) from coated electrode components.

  2. Damage and fracture mechanics of composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdussalam, Saleh Ramadan

    The design of structural systems in the aerospace industry has been characterized by a continuing search for strong, yet lightweight, materials to achieve maximum payload capability for minimum weight. In recent years, this search has led to a wide use of fiber reinforced composites, such as carbon, glass and kevelar based composites. Comparison of these new materials with the traditional ones (metals) according to the basic properties, such as density, elastic modulus and also long-time and short-time strength, shows their superiority over traditional materials, when weight is a major design factor, like in the aerospace industry. Most composite materials of interest to aerospace applications have been adequately characterized under static loading conditions. Related work to study their fracture behaviour has been limited. Since most failure mechanisms involve crack growth and/or delamination, design of such components requires knowledge and understanding of their fracture properties. This thesis includes an experimental and analytical investigation of fracture characteristics of composite materials. The post-peak response of notched specimens subjected to uniaxial cyclic loading is established to evaluate the fracture energy associated with progressive matrix damage and subsequent crack growth. A total of 75 uniaxial tension specimens were tested. The experimental work consisted of first testing several un-notched specimens with different thickness (number of layers) to determine the initial and secondary elastic modulus as well as the tensile strength. The investigation studied the effect of the various fracture parameters, including thickness, fiber orientation, and crack width ratio (a/w) on the behaviour of crack propagation, peak load, and post-peak response. The specimens used in this research were prepared using the vacuum bagging technique, with a chosen number of fiber glass cloth layers and fiber orientation. The experimental results provided information regarding the peak load, post-peak response, fracture energy and stress intensity factor of the notched composite materials specimen under repeated loading/unloading cyclicity. The load versus crack opening displacement as well as crack length, fracture toughness and fracture energy versus number of loading cycles are produced for different specimens. Based on the experimental results, concepts of fracture mechanics are applied to evaluate stiffness degradation, fracture toughness and fracture energy evolution associated with crack growth. In addition, a linear elastic fracture mechanics approach combined with continuum damage representation is used to predict the response of specimens (peak load and crack opening displacement). This effort has also generated a new crack band model for computational purposes. A new formula is derived to compute delamination and interlaminar buckling loads using the finite element method. By matching the analytical near crack tip displacement field with the finite element approximation, the crack-axial stress magnitude is established, and therefore an accurate assessment of the buckling load responsible for delamination of composites is accurately evaluated. A comprehensive derivation of the fracture inelastic zone size and shape in anisotropic solids is presented. An adaptation of Hill's failure criterion is used to derive the shape of the inelastic zone. The findings explain the "banded" shape of the damage zone observed during crack growth.

  3. Characterization of guided wave velocity and attenuation in anisotropic materials from wavefield measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Westin B.; Michaels, Thomas E.; Michaels, Jennifer E.

    2016-02-01

    The behavior of guided waves propagating in anisotropic composite panels can be substantially more complicated than for isotropic, metallic plates. The angular dependency of wave propagation characteristics need to be understood and quantified before applying methods for damage detection and characterization. This study experimentally investigates the anisotropy of wave speed and attenuation for the fundamental A0-like guided wave mode propagating in a solid laminate composite panel. A piezoelectric transducer is the wave source and a laser Doppler vibrometer is used to measure the outward propagating waves along radial lines originating at the source transducer. Group velocity, phase velocity and attenuation are characterized as a function of angle for a single center frequency. The methods shown in this paper serve as a framework for future adaptation to damage imaging methods using guided waves for structural health monitoring.

  4. Improved Silica Aerogel Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paik, Jong-Ah; Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Jones, Steven

    2008-01-01

    A family of aerogel-matrix composite materials having thermal-stability and mechanical- integrity properties better than those of neat aerogels has been developed. Aerogels are known to be excellent thermal- and acoustic-insulation materials because of their molecular-scale porosity, but heretofore, the use of aerogels has been inhibited by two factors: (1) Their brittleness makes processing and handling difficult. (2) They shrink during production and shrink more when heated to high temperatures during use. The shrinkage and the consequent cracking make it difficult to use them to encapsulate objects in thermal-insulation materials. The underlying concept of aerogel-matrix composites is not new; the novelty of the present family of materials lies in formulations and processes that result in superior properties, which include (1) much less shrinkage during a supercritical-drying process employed in producing a typical aerogel, (2) much less shrinkage during exposure to high temperatures, and (3) as a result of the reduction in shrinkage, much less or even no cracking.

  5. A critical survey of wave propagation and impact in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moon, F. C.

    1973-01-01

    A review of the field of stress waves in composite materials is presented covering the period up to December 1972. The major properties of waves in composites are discussed and a summary is made of the major experimental results in this field. Various theoretical models for analysis of wave propagation in laminated, fiber and particle reinforced composites are surveyed. The anisotropic, dispersive and dissipative properties of stress pulses and shock waves in such materials are reviewed. A review of the behavior of composites under impact loading is presented along with the application of wave propagation concepts to the determination of impact stresses in composite plates.

  6. Severe edge effects and simple complimentary interior solutions for thin-walled anisotropic and composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horgan, C. O.; Simmonds, J. G.

    1994-12-01

    Many useful thin-walled structures of interest to the U.S. Army, such as rifle barrels, automotive parts, rocket casings, helicopter blades, driveshafts, and containment vessels, are often constructed of layers of anisotropic, filament or fiber-reinforced materials. While many of these structures are subject to severe mechanical, inertial, or thermal loads, they often must be designed to remain elastic. This means that it is particularly important to be able to compute accurately global characteristics, such as buckling loads and natural frequencies, as well as local information such as stresses near holes or edges. Two important, complementary regions of such structures, have been studied, namely, the interior where there are no steep stress gradients, and the edge zone(s) where stress gradients are high. For both regions, simplified, cost-effective asymptotic methods have been developed. These considerations are particularly important in layered, anisotropic structures because many investigators have (1) claimed that higher-order (and hence computationally expensive) beam, plate, or shell theories are needed for such structures and (2) not paid sufficient attention to the particularly severe end effects (breakdown of Saint-Venant's principle) such structures engender.

  7. Meander-line-based inhomogeneous anisotropic artificial material for gain enhancement of UWB Vivaldi antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Gaurav Kumar; Singh, Hari Shankar; Meshram, Manoj Kumar

    2016-02-01

    An inhomogeneous anisotropic (IA) artificial material (AM) is proposed having epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) characteristics and effective refractive index >1, simultaneously, in the same direction. Further, the proposed IA-AM is utilized for the gain enhancement of Vivaldi antenna for ultra-wideband (UWB) applications. The IA-AM consists of two types of compact meandered line-based anisotropic artificial material with ENZ characteristics in two adjacent narrow bands of 5.5-8.5 and 8-11.5 GHz. However, the non-resonant behavior of the artificial material in other direction appears with high refractive index property in broadband region. The combination of both the unit cells with broadband ENZ and high refractive index property is used to improve the gain of the Vivaldi antenna in broadband. The proposed IA-AM-loaded Vivaldi antenna exhibits a gain enhancement of up to 2 dBi compared to the original antenna in the operating frequency band of 3.1-12 GHz with | S 11| < -10 dB. The proposed antenna shows nearly stable unidirectional radiation patterns with high directivity and nearly flat group delay.

  8. Polymer encapsulated gibbsite nanoparticles: efficient preparation of anisotropic composite latex particles by RAFT-based starved feed emulsion polymerization.

    PubMed

    Ali, Syed Imran; Heuts, Johan P A; Hawkett, Brian S; van Herk, Alex M

    2009-09-15

    Anisotropic polymer-inorganic composite latex particles were synthesized by using a RAFT-based encapsulation approach on cationic gibbsite platelets. By using the RAFT agent dibenzyl trithiocarbonate, a series of amphipatic living random RAFT copolymers with different combinations of acrylic acid and butyl acrylate units were synthesized. These RAFT copolymers were used as living stabilizers for the gibbsite platelets and chain extended to form a polymeric shell by starved feed emulsion polymerization. Cryo-TEM characterization of the resulting composite latexes demonstrates the formation of anisotropic composite latex particles with mostly one platelet per particle. Monomer feed composition, chain length, and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance of the RAFT copolymer were found to be important factors for the overall efficiency of the encapsulation. Good control over platelet orientation and high encapsulation efficiency were achieved via this route. PMID:19534456

  9. Design, fabrication and characterization of a monolithic focusing piezoceramic transducer for an anisotropic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souris, Fabien; Grucker, Jules; Garroum, Nabil; Leclercq, Arnaud; Isac, Jean-Michel; Dupont-Roc, Jacques; Jacquier, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    Piezoceramic transducers shaped as spherical caps are widely used to focus ultrasound waves in isotropic materials. For anisotropic materials, the sound wave surface is not spherical and the transducer surface should be adjusted to reproduce a portion of this wave surface to focus the emitted sound properly. In this article, we show how to design such a transducer and how to fabricate it in lab on a standard machine from a rod of raw piezo ceramic material. The main features of its electrical impedance response are well reproduced by a numerical model, allowing the identification of most of its vibrational modes. We finally measured the sound field emitted by such a transducer and found its focusing efficiency similar to that of spherical caps in isotropic media.

  10. Design, fabrication and characterization of a monolithic focusing piezoceramic transducer for an anisotropic material.

    PubMed

    Souris, Fabien; Grucker, Jules; Garroum, Nabil; Leclercq, Arnaud; Isac, Jean-Michel; Dupont-Roc, Jacques; Jacquier, Philippe

    2014-06-01

    Piezoceramic transducers shaped as spherical caps are widely used to focus ultrasound waves in isotropic materials. For anisotropic materials, the sound wave surface is not spherical and the transducer surface should be adjusted to reproduce a portion of this wave surface to focus the emitted sound properly. In this article, we show how to design such a transducer and how to fabricate it in lab on a standard machine from a rod of raw piezo ceramic material. The main features of its electrical impedance response are well reproduced by a numerical model, allowing the identification of most of its vibrational modes. We finally measured the sound field emitted by such a transducer and found its focusing efficiency similar to that of spherical caps in isotropic media. PMID:24985837

  11. Study on the anisotropic photonic band gaps in three-dimensional tunable photonic crystals containing the epsilon-negative materials and uniaxial materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Li, Bing-Xiang

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, the properties of anisotropic photonic band gaps (PBGs) for three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals (PCs) composed of the anisotropic positive-index materials (the uniaxial materials) and the epsilon-negative (ENG) materials with body-centered-cubic (bcc) lattices are theoretically studied by a modified plane wave expansion (PWE) method, which are the uniaxial materials spheres inserted in the epsilon-negative materials background. The anisotropic photonic band gaps (PBGs) and one flatbands region can be achieved in first irreducible Brillouin zone. The influences of the ordinary-refractive index, extraordinary-refractive index, filling factor, the electronic plasma frequency, the dielectric constant of ENG materials and the damping factor on the properties of anisotropic PBGs for such 3D PCs are studied in detail, respectively, and some corresponding physical explanations are also given. The numerical results show that the anisotropy can open partial band gaps in such 3D PCs with bcc lattices composed of the ENG materials and uniaxial materials, and the complete PBGs can be obtained compared to the conventional 3D PCs containing the isotropic materials. The calculated results also show that the anisotropic PBGs can be manipulated by the parameters as mentioned above except for the damping factor. Introducing the uniaxial materials into 3D PCs containing the ENG materials can obtain the larger complete PBGs as such 3D PCs with high symmetry, and also provides a way to design the tunable devices.

  12. Multimaterial magnetically assisted 3D printing of composite materials.

    PubMed

    Kokkinis, Dimitri; Schaffner, Manuel; Studart, Andr R

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has become commonplace for the manufacturing of objects with unusual geometries. Recent developments that enabled printing of multiple materials indicate that the technology can potentially offer a much wider design space beyond unusual shaping. Here we show that a new dimension in this design space can be exploited through the control of the orientation of anisotropic particles used as building blocks during a direct ink-writing process. Particle orientation control is demonstrated by applying low magnetic fields on deposited inks pre-loaded with magnetized stiff platelets. Multimaterial dispensers and a two-component mixing unit provide additional control over the local composition of the printed material. The five-dimensional design space covered by the proposed multimaterial magnetically assisted 3D printing platform (MM-3D printing) opens the way towards the manufacturing of functional heterogeneous materials with exquisite microstructural features thus far only accessible by biological materials grown in nature. PMID:26494528

  13. Multimaterial magnetically assisted 3D printing of composite materials

    PubMed Central

    Kokkinis, Dimitri; Schaffner, Manuel; Studart, André R.

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has become commonplace for the manufacturing of objects with unusual geometries. Recent developments that enabled printing of multiple materials indicate that the technology can potentially offer a much wider design space beyond unusual shaping. Here we show that a new dimension in this design space can be exploited through the control of the orientation of anisotropic particles used as building blocks during a direct ink-writing process. Particle orientation control is demonstrated by applying low magnetic fields on deposited inks pre-loaded with magnetized stiff platelets. Multimaterial dispensers and a two-component mixing unit provide additional control over the local composition of the printed material. The five-dimensional design space covered by the proposed multimaterial magnetically assisted 3D printing platform (MM-3D printing) opens the way towards the manufacturing of functional heterogeneous materials with exquisite microstructural features thus far only accessible by biological materials grown in nature. PMID:26494528

  14. Multimaterial magnetically assisted 3D printing of composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokkinis, Dimitri; Schaffner, Manuel; Studart, André R.

    2015-10-01

    3D printing has become commonplace for the manufacturing of objects with unusual geometries. Recent developments that enabled printing of multiple materials indicate that the technology can potentially offer a much wider design space beyond unusual shaping. Here we show that a new dimension in this design space can be exploited through the control of the orientation of anisotropic particles used as building blocks during a direct ink-writing process. Particle orientation control is demonstrated by applying low magnetic fields on deposited inks pre-loaded with magnetized stiff platelets. Multimaterial dispensers and a two-component mixing unit provide additional control over the local composition of the printed material. The five-dimensional design space covered by the proposed multimaterial magnetically assisted 3D printing platform (MM-3D printing) opens the way towards the manufacturing of functional heterogeneous materials with exquisite microstructural features thus far only accessible by biological materials grown in nature.

  15. Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics.

    PubMed

    Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Han; Jia, Yichen

    2014-01-01

    Graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are the two major types of layered materials under intensive investigation. However, the zero-bandgap nature of graphene and the relatively low mobility in TMDCs limit their applications. Here we reintroduce black phosphorus (BP), the most stable allotrope of phosphorus with strong intrinsic in-plane anisotropy, to the layered-material family. For 15-nm-thick BP, we measure a Hall mobility of 1,000 and 600 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) for holes along the light (x) and heavy (y) effective mass directions at 120 K. BP thin films also exhibit large and anisotropic in-plane optical conductivity from 2 to 5 ?m. Field-effect transistors using 5 nm BP along x direction exhibit an on-off current ratio exceeding 10(5), a field-effect mobility of 205 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1), and good current saturation characteristics all at room temperature. BP shows great potential for thin-film electronics, infrared optoelectronics and novel devices in which anisotropic properties are desirable. PMID:25041752

  16. Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Han; Jia, Yichen

    2014-07-01

    Graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are the two major types of layered materials under intensive investigation. However, the zero-bandgap nature of graphene and the relatively low mobility in TMDCs limit their applications. Here we reintroduce black phosphorus (BP), the most stable allotrope of phosphorus with strong intrinsic in-plane anisotropy, to the layered-material family. For 15-nm-thick BP, we measure a Hall mobility of 1,000 and 600?cm2?V-1?s-1 for holes along the light (x) and heavy (y) effective mass directions at 120?K. BP thin films also exhibit large and anisotropic in-plane optical conductivity from 2 to 5??m. Field-effect transistors using 5?nm BP along x direction exhibit an on-off current ratio exceeding 105, a field-effect mobility of 205?cm2?V-1?s-1, and good current saturation characteristics all at room temperature. BP shows great potential for thin-film electronics, infrared optoelectronics and novel devices in which anisotropic properties are desirable.

  17. Composite materials for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H.; Henager, C.H. Jr.; Hollenberg, G.W.

    1991-10-01

    Ceramic matrix composites, CMCs, are being considered for advanced first-wall and blanket structural applications because of their high-temperature properties, low neutron activation, low density and low coefficient of expansion coupled with good thermal conductivity and corrosion behavior. This paper presents a review and analysis of the hermetic, thermal conductivity, corrosion, crack growth and radiation damage properties of CMCs. It was concluded that the leak rates of a gaseous coolant into the plasma chamber or tritium out of the blanket could exceed design criteria if matrix microcracking causes existing porosity to become interconnected. Thermal conductivities of unirradiated SiC/SiC and C/SiC materials are about 1/2 to 2/3 that of Type 316 SS whereas the thermal conductivity for C/C composites is seven times larger. The thermal stress figure-of-merit value for CMCs exceeds that of Type 316 SS for a single thermal cycle. SiC/SiC composites are very resistant to corrosion and are expected to be compatible with He or Li coolants if the O{sub 2} concentrations are maintained at the appropriate levels. CMCs exhibit subcritical crack growth at elevated temperatures and the crack velocity is a function of the corrosion conditions. The radiation stability of CMCs will depend on the stability of the fiber, microcracking of the matrix, and the effects of gaseous transmutation products on properties. 23 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Features of Destruction of the Monolithic and Spaced Barriers from Anisotropic Materials at Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radchenko, Andrey; Radchenko, Pavel

    2011-06-01

    Creation of materials with the specified properties is an actual problem. Modern technologies of reception of materials allow to optimize strength parameters of a design for work in concrete conditions of external influences. Such optimization can be made or thanks to the imparting to a structure of a material of orderliness, or thanks to material reinforcing by strengthening elements. After such arrangement the material, as a rule, gets high rate of anisotropy. Besides optimization of properties of a material also the various approaches connected with constructive decisions are used. The spaced targets to protection of designs from high-velocity objects are especially effective. In the given work the comparative analysis of development of destructions in the monolithic and spaced targets at high-velocity interaction is carried out. A material of targets is orthotropic organoplastic with high rate of anisotropy of elastic and strength properties. Destruction, efficiency of the monolithic and spaced targets depending on orientation of properties of an anisotropic material in a range of velocities of impact from 750 to 3000m/s is investigated.

  19. Quantitative ultrasonic testing of acoustically anisotropic materials with verification on austenitic and dissimilar weld joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boller, C.; Pudovikov, S.; Bulavinov, A.

    2012-05-01

    Austenitic stainless steel materials are widely used in a variety of industry sectors. In particular, the material is qualified to meet the design criteria of high quality in safety related applications. For example, the primary loop of the most of the nuclear power plants in the world, due to high durability and corrosion resistance, is made of this material. Certain operating conditions may cause a range of changes in the integrity of the component, and therefore require nondestructive testing at reasonable intervals. These in-service inspections are often performed using ultrasonic techniques, in particular when cracking is of specific concern. However, the coarse, dendritic grain structure of the weld material, formed during the welding process, is extreme and unpredictably anisotropic. Such structure is no longer direction-independent to the ultrasonic wave propagation; therefore, the ultrasonic beam deflects and redirects and the wave front becomes distorted. Thus, the use of conventional ultrasonic testing techniques using fixed beam angles is very limited and the application of ultrasonic Phased Array techniques becomes desirable. The "Sampling Phased Array" technique, invented and developed by Fraunhofer IZFP, allows the acquisition of time signals (A-scans) for each individual transducer element of the array along with fast image reconstruction techniques based on synthetic focusing algorithms. The reconstruction considers the sound propagation from each image pixel to the individual sensor element. For anisotropic media, where the sound beam is deflected and the sound path is not known a-priori, a novel phase adjustment technique called "Reverse Phase Matching" is implemented. By taking into account the anisotropy and inhomogeneity of the weld structure, a ray tracing algorithm for modeling the acoustic wave propagation and calculating the sound propagation time is applied. This technique can be utilized for 2D and 3D real time image reconstruction. The "Gradient Constant Descent Method" (GECDM), an iterative algorithm, is implemented, which is essential for examination of inhomogeneous anisotropic media having unknown properties (elastic constants). The Sampling Phased Array technique with Reverse Phase Matching extended by GECDM-technique determines unknown elastic constants and provides reliable and efficient quantitative flaw detection in the austenitic welds. The validation of ray-tracing algorithm and GECDM-method is performed by number of experiments on test specimens with artificial as well as natural material flaws. A mechanized system for ultrasonic testing of stainless steel and dissimilar welds is developed. The system works on both conventional and Sampling Phased Array techniques. The new frontend ultrasonic unit with optical data link allows the 3D visualization of the inspection results in real time.

  20. Pyramidal Fin Arrays Performance Using Streamwise Anisotropic Materials by Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Yannick; Dupuis, Philippe; Jodoin, Bertrand; Corbeil, Antoine

    2015-07-01

    This work evaluates the thermal and hydrodynamic performance of pyramidal fin arrays produced using cold spray as an additive manufacturing process. Near-net-shaped pyramidal fin arrays of pure aluminum, pure nickel, and stainless steel 304 were manufactured. Fin array characterization such as fin porosity level and surface roughness evaluation was performed. The thermal conductivities of the three different coating materials were measured by laser flash analysis. The results obtained show a lower thermal efficiency for stainless steel 304, whereas the performances of the aluminum and nickel fin arrays are similar. This result is explained by looking closely at the fin and substrate roughness induced by the cold gas dynamic additive manufacturing process. The multi-material fin array sample has a better thermal efficiency than stainless steel 304. The work demonstrates the potential of the process to produce streamwise anisotropic fin arrays as well as the benefits of such arrays.

  1. Pyramidal Fin Arrays Performance Using Streamwise Anisotropic Materials by Cold Spray Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cormier, Yannick; Dupuis, Philippe; Jodoin, Bertrand; Corbeil, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    This work evaluates the thermal and hydrodynamic performance of pyramidal fin arrays produced using cold spray as an additive manufacturing process. Near-net-shaped pyramidal fin arrays of pure aluminum, pure nickel, and stainless steel 304 were manufactured. Fin array characterization such as fin porosity level and surface roughness evaluation was performed. The thermal conductivities of the three different coating materials were measured by laser flash analysis. The results obtained show a lower thermal efficiency for stainless steel 304, whereas the performances of the aluminum and nickel fin arrays are similar. This result is explained by looking closely at the fin and substrate roughness induced by the cold gas dynamic additive manufacturing process. The multi-material fin array sample has a better thermal efficiency than stainless steel 304. The work demonstrates the potential of the process to produce streamwise anisotropic fin arrays as well as the benefits of such arrays.

  2. 2D MATERIALS. Observation of tunable band gap and anisotropic Dirac semimetal state in black phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jimin; Baik, Seung Su; Ryu, Sae Hee; Sohn, Yeongsup; Park, Soohyung; Park, Byeong-Gyu; Denlinger, Jonathan; Yi, Yeonjin; Choi, Hyoung Joon; Kim, Keun Su

    2015-08-14

    Black phosphorus consists of stacked layers of phosphorene, a two-dimensional semiconductor with promising device characteristics. We report the realization of a widely tunable band gap in few-layer black phosphorus doped with potassium using an in situ surface doping technique. Through band structure measurements and calculations, we demonstrate that a vertical electric field from dopants modulates the band gap, owing to the giant Stark effect, and tunes the material from a moderate-gap semiconductor to a band-inverted semimetal. At the critical field of this band inversion, the material becomes a Dirac semimetal with anisotropic dispersion, linear in armchair and quadratic in zigzag directions. The tunable band structure of black phosphorus may allow great flexibility in design and optimization of electronic and optoelectronic devices. PMID:26273052

  3. Integral Equation Method for Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Stratified Anisotropic Dielectric-Magnetic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Wei-Xing; Fu, Na; L, Xiao-Fang; Luo, Hai-Lu; Wen, Shuang-Chun; Fan, Dian-Yuan

    2010-11-01

    We investigate the propagation of electromagnetic waves in stratified anisotropic dielectric-magnetic materials using the integral equation method (IEM). Based on the superposition principle, we use Hertz vector formulations of radiated fields to study the interaction of wave with matter. We derive in a new way the dispersion relation, Snell's law and reflection/transmission coefficients by self-consistent analyses. Moreover, we find two new forms of the generalized extinction theorem. Applying the IEM, we investigate the wave propagation through a slab and disclose the underlying physics, which are further verified by numerical simulations. The results lead to a unified framework of the IEM for the propagation of wave incident either from a medium or vacuum in stratified dielectric-magnetic materials.

  4. Strength of anisotropic wood and synthetic materials. [plywood, laminated wood plastics, glass fiber reinforced plastics, polymeric film, and natural wood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashkenazi, Y. K.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using general formulas for determining the strength of different anisotropic materials is considered, and theoretical formulas are applied and confirmed by results of tests on various nonmetallic materials. Data are cited on the strength of wood, plywood, laminated wood plastics, fiber glass-reinforced plastics and directed polymer films.

  5. Space processing of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steurer, W. H.; Kaye, S.

    1975-01-01

    Materials and processes for the testing of aluminum-base fiber and particle composites, and of metal foams under extended-time low-g conditions were investigated. A wetting and dispersion technique was developed, based on the theory that under the absence of a gas phase all solids are wetted by liquids. The process is characterized by a high vacuum environment and a high temperature cycle. Successful wetting and dispersion experiments were carried out with sapphire fibers, whiskers and particles, and with fibers of silicon carbide, pyrolytic graphite and tungsten. The developed process and facilities permit the preparation of a precomposite which serves as sample material for flight experiments. Low-g processing consists then merely in the uniform redistribution of the reinforcements during a melting cycle. For the preparation of metal foams, gas generation by means of a thermally decomposing compound was found most adaptable to flight experiments. For flight experiments, the use of compacted mixture of the component materials limits low-g processing to a simple melt cycle.

  6. Yield surfaces for anisotropic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. D.; Thacker, B. H.

    2000-04-01

    Aerospace systems are incorporating composite materials into their structures. The composite materials are often anisotropic in mechanical response due to their geometric layout. For many years, the failure surfaces of anisotropic materials were thought to be characterizable by a quadratic function in the stress, referred to as a Tsai-Wu yield surface, or, in a more restrictive form, a Tsai-Hill yield surface. Such a representation does not work for materials that are strong in two directions and weak in one direction, which is the case of most interest since it represents fiber/epoxy composite plates. This paper demonstrates the impossibility of modeling the failure surface with either the Tsai-Wu or Tsai-Hill failure surfaces. A yield surface is presented based on the lemniscate, which is quartic in the stress. This new yield surface addresses the case of strong in two directions and weak in one.

  7. Delamination growth in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, J. W., Jr.; Carlsson, L. A.; Pipes, R. B.; Rothschilds, R.; Trethewey, B.; Smiley, A.

    1986-01-01

    The Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) and the End Notched Flexure (ENF) specimens are employed to characterize MODE I and MODE II interlaminar fracture resistance of graphite/epoxy (CYCOM 982) and graphite/PEEK (APC2) composites. Sizing of test specimen geometries to achieve crack growth in the linear elastic regime is presented. Data reduction schemes based upon beam theory are derived for the ENF specimen and include the effects of shear deformation and friction between crack surfaces on compliance, C, and strain energy release rate, G sub II. Finite element (FE) analyses of the ENF geometry including the contact problem with friction are presented to assess the accuracy of beam theory expressions for C and G sub II. Virtual crack closure techniques verify that the ENF specimen is a pure Mode II test. Beam theory expressions are shown to be conservative by 20 to 40 percent for typical unidirectional test specimen geometries. A FE parametric study investigating the influence of delamination length and depth, span, thickness and material properties on G sub II is presented. Mode I and II interlaminar fracture test results are presented. Important experimental parameters are isolated, such as precracking techniques, rate effects, and nonlinear load-deflection response. It is found that subcritical crack growth and inelastic materials behavior, responsible for the observed nonlinearities, are highly rate-dependent phenomena with high rates generally leading to linear elastic response.

  8. Thin film dielectric composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Gibbons, Brady J. (Los Alamos, NM); Findikoglu, Alp T. (Los Alamos, NM); Park, Bae Ho (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A dielectric composite material comprising at least two crystal phases of different components with TiO.sub.2 as a first component and a material selected from the group consisting of Ba.sub.1-x Sr.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.3 to 0.7, Pb.sub.1-x Ca.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.4 to 0.7, Sr.sub.1-x Pb.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, Ba.sub.1-x Cd.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.02 to 0.1, BaTi.sub.1-x Zr.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Sn.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.15 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Hf.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.24 to 0.3, Pb.sub.1-1.3x La.sub.x TiO.sub.3+0.2x where x is from 0.23 to 0.3, (BaTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFeo.sub.0.5 Nb.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.75 to 0.9, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.- (PbCo.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.1 to 0.45, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbMg.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, and (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFe.sub.0.5 Ta.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0 to 0.2, as the second component is described. The dielectric composite material can be formed as a thin film upon suitable substrates.

  9. Anisotropic viscoelastic-viscoplastic continuum model for high-density cellulose-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjahjanto, D. D.; Girlanda, O.; Östlund, S.

    2015-11-01

    A continuum material model is developed for simulating the mechanical response of high-density cellulose-based materials subjected to stationary and transient loading. The model is formulated in an infinitesimal strain framework, where the total strain is decomposed into elastic and plastic parts. The model adopts a standard linear viscoelastic solid model expressed in terms of Boltzmann hereditary integral form, which is coupled to a rate-dependent viscoplastic formulation to describe the irreversible plastic part of the overall strain. An anisotropic hardening law with a kinematic effect is particularly adopted in order to capture the complex stress-strain hysteresis typically observed in polymeric materials. In addition, the present model accounts for the effects of material densification associated with through-thickness compression, which are captured using an exponential law typically applied in the continuum description of elasticity in porous media. Material parameters used in the present model are calibrated to the experimental data for high-density (press)boards. The experimental characterization procedures as well as the calibration of the parameters are highlighted. The results of the model simulations are systematically analyzed and validated against the corresponding experimental data. The comparisons show that the predictions of the present model are in very good agreement with the experimental observations for both stationary and transient load cases.

  10. Polyolefin composites containing a phase change material

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1991-01-01

    A composite useful in thermal energy storage, said composite being formed of a polyolefin matrix having a phase change material such as a crystalline alkyl hydrocarbon incorporated therein, said polyolefin being thermally form stable; the composite is useful in forming pellets, sheets or fibers having thermal energy storage characteristics; methods for forming the composite are also disclosed.

  11. Modelling for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of columnar structures in anisotropic materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Finite element modelling is feasible for anisotropic and isotropic materials. A large computer and careful attention to selection of step size are important to achieving good results. The Houbolt algorithm is recommended in most cases. Extension into three dimensions is feasible, although this was not tested here. In three-dimensional problems the size of the solutions become very much larger. Solution of the inverse problem may, indeed, be possible with the finite element method. One approach would be to have a scheme of changing depth, size, and orientation of flaw through some type of iterative process. At first, such a process would require a great amount of human intervention; then with experience the process might be incorporated in a computer program. This method may well be the basis of future, automated ultrasonic inspection systems for welds and for other fabricated parts.

  12. Effects of fiber motion on the acoustic behavior of an anisotropic, flexible fibrous material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Rice, Edward J.; Groesbeck, Donald E.

    1990-01-01

    The acoustic behavior of a flexible fibrous material was studied experimentally. The material consisted of cylindrically shaped fibers arranged in a batting with the fibers primarily aligned parallel to the face of the batting. This type of material was considered anisotropic, with the acoustic propagation constant depending on whether the direction of sound propagation was parallel or normal to the fiber arrangement. Normal incidence sound absorption measurements were taken for both fiber orientations over the frequency range 140 to 1500 Hz and with bulk densities ranging from 4.6 to 67 kg/cu m. When the sound propagated in a direction normal to the fiber alignment, the measured sound absorption showed the occurrence of a strong resonance, which increased absorption above that attributed to viscous and thermal effects. When the sound propagated in a direction parallel to the fiber alignment, indications of strong resonances in the data were not present. The resonance in the data for fibers normal to the direction of sound propagation is attributed to fiber motion. An analytical model was developed for the acoustic behavior of the material displaying the same fiber motion characteristics shown in the measurements.

  13. Effects of fiber motion on the acoustic behavior of an anisotropic, flexible fibrous material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Rice, Edward J.; Groesbeck, Donald E.

    1987-01-01

    The acoustic behavior of a flexible fibrous material was studied experimentally. The material consisted of cylindrically shaped fibers arranged in a batting with the fibers primarily aligned parallel to the face of the batting. This type of material was considered anisotropic, with the acoustic propagation constant depending on whether the dirction of sound propagation was parallel or normal to the fiber arrangement. Normal incidence sound absorption measurements were taken for both fiber orientations over the frequency range 140 to 1500 Hz and with bulk densities ranging from 4.6 to 67 kg/cu m. When the sound propagated in a direction normal to the fiber alignment, the measured sound absorption showed the occurrence of a strong resonance, which increased absorption above that attributed to viscous and thermal effects. When the sound propagated in a direction parallel to the fiber alignment, indications of strong resonances in the data were not present. The resonance in the data for fibers normal to the direction of sound propagation is attributed to fiber motion. An analytical model was developed for the acoustic behavior of the material displaying the same fiber motion characteristics shown in the measurements.

  14. Composite material and method of making

    SciTech Connect

    Fryxell, Glen E.; Samuels, William D.; Simmons, Kevin L.

    2004-04-20

    The composite material and methods of making the present invention rely upon a fully dense monolayer of molecules attached to an oxygenated surface at one end, and an organic terminal group at the other end, which is in turn bonded to a polymer. Thus, the composite material is a second material chemically bonded to a polymer with fully dense monolayer there between.

  15. Nonlinear Dynamic Properties of Layered Composite Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Andrianov, Igor V.; Topol, Heiko; Weichert, Dieter; Danishevs'kyy, Vladyslav V.

    2010-09-30

    We present an application of the asymptotic homogenization method to study wave propagation in a one-dimensional composite material consisting of a matrix material and coated inclusions. Physical nonlinearity is taken into account by considering the composite's components as a Murnaghan material, structural nonlinearity is caused by the bonding condition between the components.

  16. Optical diagnostics of anisotropic nanoscale films on transparent isotropic materials by integrating reflectivity and ellipsometry.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Peep

    2009-11-01

    The reflection of s- and p-polarized electromagnetic plane waves from an anisotropic ultrathin dielectric film on transparent isotropic substrate is investigated in the long-wavelength limit. The analytical approximate formulas are obtained for the reflection coefficients and ellipsometric angles that agree with the exact computer solution of the reflection problem for anisotropic systems. The possibilities of using the obtained expressions for resolving the inverse problem for ultrathin anisotropic dielectric films upon isotropic dielectric substrates are discussed. It is shown that a promising technique for determining the optical constants of anisotropic dielectric films on transparent substrates is the integration of ellipsometry and differential reflectivity. PMID:19881659

  17. Insight into interfacial effect on effective physical properties of fibrous materials. I. The volume fraction of soft interfaces around anisotropic fibers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenxiang; Wang, Han; Niu, Yanze; Bai, Jingtao

    2016-01-01

    With advances in interfacial properties characterization technologies, the interfacial volume fraction is a feasible parameter for evaluating effective physical properties of materials. However, there is a need to determine the interfacial volume fraction around anisotropic fibers and a need to assess the influence of such the interfacial property on effective properties of fibrous materials. Either ways, the accurate prediction of interfacial volume fraction is required. Towards this end, we put forward both theoretical and numerical schemes to determine the interfacial volume fraction in fibrous materials, which are considered as a three-phase composite structure consisting of matrix, anisotropic hard spherocylinder fibers, and soft interfacial layers with a constant dimension coated on the surface of each fiber. The interfacial volume fraction actually represents the fraction of space not occupied by all hard fibers and matrix. The theoretical scheme that adopts statistical geometry and stereological theories is essentially an analytic continuation from spherical inclusions. By simulating such three-phase chopped fibrous materials, we numerically derive the interfacial volume fraction. The theoretical and numerical schemes provide a quantitative insight that the interfacial volume fraction depends strongly on the fiber geometries like fiber shape, geometric size factor, and fiber size distribution. As a critical interfacial property, the present contribution can be further drawn into assessing effective physical properties of fibrous materials, which will be demonstrated in another paper (Part II) of this series. PMID:26747814

  18. Insight into interfacial effect on effective physical properties of fibrous materials. I. The volume fraction of soft interfaces around anisotropic fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wenxiang; Wang, Han; Niu, Yanze; Bai, Jingtao

    2016-01-01

    With advances in interfacial properties characterization technologies, the interfacial volume fraction is a feasible parameter for evaluating effective physical properties of materials. However, there is a need to determine the interfacial volume fraction around anisotropic fibers and a need to assess the influence of such the interfacial property on effective properties of fibrous materials. Either ways, the accurate prediction of interfacial volume fraction is required. Towards this end, we put forward both theoretical and numerical schemes to determine the interfacial volume fraction in fibrous materials, which are considered as a three-phase composite structure consisting of matrix, anisotropic hard spherocylinder fibers, and soft interfacial layers with a constant dimension coated on the surface of each fiber. The interfacial volume fraction actually represents the fraction of space not occupied by all hard fibers and matrix. The theoretical scheme that adopts statistical geometry and stereological theories is essentially an analytic continuation from spherical inclusions. By simulating such three-phase chopped fibrous materials, we numerically derive the interfacial volume fraction. The theoretical and numerical schemes provide a quantitative insight that the interfacial volume fraction depends strongly on the fiber geometries like fiber shape, geometric size factor, and fiber size distribution. As a critical interfacial property, the present contribution can be further drawn into assessing effective physical properties of fibrous materials, which will be demonstrated in another paper (Part II) of this series.

  19. Method for machining holes in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Julia G. (Inventor); Ledbetter, Frank E., III (Inventor); Clemons, Johnny M. (Inventor); Penn, Benjamin G. (Inventor); White, William T. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A method for boring well defined holes in a composite material such as graphite/epoxy is discussed. A slurry of silicon carbide powder and water is projected onto a work area of the composite material in which a hole is to be bored with a conventional drill bit. The silicon carbide powder and water slurry allow the drill bit, while experiencing only normal wear, to bore smooth, cylindrical holes in the composite material.

  20. Morphology and microstructure of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Srinivansan, K.

    1991-01-01

    Lightweight continuous carbon fiber based polymeric composites are currently enjoying increasing acceptance as structural materials capable of replacing metals and alloys in load bearing applications. As with most new materials, these composites are undergoing trials with several competing processing techniques aimed at cost effectively producing void free consolidations with good mechanical properties. As metallic materials have been in use for several centuries, a considerable database exists on their morphology - microstructure; and the interrelationships between structure and properties have been well documented. Numerous studies on composites have established the crucial relationship between microstructure - morphology and properties. The various microstructural and morphological features of composite materials, particularly those accompanying different processing routes, are documented.

  1. Composite structural materials. [fiber reinforced composites for aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberly, S. E.

    1981-01-01

    Physical properties of fiber reinforced composites; structural concepts and analysis; manufacturing; reliability; and life prediction are subjects of research conducted to determine the long term integrity of composite aircraft structures under conditions pertinent to service use. Progress is reported in (1) characterizing homogeneity in composite materials; (2) developing methods for analyzing composite materials; (3) studying fatigue in composite materials; (4) determining the temperature and moisture effects on the mechanical properties of laminates; (5) numerically analyzing moisture effects; (6) numerically analyzing the micromechanics of composite fracture; (7) constructing the 727 elevator attachment rib; (8) developing the L-1011 engine drag strut (CAPCOMP 2 program); (9) analyzing mechanical joints in composites; (10) developing computer software; and (11) processing science and technology, with emphasis on the sailplane project.

  2. Modeling the effect of orientation on the shock response of a damageable composite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukyanov, Alexander A.

