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1

Modelling the shock response of a damageable anisotropic composite material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this paper is the investigation of the effect of fibre orientation on the shock response of a damageable carbon fibre-epoxy composite (CFEC). A carbon fibre-epoxy composite (CFEC) shock response in the through-thickness orientation and in one of the fibre directions is significantly different. Modelling the effect of fibre orientation on the shock response of a CFEC has been performed using a generalised decomposition of the stress tensor [A.A. Lukyanov, Int. J. Plasticity 24, 140 (2008)] and an accurate extrapolation of high-pressure shock Hugoniot states to other thermodynamics states for shocked CFEC materials. The analysis of the experimental data subject to the linear relation between shock velocities and particle velocities has shown that damage softening process produces discontinuities both in value and slope in the generalized bulk shock velocity and particle velocity relation [A.A. Lukyanov, Eur Phys J B 74, 35 (2010)]. Therefore, in order to remove these discontinuities, the three-wave structure (non-linear anisotropic, fracture and isotropic elastic waves) that accompanies damage softening process is proposed in this work for describing CFEC behavior under shock loading. A numerical calculation shows that Hugoniot Stress Levels (HELs) agree with the experimental data for selected CFEC material in different directions at low and at high intensities. In the through-thickness orientation, the material behaves similar to a simple polymer. In the fibre direction, the proposed model explains a pronounced ramp, before at sufficiently high stresses, and a much faster rising shock above it. The results are presented and discussed, and future studies are outlined.

Lukyanov, Alexander A.

2012-09-01

2

Analysis of three-dimensional composite materials with non-isotropic or biaxial anisotropic inclusions using a finite difference method  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the FDM is extended to analyze the effective anisotropic permittivity of composite materials with non-isotropic or biaxial anisotropic inclusions. Numerical experiments have demonstrated that this technique has the ability to effectively analyze three-dimensional complex composite materials with macroscopic anisotropic dielectric properties.

Dagang Wu; Ji Chen; Ce Liu

2007-01-01

3

Negative refraction in anisotropic composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Left-handed materials (LHM) are materials in which the direction of wave propagation S is opposite to the wave vector k . S <0 .[1,2,3] LHM exhibit nagative refraction. Experiments have been carried out on a medium consisting of arrays of metallic rings and wrires.[3] An example of a different class of anisotropic left-handed materials are metallic magnetic granular composites. Based

S. T. Chui

2004-01-01

4

Negative refraction in anisotropic composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Left-handed materials (LHM) are materials in which the direction of wave propagation S is opposite to the wave vector k . S <0 .[1,2,3] LHM exhibit nagative refraction. Experiments have been carried out on a medium consisting of arrays of metallic rings and wrires.[3] An example of a different class of anisotropic left-handed materials are metallic magnetic granular composites. Based on the effective medium approximation, we show that by incorporating metallic magnetic nanoparticles into an appropriate insulating matrix, it may be possible to prepare a composite medium of low eddy current loss which is left-handed for electromagnetic waves propagating in some special direction and polarization in a frequency region near the ferromagnetic resonance frequency.[4,5] This composite may be easier to make on an industrial scale. In addition, its physical properties may be easily tuned by rotating the magnetization locally. The physics involved seems to be different from the original argument.[1,2] In our argument[5], the imaginary part of the dielectric constant of the metal is much larger than the real part, opposite to the original argument. In anisotropic materials so that some of the susceptibilities are negative, the criterion for LHM may not be the same as that for negative refraction.[6] Ansiotropic materials exhibit a richer manifold of anomlous behaviour[6,7,8] and offers more flexibility in apllications.[8] More recently it was found that negative refraction can occur in anisotropic materials where all the susceptibilities are positive.[9] We found that the range of applicability of this effect is much larger than originally thought.[10] S. T. Chui was supported in part by the Office of Naval Research, by the Army Research Laboratory through the Center of Composite Materials at the University of Delaware, by DARPA and by the NSF. [1] J.B.Pendry, A.J.Holden, W.J.Stewart, and I.Youngs, Phys. Rev. Lett 76, 4773 (1996). [2] V.G.Veselago, Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509 (1968). [3] D.R.Smith, W.J.Padilla, D.C.Vier, S.C.Nemet-Nasser, S.Schultz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3578 (2000). [4] S. T. Chui and L. B. Hu, Phys. Rev. B 65, 144407 (2002), [5] S. T. Chui, L. B. Hu and Z. F. Lin, Phys. Lett. A319, 85 (2003). [6] L. B. Hu, S. T. Chui and Z. F. Lin, Phys. Rev. B66, 085108 (2002). [7] V. Lindell and coworkers, Microwave and Opt. Tech Lett. 31, 129 (2001). [8] D. R. Smith and D. Schurig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 077405-1 (2003); D. Schurig and D. R. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2215 (2003). [9] Y. Zhang, B. Fluegel and A. Mascarenhas, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 157404, (2003). [10] Z. F. Lin and S. T. Chui, unpublished.

Chui, S. T.

2004-03-01

5

Digital image correlation and biaxial test on composite material for anisotropic damage law identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the work is to extend the use of non-conventional tests and full field measurements to the identification of an anisotropic damage law. A Digital Image Correlation technique based on a finite element discretization is used to extract planar displacement fields. The reconditioned Equilibrium Gap Method is then used to retrieve a damage law that accounts for shear

Jean Noël Périé; Hugo Leclerc; Stéphane Roux; François Hild

2009-01-01

6

Unit-Sphere Multiaxial Stochastic-Strength Model Applied to Anisotropic and Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models that predict the failure probability of brittle materials under multiaxial loading have been developed by authors such as Batdorf, Evans, and Matsuo. These "unit-sphere" models assume that the strength-controlling flaws are randomly oriented, noninteracting planar microcracks of specified geometry but of variable size. This methodology has been extended to predict the multiaxial strength response of transversely isotropic brittle materials, including polymer matrix composites (PMCs), by considering (1) flaw-orientation anisotropy, whereby a preexisting microcrack has a higher likelihood of being oriented in one direction over another direction, and (2) critical strength, or K (sub Ic) orientation anisotropy, whereby the level of critical strength or fracture toughness for mode I crack propagation, K (sub Ic), changes with regard to the orientation of the microstructure. In this report, results from finite element analysis of a fiber-reinforced-matrix unit cell were used with the unit-sphere model to predict the biaxial strength response of a unidirectional PMC previously reported from the World-Wide Failure Exercise. Results for nuclear-grade graphite materials under biaxial loading are also shown for comparison. This effort was successful in predicting the multiaxial strength response for the chosen problems. Findings regarding stress-state interactions and failure modes also are provided.

Nemeth, Noel, N.

2013-01-01

7

Improved understanding of the dynamic response in anisotropic directional composite materials through the combination of experiments and modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently there has been renewed interest in the dynamic response of composite materials; specifically low density epoxy matrix binders strengthened with continuous reinforcing fibers. This is in part due to the widespread use of carbon fiber composites in military, commercial, industrial, and aerospace applications. The design community requires better understanding of these materials in order to make full use of their unique properties. Planar impact testing was performed resulting in pressures up to 15 GPa on a unidirectional carbon fiber - epoxy composite, engineered to have high uniformity and low porosity. Results illustrate the anisotropic nature of the response under shock loading. Along the fiber direction, a two-wave structure similar to typical elastic-plastic response is observed, however, when shocked transverse to the fibers, only a single bulk shock wave is detected. At higher pressures, the epoxy matrix dissociates resulting in a loss of anisotropy. Greater understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the observed response has been achieved through numerical modeling of the system at the micromechanical level using the CTH hydrocode. From the simulation results it is evident that the observed two-wave structure in the longitudinal fiber direction is the result of a fast moving elastic precursor wave traveling in the carbon fibers ahead of the bulk response in the epoxy resin. Similarly, in the transverse direction, results show a collapse of the resin component consistent with the experimental observation of a single shock wave traveling at speeds associated with bulk carbon. Experimental and simulation results will be discussed and used to show where additional mechanisms, not fully described by the currently used models, are present.

Alexander, C. S.; Key, C. T.; Schumacher, S. C.

2014-05-01

8

Anisotropic fiber alignment in composite structures  

DOEpatents

High strength material composite structures are formed with oriented fibers to provide controlled anisotropic fibers. Fibers suspended in non-dilute concentrations (e.g., up to 20 volume percent for fibers having an aspect ratio of 20) in a selected medium are oriented by moving an axially spaced array of elements in the direction of desired fiber alignment. The array elements are generally perpendicular to the desired orientation. The suspension medium may also include sphere-like particles where the resulting material is a ceramic.

Graham, Alan L. (Los Alamos, NM); Mondy, Lisa A. (Cedar Crest, NM); Guell, David C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1993-01-01

9

Anisotropic fiber alignment in composite structures  

DOEpatents

High strength material composite structures are formed with oriented fibers to provide controlled anisotropic fibers. Fibers suspended in non-dilute concentrations (e.g., up to 20 volume percent for fibers having an aspect ratio of 20) in a selected medium are oriented by moving an axially spaced array of elements in the direction of desired fiber alignment. The array elements are generally perpendicular to the desired orientation. The suspension medium may also include sphere-like particles where the resulting material is a ceramic. 5 figures.

Graham, A.L.; Mondy, L.A.; Guell, D.C.

1993-11-16

10

Anisotropic Decomposition of Energetic Materials.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a white x-ray synchrotron beam, we have dynamically studied radiation-induced decomposition in single crystalline PETN and TATB. By monitoring the integrated intensity of selected diffraction spots via a CCD x-ray camera as a function of time, we have found that the decomposition rate varies dramatically depending upon the orientation of the crystalline axes relative to polarized x-ray beam and for differing diffracting conditions (spots) within the same crystalline orientation. We suggest that this effect is due to Compton scattering of the polarized x-rays with electron clouds that is dependent upon their relative orientation. This novel effect may yield valuable insight regarding anisotropic detonation sensitivity in energetic materials such as PETN.

Pravica, Michael; Quine, Zachary; Romano, Edward; Bajar, Sean; Yulga, Brian; Yang, Wenge; Hooks, Daniel

2007-12-01

11

Anisotropic Decomposition of Energetic Materials  

SciTech Connect

Using a white x-ray synchrotron beam, we have dynamically studied radiation-induced decomposition in single crystalline PETN and TATB. By monitoring the integrated intensity of selected diffraction spots via a CCD x-ray camera as a function of time, we have found that the decomposition rate varies dramatically depending upon the orientation of the crystalline axes relative to polarized x-ray beam and for differing diffracting conditions (spots) within the same crystalline orientation. We suggest that this effect is due to Compton scattering of the polarized x-rays with electron clouds that is dependent upon their relative orientation. This novel effect may yield valuable insight regarding anisotropic detonation sensitivity in energetic materials such as PETN.

Pravica, Michael; Quine, Zachary; Romano, Edward; Bajar, Sean; Yulga, Brian; Yang, Wenge; Hooks, Daniel (UNLV); (CIW); (LANL)

2008-01-17

12

Anisotropic decomposition of energetic materials  

SciTech Connect

Using a white x-ray synchrotron beam, we have dynamically studied radiation-induced decomposition in single crystalline PETN and TATB. By monitoring the integrated intensity of selected diffraction spots via a CCD x-ray camera as a function of time, we have found that the decomposition rate varies dramatically depending upon the orientation of the crystalline axes relative to polarized x-ray beam and for differing diffracting conditions (spots) within the same crystalline orientation. We suggest that this effect is due to Compton scattering of the polarized x-rays with electron clouds that is dependent upon their relative orientation. This novel effect may yield valuable insight regarding anisotropic detonation sensitivity in energetic materials such as PETN.

Pravica, Michael; Quine, Zachary; Romano, Edward; Bajar, Sean; Yulga, Brian [High Pressure Science and Engineering Center and Department of Physics, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV USA, 89154-4002 (United States); Yang Wenge [HP-CAT, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States); Hooks, Daniel [Dynamic Experimentation Division (DE-9), Los Alamo National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2007-12-12

13

Anisotropic Magnetism in Field-Structured Composites  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic field-structured-composites (FSCs) are made by structuring magnetic particle suspensions in uniaxial or biaxial (e.g. rotating) magnetic fields, while polymerizing the suspending resin. A uniaxial field produces chain-like particle structures, and a biaxial field produces sheet-like particle structures. In either case, these anisotropic structures affect the measured magnetic hysteresis loops, with the magnetic remanence and susceptibility increased significantly along the axis of the structuring field, and decreased slightly orthogonal to the structuring field, relative to the unstructured particle composite. The coercivity is essentially unaffected by structuring. We present data for FSCs of magnetically soft particles, and demonstrate that the altered magnetism can be accounted for by considering the large local fields that occur in FSCs. FSCS of magnetically hard particles show unexpectedly large anisotropies in the remanence, and this is due to the local field effects in combination with the large crystalline anisotropy of this material.

Anderson, Robert A.; Martin, James E.; Odinek, Judy; Venturini, Eugene

1999-06-24

14

Anisotropic layers with through-thickness thermal and material variations  

SciTech Connect

The thermoelastic problem of an inhomogeneous anisotropic layer with material properties that vary smoothly through the thickness is examined. The problem is solved via a semiinverse technique, relying on the assumptions of the simply-connectedness of the body. The solution is applicable to the analysis of materials with chemical composition gradients and/or temperature-dependent material properties. 14 refs.

Ferrari, M. (California Univ., Berkeley (United States))

1992-09-01

15

Induced electric fields in anisotropic thermoelectric materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport in an anisotropic material can create potentially large induced transverse fields which reduce the measured electric and thermal conductivities relative to those computed without the induced fields. These affect the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT modestly. The induced electric field in n-type Bi2Te3 is predicted to be as much as 76% of the external one and can lower the measured electrical conductivity by up to 60%. In Hg1-xCdxTe superlattices, the anisotropy may be increased by varying the composition and width of the barrier and well to give induced fields much larger than the applied one. These effects should be easily observable. The present work utilizes general results applied to a microscopic model relevant for multivalleyed materials within the effective-mass and relaxation-time approximations.

Bies, W. E.; Radtke, R. J.; Ehrenreich, H.

1999-11-01

16

Composite structural materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress is reported in studies of constituent materials composite materials, generic structural elements, processing science technology, and maintaining long-term structural integrity. Topics discussed include: mechanical properties of high performance carbon fibers; fatigue in composite materials; experimental and theoretical studies of moisture and temperature effects on the mechanical properties of graphite-epoxy laminates and neat resins; numerical investigations of the micromechanics of composite fracture; delamination failures of composite laminates; effect of notch size on composite laminates; improved beam theory for anisotropic materials; variation of resin properties through the thickness of cured samples; numerical analysis composite processing; heat treatment of metal matrix composites, and the RP-1 and RP2 gliders of the sailplane project.

Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

1984-01-01

17

Composite material  

DOEpatents

A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

Hutchens, Stacy A. (Knoxville, TN); Woodward, Jonathan (Solihull, GB); Evans, Barbara R. (Oak Ridge, TN); O'Neill, Hugh M. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-02-07

18

Anisotropic linear elastic properties of fractal-like composites.  

PubMed

In this work, the anisotropic linear elastic properties of two-phase composite materials, made up of square inclusions embedded in a matrix, are investigated. The inclusions present a fractal hierarchical distribution and are supposed to have the same Poisson's ratio as the matrix but a different Young's modulus. The effective elastic moduli of the medium are computed at each fractal iteration by coupling a position-space renormalization-group technique with a finite element analysis. The study allows to obtain and generalize some fundamental properties of fractal composite materials. PMID:21230552

Carpinteri, Alberto; Cornetti, Pietro; Pugno, Nicola; Sapora, Alberto

2010-11-01

19

Induced electric fields in anisotropic thermoelectric materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transport in an anisotropic material can create potentially large induced transverse fields which reduce the measured electric and thermal conductivities relative to those computed without the induced fields. These affect the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT modestly. The induced electric field in n-type Bi2Te3 is predicted to be as much as 76% of the external one and can lower the

W. E. Bies; R. J. Radtke; H. Ehrenreich

1999-01-01

20

Composite Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity (located on page 3 of PDF) about composites, materials made of 2 or more different components. Learners will be challenged to build the best mud bricks, one of the earliest examples of composites. From a supply of various building components, which the learners will examine for their different properties, they will build mud bricks, then dry them and put them through several tests. *Bricks must bake in the sun for 2-3 days prior to testing. Resource contains information about how this activity relates to carbon nanotubes and links to video, DragonflyTV Nano: Hockey Sticks.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2008-01-01

21

A material model for anisotropic metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes the development of a material model, which allows for anisotropy of elastic constants, the yield surface, work hardening parameters and damage. The current failure/damage model is porosity based and allows for the modelling of tensile failure and includes the effect of anisotropy. The model accounts for non-linear behaviour at high pressures, and is implemented in the LLNL-DYNA3D. The importance of the above mentioned model features when considering the response of anisotropic materials to high strain-rate loading is illustrated by considering two examples, flyer plate impact and Taylor cylinder impact.

de Vuyst, T.; Vignjevic, R.; Mirkovic, J.; Campbell, J.

2003-09-01

22

Anisotropic magnetostrictive metal-polymer composites for functional devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New metal-polymer composites based on mechanochemically synthesized magnetostrictive Fe-Ga phase particles with dimensions of up to 2 ?m dispersed and spatially oriented in a polymer matrix have been studied. The polymer matrix for spatial anisotropic stabilization of particles was represented by modified polyurethane (PU). An increase in the magnetostrictive effect was achieved by directed orientation of particles in a magnetic field applied during polymerization of the PU matrix. The spatial anisotropy of the composite has been studied by the methods of conversion Mössbauer spectroscopy with resonant X-ray detection and scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that the mechanochemical synthesis is an effective method of obtaining particles with microstress-enhanced magnetostriction. The use of these particles for the formation of a functional elastomer composite provides a material with significant magnetostrictive effect, which can be several-fold increased due to orientation of particles in an applied magnetic field. The obtained anisotropic magnetostrictive composite is a promising material for the creation of smart functional components of positioning systems, attenuators, and sensors.

Kiseleva, T. Yu.; Zholudev, S. I.; Il'inykh, I. A.; Novakova, A. A.

2013-12-01

23

CONDENSED MATTER: ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE, ELECTRICAL, MAGNETIC, AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES: Effective Anisotropic Dielectric Properties of Crystal Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transformation field method (TFM) is developed to estimate the anisotropic dielectric properties of crystal composites having arbitrary shapes and dielectric properties of crystal inclusions, whose principal dielectric axis are different from those of anisotropic crystal matrix. The complicated boundary-value problem caused by inclusion shapes is circumvented by introducing a transformation electric field into the crystal composites regions, and the effective anisotropic dielectric responses are formulated in terms of the transformation field. Furthermore, the numerical results show that the effective anisotropic dielectric responses of crystal composites periodically vary as a function of the rotating angle between the principal dielectric axes of inclusion and matrix crystal materials. It is found that at larger inclusion volume fraction the inclusion shapes induce profound effect on the effective anisotropic dielectric responses.

Wei, En-Bo; Gu, Guo-Qing; Poon, Ying-Ming; Franklin, G. Shin

2010-02-01

24

Elastic wave scattering by various defects in anisotropic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since wave speeds in anisotropic materials depend on the direction of propagation, the characteristics of scattering and propagation of elastic waves are different from those in isotropic materials. It is therefore necessary to solve scattering problems of elastic waves to establish a quantitative ultrasonic nondestructive method for anisotropic materials. In this study, a time domain boundary element method is developed with use of fundamental solutions for a general anisotropic solid obtained by Wang and Achenbach [Geophysical J. Int., Vol. 118, pp. 384-392, 1994]. The boundary element method is applied to scattering problems of elastic waves by various defects such as a cavity and an inclusion in an infinite anisotropic solid. It is shown that the amplitudes and phases of backscattered waves are quite different from those in isotropic materials and the scattering characteristics are very important factors in the nondestructive ultrasonic evaluation of anisotropic materials. .

Hirose, S.; Katsura, K.

2000-05-01

25

Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composites are lighter and stronger than metals. Aramid fibers like Kevlar and Nomex were developed by DuPont Corporation and can be combined in a honeycomb structure which can give an airplane a light, tough structure. Composites can be molded into many aerodynamic shapes eliminating rivets and fasteners. Langley Research Center has tested composites for both aerospace and non-aerospace applications. They are also used in boat hulls, military shelters, etc.

1985-01-01

26

Thermographic Imaging of Defects in Anisotropic Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite materials are of increasing interest to the aerospace industry as a result of their weight versus performance characteristics. One of the disadvantages of composites is the high cost of fabrication and post inspection with conventional ultrasonic scanning systems. The high cost of inspection is driven by the need for scanning systems which can follow large curve surfaces. Additionally, either large water tanks or water squirters are required to couple the ultrasonics into the part. Thermographic techniques offer significant advantages over conventional ultrasonics by not requiring physical coupling between the part and sensor. The thermographic system can easily inspect large curved surface without requiring a surface following scanner. However, implementation of Thermal Nondestructive Evaluations (TNDE) for flaw detection in composite materials and structures requires determining its limit. Advanced algorithms have been developed to enable locating and sizing defects in carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). Thermal Tomography is a very promising method for visualizing the size and location of defects in materials such as CFRP. However, further investigations are required to determine its capabilities for inspection of thick composites. In present work we have studied influence of the anisotropy on the reconstructed image of a defect generated by an inversion technique. The composite material is considered as homogeneous with macro properties: thermal conductivity K, specific heat c, and density rho. The simulation process involves two sequential steps: solving the three dimensional transient heat diffusion equation for a sample with a defect, then estimating the defect location and size from the surface spatial and temporal thermal distributions (inverse problem), calculated from the simulations.

Plotnikov, Y. A.; Winfree, W. P.

2000-01-01

27

Anisotropic microporous supports impregnated with polymeric ion-exchange materials  

DOEpatents

Novel ion-exchange media are disclosed, the media comprising polymeric anisotropic microporous supports containing polymeric ion-exchange or ion-complexing materials. The supports are anisotropic, having small exterior pores and larger interior pores, and are preferably in the form of beads, fibers and sheets.

Friesen, Dwayne (Bend, OR) [Bend, OR; Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR) [Bend, OR; Tuttle, Mark (Bend, OR) [Bend, OR

1985-05-07

28

The Features of Self-Assembling Organic Bilayers Important to the Formation of Anisotropic Inorganic Materials in Microgravity Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a growing need for inorganic anisotropic particles in a variety of materials science applications. Structural, optical, and electrical properties can be greatly augmented by the fabrication of composite materials with anisotropic microstructures or with anisotropic particles uniformly dispersed in an isotropic matrix. Examples include structural composites, magnetic and optical recording media, photographic film, certain metal and ceramic alloys, and display technologies including flat panel displays. While considerable progress has been made toward developing an understanding of the synthesis of powders composed of monodispersed, spherical particles, these efforts have not been transferred to the synthesis of anisotropic nanoparticles. The major objective of the program is to develop a fundamental understanding of the growth of anisotropic particles at organic templates, with emphasis on the chemical and structural aspects of layered organic assemblies that contribute to the formation of anisotropic inorganic particles.

Talham, Daniel R.; Adair, James H.

1999-01-01

29

The anisotropic mechanical properties of a Ti matrix composite reinforced with SiC fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The anisotropic mechanical properties of a Ti alloy composite reinforced with SiC fibers have been investigated and rationalized using analytical models. The appropriate material model for this composite involves the following features: an interface that debonds and slides, a flaw insensitive ductile matrix, and high-strength elastic fibers subject to residual compressive stress caused by thermal expansion mismatch. This, model is broadly consistent with the longitudinal, transverse, and shear properties of the composite.

Jansson, S.; Dève, H. E.; Evans, A. G.

1991-12-01

30

The features of self-assembling organic bilayers important to the formation of anisotropic inorganic materials in microgravity conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Materials with directional properties are opening new horizons in a variety of applications including chemistry, electronics, and optics. Structural, optical, and electrical properties can be greatly augmented by the fabrication of composite materials with anisotropic microstructures or with anisotropic particles uniformly dispersed in an isotropic matrix. Examples include structural composites, magnetic and optical recording media, photographic film, certain metal and ceramic alloys, and display technologies including flat panel displays. The new applications and the need for model particles in scientific investigations are rapidly out-distancing the ability to synthesize anisotropic particles with specific chemistries and narrowly distributed physical characteristics (e.g. size distribution, shape, and aspect ratio).

Talham, Daniel R.; Adair, James H.

2005-01-01

31

Composite Materials Handbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the US Army Research Laboratory, Materials Sciences Corporation, and University of Delaware Center for Composite Materials, the Composite Materials Handbook provides the "information and guidance necessary to design and fabricate end items from composite materials." Along with current information on the material properties of these composite materials, the handbook also includes data development and usage guidelines. The information has been divided into three areas: polymer, metal, and ceramic matrix composites. The Polymer Matrix Composites Handbook (three volumes including Guidelines for Characterization of Structural Materials; Material Properties; and Materials Usage, Design, and Analysis) and the Metal Matrix Composites Handbook (one volume, .pdf) are available here. The Ceramic Matrix Composites Handbook has yet to be completed. Users may also download Quick Composites Data in spreadsheet format.

32

Group velocity of cylindrical guided waves in anisotropic laminate composites.  

PubMed

An explicit expression for the group velocity of wave packets, propagating in a laminate anisotropic composite plate in prescribed directions, is proposed. It is based on the cylindrical guided wave asymptotics derived from the path integral representation for wave fields generated in the composites by given localized sources. The expression derived is theoretically confirmed by the comparison with a known representation for the group velocity vector of a plane guided wave. Then it is experimentally validated against laser vibrometer measurements of guided wave packets generated by a piezoelectric wafer active sensor in a composite plate. PMID:24437754

Glushkov, Evgeny; Glushkova, Natalia; Eremin, Artem; Lammering, Rolf

2014-01-01

33

Composite structural materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various topics relating to composite structural materials for use in aircraft structures are discussed. The mechanical properties of high performance carbon fibers, carbon fiber-epoxy interface bonds, composite fractures, residual stress in high modulus and high strength carbon fibers, fatigue in composite materials, and the mechanical properties of polymeric matrix composite laminates are among the topics discussed.

Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

1985-01-01

34

Composite structural materials  

SciTech Connect

Various topics relating to composite structural materials for use in aircraft structures are discussed. The mechanical properties of high performance carbon fibers, carbon fiber-epoxy interface bonds, composite fractures, residual stress in high modulus and high strength carbon fibers, fatigue in composite materials, and the mechanical properties of polymeric matrix composite laminates are among the topics discussed.

Loewy, R.G.; Wiberley, S.E.

1985-08-01

35

A General Theory of Strength for Anisotropic Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

An operationally simple strength criterion for anisotropic materials is developed from a scalar function of two strength tensors. Differing from existing quadratic approximations of failure surfaces, the present theory satisfies the invariant requirements of coordinate transforma tion, treats interaction terms as independent components, takes into account the difference in strengths due to positive and negative stresses, and can be specialized

Stephen W. Tsai; Edward M. Wu

1971-01-01

36

Composite structural materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technology utilization of fiber reinforced composite materials is discussed in the areas of physical properties, and life prediction. Programs related to the Composite Aircraft Program are described in detail.

Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

1979-01-01

37

Tough Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers and working group summaries are presented which address composite material behavior and performance improvement. Topic areas include composite fracture toughness and impact characterization, constituent properties and interrelationships, and matrix synthesis and characterization.

Vosteen, L. F. (compiler); Johnson, N. J. (compiler); Teichman, L. A. (compiler)

1984-01-01

38

Composite structural materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multifaceted program is described in which aeronautical, mechanical, and materials engineers interact to develop composite aircraft structures. Topics covered include: (1) the design of an advanced composite elevator and a proposed spar and rib assembly; (2) optimizing fiber orientation in the vicinity of heavily loaded joints; (3) failure mechanisms and delamination; (4) the construction of an ultralight sailplane; (5) computer-aided design; finite element analysis programs, preprocessor development, and array preprocessor for SPAR; (6) advanced analysis methods for composite structures; (7) ultrasonic nondestructive testing; (8) physical properties of epoxy resins and composites; (9) fatigue in composite materials, and (10) transverse thermal expansion of carbon/epoxy composites.

Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

1979-01-01

39

A beam theory for anisotropic materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Beam theory plays an important role in structural analysis. The basic assumption is that initially plane sections remain plane after deformation, neglecting out-of-plane warpings. Predictions based on these assumptions are accurate for slender, solid, cross-sectional beams made out of isotropic materials. The beam theory derived in this paper from variational principles is based on the sole kinematic assumption that each section is infinitely rigid in its own plane, but free to warp out of plane. After a short review of the Bernoulli and Saint-Venant approaches to beam theory, a set of orthonormal eigenwarpings is derived. Improved solutions can be obtained by expanding the axial displacements or axial stress distribution in series of eigenwarpings and using energy principles to derive the governing equations. The improved Saint-Venant approach leads to fast converging solutions and accurate results are obtained considering only a few eigenwarping terms.

Bauchau, O. A.

1985-01-01

40

Models of two level systems for anisotropic glassy materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use an extended version of the standard tunneling model to explain the sound absorption in anisotropic glassy materials and heat transport in mesoscopic slabs and bridges. The glassy properties are determined by an ensemble of two level systems (TLS). In our model a TLS is characterized by a 3x3 symmetric tensor, [T], which couples to the strain field, [S], through a 3x3x3x3 tensor of coupling constants, [[R

Anghel, Dragos-Victor; Dumitru, Irina Mihaela; Nemnes, Alexandru George; Churochkin, Dmitrii

2013-03-01

41

Composite structural materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the RPI composites program is to develop advanced technology in the areas of physical properties, structural concepts and analysis, manufacturing, reliability and life prediction. Concommitant goals are to educate engineers to design and use composite materials as normal or conventional materials. A multifaceted program was instituted to achieve these objectives.

Ansell, G. S.; Wiberley, S. E.

1978-01-01

42

An anisotropic flow law for incompressible polycrystalline materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New and explicit anisotropic constitutive equations between the stretching and deviatoric stress tensors for the two- and three-dimensional cases of incompressible polycrystalline materials are presented. The anisotropy is assumed to be driven by an Orientation Distribution Function (ODF). The polycrystal is composed of transversally isotropic crystallites, the lattice orientation of which can be characterized by a single unit vector. The proposed constitutive equations are valid for any frame of reference and for every state of deformation. The basic assumption of this method is that the principle directions of the stretching and of the stress deviator are the same in the isotropic as well as in the anisotropic case. This means that the proposed constitutive laws are able to model the effects of anisotropy only via a change of the fluidity due to a change of the ODF. Such an assumption is justified to guarantee that, besides knowledge of the parameters involved in the isotropic constitutive equation, the anisotropic material response is completely characterized by only one additional parameter, a type of enhancement factor. Explicit comparisons with experimental data are conducted for Ih ice.

Placidi, Luca; Hutter, Kolumban

2005-11-01

43

Propagation of surface waves at the interface between nonlinear MTMs and anisotropic materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metamaterials (MTMs), which have both negative permeability and negative permittivity, have potential applications in optoelectronics and communications. These materials are fabricated in laboratories which is an added advantage. The focus of this work is on the propagation of surface waves at the interface between nonlinear MTMs and anisotropic materials in the optical range. The dispersion equation is derived from Maxwell's equations. The dispersion equation is solved numerically to study the characteristics of the propagated wave. Only TE modes are considered. The results display the dependence of the propagating waves on the characteristics of the structure composite materials.

El-Khozondar, Hala J.; El-Khozondar, Rifa J.; Zouhdi, Said

2014-05-01

44

Rectangular waveguide material characterization: anisotropic property extraction and measurement validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rectangular waveguide methods are appealing for measuring isotropic and anisotropic materials because of high signal strength due to field confinement, and the ability to control the polarization of the applied electric field. As a stepping stone to developing methods for characterizing materials with fully-populated anisotropic tensor characteristics, techniques are presented in this dissertation to characterize isotropic, biaxially anisotropic, and gyromagnetic materials. Two characterization techniques are investigated for each material, and thus six different techniques are described. Additionally, a waveguide standard is introduced which may be used to validate the measurement of the permittivity and permeability of materials at microwave frequencies. The first characterization method examined is the Nicolson-Ross-Weir (NRW) technique for the extraction of isotropic parameters of a sample completely filling the cross-section of a rectangular waveguide. A second technique is proposed for the characterization of an isotropic conductor-backed sample filling the cross-section of a waveguide. If the sample is conductor-backed, and occupies the entire cross-section, a transmission measurement is not available, and thus a method must be found for providing two sufficiently different reflection measurements.The technique proposed here is to place a waveguide iris in front of the sample, exposing the sample to a spectrum of evanescent modes. By measuring the reflection coefficient with and without an iris, the necessary two data may be obtained to determine the material parameters. A mode-matching approach is used to determine the theoretical response of a sample placed behind the waveguide iris. This response is used in a root-searching algorithm to determine permittivity and permeability by comparing to measurements of the reflection coefficient. For the characterization of biaxially anisotropic materials, the first method considers an extension of the NRW technique for characterization of a sample filling the cross-section of a waveguide. Due to the rectangular nature of the waveguide, typically three different samples are manufactured from the same material in order to characterize the six complex material parameters. The second technique for measuring the electromagnetic properties of a biaxially anisotropic material sample uses a reduced-aperture waveguide sample holder designed to accommodate a cubical sample. All the tensor material parameters can then be determined by measuring the reflection and transmission coefficients of a single sample placed into several orientations. The parameters are obtained using a root-searching algorithm by comparing theoretically computed and measured reflection and transmission coefficients. The theoretical coefficients are determined using a mode matching technique. The first technique for characterizing the electromagnetic properties of gyromagnetic materials considers requires filling the cross-section of a waveguide. The material parameters are extracted from the measured reflection and transmission coefficients. Since the cross-sectional dimensions of waveguides become prohibitively large at low frequencies, and it is at these frequencies that the gyromagnetic properties are most pronounced, sufficiently large samples may not be available. Therefore, the second technique uses a reduced-aperture sample holder that does not require the sample to fill the entire cross section of the guide. The theoretical reflection and transmission coefficients for both methods are determined using a mode matching technique. A nonlinear least squares method is employed to extract the gyromagnetic material parameters. Finally, this dissertation introduces a waveguide standard that acts as a surrogate material with both electric and magnetic properties and is useful for verifying systems designed to characterize engineered materials using the NRW technique. A genetic algorithm is used to optimize the all-metallic structure to produce a surrogate with both relative permittivity and permeability near s

Crowgey, Benjamin Reid

45

Direct Imaging of Anisotropic Material Properties using Photorefractive Laser Ultrasound  

SciTech Connect

Anisotropic properties of materials can be determined by measuring the propagation of elastic waves in different directions. A laser imaging approach is presented that utilizes the adaptive property of photorefractive materials to produce a real-time measurement of the antisymmetric Lamb or flexural traveling wave mode displacement and phase. Continuous excitation is employed and the data is recorded and displayed in all directions simultaneously at video camera frame rates. Fourier transform of the data produces an image of the wave slowness in all planar directions. The results demonstrate imaging of microstructural isotropy and anisotropy and stress induced ansiotropy in plates.

Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Deason, Vance Albert; Schley, Robert Scott; Watson, Scott Marshall

1999-07-01

46

Direct Imaging of Anisotropic Material Properties using Photorefractive Laser Ultrasound  

SciTech Connect

Anisotropic properties of materials can be determined by measuring the propagation of elastic waves in different directions. A laser imaging approach is presented that utilizes the adaptive property of photorefractive materials to produce a real-time measurement of the antisymmetric Lamb or flexural traveling wave mode displacement and phase. Continuous excitation is employed and the data is recorded and displayed in all directions simultaneously at video camera frame rates. Fourier transform of the data produces an image of the wave slowness in all planar directions. The results demonstrate imaging of microstructural isotropy and anisotropy and stress induced ansiotropy in plates.

K.L. Telschow; R.S. Schley; S.M. Watson; V.A. Deason

1999-06-01

47

Electrically conductive composite material  

DOEpatents

An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

1989-05-23

48

Electrically conductive composite material  

DOEpatents

An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistent pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like. 2 figs.

Clough, R.L.; Sylwester, A.P.

1988-06-20

49

Composite structural materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and application of filamentary composite materials, is considered. Such interest is based on the possibility of using relatively brittle materials with high modulus, high strength, but low density in composites with good durability and high tolerance to damage. Fiber reinforced composite materials of this kind offer substantially improved performance and potentially lower costs for aerospace hardware. Much progress has been made since the initial developments in the mid 1960's. There were only limited applied to the primary structure of operational vehicles, mainly as aircrafts.

Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberly, S. E.

1984-01-01

50

Electrically conductive composite material  

DOEpatents

An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Sylwester, Alan P. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01

51

Composite structural materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Overall emphasis is on basic long-term research in the following categories: constituent materials, composite materials, generic structural elements, processing science technology; and maintaining long-term structural integrity. Research in basic composition, characteristics, and processing science of composite materials and their constituents is balanced against the mechanics, conceptual design, fabrication, and testing of generic structural elements typical of aerospace vehicles so as to encourage the discovery of unusual solutions to present and future problems. Detailed descriptions of the progress achieved in the various component parts of this comprehensive program are presented.

Loewy, R.; Wiberley, S. E.

1986-01-01

52

Composite Material Switches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device to protect electronic circuitry from high voltage transients is constructed from a relatively thin piece of conductive composite sandwiched between two conductors so that conduction is through the thickness of the composite piece. The device is based on the discovery that conduction through conductive composite materials in this configuration switches to a high resistance mode when exposed to voltages above a threshold voltage.

Javadi, Hamid (Inventor)

2001-01-01

53

Composite Material Switches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device to protect electronic circuitry from high voltage transients is constructed from a relatively thin piece of conductive composite sandwiched between two conductors so that conduction is through the thickness of the composite piece. The device is based on the discovery that conduction through conductive composite materials in this configuration switches to a high resistance mode when exposed to voltages above a threshold voltage.

Javadi, Hamid (Inventor)

2002-01-01

54

Mechanics of Composite Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanical behavior of composites is traditionally evaluated on both microscopic and macroscopic scale to take into account inhomogeneity. Micromechanics attempts to quantify the interactions of fiber and matrix (reinforcement and resin) on a microscopic scale on par with the diameter of a single fiber. Macromechanics treats composites as homogeneous materials, with mechanical properties representative of the laminate as a

Robert M. Jones

1999-01-01

55

Composite structural materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research in the basic composition, characteristics, and processng science of composite materials and their constituents is balanced against the mechanics, conceptual design, fabrication, and testing of generic structural elements typical of aerospace vehicles so as to encourage the discovery of unusual solutions to problems. Detailed descriptions of the progress achieved in the various component parts of his program are presented.

Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

1982-01-01

56

Composite structural materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development and application of composite materials to aerospace vehicle structures which began in the mid 1960's has now progressed to the point where what can be considered entire airframes are being designed and built using composites. Issues related to the fabrication of non-resin matrix composites and the micro, mezzo and macromechanics of thermoplastic and metal matrix composites are emphasized. Several research efforts are presented. They are entitled: (1) The effects of chemical vapor deposition and thermal treatments on the properties of pitch-based carbon fiber; (2) Inelastic deformation of metal matrix laminates; (3) Analysis of fatigue damage in fibrous MMC laminates; (4) Delamination fracture toughness in thermoplastic matrix composites; (5) Numerical investigation of the microhardness of composite fracture; and (6) General beam theory for composite structures.

Loewy, Robert G.; Wiberley, Stephen E.

1987-01-01

57

Resin composite restorative materials.  

PubMed

This paper surveys the most important developments in resin-based dental composites and focuses on the deficits (e.g. polymerization shrinkage) and strengths of the materials and their clinical implications. Moreover, differences between composite categories, such as hybrid, nanohybrid, microfilled, packable, ormocer-based, silorane-based, polyacid-modified composites (compomers) and flowable composites are highlighted, especially in view of their mechanical behaviour. In addition to the classical dimethacrylate-based composites, special attention is given to alternative monomers, such as siloranes, ormocers or high-molecular-weight dimethacrylate monomers (e.g. dimer acid-based dimethacrylates and tricyclodecane (TCD)-urethane), analysing their advantages, behaviour and abilities. Finally, the paper attempts to establish the needs and wishes of clinicians for further development of resin-based composites. PMID:21564116

Ilie, N; Hickel, R

2011-06-01

58

An In-Depth Tutorial on Constitutive Equations for Elastic Anisotropic Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An in-depth tutorial on the constitutive equations for elastic, anisotropic materials is presented. Basic concepts are introduced that are used to characterize materials, and notions about how anisotropic material deform are presented. Hooke s law and the Duhamel-Neuman law for isotropic materials are presented and discussed. Then, the most general form of Hooke s law for elastic anisotropic materials is presented and symmetry requirements are given. A similar presentation is also given for the generalized Duhamel-Neuman law for elastic, anisotropic materials that includes thermal effects. Transformation equations for stress and strains are presented and the most general form of the transformation equations for the constitutive matrices are given. Then, specialized transformation equations are presented for dextral rotations about the coordinate axes. Next, concepts of material symmetry are introduced and criteria for material symmetries are presented. Additionally, engineering constants of fully anisotropic, elastic materials are derived from first principles and the specialized to several cases of practical importance.

Nemeth, Michael P.

