Dynamics of Anisotropic Universes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perez, Jérôme
2006-11-01
We present a general study of the dynamical properties of Anisotropic Bianchi Universes in the context of Einstein General Relativity. Integrability results using Kovalevskaya exponents are reported and connected to general knowledge about Bianchi dynamics. Finally, dynamics toward singularity in Bianchi type VIII and IX universes are showed to be equivalent in some precise sence.
Vortex dynamics in anisotropic traps
McEndoo, S.; Busch, Th.
2010-07-15
We investigate the dynamics of linear vortex lattices in anisotropic traps in two dimensions and show that the interplay between the rotation and the anisotropy leads to a rich but highly regular dynamics.
Lakowicz, J R; Cherek, H; Gryczynski, I; Joshi, N; Johnson, M L
1987-01-01
Enhanced resolution of rapid and complex anisotropy decays was obtained by measurement and analysis of data from progressively quenched samples. Collisional quenching by acrylamide was used to vary the mean decay time of indole or of the tryptophan fluorescence from melittin. Anisotropy decays were obtained from the frequency-response of the polarized emission at frequencies from 4 to 2,000 MHz. Quenching increases the fraction of the total emission, which occurs on the subnanosecond timescale, and thereby provides increased information on picosecond rotational motions or local motions in proteins. For monoexponential subnanosecond anisotropy decays, enhanced resolution is obtained by measurement of the most highly quenched samples. For complex anisotropy decays, such as those due to both local motions and overall protein rotational diffusion, superior resolution is obtained by simultaneous analysis of data from quenched and unquenched samples. We demonstrate that measurement of quenched samples greatly reduces the uncertainty of the 50-ps correlation time of indole in water at 20 degrees C, and allows resolution of the anisotropic rotation of indole with correlation times of 140 and 720 ps. The method was applied to melittin in the monomeric and tetrameric forms. With increased quenching, the anisotropy data showed decreasing contributions from overall protein rotation and increased contribution from picosecond tryptophan motions. The tryptophan residues in both the monomeric and the tetrameric forms of melittin displayed substantial local motions with correlation times near 0.16 and 0.06 ns, respectively. The amplitude of the local motion is twofold less in the tetramer. These highly resolved anisotropy decays should be valuable for comparison with molecular dynamics simulations of melittin. PMID:3593873
Dynamical analysis of anisotropic inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karčiauskas, Mindaugas
2016-06-01
The inflaton coupling to a vector field via the f(φ)2F μνFμν term is used in several contexts in the literature, such as to generate primordial magnetic fields, to produce statistically anisotropic curvature perturbation, to support anisotropic inflation, and to circumvent the η-problem. In this work, I perform dynamical analysis of this system allowing for the most general Bianchi I initial conditions. I also confirm the stability of attractor fixed points along phase-space directions that had not been investigated before.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neirotti, Juan
2016-07-01
We consider the process of opinion formation in a society of interacting agents, where there is a set B of socially accepted rules. In this scenario, we observed that agents, represented by simple feed-forward, adaptive neural networks, may have a conservative attitude (mostly in agreement with B ) or liberal attitude (mostly in agreement with neighboring agents) depending on how much their opinions are influenced by their peers. The topology of the network representing the interaction of the society's members is determined by a graph, where the agents' properties are defined over the vertexes and the interagent interactions are defined over the bonds. The adaptability of the agents allows us to model the formation of opinions as an online learning process, where agents learn continuously as new information becomes available to the whole society (online learning). Through the application of statistical mechanics techniques we deduced a set of differential equations describing the dynamics of the system. We observed that by slowly varying the average peer influence in such a way that the agents attitude changes from conservative to liberal and back, the average social opinion develops a hysteresis cycle. Such hysteretic behavior disappears when the variance of the social influence distribution is large enough. In all the cases studied, the change from conservative to liberal behavior is characterized by the emergence of conservative clusters, i.e., a closed knitted set of society members that follow a leader who agrees with the social status quo when the rule B is challenged.
Neirotti, Juan
2016-07-01
We consider the process of opinion formation in a society of interacting agents, where there is a set B of socially accepted rules. In this scenario, we observed that agents, represented by simple feed-forward, adaptive neural networks, may have a conservative attitude (mostly in agreement with B) or liberal attitude (mostly in agreement with neighboring agents) depending on how much their opinions are influenced by their peers. The topology of the network representing the interaction of the society's members is determined by a graph, where the agents' properties are defined over the vertexes and the interagent interactions are defined over the bonds. The adaptability of the agents allows us to model the formation of opinions as an online learning process, where agents learn continuously as new information becomes available to the whole society (online learning). Through the application of statistical mechanics techniques we deduced a set of differential equations describing the dynamics of the system. We observed that by slowly varying the average peer influence in such a way that the agents attitude changes from conservative to liberal and back, the average social opinion develops a hysteresis cycle. Such hysteretic behavior disappears when the variance of the social influence distribution is large enough. In all the cases studied, the change from conservative to liberal behavior is characterized by the emergence of conservative clusters, i.e., a closed knitted set of society members that follow a leader who agrees with the social status quo when the rule B is challenged. PMID:27575150
Dislocation dynamics in an anisotropic stripe pattern.
Kamaga, Carina; Ibrahim, Fatima; Dennin, Michael
2004-06-01
The dynamics of dislocations confined to grain boundaries in a striped system are studied using electroconvection in the nematic liquid crystal N4. In electroconvection, a striped pattern of convection rolls forms for sufficiently high driving voltages. We consider the case of a rapid change in the voltage that takes the system from a uniform state to a state consisting of striped domains with two different wave vectors. The domains are separated by domain walls along one axis and a grain boundary of dislocations in the perpendicular direction. The pattern evolves through dislocation motion parallel to the domain walls. We report on features of the dislocation dynamics. The kinetics of the domain motion is quantified using three measures: dislocation density, average domain wall length, and total domain wall length per area. All three quantities exhibit behavior consistent with power-law evolution in time, with the defect density decaying as t(-1/3), the average domain wall length growing as t(1/3), and the total domain wall length decaying as t(-1/5). The two different exponents are indicative of the anisotropic growth of domains in the system. PMID:15244714
Effects of anisotropic dynamics on cosmic strings
Kunze, Kerstin E.
2011-08-01
The dynamics of cosmic strings is considered in anisotropic backgrounds. In particular, the behaviour of infinitely long straight cosmic strings and of cosmic string loops is determined. Small perturbations of a straight cosmic string are calculated. The relevance of these results is discussed with respect to the possible observational imprints of an anisotropic phase on the behaviour of a cosmic string network.
Mean flow and anisotropic cascades in decaying 2D turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chien-Chia; Cerbus, Rory; Gioia, Gustavo; Chakraborty, Pinaki
2015-11-01
Many large-scale atmospheric and oceanic flows are decaying 2D turbulent flows embedded in a non-uniform mean flow. Despite its importance for large-scale weather systems, the affect of non-uniform mean flows on decaying 2D turbulence remains unknown. In the absence of mean flow it is well known that decaying 2D turbulent flows exhibit the enstrophy cascade. More generally, for any 2D turbulent flow, all computational, experimental and field data amassed to date indicate that the spectrum of longitudinal and transverse velocity fluctuations correspond to the same cascade, signifying isotropy of cascades. Here we report experiments on decaying 2D turbulence in soap films with a non-uniform mean flow. We find that the flow transitions from the usual isotropic enstrophy cascade to a series of unusual and, to our knowledge, never before observed or predicted, anisotropic cascades where the longitudinal and transverse spectra are mutually independent. We discuss implications of our results for decaying geophysical turbulence.
2016-01-01
The fractional cell kill is a mathematical expression describing the rate at which a certain population of cells is reduced to a fraction of itself. We investigate the mathematical function that governs the rate at which a solid tumor is lysed by a cell population of cytotoxic lymphocytes. We do it in the context of enzyme kinetics, using geometrical and analytical arguments. We derive the equations governing the decay of a tumor in the limit in which it is plainly surrounded by immune cells. A cellular automaton is used to test such decay, confirming its validity. Finally, we introduce a modification in the fractional cell kill so that the expected dynamics is attained in the mentioned limit. We also discuss the potential of this new function for non-solid and solid tumors which are infiltrated with lymphocytes. PMID:27310010
Coarsening dynamics in elastically anisotropic alloys
Pfau, B.; Stadler, L.-M.; Sepiol, B.; Vogl, G.; Weinkamer, R.; Kantelhardt, J. W.; Zontone, F.
2006-05-01
We study in situ the coarsening dynamics in elastically anisotropic phase-separating alloys, taking advantage of coherent x rays. Temporally fluctuating speckle intensities are analyzed for two different Ni-Al-Mo samples with different lattice misfits between precipitates and matrix. The detected long-term correlations depend not only on the norm but strongly on the direction of the scattering vector--an unambiguous proof of direction-dependent coarsening dynamics. For strong lattice misfits, our results indicate coalescence of precipitates in the {l_brace}100{r_brace} planes.
Dynamic wetting on anisotropic patterned surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Do-Quang, Minh; Wang, Jiayu; Nita, Satoshi; Shiomi, Junichiro; Amberg, Gustav; Physiochemical fluid mechanics Team; Maruyama-Chiashi Laboratory Team
2014-11-01
Dynamic wetting, as occurs when a droplet of a wetting liquid is brought in contact with a dry solid, is important in various engineering processes, such as printing, coating, and lubrication. Our overall aim is to investigate if and how the detailed properties of the solid surface influence the dynamics of wetting. We have recently quantified the hindering effect of fairly isotropic micron-sized patterns on the substrate. Here we will study highly anisotropic surfaces, such as parallel grooves, either perpendicular or parallel to an advancing contact line. This is done by detailed phase field simulations and experiments on structured silicon surfaces. The dynamic wetting behavior of drops on the grooved surfaces is governed by the combined interplay of the wetting line friction and the internal viscous dissipation. Influence of roughness is quantified in terms of the energy dissipation rate at the contact line using the experiment-simulation combined analysis. The energy dissipation of the contact line at the different part of the groove will be discussed. The performance of the model is assessed by comparing its predictions with the experimental data. This work was financially supported in part by, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (J.W., S.N., and J.S) and Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (M.D.-Q. and G.A).
Polarization dynamics in nonlinear anisotropic fibers
Komarov, Andrey; Komarov, Konstantin; Meshcheriakov, Dmitry; Amrani, Foued; Sanchez, Francois
2010-07-15
We give an extensive study of polarization dynamics in anisotropic fibers exhibiting a third-order index nonlinearity. The study is performed in the framework of the Stokes parameters with the help of the Poincare sphere. Stationary states are determined, and their stability is investigated. The number of fixed points and their stability depend on the respective magnitude of the linear and nonlinear birefringence. A conservation relation analogous to the energy conservation in mechanics allows evidencing a close analogy between the movement of the polarization in the Poincare sphere and the motion of a particle in a potential well. Two distinct potentials are found, leading to the existence of two families of solutions, according to the sign of the total energy of the equivalent mechanical system. The mechanical analogy allows us to fully characterize the solutions and also to determine analytically the associated beat lengths. General analytical solutions are given for the two families in terms of Jacobi's functions. The intensity-dependent transmission of a fiber placed between two crossed polarizers is calculated. Optimal conditions for efficient nonlinear switching compatible with mode-locking applications are determined. The general case of a nonlinear fiber ring with an intracavity polarizer placed between two polarization controllers is also considered.
Finite-Temperature Entanglement Dynamics in an Anisotropic Two-Qubit Heisenberg Spin Chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Tao; Shan, Chuanjia; Li, Jinxing; Liu, Tangkun; Huang, Yanxia; Li, Hong
2010-07-01
This paper investigates the entanglement dynamics of an anisotropic two-qubit Heisenberg spin chain in the presence of decoherence at finite temperature. The time evolution of the concurrence is studied for different initial Werner states. The influences of initial purity, finite temperature, spontaneous decay and Hamiltonian on the entanglement evolution are analyzed in detail. Our calculations show that the finite temperature restricts the evolution of the entanglement all the time when the Hamiltonian improves it and the spontaneous decay to the reservoirs can produce quantum entanglement with the anisotropy of spin-spin interaction. Finally, the steady-state concurrence which may remain non-zero for low temperature is also given.
Nonlinear dynamic analysis of quasi-symmetric anisotropic structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.
1987-01-01
An efficient computational method for the nonlinear dynamic analysis of quasi-symmetric anisotropic structures is proposed. The application of mixed models simplifies the analytical development and improves the accuracy of the response predictions, and operator splitting allows the reduction of the analysis model of the quasi-symmetric structure to that of the corresponding symmetric structure. The preconditoned conjugate gradient provides a stable and effective technique for generating the unsymmetric response of the structure as the sum of a symmetrized response plus correction modes. The effectiveness of the strategy is demonstrated with the example of a laminated anisotropic shallow shell of quadrilateral planform subjected to uniform normal loading.
Colloidal aggregation and dynamics in anisotropic fluids
Mondiot, Frédéric; Botet, Robert; Snabre, Patrick; Mondain-Monval, Olivier; Loudet, Jean-Christophe
2014-01-01
We present experiments and numerical simulations to investigate the collective behavior of submicrometer-sized particles immersed in a nematic micellar solution. We use latex spheres with diameters ranging from 190 to 780 nm and study their aggregation properties due to the interplay of the various colloidal forces at work in the system. We found that the morphology of aggregates strongly depends on the particle size, with evidence for two distinct regimes: the biggest inclusions clump together within minutes into either compact clusters or V-like structures that are completely consistent with attractive elastic interactions. On the contrary, the smallest particles form chains elongated along the nematic axis, within comparable timescales. In this regime, Monte Carlo simulations, based on a modified diffusion-limited cluster aggregation model, strongly suggest that the anisotropic rotational Brownian motion of the clusters combined with short-range depletion interactions dominate the system coarsening; elastic interactions no longer prevail. The simulations reproduce the sharp transition between the two regimes on increasing the particle size. We provide reasonable estimates to interpret our data and propose a likely scenario for colloidal aggregation. These results emphasize the growing importance of the diffusion of species at suboptical-wavelength scales and raise a number of fundamental issues. PMID:24715727
Collective dynamics in dispersions of anisotropic and deformable particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saintillan, David
The modeling of complex fluids, such as particulate suspensions, emulsions and polymer solutions, is a great challenge owing to the slow decay of hydrodynamic disturbances at low Reynolds numbers, which lead to long-ranged interactions between suspended particles. In this work, we use theory and numerical simulations to address a few problems in which hydrodynamic interactions result in collective dynamics, with emphasis on the effects of particle shape and deformability. We first address the behavior of suspensions of anisotropic particles such as rigid fibers, and deformable particles such as viscous droplets, under sedimentation. Hydrodynamic interactions in these systems result in a concentration instability by which the particles aggregate into dense clusters surrounded by clarified fluid. Using newly developed efficient algorithms, we perform large-scale simulations of such suspensions with the aim of elucidating the instability mechanism. The salient features of the instability are adequately captured, and simulations in finite containers exhibit a wavenumber selection. Using a linear, stability analysis we demonstrate that the size of the concentration fluctuations is controlled by the stratification that is observed to form during the sedimentation process. We then investigate the dynamics in suspensions of uncharged polarizable rigid rods placed in an electric field. The polarization of a rod results in the formation of a dipolar charge cloud around its surface, leading to a non-linear electrokinetic phenomenon termed induced-charge electrophoresis, which causes particle alignment and creates a disturbance flow. We derive a simple slender-body formulation for this effect valid for high-aspect-ratio particles, and use it to study hydrodynamic interactions in these systems. Using both theory and numerical simulations we show that experimentally observed particle pairings can be explained based on these interactions. Finally, we apply Brownian dynamics to
Proton decay and nuclear dynamics
Alvioli, M.; Strikman, M.; Benhar, O.; Ericson, M.
2010-04-15
The kinematics of the decay of a bound proton is governed by the proton spectral function. We evaluate this quantity in {sup 16}O using the information from nuclear physics experiments. It also includes a correlated part. The reliability of this evaluation is sufficient to open the possibility of correlated cuts in the missing mass and momentum variables to identify the decay events from the bound protons with a possible increase of the signal-to-noise ratio.
Derivation of anisotropic dissipative fluid dynamics from the Boltzmann equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molnár, Etele; Niemi, Harri; Rischke, Dirk H.
2016-06-01
Fluid-dynamical equations of motion can be derived from the Boltzmann equation in terms of an expansion around a single-particle distribution function which is in local thermodynamical equilibrium, i.e., isotropic in momentum space in the rest frame of a fluid element. However, in situations where the single-particle distribution function is highly anisotropic in momentum space, such as the initial stage of heavy-ion collisions at relativistic energies, such an expansion is bound to break down. Nevertheless, one can still derive a fluid-dynamical theory, called anisotropic dissipative fluid dynamics, in terms of an expansion around a single-particle distribution function, f^0 k, which incorporates (at least parts of) the momentum anisotropy via a suitable parametrization. We construct such an expansion in terms of polynomials in energy and momentum in the direction of the anisotropy and of irreducible tensors in the two-dimensional momentum subspace orthogonal to both the fluid velocity and the direction of the anisotropy. From the Boltzmann equation we then derive the set of equations of motion for the irreducible moments of the deviation of the single-particle distribution function from f^0 k. Truncating this set via the 14-moment approximation, we obtain the equations of motion of anisotropic dissipative fluid dynamics.
Dynamics and Control of Articulated Anisotropic Timoshenko Beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakrishnan, A. V.
1996-01-01
The paper illustrates the use of continuum models in control design for stabilizing flexible structures. A 6-DOF anisotropic Timoshenko beam with discrete nodes where lumped masses or actuators are located provides a sufficiently rich model to be of interest for mathematical theory as well as practical application. We develop concepts and tools to help answer engineering questions without having to resort to ad hoc heuristic ("physical") arguments or faith. In this sense the paper is more mathematically oriented than engineering papers and vice versa at the same time. For instance we make precise time-domain solutions using the theory of semigroups of operators rather than formal "inverse Laplace transforms." We show that the modes arise as eigenvalues of the generator of the semigroup, which are then related to the eigenvalues of the stiffness operator. With the feedback control, the modes are no longer orthogonal and the question naturally arises as to whether there is still a modal expansion. Here we prove that the eigenfunctions yield a biorthogonal Riesz basis and indicate the corresponding expansion. We prove mathematically that the number of eigenvalues is nonfinite, based on the theory of zeros of entire functions. We make precise the notion of asymptotic modes and indicate how to calculate them. Although limited by space, we do consider the root locus problem and show for instance that the damping at first increases as the control gain increases but starts to decrease at a critical value, and goes to zero as the gain increases without bound. The undamped oscillatory modes remain oscillatory and the rigid-body modes go over into deadbeat modes. The Timoshenko model dynamics are translated into a canonical wave equation in a Hilbert space. The solution is shown to require the use of an "energy" norm which is no more than the total energy: potential plus kinetic. We show that, under an appropriate extension of the notion of controllability, rate feedback with
Anisotropic dynamics in a shaken granular dimer gas experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atwell, J.; Olafsen, J. S.
2005-06-01
The dynamics, velocity fluctuations, and particle-plate interactions for a two-dimensional granular gas of shaken, nonspherical particles are studied experimentally. The experiment consists of a horizontal plate that is vertically oscillated to drive the dynamics of macroscopic dimers, spherical pairs that are loosely connected by a rod that couple the interaction each of the spheres has with the shaking plate. The extended nature of the particles results in more than one energy-momentum transfer between the plate and each dimer per shaking cycle. This complex interaction results in anisotropic behavior for the dimer that is a function of the shaking parameters.
Critical dynamics of anisotropic Bak-Sneppen model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tirnakli, Ugur; Lyra, Marcelo L.
2004-10-01
A new damage spreading algorithm, which was introduced very recently in (Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 14 (2003) 85) has been applied to anisotropic Bak-Sneppen model of biological evolution. Since this new algorithm is able to capture both the short-time and long-time dynamics of extended systems which exhibits self-organized criticality, this analysis is expected to shed further light to the recent claim that the dynamics of such systems is similar to the one observed at the usual critical point of continuous phase-transitions and at the chaos threshold of low-dimensional dissipative maps.
Anisotropic mechanical properties of graphene: a molecular dynamics study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Ming; Zeng, Anna; Zeng, Kevin
2014-03-01
The anisotropic mechanical properties of monolayer graphene with different shapes have been studied using an efficient quantum mechanics molecular dynamics scheme based on a semi-empirical Hamiltonian (refereed as SCED-LCAO) [PRB 74, 15540; PHYSE 42, 1]. We have found the anisotropic nature of the membrane stress. The stresses along the armchair direction are slightly stronger than that along the zigzag direction, showing strong direction selectivity. The graphene with the rectangular shape could sustain strong load (i . e ., 20%) in both armchair and zigzag directions. The graphene with the rhombus shape show large difference in the strain direction: it will quickly crack after 18 % of strain in armchair the direction, but slowly destroyed after 20% in the zigzag direction. The obtained 2D Young's modulus at infinitesimal strain and the third-order (effective nonlinear) elastic modulus are in good consistent with the experimental observation.
Anisotropic Josephson-vortex dynamics in layered organic superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yasuzuka, S.; Uji, S.; Satsukawa, H.; Kimata, M.; Terashima, T.; Koga, H.; Yamamura, Y.; Saito, K.; Akutsu, H.; Yamada, J.
2010-06-01
To study the anisotropic Josephson-vortex dynamics in the d-wave superconductors, the interplane resistance has been measured on layered organic superconductors κ-(ET)2Cu(NCS)2 and β-(BDA-TTP)2SbF6 under magnetic fields precisely parallel to the conducting planes. For κ-(ET)2Cu(NCS)2, in-plane angular dependence of the Josephson-vortex flow resistance is mainly described by the fourfold symmetry and dip structures appear when the magnetic field is applied parallel to the b- and c-axes. The obtained results have a relation to the d-wave superconducting gap symmetry. However, the absence of in-plane fourfold anisotropy was found for β-(BDA-TTP)2SbF6. The different anisotropic behavior is discussed in terms of the interlayer coupling strength.
Radiative decays of dynamically generated charmed baryons
Gamermann, D.; Jimenez-Tejero, C. E.; Ramos, A.
2011-04-01
In this work we study the radiative decay of dynamically generated J{sup P}=(1{sup -}/2) charm baryons into the ground state J{sup P}=(1{sup +}/2) baryons. Since different theoretical interpretations of these baryonic resonances and, in particular, of the {Lambda}{sub c}(2595), give different predictions, a precise experimental measurement of these decays would be an important step for understanding their nature.
Chromoelectric oscillations in a dynamically evolving anisotropic background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Florkowski, Wojciech; Ryblewski, Radoslaw; Strickland, Michael
2012-10-01
We study the oscillations of a uniform longitudinal chromoelectric field in a dynamically evolving momentum-space anisotropic background in the weak field limit. Evolution equations for the background are derived by taking moments of the Boltzmann equation in two cases: (i) a fixed relaxation time and (ii) a relaxation time which is proportional to the local inverse-transverse momentum scale of the plasma. The second case allows us to reproduce 2nd-order viscous hydrodynamical dynamics in the limit of small shear viscosity-to-entropy ratio. We then linearize the Boltzmann-Vlasov equation in a dynamically evolving background and obtain an integrodifferential evolution equation for the chromoelectric field. We present numerical solutions to this integrodifferential equation for a variety of different initial conditions and shear viscosity-to-entropy density ratios. The dynamical equations obtained are novel in that they include a nontrivial time-dependent momentum-space anisotropic background and the effect of collisional damping for the first time.
Interacting Dark Fluid in Anisotropic Universe with Dynamical Deceleration Parameter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adhav, K. S.; Bokey, V. D.; Bansod, A. S.; Munde, S. L.
2016-06-01
In this paper we have studied the anisotropic and homogeneous Bianchi Type-I and V universe filled with Interacting Dark Matter and Holographic Dark Energy. The solutions of field equations are obtained for both models under the assumption of linearly varying deceleration parameter which yields dynamical deceleration parameter. It has been observed that the anisotropy of expansion dies out very quickly (soon after inflation) in both models (B-I, B-V). The physical and geometrical parameters for the both models have been obtained and discussed in details.
Imaging Anisotropic Nanoplasma Dynamics in Superfluid Helium Droplets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bacellar, Camila; Chatterley, Adam; Lackner, Florian; Pemmaraju, Sri; Tanyag, Rico; Bernando, Charles; Verma, Deepak; O'Connell, Sean; Osipiv, Timur; Ray, Dipanwita; Ferguson, Kenneth; Gorkhover, Tais; Swiggers, Michele; Bucher, Maximilian; Vilesov, Andrey; Bostedt, Christoph; Gessner, Oliver
2016-05-01
The dynamics of strong-field induced nanoplasmas inside superfluid helium droplets are studied using single-shot, single-particle femtosecond time-resolved X-ray coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Intense (~ 1015 W/ cm2, ~ 50 fs) 800 nm laser pulses are employed to initiate nanoplasma formation in sub-micron (200 nm - 600 nm) sized helium droplets. The dynamics of the nanoplasma formation and subsequent droplet evolution are probed by x-rays pulses (~ 100 fs, 600 eV) that are delayed with respect to the near-infrared (NIR) pulses by 10's of femtoseconds to hundreds of picoseconds. Pump-probe time-delay dependent effects in the CDI patterns reveal distinct dynamics evolving on multiple timescales. Very fast (<100 fs) appearing features are possibly indicative of electronic dynamics, while slower (>= 1 ps) dynamics are likely associated with structural changes correlated to nuclear motion including droplet disintegration. In particular, the CDI images exhibit strong indications for anisotropic dynamics governed by the NIR polarization axis, providing previously inaccessible insight into the mechanisms of nanoplasma formation and evolution.
Simulations of energetic particles interacting with nonlinear anisotropic dynamical turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heusen, M.; Shalchi, A.
2016-09-01
We investigate test-particle diffusion in dynamical turbulence based on a numerical approach presented before. For the turbulence we employ the nonlinear anisotropic dynamical turbulence model which takes into account wave propagation effects as well as damping effects. We compute numerically diffusion coefficients of energetic particles along and across the mean magnetic field. We focus on turbulence and particle parameters which should be relevant for the solar system and compare our findings with different interplanetary observations. We vary different parameters such as the dissipation range spectral index, the ratio of the turbulence bendover scales, and the magnetic field strength in order to explore the relevance of the different parameters. We show that the bendover scales as well as the magnetic field ratio have a strong influence on diffusion coefficients whereas the influence of the dissipation range spectral index is weak. The best agreement with solar wind observations can be found for equal bendover scales and a magnetic field ratio of δ B / B0 = 0.75.
Dynamics of vortex dipoles in anisotropic Bose-Einstein condensates
Goodman, Roy H.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Carretero-González, R.
2015-04-14
We study the motion of a vortex dipole in a Bose-Einstein condensate confined to an anisotropic trap. We focus on a system of ODEs describing the vortices' motion, which is in turn a reduced model of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation describing the condensate's motion. Using a sequence of canonical changes of variables, we reduce the dimension and simplify the equations of motion. In this study, we uncover two interesting regimes. Near a family of periodic orbits known as guiding centers, we find that the dynamics is essentially that of a pendulum coupled to a linear oscillator, leading to stochastic reversals inmore » the overall direction of rotation of the dipole. Near the separatrix orbit in the isotropic system, we find other families of periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic trajectories. In a neighborhood of the guiding center orbits, we derive an explicit iterated map that simplifies the problem further. Numerical calculations are used to illustrate the phenomena discovered through the analysis. Using the results from the reduced system, we are able to construct complex periodic orbits in the original, PDE, mean-field model for Bose-Einstein condensates, which corroborates the phenomenology observed in the reduced dynamical equations.« less
Dynamics of vortex dipoles in anisotropic Bose-Einstein condensates
Goodman, Roy H.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Carretero-González, R.
2015-04-14
We study the motion of a vortex dipole in a Bose-Einstein condensate confined to an anisotropic trap. We focus on a system of ODEs describing the vortices' motion, which is in turn a reduced model of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation describing the condensate's motion. Using a sequence of canonical changes of variables, we reduce the dimension and simplify the equations of motion. In this study, we uncover two interesting regimes. Near a family of periodic orbits known as guiding centers, we find that the dynamics is essentially that of a pendulum coupled to a linear oscillator, leading to stochastic reversals in the overall direction of rotation of the dipole. Near the separatrix orbit in the isotropic system, we find other families of periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic trajectories. In a neighborhood of the guiding center orbits, we derive an explicit iterated map that simplifies the problem further. Numerical calculations are used to illustrate the phenomena discovered through the analysis. Using the results from the reduced system, we are able to construct complex periodic orbits in the original, PDE, mean-field model for Bose-Einstein condensates, which corroborates the phenomenology observed in the reduced dynamical equations.