    2012-10-01

    A carbon fiber-epoxy composite (CFEC) shock response in the through thickness orientation and in one of the fiber directions is significantly different. The hydrostatic pressure inside anisotropic materials depends on deviatoric strain components as well as volumetric strain. Non-linear effects, such as shock effects, can be incorporated through the volumetric straining in the material. Thus, a new basis is required to couple the anisotropic material stiffness and strength with anisotropic shock effects, associated energy dependence, and damage softening process. This article presents these constitutive equations for shock wave modeling of a damageable carbon fiber-epoxy composite. Modeling the effect of fiber orientation on the shock response of a CFEC has been performed using a generalized decomposition of the stress tensor [A. A. Lukyanov, Int. J. Plast. 24, 140 (2008)] and Mie-Grneisen's extrapolation of high-pressure shock Hugoniot states to other thermodynamics states for shocked CFEC materials. The three-wave structure (non-linear anisotropic, fracture, and isotropic elastic waves) that accompanies damage softening process is also proposed in this work for describing CFEC behavior under shock loading which allows to remove any discontinuities observed in the linear case for relation between shock velocities and particle velocities [A. A. Lukyanov, Eur. Phys. J. B 74, 35 (2010)]. Different Hugoniot stress levels are obtained when the material is impacted in different directions; their good agreement with the experiment demonstrates that the anisotropic equation of state, strength, and damage model are adequate for the simulation of shock wave propagation within damageable CFEC material. Remarkably, in the through thickness orientation, the material behaves similar to a simple polymer whereas in the fiber direction, the proposed in this paper model explains an initial ramp, before at sufficiently high stresses, and a much faster rising shock above it. The numerical results for shock wave modeling using proposed constitutive equations are presented, discussed, and future studies are outlined.

  3. Dancing Discs: Bending and Twisting of Soft Materials by Anisotropic Swelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Douglas; Roch, Matthieu; Sinha, Tarun; Stone, Howard

    2011-03-01

    Soft materials, e.g. biological tissues and gels, undergo morphological changes, motion, and instabilities when subjected to external stimuli. Tissues can exhibit residual internal stresses induced by growth, and generate elastic deformations to move in response to light or touch, curl articular cartilage, aid in seed dispersal, and actuate hygromorphs, such as pine cones. Understanding the dynamics of such osmotically driven movements, in the influence of geometry and boundary conditions, is crucial to the controlled deformation of soft materials. We examine how thin elastic plates undergo rapid bending and buckling instabilities after anisotropic exposure to a favorable solvent that swells the network. An unconstrained beam bends along its length, while a circular disc bends and buckles with multiple curvatures. In the case of a disc, a large-amplitude transverse travelling wave rotates azimuthally around the disc. Theoretical interpretations inspired by the complementary thermal expansion problem of transient shape changes triggered by time-dependent heating are presented and allow collapse of time-dependent data on universal curves. Understanding the dynamics of strain-driven shape changes provides new insight into natural systems and control of advanced functional materials.

  4. Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. A.; Linask, I.; Nissley, D. M.; Norris, P. P.; Meyer, T. G.; Walker, K. P.

    1987-01-01

    The results are presented of a program designed to develop life prediction and constitutive models for two coated single crystal alloys used in gas turbine airfoils. The two alloys are PWA 1480 and Alloy 185. The two oxidation resistant coatings are PWA 273, an aluminide coating, and PWA 286, an overlay NiCoCrAlY coating. To obtain constitutive and fatigue data, tests were conducted on uncoated and coated specimens loaded in the CH76 100 CH110 , CH76 110 CH110 , CH76 111 CH110 and CH76 123 CH110 crystallographic directions. Two constitutive models are being developed and evaluated for the single crystal materials: a micromechanic model based on crystallographic slip systems, and a macroscopic model which employs anisotropic tensors to model inelastic deformation anisotropy. Based on tests conducted on the overlay coating material, constitutive models for coatings also appear feasible and two initial models were selected. A life prediction approach was proposed for coated single crystal materials, including crack initiation either in the coating or in the substrate. The coating initiated failures dominated in the tests at load levels typical of gas turbine operation. Coating life was related to coating stress/strain history which was determined from specimen data using the constitutive models.

  5. Process for producing dispersed particulate composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Henager, Jr., Charles H. (Richland, WA); Hirth, John P. (Viola, ID)

    1995-01-01

    This invention is directed to a process for forming noninterwoven dispersed particulate composite products. In one case a composite multi-layer film product comprises a substantially noninterwoven multi-layer film having a plurality of discrete layers. This noninterwoven film comprises at least one discrete layer of a first material and at least one discrete layer of a second material. In another case the first and second materials are blended together with each other. In either case, the first material comprises a metalloid and the second material a metal compound. At least one component of a first material in one discrete layer undergoes a solid state displacement reaction with at least one component of a second material thereby producing the requisite noninterwoven composite film product. Preferably, the first material comprises silicon, the second material comprises Mo.sub.2 C, the third material comprises SiC and the fourth material comprises MoSi.sub.2.

  6. Composite materials formed with anchored nanostructures

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D; Menchhofer, Paul A; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-03-10

    A method of forming nano-structure composite materials that have a binder material and a nanostructure fiber material is described. A precursor material may be formed using a mixture of at least one metal powder and anchored nanostructure materials. The metal powder mixture may be (a) Ni powder and (b) NiAl powder. The anchored nanostructure materials may comprise (i) NiAl powder as a support material and (ii) carbon nanotubes attached to nanoparticles adjacent to a surface of the support material. The process of forming nano-structure composite materials typically involves sintering the mixture under vacuum in a die. When Ni and NiAl are used in the metal powder mixture Ni.sub.3Al may form as the binder material after sintering. The mixture is sintered until it consolidates to form the nano-structure composite material.

  7. NASA technology utilization survey on composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leeds, M. A.; Schwartz, S.; Holm, G. J.; Krainess, A. M.; Wykes, D. M.; Delzell, M. T.; Veazie, W. H., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    NASA and NASA-funded contractor contributions to the field of composite materials are surveyed. Existing and potential non-aerospace applications of the newer composite materials are emphasized. Economic factors for selection of a composite for a particular application are weight savings, performance (high strength, high elastic modulus, low coefficient of expansion, heat resistance, corrosion resistance,), longer service life, and reduced maintenance. Applications for composites in agriculture, chemical and petrochemical industries, construction, consumer goods, machinery, power generation and distribution, transportation, biomedicine, and safety are presented. With the continuing trend toward further cost reductions, composites warrant consideration in a wide range of non-aerospace applications. Composite materials discussed include filamentary reinforced materials, laminates, multiphase alloys, solid multiphase lubricants, and multiphase ceramics. New processes developed to aid in fabrication of composites are given.

  8. Modeling and characterizing anisotropic inclusion orientation in heterogeneous material via directional cluster functions and stochastic microstructure reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Yang Chawla, Nikhilesh

    2014-03-07

    We present a framework to model and characterize the microstructure of heterogeneous materials with anisotropic inclusions of secondary phases based on the directional correlation functions of the inclusions. Specifically, we have devised an efficient method to incorporate both directional two-point correlation functions S{sub 2} and directional two-point cluster functions C{sub 2} that contain non-trivial topological connectedness information into the simulated annealing microstructure reconstruction procedure. Our framework is applied to model an anisotropic aluminum alloy and the accuracy of the reconstructed structural models is assessed by quantitative comparison with the actual microstructure obtained via x-ray tomography. We show that incorporation of directional clustering information via C{sub 2} significantly improves the accuracy of the reconstruction. In addition, a set of analytical “basis” correlation functions are introduced to approximate the actual S{sub 2} and C{sub 2} of the material. With the proper choice of basis functions, the anisotropic microstructure can be represented by a handful of parameters including the effective linear sizes of the iron-rich and silicon-rich inclusions along three orthogonal directions. This provides a general and efficient means for heterogeneous material modeling that enables one to significantly reduce the data set required to characterize the anisotropic microstructure.

  9. A Generalized Anisotropic Hardening Rule Based on the Mroz Multi-Yield-Surface Model for Pressure Insensitive and Sensitive Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Kyoo Sil; Pan, Jwo

    2009-07-27

    In this paper, a generalized anisotropic hardening rule based on the Mroz multi-yield-surface model is derived. The evolution equation for the active yield surface is obtained by considering the continuous expansion of the active yield surface during the unloading/reloading process. The incremental constitutive relation based on the associated flow rule is then derived for a general yield function. As a special case, detailed incremental constitutive relations are derived for the Mises yield function. The closed-form solutions for one-dimensional stress-plastic strain curves are also derived and plotted for the Mises materials under cyclic loading conditions. The stress-plastic strain curves show closed hysteresis loops under uniaxial cyclic loading conditions and the Masing hypothesis is applicable. A user material subroutine based on the Mises yield function, the anisotropic hardening rule and the constitutive relations was then written and implemented into ABAQUS. Computations were conducted for a simple plane strain finite element model under uniaxial monotonic and cyclic loading conditions based on the anisotropic hardening rule and the isotropic and nonlinear kinematic hardening rules of ABAQUS. The results indicate that the plastic response of the material follows the intended input stress-strain data for the anisotropic hardening rule whereas the plastic response depends upon the input strain ranges of the stress-strain data for the nonlinear kinematic hardening rule.

  10. Wave propagation in anisotropic elastic materials and curvilinear coordinates using a summation-by-parts finite difference method

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Petersson, N. Anders; Sjogreen, Bjorn

    2015-07-20

    We develop a fourth order accurate finite difference method for solving the three-dimensional elastic wave equation in general heterogeneous anisotropic materials on curvilinear grids. The proposed method is an extension of the method for isotropic materials, previously described in the paper by Sjögreen and Petersson (2012) [11]. The method we proposed discretizes the anisotropic elastic wave equation in second order formulation, using a node centered finite difference method that satisfies the principle of summation by parts. The summation by parts technique results in a provably stable numerical method that is energy conserving. Also, we generalize and evaluate the super-grid far-fieldmore » technique for truncating unbounded domains. Unlike the commonly used perfectly matched layers (PML), the super-grid technique is stable for general anisotropic material, because it is based on a coordinate stretching combined with an artificial dissipation. Moreover, the discretization satisfies an energy estimate, proving that the numerical approximation is stable. We demonstrate by numerical experiments that sufficiently wide super-grid layers result in very small artificial reflections. Applications of the proposed method are demonstrated by three-dimensional simulations of anisotropic wave propagation in crystals.« less

  11. Wave propagation in anisotropic elastic materials and curvilinear coordinates using a summation-by-parts finite difference method

    SciTech Connect

    Petersson, N. Anders; Sjogreen, Bjorn

    2015-07-20

    We develop a fourth order accurate finite difference method for solving the three-dimensional elastic wave equation in general heterogeneous anisotropic materials on curvilinear grids. The proposed method is an extension of the method for isotropic materials, previously described in the paper by Sjögreen and Petersson (2012) [11]. The method we proposed discretizes the anisotropic elastic wave equation in second order formulation, using a node centered finite difference method that satisfies the principle of summation by parts. The summation by parts technique results in a provably stable numerical method that is energy conserving. Also, we generalize and evaluate the super-grid far-field technique for truncating unbounded domains. Unlike the commonly used perfectly matched layers (PML), the super-grid technique is stable for general anisotropic material, because it is based on a coordinate stretching combined with an artificial dissipation. Moreover, the discretization satisfies an energy estimate, proving that the numerical approximation is stable. We demonstrate by numerical experiments that sufficiently wide super-grid layers result in very small artificial reflections. Applications of the proposed method are demonstrated by three-dimensional simulations of anisotropic wave propagation in crystals.

  12. Anisotropically structured magnetic aerogel monoliths.

    PubMed

    Heiligtag, Florian J; Airaghi Leccardi, Marta J I; Erdem, Derya; Süess, Martin J; Niederberger, Markus

    2014-11-01

    Texturing of magnetic ceramics and composites by aligning and fixing of colloidal particles in a magnetic field is a powerful strategy to induce anisotropic chemical, physical and especially mechanical properties into bulk materials. If porosity could be introduced, anisotropically structured magnetic materials would be the perfect supports for magnetic separations in biotechnology or for magnetic field-assisted chemical reactions. Aerogels, combining high porosity with nanoscale structural features, offer an exceptionally large surface area, but they are difficult to magnetically texture. Here we present the preparation of anatase-magnetite aerogel monoliths via the assembly of preformed nanocrystallites. Different approaches are proposed to produce macroscopic bodies with gradient-like magnetic segmentation or with strongly anisotropic magnetic texture. PMID:25255203

  13. Continuation of tailored composite structures of ordered staple thermoplastic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santare, Michael H.; Pipes, R. Byron

    1992-01-01

    The search for the cost effective composite structure has motivated the investigation of several approaches to develop composite structure from innovative material forms. Among the promising approaches is the conversion of a planar sheet to components of complex curvature through sheet forming or stretch forming. In both cases, the potential for material stretch in the fiber direction appears to offer a clear advantage in formability over continuous fiber systems. A framework was established which allows the simulation of the anisotropic mechanisms of deformation of long discontinuous fiber laminates wherein the matrix phase is a viscous fluid. Predictions for the effective viscosities of a hyper-anisotropic medium consisting of collimated, discontinuous fibers suspended in viscous matrix were extended to capture the characteristics of typical polymers including non-Newtonian behavior and temperature dependence. In addition, the influence of fiber misorientation was also modeled by compliance averaging to determine ensemble properties for a given orientation distribution. A design tool is presented for predicting the effect of material heterogeneity on the performance of curved composite beams such as those used in aircraft fuselage structures. Material heterogeneity can be induced during manufacturing processes such as sheet forming and stretch forming of thermoplastic composites. This heterogeneity can be introduced in the form of fiber realignment and spreading during the manufacturing process causing radial and tangential gradients in material properties. Two analysis procedures are used to solve the beam problems. The first method uses separate two-dimensional elasticity solutions for the stresses in the flange and web sections of the beam. The separate solutions are coupled by requiring that forces and displacements match section boundaries. The second method uses an approximate Rayleigh-Ritz technique to find the solutions for more complex beams. Analyses are performed for curved beams of various cross-sections loaded in pure bending and with a uniform distributed load. Preliminary results show that the geometry of the beam dictates the effect of heterogeneity on performance. The role of heterogeneity is larger in beams with a small average radius-to-depth ration, R/t, where R is the average radius of the beam and t is the difference between the inside and outside radii. Results of the anlysis are in the form of stresses and displacements and are compared to both mechanics of materials and numerical solutions obtained using finite element analysis.

  14. Tough composite materials: Recent developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vosteen, L. F. (editor); Johnston, N. J. (editor); Teichman, L. A. (editor); Blankenship, C. P. (editor)

    1985-01-01

    The present volume broadly considers topics in composite fracture toughness and impact behavior characterization, composite system constituent properties and their interrelationships, and matrix systems' synthesis and characterization. Attention is given to the characterization of interlaminar crack growth in composites by means of the double cantilever beam specimen, the characterization of delamination resistance in toughened resin composites, the effect of impact damage and open holes on the compressive strength of tough resin/high strain fiber laminates, the effect of matrix and fiber properties on compression failure mechanisms and impact resistance, the relation of toughened neat resin properties to advanced composite mechanical properties, and constituent and composite properties' relationships in thermosetting matrices. Also treated are the effect of cross-link density on the toughening mechanism of elastomer-modified epoxies, the chemistry of fiber/resin interfaces, novel carbon fibers and their properties, the development of a heterogeneous laminating resin, solvent-resistant thermoplastics, NASA Lewis research in advanced composites, and opportunities for the application of composites in commercial aircraft transport structures.

  15. Measurement of the thermal conductivity of thin insulating anisotropic material with a stationary hot strip method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannot, Yves; Degiovanni, Alain; Flix, Vincent; Bal, Harouna

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a method dedicated to the thermal conductivity measurement of thin insulating anisotropic materials. The method is based on three hot-strip-type experiments in which the stationary temperature is measured at the center of the hot strip. A 3D model of the heat transfer in the system is established and simulated to determine the validity of a 2D transfer hypothesis at the center of the hot strip. A simplified 2D model is then developed leading to the definition of a geometrical factor calculable from a polynomial expression. A very simple calculation method enabling the estimation of the directional thermal conductivities from the three stationary temperature measurements and from the geometrical factor is presented. The uncertainties on each conductivity are estimated. The method is then validated by measurements on polyethylene foam and Ayous (anistropic low-density tropical wood); the estimated values of the thermal conductivities are in good agreement with the values estimated using the hot plate and the flash method. The method is finally applied on a thin super-insulating fibrous material for which no other method is able to measure the in-plane conductivity.

  16. Yield Surfaces for Anisotropic Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, J. D.; Thacker, B. H.

    1999-06-01

    Modern aerospace systems are incorporating composite materials into their structures. Often, the composite materials are anisotropic in their mechanical response due to the geometric layout of fibers. For many years, the failure surfaces of anisotropic materials were thought to be characterizable by a quadratic function in the stress, often referred to as a Tsai-Wu yield surface, or, in a more restrictive form, a Tsai-Hill yield surface. Such a representation does not work for materials that are strong in two directions and weak in one direction, which, unfortunately, is the case of most interest since it represents most composite plates. This paper demonstrates the impossibility of modeling the failure surface with both the Tsai-Wu and Tsai-Hill failure surfaces. We then present a yield surface based on the lemniscate, which is quartic in the stress. This new yield surface addresses the case of strong in two directions and weak in one. Calculations with a fragment impacting a composite plate modeled with the new yield surface are presented. Modifications of the yield surface are presented to allow, in a limited way, materials that are both anisotropic and have differing strengths in tension and compression.

  17. Clues for biomimetics from natural composite materials

    PubMed Central

    Lapidot, Shaul; Meirovitch, Sigal; Sharon, Sigal; Heyman, Arnon; Kaplan, David L; Shoseyov, Oded

    2013-01-01

    Bio-inspired material systems are derived from different living organisms such as plants, arthropods, mammals and marine organisms. These biomaterial systems from nature are always present in the form of composites, with molecular-scale interactions optimized to direct functional features. With interest in replacing synthetic materials with natural materials due to biocompatibility, sustainability and green chemistry issues, it is important to understand the molecular structure and chemistry of the raw component materials to also learn from their natural engineering, interfaces and interactions leading to durable and highly functional material architectures. This review will focus on applications of biomaterials in single material forms, as well as biomimetic composites inspired by natural organizational features. Examples of different natural composite systems will be described, followed by implementation of the principles underlying their composite organization into artificial bio-inspired systems for materials with new functional features for future medicine. PMID:22994958

  18. Clues for biomimetics from natural composite materials.

    PubMed

    Lapidot, Shaul; Meirovitch, Sigal; Sharon, Sigal; Heyman, Arnon; Kaplan, David L; Shoseyov, Oded

    2012-09-01

    Bio-inspired material systems are derived from different living organisms such as plants, arthropods, mammals and marine organisms. These biomaterial systems from nature are always present in the form of composites, with molecular-scale interactions optimized to direct functional features. With interest in replacing synthetic materials with natural materials due to biocompatibility, sustainability and green chemistry issues, it is important to understand the molecular structure and chemistry of the raw component materials to also learn from their natural engineering, interfaces and interactions leading to durable and highly functional material architectures. This review will focus on applications of biomaterials in single material forms, as well as biomimetic composites inspired by natural organizational features. Examples of different natural composite systems will be described, followed by implementation of the principles underlying their composite organization into artificial bio-inspired systems for materials with new functional features for future medicine. PMID:22994958

  19. Anisotropically structured magnetic aerogel monoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiligtag, Florian J.; Airaghi Leccardi, Marta J. I.; Erdem, Derya; Sess, Martin J.; Niederberger, Markus

    2014-10-01

    Texturing of magnetic ceramics and composites by aligning and fixing of colloidal particles in a magnetic field is a powerful strategy to induce anisotropic chemical, physical and especially mechanical properties into bulk materials. If porosity could be introduced, anisotropically structured magnetic materials would be the perfect supports for magnetic separations in biotechnology or for magnetic field-assisted chemical reactions. Aerogels, combining high porosity with nanoscale structural features, offer an exceptionally large surface area, but they are difficult to magnetically texture. Here we present the preparation of anatase-magnetite aerogel monoliths via the assembly of preformed nanocrystallites. Different approaches are proposed to produce macroscopic bodies with gradient-like magnetic segmentation or with strongly anisotropic magnetic texture.Texturing of magnetic ceramics and composites by aligning and fixing of colloidal particles in a magnetic field is a powerful strategy to induce anisotropic chemical, physical and especially mechanical properties into bulk materials. If porosity could be introduced, anisotropically structured magnetic materials would be the perfect supports for magnetic separations in biotechnology or for magnetic field-assisted chemical reactions. Aerogels, combining high porosity with nanoscale structural features, offer an exceptionally large surface area, but they are difficult to magnetically texture. Here we present the preparation of anatase-magnetite aerogel monoliths via the assembly of preformed nanocrystallites. Different approaches are proposed to produce macroscopic bodies with gradient-like magnetic segmentation or with strongly anisotropic magnetic texture. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Digital photographs of dispersions and gels with different water-to-ethanol ratios; magnetic measurements of an anatase aerogel containing 0.25 mol% Fe3O4 nanoparticles; XRD patterns of the iron oxide and titania nanoparticles. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04694c

  20. Composite, nanostructured, super-hydrophobic material

    SciTech Connect

    D'Urso, Brian R.; Simpson, John T.

    2007-08-21

    A hydrophobic disordered composite material having a protrusive surface feature includes a recessive phase and a protrusive phase, the recessive phase having a higher susceptibility to a preselected etchant than the protrusive phase, the composite material having an etched surface wherein the protrusive phase protrudes from the surface to form a protrusive surface feature, the protrusive feature being hydrophobic.

  1. Composite materials and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Simmons, Kevin L [Kennewick, WA; Wood, Geoffrey M [North Saanich, CA

    2011-05-17

    A method for forming improved composite materials using a thermosetting polyester urethane hybrid resin, a closed cavity mold having an internal heat transfer mechanism used in this method, and the composite materials formed by this method having a hybrid of a carbon fiber layer and a fiberglass layer.

  2. Ultrasonic Inspection Of Composite-Material Paraboloid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, E. James

    1994-01-01

    Ultrasonic imaging system scanning three-dimensional curved surfaces developed. In original application, system used to determine integrity of composite-material paraboloidal reflector and its supporting structure. System also used to inspect composite-material structures with curved surfaces other than paraboloids, provided surfaces describable by mathematical functions. Position and orientation of transducer adjusted continuously to maintain normal incidence.

  3. Composite Dielectric Materials for Electrical Switching

    SciTech Connect

    Modine, F.A.

    1999-04-25

    Composites that consist of a dielectric host containing a particulate conductor as a second phase are of interest for electrical switching applications. Such composites are "smart" materials that can function as either voltage or current limiters, and the difference in fimction depends largely upon whether the dielectric is filled to below or above the percolation threshold. It also is possible to combine current and voltage limiting in a single composite to make a "super-smart" material.

  4. Flame-retardant composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, Demetrius A.

    1991-01-01

    The properties of eight different graphite composite panels fabricated using four different resin matrices and two types of graphite reinforcement are described. The resin matrices included: VPSP/BMI, a blend of vinylpolystyryl pyridine and bismaleimide; BMI, a bismaleimide; and phenolic and PSP, a polystyryl pyridine. The graphite fiber used was AS-4 in the form of either tape or fabric. The properties of these composites were compared with epoxy composites. It was determined that VPSP/BMI with the graphite tape was the optimum design giving the lowest heat release rate.

  5. The behavior of elastic anisotropic laminated composite flat structures subjected to deterministic and random loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Librescu, Liviu

    1990-06-01

    Within this research project, the following topics were studied: (1) foundation of the refined theory of flat cross-ply laminated composite flat and curved panels as well as their static and dynamic response analysis; (2) foundation of a geometrically-nonlinear shear-deformable theory of composite laminated flat panels including the effect of initial geometric imperfections and its application in the postbuckling analysis; (3) the study of the dynamic response of shear deformable elastic laminated composite panels to deterministic time-dependent external excitations as the sonic boom and explosive blast type-loadings; (4) the study of the dynamic response of shear deformable elastic laminated composite panels to random excitation as e.g. the one produced by a jet noise or by any time-dependent external excitation whose characteristics are expressed in a statistical sense; and (5) the dynamic stability of fiber-reinforced composite flat panels whose materials (due to e.g. an ambient high temperature field) exhibit a time-dependent physical behavior.

  6. New textile composite materials development, production, application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikhailov, Petr Y.

    1993-01-01

    New textile composite materials development, production, and application are discussed. Topics covered include: super-high-strength, super-high-modulus fibers, filaments, and materials manufactured on their basis; heat-resistant and nonflammable fibers, filaments, and textile fabrics; fibers and textile fabrics based on fluorocarbon poylmers; antifriction textile fabrics based on polyfen filaments; development of new types of textile combines and composite materials; and carbon filament-based fabrics.

  7. Polymer Matrix Composite Material Oxygen Compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Tom

    2001-01-01

    Carbon fiber/polymer matrix composite materials look promising as a material to construct liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks. Based on mechanical impact tests the risk will be greater than aluminum, however, the risk can probably be managed to an acceptable level. Proper tank design and operation can minimize risk. A risk assessment (hazard analysis) will be used to determine the overall acceptability for using polymer matrix composite materials.

  8. Anisotropic material model and wave propagation simulations for shocked pentaerythritol tetranitrate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Y. M.

    2010-05-01

    An anisotropic continuum material model was developed to describe the thermomechanical response of unreacted pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) single crystals to shock wave loading. Using this model, which incorporates nonlinear elasticity and crystal plasticity in a thermodynamically consistent tensor formulation, wave propagation simulations were performed to compare to experimental wave profiles [J. J. Dick and J. P. Ritchie, J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2726 (1994)] for PETN crystals under plate impact loading to 1.2 GPa. Our simulations show that for shock propagation along the [100] orientation where deformation across shear planes is sterically unhindered, a dislocation-based model provides a good match to the wave profile data. For shock propagation along the [110] direction, where deformation across shear planes is sterically hindered, a dislocation-based model cannot account for the observed strain-softening behavior. Instead, a shear cracking model was developed, providing good agreement with the data for [110] and [001] shock orientations. These results show that inelastic deformation due to hindered and unhindered shear in PETN occurs through mechanisms that are physically different. In addition, results for shock propagation normal to the (101) crystal plane suggest that the primary slip system identified from quasistatic indentation tests is not activated under shock wave loading. Overall, results from our continuum simulations are consistent with a previously proposed molecular mechanism for shock-induced chemical reaction in PETN in which the formation of polar conformers, due to hindered shear, facilitates the development of ionic reaction pathways.

  9. Paramagnetic relaxation in anisotropic materials in zero and weak constant fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokina, N. P.; Khalvashi, E. Kh.; Khutsishvili, K. O.

    2014-12-01

    Paramagnetic relaxation in strongly anisotropic materials is analytically investigated in zero and weak constant magnetic fields. The objectives of the microscopic analytical investigation are (i) the weak-field electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) linewidth and (ii) the electron spin relaxation rates given by a calorimetric Gorter type experiment in the zero constant field at the arbitrary low-frequency field directions, respectively, to the sample crystallographic axes. The EPR linewidth is calculated under the suggestion of its spin-phonon nature at the one-phonon mechanism of the spin-lattice relaxation in the case of the strong isotropic exchange interaction for the arbitrary direction Z of the constant magnetic field. The EPR linewidth is presented as the half sum of the zero-field relaxation rates, measured by the Gorter experiment with the low-frequency field oriented along the X, Y axes. With the help of the macroscopic consideration, it is shown that the zero-field relaxation rates describe the relaxation of the X and Y magnetization components in a zero or weak constant magnetic field. The relaxation rates of the magnetizations created along a,b,c crystallographic axes by a low-frequency field in a Gorter type experiment follow the obtained expressions in the particular cases and are in the experimentally confirmed relations with the EPR linewidth.

  10. Contactless technique for the measurement of electrical resistivity in anisotropic materials.

    PubMed

    Zeller, C; Denenstein, A; Foley, G M

    1979-05-01

    Measurement of basal plane electrical resistivities in quasi-two-dimensional materials by conventional four-point bridge techniques is extremely difficult. In making measurements of room temperature basal plane resistivities in highly conducting highly anisotropic synthetic metals we have developed an rf inductive technique which is both simple to use and provides accurate results. At the frequency we employ (100 kHz) the method is appropriate for resistivities in the range 10 (-3)-10(-7)Omega cm. Samples are thin square plates 5 mm on a side. The system is calibrated by fitting data from a series of samples of known resistivity to semi-empirical formulae. The theoretical motivation leading to these expressions is discussed and extensive calibration data are presented. The advantages of rf techniques in general have already been discussed. Two advantages commend the particular technique we describe here. First, it is simple in design and easily constructed. Second, with careful calibration, highly accurate resistivity measurements can be made in a very straightforward manner. PMID:18699559

  11. Paramagnetic relaxation in anisotropic materials in zero and weak constant fields

    SciTech Connect

    Fokina, N. P.; Khalvashi, E. Kh.; Khutsishvili, K. O.

    2014-12-21

    Paramagnetic relaxation in strongly anisotropic materials is analytically investigated in zero and weak constant magnetic fields. The objectives of the microscopic analytical investigation are (i) the weak-field electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) linewidth and (ii) the electron spin relaxation rates given by a calorimetric Gorter type experiment in the zero constant field at the arbitrary low-frequency field directions, respectively, to the sample crystallographic axes. The EPR linewidth is calculated under the suggestion of its spin-phonon nature at the one-phonon mechanism of the spin-lattice relaxation in the case of the strong isotropic exchange interaction for the arbitrary direction Z of the constant magnetic field. The EPR linewidth is presented as the half sum of the zero-field relaxation rates, measured by the Gorter experiment with the low-frequency field oriented along the X, Y axes. With the help of the macroscopic consideration, it is shown that the zero-field relaxation rates describe the relaxation of the X and Y magnetization components in a zero or weak constant magnetic field. The relaxation rates of the magnetizations created along a,b,c crystallographic axes by a low-frequency field in a Gorter type experiment follow the obtained expressions in the particular cases and are in the experimentally confirmed relations with the EPR linewidth.

  12. Fabrication of single-crystalline microspheres with high sphericity from anisotropic materials.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Shinya; Inaba, Kazuhiro; Iida, Takuya; Ishihara, Hajime; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Ashida, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    Microspheres with high sphericity exhibit unique functionalities. In particular, their high symmetry makes them excellent omnidirectional optical resonators. As such perfect micrometre-sized spheres are known to be formed by surface tension, melt cooling is a popular method for fabricating microspheres. However, it is extremely difficult to produce crystalline microspheres using this method because their surfaces are normally faceted. Only microspheres of polymers, glass, or ceramics have been available, while single-crystalline microspheres, which should be useful in optical applications, have been awaiting successful production. Here we report the fabrication of single-crystalline semiconductor microspheres that have surfaces with atomic-level smoothness. These microspheres were formed by performing laser ablation in superfluid helium to create and moderately cool a melt of the anisotropic semiconductor material. This novel method provides cooling conditions that are exceptionally suited for the fabrication of single-crystalline microspheres. This finding opens a pathway for studying the hidden mechanism of anisotropy-free crystal growth and its applications. PMID:24898213

  13. High temperature composite materials and magnetodielectric composites for microwave application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Thanh Ba

    In the part I, we investigated the microstructures, mechanical properties, and oxidation behavior of hot pressed BN in the presence of sintering additives Al2O3, Y2O3 and SiO2. BN platelets size in the sintered samples grew from ˜5 to ˜30 times for the use of all three oxides, and the use of Al2O3 and Y2O3, correspondingly. The excessive growth of BN platelets in samples containing Al2O3 and Y2O 3 caused them to misalign which, in turn, resulted in its low relative density (92.0%). The use of SiO2 mitigated this grain growth so that BN platelets aligned better to gain a higher relative density (99.5%). Flexural strength and elastic modulus of BN were proportional to their densities. Oxidation experiments conducted at 1200°C in flowing dry air showed borate glass droplets were formed on all of oxidized BN samples. The addition of SiO2 resulted in the formation of a glass layer before the appearance of these glass droplets. The presence of glass droplets was a result of the poor wetting of liquid B2O3 on BN and the dominance of the formation of B2O3 to its evaporation. Their size evolution described the "breadth figure" theory, similar to the formation of water droplets on a flat surface from the saturated water vapor air. Substructures observed inside the glass droplets contained high and consistent Al:Y atomic ratio (5:7) in all samples. The evaporation of B2O 3 isolated Al2O3, Y2O3 in the form of immiscible liquid phase to borate. In the part II, we investigated the formulation of equivalent permittivity and permeability with isotropic and anisotropic Co2Z-polymer composition. These two properties of isotropic Co2Z-LDPE/Co2Z-Silicone composites increased with Co2Z composition. However, their permittivity was always higher than that of their permeability. Permittivity and permeability of anisotropic Co2Z-Silicone composites were split into high and low values along the parallel and perpendicular directions to the alignment direction of Co2Z particles. The separation at 20 vol% Co2Z was strongest, attained 46% anisotropy so that its parallel permeability approached closer to that of its perpendicular permittivity. However, the low permittivity of Co2Z required a higher electric field to increase its particles' alignment.

  14. Material properties and laser cutting of composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chia-Chieh; Cheng, Wing

    Laser (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) has been used successfully for many material cutting, drilling, metal welding and heat treating applications. However, laser cutting of polymer composites were attempted with varying degrees of success. Because composites are heterogeneous, the energy applied by laser could result in severe resin degradation before fibers were cut. In this study, cutting of glass, Kevlar, and graphite composites were evaluated based on their material properties and laser cutting parameters. A transient heat transfer analysis was used to determine the relative heat affected zones of these composites. Kevlar composites can be cut very well while graphite composites are difficult to cut. Though the cutting process is much more complicated in reality, the analysis provides a semi-quantitative perspective on the characteristics and limitations of laser cutting of different composites.

  15. Anisotropic Failure Model Development and Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, James D.; Dannemann Anderson, Kathryn A., Jr.

    2001-06-01

    Many materials are aniostropic in their failure response. These materials include hexagonal close packed metals such as rolled beryllium and directional structures such as fiber-reinforced composite materials. A talk at the 1999 Shock Compression of Condensed Matter (Yield Surfaces for Anisotropic Plates, by J.D. Walker and B.H. Thacker, pp. 567-570) pointed out difficulties in oft-discussed failure models. This talk addresses the placement of an anisotropic failure model into the hydrocode CTH. The theory for the model is discussed and some representative calculations are presented. The failure model is a strain based model, and requires the use of Lagrangian strains for the material.

  16. Ceramic composites: Enabling aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    Ceramics and ceramic matrix composites (CMC) have the potential for significant impact on the performance of aerospace propulsion and power systems. In this paper, the potential benefits are discussed in broad qualitative terms and are illustrated by some specific application case studies. The key issues in need of resolution for the potential of ceramics to be realized are discussed.

  17. Graphene-based Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiee, Mohammad Ali

    We investigated the mechanical properties, such as fracture toughness (KIc), fracture energy (GIc), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), Youngs modulus (E), and fatigue crack propagation rate (FCPR) of epoxy-matrix composites with different weight fractions of carbon-based fillers, including graphene platelets (GPL), graphene nanoribbons (GNR), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), and fullerenes (C60). Only 0.125 wt.% GPL was found to increase the KIc of the pure epoxy by 65% and the GIc by 115%. To get similar improvement, CNT and nanoparticle epoxy composites required one to two orders of magnitude greater weight fraction of nanofillers. Moreover, 0.125% wt.% GPL also decreased the fatigue crack propagation rate in the epoxy by 30-fold. The E value of 0.1 wt.% GPL/epoxy nanocomposite was 31% larger than the pure epoxy while there was only an increase of 3% for the SWNT composites. The UTS of the pristine epoxy was improved by 40% with GPLs in comparison with 14% enhancement for the MWNTs. The KIc of the GPL nanocomposite enhanced by 53% over the pristine epoxy compared to a 20% increase for the MWNT-reinforced composites. The results of the FCPR tests for the GPL nanocomposites showed a different trend. While the CNT nanocomposites were not effective enough to suppress the crack growth at high values of the stress intensity factor (DeltaK), the reverse behavior is observed for the GPL nanocomposites. The advantage of the GPLs over CNTs in terms of mechanical properties enhancement is due to their enormous specific surface area, enhanced adhesion at filler/epoxy interface (because of the wrinkled surfaces of GPLs), as well as the planar structure of the GPLs. We also show that unzipping of MWNTs into graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) enhances the load transfer effectiveness in epoxy nanocomposites. For instance, at 0.3 wt.% of fillers, the Young's modulus (E) of the epoxy nanocomposite with GNRs increased by 30% compared to their MWNTs counterpart. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) for 0.3 wt.% GNR composites showed 22% enhancement compared to the MWNT composites at the same loading fraction of fillers (at 0.3 wt.%). Our results show that unzipping effect can be used to transform carbon nanotubes into graphene nanoribbons, which are far more effective than the baseline nanotube as a nanofiller in nanocomposites. The mechanical properties of fullerence (C60) epoxy nanocomposites at different loading fractions (wt.%) of fullerene fillers in the pristine epoxy was also studied. Fullerene (C60) fillers demonstrated good potential to improve the mechanical properties of epoxy composites. However the required C60 loading fractions were 1% which are still an order of magnitude higher than that for graphene platelets (0.1%). This again illustrates the superiority of graphene as a structural reinforcement additive for epoxy polymers at low nanofiller loadings. While the main focus of this work has been on epoxy polymers, initial results with ceramic matrix and metal (aluminum) matrix composites were also generated. These results demonstrate that GPL are highly effective in enahncing the fracture properties of silicon nitride ceramics. The fracture toughness of the baseline silicon nitride matrix increased by 235% (from 2.8 to 6.6 MPa.m1/2) at 1.5% GPL volume fraction. However the results were disappointing for aluminim matrix composites. Compared to the pure aluminum, the graphene-aluminum composites showed decreased strength and hardness. This is explained in the context of enhanced aluminum carbide formation with the graphene filler. These results indicate that Graphene Platelets (GPL) show strong potential as a nanofiller for epoxy nanocomposites and can provide a performance comparable to other forms of nanofillers at a significantly lower nanofiller loading fraction.

  18. Combinatorial synthesis of inorganic or composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Goldwasser, Isy (Palo Alto, CA); Ross, Debra A. (Mountain Ranch, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Danville, CA); Briceno, Gabriel (Baldwin Park, CA); Sun, Xian-Dong (Fremont, CA); Wang, Kai-An (Cupertino, CA)

    2010-08-03

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials or, alternatively, allowing the components to interact to form at least two different materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, nonbiological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  19. Materials research at Stanford University. [composite materials, crystal structure, acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Research activity related to the science of materials is described. The following areas are included: elastic and thermal properties of composite materials, acoustic waves and devices, amorphous materials, crystal structure, synthesis of metal-metal bonds, interactions of solids with solutions, electrochemistry, fatigue damage, superconductivity and molecular physics and phase transition kinetics.

  20. Hybrid finite elements of anisotropic shells and their application to the study of the thermal warping behavior of composite laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremenko, S. Iu.

    1992-12-01

    Variational equations of the mixed type and a refined version of the Timoshenko shell theory are used to construct hybrid finite elements for shallow anisotropic shells of double curvature which can be used for the analysis of plates and shells over a wide thickness range. The elements are used to investigate the effect of layer alternation on the thermal warping behavior of glass- and carbon-fiber composite laminates; the calculations are carried out on an IBM PC/AT computer. For homogeneous and layered shells, the existence of a critical curvature corresponding to the maximum warpage of the shell under heating is demonstrated.

  1. Formation of binary phase gratings in photopolymer-liquid crystal composites by a surface-controlled anisotropic phase separation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jae-Hong; Khoo, Iam Choon; Yu, Chang-Jae; Jung, Min-Sik; Lee, Sin-Doo

    2005-01-10

    We report on formation of binary phase gratings in photopolymer-liquid crystal (PLC) composites using a surface-controlled phase separation method. The binary nature of the PLC phase gratings is produced by employing a single step photo-ablation through an amplitude photomask which precisely controls the interfacial interactions between the LC and the photopolymer on the alignment layer. A subsequent illumination of the ultraviolet light onto the whole PLC promotes an anisotropic phase separation resulting in the formation of distinct binary patterns for the PLC structure. The electrically tunable diffraction properties of the binary phase gratings are presented.

  2. Supramolecular assembly of bis(benzimidazole)pyridine: an extended anisotropic ligand for highly birefringent materials.