2011-01-01

59

Air Force requirements for NDE of composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usage of composite materials has increased and continues to grow in advanced and sophisticated weapon systems. The complexity of structures, and the need for rapid inspection and assessment of systems require further development of existing inspection methods to provide the accuracy and reliability desired. Because of the inherently anisotropic and sometimes nonuniform layered nature of composites, detection and interpretation

T. M. Cordell; P. K. Bhagat

1991-01-01

60

A new macroscopically anisotropic pressure dependent yield function for metal matrix composite based on strain gradient plasticity for the microstructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal matrix composites with long aligned elastic fibers are studied using an energetic rate independent strain gradient plasticity theory with an isotropic pressure independent yield function at the microscale. The material response is homogenized to obtain a conventional macroscopic model that exhibits anisotropic yield properties with a pressure dependence. At the microscale free energy includes both elastic strains and plastic strain gradients, and the theory demands higher order boundary conditions in terms of plastic strain or work conjugate higher order tractions. The mechanical response is investigated numerically using a unit cell model with periodic boundary conditions containing a single fiber deformed under generalized plane strain conditions. The homogenized response can be modeled by conventional plasticity with an anisotropic yield surface and a free energy depending on plastic strain in addition to the elastic strain. Hill's classical anisotropic yield criterion is extended to cover the composite such that hydrostatic pressure dependency, Bauschinger stress and size-effects are considered. It is found that depending on the fiber volume fraction, the anisotropic yield surface of the composite is inclined compared to a standard pressure independent yield surfaces. The evolution of the macroscopic yield surface is investigated by quantifying both anisotropic hardening (expansion) and kinematic hardening (translation), where the coefficients of anisotropy and the Bauschinger stress are extracted.

Azizi, Reza; Nyvang Legarth, Brian; Niordson, Christian F.

2013-04-01

61

Reactive liquid crystal materials for optically anisotropic patterned retarders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Merck has developed a range of reactive liquid crystal materials (Reactive Mesogens) that are designed to form thin, birefringent, coatable films for optical applications. Reactive Mesogen (RM) films are typically coated from solution and polymerized in-situ to form thin, optics-grade coatings. Merck RM materials are customized formulations including reactive liquid crystals, surfactants, photoinitiators and other proprietary additives. Merck have optimized the materials to achieve the optimum physical performance in each application. In this paper we focus on the optimization of RM materials to achieve the finest patterning resolution and defined feature shape whilst maintaining good physical properties of the films. Several conventional trade-offs are investigated and circumvented using novel material concepts. Different methods of patterning RM materials are discussed and the merits of each considered. Thermal annealing of non-polymerized regions can create isotropic islands within the polymerized anisotropic matrix. Alternatively, the non polymerized material can be re-dissolved in the coating solvent and rinsed away. Each of these techniques has benefits depending on the processing conditions and these are discussed in depth.

Harding, Richard; Gardiner, Iain; Yoon, Hyun-Jin; Perrett, Tara; Parri, Owain; Skjonnemand, Karl

2008-11-01

62

Nanostructured composite reinforced material  

DOEpatents

A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ripley, Edward B. (Knoxville, TN); Ludtka, Gerard M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2012-07-31

63

Modified Composite Materials Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reduction or elimination of the hazard which results from accidental release of graphite fibers from composite materials was studied at a workshop. At the workshop, groups were organized to consider six topics: epoxy modifications, epoxy replacement, fiber modifications, fiber coatings and new fibers, hybrids, and fiber release testing. Because of the time required to develop a new material and acquire a design data base, most of the workers concluded that a modified composite material would require about four to five years of development and testing before it could be applied to aircraft structures. The hybrid working group considered that some hybrid composites which reduce the risk of accidental fiber release might be put into service over the near term. The fiber release testing working group recommended a coordinated effort to define a suitable laboratory test.

Dicus, D. L. (compiler)

1978-01-01

64

Composite structural materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress and plans are reported for investigations of: (1) the mechanical properties of high performance carbon fibers; (2) fatigue in composite materials; (3) moisture and temperature effects on the mechanical properties of graphite-epoxy laminates; (4) the theory of inhomogeneous swelling in epoxy resin; (5) numerical studies of the micromechanics of composite fracture; (6) free edge failures of composite laminates; (7) analysis of unbalanced laminates; (8) compact lug design; (9) quantification of Saint-Venant's principles for a general prismatic member; (10) variation of resin properties through the thickness of cured samples; and (11) the wing fuselage ensemble of the RP-1 and RP-2 sailplanes.

Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

1983-01-01

65

Orthopedic Composite Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The program was designed as a pilot project to establish new techniques for making orthopedic prosthetic materials. The basic idea was to make metal supported ceramic composites, so that the metal provided strength (and an element of ductility) and the re...

B. J. Shaw

1972-01-01

66

Introduction to Advanced Composite Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation provides an introduction to composite materials and curriculum guidelines. Topics include applications of composites, advantages and disadvantages, and advice for developing a curriculum on advanced composite materials. This document is available for download as a PDF.

Stuart, Joe

2012-10-15

67

A 3-D Finite Deformation Anisotropic ViscoPlasticity Model for Fiber Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3-D finite deformation anisotropic visco-plasticity model is presented for fiber composites in total Lagrangian co-ordinates. The plastic potential function is given by a quadratic function in stresses in the local co-ordinates system of the lamina. The model is used to derive the anisotropic plastic constitutive relation of a woven composite made of S-2 glass fibers embedded in polyester resinwith

H. D. Espinosa; H. C. Lu; P. D. Zavattieri; S. Dwivedi

2001-01-01

68

Erosion of composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model for describing the response of uncoated and coated fiber reinforced composites subjected to repeated impingements of liquid (rain) droplets is presented. The model is based on the concept that fatigue is the dominant factor in the erosion process. Algebraic expressions are provided which give the incubation period, the rate of mass loss past the incubation period, and the total mass loss of the material during rain impact. The influence of material properties on erosion damage and the protection offered by different coatings are discussed and the use of the model in the design in the design of structures and components is illustrated.

Springer, G. S.

1980-01-01

69

Anisotropic effective moduli of microcracked materials under antiplane loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the prediction of the anisotropic effective elastic moduli of a solid containing microcracks with an arbitrary degree of alignment by using the generalized self-consistent method (GSCM). The effective elastic moduli pertaining to anti-plane shear deformation are discussed in detail. The undamaged solid can be isotropic as well as anisotropic. When the undamaged solid is isotropic, the

Xu Wang; Michael H. Santare; George A. Gazonas

2009-01-01

70

Study of anisotropic moisture diffusion in paper material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of moisture on the final use of paper has been a critical issue for papermakers. In this thesis, we studied transient and steady state moisture diffusion in paper under different humidity conditions and its relationship to sheet structure. Moisture transport through this medium occurs by a number of mechanisms, which the most important are: diffusion through the pores, diffusion of condensed water through the cell-wall of the fibers, surface diffusion and capillary transport. In the first part of this work, we investigated the sorption of moisture by paper sheets exposed to rapid changes in the external humidity. We found that transient moisture transported in paper material is Non-Fickian, most likely being caused by two sequential diffusion steps: the first being a rapid diffusion through the pores followed by a slow diffusion through the fibers/cell wall material. External boundary layers cause further departures from Fickian sorption. The porous structure of paper significantly impacts its diffusion characteristics. At low to moderate moisture contents, it is the pore space that conducts water vapor by diffusion: transport is therefore proportional to the sheet porosity and is inversely proportional to the tortuosity. Pulp refining reduces the porosity and increases tortuosity, decreasing the moisture diffusivity. Since the pore structure is strongly anisotropic, reflecting the layered structure of paper, diffusion is also anisotropic and is usually greater in the lateral (in-plane or XY) dimensions as compared to the transverse (through plane or ZD) dimension. In machine made paper, there could be a weak dependence on the in-plane fiber orientation giving rise to higher diffusion in the machine direction (MD) as compared to the cross machine direction, (CD). Parameters describing the moisture diffusivity in paper are necessary for calculating transport rates and moisture profiles. Therefore, we present diffusion parameters for moisture transport through the pore space (Dp) and the non-linear diffusivity of condensed phase moisture (D q0 and m) for sheets made from bleached kraft softwood pulps refined to different levels. We demonstrate the utility of the diffusion parameters by estimating moisture profiles through a stack of sheets using a mathematical model for transient moisture transport. The model predictions agreed with our measurements of the moisture profiles showing the usefulness of these diffusion parameters. Keywords: moisture diffusion, paper, water vapor, bound water.

Massoquete, A.

71

Anisotropic compositional expansion and chemical potential for amorphous lithiated silicon under stress tensor.  

PubMed

Si is a promising anode material for Li-ion batteries, since it absorbs large amounts of Li. However, insertion of Li leads to 334% of volumetric expansion, huge stresses, and fracture; it can be suppressed by utilizing nanoscale anode structures. Continuum approaches to stress relaxation in LixSi, based on plasticity theory, are unrealistic, because the yield strength of LixSi is much higher than the generated stresses. Here, we suggest that stress relaxation is due to anisotropic (tensorial) compositional straining that occurs during insertion-extraction at any deviatoric stresses. Developed theory describes known experimental and atomistic simulation data. A method to reduce stresses is predicted and confirmed by known experiments. Chemical potential has an additional contribution due to deviatoric stresses, which leads to increases in the driving force both for insertion and extraction. The results have conceptual and general character and are applicable to any material systems. PMID:23563528

Levitas, Valery I; Attariani, Hamed

2013-01-01

72

Anisotropic Compositional Expansion and Chemical Potential for Amorphous Lithiated Silicon under Stress Tensor  

PubMed Central

Si is a promising anode material for Li-ion batteries, since it absorbs large amounts of Li. However, insertion of Li leads to 334% of volumetric expansion, huge stresses, and fracture; it can be suppressed by utilizing nanoscale anode structures. Continuum approaches to stress relaxation in LixSi, based on plasticity theory, are unrealistic, because the yield strength of LixSi is much higher than the generated stresses. Here, we suggest that stress relaxation is due to anisotropic (tensorial) compositional straining that occurs during insertion-extraction at any deviatoric stresses. Developed theory describes known experimental and atomistic simulation data. A method to reduce stresses is predicted and confirmed by known experiments. Chemical potential has an additional contribution due to deviatoric stresses, which leads to increases in the driving force both for insertion and extraction. The results have conceptual and general character and are applicable to any material systems.

Levitas, Valery I.; Attariani, Hamed

2013-01-01

73

Advanced composite materials and processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composites are generally defined as two or more individual materials, which, when combined into a single material system, results in improved physical and/or mechanical properties. The freedom of choice of the starting components for composites allows the generation of materials that can be specifically tailored to meet a variety of applications. Advanced composites are described as a combination of high strength fibers and high performance polymer matrix materials. These advanced materials are required to permit future aircraft and spacecraft to perform in extended environments. Advanced composite precursor materials, processes for conversion of these materials to structures, and selected applications for composites are reviewed.

Baucom, Robert M.

1991-01-01

74

Damage model for anisotropic materials, and its application to analysis of stability and spallation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use Bai's conservation equation for cracks, and Rice and Tracey's equation for the growth of a spherical void in an infinite medium to derive an evolution equation for damage in an anisotropic material. It is then used to delineate the instability strain in a thin anisotropic sheet deformed in a plane stress state of deformation, and obeying Hill's yield

Z. G. Wei; R. C. Batra

2007-01-01

75

Liquid Helium Composite Regenerator Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A cryogenic composite material designed for application to gap regenerators in cyclic cryocoolers operating below 10 K is investigated. The material is a composite of helium self-loaded into a metallic extended surface structure whose dispersion form is s...

T. R. Knowles

1987-01-01

76

Multifunctional Autonomically Healing Composite Material.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A composite material, contains a polymer, a polymerizer, a corresponding catalyst for the polymerizer, and a plurality of capsules. The polymerizer is in the capsules. The composite material is self-healing.

J. S. Moore N. R. Sottos P. H. Geubelle S. R. Sriram S. R. White

2005-01-01

77

Thermal Expansion Coefficients of Composite Materials Based on Energy Principles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bounds on effective thermal expansion coefficients of isotropic and anisotropic composite materials consisting of isotropic phases are derived by employing extremum principles of thermoelasticity. Inequalities between certain approximate and exact forms of the potential and complementary energy functionals are first estab lished. These inequalities are then used in conjunction with a new method for minimizing the difference between upper and

R. A. Schapery

1968-01-01

78

Fracture Mechanics for Delamination Problems in Composite Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fracture mechanics approach to the well-known delamination problem in com posite materials is presented. Based on the theory of anisotropic laminate elasticity and interlaminar fracture mechanics concepts, the composite delamination problem is for mulated and solved. The exact order of the delamination crack-tip stress singularity is determined. Asymptotic stress and displacement fields for an interlaminar crack are obtained. Fracture

S. S. Wang

1983-01-01

79

Spatioselective growth of metal-organic framework nanocrystals on compositionally anisotropic polymer particles.  

PubMed

Selective growth of metal organic framework materials on the surface of compartmentalized polymer microparticles is achieved by electro-hydrodynamic co-jetting, selective surface modification, and anisotropic crystal growth. PMID:24677551

Park, Tae-Hong; Lee, Kyung Jin; Hwang, Sangyeul; Yoon, Jaewon; Woell, Christof; Lahann, Joerg

2014-05-01

80

Dynamic response of anisotropic composite panels to time-dependent external excitations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper deals with the dynamic response of anisotropic laminated composite flat panels exposed to sonic boom and explosive blast-type loadings. The pertinent governing equations incorporating transverse shear deformation, transverse normal stress, the higher order effects as well as the viscous structural damping are solved by using the integral-transform technique. The obtained results are compared with their counterparts obtained within the framework of the first order transverse shear deformation and the classical plate theories and some conclusions concerning their range of applicability are outlined. The paper also contains a detailed analysis of the influence played by the various parameters characterizing the considered pressure pulses as well as the material and geometry of the plate.

Librescu, L.; Nosier, A.

1990-01-01

81

Magnetic field manipulation of nanowires for anisotropic polymer composite synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-dimensional magnetic nanowires (NWs) have attracted a great deal of attention recently due to their interesting physical properties and applications. This dissertation involves synthesizing magnetic NWs, manipulating NWs under the effect of external magnetic field in various suspensions, and integrating and assembling the NWs in polymer to develop anisotropic nanocomposites. Nickel NWs with high aspect ratio were fabricated in nanoporous

Kusuma Keshoju

2007-01-01

82

Finite-element modeling of layered, anisotropic composite plates and shells: A review of recent research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Finite element papers published in the open literature on the static bending and free vibration of layered, anisotropic, and composite plates and shells are reviewed. A literature review of large-deflection bending and large-amplitude free oscillations of layered composite plates and shells is also presented. Non-finite element literature is cited for continuity of the discussion.

Reddy, J. N.

1981-01-01

83

Computation of Anisotropic Bi-Material Interfacial Fracture Parameters and Delamination Creteria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents the recent developments in methodologies for the evaluation of the integrity and durability of composite structures, including i) the establishment of a stress-intensity-factor based fracture criterion for bimaterial interfacial cracks in anisotropic materials (see Sec. 2); ii) the development of a virtual crack closure integral method for the evaluation of the mixed-mode stress intensity factors for a bimaterial interfacial crack (see Sec. 3). Analytical and numerical results show that the proposed fracture criterion is a better fracture criterion than the total energy release rate criterion in the characterization of the bimaterial interfacial cracks. The proposed virtual crack closure integral method is an efficient and accurate numerical method for the evaluation of mixed-mode stress intensity factors.

Chow, W-T.; Wang, L.; Atluri, S. N.

1998-01-01

84

Composite material and method for production of improved composite material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laminated composite material with improved interlaminar strength and damage tolerance having short rods distributed evenly throughout the composite material perpendicular to the laminae. Each rod is shorter than the thickness of the finished laminate, but several times as long as the thickness of each lamina. The laminate is made by inserting short rods in layers of prepreg material, and then stacking and curing prepreg material with rods inserted therethrough.

Farley, Gary L. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

85

Isotropic behavior of an anisotropic material: single crystal silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zero defect single crystal silicon (Single-Crystal Si), with its diamond cubic crystal structure, is completely isotropic in most properties important for advanced aerospace systems. This paper will identify behavior of the three most dominant planes of the Single-Crystal Si cube (110), (100) and (111). For example, thermal and optical properties are completely isotropic for any given plane. The elastic and mechanical properties however are direction dependent. But we show through finite element analysis that in spite of this, near-isotropic behavior can be achieved with component designs that utilize the optimum elastic modulus in directions with the highest loads. Using glass frit bonding to assemble these planes is the only bonding agent that doesn't degrade the performance of Single-Crystal Si. The most significant anisotropic property of Single-Crystal Si is the Young's modulus of elasticity. Literature values vary substantially around a value of 145 GPa. The truth is that while the maximum modulus is 185 GPa, the most useful <110< crystallographic direction has a high 169 GPa, still higher than that of many materials such as aluminum and invar. And since Poisson's ratio in this direction is an extremely low 0.064, distortion in the plane normal to the load is insignificant. While the minimum modulus is 130 GPa, a calculated average value is close to the optimum at approximately 160 GPa. The minimum modulus is therefore almost irrelevant. The (111) plane, referred to as the natural cleave plane survives impact that would overload the (110) and/or (100) plane due to its superior density. While mechanical properties vary from plane to plane each plane is uniform and response is predictable. Understanding the Single-Crystal Si diamond cube provides a design and manufacture path for building lightweight Single-Crystal Si systems with near-isotropic response to loads. It is clear then that near-isotropic elastic behavior is achievable in Single-Crystal Si components and will provide subsecond thermal equilibrium and sub-micron creep.

McCarter, Douglas R.; Paquin, Roger A.

2013-09-01

86

Modelling ultrasonic array signals in multilayer anisotropic materials using the angular spectrum decomposition of plane wave responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic arrays have seen increasing use for the characterisation of composite materials. In this paper, ultrasonic wave propagation in multilayer anisotropic materials has been modelled using plane wave and angular spectrum decomposition techniques. Different matrix techniques, such as the stiffness matrix method and the transfer matrix method, are used to calculate the reflection and transmission coefficients of ultrasonic plane waves in the considered media. Then, an angular decomposition technique is used to derive the bounded beams from finite-width ultrasonic array elements from the plane wave responses calculated earlier. This model is considered to be an analytical exact solution for the problem; hence the diffraction of waves in such composite materials can be calculated for different incident angles for a very wide range of frequencies. This model is validated against experimental measurements using the Full-Matrix Capture (FMC) of array data in both a homogeneous isotropic material, i.e. aluminium, and an inhomogeneous multilayer anisotropic material, i.e. a carbon fibre reinforced composite.

Humeida, Yousif; Pinfield, Valerie J.; Challis, Richard E.

2013-08-01

87

Anisotropic oxidation and weight loss in PMR15 composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Durability and degradation mechanisms in composites are fundamentally influenced by the fiber, matrix, and interphase regions that constitute the composite domain. The thermo-oxidative behavior of the composite is significantly different from that of the fiber and matrix constituents as the composite microstructure, including the fiber–matrix interphases\\/interfaces, introduces anisotropy in the diffusion behavior. In this work, unidirectional G30-500\\/PMR-15 composite specimens were

G. A. Schoeppner; G. P. Tandon; E. R. Ripberger

2007-01-01

88

Stress analysis in anisotropic functionally graded materials by the MLPG method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A meshless method based on the local Petrov–Galerkin approach is proposed for stress analysis in two-dimensional (2D), anisotropic and linear elastic\\/viscoelastic solids with continuously varying material properties. The correspondence principle is applied for non-homogeneous, anisotropic and linear viscoelastic solids where the relaxation moduli are separable in space and time. The inertial dynamic term in the governing equations is considered too.

J. Sladek; V. Sladek; Ch. Zhang

2005-01-01

89

Characterization of anisotropic elastic constants of silicon-carbide particulate reinforced aluminum metal matrix composites; Part 2: Theory  

SciTech Connect

The effective elastic constants of composite materials contain arbitrarily oriented ellipsoidal fibers were derived using the concept of orientation-dependent average fields and the strain concentration factor tensors. Under the prescribed boundary condition, the concentration factor was evaluated by the Mori-Tanaka method and the Eshelby's equivalent inclusion principle. The fourth-rank tensor expression for the elastic stiffnesses was recast into matrix form for easier numerical computations. The theoretical model developed was applied to the computation of the anisotropic elastic constants of the extruded Al/SiC[sub p] composites considered in Part 1 of this series. Good agreement was found between the model predictions and the ultrasonic measurement results. Comparisons with the Hashin-Shtrikman (H-S) bounds for isotropic composites were also presented. It was found that while the H-S lower bound predicted the out-of-plane properties, it generally gave a poor estimate for the in-plane properties of these composites.

Jeong, H. (Agency for Defense Development, DaeJon (Korea, Republic of)); Hsu, D.K. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Center for Nondestructive Evaluation); Shannon, R.E. (Westinghouse Science Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Materials Reliability Dept.); Liaw, P.K. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

1994-04-01

90

Characterization of anisotropic elastic constants of silicon-carbide particulate reinforced aluminum metal matrix composites; Part 1: Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The anisotropic elastic properties of silicon-carbide particulate (SiC[sub p]) reinforced Al metal matrix composites were characterized using ultrasonic techniques and microstructural analysis. The composite materials, fabricated by a powder metallurgy extrusion process, included 2124, 6061, and 7091 Al alloys reinforced by 10 to 30 pct of [alpha]-SiC[sub p] by volume. Results were presented for the assumed orthotropic elastic constants obtained from ultrasonic velocities and for the microstructural data on particulate shape, aspect ratio, and orientation distribution. All of the composite samples exhibited a systematic anisotropy: the stiffness in the extrusion direction was the highest, and the stiffness in the out-of-plane direction was the lowest. Microstructural analysis suggested that the observed anisotropy could be attributed to the preferred orientation of SiC[sub p]. The ultrasonic velocity was found to be sensitive to internal defects such as porosity and intermetallic compounds. It has been observed that ultrasonics may be a useful, nondestructive technique for detecting small directional differences in the overall elastic constants of the composites since a good correlation has been noted between the velocity and microstructure and the mechanical test. By incorporating the observed microstructural characteristics, a theoretical model for predicting the anisotropic stiffnesses of the composites has been developed and is presented in a companion article (Part 2).

Jeong, H. (Agency for Defense Development, DaeJon (Korea, Republic of)); Hsu, D.K. (Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Center for Nondestructive Evaluation); Shannon, R.E. (Westinghouse Science Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Materials Reliability Dept.); Liaw, P.K. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

1994-04-01

91

Propagation and localization of elastic waves in highly anisotropic periodic composites via two-scale homogenization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wave propagation in periodic elastic composites whose phases may have not only highly contrasting but possibly also (in particular) highly anisotropic stiffnesses and moderately contrasting densities is considered. A possibly inter-connected (i.e. not necessarily isolated) “inclusion” phase is assumed generally much softer than that in the connected matrix, although some components of its stiffness tensor may be of the same

Valery P. Smyshlyaev

2009-01-01

92

Finite strip analysis of anisotropic laminated composite plates using higher-order shear deformation theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, a finite strip method for the elastic analysis of anisotropic laminated composite plates is developed according to higher-order shear deformation theory. This theory accounts for the parabolic distribution of the transverse shear strains through the thickness of the plate and for zero transverse shear stresses on the plate surfaces. In comparison with the finite strip method

G. Akhras; M. S. Cheung; W. Li

1994-01-01

93

The Thickness Dependence of Resonance Frequency in Anisotropic Composites with Long Conductive Fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resonant frequency of long conductive fibers embedded in an anisotropic composite as a function of layer thickness is studied both numerically and experimentally and is discussed in terms of the equivalent permittivity of the layer. A simple empirical exponential law is suggested to fit the thickness dependence of the equivalent permittivity. The law involves a critical thickness value, below

L. LIU; S. M. MATITSINE; Y. B. GAN; K. N. ROZANOV

2005-01-01

94

Measurement of the intrinsic attenuation of longitudinal waves in anisotropic material from uncorrected raw data.  

PubMed

Among the physical parameters characterising the interaction of the ultrasonic beam with its supporting medium, ultrasonic attenuation is an important input parameter to simulate wave propagation and defect-beam phenomena. The measurement of the intrinsic attenuation in anisotropic material however is a difficult task. The paper presents an approach to determine intrinsic attenuation in anisotropic materials such as austenitic stainless steel welds and cladding. It deals with improvements on the initial device, based on measurements on two samples with different thicknesses (10mm and 20mm). A previous paper presented preliminary results with this new approach for isotropic materials. PMID:23601966

Seldis, Thomas

2013-09-01

95

Modeling of a rotary motor driven by an anisotropic piezoelectric composite laminate.  

PubMed

This paper proposes an analytical model of a rotary motor driven by an anisotropic piezoelectric composite laminate. The driving element of the motor is a three-layer laminated plate. A piezoelectric layer is sandwiched between two anti-symmetric composite laminae. Because of the material anisotropy and the anti-symmetric configuration, torsional vibration can be induced through the inplane strain actuated by the piezoelectric layer. The advantages of the motor are its magnetic field immunity, simple structure, easy maintenance, low cost, and good low-speed performance. In this paper, the motor is considered to be a coupled dynamic system. The analytical model includes the longitudinal and torsional vibrations of the laminate and the rotating motion of the rotor under action of contact forces. The analytical model can predict the overall characteristics of the motor, including the modal frequency and the response of motion of the laminate, the rotating speed of the rotor, the input power, the output power, and the efficiency of the motor. The effects of the initial compressive force, the applied voltage, the moment of rotor inertia, and the frictional coefficient of the contact interface on the characteristics of the motor are simulated and discussed. A selection of the numerical results from the analytical model is confirmed by experimental data. PMID:18238702

Zhu, M L; Lee, S R; Zhang, T Y; Tong, P

2000-01-01

96

Infrared ellipsometry of nanometric anisotropic dielectric layers on absorbing materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An inversion problem of infrared ellipsometry is resolved on the basis of a fresh mathematical approach, which does not use the traditional regression analysis for data handling and has no need of initial guesses for the desired parameters. It is shown that obtained simple analytical equations for ellipsometric quantities open up new possibilities for determining optical parameters of an anisotropic ultrathin layer. The novel method possesses very high sensitivity because it is based on the phase conversion measurements of polarized reflected light. The method is tested using a numerical simulation and the results demonstrate clearly that it is successfully applicable for nanometric layers in the infrared spectral region.

Adamson, Peep

2014-05-01

97

A constitutive formulation for anisotropic materials suitable for wave propagation computer programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The constitutive relationships for an anisotropic material are established for shock wave propagation computer programs, commonly referred to as hydrocodes. In this paper, stresses are formulated in terms of strains for two specific two-dimensional cases: orthotropic behavior in plane strain problems; and transversely isotropic behavior in axisymmetric problems. Additionally, the procedure for separating material nonlinear compressibility effects (equation of state) from strength effects is formulated which permits the consistent calculation of stresses in the elastic reginme, and allows the mean stress and pressure to be defined in accordance with their scalar interpretation. Further, this procedure permits the computation of inelastic response by scaling of deviatoric stresses, so the equivalent stress resides on a yield or failure surface, without changing the pressure. In conjunction with this constitutive development, a parallel experimental program was designed and conducted to explosively load fiberglass/epoxy panels in plane strain. This loading induced different levels of damage in the panels such as matrix splitting and delamination between plies. Numerical simulations, using the composite material model, were performed to understand the sequence of the observed failure.

O'Donoghue, Padraic E.; Anderson, Charles E., Jr.; Friesenhann, Gerald J.; Parr, Charles H.

98

Composite structural materials. [aircraft structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of filamentary composite materials in the design and construction of primary aircraft structures is considered with emphasis on efforts to develop advanced technology in the areas of physical properties, structural concepts and analysis, manufacturing, and reliability and life prediction. The redesign of a main spar/rib region on the Boeing 727 elevator near its actuator attachment point is discussed. A composite fabrication and test facility is described as well as the use of minicomputers for computer aided design. Other topics covered include (1) advanced structural analysis methids for composites; (2) ultrasonic nondestructive testing of composite structures; (3) optimum combination of hardeners in the cure of epoxy; (4) fatigue in composite materials; (5) resin matrix characterization and properties; (6) postbuckling analysis of curved laminate composite panels; and (7) acoustic emission testing of composite tensile specimens.

Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

1980-01-01

99

A constitutive formulation for anisotropic materials suitable for wave propagation computer programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The constitutive relationships for an anisotropic material are established for shock wave propagation computer programs, commonly referred to as hydrocodes. In this paper, stresses are formulated in terms of strains for two specific two-dimensional cases: orthotropic behavior in plane strain problems; and transversely isotropic behavior in axisymmetric problems. Additionally, the procedure for separating material nonlinear compressibility effects (equation of state)

Padraic E. O'Donoghue; Charles E. Anderson Jr.; Gerald J. Friesenhann; Charles H. Parr

1992-01-01

100

A Constitutive Formulation for Anisotropic Materials Suitable for Wave Propagation Computer Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The constitutive relationships for an anisotropic material are established for shock wave propagation computer programs, commonly referred to as hydrocodes. In this paper, stresses are formulated in terms of strains for two specific two-dimensional cases: orthotropic behavior in plane strain problems; and transversely isotropic behavior in axisymmetric problems. Additionally, the procedure for separating material nonlinear compressibility effects (equation of state)

Padraic E. ODonoghue; Charles E. Anderson; Gerald J. Friesenhahn; Charles H. Parr

1992-01-01

101

Anisotropic Effective Thermal Conductivity Measurement of Various Kinds of Metal Fiber Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, metal fiber materials were made by laminating metal fibers with a diameter of about 30 ?m to 300 ?m. Since the almost metal fibers were oriented in the horizontal direction (the major axis of the fiber), these metal fiber materials are estimated to be anisotropic with an effective thermal conductivity. However, there is little quantitative data on the anisotropic effective thermal conductivity of the various kinds of metal fiber materials. The purpose of this study is to investigate the anisotropic effective thermal conductivity of various metal fiber materials experimentally and theoretically. In order to measure the horizontal and vertical effective thermal conductivities of these metal fiber materials, new measurement devices were developed. As a result, it is found that the anisotropic effective thermal conductivity of the various metal fiber materials was confirmed, and the horizontal and vertical effective thermal conductivities of these metal fiber materials depend on the bulk density or porosity, Young's modulus, the fiber length, and fiber diameter. And a dimensionless correlation equation for predicting the vertical and horizontal effective thermal conductivities of the various kinds of metal fiber materials was derived in terms of various dimensionless parameters.

Haruki, Naoto; Horibe, Akihiko; Nakashima, Keigo

2013-12-01

102

A general solution on stress singularities in the junction of two anisotropic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general solution on stress singularities of a junction composed of two dissimilar anisotropic materials is presented in this paper. Based on the Lekhnitskii's approach, the characteristic equation of the generalized plane deformation problem is developed. The influencing parameters on the stress singularity are material constants, fiber orientations and the bonding wedge angle. The results of the stress singularity order

Ching-Hwei Chue; Teng-Hui Chen; Hwa-Teng Lee

2002-01-01

103

Vibrational damping of composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this research was to develop new methods of vibrational damping in polymeric composite materials along with expanding the knowledge of currently used vibrational damping methods. A new barrier layer technique that dramatically increased damping in viscoelastic damping materials that interacted with the composite resin was created. A method for testing the shear strength of damping materials cocured in composites was developed. Directional damping materials, where the loss factor and modulus could be tailored by changing the angle, were produced and investigated. The addition of particles between composite prepreg layers to increase damping was studied. Electroviscoelastic materials that drastically changed properties such as loss factor and modulus with an applied voltage were manufactured and tested.

Biggerstaff, Janet M.

104

The M-Integral for Computing Stress Intensity Factors in Generally Anisotropic Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a capability for computing stress intensity factors in generally anisotropic materials. These objectives have been met. The primary deliverable of this project is this report and the information it contains. In addition, we have delivered the source code for a subroutine that will compute stress intensity factors for anisotropic materials encoded in both the C and Python programming languages and made available a version of the FRANC3D program that incorporates this subroutine. Single crystal super alloys are commonly used for components in the hot sections of contemporary jet and rocket engines. Because these components have a uniform atomic lattice orientation throughout, they exhibit anisotropic material behavior. This means that stress intensity solutions developed for isotropic materials are not appropriate for the analysis of crack growth in these materials. Until now, a general numerical technique did not exist for computing stress intensity factors of cracks in anisotropic materials and cubic materials in particular. Such a capability was developed during the project and is described and demonstrated herein.

Warzynek, P. A.; Carter, B. J.; Banks-Sills, L.

2005-01-01

105

Dynamic Responses of Dispersed Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Composite Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic responses of high polarization ferroelectric liquid crystal—multi walled carbon nanotubes composite material has been investigated in the wide frequency range (up to 1 MHZ). Permittivity increased by ?20% to 40% (50 Hz–1 kHz range) but at high frequency >2 kHz, it was independent of carbon nano-tube concentration. The increase in permittivity is attributed to strong anisotropic interactions which enhances

Neeraj; K. K. Raina

2011-01-01

106

Spreading of dislocation cores in elastically anisotropic body-centered-cubic materials: The case of gum metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The structure of dislocation cores in elastically anisotropic materials is considered. A definition of the dislocation core radius is introduced and used to demonstrate that the elastic anisotropy that develops near a composition driven phase transition, such as that predicted for the Ti-Nb based alloys known as gum metals, can drive dislocation core radii to infinity. Under these circumstances, dislocation cores necessarily overlap. The atomic scale structures predicted to arise from core overlap in Ti-V alloys are reminiscent of nanodisturbances observed in gum metals.

Chrzan, D. C.; Sherburne, M. P.; Hanlumyuang, Y.; Li, T.; Morris, J. W., Jr.

2010-11-01

107

Damage localization in composite laminates based on a quantitative expression of anisotropic wavefront  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, according to the disperse curve of composite laminates in a low frequency domain, a quantitative relation between anisotropic wavefront and propagation direction is proposed to reveal the direction dependency of Lamb wave propagation in composite laminates. This relation is described by a concise analytic expression, which can effectively incorporate anisotropic wave propagation into damage identification and reasonably determine the time-of-flight (ToF) of the Lamb wave. The reliability and applicability of this quantitative relation are validated by numerical simulations and experiments in three different lay-up composite laminates. Furthermore, combining this quantitative relation and the conventional ToF approach, an effective detection method is developed for damage localization in composite plate-like structures. By using PZT sensors, the method is conducted experimentally in a cross-ply laminate. The Gabor wavelet transform is introduced for signal processing to identify the ToF more exactly. Results indicate that a satisfied damage location can be achieved by considering the orientation dependency of anisotropic wave propagation in composite laminates.

Li, Bing; Liu, Yongquan; Gong, Kezhuang; Li, Zheng

2013-06-01

108

Invariant Properties of Composite Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Invariant properties of the elastic coefficient matrices of laminated composite plates are presented. The use of these invariants in materials evaluation and design optimization is discussed. Simple formulas, based upon micromechanics results, are derived...

N. J. Pagano S. W. Tsai

1968-01-01

109

Left Handed Materials Using Magnetic Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A left-handed composite material which includes a mixture of a ferromagnetic material and a dielectric material. The direction of magnetization of the ferromagnetic material, and its volume fraction are controlled such that the composite material exhibits...

J. Q. Xiao S. T. Chui

2003-01-01

110

Multilayer Electroactive Polymer Composite Material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electroactive material comprises multiple layers of electroactive composite with each layer having unique dielectric, electrical and mechanical properties that define an electromechanical operation thereof when affected by an external stimulus. For example, each layer can be (i) a 2-phase composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation, or (ii) a 3-phase composite having the elements of the 2-phase composite and further including a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic incorporated in the polymer matrix.

Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

111

Anisotropic material properties of fused deposition modeling ABS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies provide the ability to fabricate initial prototypes from various model materials. Stratasys Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) is a typical RP process that can fabricate prototypes out of ABS plastic. To predict the mechanical behavior of FDM parts, it is critical to understand the material properties of the raw FDM process material, and the effect that FDM

Sung-Hoon Ahn; Michael Montero; Dan Odell; Shad Roundy; Paul K. Wright

2002-01-01

112

Ski Technology And Composite Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The following resource is from Lessonopoly, which has created student activities and lesson plans to support the video series, Science of the Olympic Winter Games, created by NBC Learn and the National Science Foundation. Featuring exclusive footage from NBC Sports and contributions from Olympic athletes and NSF scientists, the series will help teach your students valuable scientific concepts. Students will learn the basic engineering issues related to ski design. They will learn about composite materials and polymer materials. Also, students will create and test a composite material.

2010-01-01

113

Birefringent nanostructured composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a very efficient recursive method to calculate the effective optical response of materials made up of arbitrarily shaped dielectric inclusions arranged in periodic 2D arrays within a metal matrix with a lattice constant much smaller than the wavelength of the incident light, so that we may neglect retardation. The starting point of the calculation is a digitized image of the system. The geometrical shape of the inclusions and their orientation in the 2D array induce a birefringent optical response of the whole metamaterial that can be tailored to specific needs.

Mendoza, Bernardo S.; Mochán, W. Luis

2012-03-01

114

Anisotropic material model and wave propagation simulations for shocked pentaerythritol tetranitrate single crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

An anisotropic continuum material model was developed to describe the thermomechanical response of unreacted pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) single crystals to shock wave loading. Using this model, which incorporates nonlinear elasticity and crystal plasticity in a thermodynamically consistent tensor formulation, wave propagation simulations were performed to compare to experimental wave profiles [J. J. Dick and J. P. Ritchie, J. Appl. Phys.

J. M. Winey; Y. M. Gupta

2010-01-01

115

Anisotropic elastic materials that have one or two sheets of spherical slowness surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that certain anisotropic elastic materials can have one or two sheets of spherical slowness surface. The waves associated with a spherical slowness sheet can be longitudinal, transverse or neither. However, a longitudinal wave can propagate in any direction if and only if the slowness sheet is a sphere lambda1=C11. The same cannot be said of transverse waves.

T. C. T. Ting

2006-01-01

116

Nanophase and Composite Optical Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This talk will focus on accomplishments, current developments, and future directions of our work on composite optical materials for microgravity science and space exploration. This research spans the order parameter from quasi-fractal structures such as sol-gels and other aggregated or porous media, to statistically random cluster media such as metal colloids, to highly ordered materials such as layered media and photonic bandgap materials. The common focus is on flexible materials that can be used to produce composite or artificial materials with superior optical properties that could not be achieved with homogeneous materials. Applications of this work to NASA exploration goals such as terraforming, biosensors, solar sails, solar cells, and vehicle health monitoring, will be discussed.

2003-01-01

117

Development of the Finite Difference Time Domain Method on a Lebedev Grid for Anisotropic Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is derived on a Lebedev grid, instead of the standard Yee grid, to better represent the constitutive relations in anisotropic materials. The Lebedev grid extends the Yee grid by approximating Maxwell's equations with tensor constitutive relations using only central differences. A dispersion relation with stability criteria is derived and it is proven that the Lebedev grid has a consistent calculus. An integral derivation of the update equations illustrates how to appropriately excite the grid. This approach is also used to derive the update equations at planar material interfaces and domain edge PEC. Lebedev grid results are compared with analytical and Yee grid solutions using an equal memory comparison. Numerical results show that the Lebedev grid suffers greater dispersion error but better represents material interfaces. Focus is given to generalizing the concepts that make the Yee grid robust for isotropic materials. Keywords: FDTD, anisotropic materials, Lebedev grid, collocated grids.

Nauta, Marcel D.

118

Method for making composite material  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method for fabricating a composite material includes providing a free-standing carbon nanotube structure having a plurality of carbon nanotubes, introducing at least two reacting materials into the carbon nanotube structure to form a reacting layer, activating the reacting materials to grow a plurality of nanoparticles, wherein the nanoparticles are spaced from each other and coated on a surface of each of the carbon nanotubes of the carbon nanotube structure.

2012-10-30

119

A few remarks concerning several refined theories of anisotropic composite laminated plates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis and comparison of several shear deformable bending theories of composite laminated anisotropic plates currently encountered in the field literature are given in this paper. Although apparently different, it is shown in a unitary way, that these theories constitute in fact only different formulations of a single theory, generically designated to as the moderately thick plate theory. Their connection with the first order transverse shear deformation theory is also emphasized and some conclusions concerning its shortcomings and field applicability are presented.

Librescu, L.; Reddy, J. N.

1989-01-01

120

Composite material impregnation unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This memorandum presents an introduction to the NASA multi-purpose prepregging unit which is now installed and fully operational at the Langley Research Center in the Polymeric Materials Branch. A description of the various impregnation methods that are available to the prepregger are presented. Machine operating details and protocol are provided for its various modes of operation. These include, where appropriate, the related equations for predicting the desired prepreg specifications. Also, as the prepregger is modular in its construction, each individual section is described and discussed. Safety concerns are an important factor and a chapter has been included that highlights the major safety features. Initial experiences and observations for fiber impregnation are described. These first observations have given great insight into the areas of future work that need to be addressed. Future memorandums will focus on these individual processes and their related problems.

Wilkinson, S. P.; Marchello, J. M.; Johnston, N. J.

1993-01-01

121

Energy Absorption of Composite Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results of a study on the energy absorption characteristics of selected composite material systems and compares the results with aluminum. Com posite compression tube specimens were fabricated with both tape and woven fabric prepreg using graphite\\/epoxy (Gr\\/E), Kevlar® epoxy (K\\/E) and glass\\/epoxy (Gl\\/E). Chamfering and notching one end of the composite tube specimen reduced the peak load

Gary L. Farley

1983-01-01

122

Dense, finely, grained composite materials  

DOEpatents

Dense, finely grained composite materials comprising one or more ceramic phase or phase and one or more metallic and/or intermetallic phase or phases are produced by combustion synthesis. Spherical ceramic grains are homogeneously dispersed within the matrix. Methods are provided, which include the step of applying mechanical pressure during or immediately after ignition, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected.