Molecular dynamics study of anisotropic growth of silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naigen, Zhou; Bo, Liu; Chi, Zhang; Ke, Li; Lang, Zhou
2016-07-01
Based on the Tersoff potential, molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate the kinetic coefficients and growth velocities of Si (100), (110), (111), and (112) planes. The sequences of the kinetic coefficients and growth velocities are μ (100) > μ (110) > μ (112) > μ (111) and v (100) > v (110) > v (112) > v (111), respectively, which are not consistent with the sequences of the interface energies, interplanar spacings, and melting points of the four planes. However, they agree well with the sequences of the distributions and diffusion coefficients of the melting atoms near the solid–liquid interfaces. It indicates that the atomic distributions and diffusion coefficients affected by the crystal orientations determine the anisotropic growth of silicon. The formation of stacking fault structure will further decrease the growth velocity of the Si (111) plane. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51361022, 51561022, and 61464007) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province, China (Grant No. 20151BAB206001).
Pn anisotropic tomography and dynamics under eastern Tibetan plateau
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, Jianshe; Li, Yuan; Xie, Furen; Teng, Jiwen; Zhang, Guangwei; Sun, Changqing; Zha, Xiaohui
2014-03-01
We present a new anisotropic tomographic model of the uppermost mantle around eastern Tibet using Pn traveltime data from a newly deployed temporary seismic array and recent observation bulletins of Chinese provincial networks. Our results are generally consistent with previous results but provide new insights into the dynamics of Tibetan plateau. Prominent high-velocity (high-V) anomalies are visible under Alashan block and Qaidam and Sichuan basins, which clearly outline their tectonic margins. A distinct high-V zone representing the double-sided subduction of Indo-Eurasian plates is imaged from Lhasa block to the south of Qaidam basin. A pronounced low-velocity (low-V) zone is observed from Songpan-Ganzi block to southern Chuan-Dian diamond block, suggesting the existence of hot material upwelling there. Crustal strong earthquakes frequently occurred around high-V anomalies or transition zones from high-V to low-V anomalies, suggesting that these earthquakes could be related to lateral heterogeneities in the mantle. The Pn fast direction approximately rotates around Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis, and it is tangential to the margins of Sichuan basin, suggesting that the mantle material flow of Tibetan plateau may have affected east China. In the Yunnan region to the south of 26°N, the Pn fast direction is different from SKS splitting results, indicating that the mantle lithosphere could be mechanically decoupled at certain depth below the uppermost mantle, which might be attributable to the subduction of Indian (or Burma) slab. Although the correlation between anisotropy and velocity is complicated, anisotropy strength could be associated with the pattern of velocity anomalies in the region.
Bose polarons: Dynamical decay and RF signatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corson, John; Bohn, John
2016-05-01
Interactions of a single impurity with a quantum many-body environment are known to alter the character of the impurity, thereby forming a ``quasiparticle''. The condensed matter tradition often identifies quasiparticles as poles of a Green function in the complex plane, a notion whose sophistication sometimes obscures the underlying physics. The problem of a single quantum impurity in a Bose condensate, or Bose polaron, is an illustrative example where the meaning of the impurity Green function, and hence the quasiparticle itself, becomes especially transparent. Using direct diagonalization in a truncated Hilbert space, we examine the dynamical evolution and quasiparticle decay of the repulsive Bose polaron. This approach also allows us to simulate RF spectroscopy across a Feshbach resonance and outside the linear regime, as well as account for motional and thermal effects in a harmonic trap.
Large-eddy simulation of free-surface decaying turbulence with dynamic subgrid-scale models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salvetti, M. V.; Zang, Y.; Street, R. L.; Banerjee, S.
1997-08-01
This paper describes large-eddy simulations of decaying turbulence in an open channel, using different dynamic subgrade-scale models, viz. the dynamic model of Germano et al. [Phys. Fluids A 3, 1790 (1991)] (DSM), the dynamic mixed model in Zang et al. [Phys. Fluids A 5, 3186 (1993)] (DMM), and the dynamic two-parameter model of Salvetti and Banerjee [Phys. Fluids 7, 2831 (1995)] (DTM). These models are incorporated in a finite-volume solver of the Navier-Stokes equations. A direct numerical simulation of this flow conducted by Pan and Banerjee [Phys. Fluids 7, 1649 (1995)] showed that near the free surface turbulence has a quasi-two-dimensional behavior. Moreover, the quasi-two-dimensional region increases in thickness with the decay time, although the structure remains three-dimensional in the central regions of the flow. The results of the large-eddy simulations show that both the DMM and the DTM are able to reproduce the features of the decay process observed in the direct simulation and to handle the anisotropic nature of the flow. Nevertheless, the addition of the second model coefficient in the DTM improves the agreement with the direct simulation. When the DSM is used, significant discrepancies are observed between the large-eddy and the direct simulations during the decay process at the free surface.
Pn anisotropic tomography and mantle dynamics beneath China
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Zhigang; Lei, Jianshe
2016-08-01
We present a new high-resolution Pn anisotropic tomographic model of the uppermost mantle beneath China inferred from 52,061 Pn arrival-time data manually picked from seismograms recorded at provincial seismic stations in China and temporary stations in Tibet and the Tienshan orogenic belt. Significant features well correlated with surface geology are revealed and provide new insights into the deep dynamics beneath China. Prominent high Pn velocities are visible under the stable cratonic blocks (e.g., the Tarim, Junngar, and Sichuan basins, and the Ordos block), whereas remarkable low Pn velocities are observed in the tectonically active areas (e.g., Pamir, the Tienshan orogenic belt, central Tibet and the Qilian fold belt). A distinct N-S trending low Pn velocity zone around 86°E is revealed under the rift running from the Himalayan block through the Lhasa block to the Qiangtang block, which indicates the hot material upwelling due to the breaking-off of the subducting Indian slab. Two N-S trending low Pn velocity belts with an approximate N-S Pn fast direction along the faults around the Chuan-Dian diamond block suggest that these faults may serve as channels of mantle flow from Tibet. The fast Pn direction changes from N-S in the north across 27°N to E-W in the south, which may reflect different types of mantle deformation. The anisotropy in the south could be caused by the asthenospheric flow resulted from the eastward subduction of the Indian plate down to the mantle transition zone beneath the Burma arc. Across the Talas-Fergana fault in the Tienshan orogenic belt, an obvious difference in velocity and anisotropy is revealed. To the west, high Pn velocities and an arc-shaped fast Pn direction are observed, implying the Indo-Asian collision, whereas to the east low Pn velocities and a range-parallel Pn fast direction are imaged, reflecting the northward underthrusting of the Tarim lithosphere and the southward underthrusting of the Kazakh lithosphere. In
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brinkmann, Levin U. L.; Hub, Jochen S.
2015-09-01
Time-resolved wide-angle X-ray scattering (TR-WAXS) is an emerging experimental technique used to track chemical reactions and conformational transitions of proteins in real time. Thanks to increased time resolution of the method, anisotropic TR-WAXS patterns were recently reported, which contain more structural information than isotropic patterns. So far, however, no method has been available to compute anisotropic WAXS patterns of biomolecules, thus limiting the structural interpretation. Here, we present a method to compute anisotropic TR-WAXS patterns from molecular dynamics simulations. The calculations accurately account for scattering of the hydration layer and for thermal fluctuations. For many photo-excitable proteins, given a low intensity of the excitation laser, the anisotropic pattern is described by two independent components: (i) an isotropic component, corresponding to common isotropic WAXS experiments and (ii) an anisotropic component depending on the orientation of the excitation dipole of the solute. We present a set of relations for the calculation of these two components from experimental scattering patterns. Notably, the isotropic component is not obtained by a uniform azimuthal average on the detector. The calculations are illustrated and validated by computing anisotropic WAXS patterns of a spheroidal protein model and of photoactive yellow protein. Effects due to saturated excitation at high intensities of the excitation laser are discussed, including opportunities to extract additional structural information by modulating the laser intensity.
Brinkmann, Levin U L; Hub, Jochen S
2015-09-14
Time-resolved wide-angle X-ray scattering (TR-WAXS) is an emerging experimental technique used to track chemical reactions and conformational transitions of proteins in real time. Thanks to increased time resolution of the method, anisotropic TR-WAXS patterns were recently reported, which contain more structural information than isotropic patterns. So far, however, no method has been available to compute anisotropic WAXS patterns of biomolecules, thus limiting the structural interpretation. Here, we present a method to compute anisotropic TR-WAXS patterns from molecular dynamics simulations. The calculations accurately account for scattering of the hydration layer and for thermal fluctuations. For many photo-excitable proteins, given a low intensity of the excitation laser, the anisotropic pattern is described by two independent components: (i) an isotropic component, corresponding to common isotropic WAXS experiments and (ii) an anisotropic component depending on the orientation of the excitation dipole of the solute. We present a set of relations for the calculation of these two components from experimental scattering patterns. Notably, the isotropic component is not obtained by a uniform azimuthal average on the detector. The calculations are illustrated and validated by computing anisotropic WAXS patterns of a spheroidal protein model and of photoactive yellow protein. Effects due to saturated excitation at high intensities of the excitation laser are discussed, including opportunities to extract additional structural information by modulating the laser intensity. PMID:26374019
Qian Chen
2008-08-18
The generation, motion, and interaction of dislocations play key roles during the plastic deformation process of crystalline solids. 3D Dislocation Dynamics has been employed as a mesoscale simulation algorithm to investigate the collective and cooperative behavior of dislocations. Most current research on 3D Dislocation Dynamics is based on the solutions available in the framework of classical isotropic elasticity. However, due to some degree of elastic anisotropy in almost all crystalline solids, it is very necessary to extend 3D Dislocation Dynamics into anisotropic elasticity. In this study, first, the details of efficient and accurate incorporation of the fully anisotropic elasticity into 3D discrete Dislocation Dynamics by numerically evaluating the derivatives of Green's functions are described. Then the intrinsic properties of perfect dislocations, including their stability, their core properties and disassociation characteristics, in newly discovered rare earth-based intermetallics and in conventional intermetallics are investigated, within the framework of fully anisotropic elasticity supplemented with the atomistic information obtained from the ab initio calculations. Moreover, the evolution and interaction of dislocations in these intermetallics as well as the role of solute segregation are presented by utilizing fully anisotropic 3D dislocation dynamics. The results from this work clearly indicate the role and the importance of elastic anisotropy on the evolution of dislocation microstructures, the overall ductility and the hardening behavior in these systems.
Non-linear dynamic analysis of anisotropic cylindrical shells
Lakis, A.A.; Selmane, A.; Toledano, A.
1996-12-01
A theory to predict the influence of geometric non-linearities on the natural frequencies of an empty anisotropic cylindrical shell is presented in this paper. It is a hybrid of finite element and classical thin shell theories. Sanders-Koiter non-linear and strain-displacement relations are used. Displacement functions are evaluated using linearized equations of motion. Modal coefficients are then obtained for these displacement functions. Expressions for the mass, linear and non-linear stiffness matrices are derived through the finite element method. The uncoupled equations are solved with the help of elliptic functions. The period and frequency variations are first determined as a function of shell amplitudes and then compared with the results in the literature.
Guo, J. L.; Zhang, X. Z.
2016-01-01
Short-range interaction among the spins can not only results in the rich phase diagram but also brings about fascinating phenomenon both in the contexts of quantum computing and information. In this paper, we investigate the quantum correlation of the system coupled to a surrounding environment with short-range anisotropic interaction. It is shown that the decay of quantum correlation of the central spins measured by pairwise entanglement and quantum discord can serve as a signature of quantum phase transition. In addition, we study the decoherence factor of the system when the environment is in the vicinity of the phase transition point. In the strong coupling regime, the decay of the decoherence factor exhibits Gaussian envelop in the time domain. However, in weak coupling limit, the quantum correlation of the system is robust against the disturbance of the magnetic field through optimal control of the anisotropic short-range interaction strength. Based on this, the effects of the short-range anisotropic interaction on the sudden transition from classical to quantum decoherence are also presented. PMID:27596050
Guo, J L; Zhang, X Z
2016-01-01
Short-range interaction among the spins can not only results in the rich phase diagram but also brings about fascinating phenomenon both in the contexts of quantum computing and information. In this paper, we investigate the quantum correlation of the system coupled to a surrounding environment with short-range anisotropic interaction. It is shown that the decay of quantum correlation of the central spins measured by pairwise entanglement and quantum discord can serve as a signature of quantum phase transition. In addition, we study the decoherence factor of the system when the environment is in the vicinity of the phase transition point. In the strong coupling regime, the decay of the decoherence factor exhibits Gaussian envelop in the time domain. However, in weak coupling limit, the quantum correlation of the system is robust against the disturbance of the magnetic field through optimal control of the anisotropic short-range interaction strength. Based on this, the effects of the short-range anisotropic interaction on the sudden transition from classical to quantum decoherence are also presented. PMID:27596050
Kaon decay interferometry as meson dynamics probes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'ambrosio, G.; Paver, N.
1994-05-01
We discuss the time-dependent interferences between KL and KS in the decays in 3π and ππγ, to be studied at interferometry machines such as the φ factory and CERN LEAR. We emphasize the possibilities and the advantages of using interferences, in comparision with width measurements, to obtain information both on CP-conserving and CP-violating amplitudes. Comparision with present data and suggestions for future experiments are made.
Dynamic alignment and selective decay in MHD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matthaeus, W. H.; Montgomery, D.
1983-01-01
Under some circumstances, incompressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence will evolve toward a state in which the velocity fields and magnetic fields are aligned or anti-aligned. We propose a mechanism for this effect and illustrate with numerical computations. Under some other circumstances, the energy appears to decay selectively toward a minimum energy state in which the kinetic energy has disappeared. It has not been possible so far to identify a boundary in the phase space which divides the two regimes.
An elementary singularity-free Rotational Brownian Dynamics algorithm for anisotropic particles
Ilie, Ioana M.; Briels, Wim J.; Otter, Wouter K. den
2015-03-21
Brownian Dynamics is the designated technique to simulate the collective dynamics of colloidal particles suspended in a solution, e.g., the self-assembly of patchy particles. Simulating the rotational dynamics of anisotropic particles by a first-order Langevin equation, however, gives rise to a number of complications, ranging from singularities when using a set of three rotational coordinates to subtle metric and drift corrections. Here, we derive and numerically validate a quaternion-based Rotational Brownian Dynamics algorithm that handles these complications in a simple and elegant way. The extension to hydrodynamic interactions is also discussed.
An elementary singularity-free Rotational Brownian Dynamics algorithm for anisotropic particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilie, Ioana M.; Briels, Wim J.; den Otter, Wouter K.
2015-03-01
Brownian Dynamics is the designated technique to simulate the collective dynamics of colloidal particles suspended in a solution, e.g., the self-assembly of patchy particles. Simulating the rotational dynamics of anisotropic particles by a first-order Langevin equation, however, gives rise to a number of complications, ranging from singularities when using a set of three rotational coordinates to subtle metric and drift corrections. Here, we derive and numerically validate a quaternion-based Rotational Brownian Dynamics algorithm that handles these complications in a simple and elegant way. The extension to hydrodynamic interactions is also discussed.
An elementary singularity-free Rotational Brownian Dynamics algorithm for anisotropic particles.
Ilie, Ioana M; Briels, Wim J; den Otter, Wouter K
2015-03-21
Brownian Dynamics is the designated technique to simulate the collective dynamics of colloidal particles suspended in a solution, e.g., the self-assembly of patchy particles. Simulating the rotational dynamics of anisotropic particles by a first-order Langevin equation, however, gives rise to a number of complications, ranging from singularities when using a set of three rotational coordinates to subtle metric and drift corrections. Here, we derive and numerically validate a quaternion-based Rotational Brownian Dynamics algorithm that handles these complications in a simple and elegant way. The extension to hydrodynamic interactions is also discussed. PMID:25796227
Anisotropic alpha decay from oriented odd-mass isotopes of some light actinides
Berggren, T. )
1994-11-01
Half-lives and anisotropies in the [alpha] decay of [sup 205,207,209]Rn, [sup 219]Rn, [sup 221]Fr, [sup 227,229]Pa, and [sup 229]U have been calculated using the reaction-theoretical formalism proposed by Jackson and Rhoades-Brown and adapted for axially symmetric deformed nuclei by Berggren and Olanders. The possibility of octupole deformation has been taken into account. In addition, a variant of triaxial octupole deformation has been considered tentatively in the case of [sup 227]Pa and [sup 229]Pa.
Short-time dynamics of isotropic and anisotropic Bak-Sneppen model: extensive simulation results
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tirnakli, Ugur; Lyra, Marcelo L.
2004-12-01
In this work, the short-time dynamics of the isotropic and anisotropic versions of the Bak-Sneppen (BS) model has been investigated using the standard damage spreading technique. Since the system sizes attained in our simulations are larger than the ones employed in previous studies, our results for the dynamic scaling exponents are expected to be more accurate than the results of the existing literature. The obtained scaling exponents of both versions of the BS model are found to be greater than the ones given in previous works. These findings are in agreement with the recent claim of Cafiero et al. (Eur. Phys. J. B7 (1999) 505). Moreover, it is found that the short-time dynamics of the anisotropic model is only slightly affected by finite-size effects and the reported estimate of α≃0.53 can be considered as a good estimate of the true exponent in the thermodynamic limit.
Controlling decay dynamics of quantum emitters with Plsmonic self assembly templates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Indukuri, S. R. K. Chaitanya; Basu, J. K.
2015-03-01
Controlling the emission of quantum dots by tailoring local density of states(LDOS) in self assembled plasmonic template. Using very small diameter gold (Au) spherical nanoantenna within a polymer tem plate randomly dispersed with quantum dots, we show how the photoluminescence intensity and lifetime anisotropy of these dots can be significantly enhanced through LDOS tuning. We also studied the effect of dispersion, wider range of geometric and spectral parameters bringing out the versatility of these functional plasmonic templates. We studied the effect of nano antenna distribution on radiative and non radiative decay rates in the templates. We demonstrated that the decay dynamics in the plasmonic templates can be controlled in a facile manner by changing the filling fraction of the Au nanoparticles. This polarization dependent anisotropic decay dynamics for the quantum emitters is determined by polarization dependent LDOS of the plasmonic templates as demonstrated by FDTD simulations. Our work provides a new method to achieve spontaneous emission intensity and anisotropy enhancement with nanoscale plasmon resonators for applications from controlled photon emitters to light harvesting. DST, India Nanomission.
X-ray Birefringence Imaging of Materials with Anisotropic Molecular Dynamics.
Palmer, Benjamin A; Edwards-Gau, Gregory R; Kariuki, Benson M; Harris, Kenneth D M; Dolbnya, Igor P; Collins, Stephen P; Sutter, John P
2015-02-01
The X-ray birefringence imaging (XBI) technique, reported very recently, is a sensitive tool for spatially resolved mapping of the local orientational properties of anisotropic materials. In this paper, we report the first XBI measurements on materials that undergo anisotropic molecular dynamics. Using incident linearly polarized X-rays with energy close to the Br K-edge, the X-ray birefringence is dictated by the orientational properties of the C-Br bonds in the material. We focus on two materials (urea inclusion compounds containing 1,8-dibromooctane and 1,10-dibromodecane guest molecules) for which the reorientational dynamics of the brominated guest molecules (and hence the reorientational dynamics of the C-Br bonds) are already well characterized by other experimental techniques. The XBI results demonstrate clearly that, for the anisotropic molecular dynamics in these materials, the effective X-ray optic axis for the X-ray birefringence phenomenon is the time-averaged resultant of the orientational distribution of the C-Br bonds. PMID:26261979
Dynamical manipulation of electromagnetic polarization using anisotropic meta-mirror.
Cui, Jianhua; Huang, Cheng; Pan, Wenbo; Pu, Mingbo; Guo, Yinghui; Luo, Xiangang
2016-01-01
Polarization control of electromagnetic wave is very important in many fields. Here, we propose an active meta-mirror to dynamically manipulate electromagnetic polarization state at a broad band. This meta-mirror is composed of a double-layered metallic pattern backed by a metallic flat plate, and the active elements of PIN diodes are integrated into the meta-atom to control the reflection phase difference between two orthogonal polarization modes. Through switching the operating state of the PIN diodes, the meta-mirror is expected to achieve three polarization states which are left-handed, right-handed circular polarizations and linear polarization, respectively. We fabricated this active meta-mirror and validated its polarization conversion performance by measurement. The linearly polarized incident wave can be dynamically converted to right-handed or left-handed circular polarization in the frequency range between 3.4 and 8.8 GHz with the average loss of 1 dB. Furthermore, it also can keep its initial linear polarization state. PMID:27469028
Dynamical manipulation of electromagnetic polarization using anisotropic meta-mirror
Cui, Jianhua; Huang, Cheng; Pan, Wenbo; Pu, Mingbo; Guo, Yinghui; Luo, Xiangang
2016-01-01
Polarization control of electromagnetic wave is very important in many fields. Here, we propose an active meta-mirror to dynamically manipulate electromagnetic polarization state at a broad band. This meta-mirror is composed of a double-layered metallic pattern backed by a metallic flat plate, and the active elements of PIN diodes are integrated into the meta-atom to control the reflection phase difference between two orthogonal polarization modes. Through switching the operating state of the PIN diodes, the meta-mirror is expected to achieve three polarization states which are left-handed, right-handed circular polarizations and linear polarization, respectively. We fabricated this active meta-mirror and validated its polarization conversion performance by measurement. The linearly polarized incident wave can be dynamically converted to right-handed or left-handed circular polarization in the frequency range between 3.4 and 8.8 GHz with the average loss of 1 dB. Furthermore, it also can keep its initial linear polarization state. PMID:27469028
Dynamical manipulation of electromagnetic polarization using anisotropic meta-mirror
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Jianhua; Huang, Cheng; Pan, Wenbo; Pu, Mingbo; Guo, Yinghui; Luo, Xiangang
2016-07-01
Polarization control of electromagnetic wave is very important in many fields. Here, we propose an active meta-mirror to dynamically manipulate electromagnetic polarization state at a broad band. This meta-mirror is composed of a double-layered metallic pattern backed by a metallic flat plate, and the active elements of PIN diodes are integrated into the meta-atom to control the reflection phase difference between two orthogonal polarization modes. Through switching the operating state of the PIN diodes, the meta-mirror is expected to achieve three polarization states which are left-handed, right-handed circular polarizations and linear polarization, respectively. We fabricated this active meta-mirror and validated its polarization conversion performance by measurement. The linearly polarized incident wave can be dynamically converted to right-handed or left-handed circular polarization in the frequency range between 3.4 and 8.8 GHz with the average loss of 1 dB. Furthermore, it also can keep its initial linear polarization state.
Probing reaction dynamics with GDR decay
Beene, J.R.
1994-10-01
The giant dipole resonance (GDR) has been a prolific source of information on the physics of the nucleus. Mostly it has taught us about nuclear structure, but recently experiments have utilized the GDR as a probe of nuclear reaction dynamics. In this report two examples of such investigations are discussed involving very different reactions and probing time scales that differ by a factor of {approximately}10{sup 3}.
Nonlinear dynamics and anisotropic structure of rotating sheared turbulence.
Salhi, A; Jacobitz, F G; Schneider, K; Cambon, C
2014-01-01
Homogeneous turbulence in rotating shear flows is studied by means of pseudospectral direct numerical simulation and analytical spectral linear theory (SLT). The ratio of the Coriolis parameter to shear rate is varied over a wide range by changing the rotation strength, while a constant moderate shear rate is used to enable significant contributions to the nonlinear interscale energy transfer and to the nonlinear intercomponental redistribution terms. In the destabilized and neutral cases, in the sense of kinetic energy evolution, nonlinearity cannot saturate the growth of the largest scales. It permits the smallest scale to stabilize by a scale-by-scale quasibalance between the nonlinear energy transfer and the dissipation spectrum. In the stabilized cases, the role of rotation is mainly nonlinear, and interacting inertial waves can affect almost all scales as in purely rotating flows. In order to isolate the nonlinear effect of rotation, the two-dimensional manifold with vanishing spanwise wave number is revisited and both two-component spectra and single-point two-dimensional energy components exhibit an important effect of rotation, whereas the SLT as well as the purely two-dimensional nonlinear analysis are unaffected by rotation as stated by the Proudman theorem. The other two-dimensional manifold with vanishing streamwise wave number is analyzed with similar tools because it is essential for any shear flow. Finally, the spectral approach is used to disentangle, in an analytical way, the linear and nonlinear terms in the dynamical equations. PMID:24580333
Reheating dynamics affects non-perturbative decay of spectator fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enqvist, Kari; Lerner, Rose N.; Rusak, Stanislav
2013-11-01
The behaviour of oscillating scalar spectator fields after inflation depends on the thermal background produced by inflaton decay. Resonant decay of the spectator is often blocked by large induced thermal masses. We account for the finite decay width of the inflaton and the protracted build-up of the thermal bath to determine the early evolution of a homogeneous spectator field σ coupled to the Higgs Boson Φ through the term g2σ2Φ2, the only renormalisable coupling of a new scalar to the Standard Model. We find that for very large higgs-spectator coupling ggtrsim10-3, the resonance is not always blocked as was previously suggested. As a consequence, the oscillating spectator can decay quickly. For other parameter values, we find that although qualitative features of the thermal blocking still hold, the dynamics are altered compared to the instant decay case. These findings are important for curvaton models, where the oscillating field must be relatively long lived in order to produce the curvature perturbation. They are also relevant for other spectator fields, which must decay sufficiently early to avoid spoiling the predictions of baryogenesis and nucleosynthesis.
Reheating dynamics affects non-perturbative decay of spectator fields
Enqvist, Kari; Lerner, Rose N.; Rusak, Stanislav E-mail: rose.lerner@helsinki.fi
2013-11-01
The behaviour of oscillating scalar spectator fields after inflation depends on the thermal background produced by inflaton decay. Resonant decay of the spectator is often blocked by large induced thermal masses. We account for the finite decay width of the inflaton and the protracted build-up of the thermal bath to determine the early evolution of a homogeneous spectator field σ coupled to the Higgs Boson Φ through the term g{sup 2}σ{sup 2}Φ{sup 2}, the only renormalisable coupling of a new scalar to the Standard Model. We find that for very large higgs-spectator coupling g∼>10{sup −3}, the resonance is not always blocked as was previously suggested. As a consequence, the oscillating spectator can decay quickly. For other parameter values, we find that although qualitative features of the thermal blocking still hold, the dynamics are altered compared to the instant decay case. These findings are important for curvaton models, where the oscillating field must be relatively long lived in order to produce the curvature perturbation. They are also relevant for other spectator fields, which must decay sufficiently early to avoid spoiling the predictions of baryogenesis and nucleosynthesis.
Study of structures and dynamical decay mechanisms for multiquark systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xuewen; Ke, Hong-Wei; Liu, Xiang; Li, Xue-Qian
2016-04-01
The inner structures of the multiquark states are an interesting subject in hadron physics, generally they may be in tetraquark states which are composed of colored constituents, or in molecular states which are composed of two color singlets, or their mixtures. Therefore, the mechanisms which bind the constituents in a unique system and induce the multiquark states to decay would be different in those cases. In this work, using the quantum mechanics we analyze the dynamical mechanisms inducing decays of the tetraquarks where Y (4630 ) stands as an example for the study, we also comment on the molecular states without making numerical computations.
Velocity and stress autocorrelation decay in isothermal dissipative particle dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaudhri, Anuj; Lukes, Jennifer R.
2010-02-01
The velocity and stress autocorrelation decay in a dissipative particle dynamics ideal fluid model is analyzed in this paper. The autocorrelation functions are calculated at three different friction parameters and three different time steps using the well-known Groot/Warren algorithm and newer algorithms including self-consistent leap-frog, self-consistent velocity Verlet and Shardlow first and second order integrators. At low friction values, the velocity autocorrelation function decays exponentially at short times, shows slower-than exponential decay at intermediate times, and approaches zero at long times for all five integrators. As friction value increases, the deviation from exponential behavior occurs earlier and is more pronounced. At small time steps, all the integrators give identical decay profiles. As time step increases, there are qualitative and quantitative differences between the integrators. The stress correlation behavior is markedly different for the algorithms. The self-consistent velocity Verlet and the Shardlow algorithms show very similar stress autocorrelation decay with change in friction parameter, whereas the Groot/Warren and leap-frog schemes show variations at higher friction factors. Diffusion coefficients and shear viscosities are calculated using Green-Kubo integration of the velocity and stress autocorrelation functions. The diffusion coefficients match well-known theoretical results at low friction limits. Although the stress autocorrelation function is different for each integrator, fluctuates rapidly, and gives poor statistics for most of the cases, the calculated shear viscosities still fall within range of theoretical predictions and nonequilibrium studies.