    PubMed

    Thompson, John R; Ovens, Jeffrey S; Williams, Vance E; Leznoff, Daniel B

    2013-12-01

    Four new bis(benzimidazole)pyridine (BBP)-containing compounds Zn(BBP)Cl[Au(CN)2], Mn(BBP)[Au(CN)2]2·H2O, Mn(BBP)Br2(MeOH) and Mn(BBP)Cl2(MeOH)·MeOH have been synthesized and structurally characterized and their birefringence values (Δn) determined. The structure of Zn(BBP)Cl[Au(CN)2] contains a hydrogen-bonded dimer of Zn(BBP)Cl[Au(CN)2] units which propagate into a 1D chain through Au-Au interactions, although the crystals are of poor optical quality. The supramolecular structure of Mn(BBP)[Au(CN)2]2·H2 O forms a 1D coordination polymer through chains of Mn(BBP)[Au(CN)2]2 units, each containing one bridging Au(CN)2 and one forming a 2D sheet through Au-Au interactions. The supramolecular structures of Mn(BBP)Br2(MeOH) and Mn(BBP)Cl2(MeOH)·MeOH are very similar, consisting of a complex hydrogen-bonded network between NH imidazole, methanol and halide groups to align BBP building blocks. In the plane of the primary crystal growth direction, the birefringence values of the three Mn-containing materials were Δn=0.08(1), 0.538(3) and 0.69(3), respectively. The latter two birefringence values are larger than in the related 2,2';6'2''-terpyridine systems, placing them among the most birefringent solids reported. These compounds illustrate the utility of extending the π-system of the building block and incorporating hydrogen-bonding sites as design elements for highly birefringent materials and also illustrates the effect on the measurable birefringence of the crystal quality, growth direction and structural alignment of the anisotropic BBP building blocks. PMID:24281807

  3. Oxygen Compatibility Testing of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Carl D.; Watkins, Casey N.

    2006-01-01

    Composite materials offer significant weight-saving potential for aerospace applications in propellant and oxidizer tanks. This application for oxygen tanks presents the challenge of being oxygen compatible in addition to complying with the other required material characteristics. This effort reports on the testing procedures and data obtained in examining and selecting potential composite materials for oxygen tank usage. Impact testing of composites has shown that most of these materials initiate a combustion event when impacted at 72 ft-lbf in the presence of liquid oxygen, though testing has also shown substantial variability in reaction sensitivities to impact. Data for screening of 14 potential composites using the Bruceton method is given herein and shows that the 50-percent reaction frequencies range from 17 to 67 ft-lbf. The pressure and temperature rises for several composite materials were recorded to compare the energy releases as functions of the combustion reactions with their respective reaction probabilities. The test data presented are primarily for a test pressure of 300 psia in liquid oxygen. The impact screening process is compared with oxygen index and autogenous ignition test data for both the composite and the basic resin. The usefulness of these supplemental tests in helping select the most oxygen compatible materials is explored. The propensity for mechanical impact ignition of the composite compared with the resin alone is also examined. Since an ignition-free composite material at the peak impact energy of 72 ft-lbf has not been identified, composite reactivity must be characterized over the impact energy level and operating pressure ranges to provide data for hazard analyses in selecting the best potential material for liquid tank usage.

  4. Investigation of anisotropic photonic band gaps in three-dimensional magnetized plasma photonic crystals containing the uniaxial material

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Nanjing Artillery Academy, Nanjing 211132 ; Liu, Shao-Bin; Kong, Xiang-Kun

    2013-09-15

    In this paper, the dispersive properties of three-dimensional (3D) magnetized plasma photonic crystals (MPPCs) composed of anisotropic dielectric (the uniaxial material) spheres immersed in homogeneous magnetized plasma background with face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattices are theoretically investigated by the plane wave expansion method, as the Voigt effects of magnetized plasma are considered. The equations for calculating the anisotropic photonic band gaps (PBGs) in the first irreducible Brillouin zone are theoretically deduced. The anisotropic PBGs and two flatbands regions can be obtained. The effects of the ordinary-refractive index, extraordinary-refractive index, filling factor, plasma frequency, and external magnetic field on the dispersive properties of the 3D MPPCs are investigated in detail, respectively, and some corresponding physical explanations are also given. The numerical results show that the anisotropy can open partial band gaps in 3D MPPCs with fcc lattices and the complete PBGs can be found compared to the conventional 3D MPPCs doped by the isotropic material. The bandwidths of PBGs can be tuned by introducing the magnetized plasma into 3D PCs containing the uniaxial material. It is also shown that the anisotropic PBGs can be manipulated by the ordinary-refractive index, extraordinary-refractive index, filling factor, plasma frequency, and external magnetic field, respectively. The locations of flatbands regions cannot be manipulated by any parameters except for the plasma frequency and external magnetic field. Introducing the uniaxial material can obtain the complete PBGs as the 3D MPPCs with high symmetry and also provides a way to design the tunable devices.

  5. Advanced composite materials for precision segmented reflectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Bland A.; Bowles, David E.

    1988-01-01

    The objective in the NASA Precision Segmented Reflector (PSR) project is to develop new composite material concepts for highly stable and durable reflectors with precision surfaces. The project focuses on alternate material concepts such as the development of new low coefficient of thermal expansion resins as matrices for graphite fiber reinforced composites, quartz fiber reinforced epoxies, and graphite reinforced glass. Low residual stress fabrication methods will be developed. When coupon specimens of these new material concepts have demonstrated the required surface accuracies and resistance to thermal distortion and microcracking, reflector panels will be fabricated and tested in simulated space environments. An important part of the program is the analytical modeling of environmental stability of these new composite materials concepts through constitutive equation development, modeling of microdamage in the composite matrix, and prediction of long term stability (including viscoelasticity). These analyses include both closed form and finite element solutions at the micro and macro levels.

  6. Manipulation of surface plasmon polariton propagation on isotropic and anisotropic two-dimensional materials coupled to boron nitride heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inampudi, Sandeep; Nazari, Mina; Forouzmand, Ali; Mosallaei, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of surface plasmon polariton dispersion characteristics associated with isotropic and anisotropic two-dimensional atomically thin layered materials (2D sheets) coupled to h-BN heterostructures. A scattering matrix based approach is presented to compute the electromagnetic fields and related dispersion characteristics of stacked layered systems composed of anisotropic 2D sheets and uniaxial bulk materials. We analyze specifically the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) dispersion characteristics in case of isolated and coupled two-dimensional layers with isotropic and anisotropic conductivities. An analysis based on residue theorem is utilized to identify optimum optical parameters (surface conductivity) and geometrical parameters (separation between layers) to maximize the SPP field at a given position. The effect of type and degree of anisotropy on the shapes of iso-frequency curves and propagation characteristics is discussed in detail. The analysis presented in this paper gives an insight to identify optimum setup to enhance the SPP field at a given position and in a given direction on the surface of two-dimensional materials.

  7. Composite materials inspection. [ultrasonic vibration holographic NDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erf, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    Investigation of the application requirements, advantages, and limitations of nondestructive testing by a technique of ultrasonic-vibration holographic-interferometry readout used in a production control facility for the inspection of a single product such as composite compressor blades. It is shown that, for the detection and characterization of disbonds in composite material structures, this technique may represent the most inclusive test method.

  8. Mechanics of composite materials: Unified micromechanical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Aboundi, J.

    1991-12-31

    Although many books have been written on the mechanics of composite materials, only a vew few have been devoted almost exclusively to the micromechanics aspects. The present monograph is devoted primarily to the micromechanics of fiber and particle reinforced composites with some additional treatment of laminates as well. Thus, this book would probably be more suitable as a reference book than a textbook.

  9. NASA Thermographic Inspection of Advanced Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott

    2004-01-01

    As the use of advanced composite materials continues to increase in the aerospace community, the need for a quantitative, rapid, in situ inspection technology has become a critical concern throughout the industry. In many applications it is necessary to monitor changes in these materials over an extended period of time to determine the effects of various load conditions. Additionally, the detection and characterization of defects such as delaminations, is of great concern. This paper will present the application of infrared thermography to characterize various composite materials and show the advantages of different heat source types. Finally, various analysis methodologies used for quantitative material property characterization will be discussed.

  10. Composite Material Application to Liquid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judd, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    The substitution of reinforced plastic composite (RPC) materials for metal was studied. The major objectives were to: (1) determine the extent to which composite materials can be beneficially used in liquid rocket engines; (2) identify additional technology requirements; and (3) determine those areas which have the greatest potential for return. Weight savings, fabrication costs, performance, life, and maintainability factors were considered. Two baseline designs, representative of Earth to orbit and orbit to orbit engine systems, were selected. Weight savings are found to be possible for selected components with the substitution of materials for metal. Various technology needs are identified before RPC material can be used in rocket engine applications.

  11. Method of making a composite refractory material

    DOEpatents

    Morrow, M.S.; Holcombe, C.E.

    1995-09-26

    A composite refractory material is prepared by combining boron carbide with furan resin to form a mixture containing about 8 wt. % furan resin. The mixture is formed into a pellet which is placed into a grit pack comprising an oxide of an element such as yttrium to form a sinterable body. The sinterable body is sintered under vacuum with microwave energy at a temperature no greater than 2000 C to form a composite refractory material.

  12. Laser welding of discontinuously reinforced composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiganov, I. N.

    1999-01-01

    The features of metal composite materials fusion welding are examined and the main defects arising at argon-arc, electron-beam and laser welding of alloys Al-Be-Mg, Fe-Cu-Pb and Al-Pb are revealed. The defects formation mechanisms are indicated and technological welding methods of metal composite materials are developed. These methods allow to prevent defects formation and obtain the welds with required mechanical properties and quality.

  13. Method to fabricate layered material compositions

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A new class of processes suited to the fabrication of layered material compositions is disclosed. Layered material compositions are typically three-dimensional structures which can be decomposed into a stack of structured layers. The best known examples are the photonic lattices. The present invention combines the characteristic features of photolithography and chemical-mechanical polishing to permit the direct and facile fabrication of, e.g., photonic lattices having photonic bandgaps in the 0.1-20.mu. spectral range.

  14. Method to fabricate layered material compositions

    DOEpatents

    Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu

    2004-11-02

    A new class of processes suited to the fabrication of layered material compositions is disclosed. Layered material compositions are typically three-dimensional structures which can be decomposed into a stack of structured layers. The best known examples are the photonic lattices. The present invention combines the characteristic features of photolithography and chemical-mechanical polishing to permit the direct and facile fabrication of, e.g., photonic lattices having photonic bandgaps in the 0.1-20.mu. spectral range.

  15. Acoustic emission monitoring of polymer composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bardenheier, R.

    1981-01-01

    The techniques of acoustic emission monitoring of polymer composite materials is described. It is highly sensitive, quasi-nondestructive testing method that indicates the origin and behavior of flaws in such materials when submitted to different load exposures. With the use of sophisticated signal analysis methods it is possible the distinguish between different types of failure mechanisms, such as fiber fracture delamination or fiber pull-out. Imperfections can be detected while monitoring complex composite structures by acoustic emission measurements.

  16. Composite materials with improved phyllosilicate dispersion

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.

    2004-09-14

    The present invention provides phyllosilicates edge modified with anionic surfactants, composite materials made from the edge modified phyllosilicates, and methods for making the same. In various embodiments the phyllosilicates are also surface-modified with hydrophilic lipophilic balance (HLB) modifying agents, polymeric hydrotropes, and antioxidants. The invention also provides blends of edge modified phyllosilicates and semicrystalline waxes. The composite materials are made by dispersing the edge modified phyllosilicates with polymers, particularly polyolefins and elastomers.

  17. Composite, ordered material having sharp surface features

    SciTech Connect

    D'Urso, Brian R.; Simpson, John T.

    2006-12-19

    A composite material having sharp surface features includes a recessive phase and a protrusive phase, the recessive phase having a higher susceptibility to a preselected etchant than the protrusive phase, the composite material having an etched surface wherein the protrusive phase protrudes from the surface to form a sharp surface feature. The sharp surface features can be coated to make the surface super-hydrophobic.

  18. Method of making a composite refractory material

    DOEpatents

    Morrow, Marvin S. (Kingston, TN); Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A composite refractory material is prepared by combining boron carbide with furan resin to form a mixture containing about 8 wt. % furan resin. The mixture is formed into a pellet which is placed into a grit pack comprising an oxide of an element such as yttrium to form a sinterable body. The sinterable body is sintered under vacuum with microwave energy at a temperature no greater than 2000.degree. C. to form a composite refractory material.

  19. Wave propagation in anisotropic medium due to an oscillatory point source with application to unidirectional composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. H., Jr.; Marques, E. R. C.; Lee, S. S.

    1986-01-01

    The far-field displacements in an infinite transversely isotropic elastic medium subjected to an oscillatory concentrated force are derived. The concepts of velocity surface, slowness surface and wave surface are used to describe the geometry of the wave propagation process. It is shown that the decay of the wave amplitudes depends not only on the distance from the source (as in isotropic media) but also depends on the direction of the point of interest from the source. As an example, the displacement field is computed for a laboratory fabricated unidirectional fiberglass epoxy composite. The solution for the displacements is expressed as an amplitude distribution and is presented in polar diagrams. This analysis has potential usefulness in the acoustic emission (AE) and ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation of composite materials. For example, the transient localized disturbances which are generally associated with AE sources can be modeled via this analysis. In which case, knowledge of the displacement field which arrives at a receiving transducer allows inferences regarding the strength and orientation of the source, and consequently perhaps the degree of damage within the composite.

  20. Micromechanical modeling of damage and inelasticity of composite materials in macroscopic structural analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, R.W.; Gardner, J.P.; Hackett, R.M.

    1994-12-01

    The method of cells has been extended to include damage or debonding between all adjacent subcells using a finite element formulation for the original cells assembly. Damage is implemented by placing a nonlinear three-dimensional spring between adjacent subcells. With this arrangement the damage is inherently anisotropic. The ``nonlinear substructure`` cells finite element model is incorporated as a user defined material routine in a general purpose finite element code. The primary motivation for casting the method of cells as a finite element assemblage is to provide a composite constitutive model that facilitates the incorporation of various constituent material models, as well as any level of detail desired in the microstructure geometry. At present, the constituent material models may be anisotropic elastic or isotropic viscoelastic-plastic, while damage evolution is based on the macroscopic strain. The capability of the model is demonstrated through analyses of some simple structures loaded to failure.

  1. Anisotropic Thermal and Electrical Properties of Thin Thermal Interface Layers of Graphite Nanoplatelet-Based Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiaojuan; Itkis, Mikhail E.; Bekyarova, Elena B.; Haddon, Robert C.

    2013-04-01

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are crucial components of high density electronics and the high thermal conductivity of graphite makes this material an attractive candidate for such applications. We report an investigation of the in-plane and through-plane electrical and thermal conductivities of thin thermal interface layers of graphite nanoplatelet (GNP) based composites. The in-plane electrical conductivity exceeds its through-plane counterpart by three orders of magnitude, whereas the ratio of the thermal conductivities is about 5. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that the anisotropy in the transport properties is due to the in-plane alignment of the GNPs which occurs during the formation of the thermal interface layer. Because the alignment in the thermal interface layer suppresses the through-plane component of the thermal conductivity, the anisotropy strongly degrades the performance of GNP-based composites in the geometry required for typical thermal management applications and must be taken into account in the development of GNP-based TIMs.

  2. Anisotropic Thermal and Electrical Properties of Thin Thermal Interface Layers of Graphite Nanoplatelet-Based Composites

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiaojuan; Itkis, Mikhail E.; Bekyarova, Elena B.; Haddon, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are crucial components of high density electronics and the high thermal conductivity of graphite makes this material an attractive candidate for such applications. We report an investigation of the in-plane and through-plane electrical and thermal conductivities of thin thermal interface layers of graphite nanoplatelet (GNP) based composites. The in-plane electrical conductivity exceeds its through-plane counterpart by three orders of magnitude, whereas the ratio of the thermal conductivities is about 5. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that the anisotropy in the transport properties is due to the in-plane alignment of the GNPs which occurs during the formation of the thermal interface layer. Because the alignment in the thermal interface layer suppresses the through-plane component of the thermal conductivity, the anisotropy strongly degrades the performance of GNP-based composites in the geometry required for typical thermal management applications and must be taken into account in the development of GNP-based TIMs.

  3. Spray-assisted layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly of anisotropic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de, Souvik; Suarez Martinez, Pilar; Kavarthapu, Avanti; Lutkenhaus, Jodie

    2015-03-01

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly has gained tremendous interest as it allows one to incorporate a large variety of molecules with nano-scale precision and very good reproducibility. In addition to charged polymers, the technique has become extremely popular to fabricate tailor-made thin films containing anisotropic nanomaterials (e.g., graphene oxide sheets). The challenge is that a standard protocol to fabricate ``all-polyelectrolyte'' LbL films may not necessarily give rise to satisfactory film growth when applied to LbL assembly where one of the adsorbing components is an anisotropic nanomaterial. Therefore, in this contribution, we combine polymers and anisotropic nanomaterials via dip- and spray-assisted LbL assembly and investigate the effect of charge density, exfoliation, concentration etc. of the components on the growth behavior and the film quality. The end result is a conformal, pin-hole free coating on model substrates (glass, silicon, metal) over a large area.

  4. Composite strings in (2+1)-dimensional anisotropic weakly coupled Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Orland, Peter

    2008-01-15

    The small-scale structure of a string connecting a pair of static sources is explored for the weakly coupled anisotropic SU(2) Yang-Mills theory in (2+1) dimensions. A crucial ingredient in the formulation of the string Hamiltonian is the phenomenon of color smearing of the string constituents. The quark-antiquark potential is determined. We close with some discussion of the standard, fully Lorentz-invariant Yang-Mills theory.

  5. Offgassing test methodology for composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheer, Dale A.

    1994-01-01

    A significant increase in the use of composite materials has occurred during the past 20 years. Associated with this increased use is the potential for employees to be exposed to offgassing components from composite systems. Various components in composite systems, particularly residual solvents, offgas under various conditions. The potential for offgassing to occur increases as a composite material is heated either during cure or during lay-up operations. Various techniques can be employed to evaluate the offgassing characteristics of a composite system. A joint effort between AIA and SACMA resulted in the drafting of a proposed test method for evaluating the offgassing potential of composite materials. The purpose of testing composite materials for offgassing is to provide the industrial hygienist with information which can be used to assess the safety of the workplace. This paper outlines the proposed test method and presents round robin testing data associated with the test method. Also in this presentation is a discussion of classes of compounds which require specialized sampling techniques.

  6. Ultrasonic stress wave characterization of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, J. C., Jr.; Henneke, E. G., II; Stinchcomb, W. W.

    1986-01-01

    The work reported covers three simultaneous projects. The first project was concerned with: (1) establishing the sensitivity of the acousto-ultrasonic method for evaluating subtle forms of damage development in cyclically loaded composite materials, (2) establishing the ability of the acousto-ultrasonic method for detecting initial material imperfections that lead to localized damage growth and final specimen failure, and (3) characteristics of the NBS/Proctor sensor/receiver for acousto-ultrasonic evaluation of laminated composite materials. The second project was concerned with examining the nature of the wave propagation that occurs during acoustic-ultrasonic evaluation of composite laminates and demonstrating the role of Lamb or plate wave modes and their utilization for characterizing composite laminates. The third project was concerned with the replacement of contact-type receiving piezotransducers with noncontacting laser-optical sensors for acousto-ultrasonic signal acquisition.

  7. 3-D textile reinforcements in composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Miravete, A.

    1999-11-01

    Laminated composite materials have been used in structural applications since the 1960s. However, their high cost and inability to accommodate fibers in the laminate`s thickness direction greatly reduce their damage tolerance and impact resistance. The second generation of materials--3-D textile reinforced composites--offers significant cost reduction, and by incorporating reinforcement in the thickness direction, dramatically increases damage tolerance and impact resistance. However, methods for predicting mechanical properties of 3-D textile reinforced composite materials tend to be more complex. These materials also have disadvantages--particularly in regard to crimps in the yarns--that require more research. Textile preforms, micro- and macromechanical modeling, manufacturing processes, and characterization all need further development. As researchers overcome these problems, this new generation of composites will emerge as a highly competitive family of materials. This book provides a state-of-the-art account of this promising technology. In it, top experts describe the manufacturing processes, highlight the advantages, identify the main applications, analyze methods for predicting mechanical properties, and detail various reinforcement strategies, including grid structure, knitted fabric composites, and the braiding technique. Armed with the information in this book, readers will be prepared to better exploit the advantages of 3-D textile reinforced composites, overcome its disadvantages, and contribute to the further development of the technology.

  8. Oxygen Compatibility Testing of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, Neil A.; Hudgins, Richard J.; McBain, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The development of polymer composite liquid oxygen LO2 tanks is a critical step in creating the next generation of launch vehicles. Future launch vehicles need to minimize the gross liftoff weight (GLOW), which is possible due to the 25%-40% reduction in weight that composite materials could provide over current aluminum technology. Although a composite LO2 tank makes these weight savings feasible, composite materials have not historically been viewed as "LO2 compatible." To be considered LO2 compatible, materials must be selected that will resist any type of detrimental, combustible reaction when exposed to usage environments. This is traditionally evaluated using a standard set of tests. However, materials that do not pass the standard tests can be shown to be safe for a particular application. This paper documents the approach and results of a joint NASA/Lockheed Martin program to select and verify LO2 compatible composite materials for liquid oxygen fuel tanks. The test approach developed included tests such as mechanical impact, particle impact, puncture, electrostatic discharge, friction, and pyrotechnic shock. These tests showed that composite liquid oxygen tanks are indeed feasible for future launch vehicles.

  9. Nonmetallic materials and composites at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwig, G.; Evans, D.

    1982-01-01

    This book presents articles by leading scientists who explore the cryogenic behavior of such materials as epoxies, polyethylenes, polymers, various composites, and glasses. Examines the thermal and dielectric properties of these materials, as well as their elasticity, cohesive strength, resistance to strain and fracturing, and applications. Topics include thermal properties of crystalline polymers; thermal conductivity in semicrystalline polymers; ultrasonic absorption in polymethylmethacrylate; radiation damage in thin sheet fiberglass; epoxide resins; dynamic mechanical properties of poly (methacrylates); dielectric loss due to antioxidants in polyolefins; fracture measurements on polyethylene in comparison with epoxy resins; fatigue testing of epoxide resins; lap testing of epoxide resins; thermal conductivity and thermal expansion of non-metallic composite materials; nonlinear stresses and displacements of the fibers and matrix in a radially loaded circular composite ring; the strain energy release rate of glass fiber-reinforced polyester composites; charpy impact testing of cloth reinforced epoxide resin; nonmetallic and composite materials as solid superleaks; carbon fiber reinforced expoxide resins; standardizing nonmetallic composite materials.

  10. Principal Surface Wave Velocities in the Point Focus Acoustic Materials Signature V(z) of an Anisotropic Solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Every, A. G.; Deschamps, M.

    2003-03-01

    This paper draws attention to the fact that point focus beam (PFB) V(z) curves of anisotropic solids are dominated by a small number of principal SAW rays, which are associated with directions in which Rayleigh and pseudo-SAW slownesses are stationary. This is explained on the basis of the complex mean reflectance function of the surface, i.e. the reflectivity R(?, ?) averaged over the azimuthal angle ?, and also in terms of a ray model. This fact facilitates the extraction of materials information from PFB V(z) curves. The utility of PFB AM for anisotropic solids is illustrated using computed velocity and V(z) data for the Fe(001) surface and for Fe(001) with an overlayer of isotropic iron.

  11. Anisotropic viscoelastic shell modeling technique of copper patterns/photoimageable solder resist composite for warpage simulation of multi-layer printed circuit boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do-Hyoung; Joo, Sung-Jun; Kwak, Dong-Ok; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the warpage simulation of a multi-layer printed circuit board (PCB) was performed as a function of various copper (Cu) patterns/photoimageable solder resist (PSR) composite patterns and their anisotropic viscoelastic properties. The thermo-mechanical properties of Cu/PSR patterns were obtained from finite element analysis (virtual test) and homogenized with anisotropic composite shell models that considered the viscoelastic properties. The multi-layer PCB model was simplified based on the unit Cu/PSR patterns and the warpage simulation during the reflow process was performed by using ABAQUS combined with a user-defined subroutine. From these results, it was demonstrated that the proposed anisotropic viscoelastic composite shell simulation technique can be successfully used to predict warpage of multi-layer PCBs during the reflow process.

  12. Gradient composite materials for artificial intervertebral discs.

    PubMed

    Migacz, Katarzyna; Chłopek, Jan; Morawska-Chochół, Anna; Ambroziak, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    Composites with the gradient of Young's modulus constitute a new group of biomimetic materials which affect the proper distribution of stresses between the implant and the bone. The aim of this article was to examine the mechanical properties of gradient materials based on carbon fibre-polysulfone composite, and to compare them to the properties of a natural intervertebral disc. Gradient properties were provided by different orientation or volume fraction of carbon fibres in particular layers of composites. The results obtained during in vitro tests displayed a good durability of the gradient materials put under long-term static load. However, the configuration based on a change in the volume fraction of the fibres seems more advantageous than the one based on a change of the fibres' orientation. The materials under study were designed to replace the intervertebral disc. The effect of Young's modulus of the material layers on the stress distribution between the tissue and the implant was analyzed and the biomimetic character of the gradient composites was stated. Unlike gradient materials, the pure polysulfone and the non-gradient composite resulted in the stress concentration in the region of nucleus pulposus, which is highly disadvantageous and does not occur in the stress distribution of natural intervertebral discs. PMID:25306938

  13. Energy absorption of composite material and structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented from a joint research program on helicopter crashworthiness conducted by the U.S. Army Aerostructures Directorate and NASA Langley. Through the ongoing research program an in-depth understanding has been developed on the cause/effect relationships between material and architectural variables and the energy-absorption capability of composite material and structure. Composite materials were found to be efficient energy absorbers. Graphite/epoxy subfloor structures were more efficient energy absorbers than comparable structures fabricated from Kevlar or aluminum. An accurate method of predicting the energy-absorption capability of beams was developed.

  14. Current developments in composite materials and techniques.

    PubMed

    Dietschi, D; Dietschi, J M

    1996-09-01

    General reduction of dental caries and patient interest in dental aesthetics have resulted in the development of new restorative materials and techniques. Composite materials and adhesive techniques have become the foundation of modern restorative dentistry. Mechanical performance, wear resistance, and aesthetic potential of composite resins have been significantly improved, and the material is now used in cases ranging from the restoration of initial decays and cosmetic corrections to the veneering in extended prosthetic rehabilitation. Polymerization shrinkage of the resin matrix remains a challenge and still imposes limitations in the application of direct techniques. The learning objective of this article is to review the most significant advances of composite materials and the importance of utilizing the available treatment options with discretion, selecting those which preserve the tooth structure and require the least maintenance. PMID:9242136

  15. Yeh-Stratton Criterion for Stress Concentrations on Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Hsien-Yang; Richards, W. Lance

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the Yeh-Stratton Failure Criterion with the stress concentrations on fiber-reinforced composites materials under tensile stresses. The Yeh-Stratton Failure Criterion was developed from the initial yielding of materials based on macromechanics. To investigate this criterion, the influence of the materials anisotropic properties and far field loading on the composite materials with central hole and normal crack were studied. Special emphasis was placed on defining the crack tip stress fields and their applications. The study of Yeh-Stratton criterion for damage zone stress fields on fiber-reinforced composites under tensile loading was compared with several fracture criteria; Tsai-Wu Theory, Hoffman Theory, Fischer Theory, and Cowin Theory. Theoretical predictions from these criteria are examined using experimental results.

  16. Nonlinear optical properties of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haus, Joseph W.; Inguva, Ramarao

    1991-01-01

    The optical properties of a new class of composite nonlinear materials composed of coated grains, such as cadmium sulfide with a silver coating, are examined. These materials exhibit intrinsic optical bistability and resonantly enhanced conjugate reflectivity. The threshold for intrinsic optical bistability is low enough for practical applications in optical communications and optical computing. Some problems associated with the fabrication of these materials are addressed. Based on preliminary results, switching times are expected to be in the subpicosecond range.

  17. Materials analysis by ultrasonics: Metals, ceramics, composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, Alex (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Research results in analytical ultrasonics for characterizing structural materials from metals and ceramics to composites are presented. General topics covered by the conference included: status and advances in analytical ultrasonics for characterizing material microstructures and mechanical properties; status and prospects for ultrasonic measurements of microdamage, degradation, and underlying morphological factors; status and problems in precision measurements of frequency-dependent velocity and attenuation for materials analysis; procedures and requirements for automated, digital signal acquisition, processing, analysis, and interpretation; incentives for analytical ultrasonics in materials research and materials processing, testing, and inspection; and examples of progress in ultrasonics for interrelating microstructure, mechanical properties, and dynamic response.

  18. Advanced composite materials for optomechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, Carl

    2013-09-01

    Polymer matrix composites (PMCs) have been well established in optomechanical systems for several decades. The other three classes of composites; metal matrix composites (MMCs), ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), and carbon matrix composites (CAMCs) are making significant inroads. The latter include carbon/carbon (C/C) composites (CCCs). The success of composites has resulted in increasing use in consumer, industrial, scientific, and aerospace/defense optomechanical applications. Composites offer significant advantages over traditional materials, including high stiffnesses and strengths, near-zero and tailorable coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs), tailorable thermal conductivities (from very low to over twice that of copper), and low densities. In addition, they lack beryllium's toxicity problems. Some manufacturing processes allow parts consolidation, reducing machining and joining operations. At present, PMCs are the most widely used composites. Optomechanical applications date from the 1970s. The second High Energy Astrophysical Observatory spacecraft, placed in orbit in 1978, had an ultrahigh-modulus carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy (carbon/epoxy) optical bench metering structure. Since then, fibers and matrix materials have advanced significantly, and use of carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRPs) has increased steadily. Space system examples include the Hubble Space Telescope metering truss and instrument benches, Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), James Webb Space Telescope and many others. Use has spread to airborne applications, such as SOFIA. Perhaps the most impressive CFRP applications are the fifty-four 12m and twelve 7m moveable ground-based ALMA antennas. The other three classes of composites have a number of significant advantages over PMCs, including no moisture absorption or outgassing of organic compounds. CCC and CMC components have flown on a variety of spacecraft. MMCs have been used in space, aircraft, military and industrial applications. In this paper, we review key PMC, MMC, CCC, and CMC optomechanical system materials, including properties, advantages, disadvantages, applications and future developments. These topics are covered in more detail in SPIE short courses SC218 and SC1078.

  19. Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques Applied to the Quantitative Characterization of Textile Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James G.

    1997-01-01

    In this Progress Report, we describe our further development of advanced ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods applied to the characterization of anisotropic materials. We present images obtained from experimental measurements of ultrasonic diffraction patterns transmitted through water only and transmitted through water and a thin woven composite. All images of diffraction patterns have been included on the accompanying CD-ROM in the JPEG format and Adobe TM Portable Document Format (PDF), in addition to the inclusion of hardcopies of the images contained in this report. In our previous semi-annual Progress Report (NAG 1-1848, December, 1996), we proposed a simple model to simulate the effect of a thin woven composite on an insonifying ultrasonic pressure field. This initial approach provided an avenue to begin development of a robust measurement method for nondestructive evaluation of anisotropic materials. In this Progress Report, we extend that work by performing experimental measurements on a single layer of a five-harness biaxial woven composite to investigate how a thin, yet architecturally complex, material interacts with the insonifying ultrasonic field. In Section 2 of this Progress Report we describe the experimental arrangement and methods for data acquisition of the ultrasonic diffraction patterns upon transmission through a thin woven composite. We also briefly describe the thin composite specimen investigated. Section 3 details the analysis of the experimental data followed by the experimental results in Section 4. Finally, a discussion of the observations and conclusions is found in Section 5.

  20. Online optical and dielectric monitoring of anisotropic epoxy/BaTiO3 composite formation tailored by dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belijar, Guillaume; Diaham, Sombel; Valdez-Nava, Zarel; Lebey, Thierry

    2016-02-01

    Anisotropic composites can be obtained by applying an alternating (ac) electric field, forming particle chains in its direction. The control of the particle chains will directly impact the final properties of the composite. Nevertheless, up to now the monitoring of the particle chain formation has only been made by direct optical or post-curing observations. A new technique for the monitoring of the particle dielectrophoretic alignment is proposed, based on the online measurement of the dielectric permittivity. Epoxy/barium titanate (BaTiO3) composites, in the range of 0.25 vol% to 20 vol% of BaTiO3 microparticles, are cured while an ac field (600 Vrms mm-1) is applied. The ac current magnitude and the phase shift angle are measured to determine the dielectric properties of the composite. The same experiment is achieved under optical microscope observation for 0.25 vol% to correlate the changes of the composite dielectric properties to the particle chain formation. As a result, the permittivity variations can be correlated to the particle chains formation and to their growth.

  1. Composite Materials for Wind Power Turbine Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brndsted, Povl; Lilholt, Hans; Lystrup, Aage

    2005-08-01

    Renewable energy resources, of which wind energy is prominent, are part of the solution to the global energy problem. Wind turbine and the rotorblade concepts are reviewed, and loadings by wind and gravity as important factors for the fatigue performance of the materials are considered. Wood and composites are discussed as candidates for rotorblades. The fibers and matrices for composites are described, and their high stiffness, low density, and good fatigue performance are emphasized. Manufacturing technologies for composites are presented and evaluated with respect to advantages, problems, and industrial potential. The important technologies of today are prepreg (pre-impregnated) technology and resin infusion technology. The mechanical properties of fiber composite materials are discussed, with a focus on fatigue performance. Damage and materials degradation during fatigue are described. Testing procedures for documentation of properties are reviewed, and fatigue loading histories are discussed, together with methods for data handling and statistical analysis of (large) amounts of test data. Future challenges for materials in the field of wind turbines are presented, with a focus on thermoplastic composites, new structural materials concepts, new structural design aspects, structural health monitoring, and the coming trends and markets for wind energy.

  2. Ceramic Aerogel Composite Materials and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Aerogels a.k.a "Solid Smoke" are gels with the liquid phase replaced by gas, leaving behind a highly porous material with a nanoscale framework. Due to the porous, nanoscale structure, aerogels have the lowest known density and conductivity of solids. Aerogels have the potential for being a breakthrough material because of their extremely light weight and unique properties. In this paper, we address overcoming their most profound weaknesses: mechanical fragility and very high surface activity, which leads to a lowered sintering temperature. A matrix of ceramic aerogel composite materials was produced to investigate their properties and functionality. Mechanical property measurements and Scanning Electron Micrographs are used to identify trends and structure of these ceramic composite materials. Thermal cycling was used to identify the sintering points of the materials.

  3. Tensile failure criteria for fiber composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, B. W.; Zweben, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    The analysis provides insight into the failure mechanics of these materials and defines criteria which serve as tools for preliminary design material selection and for material reliability assessment. The model incorporates both dispersed and propagation type failures and includes the influence of material heterogeneity. The important effects of localized matrix damage and post-failure matrix shear stress transfer are included in the treatment. The model is used to evaluate the influence of key parameters on the failure of several commonly used fiber-matrix systems. Analyses of three possible failure modes were developed. These modes are the fiber break propagation mode, the cumulative group fracture mode, and the weakest link mode. Application of the new model to composite material systems has indicated several results which require attention in the development of reliable structural composites. Prominent among these are the size effect and the influence of fiber strength variability.

  4. Processes for fabricating composite reinforced material

    DOEpatents

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2015-11-24

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  5. Properties of five toughened matrix composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cano, Roberto J.; Dow, Marvin B.

    1992-01-01

    The use of toughened matrix composite materials offers an attractive solution to the problem of poor damage tolerance associated with advanced composite materials. In this study, the unidirectional laminate strengths and moduli, notched (open-hole) and unnotched tension and compression properties of quasi-isotropic laminates, and compression-after-impact strengths of five carbon fiber/toughened matrix composites, IM7/E7T1-2, IM7/X1845, G40-800X/5255-3, IM7/5255-3, and IM7/5260 have been evaluated. The compression-after-impact (CAI) strengths were determined primarily by impacting quasi-isotropic laminates with the NASA Langley air gun. A few CAI tests were also made with a drop-weight impactor. For a given impact energy, compression after impact strengths were determined to be dependent on impactor velocity. Properties and strengths for the five materials tested are compared with NASA data on other toughened matrix materials (IM7/8551-7, IM6/1808I, IM7/F655, and T800/F3900). This investigation found that all five materials were stronger and more impact damage tolerant than more brittle carbon/epoxy composite materials currently used in aircraft structures.

  6. Impact testing of textile composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portanova, Marc

    1995-01-01

    The objectives of this report were to evaluate the impact damage resistance and damage tolerance of a variety of textile composite materials. Static indentation and impact tests were performed on the stitched and unstitched uniweave composites constructed from AS4/3501-6 Carbon/Epoxy with a fiberglass yarn woven in to hold the fibers together while being stitched. Compression and tension were measured after the tests to determine the damage resistance, residual strength and the damage tolerance of the specimens.

  7. Health monitoring method for composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Watkins, Jr., Kenneth S.; Morris, Shelby J.

    2011-04-12

    An in-situ method for monitoring the health of a composite component utilizes a condition sensor made of electrically conductive particles dispersed in a polymeric matrix. The sensor is bonded or otherwise formed on the matrix surface of the composite material. Age-related shrinkage of the sensor matrix results in a decrease in the resistivity of the condition sensor. Correlation of measured sensor resistivity with data from aged specimens allows indirect determination of mechanical damage and remaining age of the composite component.

  8. Computational modeling of composite material fires.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Alexander L.; Erickson, Kenneth L.; Hubbard, Joshua Allen; Dodd, Amanda B.

    2010-10-01

    Composite materials behave differently from conventional fuel sources and have the potential to smolder and burn for extended time periods. As the amount of composite materials on modern aircraft continues to increase, understanding the response of composites in fire environments becomes increasingly important. An effort is ongoing to enhance the capability to simulate composite material response in fires including the decomposition of the composite and the interaction with a fire. To adequately model composite material in a fire, two physical model development tasks are necessary; first, the decomposition model for the composite material and second, the interaction with a fire. A porous media approach for the decomposition model including a time dependent formulation with the effects of heat, mass, species, and momentum transfer of the porous solid and gas phase is being implemented in an engineering code, ARIA. ARIA is a Sandia National Laboratories multiphysics code including a range of capabilities such as incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, energy transport equations, species transport equations, non-Newtonian fluid rheology, linear elastic solid mechanics, and electro-statics. To simulate the fire, FUEGO, also a Sandia National Laboratories code, is coupled to ARIA. FUEGO represents the turbulent, buoyantly driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, and combustion. FUEGO and ARIA are uniquely able to solve this problem because they were designed using a common architecture (SIERRA) that enhances multiphysics coupling and both codes are capable of massively parallel calculations, enhancing performance. The decomposition reaction model is developed from small scale experimental data including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) in both nitrogen and air for a range of heating rates and from available data in the literature. The response of the composite material subject to a radiant heat flux boundary condition is examined to study the propagation of decomposition fronts of the epoxy and carbon fiber and their dependence on the ambient conditions such as oxygen concentration, surface flow velocity, and radiant heat flux. In addition to the computational effort, small scaled experimental efforts to attain adequate data used to validate model predictions is ongoing. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the progress of the capability for a typical composite material and emphasize the path forward.

  9. Composite materials and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Uribe, Francisco A.; Wilson, Mahlon S.; Garzon, Fernando H.

    2009-09-15

    A method of depositing noble metals on a metal hexaboride support. The hexaboride support is sufficiently electropositive to allow noble metals to deposit spontaneously from solutions containing ionic species of such metals onto the support. The method permits the deposition of metallic films of controlled thickness and particle size at room temperature without using separate reducing agents. Composite materials comprising noble metal films deposited on such metal hexaborides are also described. Such composite materials may be used as catalysts, thermionic emitters, electrical contacts, electrodes, adhesion layers, and optical coatings.

  10. Thermal expansion properties of composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. R.; Kural, M. H.; Mackey, G. B.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal expansion data for several composite materials, including generic epoxy resins, various graphite, boron, and glass fibers, and unidirectional and woven fabric composites in an epoxy matrix, were compiled. A discussion of the design, material, environmental, and fabrication properties affecting thermal expansion behavior is presented. Test methods and their accuracy are discussed. Analytical approaches to predict laminate coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) based on lamination theory and micromechanics are also included. A discussion is included of methods of tuning a laminate to obtain a near-zero CTE for space applications.

  11. Grafting in cellulose - polystyrene composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Trejo O`Reilly, J.A.; Cavaille, J.Y.; Dufresne, A.

    1995-12-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of the grafting of polystyrene on model cellulosic fibers, several composite materials were processed, (1) by simply dispersing microfibrils into a polystyrene matrix, (2) by dispersing the same fibers but modified by phenyl groups, (3) by grafting a functionalized polystyrene on the fibers surface and mixing with the matrix. The characterization of the coupling agent used has been performed by several techniques: FTIR, NMR, DSC and elemental analysis. Evidence of grafting onto the fibers surface was displayed by FTIR measurements and elemental analysis. All the composite materials were characterized by DSC, tensile tests and mechanical spectroscopy.