Dunmead, Stephen D. (Davis, CA); Holt, Joseph B. (San Jose, CA); Kingman, Donald D. (Danville, CA); Munir, Zuhair A. (Davis, CA)

1990-01-01

123

Fracture problems in composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of fracture problems in composite materials are identified, their methods of solution are briefly discussed, and some sample results are presented. The main problem of interest is the determination of the stress state in the neighborhood of localized imperfections such as cracks and inclusions which may exist in the composite. Particular emphasis is placed on the evaluation of quantities such as the stress intensity factors, the power of the stress singularity, and the strain energy release rate, which may be used directly or indirectly in connection with an appropriate fracture criterion for the prediction of fracture initiation and propagation load levels. The topics discussed include a crack in layered composites, a crack terminating at and going through a bi-material interface, a penny-shaped crack in a filament-reinforced elastic matrix, and inclusion problems in bonded materials.

Erdogan, F.

1972-01-01

124

Impact response of composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite materials composed of carbon fibers and resin matrices offer great promise in reducing the weight of aerospace structures. However they remain extremely vulnerable to out of plane impact loads, which lead to severe losses in strength and stiffness. The results of an experimental program, undertaken to investigate the low velocity impact damage tolerance of composite materials is presented. The objectives were to identify key neat resin/composite properties that lead to enhancement of composite impact damage tolerance and to find a small scale test that predicts compression after impact properties of panels. Five materials were selected for evaluation. These systems represented different classes of material behavior such as brittle epoxy, modified epoxies, and amorphous and semicrystalling thermoplastics. The influence of fiber properties on the impact performance was also studied in one material, i.e., in polyether ether ketone (PEEK). Several 24 and 48 ply quasi-isotropic and 24 ply orthotropic laminates were examined using an instrumented drop weight impactor. Correlations with post impact compression behavior were made.

Tiwari, S. N.; Srinivasan, K.

1991-01-01

125

Delamination growth in composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research related to growth of an imbedded through-width delamination (ITWD) in a compression loaded composite structural element is presented. Composites with widely different interlaminar fracture resistance were examined, viz., graphite/epoxy (CYCOM 982) and graphite/PEEK (APC-2). The initial part of the program consisted of characterizing the material in tension, compression and shear mainly to obtain consistent material properties for analysis, but also as a check of the processing method developed for the thermoplastic APC-2 material. The characterization of the delamination growth in the ITWD specimen, which for the unidirectional case is essentially a mixed Mode 1 and 2 geometry, requires verified mixed-mode growth criteria for the two materials involved. For this purpose the main emphasis during this part of the investigation was on Mode 1 and 2 fracture specimens, namely the Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) and End Notched Flexure (ENF) specimens.

Gillespie, J. W., Jr.; Carlson, L. A.; Pipes, R. B.; Rothschilds, R.; Trethewey, B.; Smiley, A.

1985-01-01

126

Structure, thermodynamics, mechanical properties and glassy dynamics in anisotropic polymeric materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anisotropic polymeric materials are ubiquitous. They can form via self assembly, external mechanical deformation or by geometric confinement. Important examples of anisotropic polymeric materials include liquid crystalline polymers and elastomers, amorphous rubber networks, confined films and grafted polymer brushes. A common feature of these materials is the anisotropic conformation of the constituent polymer chains which leads to significant modification of interchain packing correlations and thermodynamics properties. Polymer liquid state statistical mechanical methods have been generalized to treat the structure, segmental orientation, thermodynamics and mechanical response of dense polymer fluids and crosslinked networks. The consequences of interchain repulsions and chain connectivity are explicitly taken into account. The strain-induced orientational order parameter of flexible chains is predicted to scale as the inverse of the square root of the degree of polymerization and increase in a supralinear manner with segmental concentration. Two nonclassical contributions to stress and linear modulus arise from the influence of anisotropic packing correlations on the excess free energy. Overall the theory is in good agreement with NMR and mechanical experiments and computer simulations. The thermomechanical properties of nematic elastomers have also been studied. Significant softening of the modulus is found as the isotropic-nematic transition is approached. The phenomenon of spontaneous distortion, relevant to artificial muscles, sensors and actuator applications, emerges in a manner correlated directly with the orientational order parameter. Comparison of our theoretical predictions with experiments on thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers shows good qualitative and semi-quantitative agreements. A dynamical theory has been developed for the onset or crossover temperature (Tc) to highly non-Arrenhius activated relaxation regime in deeply supercooled polymer liquids. Alignment and/or deformation modify thermodynamic and structural properties thereby inducing anisotropic segmental dynamics. Either suppression or elevation of ( Tc) is predicted depending on the nature of anisotropy. Results have been obtained for liquid crystalline polymers, thin films, rubber networks and grafted polymer brushes. The underlying mechanism for ( Tc) shifts is this theory is anisotropy of the degree of coil interpenetration.

Oyerokun, Folusho Taiwo

127

Propagation of Elastic Waves Through Inhomogeneous, Anisotropic Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent advances in the field of ultrasonic nondestructive inspection have demanded a more precise knowledge of the propagation of sound beams within materials. Quantitative models for propagation of ultrasonic fields from a transducer can be used as tools to both analyze the inspection data and to predict inspection results. An approximate Gauss -Hermite model was developed a few years

Ali Minachi

1992-01-01

128

Welds in thermoplastic composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Welding methods are reviewed that can be effectively used for joining of thermoplastic composites and continuous-fiber thermoplastics. Attention is given to the use of ultrasonic, vibration, hot-plate, resistance, and induction welding techniques. The welding techniques are shown to provide complementary weld qualities for the range of thermoplastic materials that are of interest to industrial and technological applications.

N. S. Taylor

1990-01-01

129

Welds in thermoplastic composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Welding methods are reviewed that can be effectively used for joining of thermoplastic composites and continuous-fiber thermoplastics. Attention is given to the use of ultrasonic, vibration, hot-plate, resistance, and induction welding techniques. The welding techniques are shown to provide complementary weld qualities for the range of thermoplastic materials that are of interest to industrial and technological applications.

Taylor, N. S.

130

Durability of polymer composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to examine structural durability of advanced composite materials under critical loading conditions, e.g., combined thermal and mechanical loading and shear fatigue loading. A thermal buckling model of a burnt column, either axially restrained or under an axial applied force was developed. It was predicted that for a column exposed to the high heat flux

Liu Liu

2006-01-01

131

Predicting Properties Of Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Micromechanical Combined Stress Analysis (MICSTRAN) computer code provides materials engineers with easy-to-use personal-computer-based software tool to calculate overall properties of composite, given properties of fibers and matrix. Computes overall thermoelastic parameters and stresses by micromechanical analysis. Written in FORTRAN 77.

Naik, Rajiv A.

1994-01-01

132

Composite Materials: An Educational Need.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is the need to incorporate the concepts and applications of advanced composite materials into existing chemical engineering programs. Discussed are the justification for, and implementation of topics including transport phenomena, kinetics and reactor design, unit operations, and product and process design. (CW)

Saliba, Tony E.; Snide, James A.

1990-01-01

133

Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose is to develop life prediction models for coated anisotropic materials used in gas temperature airfoils. Two single crystal alloys and two coatings are now being tested. These include PWA 1480; Alloy 185; overlay coating, PWA 286; and aluminide coating, PWA 273. Constitutive models are also being developed for these materials to predict the plastic and creep strain histories of the materials in the lab tests and for actual design conditions. This nonlinear material behavior is particularily important for high temperature gas turbine applications and is basic to any life prediction system.

Swanson, G. A.

1985-01-01

134

Creep damage and life analysis of anisotropic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  ?This paper provides a short survey of some recent advances in the mathematical modelling of materials behaviour under creep\\u000a conditions. The tertiary creep phase is accompanied by the formation of microscopic cracks on the grain boundaries in such\\u000a a way so that damage accumulation occurs. The paper is divided into three parts. Firstly, the damage state in a uniaxial tension

J. Betten

2001-01-01

135

Analytical Approach to Predict Anisotropic Material Properties from Cup Drawings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical beverage can alloys have limited elongation (about 3–5%) under uniaxial tension. However, in order to obtain correct\\u000a material properties, it is recommended to have elongations over 10 percent. Thus, it is very difficult to predict stable r-value\\u000a and stress directionalities experimentally, which are essential for FE simulation of rigid-packing sheet forming operation.\\u000a An innovative simplified analytical approach that relates

J. W. Yoon; R. E. Dick; F. Barlat

2008-01-01

136

Anisotropic deformation of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material at high temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zr-2.5Nb alloy is used for the pressure tubes in CANDU® reactor fuel channels. In reactor, the pressure tube normally operates at 300 °C and experiences a primary coolant fluid internal pressure of approximately 10 MPa. Manufacturing and processing procedures generate an anisotropic state in the pressure tube which makes the tube stronger in the hoop (transverse) direction than in the axial (longitudinal) direction. This anisotropy condition is present for temperatures less than 500 °C. During postulated accident conditions where the material temperature could reach 1000 °C, it might be assumed that the high temperature and subsequent phase change would reduce the inherent anisotropy, and thus affect the deformation behaviour (ballooning) of the pressure tube. From constant-load, rapid-temperature-ramp, uniaxial deformation tests, the deformation rate in the longitudinal direction of the tube behaves differently than the deformation rate in the transverse direction of the tube. This anisotropic mechanical behaviour appears to persist at temperatures up to 1000 °C. This paper presents the results of high-temperature deformation tests using longitudinal and transverse specimens taken from as-received Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes. It is shown that the anisotropic deformation behaviour observed at high temperatures is largely due to the stable crystallographic texture of the ?-Zr phase constituent in the material that was previously observed by neutron diffraction measurements during heating at temperatures up to 1050 °C. The deformation behaviour is also influenced by the phase transformation occurring at high temperatures during heating. The effects of texture and phase transformation on the anisotropic deformation of as-received Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material are discussed in the context of the tube ballooning behaviour. Because of the high temperatures in postulated accident scenarios, any irradiation damage will be annealed from the pressure tube material and thus the unirradiated material results presented in this paper are also applicable to irradiated pressure tubes.

Fong, R. W. L.

2013-09-01

137

Accelerating numerical modeling of wave propagation through 2-D anisotropic materials using OpenCL.  

PubMed

We present an implementation of the numerical modeling of elastic waves propagation, in 2D anisotropic materials, using the new parallel computing devices (PCDs). Our study is aimed both to model laboratory experiments and explore the capabilities of the emerging PCDs by discussing performance issues. In the experiments a sample plate of an anisotropic material placed inside a water tank is rotated and, for every angle of rotation it is subjected to an ultrasonic wave (produced by a large source transducer) that propagates in the water and through the material producing some reflection and transmission signals that are recording by a "point-like" receiver. This experiment is numerically modeled by running a finite difference code covering a set of angles ??[-50°, 50°], and recorded the signals for the transmission and reflection results. Transversely anisotropic and weakly orthorhombic materials are considered. We accelerated the computation using an open-source toolkit called PyOpenCL, which lets one to easily access the OpenCL parallel computation API's from the high-level programming environment of Python. A speedup factor over 19 using the GPU is obtained when compared with the execution of the same program in parallel using a CPU multi-core (in this case we use the 4-cores that has the CPU). The performance for different graphic cards and operating systems is included together with the full 2-D finite difference code with PyOpenCL. PMID:23290584

Molero, Miguel; Iturrarán-Viveros, Ursula

2013-03-01

138

Artificial anisotropic chiral materials for decrease of reflection of electromagnetic waves from metallic surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paying attention to the possibility of making the covers with low reflection of electromagnetic waves we have analyzed the characteristics of the electromagnetic waves under the condition of transmission through the artificial anisotropic medium on the metallic layer. The boundary value problem for normal incidence of electromagnetic waves on stratified periodic structure we have solved in case of the following structure: air- artificial anisotropic medium - layer of metal - air. Amplitude and phase characteristics of reflected and transmitted waves were calculated depending on the parameters of an artificial anisotropic medium and metallic layer, and the complex influence of anisotropic and chiral properties was also investigated. We find the optimum features of the structure required for reducing the intensity of a reflected wave on the certain frequency, here we take into account the absorption of waves in the sample and metal. Aluminum is taken as a metallic substrate. The artificial material is dielectric with the metallic microspirals, inserted in it. The axes of spirals are oriented in the same direction. IN this case the medium is characterized by uniaxial tensors of permittivity and chirality. For the orientation of the axes of spirals in the same direction the Nylon threads can be used, on which the spirals are reeled up. Samples of similar media were recently obtained at Stellenbosch University in Southern Africa. Our calculations allow to predict the experimental results in case of deposition of similar covers on the metallic substrate.

Semchenko, Igor V.; Khakhomov, Sergei A.; Fedosenko, Elena A.

2001-03-01

139

Energy absorption of composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of a study on the energy absorption characteristics of selected composite material systems are presented and the results compared with aluminum. Composite compression tube specimens were fabricated with both tape and woven fabric prepreg using graphite/epoxy (Gr/E), Kevlar (TM)/epoxy (K/E) and glass/epoxy (Gl/E). Chamfering and notching one end of the composite tube specimen reduced the peak load at initial failure without altering the sustained crushing load, and prevented catastrophic failure. Static compression and vertical impact tests were performed on 128 tubes. The results varied significantly as a function of material type and ply orientation. In general, the Gr/E tubes absorbed more energy than the Gl/E or K/E tubes for the same ply orientation. The 0/ + or - 15 Gr/E tubes absorbed more energy than the aluminum tubes. Gr/E and Gl/E tubes failed in a brittle mode and had negligible post crushing integrity, whereas the K/E tubes failed in an accordian buckling mode similar to the aluminum tubes. The energy absorption and post crushing integrity of hybrid composite tubes were not significantly better than that of the single material tubes.

Farley, G. L.

1983-01-01

140

Characterization of Anisotropic Plasticity in Material Systems Using Modified Indentation-Based Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plastic anisotropy in rolled sheets has traditionally been analyzed by conducting tensile tests on strips cut at different angles from the rolling direction and measuring the contraction ratios during testing. This method is tedious, yet sufficient for sheet metals but the application to other material systems is limited. For example, if one were to seek the properties of a coating-substrate system, such an analysis would be impractical due to the combined effects of the coating and the substrate on which it lies. Indentation-based experiments are a great candidate for evaluation of such properties in various material systems for a few, main reasons. Indentation testing machines are readily available commercially and in material characterization laboratories world-wide and are currently being used for the classification of various material properties. Second, the systems in which indentation can be used are far from limited; indentation testing is notorious for its large-scale applicability. Finally, indentation provides a means of inducing localized plastic deformation, which can ultimately serve as a great analysis tool for anisotropy in these properties for a given material. It is shown that examination of material flow in the contact region serves to uniquely characterize the degree of anisotropy. Therefore, the work presented in this dissertation pertains to the development, design, and testing of a set of virtual experiments using Finite Element Modeling with the specific aim to uniquely characterize the anisotropic plastic property of a material in all normal directions given minimal material data prior to testing. Current characterization methods and yield criteria are reviewed, and results suggesting anisotropic yielding in coatings are presented. Further, indentation stress-strain behavior of plastically anisotropic materials is examined, and finally, characterization methods involving indentation-based techniques are presented.

Kalkhoran, Salmon Masbooghi

141

Elastic moduli approximation of higher symmetry for the acoustical properties of an anisotropic material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of how to define and determine an optimal acoustical fit to a set\\u000aof anisotropic elastic constants is addressed. The optimal moduli are defined\\u000aas those which minimize the mean squared difference in the acoustical tensors\\u000abetween the given moduli and all possible moduli of a chosen higher material\\u000asymmetry. The solution is shown to be identical to

Andrew N. Norris

2006-01-01

142

Multivariate statistical analysis of electron energy-loss spectroscopy in anisotropic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, an expression has been developed to take into account the complex dependence of the fine structure in core-level electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in anisotropic materials on specimen orientation and spectral collection conditions [Y. Sun, J. Yuan, Phys. Rev. B 71 (2005) 125109]. One application of this expression is the development of a phenomenological theory of magic-angle electron energy-loss spectroscopy

Xuerang Hu; Yuekui Sun; Jun Yuan

2008-01-01

143

Anisotropic material synthesis by capillary flow in a fluid stripe  

PubMed Central

We present a simple bench-top technique to produce centimeter long concentration gradients in biomaterials incorporating soluble, material, and particle gradients. By patterning hydrophilic regions on a substrate, a stripe of prepolymer solution is held in place on a glass slide by a hydrophobic boundary. Adding a droplet to one end of this “pre-wet” stripe causes a rapid capillary flow that spreads the droplet along the stripe to generate a gradient in the relative concentrations of the droplet and pre-wet solutions. The gradient length and shape are controlled by the pre-wet and droplet volumes, stripe thickness, fluid viscosity and surface tension. Gradient biomaterials are produced by crosslinking gradients of prepolymer solutions. Demonstrated examples include a concentration gradient of cells encapsulated in three dimensions (3D) within a homogeneous biopolymer and a constant concentration of cells encapsulated in 3D within a biomaterial gradient exhibiting a gradient in cell spreading. The technique employs coated glass slides that may be purchased or custom made from tape and hydrophobic spray. The approach is accessible to virtually any researcher or student and should dramatically reduce the time required to synthesize a wide range of gradient biomaterials. Moreover, since the technique employs passive mechanisms it is ideal for remote or resource poor settings.

Hancock, Matthew J.; Piraino, Francesco; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Rasponi, Marco; Khademhosseini, Ali

2011-01-01

144

Anisotropic surface roughness enhances the bending response of ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) artificial muscles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demands from the fields of bio-medical engineering and biologically-inspired robotics motivate a growing interest in actuators with properties similar to biological muscle, including ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMC), the focus of this study. IPMC actuators consist of an ion-conductive polymer membrane, coated with thin metal electrodes on both sides and bend when voltage is applied. Some of the advantages of IPMC actuators are their softness, lack of moving parts, easy miniaturization, light weight and low actuation voltage. When used in bio-mimetic robotic applications, such as a snake-like swimming robot, locomotion speed can be improved by increasing the bending amplitude. However, it cannot be improved much by increasing the driving voltage, because of water electrolysis. To enhance the bending response of IPMCs we created a "preferred" bending direction by anisotropic surface modification. Introduction of anisotropic roughness with grooves across the length of the actuator improved the bending response by a factor of 2.1. Artificially introduced cracks on the electrodes in direction, in which natural cracks form by bending, improved bending response by a factor of 1.6. Anisotropic surface modification is an effective method to enhance the bending response of IPMC actuators and does not compromise their rigidity under loads perpendicular to the bending plane.

Stoimenov, Boyko L.; Rossiter, Jonathan M.; Mukai, Toshiharu

2007-01-01

145

Determination of dynamically adapting anisotropic material properties of bone under cyclic loading.  

PubMed

Because bone tissue adapts to loading conditions, finite element simulations of remodelling bone require a precise prediction of dynamically changing anisotropic elastic parameters. We present a phenomenological theory that refers to the tissue in terms of the tendency of the structure to align with principal stress directions. We describe the material parameters of remodelling bone. This work follows findings by the same research group and independently by Danilov (1971) in the field of plasticity, where the dependencies of the components of the stiffness tensor in terms of time are based on Hill's anisotropy. We modify such an approach in this novel theory that addresses bone tissue that can regenerate. The computational assumption of the theory is that bone trabeculae have the tendency to orient along one of the principal stress directions but during remodelling the principal stresses change continuously and the resulting orientation of the trabeculae can differ from the principal stress direction at any given time. The novelty of this work consists in the limited number of parameters needed to compute the twenty-one anisotropic material parameters at any given location in the bone tissue. In addition to the theory, we present here two cases of simplified geometry, loading and boundary conditions to show the effect of (1) time on the material properties; and (2) change of loading conditions on the anisotropic parameters. The long term goal is to experimentally verify that the predictions generated by theory provide a reliable simulation of cancellous bone properties. PMID:21040919

Besdo, Silke

2011-01-11

146

Magnetoelectric Interactions in Bi-Anisotropic Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classification of bi-anisotropic media based on the structure of magnetoelectric coupling dyadics is proposed. It appears that the most general bi-anisotropic media can be modeled as composites of only a few basic idealized elements: for reciprocal materials, these elements are uniaxial helices and \\

S. A. Tretyakov; A. H. Sihvola; A. A. Sochava; C. R. Simovski

1998-01-01

147

Modified Mohr-Coulomb fracture model for anisotropic sheet materials under limited triaxial stress conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews recent work of the authors to model necking and fracture for anisotropic materials, which requires consideration of the stress conditions that vary through the thickness of the sheet, and in particular, taking into consideration the conditions at individual integration points. Although the prior work adequately addresses the roll of triaxial stress conditions on necking, the fracture model developed in the prior work was limited in its application to analysis of plane-stress conditions. In this work, a fracture model is developed for application to a limited range of triaxial stress conditions, in which the through-thickness shear stresses are assumed to be negligible, but the normal stress is allowed to be non-zero. The model is extended in a way that reduces to the prior anisotropic fracture model under plane stress conditions, but includes the contribution of a triaxial stress condition in a way that retains the desired features of the Mohr-Coulomb Model.

Stoughton, Thomas B.; Yoon, Jeong Whan

2013-12-01

148

A critical survey of wave propagation and impact in composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of the field of stress waves in composite materials is presented covering the period up to December 1972. The major properties of waves in composites are discussed and a summary is made of the major experimental results in this field. Various theoretical models for analysis of wave propagation in laminated, fiber and particle reinforced composites are surveyed. The anisotropic, dispersive and dissipative properties of stress pulses and shock waves in such materials are reviewed. A review of the behavior of composites under impact loading is presented along with the application of wave propagation concepts to the determination of impact stresses in composite plates.

Moon, F. C.

1973-01-01

149

Offgassing Test Methodology for Composite Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A significant increase in the use of composite materials has occurred during the past 20 years. Associated with this increased use is the potential for employees to be exposed to offgassing components from composite systems. Various components in composit...

D. A. Scheer

1994-01-01

150

Thermal Expansion Properties of Composite Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Thermal expansion data for several composite materials, including generic epoxy resins, various graphite, boron, and glass fibers, and unidirectional and woven fabric composites in an epoxy matrix, were compiled. A discussion of the design, material, envi...

R. R. Johnson M. H. Kural G. B. Mackey

1981-01-01

151

Optical properties of composite systems based on anisotropic fibers with axisymmetric stacking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simulation of optical properties of composite systems in the form of bundles consisting of anisotropic fibers with axisymmetric stacking is carried out in the ray-optics approximation. It is shown that such composite systems observed by the interference-polarization method for the case of crossed Nicol prisms produce figures in the form of a system of concentric light and dark rings, in the center of which there is a dark cross. The results of simulations applied to microsections of the human tooth taking into account the numerical values of the constituent components of the dentin (the sizes and optical properties of the dentinal tubules and of the matrix, etc.) are compared with the experiment. A good qualitative agreement between the calculation and the experiment for the observed patterns is found in the cases of some samples (molar and premolar).

Zolotarev, V. M.

2004-10-01

152

Ultrasonic field profile evaluation in acoustically inhomogeneous anisotropic materials using 2D ray tracing model: Numerical and experimental comparison.  

PubMed

Ultrasound propagation in inhomogeneous anisotropic materials is difficult to examine because of the directional dependency of elastic properties. Simulation tools play an important role in developing advanced reliable ultrasonic non destructive testing techniques for the inspection of anisotropic materials particularly austenitic cladded materials, austenitic welds and dissimilar welds. In this contribution we present an adapted 2D ray tracing model for evaluating ultrasonic wave fields quantitatively in inhomogeneous anisotropic materials. Inhomogeneity in the anisotropic material is represented by discretizing into several homogeneous layers. According to ray tracing model, ultrasonic ray paths are traced during its energy propagation through various discretized layers of the material and at each interface the problem of reflection and transmission is solved. The presented algorithm evaluates the transducer excited ultrasonic fields accurately by taking into account the directivity of the transducer, divergence of the ray bundle, density of rays and phase relations as well as transmission coefficients. The ray tracing model is able to calculate the ultrasonic wave fields generated by a point source as well as a finite dimension transducer. The ray tracing model results are validated quantitatively with the results obtained from 2D Elastodynamic Finite Integration Technique (EFIT) on several configurations generally occurring in the ultrasonic non destructive testing of anisotropic materials. Finally, the quantitative comparison of ray tracing model results with experiments on 32mm thick austenitic weld material and 62mm thick austenitic cladded material is discussed. PMID:22963829

Kolkoori, S R; Rahman, M-U; Chinta, P K; Ktreutzbruck, M; Rethmeier, M; Prager, J

2013-02-01

153

Roughness Formation During Plasma Etching of Composite Materials: A Kinetic Monte Carlo Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this article is on the plasma-etching behavior of films of composite materials consisting of two randomly distributed phases with different etch rates. Two etching modes are examined as follows: 1) with anisotropic flux of ions (sputtering) and 2) with isotropic flux of etchants (chemical etching). First, analytical relations are derived to describe etch rate and surface coverage

Eleni Zakka; Vassilios Constantoudis; Evangelos Gogolides

2007-01-01

154

Properties of composite materials for cryogenic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite materials are used in a wide variety of cryogenic applications because of their unique and highly tailorable properties. These cryogenic applications of composites may be, for the sake of discussion, classified as support structures, vessels, or electrical insulation. Examples of these applications are presented, with a brief discussion of the critical material properties associated with each application. Composite material

J. B Schutz

1998-01-01

155

Composite materials for fusion applications  

SciTech Connect

Ceramic matrix composites, CMCs, are being considered for advanced first-wall and blanket structural applications because of their high-temperature properties, low neutron activation, low density and low coefficient of expansion coupled with good thermal conductivity and corrosion behavior. This paper presents a review and analysis of the hermetic, thermal conductivity, corrosion, crack growth and radiation damage properties of CMCs. It was concluded that the leak rates of a gaseous coolant into the plasma chamber or tritium out of the blanket could exceed design criteria if matrix microcracking causes existing porosity to become interconnected. Thermal conductivities of unirradiated SiC/SiC and C/SiC materials are about 1/2 to 2/3 that of Type 316 SS whereas the thermal conductivity for C/C composites is seven times larger. The thermal stress figure-of-merit value for CMCs exceeds that of Type 316 SS for a single thermal cycle. SiC/SiC composites are very resistant to corrosion and are expected to be compatible with He or Li coolants if the O{sub 2} concentrations are maintained at the appropriate levels. CMCs exhibit subcritical crack growth at elevated temperatures and the crack velocity is a function of the corrosion conditions. The radiation stability of CMCs will depend on the stability of the fiber, microcracking of the matrix, and the effects of gaseous transmutation products on properties. 23 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

Jones, R.H.; Henager, C.H. Jr.; Hollenberg, G.W.

1991-10-01

156

Optimizing Material Use in Blade Design by Improving Failure Prediction Methodology and Introducing Damage Tolerant Concepts in FRP Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary results are presented in this work, concerning the validation of a reliable FEM tool under development, featuring damage tolerant concepts, to enhance design capabilities and optimize material use in large composite structures. User defined material constitutive equations concerning anisotropic non- linearity and material stiffness degradation as a result of damage accumulation, are implemented to model inherent damage tolerance of

A. E. Antoniou; T. P. Philippidis

157

Warm Forming of Aluminum Alloys using a Coupled Thermo-Mechanical Anisotropic Material Model  

SciTech Connect

Temperature-dependant anisotropic material models for two types of automotive aluminum alloys (5754-O and 5182-O) were developed and implemented in LS-Dyna as a user material subroutine (UMAT) for coupled thermo-mechanical finite element analysis (FEA) of warm forming of aluminum alloys. The anisotropy coefficients of the Barlat YLD2000 plane stress yield function for both materials were calculated for the range of temperatures 25 deg. C-260 deg. C. Curve fitting was used to calculate the anisotropy coefficients of YLD2000 and the flow stress as a function of temperature. This temperature-dependent material model was successfully applied to the coupled thermo-mechanical analysis of stretching of aluminum sheets and results were compared with experiments.

Abedrabbo, Nader; Pourboghrat, Farhang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1226 (United States); Carsley, John E. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI 48090 (United States)

2005-08-05

158

Tunable electronically anisotropic materials with ion-irradiated polysilanes on semiconductor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on tunable electronically anisotropic material on semiconductor, “TEAMS”, with a polysilane layer spin-coated onto a silicon wafer and then contacted on both top and rear sides, are reported in the present paper. This structure was irradiated with swift heavy ions, and its electrical characteristics were studied both during and after irradiation. It was found that the current/voltage characteristics depend on the ion fluence, the time of voltage application, the gating voltage, the ambient pressure, light, and the post-annealing temperature of the samples. Under specific conditions, a negative differential resistance was also exhibited. The observations are indicative of a peculiar conduction mechanism.

Fink, D.; Chandra, A.; Opitz-Coutureau, J.; Fahrner, W. R.; Hoppe, K.; Papaleo, R. M.

2007-03-01

159

Thermal properties of composite materials with a complex fractal structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we report the thermal characterization of platelike composite samples made of polyester resin and magnetite inclusions. By means of photoacoustic spectroscopy and thermal relaxation, the thermal diffusivity, conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of the samples were experimentally measured. The volume fraction of the inclusions was systematically varied in order to study the changes in the effective thermal conductivity of the composites. For some samples, a static magnetic field was applied during the polymerization process, resulting in anisotropic inclusion distributions. Our results show a decrease in the thermal conductivity of some of the anisotropic samples, compared to the isotropic randomly distributed ones. Our analysis indicates that the development of elongated inclusion structures leads to the formation of magnetite and resin domains, causing this effect. We correlate the complexity of the inclusion structure with the observed thermal response through a multifractal and lacunarity analysis. All the experimental data are contrasted with the well known Maxwell–Garnett effective media approximation for composite materials.

Cervantes-Álvarez, F.; Reyes-Salgado, J. J.; Dossetti, V.; Carrillo, J. L.

2014-06-01

160

Study on the anisotropic photonic band gaps in three-dimensional tunable photonic crystals containing the epsilon-negative materials and uniaxial materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the properties of anisotropic photonic band gaps (PBGs) for three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals (PCs) composed of the anisotropic positive-index materials (the uniaxial materials) and the epsilon-negative (ENG) materials with body-centered-cubic (bcc) lattices are theoretically studied by a modified plane wave expansion (PWE) method, which are the uniaxial materials spheres inserted in the epsilon-negative materials background. The anisotropic photonic band gaps (PBGs) and one flatbands region can be achieved in first irreducible Brillouin zone. The influences of the ordinary-refractive index, extraordinary-refractive index, filling factor, the electronic plasma frequency, the dielectric constant of ENG materials and the damping factor on the properties of anisotropic PBGs for such 3D PCs are studied in detail, respectively, and some corresponding physical explanations are also given. The numerical results show that the anisotropy can open partial band gaps in such 3D PCs with bcc lattices composed of the ENG materials and uniaxial materials, and the complete PBGs can be obtained compared to the conventional 3D PCs containing the isotropic materials. The calculated results also show that the anisotropic PBGs can be manipulated by the parameters as mentioned above except for the damping factor. Introducing the uniaxial materials into 3D PCs containing the ENG materials can obtain the larger complete PBGs as such 3D PCs with high symmetry, and also provides a way to design the tunable devices.

Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Li, Bing-Xiang

2014-08-01

161

Space processing of composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Materials and processes for the testing of aluminum-base fiber and particle composites, and of metal foams under extended-time low-g conditions were investigated. A wetting and dispersion technique was developed, based on the theory that under the absence of a gas phase all solids are wetted by liquids. The process is characterized by a high vacuum environment and a high temperature cycle. Successful wetting and dispersion experiments were carried out with sapphire fibers, whiskers and particles, and with fibers of silicon carbide, pyrolytic graphite and tungsten. The developed process and facilities permit the preparation of a precomposite which serves as sample material for flight experiments. Low-g processing consists then merely in the uniform redistribution of the reinforcements during a melting cycle. For the preparation of metal foams, gas generation by means of a thermally decomposing compound was found most adaptable to flight experiments. For flight experiments, the use of compacted mixture of the component materials limits low-g processing to a simple melt cycle.

Steurer, W. H.; Kaye, S.

1975-01-01

162

Simulation of ultrasonic array imaging of composite materials with defects.  

PubMed

Ultrasonic transducer arrays are extensively used for the nondestructive evaluation of materials for aerospace and other applications. However, their use with composites requires some technique development because of reflections at the layer boundaries and the effects of attenuation. When used in full matrix capture mode, algorithms such as the total focusing method (TFM) must be applied to obtain the image. In composite materials, improvement to the algorithm is required to include the effects of material anisotropy (affecting wave speed) and optimum aperture limits to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio and location detection for a defect in the material. This paper presents simulations of the ultrasonic array signals in multilayer anisotropic materials with and without a simulated defect. A kernel model for plane wave propagation in the material is combined with an angular spectrum decomposition (for finite transducer elements) and transducer frequency response, to model the full array signals. Inclusion of the defect is through its far-field scattering response. The model facilitates the study of imaging algorithm development by identification of the effects of anisotropy, signal-to-noise ratio, and aperture limit. An analytical method for the calculation of the effective group velocity in the composite at low frequency is demonstrated, permitting rapid calculation of time delay laws in practice. PMID:24658724

Humeida, Yousif; Pinfield, Valerie J; Challis, Richard E; Wilcox, Paul D; Li, Chuan

2013-09-01

163

Anisotropic thermal diffusivity characterization of aligned carbon nanotube-polymer composites.  

PubMed

The anisotropic thermal diffusivity of aligned carbon nanotube-polymer composites was determined using a photothermoelectric technique. The composites were obtained by infiltrating poly-dimethyl siloxane (PDMS) in aligned multiwall CNT arrays grown by chemical vapor deposition on silicon substrates. The thermal diffusivities are insensitive to temperature in the range of 180 K-300 K. The thermal diffusivity values across the alignment direction are approximately 2-4 times smaller than along the alignment direction and larger than effective media theory predictions using reported values for the thermal diffusivity of millimeter thick aligned multiwall carbon nanotube arrays. The effective room temperature thermal conductivity of the composite along the carbon nanotube alignment direction is at least 6X larger than the thermal conductivity of the polymer matrix and is in good agreement with the effective media predictions. This work indicates that infiltration of long and aligned carbon nanotube arrays is currently the most efficient method to obtain high thermal conductivity polymer composites. PMID:17450929

Borca-Tasciuc, T; Mazumder, M; Son, Y; Pal, S K; Schadler, L S; Ajayan, P M

2007-01-01

164

Accelerated Aging of Polymer Composite Bridge Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Accelerated aging research on samples of composite material and candidate ultraviolet (UV) protective coatings is determining the effects of six environmental factors on material durability. Candidate fastener materials are being evaluated to determine co...

1999-01-01

165

Design, fabrication and characterization of a monolithic focusing piezoceramic transducer for an anisotropic material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoceramic transducers shaped as spherical caps are widely used to focus ultrasound waves in isotropic materials. For anisotropic materials, the sound wave surface is not spherical and the transducer surface should be adjusted to reproduce a portion of this wave surface to focus the emitted sound properly. In this article, we show how to design such a transducer and how to fabricate it in lab on a standard machine from a rod of raw piezo ceramic material. The main features of its electrical impedance response are well reproduced by a numerical model, allowing the identification of most of its vibrational modes. We finally measured the sound field emitted by such a transducer and found its focusing efficiency similar to that of spherical caps in isotropic media.

Souris, Fabien; Grucker, Jules; Garroum, Nabil; Leclercq, Arnaud; Isac, Jean-Michel; Dupont-Roc, Jacques; Jacquier, Philippe

2014-06-01

166

Electrical conductivity of a two-dimensional model for a structurally anisotropic composite  

SciTech Connect

The electrical conductivity of a two-dimensional structurally anisotropic model for a composite is considered. The model represents an isotropic matrix with a system of nonconducting inclusions in the form of infinitely thin straight line segments (scratches). The scratches make an angle {theta} or -{theta} with a preferred axis (for definiteness, axis y) at the same probability, and their centers are chaotically distributed. An approximate effective medium method is used to obtain a general expression for the effective conductivity tensor of this model that is valid over a wide concentration range. In this approximation, both components of tensor are shown to vanish at the same percolation threshold, which is expressed explicitly. The conductivity of the model in a critical region is considered in terms of the similarity hypothesis.

Balagurov, B. Ya., E-mail: balagurov@deom.chph.ras.r [Russian Academy of Sciences, Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics (Russian Federation)

2010-02-15

167

Microbial growth on fiber reinforced composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms may be responsible for physical and chemical changes in composite materials. Inoculation of a fungal consortium to pre-sterilized coupons of five composites resulted in deep penetration into the interior of all materials at a temperature of approximately 22°C within 5 weeks. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the inoculated composites were etched by the microorganisms. None of the five

Ji-Dong Gu; T. Ford; K. Thorp; R. Mitchell

1996-01-01

168

Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics.  

PubMed

Graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are the two major types of layered materials under intensive investigation. However, the zero-bandgap nature of graphene and the relatively low mobility in TMDCs limit their applications. Here we reintroduce black phosphorus (BP), the most stable allotrope of phosphorus with strong intrinsic in-plane anisotropy, to the layered-material family. For 15-nm-thick BP, we measure a Hall mobility of 1,000 and 600?cm(2?)V(-1?)s(-1) for holes along the light (x) and heavy (y) effective mass directions at 120?K. BP thin films also exhibit large and anisotropic in-plane optical conductivity from 2 to 5??m. Field-effect transistors using 5?nm BP along x direction exhibit an on-off current ratio exceeding 10(5), a field-effect mobility of 205?cm(2?)V(-1?)s(-1), and good current saturation characteristics all at room temperature. BP shows great potential for thin-film electronics, infrared optoelectronics and novel devices in which anisotropic properties are desirable. PMID:25041752

Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Han; Jia, Yichen

2014-01-01

169

Optical correlation using isotropic and anisotropic self diffraction using photorefractive material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For two incident optical beams at different angles of incidence, a photorefractive cerium doped barium titanate crystal can facilitate different configurations of self-diffraction into higher orders. These configurations can be classified as isotropic and anisotropic, co-directional and contra-directional. Sometimes, a higher order resulting from an incident diverging object beam may comprise a converging beam, which then has the property of phase conjugation. Photorefractive fanning plays an important role in all these self-diffraction configurations. In this dissertation, we first explore the first higher order generated by forward three wave mixing. Only one higher order is observed when one of the incident beams is perpendicular to the surface of incidence. Not only the energy transfer via the first order grating has been observed but the energy transfer via the second order grating has been observed as well. With the angle between two incident beams less than 0.015 radians, the second configuration of self-diffraction has been investigated. With this configuration, codirectional isotropic self-diffraction (CODIS) and contradirectional isotropic self diffraction (CONDIS) have been observed. Phase conjugated beams which are responsible for CONDIS are the composite of mutual pumped phase conjugate (MPPC) and self pumped phase conjugate (SPPC). Due to the fanning effect, CONDIS usually forms before CODAS. In general, energy transfer between incident beams and CONDIS and CODIS occurs via first order and higher order gratings. For certain large but specific angles between the two incident extraordinarily polarized beams, it is possible to obtain anisotropic self-diffraction into ordinarily polarized higher orders. This third configuration for self-diffraction, called codirectional anisotropic self-diffraction (CODAS), can be generated most efficiently for the Bragg-matched case, although we have also observed CODAS with Bragg mismatch. In addition, CODAS has been generated by using one incident beam and by using the contrapropagating PC reflected at the surface of incidence as the second beam. By using this scheme, which we call single-beam holography, we have found that CODAS is generated by energy transfer through both first order and higher order gratings. Gratings formed during single-beam holography have been interrogated using different reading wavelengths for both Bragg and anisotropic Raman-Nath regimes. The application of self-diffracted higher orders to image correlation using amplitude objects has been investigated, and its application to phase objects will be more extensively pursued in the future.

Buranasiri, Prathan

170

Composite materials for space structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of advanced composites for space structures is reviewed. Barriers likely to limit further applications of composites are discussed and highlights of research to improve composites are presented. Developments in composites technology which could impact spacecraft systems are reviewed to identify technology needs and opportunities.

Tenney, D. R.; Sykes, G. F.; Bowles, D. E.

1985-01-01

171

Thin film dielectric composite materials  

DOEpatents

A dielectric composite material comprising at least two crystal phases of different components with TiO.sub.2 as a first component and a material selected from the group consisting of Ba.sub.1-x Sr.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.3 to 0.7, Pb.sub.1-x Ca.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.4 to 0.7, Sr.sub.1-x Pb.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, Ba.sub.1-x Cd.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.02 to 0.1, BaTi.sub.1-x Zr.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Sn.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.15 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Hf.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.24 to 0.3, Pb.sub.1-1.3x La.sub.x TiO.sub.3+0.2x where x is from 0.23 to 0.3, (BaTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFeo.sub.0.5 Nb.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.75 to 0.9, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.- (PbCo.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.1 to 0.45, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbMg.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, and (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFe.sub.0.5 Ta.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0 to 0.2, as the second component is described. The dielectric composite material can be formed as a thin film upon suitable substrates.

Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Gibbons, Brady J. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Findikoglu, Alp T. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Park, Bae Ho (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM

2002-01-01

172

Quantitative ultrasonic testing of acoustically anisotropic materials with verification on austenitic and dissimilar weld joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Austenitic stainless steel materials are widely used in a variety of industry sectors. In particular, the material is qualified to meet the design criteria of high quality in safety related applications. For example, the primary loop of the most of the nuclear power plants in the world, due to high durability and corrosion resistance, is made of this material. Certain operating conditions may cause a range of changes in the integrity of the component, and therefore require nondestructive testing at reasonable intervals. These in-service inspections are often performed using ultrasonic techniques, in particular when cracking is of specific concern. However, the coarse, dendritic grain structure of the weld material, formed during the welding process, is extreme and unpredictably anisotropic. Such structure is no longer direction-independent to the ultrasonic wave propagation; therefore, the ultrasonic beam deflects and redirects and the wave front becomes distorted. Thus, the use of conventional ultrasonic testing techniques using fixed beam angles is very limited and the application of ultrasonic Phased Array techniques becomes desirable. The "Sampling Phased Array" technique, invented and developed by Fraunhofer IZFP, allows the acquisition of time signals (A-scans) for each individual transducer element of the array along with fast image reconstruction techniques based on synthetic focusing algorithms. The reconstruction considers the sound propagation from each image pixel to the individual sensor element. For anisotropic media, where the sound beam is deflected and the sound path is not known a-priori, a novel phase adjustment technique called "Reverse Phase Matching" is implemented. By taking into account the anisotropy and inhomogeneity of the weld structure, a ray tracing algorithm for modeling the acoustic wave propagation and calculating the sound propagation time is applied. This technique can be utilized for 2D and 3D real time image reconstruction. The "Gradient Constant Descent Method" (GECDM), an iterative algorithm, is implemented, which is essential for examination of inhomogeneous anisotropic media having unknown properties (elastic constants). The Sampling Phased Array technique with Reverse Phase Matching extended by GECDM-technique determines unknown elastic constants and provides reliable and efficient quantitative flaw detection in the austenitic welds. The validation of ray-tracing algorithm and GECDM-method is performed by number of experiments on test specimens with artificial as well as natural material flaws. A mechanized system for ultrasonic testing of stainless steel and dissimilar welds is developed. The system works on both conventional and Sampling Phased Array techniques. The new frontend ultrasonic unit with optical data link allows the 3D visualization of the inspection results in real time.

Boller, C.; Pudovikov, S.; Bulavinov, A.

2012-05-01

173

New Armour Materials: Metal Matrix Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ballistic properties of metal matrix composites are reviewed and discussed. All the data located treats aluminum-base composites reinforced with silicon carbide, boron carbide or aluminum oxide particles. Most of these materials have not been optimize...

S. J. Savage

1994-01-01

174

Anisotropic strain rate effects on the fibre–matrix interface decohesion in sheet moulding compound composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Material and structure overall response vary significantly under rapid strain as compared to quasi-static loading. The strain rate sensitivity of a discontinuous fibre-reinforced composite was investigated. The composite material consists in a sheet moulding compound (SMC-R26: weight content of 26%) with randomly oriented reinforcement. The specific aim of this study is to develop a multi-scale analyzed methodology in order to

Zouhaier Jendli; Joseph Fitoussi; Fodil Meraghni; Didier Baptiste

2005-01-01

175

Generalized material-independent PML absorbers for the FDTD simulation of electromagnetic waves in arbitrary anisotropic dielectric and magnetic media  

Microsoft Academic Search

To simply and effectively absorb waves propagating in anisotropic materials consisting of both arbitrary permittivity and permeability tensors, generalized material-independent perfectly matched layer (GMIPML) absorbers are proposed. Within the GMIPML absorbers, electric displacement D and flux density B are directly absorbed, whereas electric field E and magnetic field H are simultaneously absorbed through the relations between E and D as

An Ping Zhao; Jaakko Juntunen; A. V. Raisanen

1998-01-01

176

Strength of anisotropic wood and synthetic materials. [plywood, laminated wood plastics, glass fiber reinforced plastics, polymeric film, and natural wood  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of using general formulas for determining the strength of different anisotropic materials is considered, and theoretical formulas are applied and confirmed by results of tests on various nonmetallic materials. Data are cited on the strength of wood, plywood, laminated wood plastics, fiber glass-reinforced plastics and directed polymer films.

Ashkenazi, Y. K.

1981-01-01

177

Integral Equation Method for Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Stratified Anisotropic Dielectric-Magnetic Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the propagation of electromagnetic waves in stratified anisotropic dielectric-magnetic materials using the integral equation method (IEM). Based on the superposition principle, we use Hertz vector formulations of radiated fields to study the interaction of wave with matter. We derive in a new way the dispersion relation, Snell's law and reflection/transmission coefficients by self-consistent analyses. Moreover, we find two new forms of the generalized extinction theorem. Applying the IEM, we investigate the wave propagation through a slab and disclose the underlying physics, which are further verified by numerical simulations. The results lead to a unified framework of the IEM for the propagation of wave incident either from a medium or vacuum in stratified dielectric-magnetic materials.

Shu, Wei-Xing; Fu, Na; Lü, Xiao-Fang; Luo, Hai-Lu; Wen, Shuang-Chun; Fan, Dian-Yuan

2010-11-01

178

Morphology and microstructure of composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lightweight continuous carbon fiber based polymeric composites are currently enjoying increasing acceptance as structural materials capable of replacing metals and alloys in load bearing applications. As with most new materials, these composites are undergoing trials with several competing processing techniques aimed at cost effectively producing void free consolidations with good mechanical properties. As metallic materials have been in use for several centuries, a considerable database exists on their morphology - microstructure; and the interrelationships between structure and properties have been well documented. Numerous studies on composites have established the crucial relationship between microstructure - morphology and properties. The various microstructural and morphological features of composite materials, particularly those accompanying different processing routes, are documented.

Tiwari, S. N.; Srinivansan, K.

1991-01-01

179

NASA technology utilization survey on composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and NASA-funded contractor contributions to the field of composite materials are surveyed. Existing and potential non-aerospace applications of the newer composite materials are emphasized. Economic factors for selection of a composite for a particular application are weight savings, performance (high strength, high elastic modulus, low coefficient of expansion, heat resistance, corrosion resistance,), longer service life, and reduced maintenance. Applications for composites in agriculture, chemical and petrochemical industries, construction, consumer goods, machinery, power generation and distribution, transportation, biomedicine, and safety are presented. With the continuing trend toward further cost reductions, composites warrant consideration in a wide range of non-aerospace applications. Composite materials discussed include filamentary reinforced materials, laminates, multiphase alloys, solid multiphase lubricants, and multiphase ceramics. New processes developed to aid in fabrication of composites are given.

Leeds, M. A.; Schwartz, S.; Holm, G. J.; Krainess, A. M.; Wykes, D. M.; Delzell, M. T.; Veazie, W. H., Jr.

1972-01-01

180

Composite structural materials. [fiber reinforced composites for aircraft structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Physical properties of fiber reinforced composites; structural concepts and analysis; manufacturing; reliability; and life prediction are subjects of research conducted to determine the long term integrity of composite aircraft structures under conditions pertinent to service use. Progress is reported in (1) characterizing homogeneity in composite materials; (2) developing methods for analyzing composite materials; (3) studying fatigue in composite materials; (4) determining the temperature and moisture effects on the mechanical properties of laminates; (5) numerically analyzing moisture effects; (6) numerically analyzing the micromechanics of composite fracture; (7) constructing the 727 elevator attachment rib; (8) developing the L-1011 engine drag strut (CAPCOMP 2 program); (9) analyzing mechanical joints in composites; (10) developing computer software; and (11) processing science and technology, with emphasis on the sailplane project.

Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberly, S. E.

1981-01-01

181

Advanced Composite Materials for Precision Segmented Reflectors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective in the NASA Precision Segmented Reflector (PSR) project is to develop new composite material concepts for highly stable and durable reflectors with precision surfaces. The project focuses on alternate material concepts such as the developmen...

B. A. Stein D. E. Bowles

1988-01-01

182

New Textile Composite Materials Development, Production, Application.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New textile composite materials development, production, and application are discussed. Topics covered include: super-high-strength, super-high-modulus fibers, filaments, and materials manufactured on their basis; heat-resistant and nonflammable fibers, f...

P. Y. Mikhailov

1993-01-01

183

Modeling the effect of orientation on the shock response of a damageable composite material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A carbon fiber-epoxy composite (CFEC) shock response in the through thickness orientation and in one of the fiber directions is significantly different. The hydrostatic pressure inside anisotropic materials depends on deviatoric strain components as well as volumetric strain. Non-linear effects, such as shock effects, can be incorporated through the volumetric straining in the material. Thus, a new basis is required to couple the anisotropic material stiffness and strength with anisotropic shock effects, associated energy dependence, and damage softening process. This article presents these constitutive equations for shock wave modeling of a damageable carbon fiber-epoxy composite. Modeling the effect of fiber orientation on the shock response of a CFEC has been performed using a generalized decomposition of the stress tensor [A. A. Lukyanov, Int. J. Plast. 24, 140 (2008)] and Mie-Grüneisen's extrapolation of high-pressure shock Hugoniot states to other thermodynamics states for shocked CFEC materials. The three-wave structure (non-linear anisotropic, fracture, and isotropic elastic waves) that accompanies damage softening process is also proposed in this work for describing CFEC behavior under shock loading which allows to remove any discontinuities observed in the linear case for relation between shock velocities and particle velocities [A. A. Lukyanov, Eur. Phys. J. B 74, 35 (2010)]. Different Hugoniot stress levels are obtained when the material is impacted in different directions; their good agreement with the experiment demonstrates that the anisotropic equation of state, strength, and damage model are adequate for the simulation of shock wave propagation within damageable CFEC material. Remarkably, in the through thickness orientation, the material behaves similar to a simple polymer whereas in the fiber direction, the proposed in this paper model explains an initial ramp, before at sufficiently high stresses, and a much faster rising shock above it. The numerical results for shock wave modeling using proposed constitutive equations are presented, discussed, and future studies are outlined.

Lukyanov, Alexander A.

2012-10-01

184

New topics on nanoindentation of polymers and composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, nanoindentation was used to determine Young's modulus of homogeneous plastic materials as well as inhomogeneous epoxy woven fabric composites using various indenters. In the first part, homogeneous PMMA and polycarbonate were characterized using conical and spherical indenters. The conventional approach of the inverse analysis was modified in order to account for effects obtained during spherical nanoindentation. The experimental results were verified using FEA analysis in ABAQUS. It was found that viscous effects were present in conical nanoindentations which led to an overestimation of contact stiffness. The second part, the response of carbon and glass fiber woven fabric epoxy composites was investigated using Berkovich and spherical indenters. Localized nanoindentation was performed using the Berkovich probe in both materials which led to determination of glass fibers and matrix stiffnesses. The anisotropic nature of the response was treated modifying the classical approach to calculate transverse modulus of a unidirectional composite. Finally, fiber volume ratios were calculated according to type of composite and indenter used.

Martinez Hernandez, Ricardo

185

Implementation of an Evolving non Quadratic Anisotropic Behaviour for the Closed Packed Materials  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the mechanical behaviour of alpha-titanium alloys is modelised for the cold forming processes. The elasto-plastic constitutive law is decomposed in an anisotropic plastic criterion, an isotropic hardening and a kinematic hardening. Non quadratic criteria have been developed by Cazacu et al.[1], to model the plasticity of hexagonal closed packed materials. The implementation of this model in a finite element software switch between two bases, the equilibrium is calculated in a reference basis and the anisotropy axes define a local basis, updated by the deformation gradient. An identification procedure, based on tensile tests, allows defining all the parameters needed to model the elasto-plastic behaviour. Simulations of cold forming processes (bulging and deep drawing) have been done to validate this model. Numerical results are compared with experimental data, obtained from speckles analysis.

Revil-Baudard, Benoit; Massoni, Elisabeth [CEMEF Mines ParisTech, B.P. 207, F-06904 Sophia-Antipolis (France)

2010-06-15

186

Total transmission and super reflection realized by anisotropic zero-index materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally total transmission and super reflection which are realized by anisotropic zero-index materials (AZIMs). We show that total transmission will be observed when using a rectangular perfectly magnetic conductor (PMC)-coated object sandwiched by two AZIM slabs, which has the properties of ?rx = 0 (in the normal direction to the wavefronts) and ?ry = ?rz = 1 for transverse-electric polarized incident waves. When the object is coated with a perfectly electric conductor (PEC), however, the incident waves will be totally reflected by the finite-sized object in the way of an infinite PEC plane, generating a super reflection. Closed-form formulas are derived to explain the physical mechanisms of total transmission and super reflection, which agree with the full-wave numerical simulations perfectly. Experimental samples of AZIM and PMC are designed, fabricated and measured in the microwave frequency, which show good transparent and super-reflecting effects.

Ma, Hui Feng; Shi, Jin Hui; Cai, Ben Geng; Cui, Tie Jun

2012-12-01

187

Continuation of tailored composite structures of ordered staple thermoplastic material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The search for the cost effective composite structure has motivated the investigation of several approaches to develop composite structure from innovative material forms. Among the promising approaches is the conversion of a planar sheet to components of complex curvature through sheet forming or stretch forming. In both cases, the potential for material stretch in the fiber direction appears to offer a clear advantage in formability over continuous fiber systems. A framework was established which allows the simulation of the anisotropic mechanisms of deformation of long discontinuous fiber laminates wherein the matrix phase is a viscous fluid. Predictions for the effective viscosities of a hyper-anisotropic medium consisting of collimated, discontinuous fibers suspended in viscous matrix were extended to capture the characteristics of typical polymers including non-Newtonian behavior and temperature dependence. In addition, the influence of fiber misorientation was also modeled by compliance averaging to determine ensemble properties for a given orientation distribution. A design tool is presented for predicting the effect of material heterogeneity on the performance of curved composite beams such as those used in aircraft fuselage structures. Material heterogeneity can be induced during manufacturing processes such as sheet forming and stretch forming of thermoplastic composites. This heterogeneity can be introduced in the form of fiber realignment and spreading during the manufacturing process causing radial and tangential gradients in material properties. Two analysis procedures are used to solve the beam problems. The first method uses separate two-dimensional elasticity solutions for the stresses in the flange and web sections of the beam. The separate solutions are coupled by requiring that forces and displacements match section boundaries. The second method uses an approximate Rayleigh-Ritz technique to find the solutions for more complex beams. Analyses are performed for curved beams of various cross-sections loaded in pure bending and with a uniform distributed load. Preliminary results show that the geometry of the beam dictates the effect of heterogeneity on performance. The role of heterogeneity is larger in beams with a small average radius-to-depth ration, R/t, where R is the average radius of the beam and t is the difference between the inside and outside radii. Results of the anlysis are in the form of stresses and displacements and are compared to both mechanics of materials and numerical solutions obtained using finite element analysis.

Santare, Michael H.; Pipes, R. Byron

1992-01-01

188

Tough composite materials: Recent developments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present volume broadly considers topics in composite fracture toughness and impact behavior characterization, composite system constituent properties and their interrelationships, and matrix systems' synthesis and characterization. Attention is given to the characterization of interlaminar crack growth in composites by means of the double cantilever beam specimen, the characterization of delamination resistance in toughened resin composites, the effect of impact damage and open holes on the compressive strength of tough resin/high strain fiber laminates, the effect of matrix and fiber properties on compression failure mechanisms and impact resistance, the relation of toughened neat resin properties to advanced composite mechanical properties, and constituent and composite properties' relationships in thermosetting matrices. Also treated are the effect of cross-link density on the toughening mechanism of elastomer-modified epoxies, the chemistry of fiber/resin interfaces, novel carbon fibers and their properties, the development of a heterogeneous laminating resin, solvent-resistant thermoplastics, NASA Lewis research in advanced composites, and opportunities for the application of composites in commercial aircraft transport structures.

Vosteen, L. F. (editor); Johnston, N. J. (editor); Teichman, L. A. (editor); Blankenship, C. P. (editor)

1985-01-01

189

Fracture of laminated composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cracks occurring in conventional laminates, or artificially bonded composites, and slip bands appearing in lamellar alloys, or naturally bonded composites, are studied. In this analysis, a mixed mode plane crack is modeled by continuous distributions of both climb and glide dislocations. The requirement that the boundary conditions prescribed on the surfaces of this crack must be satisfied results in dual

Omoike

1984-01-01

190

Composite materials and method of making  

DOEpatents

A method for forming improved composite materials using a thermosetting polyester urethane hybrid resin, a closed cavity mold having an internal heat transfer mechanism used in this method, and the composite materials formed by this method having a hybrid of a carbon fiber layer and a fiberglass layer.

Simmons, Kevin L [Kennewick, WA; Wood, Geoffrey M [North Saanich, CA

2011-05-17

191

Effects of fiber motion on the acoustic behavior of an anisotropic, flexible fibrous material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The acoustic behavior of a flexible fibrous material was studied experimentally. The material consisted of cylindrically shaped fibers arranged in a batting with the fibers primarily aligned parallel to the face of the batting. This type of material was considered anisotropic, with the acoustic propagation constant depending on whether the dirction of sound propagation was parallel or normal to the fiber arrangement. Normal incidence sound absorption measurements were taken for both fiber orientations over the frequency range 140 to 1500 Hz and with bulk densities ranging from 4.6 to 67 kg/cu m. When the sound propagated in a direction normal to the fiber alignment, the measured sound absorption showed the occurrence of a strong resonance, which increased absorption above that attributed to viscous and thermal effects. When the sound propagated in a direction parallel to the fiber alignment, indications of strong resonances in the data were not present. The resonance in the data for fibers normal to the direction of sound propagation is attributed to fiber motion. An analytical model was developed for the acoustic behavior of the material displaying the same fiber motion characteristics shown in the measurements.

Dahl, Milo D.; Rice, Edward J.; Groesbeck, Donald E.

1987-01-01

192

Determination of the elastic constants of anisotropic materials using laser-generated ultrasonic signals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the solution of the materials characterization problem in which the elastic constants of an anisotropic material are determined from ultrasonic wavespeed measurements made in nonprincipal directions of a specimen. The ultrasonic waves were generated via the point-source/point-receiver technique using a pulsed laser as a source and a miniature, point-like transducer as a receiver. Data were acquired during a scan of the source along one of the principal acoustic axes of symmetry of the material. In each waveform the arrivals of the quasi-longitudinal and the two quasi-shear bulk modes were measured and the elastic constants of the material were then recovered using an optimization algorithm. Experimental results are presented for a transversely isotropic, unidirectional fiberglass/polyester and a single crystal specimen of silicon. It was found that the nonlinear fit between the measured and the recovered longitudinal slowness values is excellent. Some discrepancies are observed in the data for the two shear modes. These are shown to be related to the complexity of the detected signals.

Castagnede, B.; Kim, Kwang Y.; Sachse, Wolfgang; Thompson, Michael O.

1991-07-01

193

SAFT Applied to Anisotropic and Attenuative Materials Using Sparse Array Data and Signal Processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improved SAFT imaging methodologies are discussed for the inspection of composite materials and coarse-grained polycrystalline materials. The problem of unfavourable beam fields of conventional transducers, which occurs for specific elastic material properties, is solved by using a two-dimensional array for beam focusing and steering. Additionally, redundant sets of rf-data are acquired and used for image reconstruction by exciting the transmit and receive elements, respectively, in variable subsets, revealing the promising potential of sparse array applications.

Spies, Martin; Rieder, Hans

2007-03-01

194

Flame-retardant composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The properties of eight different graphite composite panels fabricated using four different resin matrices and two types of graphite reinforcement are described. The resin matrices included: VPSP/BMI, a blend of vinylpolystyryl pyridine and bismaleimide; BMI, a bismaleimide; and phenolic and PSP, a polystyryl pyridine. The graphite fiber used was AS-4 in the form of either tape or fabric. The properties of these composites were compared with epoxy composites. It was determined that VPSP/BMI with the graphite tape was the optimum design giving the lowest heat release rate.

Kourtides, Demetrius A.

1991-01-01

195

Flame-Retardant Composite Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The properties of eight different graphite composite panels fabricated using four different resin matrices and two types of graphite reinforcement are described. The resin matrices included: VPSP/BMI, a blend of vinylpolystyryl pyridine and bismaleimide; ...

D. A. Kourtides

1991-01-01

196

New textile composite materials development, production, application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New textile composite materials development, production, and application are discussed. Topics covered include: super-high-strength, super-high-modulus fibers, filaments, and materials manufactured on their basis; heat-resistant and nonflammable fibers, filaments, and textile fabrics; fibers and textile fabrics based on fluorocarbon poylmers; antifriction textile fabrics based on polyfen filaments; development of new types of textile combines and composite materials; and carbon filament-based fabrics.

Mikhailov, Petr Y.

1993-01-01

197

Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are presented of a program designed to develop life prediction and constitutive models for two coated single crystal alloys used in gas turbine airfoils. The two alloys are PWA 1480 and Alloy 185. The two oxidation resistant coatings are PWA 273, an aluminide coating, and PWA 286, an overlay NiCoCrAlY coating. To obtain constitutive and fatigue data, tests were conducted on uncoated and coated specimens loaded in the CH76 100 CH110 , CH76 110 CH110 , CH76 111 CH110 and CH76 123 CH110 crystallographic directions. Two constitutive models are being developed and evaluated for the single crystal materials: a micromechanic model based on crystallographic slip systems, and a macroscopic model which employs anisotropic tensors to model inelastic deformation anisotropy. Based on tests conducted on the overlay coating material, constitutive models for coatings also appear feasible and two initial models were selected. A life prediction approach was proposed for coated single crystal materials, including crack initiation either in the coating or in the substrate. The coating initiated failures dominated in the tests at load levels typical of gas turbine operation. Coating life was related to coating stress/strain history which was determined from specimen data using the constitutive models.

Swanson, G. A.; Linask, I.; Nissley, D. M.; Norris, P. P.; Meyer, T. G.; Walker, K. P.

1987-01-01

198

Dancing Discs: Bending and Twisting of Soft Materials by Anisotropic Swelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soft materials, e.g. biological tissues and gels, undergo morphological changes, motion, and instabilities when subjected to external stimuli. Tissues can exhibit residual internal stresses induced by growth, and generate elastic deformations to move in response to light or touch, curl articular cartilage, aid in seed dispersal, and actuate hygromorphs, such as pine cones. Understanding the dynamics of such osmotically driven movements, in the influence of geometry and boundary conditions, is crucial to the controlled deformation of soft materials. We examine how thin elastic plates undergo rapid bending and buckling instabilities after anisotropic exposure to a favorable solvent that swells the network. An unconstrained beam bends along its length, while a circular disc bends and buckles with multiple curvatures. In the case of a disc, a large-amplitude transverse travelling wave rotates azimuthally around the disc. Theoretical interpretations inspired by the complementary thermal expansion problem of transient shape changes triggered by time-dependent heating are presented and allow collapse of time-dependent data on universal curves. Understanding the dynamics of strain-driven shape changes provides new insight into natural systems and control of advanced functional materials.

Holmes, Douglas; Roché, Matthieu; Sinha, Tarun; Stone, Howard

2011-03-01

199

Combinatorial synthesis of inorganic or composite materials  

DOEpatents

Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials or, alternatively, allowing the components to interact to form at least two different materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, nonbiological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

Goldwasser, Isy (Palo Alto, CA); Ross, Debra A. (Mountain Ranch, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Danville, CA); Briceno, Gabriel (Baldwin Park, CA); Sun, Xian-Dong (Fremont, CA); Wang, Kai-An (Cupertino, CA)

2010-08-03

200

Spectral representation theory of graded composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In graded composite materials, the physical properties can vary continuously in space and it may give different physical phenomena when compared with homogeneous materials. The Bergman-Milton spectral representation is a rigorous mathematical formalism to express the effective dielectric constant of nongraded composite materials [1]. In this study, we consider a material (rather than microsture [2]) graded composites, and generalize the Bergman-Milton spectral representation to extract the spectral density function for the effective dielectric constant of this graded composite material in the frequency domain [3]. Analytic and numerical solution will be presented for graded films and graded spheres. [1] D. J. Bergman, Phys. Rev. B 14, 4304 (1976). [2] J. P. Huang, K. W. Yu, G. Q. Gu, M. Karttunen, Phys. Rev. E 67, 051405 (2003). [3] L. Gao, J. P. Huang, K.W. Yu, Eur. Phys. J. B 36, 475 (2003).

Chan, K. L.; Kwok, C. M.; Yu, K. W.

2008-03-01

201

Measuring the elastic properties of anisotropic materials by means of indentation experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unloading process in an indentation experiment is usually modeled by considering the contact of a rigid punch with an elastically isotropic half space. Here we extend the analysis to elastically anisotropic solids, We review some of the basic formulae for describing the indentation of elastically anisotropic solids with axisymmetric indenters, We show how the indentation modulus can be calculated

JOOST J. VLASSAK; W. D. NIX

1994-01-01

202

Graphene-based Composite Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the mechanical properties, such as fracture toughness (KIc), fracture energy (GIc), ultimate tensile strength (UTS), Young¡¦s modulus (E), and fatigue crack propagation rate (FCPR) of epoxy-matrix composites with different weight fractions of carbon-based fillers, including graphene platelets (GPL), graphene nanoribbons (GNR), single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT), multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT), and fullerenes (C60). Only ˜0.125 wt.% GPL was found to increase the KIc of the pure epoxy by ˜65% and the GIc by ˜115%. To get similar improvement, CNT and nanoparticle epoxy composites required one to two orders of magnitude greater weight fraction of nanofillers. Moreover, ˜0.125% wt.% GPL also decreased the fatigue crack propagation rate in the epoxy by ˜30-fold. The E value of 0.1 wt.% GPL/epoxy nanocomposite was ˜31% larger than the pure epoxy while there was only an increase of ˜3% for the SWNT composites. The UTS of the pristine epoxy was improved by ˜40% with GPLs in comparison with ˜14% enhancement for the MWNTs. The KIc of the GPL nanocomposite enhanced by ˜53% over the pristine epoxy compared to a ˜20% increase for the MWNT-reinforced composites. The results of the FCPR tests for the GPL nanocomposites showed a different trend. While the CNT nanocomposites were not effective enough to suppress the crack growth at high values of the stress intensity factor (DeltaK), the reverse behavior is observed for the GPL nanocomposites. The advantage of the GPLs over CNTs in terms of mechanical properties enhancement is due to their enormous specific surface area, enhanced adhesion at filler/epoxy interface (because of the wrinkled surfaces of GPLs), as well as the planar structure of the GPLs. We also show that unzipping of MWNTs into graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) enhances the load transfer effectiveness in epoxy nanocomposites. For instance, at ˜0.3 wt.% of fillers, the Young's modulus (E) of the epoxy nanocomposite with GNRs increased by ˜30% compared to their MWNTs counterpart. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) for ˜0.3 wt.% GNR composites showed ˜22% enhancement compared to the MWNT composites at the same loading fraction of fillers (at ˜0.3 wt.%). Our results show that unzipping effect can be used to transform carbon nanotubes into graphene nanoribbons, which are far more effective than the baseline nanotube as a nanofiller in nanocomposites. The mechanical properties of fullerence (C60) epoxy nanocomposites at different loading fractions (wt.%) of fullerene fillers in the pristine epoxy was also studied. Fullerene (C60) fillers demonstrated good potential to improve the mechanical properties of epoxy composites. However the required C60 loading fractions were ˜1% which are still an order of magnitude higher than that for graphene platelets (˜0.1%). This again illustrates the superiority of graphene as a structural reinforcement additive for epoxy polymers at low nanofiller loadings. While the main focus of this work has been on epoxy polymers, initial results with ceramic matrix and metal (aluminum) matrix composites were also generated. These results demonstrate that GPL are highly effective in enahncing the fracture properties of silicon nitride ceramics. The fracture toughness of the baseline silicon nitride matrix increased by ˜235% (from ˜2.8 to ˜6.6 MPa.m1/2) at ˜1.5% GPL volume fraction. However the results were disappointing for aluminim matrix composites. Compared to the pure aluminum, the graphene-aluminum composites showed decreased strength and hardness. This is explained in the context of enhanced aluminum carbide formation with the graphene filler. These results indicate that Graphene Platelets (GPL) show strong potential as a nanofiller for epoxy nanocomposites and can provide a performance comparable to other forms of nanofillers at a significantly lower nanofiller loading fraction.

Rafiee, Mohammad Ali

203

High temperature composite materials and magnetodielectric composites for microwave application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the part I, we investigated the microstructures, mechanical properties, and oxidation behavior of hot pressed BN in the presence of sintering additives Al2O3, Y2O3 and SiO2. BN platelets size in the sintered samples grew from ˜5 to ˜30 times for the use of all three oxides, and the use of Al2O3 and Y2O3, correspondingly. The excessive growth of BN platelets in samples containing Al2O3 and Y2O 3 caused them to misalign which, in turn, resulted in its low relative density (92.0%). The use of SiO2 mitigated this grain growth so that BN platelets aligned better to gain a higher relative density (99.5%). Flexural strength and elastic modulus of BN were proportional to their densities. Oxidation experiments conducted at 1200°C in flowing dry air showed borate glass droplets were formed on all of oxidized BN samples. The addition of SiO2 resulted in the formation of a glass layer before the appearance of these glass droplets. The presence of glass droplets was a result of the poor wetting of liquid B2O3 on BN and the dominance of the formation of B2O3 to its evaporation. Their size evolution described the "breadth figure" theory, similar to the formation of water droplets on a flat surface from the saturated water vapor air. Substructures observed inside the glass droplets contained high and consistent Al:Y atomic ratio (5:7) in all samples. The evaporation of B2O 3 isolated Al2O3, Y2O3 in the form of immiscible liquid phase to borate. In the part II, we investigated the formulation of equivalent permittivity and permeability with isotropic and anisotropic Co2Z-polymer composition. These two properties of isotropic Co2Z-LDPE/Co2Z-Silicone composites increased with Co2Z composition. However, their permittivity was always higher than that of their permeability. Permittivity and permeability of anisotropic Co2Z-Silicone composites were split into high and low values along the parallel and perpendicular directions to the alignment direction of Co2Z particles. The separation at 20 vol% Co2Z was strongest, attained 46% anisotropy so that its parallel permeability approached closer to that of its perpendicular permittivity. However, the low permittivity of Co2Z required a higher electric field to increase its particles' alignment.

Do, Thanh Ba

204

Oxygen Compatibility Testing of Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite materials offer significant weight-saving potential for aerospace applications in propellant and oxidizer tanks. This application for oxygen tanks presents the challenge of being oxygen compatible in addition to complying with the other required material characteristics. This effort reports on the testing procedures and data obtained in examining and selecting potential composite materials for oxygen tank usage. Impact testing of composites has shown that most of these materials initiate a combustion event when impacted at 72 ft-lbf in the presence of liquid oxygen, though testing has also shown substantial variability in reaction sensitivities to impact. Data for screening of 14 potential composites using the Bruceton method is given herein and shows that the 50-percent reaction frequencies range from 17 to 67 ft-lbf. The pressure and temperature rises for several composite materials were recorded to compare the energy releases as functions of the combustion reactions with their respective reaction probabilities. The test data presented are primarily for a test pressure of 300 psia in liquid oxygen. The impact screening process is compared with oxygen index and autogenous ignition test data for both the composite and the basic resin. The usefulness of these supplemental tests in helping select the most oxygen compatible materials is explored. The propensity for mechanical impact ignition of the composite compared with the resin alone is also examined. Since an ignition-free composite material at the peak impact energy of 72 ft-lbf has not been identified, composite reactivity must be characterized over the impact energy level and operating pressure ranges to provide data for hazard analyses in selecting the best potential material for liquid tank usage.

Engel, Carl D.; Watkins, Casey N.

2006-01-01

205

Homogenization of two-phase elasto-plastic composite materials and structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop homogenization schemes and numerical algorithms for two-phase elasto-plastic composite materials and structures. A Hill-type incremental formulation enables the simulation of unloading and cyclic loadings. It also allows to handle any rate-independent model for each phase. We study the crucial issue of tangent operators: elasto-plastic (or “continuum”) versus algorithmic (or “consistent”), and anisotropic versus isotropic. We apply two methods

I. Doghri; A. Ouaar

2003-01-01

206

Acoustic Emission from Composite Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The two basic areas where the acoustic emission (AE) technique can be applied are materials research and the evaluation of structural reliability. This experimental method leads to a better understanding of fracture mechanisms and is an NDT technique part...

I. C. Visconti R. Teti

1979-01-01

207

Advanced composite materials for precision segmented reflectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective in the NASA Precision Segmented Reflector (PSR) project is to develop new composite material concepts for highly stable and durable reflectors with precision surfaces. The project focuses on alternate material concepts such as the development of new low coefficient of thermal expansion resins as matrices for graphite fiber reinforced composites, quartz fiber reinforced epoxies, and graphite reinforced glass. Low residual stress fabrication methods will be developed. When coupon specimens of these new material concepts have demonstrated the required surface accuracies and resistance to thermal distortion and microcracking, reflector panels will be fabricated and tested in simulated space environments. An important part of the program is the analytical modeling of environmental stability of these new composite materials concepts through constitutive equation development, modeling of microdamage in the composite matrix, and prediction of long term stability (including viscoelasticity). These analyses include both closed form and finite element solutions at the micro and macro levels.

Stein, Bland A.; Bowles, David E.

1988-01-01

208

Instrumentation to Characterize Smart Materials and Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Instrumentation was purchased through this DURIP grant to carry out experiments on shape memory alloys and smart composite structures. The ultimate objective is to develop reliable constitutive models for these advanced materials. this will involve carefu...

J. A. Shaw A. M. Waas

1999-01-01

209

Mechanics of Composite Materials for Spacecraft.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During this seven month project efforts continued on the development of advanced analytical and numerical techniques which can be effectively combined to provide advanced thermomechanical modeling of composite materials with nonlinear constituents. The ar...

G. J. Dvorak M. S. Shephard

1992-01-01

210

Composite Material Application to Liquid Rocket Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The substitution of reinforced plastic composite (RPC) materials for metal was studied. The major objectives were to: (1) determine the extent to which composite materials can be beneficially used in liquid rocket engines; (2) identify additional technology requirements; and (3) determine those areas which have the greatest potential for return. Weight savings, fabrication costs, performance, life, and maintainability factors were considered. Two baseline designs, representative of Earth to orbit and orbit to orbit engine systems, were selected. Weight savings are found to be possible for selected components with the substitution of materials for metal. Various technology needs are identified before RPC material can be used in rocket engine applications.

Judd, D. C.

1982-01-01

211

Elastic wave propagation in anisotropic crustal material possessing arbitrary internal tilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geological causes of crustal anisotropy include regional fractures and cracks, isotropic heterogeneity or layering and material composition and textural properties. In addition, shear or metamorphic foliations in fault zones or structural terranes can serve as proxies for intracrustal deformation in a manner analogous to the lattice-preferred orientation of olivine produced by mantle shear. The primary factor in the production of

David A. Okaya; Thomas V. McEvilly

2003-01-01

212

Elastic wave propagation in anisotropic crustal material possessing arbitrary internal tilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Geological causes of crustal anisotropy include regional fractures and cracks, isotropic het- erogeneity or layering and material composition and textural properties. In addition, shear or metamorphic foliations in fault zones or structural terranes can serve as proxies for intracrustal deformation in a manner analogous to the lattice-preferred orientation of olivine produced by mantle shear. The primary factor in the

David A. Okaya; Thomas V. McEvilly

2000-01-01

213

Composite materials for thermal energy storage  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a composite material for thermal energy storage comprising a solid state phase change material selected from the group cnsisting of pentaerythritol, pentaglycerine, neopentyl glycol, tetramethylol propane, monoaminopentaerythritol, diaminopentaerythritol, tris(hydroxymethyl)acetic acid, and mixtures thereof. The solid state phase cange material contacts materials selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, porous rock, and mixtures thereof.

Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.; Shinton, Y.D.

1986-02-25

214

Acoustic emission monitoring of polymer composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The techniques of acoustic emission monitoring of polymer composite materials is described. It is highly sensitive, quasi-nondestructive testing method that indicates the origin and behavior of flaws in such materials when submitted to different load exposures. With the use of sophisticated signal analysis methods it is possible the distinguish between different types of failure mechanisms, such as fiber fracture delamination or fiber pull-out. Imperfections can be detected while monitoring complex composite structures by acoustic emission measurements.

Bardenheier, R.

1981-01-01

215

Fabrication of single-crystalline microspheres with high sphericity from anisotropic materials  

PubMed Central

Microspheres with high sphericity exhibit unique functionalities. In particular, their high symmetry makes them excellent omnidirectional optical resonators. As such perfect micrometre-sized spheres are known to be formed by surface tension, melt cooling is a popular method for fabricating microspheres. However, it is extremely difficult to produce crystalline microspheres using this method because their surfaces are normally faceted. Only microspheres of polymers, glass, or ceramics have been available, while single-crystalline microspheres, which should be useful in optical applications, have been awaiting successful production. Here we report the fabrication of single-crystalline semiconductor microspheres that have surfaces with atomic-level smoothness. These microspheres were formed by performing laser ablation in superfluid helium to create and moderately cool a melt of the anisotropic semiconductor material. This novel method provides cooling conditions that are exceptionally suited for the fabrication of single-crystalline microspheres. This finding opens a pathway for studying the hidden mechanism of anisotropy-free crystal growth and its applications.

Okamoto, Shinya; Inaba, Kazuhiro; Iida, Takuya; Ishihara, Hajime; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Ashida, Masaaki

2014-01-01

216

Fabrication of single-crystalline microspheres with high sphericity from anisotropic materials.  

PubMed

Microspheres with high sphericity exhibit unique functionalities. In particular, their high symmetry makes them excellent omnidirectional optical resonators. As such perfect micrometre-sized spheres are known to be formed by surface tension, melt cooling is a popular method for fabricating microspheres. However, it is extremely difficult to produce crystalline microspheres using this method because their surfaces are normally faceted. Only microspheres of polymers, glass, or ceramics have been available, while single-crystalline microspheres, which should be useful in optical applications, have been awaiting successful production. Here we report the fabrication of single-crystalline semiconductor microspheres that have surfaces with atomic-level smoothness. These microspheres were formed by performing laser ablation in superfluid helium to create and moderately cool a melt of the anisotropic semiconductor material. This novel method provides cooling conditions that are exceptionally suited for the fabrication of single-crystalline microspheres. This finding opens a pathway for studying the hidden mechanism of anisotropy-free crystal growth and its applications. PMID:24898213

Okamoto, Shinya; Inaba, Kazuhiro; Iida, Takuya; Ishihara, Hajime; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Ashida, Masaaki

2014-01-01

217

Stress waves in composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of cells (MOC) developed by Aboudi provides a powerful means for studying the propagation of waves through systems having complicated internal cell structure [

Wave Motion 9, 141 (1987)
]. Laminated materials are a common example. The method can handle harmonic waves and also transient waves arising from a finite duration impulse. The method is sufficiently robust to treat impact, as we show here. Both linear and nonlinear elastic-stress-strain relations can be included. The present work generalizes the method to include viscoelastic materials (such as polymers), systems with cell structure deviating from perfect periodicity (including random), and systems simulating actual impact experiments. We test the theory by comparing our results with measurements taken from a flat-plate impact experiment. The system investigated was a bilaminate composed of unit cells of epoxy and epoxy-graphite subcells. Using known and estimated material parameters, we find that the MOC gives a reasonable representation of the data. We then address some features of the experimental data that have not yet been explained by other theoretical methods. The importance of unit cell periodicity is tested by adding a random incremental width to each unit cell. Finally, the shortcomings of the MOC caused by using a truncated series expansion for the particle displacements, and neglecting plastic flow and nonadiabatic effects are discussed.

Clements, B. E.; Johnson, J. N.; Hixson, R. S.

1996-12-01

218

Oxygen Compatibility Testing of Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of polymer composite liquid oxygen LO2 tanks is a critical step in creating the next generation of launch vehicles. Future launch vehicles need to minimize the gross liftoff weight (GLOW), which is possible due to the 25%-40% reduction in weight that composite materials could provide over current aluminum technology. Although a composite LO2 tank makes these weight savings feasible, composite materials have not historically been viewed as "LO2 compatible." To be considered LO2 compatible, materials must be selected that will resist any type of detrimental, combustible reaction when exposed to usage environments. This is traditionally evaluated using a standard set of tests. However, materials that do not pass the standard tests can be shown to be safe for a particular application. This paper documents the approach and results of a joint NASA/Lockheed Martin program to select and verify LO2 compatible composite materials for liquid oxygen fuel tanks. The test approach developed included tests such as mechanical impact, particle impact, puncture, electrostatic discharge, friction, and pyrotechnic shock. These tests showed that composite liquid oxygen tanks are indeed feasible for future launch vehicles.

Graf, Neil A.; Hudgins, Richard J.; McBain, Michael

2000-01-01

219

3-D textile reinforcements in composite materials  

SciTech Connect

Laminated composite materials have been used in structural applications since the 1960s. However, their high cost and inability to accommodate fibers in the laminate`s thickness direction greatly reduce their damage tolerance and impact resistance. The second generation of materials--3-D textile reinforced composites--offers significant cost reduction, and by incorporating reinforcement in the thickness direction, dramatically increases damage tolerance and impact resistance. However, methods for predicting mechanical properties of 3-D textile reinforced composite materials tend to be more complex. These materials also have disadvantages--particularly in regard to crimps in the yarns--that require more research. Textile preforms, micro- and macromechanical modeling, manufacturing processes, and characterization all need further development. As researchers overcome these problems, this new generation of composites will emerge as a highly competitive family of materials. This book provides a state-of-the-art account of this promising technology. In it, top experts describe the manufacturing processes, highlight the advantages, identify the main applications, analyze methods for predicting mechanical properties, and detail various reinforcement strategies, including grid structure, knitted fabric composites, and the braiding technique. Armed with the information in this book, readers will be prepared to better exploit the advantages of 3-D textile reinforced composites, overcome its disadvantages, and contribute to the further development of the technology.