Dynamics of Anisotropic Bianchi Type-III Bulk Viscous String Model with Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, M. K.; Ram, Shri
2014-07-01
In this paper, we discuss the dynamics of spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type-III string cosmological model in presence of bulk viscous fluid and electromagnetic field. Exact solutions of Einstein's field equations are obtained by assuming (i) a special form of the deceleration parameter and (ii) the component of the shear scalar tensor is proportional to mean Hubble parameter. The source of magnetic field is due to an electric current produced along z-axis. The role of bulk viscosity and magnetic field in establishing string phase of universe is presented. The physical and kinematical features of solutions are also discussed in detail.
Franco, Luís F M; Castier, Marcelo; Economou, Ioannis G
2016-08-28
Applying classical molecular dynamics simulations, we calculate the parallel self-diffusion coefficients of different fluids (methane, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide) confined between two {101̄4} calcite crystal planes. We have observed that the molecules close to the calcite surface diffuse differently in distinct directions. This anisotropic behavior of the self-diffusion coefficient is investigated for different temperatures and pore sizes. The ion arrangement in the calcite crystal and the strong interactions between the fluid particles and the calcite surface may explain the anisotropy in this transport property. PMID:27586936
Convergence dynamics of 2-dimensional isotropic and anisotropic Bak Sneppen models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakar, Burhan; Tirnakli, Ugur
2008-09-01
The conventional Hamming distance measurement captures only short-time dynamics of the displacement between uncorrelated random configurations. The minimum difference technique introduced by Tirnakli and Lyra [U. Tirnakli, M.L. Lyra. Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 14 (2003) 805] is used to study short-time and long-time dynamics of the two distinct random configurations of isotropic and anisotropic Bak-Sneppen models on a square lattice. Similar to a 1-dimensional case, the time evolution of the displacement is intermittent. The scaling behavior of the jump activity rate and waiting time distribution reveal the absence of typical spatial-temporal scales in the mechanism of displacement jumps used to quantify convergence dynamics.
Decay of {sup 176,182,188,196}Pt* using the Dynamical Cluster-Decay Model
Sharma, Manoj K.; Kanwar, Shefali; Gupta, Raj K.
2010-08-04
The decay of {sup 176,182,188,196}Pt* compound systems formed in {sup 64}Ni+{sup 112,118,124}Sn and {sup 132}Sn+{sup 64}Ni reactions is studied by using the well established dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM), with effects of quadrupole deformations ({beta}{sub 2}) and ''optimum'' orientations for hot (compact) configurations included. Our calculations indicate that the mass fragmentation yields change from predominantly symmetric to predominantly asymmetric with the increase in number of neutrons in Pt* nuclei. The comparison between the experiments and DCM calculations are excellent for evaporation residue cross-sections at both the below and above barrier energies, but the fission data show a significant quasi-fission component at the highest one or two energies.
Zhou, Ting-Ting; Lou, Jian-Feng; Song, Hua-Jie; Huang, Feng-Lei
2015-03-28
The anisotropic shock sensitivity in a single crystal δ-cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (δ-HMX) was investigated using the compress-shear reactive dynamics (CS-RD) computational protocol. Significant anisotropies in the thermo-mechanical and chemical responses were found by measuring the shear stress, energy, temperature, and chemical reactions during the dynamical process for the shock directions perpendicular to the (100), (010), (001), (110), (101), (011), and (111) planes. We predict that δ-HMX is sensitive for the shocks perpendicular to the (111), (011), (110), and (101) planes, which is intermediate to the (100) and (010) plane and is insensitive to the (001) plane. The internal energy accumulated within the duration of the surmounting shear stress barrier is a useful criterion to distinguish the sensitive directions from the less sensitive ones. The molecular origin of the anisotropic sensitivity is suggested to be the intermolecular steric arrangements across a slip plane induced by shock compression. The shear deformation induced by the shock along the sensitive direction encounters strong intermolecular contacts and has small intermolecular free space for geometry relaxation when the molecules collide, leading to high shear stress barriers and energy accumulation, which benefits the temperature increase and initial chemical bond breaking that trigger further reactions. PMID:25721038
Modeling of DNA-Mediated Self-Assembly from Anisotropic Nanoparticles: A Molecular Dynamics Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Millan, Jaime; Girard, Martin; Brodin, Jeffrey; O'Brien, Matt; Mirkin, Chad; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica
The programmable selectivity of DNA recognition constitutes an elegant scheme to self-assemble a rich variety of superlattices from versatile nanoscale building blocks, where the natural interactions between building blocks are traded by complementary DNA hybridization interactions. Recently, we introduced and validated a scale-accurate coarse-grained model for a molecular dynamics approach that captures the dynamic nature of DNA hybridization events and reproduces the experimentally-observed crystallization behavior of various mixtures of spherical DNA-modified nanoparticles. Here, we have extended this model to robustly reproduce the assembly of nanoparticles with the anisotropic shapes observed experimentally. In particular, we are interested in two different particle types: (i) regular shapes, namely the cubic and octahedral polyhedra shapes commonly observed in gold nanoparticles, and (ii) irregular shapes akin to those exhibited by enzymes. Anisotropy in shape can provide an analog to the atomic orbitals exhibited by conventional atomic crystals. We present results for the assembly of enzymes or anisotropic nanoparticles and the co-assembly of enzymes and nanoparticles.
Photoinduced nonadiabatic decay and dissociation dynamics of dimethylnitramine.
Zhuang, Xuhui; Wang, Jun; Lan, Zhenggang
2013-06-13
Dimethylnitramine (DMNA) is a prototype system used in the investigation of the unimolecular decomposition mechanism of the nitramine-compound family. The photoinduced excited-state nonadiabatic processes and successive unimolecular dissociation of DMNA were investigated by trajectory surface-hopping dynamics at the semiempirical OM2/MRCI level. Two S1/S0 conical intersections (CI01α and CI01β) were found to play essential roles in the nonadiabatic decay dynamics of DMNA. After the S1 → S0 decay, the excess kinetic energy finally results in the cleavage of the N-N bond in the ground electronic state. The two reaction channels through CI01α and CI01β show differences in molecular motions and decay features. The trajectories passing CI01α can hop one or several times, and the intramolecular vibrational energy transfer in the ground state takes place before dissociation, whereas trajectories following the CI01β channel mainly dissociate directly after only one S1 → S0 hop. PMID:23672370
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ying; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Misawa, Masaaki; Nakano, Aiichiro; Nomura, Ken-Ichi; Shimamura, Kohei; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Vashishta, Priya
2016-05-01
At the nanoscale, chemistry can happen quite differently due to mechanical forces selectively breaking the chemical bonds of materials. The interaction between chemistry and mechanical forces can be classified as mechanochemistry. An example of archetypal mechanochemistry occurs at the nanoscale in anisotropic detonating of a broad class of layered energetic molecular crystals bonded by inter-layer van der Waals (vdW) interactions. Here, we introduce an ab initio study of the collision, in which quantum molecular dynamic simulations of binary collisions between energetic vdW crystallites, TATB molecules, reveal atomistic mechanisms of anisotropic shock sensitivity. The highly sensitive lateral collision was found to originate from the twisting and bending to breaking of nitro-groups mediated by strong intra-layer hydrogen bonds. This causes the closing of the electronic energy gap due to an inverse Jahn-Teller effect. On the other hand, the insensitive collisions normal to multilayers are accomplished by more delocalized molecular deformations mediated by inter-layer interactions. Our nano-collision studies provide a much needed atomistic understanding for the rational design of insensitive energetic nanomaterials and the detonation synthesis of novel nanomaterials.At the nanoscale, chemistry can happen quite differently due to mechanical forces selectively breaking the chemical bonds of materials. The interaction between chemistry and mechanical forces can be classified as mechanochemistry. An example of archetypal mechanochemistry occurs at the nanoscale in anisotropic detonating of a broad class of layered energetic molecular crystals bonded by inter-layer van der Waals (vdW) interactions. Here, we introduce an ab initio study of the collision, in which quantum molecular dynamic simulations of binary collisions between energetic vdW crystallites, TATB molecules, reveal atomistic mechanisms of anisotropic shock sensitivity. The highly sensitive lateral collision
Cosmological perturbations of axion with a dynamical decay constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Fuminobu
2016-08-01
A QCD axion with a time-dependent decay constant has been known to be able to accommodate high-scale inflation without producing topological defects or too large isocurvature perturbations on CMB scales. We point out that a dynamical decay constant also has the effect of enhancing the small-scale axion isocurvature perturbations. The enhanced axion perturbations can even exceed the periodicity of the axion potential, and thus lead to the formation of axionic domain walls. Unlike the well-studied axionic walls, the walls produced from the enhanced perturbations are not bounded by cosmic strings, and thus would overclose the universe independently of the number of degenerate vacua along the axion potential.
An Energy Decaying Scheme for Nonlinear Dynamics of Shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bottasso, Carlo L.; Bauchau, Olivier A.; Choi, Jou-Young; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
A novel integration scheme for nonlinear dynamics of geometrically exact shells is developed based on the inextensible director assumption. The new algorithm is designed so as to imply the strict decay of the system total mechanical energy at each time step, and consequently unconditional stability is achieved in the nonlinear regime. Furthermore, the scheme features tunable high frequency numerical damping and it is therefore stiffly accurate. The method is tested for a finite element spatial formulation of shells based on mixed interpolations of strain tensorial components and on a two-parameter representation of director rotations. The robustness of the, scheme is illustrated with the help of numerical examples.
Li, Ying; Kalia, Rajiv K; Misawa, Masaaki; Nakano, Aiichiro; Nomura, Ken-Ichi; Shimamura, Kohei; Shimojo, Fuyuki; Vashishta, Priya
2016-05-14
At the nanoscale, chemistry can happen quite differently due to mechanical forces selectively breaking the chemical bonds of materials. The interaction between chemistry and mechanical forces can be classified as mechanochemistry. An example of archetypal mechanochemistry occurs at the nanoscale in anisotropic detonating of a broad class of layered energetic molecular crystals bonded by inter-layer van der Waals (vdW) interactions. Here, we introduce an ab initio study of the collision, in which quantum molecular dynamic simulations of binary collisions between energetic vdW crystallites, TATB molecules, reveal atomistic mechanisms of anisotropic shock sensitivity. The highly sensitive lateral collision was found to originate from the twisting and bending to breaking of nitro-groups mediated by strong intra-layer hydrogen bonds. This causes the closing of the electronic energy gap due to an inverse Jahn-Teller effect. On the other hand, the insensitive collisions normal to multilayers are accomplished by more delocalized molecular deformations mediated by inter-layer interactions. Our nano-collision studies provide a much needed atomistic understanding for the rational design of insensitive energetic nanomaterials and the detonation synthesis of novel nanomaterials. PMID:27110831
The Anisotropic Dynamic Response of Ultrafast Shocked Single Crystal PETN and Beta-HMX
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaug, Joseph; Armstrong, Michael; Crowhurst, Jonathan; Austin, Ryan; Ferranti, Louis; Fried, Laurence; Bastea, Sorin
2015-06-01
We report results from ultrafast shockwave experiments conducted on single crystal high explosives. Experimental results consist of 12 picosecond time-resolved dynamic response wave profile data, (ultrafast time-domain interferometry-TDI), which are used to validate calculations of anisotropic stress-strain behavior of shocked loaded energetic materials. In addition, here we present unreacted equations of state data from PETN and beta-HMX up to higher pressures than previously reported, which are used to extend the predictive confidence of hydrodynamic simulations. Our previous results derived from a 360 ps drive duration yielded anisotropic elastic wave response in single crystal beta-HMX ((110) and (010) impact planes). Here we provide results using a 3x longer drive duration to probe the plastic response regime of these materials. We compare our ultrafast time domain interferometry (TDI) results with previous gun platform results. Ultrafast time scale resolution TDI measurements further guide the development of continuum models aimed to study pore collapse and energy localization in shock-compressed crystals of beta-HMX. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy jointly by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Anisotropic mechanical properties of hexagonal SiC sheet: a molecular dynamics study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Ming; Liu, Emily; Zhang, Congyan
2015-03-01
The anisotropic mechanical properties of hexagonal SiC sheet have been studied using an efficient quantum mechanics molecular dynamics scheme based on a robust semi-empirical Hamiltonian (refereed as SCED-LCAO) [PRB 74, 15540; PHYSE 42, 1]. It was found that the SiC sheet could sustain the heavy load up to about 20 %. In particular, it was found that the SiC sheet also shows large difference in the strain direction. It will quickly crack after 20 % of strain in armchair the direction, but it will be slowly destroyed after 30% in the zigzag direction, indicating the anisotropic nature of the mechanical properties of the SiC sheet. The nominal and 2D membrane stresses will be analyzed, from where we will obtain the 2D Young's modulus at infinitesimal strain and the third-order (effective nonlinear) elastic modulus for the SiC sheet. The detail results and discussions will be reported in the presentation.
Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Deason, Vance Albert
2002-12-01
An important material property in the paper industry is the anisotropic stiffness distribution due to the fibrous microstructure of paper and to processing procedures. Ultrasonic methods offer a means of determining the stiffness of sheets of paper from the anisotropic propagation characteristics of elastic Lamb waves along the machine direction and the cross direction. That is, along and perpendicular to the direction of paper production. Currently, piezoelectric ultrasonic methods are employed in the industry to measure the elastic polar diagram of paper through multiple contacting measurements made in all directions. This paper describes a new approach utilizing the INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera to provide a complete image of the elastic waves traveling in all directions in the plane of the paper sheet. This approach is based on optical dynamic holographic methods that record the out of plane ultrasonic motion over the entire paper surface simultaneously without scanning. The full-field imaging technique offers great potential for increasing the speed of the measurement and it ultimately provides a substantial amount of information concerning local property variations and flaws in the paper. This report shows the success of the method and the manner in which it yields the elastic polar diagram for the paper from the dispersive flexural or antisymmetric Lamb wave.
Role of quantum statistics in multi-particle decay dynamics
Marchewka, Avi; Granot, Er’el
2015-04-15
The role of quantum statistics in the decay dynamics of a multi-particle state, which is suddenly released from a confining potential, is investigated. For an initially confined double particle state, the exact dynamics is presented for both bosons and fermions. The time-evolution of the probability to measure two-particle is evaluated and some counterintuitive features are discussed. For instance, it is shown that although there is a higher chance of finding the two bosons (as oppose to fermions, and even distinguishable particles) at the initial trap region, there is a higher chance (higher than fermions) of finding them on two opposite sides of the trap as if the repulsion between bosons is higher than the repulsion between fermions. The results are demonstrated by numerical simulations and are calculated analytically in the short-time approximation. Furthermore, experimental validation is suggested.
The impact of exospheric neutral dynamics on ring current decay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilie, R.; Liemohn, M. W.; Skoug, R. M.; Funsten, H. O.; Gruntman, M.; Bailey, J. J.; Toth, G.
2015-12-01
The geocorona plays an important role in the energy budget of the Earth's inner magnetosphere since charge exchange of energetic ions with exospheric neutrals makes the exosphere act as an energy sink for ring current particles. Long-term ring current decay following a magnetic storm is mainly due to these electron transfer reactions, leading to the formation energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) that leave the ring current system on ballistic trajectories. The number of ENAs emitted from a given region of space depends on several factors, such as the energy and species of the energetic ion population in that region and the density of the neutral gas with which the ions undergo charge exchange. However, the density and structure of the exosphere are strongly dependent on changes in atmospheric temperature and density as well as charge exchange with the ions of plasmaspheric origin, which depletes the geocorona (by having a neutral removed from the system). Moreover, the radiation pressure exerted by solar far-ultraviolet photons pushes the geocoronal hydrogen away from the Earth in an anti-sunward direction to form a tail of neutral hydrogen. TWINS ENA images provide a direct measurement of these ENA losses and therefore insight into the dynamics of the ring current decay through interactions with the geocorona. We assess the influence of geocoronal neutrals on ring current formation and decay by analysis of the predicted ENA emissions using 6 different geocoronal models and simulations from the HEIDI ring current model during storm time. Comparison with TWINS ENA images shows that the location of the peak ENA enhancements is highly dependent on the distribution of geocoronal hydrogen density. We show that the neutral dynamics has a strong influence on the time evolution of the ring current populations as well as on the formation of energetic neutral atoms.
Dynamic response of anisotropic composite panels to time-dependent external excitations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Librescu, L.; Nosier, A.
1990-01-01
This paper deals with the dynamic response of anisotropic laminated composite flat panels exposed to sonic boom and explosive blast-type loadings. The pertinent governing equations incorporating transverse shear deformation, transverse normal stress, the higher order effects as well as the viscous structural damping are solved by using the integral-transform technique. The obtained results are compared with their counterparts obtained within the framework of the first order transverse shear deformation and the classical plate theories and some conclusions concerning their range of applicability are outlined. The paper also contains a detailed analysis of the influence played by the various parameters characterizing the considered pressure pulses as well as the material and geometry of the plate.
Use of spherical harmonics for dislocation dynamics in anisotropic elastic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aubry, S.; Arsenlis, A.
2013-09-01
Large-scale dislocation dynamics simulations usually involve several millions of interacting dislocation segments. The stress at a point and interaction force between two segments need to be computed many times during simulations. We evaluate the cost versus accuracy of using spherical harmonics series to approximate the anisotropic elastic Green's function in calculating stresses and forces between segments. The stress at a point is obtained by analytically integrating the spherical harmonics series once and the forces by integrating it analytically twice. We analyze the convergence and cost of using this approach and describe the elements of a fast implementation. We find that the cost of the force and stress calculations grows quadratically with the accuracy for a fixed anisotropy ratio.
Role of nonlinear anisotropic damping in the magnetization dynamics of topological solitons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Joo-Von
2015-07-01
The consequences of nonlinear anisotropic damping, driven by the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling in thin ferromagnetic metals, are examined for the dynamics of topological magnetic solitons such as domain walls, vortices, and skyrmions. The damping is found to affect Bloch and Néel walls differently in the steady-state regime below Walker breakdown and leads to a monotonic increase in the wall velocity above this transition for large values of the Rashba coefficient. For vortices and skyrmions, a generalization of the damping tensor within the Thiele formalism is presented. It is found that chiral components of the damping affect vortexlike and hedgehoglike skyrmions in different ways, but the dominant effect is an overall increase in the viscouslike damping.
Mixed models and reduction method for dynamic analysis of anisotropic shells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, A. K.; Peters, J. M.
1985-01-01
A time-domain computational procedure is presented for predicting the dynamic response of laminated anisotropic shells. The two key elements of the procedure are: (1) use of mixed finite element models having independent interpolation (shape) functions for stress resultants and generalized displacements for the spatial discretization of the shell, with the stress resultants allowed to be discontinuous at interelement boundaries; and (2) use of a dynamic reduction method, with the global approximation vectors consisting of the static solution and an orthogonal set of Lanczos vectors. The dynamic reduction is accomplished by means of successive application of the finite element method and the classical Rayleigh-Ritz technique. The finite element method is first used to generate the global approximation vectors. Then the Rayleigh-Ritz technique is used to generate a reduced system of ordinary differential equations in the amplitudes of these modes. The temporal integration of the reduced differential equations is performed by using an explicit half-station central difference scheme (Leap-frog method). The effectiveness of the proposed procedure is demonstrated by means of a numerical example and its advantages over reduction methods used with the displacement formulation are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertin, N.; Upadhyay, M. V.; Pradalier, C.; Capolungo, L.
2015-09-01
In this paper, we propose a novel full-field approach based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) technique to compute mechanical fields in periodic discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) simulations for anisotropic materials: the DDD-FFT approach. By coupling the FFT-based approach to the discrete continuous model, the present approach benefits from the high computational efficiency of the FFT algorithm, while allowing for a discrete representation of dislocation lines. It is demonstrated that the computational time associated with the new DDD-FFT approach is significantly lower than that of current DDD approaches when large number of dislocation segments are involved for isotropic and anisotropic elasticity, respectively. Furthermore, for fine Fourier grids, the treatment of anisotropic elasticity comes at a similar computational cost to that of isotropic simulation. Thus, the proposed approach paves the way towards achieving scale transition from DDD to mesoscale plasticity, especially due to the method’s ability to incorporate inhomogeneous elasticity.
Weak decays of heavy hadrons into dynamically generated resonances
Oset, Eulogio; Liang, Wei -Hong; Bayar, Melahat; Xie, Ju -Jun; Dai, Lian Rong; Albaladejo, Miguel; Nielsen, Marina; Sekihara, Takayasu; Navarra, Fernando; Roca, Luis; et al
2016-01-28
In this study, we present a review of recent works on weak decay of heavy mesons and baryons with two mesons, or a meson and a baryon, interacting strongly in the final state. The aim is to learn about the interaction of hadrons and how some particular resonances are produced in the reactions. It is shown that these reactions have peculiar features and act as filters for some quantum numbers which allow to identify easily some resonances and learn about their nature. The combination of basic elements of the weak interaction with the framework of the chiral unitary approach allowmore » for an interpretation of results of many reactions and add a novel information to different aspects of the hadron interaction and the properties of dynamically generated resonances.« less
Interaction and dynamics of defects in convective roll patterns of anisotropic fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Weber, Andreas; Kramer, Lorenz
1991-09-01
We present an overview of the dynamics and interaction of defects in roll patterns of electroconvection in nematic liquid crystals (EHC). For the decay of an Eckhaus-unstable pattern we distinguish three regimes, depending on the width of the system perpendicular to the wavenumber mismatch. Motivated by recent experiments, we examine the annihilation process of defects in patterns with wavenumber near to band center, where the motion of the defects is dominated by the interaction. The comparison with the experiments shows that this process can be described even quantitatively within the framework of Ginzburg-Landau theory.
Structures and dynamics of small scales in decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dallas, V.; Alexakis, A.
2013-10-01
The topological and dynamical features of small scales are studied in the context of decaying magnetohydrodynamic turbulent flows using direct numerical simulations. Joint probability density functions (PDFs) of the invariants of gradient quantities related to the velocity and the magnetic fields demonstrate that structures and dynamics at the time of maximum dissipation depend on the large scale initial conditions at the examined Reynolds numbers. This is evident in particular from the fact that each flow has a different shape for the joint PDF of the invariants of the velocity gradient in contrast to the universal teardrop shape of hydrodynamic turbulence. The general picture that emerges from the analysis of the invariants is that regions of high vorticity are correlated with regions of high strain rate S also in contrast to hydrodynamic turbulent flows. Magnetic strain dominated regions are also well correlated with region of high current density j. Viscous dissipation ({∝ } S^2) as well as Ohmic dissipation ({∝ } j^2) resides in regions where strain and rotation are locally almost in balance. The structures related to the velocity gradient possess different characteristics than those associated with the magnetic field gradient with the latter being locally more quasi-two dimensional.
Ilegbusi, Olusegun; Li, Ziang; Min, Yugang; Meeks, Sanford; Kupelian, Patrick; Santhanam, Anand P
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper is to model the airflow inside lungs during breathing and its fluid-structure interaction with the lung tissues and the lung tumor using subject-specific elastic properties. The fluid-structure interaction technique simultaneously simulates flow within the airway and anisotropic deformation of the lung lobes. The three-dimensional (3D) lung geometry is reconstructed from the end-expiration 3D CT scan datasets of humans with lung cancer. The lung is modeled as a poro-elastic medium with anisotropic elastic property (non-linear Young's modulus) obtained from inverse lung elastography of 4D CT scans for the same patients. The predicted results include the 3D anisotropic lung deformation along with the airflow pattern inside the lungs. The effect is also presented of anisotropic elasticity on both the spatio-temporal volumetric lung displacement and the regional lung hysteresis. PMID:22356987
Anisotropic universe with anisotropic sources
Aluri, Pavan K.; Panda, Sukanta; Sharma, Manabendra; Thakur, Snigdha E-mail: sukanta@iiserb.ac.in E-mail: snigdha@iiserb.ac.in
2013-12-01
We analyze the state space of a Bianchi-I universe with anisotropic sources. Here we consider an extended state space which includes null geodesics in this background. The evolution equations for all the state observables are derived. Dynamical systems approach is used to study the evolution of these equations. The asymptotic stable fixed points for all the evolution equations are found. We also check our analytic results with numerical analysis of these dynamical equations. The evolution of the state observables are studied both in cosmic time and using a dimensionless time variable. Then we repeat the same analysis with a more realistic scenario, adding the isotropic (dust like dark) matter and a cosmological constant (dark energy) to our anisotropic sources, to study their co-evolution. The universe now approaches a de Sitter space asymptotically dominated by the cosmological constant. The cosmic microwave background anisotropy maps due to shear are also generated in this scenario, assuming that the universe contains anisotropic matter along with the usual (dark) matter and vacuum (dark) energy since decoupling. We find that they contribute dominantly to the CMB quadrupole. We also constrain the current level of anisotropy and also search for any cosmic preferred axis present in the data. We use the Union 2 Supernovae data to this extent. An anisotropy axis close to the mirror symmetry axis seen in the cosmic microwave background data from Planck probe is found.
Wang, Chi-Jen; Han, Yong; Walen, Holly; Russell, Selena M.; Thiel, Patricia A.; Evans, James W.
2013-10-01
Submonolayer homoepitaxial fcc (110) systems display behavior reflecting strong anisotropy at lower temperatures, including one-dimensional decay during Ostwald ripening of rectangular islands maintaining constant width in the (001) direction. To appropriately describe this behavior, we first develop a refined continuum Burton-Cabrera-Frank formalism, which accounts for a lack of equilibration of island shape and importantly also for inhibited incorporation of adatoms at almost-faceted (1¯10) island edges through effective kinetic coefficients. This formalism is shown to describe accurately the adatom diffusion fluxes between islands and thus island evolution for a complex experimental island configuration, as confirmed by matching results from realistic atomistic simulations for this configuration. This approach also elucidates basic dependencies of flux on island geometry and temperature. Second, a further refinement is presented incorporating separate terrace and edge adatom density fields either in a continuum setting or alternatively in a spatially discrete diffusion equation setting. The second approach allows more flexibility and accuracy in accounting for edge-diffusion kinetics including corner rounding, a lack of equilibration of the edge adatom density at (1¯10) island edges, and the effect of rare kinks on (1¯10) island edges. Finally and significantly, it suggests facile two-way corner rounding at the island periphery during island decay, contrasting the previous picture.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Täger, Olaf; Dannemann, Martin; Hufenbach, Werner A.
2015-04-01
Lightweight structures for high-technology applications are designed to meet the increasing demands on low structural weight and maximum stiffness. These classical lightweight properties result in lower inertial forces that consequently lead to higher vibration amplitudes thereby increasing sound radiation. Here, special anisotropic multilayered composites offer a high vibro-acoustic lightweight potential. The authors developed analytical vibro-acoustic simulation models, which allow a material-adapted structural-dynamic and sound radiation analysis of anisotropic multilayered composite plates. Compared to numerical methods FEM/BEM these analytical models allow a quick and physically based analysis of the vibro-acoustic properties of anisotropic composite plates. This advantage can be seen by the presented extensive parameter studies, which have been performed in order to analyse the influence of composite-specific design variables on the resulting vibro-acoustic behaviour. Here, it was found that the vibro-acoustic parameters like eigenfrequency and modal damping show direction-dependent properties. Furthermore, the investigations reveal that laminated composites show a so-called damping-dominated sound radiation behaviour. Based on these studies, a vibro-acoustic design procedure is proposed and design guidelines are derived.
Cao, Gaolong; Sun, Shuaishuai; Li, Zhongwen; Tian, Huanfang; Yang, Huaixin; Li, Jianqi
2015-01-01
Recent advances in the four-dimensional ultrafast transmission electron microscope (4D-UTEM) with combined spatial and temporal resolutions have made it possible to directly visualize structural dynamics of materials at the atomic level. Herein, we report on our development on a 4D-UTEM which can be operated properly on either the photo-emission or the thermionic mode. We demonstrate its ability to obtain sequences of snapshots with high spatial and temporal resolutions in the study of lattice dynamics of the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). This investigation provides an atomic level description of remarkable anisotropic lattice dynamics at the picosecond timescales. Moreover, our UTEM measurements clearly reveal that distinguishable lattice relaxations appear in intra-tubular sheets on an ultrafast timescale of a few picoseconds and after then an evident lattice expansion along the radial direction. These anisotropic behaviors in the MWCNTs are considered arising from the variety of chemical bonding, i.e. the weak van der Waals bonding between the tubular planes and the strong covalent sp2-hybridized bonds in the tubular sheets. PMID:25672762
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamppeter, T.; Mertens, F. G.; Sánchez, Angel; Gronbech-Jensen, N.; Bishop, A. R.; Dominguez-Adame, F.