  12. The right circular polarized waves in the three-dimensional anisotropic dispersive photonic crystals consisting of the magnetized plasma and uniaxial material as the Faraday effects considered

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hai-Feng E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn; Nanjing Artillery Academy, Nanjing 211132 ; Liu, Shao-Bin E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn; Tang, Yi-Jun; Zhen, Jian-Ping

    2014-03-15

    In this paper, the properties of the right circular polarized (RCP) waves in the three-dimensional (3D) dispersive photonic crystals (PCs) consisting of the magnetized plasma and uniaxial material with face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattices are theoretically investigated by the plane wave expansion method, which the homogeneous anisotropic dielectric spheres (the uniaxial material) immersed in the magnetized plasma background, as the Faraday effects of magnetized plasma are considered (the incidence electromagnetic wave vector is parallel to the external magnetic field at any time). The equations for calculating the anisotropic photonic band gaps (PBGs) for the RCP waves in the first irreducible Brillouin zone are theoretically deduced. The anisotropic PBGs and a flatbands region can be obtained. The effects of the ordinary-refractive index, extraordinary-refractive index, anisotropic dielectric filling factor, plasma frequency, and plasma cyclotron frequency (the external magnetic field) on the properties of first two anisotropic PBGs for the RCP waves are investigated in detail, respectively. The numerical results show that the anisotropy can open partial band gaps in fcc lattices at U and W points, and the complete PBGs for the RCP waves can be achieved compared to the conventional 3D dispersive PCs composed of the magnetized plasma and isotropic material. It is also shown that the first two anisotropic PBGs can be tuned by those parameters as mentioned above. Those PBGs can be enlarged by introducing the uniaxial material into such 3D PCs as the Faraday effects are considered.

  13. The right circular polarized waves in the three-dimensional anisotropic dispersive photonic crystals consisting of the magnetized plasma and uniaxial material as the Faraday effects considered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Zhen, Jian-Ping; Tang, Yi-Jun

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the properties of the right circular polarized (RCP) waves in the three-dimensional (3D) dispersive photonic crystals (PCs) consisting of the magnetized plasma and uniaxial material with face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattices are theoretically investigated by the plane wave expansion method, which the homogeneous anisotropic dielectric spheres (the uniaxial material) immersed in the magnetized plasma background, as the Faraday effects of magnetized plasma are considered (the incidence electromagnetic wave vector is parallel to the external magnetic field at any time). The equations for calculating the anisotropic photonic band gaps (PBGs) for the RCP waves in the first irreducible Brillouin zone are theoretically deduced. The anisotropic PBGs and a flatbands region can be obtained. The effects of the ordinary-refractive index, extraordinary-refractive index, anisotropic dielectric filling factor, plasma frequency, and plasma cyclotron frequency (the external magnetic field) on the properties of first two anisotropic PBGs for the RCP waves are investigated in detail, respectively. The numerical results show that the anisotropy can open partial band gaps in fcc lattices at U and W points, and the complete PBGs for the RCP waves can be achieved compared to the conventional 3D dispersive PCs composed of the magnetized plasma and isotropic material. It is also shown that the first two anisotropic PBGs can be tuned by those parameters as mentioned above. Those PBGs can be enlarged by introducing the uniaxial material into such 3D PCs as the Faraday effects are considered.

  14. Inverse relationships for reflection diagnostics of uniaxially anisotropic nanoscale films on isotropic materials.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Peep

    2011-06-10

    The possibilities of determining the parameters of uniaxially anisotropic ultrathin nonabsorbing dielectric films on absorbing or transparent isotropic substrates by surface differential reflectance measurements are analyzed. The analysis is based on analytical reflection formulas obtained in the framework of a long-wavelength approximation. It is shown that, in the case of transparent substrates, it is always possible to determine the thickness of a uniaxially ultrathin film and its four parameters of anisotropy (optical constants n(o) and n(e) and angles ? and ?) simultaneously. However, for such films on absorbing substrates, it is possible to decouple the thickness and optical constants by differential reflectance measurements only if ??0. The accuracy of the obtained analytic formulas for determining the parameters of ultrathin films is estimated by computer simulations where the reflection problem was solved numerically on the basis of the rigorous electromagnetic theory for anisotropic layered systems. PMID:21673783

  15. Frictional Ignition Testing of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peralta, Steve; Rosales, Keisa; Robinson, Michael J.; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2006-01-01

    The space flight community has been investigating lightweight composite materials for use in propellant tanks for both liquid and gaseous oxygen for space flight vehicles. The use of these materials presents some risks pertaining to ignition and burning hazards in the presence of oxygen. Through hazard analysis process, some ignition mechanisms have been identified as being potentially credible. One of the ignition mechanisms was reciprocal friction; however, test data do not exist that could be used to clear or fail these types of materials as "oxygen compatible" for the reciprocal friction ignition mechanism. Therefore, testing was performed at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) to provide data to evaluate this ignition mechanism. This paper presents the test system, approach, data results, and findings of the reciprocal friction testing performed on composite sample materials being considered for propellant tanks.

  16. Nonlinear and Anisotropic Tensile Properties of Graft Materials used in Soft Tissue Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Jonathon H; Elliott, Dawn M

    2010-01-01

    Background The mechanical properties of extracellular matrix grafts that are intended to augment or replace soft tissues should be comparable to the native tissue. Such grafts are often used in fiber-reinforced tissue applications that undergo multi-axial loading and therefore knowledge of the anisotropic and nonlinear properties are needed, including the moduli and Poisson's ratio in two orthogonal directions within the plane of the graft. The objective of this study was to measure the tensile mechanical properties of several marketed grafts: Alloderm, Restore, CuffPatch, and OrthADAPT. Methods The degree of anisotropy and nonlinearity within each graft was evaluated from uniaxial tensile tests and compared to their native tissue. Results The Alloderm graft was anisotropic in both the toe and linear-region of the stress-strain response, was highly nonlinear, and generally had low properties. The Restore and CuffPatch grafts had similar stress-strain responses, were largely isotropic, had a linear-region modulus of 18 MPa, and were nonlinear. OrthADAPT was anisotropic in the linear region (131 vs 47 MPa) and was highly nonlinear. The Poisson ratio for all grafts was between 0.4 and 0.7, except for the parallel orientation of Restore which was greater than 1.0. Interpretation Having an informed understanding of how the available grafts perform mechanically will allow for better assessment by the physician for which graft to apply depending upon its application. PMID:20129728

  17. Integrated sensing networks in composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, Anthony F.; Nemat-Nasser, Sia; Smith, David R.; Plaisted, Thomas A.

    2004-07-01

    Increasingly, the demand to monitor structures in service is driving technology in new directions. Advances in many areas including novel sensor technologies afford new opportunities in structural health monitoring. We present efforts to develop structural composite materials which include networks of embedded sensors with decision-making capabilities that extend the functionality of the composite materials to be information-aware. The next generation of structural systems will include the capability to acquire, process, and if necessary respond to structural or other types of information. This work brings together many important developments over the last few years in several areas: developments in composites and the emergence of multifunctional composites, the emergence of a broad range of new sensors, smaller and lower power microelectronics with increased and multiple integrated functionality, and the emergence of algorithms that extract important structural health information from large data sets. This work seeks to leverage these individual advances by solving the challenges needed to integrate these into an information-aware composite structure. We present details of efforts to integrate and entrap connectorized microelectronic components within fiber/conductor braided bundles to minimize their impact as composite crack initiation centers. The bundles include conductors to transmit electric signals for power and communications. They are suitable for inclusion in woven composite fabrics or directly in the composite lay-up. The low-power electronic devices can operate on a multi-drop and point-to-point networks. Future directions include implementing in-network local processing, adding a greater range of sensors, and developing the composite processing techniques that allow sensor network integration.

  18. Method of making carbon nanotube composite materials

    DOEpatents

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2014-05-20

    The present invention is a method of making a composite polymeric material by dissolving a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes and optionally additives in a solvent to make a solution and removing at least a portion of the solvent after casting onto a substrate to make thin films. The material has enhanced conductivity properties due to the blending of the un-functionalized and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes.

  19. Modeling of laser interactions with composite materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rubenchik, Alexander M.; Boley, Charles D.

    2013-05-07

    In this study, we develop models of laser interactions with composite materials consisting of fibers embedded within a matrix. A ray-trace model is shown to determine the absorptivity, absorption depth, and optical power enhancement within the material, as well as the angular distribution of the reflected light. We also develop a macroscopic model, which provides physical insight and overall results. We show that the parameters in this model can be determined from the ray trace model.

  20. Effect of the porosity on the fracture surface roughness of sintered materials: From anisotropic to isotropic self-affine scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambonie, T.; Bares, J.; Hattali, M. L.; Bonamy, D.; Lazarus, V.; Auradou, H.

    2015-01-01

    To unravel how the microstructure affects the fracture surface roughness in heterogeneous brittle solids like rocks or ceramics, we characterized the roughness statistics of postmortem fracture surfaces in homemade materials of adjustable microstructure length scale and porosity, obtained by sintering monodisperse polystyrene beads. Beyond the characteristic size of disorder, the roughness profiles are found to exhibit self-affine scaling features evolving with porosity. Starting from a null value and increasing the porosity, we quantitatively modify the self-affine scaling properties from anisotropic (at low porosity) to isotropic (for porosity >10%).

  1. Material Model Evaluation of a Composite Honeycomb Energy Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Annett, Martin S.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Polanco, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate four different material models in predicting the dynamic crushing response of solid-element-based models of a composite honeycomb energy absorber, designated the Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA). Dynamic crush tests of three DEA components were simulated using the nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic code, LS-DYNA . In addition, a full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter, retrofitted with DEA blocks, was simulated. The four material models used to represent the DEA included: *MAT_CRUSHABLE_FOAM (Mat 63), *MAT_HONEYCOMB (Mat 26), *MAT_SIMPLIFIED_RUBBER/FOAM (Mat 181), and *MAT_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC_CRUSHABLE_FOAM (Mat 142). Test-analysis calibration metrics included simple percentage error comparisons of initial peak acceleration, sustained crush stress, and peak compaction acceleration of the DEA components. In addition, the Roadside Safety Verification and Validation Program (RSVVP) was used to assess similarities and differences between the experimental and analytical curves for the full-scale crash test.

  2. Composite materials microstructure for radiation shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radford, Donald W.; Sadeh, Willy Z.; Cheng, Boyle C.

    1992-01-01

    Shielding against radiation is a concern for applications on earth, in space, and on extraterrestrial surfaces. On earth EMI is an important factor, while in space and on extraterrestrial surfaces particle (high charge-Z and high energy-E) radiation is a critical issue. Conventional metallic materials currently used for EMI shielding incur large weight penalties. To overcome this weight penalty, ultra-lightweight composite materials utilizing fillers ranging from carbon microballoons to silver coated ceramic microballoons are proposed. The crucial shielding requirement is conductivity of the constituent materials, while the hollow microballoon geometry is utilized to yield low weight. Methods of processing and composition effects are examined and these results are compared to the effectiveness of varying the conductive microballoon material. The resulting ultralightweight materials, developed for EMI shielding, can be tailored through the application of the understanding of the relative effects of variables such as those tested. Initial experimental results reveal that these tailored ultralightweight composite materials are superior to traditional aluminum shielding at only a small fraction of the weight.

  3. Manufacture of electrical and magnetic graded and anisotropic materials for novel manipulations of microwaves

    PubMed Central

    Grant, P. S.; Castles, F.; Lei, Q.; Wang, Y.; Janurudin, J. M.; Isakov, D.; Speller, S.; Dancer, C.; Grovenor, C. R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial transformations (ST) provide a design framework to generate a required spatial distribution of electrical and magnetic properties of materials to effect manipulations of electromagnetic waves. To obtain the electromagnetic properties required by these designs, the most common materials approach has involved periodic arrays of metal-containing subwavelength elements. While aspects of ST theory have been confirmed using these structures, they are often disadvantaged by narrowband operation, high losses and difficulties in implementation. An all-dielectric approach involves weaker interactions with applied fields, but may offer more flexibility for practical implementation. This paper investigates manufacturing approaches to produce composite materials that may be conveniently arranged spatially, according to ST-based designs. A key aim is to highlight the limitations and possibilities of various manufacturing approaches, to constrain designs to those that may be achievable. The article focuses on polymer-based nano- and microcomposites in which interactions with microwaves are achieved by loading the polymers with high-permittivity and high-permeability particles, and manufacturing approaches based on spray deposition, extrusion, casting and additive manufacture. PMID:26217051

  4. Manufacture of electrical and magnetic graded and anisotropic materials for novel manipulations of microwaves.

    PubMed

    Grant, P S; Castles, F; Lei, Q; Wang, Y; Janurudin, J M; Isakov, D; Speller, S; Dancer, C; Grovenor, C R M

    2015-08-28

    Spatial transformations (ST) provide a design framework to generate a required spatial distribution of electrical and magnetic properties of materials to effect manipulations of electromagnetic waves. To obtain the electromagnetic properties required by these designs, the most common materials approach has involved periodic arrays of metal-containing subwavelength elements. While aspects of ST theory have been confirmed using these structures, they are often disadvantaged by narrowband operation, high losses and difficulties in implementation. An all-dielectric approach involves weaker interactions with applied fields, but may offer more flexibility for practical implementation. This paper investigates manufacturing approaches to produce composite materials that may be conveniently arranged spatially, according to ST-based designs. A key aim is to highlight the limitations and possibilities of various manufacturing approaches, to constrain designs to those that may be achievable. The article focuses on polymer-based nano- and microcomposites in which interactions with microwaves are achieved by loading the polymers with high-permittivity and high-permeability particles, and manufacturing approaches based on spray deposition, extrusion, casting and additive manufacture. PMID:26217051

  5. Composite materials for rail transit systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, O. Hayden, Jr.; Guerdal, Zafer; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1987-01-01

    The potential is explored for using composite materials in urban mass transit systems. The emphasis was to identify specific advantages of composite materials in order to determine their actual and potential usage for carbody and guideway structure applications. The literature was reviewed, contacts were made with major domestic system operators, designers, and builders, and an analysis was made of potential composite application to railcar construction. Composites were found to be in use throughout the transit industry, usually in secondary or auxiliary applications such as car interior and nonstructural exterior panels. More recently, considerable activity has been initiated in the area of using composites in the load bearing elements of civil engineering structures such as highway bridges. It is believed that new and improved manufacturing refinements in pultrusion and filament winding will permit the production of beam sections which can be used in guideway structures. The inherent corrosion resistance and low maintenance characteristics of composites should result in lowered maintenance costs over a prolonged life of the structure.

  6. Bending and stretching finite element analysis of anisotropic viscoelastic composite plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, Harry H.; Yi, Sung

    1990-01-01

    Finite element algorithms have been developed to analyze linear anisotropic viscoelastic plates, with or without holes, subjected to mechanical (bending, tension), temperature, and hygrothermal loadings. The analysis is based on Laplace transforms rather than direct time integrations in order to improve the accuracy of the results and save on extensive computational time and storage. The time dependent displacement fields in the transverse direction for the cross ply and angle ply laminates are calculated and the stacking sequence effects of the laminates are discussed in detail. Creep responses for the plates with or without a circular hole are also studied. The numerical results compare favorably with analytical solutions, i.e. within 1.8 percent for bending and 10(exp -3) 3 percent for tension. The tension results of the present method are compared with those using the direct time integration scheme.

  7. Magnetostrictive composite material systems analytical/experimental

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrovic, M.; Roberts, M.; Carman, G.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, the authors describe a nonlinear constitutive relation for magnetostrictive materials that includes coupling between temperature/preload and magnetic field strengths. The constitutive relation is employed in a concentric cylinders model to predict the response of a magnetostrictive composite. The model is also used to predict the magnetic field requirements for an active control flap in a rotorcraft system. This latter prediction is based on the force/displacement requirements presently available in the literature. In an effort to improve the durability and possibly the response of the magnetostrictive material (Terfenol-D), the authors describe a manufacturing process to fabricate a magnetostrictive composite. Preliminary experimental results on the 1-3 magnetostrictive composite sample is also presented.

  8. Self-assembly of segmented anisotropic particles: tuning compositional anisotropy to form vertical or horizontal arrays.

    PubMed

    Smith, Benjamin D; Kirby, David J; Rivera, Isamar Ortiz; Keating, Christine D

    2013-01-22

    Columnar arrays of anisotropic nano- and microparticles, in which the long axes of the particles are oriented perpendicular to the substrate, are of interest for photovoltaics and other applications. Array assembly typically requires applied electric or magnetic fields and/or controlled drying, which are challenging over large areas. Here, we describe a scalable approach to self-assemble multicomponent nanowires into columnar arrays. Self-assembly of partially etched nanowires (PENs) occurred spontaneously during sedimentation from suspension, without drying or applied fields. PENs, which have segments that are either gold or "empty" (solvent-filled) surrounded by a silica shell, were produced from striped metal nanowires by first coating with silica and then removing sacrificial segments by acid etching. Electrostatic repulsion between the particles was necessary for array assembly; however, details of PEN surface chemistry were relatively unimportant. The aspect ratio and relative center of mass (COM) of the PENs were important for determining whether the PEN long axes were vertically or horizontally aligned with respect to the underlying substrate. Arrays with predominantly vertically aligned particles were achieved for PENs with a large offset in COM relative to the geometric center, while other types of PENs formed horizontal arrays. Assemblies were formed over >10 cm(2) areas, with over 60% of particles standing. We assessed array uniformity and reproducibility by imaging many positions within each sample and performing multiple assemblies of differently segmented PENs. This work demonstrates the versatility of gravity-driven PEN array assembly and provides a framework for designing other anisotropic particle systems that self-assemble into columnar arrays. PMID:23244212

  9. Composite materials for precision space reflector panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompkins, Stephen S.; Funk, Joan G.; Bowles, David E.; Towell, Timothy W.; Connell, John W.

    1992-09-01

    One of the critical technology needs of large precision reflectors for future astrophysical and optical communications satellites lies in the area of structural materials. Results from a materials research and development program at NASA Langley Research Center to provide materials for these reflector applications are discussed. Advanced materials that meet the reflector panel requirements are identified and thermal, mechanical and durability properties of candidate materials after exposure to simulated space environments are compared. Results from analytical studies to define material properties that control laminate properties and reflector deformation are discussed. A parabolic, graphite-phenolic honeycomb composite panel having a surface accuracy of 70.8 microinches RMS and an areal weight of 1.17 lbm/ft2 was fabricated with T50/ERL1962 facesheets, a PAEI thermoplastic surface film, and Al and SiOx coatings.

  10. Composite materials for the extravehicular mobility unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrera, Enrique V.; Tello, Hector M.

    1992-01-01

    The extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), commonly known as the astronaut space suit assembly (SSA) and primary life support system (PLSS), has evolved through the years to incorporate new and innovative materials in order to meet the demands of the space environment. The space shuttle program which is seeing an increasing level of extravehicular activity (EVA), also called space walks, along with interest in an EMU for Lunar-Mars missions means even more demanding conditions are being placed on the suit and PLSS. The project for this NASA-ASEE Summer Program was to investigate new materials for these applications. The focus was to emphasize the use of composite materials for every component of the EMU to enhance the properties while reducing the total weight of the EMU. To accomplish this, development of new materials called fullerene reinforced materials (FRM's) was initiated. Fullerenes are carbon molecules which when added to a material significantly reduce the weight of that material. The Faculty Fellow worked directly on the development of the fullerene reinforced materials. A chamber for fullerene production was designed and assembled and first generation samples were processed. He also supervised with the JSC Colleague, a study of composite materials for the EMU conducted by the student participant in the NASA-ASEE Program, Hector Tello a Rice University graduate student, and by a NASA Aerospace Technologist (Materials Engineer) Evelyne Orndoff, in the Systems Engineering Analysis Office (EC7), also a Rice University graduate student. Hector Tello conducted a study on beryllium and Be alloys and initiated a study of carbon and glass reinforced composites for space applications. Evelyne Orndoff compiled an inventory of the materials on the SSA. Ms. Orndoff also reviewed SSA material requirements and cited aspects of the SSA design where composite materials might be further considered. Hector Tello spent part of his time investigating the solar radiation sensitivity of anodic coatings. This project was directed toward the effects of ultra-violet radiation on high emissivity anodic coatings. The work of both Evelyne Orndoff and Hector Tello is of interest to the Engineering Directorate at NASA/JSC and is also directed toward their research as Rice University graduate students.

  11. Accelerated Aging of Polymer Composite Bridge Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Nancy Margaret; Blackwood, Larry Gene; Torres, Lucinda Laine; Rodriguez, Julio Gallardo; Yoder, Timothy Scott

    1999-03-01

    Accelerated aging research on samples of composite material and candidate ultraviolet (UV) protective coatings is determining the effects of six environmental factors on material durability. Candidate fastener materials are being evaluated to determine corrosion rates and crevice corrosion effects at load-bearing joints. This work supports field testing of a 30-ft long, 18-ft wide polymer matrix composite (PMC) bridge at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Durability results and sensor data from tests with live loads provide information required for determining the cost/benefit measures to use in life-cycle planning, determining a maintenance strategy, establishing applicable inspection techniques, and establishing guidelines, standards, and acceptance criteria for PMC bridges for use in the transportation infrastructure.

  12. Hydrogel Composite Materials for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Jenna M.; Oyen, Michelle L.

    2013-04-01

    Hydrogels are appealing for biomaterials applications due to their compositional similarity with highly hydrated natural biological tissues. However, for structurally demanding tissue engineering applications, hydrogel use is limited by poor mechanical properties. Here, composite materials approaches are considered for improving hydrogel properties while attempting to more closely mimic natural biological tissue structures. A variety of composite material microstructures is explored, based on multiple hydrogel constituents, particle reinforcement, electrospun nanometer to micrometer diameter polymer fibers with single and multiple fiber networks, and combinations of these approaches to form fully three-dimensional fiber-reinforced hydrogels. Natural and synthetic polymers are examined for formation of a range of scaffolds and across a range of engineered tissue applications. Following a discussion of the design and fabrication of composite scaffolds, interactions between living biological cells and composite scaffolds are considered across the full life cycle of tissue engineering from scaffold fabrication to in vivo use. We conclude with a summary of progress in this area to date and make recommendations for continuing research and for advanced hydrogel scaffold development.

  13. Carbon Nanotube Composites: Strongest Engineering Material Ever?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayeaux, Brian; Nikolaev, Pavel; Proft, William; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The primary goal of the carbon nanotube project at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is to fabricate structural materials with a much higher strength-to-weight ratio than any engineered material today, Single-wall nanotubes present extraordinary mechanical properties along with new challenges for materials processing. Our project includes nanotube production, characterization, purification, and incorporation into applications studies. Now is the time to move from studying individual nanotubes to applications work. Current research at JSC focuses on structural polymeric materials to attempt to lower the weight of spacecraft necessary for interplanetary missions. These nanoscale fibers present unique new challenges to composites engineers. Preliminary studies show good nanotube dispersion and wetting by the epoxy materials. Results of tensile strength tests will also be reported. Other applications of nanotubes are also of interest for energy storage, gas storage, nanoelectronics, field emission, and biomedical uses.

  14. Mechanical Spectroscopy of Nanostructured Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Daniele; Schaller, Robert; Mazaheri, Mehdi

    2011-07-01

    The thermo-mechanical behavior of different nano-structured composite materials, which were processed within the SAPHIR European Integrated Project, has been characterized by mechanical spectroscopy. The obtained results show clearly that creep resistance of fine grain ceramics such as zirconia can be improved by carbon nano-tube (CNT) reinforcements. On the other hand the elastic modulus and the damping capacity of aluminum matrix composites were increased by SiC nano-particle additions. It has also been observed that CNT additions are responsible for a better thermal stability of polymer such as ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) used in automotive industry.

  15. Conductor-polymer composite electrode materials

    DOEpatents

    Ginley, D.S.; Kurtz, S.R.; Smyrl, W.H.; Zeigler, J.M.

    1984-06-13

    A conductive composite material useful as an electrode, comprises a conductor and an organic polymer which is reversibly electrochemically dopable to change its electrical conductivity. Said polymer continuously surrounds the conductor in intimate electrical contact therewith and is prepared by electrochemical growth on said conductor or by reaction of its corresponding monomer(s) on said conductor which has been pre-impregnated or pre-coated with an activator for said polymerization. Amount of the conductor is sufficient to render the resultant composite electrically conductive even when the polymer is in an undoped insulating state.

  16. Bioactive composite materials for tissue engineering scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Boccaccini, Aldo R; Blaker, Jonny J

    2005-05-01

    Synthetic bioactive and bioresorbable composite materials are becoming increasingly important as scaffolds for tissue engineering. Next-generation biomaterials should combine bioactive and bioresorbable properties to activate in vivo mechanisms of tissue regeneration, stimulating the body to heal itself and leading to replacement of the scaffold by the regenerating tissue. Certain bioactive ceramics such as tricalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite as well as bioactive glasses, such as 45S5 Bioglass, react with physiologic fluids to form tenacious bonds with hard (and in some cases soft) tissue. However, these bioactive materials are relatively stiff, brittle and difficult to form into complex shapes. Conversely, synthetic bioresorbable polymers are easily fabricated into complex structures, yet they are too weak to meet the demands of surgery and the in vivo physiologic environment. Composites of tailored physical, biologic and mechanical properties as well as predictable degradation behavior can be produced combining bioresorbable polymers and bioactive inorganic phases. This review covers recent international research presenting the state-of-the-art development of these composite systems in terms of material constituents, fabrication technologies, structural and bioactive properties, as well as in vitro and in vivo characteristics for applications in tissue engineering and tissue regeneration. These materials may represent the effective optimal solution for tailored tissue engineering scaffolds, making tissue engineering a realistic clinical alternative in the near future. PMID:16288594

  17. Meso-scale imaging of composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Grandin, R.; Gray, J.

    2015-03-31

    The performance of composite materials is controlled by the interaction between the individual components as well as the mechanical characteristics of the components themselves. Geometric structure on the meso-scale, where the length-scales are of the same order as the material granularity, plays a key role in controlling material performance and having a quantitative means of characterizing this structure is crucial in developing our understanding of NDE technique signatures of early damage states. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) provides an imaging capability which can resolve these structures for many composite materials. Coupling HRCT with three-dimensional physics-based image processing enables quantitative characterization of the meso-scale structure. Taking sequences of these damage states provides a means to structurally observe the damages evolution. We will discuss the limits of present 3DCT capability and challenges for improving this means to rapidly generate structural information of a composite and of the damage. In this presentation we will demonstrate the imaging capability of HRCT.

  18. Compression Testing of Textile Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, John E.

    1996-01-01

    The applicability of existing test methods, which were developed primarily for laminates made of unidirectional prepreg tape, to textile composites is an area of concern. The issue is whether the values measured for the 2-D and 3-D braided, woven, stitched, and knit materials are accurate representations of the true material response. This report provides a review of efforts to establish a compression test method for textile reinforced composite materials. Experimental data have been gathered from several sources and evaluated to assess the effectiveness of a variety of test methods. The effectiveness of the individual test methods to measure the material's modulus and strength is determined. Data are presented for 2-D triaxial braided, 3-D woven, and stitched graphite/epoxy material. However, the determination of a recommended test method and specimen dimensions is based, primarily, on experimental results obtained by the Boeing Defense and Space Group for 2-D triaxially braided materials. They evaluated seven test methods: NASA Short Block, Modified IITRI, Boeing Open Hole Compression, Zabora Compression, Boeing Compression after Impact, NASA ST-4, and a Sandwich Column Test.

  19. Titanium composite materials for transportation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garca de Cortazar, M.; Agote, I.; Silveira, E.; Egizabal, P.; Coleto, J.; Le Petitcorps, Y.

    2008-11-01

    Discontinuously reinforced titanium alloys containing in-situ formed TiB needles are emerging as candidate materials for advanced applications. This new family of titanium composites presents technical advantages, and it can be less expensive and easily amenable for net-shape manufacturing relative to titanium metal-matrix composites developed to date. The production of a master compound by a novel and cost-effective process called self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) has been studied. This master compound could be subsequently used in an investment casting process to obtain TiB-reinforced net-shape titanium-matrix composites. The SHS technique and its features were investigated in depth before a suitable master compound was defined and produced. Cast samples obtained from the addition of the master compound have been produced and the most important issues concerning the processing, microstructure, and mechanical properties are highlighted in this paper.

  20. Multiaxial analysis of dental composite materials.

    PubMed

    Kotche, Miiri; Drummond, James L; Sun, Kang; Vural, Murat; DeCarlo, Francesco

    2009-02-01

    Dental composites are subjected to extreme chemical and mechanical conditions in the oral environment, contributing to the degradation and ultimate failure of the material in vivo. The objective of this study is to validate an alternative method of mechanically loading dental composite materials. Confined compression testing more closely represents the complex loading that dental restorations experience in the oral cavity. Dental composites, a nanofilled and a hybrid microfilled, were prepared as cylindrical specimens, light-cured in ring molds of 6061 aluminum, with the ends polished to ensure parallel surfaces. The samples were subjected to confined compression loading to 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15% axial strain. Upon loading, the ring constrains radial expansion of the specimen, generating confinement stresses. A strain gage placed on the outer wall of the aluminum confining ring records hoop strain. Assuming plane stress conditions, the confining stress (sigma(c)) can be calculated at the sample/ring interface. Following mechanical loading, tomographic data was generated using a high-resolution microtomography system developed at beamline 2-BM of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Extraction of the crack and void surfaces present in the material bulk is numerically represented as crack edge/volume (CE/V), and calculated as a fraction of total specimen volume. Initial results indicate that as the strain level increases the CE/V increases. Analysis of the composite specimens under different mechanical loads suggests that microtomography is a useful tool for three-dimensional evaluation of dental composite fracture surfaces. PMID:18506811

  1. Using Composite Materials in a Cryogenic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batton, William D.; Dillard, James E.; Rottmund, Matthew E.; Tupper, Michael L.; Mallick, Kaushik; Francis, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Several modifications have been made to the design and operation of an extended-shaft cryogenic pump to increase the efficiency of pumping. In general, the efficiency of pumping a cryogenic fluid is limited by thermal losses which is itself caused by pump inefficiency and leakage of heat through the pump structure. A typical cryogenic pump includes a drive shaft and two main concentric static components (an outer pressure containment tube and an intermediate static support tube) made from stainless steel. The modifications made include replacement of the stainless-steel drive shaft and the concentric static stainless-steel components with components made of a glass/epoxy composite. The leakage of heat is thus reduced because the thermal conductivity of the composite is an order of magnitude below that of stainless steel. Taking advantage of the margin afforded by the decrease in thermal conductivity, the drive shaft could be shortened to increase its effective stiffness, thereby increasing the rotordynamic critical speeds, thereby further making it possible to operate the pump at a higher speed to increase pumping efficiency. During the modification effort, an analysis revealed that substitution of the shorter glass/epoxy shaft for the longer stainless-steel shaft was not, by itself, sufficient to satisfy the rotordynamic requirements at the desired increased speed. Hence, it became necessary to increase the stiffness of the composite shaft. This stiffening was accomplished by means of a carbon-fiber-composite overwrap along most of the length of the shaft. Concomitantly with the modifications described thus far, it was necessary to provide for joining the composite-material components with metallic components required by different aspects of the pump design. An adhesive material formulated specially to bond the composite and metal components was chosen as a means to satisfy these requirements.

  2. Anisotropic swelling and microcracking of neutron irradiated Ti3AlC2-Ti5Al2C3 materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ang, Caen K.; Silva, Chinthaka M.; Shih, Chunghao Phillip; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Katoh, Yutai; Zinkle, Steven J.

    2015-12-17

    Mn + 1AXn (MAX) phase materials based on Ti–Al–C have been irradiated at 400 °C (673 K) with fission neutrons to a fluence of 2 × 1025 n/m2 (E > 0.1 MeV), corresponding to ~ 2 displacements per atom (dpa). We report preliminary results of microcracking in the Al-containing MAX phase, which contained the phases Ti3AlC2 and Ti5Al2C3. Equibiaxial ring-on-ring tests of irradiated coupons showed that samples retained 10% of pre-irradiated strength. Volumetric swelling of up to 4% was observed. Phase analysis and microscopy suggest that anisotropic lattice parameter swelling caused microcracking. Lastly, variants of titanium aluminum carbide may bemore » unsuitable materials for irradiation at light water reactor-relevant temperatures.« less

  3. NDE of polymeric composite material bridge components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, John C., Jr.; Horne, Michael R.

    1998-03-01

    Rapid advancements with respect to utilization of polymeric composite materials for bridge components is occurring. This situation is driven primarily by the potential improvements offered by these materials with respect to long term durability. However, because of the developmental nature of these materials much of the materials characterization has involved short term testing without the synergistic effects of environmental exposure. Efforts to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures, essential for any wide spread use in critical structural applications, have been consequently limited. This paper discuses the effort to develop NDE methods for field inspection of hybrid glass and carbon fiber reinforced vinyl ester pultruded 'double box' I beams that are installed in a small bridge over Tom's Creek, in Blacksburg, Virginia. Integrated structural element sensors, dormant infrared devices, as well as acousto-ultrasonic methods are under development for detecting and monitoring the occurrence and progression of life limiting deterioration mechanisms.

  4. Novel Cryogenic Insulation Materials: Aerogel Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Susan

    2001-01-01

    New insulation materials are being developed to economically and reliably insulate future reusable spacecraft cryogenic tanks over a planned lifecycle of extreme thermal challenges. These insulation materials must prevent heat loss as well as moisture and oxygen condensation on the cryogenic tanks during extended groundhold, must withstand spacecraft launch conditions, and must protect a partly full or empty reusable cryogenic tank from significant reentry heating. To perform over such an extreme temperature range, novel composites were developed from aerogels and high-temperature matrix material such as Space Shuttle tile. These materials were fabricated and tested for use both as cryogenic insulation and as high-temperature insulation. The test results given in this paper were generated during spacecraft re-entry heating simulation tests using cryogenic cooling.

  5. Metal Matrix Composite Materials for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, Biliyar N.; Jones, C. S. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are attractive materials for aerospace applications because of their high specific strength, high specific stiffness, and lower thermal expansion coefficient. They are affordable since complex parts can be produced by low cost casting process. As a result there are many commercial and Department of Defense applications of MMCs today. This seminar will give an overview of MMCs and their state-of-the-art technology assessment. Topics to be covered are types of MMCs, fabrication methods, product forms, applications, and material selection issues for design and manufacture. Some examples of current and future aerospace applications will also be presented and discussed.

  6. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Materials and Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, D. B.; Dost, E. F.; Flynn, B. W.; Ilcewicz, L. B.; Nelson, K. M.; Sawicki, A. J.; Walker, T. H.; Lakes, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program was to develop the technology required for cost and weight efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. This contractor report describes results of material and process selection, development, and characterization activities. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of monolithic and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential frames and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements. Significant development efforts were expended on the AFP, braiding, and RTM processes. Sandwich core materials and core edge close-out design concepts were evaluated. Autoclave cure processes were developed for stiffened skin and sandwich structures. The stiffness, strength, notch sensitivity, and bearing/bypass properties of fiber-placed skin materials and braided/RTM'd circumferential frame materials were characterized. The strength and durability of cocured and cobonded joints were evaluated. Impact damage resistance of stiffened skin and sandwich structures typical of fuselage panels was investigated. Fluid penetration and migration mechanisms for sandwich panels were studied.

  7. Mechanics Methodology for Textile Preform Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, Clarence C., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    NASA and its contractors have completed a program to develop a basic mechanics underpinning for textile composites. Three major deliverables were produced by the program: 1. A set of test methods for measuring material properties and design allowables; 2. Mechanics models to predict the effects of the fiber preform architecture and constituent properties on engineering moduli, strength, damage resistance, and fatigue life; and 3. An electronic data base of coupon type test data. This report describes these three deliverables.

  8. Alkali metal protective garment and composite material

    DOEpatents

    Ballif, III, John L. (Salt Lake City, UT); Yuan, Wei W. (Seattle, WA)

    1980-01-01

    A protective garment and composite material providing satisfactory heat resistance and physical protection for articles and personnel exposed to hot molten alkali metals, such as sodium. Physical protection is provided by a continuous layer of nickel foil. Heat resistance is provided by an underlying backing layer of thermal insulation. Overlying outer layers of fireproof woven ceramic fibers are used to protect the foil during storage and handling.

  9. ACEE Composite Structures Technology: Review of selected NASA research on composite materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Composite Primary Aircraft Structures Program was designed to develop technology for advanced composites in commercial aircraft. Research on composite materials, aircraft structures, and aircraft design is presented herein. The following parameters of composite materials were addressed: residual strength, damage tolerance, toughness, tensile strength, impact resistance, buckling, and noise transmission within composite materials structures.

  10. Impact of solids on composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bronson, Arturo; Maldonado, Jerry; Chern, Tzong; Martinez, Francisco; Mccord-Medrano, Johnnie; Roschke, Paul N.

    1987-01-01

    The failure modes of composite materials as a result of low velocity impact were investigated by simulating the impact with a finite element analysis. An important facet of the project is the modeling of the impact of a solid onto cylindrical shells composed of composite materials. The model under development will simulate the delamination sustained when a composite material encounters impact from another rigid body. The computer equipment was installed, the computer network tested, and a finite element method model was developed to compare results with known experimental data. The model simulated the impact of a steel rod onto a rotating shaft. Pre-processing programs (GMESH and TANVEL) were developed to generate node and element data for the input into the three dimensional, dynamic finite element analysis code (DYNA3D). The finite element mesh was configured with a fine mesh near the impact zone and a coarser mesh for the impacting rod and the regions surrounding the impacting zone. For the computer simulation, five impacting loads were used to determine the time history of the stresses, the scribed surface areas, and the amount of ridging. The processing time of the computer codes amounted from 1 to 4 days. The calculated surface area were within 6-12 percent, relative error when compated to the actual scratch area.

  11. Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials Used for Tankage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Christy

    2005-01-01

    The Nonmetallic Materials and Processes Group is presently working on several projects to optimize cost while providing effect materials for the space program. One factor that must be considered is that these materials must meet certain weight requirements. Composites contribute greatly to this effort. Through the use of composites the cost of launching payloads into orbit will be reduced to one-tenth of the current cost. This research project involved composites used for aluminum pressure vessels. These tanks are used to store cryogenic liquids during flight. The tanks need some type of reinforcement. Steel was considered, but added too much weight. As a result, fiber was chosen. Presently, only carbon fibers with epoxy resin are wrapped around the vessels as a primary source of reinforcement. Carbon fibers are lightweight, yet high strength. The carbon fibers are wet wound onto the pressure vessels. This was done using the ENTEC Filament Winding Machine. It was thought that an additional layer of fiber would aid in reinforcement as well as containment and impact reduction. Kevlar was selected because it is light weight, but five times stronger that steel. This is the same fiber that is used to make bullet-proof vests trampolines, and tennis rackets.

  12. Flexible Composite-Material Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Glen; Haggard, Roy; Harris, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    A proposed lightweight pressure vessel would be made of a composite of high-tenacity continuous fibers and a flexible matrix material. The flexibility of this pressure vessel would render it (1) compactly stowable for transport and (2) more able to withstand impacts, relative to lightweight pressure vessels made of rigid composite materials. The vessel would be designed as a structural shell wherein the fibers would be predominantly bias-oriented, the orientations being optimized to make the fibers bear the tensile loads in the structure. Such efficient use of tension-bearing fibers would minimize or eliminate the need for stitching and fill (weft) fibers for strength. The vessel could be fabricated by techniques adapted from filament winding of prior composite-material vessels, perhaps in conjunction with the use of dry film adhesives. In addition to the high-bias main-body substructure described above, the vessel would include a low-bias end substructure to complete coverage and react peak loads. Axial elements would be overlaid to contain damage and to control fiber orientation around side openings. Fiber ring structures would be used as interfaces for connection to ancillary hardware.

  13. The Materials Chemistry of Atomic Oxygen with Applications to Anisotropic Etching of Submicron Structures in Microelectronics and the Surface Chemistry Engineering of Porous Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, S.L.; Leger, L.J.; Wu, C.; Cross, J.B.; Jurgensen, C.W.