Miravete, A. [Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain)

1999-11-01

220

Ultrasonic stress wave characterization of composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The work reported covers three simultaneous projects. The first project was concerned with: (1) establishing the sensitivity of the acousto-ultrasonic method for evaluating subtle forms of damage development in cyclically loaded composite materials, (2) establishing the ability of the acousto-ultrasonic method for detecting initial material imperfections that lead to localized damage growth and final specimen failure, and (3) characteristics of the NBS/Proctor sensor/receiver for acousto-ultrasonic evaluation of laminated composite materials. The second project was concerned with examining the nature of the wave propagation that occurs during acoustic-ultrasonic evaluation of composite laminates and demonstrating the role of Lamb or plate wave modes and their utilization for characterizing composite laminates. The third project was concerned with the replacement of contact-type receiving piezotransducers with noncontacting laser-optical sensors for acousto-ultrasonic signal acquisition.

Duke, J. C., Jr.; Henneke, E. G., II; Stinchcomb, W. W.

1986-01-01

221

New types of reinforced composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical properties of solids determine their usefulness as structural materials. Metals have some disadvantageous characteristics which reduce their effectiveness in critical engineering applications. These limitations can be overcome by the use of certain types of fibrous reinforced composites which have become available over the last few years. However, these materials in turn have their own inherent limitations, particularly in

J. G. Morley

1976-01-01

222

Energy absorption of composite material and structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented from a joint research program on helicopter crashworthiness conducted by the U.S. Army Aerostructures Directorate and NASA Langley. Through the ongoing research program an in-depth understanding has been developed on the cause/effect relationships between material and architectural variables and the energy-absorption capability of composite material and structure. Composite materials were found to be efficient energy absorbers. Graphite/epoxy subfloor structures were more efficient energy absorbers than comparable structures fabricated from Kevlar or aluminum. An accurate method of predicting the energy-absorption capability of beams was developed.

Farley, Gary L.

1987-01-01

223

Supramolecular assembly of bis(benzimidazole)pyridine: an extended anisotropic ligand for highly birefringent materials.  

PubMed

Four new bis(benzimidazole)pyridine (BBP)-containing compounds Zn(BBP)Cl[Au(CN)2], Mn(BBP)[Au(CN)2]2·H2O, Mn(BBP)Br2(MeOH) and Mn(BBP)Cl2(MeOH)·MeOH have been synthesized and structurally characterized and their birefringence values (?n) determined. The structure of Zn(BBP)Cl[Au(CN)2] contains a hydrogen-bonded dimer of Zn(BBP)Cl[Au(CN)2] units which propagate into a 1D chain through Au-Au interactions, although the crystals are of poor optical quality. The supramolecular structure of Mn(BBP)[Au(CN)2]2·H2 O forms a 1D coordination polymer through chains of Mn(BBP)[Au(CN)2]2 units, each containing one bridging Au(CN)2 and one forming a 2D sheet through Au-Au interactions. The supramolecular structures of Mn(BBP)Br2(MeOH) and Mn(BBP)Cl2(MeOH)·MeOH are very similar, consisting of a complex hydrogen-bonded network between NH imidazole, methanol and halide groups to align BBP building blocks. In the plane of the primary crystal growth direction, the birefringence values of the three Mn-containing materials were ?n=0.08(1), 0.538(3) and 0.69(3), respectively. The latter two birefringence values are larger than in the related 2,2';6'2''-terpyridine systems, placing them among the most birefringent solids reported. These compounds illustrate the utility of extending the ?-system of the building block and incorporating hydrogen-bonding sites as design elements for highly birefringent materials and also illustrates the effect on the measurable birefringence of the crystal quality, growth direction and structural alignment of the anisotropic BBP building blocks. PMID:24281807

Thompson, John R; Ovens, Jeffrey S; Williams, Vance E; Leznoff, Daniel B

2013-12-01

224

Investigation of anisotropic photonic band gaps in three-dimensional magnetized plasma photonic crystals containing the uniaxial material  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the dispersive properties of three-dimensional (3D) magnetized plasma photonic crystals (MPPCs) composed of anisotropic dielectric (the uniaxial material) spheres immersed in homogeneous magnetized plasma background with face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattices are theoretically investigated by the plane wave expansion method, as the Voigt effects of magnetized plasma are considered. The equations for calculating the anisotropic photonic band gaps (PBGs) in the first irreducible Brillouin zone are theoretically deduced. The anisotropic PBGs and two flatbands regions can be obtained. The effects of the ordinary-refractive index, extraordinary-refractive index, filling factor, plasma frequency, and external magnetic field on the dispersive properties of the 3D MPPCs are investigated in detail, respectively, and some corresponding physical explanations are also given. The numerical results show that the anisotropy can open partial band gaps in 3D MPPCs with fcc lattices and the complete PBGs can be found compared to the conventional 3D MPPCs doped by the isotropic material. The bandwidths of PBGs can be tuned by introducing the magnetized plasma into 3D PCs containing the uniaxial material. It is also shown that the anisotropic PBGs can be manipulated by the ordinary-refractive index, extraordinary-refractive index, filling factor, plasma frequency, and external magnetic field, respectively. The locations of flatbands regions cannot be manipulated by any parameters except for the plasma frequency and external magnetic field. Introducing the uniaxial material can obtain the complete PBGs as the 3D MPPCs with high symmetry and also provides a way to design the tunable devices.

Zhang, Hai-Feng [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China) [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Nanjing Artillery Academy, Nanjing 211132 (China)] [China; Liu, Shao-Bin; Kong, Xiang-Kun [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)] [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China)

2013-09-15

225

On-Top ?-Stacking of Quasiplanar Molecules in Hole-Transporting Materials: Inducing Anisotropic Carrier Mobility in Amorphous Films.  

PubMed

Dimers of partially oxygen-bridged triarylamines were designed and synthesized as hole-transporting materials. X-ray structural analyses revealed that these compounds form on-top ?-stacking aggregates in the crystalline state. TRMC measurements showed that high levels of anisotropic charge transport were induced in the direction of the ?-stacking. Surprisingly, even in vacuum-deposited amorphous films, these compounds retained some of the face-on ?-stacking, thus facilitating an out-of-plane carrier mobility. PMID:24764307

Wakamiya, Atsushi; Nishimura, Hidetaka; Fukushima, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Furitsu; Saeki, Akinori; Seki, Shu; Osaka, Itaru; Sasamori, Takahiro; Murata, Michihisa; Murata, Yasujiro; Kaji, Hironori

2014-06-01

226

A generalized anisotropic hardening rule based on the Mroz multi-yield-surface model for pressure insensitive and sensitive materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a generalized anisotropic hardening rule based on the Mroz multi-yield-surface model for pressure insensitive and sensitive materials is derived. The evolution equation for the active yield surface with reference to the memory yield surface is obtained by considering the continuous expansion of the active yield surface during the unloading\\/reloading process. The incremental constitutive relation based on the

K. S. Choi; J. Pan

2009-01-01

227

Damping in aerospace composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental results are presented on specimens of carbon and Kevlar fibers in epoxy resin, materials used in many aerospace structures (control surfaces and wings in aircraft, large antennas in spacecraft, etc.). Some experimental methods of estimating damping ratios are first reviewed, either in the time domain or in the frequency domain. Some damping factor estimates from experimental tests are then shown; in order to evaluate the effects of the aerospace environment, damping factors have been obtained in a typical range of temperature, namely between +120 C and -120 C, and in the pressure range from room pressure to 10 exp -6 torr. Finally, a theoretical approach for predicting the bounds of the damping coefficients is shown, and prediction data are compared with experimental results.

Agneni, A.; Balis Crema, L.; Castellani, A.

228

Composite Materials for Wind Power Turbine Blades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Renewable energy resources, of which wind energy is prominent, are part of the solution to the global energy problem. Wind turbine and the rotorblade concepts are reviewed, and loadings by wind and gravity as important factors for the fatigue performance of the materials are considered. Wood and composites are discussed as candidates for rotorblades. The fibers and matrices for composites are described, and their high stiffness, low density, and good fatigue performance are emphasized. Manufacturing technologies for composites are presented and evaluated with respect to advantages, problems, and industrial potential. The important technologies of today are prepreg (pre-impregnated) technology and resin infusion technology. The mechanical properties of fiber composite materials are discussed, with a focus on fatigue performance. Damage and materials degradation during fatigue are described. Testing procedures for documentation of properties are reviewed, and fatigue loading histories are discussed, together with methods for data handling and statistical analysis of (large) amounts of test data. Future challenges for materials in the field of wind turbines are presented, with a focus on thermoplastic composites, new structural materials concepts, new structural design aspects, structural health monitoring, and the coming trends and markets for wind energy.

Brøndsted, Povl; Lilholt, Hans; Lystrup, Aage

2005-08-01

229

Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques Applied to the Quantitative Characterization of Textile Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this Progress Report, we describe our further development of advanced ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods applied to the characterization of anisotropic materials. We present images obtained from experimental measurements of ultrasonic diffraction patterns transmitted through water only and transmitted through water and a thin woven composite. All images of diffraction patterns have been included on the accompanying CD-ROM in the JPEG format and Adobe TM Portable Document Format (PDF), in addition to the inclusion of hardcopies of the images contained in this report. In our previous semi-annual Progress Report (NAG 1-1848, December, 1996), we proposed a simple model to simulate the effect of a thin woven composite on an insonifying ultrasonic pressure field. This initial approach provided an avenue to begin development of a robust measurement method for nondestructive evaluation of anisotropic materials. In this Progress Report, we extend that work by performing experimental measurements on a single layer of a five-harness biaxial woven composite to investigate how a thin, yet architecturally complex, material interacts with the insonifying ultrasonic field. In Section 2 of this Progress Report we describe the experimental arrangement and methods for data acquisition of the ultrasonic diffraction patterns upon transmission through a thin woven composite. We also briefly describe the thin composite specimen investigated. Section 3 details the analysis of the experimental data followed by the experimental results in Section 4. Finally, a discussion of the observations and conclusions is found in Section 5.

Miller, James G.

1997-01-01

230

Tensile failure criteria for fiber composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analysis provides insight into the failure mechanics of these materials and defines criteria which serve as tools for preliminary design material selection and for material reliability assessment. The model incorporates both dispersed and propagation type failures and includes the influence of material heterogeneity. The important effects of localized matrix damage and post-failure matrix shear stress transfer are included in the treatment. The model is used to evaluate the influence of key parameters on the failure of several commonly used fiber-matrix systems. Analyses of three possible failure modes were developed. These modes are the fiber break propagation mode, the cumulative group fracture mode, and the weakest link mode. Application of the new model to composite material systems has indicated several results which require attention in the development of reliable structural composites. Prominent among these are the size effect and the influence of fiber strength variability.

Rosen, B. W.; Zweben, C. H.

1972-01-01

231

Indentation cracking of composite matrix materials.  

PubMed

Composite restorative materials wear by a fatigue mechanism in the occlusal contact area. Here, tooth cusps and food debris cyclically indent the restoration. Modeling this phenomenon requires an understanding of material response to indentation. The question in this study was whether material response depends on indenter size and geometry, and also, whether polymers used in restorative materials should be considered elastic and brittle, or plastic and ductile for modeling purposes. Three resins used as matrices in proprietary restorative composites were the experimental materials. To ascertain the influence of glass transition temperature, liquid sorption, and small amounts of filler on indentation response, we prepared materials with various degrees of cure; some samples were soaked in a 50/50 water/ethanol solution, and 3 vol% silica was added in some cases. Indentation experiments revealed that no cracking occurred in any material after indentation by Vickers pyramid or spherical indenters with diameters equal to or smaller than 0.254 mm. Larger spherical indenters induced subsurface median and surface radial and/or ring cracks. Critical loads causing subsurface cracks were measured. Indentation with suitably large spherical indenters provoked an elastoplastic response in polymers, and degree of cure and Tg had less influence on critical load than soaking in solution. Crack morphology was correlated with yield strain. Commonly held assumptions regarding the brittle elastic behavior of composite matrix materials may be incorrect. PMID:8083442

Baran, G; Shin, W; Abbas, A; Wunder, S

1994-08-01

232

Properties of five toughened matrix composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of toughened matrix composite materials offers an attractive solution to the problem of poor damage tolerance associated with advanced composite materials. In this study, the unidirectional laminate strengths and moduli, notched (open-hole) and unnotched tension and compression properties of quasi-isotropic laminates, and compression-after-impact strengths of five carbon fiber/toughened matrix composites, IM7/E7T1-2, IM7/X1845, G40-800X/5255-3, IM7/5255-3, and IM7/5260 have been evaluated. The compression-after-impact (CAI) strengths were determined primarily by impacting quasi-isotropic laminates with the NASA Langley air gun. A few CAI tests were also made with a drop-weight impactor. For a given impact energy, compression after impact strengths were determined to be dependent on impactor velocity. Properties and strengths for the five materials tested are compared with NASA data on other toughened matrix materials (IM7/8551-7, IM6/1808I, IM7/F655, and T800/F3900). This investigation found that all five materials were stronger and more impact damage tolerant than more brittle carbon/epoxy composite materials currently used in aircraft structures.

Cano, Roberto J.; Dow, Marvin B.

1992-01-01

233

Anisotropic self-assembly of gold nanoparticle grafted with polyisoprene and polystyrene having symmetric polymer composition.  

PubMed

Methodology to self-assemble metal nanoparticles into three-dimensional mesoscale patterns is a fundamental technique to construct functional materials. Here, we demonstrate that hybridizing an immiscible polymer pair with a metal nanoparticle allows the hybrid to self-assemble in the film, resulting in spontaneous alignment of the nanoparticles at the phase-separated interface formed by the constituent polymers. Organic-inorganic hybrids composed of polyisoprene, polystyrene, and gold nanoparticle were prepared by multistep "grafting-to" method coupled with alkyne-azide click reaction. The polymer composition can be controlled by the feed ratio of gold nanoparticle to azide ligands. The gold nanoparticle hybrid with symmetric polymer composition forms an "alternating lamellar" structure of polyisoprene and polystyrene, where the gold nanoparticles were forced into the phase-separated interfaces. PMID:23621102

Nakano, Tatsuhiro; Kawaguchi, Daisuke; Matsushita, Yushu

2013-05-01

234

Elementary damping properties in braided composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the damping level trends of three-dimensionally braided composites as a function of matrix material, fiber-matrix interface, fiber braid angle, fiber volume, and axial fiber tow size. With knowledge of such trends, designers may increase the structural damping in a 3-D braided composite component, thereby reducing component vibration, shock response, and fatigue. The logarithmic decrements of the fundamental

Bernard L. Dion; Robert Sadler; Larry Silverberg

1994-01-01

235

Impact testing of textile composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives of this report were to evaluate the impact damage resistance and damage tolerance of a variety of textile composite materials. Static indentation and impact tests were performed on the stitched and unstitched uniweave composites constructed from AS4/3501-6 Carbon/Epoxy with a fiberglass yarn woven in to hold the fibers together while being stitched. Compression and tension were measured after the tests to determine the damage resistance, residual strength and the damage tolerance of the specimens.

Portanova, Marc

1995-01-01

236

Frequency Response Engineering of Magnetic Composite Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Ferromagnetic metals have attractive microwave magnetic properties, but because of their conductivity, they can not be used\\u000a under bulk form, and have to be made into composite materials. Ferromagnetic-based composites may be categorized into C2D,\\u000a C1D and COD depending on the number of macroscopic Conducting Dimensions they have. C2D and C1D composites are made from thin\\u000a films and thin wires

Olivier Acher; CEA Le Ripault

237

Computational modeling of composite material fires.  

SciTech Connect

Composite materials behave differently from conventional fuel sources and have the potential to smolder and burn for extended time periods. As the amount of composite materials on modern aircraft continues to increase, understanding the response of composites in fire environments becomes increasingly important. An effort is ongoing to enhance the capability to simulate composite material response in fires including the decomposition of the composite and the interaction with a fire. To adequately model composite material in a fire, two physical model development tasks are necessary; first, the decomposition model for the composite material and second, the interaction with a fire. A porous media approach for the decomposition model including a time dependent formulation with the effects of heat, mass, species, and momentum transfer of the porous solid and gas phase is being implemented in an engineering code, ARIA. ARIA is a Sandia National Laboratories multiphysics code including a range of capabilities such as incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, energy transport equations, species transport equations, non-Newtonian fluid rheology, linear elastic solid mechanics, and electro-statics. To simulate the fire, FUEGO, also a Sandia National Laboratories code, is coupled to ARIA. FUEGO represents the turbulent, buoyantly driven incompressible flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, and combustion. FUEGO and ARIA are uniquely able to solve this problem because they were designed using a common architecture (SIERRA) that enhances multiphysics coupling and both codes are capable of massively parallel calculations, enhancing performance. The decomposition reaction model is developed from small scale experimental data including thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) in both nitrogen and air for a range of heating rates and from available data in the literature. The response of the composite material subject to a radiant heat flux boundary condition is examined to study the propagation of decomposition fronts of the epoxy and carbon fiber and their dependence on the ambient conditions such as oxygen concentration, surface flow velocity, and radiant heat flux. In addition to the computational effort, small scaled experimental efforts to attain adequate data used to validate model predictions is ongoing. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the progress of the capability for a typical composite material and emphasize the path forward.

Brown, Alexander L.; Erickson, Kenneth L.; Hubbard, Joshua Allen; Dodd, Amanda B.

2010-10-01

238

Material properties of living soft tissue composites.  

PubMed

Collagen sponges seeded with fibroblasts have been used as a soft tissue substitute in wound healing applications. This biomaterial is a good in vitro analog of a connective tissue. Therefore, analysis of the properties of this material may be useful for theoretically modeling soft tissues. Stress-strain curves for such cell-seeded collagen sponges were measured to determine composite stiffness and ultimate tensile strength. Theoretical modeling was done by defining a particle-reinforced matrix using the composite sphere model. A system of uniaxially oriented fibers was then introduced to this equivalent homogeneous media and material properties were determined using the composite cylinder model. Geometric averaging was performed to yield the stiffness and Poissons' ratio for a composite with randomly oriented fibers. Inputs to the model were constituent material properties, cell volume fraction, and fiber volume fraction. From theoretical results, material properties of soft tissues and their substitutes depend on fiber mechanical properties and volume fraction and not cellular mechanical properties and volume fraction. Therefore, the increase in experimentally observed composite stiffness with increased cell number was due to deposition of newly synthesized stiffer collagen fibers, and not due to the physical presence of cells themselves. PMID:3235466

Jain, M K; Chernomorsky, A; Silver, F H; Berg, R A

1988-12-01

239

Composite materials and method of making  

DOEpatents

A method of depositing noble metals on a metal hexaboride support. The hexaboride support is sufficiently electropositive to allow noble metals to deposit spontaneously from solutions containing ionic species of such metals onto the support. The method permits the deposition of metallic films of controlled thickness and particle size at room temperature without using separate reducing agents. Composite materials comprising noble metal films deposited on such metal hexaborides are also described. Such composite materials may be used as catalysts, thermionic emitters, electrical contacts, electrodes, adhesion layers, and optical coatings.

Uribe, Francisco A. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Garzon, Fernando H. (Santa Fe, NM) [Santa Fe, NM

2009-09-15

240

Thermal expansion properties of composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal expansion data for several composite materials, including generic epoxy resins, various graphite, boron, and glass fibers, and unidirectional and woven fabric composites in an epoxy matrix, were compiled. A discussion of the design, material, environmental, and fabrication properties affecting thermal expansion behavior is presented. Test methods and their accuracy are discussed. Analytical approaches to predict laminate coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) based on lamination theory and micromechanics are also included. A discussion is included of methods of tuning a laminate to obtain a near-zero CTE for space applications.

Johnson, R. R.; Kural, M. H.; Mackey, G. B.

1981-01-01

241

Thermographic analysis of the anisotropy in the thermal conductivity of composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pitch-based graphite fibers, when used as a reinforcement in either polymeric or metal matrix composites, can significantly increase the in- plane thermal conductivity. An opportunity is thus presented by these composite materials to passively manage waste heat in electronics applications. Rule-of-mixtures calculations have predicted the thermal management performance of these composite materials when the fibrous reinforcements are in the form of either woven fabric or tape layups and the reinforcement orientation is either unidirectional or cross-plied. Many factors, however, complicate the prediction, including: fiber-to- matrix interfacial thermal resistance, the interply thermal resistance, and the highly anisotropic fiber thermal conductivity. Verification of the predictions was sought by the use of IR thermography. Heat was applied by a point source to the surface of the composite while the resulting thermal pattern was monitored and recorded thermographically.

Burleigh, Douglas D.; de La Torre, William

1991-03-01

242

Ground exposure of composite materials for helicopters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Residual strength results are presented on four composite material systems that were exposed for three years at locations on the North American Continent. The exposure locations are near the areas where Bell Model 206L Helicopters, that are in a NSA/U.S. Army sponsored flight service program, are flying in daily commercial service. The composite systems are: (1) Kevlar-49 fabric/F-185 epoxy; (2) Kevlar-49 fabric/LRF-277 epoxy; (3) Kevlar-49 fabric/CE-306 epoxy; and (4) T-300 Graphite/E-788 epoxy. All material systems exhibited good strength retention in compression and short beam shear. The Kevlar-49/LRF-277 epoxy retained 88 to 93 percent of the baseline strength while the other material systems exceeded 95 percent of baseline strength. Residual tensile strength of all materials did not show a significant reduction. The available moisture absorption data is also presented.

Baker, D. J.

1984-01-01

243

Delamination from surface cracks in composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some aspects of splitting and delamination of composite materials from surface flaws are discussed. The system modelled is\\u000a one of an elastically homogeneous material containing aligned interfaces. This simplified model, although missing some of\\u000a the details that would be associated with elastic inhomogeneity, does permit a discussion of some of the factors that govern\\u000a this type of delamination.

M. D. Thouless; H. C. Cao; P. A. Mataga

1989-01-01

244

Synthesizing Smart Polymeric and Composite Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Smart materials have been widely investigated to explore new functionalities unavailable to traditional materials or to mimic the multifunctionality of biological systems. Synthetic polymers are particularly attractive as they already possess some of the attributes required for smart materials, and there are vast room to further enhance the existing properties or impart new properties by polymer synthesis or composite formulation. In this work, three types of smart polymer and composites have been investigated with important new applications: (1) healable polymer composites for structural application and healable composite conductor for electronic device application; (2) conducting polymer polypyrrole actuator for implantable medical device application; and (3) ferroelectric polymer and ceramic nanoparticles composites for electrocaloric effect based solid state refrigeration application. These application entail highly challenging materials innovation, and my work has led to significant progress in all three areas. For the healable polymer composites, well known intrinsically healable polymer 2MEP4F (a Diels-Alder crosslinked polymer formed from a monomer with four furan groups and another monomer with two maleimide groups) was first chosen as the matrix reinforced with fiber. Glass fibers were successfully functionalized with maleimide functional groups on their surface. Composites from functionalized glass fibers and 2MEP4F healable polymer were made to compare with composites made from commercial carbon fibers and 2MEP4F polymer. Dramatically improved short beam shear strength was obtained from composite of functionalized glass fibers and 2MEP4F polymer. The high cost of 2MEP4F polymer can potentially limit the large-scale application of the developed healable composite, we further developed a new healable polymer with much lower cost. This new polymer was formed through the Diels-Alder crosslinking of poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) and 1,1'-(Methylenedi-4,1-phenylene)bismaleimide (MDPB). It showed the same healing ability as 2MEP4F while all starting materials are cheaper and commercially available. To further improve the mechanical strength of the PFA-MDPB healable polymer, epoxy as a strengthening component was mixed with PFA-MDPB healable polymer. The PFA, MDPB and epoxy composite polymers were further reinforced by carbon fiber as done with 2MEP4F matrix and the final composites were proved to have higher short beam shear strength than 2MEP4F while exhibiting a similar healing efficiency. Healable polymer MDPB (a two maleimide groups monomer) -- FGEEDR (a four furan groups monomer) was also designed and synthesized for transparent healable polymer. The MDPB-FGEEDR healable polymer was composited with silver nanowires (AgNWs) to afford healable transparent composite conductor. Razer blade cuts in the composite conductor could heal upon heating to recover the mechanical strength and electrical conductivity of the composite. The healing could be repeated for multiple times on the same cut location. The healing process was as fast as 3 minutes for conductivity to recover 97% of the original value. For electroactive polymer polypyrrole, the fast volume change upon electrical field change due to electrochemical oxidization or reduction was studied for actuation targeting toward a robotic application. The flexibility of polypyrrole was improved via copolymerization with pyrrole derivatives. Actuator devices are fabricated that more suitable for implantable medical device application than pyrrole homopolymer. The change of dipole re-orientation and thus dielectric constant of ferroelectric polymers and ceramics upon electrical field may be exploited for electrocaloric effect (ECE) and solid state refrigeration. For ferroelectric ceramics, we synthesized a series of Ba1-xSrxTiO3 nanoparticles with diameter ranging from 8-12 nm and characterized their dielectric and ferroelectric properties through hysteresis measurement. It was found that 8 nm BaTiO3 nanocrystals are stable at cubic crystal structure without ferroelectric

Gong, Chaokun

245

Composite materials for rail transit systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The potential is explored for using composite materials in urban mass transit systems. The emphasis was to identify specific advantages of composite materials in order to determine their actual and potential usage for carbody and guideway structure applications. The literature was reviewed, contacts were made with major domestic system operators, designers, and builders, and an analysis was made of potential composite application to railcar construction. Composites were found to be in use throughout the transit industry, usually in secondary or auxiliary applications such as car interior and nonstructural exterior panels. More recently, considerable activity has been initiated in the area of using composites in the load bearing elements of civil engineering structures such as highway bridges. It is believed that new and improved manufacturing refinements in pultrusion and filament winding will permit the production of beam sections which can be used in guideway structures. The inherent corrosion resistance and low maintenance characteristics of composites should result in lowered maintenance costs over a prolonged life of the structure.

Griffin, O. Hayden, Jr.; Guerdal, Zafer; Herakovich, Carl T.

1987-01-01

246

Material Model Evaluation of a Composite Honeycomb Energy Absorber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study was conducted to evaluate four different material models in predicting the dynamic crushing response of solid-element-based models of a composite honeycomb energy absorber, designated the Deployable Energy Absorber (DEA). Dynamic crush tests of three DEA components were simulated using the nonlinear, explicit transient dynamic code, LS-DYNA . In addition, a full-scale crash test of an MD-500 helicopter, retrofitted with DEA blocks, was simulated. The four material models used to represent the DEA included: *MAT_CRUSHABLE_FOAM (Mat 63), *MAT_HONEYCOMB (Mat 26), *MAT_SIMPLIFIED_RUBBER/FOAM (Mat 181), and *MAT_TRANSVERSELY_ANISOTROPIC_CRUSHABLE_FOAM (Mat 142). Test-analysis calibration metrics included simple percentage error comparisons of initial peak acceleration, sustained crush stress, and peak compaction acceleration of the DEA components. In addition, the Roadside Safety Verification and Validation Program (RSVVP) was used to assess similarities and differences between the experimental and analytical curves for the full-scale crash test.

Jackson, Karen E.; Annett, Martin S.; Fasanella, Edwin L.; Polanco, Michael A.

2012-01-01

247

Composite materials for the extravehicular mobility unit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), commonly known as the astronaut space suit assembly (SSA) and primary life support system (PLSS), has evolved through the years to incorporate new and innovative materials in order to meet the demands of the space environment. The space shuttle program which is seeing an increasing level of extravehicular activity (EVA), also called space walks, along with interest in an EMU for Lunar-Mars missions means even more demanding conditions are being placed on the suit and PLSS. The project for this NASA-ASEE Summer Program was to investigate new materials for these applications. The focus was to emphasize the use of composite materials for every component of the EMU to enhance the properties while reducing the total weight of the EMU. To accomplish this, development of new materials called fullerene reinforced materials (FRM's) was initiated. Fullerenes are carbon molecules which when added to a material significantly reduce the weight of that material. The Faculty Fellow worked directly on the development of the fullerene reinforced materials. A chamber for fullerene production was designed and assembled and first generation samples were processed. He also supervised with the JSC Colleague, a study of composite materials for the EMU conducted by the student participant in the NASA-ASEE Program, Hector Tello a Rice University graduate student, and by a NASA Aerospace Technologist (Materials Engineer) Evelyne Orndoff, in the Systems Engineering Analysis Office (EC7), also a Rice University graduate student. Hector Tello conducted a study on beryllium and Be alloys and initiated a study of carbon and glass reinforced composites for space applications. Evelyne Orndoff compiled an inventory of the materials on the SSA. Ms. Orndoff also reviewed SSA material requirements and cited aspects of the SSA design where composite materials might be further considered. Hector Tello spent part of his time investigating the solar radiation sensitivity of anodic coatings. This project was directed toward the effects of ultra-violet radiation on high emissivity anodic coatings. The work of both Evelyne Orndoff and Hector Tello is of interest to the Engineering Directorate at NASA/JSC and is also directed toward their research as Rice University graduate students.

Barrera, Enrique V.; Tello, Hector M.

1992-01-01

248

Thermoplastic Composite Materials for Aerospace Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanical and thermo-physical properties of composites materials with thermoplastic matrix (PEEK/IM7, TPI/IM7 and PPS/IM7) used for aerospace applications have been analyzed as function of two different process techniques: compression molding and fiber placement process ``hot gas assisted.''

Casula, G.; Lenzi, F.; Vitiello, C.

2008-08-01

249

COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR INNOVATIVE WIND TURBINE BLADES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wind Energy Technology Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) focuses on producing innovations in wind turbine blade technology to enable the development of longer blades that are lighter, more structurally and aerodynamically efficient, and impart reduced loads to the system. A large part of the effort is to characterize the properties of relevant composite materials built with typical manufacturing

Thomas D. Ashwill; Joshua A. Paquette

250

Energy absorbing hybrid nano-composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Base Epon 862 resin was enhanced with two types of fillers, graphitized carbon nanofiber (CNF) and silicon dioxide (SiO2) particles. The effect of both filler type and filler loading were investigated with respect to the energy absorbing capacity as well as the thermal stability of the hybrid composite material, measured in terms of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). As

Jae-Soon Jang; Joshua Varischetti; Gyo Woo Lee; Jonghwan Suhr

2009-01-01

251

Thermal diffusivity of composite restorative materials.  

PubMed

The substantial increases in the filler volume fraction of the current generation of composite resins, and the incorporation of radiopacifying heavy elements in many of these fillers, constitute significant changes which may affect thermal transport properties. Thermal diffusivity has been determined for 21 of these composite materials recommended for anterior and posterior applications. For radiopaque hybrid and for microfine composites, there was, however, only a gradual trend to increased thermal diffusivity with increasing volume fraction of inorganic filler. The diffusivity values were not greatly in excess of the level observed for dentin. Nevertheless, a small group of materials, incorporating substantial amounts of quartz or silicon nitride filler particles, exhibited high rates of thermal diffusion, up to three times the level exhibited by dentin. PMID:3040822

Watts, D C; McAndrew, R; Lloyd, C H

1987-10-01

252

Characteristics of electromagnetic wave propagation in uniaxially anisotropic left-handed materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the characteristics of electromagnetic wave propagation in uniaxially anisotropic left-handed media. We discuss mainly under what conditions anomalous reflection or refraction shall occur at the interface when propagating waves pass from one isotropic regular medium into another uniaxially anistotropic left-handed medium and under what conditions anomalous transmission shall occur when an evanescent wave is transmitted through a slab

Liangbin Hu; S. T. Chui

2002-01-01

253

Manipulating Overlapping of Bangap in One-Dimensional Complex Photonic Crystal Composed of Anisotropic Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The band structure of one-dimensional complex photonic crystals composed of anisotropic media is computed and analyzed using a 4 times 4 transfer matrix method. The overlapping of band structure has been investigated in detail. Numerical results indicate that through altering the relative orientation of the optical axes of the adjacent layers, it is possible to adjust and extend bandgap of

Yanling Han; Hong Wang; Liping Yu

2009-01-01

254

Anisotropic magnetoresistance and planar Hall effect in magnetic metal-insulator composite films  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied anisotropic magnetoresistivity (AMR) and planar Hall effect of granular Ni-rich NiFe–SiO2 and Fe–SiO2 films for various metallic volume fraction. Planar Hall resistivity was found to be the same as the magnetoresistivity (MR) difference between the longitudinal and the transverse geometry. As metallic volume fraction decreases, we found that the MR evolves from the AMR domination in the metallic

B. Zhao; X. Yan; A. B. Pakhomov

1997-01-01

255

Composite strings in (2+1)-dimensional anisotropic weakly coupled Yang-Mills theory  

SciTech Connect

The small-scale structure of a string connecting a pair of static sources is explored for the weakly coupled anisotropic SU(2) Yang-Mills theory in (2+1) dimensions. A crucial ingredient in the formulation of the string Hamiltonian is the phenomenon of color smearing of the string constituents. The quark-antiquark potential is determined. We close with some discussion of the standard, fully Lorentz-invariant Yang-Mills theory.

Orland, Peter [Isaac Newton Institute for the Mathematical Sciences, 20 Clarkson Road, Cambridge, CB3 OEH (United Kingdom); Niels Bohr Institute, Niels Bohr International Academy, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100, Copenhagen O (Denmark); Physics Program, Graduate School and University Center, City University of New York, 365 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York 10016 (United States); Department of Natural Sciences, Baruch College, City University of New York, 17 Lexington Avenue, New York, New York 10010 (United States)

2008-01-15

256

Accelerated Aging of Polymer Composite Bridge Materials  

SciTech Connect

Accelerated aging research on samples of composite material and candidate ultraviolet (UV) protective coatings is determining the effects of six environmental factors on material durability. Candidate fastener materials are being evaluated to determine corrosion rates and crevice corrosion effects at load-bearing joints. This work supports field testing of a 30-ft long, 18-ft wide polymer matrix composite (PMC) bridge at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Durability results and sensor data from tests with live loads provide information required for determining the cost/benefit measures to use in life-cycle planning, determining a maintenance strategy, establishing applicable inspection techniques, and establishing guidelines, standards, and acceptance criteria for PMC bridges for use in the transportation infrastructure.

Carlson, Nancy Margaret; Blackwood, Larry Gene; Torres, Lucinda Laine; Rodriguez, Julio Gallardo; Yoder, Timothy Scott

1999-03-01

257

Accelerated aging of polymer composite bridge materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accelerated aging research on samples of composite materials and candidate UV protective coatings is determining the effects of six environmental factors on material durability. Candidate fastener materials are being evaluated to determine corrosion rates and crevice corrosion effects at load-bearing joints. This work supports field testing of a 30-ft long, 18-ft wide polymer matrix composite (PMC) bridge at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Durability results and sensor data form test with live loads provide information required for determining the cost/benefit measures to use in life-cycle planning, determining a maintenance strategy, establishing applicable inspection techniques, and establishing guidelines, standards and acceptance criteria for PMC bridges for use in the transportation infrastructure.

Carlson, Nancy M.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Torres, Lucinda L.; Rodriguez, Julio G.; Yoder, Timothy S.

1999-05-01

258

Conductor-polymer composite electrode materials  

DOEpatents

A conductive composite material useful as an electrode, comprises a conductor and an organic polymer which is reversibly electrochemically dopable to change its electrical conductivity. Said polymer continuously surrounds the conductor in intimate electrical contact therewith and is prepared by electrochemical growth on said conductor or by reaction of its corresponding monomer(s) on said conductor which has been pre-impregnated or pre-coated with an activator for said polymerization. Amount of the conductor is sufficient to render the resultant composite electrically conductive even when the polymer is in an undoped insulating state.

Ginley, D.S.; Kurtz, S.R.; Smyrl, W.H.; Zeigler, J.M.

1984-06-13

259

Mechanical Spectroscopy of Nanostructured Composite Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermo-mechanical behavior of different nano-structured composite materials, which were processed within the SAPHIR European Integrated Project, has been characterized by mechanical spectroscopy. The obtained results show clearly that creep resistance of fine grain ceramics such as zirconia can be improved by carbon nano-tube (CNT) reinforcements. On the other hand the elastic modulus and the damping capacity of aluminum matrix composites were increased by SiC nano-particle additions. It has also been observed that CNT additions are responsible for a better thermal stability of polymer such as ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene) used in automotive industry.

Mari, Daniele; Schaller, Robert; Mazaheri, Mehdi

2011-07-01

260

Compression Testing of Textile Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The applicability of existing test methods, which were developed primarily for laminates made of unidirectional prepreg tape, to textile composites is an area of concern. The issue is whether the values measured for the 2-D and 3-D braided, woven, stitched, and knit materials are accurate representations of the true material response. This report provides a review of efforts to establish a compression test method for textile reinforced composite materials. Experimental data have been gathered from several sources and evaluated to assess the effectiveness of a variety of test methods. The effectiveness of the individual test methods to measure the material's modulus and strength is determined. Data are presented for 2-D triaxial braided, 3-D woven, and stitched graphite/epoxy material. However, the determination of a recommended test method and specimen dimensions is based, primarily, on experimental results obtained by the Boeing Defense and Space Group for 2-D triaxially braided materials. They evaluated seven test methods: NASA Short Block, Modified IITRI, Boeing Open Hole Compression, Zabora Compression, Boeing Compression after Impact, NASA ST-4, and a Sandwich Column Test.

Masters, John E.

1996-01-01

261

Exact transient full-field analysis of a finite crack subjected to dynamic anti-plane concentrated loadings in anisotropic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the elastodynamic full-field response of a finite crack in an anisotropic material subjected to a dynamic anti-plane concentrated loading with Heaviside-function time dependence is investigated. A linear coordinate transformation is introduced to simplify the problem. The linear coordinate transformation reduces the anisotropic finite-crack problem to an equivalent isotropic problem. An alternative methodology, different from the conventional superposition

Yi-Shyong Ing; Chien-Ching Ma

2005-01-01

262

Filament-wound composite vessels material technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Programs are reviewed that were conducted to establish a technology base for applying advanced fibers or resins to high performance filament-wound pressure vessels for containment of cryogens and high pressure gases. Materials evaluated included boron, graphite, PRD 49-1 and 3/epoxy and S-glass/polyimide composites. Closed-end cylindrical, and oblate spheroid-shaped vessels were fabricated in 4- and 8-inch diameter sizes. Vessels were subjected to single-cycle burst, low-cycle fatigue, and sustained loading tests over a -423 F to room temperature range for epoxy composites and a -423 to 500 F temperature range for the polyimide composites. Vessels tested at cryogenic and/or 500 F had thin (3 to 20 mils) metallic liners whereas vessels tested at room temperature had elastomeric liners. Correlations between acoustic emissions and burst and cyclic properties of PRD 49-1 filament-wound vessels are discussed.

Lark, R. F.

1973-01-01

263

Multiaxial analysis of dental composite materials.  

PubMed

Dental composites are subjected to extreme chemical and mechanical conditions in the oral environment, contributing to the degradation and ultimate failure of the material in vivo. The objective of this study is to validate an alternative method of mechanically loading dental composite materials. Confined compression testing more closely represents the complex loading that dental restorations experience in the oral cavity. Dental composites, a nanofilled and a hybrid microfilled, were prepared as cylindrical specimens, light-cured in ring molds of 6061 aluminum, with the ends polished to ensure parallel surfaces. The samples were subjected to confined compression loading to 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15% axial strain. Upon loading, the ring constrains radial expansion of the specimen, generating confinement stresses. A strain gage placed on the outer wall of the aluminum confining ring records hoop strain. Assuming plane stress conditions, the confining stress (sigma(c)) can be calculated at the sample/ring interface. Following mechanical loading, tomographic data was generated using a high-resolution microtomography system developed at beamline 2-BM of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Extraction of the crack and void surfaces present in the material bulk is numerically represented as crack edge/volume (CE/V), and calculated as a fraction of total specimen volume. Initial results indicate that as the strain level increases the CE/V increases. Analysis of the composite specimens under different mechanical loads suggests that microtomography is a useful tool for three-dimensional evaluation of dental composite fracture surfaces. PMID:18506811

Kotche, Miiri; Drummond, James L; Sun, Kang; Vural, Murat; DeCarlo, Francesco

2009-02-01

264

Development and characterization of optical composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis describes the development of a new class of optical gain media: optical composites. This work originated in a research project to develop new tunable laser materials based on crystals containing the tetravalent chromium ion located in oxygen tetrahedra. This project encompassed co-doping the Cr:forsterite (Cr:Mg2SiO4) crystal lattice with additional impurities to distort the environment of the Cr4+ ions, as well as investigating alternate host crystals featuring oxygen tetrahedra. This project lead to the identification of Cr:diopside (Cr:CaMgSi2O6) as a promising candidate for a tunable laser material based on the Cr4+ ion. Since diopside is difficult to grow into single crystal form, it is unsuitable for use as a conventional solid- state laser gain medium, which requires a sizable single crystal. This led to the development of the optical composite scheme, in which tiny nanocrystals of the gain medium are embedded within a host matrix, thereby eliminating the requirement of obtaining a large single crystal of the gain medium. Scattering losses and small particle effects are considered, as these issues arise with the use of nanoparticle-containing composites. In addition, the spectroscopy of Cr:diopside is examined to identify the charge states and energy levels involved in absorption and emission processes in this material. Finally, the fabrication of waveguide amplifiers out of optical composites is discussed. Amplification results for waveguide amplifiers of both Cr:forsterite and Cr:diopside composites are presented.