The 2-dimensional anisotropic Heisenberg model with XY- or easy-plane symmetry bears non-planar vortices which exhibit a localized structure of the z-components of the spins around the vortex center. In order to study the dynamics of these vortices under thermal fluctuations we use the Landau-Lifshitz equation and add white noise and Gilbert damping. Using a collective variable theory we derive an equation of motion with stochastic forces which are shown to represent white noise with an effective diffusion constant. We compare the results with Langevin dynamics simulations for the Landau-Lifshitz equation and find three temperature regimes: For low temperatures the dynamics is described by a 3rd-order equation of motion, for intermediate temperatures by a 1st-order equation. For higher temperatures, but still below the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition temperature, the spontaneous appearance of vortex-antivortex pairs does not allow a single-particle description.
Dynamical Model for the Decay of Hot and Rotating Compound Nuclei
Gupta, Raj K.; Singh, Dalip; Arun, Sham K.; Niyti; Kumar, Raj
2009-03-04
As an alternative to the well known Hauser-Feshbach analysis and statistical fission model, a dynamical collective clusterization model, called the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM), is developed for the decay of hot and rotating compound nuclei (CN) formed in the low-energy heavy ion reactions. The model is a non-statistical description for the decay of a CN to light particles (LPs), intermediate mass fragments (IMFs), fusion-fission (FF) and quasi-fission (QF)(equivalently, capture) processes. The model considers all decay products as dynamical mass motions of preformed fragments or clusters through the interaction barrier, thereby including structure effects of the CN, and is applicable to CN from different mass regions.
Tadiello, L; D'Arienzo, M; Di Credico, B; Hanel, T; Matejka, L; Mauri, M; Morazzoni, F; Simonutti, R; Spirkova, M; Scotti, R
2015-05-28
Silica-styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) nanocomposites were prepared by using shape-controlled spherical and rod-like silica nanoparticles (NPs) with different aspect ratios (AR = 1-5), obtained by a sol-gel route assisted by a structure directing agent. The nanocomposites were used as models to study the influence of the particle shape on the formation of nanoscale immobilized rubber at the silica-rubber interface and its effect on the dynamic-mechanical behavior. TEM and AFM tapping mode analyses of nanocomposites demonstrated that the silica particles are surrounded by a rubber layer immobilized at the particle surface. The spherical filler showed small contact zones between neighboring particles in contact with thin rubber layers, while anisotropic particles (AR > 2) formed domains of rods preferentially aligned along the main axis. A detailed analysis of the polymer chain mobility by different time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR) techniques evidenced a population of rigid rubber chains surrounding particles, whose amount increases with the particle anisotropy, even in the absence of significant differences in terms of chemical crosslinking. Dynamic measurements demonstrate that rod-like particles induce stronger reinforcement of rubber, increasing with the AR. This was related to the self-alignment of the anisotropic silica particles in domains able to immobilize rubber. PMID:25899456
Martinez, Angel; Smalyukh, Ivan I
2015-02-23
Oscillatory and excitable systems commonly exhibit formation of dynamic non-equilibrium patterns. For example, rotating spiral patterns are observed in biological, chemical, and physical systems ranging from organization of slime mold cells to Belousov-Zhabotinsky reactions, and to crystal growth from nuclei with screw dislocations. Here we describe spontaneous formation of spiral waves and a large variety of other dynamic patterns in anisotropic soft matter driven by low-intensity light. The unstructured ambient or microscope light illumination of thin liquid crystal films in contact with a self-assembled azobenzene monolayer causes spontaneous formation, rich spatial organization, and dynamics of twisted domains and topological solitons accompanied by the dynamic patterning of azobenzene group orientations within the monolayer. Linearly polarized incident light interacts with the twisted liquid crystalline domains, mimicking their dynamics and yielding patterns in the polarization state of transmitted light, which can be transformed to similar dynamic patterns in its intensity and interference color. This shows that the delicate light-soft-matter interaction can yield complex self-patterning of both. We uncover underpinning physical mechanisms and discuss potential uses. PMID:25836496
Decay of aftershock density with distance does not indicate triggering by dynamic stress
Richards-Dinger, K.; Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.
2010-01-01
Resolving whether static or dynamic stress triggers most aftershocks and subsequent mainshocks is essential to understand earthquake interaction and to forecast seismic hazard. Felzer and Brodsky examined the distance distribution of earthquakes occurring in the first five minutes after 2 ≤ M M M ≥ 2 aftershocks showed a uniform power-law decay with slope −1.35 out to 50 km from the mainshocks. From this they argued that the distance decay could be explained only by dynamic triggering. Here we propose an alternative explanation for the decay, and subject their hypothesis to a series of tests, none of which it passes. At distances more than 300 m from the 2 ≤ M< 3 mainshocks, the seismicity decay 5 min before the mainshocks is indistinguishable from the decay five minutes afterwards, indicating that the mainshocks have no effect at distances outside their static triggering range. Omori temporal decay, the fundamental signature of aftershocks, is absent at distances exceeding 10 km from the mainshocks. Finally, the distance decay is found among aftershocks that occur before the arrival of the seismic wave front from the mainshock, which violates causality. We argue that Felzer and Brodsky implicitly assume that the first of two independent aftershocks along a fault rupture triggers the second, and that the first of two shocks in a creep- or intrusion-driven swarm triggers the second, when this need not be the case.
Dynamic surface acoustic response to a thermal expansion source on an anisotropic half space.
Zhao, Peng; Zhao, Ji-Cheng; Weaver, Richard
2013-05-01
The surface displacement response to a distributed thermal expansion source is solved using the reciprocity principle. By convolving the strain Green's function with the thermal stress field created by an ultrafast laser illumination, the complete surface displacement on an anisotropic half space induced by laser absorption is calculated in the time domain. This solution applies to the near field surface displacement due to pulse laser absorption. The solution is validated by performing ultrafast laser pump-probe measurements and showing very good agreement between the measured time-dependent probe beam deflection and the computed surface displacement. PMID:23654371
Anisotropic Stokes drag and dynamic lift on spheres sedimenting in a nematic liquid crystal.
Rovner, Joel B; Reich, Daniel H; Leheny, Robert L
2013-02-19
The motion of silica spheres with homeotropic anchoring sedimenting within nematic liquid crystal 4-cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) has been studied at low Ericksen number. The magnitude of the spheres' velocity depends on the angle θ between the far-field nematic director and the gravitational force, indicating an anisotropic Stokes drag. When the director is oriented at an oblique angle to the gravitational force, the velocity also acquires a component normal to the force, demonstrating the existence of a lift force generated by the fluid. The magnitude and direction of the velocity as functions of θ quantitatively obey theoretically predicted forms. PMID:23379634
Dynamics of equatorial irregularity patch formation, motion, and decay
Aarons, J.; Mullen, J.P.; Whitney, H.E.; MacKenzie, E.M.
1980-01-01
Using scintillation observations from a series of equatorial propagation paths as well as backscatter and airglow data, the development, motion, and decay of equatorial irregularity patches have been studied. Assembling the results of earlier studies in the field with our observations, we find the following: the patch has limited east-west dimensions with a minimum of 100 km. Several patches may be melded together to reach an extent of 1500 km. Its magnetic north-south dimensions are often greater than 2000 km; the most intense irregularities (as evidenced by the Jicamarca radar at the dip equator) are from 225 to 450 km in altitude, although irregularities are found as high as 1000 km. The patch initially has a westward expansion following the solar terminator, then, maintaining its integrity, moves eastward. Evidence over a limited series of experiments suggests that premidnight patches are formed within 1 1/2 hours after ionospheric sunset in the absence of special magnetic conditions. From Ascension Island (approx.16 /sup 0/S dip latitude) the individual patches can be clearly distinguished. The decay of patches in the midnight time period was studied, pointing to a rapid decrease in scintillation intensity in this time period.
Wetzel, David J.; Malone, Marvin A.; Haasch, Richard T.; Meng, Yifei; Vieker, Henning; Hahn, Nathan; Golzhauser, Armin; Zuo, Jian-Min; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Gewirth, Andrew A.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.
2015-08-10
Rechargeable magnesium (Mg) batteries show promise for use as a next generation technology for high-density energy storage, though little is known about the Mg anode solid electrolyte interphase and its implications for the performance and durability of a Mg-based battery. We explore in this report passivation effects engendered during the electrochemical cycling of a bulk Mg anode, characterizing their influences during metal deposition and dissolution in a simple, nonaqueous, Grignard electrolyte solution (ethylmagnesium bromide, EtMgBr, in tetrahydrofuran). Scanning electron microscopy images of Mg foil working electrodes after electrochemical polarization to dissolution potentials show the formation of corrosion pits. The pit densities so evidenced are markedly potential-dependent. When the Mg working electrode is cycled both potentiostatically and galvanostatically in EtMgBr these pits, formed due to passive layer breakdown, act as the foci for subsequent electrochemical activity. Detailed microscopy, diffraction, and spectroscopic data show that further passivation and corrosion results in the anisotropic stripping of the Mg {0001} plane, leaving thin oxide-comprising passivated side wall structures that demark the {0001} fiber texture of the etched Mg grains. Upon long-term cycling, oxide side walls formed due to the pronounced crystallographic anisotropy of the anodic stripping processes, leading to complex overlay anisotropic, columnar structures, exceeding 50 μm in height. Finally, the passive responses mediating the growth of these structures appear to be an intrinsic feature of the electrochemical growth and dissolution of Mg using this electrolyte.
Wetzel, David J; Malone, Marvin A; Haasch, Richard T; Meng, Yifei; Vieker, Henning; Hahn, Nathan T; Gölzhäuser, Armin; Zuo, Jian-Min; Zavadil, Kevin R; Gewirth, Andrew A; Nuzzo, Ralph G
2015-08-26
Although rechargeable magnesium (Mg) batteries show promise for use as a next generation technology for high-density energy storage, little is known about the Mg anode solid electrolyte interphase and its implications for the performance and durability of a Mg-based battery. We explore in this report passivation effects engendered during the electrochemical cycling of a bulk Mg anode, characterizing their influences during metal deposition and dissolution in a simple, nonaqueous, Grignard electrolyte solution (ethylmagnesium bromide, EtMgBr, in tetrahydrofuran). Scanning electron microscopy images of Mg foil working electrodes after electrochemical polarization to dissolution potentials show the formation of corrosion pits. The pit densities so evidenced are markedly potential-dependent. When the Mg working electrode is cycled both potentiostatically and galvanostatically in EtMgBr these pits, formed due to passive layer breakdown, act as the foci for subsequent electrochemical activity. Detailed microscopy, diffraction, and spectroscopic data show that further passivation and corrosion results in the anisotropic stripping of the Mg {0001} plane, leaving thin oxide-comprising passivated side wall structures that demark the {0001} fiber texture of the etched Mg grains. Upon long-term cycling, oxide side walls formed due to the pronounced crystallographic anisotropy of the anodic stripping processes, leading to complex overlay anisotropic, columnar structures, exceeding 50 μm in height. The passive responses mediating the growth of these structures appear to be an intrinsic feature of the electrochemical growth and dissolution of Mg using this electrolyte. PMID:26258957
Activated barrier crossing dynamics in the non-radiative decay of NADH and NADPH
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blacker, Thomas S.; Marsh, Richard J.; Duchen, Michael R.; Bain, Angus J.
2013-08-01
In live tissue, alterations in metabolism induce changes in the fluorescence decay of the biological coenzyme NAD(P)H, the mechanism of which is not well understood. In this work, the fluorescence and anisotropy decay dynamics of NADH and NADPH were investigated as a function of viscosity in a range of water-glycerol solutions. The viscosity dependence of the non-radiative decay is well described by Kramers and Kramers-Hubbard models of activated barrier crossing over a wide viscosity range. Our combined lifetime and anisotropy analysis indicates common mechanisms of non-radiative relaxation in the two emitting states (conformations) of both molecules. The low frequencies associated with barrier crossing suggest that non-radiative decay is mediated by small scale motion (e.g. puckering) of the nicotinamide ring. Variations in the fluorescence lifetimes of NADH and NADPH when bound to different enzymes may therefore be attributed to differing levels of conformational restriction upon binding.
Zheng, Zijian; Wang, Zixuan; Wang, Lu; Liu, Jun; Wu, Youping; Zhang, Liqun
2016-07-01
Although a large number of studies have been performed to study the dispersion behavior of spherical nanoparticles (NPs) in the polymer matrix, little effort has been directed to anisotropic NPs via simulation, which is convenient for controlling the physical parameters compared to experiment. In this work we adopt molecular dynamics simulation to study polymer nanocomposites filled with anisotropic NPs such as graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We investigate the effects of the grafting position, grafting density, the length and flexibility of the grafted chains on the dispersion of graphene and CNTs. In particular, we find that when the grafting position is located on the surface center of the graphene or the middle of the CNT, the dispersion state is the best, leading to the greatest stress-strain behavior. Meanwhile, the mechanical property can be further strengthened by introducing chemical couplings in the interfacial region, by chemically tethering the grafted chains to the matrix chains. To monitor the processing effect, we exert a dynamic periodic shear deformation in the x direction with its gradient in the y direction. Polymer chains are found to align in the x direction, graphene sheets align in the xoz plane and CNTs orientate in the z direction. We study the effects of the shear amplitude, the shear frequency, polymer-NP interaction strength and volume fraction of NPs on the stress-strain behavior. We also observe that the relaxation process following the shear deformation deteriorates the mechanical performance, resulting from the disorientation of polymer chains and NPs. In general, this work could provide valuable guidance in manipulating the distribution and alignment of graphene and CNTs in the polymer matrix. PMID:27196704
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Zijian; Wang, Zixuan; Wang, Lu; Liu, Jun; Wu, Youping; Zhang, Liqun
2016-07-01
Although a large number of studies have been performed to study the dispersion behavior of spherical nanoparticles (NPs) in the polymer matrix, little effort has been directed to anisotropic NPs via simulation, which is convenient for controlling the physical parameters compared to experiment. In this work we adopt molecular dynamics simulation to study polymer nanocomposites filled with anisotropic NPs such as graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We investigate the effects of the grafting position, grafting density, the length and flexibility of the grafted chains on the dispersion of graphene and CNTs. In particular, we find that when the grafting position is located on the surface center of the graphene or the middle of the CNT, the dispersion state is the best, leading to the greatest stress–strain behavior. Meanwhile, the mechanical property can be further strengthened by introducing chemical couplings in the interfacial region, by chemically tethering the grafted chains to the matrix chains. To monitor the processing effect, we exert a dynamic periodic shear deformation in the x direction with its gradient in the y direction. Polymer chains are found to align in the x direction, graphene sheets align in the xoz plane and CNTs orientate in the z direction. We study the effects of the shear amplitude, the shear frequency, polymer–NP interaction strength and volume fraction of NPs on the stress–strain behavior. We also observe that the relaxation process following the shear deformation deteriorates the mechanical performance, resulting from the disorientation of polymer chains and NPs. In general, this work could provide valuable guidance in manipulating the distribution and alignment of graphene and CNTs in the polymer matrix.
Visualization of anisotropic-isotropic phase transformation dynamics in battery electrode particles.
Wang, Jiajun; Karen Chen-Wiegart, Yu-Chen; Eng, Christopher; Shen, Qun; Wang, Jun
2016-01-01
Anisotropy, or alternatively, isotropy of phase transformations extensively exist in a number of solid-state materials, with performance depending on the three-dimensional transformation features. Fundamental insights into internal chemical phase evolution allow manipulating materials with desired functionalities, and can be developed via real-time multi-dimensional imaging methods. Here, we report a five-dimensional imaging method to track phase transformation as a function of charging time in individual lithium iron phosphate battery cathode particles during delithiation. The electrochemically driven phase transformation is initially anisotropic with a preferred boundary migration direction, but becomes isotropic as delithiation proceeds further. We also observe the expected two-phase coexistence throughout the entire charging process. We expect this five-dimensional imaging method to be broadly applicable to problems in energy, materials, environmental and life sciences. PMID:27516044
Visualization of anisotropic-isotropic phase transformation dynamics in battery electrode particles
Wang, Jiajun; Karen Chen-Wiegart, Yu-chen; Eng, Christopher; Shen, Qun; Wang, Jun
2016-01-01
Anisotropy, or alternatively, isotropy of phase transformations extensively exist in a number of solid-state materials, with performance depending on the three-dimensional transformation features. Fundamental insights into internal chemical phase evolution allow manipulating materials with desired functionalities, and can be developed via real-time multi-dimensional imaging methods. Here, we report a five-dimensional imaging method to track phase transformation as a function of charging time in individual lithium iron phosphate battery cathode particles during delithiation. The electrochemically driven phase transformation is initially anisotropic with a preferred boundary migration direction, but becomes isotropic as delithiation proceeds further. We also observe the expected two-phase coexistence throughout the entire charging process. We expect this five-dimensional imaging method to be broadly applicable to problems in energy, materials, environmental and life sciences. PMID:27516044
Dynamic analysis of rotor flex-structure based on nonlinear anisotropic shell models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauchau, Olivier A.; Chiang, Wuying
1991-05-01
In this paper an anisotropic shallow shell model is developed that accommodates transverse shearing deformations and arbitrarily large displacements and rotations, but strains are assumed to remain small. Two kinematic models are developed, the first using two DOF to locate the direction of the normal to the shell's midplane, the second using three. The latter model allows for an automatic compatibility of the shell model with beam models. The shell model is validated by comparing its predictions with several benchmark problems. In actual helicopter rotor blade problems, the shell model of the flex structure is shown to give very different results shown compared to beam models. The lead-lag and torsion modes in particular are strongly affected, whereas flapping modes seem to be less affected.
Gorelikov, G. A.; Fridman, Yu. A.
2013-07-15
The spectra of coupled magnetoelastic waves in a semi-infinite strongly anisotropic easy-plane ferromagnet with a rigidly fixed face are analyzed for two variants of fixation (in the basal plane and perpendicularly to it). The phase states of the system are determined. Differences in the phase diagrams and elementary excitation spectra depending on the choice of the sample fixation plane are considered. When rotational invariance is taken into account, the nonreciprocity effect for the velocities of sound in a crystal appears. It is shown that the velocity of sound in the sample considerably depends on the symmetry of the imposed mechanical boundary conditions. The phase diagrams of the system under investigation are presented.
Wetzel, David J.; Malone, Marvin A.; Haasch, Richard T.; Meng, Yifei; Vieker, Henning; Hahn, Nathan; Golzhauser, Armin; Zuo, Jian-Min; Zavadil, Kevin R.; Gewirth, Andrew A.; et al
2015-08-10
Rechargeable magnesium (Mg) batteries show promise for use as a next generation technology for high-density energy storage, though little is known about the Mg anode solid electrolyte interphase and its implications for the performance and durability of a Mg-based battery. We explore in this report passivation effects engendered during the electrochemical cycling of a bulk Mg anode, characterizing their influences during metal deposition and dissolution in a simple, nonaqueous, Grignard electrolyte solution (ethylmagnesium bromide, EtMgBr, in tetrahydrofuran). Scanning electron microscopy images of Mg foil working electrodes after electrochemical polarization to dissolution potentials show the formation of corrosion pits. The pitmore » densities so evidenced are markedly potential-dependent. When the Mg working electrode is cycled both potentiostatically and galvanostatically in EtMgBr these pits, formed due to passive layer breakdown, act as the foci for subsequent electrochemical activity. Detailed microscopy, diffraction, and spectroscopic data show that further passivation and corrosion results in the anisotropic stripping of the Mg {0001} plane, leaving thin oxide-comprising passivated side wall structures that demark the {0001} fiber texture of the etched Mg grains. Upon long-term cycling, oxide side walls formed due to the pronounced crystallographic anisotropy of the anodic stripping processes, leading to complex overlay anisotropic, columnar structures, exceeding 50 μm in height. Finally, the passive responses mediating the growth of these structures appear to be an intrinsic feature of the electrochemical growth and dissolution of Mg using this electrolyte.« less
Decay studies of 59Cu* formed in the 35Cl + 24Mg reaction using the dynamical cluster-decay model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karthikraj, C.; Balasubramaniam, M.
2013-02-01
The reformulated dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM) is applied to study the decay of odd-A and non-α structured 59Cu* formed in the 35Cl+24Mg reaction at Elab=275 MeV. Here, the temperature (T)-dependent binding energies due to Krappe are used. The roles of Wigner and pairing energies in the fragmentation potential are explicitly shown in this work. For the temperature T=4.1898 MeV corresponding to Elab=275 MeV, the contribution of pairing vanishes and the resulting structure of the fragmentation potential due to Wigner term is shown. In addition to this, we have studied the role of factor α appearing in the inertia part of the equation of motion dictating the mass-transfer process. It is shown that this factor has significant effect in the structure of preformation probability values and hence in turn we see significant changes in the cross sections. We compare the cross sections of the measured charge distributions of the fission fragments for two limiting values of the parameter α with the experimental data. In order to fit the total cross-section values, a linear relation is obtained between the free parameter of the model ▵R and the factor α appearing in the hydrodynamical mass.
Choudhary, Ashu; Chandra, Amalendu
2016-02-17
The anisotropic structure and dynamics of the hydration shell of a benzene solute in liquid water have been investigated by means of ab initio molecular dynamics simulations using the BLYP (Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr) and dispersion corrected BLYP-D functionals. The main focus has been to look at the influence of π-hydrogen-bonding and hydrophobic interactions on the distance and angle resolved various structural and dynamic properties of solvation shell. The structure of hydration shell water molecules around benzene is found to be highly anisotropic as revealed by the radial distribution functions of different conical regions and joint radial/angular distribution functions. The benzene-water dimer potential energy curves are calculated for a variety of orientations of water along the axial and equatorial directions for both BLYP and BLYP-D functionals. The simulation results of the hydration shell structure of benzene, particularly the axial and equatorial benzene-water RDFs are discussed based on the differences in the benzene-water potential energies for different orientations and functionals. The inter-particle distance/angle correlations show an enhanced water structure in the solvation shell of benzene compared to that between the solvation shell and bulk and also between the bulk molecules. On average, a single πH-bond is found to be formed between water and benzene in the 45° axial conical region of the solvation shell. The πH-bonded water molecules are found to have faster translational dynamics and also found to follow a fast jump mechanism of reorientation to change their hydrogen bonded partners. The presence of π-hydrogen-bonded water makes the overall dynamics of the axial region faster than that of the equatorial region where the water molecules are hydrophobically solvated and hydrogen bonded to other water molecules. PMID:26847163
Spectroscopy and decay dynamics of several methyl-and fluorine-substituted benzene radical cations
Bondybey, V.E.; Vaughn, C.; Miller, T.A.; English, J.H.; Shiley, R.H.
1981-01-01
Spectra of several fluorobenzene cation radicals containing 1-3 methyl substituents were observed in solid Ne matrix and analyzed. Comparisons between these compounds and other fluorobenzenes studied previously as well as comparisons between the B?? state lifetimes in the gas phase and in the matrix are used to gain a deeper insight into the B?? state decay dynamics. ?? 1981 American Chemical Society.
Microbial community dynamics alleviate stoichiometric constraints during litter decay
Kaiser, Christina; Franklin, Oskar; Dieckmann, Ulf; Richter, Andreas
2014-01-01
Under the current paradigm, organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling rates are a function of the imbalance between substrate and microbial biomass stoichiometry. Challenging this view, we demonstrate that in an individual-based model, microbial community dynamics alter relative C and N limitation during litter decomposition, leading to a system behaviour not predictable from stoichiometric theory alone. Rather, the dynamics of interacting functional groups lead to an adaptation at the community level, which accelerates nitrogen recycling in litter with high initial C : N ratios and thus alleviates microbial N limitation. This mechanism allows microbial decomposers to overcome large imbalances between resource and biomass stoichiometry without the need to decrease carbon use efficiency (CUE), which is in contrast to predictions of traditional stoichiometric mass balance equations. We conclude that identifying and implementing microbial community-driven mechanisms in biogeochemical models are necessary for accurately predicting terrestrial C fluxes in response to changing environmental conditions. PMID:24628731
Microbial community dynamics alleviate stoichiometric constraints during litter decay.
Kaiser, Christina; Franklin, Oskar; Dieckmann, Ulf; Richter, Andreas
2014-06-01
Under the current paradigm, organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling rates are a function of the imbalance between substrate and microbial biomass stoichiometry. Challenging this view, we demonstrate that in an individual-based model, microbial community dynamics alter relative C and N limitation during litter decomposition, leading to a system behaviour not predictable from stoichiometric theory alone. Rather, the dynamics of interacting functional groups lead to an adaptation at the community level, which accelerates nitrogen recycling in litter with high initial C : N ratios and thus alleviates microbial N limitation. This mechanism allows microbial decomposers to overcome large imbalances between resource and biomass stoichiometry without the need to decrease carbon use efficiency (CUE), which is in contrast to predictions of traditional stoichiometric mass balance equations. We conclude that identifying and implementing microbial community-driven mechanisms in biogeochemical models are necessary for accurately predicting terrestrial C fluxes in response to changing environmental conditions. PMID:24628731
Decay of aftershock density with distance does not indicate triggering by dynamic stress.
Richards-Dinger, Keith; Stein, Ross S; Toda, Shinji
2010-09-30
Resolving whether static or dynamic stress triggers most aftershocks and subsequent mainshocks is essential to understand earthquake interaction and to forecast seismic hazard. Felzer and Brodsky examined the distance distribution of earthquakes occurring in the first five minutes after 2 ≤ M < 3 and 3 ≤ M < 4 mainshocks and found that their magnitude M ≥ 2 aftershocks showed a uniform power-law decay with slope -1.35 out to 50 km from the mainshocks. From this they argued that the distance decay could be explained only by dynamic triggering. Here we propose an alternative explanation for the decay, and subject their hypothesis to a series of tests, none of which it passes. At distances more than 300 m from the 2 ≤ M < 3 mainshocks, the seismicity decay 5 min before the mainshocks is indistinguishable from the decay five minutes afterwards, indicating that the mainshocks have no effect at distances outside their static triggering range. Omori temporal decay, the fundamental signature of aftershocks, is absent at distances exceeding 10 km from the mainshocks. Finally, the distance decay is found among aftershocks that occur before the arrival of the seismic wave front from the mainshock, which violates causality. We argue that Felzer and Brodsky implicitly assume that the first of two independent aftershocks along a fault rupture triggers the second, and that the first of two shocks in a creep- or intrusion-driven swarm triggers the second, when this need not be the case. PMID:20882015
Nonmesonic weak decay dynamics from proton spectra of Λ-hypernuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krmpotić, Franjo; de Conti, Cláudio
2014-12-01
A novel comparison between the data and the theory is proposed for the nonmesonic (NM) weak decay of hypernuclei. Instead of confronting the primary decay rates, as is usually done, we focus our attention on the effective decay rates that are straightforwardly related with the number of emitted particles. Proton kinetic energy spectra of {}5Λ He, {}7Λ Li, {}9Λ Be, {}11Λ B, {}12Λ C, {}13Λ C, {}15Λ N and {}16Λ O, measured by FINUDA, are evaluated theoretically. The independent particle shell model (IPSM) is used as the nuclear structure framework, while the dynamics is described by the one-meson-exchange (OME) potential. Only for the {}5Λ He, {}7Λ Li and {}12Λ C hypernuclei it is possible to make a comparison with the data, since for the rest there is no published experimental information on number of produced hypernuclei. Considering solely the one-nucleon-induced (1N-NM) decay channel, the theory reproduces correctly the shapes of all three spectra at medium and high energies (Ep ≳ 40 MeV). Yet, it greatly overestimates their magnitudes, as well as the corresponding transition rates when the full OME (π + K + η + ρ + ω + K*) model is used. The agreement is much improved when only the π + K mesons with soft dipole cutoff parameters participate in the decay process. We find that the IPSM is a fair first-order approximation to disentangle the dynamics of the 1N-NM decay, the knowledge of which is indispensable to inquire about the baryon-baryon strangeness-flipping interaction. It is shown that the IPSM provides very useful insights regarding the determination the 2N-NM decay rate. In a new analysis of the FINUDA data, we derive two results for this quantity with one of them close to that obtained previously.
Eslami, Hossein; Mohammadzadeh, Laila; Mehdipour, Nargess
2012-03-14
While polymers are known as thermal insulators, recent studies show that stretched single chains of polymers have a very high thermal conductivity. In this work, our new simulation scheme for simulation of heat flow in nanoconfined fluids [H. Eslami, L. Mohammadzadeh, and N. Mehdipour, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 064703 (2011)] is employed to study the effect of chain ordering (stretching) on the rate of heat transfer in polyamide-6,6 nanoconfined between graphene surfaces. Our results for the heat flow in the parallel direction (the plane of surfaces) show that the coefficient of thermal conductivity depends on the intersurface distance and is much higher than that of the bulk polymer. A comparison of results in this work with our former findings on the heat flow in the perpendicular direction, with the coefficient of heat conductivity less than the bulk sample, reveal that well-organized polymer layers between the confining surfaces show an anisotropic heat conduction; the heat conduction in the direction parallel to the surfaces is much higher than that in the perpendicular direction. The origin of such anisotropy in nanometric heat flow is shown to be the dramatic anisotropy in chain conformations (chain stretching) beside the confining surfaces. The results indicate that the coefficients of heat conductivity in both directions, normal and parallel to the surfaces, depend on the degree of polymer layering between the surfaces and the pore width. PMID:22423855
Non-Markovian dynamics of quantum systems. II. Decay rate, capture, and pure states
Palchikov, Yu.V.; Antonenko, N.V.; Kanokov, Z.; Adamian, G.G.; Scheid, W.