    1994-05-01

    Neutral atomic oxygen is the most abundant component of the ionospheric plasma in the low Earth orbit environment (LEO; 200 to 700 kilometers altitude) and can produce significant degradation of some spacecraft materials. In order to produce a more complete understanding of the materials chemistry of atomic oxygen, the chemistry and physics of O-atom interactions with materials were determined in three radically different environments: (1) The Space Shuttle cargo bay in low Earth orbit (the EOIM-3 space flight experiment), (2) a high-velocity neutral atom beam system (HVAB) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and (3) a microwave-plasma flowing-discharge system at JSC. The Space Shuttle and the high velocity atom beam systems produce atom-surface collision energies ranging from 0.1 to 7 eV (hyperthermal atoms) under high-vacuum conditions, while the flowing discharge system produces a 0.065 eV surface collision energy at a total pressure of 2 Torr. Data obtained in the three different O-atom environments referred to above show that the rate of O-atom reaction with polymeric materials is strongly dependent on atom kinetic energy, obeying a reactive scattering law which suggests that atom kinetic energy is directly available for overcoming activation barriers in the reaction. General relationships between polymer reactivity with O atoms and polymer composition and molecular structure have been determined. In addition, vacuum ultraviolet photochemical effects have been shown to dominate the reaction of O atoms with fluorocarbon polymers. Finally, studies of the materials chemistry of O atoms have produced results which may be of interest to technologists outside the aerospace industry. Atomic oxygen `spin-off` or `dual use` technologies in the areas of anisotropic etching in microelectronic materials and device processing, as well as surface chemistry engineering of porous solid materials are described.

  14. The Materials Chemistry of Atomic Oxygen with Applications to Anisotropic Etching of Submicron Structures in Microelectronics and the Surface Chemistry Engineering of Porous Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steve L.; Leger, Lubert J.; Wu, Corina; Cross, Jon B.; Jurgensen, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    Neutral atomic oxygen is the most abundant component of the ionospheric plasma in the low Earth orbit environment (LEO; 200 to 700 kilometers altitude) and can produce significant degradation of some spacecraft materials. In order to produce a more complete understanding of the materials chemistry of atomic oxygen, the chemistry and physics of O-atom interactions with materials were determined in three radically different environments: (1) The Space Shuttle cargo bay in low Earth orbit (the EOIM-3 space flight experiment), (2) a high-velocity neutral atom beam system (HVAB) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and (3) a microwave-plasma flowing-discharge system at JSC. The Space Shuttle and the high velocity atom beam systems produce atom-surface collision energies ranging from 0.1 to 7 eV (hyperthermal atoms) under high-vacuum conditions, while the flowing discharge system produces a 0.065 eV surface collision energy at a total pressure of 2 Torr. Data obtained in the three different O-atom environments referred to above show that the rate of O-atom reaction with polymeric materials is strongly dependent on atom kinetic energy, obeying a reactive scattering law which suggests that atom kinetic energy is directly available for overcoming activation barriers in the reaction. General relationships between polymer reactivity with O atoms and polymer composition and molecular structure have been determined. In addition, vacuum ultraviolet photochemical effects have been shown to dominate the reaction of O atoms with fluorocarbon polymers. Finally, studies of the materials chemistry of O atoms have produced results which may be of interest to technologists outside the aerospace industry. Atomic oxygen 'spin-off' or 'dual use' technologies in the areas of anisotropic etching in microelectronic materials and device processing, as well as surface chemistry engineering of porous solid materials are described.

  15. Anisotropic ray trace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Wai Sze Tiffany

    Optical components made of anisotropic materials, such as crystal polarizers and crystal waveplates, are widely used in many complex optical system, such as display systems, microlithography, biomedical imaging and many other optical systems, and induce more complex aberrations than optical components made of isotropic materials. The goal of this dissertation is to accurately simulate the performance of optical systems with anisotropic materials using polarization ray trace. This work extends the polarization ray tracing calculus to incorporate ray tracing through anisotropic materials, including uniaxial, biaxial and optically active materials. The 3D polarization ray tracing calculus is an invaluable tool for analyzing polarization properties of an optical system. The 3x3 polarization ray tracing P matrix developed for anisotropic ray trace assists tracking the 3D polarization transformations along a ray path with series of surfaces in an optical system. To better represent the anisotropic light-matter interactions, the definition of the P matrix is generalized to incorporate not only the polarization change at a refraction/reflection interface, but also the induced optical phase accumulation as light propagates through the anisotropic medium. This enables realistic modeling of crystalline polarization elements, such as crystal waveplates and crystal polarizers. The wavefront and polarization aberrations of these anisotropic components are more complex than those of isotropic optical components and can be evaluated from the resultant P matrix for each eigen-wavefront as well as for the overall image. One incident ray refracting or reflecting into an anisotropic medium produces two eigenpolarizations or eigenmodes propagating in different directions. The associated ray parameters of these modes necessary for the anisotropic ray trace are described in Chapter 2. The algorithms to calculate the P matrix from these ray parameters are described in Chapter 3 for anisotropic ray tracing. x. Chapter 4 presents the data reduction of the P matrix of a crystal waveplate. The diattenuation is embedded in the singular values of P. The retardance is divided into two parts: (A) The physical retardance induced by OPLs and surface interactions, and (B) the geometrical transformation induced by geometry of a ray path, which is calculated by the geometrical transform Q matrix. The Q matrix of an anisotropic intercept is derived from the generalization of s- and p-bases at the anisotropic intercept; the p basis is not confined to the plane of incidence due to the anisotropic refraction or reflection. Chapter 5 shows how the multiple P matrices associated with the eigenmodes resulting from propagation through multiple anisotropic surfaces can be combined into one P matrix when the multiple modes interfere in their overlapping regions. The resultant P matrix contains diattenuation induced at each surface interaction as well as the retardance due to ray propagation and total internal reflections. The polarization aberrations of crystal waveplates and crystal polarizers are studied in Chapter 6 and Chapter 7. A wavefront simulated by a grid of rays is traced through the anisotropic system and the resultant grid of rays is analyzed. The analysis is complicated by the ray doubling effects and the partially overlapping eigen-wavefronts propagating in various directions. The wavefront and polarization aberrations of each eigenmode can be evaluated from the electric field distributions. The overall polarization at the plane of interest or the image quality at the image plane are affected by each of these eigen-wavefronts. Isotropic materials become anisotropic due to stress, strain, or applied electric or magnetic fields. In Chapter 8, the P matrix for anisotropic materials is extended to ray tracing in stress birefringent materials which are treated as spatially varying anisotropic materials. Such simulations can predict the spatial retardance variation throughout the stressed optical component and its effects on the point spread function and mod

  16. An anisotropic nanofiber/microsphere composite with controlled release of biomolecules for fibrous tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Lara C; Lee, Gregory C; Sennett, Brian J; Burdick, Jason A; Mauck, Robert L

    2010-05-01

    Aligned nanofibrous scaffolds can recapitulate the structural hierarchy of fiber-reinforced tissues of the musculoskeletal system. While these electrospun fibrous scaffolds provide physical cues that can direct tissue formation when seeded with cells, the ability to chemically guide a population of cells, without disrupting scaffold mechanical properties, would improve the maturation of such constructs and add additional functionality to the system both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we developed a fabrication technique to entrap drug-delivering microspheres within nanofibrous scaffolds. We hypothesized that entrapping microspheres between fibers would have a less adverse impact on mechanical properties than placing microspheres within the fibers themselves, and that the composite would exhibit sustained release of multiple model compounds. Our results show that microspheres ranging from 10 - 20 microns in diameter could be electrospun in a dose-dependent manner to form nanofibrous composites. When delivered in a sacrificial PEO fiber population, microspheres remained securely entrapped between slow-degrading PCL fibers after removal of the sacrificial delivery component. Stiffness and modulus of the composite decreased with increasing microsphere density for composites in which microspheres were entrapped within each fiber, while stiffness did not change when microspheres were entrapped between fibers. The release profiles of the composite structures were similar to free microspheres, with an initial burst release followed by a sustained release of the model molecules over 4 weeks. Further, multiple model molecules were released from a single scaffold composite, demonstrating the capacity for multi-factor controlled release ideal for complex growth factor delivery from these structures. PMID:20149432

  17. AN ANISOTROPIC NANOFIBER/MICROSPHERE COMPOSITE WITH CONTROLLED RELEASE OF BIOMOLECULES FOR FIBROUS TISSUE ENGINEERING

    PubMed Central

    Ionescu, Lara C.; Lee, Gregory C.; Sennett, Brian J.; Burdick, Jason A.; Mauck, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Aligned nanofibrous scaffolds can recapitulate the structural hierarchy of fiber-reinforced tissues of the musculoskeletal system. While these electrospun fibrous scaffolds provide physical cues that can direct tissue formation when seeded with cells, the ability to chemically guide a population of cells, without disrupting scaffold mechanical properties, would improve the maturation of such constructs and add additional functionality to the system both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we developed a fabrication technique to entrap drug-delivering microspheres within nanofibrous scaffolds. We hypothesized that entrapping microspheres between fibers would have a less adverse impact on mechanical properties than placing microspheres within the fibers themselves, and that the composite would exhibit sustained release of multiple model compounds. Our results show that microspheres ranging from 10~20 microns in diameter could be electrospun in a dose-dependent manner to form nanofibrous composites. When delivered in a sacrificial PEO fiber population, microspheres remained securely entrapped between slow-degrading PCL fibers after removal of the sacrificial delivery component. Stiffness and modulus of the composite decreased with increasing microsphere density for composites in which microspheres were entrapped within each fiber, while stiffness did not change when microspheres were entrapped between fibers. The release profiles of the composite structures were similar to free microspheres, with an initial burst release followed by a sustained release of the model molecules over 4 weeks. Further, multiple model molecules were released from a single scaffold composite, demonstrating the capacity for multi-factor controlled release ideal for complex growth factor delivery from these structures. PMID:20149432

  18. Synthesizing Smart Polymeric and Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Chaokun

    Smart materials have been widely investigated to explore new functionalities unavailable to traditional materials or to mimic the multifunctionality of biological systems. Synthetic polymers are particularly attractive as they already possess some of the attributes required for smart materials, and there are vast room to further enhance the existing properties or impart new properties by polymer synthesis or composite formulation. In this work, three types of smart polymer and composites have been investigated with important new applications: (1) healable polymer composites for structural application and healable composite conductor for electronic device application; (2) conducting polymer polypyrrole actuator for implantable medical device application; and (3) ferroelectric polymer and ceramic nanoparticles composites for electrocaloric effect based solid state refrigeration application. These application entail highly challenging materials innovation, and my work has led to significant progress in all three areas. For the healable polymer composites, well known intrinsically healable polymer 2MEP4F (a Diels-Alder crosslinked polymer formed from a monomer with four furan groups and another monomer with two maleimide groups) was first chosen as the matrix reinforced with fiber. Glass fibers were successfully functionalized with maleimide functional groups on their surface. Composites from functionalized glass fibers and 2MEP4F healable polymer were made to compare with composites made from commercial carbon fibers and 2MEP4F polymer. Dramatically improved short beam shear strength was obtained from composite of functionalized glass fibers and 2MEP4F polymer. The high cost of 2MEP4F polymer can potentially limit the large-scale application of the developed healable composite, we further developed a new healable polymer with much lower cost. This new polymer was formed through the Diels-Alder crosslinking of poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) and 1,1'-(Methylenedi-4,1-phenylene)bismaleimide (MDPB). It showed the same healing ability as 2MEP4F while all starting materials are cheaper and commercially available. To further improve the mechanical strength of the PFA-MDPB healable polymer, epoxy as a strengthening component was mixed with PFA-MDPB healable polymer. The PFA, MDPB and epoxy composite polymers were further reinforced by carbon fiber as done with 2MEP4F matrix and the final composites were proved to have higher short beam shear strength than 2MEP4F while exhibiting a similar healing efficiency. Healable polymer MDPB (a two maleimide groups monomer) -- FGEEDR (a four furan groups monomer) was also designed and synthesized for transparent healable polymer. The MDPB-FGEEDR healable polymer was composited with silver nanowires (AgNWs) to afford healable transparent composite conductor. Razer blade cuts in the composite conductor could heal upon heating to recover the mechanical strength and electrical conductivity of the composite. The healing could be repeated for multiple times on the same cut location. The healing process was as fast as 3 minutes for conductivity to recover 97% of the original value. For electroactive polymer polypyrrole, the fast volume change upon electrical field change due to electrochemical oxidization or reduction was studied for actuation targeting toward a robotic application. The flexibility of polypyrrole was improved via copolymerization with pyrrole derivatives. Actuator devices are fabricated that more suitable for implantable medical device application than pyrrole homopolymer. The change of dipole re-orientation and thus dielectric constant of ferroelectric polymers and ceramics upon electrical field may be exploited for electrocaloric effect (ECE) and solid state refrigeration. For ferroelectric ceramics, we synthesized a series of Ba1-xSrxTiO3 nanoparticles with diameter ranging from 8-12 nm and characterized their dielectric and ferroelectric properties through hysteresis measurement. It was found that 8 nm BaTiO3 nanocrystals are stable at cubic crystal structure without ferroelectric character. Ba1-xSrxTiO3 nanoparticles with larger crystalline size (40nm) provide near room temperature transition temperature which could be the Curie temperature. We carefully studied the electrocaloric effect of ferroelectric polymers P(VDF-TrFE) and P(VDF-TrFE-CFE). The nanocomposite of Ba1-xSrxTiO 3 nanoparticles dispersed in P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) was fabricated and studied by hysteresis measurement to estimate the electrocaloric effect of the composite. The interdigitated electrode samples were successfully infiltrated with terpolymer and the multilayers ECE device showed 0.01 C/m2 displacement at 70MV/m. Free-standing monolayer ECE devices made from the terpolymer gave 3.4°C temperature change measured via an infrared camera.

  19. Vibration damping response of composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Mechanical vibration damping characteristics of glass/epoxy and graphite/epoxy composite materials were studied. The objective was to develop an analytical model that incorporates the frequency dependence of the vibration damping loss factor and to experimentally determine the loss factor for frequencies up to 1,000 Hz. The analytical model requires as input the inplane material loss factors as functions of frequency. An experimental apparatus was designed and fabricated to determine these loss factors. Cantilever beam specimens were excited using an impulse from an instrumented force hammer. The loss factor was calculated using the half power band width technique. The apparatus was calibrated using a well characterized low damping material. The effect of clamping pressure and of the clamp block to specimen interface material was also investigated. While testing the composites, it became evident that the amplitude of vibration had a pronounced effect on the calculated loss factor. The analytical model was validated using two generic laminated configurations. The model predictions fell within the scatter of the experimental data.

  20. Composite material systems for hydrogen management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pangborn, R. N.; Queeney, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    The task of managing hydrogen entry into elevated temperature structural materials employed in turbomachinery is a critical engineering area for propulsion systems employing hydrogen or decomposable hydrocarbons as fuel. Extant structural materials, such as the Inconel series, are embrittled by the ingress of hydrogen in service, leading to a loss of endurance and general deterioration of load-bearing dependability. Although the development of hydrogen-insensitive material systems is an obvious engineering option, to date insensitive systems cannot meet the time-temperature-loading service extremes encountered. A short-term approach that is both feasible and technologically sound is the development and employment of hydrogen barrier coatings. The present project is concerned with developing, analyzing, and physically testing laminate composite hydrogen barrier systems, employing Inconel 718 as the structural material to be protected. Barrier systems will include all metallic, metallic-to-ceramic, and, eventually, metallic/ceramic composites as the lamellae. Since space propulsion implies repetitive engine firings without earth-based inspection and repair, coating durability will be closely examined, and testing regimes will include repetitive thermal cycling to simulate damage accumulation. The target accomplishments include: generation of actual hydrogen permeation data for metallic, ceramic-metallic, and hybrid metallic/ceramic composition barrier systems, practically none of which is currently extant; definition of physical damage modes imported to barrier systems due to thermal cycling, both transient temperature profiles and steady-state thermal mismatch stress states being examined as sources of damage; and computational models that incorporate general laminate schemes as described above, including manufacturing realities such as porosity, and whatever defects are introduced through service and characterized during the experimental programs.

  1. Polymer-composite materials for radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Shruti; Yeow, John T W

    2012-11-01

    Unwanted exposures to high-energy or ionizing radiation can be hazardous to health. Prolonged or accumulated radiation dosage from either particle-emissions such as alpha/beta, proton, electron, neutron emissions, or high-energy electromagnetic waves such as X-rays/? rays, may result in carcinogenesis, cell mutations, organ failure, etc. To avoid occupational hazards from these kinds of exposures, researchers have traditionally used heavy metals or their composites to attenuate the radiation. However, protective gear made of heavy metals are not only cumbersome but also are capable of producing more penetrative secondary radiations which requires additional shielding, increasing the cost and the weight factor. Consequently, significant research efforts have been focused toward designing efficient, lightweight, cost-effective, and flexible shielding materials for protection against radiation encountered in various industries (aerospace, hospitals, and nuclear reactors). In this regard, polymer composites have become attractive candidates for developing materials that can be designed to effectively attenuate photon or particle radiation. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art of polymer composites reinforced with micro/nanomaterials, for their use as radiation shields. PMID:23009182

  2. Energy absorbing hybrid nano-composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jae-Soon; Varischetti, Joshua; Lee, Gyo Woo; Suhr, Jonghwan

    2009-03-01

    Base Epon 862 resin was enhanced with two types of fillers, graphitized carbon nanofiber (CNF) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) particles. The effect of both filler type and filler loading were investigated with respect to the energy absorbing capacity as well as the thermal stability of the hybrid composite material, measured in terms of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). As well the composites with combinations of the fillers were evaluated for both enhanced damping and thermal stability, making it suitable for structural materials that need multiple functions. The composites were evaluated with dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) to evaluate viscoelastic response, and using strain gauges to measure thermal strain responses. It has been found that the addition of 3wt% SiO2 along with 3wt% CNF can improve damping loss factors by up to 26% while at the same time improving thermal stability with reductions in CTE of up to 16.5%. Furthermore, these fillers loadings were successfully dispersed as received by mechanical mixing technique, making fabrication more economically suited to engineering applications.

  3. Composite materials for thermal energy storage

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David K.; Burrows, Richard W.; Shinton, Yvonne D.

    1986-01-01

    The present invention discloses composite material for thermal energy storage based upon polyhydric alcohols, such as pentaerythritol, trimethylol ethane (also known as pentaglycerine), neopentyl glycol and related compounds including trimethylol propane, monoaminopentaerythritol, diamino-pentaerythritol and tris(hydroxymethyl)acetic acid, separately or in combinations, which provide reversible heat storage through crystalline phase transformations. These phase change materials do not become liquid during use and are in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, porous rock, and mixtures thereof. Particulate additions, such as aluminum or graphite powders, as well as metal and carbon fibers can also be incorporated therein. Particulate and/or fibrous additions can be introduced into molten phase change materials which can then be cast into various shapes. After the phase change materials have solidified, the additions will remain dispersed throughout the matrix of the cast solid. The polyol is in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, and mixtures thereof.

  4. The anisotropic photonic band gaps in three-dimensional photonic crystals with high-symmetry lattices composed of metamaterials and uniaxial materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the properties of anisotropic photonic band gaps (PBGs) for three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals (PCs) composed of tellurium (Te) spheres (the uniaxial materials) in homogeneous single-negative metamaterials (epsilon-negative materials) background with high-symmetry (simple-cubic) lattices are theoretically investigated based on the plane wave expansion method. The equations for calculating the anisotropic PBGs in the first irreducible Brillouin zone are theoretically deduced. The influences of the ordinary-refractive index, extraordinary-refractive index, filling factor of dielectric, the electronic plasma frequency, the dielectric constant of epsilon-negative materials on the anisotropic PBGs are also studied in detail, respectively, and some corresponding physical explanations are also given. The numerical results show that the anisotropy can open partial band gaps in simple-cubic lattices and the complete PBGs also can be achieved compared to such 3D PCs doped by the conventional isotropic materials. It also is shown that the anisotropic PBGs can be manipulated by the parameters as mentioned above. Introducing the uniaxial materials into 3D dielectric-epsilon-negative materials PCs can enlarge the PBGs, and also provide a way to obtain the complete PBGs as such kind of 3D PCs with high-symmetry lattices.

  5. Data-driven imaging in anisotropic media

    SciTech Connect

    Volker, Arno; Hunter, Alan

    2012-05-17

    Anisotropic materials are being used increasingly in high performance industrial applications, particularly in the aeronautical and nuclear industries. Some important examples of these materials are composites, single-crystal and heavy-grained metals. Ultrasonic array imaging in these materials requires exact knowledge of the anisotropic material properties. Without this information, the images can be adversely affected, causing a reduction in defect detection and characterization performance. The imaging operation can be formulated in two consecutive and reciprocal focusing steps, i.e., focusing the sources and then focusing the receivers. Applying just one of these focusing steps yields an interesting intermediate domain. The resulting common focus point gather (CFP-gather) can be interpreted to determine the propagation operator. After focusing the sources, the observed travel-time in the CFP-gather describes the propagation from the focus point to the receivers. If the correct propagation operator is used, the measured travel-times should be the same as the time-reversed focusing operator due to reciprocity. This makes it possible to iteratively update the focusing operator using the data only and allows the material to be imaged without explicit knowledge of the anisotropic material parameters. Furthermore, the determined propagation operator can also be used to invert for the anisotropic medium parameters. This paper details the proposed technique and demonstrates its use on simulated array data from a specimen of Inconel single-crystal alloy commonly used in the aeronautical and nuclear industries.

  6. Industry to Education Technical Transfer Program & Composite Materials. Composite Materials Course. Fabrication I Course. Fabrication II Course. Composite Materials Testing Course. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massuda, Rachel

    These four reports provide details of projects to design and implement courses to be offered as requirements for the associate degree program in composites and reinforced plastics technology. The reports describe project activities that led to development of curricula for four courses: composite materials, composite materials fabrication I,…

  7. Spark-plasma-sintering magnetic field assisted compaction of Co80Ni20 nanowires for anisotropic ferromagnetic bulk materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouar, Nassima; Schoenstein, Frédéric; Mercone, Silvana; Farhat, Samir; Villeroy, Benjamin; Leridon, Brigitte; Jouini, Noureddine

    2013-10-01

    We developed a two-step process showing the way for sintering anisotropic nanostructured bulk ferromagnetic materials. A new reactor has been optimized allowing the synthesis of several grams per batch of nanopowders via a polyol soft chemistry route. The feasibility of the scale-up has been successfully demonstrated for Co80Ni20 nanowires and a massic yield of ˜97% was obtained. The thus obtained nanowires show an average diameter of ˜6 nm and a length of ˜270 nm. A new bottom-up strategy allowed us to compact the powder into a bulk nanostructured system. We used a spark-plasma-sintering technique under uniaxial compression and low temperature assisted by a permanent magnetic field of 1 T. A macroscopic pellet of partially aligned nanowire arrays has been easily obtained. This showed optimized coercive properties along the direction of the magnetic field applied during compaction (i.e., the nanowires' direction).

  8. Glasses, ceramics, and composites from lunar materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beall, George H.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of useful silicate materials can be synthesized from lunar rocks and soils. The simplest to manufacture are glasses and glass-ceramics. Glass fibers can be drawn from a variety of basaltic glasses. Glass articles formed from titania-rich basalts are capable of fine-grained internal crystallization, with resulting strength and abrasion resistance allowing their wide application in construction. Specialty glass-ceramics and fiber-reinforced composites would rely on chemical separation of magnesium silicates and aluminosilicates as well as oxides titania and alumina. Polycrystalline enstatite with induced lamellar twinning has high fracture toughness, while cordierite glass-ceramics combine excellent thermal shock resistance with high flexural strengths. If sapphire or rutile whiskers can be made, composites of even better mechanical properties are envisioned.

  9. Glasses, ceramics, and composites from lunar materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beall, George H.

    1992-02-01

    A variety of useful silicate materials can be synthesized from lunar rocks and soils. The simplest to manufacture are glasses and glass-ceramics. Glass fibers can be drawn from a variety of basaltic glasses. Glass articles formed from titania-rich basalts are capable of fine-grained internal crystallization, with resulting strength and abrasion resistance allowing their wide application in construction. Specialty glass-ceramics and fiber-reinforced composites would rely on chemical separation of magnesium silicates and aluminosilicates as well as oxides titania and alumina. Polycrystalline enstatite with induced lamellar twinning has high fracture toughness, while cordierite glass-ceramics combine excellent thermal shock resistance with high flexural strengths. If sapphire or rutile whiskers can be made, composites of even better mechanical properties are envisioned.

  10. Bone regeneration and infiltration of an anisotropic composite scaffold: an experimental study of rabbit cranial defect repair.

    PubMed

    Li, Jidong; You, Fu; Li, Yubao; Zuo, Yi; Li, Limei; Jiang, Jiaxing; Qu, Yili; Lu, Minpeng; Man, Yi; Zou, Qin

    2016-03-01

    Tissue formation on scaffold outer edges after implantation may restrict cell infiltration and mass transfer to/from the scaffold center due to insufficient interconnectivity, leading to incidence of a necrotic core. Herein, a nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide66 (n-HA/PA66) anisotropic scaffold with axially aligned channels was prepared with the aim to enhance pore interconnectivity. Bone tissue regeneration and infiltration inside of scaffold were assessed by rabbit cranial defect repair experiments. The amount of newly formed bone inside of anisotropic scaffold was much higher than isotropic scaffold, e.g., after 12weeks, the new bone volume in the inner pores was greater in the anisotropic scaffolds (>50%) than the isotropic scaffolds (<30%). The results suggested that anisotropic scaffolds could accelerate the inducement of bone ingrowth into the inner pores in the non-load-bearing bone defects compared to isotropic scaffolds. Thus, anisotropic scaffolds hold promise for the application in bone tissue engineering. PMID:26775692

  11. Composite materials for thermal energy storage

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.; Shinton, Y.D.

    1985-01-04

    A composite material for thermal energy storage based upon polyhydric alcohols, such as pentaerythritol, trimethylol ethane (also known as pentaglycerine), neopentyl glycol and related compounds including trimethylol propane, monoaminopentaerythritol, diamino-pentaerythritol and tris(hydroxymethyl)acetic acid, separately or in combinations, which provide reversible heat storage through crystalline phase transformations. These PCM's do not become liquid during use and are in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon, siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, porous rock, and mixtures thereof. Particulate additions such as aluminum or graphite powders, as well as metal and carbon fibers can also be incorporated therein. Particulate and/or fibrous additions can be introduced into molten phase change materials which can then be cast into various shapes. After the phase change materials have solidified, the additions will remain dispersed throughout the matrix of the cast solid. The polyol is in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon, siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, and mixtures thereof.

  12. Photomechanical analysis of composite and other materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlands, R. E.

    Moire, holography, speckle and thermopgraphic (SPATE) stress analysis are used to analyze a variety of engineering problems involving man-made (fiber-reinforced) and natural (wood, paperboard) composites, metals and rubber. The photomechanical techniques are combined with computer-vision (digital-imaging) concepts. Some attention is devoted to hybrid methods for processing and differentiating recorded optical data. Applications involve both small and large (including nonlinear) strains, and hostile environments. Illustrations include those to fracture, stress waves, material behavior, knots in wood and energy storage.

  13. Photomechanical Analysis Of Composite And Other Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlands, R. E.

    1987-02-01

    Moire, holography, speckle and thermographic (SPATE) stress analysis are used to analyze a variety of engineering problems involving man-made (fiber-reinforced) and natural (wood, paperboard) composites, metals and rubber. The photomechanical techniques are combined with computer-vision (digital-imaging) concepts. Some attention is devoted to hybrid methods for processing and differentiating recorded optical data. Applications involve both small and large (including nonlinear) strains, and hostile environments. Illustrations include those to fracture, stress waves, material behavior, knots in wood and energy storage.

  14. Characterization, Modeling, and Failure Analysis of Composite Structure Materials under Static and Dynamic Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Brian Thomas

    Composite structures have long been used in many industries where it is advantageous to reduce weight while maintaining high stiffness and strength. Composites can now be found in an ever broadening range of applications: sporting equipment, automobiles, marine and aerospace structures, and energy production. These structures are typically sandwich panels composed of fiber reinforced polymer composite (FRPC) facesheets which provide the stiffness and the strength and a low density polymeric foam core that adds bending rigidity with little additional weight. The expanding use of composite structures exposes them to high energy, high velocity dynamic loadings which produce multi-axial dynamic states of stress. This circumstance can present quite a challenge to designers, as composite structures are highly anisotropic and display properties that are sensitive to loading rates. Computer codes are continually in development to assist designers in the creation of safe, efficient structures. While the design of an optimal composite structure is more complex, engineers can take advantage of the effect of enhanced energy dissipation displayed by a composite when loaded at high strain rates. In order to build and verify effective computer codes, the underlying assumptions must be verified by laboratory experiments. Many of these codes look to use a micromechanical approach to determine the response of the structure. For this, the material properties of the constituent materials must be verified, three-dimensional constitutive laws must be developed, and failure of these materials must be investigated under static and dynamic loading conditions. In this study, simple models are sought not only to ease their implementation into such codes, but to allow for efficient characterization of new materials that may be developed. Characterization of composite materials and sandwich structures is a costly, time intensive process. A constituent based design approach evaluates potential combinations of materials in a much faster and more efficient manner.

  15. Composite materials flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Pete E.; Dursch, Harry W.; Pippin, H. Gary

    1995-01-01

    Organic composite test specimens were flown on several LDEF experiments. Both bare and coated composites were flown. Atomic oxygen eroded bare composite material, with the resins being recessed at a greater rate than the fibers. Selected coating techniques protected the composite substrate in each case. Tensile and optical properties are reported for numerous specimens. Fiberglass and metal matrix composites were also flown.

  16. Dielectric composite materials and method for preparing

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.; Montgomery, Frederick C.; Collins, Jack L.; Felten, John J.

    2003-07-29

    The invention allows the fabrication of small, dense beads of dielectric materials with selected compositions, which are incorporated into a polymeric matrix for use in capacitors, filters, and the like. A porous, generally spherical bead of hydrous metal oxide containing titanium or zirconium is made by a sol-gel process to form a substantially rigid bead having a generally fine crystallite size and correspondingly finely distributed internal porosity. The resulting gel bead may be washed and hydrothermally reacted with a soluble alkaline earth salt (typically Ba or Sr) at elevated temperature and pressure to convert the bead into a mixed hydrous titanium- or zirconium-alkaline earth oxide while retaining the generally spherical shape. Alternatively, the gel bead may be made by coprecipitation. This mixed oxide bead is then washed, dried and calcined to produce the desired (BaTiO.sub.3, PbTiO.sub.3, SrZrO.sub.3) structure. The sintered beads are incorporated into a selected polymer matrix. The resulting dielectric composite material may be electrically "poled" if desired.

  17. Method for preparing dielectric composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Anderson, Kimberly K.; Montgomery, Frederick C.; Collins, Jack L.; Felten, John J.

    2004-11-23

    The invention allows the fabrication of small, dense beads of dielectric materials with selected compositions, which are incorporated into a polymeric matrix for use in capacitors, filters, and the like. A porous, generally spherical bead of hydrous metal oxide containing titanium or zirconium is made by a sol-gel process to form a substantially rigid bead having a generally fine crystallite size and correspondingly finely distributed internal porosity. The resulting gel bead may be washed and hydrothermally reacted with a soluble alkaline earth salt (typically Ba or Sr) at elevated temperature and pressure to convert the bead into a mixed hydrous titanium- or zirconium-alkaline earth oxide while retaining the generally spherical shape. Alternatively, the gel bead may be made by coprecipitation. This mixed oxide bead is then washed, dried and calcined to produce the desired (BaTiO.sub.3, PbTiO.sub.3, SrZrO.sub.3) structure. The sintered beads are incorporated into a selected polymer matrix. The resulting dielectric composite material may be electrically "poled" if desired.

  18. Shock resistance of composite material pipes

    SciTech Connect

    Pays, M.F.; Garcin, P.

    1995-11-01

    Composite materials have found a wide range of applications for EDF nuclear plants. Applications include fire pipework, demineralized water, service water, and emergency-supplied service water piping. Some of those pipework is classified nuclear safety, their integrity (resistance to water aging and earthquakes or accidental excess pressure (water hammer)) must be safeguarded. As composite materials generally suffer damage for low energy impacts (under 10 J), the pipes planned for the Civaux power plant have been studied for their resistance to a low speed shock (0 to 50 m/s) and of a 0 to 110 J energy level. For three representative diameters (20, 150, 600 mm), the minimum impact energy that leads to a leak has been determined to be respectively 18, 20 and 48 J. Then the leak rate versus impact energy was plotted; until roughly 90 J, the leak rate remains stable at less than 25 cm{sup 3}/h and raises to higher values (300 cm{sup 3}/h) afterwards. The level of leakage in the range of impact energy tested always stays within the limits set by the Safety Authorities for metallic pipes. These results have been linked to destructive examinations, to clarify the damage mechanisms. Other tests are still ongoing to follow the evolution of the damage and of the leak rate while the pipe is maintained under service pressure during one year.

  19. Piezoelectric Nanoparticle-Polymer Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, William Ray

    Herein we demonstrate that efficient piezoelectric nanoparticle-polymer composite materials can be synthesized and fabricated into complex microstructures using sugar-templating methods or optical printing techniques. Stretchable foams with excellent tunable piezoelectric properties are created by incorporating sugar grains directly into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mixtures containing barium titanate (BaTiO3 -- BTO) nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), followed by removal of the sugar after polymer curing. Porosities and elasticity are tuned by simply adjusting the sugar/polymer mass ratio and the electrical performance of the foams showed a direct relationship between porosity and the piezoelectric outputs. User defined 2D and 3D optically printed piezoelectric microstructures are also fabricated by incorporating BTO nanoparticles into photoliable polymer solutions such as polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and exposing to digital optical masks that can be dynamically altered. Mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency of the optically printed composite is enhanced by chemically altering the surface of the BTO nanoparticles with acrylate groups which form direct covalent linkages with the polymer matrix under light exposure. Both of these novel materials should find exciting uses in a variety of applications including energy scavenging platforms, nano- and microelectromechanical systems (NEMS/MEMS), sensors, and acoustic actuators.

  20. Composite and diamond cold cathode materials

    SciTech Connect

    Worthington, M.S.; Wheeland, C.L.; Ramacher, K.; Doyle, E.

    1996-12-31

    Cold-cathode technology for Crossed-Field Amplifiers (CFAs) has not changed significantly over the last thirty years. The material typically used for cold cathode CFAs is either platinum (Pt) or beryllium (Be), although numerous other materials with higher secondary electron emission ratios have been tested. Beryllium cathodes display higher secondary emission ratios, {approximately} 3.4, than Pt, but require a partial pressure of oxygen to maintain a beryllium oxide (BeO) surface layer. These dispensers limit the life of the CFA, both directly, due to oxygen-source filament burnout, and indirectly, by the production of undesirable gases which adversely affect the performance of the CFA. In an attempt to reduce or eliminate the required oxygen dispenser output level, cathodes were constructed from three varieties of Be/BeO composite material and tested in L-4808s, standard forward-wave AEGIS CFAs. Diamond and diamond-like carbons are desirable as cathode materials because of their extremely high secondary electron emission ratio, greater than 20, but their use has previously been prohibitive because of cost, available, and physical characteristics. Because of recent advances in diamond growth technology it is now possible to deposit thin layers of diamond on a variety of geometric objects. In coordination with Penn State University four annular diamond emitters have been fabricated. The diamond emitters will be tested in a standard AEGIS CFA, both under vacuum and with a partial pressure of hydrogen.

  1. Radiation Facilities for Composite Materials Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, G. F.; Zalubovsky, I. I.; Avilov, A. M.; Rudychev, V. G.

    1997-05-01

    The radiation facilities on the base of linac for polymer composite materials (PCM) formation was designed. The general technological scheme of PCM production consists in impregnations by synthetic monomers or oligomers of wares made of capillaryporous materials such as wood, qypsum, concrete, ceramic, paper, waste of papermaking, textile and woodworking production which are further treated by relativistic electron or breamsstruhglung beams. The facilities encorporates a linac with scanning electron beams, microwave chamber for drying of materials, a system for vacuum impregnating of materials with synthetic origomers, test bench for irradiations of samples, precise monitoring system for measuring of three-dimentional dose distribution in irradiated samples, and control processing system. The main beam parameters of linac are: electron energy 5--8 MeV; mean beam power up to 5 kW, pulse duration 1--4 mcs; scanning frequency of electromagnetic scanner 1--8 Hz; the irradiation is possible both with electron and with breamsstrahglung beams. The facilities were used for radiation processing investigation and production of new high-strength and corrosian-resistant PCM.

  2. Composition of estuarine colloidal material: organic components

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sigleo, A.C.; Hoering, T.C.; Helz, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    Colloidal material in the size range 1.2 nm to 0.4 ??m was isolated by ultrafiltration from Chesapeake Bay and Patuxent River waters (U.S.A.). Temperature controlled, stepwise pyrolysis of the freeze-dried material, followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses of the volatile products indicates that the primary organic components of this polymer are carbohydrates and peptides. The major pyrolysis products at the 450??C step are acetic acid, furaldehydes, furoic acid, furanmethanol, diones and lactones characteristic of carbohydrate thermal decomposition. Pyrroles, pyridines, amides and indole (protein derivatives) become more prevalent and dominate the product yield at the 600??C pyrolysis step. Olefins and saturated hydrocarbons, originating from fatty acids, are present only in minor amounts. These results are consistent with the composition of Chesapeake phytoplankton (approximately 50% protein, 30% carbohydrate, 10% lipid and 10% nucleotides by dry weight). The pyrolysis of a cultured phytoplankton and natural particulate samples produced similar oxygen and nitrogencontaining compounds, although the proportions of some components differ relative to the colloidal fraction. There were no lignin derivatives indicative of terrestrial plant detritus in any of these samples. The data suggest that aquatic microorganisms, rather than terrestrial plants, are the dominant source of colloidal organic material in these river and estuarine surface waters. ?? 1982.

  3. Application of IDT Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Windmill Turbine Blades Made of Composite Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalladega, V.; Na, J. K.; Druffner, C.

    2011-06-01

    Interdigital transducers (IDT) generate and receive ultrasonic surface waves without the complexity involved with secondary devices such as angled wedges or combs. The IDT sensors have been successfully applied for the NDE of homogeneous materials like metals in order to detect cracks and de-bond. However, these transducers have not been yet adapted for complex and anisotropic materials like fiber-reinforced composites. This work presents the possibility of using IDT sensors for monitoring structural damages in wind turbine blades, typically made of fiberglass composites. IDT sensors with a range of operating frequency between 250 kHz and 1 MHz are initially tested on representative composite test panels for ultrasonic surface wave properties including beam spread, propagation distance and effect of material's anisotropy. Based on these results, an optimum frequency range for the IDT sensor is found to be 250-500 kHz. Subsequently, IDT sensors with operating frequency 500 kHz are used to detect and quantify artificial defects created in the composite test samples. Discussions are made on the interaction of ultrasonic fields with these defects along with the effects of fiber directionality and composite layer stacking.

  4. Application of IDT sensors for structural health monitoring of windmill turbine blades made of composite material

    SciTech Connect

    Nalladega, V.; Na, J. K.; Druffner, C.

    2011-06-23

    Interdigital transducers (IDT) generate and receive ultrasonic surface waves without the complexity involved with secondary devices such as angled wedges or combs. The IDT sensors have been successfully applied for the NDE of homogeneous materials like metals in order to detect cracks and de-bond. However, these transducers have not been yet adapted for complex and anisotropic materials like fiber-reinforced composites. This work presents the possibility of using IDT sensors for monitoring structural damages in wind turbine blades, typically made of fiberglass composites. IDT sensors with a range of operating frequency between 250 kHz and 1 MHz are initially tested on representative composite test panels for ultrasonic surface wave properties including beam spread, propagation distance and effect of material's anisotropy. Based on these results, an optimum frequency range for the IDT sensor is found to be 250-500 kHz. Subsequently, IDT sensors with operating frequency 500 kHz are used to detect and quantify artificial defects created in the composite test samples. Discussions are made on the interaction of ultrasonic fields with these defects along with the effects of fiber directionality and composite layer stacking.