Barber, Duane Byron

1997-11-01

265

NDE of polymeric composite material bridge components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid advancements with respect to utilization of polymeric composite materials for bridge components is occurring. This situation is driven primarily by the potential improvements offered by these materials with respect to long term durability. However, because of the developmental nature of these materials much of the materials characterization has involved short term testing without the synergistic effects of environmental exposure. Efforts to develop nondestructive evaluation procedures, essential for any wide spread use in critical structural applications, have been consequently limited. This paper discuses the effort to develop NDE methods for field inspection of hybrid glass and carbon fiber reinforced vinyl ester pultruded 'double box' I beams that are installed in a small bridge over Tom's Creek, in Blacksburg, Virginia. Integrated structural element sensors, dormant infrared devices, as well as acousto-ultrasonic methods are under development for detecting and monitoring the occurrence and progression of life limiting deterioration mechanisms.

Duke, John C.; Horne, Michael R.

1998-03-01

266

Metal Matrix Composite Materials for Aerospace Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Metal matrix composites (MMC) are attractive materials for aerospace applications because of their high specific strength, high specific stiffness, and lower thermal expansion coefficient. They are affordable since complex parts can be produced by low cost casting process. As a result there are many commercial and Department of Defense applications of MMCs today. This seminar will give an overview of MMCs and their state-of-the-art technology assessment. Topics to be covered are types of MMCs, fabrication methods, product forms, applications, and material selection issues for design and manufacture. Some examples of current and future aerospace applications will also be presented and discussed.

Bhat, Biliyar N.; Jones, C. S. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

267

A new approach for modeling composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasing use of composite materials is due to their ability to tailor materials for special purposes, with applications evolving day by day. This is why predicting the properties of these systems from their constituents, or phases, has become so important. However, assigning macroscopical optical properties for these materials from the bulk properties of their constituents is not a straightforward task. In this research, we present a spectral analysis of three-dimensional random composite typical nanostructures using an Extension of the Discrete Dipole Approximation (E-DDA code), comparing different approaches and emphasizing the influences of optical properties of constituents and their concentration. In particular, we hypothesize a new approach that preserves the individual nature of the constituents introducing at the same time a variation in the optical properties of each discrete element that is driven by the surrounding medium. The results obtained with this new approach compare more favorably with the experiment than previous ones. We have also applied it to a non-conventional material composed of a metamaterial embedded in a dielectric matrix. Our version of the Discrete Dipole Approximation code, the EDDA code, has been formulated specifically to tackle this kind of problem, including materials with either magnetic and tensor properties.

Alcaraz de la Osa, R.; Moreno, F.; Saiz, J. M.

2013-03-01

268

Mechanical Spectroscopy of Nanostructured Composite Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermo-mechanical behavior of different nano-structured composite materials, which were processed within the SAPHIR European Integrated Project, has been characterized by mechanical spectroscopy. The obtained results show clearly that creep resistance of fine grain ceramics such as zirconia can be improved by carbon nano-tube (CNT) reinforcements. On the other hand the elastic modulus and the damping capacity of aluminum matrix

Daniele Mari; Robert Schaller; Mehdi Mazaheri

2011-01-01

269

Stresses around fasteners in composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stress distributions around fasteners in composite materials were experimentally and theoretically studied. The fasteners were cheesehead and countersunk bolts. It was found that samples fastened with countersunk bolts tended to fatigue more rapidly than specimens with cheesehead bolts. Fewer fatigue cycles were needed for damage to initiate in plates with countersunk bolts, and higher direct stress and shear stress values are predicted to occur in plates with countersunk bolts. The principal failure mechanism was delamination, probably due to high direct and shear stresses.

Benchekchou, B.; White, R. G.

1993-04-01

270

Test Plan for Composite Hydrogen Getter Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intent of this test plan is to provide details of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) effort to evaluate composite getter materials for eventual use in expanding the wattage limits for transportation of contact-handled transuranic waste (CH-TRU). This effort is funded by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) under Technical Task Plan (TTP) SR-1-9-MW-45 and is the result of

2000-01-01

271

Epoxide composite materials with carbon nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods of formation and physical properties of epoxide composite materials reinforced with carbon nanotubes are considered. An analogy is made between the relaxation properties of carbon nanotubes and macromolecules. The concentration dependences of the electrical conductivity of the epoxy polymers filled with single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes are discussed. Modern views on the mechanism of reinforcement of polymers with nanotubes are outlined. The bibliography includes 143 references.

Irzhak, Vadim I.

2011-08-01

272

Development and characterization of optical composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes the development of a new class of optical gain media: optical composites. This work originated in a research project to develop new tunable laser materials based on crystals containing the tetravalent chromium ion located in oxygen tetrahedra. This project encompassed co-doping the Cr:forsterite (Cr:Mg2SiO4) crystal lattice with additional impurities to distort the environment of the Cr4+ ions,

Duane Byron Barber

1997-01-01

273

On the effective conductivity of composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composite conductive material, which consists of fibers of a high conductivity in a matrix of low conductivity, is discussed.\\u000a The effective conductivity of the system considered is calculated in Clausius-Mossotti approximation. Obtained relationships\\u000a can be used to calculate the conductivity of a matrix, using experimentally measured parameters. Electric fields in the matrix\\u000a and the inclusions are calculated. It is

Yu. V. Kornyushin

2010-01-01

274

Mechanics Methodology for Textile Preform Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and its contractors have completed a program to develop a basic mechanics underpinning for textile composites. Three major deliverables were produced by the program: 1. A set of test methods for measuring material properties and design allowables; 2. Mechanics models to predict the effects of the fiber preform architecture and constituent properties on engineering moduli, strength, damage resistance, and fatigue life; and 3. An electronic data base of coupon type test data. This report describes these three deliverables.

Poe, Clarence C., Jr.

1996-01-01

275

Alkali metal protective garment and composite material  

DOEpatents

A protective garment and composite material providing satisfactory heat resistance and physical protection for articles and personnel exposed to hot molten alkali metals, such as sodium. Physical protection is provided by a continuous layer of nickel foil. Heat resistance is provided by an underlying backing layer of thermal insulation. Overlying outer layers of fireproof woven ceramic fibers are used to protect the foil during storage and handling.

Ballif, III, John L. (Salt Lake City, UT); Yuan, Wei W. (Seattle, WA)

1980-01-01

276

Anisotropic hardening model based on non-associated flow rule and combined nonlinear kinematic hardening for sheet materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A material model for more effective analysis of plastic deformation of sheet materials is presented in this paper. The model is capable of considering the following aspects of plastic deformation behavior of sheet materials: the anisotropy in yielding stresses in different directions by using a quadratic yield function (based on Hill's 1948 model and stress ratios), the anisotropy in work hardening by introducing non-constant flow stress hardening in different directions, the anisotropy in plastic strains in different directions by using a quadratic plastic potential function and non-associated flow rule (based on Hill's 1948 model and plastic strain ratios, r-values), and finally some of the cyclic hardening phenomena such as Bauschinger's effect and transient behavior for reverse loading by using a coupled nonlinear kinematic hardening (so-called Armstrong-Frederick-Chaboche model). Basic fundamentals of the plasticity of the model are presented in a general framework. Then, the model adjustment procedure is derived for the plasticity formulations. Also, a generic numerical stress integration procedure is developed based on backward-Euler method (so-called multi-stage return mapping algorithm). Different aspects of the model are verified for DP600 steel sheet. Results show that the new model is able to predict the sheet material behavior in both anisotropic hardening and cyclic hardening regimes more accurately. By featuring the above-mentioned facts in the presented constitutive model, it is expected that more accurate results can be obtained by implementing this model in computational simulations of sheet material forming processes. For instance, more precise results of springback prediction of the parts formed from highly anisotropic hardened materials or that of determining the forming limit diagrams is highly expected by using the developed material model.

Taherizadeh, Aboozar; Green, Daniel E.; Yoon, Jeong W.

2013-12-01

277

Putting it Together: The Science and Technology of Composite Materials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Composite materials are light, strong, corrosion-resistant composites of two or more materials used commonly in manufacturing. This recent report is from the Australian Academy of Science with support from The Cooperative Research Centre for Advanced Composite Structures, Ltd. and the Commonwealth Department of Industry, Science and Resources. It gives information on the history, manufacturing techniques, and efficiency of composite materials. A glossary, reference list, and links to educational sites as well as other composite materials sites are also featured.

2000-01-01

278

ACEE Composite Structures Technology: Review of selected NASA research on composite materials and structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Composite Primary Aircraft Structures Program was designed to develop technology for advanced composites in commercial aircraft. Research on composite materials, aircraft structures, and aircraft design is presented herein. The following parameters of composite materials were addressed: residual strength, damage tolerance, toughness, tensile strength, impact resistance, buckling, and noise transmission within composite materials structures.

1984-01-01

279

Characterization of self-healing composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damage occurs in almost every composite material in the form of microcracks that develop in the epoxy matrix that binds the fibers together. Researchers at the University of Illinois Urbana Champaign have recently developed a method to reverse the effects of, or heal, damage in the epoxy matrix. Their in-situ self-healing system uses embedded microcapsules and a catalyst that trigger a romp reaction in an effort to rebond the microcracks. Several models have been developed in an effort to predict how a composite laminate damages. One model in particular, the Continuous Damage Mechanics model, CDM that has been developed at West Virginia University uses material properties that are easily obtained from standard ASTM and ISO testing methods. The CDM model has been extended at West Virginia University to incorporate the effects of a self-healing system to develop a Continuous Damage and Healing Mechanics model, CDHM. In this work, a testing procedure to characterize the autonomic healing of polymer matrix composites is outlined, as well as the regenerative effects of the self-healing system. The capability of the CDHM model to predict the material properties of the self-healing system is also addressed. The CDHM model is validated with experimental results for various laminates fabricated out of E-glass/epoxy.

Ford, Kevin John

280

Spectroscopy of MPS(3):DAMS(+) composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composite materials are comprised of two separate components that are brought together to form a new material that exhibits unique properties not found in the individual components. The composite material studied in this work is a guest dye cation, (4-[4-(dimethylamino)-alpha-styrl]-1-methylpyridinium) or DAMS+, intercalated into an inorganic host lattice (MPS 3, where M = Cd2+ or Mn2+). MPS3 :DAMS+ exhibits high-efficiency second-harmonic generation (SHG), which is only observed when a material lacks a center of symmetry. There must be an organization of dye molecules upon intercalation to induce the noncentrosymmetry necessary for SHG. The formation of dye aggregates will be studied as a possible noncentrosymmetric arrangement. The intercalated materials (MPS3:DAMS+) exhibited spectral features of J-aggregates. These features included a sharp aggregate absorption and emission band, known as the J-band. There was a small Stokes shift (250 cm-1) between aggregate absorption and emission bands, and a red-shift between the J-band and isolated dye absorption band (3,700 cm-1). The low-energy tail of the emission J-band was theoretically modeled using the Urbach-Martienssen equation, while the high-energy states were fit to a Gaussian to determine aggregate disorder. Disorder was also modeled using a Monte-Carlo lineshape analysis program. From these theoretical models, the aggregate was found to be two-dimensional and weakly coupled. A variety of sample types were studied including intercalated powders and single crystals using absorbance, reflectance and emission spectroscopy. Reflectance spectra were directly compared with absorbance spectra using the Kramers-Kronig Transformation2 to determine that the surface aggregates and the interior aggregates were structurally similar. A new imaging microspectrophotometer was developed to investigate the topology of the composite materials. Kinetics of the intercalation front were studied and a layer-by-layer intercalation mechanism was developed. Surface studies using other materials indicated the polyanion nature of MPS3 :DAMS+ was essential for aggregation. Infrared microspectroscopy was used to determine the orientation of dye molecules on the surface of the large composite crystals. The DAMS+ in MPS 3:DAMS+ was shown to form two-dimensional brickwork aggregates with the molecules aligned "edge-on" on the surface and interior of the host lattice.

Holt, Jennifer Suzanne

281

Characterization of cryogenic microcracking in carbon fiber/epoxy composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polymeric composite materials have been widely utilized to take advantage of their large specific strength and stiffness. These characteristics have made them attractive for use in aerospace applications as containment structures for cryogenic fluids. However, the anisotropic, heterogeneous, and viscoelastic nature of polymeric composite materials creates a unique set of challenges for the storage of cryogenic fluids. Mismatches in thermal expansion between the fibers and the matrix in these materials result in the generation of thermal stresses at low temperatures that can ultimately cause failure in the form of microcracks that propagate throughout the material, degrading performance. This work examined the phenomenological and theoretical aspects of microcrack formation in carbon fiber/epoxy composite materials at low temperatures. Microcrack formation was initially investigated using an experimental approach. The role of the fiber and matrix type in microcracking was studied, along with the interaction between the fibers and the matrix and the effects of nanoparticle matrix modification. It was found that the fiber and matrix type had significant effects on microcrack formation, with decreased fiber moduli, decreased matrix coefficient of thermal expansion, nanoparticle modification, rubber toughening, and increased adhesion all corresponding to reduced microcracking. These improvements were achieved by reducing the thermal stresses in the materials studied and increasing the failure resistance of the laminates. It was found that the processing conditions of a laminate, namely the cure temperature, had a direct impact on microcracking by changing the stress free temperature of a material and the corresponding thermal stresses at cryogenic temperatures. The analysis of the variables that contributed to microcrack formation was used to develop a stress-based compound beam model to predict the onset temperature for microcracking in composite materials. This model was unique in that it accounted for the variation in material properties at low temperatures. Collectively, this work examined the phenomena behind the cryogenic microcracking of composite materials and applied this information to develop a predictive model for low temperature failure of composite materials from thermal stress generation.

Timmerman, John Francis

282

Using Optical Microscopy to Monitor Anisotropic Oxidation Growth in High-Temperature Polymer Matrix Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Durability and degradation mechanisms in composites are fundamentally influenced by the fiber, matrix, and interphase regions that constitute the composite domain. In this work, unidirectional G30-500\\/PMR-15 composite specimens are aged at elevated temperature in air resulting in oxidation propagation parallel and perpendicular to the fibers. The observed anisotropy in composite oxidation is explained by carefully monitoring the development and growth

G. P. Tandon; W. R. Ragland; G. A. Schoeppner

2009-01-01

283

Viscoelastic models for polymeric composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved model of the mechanical properties of the explosive contained in conventional munitions is needed to accurately simulate performance and accident scenarios in weapons storage facilities. A specific class of explosives can be idealized as a mixture of two components: energetic crystals randomly suspended in a polymeric matrix (binder). Strength characteristics of each component material are important in the macroscopic behavior of the composite (explosive). Of interest here is the determination of an appropriate constitutive law for a polyurethane binder material. A Taylor Cylinder impact test, and uniaxial stress tension and compression tests at various strain rates, have been performed on the polyurethane. Evident from time resolved Taylor Cylinder profiles, the material undergoes very large strains (>100%) and yet recovers its initial configuration. A viscoelastic constitutive law is proposed for the polyurethane and was implemented in the finite element, explicit, continuum mechanics code EPIC. The Taylor Cylinder impact experiment was simulated and the results compared with experiment. Modeling improvements are discussed.

Bardenhagen, S. G.; Harstad, E. N.; Foster, J. C.; Maudlin, P. J.

1996-05-01

284

Simulation of tensile strength of anisotropic fibre-reinforced composites at low temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a simulation scheme to predict the effect of fibre anisotropy on composite tensile failure strength at room and low temperatures. The simulation model combines the shear lag equation with the chain of bundles probability model to describe the composite failure behaviour. The effect of fibre anisotropy on thermal stresses developed in composite constituents due to cooling to low temperatures is considered. The failure strength of composites composed of fibres with different degrees of anisotropy is obtained and comparisons are made with experiments. Simulated results for E-glass-, graphite- and Kevlar-epoxy type composites showed close agreement with the experiments.

Abdelmohsen, H. H.

285

Composite materials for thermal energy storage  

DOEpatents

The present invention discloses composite material for thermal energy storage based upon polyhydric alcohols, such as pentaerythritol, trimethylol ethane (also known as pentaglycerine), neopentyl glycol and related compounds including trimethylol propane, monoaminopentaerythritol, diamino-pentaerythritol and tris(hydroxymethyl)acetic acid, separately or in combinations, which provide reversible heat storage through crystalline phase transformations. These phase change materials do not become liquid during use and are in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, porous rock, and mixtures thereof. Particulate additions, such as aluminum or graphite powders, as well as metal and carbon fibers can also be incorporated therein. Particulate and/or fibrous additions can be introduced into molten phase change materials which can then be cast into various shapes. After the phase change materials have solidified, the additions will remain dispersed throughout the matrix of the cast solid. The polyol is in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, and mixtures thereof.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Burrows, Richard W. (Conifer, CO); Shinton, Yvonne D. (Northglenn, CO)

1986-01-01

286

Anisotropic cuprates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anisotropic cuprates La4Cu3MoO12 and La3Cu2VO9 crystallize in homeotypes of the YAlO3 structure with ordered transition metal cations that create a four times larger monoclinic supercell (? ~ 90) in the former, and a thirteen times larger hexagonal supercell in the latter. The magnetism of both exhibits distinct paramagnetic regimes owing to geometrically frustrated antiferromagnetic spin-coupling. Ln'2Ln '2Cu3MoO12 will form an analogous structure if rIXLn rIX Yb = 104 pm and DrIXLn< 14pm. (Ln'/Ln' )3Cu2VO9 will form if rIXLn rIX Tb = 110 pm. The phases with larger lanthanides ions are under- coordinated, but form in the proximity of an ``umbrella'' stoichiometry that promotes the formation of unconventional structures and complex compositions by destabilizing multiphase alternatives. Oxygen can even be removed from La4Cu 3MoO12 by shifting the composition, La4Cu 3.12Mo0.88O11.76, towards the ``umbrella'' stoichiometry La2Cu2O5. As many YAlO3-type compounds, La4Cu3MoO 12 transforms under pressure to perovskite. A magnetic transition at 280 K indicates the presence of pure copper-oxygen layers. Strontium substitutes for lanthanum, La4-xSrxCu3MoO 12-?, up to x = 1 with concurrent oxidation, and the resistivity drops considerably but the compound does not become metallic or superconducting. Pr, Nd and Sm analogues form layered perovskites only under pressure, and the buckling of the copper-oxygen planes increases with decreasing lanthanide size. La4Cu2MoNiO12 and La4Cu3MoO12 which also form under pressure, are layered double perovskites with considerably less structural distortion. La3Cu2VO9 transforms to perovskite under high-pressure conditions as well. LaYBa2CaCu2+xTi3-xO14-y is a perovskite system with constant A-cation composition, and the structural crossover from four to five layer perovskite as a function of x was shown to accommodate a layered structure rather than random oxygen defects. Specifically, the structure of the x = 0.40 sample is a five layer perovskite with some copper on the titanium site, rather than a four layer one with some titanium on the copper site. Finally, the experimental A-cation distributions of LaCa2Cu 2GaO7 and LaSr2CuGaO7 materials were used to calculate the enthalpy of cation switching reactions. Site distributions in materials with the same transition metal stoichiometry, (La/Ca/Sr) 3Cu2GaO7, can then be predicted. The model can be extended to include other lanthanide analogues of the Ga1212 family as well as other families altogether.

Vander Griend, Douglas Alan

2000-12-01

287

Industry to Education Technical Transfer Program & Composite Materials. Composite Materials Course. Fabrication I Course. Fabrication II Course. Composite Materials Testing Course. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These four reports provide details of projects to design and implement courses to be offered as requirements for the associate degree program in composites and reinforced plastics technology. The reports describe project activities that led to development of curricula for four courses: composite materials, composite materials fabrication I,…

Massuda, Rachel

288

Combustion synthesis of advanced composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Self-propagating high temperature (combustion) synthesis (SHS), has been investigated as a means of producing both dense and expanded (foamed) ceramic and ceramic-metal composites, ceramic powders and whiskers. Several model exothermic combustion synthesis reactions were used to establish the importance of certain reaction parameters, e.g., stoichiometry, green density, combustion mode, particle size, etc. on the control of the synthesis reaction, product morphology and properties. The use of an in situ liquid infiltration technique and the effect of varying the reactants and their stoichiometry to provide a range of reactant and product species i.e., solids, liquids and gases, with varying physical properties e.g., volatility and thermal conductivity, on the microstructure and morphology of synthesized composite materials is discussed. Conducting the combustion synthesis reaction in a reactive gas environment to take advantage of the synergistic effects of combustion synthesis and vapor phase transport is also examined.

Moore, John J.

1993-01-01

289

A self-organized anisotropic liquid-crystal plasmonic metamaterial.  

PubMed

A composite material that leads to self organization of mesogen-coated gold nanospheres is synthesized and shows enhanced anisotropic optical properties due to synergistic effects of the mesogens intrinsic birefringence and its ability to drive the self-assembly process into highly anisotropic architectures with densely packed nanospheres. Such nanoengineered matter sustains a response beyond that achievable by its individual constituents, i.e., a metamaterial. PMID:23401232

Dintinger, José; Tang, Bai-Jia; Zeng, Xianbing; Liu, Feng; Kienzler, Tobias; Mehl, Georg H; Ungar, Goran; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Scharf, Toralf

2013-04-11

290

Notebook on Electromagnetic Properties of Composite Materials Below 1 GHz.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report is the seventh in a series of reports on the electromagnetic properties of composites materials. The report quantitatively delineates: the vast differences in electromagnetic behavior exhibited by the principle composite materials (Graphite/ep...

D. R. Pflug J. A. Birken R. A. Wallenberg D. T. Auckland

1981-01-01

291

Filament Composite Material Landing Gear Program, Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program was to explore the utility of boron composite materials in aircraft landing gear construction. The contract work statement required the design, fabrication and test of a boron composite material landing gear assembly intercha...

1972-01-01

292

Prediction of Material Damping of Laminated Polymer Matrix Composites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this study the material damping of laminated composites is derived analytically. The derivation is based on the classical lamination theory in which there are eighteen material constants in the constitutive equations of laminated composites. Six of the...

C. T. Sun J. K. Wu R. F. Gibson

1987-01-01

293

Composite materials for thermal energy storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A composite material for thermal energy storage based upon polyhydric alcohols, such as pentaerythritol, trimethylol ethane (also known as pentaglycerine), neopentyl glycol and related compounds including trimethylol propane, monoaminopentaerythritol, diamino-pentaerythritol and tris(hydroxymethyl)acetic acid, separately or in combinations, which provide reversible heat storage through crystalline phase transformations are discussed. These PCM's do not become liquid during use and are in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon, siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, porous rock, and mixtures thereof. Particulate additions such as aluminum or graphite powders, as well as metal and carbon fibers can also be incorporated therein. Particulate and/or fibrous additions can be introduced into molten phase change materials which can then be cast into various shapes. After the phase change materials have solidified, the additions will remain dispersed throughout the matrix of the cast solid. The polyol is in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon, siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, and mixtures thereof.

Benson, D. K.; Burrows, R. W.; Shinton, Y. D.

1985-01-01

294

Composite materials for thermal energy storage  

DOEpatents

A composite material for thermal energy storage based upon polyhydric alcohols, such as pentaerythritol, trimethylol ethane (also known as pentaglycerine), neopentyl glycol and related compounds including trimethylol propane, monoaminopentaerythritol, diamino-pentaerythritol and tris(hydroxymethyl)acetic acid, separately or in combinations, which provide reversible heat storage through crystalline phase transformations. These PCM's do not become liquid during use and are in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon, siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, porous rock, and mixtures thereof. Particulate additions such as aluminum or graphite powders, as well as metal and carbon fibers can also be incorporated therein. Particulate and/or fibrous additions can be introduced into molten phase change materials which can then be cast into various shapes. After the phase change materials have solidified, the additions will remain dispersed throughout the matrix of the cast solid. The polyol is in contact with at least one material selected from the group consisting of metals, carbon, siliceous, plastic, cellulosic, natural fiber, artificial fiber, concrete, gypsum, and mixtures thereof.

Benson, D.K.; Burrows, R.W.; Shinton, Y.D.

1985-01-04

295

Dental composites/glass ionomers: the materials.  

PubMed

Most commercial dental composites contain liquid dimethacrylate monomers (including BIS-GMA or variations of it) and silica-containing compositions as inorganic reinforcing filler particles coated with methacrylate-functional silane coupling agents to bond the resin to the filler. They also contain initiators, accelerators, photo-initiators, photosensitizers, polymerization inhibitors, and UV absorbers. Durability is a major problem with posterior composites. The typical life-span of posterior composites is from three to 10 years, with large fillings usually fewer than five years. Polymerization shrinkage and inadequate adhesion to cavity walls are remaining problems. Some pulp irritation can occur if deep restorations are not placed over a protective film. Some have advocated the use of glass-ionomer cement as a lining under resin composite restorations in dentin. The concept of glass-ionomer cements (GICs) was introduced to the dental profession in the early 1970's. Current GICs may contain poly(acrylic acid) or a copolymer. Higher-molecular-weight copolymers may also be used to improve the physical properties of some GICs. Stronger and less-brittle hybrid materials have been produced by the addition of water-soluble compatible polymers to form light-curing GIC formulations. The ion-leachable aluminosilicate glass powder, in an aqueous solution of a polymer or copolymer of acrylic acid, is attacked by the hydrated protons of the acid, causing the release of aluminum and calcium ions. Salt bridges are formed, and a gel matrix surrounds the unreacted glass particles. The matrix is adhesive to mineralized tissues. Provisions must be made for maintenance of the water balance of restorations for the first 24 hours.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1292462

Bowen, R L; Marjenhoff, W A

1992-09-01

296

Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) Materials Development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under the former NASA EPM Program, much initial progress was made in identifying constituent materials and processes for SiC/SiC ceramic composite hot-section components. This presentation discusses the performance benefits of these approaches and elaborates on further constituent and property improvements made under NASA UEET. These include specific treatments at NASA that significantly improve the creep and environmental resistance of the Sylramic(TM) Sic fiber as well as the thermal conductivity and creep resistance of the CVI Sic matrix. Also discussed are recent findings concerning the beneficial effects of certain 2D-fabric architectures and carbon between the BN interphase coating and Sic matrix.

DiCarlo, James

2001-01-01

297

Estimating Weibull parameters for composite materials.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper deals with the statistical analysis of strength and fracture of materials in general, with application to fiber composites. The 'weakest link' model is considered in a fairly general form, and the resulting equations are demonstrated by using a Weibull distribution for flaws. This distribution appears naturally in a variety of problems, and therefore additional attention is devoted to analysis and statistical estimation connected with this distribution. Special working charts are included to facilitate interpretation of observed data and estimation of parameters. Implications of the size effect are considered for various kinds of flaw distributions. The paper describes failure and damage in a fiber-reinforced systems.

Robinson, E. Y.

1972-01-01

298

Composite Materials Research and Technology at NASA/MSFC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utilization of composite materials in the Space Shuttle and Advanced Space Transportation Programs is reviewed. Topics include goals and challenges, descriptions of multi-generational launch vehicles, and an overview of composite materials research and technologies that support program objectives. A brief discussion of planned composite materials research and technology concludes the presentation.

Ledbetter, Frank E., III

1999-01-01

299

A mixed model for adaptive composite plates with piezoelectric for anisotropic actuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical formulation for modelling composite smart structures, in which the piezoelectric actuators and sensors are treated as constituent parts of the entire structural system, is presented. The mathematical model is based on a High Order Displacement field coupled with a Layerwise Linear electric potential. This model is developed for a composite laminated plate structure using Hamilton’s variational principle with

C. Chee; L. Tong; G. Steven

2000-01-01

300

Radiation Facilities for Composite Materials Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiation facilities on the base of linac for polymer composite materials (PCM) formation was designed. The general technological scheme of PCM production consists in impregnations by synthetic monomers or oligomers of wares made of capillaryporous materials such as wood, qypsum, concrete, ceramic, paper, waste of papermaking, textile and woodworking production which are further treated by relativistic electron or breamsstruhglung beams. The facilities encorporates a linac with scanning electron beams, microwave chamber for drying of materials, a system for vacuum impregnating of materials with synthetic origomers, test bench for irradiations of samples, precise monitoring system for measuring of three-dimentional dose distribution in irradiated samples, and control processing system. The main beam parameters of linac are: electron energy 5--8 MeV; mean beam power up to 5 kW, pulse duration 1--4 mcs; scanning frequency of electromagnetic scanner 1--8 Hz; the irradiation is possible both with electron and with breamsstrahglung beams. The facilities were used for radiation processing investigation and production of new high-strength and corrosian-resistant PCM.

Popov, G. F.; Zalubovsky, I. I.; Avilov, A. M.; Rudychev, V. G.

1997-05-01

301

Optical responses of planar composites consisting of monolayer graphene sheets and axially helicoidal (bi)anisotropic films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical responses of planar composites made of monolayer graphene sheets and axially helicoidal (bi)anisotropic films (HBFs) are studied using our developed algorithm based on spectral-domain exponential matrix (SDEM) technique. Such HBF-based structures possessing z-axis inhomogeneity, in particular, include locally uniaxial chiral nematic and biaxially smectic liquid crystals (CNLC and CSLC) with double or a few layered graphene sheets inserted. In our mathematical treatment, they are artificially divided into many very thin sub-layers, where each one can be described by a set of z-coordinate independent constitutive tensors. The effects of wavelength and angle of the incident light, chemical potential of monolayer graphene, period of the z-axis inhomogeneity and angle of rise of the composites on their reflectance and transmittance are investigated numerically for different constitutive features and geometries. It is shown that the first- and second-order Bragg reflection or transmission zones at optical bands do exist in the presence of double or a few layered dispersive graphene sheets with slight loss but more freedom introduced.

Gu, Xiao-Qiang; Wang, Si-Yi; Yin, Wen-Yan

2014-02-01

302

Anisotropic Deformation and Damage Behavior of Brittle-Ductile Laminated Composites in Bending at High Temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brittle-ductile alternate laminates with strong interfaces, Al2O3-Ti3SiC2 multilayer composites, are fabricated by hot-pressing thin Al2O3 tapes coated with a mixture of titanium, silicon, and graphite powders at 1550 C. The damage evolution and subcritical growth of macrocracks in these novel composites are investigated by three-point bending tests at high temperatures. By comparing the mechanical response in different loading directions, the

Yiwang Bao; Yanchun Zhou

2005-01-01

303

Spark-plasma-sintering magnetic field assisted compaction of Co80Ni20 nanowires for anisotropic ferromagnetic bulk materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a two-step process showing the way for sintering anisotropic nanostructured bulk ferromagnetic materials. A new reactor has been optimized allowing the synthesis of several grams per batch of nanopowders via a polyol soft chemistry route. The feasibility of the scale-up has been successfully demonstrated for Co80Ni20 nanowires and a massic yield of ~97% was obtained. The thus obtained nanowires show an average diameter of ~6 nm and a length of ~270 nm. A new bottom-up strategy allowed us to compact the powder into a bulk nanostructured system. We used a spark-plasma-sintering technique under uniaxial compression and low temperature assisted by a permanent magnetic field of 1 T. A macroscopic pellet of partially aligned nanowire arrays has been easily obtained. This showed optimized coercive properties along the direction of the magnetic field applied during compaction (i.e., the nanowires' direction).

Ouar, Nassima; Schoenstein, Frédéric; Mercone, Silvana; Farhat, Samir; Villeroy, Benjamin; Leridon, Brigitte; Jouini, Noureddine

2013-10-01

304

Data-driven imaging in anisotropic media  

SciTech Connect

Anisotropic materials are being used increasingly in high performance industrial applications, particularly in the aeronautical and nuclear industries. Some important examples of these materials are composites, single-crystal and heavy-grained metals. Ultrasonic array imaging in these materials requires exact knowledge of the anisotropic material properties. Without this information, the images can be adversely affected, causing a reduction in defect detection and characterization performance. The imaging operation can be formulated in two consecutive and reciprocal focusing steps, i.e., focusing the sources and then focusing the receivers. Applying just one of these focusing steps yields an interesting intermediate domain. The resulting common focus point gather (CFP-gather) can be interpreted to determine the propagation operator. After focusing the sources, the observed travel-time in the CFP-gather describes the propagation from the focus point to the receivers. If the correct propagation operator is used, the measured travel-times should be the same as the time-reversed focusing operator due to reciprocity. This makes it possible to iteratively update the focusing operator using the data only and allows the material to be imaged without explicit knowledge of the anisotropic material parameters. Furthermore, the determined propagation operator can also be used to invert for the anisotropic medium parameters. This paper details the proposed technique and demonstrates its use on simulated array data from a specimen of Inconel single-crystal alloy commonly used in the aeronautical and nuclear industries.

Volker, Arno; Hunter, Alan [TNO Stieltjes weg 1, 2600 AD, Delft (Netherlands)

2012-05-17

305

High velocity impact resistance of composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composite materials are used in applications that require protection against high velocity impacts by fragment simulating projectiles. In this work, the ballistic performance of two commercially available materials against a fragments simulating projectile (FSP) is studied. The materials used were an aramid fiber with a phenolic matrix and a polyethylene fiber with a thermoplastic film. Impact tests have been carried out, with velocities ranging from 300 m/s to 1260m/s. The projectile used is a 1.1g NATO FSP. Impact velocity and exit velocity are measured, to determine the V{50} and the energy absorbed in cases where perforation occurs. Assessment of the impact damaged area is done using ultrasonic C-scan inspection. Types of damage and damage mechanisms have been identified. Several mechanical tests have been carried out to determine the mechanical properties, at different strain rates. Future work in numerical simulation of impact will be done using commercial code AutodyntinycircledR ftom Century Dynamics.

Justo, Jo; Marquer, A. T.

2003-09-01

306

The Effects of Orthotropic Materials on the Vibration Characteristics of Structural Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid growth in anisotropic material (such as composite materials) usage marks a new era in material science. Obviously, in order to understand the physical behavior of structural systems constituted by composite materials, several parameters, such as natural frequencies, mode shapes, and transmissiblities, must be incorporated into anisotropic elastic analyses. Orthotropy, as a special case of anisotropy, is common in

Gokhan Altintas; A. Burak Goktepe

2007-01-01

307

Application of IDT Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring of Windmill Turbine Blades Made of Composite Material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interdigital transducers (IDT) generate and receive ultrasonic surface waves without the complexity involved with secondary devices such as angled wedges or combs. The IDT sensors have been successfully applied for the NDE of homogeneous materials like metals in order to detect cracks and de-bond. However, these transducers have not been yet adapted for complex and anisotropic materials like fiber-reinforced composites. This work presents the possibility of using IDT sensors for monitoring structural damages in wind turbine blades, typically made of fiberglass composites. IDT sensors with a range of operating frequency between 250 kHz and 1 MHz are initially tested on representative composite test panels for ultrasonic surface wave properties including beam spread, propagation distance and effect of material's anisotropy. Based on these results, an optimum frequency range for the IDT sensor is found to be 250-500 kHz. Subsequently, IDT sensors with operating frequency 500 kHz are used to detect and quantify artificial defects created in the composite test samples. Discussions are made on the interaction of ultrasonic fields with these defects along with the effects of fiber directionality and composite layer stacking.

Nalladega, V.; Na, J. K.; Druffner, C.

2011-06-01

308

Application of IDT sensors for structural health monitoring of windmill turbine blades made of composite material  

SciTech Connect

Interdigital transducers (IDT) generate and receive ultrasonic surface waves without the complexity involved with secondary devices such as angled wedges or combs. The IDT sensors have been successfully applied for the NDE of homogeneous materials like metals in order to detect cracks and de-bond. However, these transducers have not been yet adapted for complex and anisotropic materials like fiber-reinforced composites. This work presents the possibility of using IDT sensors for monitoring structural damages in wind turbine blades, typically made of fiberglass composites. IDT sensors with a range of operating frequency between 250 kHz and 1 MHz are initially tested on representative composite test panels for ultrasonic surface wave properties including beam spread, propagation distance and effect of material's anisotropy. Based on these results, an optimum frequency range for the IDT sensor is found to be 250-500 kHz. Subsequently, IDT sensors with operating frequency 500 kHz are used to detect and quantify artificial defects created in the composite test samples. Discussions are made on the interaction of ultrasonic fields with these defects along with the effects of fiber directionality and composite layer stacking.

Nalladega, V.; Na, J. K. [University of Dayton Research Institute, 300 College Park, Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); Druffner, C. [Mound Laser and Photonics Center Inc., 965 Capstone Dr, Suite 308 Miamisburg, OH 45432 (United States)

2011-06-23

309

Fiber optics in composite materials: materials with nerves of glass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Fiber Optic BasedSmart Structure wiipossess a structurally integrated optical microsensor system for determining its state. This built-in sensor system should, in real-time, be able to: evaluate the strain or deformation of a structure, monitor if its vibrating or subject to excessive loads, check its temperature and warn of the appearance of any hot spots. In addition a Smart Structure should maintain a vigilant survelliance over its structural integrity. The successful development of Smart StructureTechnolgy could lead to: aircraft that are safer, lighter, more efficient, easier to maintain and to service; pipelines, pressure vessels and storage tanks that constantly monitor their structuralintegrity and immediately issue an alert ifany problem is detected; space platforms that check forpressure leaks, unwanted vibration, excess thermal buildup, and deviation from some preassigned shape.This technology is particularly appropriate for composite materials where internal damage generated by: impacts, manufacturing flaws, excessive loading or fatigue could be detected and assessed. In service monitoring of structural loads, especially in regions like wing roots of aircraft, could be ofconsiderable benefit in helping to avoid structural overdesign and reduce weight. Structurally imbedded optical fibers sensors might also serve to monitor the cure state of composite thermosets during their fabrication and thereby contribute to improved quality control of these products.

Measures, Raymond M.

1990-08-01

310

Thermophysical Analysis of High Modulus Composite Materials for Space Vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High modulus composite materials are used extensively in aerospace vehicles mainly for the purpose of increasing strength and reducing weight. However, thermal properties have become essential design information with the use of composite materials in the thermal design of spacecraft and spacecraft electronics packages. This is because the localized heat from closely packed devices can lead to functional failure of the aerospace system unless the heat is dissipated. In this study, thermal responses of high modulus advanced materials are considered for aerospace thermal design. The advanced composite material is composed of a continuous high modulus pitch based fiber and epoxy resin. In order to compare this advanced composite material with conventional aerospace composite materials, the thermophysical analysis of both materials was performed. The results include thermal conductivity measurements of composite materials and various thermal analytical techniques with DSC, TGA, TMA and DMA.

Lee, Ho-Sung

2009-01-01

311

Electromagnetic Shielding Efficiency Measurement of Composite Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of the shielding efficiency measurements of construction composite materials. This contribution describes an alternative test method of these measurements by using the measurement circular flange. The measured results and parameters of coaxial test flange are also discussed. The measurement circular flange is described by measured scattering parameters in the frequency range from 9 kHz up to 1 GHz. The accuracy of the used shielding efficiency measurement method was checked by brass calibration ring. The suitability of the coaxial test setup was also checked by measurements on the EMC test chamber. This data was compared with the measured data on the real EMC chamber. The whole measurement of shielding efficiency was controlled by the program which runs on a personal computer. This program was created in the VEE Pro environment produced by © Agilent Technology.

D?ínovský, J.; Kejík, Z.

2009-01-01

312

Method of preparing corrosion resistant composite materials  

DOEpatents

Method of manufacture of ceramic materials which require stability in severely-corrosive environment having high alkali-metal activity, high sulfur/sulfide activity and/or molten halides at temperatures of 200.degree.-550.degree. C. or organic salt (including SO.sub.2 and SO.sub.2 Cl.sub.2) at temperatures of 25.degree.-200.degree. C. These surfide ceramics form stoichiometric (single-phase) compounds with sulfides of Ca, Li, Na, K, Al, Mg, Si, Y, La, Ce, Ga, Ba, Zr and Sr and show melting-points that are sufficiently low and have excellent wettability with many metals (Fe, Ni, Mo) to easily form metal/ceramic seals. Ceramic compositions are also formulated to adequately match thermal expansion coefficient of adjacent metal components.

Kaun, Thomas D. (320 Willow St., New Lenox, IL 60451)

1993-01-01

313

Stiffness Transfer Matrix Method (STMM) for stable dispersion curves solution in anisotropic composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses combined transfer matrix method (TMM) with stiffness matrix method (SMM) for obtaining a stable solution for dispersion curves of Lamb wave propagation in non-isotropic layers. TMM developed by Thomson and Haskell experiences numerical deficiency at high frequency thickness simulations. SMM was proposed by different researchers to solve the instability issue of TMM. This study shows that stable SMM is good at high frequencies, and TMM needs to be combined with SMM to obtain stable and robust behavior over the frequency range. Numerical simulations of dispersion curves are presented for wave propagation in orthotropic unidirectional fiber composites and cross ply composites. The paper ends with conclusions and future work.

Kamal, Ayman; Giurgiutiu, Victor

2014-03-01

314

Effective thermal conduction in composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of determining the bounds and/or estimating the effective thermal conductivity ( ? eff) of a composite (multiphase) system given the volume fractions and the conductivities of the components has been investigated. A comparison between the measured data and the results predicted by theoretical models has been made for seven heterogeneous samples. The tested models include those of the effective medium theory (EMT), Hashin and Shtrikman (HS) bounds, and Wiener bounds. These models can be used to characterize macroscopic homogeneous and isotropic multiphase composite materials either by determining the bounds for the effective thermal conductivity and/or by estimating the overall conductivity of the random mixture. It turns out that the most suitable one of these models to estimate ? eff is the EMT model. This model is a mathematical model based on the homogeneity condition which satisfies the existence of a statistically homogeneous medium that encloses inclusions of different phases. Numerical values of thermal conductivity for the samples that satisfy the homogeneity condition imposed by the effective medium theory are in best agreement with the experimentally measured ones.