2005-01-01
On the basis of a master equation for the reduced density matrix of open quantum systems, we study the influence of time-dependent friction and diffusion coefficients on the decay rate from a potential well and the capture probability into a potential well. Taking into account the mixed diffusion coefficient D{sub qp}, the quasistationary decay rates are compared with the analytically derived Kramers-type formulas for different temperatures and frictions. The diffusion coefficients supplying the purity of states are derived for a non-Markovian dynamics.
Gale, Charles; Jeon, Sangyong; Schenke, Björn; Tribedy, Prithwish; Venugopalan, Raju
2013-01-01
Anisotropic flow coefficients v(1)-v(5) in heavy ion collisions are computed by combining a classical Yang-Mills description of the early time Glasma flow with the subsequent relativistic viscous hydrodynamic evolution of matter through the quark-gluon plasma and hadron gas phases. The Glasma dynamics, as realized in the impact parameter dependent Glasma (IP-Glasma) model, takes into account event-by-event geometric fluctuations in nucleon positions and intrinsic subnucleon scale color charge fluctuations; the preequilibrium flow of matter is then matched to the music algorithm describing viscous hydrodynamic flow and particle production at freeze-out. The IP-Glasma+MUSIC model describes well both transverse momentum dependent and integrated v(n) data measured at the Large Hadron Collider and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The model also reproduces the event-by-event distributions of v(2), v(3) and v(4) measured by the ATLAS Collaboration. The implications of our results for better understanding of the dynamics of the Glasma and for the extraction of transport properties of the quark-gluon plasma are outlined. PMID:23383781
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gale, Charles; Jeon, Sangyong; Schenke, Björn; Tribedy, Prithwish; Venugopalan, Raju
2013-01-01
Anisotropic flow coefficients v1-v5 in heavy ion collisions are computed by combining a classical Yang-Mills description of the early time Glasma flow with the subsequent relativistic viscous hydrodynamic evolution of matter through the quark-gluon plasma and hadron gas phases. The Glasma dynamics, as realized in the impact parameter dependent Glasma (IP-Glasma) model, takes into account event-by-event geometric fluctuations in nucleon positions and intrinsic subnucleon scale color charge fluctuations; the preequilibrium flow of matter is then matched to the music algorithm describing viscous hydrodynamic flow and particle production at freeze-out. The IP-Glasma+MUSIC model describes well both transverse momentum dependent and integrated vn data measured at the Large Hadron Collider and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The model also reproduces the event-by-event distributions of v2, v3 and v4 measured by the ATLAS Collaboration. The implications of our results for better understanding of the dynamics of the Glasma and for the extraction of transport properties of the quark-gluon plasma are outlined.
Colmenares, Pedro J; López, Floralba; Olivares-Rivas, Wilmer
2009-12-01
We carried out a molecular-dynamics (MD) study of the self-diffusion tensor of a Lennard-Jones-type fluid, confined in a slit pore with attractive walls. We developed Bayesian equations, which modify the virtual layer sampling method proposed by Liu, Harder, and Berne (LHB) [P. Liu, E. Harder, and B. J. Berne, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 6595 (2004)]. Additionally, we obtained an analytical solution for the corresponding nonhomogeneous Langevin equation. The expressions found for the mean-squared displacement in the layers contain naturally a modification due to the mean force in the transverse component in terms of the anisotropic diffusion constants and mean exit time. Instead of running a time consuming dual MD-Langevin simulation dynamics, as proposed by LHB, our expression was used to fit the MD data in the entire survival time interval not only for the parallel but also for the perpendicular direction. The only fitting parameter was the diffusion constant in each layer. PMID:20365134
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colmenares, Pedro J.; López, Floralba; Olivares-Rivas, Wilmer
2009-12-01
We carried out a molecular-dynamics (MD) study of the self-diffusion tensor of a Lennard-Jones-type fluid, confined in a slit pore with attractive walls. We developed Bayesian equations, which modify the virtual layer sampling method proposed by Liu, Harder, and Berne (LHB) [P. Liu, E. Harder, and B. J. Berne, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 6595 (2004)]. Additionally, we obtained an analytical solution for the corresponding nonhomogeneous Langevin equation. The expressions found for the mean-squared displacement in the layers contain naturally a modification due to the mean force in the transverse component in terms of the anisotropic diffusion constants and mean exit time. Instead of running a time consuming dual MD-Langevin simulation dynamics, as proposed by LHB, our expression was used to fit the MD data in the entire survival time interval not only for the parallel but also for the perpendicular direction. The only fitting parameter was the diffusion constant in each layer.
The decay dynamics of photoexcited argon cluster ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, J. A.; Gotts, N. G.; Winkel, J. F.; Hallett, R.; Woodward, C. A.; Stace, A. J.; Whitaker, B. J.
1992-07-01
Following the photoexcitation of argon cluster ions, Ar+n for n in the range 4-25, kinetic energy release measurements have been undertaken on the fragments using two quite separate techniques. For Ar+4-Ar+6, fragment ion kinetic energy spectra were recorded at 532 nm in a crossed beam apparatus as a function of the angle of polarization of the laser radiation with respect to the incident ion beam. Only Ar+ from Ar+4 was observed to exhibit a polarization dependence together with a comparatively high kinetic energy release. The principal fragment ion Ar+2 was found both to emerge with a low kinetic energy release and to display no dependence on the angle of polarization of the radiation. In a second series of experiments, mass and kinetic energy resolved cluster ions were photodissociated in the entrance to a time-of-flight (TOF) device of variable length. The subsequent deflection of all ions allowed for time resolved measurements to be undertaken on the neutral photofragments. Following the absorption of a photon, all cluster ions up to Ar+25 were found to eject one/two neutral atoms with comparatively high kinetic energies. Any remaining internal energy appears to be dissipated through the loss of further neutral atoms with low kinetic energies. An analysis of the laser polarization dependence of these events, shows that those atoms identified as having high kinetic energies are ejected on a time scale which is short compared with the rotation period of a cluster (≂10 ps). These experimental observations are consistent with the results of recent molecular dynamics simulations of excited states in rare gas clusters by Landman, Jortner, and co-workers [J. Phys. Chem. 91, 4890 (1987); J. Chem. Phys. 88, 4273 (1988)]. Kinetic energy releases calculated from the TOF spectra exhibit marked fluctuations as a function of cluster size, with Ar+15 showing a minimum and Ar+19 a maximum. It is suggested that such behavior is part of a dynamic response to changes in
Entrance channel effect with stable and radioactive beams using dynamical cluster decay model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Raj; Jain, Deepika
2014-09-01
The decay of hot and rotating 172Yb*, formed in two entrance channels 124Sn + 48Ca and 132Sn + 40Ca, is studied using the dynamical cluster-decay model. The effect of entrance channel, deformations (up to β2), barrier modification and fusion enhancement are addressed. The decay pattern of compound system, formed in different channels at comparable energy around the barrier, shows change in magnitude with structure remains almost same. There is an increase in the fusion probability with decrease in barrier modification, which leads to fusion enhancement at low energies. The higher ℓ values are contributing for 132Sn + 40Ca channel at lower energies as compare to 124Sn + 48Ca. It is inferred that with the use of stable and radioactive beam, forming same compound nucleus, the entrance channel dependence changes with the excitation energy.
Impact of nuclear dynamics on interatomic Coulombic decay in a He dimer
Sisourat, Nicolas; Kryzhevoi, Nikolai V.; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.; Kolorenc, Premysl; Scheit, Simona
2010-11-15
After simultaneous ionization and excitation of one helium atom within the giant weakly bound helium dimer, the excited ion can relax via interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) and the excess energy is transferred to ionize the neighboring helium atom. We showed [Sisourat et al. Nature Phys. 6, 508 (2010)] that the distributions of the kinetic energy released by the two ions reflect the nodal structures of the ICD-involved vibrational wave functions. We also demonstrated that energy transfer via ICD between the two helium atoms can take place over more than 14 A. We report here a more detailed analysis of the ICD process and of the impact of the nuclear dynamics on the electronic decay. Nonadiabatic effects during the ICD process and the accuracy of the potential energy curve of helium dimer and of the computed decay rates are also investigated.
Zacharias, M; Hagerman, P J
1997-01-01
Bends in nucleic acid helices can be quantified in a transient electric birefringence (TEB) experiment from the ratio of the terminal decay times of the bent molecule and its fully duplex counterpart (tau-ratio method). The apparent bend angles can be extracted from the experimental tau-ratios through the application of static (equilibrium-ensemble) hydrodynamic models; however, such models do not properly address the faster component(s) of the birefringence decay profile, which can represent up to 80% of the total birefringence signal for large band angles. To address this latter issue, the relative amplitudes of the components in the birefringence decay profile have been analyzed through a series of Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations. Decay profiles have been simulated for three-, five-, and nine-bead models representing RNA molecules with central bends of 30 degrees, 60 degrees, and 90 degrees, and with various degrees of associated angle dispersion. The BD simulations are in close agreement with experimental results for the fractional amplitudes, suggesting that both amplitudes and terminal tau-ratios can be used as a measure of the magnitudes of bends in the helix axis. Although the current results indicate that it is generally not possible to distinguish between relatively fixed and highly flexible bends from single tau-ratio measurements, because they can lead to similar reductions in terminal decay time and amplitude, measurements of the dependence of the fractional amplitudes on helix length may afford such a distinction. PMID:9199796
Femtosecond decay dynamics of intact adenine and thymine base pairs in a supersonic jet.
Kim, Nam Joon; Chang, Jinyoung; Kim, Hyung Min; Kang, Hyuk; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Heo, Jiyoung; Kim, Seong Keun
2011-07-11
We investigated the decay dynamics of the DNA base pairs adenine-adenine (A(2)), adenine-thymine (AT), and thymine-thymine (T(2)) produced in a supersonic jet by femtosecond (fs) time-resolved photoionization spectroscopy. The base pair was excited by a fs pump pulse at 267 nm and the population change of its excited state was monitored by non-resonant three-photon ionization using a fs probe pulse at 800 nm after a certain time delay. All of the transients recorded in the mass channel of the parent ion exhibited a tri-exponential decay, with time constants ranging from 100 fs to longer than 100 ps. Most of these time constants coincide well with the previous values deduced indirectly from the transients of protonated adenine (AH(+)) and thymine (TH(+)), which were assumed to be produced by fragmentation of the base-pair ions. Notably, for the transient of T(2), we observed a new decay component with a time constant of 2.3 ps, which was absent in the transient of TH(+). We suggest that the new decay component arises from the decay of stacked T(2) dimers that are mostly ionized to T(2)(+), whereas the decay signal recorded in the mass channel of TH(+) is merely from the relaxation of hydrogen-bonded T(2) dimers. From the amplitude of the new decay component, the population of the stacked T(2) dimers relative to the hydrogen-bonded dimers was estimated to be ∼2 % in the supersonic jet, which is about fifteen times higher than the theoretical value. PMID:21710523
Detecting the dynamical state of the atmosphere from the orbital decay of the ODERACS spheres
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tan, Arjun
1996-01-01
The orbital decay curve of a satellite having constant cross-sectional area and in circular orbit can furnish valuable information regarding the dynamical state of the atmosphere. It is shown that a rectilinear decay curve having constant downward slope (zero curvature) should indicate that the atmosphere was undergoing compression during that period. A decay curve having concavity upwards (positive curvature) will strongly indicate that the atmosphere was in a contracting phase. A decay curve with downward concavity (negative curvature) may indicate an expanding, a stationary or a contracting atmosphere. This theory, when applied to the orbital decay of the Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS) satellites, indicates that during the period from Day 90 through Day 240 in the year 1994, the atmosphere was very definitely in a compression mode. During this period, ODERACS Sphere 1 faced nearly constant densities while Sphere 6 actually encountered progressively smaller air densities as they descended. The atmospheric scale height as calculated from the orbital data of Spheres 1 and 6 diminished steadily during the same period. It is shown that Spheres 1 and 6 descended faster and slower respectively, than the level of constant air density equal to 5 x 10 kg/m . During a brief period from Day 240 through Day 290, the atmosphere reversed to a strongly expanding mode. Thereafter, the atmosphere reverted back to a compression mode from Day 290 through Day 390, 1994.
Decay dynamics of N2O under the impact of fast electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Arnab; Misra, Deepankar
2016-03-01
We experimentally investigate the two- and three-body breakup dynamics of N2O{}q+ (q=2,3) under the impact of fast (5 keV) electrons using a coincidence momentum spectroscopy technique. The kinetic energy release (KER) distributions have been derived from the measured momenta for various breakup channels. The present values are found to be quite different from a previously reported high energy electron impact study. From the measured momentum vectors, the geometry of the precursor molecular ion prior to the fragmentation has been reconstructed. The three-body decay dynamics of N2O3+ has been studied using Dalitz plots and Newton diagrams with a view of concerted and sequential decay mechanisms. It is found that the sequential process is present along with the concerted process for the N2O3+ \\to N+ + NO2+ \\quad \\to N+ + N+ + O+ channel.
Reprint of : Dynamics of a quantum wave emitted by a decaying and evanescent point source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delgado, F.; Muga, J. G.
2016-08-01
We put forward a model that describes a decaying and evanescent point source of non-interacting quantum waves in 1D. This point-source assumption allows for a simple description that captures the essential aspects of the dynamics of a wave traveling through a classically forbidden region without the need to specify the details of the inner region. The dynamics of the resulting wave is examined and several characteristic times are identified. One of them generalizes the tunneling time-scale introduced by Büttiker and Landauer and it characterizes the arrival of the maximum of the wave function. Diffraction in time and deviations from exponential decay are also studied. Here we show that there exists an optimal injection frequency and detection point for the observation of these two quantum phenomena.
A Dynamic/Anisotropic Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Ionizing Radiation Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Badavi, Francis F.; West, Katie J.; Nealy, John E.; Wilson, John W.; Abrahms, Briana L.; Luetke, Nathan J.
2006-01-01
The International Space Station (ISS) provides the proving ground for future long duration human activities in space. Ionizing radiation measurements in ISS form the ideal tool for the experimental validation of ionizing radiation environmental models, nuclear transport code algorithms, and nuclear reaction cross sections. Indeed, prior measurements on the Space Transportation System (STS; Shuttle) have provided vital information impacting both the environmental models and the nuclear transport code development by requiring dynamic models of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. Previous studies using Computer Aided Design (CAD) models of the evolving ISS configurations with Thermo Luminescent Detector (TLD) area monitors, demonstrated that computational dosimetry requires environmental models with accurate non-isotropic as well as dynamic behavior, detailed information on rack loading, and an accurate 6 degree of freedom (DOF) description of ISS trajectory and orientation.
Non-equilibrium dynamics of magnetically anisotropic particles under oscillating fields.
Steinbach, Gabi; Gemming, Sibylle; Erbe, Artur
2016-07-01
In this article, we demonstrate how magnetic anisotropy of colloidal particles can give rise to unusual dynamics and controllable rearrangements under time-dependent fields. As an example, we study spherical particles with a radially off-centered net magnetic moment in an oscillating field. Based on complementary data from a numerical simulation of spheres with shifted dipole and experimental observations from particles with hemispherical ferromagnetic coating, it is explained on a two particle basis how this magnetic anisotropy causes nontrivial rotational motion and magnetic reorientation. We further present the behavior of larger ensembles of coated particles. It illustrates the potential for controlled reconfiguration based on the presented two-particle dynamics. PMID:27412618
Molecular dynamic studies on anisotropic explosion of laser irradiated Xe cluster
Mishra, Gaurav; Gupta, N. K.
2012-09-15
A three dimensional molecular dynamic model is used to investigate the dynamics of Xe clusters of various radii irradiated by laser of moderate intensities ({approx}10{sup 14}-10{sup 16}W/cm{sup 2}). The FWHM pulse duration of the laser is varied from few laser cycles to hundreds of femtosecond. For cluster of radius 50 A irradiated by a laser of 170 fs pulse duration, it is observed that ion yield is more along the direction of laser polarization than perpendicular to it. This trend reverses (more ions are emitted along the direction perpendicular to laser polarization than parallel to it) when laser pulses of few cycles are used. This reversal of anisotropy is explained on the basis of spatial shielding of ions due to the oscillating inner electron cloud along direction of laser electric field. The nature of anisotropy remains same with variations in laser intensity and cluster size.
Covariant stringlike dynamics of scroll wave filaments in anisotropic cardiac tissue.
Verschelde, Henri; Dierckx, Hans; Bernus, Olivier
2007-10-19
It has been hypothesized that stationary scroll wave filaments in cardiac tissue describe a geodesic in a curved space whose metric is the inverse diffusion tensor. Several numerical studies support this hypothesis, but no analytical proof has been provided yet for general anisotropy. In this Letter, we derive dynamic equations for the filament in the case of general anisotropy. These equations are covariant under general spatial coordinate transformations and describe the motion of a stringlike object in a curved space whose metric tensor is the inverse diffusion tensor. Therefore the behavior of scroll wave filaments in excitable media with anisotropy is similar to the one of cosmic strings in a curved universe. Our dynamic equations are valid for thin filaments and for general anisotropy. We show that stationary filaments obey the geodesic equation. PMID:17995301
(13)C-(1)H NMR relaxation and fluorescence anisotropy decay study of tyrosine dynamics in motilin.
Damberg, Peter; Jarvet, Jüri; Allard, Peter; Mets, Ulo; Rigler, Rudolf; Gräslund, Astrid
2002-01-01
Tyrosine ring dynamics of the gastrointestinal hormone motilin was studied using two independent physical methods: fluorescence polarization anisotropy decay and NMR relaxation. Motilin, a 22-residue peptide, was selectively (13)C labeled in the ring epsilon-carbons of the single tyrosine residue. To eliminate effects of differences in peptide concentration, the same motilin sample was used in both experiments. NMR relaxation rates of the tyrosine ring C(epsilon)-H(epsilon) vectors, measured at four magnetic field strengths (9.4, 11.7, 14.1, and 18.8 Tesla) were used to map the spectral density function. When the data were analyzed using dynamic models with the same number of components, the dynamic parameters from NMR and fluorescence are in excellent agreement. However, the estimated rotational correlation times depend on the choice of dynamic model. The correlation times estimated from the two-component model-free approach and the three-component models were significantly different (1.7 ns and 2.2 ns, respectively). Various earlier studies of protein dynamics by NMR and fluorescence were compared. The rotational correlation times estimated by NMR for samples with high protein concentration were on average 18% longer for folded monomeric proteins than the corresponding times estimated by fluorescence polarization anisotropy decay, after correction for differences in viscosity due to temperature and D(2)O/H(2)O ratio. PMID:12414713
Cross, T.A.; Lee, K.C.; Ketchem, R.R.; Hu, W.; Lazo, N.D.; Huo, S.
1994-12-01
To understand the details of macromolecular function, high-resolution structural and dynamic detail is essential. The polypeptide fold of the gramicidin channel has been effectively modeled for the past 20 years, yet the functional changes in conductance and channel lifetime associated with amino acid substitutions cannot be predicted. To accomplish this goal, high-resolution electrostatic modeling and the precise orientation of all dipoles are required. Furthermore, an enhanced knowledge of the complex molecular environment of this membrane-bound peptide is needed. An aqueous environment is relatively uniform and achiral. The membrane environment is very heterogenous and chiral. A knowledge of the interactions, specific and nonspecific, between peptide and lipid will aid in developing a better understanding of this environment. To accomplish this goal, it is necessary to study the peptide in an extended lipid bilayer, rather than in a vesicular or micellar form. These latter environments are likely to possess increased dynamics, increased water penetration, and distorted interactions between the polypeptide and membrane surface. To perform NMR studies on bilayer bound peptides, solid state NMR methods are required, and for specific site information, isotopic labels are incorporated using solid phase peptide synthesis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeppesen, Claus; Flyvbjerg, Henrik; Mouritsen, Ole G.
1989-11-01
Monte Carlo computer-simulation techniques are used to elucidate the equilibrium phase behavior as well as the late-stage ordering dynamics of some two-dimensional models with ground-state ordering of a high degeneracy Q. The models are Q-state Potts models with anisotropic grain-boundary potential on triangular lattices-essentially clock models, except that the potential is not a cosine, but a sine function of the angle between neighboring grain orientations. For not too small Q, these models display two thermally driven phase transitions, one which takes the system from a low-temperature Potts-ordered phase to an intermediate phase which lacks conventional long-range order, and another transition which takes the system to the high-temperature disordered phase. The linear nature of the sine potential used makes it a marginal case in the sense that it favors neither hard domain boundaries, like the standard Potts models do, nor a wetting of the boundaries, as the standard clock models do. Thermal fluctuations nevertheless cause wetting to occur for not too small temperatures. Specifically, we have studied models with Q=12 and 48. The models are quenched from infinity to zero as well as finite temperatures within the two low-temperature phases. The order parameter is a nonconserved quantity during these quenches. The nonequilibrium ordering process subsequent to the quench is studied as a function of time by calculating the interfacial energy, ΔE, associated with the entire grain-boundary network. The time evolution of this quantity is shown to obey the growth law, ΔE(t)~t-n, over an extended time range at late times. It is found that the zero-temperature dynamics is characterized by a special exponent value which for the Q=48 model is n~=0.25 in accordance with earlier work. However, for quenches to finite temperatures in the Potts-ordered phase there is a distinct crossover to the classical Lifshitz-Allen-Cahn exponent value, n=(1/2, for both values of Q. This
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Badavi, Francis F.; Nealy, John E.; Wilson, John W.
2011-10-01
The International Space Station (ISS) provides the proving ground for future long duration human activities in space. Ionizing radiation measurements in ISS form the ideal tool for the experimental validation of radiation environmental models, nuclear transport code algorithms and nuclear reaction cross sections. Indeed, prior measurements on the Space Transportation System (STS; Shuttle) have provided vital information impacting both the environmental models and the nuclear transport code development by requiring dynamic models of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. Previous studies using Computer Aided Design (CAD) models of the evolving ISS configurations with Thermo-Luminescent Detector (TLD) area monitors, demonstrated that computational dosimetry requires environmental models with accurate non-isotropic as well as dynamic behavior, detailed information on rack loading, and an accurate six degree of freedom (DOF) description of ISS trajectory and orientation. It is imperative that we understand ISS exposures dynamically for crew career planning, and insure that the regulatory requirements of keeping exposure as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) are adequately implemented. This is especially true as ISS nears some form of completion with increasing complexity, resulting in a larger drag coefficient, and requiring operation at higher altitudes with increased exposure rates. In this paper ISS environmental model is configured for 11A (circa mid 2005), and uses non-isotropic and dynamic geomagnetic transmission and trapped proton models. ISS 11A and LEO model validations are important steps in preparation for the design and validation for the next generation manned vehicles. While the described cutoff rigidity, trapped proton and electron formalisms as coded in a package named GEORAD (GEOmagnetic RADiation) and a web interface named OLTARIS (On-line Tool for the Assessment of Radiation in Space) are applicable to the LEO, Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takae, Kyohei; Onuki, Akira
2013-10-01
We study glass behavior in a mixture of elliptic and circular particles in two dimensions at low temperatures using an orientation-dependent Lennard-Jones potential. The ellipses have a mild aspect ratio (˜1.2) and tend to align at low temperatures, while the circular particles play the role of impurities disturbing the ellipse orientations at a concentration of 20%. These impurities have a size smaller than that of the ellipses and attract them in the homeotropic alignment. As a result, the coordination number around each impurity is mostly 5 or 4 in glassy states. We realize double glass, where both the orientations and the positions are disordered but still hold mesoscopic order. We find a strong heterogeneity in the flip motions of the ellipses, which sensitively depends on the impurity clustering. In our model, a small fraction of the ellipses still undergo flip motions relatively rapidly even at low temperatures. In contrast, the nonflip rotations (with angle changes not close to ±π) are mainly caused by the cooperative configuration changes involving many particles. Then, there arises a long-time heterogeneity in the nonflip rotations closely correlated with the dynamic heterogeneity in displacements.
Takae, Kyohei; Onuki, Akira
2013-10-01
We study glass behavior in a mixture of elliptic and circular particles in two dimensions at low temperatures using an orientation-dependent Lennard-Jones potential. The ellipses have a mild aspect ratio (∼1.2) and tend to align at low temperatures, while the circular particles play the role of impurities disturbing the ellipse orientations at a concentration of 20%. These impurities have a size smaller than that of the ellipses and attract them in the homeotropic alignment. As a result, the coordination number around each impurity is mostly 5 or 4 in glassy states. We realize double glass, where both the orientations and the positions are disordered but still hold mesoscopic order. We find a strong heterogeneity in the flip motions of the ellipses, which sensitively depends on the impurity clustering. In our model, a small fraction of the ellipses still undergo flip motions relatively rapidly even at low temperatures. In contrast, the nonflip rotations (with angle changes not close to ±π) are mainly caused by the cooperative configuration changes involving many particles. Then, there arises a long-time heterogeneity in the nonflip rotations closely correlated with the dynamic heterogeneity in displacements. PMID:24229182
Spin dynamics of paramagnetic centers with anisotropic g tensor and spin of 1/2.
Maryasov, Alexander G; Bowman, Michael K
2012-08-01
The influence of g tensor anisotropy on spin dynamics of paramagnetic centers having real or effective spin of 1/2 is studied. The g anisotropy affects both the excitation and the detection of EPR signals, producing noticeable differences between conventional continuous-wave (cw) EPR and pulsed EPR spectra. The magnitudes and directions of the spin and magnetic moment vectors are generally not proportional to each other, but are related to each other through the g tensor. The equilibrium magnetic moment direction is generally parallel to neither the magnetic field nor the spin quantization axis due to the g anisotropy. After excitation with short microwave pulses, the spin vector precesses around its quantization axis, in a plane that is generally not perpendicular to the applied magnetic field. Paradoxically, the magnetic moment vector precesses around its equilibrium direction in a plane exactly perpendicular to the external magnetic field. In the general case, the oscillating part of the magnetic moment is elliptically polarized and the direction of precession is determined by the sign of the g tensor determinant (g tensor signature). Conventional pulsed and cw EPR spectrometers do not allow determination of the g tensor signature or the ellipticity of the magnetic moment trajectory. It is generally impossible to set a uniform spin turning angle for simple pulses in an unoriented or 'powder' sample when g tensor anisotropy is significant. PMID:22743542
Meena, Santosh Kumar; Sulpizi, Marialore
2013-12-01
We use molecular dynamics simulations in order to understand the microscopic origin of the asymmetric growth mechanism in gold nanorods. We provide the first atomistic model of different surfaces on gold nanoparticles in a growing electrolyte solution, and we describe the interaction of the metal with the surfactants, namely, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and the ions. An innovative aspect is the inclusion of the role of the surfactants, which are explicitly modeled. We find that on all the investigated surfaces, namely, (111), (110), and (100), CTAB forms a layer of distorted cylindrical micelles where channels among micelles provide direct ion access to the surface. In particular, we show how AuCl2(-) ions, which are found in the growth solution, can freely diffuse from the bulk solution to the gold surface. We also find that the (111) surface exhibits a higher CTAB packing density and a higher electrostatic potential. Both elements would favor the growth of gold nanoparticles along the (111) direction. These findings are in agreement with the growth mechanisms proposed by the experimental groups of Murphy and Mulvaney. PMID:24224887
Non-Abelian dynamics in the resonant decay of the Higgs after inflation
Enqvist, Kari; Nurmi, Sami; Rusak, Stanislav E-mail: sami.nurmi@helsinki.fi
2014-10-01
We study the resonant decay of the Higgs condensate into weak gauge bosons after inflation and estimate the corrections arising from the non-Abelian self-interactions of the gauge fields. We find that non-Abelian interaction terms induce an effective mass which tends to shut down the resonance. For the broad resonance relevant for the Standard Model Higgs the produced gauge particles backreact on the dynamics of the Higgs condensate before the non-Abelian terms grow large. The non-Abelian terms can however significantly affect the final stages of the resonance after the backreaction. In the narrow resonance regime, which may be important for extensions of the Standard Model, the non-Abelian terms affect already the linear stage and terminate the resonance before the Higgs condensate is affected by the backreaction of decay products.