  5. Ultrasonic guided wave mechanics for composite material structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Huidong

    The ultrasonic guided wave based method is very promising for structural health monitoring of aging and modern aircraft. An understanding of wave mechanics becomes very critical for exploring the potential of this technology. However, the guided wave mechanics in complex structures, especially composite materials, are very challenging due to the nature of multi-layer, anisotropic, and viscoelastic behavior. The purpose of this thesis is to overcome the challenges and potentially take advantage of the complex wave mechanics for advanced sensor design and signal analysis. Guided wave mechanics is studied in three aspects, namely wave propagation, excitation, and damage sensing. A 16 layer quasi-isotropic composite with a [(0/45/90/-45)s]2 lay up sequence is used in our study. First, a hybrid semi-analytical finite element (SAFE) and global matrix method (GMM) is used to simulate guided wave propagation in composites. Fast and accurate simulation is achieved by using SAFE for dispersion curve generation and GMM for wave structure calculation. Secondly, the normal mode expansion (NME) technique is used for the first time to study the wave excitation characteristics in laminated composites. A clear and simple definition of wave excitability is put forward as a result of NME analysis. Source influence for guided wave excitation is plotted as amplitude on a frequency and phase velocity spectrum. This spectrum also provides a guideline for transducer design in guided wave excitation. The ultrasonic guided wave excitation characteristics in viscoelastic media are also studied for the first time using a modified normal mode expansion technique. Thirdly, a simple physically based feature is developed to estimate the guided wave sensitivity to damage in composites. Finally, a fuzzy logic decision program is developed to perform mode selection through a quantitative evaluation of the wave propagation, excitation and sensitivity features. Numerical simulation algorithms are validated with both finite element analyses and laboratory experiments. For the quasi-isotropic composite, it is found that the ultrasonic wave propagation characteristics are not always quasi-isotropic. The directional dependence is very significant at high frequency and higher order wave modes. Mode separation between Rayleigh-Lamb type and Shear Horizontal type guided waves is not possible. In addition, guided wave modes along one dispersion curve line could have a significant difference in wave structure. Therefore, instead of using traditional symmetric, antisymmetric, and SH notation, a new notation is used to identify the dispersion curves in a numerical order. Wave modes with a skew angle larger than 30 degrees can exist in a quasi-isotropic composite plate, which is validated by both FEM and experiment. At low frequency, the first wave mode has higher sensitivity than that of the third wave mode. However, the attenuation of the first wave mode is higher than that of the third wave mode. The mode selection trade-offs are evaluated and recommendations are provided for guided waves used in long range structural health monitoring.

  6. Method of preparing corrosion resistant composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D. (320 Willow St., New Lenox, IL 60451)

    1993-01-01

    Method of manufacture of ceramic materials which require stability in severely-corrosive environment having high alkali-metal activity, high sulfur/sulfide activity and/or molten halides at temperatures of 200.degree.-550.degree. C. or organic salt (including SO.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2) at temperatures of 25.degree.-200.degree. C. These surfide ceramics form stoichiometric (single-phase) compounds with sulfides of Ca, Li, Na, K, Al, Mg, Si, Y, La, Ce, Ga, Ba, Zr and Sr and show melting-points that are sufficiently low and have excellent wettability with many metals (Fe, Ni, Mo) to easily form metal/ceramic seals. Ceramic compositions are also formulated to adequately match thermal expansion coefficient of adjacent metal components.

  7. Electromagnetic Shielding Efficiency Measurement of Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D?novsk, J.; Kejk, Z.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of the shielding efficiency measurements of construction composite materials. This contribution describes an alternative test method of these measurements by using the measurement circular flange. The measured results and parameters of coaxial test flange are also discussed. The measurement circular flange is described by measured scattering parameters in the frequency range from 9 kHz up to 1 GHz. The accuracy of the used shielding efficiency measurement method was checked by brass calibration ring. The suitability of the coaxial test setup was also checked by measurements on the EMC test chamber. This data was compared with the measured data on the real EMC chamber. The whole measurement of shielding efficiency was controlled by the program which runs on a personal computer. This program was created in the VEE Pro environment produced by Agilent Technology.

  8. Calculations of van der Waals forces in 2-dimensionally anisotropic materials and its application to carbon black.

    PubMed

    Dagastine, Raymond R; Prieve, Dennis C; White, Lee R

    2002-05-01

    We present calculations of the van der Waals force for carbon black dispersions in both aqueous and nonaqueous media using Lifshitz theory. The microstructure and composition of carbon black are complex, but an initial approximation to the shell-like microstructure of carbon black allows the local interaction of carbon black particles to be approximated as oriented domains of graphite. The dielectric spectra for graphite, which has a 2-dimensional anisotropy due to its the layered microstructure, is required for the Lifshitz theory van der Waals force calculations. The anisotropic dielectric spectra of graphite (which behaves as a semiconductor) was constructed by modeling the conduction or free charge response separately from the polarization or bound charge response. The free charge response was modeled using the Drude model, while the dielectric spectra for the bound charge response was constructed from the spectroscopic data directly according to the Kramers-Kronig relation for the dielectric function, epsilon(omega). The expressions for calculating the fully retarded van der Waals force for half spaces with 2-dimensional dielectric anisotropy were derived as well as. The construction for the dielectric spectra of polystyrene from recent spectroscopic data from the literature according to the method outlined in (Dagastine, R. R., Prieve, D. C., and White, L. R., J. Colloid Interface Sci.231, 351 (2000)) is also presented. PMID:16290570

  9. The Voigt effects in the anisotropic photonic band gaps of three-dimensional magnetized plasma photonic crystals doped by the uniaxial material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Li, Bing-Xiang

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, the properties of photonic band gaps (PBGs) for three-dimensional magnetized plasma photonic crystals (MPPCs) composed of anisotropic dielectric (the uniaxial material) spheres immersed in homogeneous magnetized plasma background with simple-cubic lattices are theoretically investigated by the plane wave expansion (PWE) method, as the Voigt effects of magnetized plasma are considered. The equations for calculating the anisotropic PBGs in the first irreducible Brillouin zone are theoretically deduced. The anisotropic PBGs and two flatband regions can be obtained. The effects of the ordinary-refractive index, extraordinary-refractive index, filling factor, plasma frequency and plasma cyclotron frequency on the characteristics of anisotropic PBGs for the three-dimensional MPPCs are studied in detail and some corresponding physical explanations are also given. The numerical results show that the anisotropy can open partial band gaps in simple-cubic lattices and the complete PBGs can be found compared to the conventional three-dimensional MPPCs doped by the isotropic material. The bandwidths of PBGs can be enlarged by introducing the magnetized plasma into three-dimensional PCs containing the uniaxial material. It is also shown that the anisotropic PBGs can be manipulated by the ordinary-refractive index, extraordinary-refractive index, filling factor, plasma frequency and plasma cyclotron frequency. The locations of flatband regions cannot be tuned by any parameters except for the plasma frequency and plasma cyclotron frequency. Introducing the uniaxial material in three-dimensional magnetized plasma-dielectric photonic crystals can enlarge the PBGs and also provide a way to obtain the complete PBGs as the three-dimensional MPPCs with high symmetry.

  10. Optical Determination of Anisotropic Material Properties of Bovine Articular Cartilage in Compression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Christopher C-B.; Chahine, Nadeen O.; Hung, Clark T.; Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2010-01-01

    The precise nature of the material symmetry of articular cartilage in compression remains to be elucidated. The primary objective of this study was to determine the equilibrium compressive Youngs moduli and Poissons ratios of bovine cartilage along multiple directions (parallel and perpendicular to the split line direction, and normal to the articular surface) by loading small cubic specimens (0.90.90.8 mm, n=15) in unconfined compression, with the expectation that the material symmetry of cartilage could be determined more accurately with the help of a more complete set of material properties. The second objective was to investigate how the tension-compression nonlinearity of cartilage might alter the interpretation of material symmetry. Optimized digital image correlation was used to accurately determine the resultant strain fields within the specimens under loading. Experimental results demonstrated that neither the Youngs moduli nor the Poissons ratios exhibit the same values when measured along the three loading directions. The main findings of this study are that the framework of linear orthotropic elasticity (as well as higher symmetries of linear elasticity) is not suitable to describe the equilibrium response of articular cartilage nor characterize its material symmetry; a framework which accounts for the distinctly different responses of cartilage in tension and compression is more suitable for describing the equilibrium response of cartilage; within this framework, cartilage exhibits no lower than orthotropic symmetry. PMID:12594982

  11. Millimeter-wave imaging of composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalsami, N.; Bakhtiari, S.; Dieckman, S.L.; Raptis, A.C.; Lepper, M.J.

    1993-09-01

    This work addresses the application and evaluates the potential of mm-wave imaging in the W-band (75-110 GHz) using samples of low-loss dielectric and composite materials with artificial defects. The initial focus is on the measurement of amplitude changes in the back scattered and forward-scattered fields. The c-scan system employs a focused beam antenna to provide spatial resolution of about one wavelength. A plane-wave model is used to calculate the effective reflection (or transmission) coefficient of multilayer test sample geometry. Theoretical analysis is used to optimize the measurement frequency for higher image contrast and to interpret the experimental results. Both reflection and transmission images, based on back scattered and forward-scattered powers, were made with Plexiglas and Kevlar/epoxy samples containing artificially introduced defects such as subsurface voids and disbonds. The results clearly indicate that mm-wave imaging has high potential for non-contact interrogation of low-loss materials.

  12. NDE Elastic Properties of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced composites are increasingly replacing metallic alloys as structural materials for primary components of fracture-critical structures. This trend is a result of the growing understanding of material behavior and recognition of the desirable properties of composites. A research program was conducted on NDE methods for determining the elastic properties of composites.

  13. Composite materials: Tomorrow for the day after tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condom, P.

    1982-01-01

    A description is given of the history of the use of composite materials in the aerospace industry. Research programs underway to obtain exact data on the behavior of composite materials over time are discussed. It is concluded that metal composites have not yet replaced metals, but that that this may be a future possibility.

  14. Composition and method for removing photoresist materials from electronic components

    DOEpatents

    Davenhall, Leisa B.; Rubin, James B.; Taylor, Craig M.

    2005-01-25

    Composition and method for removing photoresist materials from electronic components. The composition is a mixture of at least one dense phase fluid and at least one dense phase fluid modifier. The method includes exposing a substrate to at least one pulse of the composition in a supercritical state to remove photoresist materials from the substrate.

  15. Composition and method for removing photoresist materials from electronic components

    DOEpatents

    Davenhall, Leisa B.; Rubin, James B.; Taylor, Craig M. V.

    2008-06-03

    Composition and method for removing photoresist materials from electronic components. The composition is a mixture of at least one dense phase fluid and at least one dense phase fluid modifier. The method includes exposing a substrate to at least one pulse of the composition in a supercritical state to remove photoresist materials from the substrate.

  16. Method for preparing polyolefin composites containing a phase change material

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O. (Dayton, OH)

    1990-01-01

    A composite useful in thermal energy storage, said composite being formed of a polyolefin matrix having a phase change material such as a crystalline alkyl hydrocarbon incorporated therein. The composite is useful in forming pellets, sheets or fibers having thermal energy storage characteristics; methods for forming the composite are also disclosed.

  17. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy for viscoelastic characterization of anisotropic attenuative solid materials.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Simon; Grimal, Quentin; Laugier, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) is an accurate measurement method in which the full stiffness tensor of a material is assessed from the free resonant frequencies of a small sample, and the viscoelastic damping is measured from the resonant peaks width. High viscoelastic damping causes the resonant peaks to overlap and therefore complicate the measurement of the resonant frequencies and the inverse identification of material properties. For that reason, RUS has been known to be fully applicable only to low damping materials. The purpose of this work is to adapt RUS for the characterization of highly attenuating viscoelastic materials. Spectrum measurement using shear transducers combined with dedicated signal processing is employed to retrieve the resonant frequencies despite overlapping. A probabilistic (Bayesian) formulation of the inverse problem, tackling the problem of correctly pairing the measured and predicted frequencies, is proposed. Applications to polymethylmethacrylate (isotropic) and glass/epoxy transversely isotropic samples are presented. The full set of viscoelastic properties is obtained with good repeatability. Particularly, elastic moduli of the isotropic samples are obtained within 1%. PMID:24815244

  18. Hybrid Anisotropic Micromesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutzov, S.; Danchova, N.; Tsekov, R.; Barreno, I.; Ruiz del Portal, X.; Ulbikas, J.

    2015-10-01

    A new hybrid woven micromesh containing metal and polyester wires with a 2D porosity of about 30% has been created. The anisotropic microcomposite is developed as a new material with wide applications in thermal and electrical engineering. The mesh material is carefully characterized using electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, chemical analysis, thermal conductivity measurements and differential scanning calorimetry.

  19. The interaction of two rigid semi-cylinders over anisotropic piezoelectric materials by the generalized Almansi theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yue-Ting; Zhong, Zheng

    2015-08-01

    An exact contact model of anisotropic piezoelectric materials under the action of two rigid, perfectly conducting semi-cylinders is established. Applying the generalized Almansi theorem arrives at general solutions of related governing equations feasible for both distinctive and repeated eigenvalue cases. Differentiation of the surface vertical displacement and electric potential leads to a system of singular integral equations with a kernel of 1/(?2 - x2) type, which is exactly solved by defining proper variables. The surface stresses and the surface electric displacements are given explicitly for two rigid semi-cylinders, which meet the requirements set by the boundary conditions. The results for a single rigid, perfectly conducting cylinder can be covered by those of the two rigid semi-cylinders. The numerical results show how the interaction of two semi-cylinders affects the indentation behaviors and demonstrate that the surface in-plane stress and the surface electric displacement are unbounded at both the inner and outer edges due to the additional electric charge applied on the perfectly conducting semi-cylinder.

  20. Anisotropic lattice response induced by a linearly-polarized femtosecond optical pulse excitation in interfacial phase change memory material

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Kotaro; Saito, Yuta; Fons, Paul; Kolobov, Alexander V.; Nakano, Takashi; Tominaga, Junji; Hase, Muneaki

    2016-01-01

    Optical excitation of matter with linearly-polarized femtosecond pulses creates a transient non-equilibrium lattice displacement along a certain direction. Here, the pump and probe pulse polarization dependence of the photo-induced ultrafast lattice dynamics in (GeTe)2/(Sb2Te3)4 interfacial phase change memory material is investigated under obliquely incident conditions. Drastic pump polarization dependence of the coherent phonon amplitude is observed when the probe polarization angle is parallel to the c–axis of the sample, while the pump polarization dependence is negligible when the probe polarization angle is perpendicular to the c–axis. The enhancement of phonon oscillation amplitude due to pump polarization rotation for a specific probe polarization angle is only found in the early time stage (≤2 ps). These results indicate that the origin of the pump and probe polarization dependence is dominantly attributable to the anisotropically-formed photo-excited carriers which cause the directional lattice dynamics. PMID:26805401

  1. Anisotropic lattice response induced by a linearly-polarized femtosecond optical pulse excitation in interfacial phase change memory material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Kotaro; Saito, Yuta; Fons, Paul; Kolobov, Alexander V.; Nakano, Takashi; Tominaga, Junji; Hase, Muneaki

    2016-01-01

    Optical excitation of matter with linearly-polarized femtosecond pulses creates a transient non-equilibrium lattice displacement along a certain direction. Here, the pump and probe pulse polarization dependence of the photo-induced ultrafast lattice dynamics in (GeTe)2/(Sb2Te3)4 interfacial phase change memory material is investigated under obliquely incident conditions. Drastic pump polarization dependence of the coherent phonon amplitude is observed when the probe polarization angle is parallel to the c–axis of the sample, while the pump polarization dependence is negligible when the probe polarization angle is perpendicular to the c–axis. The enhancement of phonon oscillation amplitude due to pump polarization rotation for a specific probe polarization angle is only found in the early time stage (≤2 ps). These results indicate that the origin of the pump and probe polarization dependence is dominantly attributable to the anisotropically-formed photo-excited carriers which cause the directional lattice dynamics.

  2. Anisotropic lattice response induced by a linearly-polarized femtosecond optical pulse excitation in interfacial phase change memory material.

    PubMed

    Makino, Kotaro; Saito, Yuta; Fons, Paul; Kolobov, Alexander V; Nakano, Takashi; Tominaga, Junji; Hase, Muneaki

    2016-01-01

    Optical excitation of matter with linearly-polarized femtosecond pulses creates a transient non-equilibrium lattice displacement along a certain direction. Here, the pump and probe pulse polarization dependence of the photo-induced ultrafast lattice dynamics in (GeTe)2/(Sb2Te3)4 interfacial phase change memory material is investigated under obliquely incident conditions. Drastic pump polarization dependence of the coherent phonon amplitude is observed when the probe polarization angle is parallel to the c-axis of the sample, while the pump polarization dependence is negligible when the probe polarization angle is perpendicular to the c-axis. The enhancement of phonon oscillation amplitude due to pump polarization rotation for a specific probe polarization angle is only found in the early time stage (≤2 ps). These results indicate that the origin of the pump and probe polarization dependence is dominantly attributable to the anisotropically-formed photo-excited carriers which cause the directional lattice dynamics. PMID:26805401

  3. High frequency probes of superconductivity and magnetism in anisotropic materials in very high magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altarawneh, Moaz

    In this dissertation, I present a study of a wide range of organic and inorganic materials using radio frequency (rf) measurement methods. The organic samples under study were lambda-(BETS)2 GaCl4 and lambda-(BETS)2 FeCl4. In the lambda-(BETS)2 GaCl4, the H-T superconductivity phase diagram was studied using the tunnel diode oscillator (TDO) method and compared with simultaneous four terminals resistivity measurements. These simultaneous measurements show signs of para-conductivity in this material. The same method was used to study the lambda-(BETS)2 FeCl4 sample which is a field induced superconductor (FISC). The inorganic materials that I have studied include Ba 0.55K0.45Fe2 As2 and USb2. In Ba0.55K0.45Fe 2As2 (which belongs to the recently discovered Pnictide superconductors family), I have studied the H-T phase diagram for magnetic fields applied parallel and perpendicular to the crystallographic c-axis up to 65 tesla and in temperature as low as 4 K. Ba0.55K0.45 Fe2As2 was studied by a new rf technique that I have developed recently (PDO?Proximity Detector Oscillator). The rf measurements of Ba0.55 K0.45Fe2 As2 from my work support the prediction of an unconventional multigap superconductivity in this material. In the USb 2 sample, a Fermi surfaces measurement was performed by the TDO rf probe and by a torque magnetometer for comparison purposes in high magnetic fields up to 65 tesla and in temperatures above 0.5 K. I found that both the rf and the torque measurements reveal a cylindrical Fermi surface with approximately the same effective mass. However, the rf and the torque measurements reveal some differences in the frequencies obtained from the FFT obtained for each method. In this dissertation, most of the measurements were performed using rf probes like the TDO or the PDO. The PDO method has successfully replaced the TDO method to perform rf measurements in all different kinds of magnets (dc and pulsed).

  4. Laminated thermoplastic composite material from recycled high density polyethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.

    1994-01-01

    The design of a materials-science, educational experiment is presented. The student should understand the fundamentals of polymer processing and mechanical property testing of materials. The ability to use American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards is also necessary for designing material test specimens and testing procedures. The objectives of the experiment are (1) to understand the concept of laminated composite materials, processing, testing, and quality assurance of thermoplastic composites and (2) to observe an application example of recycled plastics.

  5. Oxygen isotope composition of trinitite postdetonation materials.

    PubMed

    Koeman, Elizabeth C; Simonetti, Antonio; Chen, Wei; Burns, Peter C

    2013-12-17

    Trinitite is the melt glass produced subsequent the first nuclear bomb test conducted on July 16, 1945, at White Sands Range (Alamagordo, NM). The geological background of the latter consists of arkosic sand that was fused with radioactive debris and anthropogenic materials at ground zero subsequent detonation of the device. Postdetonation materials from historic nuclear weapon test sites provide ideal samples for development of novel forensic methods for attribution and studying the chemical/isotopic effects of the explosion on the natural geological environment. In particular, the latter effects can be evaluated relative to their spatial distribution from ground zero. We report here ?(18)O() values for nonmelted, precursor minerals phases (quartz, feldspar, calcite), "feldspathic-rich" glass, "average" melt glass, and bulk (natural) unmelted sand from the Trinity site. Prior to oxygen isotope analysis, grains/crystals were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to determine their corresponding major element composition. ?(18)O values for bulk trinitite samples exhibit a large range (11.2-15.5) and do not correlate with activity levels for activation product (152)Eu; the latter levels are a function of their spatial distribution relative to ground zero. Therefore, the slow neutron flux associated with the nuclear explosion did not perturb the (18)O/(16)O isotope systematics. The oxygen isotope values do correlate with the abundances of major elements derived from precursor minerals present within the arkosic sand. Hence, the O isotope ratios documented here for trinitite melt glass can be attributed to a mixture of the respective signatures for precursor minerals at the Trinity site prior to the nuclear explosion. PMID:24304329

  6. Dynamic response of CSM composite plates - simulation using material No. 58 in LS-DYNA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Bilkhu, S.S.; Founas, M.; Fong, W.; Agaram, V.

    1997-12-31

    The paper deals with finite element simulations of transverse impact response of plates made from continuous strand mat(CSM) glass/acrylic composite which is a potential candidate for making light weight automotive body panels. Two impact tests on the plates which result in two very different kinds of response, a drop tower test and a dart test, have been simulated using anisotropic material damage model No. 58 in LS-DYNA3D. In view of the results obtained in this study, the authors discuss the suitability of material model No. 58 for simulations of impact response in a bending environment.

  7. Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissley, D. M.; Meyer, T. G.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents the results from a 35 month period of a program designed to develop generic constitutive and life prediction approaches and models for nickel-based single crystal gas turbine airfoils. The program is composed of a base program and an optional program. The base program addresses the high temperature coated single crystal regime above the airfoil root platform. The optional program investigates the low temperature uncoated single crystal regime below the airfoil root platform including the notched conditions of the airfoil attachment. Both base and option programs involve experimental and analytical efforts. Results from uniaxial constitutive and fatigue life experiments of coated and uncoated PWA 1480 single crystal material form the basis for the analytical modeling effort. Four single crystal primary orientations were used in the experiments: (001), (011), (111), and (213). Specific secondary orientations were also selected for the notched experiments in the optional program. Constitutive models for an overlay coating and PWA 1480 single crystal material were developed based on isothermal hysteresis loop data and verified using thermomechanical (TMF) hysteresis loop data. A fatigue life approach and life models were selected for TMF crack initiation of coated PWA 1480. An initial life model used to correlate smooth and notched fatigue data obtained in the option program shows promise. Computer software incorporating the overlay coating and PWA 1480 constitutive models was developed.

  8. Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissley, D. M.; Meyer, T. G.; Walker, K. P.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a summary of results from a 7 year program designed to develop generic constitutive and life prediction approaches and models for nickel-based single crystal gas turbine airfoils. The program was composed of a base program and an optional program. The base program addressed the high temperature coated single crystal regime above the airfoil root platform. The optional program investigated the low temperature uncoated single crystal regime below the airfoil root platform including the notched conditions of the airfoil attachment. Both base and option programs involved experimental and analytical efforts. Results from uniaxial constitutive and fatigue life experiments of coated and uncoated PWA 1480 single crystal material formed the basis for the analytical modeling effort. Four single crystal primary orientations were used in the experiments: group of zone axes (001), group of zone axes (011), group of zone axes (111), and group of zone axes (213). Specific secondary orientations were also selected for the notched experiments in the optional program. Constitutive models for an overlay coating and PWA 1480 single crystal materials were developed based on isothermal hysteresis loop data and verified using thermomechanical (TMF) hysteresis loop data. A fatigue life approach and life models were developed for TMF crack initiation of coated PWA 1480. A life model was developed for smooth and notched fatigue in the option program. Finally, computer software incorporating the overlay coating and PWA 1480 constitutive and life models was developed.

  9. Multi-material Preforming of Structural Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, Robert E.; Eberle, Cliff C.; Pastore, Christopher M.; Sudbury, Thomas Z.; Xiong, Fue; Hartman, David

    2015-05-01

    Fiber-reinforced composites offer significant weight reduction potential, with glass fiber composites already widely adopted. Carbon fiber composites deliver the greatest performance benefits, but their high cost has inhibited widespread adoption. This project demonstrates that hybrid carbon-glass solutions can realize most of the benefits of carbon fiber composites at much lower cost. ORNL and Owens Corning Reinforcements along with program participants at the ORISE collaborated to demonstrate methods for produce hybrid composites along with techniques to predict performance and economic tradeoffs. These predictions were then verified in testing coupons and more complex demonstration articles.

  10. Quantum Storage of Heralded Polarization Qubits in Birefringent and Anisotropically Absorbing Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clausen, Christoph; Bussires, Flix; Afzelius, Mikael; Gisin, Nicolas

    2012-05-01

    Storage of quantum information encoded into heralded single photons is an essential constituent of long-distance quantum communication based on quantum repeaters and of optical quantum information processing. The storage of photonic polarization qubits is, however, difficult because many materials are birefringent and have polarization-dependent absorption. Here we present a simple scheme that eliminates these polarization effects, and we demonstrate it by storing heralded polarization qubits into a solid-state quantum memory. The quantum memory is implemented with a biaxial yttrium orthosilicate (Y2SiO5) crystal doped with rare-earth ions. Heralded single photons generated from a filtered spontaneous parametric down-conversion source are stored, and quantum state tomography of the retrieved polarization state reveals an average fidelity of 97.50.4%, which is significantly higher than what is achievable with a measure-and-prepare strategy.

  11. Anisotropic thermoelectric properties of layered compounds in SnX2 (X = S, Se): a promising thermoelectric material.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bao-Zhen; Ma, Zuju; He, Chao; Wu, Kechen

    2015-11-28

    Thermoelectrics interconvert heat to electricity and are of great interest in waste heat recovery, solid-state cooling and so on. Here we assessed the potential of SnS2 and SnSe2 as thermoelectric materials at the temperature gradient from 300 to 800 K. Reflecting the crystal structure, the transport coefficients are highly anisotropic between a and c directions, in particular for the electrical conductivity. The preferred direction for both materials is the a direction in TE application. Most strikingly, when 800 K is reached, SnS2 can show a peak power factor (PF) of 15.50 ?W cm(-1) K(-2) along the a direction, while a relatively low value (11.72 ?W cm(-1) K(-2)) is obtained in the same direction of SnSe2. These values are comparable to those observed in thermoelectrics such as SnSe and SnS. At 300 K, the minimum lattice thermal conductivity (?min) along the a direction is estimated to be about 0.67 and 0.55 W m(-1) K(-1) for SnS2 and SnSe2, respectively, even lower than the measured lattice thermal conductivity of Bi2Te3 (1.28 W m(-1) K(-1) at 300 K). The reasonable PF and ?min suggest that both SnS2 and SnSe2 are potential thermoelectric materials. Indeed, the estimated peak ZT can approach 0.88 for SnSe2 and a higher value of 0.96 for SnS2 along the a direction at a carrier concentration of 1.94 10(19) (SnSe2) vs. 2.87 10(19) cm(-3) (SnS2). The best ZT values in SnX2 (X = S, Se) are comparable to that in Bi2Te3 (0.8), a typical thermoelectric material. We hope that this theoretical investigation will provide useful information for further experimental and theoretical studies on optimizing the thermoelectric properties of SnX2 materials. PMID:26486877

  12. Study of the compatibility between light-cured repair materials and composite materials by holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Linfeng; Zhao, Zhimin; Gao, Mingjuan

    2005-10-01

    Based on current trends in research on techniques for repairing composite materials, this paper focuses on the compatibility between a light-cured repair material and composite materials. The repair material used in this study is intended to find applicability in techniques for repairing damaged composite materials. Test pieces of the composite material were excited by a sinusoidal acoustic source at a frequency of 1058 Hz. Time-average holographic interferograms were photographed in original, damaged, and repaired samples. By analyzing the three interferograms according to the principles of holographic interferometry, the utility of the light-cured repair material is shown.

  13. Anisotropic optical distribution of powder phosphor materials applied in medical imaging instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaparinos, P. F.

    2016-02-01

    Image quality for medical purposes is related to the useful diagnostic information that can be extracted from an image. The performance of indirect X-ray detectors, which in turn affects the quality of the medical image, can be significantly influenced by the characteristics of the phosphor, employed to convert incident radiation into emitted light. Given the technological and medical importance of phosphor materials, understanding the fundamental effects of optical anisotropy is crucial. The purpose of the present paper was to examine the influence of optical anisotropy in optical diffusion within the powder phosphor-based X-ray detectors. The present investigation was based on Mie scattering theory and Monte Carlo simulation techniques. The variation of the anisotropy factor was examined for: (1) light wavelengths in the range 400-700 nm, (2) particle refractive index between 1.5 and 2 and (3) three regions of particle sizes: nanoscale (from 10 up to 100 nm), submicron scale (from 100 nm up to 1 μm), and microscale (from 1 up to 10 μm). In addition, optical diffusion performance was carried out considering: (a) anisotropy factor values 0.2, 0.5, 0.8 which represent different aspects of light propagation after scattering and (b) phosphors of different layer thickness, 100 (thin layer) and 300 μm (thick layer), respectively. Results showed that the highest variation on the anisotropy factor was observed in the submicron scale, and, in particular, for grain diameters between 100 and 600 nm (increase from 0.1 up to 0.8). In addition, Monte Carlo simulations showed that the spread of light photons decreases (i.e., high spatial resolution) with the decrease in the anisotropy factor. In particular, the FWHM was found to decrease with the anisotropy factor: (1) 11.4 % at 100 μm and 4.2 %, at 300 μm layer thickness, for light extinction coefficient 0.217 μm-1 and (2) 1.9 % at 100 μm and 2.0 %, at 300 μm layer thickness, for light extinction coefficient 3 μm-1. The present work indicated that lateral spreading is affected by the anisotropy factor. However, this effect is more dominant for low values of light extinction coefficient of the material.

  14. Determining material properties of metal-matrix composites by NDE

    SciTech Connect

    Liaw, P.K.; Shannon, R.E.; Clark, W.G. Jr. . Science and Technology Center); Harrigan, W.C. Jr. ); Jeong, H. ); Hsu, D.K. )

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports on Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) which is a promising means of studying silicon carbide particulate (SiC[sub p])-reinforced aluminum metal-matrix composite (MMC) products at various processing stages. Eddy current techniques are effective in characterizing alloy powders and in evaluating the percentage of reinforcement in Al/SiC[sub p] powder mixtures. Ultrasonic methods can be used to identify SiC[sub p] clusters in large-scale, powder metallurgy processed MMC billets, while eddy current techniques can detect near-surface density variations. Ultrasonic techniques can also be used to determine the anisotropic stiffness constants of composite extrusions; the measured moduli are in good agreement with those determined by tensile testing. These results suggest that NDE can be used to provide on-line, closed-loop control of MMC manufacturing.

  15. Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, G. A.; Linask, I.; Nissley, D. M.; Norris, P. P.; Meyer, T. G.; Walker, K. P.

    1986-01-01

    This report presents the results of the first year of a program designed to develop life prediction and constitutive models for two coated single crystal alloys used in gas turbine airfoils. The two alloys are PWA 1480 and Alloy 185. The two oxidation resistant coatings are PWA 273, an aluminide coating, and PWA 286, an overlay NiCoCrAlY coating. To obtain constitutive and/or fatigue data, tests were conducted on coated and uncoated PWA 1480 specimens tensilely loaded in the 100 , 110 , 111 , and 123 directions. A literature survey of constitutive models was completed for both single crystal alloys and metallic coating materials; candidate models were selected. One constitutive model under consideration for single crystal alloys applies Walker's micromechanical viscoplastic formulation to all slip systems participating in the single crystal deformation. The constitutive models for the overlay coating correlate the viscoplastic data well. For the aluminide coating, a unique test method is under development. LCF and TMF tests are underway. The two coatings caused a significant drop in fatigue life, and each produced a much different failure mechanism.

  16. Surface composites: A new class of engineered materials

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, R.; Fitz-Gerald, J.

    1997-03-01

    To integrate irreconcilable material properties into a single component, a new class of engineered materials termed {open_quotes}surface composites{close_quotes} has been developed. In this engineered material, the second phase is spatially distributed in the near surface regions, such that the phase composition is linearly graded as a function of distance from the surface. Surface composites are different from existing engineered materials such as {open_quotes}bulk composites{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}functionally graded materials{close_quotes} (FGM). Unlike bulk composites, the surface phase in surface composites is present only at the near surface regions. In contrast to FGM, the graded properties of surface composites are achieved by unique morphological surface modification of the bulk phase. To fabricate surface composites, the initial surface of the bulk material is transformed using a novel multiple pulse irradiation technique into truncated cone-like structures. The laser induced micro-rough structures (LIMS) possess surface areas which are up to an order of magnitude higher than the original surface. The second phase is deposited on the surface using thin or thick film deposition methods. A key characteristic of surface composites is the formation of a three dimensional, compositionally and thermally graded interface, which gives rise to improved adhesion of the surface phase. Examples of various types of surface composites such as W/Mo, silica/SiC and diamond/steel, etc. are presented in this paper. The unique properties of surface composites make them ideal engineered materials for applications involving adherent thick film coatings of thermally mismatched materials, compositional surface modification for controlled catalytic activity, and creating adherent metal-ceramic and ceramic-polymeric joints. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  17. Environmental effects on composite materials. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    The present collection of papers, each of which has previously been abstracted in International Aerospace Abstracts, discusses the accelerated environmental testing of composites, moisture solubility and diffusion in epoxy and epoxy-glass composites, the influence of internal and external factors affecting moisture absorption in polymer composites, long-tern moisture absorption in graphite/epoxy angle-ply laminates, the effect of UV light on Kevlar 49-reinforced composites, and temperature and moisture induced deformation in composite sandwich panels. Also discussed are the orthotropic thermoelastic problem of uniform heat flow distributed by a central crack, the effect of microcracks on composite laminate thermal expansion, the stress analysis of wooden structures exposed to elevated temperatures, and the deflection of plastic beams at elevated temperatures.

  18. Orthotic devices using lightweight composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, E., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Potential applications of high strength, lightweight composite technology in the orthotic field were studied. Several devices were designed and fabricated using graphite-epoxy composite technology. Devices included shoe plates, assistive walker devices, and a Simes prosthesis reinforcement. Several other projects having medical application were investigated and evaluations were made of the potential for use of composite technology. A seat assembly was fabricated using sandwich construction techniques for the Total Wheelchair Project.

  19. Vibrational damping behavior of composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. S.; Rohatgi, P. K.; Keshavram, B. N.

    This study was primarily undertaken to review the literature concerning damping characteristics of composites. Both theoretical and experimental investigations have substantiated that damping capacity of composites is significantly influenced by various factors including volume fraction of reinforcements, fiber aspect ratio, fiber orientation, microstructural characteristics, test temperature and frequency, applied stress, mode of vibrations, etc. Effect of these factors on loss factor of composites is briefly described in this paper.

  20. Composite materials: Fatigue and fracture. Vol. 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Brien, T. K. (editor)

    1991-01-01

    The present volume discusses topics in the fields of matrix cracking and delamination, interlaminar fracture toughness, delamination analysis, strength and impact characteristics, and fatigue and fracture behavior. Attention is given to cooling rate effects in carbon-reinforced PEEK, the effect of porosity on flange-web corner strength, mode II delamination in toughened composites, the combined effect of matrix cracking and free edge delamination, and a 3D stress analysis of plain weave composites. Also discussed are the compression behavior of composites, damage-based notched-strength modeling, fatigue failure processes in aligned carbon-epoxy laminates, and the thermomechanical fatigue of a quasi-isotropic metal-matrix composite.

  1. Methodology for Evaluating Manufacturability of Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Jingjie; Zhang, Boming

    2012-06-01

    It is widely acknowledged that decisions made in the early design stages have a greater influence on the final product than those made in the later stages. In a conventional design process, composite products are designed without sufficient consideration being given to limitations of composite manufacturing process. Quite often some of composite designs cannot be produced with special performance requirement or cannot be produced at a reasonable cost. To resolve this drawback and achieve the competitive designs for composite product, an integrated knowledge framework that supports the quantitative manufacturability evaluation of composite design proposals was introduced. The essential concept of the composite manufacturability was defined through an in-depth analysis of composite manufacturing process. The evaluation flow was acquired according to the hierarchical indices. A stage-based quality assessment model for the composite multistage process was mainly studies. It relies on the consideration that the final quality of a composite product is mainly determined by some critical stages during a production cycle. Finally, the method is illustrated through a case focusing on the quality issue of void formation in autoclave process.

  2. Double Cantilever Beam Fracture Toughness Testing of Several Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, Jeff A.; Adams, Donald F.

    1992-01-01

    Double-cantilever beam fracture toughness tests were performed by the Composite Materials Research Group on several different unidirectional composite materials provided by NASA Langley Research Center. The composite materials consisted of Hercules IM-7 carbon fiber and various matrix resin formulations. Multiple formulations of four different families of matrix resins were tested: LaRC - ITPI, LaRC - IA, RPT46T, and RP67/RP55. Report presents the materials tested and pertinent details supplied by NASA. For each material, three replicate specimens were tested. Multiple crack extensions were performed on each replicate.

  3. Material, process, and product design of thermoplastic composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Heming

    Thermoplastic composites made of polypropylene (PP) and E-glass fibers were investigated experimentally as well as theoretically for two new classes of product designs. The first application was for reinforcement of wood. Commingled PP/glass yarn was consolidated and bonded on wood panel using a tie layer. The processing parameters, including temperature, pressure, heating time, cooling time, bonding strength, and bending strength were tested experimentally and evaluated analytically. The thermoplastic adhesive interface was investigated with environmental scanning electron microscopy. The wood/composite structural design was optimized and evaluated using a Graphic Method. In the second application, we evaluated use of thermoplastic composites for explosion containment in an arrester. PP/glass yarn was fabricated in a sleeve form and wrapped around the arrester. After consolidation, the flexible composite sleeve forms a solid composite shell. The composite shell acts as a protection layer in a surge test to contain the fragments of the arrester. The manufacturing process for forming the composite shell was designed. Woven, knitted, and braided textile composite shells made of commingled PP/glass yarn were tested and evaluated. Mechanical performance of the woven, knitted, and braided composite shells was examined analytically. The theoretical predictions were used to verify the experimental results.

  4. Some functional properties of composite material based on scrap tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesuma, Renate; Malers, Laimonis

    2013-09-01

    The utilization of scrap tires still obtains a remarkable importance from the aspect of unloading the environment from non-degradable waste [1]. One of the most prospective ways for scrap tires reuse is a production of composite materials [2] This research must be considered as a continuation of previous investigations [3, 4]. It is devoted to the clarification of some functional properties, which are considered important for the view of practical applications, of the composite material. Some functional properties of the material were investigated, for instance, the compressive stress at different extent of deformation of sample (till 67% of initial thickness) (LVS EN 826) [5] and the resistance to UV radiation (modified method based on LVS EN 14836) [6]. Experiments were realized on the purposefully selected samples. The results were evaluated in the correlation with potential changes of Shore C hardness (Shore scale, ISO 7619-1, ISO 868) [7, 8]. The results showed noticeable resistance of the composite material against the mechanical influence and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The correlation with the composition of the material, activity of binder, definite technological parameters, and the conditions supported during the production, were determined. It was estimated that selected properties and characteristics of the material are strongly dependent from the composition and technological parameters used in production of the composite material, and from the size of rubber crumb. Obtained results show possibility to attain desirable changes in the composite material properties by changing both the composition and technological parameters of examined material.

  5. Finite Element Analysis of Layered Fiber Composite Structures Accounting for the Material's Microstructure and Delamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stier, Bertram; Simon, Jaan-Willem; Reese, Stefanie

    2015-04-01

    The present paper focuses on composite structures which consist of several layers of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). For such layered composite structures, delamination constitutes one of the major failure modes. Predicting its initiation is essential for the design of these composites. Evaluating stress-strength relation based onset criteria requires an accurate representation of the through-the-thickness stress distribution, which can be particularly delicate in the case of shell-like structures. Thus, in this paper, a solid-shell finite element formulation is utilized which allows to incorporate a fully three-dimensional material model while still being suitable for applications involving thin structures. Moreover, locking phenomena are cured by using both the EAS and the ANS concept, and numerical efficiency is ensured through reduced integration. The proposed anisotropic material model accounts for the material's micro-structure by using the concept of structural tensors. It is validated by comparison to experimental data as well as by application to numerical examples.

  6. Improved Damage Resistant Composite Materials Incorporating Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, Jeffrey S. N.; Rogers, Craig A.