Suleiman, Bashir M.

2010-04-01

315

Identification of failure modes in composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently a new structural health monitoring system that employs a "continuous acoustic emission sensor" and an embeddable local processor has been proposed. The development of a processor that integrates the functions of signal conditioning, feature extraction, data storage, and digital communication is currently in progress. A prototype of this local processor chip has been developed. The integration of a continuous sensor with an embeddable local processor can potentially enable an inexpensive method of monitoring large and complex structures using acoustic emission signals. Such a system can reduce the cost, complexity, and weight of the required instrumentation. It is potentially scalable to large and complex structures and could be integrated into the structural material. The success of the acoustic emission based structural health monitoring technique depends on its ability to discriminate between valid acoustic emission signals and ambient noise. In addition, the technique should be able to identify the damage mode from the acoustic emission waveforms. This paper focuses on the use of acoustic emission technique for the identification of failure modes in composite materials. Three types of failure modes in glass fabric epoxy composite laminates are considered. These are two types of delamination growth and transverse crack growth. Wavelet analysis is used to extract time frequency information from the acoustic emission signals. Different features of the waveform including the frequency components, Symmetric and Antisymmetric components, and amplitudes are used to classify the signals and identify the failure modes. The laboratory tests indicate that it is possible to distinguish the individual failure modes under consideration. It was also possible to filter out spurious AE signals that originate from extraneous sources using an appropriate choice of sensors and frequency components. An attempt is made to relate the rate of damage growth with the detected acoustic emission signal parameters.

Nkrumah, F.; Grandhi, G.; Sundaresan, M. J.; Derriso, M.

2005-05-01

316

Composite materials testing for remotely piloted vehicles. Memorandum report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to test and evaluate the material properties of composites, built by Code 5712 of the Naval Research Laboratory, for use on Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV's). These composite materials are generally combinations of Balsa wood and Kevlar or Fiberglas, using Epoxy as a binder. The specific requirement of these composites necessitate that the weight of the material be kept at a minimum. In accordance with this requirement, a fabrication procedures was adopted that deviates from that traditionally established in the composites field. The main difference is that, in the construction of these composites no dam is used to surround the material while the epoxy cures. Conventional composite fabrication procedures use a dam to prevent epoxy (resin) from migrating away from the material. This fabrication process was examined in relation to it's effects on the material properties of these composites.

Quraishi, N.

1989-01-25

317

Metal inserts in structural composite materials manufactured by RTM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Load transfer on a structural composite part can be carried out by means of metal inserts. Apart from their detachable features, their introduction in a composite material is not without consequence. This paper examines the impact of the inserts in a structural composite material obtained by the Resin Transfer Moulding process. Numerical flow simulations, using RTMFLOT software developed by the

B. Ferret; M. Anduze; C. Nardari

1998-01-01

318

Composite materials: Tomorrow for the day after tomorrow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A description is given of the history of the use of composite materials in the aerospace industry. Research programs underway to obtain exact data on the behavior of composite materials over time are discussed. It is concluded that metal composites have not yet replaced metals, but that that this may be a future possibility.

Condom, P.

1982-01-01

319

Composite Materials: Tomorrow for the Day after Tomorrow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A description is given of the history of the use of composite materials in the aerospace industry. Research programs underway to obtain exact data on the behavior of composite materials over time are discussed. It is concluded that metal composites have n...

P. Condom

1982-01-01

320

Millimeter-wave imaging of composite materials  

SciTech Connect

This work addresses the application and evaluates the potential of mm-wave imaging in the W-band (75-110 GHz) using samples of low-loss dielectric and composite materials with artificial defects. The initial focus is on the measurement of amplitude changes in the back scattered and forward-scattered fields. The c-scan system employs a focused beam antenna to provide spatial resolution of about one wavelength. A plane-wave model is used to calculate the effective reflection (or transmission) coefficient of multilayer test sample geometry. Theoretical analysis is used to optimize the measurement frequency for higher image contrast and to interpret the experimental results. Both reflection and transmission images, based on back scattered and forward-scattered powers, were made with Plexiglas and Kevlar/epoxy samples containing artificially introduced defects such as subsurface voids and disbonds. The results clearly indicate that mm-wave imaging has high potential for non-contact interrogation of low-loss materials.

Gopalsami, N.; Bakhtiari, S.; Dieckman, S.L.; Raptis, A.C.; Lepper, M.J.

1993-09-01

321

A multiphase approach for modelling the shock response of composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shock response of unidirectional fiber reinforced composite materials is inherently anisotropic due to their microstructural geometric configuration. Unlike typical elastic-plastic materials, composite materials form the observed two-wave structure under longitudinal shocks due to a precursor wave travelling through the fibers ahead of a bulk wave in the resin constituent. The nature of this response presents a problem in traditional hydrocode frameworks where each cell or material point tracks only a single velocity field. This paper outlines an adaptation of the Baer and Nunziato multi-phase model in CTH where a mixture rule is used to determine the velocity field of each constituent (fiber and matrix) of the composite material. The model modifies the momentum exchange term to represent the frictional drag forces between the fiber and matrix constituents, while assuming no mass or energy exchange. The momentum drag model is dependent not only upon the pressure difference between the constituents but also the directional dependence of the shock response. Finally, the model is implemented and the sensitivity of the solution to the interaction parameters demonstrated.

Key, C. T.; Schumacher, S. C.; Ruggirello, K. P.; Alexander, C. S.

2014-05-01

322

Highly birefringent polymer microstructured optical fibers embedded in composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composite structures are made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties and they remain separate and distinct in a macroscopic level within the finished structure. This feature allows for introducing highly birefringent polymer microstructured optical fibers into the composite material. These new fibers can consist of only two polymer materials (PMMA and PC) with similar value of the Young modulus as the composite material so any stresses induced in the composite material can be easily measured by the proposed embedded fiber optic sensors.

Lesiak, P.; SzelÄ g, M.; Kuczkowski, M.; Doma?ski, A. W.; Woli?ski, T. R.

2013-05-01

323

Power Composites: Structural Materials that Generate and Store Electrical Energy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We describe progress in the development of a synthetic multifunctional material: namely a fiber composite with both power and structural function. The structural composite contains batteries encased in piezoelectric tubes. When the structure vibrates the ...

D. A. Shockey S. C. Ventura S. C. Narang J. W. Simons B. C. Bourne

2005-01-01

324

Soviet Developments in Composite Materials, January - June 1975.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Selected Soviet publications on composite materials over a period of 6 months (January to June 1975) are abstracted in this report. The publications cover both experimental and theoretical research on carbon fiber-reinforced plastic composites and carbon ...

J. Kourilo

1976-01-01

325

Composite materials with metallic matrix and ceramic porous filler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite materials with a reduced density reinforced with hollow corundum particles can be of interest as damping and abrasive materials for decreasing the mass of a structure. Methods for mixing powders and their hot pressing are suggested in order to produce such composite materials without fracture of the brittle hollow particles of the filler.

V. I. Bakarinova; V. K. Portnoi

1995-01-01

326

Compendium of Material Composition Data for Radiation Transport Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction Meaningful simulations of radiation transport applications require realistic definitions of material composition and densities. When seeking that information for applications in fields such as homeland security, radiation shielding and protection, and criticality safety, researchers usually encounter a variety of materials for which elemental compositions are not readily available or densities are not defined. Publication of the Compendium of Material

Ronald J. McConn; Christopher J. Gesh; Richard T. Pagh; Robert A. Rucker; Robert Williams

2011-01-01

327

The simulation of composite material response under dynamic compressive loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Realistic computer prediction of high-velocity impact and penetration events involving composite materials requires a knowledge of the material behaviour under large compressive stresses at high rates of deformation. As an aid to the development of constitutive models for composites under these conditions, methods for numerical simulation of the material response at the microstructural level are being developed. At present, the

S. A. Silling; P. A. Taylor

1994-01-01

328

Simulation of composite material response under dynamic compressive loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Realistic computer prediction of high-velocity impact and penetration events involving composite materials requires a knowledge of the material behavior under large compressive stresses at high rates of deformation. As an aid to the development of constitutive models for composites under these conditions, methods for numerical simulation of the material response at the microstructural level are being developed. At present, the

S. A. Silling; P. A. Taylor

1993-01-01

329

A multi-continuum theory for composite elastic materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A continuum theory for composite materials is presented in which the composite constituents are modeled by superimposed continua which undergo thermal and mechanical interactions. Kinematical notions, field equations and a constitutive theory are developed, including consequences of material frame indifference and material symmetry which restrict the form of the response functions. The final result is a set of linearized

A. Bedford; M. Stern

1972-01-01

330

ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF URANIUM REFERENCE MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

Uranium isotopic compositions of a variety of U standard materials were measured at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and are reported here. Both thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and multi-collector inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) were used to determine ratios of the naturally occurring isotopes of U. Establishing an internally coherent set of isotopic values for a range of U standards is essential for inter-laboratory comparison of small differences in {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U, as well as the minor isotopes of U. Differences of {approx} 1.3{per_thousand} are now being observed in {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U in natural samples, and may play an important role in understanding U geochemistry where tracing the origin of U is aided by U isotopic compositions. The {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U ratios were measured with a TRITON TIMS using a mixed {sup 233}U-{sup 236}U isotopic tracer to correct for instrument fractionation. this tracer was extremely pure and resulted in only very minor corrections on the measured {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U ratios of {approx} 0.03. The values obtained for {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U are: IRMM184 = 137.698 {+-} 0.020 (n = 15), SRM950a = 137.870 {+-} 0.018 (n = 8), and CRM112a = 137.866 {+-} 0.030 (n = 16). Uncertainties represent 2 s.d. of the population. The measured value for IRMM184 is in near-perfect agreement with the certified value of 137.697 {+-} 0.042. However, the U isotopic compositions of SRM950a and CRM112a are not certified. Minor isotopes of U were determined with a Nu Plasma HR MC-ICPMS and mass bias was corrected by sample/standard bracketing to IRMM184, using its certified {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U ratio. Thus, the isotopic compositions determined using both instruments are compatible. The values obtained for {sup 234}U/{sup 235}U are: SRM950a = (7.437 {+-} 0.043) x 10{sup -3} (n = 18), and CRM112a = (7.281 {+-} 0.050) x 10{sup -3} (n = 16), both of which are in good agreement with published values. The value for {sup 236}U/{sup 235}U in SRM950a was determined to be (8.48 {+-} 2.63) x 10{sup -6}, whereas {sup 236}U was not detected in CRM112a. They are currently obtaining the U isotopic composition of CRM129a. Preliminary results suggest that the {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U ratio is within error, but slightly lower than the certified value of 137.71.

Jacobsen, B; Borg, L; Williams, R; Brennecka, G; Hutcheon, I

2009-09-03

331

Flame Resistant Insulation Materials, Composition and Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent application concerns flame retardancy of loosefill insulation materials, especially cellulosic insulation materials. More particularly, the invention relates to flame resistant insulation materials, methods of treating insulation materials to ...

R. J. McCarter

1980-01-01

332

Generalized-material-independent PML absorbers used for the FDTD simulation of electromagnetic waves in 3-D arbitrary anisotropic dielectric and magnetic media  

Microsoft Academic Search

By introducing the material-independent quantities (electric displacement D and flux density B) into the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) model, a generalized-material-independent perfectly matched layer (GMIPML) absorber used to absorb electromagnetic waves propagating in three-dimensional (3-D) general anisotropic dielectric and magnetic media is proposed. Within the proposed GMIPML absorber, D and B are directly absorbed, whereas E and H are simultaneously absorbed

An Ping Zhao

1998-01-01

333

An Evaluation of the Oxygen Compatibility of Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three tests are described which evaluate the oxygen compatibility characteristics of multiple composite materials: 1) Mechanical Impact Bruceton 'Up and Down' Method; 2) Promoted Combustion; 3) Electrostatic Discharge.

Richardson, Erin H.; Hall, Joylene

2003-01-01

334

Optical Determination of Anisotropic Material Properties of Bovine Articular Cartilage in Compression  

PubMed Central

The precise nature of the material symmetry of articular cartilage in compression remains to be elucidated. The primary objective of this study was to determine the equilibrium compressive Young’s moduli and Poisson’s ratios of bovine cartilage along multiple directions (parallel and perpendicular to the split line direction, and normal to the articular surface) by loading small cubic specimens (0.9×0.9×0.8 mm, n=15) in unconfined compression, with the expectation that the material symmetry of cartilage could be determined more accurately with the help of a more complete set of material properties. The second objective was to investigate how the tension-compression nonlinearity of cartilage might alter the interpretation of material symmetry. Optimized digital image correlation was used to accurately determine the resultant strain fields within the specimens under loading. Experimental results demonstrated that neither the Young’s moduli nor the Poisson’s ratios exhibit the same values when measured along the three loading directions. The main findings of this study are that the framework of linear orthotropic elasticity (as well as higher symmetries of linear elasticity) is not suitable to describe the equilibrium response of articular cartilage nor characterize its material symmetry; a framework which accounts for the distinctly different responses of cartilage in tension and compression is more suitable for describing the equilibrium response of cartilage; within this framework, cartilage exhibits no lower than orthotropic symmetry.

Wang, Christopher C-B.; Chahine, Nadeen O.; Hung, Clark T.; Ateshian, Gerard A.

2010-01-01

335

Shear deflection of anisotropic plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the thin plate theory, shear deformation is neglected. This theory is unreliable for plates of considerable thickness in the vicinity of the point of application of load, and sandwich plates with shear rigidity which is very low compared with bending rigidity. A widely accepted theory which includes the effects of shear deformation was developed by Reissner and Mindlin. In recent years, composite materials have been widely employed as structure elements. Plates of composite material are characterized by strong anisotropy and low out-of-plane shear rigidity. This paper provides a convenient representation for the stiffness matrix of the finite element in order to analyze a sandwich plate with an anisotropic face plate and core. The formulation is based on the nonconforming element of Zienkiewicz (1977) and is obtained with a modified stiffness matrix in the condition in which the out-of-plane shear strain is constant in two directions within an element.

Katori, Hiroaki; Nishimura, Tohru

1992-01-01

336

Surface composites: A new class of engineered materials  

SciTech Connect

To integrate irreconcilable material properties into a single component, a new class of engineered materials termed {open_quotes}surface composites{close_quotes} has been developed. In this engineered material, the second phase is spatially distributed in the near surface regions, such that the phase composition is linearly graded as a function of distance from the surface. Surface composites are different from existing engineered materials such as {open_quotes}bulk composites{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}functionally graded materials{close_quotes} (FGM). Unlike bulk composites, the surface phase in surface composites is present only at the near surface regions. In contrast to FGM, the graded properties of surface composites are achieved by unique morphological surface modification of the bulk phase. To fabricate surface composites, the initial surface of the bulk material is transformed using a novel multiple pulse irradiation technique into truncated cone-like structures. The laser induced micro-rough structures (LIMS) possess surface areas which are up to an order of magnitude higher than the original surface. The second phase is deposited on the surface using thin or thick film deposition methods. A key characteristic of surface composites is the formation of a three dimensional, compositionally and thermally graded interface, which gives rise to improved adhesion of the surface phase. Examples of various types of surface composites such as W/Mo, silica/SiC and diamond/steel, etc. are presented in this paper. The unique properties of surface composites make them ideal engineered materials for applications involving adherent thick film coatings of thermally mismatched materials, compositional surface modification for controlled catalytic activity, and creating adherent metal-ceramic and ceramic-polymeric joints. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

Singh, R.; Fitz-Gerald, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

1997-03-01

337

Thermoelastic stress analysis techniques for mixed mode fracture and stochastic fatigue of composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study develops new quantitative thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) techniques for fracture and fatigue damage analysis of composite materials. The first part deals with the thermo-mechanical derivation of two quantitative TSA techniques applied to orthotropic composites with and without a transversely-isotropic surface coating layer. The new TSA test procedures are derived in order to relate the thermal infrared (IR) images with the sum of in-plane strains multiplied by two newly defined material constants that can be experimentally pre-calibrated. Experiments are performed to verify the TSA methods with finite element (FE) numerical results along with available anisotropic elasticity solution. The second part of this study applies the quantitative TSA techniques together with the Lekhnitskii's general anisotropic elasticity solution to calculate mixed-mode stress intensity factors (SIFs) in cracked composite materials. The cracked composite coupons are subjected to off-axis loadings with respect to four different material angles in order to generate mixed-mode SIFs. A least-squares method is used to correlate the sum of in-plane strains from the elasticity solution with the measured TSA test results. The mode-I and mode-II SIFs are determined from eccentrically loaded single-edge-notch tension (ESE(T)) composite specimens. The FE models and virtual crack closure technique (VCCT) are utilized for comparisons. In the third part, a new stochastic model is proposed to generate S-N curves accounting for the variability of the fatigue process. This cumulative damage Markov chain model (MCM) requires a limited number of fatigue tests for calibrating the probability transition matrix (PTM) in the Markov chain model and mean fatigue cycles to failure from experiments. In order to construct the MCM stochastic S-N curve, an iterative procedure is required to predict the mean cycles to failure. Fatigue tests are conducted in this study to demonstrate the MCM method. Twenty-one open-hole S2-glass laminates are fatigue-cycled at two different stress levels. The coupon overall stiffness and surface-ply TSA damage area have been used as two damage metrics. The MCM can satisfactorily describe the overall fatigue damage evolution for a limited number of coupons (less than 6) subjected to a given specific stress level. The stochastic S-N curve can be constructed using at least two sets of fatigue tests under different stress levels. Three available fatigue tests for different E-glass laminates from the literature are also investigated using the proposed MCM approach. The results show the MCM method can provide the stochastic S-N curves for different composite systems and a wide range of fatigue cycles.

Wei, Bo-Siou

338

Nanostructured Composite Materials for High Temperature Thermoelectric Energy Conversion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goals of this project were to synthesize, characterize and model bulk nanostructured composite materials for thermoelectric energy conversion applications. The objective was to produce materials which demonstrate an increase in intrinsic thermoelectri...

C. J. O'Connor

2012-01-01

339

Material, process, and product design of thermoplastic composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermoplastic composites made of polypropylene (PP) and E-glass fibers were investigated experimentally as well as theoretically for two new classes of product designs. The first application was for reinforcement of wood. Commingled PP/glass yarn was consolidated and bonded on wood panel using a tie layer. The processing parameters, including temperature, pressure, heating time, cooling time, bonding strength, and bending strength were tested experimentally and evaluated analytically. The thermoplastic adhesive interface was investigated with environmental scanning electron microscopy. The wood/composite structural design was optimized and evaluated using a Graphic Method. In the second application, we evaluated use of thermoplastic composites for explosion containment in an arrester. PP/glass yarn was fabricated in a sleeve form and wrapped around the arrester. After consolidation, the flexible composite sleeve forms a solid composite shell. The composite shell acts as a protection layer in a surge test to contain the fragments of the arrester. The manufacturing process for forming the composite shell was designed. Woven, knitted, and braided textile composite shells made of commingled PP/glass yarn were tested and evaluated. Mechanical performance of the woven, knitted, and braided composite shells was examined analytically. The theoretical predictions were used to verify the experimental results.

Dai, Heming

340

Double Cantilever Beam Fracture Toughness Testing of Several Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Double-cantilever beam fracture toughness tests were performed by the Composite Materials Research Group on several different unidirectional composite materials provided by NASA Langley Research Center. The composite materials consisted of Hercules IM-7 carbon fiber and various matrix resin formulations. Multiple formulations of four different families of matrix resins were tested: LaRC - ITPI, LaRC - IA, RPT46T, and RP67/RP55. Report presents the materials tested and pertinent details supplied by NASA. For each material, three replicate specimens were tested. Multiple crack extensions were performed on each replicate.

Kessler, Jeff A.; Adams, Donald F.

1992-01-01

341

[Preparation and biological evaluation of PLA/chitosan composite materials].  

PubMed

Hypersusceptibility test, pyrogen test, cell cultivation, and toxicity examination were applied in the biological evaluation of the poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/chitosan composite materials. The results indicated that all the materials were negative, conforming to the ISO10993-1. The cell could grow well on the surface of the materials. So the PLA/chitosan composite materials have good biocompatibility and can be planted in the body as scaffolds. PMID:14564997

Li, Lihua; Ding, Shan; Zhou, Changren

2003-09-01

342

Composite tribological materials. (Latest citations from Fluidex). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the properties, behavior, and uses of composite tribological materials in and on various objects, devices, and equipment. The citations examine friction and wear characteristics, mechanisms, and the performance of these materials and the objects to which they are applied. Composite tribological materials are used, for example, in bearings, gears, and piston rings. Included are self lubricating materials. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

NONE

1998-02-01

343

Anisotropic property of material arrangement in friction stir welding of dissimilar Mg alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir weld joints of dissimilar Mg alloys AZ31 and AZ80 were investigated in the present work. Several different welding parameters were adopted in the study, and the effects of rotation speed and welding speed on the joint quality were discussed comprehensively. In addition, material arrangement which means that AZ31 alloy was at advancing side

Duo Liu; Hiroyuki Nishio; Kazuhiro Nakata

2011-01-01

344

Optical determination of anisotropic material properties of bovine articular cartilage in compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precise nature of the material symmetry of articular cartilage in compression remains to be elucidated. The primary objective of this study was to determine the equilibrium compressive Young's moduli and Poisson's ratios of bovine cartilage along multiple directions (parallel and perpendicular to the split line direction, and normal to the articular surface) by loading small cubic specimens (0.9 ?

B. Wang; Nadeen O. Chahine; Clark T. Hung; Gerard A. Ateshian

345

Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy for viscoelastic characterization of anisotropic attenuative solid materials.  

PubMed

Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) is an accurate measurement method in which the full stiffness tensor of a material is assessed from the free resonant frequencies of a small sample, and the viscoelastic damping is measured from the resonant peaks width. High viscoelastic damping causes the resonant peaks to overlap and therefore complicate the measurement of the resonant frequencies and the inverse identification of material properties. For that reason, RUS has been known to be fully applicable only to low damping materials. The purpose of this work is to adapt RUS for the characterization of highly attenuating viscoelastic materials. Spectrum measurement using shear transducers combined with dedicated signal processing is employed to retrieve the resonant frequencies despite overlapping. A probabilistic (Bayesian) formulation of the inverse problem, tackling the problem of correctly pairing the measured and predicted frequencies, is proposed. Applications to polymethylmethacrylate (isotropic) and glass/epoxy transversely isotropic samples are presented. The full set of viscoelastic properties is obtained with good repeatability. Particularly, elastic moduli of the isotropic samples are obtained within 1%. PMID:24815244

Bernard, Simon; Grimal, Quentin; Laugier, Pascal

2014-05-01

346

Some functional properties of composite material based on scrap tires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utilization of scrap tires still obtains a remarkable importance from the aspect of unloading the environment from non-degradable waste [1]. One of the most prospective ways for scrap tires reuse is a production of composite materials [2] This research must be considered as a continuation of previous investigations [3, 4]. It is devoted to the clarification of some functional properties, which are considered important for the view of practical applications, of the composite material. Some functional properties of the material were investigated, for instance, the compressive stress at different extent of deformation of sample (till 67% of initial thickness) (LVS EN 826) [5] and the resistance to UV radiation (modified method based on LVS EN 14836) [6]. Experiments were realized on the purposefully selected samples. The results were evaluated in the correlation with potential changes of Shore C hardness (Shore scale, ISO 7619-1, ISO 868) [7, 8]. The results showed noticeable resistance of the composite material against the mechanical influence and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The correlation with the composition of the material, activity of binder, definite technological parameters, and the conditions supported during the production, were determined. It was estimated that selected properties and characteristics of the material are strongly dependent from the composition and technological parameters used in production of the composite material, and from the size of rubber crumb. Obtained results show possibility to attain desirable changes in the composite material properties by changing both the composition and technological parameters of examined material.

Plesuma, Renate; Malers, Laimonis

2013-09-01

347

Vibrational damping behavior of composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was primarily undertaken to review the literature concerning damping characteristics of composites. Both theoretical and experimental investigations have substantiated that damping capacity of composites is significantly influenced by various factors including volume fraction of reinforcements, fiber aspect ratio, fiber orientation, microstructural characteristics, test temperature and frequency, applied stress, mode of vibrations, etc. Effect of these factors on loss factor of composites is briefly described in this paper.

Singh, S. S.; Rohatgi, P. K.; Keshavram, B. N.

348

Orthotic devices using lightweight composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potential applications of high strength, lightweight composite technology in the orthotic field were studied. Several devices were designed and fabricated using graphite-epoxy composite technology. Devices included shoe plates, assistive walker devices, and a Simes prosthesis reinforcement. Several other projects having medical application were investigated and evaluations were made of the potential for use of composite technology. A seat assembly was fabricated using sandwich construction techniques for the Total Wheelchair Project.

Harrison, E., Jr.

1983-01-01

349

Selected NASA research in composite Materials and structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various aspects of the application of composite materials to aircraft structures are considered. Failure prediction techniques, buckling and postbuckling research, laminate fatigue analysis, damage tolerance, high temperature resin matrix composites and electrical hazards of carbon fiber composites are among the topics discussed.

1980-01-01

350

Structural assessment of a novel carpet composite material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noise pollution caused by vehicles has always been a concern to the communities in the vicinity of highways and busy roadways. The carpet composite material was recently developed and proposed to be utilized as sound-walls in highways. In the carpet composite material post-consumer carpet is used as reinforcing element inside and epoxy matrix. The main focus of this work is to assess flexural behavior of this novel material. Tests were performed on the individual components of the composite material. Using the results from the test and a theoretical approach, a model was proposed that describes the flexural behavior and also a close estimate of the flexural strength of the carpet composite material. In this work the contribution of the carpet in flexural behavior of the composite material was investigated. It was found that the carpet is weaker than the epoxy and the contribution of the carpet in flexural strength of the composite material is small. It was also found that using the carpet inside the epoxy results in 63% decrease in ultimate strength of the section, however; the gain in ductility is considerable. Based on the flexural test results the composite section follows a bilinear behavior. To determine the capacity of the composite, the effective epoxy section is to be determined before and after the tension cracks form at the bottom of the section. Using the epoxy section analysis described in this work, the strength of the composite section can be calculated at cracking and ultimate capacity.

Abbaszadeh, Ali

351

Optical determination of anisotropic material properties of bovine articular cartilage in compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precise nature of the material symmetry of articular cartilage in compression remains to be elucidated. The primary objective of this study was to determine the equilibrium compressive Young's moduli and Poisson's ratios of bovine cartilage along multiple directions (parallel and perpendicular to the split line direction, and normal to the articular surface) by loading small cubic specimens (0.9×0.9×0.8mm, n=15)

Christopher C.-B. Wang; Nadeen O. Chahine; Clark T. Hung; Gerard A. Ateshian

2003-01-01

352

Finite Element Analysis of Layered Fiber Composite Structures Accounting for the Material's Microstructure and Delamination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper focuses on composite structures which consist of several layers of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). For such layered composite structures, delamination constitutes one of the major failure modes. Predicting its initiation is essential for the design of these composites. Evaluating stress-strength relation based onset criteria requires an accurate representation of the through-the-thickness stress distribution, which can be particularly delicate in the case of shell-like structures. Thus, in this paper, a solid-shell finite element formulation is utilized which allows to incorporate a fully three-dimensional material model while still being suitable for applications involving thin structures. Moreover, locking phenomena are cured by using both the EAS and the ANS concept, and numerical efficiency is ensured through reduced integration. The proposed anisotropic material model accounts for the material's micro-structure by using the concept of structural tensors. It is validated by comparison to experimental data as well as by application to numerical examples.

Stier, Bertram; Simon, Jaan-Willem; Reese, Stefanie

2014-05-01

353

The shape and orientation of the minimum strain energy of coherent ellipsoidal precipitate in an anisotropic cubic material  

SciTech Connect

The elastic strain energy of perfectly coherent ellipsoid of revolution, which has the cube-cube orientation relationship with the matrix, has been calculated as a function of the orientation of the axis of revolution and of shape factor in anisotropic cubic crystalline materials. The minimum strain energy condition occurs at four different shapes and orientations, i.e. sphere, rod along <001> axis, disc on {l_brace}001{r_brace} plane and disc on {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane, depending on the two shear moduli of precipitate, i.e. {mu}*{sub 1} ((C*{sub 11} {minus} C*{sub 12})/2) and {mu}* (C*{sub 44}). This is true regardless of the elastic property of the matrix phase when its anisotropy factor is larger than 1. The conditions of the occurrence of each shape and orientation are greatly affected by the difference in the misfit accommodation behavior depending on the shape of precipitate. A review of the experimental observations indicates the presence of all four different shapes and orientations in the case of GP zones in Al alloys. The conditions of their appearance are in good agreement with the prediction of the present calculation.

Suh, I.S.; Park, J.K. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering] [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

1995-12-01

354

Composite materials for precision space reflector panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the critical technology needs of large precision reflectors for future astrophysical and optical communications satellites lies in the area of structural materials. Results from a materials research and development program at NASA Langley Research Center to provide materials for these reflector applications are discussed. Advanced materials that meet the reflector panel requirements are identified and thermal, mechanical and

Stephen S. Tompkins; Joan G. Funk; David E. Bowles; Timothy W. Towell; John W. Connell

1992-01-01

355

Process for fabricating composite material having high thermal conductivity  

DOEpatents

A process for fabricating a composite material such as that having high thermal conductivity and having specific application as a heat sink or heat spreader for high density integrated circuits. The composite material produced by this process has a thermal conductivity between that of diamond and copper, and basically consists of coated diamond particles dispersed in a high conductivity metal, such as copper. The composite material can be fabricated in small or relatively large sizes using inexpensive materials. The process basically consists, for example, of sputter coating diamond powder with several elements, including a carbide forming element and a brazeable material, compacting them into a porous body, and infiltrating the porous body with a suitable braze material, such as copper-silver alloy, thereby producing a dense diamond-copper composite material with a thermal conductivity comparable to synthetic diamond films at a fraction of the cost.

Colella, Nicholas J. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, Howard L. (San Carlos, CA); Kerns, John A. (Livermore, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01

356

Energy absorption in composite materials for crashworthy structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crash energy-absorption processes in composite materials have been studied as part of a research program aimed at the development of energy absorbing subfloor beams for crashworthy military helicopters. Based on extensive tests on glass/epoxy, graphite/epoxy, and Kevlar/epoxy composites, it is shown that the energy-absorption characteristics and crushing modes of composite beams are similar to those exhibited by tubular specimens of similar material and architecture. The crushing mechanisms have been determined and related to the mechanical properties of the constituent materials and specimen architecture. A simple and accurate method for predicting the energy-absorption capability of composite beams has been developed.

Farley, Gary L.

1987-01-01

357

Flexible hydrogel-based functional composite materials  

DOEpatents

A composite having a flexible hydrogel polymer formed by mixing an organic phase with an inorganic composition, the organic phase selected from the group consisting of a hydrogel monomer, a crosslinker, a radical initiator, and/or a solvent. A polymerization mixture is formed and polymerized into a desired shape and size.

2013-10-08

358

Industry technology assessment of graphite-polymide composite materials. [conferences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An assessment of the current state of the art and the future prospects for graphite polyimide composite material technology is presented. Presentations and discussions given at a minisymposium of major issues on the present and future use, availability, processing, manufacturing, and testing of graphite polyimide composite materials are summarized.

1975-01-01

359

Pistons and Cylinders Made of Carbon-Carbon Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved reciprocating internal combustion engine has a plurality of engine pistons, which are fabricated from carbon---carbon composite materials, in operative association with an engine cylinder block, or an engine cylinder tube, or an engine cylinder jug, all of which are also fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials.

Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Schwind, Francis A. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

360

Pistons and Cylinders Made of Carbon-Carbon Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved reciprocating internal combustion engine has a plurality of engine pistons, which are fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials, in operative association with an engine cylinder block, or an engine cylinder tube, or an engine cylinder jug, all of which are also fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials.

Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Schwind, Francis A. (Inventor)

2000-01-01

361

Advanced organic composite materials for aircraft structures: Future program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Revolutionary advances in structural materials have been responsible for revolutionary changes in all fields of engineering. These advances have had and are still having a significant impact on aircraft design and performance. Composites are engineered materials. Their properties are tailored through the use of a mix or blend of different constituents to maximize selected properties of strength and/or stiffness at reduced weights. More than 20 years have passed since the potentials of filamentary composite materials were identified. During the 1970s much lower cost carbon filaments became a reality and gradually designers turned from boron to carbon composites. Despite progress in this field, filamentary composites still have significant unfulfilled potential for increasing aircraft productivity; the rendering of advanced organic composite materials into production aircraft structures was disappointingly slow. Why this is and research and technology development actions that will assist in accelerating the application of advanced organic composites to production aircraft is discussed.

1987-01-01

362

NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicle Technologies: A Composite Materials Overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A materials overview of the NASA's Earth-to-Orbit Space Transportation Program is presented. The topics discussed are: Earth-to-Orbit Goals and Challenges; Space Transportation Program Structure; Generations of Reusable Launch Vehicles; Space Transportation Derived Requirements; X 34 Demonstrator; Fastrac Engine System; Airframe Systems; Propulsion Systems; Cryotank Structures; Advanced Materials, Fabrication, Manufacturing, & Assembly; Hot and Cooled Airframe Structures; Ceramic Matrix Composites; Ultra-High Temp Polymer Matrix Composites; Metal Matrix Composites; and PMC Lines Ducts and Valves.

Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Cook, Steve; Effinger, Mike; Smith, Dennis; Swint, Shayne

1999-01-01

363

Chromatographic behavior of silica-polymer composite molecularly imprinted materials.  

PubMed

Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) have recently been prepared inside the pores of silica based HPLC packing materials. Detailed physical and chromatographic characterization of such a silica-MIP composite material is presented. The chromatographic peak shape obtained with the uniformly sized spherical silica-MIP composite is mainly determined by the nonlinear adsorption isotherm. Comparison of the composite with the conventional sieved and grinded bulk MIP is therefore based on the nonlinear isotherm and not on retention factors and plate numbers. PMID:16188268

Tóth, B; László, K; Horvai, G

2005-12-23

364

Development of novel polymer\\/quasicrystal composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on a new class of materials, polymer\\/quasicrystal composites with useful properties for beneficial exploitation in applications, such as dry bearings and composite gears. Our preliminary results indicate that our new composites are a means of enhancing the properties of certain organic polymers while providing a new means of processing quasicrystals. Al–Cu–Fe quasicrystalline materials significantly improved wear resistance to

Paul D Bloom; K. G Baikerikar; Joshua U Otaigbe; Valerie V Sheares

2000-01-01

365

21 CFR 878.3500 - Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material... Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material...A polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant...

2009-04-01

366

21 CFR 878.3500 - Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material... Polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant material...A polytetrafluoroethylene with carbon fibers composite implant...

2010-04-01

367

Vibration and Damping of Laminated, Composite-Material Plates Including Thickness-Shear Effects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analytical investigation of sinusoidally forced vibration of laminated, anisotropic plates including bending-stretching coupling, thbility, all three types of inertia effects, and material damping is presented. In the analysis the effects of thickness-...

C. C. Siu C. W. Bert

1972-01-01

368

Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results from a 35 month period of a program designed to develop generic constitutive and life prediction approaches and models for nickel-based single crystal gas turbine airfoils. The program is composed of a base program and an optional program. The base program addresses the high temperature coated single crystal regime above the airfoil root platform. The optional program investigates the low temperature uncoated single crystal regime below the airfoil root platform including the notched conditions of the airfoil attachment. Both base and option programs involve experimental and analytical efforts. Results from uniaxial constitutive and fatigue life experiments of coated and uncoated PWA 1480 single crystal material form the basis for the analytical modeling effort. Four single crystal primary orientations were used in the experiments: (001), (011), (111), and (213). Specific secondary orientations were also selected for the notched experiments in the optional program. Constitutive models for an overlay coating and PWA 1480 single crystal material were developed based on isothermal hysteresis loop data and verified using thermomechanical (TMF) hysteresis loop data. A fatigue life approach and life models were selected for TMF crack initiation of coated PWA 1480. An initial life model used to correlate smooth and notched fatigue data obtained in the option program shows promise. Computer software incorporating the overlay coating and PWA 1480 constitutive models was developed.

Nissley, D. M.; Meyer, T. G.

1992-01-01

369

Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents a summary of results from a 7 year program designed to develop generic constitutive and life prediction approaches and models for nickel-based single crystal gas turbine airfoils. The program was composed of a base program and an optional program. The base program addressed the high temperature coated single crystal regime above the airfoil root platform. The optional program investigated the low temperature uncoated single crystal regime below the airfoil root platform including the notched conditions of the airfoil attachment. Both base and option programs involved experimental and analytical efforts. Results from uniaxial constitutive and fatigue life experiments of coated and uncoated PWA 1480 single crystal material formed the basis for the analytical modeling effort. Four single crystal primary orientations were used in the experiments: group of zone axes (001), group of zone axes (011), group of zone axes (111), and group of zone axes (213). Specific secondary orientations were also selected for the notched experiments in the optional program. Constitutive models for an overlay coating and PWA 1480 single crystal materials were developed based on isothermal hysteresis loop data and verified using thermomechanical (TMF) hysteresis loop data. A fatigue life approach and life models were developed for TMF crack initiation of coated PWA 1480. A life model was developed for smooth and notched fatigue in the option program. Finally, computer software incorporating the overlay coating and PWA 1480 constitutive and life models was developed.

Nissley, D. M.; Meyer, T. G.; Walker, K. P.

1992-01-01

370

Overview of bacterial cellulose composites: a multipurpose advanced material.  

PubMed

Bacterial cellulose (BC) has received substantial interest owing to its unique structural features and impressive physico-mechanical properties. BC has a variety of applications in biomedical fields, including use as biomaterial for artificial skin, artificial blood vessels, vascular grafts, scaffolds for tissue engineering, and wound dressing. However, pristine BC lacks certain properties, which limits its applications in various fields; therefore, synthesis of BC composites has been conducted to address these limitations. A variety of BC composite synthetic strategies have been developed based on the nature and relevant applications of the combined materials. BC composites are primarily synthesized through in situ addition of reinforcement materials to BC synthetic media or the ex situ penetration of such materials into BC microfibrils. Polymer blending and solution mixing are less frequently used synthetic approaches. BC composites have been synthesized using numerous materials ranging from organic polymers to inorganic nanoparticles. In medical fields, these composites are used for tissue regeneration, healing of deep wounds, enzyme immobilization, and synthesis of medical devices that could replace cardiovascular and other connective tissues. Various electrical products, including biosensors, biocatalysts, E-papers, display devices, electrical instruments, and optoelectronic devices, are prepared from BC composites with conductive materials. In this review, we compiled various synthetic approaches for BC composite synthesis, classes of BC composites, and applications of BC composites. This study will increase interest in BC composites and the development of new ideas in this field. PMID:24053844

Shah, Nasrullah; Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Khattak, Waleed Ahmad; Park, Joong Kon

2013-11-01

371

Study of composites as substrate materials in large space telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nonmetallic composites such as the graphite/epoxy system were investigated as possible substrates for the primary mirror of the large space telescope. The possible use of fiber reinforced metal matrix composites was reviewed in the literature. Problems arising out of the use of composites as substrate materials such as grinding, polishing, adherence of reflective coatings, rigidity of substrate, hygrospcopici tendency of the composites, thermal and temporal stability and other related problems were examined.

Sharma, A. V.

1979-01-01

372

Corrosion inhibiting composition for treating asbestos containing materials  

DOEpatents

A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an acid component, optionally a source of fluoride ions, and a corrosion inhibiting amount of thiourea, a lower alkylthiourea, a C.sub.8 -C.sub.15 alkylpyridinium halide or mixtures thereof. A method of transforming an asbestos-containing building material, while part of a building structure, into a non-asbestos material by using the present composition also is disclosed.

Hartman, Judithann Ruth (Columbia, MD) [Columbia, MD

1998-04-21

373

Anisotropic thermal expansion in silicates: A density functional study of ?-eucryptite and related materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear response density functional calculations of the structures, phonon spectra, and thermal expansion have been performed for the hexagonal silicate ?-eucryptite [?-LiAlSiO4] and related materials, extending and refining earlier work using direct diagonalization of the dynamical matrix. The temperature (T) dependence of the lattice constants of ?-eucryptite agrees well with measurements, including the minimum in a(T) found at low T. Mg ions are predicted to occupy octahedral sites in Mg0.5SiAlO4, in agreement with neutron scattering data. We present calculations of the thermal expansion coefficients in ?-quartz that are free of adjustable parameters, and we extend the earlier work to calculate the thermal expansion coefficients of the low-T form of ?-eucryptite (84 atoms per unit cell).

Lichtenstein, A. I.; Jones, R. O.; de Gironcoli, S.; Baroni, S.

2000-11-01

374

Reflection and transmission for layered composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A layered planar structure consisting of different bianisotropic materials separated by jump-immittance sheets is considered. Reflection and transmission coefficients are determined via a chain-matrix algorithm. Applications are important for radomes and radar-absorbing materials.

Graglia, Roberto D.; Uslenghi, Piergiorgio L. E.