Droplet impact dynamics for two liquids impinging on anisotropic superhydrophobic surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pearson, John T.; Maynes, Daniel; Webb, Brent W.
2012-09-01
Droplet impingement experiments were performed on grooved hydrophobic surfaces with cavity fractions of 0, 80, and 93 % using droplets of water and a 50 %/50 % water/glycerol mixture. The influence of liquid viscosity, cavity fraction, and spreading direction, relative to the surface grooves, is explored qualitatively and quantitatively. The maximum droplet spread diameter, velocity of the rebounding jet, and the time delay between droplet impact and jet emission were characterized for Weber numbers, We, based on droplet impact speed and diameter, up to 500. The unequal shear stresses and contact angles influence the maximum spread diameters in the two primary spread directions. At We > 100, the ratio of the spread diameter along the direction of the grooves to the spread diameter perpendicular to the grooves increases above unity with increasing We. The maximum droplet spread diameter is compared to recent predictive models, and the data reveal differing behavior for the two fluids considered. The results also reveal the existence of very high relative jet velocities in the range 5 ≤ We ≤ 15 for water droplets, while such jets were not observed for the more viscous mixture. Further, in the range 115 ≤ We ≤ 265, the water/glycerol jet formation dynamics are radically different from the water behavior. Most evident is the existence of two-pronged jets, which arise from the anisotropy of the surface and the unequal shear stresses and contact angles that prevail on the surfaces. It is these influences that give rise to differences in the maximum spread diameters in the two primary spread directions. Similar two-pronged jet emission was observed for water over the very narrow range of We from 91 to 96. The issuing jet velocities were also observed to increase with increasing cavity fraction for both fluids and over the entire range of We explored. Lastly, the elapsed time between droplet impact and jet emission decreased with increasing cavity fraction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexander, C. S.; Key, C. T.; Schumacher, S. C.
2014-05-01
Recently there has been renewed interest in the dynamic response of composite materials; specifically low density epoxy matrix binders strengthened with continuous reinforcing fibers. This is in part due to the widespread use of carbon fiber composites in military, commercial, industrial, and aerospace applications. The design community requires better understanding of these materials in order to make full use of their unique properties. Planar impact testing was performed resulting in pressures up to 15 GPa on a unidirectional carbon fiber - epoxy composite, engineered to have high uniformity and low porosity. Results illustrate the anisotropic nature of the response under shock loading. Along the fiber direction, a two-wave structure similar to typical elastic-plastic response is observed, however, when shocked transverse to the fibers, only a single bulk shock wave is detected. At higher pressures, the epoxy matrix dissociates resulting in a loss of anisotropy. Greater understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the observed response has been achieved through numerical modeling of the system at the micromechanical level using the CTH hydrocode. From the simulation results it is evident that the observed two-wave structure in the longitudinal fiber direction is the result of a fast moving elastic precursor wave traveling in the carbon fibers ahead of the bulk response in the epoxy resin. Similarly, in the transverse direction, results show a collapse of the resin component consistent with the experimental observation of a single shock wave traveling at speeds associated with bulk carbon. Experimental and simulation results will be discussed and used to show where additional mechanisms, not fully described by the currently used models, are present.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Namekata, Daisuke; Umemura, Masayuki
2016-04-01
We explore the gas dynamics near the dust sublimation radius of active galactic nucleus (AGN). For the purpose, we perform axisymmetric radiation hydrodynamic simulations of a dusty gas disk of radius ≈1 pc around a supermassive black hole of mass 107 M⊙ taking into account (1) anisotropic radiation of accretion disk, (2) X-ray heating by corona, (3) radiative transfer of infrared (IR) photons reemitted by dust, (4) frequency dependency of direct and IR radiations, and (5) separate temperatures for gas and dust. As a result, we find that for Eddington ratio ≈0.77, a nearly neutral, dense (≈106 - 8 cm-3), geometrically-thin (h/r < 0.06) disk forms with a high velocity (≈200 ˜ 3000 km s-1) dusty outflow launched from the disk surface. The disk temperature is determined by the balance between X-ray heating and various cooling, and the disk is almost supported by thermal pressure. Contrary to Krolik (2007), the radiation pressure by IR photons is not effective to thicken the disk, but rather compresses it. Thus, it seems difficult for a radiation-supported, geometrically-thick, obscuring torus to form near the dust sublimation radius as far as the Eddington ratio is high (˜1). The mass outflow rate is 0.05 - 0.1 M⊙/yr and the column density of the outflow is NH ≲ 1021 cm-2. To explain observed type-II AGN fraction, it is required that outflow gas is extended to larger radii (r ≳ 10 pc) or that a denser dusty wind is launched from smaller radii (r ˜ 104 Rg).
Effects of dynamical masses of gluons and quarks on hadronic B decays
Zanetti, C. M.; Natale, A. A.
2010-11-12
We study hadronic annihilation decays of B mesons within the perturbative QCD at collinear approximation. The regulation of endpoint divergences is performed with the help of an infrared finite gluon propagator characterized by a non-perturbative dynamical gluon mass. The divergences at twist-3 are regulated by a dynamical quark mass. Our results fit quite well the existent data of B{sup 0}{yields}D{sub s}{sup -}K{sup +} and B{sup 0}{yields}D{sub s}{sup -*}K{sup +} for the expected range of dynamical gluon masses. We also make predictions for the rare decays B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}K{sup +}, B{sub s}{sup 0}{yields}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}, {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, B{sup +}{yields}D{sub s}{sup (*)+}K-bar{sup 0}, B{sup 0}{yields}D{sub s}{sup {+-}(*)}K{sup {+-}} and B{sub s}{sup 0}{yields}D{sup {+-}(*)}{pi}{sup {+-}}, D{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}.
Kupershtokh, Alexander L; Medvedev, Dmitry A
2006-08-01
The linear stability analysis of dielectric liquid placed in uniform electric field with respect to perturbations of density of an initially uniform state was carried out. The electric field increases the instability increment for the stratification along the field and decreases it for the transversal stratification. Thus, anisotropic separation into liquid and vapor phases is possible in high electric fields for a liquid that is initially in unstable state, as well as in metastable or stable states. Computer simulations of electrohydrodynamics confirm the theoretical calculations. It is important that new regions of low density phase appear as narrow cylindrical channels oriented along the field. This mechanism of generation of gaseous phase in locally high electric field can play a key role in processes of inception and ultrafast propagation of streamers during breakdown of liquid dielectrics in nanosecond range. PMID:17025435
Optical excitation and decay dynamics of ytterbium atoms embedded in a solid neon matrix.
Xu, C-Y; Hu, S-M; Singh, J; Bailey, K; Lu, Z-T; Mueller, P; O'Connor, T P; Welp, U
2011-08-26
Neutral ytterbium atoms embedded in solid neon qualitatively retain the structure of free atoms. Despite the atom-solid interaction, the 6s6p ³P(0) level is found to remain metastable with its lifetimes determined to be in the range of ten to hundreds of seconds. The atomic population can be almost completely transferred between the ground level and the metastable level via optical excitation and spontaneous decay. The dynamics of this process is examined and is used to explicitly demonstrate that the transition broadening mechanism is homogeneous. PMID:21929234
Optical excitation and decay dynamics of ytterbium atoms embedded in a solid neon matrix.
Xu, C.-Y.; Hu, S.-M.; Singh, J.; Bailey, K.; Lu, Z.-T.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.; Welp, U.
2011-09-01
Neutral ytterbium atoms embedded in solid neon qualitatively retain the structure of free atoms. Despite the atom-solid interaction, the 6s6p {sup 3}P{sub 0} level is found to remain metastable with its lifetimes determined to be in the range of ten to hundreds of seconds. The atomic population can be almost completely transferred between the ground level and the metastable level via optical excitation and spontaneous decay. The dynamics of this process is examined and is used to explicitly demonstrate that the transition broadening mechanism is homogeneous.
Optical Excitation and Decay Dynamics of Ytterbium Atoms Embedded in a Solid Neon Matrix
Xu, C.-Y.; Lu, Z.-T.; Hu, S.-M.; Singh, J.; Bailey, K.; Mueller, P.; O'Connor, T. P.; Welp, U.
2011-08-26
Neutral ytterbium atoms embedded in solid neon qualitatively retain the structure of free atoms. Despite the atom-solid interaction, the 6s6p {sup 3}P{sub 0} level is found to remain metastable with its lifetimes determined to be in the range of ten to hundreds of seconds. The atomic population can be almost completely transferred between the ground level and the metastable level via optical excitation and spontaneous decay. The dynamics of this process is examined and is used to explicitly demonstrate that the transition broadening mechanism is homogeneous.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Na; Ding, Wenkui; Shi, Anqi; Zhang, Wenxian
2016-08-01
We investigate the dynamic nuclear polarization in a quantum dot. Due to the suppression of direct dipolar and indirect electron-mediated nuclear spin interactions by frequently injected electron spins, our analytical results under independent spin approximation agree well with quantum numerical simulations for a small number of nuclear spins. We find that the acquired nuclear polarization is highly inhomogeneous, proportional to the square of the local electron-nuclear hyperfine interaction constant. Starting from the inhomogeneously polarized nuclear spins, we further show that the electron polarization decay time can be extended 100 times even at a relatively low nuclear polarization.
Dynamical picture for the formation and decay of the exotic XYZ mesons.
Brodsky, Stanley J; Hwang, Dae Sung; Lebed, Richard F
2014-09-12
We present a new dynamical picture that identifies the formation of the exotic c[over ¯]c-containing states XYZ with the confinement-induced hadronization of a rapidly separating pair of a compact diquark and antidiquark. This picture combines the advantages of diquark-based models, which can accommodate much of the known XYZ spectrum, with the experimental fact that such states are both relatively narrow and are produced promptly. It also naturally explains the preference of some of the exotic states to decay to ψ(2S), rather than J/ψ, in terms of a simple wave-function overlap effect. PMID:25259968
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sawhney, Gudveen; Kaur, Amandeep; Sharma, Manoj K.; Gupta, Raj K.
2015-12-01
The decay of the Z =118 , *297118 compound system, formed in the 249Cf+48Ca reaction, is studied for 2 n , 3 n , and 4 n emissions, by using the dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM) at compound-nucleus (CN) excitation energies ECN*=29.2 and 34.4 MeV. A parallel attempt is made to analyze the 294118 residue nucleus synthesized in the 250Cf+48Ca reaction, subsequent to the 4 n emission from the *298118 nucleus, to check the possibility of isotopic mixing in the 249Cf target used in the 249Cf+48Ca reaction. The possible role of deformations and orientations, together with different nuclear proximity potentials, is also investigated. In addition, an exclusive analysis of the mass distributions of Z =113 to 118 superheavy nuclei, formed in 48Ca -induced reactions, is explored within the DCM. A comparative importance of Prox-1977 and Prox-2000 potentials on the α -decay chains is also investigated, first by using the preformed cluster model (PCM) for spontaneous decays (T =0 ), the PCM (T =0 ), and then analyzing the possible role of excitation energy in PCM, i.e., PCM (T ≠0 ) , via the measured recoil energy of the residual 294118 nucleus left after 3 n emission from *297118 CN. The branching of α decay to the most-probable clusters is also examined for *294118 and its subsequent *290116 and *286114 parents occurring in the α -decay chain. Interestingly, the calculated decay half-lives for some clusters such as 86Kr , 84Se , and 80Ge , referring to doubly magic 208Pb or its neighboring daughter nucleus, present themselves as exciting new possibilities, though to date difficult to observe, of heavy cluster emissions in superheavy mass region.
Morishita, Yoshihiro; Kuroiwa, Atsushi; Suzuki, Takayuki
2015-01-01
Tissue-level characterization of deformation dynamics is crucial for understanding organ morphogenetic mechanisms, especially the interhierarchical links among molecular activities, cellular behaviors and tissue/organ morphogenetic processes. Limb development is a well-studied topic in vertebrate organogenesis. Nevertheless, there is still little understanding of tissue-level deformation relative to molecular and cellular dynamics. This is mainly because live recording of detailed cell behaviors in whole tissues is technically difficult. To overcome this limitation, by applying a recently developed Bayesian approach, we here constructed tissue deformation maps for chick limb development with high precision, based on snapshot lineage tracing using dye injection. The precision of the constructed maps was validated with a clear statistical criterion. From the geometrical analysis of the map, we identified three characteristic tissue growth modes in the limb and showed that they are consistent with local growth factor activity and cell cycle length. In particular, we report that SHH signaling activity changes dynamically with developmental stage and strongly correlates with the dynamic shift in the tissue growth mode. We also found anisotropic tissue deformation along the proximal-distal axis. Morphogenetic simulation and experimental studies suggested that this directional tissue elongation, and not local growth, has the greatest impact on limb shaping. This result was supported by the novel finding that anisotropic tissue elongation along the proximal-distal axis occurs independently of cell proliferation. Our study marks a pivotal point for multi-scale system understanding in vertebrate development. PMID:25858459
Selective decay and dynamic alignment in the MHD turbulence: The role of the rugged invariants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Telloni, Daniele; Perri, Silvia; Carbone, Vincenzo; Bruno, Roberto
2016-03-01
In the evolving MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) turbulence a key role is played by the relaxation processes, which drive a magnetized fluid towards self-organized, stable configurations, like a force-free state (resulting from a selective decay) or a dynamic alignment (anti-alignment) between the plasma flow velocity and magnetic field. The evolution of the three MHD rugged invariants, namely of the magnetic helicity Hm, the cross-helicity Hc and the total energy E, is of particular importance in interpreting the asymptotic solutions of the MHD decay. It is thus prominent to investigate the magnetic and cross-helicity content carried by the solar wind and by magnetic structures advected by the flowing plasma, and particularly their radial evolution throughout the inner heliosphere, in order to offer a rather complete picture of the phenomenological aspect of the relaxation phenomena occurring in the solar wind turbulence. The results presented in this paper show that within some solar wind streams, the ideal MHD decays towards a state with maximal cross-helicity, where the magnetic and velocity fluctuations are (anti-)aligned with a high correlation degree. The maximal magnetic helicity state, say the force-free configuration, is instead observed in interplanetary flux ropes, a particular class of magnetic objects advected by the solar wind. However, it is worth noting that in some peculiar flux ropes, the competitive action of both rugged invariants drives the MHD configuration of these structures to intermediate states, where both the magnetic and cross-helicity significantly deviate from zero, without, however, reaching a maximum value.
Decay of aftershock density with distance indicates triggering by dynamic stress.
Felzer, K R; Brodsky, E E
2006-06-01
The majority of earthquakes are aftershocks, yet aftershock physics is not well understood. Many studies suggest that static stress changes trigger aftershocks, but recent work suggests that shaking (dynamic stresses) may also play a role. Here we measure the decay of aftershocks as a function of distance from magnitude 2-6 mainshocks in order to clarify the aftershock triggering process. We find that for short times after the mainshock, when low background seismicity rates allow for good aftershock detection, the decay is well fitted by a single inverse power law over distances of 0.2-50 km. The consistency of the trend indicates that the same triggering mechanism is working over the entire range. As static stress changes at the more distant aftershocks are negligible, this suggests that dynamic stresses may be triggering all of these aftershocks. We infer that the observed aftershock density is consistent with the probability of triggering aftershocks being nearly proportional to seismic wave amplitude. The data are not fitted well by models that combine static stress change with the evolution of frictionally locked faults. PMID:16760974
Decay of aftershock density with distance indicates triggering by dynamic stress
Felzer, K.R.; Brodsky, E.E.
2006-01-01
The majority of earthquakes are aftershocks, yet aftershock physics is not well understood. Many studies suggest that static stress changes trigger aftershocks, but recent work suggests that shaking (dynamic stresses) may also play a role. Here we measure the decay of aftershocks as a function of distance from magnitude 2-6 mainshocks in order to clarify the aftershock triggering process. We find that for short times after the mainshock, when low background seismicity rates allow for good aftershock detection, the decay is well fitted by a single inverse power law over distances of 0.2-50 km. The consistency of the trend indicates that the same triggering mechanism is working over the entire range. As static stress changes at the more distant aftershocks are negligible, this suggests that dynamic stresses may be triggering all of these aftershocks. We infer that the observed aftershock density is consistent with the probability of triggering aftershocks being nearly proportional to seismic wave amplitude. The data are not fitted well by models that combine static stress change with the evolution of frictionally locked faults. ?? 2006 Nature Publishing Group.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexander, C.
2013-06-01
Recently there has been renewed interest in the dynamic response of composite materials; specifically low density epoxy resin binders strengthened with continuous reinforcing fibers. This is in part due to the widespread use of carbon fiber composites in military, commercial, industrial, and aerospace applications. The design community requires better understanding of these materials in order to make full use of their unique properties. Experimental testing has been performed on a unidirectional carbon fiber - epoxy composite, engineered to have high uniformity and low porosity. Planar impact testing was performed at the Shock Thermodynamics Applied Research (STAR) facility at Sandia National Labs resulting in pressures up to 15 GPa in the composite material. Results illustrate the anisotropic nature of the response under shock loading. Along the fiber direction, a two-wave structure similar to typical elastic-plastic response is observed, however, when shocked transverse to the fibers, only a single bulk shock wave is detected. The two-wave structure persists when impact occurs at angles up to 45 degrees off the fiber direction. At higher pressures, the epoxy matrix dissociates resulting in a loss of anisotropy. Details of the experimental configurations and results will be presented and discussed. Greater understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the observed response has been achieved through the use of numerical modeling of the system at the micromechanical level using the CTH hydrocode. From the simulation results it is evident that the observed two-wave structure in the longitudinal fiber direction is the result of a fast moving elastic precursor wave traveling in the carbon fibers ahead of the bulk response in the epoxy resin. Similarly, in the transverse direction, results show a collapse of the resin component consistent with the experimental observation of a single shock wave traveling at speeds associated with bulk carbon. These results will be
Lin, Huey-Wen; Cohen, Saul; Dudek, Jozef; Edwards, Robert; Joo, Balint; Richards, David; Bulava, John; Foley, Justin; Morningstar, Colin; Engelson, Eric; Wallace, Stephen; Juge, Jimmy; Mathur, Nilmani; Peardon, Michael; Ryan, Sinead
2009-02-01
We present the first light-hadron spectroscopy on a set of $N_f=2+1$ dynamical, anisotropic lattices. A convenient set of coordinates that parameterize the two-dimensional plane of light and strange-quark masses is introduced. These coordinates are used to extrapolate data obtained at the simulated values of the quark masses to the physical light and strange-quark point. A measurement of the Sommer scale on these ensembles is made and the performance of the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm used for generating the ensembles is estimated.
Barbosa, Jorge G.; Brown, Julia M.; Donelan, Ryan P.; Eaglesham, James B.; Eggleston, Erin M.; LaBarre, Brenna A.
2012-01-01
Aquatic viruses play important roles in the biogeochemistry and ecology of lacustrine ecosystems; however, their composition, dynamics, and interactions with viruses of terrestrial origin are less extensively studied. We used a viral shotgun metagenomic approach to elucidate candidate autochthonous (i.e., produced within the lake) and allochthonous (i.e., washed in from other habitats) viral genotypes for a comparative study of their dynamics in lake waters. Based on shotgun metagenomes prepared from catchment soil and freshwater samples from two contrasting lakes (Cayuga Lake and Fayetteville Green Lake), we selected two putatively autochthonous viral genotypes (phycodnaviruses likely infecting algae and cyanomyoviruses likely infecting picocyanobacteria) and two putatively allochthonous viral genotypes (geminiviruses likely infecting terrestrial plants and circoviruses infecting unknown hosts but common in soil libraries) for analysis by genotype-specific quantitative PCR (TaqMan) applied to DNAs from viruses in the viral size fraction of lake plankton, i.e., 0.2 μm > virus > 0.02 μm. The abundance of autochthonous genotypes largely reflected expected host abundance, while the abundance of allochthonous genotypes corresponded with rainfall and storm events in the respective catchments, suggesting that viruses with these genotypes may have been transported to the lake in runoff. The decay rates of allochthonous and autochthonous genotypes, assessed in incubations where all potential hosts were killed, were generally lower (0.13 to 1.50% h−1) than those reported for marine virioplankton but similar to those for freshwater virioplankton. Both allochthonous and autochthonous viral genotypes were detected at higher concentrations in subsurface sediments than at the water-sediment interface. Our data indicate that putatively allochthonous viruses are present in lake plankton and sediments, where their temporal dynamics reflect active transport to the lake during
Anisotropic spinfoam cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rennert, Julian; Sloan, David
2014-01-01
The dynamics of a homogeneous, anisotropic universe are investigated within the context of spinfoam cosmology. Transition amplitudes are calculated for a graph consisting of a single node and three links—the ‘Daisy graph’—probing the behaviour a classical Bianchi I spacetime. It is shown further how the use of such single node graphs gives rise to a simplification of states such that all orders in the spin expansion can be calculated, indicating that it is the vertex expansion that contains information about quantum dynamics.
Makwana, K. D. Cattaneo, F.; Zhdankin, V.; Li, H.; Daughton, W.
2015-04-15
Simulations of decaying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence are performed with a fluid and a kinetic code. The initial condition is an ensemble of long-wavelength, counter-propagating, shear-Alfvén waves, which interact and rapidly generate strong MHD turbulence. The total energy is conserved and the rate of turbulent energy decay is very similar in both codes, although the fluid code has numerical dissipation, whereas the kinetic code has kinetic dissipation. The inertial range power spectrum index is similar in both the codes. The fluid code shows a perpendicular wavenumber spectral slope of k{sub ⊥}{sup −1.3}. The kinetic code shows a spectral slope of k{sub ⊥}{sup −1.5} for smaller simulation domain, and k{sub ⊥}{sup −1.3} for larger domain. We estimate that collisionless damping mechanisms in the kinetic code can account for the dissipation of the observed nonlinear energy cascade. Current sheets are geometrically characterized. Their lengths and widths are in good agreement between the two codes. The length scales linearly with the driving scale of the turbulence. In the fluid code, their thickness is determined by the grid resolution as there is no explicit diffusivity. In the kinetic code, their thickness is very close to the skin-depth, irrespective of the grid resolution. This work shows that kinetic codes can reproduce the MHD inertial range dynamics at large scales, while at the same time capturing important kinetic physics at small scales.
Axelsen, P H; Haydock, C; Prendergast, F G
1988-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulations of Ribonuclease-T1 (RNAse-T1) were performed using x-ray crystal coordinates for the enzyme and various simulation strategies. From each of the simulations, a predicted fluorescence anisotropy decay for the single-tryptophan residue was derived and compared with experimental values for the limiting anisotropy of this protein. Simulations conducted in vacuo demonstrated large displacements among some of the residues adjacent to the tryptophan side chain. As a consequence, the ring system rotates relatively unhindered through an angle far in excess of that implied by experimental data. In contrast, the explicit simulation of solvent within a stochastic boundary led to excellent agreement between simulation and experiment. In the case of RNAse-T1, the experimentally-determined limiting anisotropy is useful as a criterion of simulation accuracy in the vicinity of the tryptophan side chain. PMID:3145038
Significance of decay mechanism into continuum in dynamical Wannier-Stark ladder
Nemoto, Yuya; Maeshima, Nobuya; Hino, Ken-ichi
2013-12-04
We examine the resonance structure of photodressed electron states of laser-driven Wannier-Stark ladder, namely, dynamic Wannier-Stark ladder, in terms of the excess density of states (DOS) closely related to a lifetime of the state of concern. It is revealed that the resonance structure in the strong laser-field region shows clear dependence on the ratio, η, of a Bloch-frequency to a laser frequency. As the laser strength increases, for η = 1, the excess DOS becomes involved with a lot of newly-growing resonance peaks. This result would be understood from the viewpoint of a Fano-like decay-mechanism caused by a multichannel continuum effect, in marked contrast to the cases of larger η’s; for η = 3, the excess DOS just is found to show a pronounced red-shift of a single dominant peak caused by a single-channel continuum effect.
Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Rygg, J. R.; Petrasso, R. D.; Town, R. P. J.; Amendt, P. A.; Hatchett, S. P.; Landen, O. L.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Patel, P. K.; Tabak, M.; Knauer, J. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Smalyuk, V. A.
2007-07-06
Monoenergetic proton radiography was used to make the first measurements of the long-time-scale dynamics and evolution of megagauss laser-plasma-generated magnetic field structures. While a 1-ns 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} laser beam is on, the field structure expands in tandem with a hemispherical plasma bubble, maintaining a rigorous 2D cylindrical symmetry. With the laser off, the bubble continues to expand as the field decays; however, the outer field structure becomes distinctly asymmetric, indicating instability. Similarly, localized asymmetry growth in the bubble interior indicates another kind of instability. 2D LASNEX hydrosimulations qualitatively match the cylindrically averaged post-laser plasma evolution but even then it underpredicts the field dissipation rate and of course completely misses the 3D asymmetry growth.
Rabouw, Freddy T; van der Bok, Johanna C; Spinicelli, Piernicola; Mahler, Benoît; Nasilowski, Michel; Pedetti, Silvia; Dubertret, Benoît; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniël
2016-03-01
Luminescent colloidal CdSe nanoplatelets with atomically defined thicknesses have recently been developed, and their potential for various applications has been shown. To understand their special properties, experiments have until now focused on the relatively short time scales of at most a few nanoseconds. Here, we measure the photoluminescence decay dynamics of colloidal nanoplatelets on time scales up to tens of microseconds. The excited state dynamics are found to be dominated by the slow (∼μs) dynamics of temporary exciton storage in a charge-separated state, previously overlooked. We study the processes of charge carrier separation and exciton recovery in pure CdSe nanoplatelets as well as in core-crown and core-shell CdSe/CdS nanoplatelets with high ensemble quantum yields of 50%, and discuss the implications. Our work highlights the importance of reversible charge carrier trapping and experiments over a wide range of time scales for the understanding of colloidal nanoemitters in general and nanoplatelets in particular. PMID:26863992
Yandell, Margaret A.; King, Sarah B.; Neumark, Daniel M.
2014-05-14
Decay dynamics of nascent dipole bound states of acetonitrile and nitromethane are examined using time-resolved photoelectron imaging of iodide-acetonitrile (I{sup −}·CH{sub 3}CN) and iodide-nitromethane (I{sup −}·CH{sub 3}NO{sub 2}) complexes. Dipole-bound anions are created by UV-initiated electron transfer to the molecule of interest from the associated iodide ion at energies just below the vertical detachment energy of the halide-molecule complex. The acetonitrile anion is observed to decay biexponentially with time constants in the range of 4–900 ps. In contrast, the dipole bound state of nitromethane decays rapidly over 400 fs to form the valence bound anion. The nitromethane valence anion species then decays biexponentially with time constants of 2 ps and 1200 ps. The biexponential decay dynamics in acetonitrile are interpreted as iodine atom loss and autodetachment from the excited dipole-bound anion, followed by slower autodetachment of the relaxed metastable ion, while the dynamics of the nitromethane system suggest that a dipole-bound anion to valence anion transition proceeds via intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution to nitro group modes in the vicinity of the iodine atom.
Chen, Wenduo; Zhu, Youliang; Cui, Fengchao; Liu, Lunyang; Sun, Zhaoyan; Chen, Jizhong; Li, Yunqi
2016-01-01
Gay-Berne (GB) potential is regarded as an accurate model in the simulation of anisotropic particles, especially for liquid crystal (LC) mesogens. However, its computational complexity leads to an extremely time-consuming process for large systems. Here, we developed a GPU-accelerated molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with coarse-grained GB potential implemented in GALAMOST package to investigate the LC phase transitions for mesogens in small molecules, main-chain or side-chain polymers. For identical mesogens in three different molecules, on cooling from fully isotropic melts, the small molecules form a single-domain smectic-B phase, while the main-chain LC polymers prefer a single-domain nematic phase as a result of connective restraints in neighboring mesogens. The phase transition of side-chain LC polymers undergoes a two-step process: nucleation of nematic islands and formation of multi-domain nematic texture. The particular behavior originates in the fact that the rotational orientation of the mesogenes is hindered by the polymer backbones. Both the global distribution and the local orientation of mesogens are critical for the phase transition of anisotropic particles. Furthermore, compared with the MD simulation in LAMMPS, our GPU-accelerated code is about 4 times faster than the GPU version of LAMMPS and at least 200 times faster than the CPU version of LAMMPS. This study clearly shows that GPU-accelerated MD simulation with GB potential in GALAMOST can efficiently handle systems with anisotropic particles and interactions, and accurately explore phase differences originated from molecular structures. PMID:26986851
Cui, Fengchao; Liu, Lunyang; Sun, Zhaoyan; Chen, Jizhong; Li, Yunqi
2016-01-01
Gay-Berne (GB) potential is regarded as an accurate model in the simulation of anisotropic particles, especially for liquid crystal (LC) mesogens. However, its computational complexity leads to an extremely time-consuming process for large systems. Here, we developed a GPU-accelerated molecular dynamics (MD) simulation with coarse-grained GB potential implemented in GALAMOST package to investigate the LC phase transitions for mesogens in small molecules, main-chain or side-chain polymers. For identical mesogens in three different molecules, on cooling from fully isotropic melts, the small molecules form a single-domain smectic-B phase, while the main-chain LC polymers prefer a single-domain nematic phase as a result of connective restraints in neighboring mesogens. The phase transition of side-chain LC polymers undergoes a two-step process: nucleation of nematic islands and formation of multi-domain nematic texture. The particular behavior originates in the fact that the rotational orientation of the mesogenes is hindered by the polymer backbones. Both the global distribution and the local orientation of mesogens are critical for the phase transition of anisotropic particles. Furthermore, compared with the MD simulation in LAMMPS, our GPU-accelerated code is about 4 times faster than the GPU version of LAMMPS and at least 200 times faster than the CPU version of LAMMPS. This study clearly shows that GPU-accelerated MD simulation with GB potential in GALAMOST can efficiently handle systems with anisotropic particles and interactions, and accurately explore phase differences originated from molecular structures. PMID:26986851
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vögeli, Beat
2010-07-01
A simple general expression for the NMR cross-correlated relaxation rate under anisotropic molecular tumbling is presented for globular proteins. The derivation includes effects of fast and slow motion of the interaction tensors and correlation between them. Expressions suitable for practical analysis are tailored in dependence of standard order parameters of the individual interactions. It is shown that these order parameters must be sensitive to slow motion (slower than molecular tumbling) for detection of slow correlated motion. Such order parameters are those obtained from residual dipolar couplings but not those obtained from T1, T2, and heteronuclear Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement measurements.