    1996-01-01

    Metallic shape memory alloys (SMA) such as nitinol have unique shape recovery behavior and mechanical properties associated with a material phase change that have been used in a variety of sensing and actuation applications. Recent studies have shown that integrating nitinol-SMA actuators into composite materials increases the composite material's functionality. Hybrid composites of conventional graphite/epoxy or glass/epoxy and nitinol-SMA elements can perform functions in applications where monolithic composites perform inadequately. One such application is the use of hybrid composites to function both in load bearing and armor capacities. While monolithic composites with high strength-to-weight ratios function efficiently as loadbearing structures, because of their brittle nature, impact loading can cause significant catastrophic damage. Initial composite failure modes such as delamination and matrix cracking dissipate some impact energy, but when stress exceeds the composite's ultimate strength, fiber fracture and material perforation become dominant. One of the few methods that has been developed to reduce material perforation is hybridizing polymer matrix composites with tough kevlar or high modulus polyethynylene plies. The tough fibers increase the impact resistance and the stiffer and stronger graphite fibers carry the majority of the load. Similarly, by adding nitinol-SMA elements that absorb impact energy through the stress-induced martensitic phase transformation, the composites' impact perforation resistance can be greatly enhanced. The results of drop-weight and high velocity gas-gun impact testing of various composite materials will be presented. The results demonstrate that hybridizing composites with nitinol-SMA elements significantly increases perforation resistance compared to other traditional toughening elements. Inspection of the composite specimens at various stages of perforation by optical microscope illustrates the mechanisms by which perforation is initiated. Results suggest that the out-of-plane transverse shear properties of the composite and nitinol elements have a significant effect on the perforation resistance. Applications that can utilize the hybrid composites effectively will also be presented with the experimental studies.

  7. Flexible hydrogel-based functional composite materials

    DOEpatents

    2013-10-08

    A composite having a flexible hydrogel polymer formed by mixing an organic phase with an inorganic composition, the organic phase selected from the group consisting of a hydrogel monomer, a crosslinker, a radical initiator, and/or a solvent. A polymerization mixture is formed and polymerized into a desired shape and size.

  8. Selected NASA research in composite Materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Various aspects of the application of composite materials to aircraft structures are considered. Failure prediction techniques, buckling and postbuckling research, laminate fatigue analysis, damage tolerance, high temperature resin matrix composites and electrical hazards of carbon fiber composites are among the topics discussed.

  9. Controlled intermittent interfacial bond concept for composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, T. U.; Atkins, A. G.

    1975-01-01

    Concept will enhance fracture resistance of high-strength filamentary composite without degrading its tensile strength or elastic modulus. Concept provides more economical composite systems, tailored for specific applications, and composite materials with mechanical properties, such as tensile strength, fracture strain, and fracture toughness, that can be optimized.

  10. Structural assessment of a novel carpet composite material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbaszadeh, Ali

    Noise pollution caused by vehicles has always been a concern to the communities in the vicinity of highways and busy roadways. The carpet composite material was recently developed and proposed to be utilized as sound-walls in highways. In the carpet composite material post-consumer carpet is used as reinforcing element inside and epoxy matrix. The main focus of this work is to assess flexural behavior of this novel material. Tests were performed on the individual components of the composite material. Using the results from the test and a theoretical approach, a model was proposed that describes the flexural behavior and also a close estimate of the flexural strength of the carpet composite material. In this work the contribution of the carpet in flexural behavior of the composite material was investigated. It was found that the carpet is weaker than the epoxy and the contribution of the carpet in flexural strength of the composite material is small. It was also found that using the carpet inside the epoxy results in 63% decrease in ultimate strength of the section, however; the gain in ductility is considerable. Based on the flexural test results the composite section follows a bilinear behavior. To determine the capacity of the composite, the effective epoxy section is to be determined before and after the tension cracks form at the bottom of the section. Using the epoxy section analysis described in this work, the strength of the composite section can be calculated at cracking and ultimate capacity.

  11. Evaluation of Composite Materials for Use on Launch Complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finchum, A.; Welch, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    Commercially available composite structural shapes were evaluated for use. These composites, fiberglass-reinforced polyester and vinylester resin materials are being used extensively in the fabrication and construction of low maintenance, corrosion resistant structures. The evaluation found that in many applications these composite materials can be successfully used at the space center. These composite materials should not be used where they will be exposed to the hot exhaust plume/cloud of the launch vehicle during the liftoff, and caution should be taken in their use in areas where electrostatic discharge and hypergolic propellant compatibility are primary concerns.

  12. Process for fabricating composite material having high thermal conductivity

    DOEpatents

    Colella, Nicholas J. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, Howard L. (San Carlos, CA); Kerns, John A. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A process for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost.

  13. Cured composite materials for reactive metal battery electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Peterson, Eric S.

    2006-03-07

    A solid molecular composite polymer-based electrolyte is made for batteries, wherein silicate compositing produces a electrolytic polymer with a semi-rigid silicate condensate framework, and then mechanical-stabilization by radiation of the outer surface of the composited material is done to form a durable and non-tacky texture on the electrolyte. The preferred ultraviolet radiation produces this desirable outer surface by creating a thin, shallow skin of crosslinked polymer on the composite material. Preferably, a short-duration of low-medium range ultraviolet radiation is used to crosslink the polymers only a short distance into the polymer, so that the properties of the bulk of the polymer and the bulk of the molecular composite material remain unchanged, but the tough and stable skin formed on the outer surface lends durability and processability to the entire composite material product.

  14. Advanced organic composite materials for aircraft structures: Future program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Revolutionary advances in structural materials have been responsible for revolutionary changes in all fields of engineering. These advances have had and are still having a significant impact on aircraft design and performance. Composites are engineered materials. Their properties are tailored through the use of a mix or blend of different constituents to maximize selected properties of strength and/or stiffness at reduced weights. More than 20 years have passed since the potentials of filamentary composite materials were identified. During the 1970s much lower cost carbon filaments became a reality and gradually designers turned from boron to carbon composites. Despite progress in this field, filamentary composites still have significant unfulfilled potential for increasing aircraft productivity; the rendering of advanced organic composite materials into production aircraft structures was disappointingly slow. Why this is and research and technology development actions that will assist in accelerating the application of advanced organic composites to production aircraft is discussed.

  15. Pistons and Cylinders Made of Carbon-Carbon Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Schwind, Francis A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved reciprocating internal combustion engine has a plurality of engine pistons, which are fabricated from carbon---carbon composite materials, in operative association with an engine cylinder block, or an engine cylinder tube, or an engine cylinder jug, all of which are also fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials.

  16. Pistons and Cylinders Made of Carbon-Carbon Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Schwind, Francis A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An improved reciprocating internal combustion engine has a plurality of engine pistons, which are fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials, in operative association with an engine cylinder block, or an engine cylinder tube, or an engine cylinder jug, all of which are also fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials.

  17. Progressive failure analysis of fibrous composite materials and structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahei-El-din, Yehia A.

    1990-01-01

    A brief description is given of the modifications implemented in the PAFAC finite element program for the simulation of progressive failure in fibrous composite materials and structures. Details of the memory allocation, input data, and the new subroutines are given. Also, built-in failure criteria for homogeneous and fibrous composite materials are described.

  18. Industry technology assessment of graphite-polymide composite materials. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An assessment of the current state of the art and the future prospects for graphite polyimide composite material technology is presented. Presentations and discussions given at a minisymposium of major issues on the present and future use, availability, processing, manufacturing, and testing of graphite polyimide composite materials are summarized.

  19. Angular spectrum approach for the computation of group and phase velocity surfaces of acoustic waves in anisotropic materials

    PubMed

    Pluta; Schubert; Jahny; Grill

    2000-03-01

    The decomposition of an acoustic wave into its angular spectrum representation creates an effective base for the calculation of wave propagation effects in anisotropic media. In this method, the distribution of acoustic fields is calculated in arbitrary planes from the superposition of the planar components with proper phase shifts. These phase shifts depend on the ratio of the distance between the planes to the normal component of the phase slowness vector. In anisotropic media, the phase shifts depend additionally on the changes of the slowness with respect to the direction of the propagation vector and the polarization. Those relations are obtained from the Christoffel equation. The method employing the fast Fourier transformation algorithm is especially suited for volume imaging in anisotropic media, based on holographic detection in transmission of acoustic waves generated by a point source. This technique is compared with measurements on crystals performed by phase-sensitive scanning acoustic microscopy. PMID:10829665

  20. Advanced composite structures. [metal matrix composites - structural design criteria for spacecraft construction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A monograph is presented which establishes structural design criteria and recommends practices to ensure the design of sound composite structures, including composite-reinforced metal structures. (It does not discuss design criteria for fiber-glass composites and such advanced composite materials as beryllium wire or sapphire whiskers in a matrix material.) Although the criteria were developed for aircraft applications, they are general enough to be applicable to space vehicles and missiles as well. The monograph covers four broad areas: (1) materials, (2) design, (3) fracture control, and (4) design verification. The materials portion deals with such subjects as material system design, material design levels, and material characterization. The design portion includes panel, shell, and joint design, applied loads, internal loads, design factors, reliability, and maintainability. Fracture control includes such items as stress concentrations, service-life philosophy, and the management plan for control of fracture-related aspects of structural design using composite materials. Design verification discusses ways to prove flightworthiness.

  1. Chromatographic behavior of silica-polymer composite molecularly imprinted materials.

    PubMed

    Tth, B; Lszl, K; Horvai, G

    2005-12-23

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) have recently been prepared inside the pores of silica based HPLC packing materials. Detailed physical and chromatographic characterization of such a silica-MIP composite material is presented. The chromatographic peak shape obtained with the uniformly sized spherical silica-MIP composite is mainly determined by the nonlinear adsorption isotherm. Comparison of the composite with the conventional sieved and grinded bulk MIP is therefore based on the nonlinear isotherm and not on retention factors and plate numbers. PMID:16188268

  2. Nano composite phase change materials microcapsules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qingwen

    MicroPCMs with nano composite structures (NC-MicroPCMs) have been systematically studied. NC-MicroPCMs were fabricated by the in situ polymerization and addition of silver NPs into core-shell structures. A full factorial experiment was designed, including three factors of core/shell, molar ratio of formaldehyde/melamine and NPs addition. 12 MicroPCMs samples were prepared. The encapsulated efficiency is approximately 80% to 90%. The structural/morphological features of the NC-MicroPCMs were evaluated. The size was in a range of 3.4 mu m to 4.0 mu m. The coarse appearance is attributed to NPs and NPs are distributed on the surface, within the shell and core. The NC-MicroPCMs contain new chemical components and molecular groups, due to the formation of chemical bonds after the pretreatment of NPs. Extra X-ray diffraction peaks of silver were found indicating silver nano-particles were formed into an integral structure with the core/shell structure by means of chemical bonds and physical linkages. Extra functionalities were found, including: (1) enhancement of IR radiation properties; (2) depression of super-cooling, and (3) increase of thermal stabilities. The effects of SERS (Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy) arising from the silver nano-particles were observed. The Raman scattering intensity was magnified more than 100 times. These effects were also exhibited in macroscopic level in the fabric coatings as enhanced IR radiation properties were detected by the "Fabric Infrared Radiation Management Tester" (FRMT). "Degree of Crystallinity" (DOC) was measured and found the three factors have a strong influence on it. DOC is closely related to thermal stability and MicroPCMs with a higher DOC show better temperature resistance. The thermal regulating effects of the MicroPCMs coatings were studied. A "plateau regions" was detected around the temperature of phase change, showing the function of PCMs. Addition of silver nano-particles to the MicroPCMs has a positive influence on it. NC-MicroPCMs with introducing silver nano particles into the MicroPCMs structure, have shown excellent multifunctional thermal properties and thermal stabilities that are far beyond those of the conventional MicroPCMs. The novel NC-MicroPCMs can be used to develop advanced smart materials and products with prosperous and promising applications in a number of industries.

  3. Overview of bacterial cellulose composites: a multipurpose advanced material.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nasrullah; Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Khattak, Waleed Ahmad; Park, Joong Kon

    2013-11-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) has received substantial interest owing to its unique structural features and impressive physico-mechanical properties. BC has a variety of applications in biomedical fields, including use as biomaterial for artificial skin, artificial blood vessels, vascular grafts, scaffolds for tissue engineering, and wound dressing. However, pristine BC lacks certain properties, which limits its applications in various fields; therefore, synthesis of BC composites has been conducted to address these limitations. A variety of BC composite synthetic strategies have been developed based on the nature and relevant applications of the combined materials. BC composites are primarily synthesized through in situ addition of reinforcement materials to BC synthetic media or the ex situ penetration of such materials into BC microfibrils. Polymer blending and solution mixing are less frequently used synthetic approaches. BC composites have been synthesized using numerous materials ranging from organic polymers to inorganic nanoparticles. In medical fields, these composites are used for tissue regeneration, healing of deep wounds, enzyme immobilization, and synthesis of medical devices that could replace cardiovascular and other connective tissues. Various electrical products, including biosensors, biocatalysts, E-papers, display devices, electrical instruments, and optoelectronic devices, are prepared from BC composites with conductive materials. In this review, we compiled various synthetic approaches for BC composite synthesis, classes of BC composites, and applications of BC composites. This study will increase interest in BC composites and the development of new ideas in this field. PMID:24053844

  4. Stress concentration around circular hole in a composite material specimen representative of the X-29A forward-swept wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Hsien-Yang

    1988-01-01

    The theory of anisotropic elasticity was used to evaluate the anisotropic stress concentration factors of a composite laminated plate containing a small circular hole. This advanced composite material was used to manufacture the X-29A forward swept wing. Observe that the usual isotropic material stress concentration factor is three. However, for composite material, it was found that the anisotropic stress concentration factor is no longer constant, and that the locations of maximum tangential stress points could shift by changing the fiber orientation with respect to the loading axis. The analysis showed that through the lamination process, the stress concentration factor could be drastically reduced, and therefore the structural performance could be improved. Both the mixture rule approach and the constant strain approach were used to calculate the stress concentration factor. The results predicted by the mixture rule approach were about 20 percent deviate from the experimental data. However, the results predicted by the constant strain approach matched the testing data very well. This showed the importance of the inplane shear effect on the evaluation of stress concentration factor for the X-29A composite plate.

  5. Study of composites as substrate materials in large space telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, A. V.

    1979-01-01

    Nonmetallic composites such as the graphite/epoxy system were investigated as possible substrates for the primary mirror of the large space telescope. The possible use of fiber reinforced metal matrix composites was reviewed in the literature. Problems arising out of the use of composites as substrate materials such as grinding, polishing, adherence of reflective coatings, rigidity of substrate, hygrospcopici tendency of the composites, thermal and temporal stability and other related problems were examined.

  6. An experimental study of reinforced panels of composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrienko, V. M.; Ionov, A. A.; Kopylova, L. V.

    The strength and stability characteristics of reinforced panels of composite materials are examined with particular reference to the structural applications of high-strength and high-modulus composites in flight vehicles. Experimental and analytical data are presented on the stability and strength of carbon composite panels of different types. The panels considered include panels reinforced by closed-profile elements, panels with open-type reinforcement elements, and sandwich panels with a corrugated core. The weight efficiency of composite panels is estimated.

  7. Composite material application for liquid rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heubner, S. W.

    1982-01-01

    With increasing emphasis on improving engine thrust-to-weight ratios to provide improved payload capabilities, weight reductions achievable by the use of composites have become attractive. Of primary significance is the weight reduction offered by composites, although high temperature properties and cost reduction were also considered. The potential for application of composites to components of Earth-to-orbit hydrocarbon engines and orbit-to-orbit LOX/H2 engines was assessed. The components most likely to benefit from the application of composites were identified, as were the critical technology areas where developed would be required. Recommendations were made and a program outlined for the design, fabrication, and demonstration of specific engine components.

  8. Corrosion inhibiting composition for treating asbestos containing materials

    DOEpatents

    Hartman, Judithann Ruth

    1998-04-21

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an acid component, optionally a source of fluoride ions, and a corrosion inhibiting amount of thiourea, a lower alkylthiourea, a C.sub.8 -C.sub.15 alkylpyridinium halide or mixtures thereof. A method of transforming an asbestos-containing building material, while part of a building structure, into a non-asbestos material by using the present composition also is disclosed.

  9. Corrosion inhibiting composition for treating asbestos containing materials

    DOEpatents

    Hartman, J.R.

    1998-04-21

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an acid component, optionally a source of fluoride ions, and a corrosion inhibiting amount of thiourea, a lower alkylthiourea, a C{sub 8}{single_bond}C{sub 15} alkylpyridinium halide or mixtures. A method of transforming an asbestos-containing building material, while part of a building structure, into a non-asbestos material by using the present composition also is disclosed.

  10. Nondestructive evaluation of composite materials - A design philosophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, J. C., Jr.; Henneke, E. G., II; Stinchcomb, W. W.; Reifsnider, K. L.

    1984-01-01

    Efficient and reliable structural design utilizing fiber reinforced composite materials may only be accomplished if the materials used may be nondestructively evaluated. There are two major reasons for this requirement: (1) composite materials are formed at the time the structure is fabricated and (2) at practical strain levels damage, changes in the condition of the material, that influence the structure's mechanical performance is present. The fundamental basis of such a nondestructive evaluation capability is presented. A discussion of means of assessing nondestructively the material condition as well as a damage mechanics theory that interprets the material condition in terms of its influence on the mechanical response, stiffness, strength and life is provided.

  11. A Material Model for FE-Simulation of UD Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Sebastian

    2015-07-01

    Composite materials are being increasingly used for industrial applications. CFRP is particularly suitable for lightweight construction due to its high specific stiffness and strength properties. Simulation methods are needed during the development process in order to reduce the effort for prototypes and testing. This is particularly important for CFRP, as the material is costly. For accurate simulations, a realistic material model is needed. In this paper, a material model for the simulation of UD-composites including non-linear material behaviour and damage is developed and implemented in Abaqus. The material model is validated by comparison with test results on a range of test specimens.

  12. Molecular anisotropic magnetoresistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otte, Fabian; Heinze, Stefan; Mokrousov, Yuriy

    2015-12-01

    Using density functional theory calculations, we demonstrate that the effect of anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) can be enhanced by orders of magnitude with respect to conventional bulk ferromagnets in junctions containing molecules sandwiched between ferromagnetic leads. We study ballistic transport in metal-benzene complexes contacted by 3 d transition-metal wires. We show that a gigantic AMR can arise from spin-orbit coupling effects in the leads, drastically enhanced by orbital-symmetry filtering properties of the molecules. We further discuss how this molecular anisotropic magnetoresistance (MAMR) can be tuned by the proper choice of materials and their electronic properties.

  13. Predictive rendering of composite materials: a multi-scale approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, T.; Callet, P.; da Graça, F.; Paljic, A.; Porral, P.; Hoarau, R.

    2015-03-01

    Predictive rendering of material appearance means going deep into the understanding of the physical interaction between light and matter and how these interactions are perceived by the human brain. In this paper we describe our approach to predict the appearance of composite materials by relying on the multi-scale nature of the involved phenomena. Using recent works on physical modeling of complex materials, we show how to predict the aspect of a composite material based on its composition and its morphology. Specifically, we focus on the materials whose morphological structures are defined at several embedded scales. We rely on the assumption that when the inclusions in a composite material are smaller than the considered wavelength, the optical constants of the corresponding effective media can be computed by a homogenization process (or analytically for special cases) to be used into the Fresnel formulas.

  14. Numerical testing of homogenization formulas efficiency for magnetic composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordianu, Adelina; Petrescu, Lucian; Ionita, Valentin

    2015-02-01

    Magnetic composite materials are used for multiple applications. The macroscopic behavior of the material is influenced by its microscopic properties. Sometimes it is difficult to model the complex structure of the composite because the properties differ at the microscopic scale. Some simplifying assumptions are often needed, one of them being the homogenization of the material. In this paper two different composite materials were analyzed using a finite element software (COMSOL Multiphysics). Both materials have a non-magnetic matrix with inclusions made of paramagnetic material for one of them, and ferromagnetic material for the other. The 3D numerical simulations were made for different particle concentrations and for different applied fields. The homogenization was implemented using two different formulas: Maxwell Garnett and Bruggeman. Numerical comparison was made between the magnetic properties of non-homogeneous materials and homogeneous ones showing each formula's efficiency for different cases.

  15. Multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling of a person employs an evaporative cooling liquid that changes phase from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The evaporative cooling liquid is absorbed into a superabsorbent material enclosed within the multilayer composite material. The multilayer composite material has a high percentage of the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix. The cooling effect can be sustained for an extended period of time because of the high percentage of phase change liquid that can be absorbed into the superabsorbent. Such a composite can be used for cooling febrile patients by evaporative cooling as the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix changes from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The composite can be made with a perforated barrier material around the outside to regulate the evaporation rate of the phase change liquid. Alternatively, the composite can be made with an imperveous barrier material or semipermeable membrane on one side to prevent the liquid from contacting the person's skin. The evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix can be recharged by soaking the material in the liquid. The multilayer composite material can be fashioned into blankets, garments and other articles.

  16. Wear resistance of composite materials. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning wear resistance of composite materials. References discuss polymer, ceramic and metal composites. Tribological testing and failure analyses are included. (Contains a minimum of 200 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Model of the anisotropic behavior of doubly oriented and non-oriented materials using coenergy: Application to a large generator

    SciTech Connect

    Mekhiche, M.; Pera, T.; Marechal, Y.

    1995-05-01

    The anisotropic and nonlinear behavior of doubly oriented and non-oriented sheets are modeled using the coenergy density. These models have been implemented in a finite element computation. A large generator has been modeled and the advantages of doubly oriented sheets compared to the conventional non-oriented ones are shown.

  18. Failure Study of Composite Materials by the Yeh-Stratton Criterion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Hsien-Yang; Richards, W. Lance

    1997-01-01

    The newly developed Yeh-Stratton (Y-S) Strength Criterion was used to study the failure of composite materials with central holes and normal cracks. To evaluate the interaction parameters for the Y-S failure theory, it is necessary to perform several biaxial loading tests. However, it is indisputable that the inhomogeneous and anisotropic nature of composite materials have made their own contribution to the complication of the biaxial testing problem. To avoid the difficulties of performing many biaxial tests and still consider the effects of the interaction term in the Y-S Criterion, a simple modification of the Y-S Criterion was developed. The preliminary predictions by the modified Y-S Criterion were relatively conservative compared to the testing data. Thus, the modified Y-S Criterion could be used as a design tool. To further understand the composite failure problem, an investigation of the damage zone in front of the crack tip coupled with the Y-S Criterion is imperative.

  19. Glass flake reinforced composites as optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlap, Paul N.

    1991-05-01

    The optical properties of glass flake composites are investigated by measuring the transmission of collections of flakes in index matched oils over a wide temperature range. For large refractive index differences between glass and matrix, the transmission is periodic with temperature and is interpreted as Fresnel diffraction from a transparent edge. For small refractive index differences, the Rayleigh-Gans (RG) light scattering theory for thin circular disks is used to correlate the data. A model is developed for predicting the flake size and concentration necessary in a particular polymer matrix for the resulting composite to meet given temperature dependent haze requirements.

  20. Damage detection in composite materials by FBGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez, Jose M.; Munoz, Pedro; Pintado, J. M.; Guemes, Alfredo

    2004-06-01

    Embedded fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are sensitive to changes of near strain fields in a composite host monolithic structure, typical of aircraft airframes. FBGs have been embedded in different configurations (a typical position is the skin -- stiffener interface in a monolithic structure) for detecting events associated to damage occurrence. Thus, it is possible to think in FBGs not only as strain sensors, in a classical load monitoring configuration, but as a part of a structural health monitoring (SHM) system in composite structures dimensioned following damage tolerance criteria.

  1. Flexible composite material with phase change thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The composite material can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The composite may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the PCM composite also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, ,gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  2. Flexible composite material with phase change thermal storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The composite material can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The composite may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the PCM composite also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

  3. Preparation of composite materials in space. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steurer, W. H.; Kaye, S.

    1973-01-01

    The reported objectives were to define promising materials, to obtain significant processing criteria and the related processing techniques and apparatus for the preparation of composites in space, and to establish a program for zero-g experiments and the required developmental efforts. Preparation was studied of the following composite types: (1) metal-base fiber and particle composites, including cemented compacts, (2) controlled density metals, comprising plain and reinforced metal foams, and (3) unidirectionally solidified eutectic alloys. The zero-g environment of orbital operations offers the capability to produce metal-base composite materials and castings which exhibit properties and, particularly, unique combinations of properties that cannot be achieved in terrestrial production.

  4. Advanced AE Techniques in Composite Materials Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.

    1996-01-01

    Advanced, waveform based acoustic emission (AE) techniques have been successfully used to evaluate damage mechanisms in laboratory testing of composite coupons. An example is presented in which the initiation of transverse matrix cracking was monitored. In these tests, broad band, high fidelity acoustic sensors were used to detect signals which were then digitized and stored for analysis. Analysis techniques were based on plate mode wave propagation characteristics. This approach, more recently referred to as Modal AE, provides an enhanced capability to discriminate and eliminate noise signals from those generated by damage mechanisms. This technique also allows much more precise source location than conventional, threshold crossing arrival time determination techniques. To apply Modal AE concepts to the interpretation of AE on larger composite specimens or structures, the effects of modal wave propagation over larger distances and through structural complexities must be well characterized and understood. To demonstrate these effects, measurements of the far field, peak amplitude attenuation of the extensional and flexural plate mode components of broad band simulated AE signals in large composite panels are discussed. These measurements demonstrated that the flexural mode attenuation is dominated by dispersion effects. Thus, it is significantly affected by the thickness of the composite plate. Furthermore, the flexural mode attenuation can be significantly larger than that of the extensional mode even though its peak amplitude consists of much lower frequency components.

  5. LIGNOCELLULOSIC-PLASTIC COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Waste wood, waste paper, and waste plastics are major components of MSW and offer great opportunities as recycled ingredients in wood-fiber plastic composites. USEPA and the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) are collaborating on a research project to investigate the processin...

  6. Co-continuous composite materials for friction and braking applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daehn, Glenn S.; Breslin, Michael C.

    2006-11-01

    Reactive infiltration of precursor ceramics (e.g., the formation of an alumina-aluminum composite by reaction of silica in liquid aluminum) is a low-cost and versatile method of creating materials with interpenetrating co-continuous ceramic and metal phases. By controlling the composition and microstructure of the precursor and the composition of the reaction bath, one can control the structure and properties of the resulting material. This paper summarizes preliminary attempts to use these routes to create next-generation materials for automotive brake rotors. Two types of materials were tested. The first is a two-level composite of a co-continuous alumina-aluminum structure that surrounds SiC particles that provide thermal conductivity. For higher-temperature use, the aluminum alloy is replaced with aluminum-bronze. Both materials show friction and wear properties similar to cast iron, but with half the density and better thermal conductivity.

  7. The Dynamic Equation and Simulation of a Linkage Mechanism Fabricated from Three-Dimensional Braided Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Gan-Wei; Wang, Ru-Gui; Li, Zhao-Jun

    The work in this paper is concerned with a four-bar linkage mechanism with links fabricated from three-dimensional braided composite materials. The dynamic equation of the mechanism is established by finite element method (FEM), it includes composite materials parameters and structural parameters of the mechanism. The mass matrix of the beam element is obtained in light of the mass distribution characteristics of the composite materials. According to the 3-dimensional microstructure characters of the three-dimensional braided composite materials, the anisotropic beam element is considered to be made up of four parts, and then the stiffness matrix of the beam element is derived from the constitutive equations of each part and the relation between the strain distribution of each part and the node displacement of the beam element. Based on the damping element model and the expression of dissipation energy of the 3-dimentional braided composite materials, each modal damping value of the mechanism is calculated and the damping matrix of the mechanism is established. The dynamic responses and natural frequency of the mechanism are obtained by simulation, respectively. The work presented in the paper provides theoretical basis to a certain extent for the further research on nonlinear vibration characteristics and optimum design of this kind of mechanism.

  8. Composite metal foil and ceramic fabric materials

    DOEpatents

    Webb, B.J.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Prater, J.T.; DeSteese, J.G.

    1992-03-24

    The invention comprises new materials useful in a wide variety of terrestrial and space applications. In one aspect, the invention comprises a flexible cloth-like material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of metallic foil. In another aspect, the invention includes a flexible fluid impermeable barrier comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric layer having metal wire woven therein. A metallic foil layer is incontinuously welded to the woven metal wire. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of an organic polymer. In still another aspect, the invention includes a rigid fabric structure comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric and a resinous support material which has been hardened as the direct result of exposure to ultraviolet light. Inventive methods for producing such material are also disclosed. 11 figs.

  9. Composite metal foil and ceramic fabric materials

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Brent J. (Richland, WA); Antoniak, Zen I. (Richland, WA); Prater, John T. (Chapel Hill, NC); DeSteese, John G. (Kennewick, WA)

    1992-01-01

    The invention comprises new materials useful in a wide variety of terrestrial and space applications. In one aspect, the invention comprises a flexible cloth-like material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of metallic foil. In another aspect, the invention includes a flexible fluid impermeable barrier comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric layer having metal wire woven therein. A metallic foil layer is incontinuously welded to the woven metal wire. In yet another aspect, the invention includes a material comprising a layer of flexible woven ceramic fabric bonded with a layer of an organic polymer. In still another aspect, the invention includes a rigid fabric structure comprising a flexible woven ceramic fabric and a resinous support material which has been hardened as the direct result of exposure to ultraviolet light. Inventive methods for producing such material are also disclosed.

  10. Production of composites by using gliadin as a bonding material

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our previous papers, a new technology that produces biopolymer composites by particle-bonding was introduced. During the manufacturing process, micrometer-scale raw material was coated with a corn protein, zein, which is then processed to form a rigid material. The coating of raw-material particl...

  11. Soft network composite materials with deterministic and bio-inspired designs.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kyung-In; Chung, Ha Uk; Xu, Sheng; Lee, Chi Hwan; Luan, Haiwen; Jeong, Jaewoong; Cheng, Huanyu; Kim, Gwang-Tae; Han, Sang Youn; Lee, Jung Woo; Kim, Jeonghyun; Cho, Moongee; Miao, Fuxing; Yang, Yiyuan; Jung, Han Na; Flavin, Matthew; Liu, Howard; Kong, Gil Woo; Yu, Ki Jun; Rhee, Sang Il; Chung, Jeahoon; Kim, Byunggik; Kwak, Jean Won; Yun, Myoung Hee; Kim, Jin Young; Song, Young Min; Paik, Ungyu; Zhang, Yihui; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2015-01-01

    Hard and soft structural composites found in biology provide inspiration for the design of advanced synthetic materials. Many examples of bio-inspired hard materials can be found in the literature; far less attention has been devoted to soft systems. Here we introduce deterministic routes to low-modulus thin film materials with stress/strain responses that can be tailored precisely to match the non-linear properties of biological tissues, with application opportunities that range from soft biomedical devices to constructs for tissue engineering. The approach combines a low-modulus matrix with an open, stretchable network as a structural reinforcement that can yield classes of composites with a wide range of desired mechanical responses, including anisotropic, spatially heterogeneous, hierarchical and self-similar designs. Demonstrative application examples in thin, skin-mounted electrophysiological sensors with mechanics precisely matched to the human epidermis and in soft, hydrogel-based vehicles for triggered drug release suggest their broad potential uses in biomedical devices. PMID:25782446

  12. Soft network composite materials with deterministic and bio-inspired designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Kyung-In; Chung, Ha Uk; Xu, Sheng; Lee, Chi Hwan; Luan, Haiwen; Jeong, Jaewoong; Cheng, Huanyu; Kim, Gwang-Tae; Han, Sang Youn; Lee, Jung Woo; Kim, Jeonghyun; Cho, Moongee; Miao, Fuxing; Yang, Yiyuan; Jung, Han Na; Flavin, Matthew; Liu, Howard; Kong, Gil Woo; Yu, Ki Jun; Rhee, Sang Il; Chung, Jeahoon; Kim, Byunggik; Kwak, Jean Won; Yun, Myoung Hee; Kim, Jin Young; Song, Young Min; Paik, Ungyu; Zhang, Yihui; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2015-03-01

    Hard and soft structural composites found in biology provide inspiration for the design of advanced synthetic materials. Many examples of bio-inspired hard materials can be found in the literature; far less attention has been devoted to soft systems. Here we introduce deterministic routes to low-modulus thin film materials with stress/strain responses that can be tailored precisely to match the non-linear properties of biological tissues, with application opportunities that range from soft biomedical devices to constructs for tissue engineering. The approach combines a low-modulus matrix with an open, stretchable network as a structural reinforcement that can yield classes of composites with a wide range of desired mechanical responses, including anisotropic, spatially heterogeneous, hierarchical and self-similar designs. Demonstrative application examples in thin, skin-mounted electrophysiological sensors with mechanics precisely matched to the human epidermis and in soft, hydrogel-based vehicles for triggered drug release suggest their broad potential uses in biomedical devices.

  13. Soft network composite materials with deterministic and bio-inspired designs

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Kyung-In; Chung, Ha Uk; Xu, Sheng; Lee, Chi Hwan; Luan, Haiwen; Jeong, Jaewoong; Cheng, Huanyu; Kim, Gwang-Tae; Han, Sang Youn; Lee, Jung Woo; Kim, Jeonghyun; Cho, Moongee; Miao, Fuxing; Yang, Yiyuan; Jung, Han Na; Flavin, Matthew; Liu, Howard; Kong, Gil Woo; Yu, Ki Jun; Rhee, Sang Il; Chung, Jeahoon; Kim, Byunggik; Kwak, Jean Won; Yun, Myoung Hee; Kim, Jin Young; Song, Young Min; Paik, Ungyu; Zhang, Yihui; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Hard and soft structural composites found in biology provide inspiration for the design of advanced synthetic materials. Many examples of bio-inspired hard materials can be found in the literature; far less attention has been devoted to soft systems. Here we introduce deterministic routes to low-modulus thin film materials with stress/strain responses that can be tailored precisely to match the non-linear properties of biological tissues, with application opportunities that range from soft biomedical devices to constructs for tissue engineering. The approach combines a low-modulus matrix with an open, stretchable network as a structural reinforcement that can yield classes of composites with a wide range of desired mechanical responses, including anisotropic, spatially heterogeneous, hierarchical and self-similar designs. Demonstrative application examples in thin, skin-mounted electrophysiological sensors with mechanics precisely matched to the human epidermis and in soft, hydrogel-based vehicles for triggered drug release suggest their broad potential uses in biomedical devices. PMID:25782446

  14. Effect of particle size in composite materials on radiative properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Siu-Chun; White, Susan; Grzesik, Jan

    1993-01-01

    A numerical model for the radiative properties of a composite material composed of ceramic oxide fibers and particles was developed and used to determine the effect of the size parameters of the two components. Results include the computed phase functions for the zirconia and silica composite materials, showing the location and strength of the strong forward-scattering peak. The phase function and the optical properties of the composite are strongly influenced by the particle size parameter through the fiber or particle diameter and the wavelength, the material, and the mixture fraction.

  15. Microthermodynamics analysis of the shape memory effect in composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, J.G.; Lagoudas, D.C.

    1994-12-31

    The shape memory effect and pseudoelasticity due to phase transformation in shape memory alloy (SMA) composites is modeled using a two part procedure. First, phenomenological constitutive equations are proposed for the monolithic polycrystalline SMA material. The equations are of the generalized standard material type, in which the response is given by a convex free energy function and a dissipation potential. Second, a micromechanics analysis of a SMA composite material is performed to derive its free energy, transformation strain rate, and Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Specific results are given for a Nitinol SMA fiber/elastomer matrix composite.

  16. Advanced composites: Fabrication processes for selected resin matrix materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welhart, E. K.

    1976-01-01

    This design note is based on present state of the art for epoxy and polyimide matrix composite fabrication technology. Boron/epoxy and polyimide and graphite/epoxy and polyimide structural parts can be successfully fabricated. Fabrication cycles for polyimide matrix composites have been shortened to near epoxy cycle times. Nondestructive testing has proven useful in detecting defects and anomalies in composite structure elements. Fabrication methods and tooling materials are discussed along with the advantages and disadvantages of different tooling materials. Types of honeycomb core, material costs and fabrication methods are shown in table form for comparison. Fabrication limits based on tooling size, pressure capabilities and various machining operations are also discussed.

  17. Preparation of composite materials in space. Volume 2: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steurer, W. H.; Kaye, S.

    1973-01-01

    A study to define promising materials, significant processing criteria, and the related processing techniques and apparatus for the preparation of composite materials in space was conducted. The study also established a program for zero gravity experiments and the required developmental efforts. The following composite types were considered: (1) metal-base fiber and particle composites, including cemented compacts, (2) controlled density metals, comprising plain and reinforced metal foams, and (3) unidirectionally solidified eutectic alloys. A program of suborbital and orbital experiments for the 1972 to 1978 time period was established to identify materials, processes, and required experiment equipment.

  18. Anisotropic enhanced backscattering induced by anisotropic diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bret, B. P. J.; Lagendijk, A.

    2004-09-01

    The enhanced backscattering cone displaying a strong anisotropy from a material with anisotropic diffusion is reported. The constructive interference of the wave is preserved in the helicity preserving polarization channel and completely lost in the nonpreserving one. The internal reflectivity at the interface modifies the width of the backscatter cone. The reflectivity coefficient is measured by angular-resolved transmission. This interface property is found to be isotropic, simplifying the backscatter cone analysis. The material used is a macroporous semiconductor, gallium phosphide, in which pores are etched in a disordered position but with a preferential direction.

  19. Microbiological destruction of composite polymeric materials in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legonkova, O. A.; Selitskaya, O. V.

    2009-01-01

    Representatives of the same species of microscopic fungi developed on composite materials with similar polymeric matrices independently from the type of soils, in which the incubation was performed. Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium auranthiogriseum, and Clonostachys solani were isolated from the samples of polyurethane. Fusarium solani, Clonostachys rosea, and Trichoderma harzianum predominated on the surface of ultrathene samples. Ulocladium botrytis, Penicillium auranthiogriseum, and Fusarium solani predominated in the variants with polyamide. Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus ochraceus, and Acremonium strictum were isolated from Lentex-based composite materials. Mucor circinelloides, Trichoderma harzianum, and Penicillium auranthiogriseum were isolated from composite materials based on polyvinyl alcohol. Electron microscopy demonstrated changes in the structure of polymer surface (loosening and an increase in porosity) under the impact of fungi. The physicochemical properties of polymers, including their strength, also changed. The following substances were identified as primary products of the destruction of composite materials: stearic acid for polyurethane-based materials; imide of dithiocarbonic acid and 1-nonadecen in variants with ultrathene; and tetraaminopyrimidine and isocyanatodecan in variants with polyamide. N,N-dimethyldodecan amide, 2-methyloximundecanon and 2-nonacosane were identified for composites on the base of Lentex A4-1. Allyl methyl sulfide and imide of dithiocarbonic acid were found in variants with the samples of composites based on polyvinyl alcohol. The identified primary products of the destruction of composite materials belong to nontoxic compounds.

  20. Space-related composite-material experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaye, S.

    1974-01-01

    The preparation of composites in space depends on the immersion of reinforcements in a liquid-metal matrix and their uniform, stable dispersion in the bulk products until solidification occurs. The chief problem in achieving the composite is associated with the 'wetting' of the reinforcements. A study of the theory of wetting revealed that wetting is prevented by the presence of gaseous and oxide contaminants at the interface between the pure liquid and pure solid. Experiment then confirmed that the use of a vacuum environment, cleaning of all surfaces, elevated temperature, ion bombardment, and vigorous mechanical agitation enabled the immersion and dispersion of candidate reinforcements. The technique is limited by the increased tendency for reaction if the time at elevated temperature is extended.

  1. Photorefractivity in liquid crystalline composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wiederrecht, G.P.; Wasielewski, M.R.

    1997-09-01

    We report recent improvements in the photorefractive of liquid crystalline thin film composites containing electron donor and acceptor molecules. The improvements primarily result from optimization of the exothermicity of the intermolecular charge transfer reaction and improvement of the diffusion characteristics of the photogenerated ions. Intramolecular charge transfer dopants produce greater photorefractivity and a 10-fold decrease in the concentration of absorbing chromophores. The mechanism for the generation of mobile ions is discussed.