1991-01-01

375

Composite material application for liquid rocket engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With increasing emphasis on improving engine thrust-to-weight ratios to provide improved payload capabilities, weight reductions achievable by the use of composites have become attractive. Of primary significance is the weight reduction offered by composites, although high temperature properties and cost reduction were also considered. The potential for application of composites to components of Earth-to-orbit hydrocarbon engines and orbit-to-orbit LOX/H2 engines was assessed. The components most likely to benefit from the application of composites were identified, as were the critical technology areas where developed would be required. Recommendations were made and a program outlined for the design, fabrication, and demonstration of specific engine components.

Heubner, S. W.

1982-01-01

376

Antifouling Glass-Reinforced Composite Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various organometallic polyesters and epoxies were prepared by different synthetic methods. These novel plastics will be used to prepare antifouling glass-reinforced composites for marine structural applications such as use in seawater piping systems. An ...

J. A. Montemarano S. A. Cohen

1976-01-01

377

Stress Wave Propagation in Hybrid Composite Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dynamic response, in particular, the interlaminar shear stress, in three layer symmetrical hybrid composites is studied using the shear lag model. Theoretical solutions for four different types of loading are obtained. Numerical examples are given for...

Y. L. Li C. Ruiz J. Harding

1990-01-01

378

Wear resistance of composite materials. (Latest citations from Engineered Materials abstracts). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning wear resistance of composite materials. References discuss polymer, ceramic and metal composites. Tribological testing and failure analyses are included. (Contains a minimum of 200 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-09-01

379

Multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multilayer composite material and method for evaporative cooling of a person employs an evaporative cooling liquid that changes phase from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The evaporative cooling liquid is absorbed into a superabsorbent material enclosed within the multilayer composite material. The multilayer composite material has a high percentage of the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix. The cooling effect can be sustained for an extended period of time because of the high percentage of phase change liquid that can be absorbed into the superabsorbent. Such a composite can be used for cooling febrile patients by evaporative cooling as the evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix changes from a liquid to a gaseous state to absorb thermal energy. The composite can be made with a perforated barrier material around the outside to regulate the evaporation rate of the phase change liquid. Alternatively, the composite can be made with an imperveous barrier material or semipermeable membrane on one side to prevent the liquid from contacting the person's skin. The evaporative cooling liquid in the matrix can be recharged by soaking the material in the liquid. The multilayer composite material can be fashioned into blankets, garments and other articles.

Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

2002-01-01

380

Resin-based composite as a direct esthetic restorative material.  

PubMed

The search for an ideal esthetic material for tooth restoration has resulted in significant improvements in both materials and the techniques for using them. Various resin-based composite (RBC) materials have recently been introduced into the market that offer improved esthetic and physical properties. This article reviews RBCs, including their compositions, advantages, and disadvantages, that are contemporary to today's clinical practice as well as those that are under research consideration and/ or in clinical trial phase. PMID:21755892

Malhotra, Neeraj; Mala, Kundabala; Acharya, Shashirashmi

2011-06-01

381

Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program. Annual Status Report  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the first year of a program designed to develop life prediction and constitutive models for two coated single crystal alloys used in gas turbine airfoils. The two alloys are PWA 1480 and Alloy 185. The two oxidation resistant coatings are PWA 273, an aluminide coating, and PWA 286, an overlay NiCoCrAlY coating. To obtain constitutive and/or fatigue data, tests were conducted on coated and uncoated PWA 1480 specimens tensilely loaded in the 100, 110, 111, and 123 directions. A literature survey of constitutive models was completed for both single crystal alloys and metallic coating materials; candidate models were selected. One constitutive model under consideration for single crystal alloys applies Walker's micromechanical viscoplastic formulation to all slip systems participating in the single crystal deformation. The constitutive models for the overlay coating correlate the viscoplastic data well. For the aluminide coating, a unique test method is under development. LCF and TMF tests are underway. The two coatings caused a significant drop in fatigue life, and each produced a much different failure mechanism.

Swanson, G.A.; Linask, I.; Nissley, D.M.; Norris, P.P.; Meyer, T.G.; Walker, K.P.

1986-02-01

382

Life prediction and constitutive models for engine hot section anisotropic materials program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of the first year of a program designed to develop life prediction and constitutive models for two coated single crystal alloys used in gas turbine airfoils. The two alloys are PWA 1480 and Alloy 185. The two oxidation resistant coatings are PWA 273, an aluminide coating, and PWA 286, an overlay NiCoCrAlY coating. To obtain constitutive and/or fatigue data, tests were conducted on coated and uncoated PWA 1480 specimens tensilely loaded in the 100 , 110 , 111 , and 123 directions. A literature survey of constitutive models was completed for both single crystal alloys and metallic coating materials; candidate models were selected. One constitutive model under consideration for single crystal alloys applies Walker's micromechanical viscoplastic formulation to all slip systems participating in the single crystal deformation. The constitutive models for the overlay coating correlate the viscoplastic data well. For the aluminide coating, a unique test method is under development. LCF and TMF tests are underway. The two coatings caused a significant drop in fatigue life, and each produced a much different failure mechanism.

Swanson, G. A.; Linask, I.; Nissley, D. M.; Norris, P. P.; Meyer, T. G.; Walker, K. P.

1986-01-01

383

Flexible composite material with phase change thermal storage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A highly flexible composite material having a flexible matrix containing a phase change thermal storage material. The composite material can be made to heat or cool the body or to act as a thermal buffer to protect the wearer from changing environmental conditions. The composite may also include an external thermal insulation layer and/or an internal thermal control layer to regulate the rate of heat exchange between the composite and the skin of the wearer. Other embodiments of the PCM composite also provide 1) a path for evaporation or direct absorption of perspiration from the skin of the wearer for improved comfort and thermal control, 2) heat conductive pathways within the material for thermal equalization, 3) surface treatments for improved absorption or rejection of heat by the material, and 4) means for quickly regenerating the thermal storage capacity for reuse of the material. Applications of the composite materials are also described which take advantage of the composite's thermal characteristics. The examples described include a diver's wet suit, ski boot liners, thermal socks, ,gloves and a face mask for cold weather activities, and a metabolic heating or cooling blanket useful for treating hypothermia or fever patients in a medical setting and therapeutic heating or cooling orthopedic joint supports.

Buckley, Theresa M. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

384

Deformation and failure information from composite materials via acoustic emission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper reviews some principles of applying acoustic emission (AE) to the study of fiber-composite materials and structures. This review covers the basics of using AE to monitor the deformation and fracture processes that occur when fiber-composite materials are stressed. Also, new results in some areas of current research interest are presented. The following areas are emphasized: study of couplants for AE testing of composites, evaluation of a special immersion-type AE transducer, and wave propagation complications and the development of techniques for locating AE sources in Kevlar 49/epoxy composite pre

Hamstad, M. A.

1978-01-01

385

Glass flake reinforced composites as optical materials.  

PubMed

The optical properties of glass flake composites are investigated by measuring the transmission of collections of flakes in index matched oils over a wide temperature range. For large refractive index differences between glass and matrix, the transmission is periodic with temperature and is interpreted as Fresnel diffraction from a transparent edge. For small refractive index differences, the Rayleigh-Gans (RG) light scattering theory for thin circular disks is used to correlate the data. A model is developed for predicting the flake size and concentration necessary in a particular polymer matrix for the resulting composite to meet given temperature dependent haze requirements. PMID:20700346

Dunlap, P N

1991-05-01

386

Glass flake reinforced composites as optical materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical properties of glass flake composites are investigated by measuring the transmission of collections of flakes in index matched oils over a wide temperature range. For large refractive index differences between glass and matrix, the transmission is periodic with temperature and is interpreted as Fresnel diffraction from a transparent edge. For small refractive index differences, the Rayleigh-Gans (RG) light scattering theory for thin circular disks is used to correlate the data. A model is developed for predicting the flake size and concentration necessary in a particular polymer matrix for the resulting composite to meet given temperature dependent haze requirements.

Dunlap, Paul N.

1991-05-01

387

Material, process, and product design of thermoplastic composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermoplastic composites made of polypropylene (PP) and E-glass fibers were investigated experimentally as well as theoretically for two new classes of product designs. The first application was for reinforcement of wood. Commingled PP\\/glass yarn was consolidated and bonded on wood panel using a tie layer. The processing parameters, including temperature, pressure, heating time, cooling time, bonding strength, and bending strength

Heming Dai

2001-01-01

388

Cost of Automotive Polymer Composites: A Review and Assessment of DOE's Lightweight Materials Composites Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Polymer composite materials have been a part of the automotive industry for several decades but economic and technical barriers have constrained their use. To date, these materials have been used for applications with low production volumes because of the...

S. Das

2001-01-01

389

A Composite Material in the Al – B – C System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a study of a material prepared by impregnating boron carbide with aluminum are reported. A shortcoming of this composite material is that it tends to degrade (at a different rate depending on the conditions) into a powder. Introduction of boron and magnesium diboride enhances the material stability; however, specimens high in aluminum carbide are the most prone to

V. S. Neshpor; G. P. Zaitsev; S. V. Zhuravlev; A. A. Kitsai; M. A. Aizenberg; V. A. Pesin

2003-01-01

390

Left-handed materials in metallic magnetic granular composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is recently interests in the “left-handed” materials. In these materials the direction of the wave vector of electromagnetic radiation is opposite to the direction of the energy flow. We present simple arguments that suggests that magnetic composites can also be left-handed materials. However, the physics involved seems to be different from the original argument. In our argument, the imaginary

S. T. Chui; Z. F. Lin; L.-B. Hu

2003-01-01

391

Carbon Cryogel Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 10 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formald...

R. Baldwin W. Bennett

2010-01-01

392

Effect of particle size in composite materials on radiative properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A numerical model for the radiative properties of a composite material composed of ceramic oxide fibers and particles was developed and used to determine the effect of the size parameters of the two components. Results include the computed phase functions for the zirconia and silica composite materials, showing the location and strength of the strong forward-scattering peak. The phase function and the optical properties of the composite are strongly influenced by the particle size parameter through the fiber or particle diameter and the wavelength, the material, and the mixture fraction.

Lee, Siu-Chun; White, Susan; Grzesik, Jan

1993-01-01

393

Preparation of composite materials in space. Volume 2: Technical report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study to define promising materials, significant processing criteria, and the related processing techniques and apparatus for the preparation of composite materials in space was conducted. The study also established a program for zero gravity experiments and the required developmental efforts. The following composite types were considered: (1) metal-base fiber and particle composites, including cemented compacts, (2) controlled density metals, comprising plain and reinforced metal foams, and (3) unidirectionally solidified eutectic alloys. A program of suborbital and orbital experiments for the 1972 to 1978 time period was established to identify materials, processes, and required experiment equipment.

Steurer, W. H.; Kaye, S.

1973-01-01

394

Field-responsive smart composite particle suspension: materials and rheology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both electrorheological (ER) and magnetorheological (MR) fluids are known to be smart materials which can be rapidly and reversibly transformed from a fluid-like to a solid-like state within milliseconds by showing dramatic and tunable changes in their rheological properties under external electrical or magnetic field strength, respectively. Here, among various smart composite particles studied, recently developed core-shell structured polystyrene/graphene oxide composite based ER material as well as the dual-step functionally coated carbonyl iron composite based MR material are briefly reviewed along with their rheological characteristics under external fields.

Zhang, Wen Ling; Liu, Ying Dan; Choi, Hyoung Jin

2012-09-01

395

Advanced AE Techniques in Composite Materials Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced, waveform based acoustic emission (AE) techniques have been successfully used to evaluate damage mechanisms in laboratory testing of composite coupons. An example is presented in which the initiation of transverse matrix cracking was monitored. In these tests, broad band, high fidelity acoustic sensors were used to detect signals which were then digitized and stored for analysis. Analysis techniques were based on plate mode wave propagation characteristics. This approach, more recently referred to as Modal AE, provides an enhanced capability to discriminate and eliminate noise signals from those generated by damage mechanisms. This technique also allows much more precise source location than conventional, threshold crossing arrival time determination techniques. To apply Modal AE concepts to the interpretation of AE on larger composite specimens or structures, the effects of modal wave propagation over larger distances and through structural complexities must be well characterized and understood. To demonstrate these effects, measurements of the far field, peak amplitude attenuation of the extensional and flexural plate mode components of broad band simulated AE signals in large composite panels are discussed. These measurements demonstrated that the flexural mode attenuation is dominated by dispersion effects. Thus, it is significantly affected by the thickness of the composite plate. Furthermore, the flexural mode attenuation can be significantly larger than that of the extensional mode even though its peak amplitude consists of much lower frequency components.

Prosser, William H.

1996-01-01

396

The Thermal Properties of Composite Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thermal expansion behaviour of composites consisting of copper spheres in epoxy and glass ballotini in epoxy has been investigated from 77 K up to about 450 K using a capacitative technique. The effect of the size of the particles on the thermal expan...

H. M. Rosenberg

1978-01-01

397

Composite materials reinforced with polyoxymethylene whiskers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various composite samples reinforced with polyoxymethylene (POM) whisker crystals were prepared and their Young's moduli were measured and analysed, on a theoretical equation, to estimate the modulus of the filler itself. Good reinforcement was obtained with matrix resins such as an epoxide and an unsaturated polyester, the results giving the modulus of the whisker to be approximately 1×1011 N m-2,

M. Iguchi; T. Suehiro; Y. Watanabe; Y. Nishi; M. Uryu

1982-01-01

398

Fundamentals of Interfacial Strength in Composite Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current research period has emphasized 6061 and 7090 aluminum alloys as composite matrices, both with particulates SiC reinforcements. As in our previous work, we have found the fracture behavior to be sensitive to both process variables (in this case...

A. Voelkel A. W. Thompson I. M. Bernstein

1987-01-01

399

Composite materials: Fatigue and fracture (sixth volume)  

SciTech Connect

The symposium featured presentations covering metal matrix composites, fatigue, and damage progression, strength and residual properties, damage tolerance and fracture analysis, mode mixity and delamination, property characterization and environmental effects, and standardization and design. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume.

Armanios, E.A. [ed.

1997-12-31

400

Dynamics of Cracked Composite Material Structures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As a result of this work models of the finite beam and plate elements have been elaborated, to enable the analysis of the influence of the fatigue cracks and delaminations on the dynamic characteristics of the constructions made of unidirectional composit...

W. M. Ostachowicz M. Krawczuk A. Zak

1995-01-01

401

LIGNOCELLULOSIC-PLASTIC COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED MATERIALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Waste wood, waste paper, and waste plastics are major components of MSW and offer great opportunities as recycled ingredients in wood-fiber plastic composites. USEPA and the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) are collaborating on a research project to investigate the processin...

402

Comparison of self repair in various composite matrix materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a comparison of self repair in graphite composites (for airplane applications) versus epoxy and vinyl ester composites (for building structures or walls) 1 the type of damage that the fiber/matrix is prone to experience is a prime factor in determining which materials self repair well and 2 the flow of energy during damage determines what kinds of damage that can be self repaired well. 1) In brittle composites, repair was successful throughout the composite due to matrix cracking which allowed for optimum chemical flow, whereas in toughened composites that did not crack, the repair chemical flows into a few layers of the composite. 2) If the damage energy is stopped by the composite and goes laterally, it causes delamination which will be repaired; however if the damage energy goes through the composite as with a puncture, then there will be limited delamination, less chemical release and less self repair.

Dry, Carolyn

2014-04-01

403

Electrical Characterizations of Lightning Strike Protection Techniques for Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The growing application of composite materials in commercial aircraft manufacturing has significantly increased the risk of aircraft damage from lightning strikes. Composite aircraft designs require new mitigation strategies and engineering practices to maintain the same level of safety and protection as achieved by conductive aluminum skinned aircraft. Researchers working under the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project are investigating lightning damage on composite materials to support the development of new mitigation, diagnosis & prognosis techniques to overcome the increased challenges associated with lightning protection on composite aircraft. This paper provides an overview of the electrical characterizations being performed to support IVHM lightning damage diagnosis research on composite materials at the NASA Langley Research Center.

Szatkowski, George N.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Mielnik, John J.

2009-01-01

404

Additive Composition for Making Dental Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to a substitute for distilled water normally used in the fabrication or preparation of dental materials. The addition of ammonium stabilized colloidal silica, borax and boric acid to the distilled water in which dental porce...

C. P. Mabie

1976-01-01

405

Metal oxide composite dosimeter method and material  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a method of measuring a radiation dose wherein a radiation responsive material consisting essentially of metal oxide is first exposed to ionizing radiation. The metal oxide is then stimulating with light thereby causing the radiation responsive material to photoluminesce. Photons emitted from the metal oxide as a result of photoluminescence may be counted to provide a measure of the ionizing radiation.

Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

1998-01-01

406

Casting of superconducting composite materials (M-4)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aluminum-lead-bismuth alloy is a flexible alloy and is promising for easily workable embedded-type, filament-dispersed superconducting wire material. It is difficult to produce homogeneous ingots of this material because it is easily separated into elements when melted on Earth due to the large specific gravity differences. In this experiment, a homogeneous alloy will first be produced in molten state in microgravity. It will then be returned to Earth and processed into a wire or tape form. It will then be dispersed as the second phase in micro texture form into the primary phase of aluminum. Superconducting wire material with high-critical-magnetic-field characteristics will be produced. The texture of the material will be observed, and its performance will be evaluated. In addition to the above alloy, a four-element alloy will be produced from silver, a rare Earth element, barium, and copper. The alloys will be oxidized and drawn into wire after being returned to Earth. The materials are expected to be forerunners in obtaining superconducting wire materials from oxide superconductors.

Togano, Kazumasa

1993-01-01

407

Health Hazards of Combustion Products from Aircraft Composite Materials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Concerns about the potential health hazards of burning fiber-reinforced polymer composites in aircraft fires parallel the rising usage of these materials for commercial aircraft primary and secondary structures. An overview of the nature and the potential...

S. Gandhi R. E. Lyon

1998-01-01

408

Flight service environmental effects on composite materials and structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Langley and the U.S. Army have jointly sponsored programs to assess the effects of realistic flight environments and ground-based exposure on advanced composite materials and structures. Composite secondary structural components were initially installed on commercial transport aircraft in 1973; secondary and primary structural components were installed on commercial helicopters in 1979; and primary structural components were installed on commercial aircraft in the mid-to-late 1980's. Service performance, maintenance characteristics, and residual strength of numerous components are reported. In addition to data on flight components, 10 year ground exposure test results on material coupons are reported. Comparison between ground and flight environmental effects for several composite material systems are also presented. Test results indicate excellent in-service performance with the composite components during the 15 year period. Good correlation between ground-based material performance and operational structural performance has been achieved.

Dexter, H. Benson; Baker, Donald J.

1992-01-01

409

Transient Response of Laminated, Bimodular-Material, Composite Rectangular Plates.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Finite-element and closed-form solutions to the equations of motion governing layered composite plates of bimodular materials are presented for rectangular plates with all edges simply supported without in-plane restraint and tangential rotation and subje...

J. N. Reddy

1981-01-01

410

Properties of Composite Materials for Use in Expedient Paving Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Uniaxial flexure and tension tests and biaxial flexure tests were performed on two systems of fiberglass reinforced polyester (FRP) and also on a FRP-polyurethane foam composite to evaluate their suitability for possible use as expedient paving materials....

L. H. Irwin W. A. Dunlap

1974-01-01

411

Nondestructive testing of polymer composite materials using THz radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper shows an ability to find internal defects in construction of polymer composite material using THz imaging. Using THz vision system resulted in an example of finding internal non-impregnated area in fiberglass.

Yakovlev, Egor V.; Zaytsev, Kirill I.; Fokina, Irina N.; Karasik, Valeriy E.; Yurchenko, Stanislav O.

2014-03-01

412

Space radiation effects on composite matrix materials - Analytical approaches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In-vacuo ultraviolet and gamma radiation exposure tests are utilized in a study aimed at the identification of radiation damage mechanisms in composite materials, with the objective of predicting the long-term behavior of composite structures in a space environment at geosynchronous orbit. Physical and chemical methods of polymer characterization are utilized for the study of composite matrix degradation, in conjunction with GC/MS techniques for the analysis of volatile by-products.

Giori, C.

1979-01-01

413

A broadband magneto-electric transducer using a composite material  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the application of a composite material as a magneto-electric transducer. The composite, which has both magneto-strictive and piezo-electric properties was developed at Philips' Research Laboratories. A transducer consisting of a piece of composite appears to be a suitable replacement for e.g. Hall devices, especially in AC applications. It needs only two electrical contacts and has a

L. P. M. BRACKE; R. G. VAN VLIET

1981-01-01

414

Electromagnetic Properties of a New Ferrite-Ceramic Composite Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

NiCuZn ferrite-CaCu3Ti4O12 composite materials which possess both capacitive and inductive properties for suppressing electromagnetic interference (EMI) were synthesized by a solid-state reaction. As the CaCu3Ti4O12 content increases from 1 to 30 wt%, the epsiv' of the composites measured at 100 Hz increases from 35 to 12 000 while the mu' of the composites measured at 100 kHz decreases from 1800

Ying He; Huaiwu Zhang; Weiwei Ling; Chunhong Mu; Yuanxun Li; Jian Shen

2009-01-01

415

Semiempirical analysis of materials' elemental composition to formulate tissue-equivalent materials: a preliminary study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tissue-equivalent materials are used for simplifying quality control and quality assurance procedures, both in diagnostic and therapeutic radiology. Important information to formulate a tissue-equivalent material is elemental composition of its base materials. However, this information is not easily obtained. Therefore we propose a stoichiometric analysis method to investigate the elemental composition of the base materials that can potentially be used for manufacturing tissue-equivalent materials. In this technique, we combined the stoichiometric calibration and the basic data method to obtain the elemental composition of materials from measured computer tomography (CT) numbers. The elemental composition, with the maximum number of the elements of the material in question up to the available number of different tube voltages at the CT scanner, was analysed using the proposed approach. We tested eight different cylinders in this study. The estimated elemental compositions of unspecified materials in the cylinders were evaluated by comparing the calculated and the simulated CT numbers to the measured ones; the results showed good correlation with maximum absolute differences of 1.9 and 3.7 HU, respectively. The accuracy of the stoichiometric analysis method to estimate the elemental composition was influenced by the accuracy of the measured CT numbers. The method proposed allows for determining the elemental composition of the base materials which can then be applied further to formulate tissue-equivalent materials.

Yohannes, Indra; Kolditz, Daniel; Kalender, Willi A.

2011-05-01

416

Electrodeposition of composites: an expanding subject in electrochemical materials science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent literature on composite electrodeposition is reviewed, with special attention to new application fields which are being developed, besides the well-established coating preparation. It is shown how alternative matrix materials, like conducting polymers, oxides and salts, have been investigated in order to produce composites with properties appropriate to their use in electrocatalysis, fabrication of photoactive devices and energy storage.

Marco Musiani

2000-01-01

417

Iatrogenic tooth abrasion comparisons among composite materials and finishing techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statement of Problem. Many different rotary instruments are available for shaping composite restorations. Whether use of these instruments causes undesirable iatrogenic abrasion of either the tooth surface or the composite restorative material is unknown. Assuming that damage occurs, which technique is least damaging is unknown. Purpose. This in vitro study quantified the loss of surface enamel and dentin surrounding Class

Christina A. Mitchell; Maria R. Pintado; William H. Douglas

2002-01-01

418

Generating Finite-Element Models Of Composite Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Program starts at micromechanical level, from simple inputs supplied by user. COMGEN, COmposite Model GENerator, is interactive FORTRAN program used to create wide variety of finite-element models of continuous-fiber composite materials at micromechanical level. Quickly generates batch or "session files" to be submitted to finite-element preprocessor and postprocessor program, PATRAN. COMGEN requires PATRAN to complete model.

Melis, M. E.

1993-01-01

419

In situ Strain and Temperature Monitoring of Adaptive Composite Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical fiber sensor is designed to simultaneously measure strain and temperature in an adaptive composite material. The sensor is formed by splicing two fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) close to each other, which are written in optical fibers with different core dopants and concentrations. Their temperature sensitivities are hence different. The sensor is tested on an adaptive composite laminate made

Hyuk-Jin Yoon; Daniele Marco Costantini; Hans Georg Limberger; René Paul Salathé; Chun-Gon Kim; Veronique Michaud

2006-01-01

420

Joining and fabrication of metal-matrix composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Manufacturing technology associated with developing fabrication processes to incorporate metal-matrix composites into flight hardware is studied. The joining of composite to itself and to titanium by innovative brazing, diffusion bonding, and adhesive bonding is examined. The effects of the fabrication processes on the material properties and their influence on the design of YF-12 wing panels are discussed.

Royster, D. M.; Wiant, H. R.; Bales, T. T.

1975-01-01

421

Synthesis of aluminium nitride\\/boron nitride composite materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum nitride\\/boron nitride composite was synthesized by using boric acid, urea, and aluminum chloride (or aluminum lactate) as the starting compounds. The starting materials were dissolved in water and mixed homogeneously. Ammonolysis of this aqueous solution resulted in the formation of a precomposite gel, which converted into the aluminum nitride\\/boron nitride composite on further heat treatment. Characterization of both the

Tongsan D. Xiao; Kenneth E. Gonsalves; Peter R. Strutt

1993-01-01

422

Composite Materials for Hazard Mitigation of Reactive Metal Hydrides.  

SciTech Connect

In an attempt to mitigate the hazards associated with storing large quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. The composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride. Composites with vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were also polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. The composites were found to be initially effective at reducing the amount of heat released during oxidation. However, upon cycling the composites, the mitigating behavior was lost. While the polymer composites we investigated have mitigating potential and are physically robust, they undergo a chemical change upon cycling that makes them subsequently ineffective at mitigating heat release upon oxidation of the metal hydride. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the following people who participated in this project: Ned Stetson (U.S. Department of Energy) for sponsorship and support of the project. Ken Stewart (Sandia) for building the flow-through calorimeter and cycling test stations. Isidro Ruvalcaba, Jr. (Sandia) for qualitative experiments on the interaction of sodium alanate with water. Terry Johnson (Sandia) for sharing his expertise and knowledge of metal hydrides, and sodium alanate in particular. Marcina Moreno (Sandia) for programmatic assistance. John Khalil (United Technologies Research Corp) for insight into the hazards of reactive metal hydrides and real-world accident scenario experiments. Summary In an attempt to mitigate and/or manage hazards associated with storing bulk quantities of reactive metal hydrides, polymer composite materials (a mixture of a mitigating polymer and a metal hydride) were synthesized and tested under simulated usage and accident conditions. Mitigating the hazards associated with reactive metal hydrides during an accident while finding a way to keep the original capability of the active material intact during normal use has been the focus of this work. These composites were made by polymerizing vinyl monomers using free-radical polymerization chemistry, in the presence of the metal hydride, in this case a prepared sodium alanate (chosen as a representative reactive metal hydride). It was found that the polymerization of styrene and divinyl benzene could be initiated using AIBN in toluene at 70 degC. The resulting composite materials can be either hard or brittle solids depending on the cross-linking density. Thermal decomposition of these styrene-based composite materials is lower than neat polystyrene indicating that the chemical nature of the polymer is affected by the formation of the composite. The char-forming nature of cross-linked polystyrene is low and therefore, not an ideal polymer for hazard mitigation. To obtain composite materials containing a polymer with higher char-forming potential, siloxane-based monomers were investigated. Four vinyl-containing siloxane oligomers were polymerized with and without added styrene and divinyl benzene. Like the styrene materials, these composite materials exhibited thermal decomposition behavior significantly different than the neat polymers. Specifically, the thermal decomposition temperature was shifted approximately 100 degC lower than the neat polymer signifying a major chemical change to the polymer network. Thermal analysis of the cycled samples was performed on the siloxane-based composite materials. It was found that after 30 cycles the siloxane-containing polymer composite material has similar TGA/DSC-MS traces as the virgin composite material indicating that the polymer is physically intact upon cycling. Hydrogen capacity measurements revealed that addition of the polymer to the metal hydride in the form of a composite material reduced the inherent hydrogen storage capacity of the material. This

Pratt, Joseph William; Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Sartor, George B.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Reeder, Craig L.

2012-02-01

423

Ceramic matrix composites -- Advanced high-temperature structural materials  

SciTech Connect

This symposium on Ceramic Matrix Composites: Advanced High-Temperature Structural Materials was held at the 1994 MRS Fall Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts on November 28--December 2. The symposium was sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technology`s Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites Program, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and NASA Lewis Research Center. Among the competing materials for advanced, high-temperature applications, ceramic matrix composites are leading candidates. The symposium was organized such that papers concerning constituents--fibers and matrices--were presented first, followed by composite processing, modeling of mechanical behavior, and thermomechanical testing. More stable reinforcements are necessary to enhance the performance and life of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, and to ensure final acceptance of these materials for high-temperature applications. Encouraging results in the areas of polymer-derived SiC fibers and single crystal oxide filaments were given, suggesting composites with improved thermomechanical properties and stability will be realized in the near future. The significance of the fiber-matrix interface in the design and performance of these materials is evident. Numerous mechanical models to relate interface properties to composite behavior, and interpret test methods and data, were enthusiastically discussed. One issue of great concern for any advanced material for use in extreme environments is stability. This theme arose frequently throughout the symposium and was the topic of focus on the final day. Fifty nine papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

Lowden, R.A.; Ferber, M.K. [eds.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hellmann, J.R. [ed.] [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Center for Advanced Materials; Chawla, K.K. [ed.] [New Mexico Inst. of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); DiPietro, S.G. [ed.] [Textron Specialty Materials, Lowell, MA (United States)

1995-10-01

424

Glass-Containing Composite Materials. Alternative Reinforcement Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass-containing composites with interpenetrating, graded or layered microstructures as well as hybrid glass and glass-ceramic\\u000a matrix composites are discussed. Aspects of their fabrication, microstructural characterisation, properties and applications\\u000a are reviewed. These materials have advantages regarding ease of processing and\\/or special properties which can be achieved,\\u000a in comparison with conventional dispersion-reinforced and fibre-reinforced glasses and glass-ceramics. The use of these materials

Aldo R. Boccaccini

425

Resistance fail strain gage technology as applied to composite materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Existing strain gage technologies as applied to orthotropic composite materials are reviewed. The bonding procedures, transverse sensitivity effects, errors due to gage misalignment, and temperature compensation methods are addressed. Numerical examples are included where appropriate. It is shown that the orthotropic behavior of composites can result in experimental error which would not be expected based on practical experience with isotropic materials. In certain cases, the transverse sensitivity of strain gages and/or slight gage misalignment can result in strain measurement errors.

Tuttle, M. E.; Brinson, H. F.

1985-01-01

426

Ceramic matrix composites -- Advanced high-temperature structural materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This symposium on Ceramic Matrix Composites: Advanced High-Temperature Structural Materials was held at the 1994 MRS Fall Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts on November 28--December 2. The symposium was sponsored by the Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technology`s Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites Program, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, and NASA Lewis Research Center. Among the competing materials for

R. A. Lowden; M. K. Ferber; J. R. Hellmann; K. K. Chawla; S. G. DiPietro

1995-01-01

427

Damage detection in composite materials using Lamb wave methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cost-effective and reliable damage detection is critical for the utilization of composite materials. This paper presents part of an experimental and analytical survey of candidate methods for in situ damage detection of composite materials. Experimental results are presented for the application of Lamb wave techniques to quasi-isotropic graphite\\/epoxy test specimens containing representative damage modes, including delamination, transverse ply cracks and

Seth S. Kessler; S. Mark Spearing; Constantinos Soutis

2002-01-01

428

Composite Structures and Materials Research at NASA Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of recent composite structures and materials research at NASA Langley Research Center is presented. Fabrication research to develop low-cost automated robotic fabrication procedures for thermosetting and thermoplastic composite materials, and low-cost liquid molding processes for preformed textile materials is described. Robotic fabrication procedures discussed include ply-by-ply, cure-on-the-fly heated placement head and out-of-autoclave electron-beam cure methods for tow and tape thermosetting and thermoplastic materials. Liquid molding fabrication processes described include Resin Film Infusion (RFI), Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM). Results for a full-scale composite wing box are summarized to identify the performance of materials and structures fabricated with these low-cost fabrication methods.

Starnes, James H., Jr.; Dexter, H. Benson; Johnston, Norman J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Cano, roberto J.

2003-01-01

429

Composite Structures and Materials Research at NASA Langley Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of recent composite structures and materials research at NASA Langley Research Center is presented. Fabrication research to develop low-cost automated robotic fabrication procedures for thermosetting and thermoplastic composite materials, and low-cost liquid molding processes for preformed textile materials is described. Robotic fabrication procedures discussed include ply-by-ply, cure-on-the-fly heated placement head and out-of-autoclave electron-beam cure methods for tow and tape thermosetting and thermoplastic materials. Liquid molding fabrication processes described include Resin Film Infusion (RFI) Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM). Results for a full-scale composite wing box are summarized to identify the performance of materials and structures fabricated with these low-cost fabrication methods.

Starnes, James H., Jr.; Dexter, H. Benson; Johnston, Norman J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Cano, Roberto J.

2001-01-01

430

Light weight polymer matrix composite material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix is layed up, cured, and thermally aged at about 750 F in the presence of an inert gas. The heat treatment improves the structural integrity and alters the electrical conductivity of the materials. In the preferred embodiment PMR-15 polyimides and Celion-6000 graphite fibers are used.

Bowles, Kenneth J. (inventor); Lowell, Carl E. (inventor)

1988-01-01

431

Light weight polymer matrix composite material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A graphite fiber reinforced polymer matrix is layed up, cured, and thermally aged at about 750.degree. F. in the presence of an inert gas. The heat treatment improves the structural integrity and alters the electrical conductivity of the materials. In the preferred embodiment PMR-15 polyimides and Celion-6000 graphite fibers are used.

Bowles, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Lowell, Carl E. (Inventor)

1991-01-01

432

Composition and process for making an insulating refractory material  

DOEpatents

A composition and process for making an insulating refractory material. The composition includes calcined alumina powder, flash activated alumina powder, an organic polymeric binder and a liquid vehicle which is preferably water. Starch or modified starch may also be added. A preferred insulating refractory material made with the composition has a density of about 2.4-2.6 g/cm.sup.3 with reduced thermal conductivity, compared with tabular alumina. Of importance, the formulation has good abrasion resistance and crush strength during intermediate processing (commercial sintering) to attain full strength and refractoriness, good abrasion resistance and crush strength.

Pearson, Alan (Murrysville, PA); Swansiger, Thomas G. (Apollo, PA)

1998-04-28

433

Advanced composites: Environmental effects on selected resin matrix materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects that expected space flight environment has upon the mechanical properties of epoxy and polyimide matrix composites were analyzed. Environmental phenomena covered water immersion, high temperature aging, humidity, lightning strike, galvanic action, electromagnetic interference, thermal shock, rain and sand erosion, and thermal/vacuum outgassing. The technology state-of-the-art for graphite and boron reinforced epoxy and polyimide matrix materials is summarized to determine the relative merit of using composites in the space shuttle program. Resin matrix composites generally are affected to some degree by natural environmental phenomena with polyimide resin matrix materials less affected than epoxies.

Welhart, E. K.

1976-01-01

434

Composition and process for making an insulating refractory material  

DOEpatents

A composition and process are disclosed for making an insulating refractory material. The composition includes calcined alumina powder, flash activated alumina powder, an organic polymeric binder and a liquid vehicle which is preferably water. Starch or modified starch may also be added. A preferred insulating refractory material made with the composition has a density of about 2.4--2.6 g/cm{sup 3} with reduced thermal conductivity, compared with tabular alumina. Of importance, the formulation has good abrasion resistance and crush strength during intermediate processing (commercial sintering) to attain full strength and refractoriness.

Pearson, A.; Swansiger, T.G.

1998-04-28

435

Application of thermosonics NDT in the detection of composite materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composite materials have been applied widely in a lot of fields because of their excellent performance. And the composite materials may have some defects and be damaged in the process of manufacturing and usage, which will result in the performance degradation of the composite structure and even a failure. Thus, it is necessary to detect the defects of the composite materials. This paper introduced the thermosonics nondestructive testing technology, described the fundamental principle of the technology, and gave some experimental results of two kinds of composite materials. One of the two materials is carbon fiber foam sandwich composite material which has six pre-embedded debonding defects, and the other one is carbon fiber laminated board with the impact damage caused by collisions with different energies. And the testing results of the two materials by thermosonics are satisfactory. However, at present, the usual thermal wave imaging nondestructive testing technique for detecting composite materials is based on flash pulse excitation. In this paper, the carbon fiber laminated board was also detected by the pulsed method. And this paper further compared these two kinds of thermal wave imaging nondestructive testing techniques and the corresponding results with different excitation ways. Some differences could be found between these two methods by analyzing the results obtained by different excitation ways. Furthermore, based on the differences and the other factors such as the principles and devices of these two methods, we could summarize and know that these two methods have their respective advantages and disadvantages and could be applied to different situations. In the actual testing process, which method will be selected to detect the defects depends on the specific demands of the experiment and the characteristics of these two methods. And these two methods can also be used together to detect defects for a comprehensive and effective result.

Li, Yue; Zeng, Zhi; Chen, Dapeng; Xing, Chungfei; Tao, Ning; Zhang, Cunlin

2010-05-01

436

Multilayer Electroactive Polymer Composite Material Comprising Carbon Nanotubes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electroactive material comprises multiple layers of electroactive composite with each layer having unique dielectric, electrical and mechanical properties that define an electromechanical operation thereof when affected by an external stimulus. For example, each layer can be (i) a 2-phase composite made from a polymer with polarizable moieties and an effective amount of carbon nanotubes incorporated in the polymer for a predetermined electromechanical operation, or (ii) a 3-phase composite having the elements of the 2-phase composite and further including a third component of micro-sized to nano-sized particles of an electroactive ceramic incorporated in the polymer matrix.

Ounaies, Zoubeida (Inventor); Park, Cheol (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor); Holloway, Nancy M. (Inventor); Draughon, Gregory K. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

437

Understanding the anisotropic initiation sensitivity of shocked pentaerythritol tetranitrate single crystals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shock initiation experiments of single crystals of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) have revealed that they show anisotropic sensitivity to mechanical impact. An ignition and growth model is developed based on the empirical observations of these impact studies. Because this model is independent of the direction of compression, the anisotropic material response of single crystals has not been addressed. Here, we present a complete description of the anisotropic ignition and growth of PETN and provide quantitative validations using the experimental data. The model is appropriate for use in single crystal studies of explosive initiation, or in grain scale simulations of composites.

Kim, Ki-Hong; Fried, Laurence E.; Yoh, Jack J.

2013-09-01

438

Acoustic emission from composite materials. [nondestructive tests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two basic areas where the acoustic emission (AE) technique can be applied are materials research and the evaluation of structural reliability. This experimental method leads to a better understanding of fracture mechanisms and is an NDT technique particularly well suited for the study of propagating cracks. Experiments are described in which acoustic emissions were unambiguously correlated with microstructural fracture mechanisms. The advantages and limitations of the AE technique are noted.

Visconti, I. C.; Teti, R.

1979-01-01

439

Accelerated hygrothermal stabilization of composite materials  

SciTech Connect

Experimentation validated a simple moisture conditioning scheme to prepare Gr/Ep composite parts for precision applications by measuring dimensional changes over 90 days. It was shown that an elevated temperature moisture conditioning scheme produced a dimensionally stable part from which precision structures could be built/machined without significant moisture induced dimensional changes after fabrication. Conversely, that unconditioned Gr/Ep composite panels exhibited unacceptably large dimensional changes (i.e., greater than 125 ppM). It was also shown that time required to produce stable parts was shorter, by more than an order of magnitude, employing the conditioning scheme than using no conditioning scheme (46 days versus 1000+ days). Two final use environments were chosen for the experiments: 50% RH/21C and 0% RH/21C. Fiberite 3034K was chosen for its widespread use in aerospace applications. Two typical lay-ups were chosen, one with low sensitivity to hygrothermal distortions and the other high sensitivity: [0, {plus_minus} 45, 90]s, [0, {plus_minus} 15, 0]s. By employing an elevated temperature, constant humidity conditioning scheme, test panels achieved an equilibrium moisture content in less time, by more than an order of magnitude, than panels exposed to the same humidity environment and ambient temperature. Dimensional changes, over 90 days, were up to 4 times lower in the conditioned panels compared to unconditioned panels. Analysis of weight change versus time of test coupons concluded that the out-of-autoclave moisture content of Fiberite 3034K varied between 0.06 and 0.1%.

Gale, J.A.

1994-05-01

440

Cell Attachment to Hydrogel-Electrospun Fiber Mat Composite Materials  

PubMed Central

Hydrogels, electrospun fiber mats (EFMs), and their composites have been extensively studied for tissue engineering because of their physical and chemical similarity to native biological systems. However, while chemically similar, hydrogels and electrospun fiber mats display very different topographical features. Here, we examine the influence of surface topography and composition of hydrogels, EFMs, and hydrogel-EFM composites on cell behavior. Materials studied were composed of synthetic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(?-caprolactone) (PEGPCL) hydrogels and electrospun poly(caprolactone) (PCL) and core/shell PCL/PEGPCL constituent materials. The number of adherent cells and cell circularity were most strongly influenced by the fibrous nature of materials (e.g., topography), whereas cell spreading was more strongly influenced by material composition (e.g., chemistry). These results suggest that cell attachment and proliferation to hydrogel-EFM composites can be tuned by varying these properties to provide important insights for the future design of such composite materials.

Han, Ning; Johnson, Jed K.; Bradley, Patrick A.; Parikh, Kunal S.; Lannutti, John J.; Winter, Jessica O.

2012-01-01

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