Dynamic decay of a single vortex into vortex-antivortex pairs
Lendínez, Sergi; Jain, Shikha; Novosad, Valentyn Fradin, Frank Y.; Pearson, John E.; Tejada, Javier; Bader, Samuel D.
2014-05-07
A variety of metastable states, including vortices, antivortices, and their combinations, is typical for magnetically soft, thin films and patterned structures. The physics of individual spin vortices in patterned structures has been rather extensively explored. In contrast, there are few studies of the vortex–antivortex–vortex (v-av-v) system, in part because the configuration is rather challenging to obtain experimentally. We demonstrate herein how a recently proposed resonant-spin-ordering technique can be used to induce the dynamic decay of a single vortex into v-av states in elongated elements. The approach is based on first driving the system from the linear regime of constant vortex gyrations to the non-linear regime of vortex-core reversals at a fixed excitation frequency, and then subsequently reducing the excitation field back to the linear regime. This procedure stabilizes the system into a v-av-v state that is completely decoupled from the initialization excitation frequency. The newly acquired state is stable in remanence. The dynamic response of this system is expected to demonstrate a number of collective modes, depending on the combination of the vortex core polarities, and/or the excitation field direction, and, hence, is of interest for future studies.
Makwana, K. D.; Zhdankin, V.; Li, H.; Daughton, W.; Cattaneo, F.
2015-04-10
We performed simulations of decaying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence with a fluid and a kinetic code. The initial condition is an ensemble of long-wavelength, counter-propagating, shear-Alfvén waves, which interact and rapidly generate strong MHD turbulence. The total energy is conserved and the rate of turbulent energy decay is very similar in both codes, although the fluid code has numerical dissipation, whereas the kinetic code has kinetic dissipation. The inertial range power spectrum index is similar in both the codes. The fluid code shows a perpendicular wavenumber spectral slope of k-1.3⊥k⊥-1.3. The kinetic code shows a spectral slope of k-1.5⊥k⊥-1.5 for smallermore » simulation domain, and k-1.3⊥k⊥-1.3 for larger domain. We then estimate that collisionless damping mechanisms in the kinetic code can account for the dissipation of the observed nonlinear energy cascade. Current sheets are geometrically characterized. Their lengths and widths are in good agreement between the two codes. The length scales linearly with the driving scale of the turbulence. In the fluid code, their thickness is determined by the grid resolution as there is no explicit diffusivity. In the kinetic code, their thickness is very close to the skin-depth, irrespective of the grid resolution. Finally, this work shows that kinetic codes can reproduce the MHD inertial range dynamics at large scales, while at the same time capturing important kinetic physics at small scales.« less
Makwana, K. D.; Zhdankin, V.; Li, H.; Daughton, W.; Cattaneo, F.
2015-04-10
We performed simulations of decaying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence with a fluid and a kinetic code. The initial condition is an ensemble of long-wavelength, counter-propagating, shear-Alfvén waves, which interact and rapidly generate strong MHD turbulence. The total energy is conserved and the rate of turbulent energy decay is very similar in both codes, although the fluid code has numerical dissipation, whereas the kinetic code has kinetic dissipation. The inertial range power spectrum index is similar in both the codes. The fluid code shows a perpendicular wavenumber spectral slope of k-1.3⊥k⊥-1.3. The kinetic code shows a spectral slope of k-1.5⊥k⊥-1.5 for smaller simulation domain, and k-1.3⊥k⊥-1.3 for larger domain. We then estimate that collisionless damping mechanisms in the kinetic code can account for the dissipation of the observed nonlinear energy cascade. Current sheets are geometrically characterized. Their lengths and widths are in good agreement between the two codes. The length scales linearly with the driving scale of the turbulence. In the fluid code, their thickness is determined by the grid resolution as there is no explicit diffusivity. In the kinetic code, their thickness is very close to the skin-depth, irrespective of the grid resolution. Finally, this work shows that kinetic codes can reproduce the MHD inertial range dynamics at large scales, while at the same time capturing important kinetic physics at small scales.
Study of decay dynamics and C P asymmetry in D+→KL0e+νe decay
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ablikim, M.; Achasov, M. N.; Ai, X. C.; Albayrak, O.; Albrecht, M.; Ambrose, D. J.; Amoroso, A.; An, F. F.; An, Q.; Bai, J. Z.; Ferroli, R. Baldini; Ban, Y.; Bennett, D. W.; Bennett, J. V.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bian, J. M.; Bianchi, F.; Boger, E.; Boyko, I.; Briere, R. A.; Cai, H.; Cai, X.; Cakir, O.; Calcaterra, A.; Cao, G. F.; Cetin, S. A.; Chang, J. F.; Chelkov, G.; Chen, G.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, M. L.; Chen, S.; Chen, S. J.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. B.; Cheng, H. P.; Chu, X. K.; Cibinetto, G.; Dai, H. L.; Dai, J. P.; Dbeyssi, A.; Dedovich, D.; Deng, Z. Y.; Denig, A.; Denysenko, I.; Destefanis, M.; de Mori, F.; Ding, Y.; Dong, C.; Dong, J.; Dong, L. Y.; Dong, M. Y.; Du, S. X.; Duan, P. F.; Fan, J. Z.; Fang, J.; Fang, S. S.; Fang, X.; Fang, Y.; Fava, L.; Feldbauer, F.; Felici, G.; Feng, C. Q.; Fioravanti, E.; Fritsch, M.; Fu, C. D.; Gao, Q.; Gao, X. L.; Gao, X. Y.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Z.; Garzia, I.; Goetzen, K.; Gong, W. X.; Gradl, W.; Greco, M.; Gu, M. H.; Gu, Y. T.; Guan, Y. H.; Guo, A. Q.; Guo, L. B.; Guo, R. P.; Guo, Y.; Guo, Y. P.; Haddadi, Z.; Hafner, A.; Han, S.; Hao, X. Q.; Harris, F. A.; He, K. L.; Held, T.; Heng, Y. K.; Hou, Z. L.; Hu, C.; Hu, H. M.; Hu, J. F.; Hu, T.; Hu, Y.; Huang, G. M.; Huang, G. S.; Huang, J. S.; Huang, X. T.; Huang, Y.; Hussain, T.; Ji, Q.; Ji, Q. P.; Ji, X. B.; Ji, X. L.; Jiang, L. W.; Jiang, X. S.; Jiang, X. Y.; Jiao, J. B.; Jiao, Z.; Jin, D. P.; Jin, S.; Johansson, T.; Julin, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kang, X. L.; Kang, X. S.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Ke, B. C.; Kiese, P.; Kliemt, R.; Kloss, B.; Kolcu, O. B.; Kopf, B.; Kornicer, M.; Kuehn, W.; Kupsc, A.; Lange, J. S.; Lara, M.; Larin, P.; Leng, C.; Li, C.; Li, Cheng; Li, D. M.; Li, F.; Li, F. Y.; Li, G.; Li, H. B.; Li, H. J.; Li, J. C.; Li, Jin; Li, K.; Li, K.; Li, Lei; Li, P. R.; Li, T.; Li, W. D.; Li, W. G.; Li, X. L.; Li, X. M.; Li, X. N.; Li, X. Q.; Li, Z. B.; Liang, H.; Liang, J. J.; Liang, Y. F.; Liang, Y. T.; Liao, G. R.; Lin, D. X.; Liu, B. J.; Liu, C. X.; Liu, D.; Liu, F. H.; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H. B.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. H.; Liu, H. M.; Liu, J.; Liu, J. B.; Liu, J. P.; Liu, J. Y.; Liu, K.; Liu, K. Y.; Liu, L. D.; Liu, P. L.; Liu, Q.; Liu, S. B.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y. B.; Liu, Z. A.; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H.; Lou, X. C.; Lu, H. J.; Lu, J. G.; Lu, Y.; Lu, Y. P.; Luo, C. L.; Luo, M. X.; Luo, T.; Luo, X. L.; Lyu, X. R.; Ma, F. C.; Ma, H. L.; Ma, L. L.; Ma, M. M.; Ma, Q. M.; Ma, T.; Ma, X. N.; Ma, X. Y.; Maas, F. E.; Maggiora, M.; Mao, Y. J.; Mao, Z. P.; Marcello, S.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Min, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Mo, X. H.; Mo, Y. J.; Morales, C. Morales; Moriya, K.; Muchnoi, N. Yu.; Muramatsu, H.; Nefedov, Y.; Nerling, F.; Nikolaev, I. B.; Ning, Z.; Nisar, S.; Niu, S. L.; Niu, X. Y.; Olsen, S. L.; Ouyang, Q.; Pacetti, S.; Pan, Y.; Patteri, P.; Pelizaeus, M.; Peng, H. P.; Peters, K.; Pettersson, J.; Ping, J. L.; Ping, R. G.; Poling, R.; Prasad, V.; Qi, M.; Qian, S.; Qiao, C. F.; Qin, L. Q.; Qin, N.; Qin, X. S.; Qin, Z. H.; Qiu, J. F.; Rashid, K. H.; Redmer, C. F.; Ripka, M.; Rong, G.; Rosner, Ch.; Ruan, X. D.; Sarantsev, A.; Savrié, M.; Schoenning, K.; Schumann, S.; Shan, W.; Shao, M.; Shen, C. P.; Shen, P. X.; Shen, X. Y.; Sheng, H. Y.; Shi, M.; Song, W. M.; Song, X. Y.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Sun, G. X.; Sun, J. F.; Sun, S. S.; Sun, X. H.; Sun, Y. J.; Sun, Y. Z.; Sun, Z. J.; Sun, Z. T.; Tang, C. J.; Tang, X.; Tapan, I.; Thorndike, E. H.; Tiemens, M.; Ullrich, M.; Uman, I.; Varner, G. S.; Wang, B.; Wang, D.; Wang, D. Y.; Wang, K.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, L. S.; Wang, M.; Wang, P.; Wang, P. L.; Wang, S. G.; Wang, W.; Wang, W. P.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. D.; Wang, Y. F.; Wang, Y. Q.; Wang, Z.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Z. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. Y.; Weber, T.; Wei, D. H.; Wei, J. B.; Weidenkaff, P.; Wen, S. P.; Wiedner, U.; Wolke, M.; Wu, L. H.; Wu, L. J.; Wu, Z.; Xia, L.; Xia, L. G.; Xia, Y.; Xiao, D.; Xiao, H.; Xiao, Z. J.; Xie, Y. G.; Xiu, Q. L.; Xu, G. F.; Xu, J. J.; Xu, L.; Xu, Q. J.; Xu, X. P.; Yan, L.; Yan, W. B.; Yan, W. C.; Yan, Y. H.; Yang, H. J.; Yang, H. X.; Yang, L.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y. X.; Ye, M.; Ye, M. H.; Yin, J. H.; Yu, B. X.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, J. S.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, W. L.; Yuan, Y.; Yuncu, A.; Zafar, A. A.; Zallo, A.; Zeng, Y.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, B. X.; Zhang, B. Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, C. C.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, H. H.; Zhang, H. Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J. J.; Zhang, J. L.; Zhang, J. Q.; Zhang, J. W.; Zhang, J. Y.; Zhang, J. Z.; Zhang, K.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Y. N.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z. H.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Zhao, G.; Zhao, J. W.; Zhao, J. Y.; Zhao, J. Z.; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M. G.; Zhao, Q.; Zhao, Q. W.; Zhao, S. J.; Zhao, T. C.; Zhao, Y. B.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, B.; Zheng, J. P.; Zheng, W. J.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zhong, B.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, X.; Zhou, X. K.; Zhou, X. R.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, K. J.; Zhu, S.; Zhu, S. H.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. A.; Zhuang, J.; Zotti, L.; Zou, B. S.; Zou, J. H.; Besiii Collaboration
2015-12-01
Using 2.92 fb-1 of electron-positron annihilation data collected at √{s }=3.773 GeV with the BESIII detector, we obtain the first measurements of the absolute branching fraction B (D+→KL0e+νe)=(4.481 ±0.027 (stat)±0.103 (sys))% and the C P asymmetry ACP D+→KL0 e+νe =(-0.59 ±0.60 (stat)±1.48 (sys))% . From the D+→KL0e+νe differential decay rate distribution, the product of the hadronic form factor and the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element, f+K(0 )|Vc s| , is determined to be 0.728 ±0.006 (stat)±0.011 (sys) . Using |Vc s| from the SM constrained fit with the measured f+K(0 )|Vc s|, f+K(0 )=0.748 ±0.007 (stat)±0.012 (sys) is obtained, and utilizing the unquenched Lattice QCD (LQCD) calculation for f+K(0 ), |Vc s|=0.975 ±0.008 (stat)±0.015 (sys)±0.025 (LQCD ) .
Laser control of the radiationless decay in pyrazine using the dynamic Stark effect
Sala, Matthieu Guérin, Stéphane; Saab, Mohamad; Lasorne, Benjamin; Gatti, Fabien
2014-05-21
The laser control of the radiationless decay between the B{sub 3u}(nπ*) and B{sub 2u}(ππ*) states of pyrazine using the dynamic Stark effect has been investigated. A vibronic coupling model Hamiltonian in diabatic representation, including potential energy, transition dipole, and static polarizability surfaces as a function of the four most important vibrational modes of the molecule has been parametrized using multi-reference electronic structure calculations. The interaction of the molecule with a strong non-resonant laser pulse has been analyzed in terms of dressed potential energy surfaces. Because of the large polarizability difference between the vibronically coupled B{sub 3u}(nπ*) and B{sub 2u}(ππ*) states, the Stark effect induced by the non-resonant laser pulse shifts the conical intersection away from the Franck-Condon region. We have shown, by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the molecule interacting with a relatively weak pump pulse driving the electronic excitation from the ground state to the B{sub 2u}(ππ*) state, and a strong non-resonant control pulse, that this control mechanism can be used to trap the wavepacket on the B{sub 2u}(ππ*) potential energy surface for a much longer time than the natural B{sub 2u}(ππ*) lifetime.
Full-dimensional control of the radiationless decay in pyrazine using the dynamic Stark effect
Saab, Mohamad Lasorne, Benjamin Gatti, Fabien; Sala, Matthieu; Guérin, Stéphane
2014-10-07
We present a full quantum-mechanical study of the laser control of the radiationless decay between the B{sub 3u}(nπ{sup *}) and B{sub 2u}(ππ{sup *}) states of pyrazine using the dynamic Stark effect. In contrast to our previous study [Sala et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 194309 (2014)], where a four-dimensional model was used, all the 24 degrees of freedom are now included in order to test the robustness of the strategy of control. Using a vibronic coupling Hamiltonian model in a diabatic representation, the multi-layer version of the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method is exploited to propagate the corresponding wave packets. We still observe a trapping of the wavepacket on the B{sub 2u}(ππ{sup *}) potential energy surface due to the Stark effect for a longer time than the “non-resonant field-free” B{sub 2u}(ππ{sup *}) lifetime.
KEWPIE2: A cascade code for the study of dynamical decay of excited nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lü, Hongliang; Marchix, Anthony; Abe, Yasuhisa; Boilley, David
2016-03-01
KEWPIE-a cascade code devoted to investigating the dynamical decay of excited nuclei, specially designed for treating very low probability events related to the synthesis of super-heavy nuclei formed in fusion-evaporation reactions-has been improved and rewritten in C++ programming language to become KEWPIE2. The current version of the code comprises various nuclear models concerning the light-particle emission, fission process and statistical properties of excited nuclei. General features of the code, such as the numerical scheme and the main physical ingredients, are described in detail. Some typical calculations having been performed in the present paper clearly show that theoretical predictions are generally in accordance with experimental data. Furthermore, since the values of some input parameters cannot be determined neither theoretically nor experimentally, a sensibility analysis is presented. To this end, we systematically investigate the effects of using different parameter values and reaction models on the final results. As expected, in the case of heavy nuclei, the fission process has the most crucial role to play in theoretical predictions. This work would be essential for numerical modeling of fusion-evaporation reactions.
Multiple Dynamic Transitions in Nonequilibrium Work Fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noh, Jae Dong; Kwon, Chulan; Park, Hyunggyu
2013-09-01
The time-dependent work probability distribution function P(W) is investigated analytically for a diffusing particle trapped by an anisotropic harmonic potential and driven by a nonconservative drift force in two dimensions. We find that the exponential tail shape of P(W) characterizing rare-event probabilities undergoes a sequence of dynamic transitions in time. These remarkable locking-unlocking type transitions result from an intricate interplay between a rotational mode induced by the nonconservative force and an anisotropic decaying mode due to the conservative attractive force. We expect that most of the high-dimensional dynamical systems should exhibit similar multiple dynamic transitions.
Zhao, Li; Zhou, Pan-Wang; Zhao, Guang-Jiu
2016-07-28
The trans-urocanic acid, a UV chromophore in the epidermis of human skin, was found to exhibit a wavelength dependent isomerization property. The isomerization quantum yield to cis-urocanic is greatest when being excited to the S1 state, whereas exciting the molecule to the S2 state causes almost no isomerization. The comparative photochemical behavior of the trans-urocanic on the S1 and S2 states continues to be the subject of intense research effort. This study is concerned with the unique photo-behavior of this interesting molecule on the S2 state. Combining the on-the-fly surface hopping dynamics simulations and static electronic structure calculations, three decay channels were observed following excitation to the S2 state. An overwhelming majority of the molecules decay to the S1 state through a planar or pucker characterized minimum energy conical intersection (MECI), and then decay to the ground state along a relaxation coordinate driven by a pucker deformation of the ring. A very small fraction of molecules decay to the S1 state by a MECI characterized by a twisting motion around the CC double bond, which continues to drive the molecule to deactivate to the ground state. The latter channel is related with the photoisomerization process, whereas the former one will only generate the original trans-form products. The present work provides a novel S2 state decay mechanism of this molecule, which offers useful information to explain the wavelength dependent isomerization behavior. PMID:27475370
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Li; Zhou, Pan-Wang; Zhao, Guang-Jiu
2016-07-01
The trans-urocanic acid, a UV chromophore in the epidermis of human skin, was found to exhibit a wavelength dependent isomerization property. The isomerization quantum yield to cis-urocanic is greatest when being excited to the S1 state, whereas exciting the molecule to the S2 state causes almost no isomerization. The comparative photochemical behavior of the trans-urocanic on the S1 and S2 states continues to be the subject of intense research effort. This study is concerned with the unique photo-behavior of this interesting molecule on the S2 state. Combining the on-the-fly surface hopping dynamics simulations and static electronic structure calculations, three decay channels were observed following excitation to the S2 state. An overwhelming majority of the molecules decay to the S1 state through a planar or pucker characterized minimum energy conical intersection (MECI), and then decay to the ground state along a relaxation coordinate driven by a pucker deformation of the ring. A very small fraction of molecules decay to the S1 state by a MECI characterized by a twisting motion around the CC double bond, which continues to drive the molecule to deactivate to the ground state. The latter channel is related with the photoisomerization process, whereas the former one will only generate the original trans-form products. The present work provides a novel S2 state decay mechanism of this molecule, which offers useful information to explain the wavelength dependent isomerization behavior.
Molecular Assessment of litter decay dynamics across old and young forest sites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filley, T. R.; Crow, S.; Gamblin, D.; McCormick, M.; Whigham, D.; Taylor, D. L.
2006-12-01
The response of soil organic matter pools to changes in litter input, land cover, and ýinvertebrate activity is a research area of intensive study given the proposed impacts that ýrising CO2 and surface temperatures may have on forest productivity and distribution of ýinvasive species. In a mixed deciduous forest at the Smithsonian Environmental ýResearch Center litter amendment plots were established in old (120-150 y) and young ýý(50-70 y) forests. In May 2004, six plots were amended with locally collected ýLirodendron tulipifera wood (chipped) and leaves. At the same time, leaf and wood litter ýbag decomposition experiments on the sites were also started. Changes in the ýconcentration and composition of biopolymers, e.g. lignin and cutin/suberin, after ýapproximately four months of decay were tracked by alkaline CuO extraction. Resultant ýleaf and wood litter in the surface amendments was distinct between age groupings. ýYoung sites exhibited the greatest change in chemical character showing increased lignin ýand decreased cutin/suberin resulting in a cutin-poor residue. Minor changes to ýbiopolymer character were observed in older sites with residues exhibiting small but ýopposite trends to the young sites. In contrast, the litter bag studies exhibited little to no ývariation in chemistry with age of stand; although, generally leaf litter showed the ýgreatest age-related effect. These patterns in litter decay are consistent with both ýmicrobial activity and relative biomass of invasive earthworms; young forests exhibit ýrelatively higher activity of both phenol oxidase and B-glucosidase in the soil (0-5 cm) ýplots and greater biomass and relative abundance invasive earthworms. These results are ýimportant as they show how stand age and the presence of invertebrate species may have ýimportant controls on the impact that many global change drivers may have on forest soil ýand carbon exchange dynamics.ý
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhi-Peng; Tok, Eng Soon; Foo, Yong Lim
2010-10-01
In situ ultrahigh vacuum transmission electron microscopy was employed to observe the dynamics of both the coalescence and decay of two-dimensional Fe13Ge8 islands on an atomically smooth Ge(001) surface. Quasi-one-dimensional (1D) island decay behavior was observed on the isotropic Ge(001) surface where annealing caused the islands to shrink significantly faster in one direction. The shrinkage in the perpendicular direction was minimal in comparison. This is contrary to Ostwald ripening for isotropic surfaces, as well as for the quasi-1D island decay model for anisotropic surfaces. During annealing, this island decay behavior occurred by the attachment/detachment limiting mechanism, which is based on an analysis of adatom concentration differences. Therefore, this quasi-1D island decay process is driven by adatom concentration differences between coalescing and decaying islands. Island decay occurs along the large diffusive flux channel between islands and is affected by the local environment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishise, Motoko; Miyake, Hiroe; Koketsu, Kazuki
2015-07-01
The central Japanese subduction zone is characterized by a complex tectonic setting affected by the dual subduction of oceanic plates and collisions between the island arcs. To better understand of the subduction system, we performed an anisotropic tomography analysis using P-wave arrival times from local earthquakes to determine the three-dimensional structure of P-wave azimuthal anisotropy in the overriding plate and the Pacific and Philippine Sea (PHS) slabs. The principal characteristics of anisotropy in the subducted and subducting plates are (1) in the overriding plate, the distribution pattern of fast direction of crustal anisotropy coincides with that of the strike of geological structure, (2) in the two oceanic plates, fast propagation directions of P-wave were sub-parallel to the directions of seafloor spreading. Additionally, our tomographic images demonstrate that (1) the bottom of the Median Tectonic Line, the longest fault zone in Japan, reaches to the lower crust, and seems to link to the source region of an inter-plate earthquake along the PHS slab, (2) the segmentation of the PHS slab - the Izu Islands arc, the Nishi-Shichito ridge, and the Shikoku basin - due to the formation history, is reflected in the regional variation of anisotropy. The tomographic study further implies that there might be a fragment of the Pacific slab suggested by a previous study beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area. The overall findings strongly indicate that seismic anisotropy analysis provide potentially useful information to understand a subduction zone.
Wang, Ning; Peng, Jinhua; Pang, Aimin; Hu, Jianjiang; He, Tieshan
2016-09-01
Anisotropic mechanical response and chemical reaction process of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) along crystal orientations were studied with molecular dynamics simulations using ReaxFF potential under repeated stress wave loading. In the simulations, shocks were propagated along the [010], [001], [210], [100], [111], and [102] orientations of crystal RDX at initial particle velocity Up in the range of 1∼4 km/s. For shocks at Up ≤ 2 km/s, local stacking fault and molecular conformational change can only cause marginal temperature and pressure increase without molecular decomposition. As shocks increase to Up ≥ 2.5 km/s, rupture of N-NO2 bond accompanied by partial HONO elimination dominates the main chemical reactions at the initial stage. The ordering of the follow-up consumption of NO2 and ring-breaking rate is directly consistent with that of increasing rate in temperature and pressure. The (210) and (100) planes are more sensitive to shocks in temperature and pressure profiles than the (111) plane, which agrees well with experimental observations and theoretical results in the literature. Therefore, the repeated dynamic loading model in conjunction with MD simulation using ReaxFF potential for crystal RDX indicates that these methods can be applied to study the mechanical response and chemical reaction process of polymer bonded explosives that are commonly subjected to compressive and tensile stress waves observed in practice. PMID:27568527
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michailidou, V. N.; Swan, J. W.; Brady, J. F.; Petekidis, G.
2013-10-01
Evanescent wave dynamic light scattering and Stokesian dynamics simulations were employed to study the dynamics of hard-sphere colloidal particles near a hard wall in concentrated suspensions. The evanescent wave averaged short-time diffusion coefficients were determined from experimental correlation functions over a range of scattering wave vectors and penetration depths. Stokesian dynamics simulations performed for similar conditions allow a direct comparison of both the short-time self- and collective diffusivity. As seen earlier [V. N. Michailidou, G. Petekidis, J. W. Swan, and J. F. Brady, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 068302 (2009)] while the near wall dynamics in the dilute regime slow down compared to the free bulk diffusion, the reduction is negligible at higher volume fractions due to an interplay between the particle-wall and particle-particle hydrodynamic interactions. Here, we provide a comprehensive comparison between experiments and simulations and discuss the interplay of particle-wall and particle-particle hydrodynamics in the self- and cooperative dynamics determined at different scattering wave vectors and penetration depths.
Final-state screening dynamics in resonant Auger decay at the 2p edge of vanadium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ilakovac, V.; Kralj, M.; Pervan, P.; Richter, M. C.; Goldoni, A.; Larciprete, R.; Petaccia, L.; Hricovini, K.
2005-02-01
We investigated the resonant Auger process near the V 2p3/2 edge in vanadium metal. Attention is centered on the onset of Auger decays and their behavior below the 2p3/2 resonance. The 2p3/23d3d decay has a crossover from the Raman-Auger to the normal Auger regime at the 2p ionization threshold. Meanwhile, Auger decays with core holes in the final state have normal Auger behavior even below the ionization threshold, the 2p3/23p3p process being visible at 2.2 eV lower photon energy. The different resonant behavior of these Auger decays can be understood within the one-step model as final-state screening effects affecting the photoexcitation.
Not Available
1980-01-01
Direct excitation of overtone vibrations in combination with time-resolved spectroscopic detection probes unimolecular processes in new detail. Observing product luminescence produced by the decay of tetramethyldioxetane excited to v = 3, 4, or 5 of the CH stretching vibration yields the unimolecular decay rate directly, provides overtone vibration spectra on a low pressure gas phase molecule, and reveals a new feature to the chemiluminescence kinetics. Laser induced fluorescence experiments to extend this work to include product state detection are in preparation.
Phonon heat conduction in layered anisotropic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Minnich, A. J.