  2. Metal oxide composite dosimeter method and material

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of measuring a radiation dose wherein a radiation responsive material consisting essentially of metal oxide is first exposed to ionizing radiation. The metal oxide is then stimulating with light thereby causing the radiation responsive material to photoluminesce. Photons emitted from the metal oxide as a result of photoluminescence may be counted to provide a measure of the ionizing radiation.

  3. Casting of superconducting composite materials (M-4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Togano, Kazumasa

    1993-01-01

    An aluminum-lead-bismuth alloy is a flexible alloy and is promising for easily workable embedded-type, filament-dispersed superconducting wire material. It is difficult to produce homogeneous ingots of this material because it is easily separated into elements when melted on Earth due to the large specific gravity differences. In this experiment, a homogeneous alloy will first be produced in molten state in microgravity. It will then be returned to Earth and processed into a wire or tape form. It will then be dispersed as the second phase in micro texture form into the primary phase of aluminum. Superconducting wire material with high-critical-magnetic-field characteristics will be produced. The texture of the material will be observed, and its performance will be evaluated. In addition to the above alloy, a four-element alloy will be produced from silver, a rare Earth element, barium, and copper. The alloys will be oxidized and drawn into wire after being returned to Earth. The materials are expected to be forerunners in obtaining superconducting wire materials from oxide superconductors.

  4. Mechanical behaviour of composite materials made by resin film infusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barile, C.; Casavola, C.; Pappalettere, C.; Tursi, F.

    2010-06-01

    Innovative composite materials are frequently used in designing aerospace, naval and automotive components. In the typical structure of composites, multiple layers are stacked together with a particular sequence in order to give specific mechanical properties. Layers are organized with different angles, different sequences and different technological process to obtain a new and innovative material. From the standpoint of engineering designer it is useful to consider the single layer of composite as macroscopically homogeneous material. However, composites are non homogeneous bodies. Moreover, layers are not often perfectly bonded together and delamination often occurs. Other violations of lamination theory hypotheses, such as plane stress and thin material, are not unusual and in many cases the transverse shear flexibility and the thickness-normal stiffness should be considered. Therefore the real behaviour of composite materials is quite different from the predictions coming from the traditional lamination theory. Due to the increasing structural performance required to innovative composites, the knowledge of the mechanical properties for different loading cases is a fundamental source of concern. Experimental characterization of materials and structures in different environmental conditions is extremely important to understand the mechanical behaviour of these new materials. The purpose of the present work is to characterize a composite material developed for aerospace applications and produced by means of the resin film infusion process (RFI). Different tests have been carried out: tensile, open-hole and filled-hole tensile, compressive, openhole and filled-hole compressive. The experimental campaign has the aim to define mechanical characteristics of this RFI composite material in different conditions: environmental temperature, Hot/Wet and Cold.

  5. Electrical Characterizations of Lightning Strike Protection Techniques for Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szatkowski, George N.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Mielnik, John J.

    2009-01-01

    The growing application of composite materials in commercial aircraft manufacturing has significantly increased the risk of aircraft damage from lightning strikes. Composite aircraft designs require new mitigation strategies and engineering practices to maintain the same level of safety and protection as achieved by conductive aluminum skinned aircraft. Researchers working under the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project are investigating lightning damage on composite materials to support the development of new mitigation, diagnosis & prognosis techniques to overcome the increased challenges associated with lightning protection on composite aircraft. This paper provides an overview of the electrical characterizations being performed to support IVHM lightning damage diagnosis research on composite materials at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  6. Using Virtual Testing for Characterization of Composite Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Joseph

    Composite materials are finally providing uses hitherto reserved for metals in structural systems applications -- airframes and engine containment systems, wraps for repair and rehabilitation, and ballistic/blast mitigation systems. They have high strength-to-weight ratios, are durable and resistant to environmental effects, have high impact strength, and can be manufactured in a variety of shapes. Generalized constitutive models are being developed to accurately model composite systems so they can be used in implicit and explicit finite element analysis. These models require extensive characterization of the composite material as input. The particular constitutive model of interest for this research is a three-dimensional orthotropic elasto-plastic composite material model that requires a total of 12 experimental stress-strain curves, yield stresses, and Young's Modulus and Poisson's ratio in the material directions as input. Sometimes it is not possible to carry out reliable experimental tests needed to characterize the composite material. One solution is using virtual testing to fill the gaps in available experimental data. A Virtual Testing Software System (VTSS) has been developed to address the need for a less restrictive method to characterize a three-dimensional orthotropic composite material. The system takes in the material properties of the constituents and completes all 12 of the necessary characterization tests using finite element (FE) models. Verification and validation test cases demonstrate the capabilities of the VTSS.

  7. Finite element analysis of a composite material interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, K. H.

    1973-01-01

    A finite element model of a composite material interface is developed to study the influence of the interface on the thermal strain in the composite. A plane stress model is used with an axisymmetric model as a check. The interface thickness, thermal coefficient, modulus, Poisson's ratio and the percent of mineral in the composite are variables in the study. The results confirmed the usability of the finite element model in studying the polymer-mineral interface.

  8. Composite Materials for Thermal Energy Storage: Enhancing Performance through Microstructures

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Zhiwei; Ye, Feng; Ding, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    Chemical incompatibility and low thermal conductivity issues of molten-salt-based thermal energy storage materials can be addressed by using microstructured composites. Using a eutectic mixture of lithium and sodium carbonates as molten salt, magnesium oxide as supporting material, and graphite as thermal conductivity enhancer, the microstructural development, chemical compatibility, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, and thermal energy storage performance of composite materials are investigated. The ceramic supporting material is essential for preventing salt leakage and hence provides a solution to the chemical incompatibility issue. The use of graphite gives a significant enhancement on the thermal conductivity of the composite. Analyses suggest that the experimentally observed microstructural development of the composite is associated with the wettability of the salt on the ceramic substrate and that on the thermal conduction enhancer. PMID:24591286

  9. Graphite and boron-reinforced composite materials data summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Data summary is collection of information on typical processing techniques. Mechanical properties, and physical properties of advanced composite materials which are being considered for structural applications on advanced space vehicles.

  10. Health, safety and environmental requirements for composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazer, Kathleen A.

    1994-01-01

    The health, safety and environmental requirements for the production of composite materials are discussed. The areas covered include: (1) chemical identification for each chemical; (2) toxicology; (3) industrial hygiene; (4) fire and safety; (5) environmental aspects; and (6) medical concerns.

  11. Generating Finite-Element Models Of Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, M. E.

    1993-01-01

    Program starts at micromechanical level, from simple inputs supplied by user. COMGEN, COmposite Model GENerator, is interactive FORTRAN program used to create wide variety of finite-element models of continuous-fiber composite materials at micromechanical level. Quickly generates batch or "session files" to be submitted to finite-element preprocessor and postprocessor program, PATRAN. COMGEN requires PATRAN to complete model.

  12. Space Radiation Effects in Inflatable and Composite Habitat Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Rojdev, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    This Year 2 project provides much needed risk reduction data to assess solar particle event (SPE) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) space radiation damage in existing and emerging materials used in manned low-earth orbit, lunar, interplanetary, and Martian surface missions. More specifically, long duration (up to 50 years) space radiation damage is quantified for materials used in inflatable structures (1st priority), and habitable composite structures and space suits materials (2nd priority). The data collected has relevance for nonmetallic materials (polymers and composites) used in NASA missions where long duration reliability is needed in continuous or intermittent radiation fluxes.

  13. Low-Cost Composite Materials and Structures for Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deo, Ravi B.; Starnes, James H., Jr.; Holzwarth, Richard C.

    2003-01-01

    A survey of current applications of composite materials and structures in military, transport and General Aviation aircraft is presented to assess the maturity of composites technology, and the payoffs realized. The results of the survey show that performance requirements and the potential to reduce life cycle costs for military aircraft and direct operating costs for transport aircraft are the main reasons for the selection of composite materials for current aircraft applications. Initial acquisition costs of composite airframe components are affected by high material costs and complex certification tests which appear to discourage the widespread use of composite materials for aircraft applications. Material suppliers have performed very well to date in developing resin matrix and fiber systems for improved mechanical, durability and damage tolerance performance. The next challenge for material suppliers is to reduce material costs and to develop materials that are suitable for simplified and inexpensive manufacturing processes. The focus of airframe manufacturers should be on the development of structural designs that reduce assembly costs by the use of large-scale integration of airframe components with unitized structures and manufacturing processes that minimize excessive manual labor.

  14. Statistical analysis and interpolation of compositional data in materials science.

    PubMed

    Pesenson, Misha Z; Suram, Santosh K; Gregoire, John M

    2015-02-01

    Compositional data are ubiquitous in chemistry and materials science: analysis of elements in multicomponent systems, combinatorial problems, etc., lead to data that are non-negative and sum to a constant (for example, atomic concentrations). The constant sum constraint restricts the sampling space to a simplex instead of the usual Euclidean space. Since statistical measures such as mean and standard deviation are defined for the Euclidean space, traditional correlation studies, multivariate analysis, and hypothesis testing may lead to erroneous dependencies and incorrect inferences when applied to compositional data. Furthermore, composition measurements that are used for data analytics may not include all of the elements contained in the material; that is, the measurements may be subcompositions of a higher-dimensional parent composition. Physically meaningful statistical analysis must yield results that are invariant under the number of composition elements, requiring the application of specialized statistical tools. We present specifics and subtleties of compositional data processing through discussion of illustrative examples. We introduce basic concepts, terminology, and methods required for the analysis of compositional data and utilize them for the spatial interpolation of composition in a sputtered thin film. The results demonstrate the importance of this mathematical framework for compositional data analysis (CDA) in the fields of materials science and chemistry. PMID:25547365

  15. Sensor development exploiting graphite-epoxy composite as electrode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azevedo, André L. M.; Oliveira, Renato S.; Ponzio, Eduardo A.; Semaan, Felipe S.

    2015-11-01

    This study presents some results regarding the development and characterization of graphite-epoxy composites for use as working electrodes in electroanalysis. Such composites were preliminary assessed by TGA-DTA, AFM, XDR and cyclic voltammetry (CV), standing for a suitable stable and low cost material for electroanalytical purposes. The described material was used, in its best proportion (65% graphite m/m), to build a cell electrochemistry.

  16. Theories of failure of filament wound-case composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, G.

    1986-07-01

    The appropriate failure criterion for composite materials is perhaps one of the most contentious issues in the field. A critical review of the main theories is presented. It is suggested that the tensor polynominal theory, with a modification for normal stress interaction, be adopted. The failure envelopes for the composite materials being studied for the construction of the casing of the solid rocket booster motor of the US Space Shuttle are obtained using this theory. 14 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Resistance fail strain gage technology as applied to composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, M. E.; Brinson, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    Existing strain gage technologies as applied to orthotropic composite materials are reviewed. The bonding procedures, transverse sensitivity effects, errors due to gage misalignment, and temperature compensation methods are addressed. Numerical examples are included where appropriate. It is shown that the orthotropic behavior of composites can result in experimental error which would not be expected based on practical experience with isotropic materials. In certain cases, the transverse sensitivity of strain gages and/or slight gage misalignment can result in strain measurement errors.

  18. Multifunctional composite material based on carbon-filled polyurethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinovskaya, T.; Melentyev, S.; Pavlov, S.

    2015-10-01

    The research paper deals with the performance of composite resistive material heating coatings based on the polyurethane binder, filled with colloidal-graphite preparation C- 1, which can be used in structures of electric heaters. Frequency dependences of transmission and reflection coefficients, dielectric permeability of composite materials with the various content of carbon fillers (technical carbon, graphite) in polyurethane varnish in ranges of frequencies 26-40 GHz and 110-260 GHz are experimentally investigated.

  19. Support Assembly for Composite Laminate Materials During Roll Press Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catella, Luke A.

    2011-01-01

    A composite laminate material is supported during the roll press processing thereof by an assembly having: first and second perforated films disposed adjacent to first and second opposing surfaces of a mixture of uncured resin and fibers defining the composite laminate material, a gas permeable encasement surrounding the mixture and the first and second films, a gas impervious envelope sealed about the gas permeable encasement, and first and second rigid plates clamped about the gas impervious envelope.

  20. Light weight polymer matrix composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Lowell, Carl E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix is layed up, cured, and thermally aged at about 750 F in the presence of an inert gas. The heat treatment improves the structural integrity and alters the electrical conductivity of the materials. In the preferred embodiment PMR-15 polyimides and Celion-6000 graphite fibers are used.

  1. Light weight polymer matrix composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Lowell, Carl E. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix is layed up, cured, and thermally aged at about 750.degree. F. in the presence of an inert gas. The heat treatment improves the structural integrity and alters the electrical conductivity of the materials. In the preferred embodiment PMR-15 polyimides and Celion-6000 graphite fibers are used.

  2. Predicting Moisture Absorption in Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Heat transport programs adaptable for absorption analysis. Lightweight sandwich panel specimen used for comparison of water absorption measurements with program predictions. In program model, moisture -- like heat in heat-transport problem moves through variety of materials and structures along complex paths.

  3. Composite Structures and Materials Research at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Dexter, H. Benson; Johnston, Norman J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Cano, roberto J.

    2003-01-01

    A summary of recent composite structures and materials research at NASA Langley Research Center is presented. Fabrication research to develop low-cost automated robotic fabrication procedures for thermosetting and thermoplastic composite materials, and low-cost liquid molding processes for preformed textile materials is described. Robotic fabrication procedures discussed include ply-by-ply, cure-on-the-fly heated placement head and out-of-autoclave electron-beam cure methods for tow and tape thermosetting and thermoplastic materials. Liquid molding fabrication processes described include Resin Film Infusion (RFI), Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM). Results for a full-scale composite wing box are summarized to identify the performance of materials and structures fabricated with these low-cost fabrication methods.

  4. Composite Structures and Materials Research at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Dexter, H. Benson; Johnston, Norman J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Cano, Roberto J.

    2001-01-01

    A summary of recent composite structures and materials research at NASA Langley Research Center is presented. Fabrication research to develop low-cost automated robotic fabrication procedures for thermosetting and thermoplastic composite materials, and low-cost liquid molding processes for preformed textile materials is described. Robotic fabrication procedures discussed include ply-by-ply, cure-on-the-fly heated placement head and out-of-autoclave electron-beam cure methods for tow and tape thermosetting and thermoplastic materials. Liquid molding fabrication processes described include Resin Film Infusion (RFI) Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM). Results for a full-scale composite wing box are summarized to identify the performance of materials and structures fabricated with these low-cost fabrication methods.

  5. Method of tissue repair using a composite material

    DOEpatents

    Hutchens, Stacy A; Woodward, Jonathan; Evans, Barbara R; O'Neill, Hugh M

    2014-03-18

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  6. Method of tissue repair using a composite material

    DOEpatents

    Hutchens, Stacy A.; Woodward, Jonathan; Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.

    2016-03-01

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  7. Electrode material comprising graphene-composite materials in a graphite network

    DOEpatents

    Kung, Harold H.; Lee, Jung K.

    2014-07-15

    A durable electrode material suitable for use in Li ion batteries is provided. The material is comprised of a continuous network of graphite regions integrated with, and in good electrical contact with a composite comprising graphene sheets and an electrically active material, such as silicon, wherein the electrically active material is dispersed between, and supported by, the graphene sheets.

  8. Method and apparatus for gripping uniaxial fibrous composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Hurwitz, F. I. (inventors)

    1984-01-01

    A strip specimen is cut from a unidirectional strong, brittle fiber composite material, and the surfaces of both ends of the specimen are grit blasted. The specimen is then placed between metal load transfer members having grit blasted surfaces. Sufficient compressive stress is applied to the load transfer members to prevent slippage during testing at both elevated temperatures and room temperatures. The need for adhesives, load pads, and other secondary composite processing is eliminated. This gripping system was successful in tensile testing, creep rupture testing, and fatigue testing uniaxial composite materials at 316 C.

  9. Advanced composites: Environmental effects on selected resin matrix materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welhart, E. K.

    1976-01-01

    The effects that expected space flight environment has upon the mechanical properties of epoxy and polyimide matrix composites were analyzed. Environmental phenomena covered water immersion, high temperature aging, humidity, lightning strike, galvanic action, electromagnetic interference, thermal shock, rain and sand erosion, and thermal/vacuum outgassing. The technology state-of-the-art for graphite and boron reinforced epoxy and polyimide matrix materials is summarized to determine the relative merit of using composites in the space shuttle program. Resin matrix composites generally are affected to some degree by natural environmental phenomena with polyimide resin matrix materials less affected than epoxies.

  10. Composition and process for making an insulating refractory material

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, A.; Swansiger, T.G.

    1998-04-28

    A composition and process are disclosed for making an insulating refractory material. The composition includes calcined alumina powder, flash activated alumina powder, an organic polymeric binder and a liquid vehicle which is preferably water. Starch or modified starch may also be added. A preferred insulating refractory material made with the composition has a density of about 2.4--2.6 g/cm{sup 3} with reduced thermal conductivity, compared with tabular alumina. Of importance, the formulation has good abrasion resistance and crush strength during intermediate processing (commercial sintering) to attain full strength and refractoriness.

  11. Composition and process for making an insulating refractory material

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, Alan (Murrysville, PA); Swansiger, Thomas G. (Apollo, PA)

    1998-04-28

    A composition and process for making an insulating refractory material. The composition includes calcined alumina powder, flash activated alumina powder, an organic polymeric binder and a liquid vehicle which is preferably water. Starch or modified starch may also be added. A preferred insulating refractory material made with the composition has a density of about 2.4-2.6 g/cm.sup.3 with reduced thermal conductivity, compared with tabular alumina. Of importance, the formulation has good abrasion resistance and crush strength during intermediate processing (commercial sintering) to attain full strength and refractoriness, good abrasion resistance and crush strength.

  12. Carbon Cryogel Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodworth James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 10 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-4,9 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  13. Composition/bandgap selective dry photochemical etching of semiconductor materials

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Dishman, J.L.

    1985-10-11

    Disclosed is a method of selectively photochemically dry etching a first semiconductor material of a given composition and direct bandgap Eg/sub 1/ in the presence of a second semiconductor material of a different composition and direct bandgap Eg/sub 2/, wherein Eg/sub 2/ > Eg/sub 1/, said second semiconductor material substantially not being etched during said method. The method comprises subjecting both materials to the same photon flux and to the same gaseous etchant under conditions where said etchant would be ineffective for chemical etching of either material were the photons not present, said photons being of an energy greater than Eg/sub 1/ but less than Eg/sub 2/, whereby said first semiconductor material is photochemically etched and said second material is substantially not etched.

  14. Composition/bandgap selective dry photochemical etching of semiconductor materials

    DOEpatents

    Ashby, Carol I. H. (Edgewood, NM); Dishman, James L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01

    A method of selectively photochemically dry etching a first semiconductor material of a given composition and direct bandgap Eg.sub.1 in the presence of a second semiconductor material of a different composition and direct bandgap Eg.sub.2, wherein Eg.sub.2 >Eg.sub.1, said second semiconductor material substantially not being etched during said method, comprises subjecting both materials to the same photon flux and to the same gaseous etchant under conditions where said etchant would be ineffective for chemical etching of either material were the photons not present, said photons being of an energy greater than Eg.sub.1 but less than Eg.sub.2, whereby said first semiconductor material is photochemically etched and said second material is substantially not etched.

  15. Accelerated hygrothermal stabilization of composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, J.A.

    1994-05-01

    Experimentation validated a simple moisture conditioning scheme to prepare Gr/Ep composite parts for precision applications by measuring dimensional changes over 90 days. It was shown that an elevated temperature moisture conditioning scheme produced a dimensionally stable part from which precision structures could be built/machined without significant moisture induced dimensional changes after fabrication. Conversely, that unconditioned Gr/Ep composite panels exhibited unacceptably large dimensional changes (i.e., greater than 125 ppM). It was also shown that time required to produce stable parts was shorter, by more than an order of magnitude, employing the conditioning scheme than using no conditioning scheme (46 days versus 1000+ days). Two final use environments were chosen for the experiments: 50% RH/21C and 0% RH/21C. Fiberite 3034K was chosen for its widespread use in aerospace applications. Two typical lay-ups were chosen, one with low sensitivity to hygrothermal distortions and the other high sensitivity: [0, {plus_minus} 45, 90]s, [0, {plus_minus} 15, 0]s. By employing an elevated temperature, constant humidity conditioning scheme, test panels achieved an equilibrium moisture content in less time, by more than an order of magnitude, than panels exposed to the same humidity environment and ambient temperature. Dimensional changes, over 90 days, were up to 4 times lower in the conditioned panels compared to unconditioned panels. Analysis of weight change versus time of test coupons concluded that the out-of-autoclave moisture content of Fiberite 3034K varied between 0.06 and 0.1%.

  16. Lightweight Composite Materials for Heavy Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Pruez, Jacky; Shoukry, Samir; Williams, Gergis; Shoukry, Mark

    2013-08-31

    The main objective of this project is to develop, analyze and validate data, methodologies and tools that support widespread applications of automotive lightweighting technologies. Two underlying principles are guiding the research efforts towards this objective: • Seamless integration between the lightweight materials selected for certain vehicle systems, cost-effective methods for their design and manufacturing, and practical means to enhance their durability while reducing their Life-Cycle-Costs (LCC). • Smooth migration of the experience and findings accumulated so far at WVU in the areas of designing with lightweight materials, innovative joining concepts and durability predictions, from applications to the area of weight savings for heavy vehicle systems and hydrogen storage tanks, to lightweighting applications of selected systems or assemblies in light–duty vehicles.

  17. Acoustic emission from composite materials. [nondestructive tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visconti, I. C.; Teti, R.

    1979-01-01

    The two basic areas where the acoustic emission (AE) technique can be applied are materials research and the evaluation of structural reliability. This experimental method leads to a better understanding of fracture mechanisms and is an NDT technique particularly well suited for the study of propagating cracks. Experiments are described in which acoustic emissions were unambiguously correlated with microstructural fracture mechanisms. The advantages and limitations of the AE technique are noted.

  18. Bearing material. [composite material with low friction surface for rolling or sliding contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E. (inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A composite material is described which will provide low friction surfaces for materials in rolling or sliding contact and is self-lubricating and oxidation resistant up to and in excess of about 930 C. The composite is comprised of a metal component which lends strength and elasticity to the structure, a fluoride salt component which provides lubrication and, lastly, a glass component which not only provides oxidation protection to the metal but may also enhance the lubrication qualities of the composite.

  19. Investigation of woven composites as potential cryogenic tank materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Md. S.; Melendez-Soto, E.; Castellanos, A. G.; Prabhakar, P.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, carbon fiber and Kevlar® fiber woven composites were investigated as potential cryogenic tank materials for storing liquid fuel in spacecraft or rocket. Towards that end, both carbon and Kevlar® fiber composites were manufactured and tested with and without cryogenic exposure. The focus was on the investigation of the influence of initial cryogenic exposure on the degradation of the composite. Tensile, flexural and inter laminar shear strength (ILSS) tests were conducted, which indicate that Kevlar® and carbon textile composites are potential candidates for use under cryogenic exposure.

  20. Multilayer Electroactive Polymer Composite Material Comprising Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An electroactive material comprises multiple layers of electroactive composite with each layer having unique dielectric, electrical and mechanical properties that define an electromechanical operation thereof when affected by an external stimulus. For example, each layer can be (i) a 2-phase composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation, or (ii) a 3-phase composite having the elements of the 2-phase composite and further including a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic incorporated in the polymer matrix.

  1. Functional composite materials based on chemically converted graphene.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hua; Li, Chun; Shi, Gaoquan

    2011-03-01

    Graphene, a one-atom layer of graphite, possesses a unique two-dimensional structure and excellent mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties. Thus, it has been regarded as an important component for making various functional composite materials. Graphene can be prepared through physical, chemical and electrochemical approaches. Among them, chemical methods were tested to be effective for producing chemically converted graphene (CCG) from various precursors (such as graphite, carbon nanotubes, and polymers) in large scale and at low costs. Therefore, CCG is more suitable for synthesizing high-performance graphene based composites. In this progress report, we review the recent advancements in the studies of the composites of CCG and small molecules, polymers, inorganic nanoparticles or other carbon nanomaterials. The methodology for preparing CCG and its composites has been summarized. The applications of CCG-based functional composite materials are also discussed. PMID:21360763

  2. Electrospun Nanofiber Coating of Fiber Materials: A Composite Toughening Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, Lee W.; Roberts, Gary D.

    2012-01-01

    Textile-based composites could significantly benefit from local toughening using nanofiber coatings. Nanofibers, thermoplastic or otherwise, can be applied to the surface of the fiber tow bundle, achieving toughening of the fiber tow contact surfaces, resulting in tougher and more damage-resistant/tolerant composite structures. The same technique could also be applied to other technologies such as tape laying, fiber placement, or filament winding operations. Other modifications to the composite properties such as thermal and electrical conductivity could be made through selection of appropriate nanofiber material. Control of the needle electric potential, precursor solution, ambient temperature, ambient humidity, airflow, etc., are used to vary the diameter and nanofiber coating morphology as needed. This method produces a product with a toughening agent applied to the fiber tow or other continuous composite precursor material where it is needed (at interfaces and boundaries) without interfering with other composite processing characteristics.

  3. Synopsis of Direct and Indirect Lightning Effects on Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Tony

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program funded a study on electromagnetic environmental effect issues of composite materials used by the aerospace industry. The results of which are published by Ross Evans, Tec-Masters Inc., in NASA-CR-4783, "Test Report - Direct and Indirect Lightning Effects on Composite Materials." Indirect effects include the electric and magnetic field shielding provided by a composite material illuminated by a near or direct lightning strike. Direct effects includes the physical damage of composites and/or assembly joint with a direct strike injection. This paper provides a synopsis of NASA-CR-4783. A short description is provided of the direct and indirect tests performed during the sturdy. General results and design guidelines are discussed.

  4. Health monitoring in composite materials via peak strain sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Larry D.; Westermo, Bruce D.

    1996-11-01

    Fiber-reinforced composite materials are beginning to be employed in applications related to retrofit and repair of large-scale civil structures. This paper discusses the utilization of a passive, pea, strain monitoring technology to the damage and health assessment of composite structures. Applications considered include epoxy-matrix composite materials reinforced with chopped glass, continuous glass fibers, carbon-fiber mat as well as continuous carbon-fiber. The advantages of the various material applications are discussed as they apply to large civil structures with peak strain monitoring data presented to illustrate how the systems can be field monitored. Full-scale structural component testing as well as subscale laboratory testing results will be presented and discussed. Recommendations are provided to guide the engineering community in such composite applications and to provide a design framework for the inclusion of simple and reliable sensor systems to detect both short-term and long-term damage.

  5. Structurally integrated fiber optic damage assessment system for composite materials.

    PubMed

    Measures, R M; Glossop, N D; Lymer, J; Leblanc, M; West, J; Dubois, S; Tsaw, W; Tennyson, R C

    1989-07-01

    Progress toward the development of a fiber optic damage assessment system for composite materials is reported. This system, based on the fracture of embedded optical fibers, has been characterized with respect to the orientation and location of the optical fibers in the composite. Together with a special treatment, these parameters have been tailored to yield a system capable of detecting the threshold of damage for various impacted Kevlar/epoxy panels. The technique has been extended to measure the growth of a damage region which could arise from either impact, manufacturing flaws, or static overloading. The mechanism of optical fiber fracture has also been investigated. In addition, the influence of embedded optical fibers on the tensile and compressive strength of the composite material has been studied. Image enhanced backlighting has been shown to be a powerful and convenient method of assessing internal damage to translucent composite materials. PMID:20555570

  6. Carbon-carbon composites: Emerging materials for hypersonic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maahs, Howard G.

    1989-01-01

    An emerging class of high temperature materials called carbon-carbon composites are being developed to help make advanced aerospace flight become a reality. Because of the high temperature strength and low density of carbon-carbon composites, aerospace engineers would like to use these materials in even more advanced applications. One application of considerable interest is as the structure of the aerospace vehicle itself rather than simply as a protective heat shield as on Space Shuttle. But suitable forms of these materials have yet to be developed. If this development can be successfully accomplished, advanced aerospace vehicles such as the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) and other hypersonic vehicles will be closer to becoming a reality. A brief definition is given of C-C composites. Fabrication problems and oxidation protection concepts are examined. Applications of C-C composites in the Space Shuttle and in advanced hypersonic vehicles as well as other applications are briefly discussed.

  7. Olivine Composite Cathode Materials for Improved Lithium Ion Battery Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.M.; Vaughey, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Composite cathode materials in lithium ion batteries have become the subject of a great amount of research recently as cost and safety issues related to LiCoO2 and other layered structures have been discovered. Alternatives to these layered materials include materials with the spinel and olivine structures, but these present different problems, e.g. spinels have low capacities and cycle poorly at elevated temperatures, and olivines exhibit extremely low intrinsic conductivity. Previous work has shown that composite structures containing spinel and layered materials have shown improved electrochemical properties. These types of composite structures have been studied in order to evaluate their performance and safety characteristics necessary for use in lithium ion batteries in portable electronic devices, particularly hybrid-electric vehicles. In this study, we extended that work to layered-olivine and spinel-olivine composites. These materials were synthesized from precursor salts using three methods: direct reaction, ball-milling, and a coreshell synthesis method. X-ray diffraction spectra and electrochemical cycling data show that the core-shell method was the most successful in forming the desired products. The electrochemical performance of the cells containing the composite cathodes varied dramatically, but the low overpotential and reasonable capacities of the spinel-olivine composites make them a promising class for the next generation of lithium ion battery cathodes.

  8. Cell attachment to hydrogel-electrospun fiber mat composite materials.

    PubMed

    Han, Ning; Johnson, Jed K; Bradley, Patrick A; Parikh, Kunal S; Lannutti, John J; Winter, Jessica O

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogels, electrospun fiber mats (EFMs), and their composites have been extensively studied for tissue engineering because of their physical and chemical similarity to native biological systems. However, while chemically similar, hydrogels and electrospun fiber mats display very different topographical features. Here, we examine the influence of surface topography and composition of hydrogels, EFMs, and hydrogel-EFM composites on cell behavior. Materials studied were composed of synthetic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(?-caprolactone) (PEGPCL) hydrogels and electrospun poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and core/shell PCL/PEGPCL constituent materials. The number of adherent cells and cell circularity were most strongly influenced by the fibrous nature of materials (e.g., topography), whereas cell spreading was more strongly influenced by material composition (e.g., chemistry). These results suggest that cell attachment and proliferation to hydrogel-EFM composites can be tuned by varying these properties to provide important insights for the future design of such composite materials. PMID:24955629

  9. Finite Element Modeling of the Thermographic Inspection for Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucinell, Ronald B.

    1996-01-01

    The performance of composite materials is dependent on the constituent materials selected, material structural geometry, and the fabrication process. Flaws can form in composite materials as a result of the fabrication process, handling in the manufacturing environment, and exposure in the service environment to anomalous activity. Often these flaws show no indication on the surface of the material while having the potential of substantially degrading the integrity of the composite structure. For this reason it is important to have available inspection techniques that can reliably detect sub-surface defects such as inter-ply disbonds, inter-ply cracks, porosity, and density changes caused by variations in fiber volume content. Many non-destructive evaluation techniques (NDE) are capable of detecting sub-surface flaws in composite materials. These include shearography, video image correlation, ultrasonic, acoustic emissions, and X-ray. The difficulty with most of these techniques is that they are time consuming and often difficult to apply to full scale structures. An NDE technique that appears to have the capability to quickly and easily detect flaws in composite structure is thermography. This technique uses heat to detect flaws. Heat is applied to the surface of a structure with the use of a heat lamp or heat gun. A thermographic camera is then pointed at the surface and records the surface temperature as the composite structure cools. Flaws in the material will cause the thermal-mechanical material response to change. Thus, the surface over an area where a flaw is present will cool differently than regions where flaws do not exist. This paper discusses the effort made to thermo-mechanically model the thermography process. First the material properties and physical parameters used in the model will be explained. This will be followed by a detailed discussion of the finite element model used. Finally, the result of the model will be summarized along with recommendations for future work.

  10. Composite Material Property Nondestructive Characterization Using Obliquely Insonified Ultrasonic Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Mal, A. K.; Lih, S.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of reflected ultrasonic waves induced by oblique insonification of composite materials is a powerful tool for providing informations about defects and material properties. A device was developed to manipulate a pair of transmitting and receiving transducers at vrious angles of wave incidence and propagation with the fiber orientation.

  11. Experimental techniques for dynamic characterization of composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Greif, R. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Hebert, B. )

    1995-01-01

    This research combines theoretical and experimental approaches for dynamic material characterization of composite materials. The samples studied include continuous fiber graphite/epoxy beams with various symmetric lay-up configurations. Included are laminated beams with the following lay-ups: [0[sub 8]/90[sub 8

  12. Anisotropic universe with anisotropic sources

    SciTech Connect

    Aluri, Pavan K.; Panda, Sukanta; Sharma, Manabendra; Thakur, Snigdha E-mail: sukanta@iiserb.ac.in E-mail: snigdha@iiserb.ac.in

    2013-12-01

    We analyze the state space of a Bianchi-I universe with anisotropic sources. Here we consider an extended state space which includes null geodesics in this background. The evolution equations for all the state observables are derived. Dynamical systems approach is used to study the evolution of these equations. The asymptotic stable fixed points for all the evolution equations are found. We also check our analytic results with numerical analysis of these dynamical equations. The evolution of the state observables are studied both in cosmic time and using a dimensionless time variable. Then we repeat the same analysis with a more realistic scenario, adding the isotropic (dust like dark) matter and a cosmological constant (dark energy) to our anisotropic sources, to study their co-evolution. The universe now approaches a de Sitter space asymptotically dominated by the cosmological constant. The cosmic microwave background anisotropy maps due to shear are also generated in this scenario, assuming that the universe contains anisotropic matter along with the usual (dark) matter and vacuum (dark) energy since decoupling. We find that they contribute dominantly to the CMB quadrupole. We also constrain the current level of anisotropy and also search for any cosmic preferred axis present in the data. We use the Union 2 Supernovae data to this extent. An anisotropy axis close to the mirror symmetry axis seen in the cosmic microwave background data from Planck probe is found.

  13. Composite material fabrication techniques. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, B J; Paulauskas, F L; Miller, J; Parzych, W

    1996-09-30

    This report describes a low cost method of fabricating components for mockups and training simulators used in the transportation industry. This technology was developed jointly by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Metters Industries, Incorporated (MI) as part of a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) ORNL94-0288 sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Economic Impace and Diversity Minority Business Technology Transfer Consortium. The technology involves fabricating component replicas from fiberglass/epoxy composites using a resin transfer molding (RTM) process. The original components are used as masters to fabricate the molds. The molding process yields parts that duplicate the significant dimensional requirements of the original component while still parts that duplicate the significant dimensional requirements of the original component while still providing adequate strength and stiffness for use in training simulators. This technology permits MI to overcome an acute shortage in surplus military hardware available to them for use in manufacturing training simulators. In addition, the cost of the molded fiberglass components is expected to be less than that of procuring the original components from the military.

  14. Temperature effect on stress concentration around circular hole in a composite material specimen representative of X-29A forward-swept wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Hsien-Yang

    1988-01-01

    The theory of anisotropic elasticity was used to evaluate the anisotropic stress concentration factors of a composite laminated plate containing a small circular hole. This advanced composite was used to manufacture the X-29A forward-swept wing. It was found for composite material, that the anisotropic stress concentration is no longer a constant, and that the locations of maximum tangential stress points could shift by changing the fiber orientation with respect to the loading axis. The analysis showed that through the lamination process, the stress concentration factor could be reduced drastically, and therefore the structural performance could be improved. Both the mixture rule approach and the constant strain approach were used to calculate the stress concentration factor of room temperature. The results predicted by the mixture rule approach were about twenty percent deviate from the experimental data. However, the results predicted by the constant strain approach matched the testing data very well. This showed the importance of the inplane shear effect on the evaluation of the stress concentration factor for the X-29A composite plate.

  15. Biotransformation of an uncured composite material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welsh, Clement J.; Glass, Michael J.; Cheslack, Brian; Pryor, Robert; Tran, Duan K.; Bowers-Irons, Gail

    1994-01-01

    The feasibility of biologically degrading prepreg wastes was studied. The work was conducted with the intention of obtaining baseline data that would facilitate the achievement of two long-range goals. These goals are: (1) the biological remediation of the hazardous components in the prepreg wastes, and (2) providing the potential for recycling the prepreg waste fibers. The experiments examined a prepreg that employs an bismaleimide resin system. Initial results demonstrated an obvious deterioration of the prepreg material when incubated with several bacterial strains. The most active cultures were identified as a mixture of 'Bacillus cereus' and 'Pseudomonas sp'. Gas chromatography analyses revealed seven primary compounds in the resin mixture. Biotransformation studies, using the complete prepreg material, demonstrated on obvious loss of all seven organic compounds. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses resulted in structure assignments for the two primary components of the resin. Both were analogs of Bisphenol A; one being bismaleimide, and the other being Bisphenol A containing a diglycidyl moiety. The 'diglycidyl analog' was purified using thin-layer chromatography and the biotransformation of this compound (at 27 ug/ml bacterial culture) was monitored. After a seven-day incubation, approximately 40% of the organic compound was biotransformed. These results demonstrate the biotransformation of the prepreg resin and indicate that biological remediation of the prepreg wastes is feasible.

  16. Workshop on Scaling Effects in Composite Materials and Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Karen E. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    This document contains presentations and abstracts from the Workshop on Scaling Effects in Composite Materials and Structures jointly sponsored by NASA Langley Research Center, Virginia Tech, and the Institute for Mechanics and Materials at the University of California, San Diego, and held at NASA Langley on November 15-16, 1993. Workshop attendees represented NASA, other government research labs, the aircraft/rotorcraft industry, and academia. The workshop objectives were to assess the state-of-technology in scaling effects in composite materials and to provide guidelines for future research.

  17. DOE Automotive Composite Materials Research: Present and Future Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, C.D.

    1999-08-10

    One method of increasing automotive energy efficiency is through mass reduction of structural components by the incorporation of composite materials. Significant use of glass reinforced polymers as structural components could yield a 20--30% reduction in vehicle weight while the use of carbon fiber reinforced materials could yield a 40--60% reduction in mass. Specific areas of research for lightweighting automotive components are listed, along with research needs for each of these categories: (1) low mass metals; (2) polymer composites; and (3) ceramic materials.

  18. Polymeric compositions incorporating polyethylene glycol as a phase change material

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.; Griffen, Charles W.

    1989-01-01

    A polymeric composition comprising a polymeric material and polyethylene glycol or end-capped polyethylene glycol as a phase change material, said polyethylene glycol and said end-capped polyethylene glycol having a molecular weight greater than about 400 and a heat of fusion greater than about 30 cal/g; the composition is useful in making molded and/or coated materials such as flooring, tiles, wall panels and the like; paints containing polyethylene glycols or end-capped polyethylene glycols are also disclosed.

  19. Emissivity Results on High Temperature Coatings for Refractory Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Vaughn, Wallace L.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Lewis, Ronald K.; Rodriguez, Alvaro C.; Milhoan, James D.; Koenig, John R.

    2007-01-01

    The directional emissivity of various refractory composite materials considered for application for reentry and hypersonic vehicles was investigated. The directional emissivity was measured at elevated temperatures of up to 3400 F using a directional spectral radiometric technique during arc-jet test runs. A laboratory-based relative total radiance method was also used to measure total normal emissivity of some of the refractory composite materials. The data from the two techniques are compared. The paper will also compare the historical database of Reinforced Carbon-Carbon emissivity measurements with emissivity values generated recently on the material using the two techniques described in the paper.

  20. Composite Materials with Viscoelastic Stiffness Greater Than Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaglinski, T.; Kochmann, D.; Stone, D.; Lakes, R. S.

    2007-02-01

    We show that composite materials can exhibit a viscoelastic modulus (Young's modulus) that is far greater than that of either constituent. The modulus, but not the strength, of the composite was observed to be substantially greater than that of diamond. These composites contain barium-titanate inclusions, which undergo a volume-change phase transformation if they are not constrained. In the composite, the inclusions are partially constrained by the surrounding metal matrix. The constraint stabilizes the negative bulk modulus (inverse compressibility) of the inclusions. This negative modulus arises from stored elastic energy in the inclusions, in contrast to periodic composite metamaterials that exhibit negative refraction by inertial resonant effects. Conventional composites with positive-stiffness constituents have aggregate properties bounded by a weighted average of constituent properties; their modulus cannot exceed that of the stiffest constituent.