2015-02-01
The thermal properties of anisotropic crystals are of both fundamental and practical interest, but transport phenomena in anisotropic materials such as graphite remain poorly understood because solutions of the Boltzmann equation often assume isotropy. Here, we extend an analytic solution of the transient, frequency-dependent Boltzmann equation to highly anisotropic solids and examine its predictions for graphite. We show that this simple model predicts key results, such as long c -axis phonon mean free paths and a negative correlation of cross-plane thermal conductivity with in-plane group velocity, that were previously observed with computationally expensive molecular-dynamics simulations. Further, using our analytic solution, we demonstrate a method to reconstruct the anisotropic mean free path spectrum of crystals with arbitrary dispersion relations without any prior knowledge of their harmonic or anharmonic properties using observations of quasiballistic heat conduction. These results provide a useful analytic framework to understand thermal transport in anisotropic crystals.
2015-01-01
Transition metal doped semiconductor nanocrystals (d-dots) possess fundamentally different emission properties upon photo- or electroexcitation, which render them as unique emitters for special applications. However, in comparison with intrinsic semiconductor nanocrystals, the potential of d-dots has been barely realized, because many of their unique emission properties mostly rely on precise control of their photoluminescence (PL) decay dynamics. Results in this work revealed that it would be possible to obtain bright d-dots with nearly single-exponential PL decay dynamics. By tuning the number of Mn2+ ions per dot from ∼500 to 20 in Mn2+ doped ZnSe nanocrystals (Mn:ZnSe d-dots), the single-exponential PL decay lifetime was continuously tuned from ∼50 to 1000 μs. A synthetic scheme was further developed for uniform and epitaxial growth of thick ZnS shell, ∼7 monolayers. The resulting Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell d-dots were found to be essential for necessary environmental durability of the PL properties, both steady-state and transient ones, for the d-dot emitters. These characteristics combined with intense absorption and high PL quantum yields (70 ± 5%) enabled greatly simplified schemes for various applications of PL lifetime multiplexing using Mn:ZnSe/ZnS core/shell d-dots. PMID:27163024
Golovan, L. A.; Zabotnov, S. V. Timoshenko, V. Yu.; Kashkarov, P. K.
2009-02-15
The effective-medium model has been generalized within the dipole approximation, with allowance for the shape anisotropy and dynamic depolarization of semiconductor nanoparticles. The calculations revealed nonmonotonic dependences for the birefringence and dichroism on the nanoparticle size. Comparison of the measured and calculated refractive index dispersion of birefringent porous silicon layers in the near-IR region indicates that consideration for the dynamic depolarization gives a better description of the optical properties for this material in comparison with the generally used effective-medium electrostatic approximation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vogelsberg, Cortnie Sue
Amphidynamic crystals are an extremely promising platform for the development of artificial molecular machines and stimuli-responsive materials. In analogy to skeletal muscle, their function will rely upon the collective operation of many densely packed molecular machines (i.e. actin-bound myosin) that are self-assembled in a highly organized anisotropic medium. By choosing lattice-forming elements and moving "parts" with specific functionalities, individual molecular machines may be synthesized and self-assembled in order to carry out desirable functions. In recent years, efforts in the design of amphidynamic materials based on molecular gyroscopes and compasses have shown that a certain amount of free volume is essential to facilitate internal rotation and reorientation within a crystal. In order to further establish structure/function relationships to advance the development of increasingly complex molecular machinery, molecular rotors and a molecular "spinning" top were synthesized and incorporated into a variety of solid-state architectures with different degrees of periodicity, dimensionality, and free volume. Specifically, lamellar molecular crystals, hierarchically ordered periodic mesoporous organosilicas, and metal-organic frameworks were targeted for the development of solid-state molecular machines. Using an array of solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques, the dynamic properties of these novel molecular machine assemblies were determined and correlated with their corresponding structural features. It was found that architecture type has a profound influence on functional dynamics. The study of layered molecular crystals, composed of either molecular rotors or "spinning" tops, probed functional dynamics within dense, highly organized environments. From their study, it was discovered that: 1) crystallographically distinct sites may be utilized to differentiate machine function, 2) halogen bonding interactions are sufficiently
Gilmore, James B.; Kelleher, Anthony D.; Cooper, David A.; Murray, John M.
2013-01-01
A recent investigation of the effect of different antiretroviral drug classes on first phase dynamics of HIV RNA plasma virus levels has indicated that drugs acting at stages closer to viral production, such as the integrase inhibitor raltegravir, can produce a steeper first phase decay slope that may not be due to drug efficacy. Moreover it was found that for most drug classes the first phase transitions from a faster (phase IA) to a slightly slower decay region (phase IB) before the start of the usual second phase. Neither of these effects has been explained to date. We use a mathematical model that incorporates the different stages of the HIV viral life cycle in CD4+ T cells: viral entry, reverse transcription, integration, and viral production, to investigate the intracellular HIV mechanisms responsible for these complex plasma virus decay dynamics. We find differences in the phase IA slope across drug classes arise from a higher death rate of cells when they enter the productively infected stage post-integration, with a half-life of approximately 8 hours in this stage, whereas cells in earlier stages of the infection cycle have half-lives similar to uninfected cells. This implies any immune clearance is predominantly limited to the productive infection stage. We also show that the slowing of phase IA to phase IB at day 2 to 4 of monotherapy, depending on drug class, is a result of new rounds of infection. The level at which this slowing occurs is a better indicator of drug efficacy than the slope of the initial decay. PMID:23555209
Towards a dynamical understanding of the non-DD decay of psi(3770).
Zhang, Yuan-Jiang; Li, Gang; Zhao, Qiang
2009-05-01
We investigate the psi(3770) non-DD decays into VP, where V and P denote vector and pseudoscalar mesons, respectively, via Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-rule-evading intermediate meson rescatterings in an effective Lagrangian theory. By identifying the leading meson loop transitions and constraining the model parameters with the available experimental data for psi(3770)-->J/psieta, phieta, and rhopi, we succeed in making a quantitative prediction for all psi(3770)-->VP with BRVP from 0.41% to 0.64%. It indicates that the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-rule-evading long-range interactions play a role in psi(3770) strong decays, and could be a key towards a full understanding of the mysterious psi(3770) non-DD decay mechanism. PMID:19518772
Towards a Dynamical Understanding of the Non-DD Decay of {psi}(3770)
Zhang Yuanjiang; Li Gang; Zhao Qiang
2009-05-01
We investigate the {psi}(3770) non-DD decays into VP, where V and P denote vector and pseudoscalar mesons, respectively, via Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-rule-evading intermediate meson rescatterings in an effective Lagrangian theory. By identifying the leading meson loop transitions and constraining the model parameters with the available experimental data for {psi}(3770){yields}J/{psi}{eta}, {phi}{eta}, and {rho}{pi}, we succeed in making a quantitative prediction for all {psi}(3770){yields}VP with BR{sub VP} from 0.41% to 0.64%. It indicates that the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka-rule-evading long-range interactions play a role in {psi}(3770) strong decays, and could be a key towards a full understanding of the mysterious {psi}(3770) non-DD decay mechanism.
Anisotropic. cap alpha. -emission of on-line separated isotopes
Wouters, J.; Vandeplassche, D.; van Walle, E.; Severijns, N.; Van Haverbeke, J.; Vanneste, L.
1987-12-10
The technical realization of particle detection at very low temperatures (4K) has made it possible to study for the first time the anisotropic ..cap alpha..-decay of oriented nuclei which have been produced, separated and implanted on line. The measured ..cap alpha..-angular distributions reveal surprising new results on nuclear aspects as well as in solid state physics. The nuclear structure information from these data questions the older ..cap alpha..-decay theoretical interpretation and urges for a reaxamination of the earliest work on anisotropic ..cap alpha..-decay.
Dynamical Studies of the Formation and Decay of Particle-Unbound States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogata, Kazuyuki; Kikuchi, Yuma; Myo, Takayuki; Minomo, Kosho; Matsumoto, Takuma; Yahiro, Masanobu
Two recent studies on particle-unbound states are reviewed. First, the breakup cross section of 22C by 12C at 250 MeV/nucleon is evaluated by the continuum-discretized coupled-channels method (CDCC) to clarify how low-lying resonant states of 22C predicted by the cluster-orbital shell-model (COSM) are observed. It is found that the contribution of the 02 + resonance has a peculiar shape in the breakup energy spectrum due to the coupling to the nonresonant continuum, i.e., the background-phase effect. The second subject is the decay mode of the 21 + resonant state of 6He populated by the 6He breakup reaction by 12C at 240 MeV/nucleon. CDCC is adopted to describe the formation of the 21 + state, whereas its decay is described by the complex-scaled solutions of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation (CSLS). From analysis of invariant mass spectra with respect to the α-n and n-n subsystems, coexistence of two decay modes is found. One is the simultaneous decay of two neutrons correlating with each other and the other is the emission of two neutrons to the opposite directions. The latter is found to be free from the final state interaction and suggests existence of a di-neutron in the 21 + state of 6He.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scardi, P.; Leonardi, A.; Gelisio, L.; Suchomel, M. R.; Sneed, B. T.; Sheehan, M. K.; Tsung, C.-K.
2015-04-01
Nearly identical Pd nanocubes yield an x-ray powder diffraction pattern with interference fringes affording access to unprecedented structural details of nanocrystal size, shape, and complex atomic displacement for a billion-sized population. The excellent agreement between diffraction data and molecular dynamics (MD) provides strong experimental validation of MD simulations and the proposed data-interpretation paradigm. These results show that individual atomic displacements within the nanocubes are not only a function of disrupted bonds and the crystallographic plane of the adjacent surface, but are complex strain gradients extending across all surfaces of the particle strongly influenced by atomic displacements. This observation of nonuniform surface strain and the manner in which it is affected by different sizes, shapes, and locations within each facet could be the key to understanding many surface related properties of shaped nanocrystals including those associated with important catalysis applications.
Evolution of multidimensional flat anisotropic cosmological models
Beloborodov, A. ); Demianski, M. Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics , Universita di Roma I, La Sapienza, Rome ); Ivanov, P.; Polnarev, A.G. )
1993-07-15
We study the dynamics of a flat multidimensional anisotropic cosmological model filled with an anisotropic fluidlike medium. By an appropriate choice of variables, the dynamical equations reduce to a two-dimensional dynamical system. We present a detailed analysis of the time evolution of this system and the conditions of the existence of spacetime singularities. We investigate the conditions under which violent, exponential, and power-law inflation is possible. We show that dimensional reduction cannot proceed by anti-inflation (rapid contraction of internal space). Our model indicates that it is very difficult to achieve dimensional reduction by classical means.
First measurements of D(α) spectrum produced by anisotropic fast ions in the gas dynamic trap.
Lizunov, A; Anikeev, A
2014-11-01
Angled injection of eight deuterium beams in gas dynamic trap (GDT) plasmas builds up the population of fast ions with the distribution function, which conserves a high degree of initial anisotropy in space, energy, and pitch angle. Unlike the Maxwellian distribution case, the fast ion plasma component in GDT cannot be exhaustively characterized by the temperature and density. The instrumentation complex to study of fast ions is comprised of motional Stark effect diagnostic, analyzers of charge exchange atoms, and others. The set of numerical codes using for equilibrium modeling is also an important tool of analysis. In the recent campaign of summer 2014, we recorded first signals from the new fast ion D-alpha diagnostic on GDT. This paper presents the diagnostic description and results of pilot measurements. The diagnostic has four lines of sight, distributed across the radius of an axially symmetric plasma column in GDT. In the present setup, a line-integrated optical signal is measured in each channel. In the transverse direction, the spatial resolution is 18 mm. Collected light comes to the grating spectrometer with the low-noise detector based on a charge-coupled device matrix. In the regime of four spectra stacked vertically on the sensor, the effective spectral resolution of measurements is approximately 0.015 nm. Exposure timing is provided by the fast optical ferroelectric crystal shutter, allowing frames of duration down to 70 μs. This number represents the time resolution of measurements. A large dynamic range of the camera permits for a measurement of relatively small light signals produced by fast ions on top of the bright background emission from the bulk plasma. The fast ion emission has a non-Gaussian spectrum featuring the characteristic width of approximately 4 nm, which can be separated from relatively narrow Gaussian lines of D-alpha and H-alpha coming from the plasma periphery, and diagnostic beam emission. The signal to noise ratio varies
First measurements of D{sub α} spectrum produced by anisotropic fast ions in the gas dynamic trap
Lizunov, A.; Anikeev, A.
2014-11-15
Angled injection of eight deuterium beams in gas dynamic trap (GDT) plasmas builds up the population of fast ions with the distribution function, which conserves a high degree of initial anisotropy in space, energy, and pitch angle. Unlike the Maxwellian distribution case, the fast ion plasma component in GDT cannot be exhaustively characterized by the temperature and density. The instrumentation complex to study of fast ions is comprised of motional Stark effect diagnostic, analyzers of charge exchange atoms, and others. The set of numerical codes using for equilibrium modeling is also an important tool of analysis. In the recent campaign of summer 2014, we recorded first signals from the new fast ion D-alpha diagnostic on GDT. This paper presents the diagnostic description and results of pilot measurements. The diagnostic has four lines of sight, distributed across the radius of an axially symmetric plasma column in GDT. In the present setup, a line-integrated optical signal is measured in each channel. In the transverse direction, the spatial resolution is 18 mm. Collected light comes to the grating spectrometer with the low-noise detector based on a charge-coupled device matrix. In the regime of four spectra stacked vertically on the sensor, the effective spectral resolution of measurements is approximately 0.015 nm. Exposure timing is provided by the fast optical ferroelectric crystal shutter, allowing frames of duration down to 70 μs. This number represents the time resolution of measurements. A large dynamic range of the camera permits for a measurement of relatively small light signals produced by fast ions on top of the bright background emission from the bulk plasma. The fast ion emission has a non-Gaussian spectrum featuring the characteristic width of approximately 4 nm, which can be separated from relatively narrow Gaussian lines of D-alpha and H-alpha coming from the plasma periphery, and diagnostic beam emission. The signal to noise ratio varies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kihara, Kuniaki
1993-02-01
Temperature factors for oxygen and silicon atoms in β-quartz were calculated on a Born-von Karman lattice dynamical model of an ordered structure. The calculated thermal ellipsoids were in excellent agreements with those of the previous structure refinements of the order model, for both magnitudes and orientations of the principal axes. The temperature factors are contributed mainly by the soft optic modes in Γ-M and the lowest-lying acoustic modes along Γ-A, which are also strongly temperature-dependent. The cusp-shaped temperature dependence of mean square displacements,
Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M; Mamontov, Eugene; Ishai, Paul ben; Kolesnikov, Alexander I
2013-01-01
The properties of fluids can be significantly altered by the geometry of their confining environments. While there has been significant work on the properties of such confined fluids, the properties of fluids under ultraconfinement, environments where, at least in one plane, the dimensions of the confining environment are similar to that of the confined molecule, have not been investigated. This paper investigates the dynamic properties of water in beryl (Be3Al2Si6O18), the structure of which contains approximately 5-A-diam channels parallel to the c axis. Three techniques, inelastic neutron scattering, quasielastic neutron scattering, and dielectric spectroscopy, have been used to quantify these properties over a dynamic range covering approximately 16 orders of magnitude. Because beryl can be obtained in large single crystals we were able to quantify directional variations, perpendicular and parallel to the channel directions, in the dynamics of the confined fluid. These are significantly anisotropic and, somewhat counterintuitively, show that vibrations parallel to the c-axis channels are significantly more hindered than those perpendicular to the channels. The effective potential for vibrations in the c direction is harder than the potential in directions perpendicular to it. There is evidence of single-file diffusion of water molecules along the channels at higher temperatures, but below 150 K this diffusion is strongly suppressed. No such suppression, however, has been observed in the channel-perpendicular direction. Inelastic neutron scattering spectra include an intramolecular stretching O-H peak at 465 meV. As this is nearly coincident with that known for free water molecules and approximately 30 meV higher than that in liquid water or ice, this suggests that there is no hydrogen bonding constraining vibrations between the channel water and the beryl structure. However, dielectric spectroscopic measurements at higher temperatures and lower frequencies
Surface plasmon decay dynamics in nanostructured systems: A Feynman diagram approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narang, Prineha; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Jermyn, Adam S.; Goddard, William A., III; Atwater, Harry A.
2015-03-01
The decay of surface plasmon resonances is usually a detriment in the field of plasmonics, but the possibility to capture the energy normally lost to heat would open new opportunities in photon sensors and energy conversion devices. In the context of hot-electron devices, the large extinction cross-section at a surface plasmon resonance enables nanostructures to absorb a significant fraction of the solar spectrum in very thin films. Despite the significant experimental work in this direction, a complete theoretical understanding of plasmon-driven hot carrier generation with electronic structure details has been evasive. Recently we analyzed the quantum decay of surface plasmon polaritons and found that the prompt distribution of generated carriers is extremely sensitive to the energy band structure of the plasmonic material. In this context, we use a Feynman diagram approach to describe processes involving plasmons, electrons and phonons in plasmonic hot carrier generation. Built upon this general theoretical and computational framework, we present results on higher order processes such as multi-plasmon decays in metals which are critical for plasmon-driven upconversion. Join Center for Artificial Photosynthesis, California Institute of Technology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Namekata, Daisuke; Umemura, Masayuki
2016-07-01
We explore the gas dynamics near the dust sublimation radius of active galactic nucleus (AGN). For the purpose, we perform axisymmetric radiation hydrodynamic simulations of a dusty gas disc of radius ≈1 pc around a supermassive black hole of mass 107 M⊙ taking into account (1) anisotropic radiation of accretion disc, (2) X-ray heating by corona, (3) radiative transfer of infrared (IR) photons re-emitted by dust, (4) frequency dependence of direct and IR radiations, and (5) separate temperatures for gas and dust. As a result, we find that for Eddington ratio ≈0.77, a nearly neutral, dense ({≈ } 10^{6-8}cm^{-3}), geometrically thin (h/r < 0.06) disc forms with a high-velocity (≈200 ˜ 3000 km s-1) dusty outflow launched from the disc surface. The disc temperature is determined by the balance between X-ray heating and various cooling, and the disc is almost supported by thermal pressure. Contrary to Krolik (2007), the radiation pressure by IR photons is not effective to thicken the disc, but rather compresses it. Thus, it seems difficult for a radiation-supported, geometrically thick, obscuring torus to form near the dust sublimation radius as far as the Eddington ratio is high (˜1). The mass outflow rate is 0.05-0.1M_{⊙} yr^{-1} and the column density of the outflow is NH ≲ 1021 cm-2. To explain observed type-II AGN fraction, it is required that outflow gas is extended to larger radii (r ≳ 10 pc) or that a denser dusty wind is launched from smaller radii (r ˜ 104 Rg).
Jones, Marcus; Lo, Shun S; Scholes, Gregory D
2009-03-01
Charge carrier trapping is an important phenomenon in nanocrystal (NC) decay dynamics because it reduces photoluminescence (PL) quantum efficiencies and obscures efforts to understand the interaction of NC excitons with their surroundings. Particularly crucial to our understanding of excitation dynamics in, e.g., multiNC assemblies, would be a way of differentiating between processes involving trap states and those that do not. Direct optical measurement of NC trap state processes is not usually possible because they have negligible transition dipole moments; however, they are known to indirectly affect exciton photoluminescence. Here, we develop a framework, based on Marcus electron transfer theory, to determine NC trap state dynamics from time-resolved NC exciton PL measurements. Our results demonstrate the sensitivity of PL to interfacial dynamics, indicating that the technique can be used as an indirect but effective probe of trap distribution changes. We anticipate that this study represents a step toward understanding how excitons in nanocrystals interact with their surroundings: a quality that must be optimized for their efficient application in photovoltaics, photodetectors, or chemical sensors. PMID:19218443
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosal, Amit; Ash, Biswarup; Chakrabarti, Jaydeb
2015-03-01
We investigate the dynamics of Coulomb-interacting confined particles over a range of temperatures capturing the crossover from a Wigner molecule to a liquid-like phase. Dynamical signatures, derived from the Van-Hove correlations, develop pivotal understanding of the phases as well as the intervening crossover, which are inaccessible from the study of static correlations alone. The motion of the particles shows frustrations, produces heterogeneities depending on the observation time-scales and temperatures and results into a non-Gaussian behavior. The extent and nature of the departure of the behavior of spatio-temporal correlations from the conventional wisdom depends crucially on the symmetry of the confinements. In particular, we find that the decay of correlations follow a stretched-exponential form in traps that lack any symmetry. Our data offers a broad support to a theoretical model that integrates the non-Gaussian behavior arising from the convolution of Gaussian fluctuations weighted by appropriate diffusivities, consistent with local dynamics. The richness of information from the dynamic correlation will be shown to improve the understanding of melting in confined systems in a powerful manner.
Carrier Decay and Diffusion Dynamics in Single-Crystalline CdTe as seen via Microphotoluminescence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mascarenhas, Angelo; Fluegel, Brian; Alberi, Kirstin; Zhang, Yong-Hang
2015-03-01
The ability to spatially resolve the degree to which extended defects impact carrier diffusion lengths and lifetimes is important for determining upper limits for defect densities in semiconductor devices. We show that a new spatially and temporally resolved photoluminescence (PL) imaging technique can be used to accurately extract carrier lifetimes in the immediate vicinity of dark-line defects in CdTe/MgCdTe double heterostructures. A series of PL images captured during the decay process show that extended defects with a density of 1.4x10-5 cm-2 deplete photogenerated charge carriers from the surrounding semiconductor material on a nanosecond time scale. The technique makes it possible to elucidate the interplay between nonradiative carrier recombination and carrier diffusion and reveals that they both combine to degrade the PL intensity over a fractional area that is much larger than the physical size of the defects. Carrier lifetimes are correctly determined from numerical simulations of the decay behavior by taking these two effects into account. Our study demonstrates that it is crucial to measure and account for the influence of local defects in the measurement of carrier lifetime and diffusion, which are key transport parameters for the design and modeling of advanced solar-cell and light-emitting devices. We acknowledge the financial support of the Department of Energy Office of Science under Grant No. DE-AC36-08GO28308.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Hai-Chao; Wei, Shu-Dong; Zeng, Qi; Zhang, Li-Hua; Tam, Nora Fung-yee; Lin, Yi-Ming
2010-03-01
Avicennia marina is a typical mangrove species in the subtropical coastlines of China. The main objective of this study was to assess nutrient and caloric dynamics in A. marina leaves at different developmental and decay stages. Decomposition studies using litter bags suggested that the time required for the loss of half of the initial dry weight ( t50) was 19 days. The extracts of A. marina leaves contained non-tannin phenolics and tannin phenolics (hydrolysable tannin), but no condensed tannin. Non-tannin phenolics and tannin phenolics contents did not differ significantly from each other at various developmental stages, but decreased rapidly during leaf decomposition. Avicennia marina leaves had high N levels, and both N and P concentrations decreased significantly during senescence. During decomposition, N concentration of the leaf litter increased gradually but the phosphorus concentration showed a decrease in the first week, and both N and P remained the same towards the end of the experiment. The gross caloric value (GCV) of mature leaves was significantly higher than those of young and senescent leaves, while ash-free caloric value (AFCV) did not change significantly during leaf development and senescence. During leaf decomposition, both GCV and AFCV increased gradually and remained the same at late stages. In subtropical Zhangjiang River Estuary, high N levels and lack of condensed tannins in A. marina leaves were responsible for the fast rate of decay. Non-tannin phenolics and tannin phenolics had no great effect on rate of decay. Nitrogen resorption during leaf senescence, and high litter decomposition followed by nitrogen immobilization are the important nutrient conservation strategy for A. marina.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Agostino, Stefania; Della Sala, Fabio; Andreani, Lucio Claudio
2013-05-01
A theoretical control of the electromagnetic coupling between localized surface plasmons and pointlike sources of radiation is a relevant topic in nanoscience and nanophotonics. In this paper a numerical approach based on the discrete dipole approximation is presented as a practical and reliable computational tool to study the decay dynamics of a dipole when it is located in the near proximities of metallic nanoparticles whose shapes do not allow a fully analytical treatment. The method is first applied to Ag nanospheres and nanoshells, which represent two analytically solvable cases, and it is shown to lead to a very good agreement with exact results. The approach is then used to consider the response, in terms of perturbations induced on the radiative and nonradiative decay rates, of elongated nanoparticles, like Ag prolate spheroids and nanocones. Results demonstrate how the optical response of conically shaped nanoparticles can be affected by the distance and the orientation of the emitter of radiation, as well as by other geometrical parameters. The particular symmetry of these plasmonic objects results in peculiar features: the absorption efficiencies of the modes depend on the distance of the source of radiation in a counterintuitive way, and this is explained in terms of the excited charge density distributions. The possibility to simulate arbitrary-shaped nanostructures and several dipole-metal configurations presented here, could thus open new avenues for an aware use of surface plasmons in fluorescence spectroscopy applications or single photon emission studies.
Solvent-modified ultrafast decay dynamics in conjugated polymer/dye labeled single stranded DNA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Inhong; Kang, Mijeong; Woo, Han Young; Oh, Jin-Woo; Kyhm, Kwangseuk
2015-07-01
We have investigated that organic solvent (DMSO, dimethyl sulfoxide) modifies energy transfer efficiency between conjugated polymers (donors) and fluorescein-labeled single stranded DNAs (acceptors). In a mixture of buffer and organic solvent, fluorescence of the acceptors is significantly enhanced compared to that of pure water solution. This result can be attributed to change of the donor-acceptor environment such as decreased hydrophobicity of polymers, screening effect of organic solvent molecules, resulting in an enhanced energy transfer efficiency. Time-resolved fluorescence decay of the donors and the acceptors was modelled by considering the competition between the energy harvesting Foerster resonance energy transfer and the energy-wasting quenching. This enables to quantity that the Foerster distance (R0 = 43.3 Å) and resonance energy transfer efficiency (EFRET = 58.7 %) of pure buffer solution become R0 = 38.6 Å and EFRET = 48.0 % when 80% DMSO/buffer mixture is added.
Young-Gonzales, Amanda R; Samanta, Subarna; Richert, Ranko
2015-09-14
For glycerol and three monohydroxy alcohols, we have measured the non-linear dielectric effects resulting from the application and removal of a high dc bias electric field. The field effects are detected by virtue of a small amplitude harmonic field, from which time resolved changes in the dielectric loss are derived. The changes in permittivity are dominated by modifications of the time constants (rather than amplitudes) which display two contributions: a heating-like decrease of relaxation times that originates from the time dependent field when the bias is switched on and off and a slowing down of the dynamics resulting from the field induced reduction of configurational entropy. As observed for the electro-optical Kerr effect, the rise of the entropy change is slower than its decay, a feature that we rationalize on the basis of the quadratic dependence of the entropy change on polarization. For glycerol, the observed steady state level of the field induced shift of the glass transition temperature (+84 mK) matches the expectation based on the entropy change and its impact on dynamics via the Adam-Gibbs relation (+88 mK). For the alcohols, these non-linear effects rise and decay on the time scales of the prominent dielectric Debye process, underscoring the relation of these features to polarization anisotropy, opposed to mechanical or enthalpy relaxation which are orders of magnitude faster in these systems. A model is discussed which captures the observed magnitudes as well as time dependences in a near quantitative fashion. It is demonstrated that the high bias field modifies the response of polarization to the ac field, including a temporary change in the low field susceptibility. PMID:26374047
Nonradiative Plasmon Decay and Hot Carrier Dynamics: Effects of Phonons, Surfaces, and Geometry.
Brown, Ana M; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Narang, Prineha; Goddard, William A; Atwater, Harry A
2016-01-26
The behavior of metals across a broad frequency range from microwave to ultraviolet frequencies is of interest in plasmonics, nanophotonics, and metamaterials. Depending on the frequency, losses of collective excitations in metals can be predominantly classical resistive effects or Landau damping. In this context, we present first-principles calculations that capture all of the significant microscopic mechanisms underlying surface plasmon decay and predict the initial excited carrier distributions so generated. Specifically, we include ab initio predictions of phonon-assisted optical excitations in metals, which are critical to bridging the frequency range between resistive losses at low frequencies and direct interband transitions at high frequencies. In the commonly used plasmonic materials, gold, silver, copper, and aluminum, we find that resistive losses compete with phonon-assisted carrier generation below the interband threshold, but hot carrier generation via direct transitions dominates above threshold. Finally, we predict energy-dependent lifetimes and mean free paths of hot carriers, accounting for electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering, to provide insight toward transport of plasmonically generated carriers at the nanoscale. PMID:26654729
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lam, Wai Sze Tiffany
Optical components made of anisotropic materials, such as crystal polarizers and crystal waveplates, are widely used in many complex optical system, such as display systems, microlithography, biomedical imaging and many other optical systems, and induce more complex aberrations than optical components made of isotropic materials. The goal of this dissertation is to accurately simulate the performance of optical systems with anisotropic materials using polarization ray trace. This work extends the polarization ray tracing calculus to incorporate ray tracing through anisotropic materials, including uniaxial, biaxial and optically active materials. The 3D polarization ray tracing calculus is an invaluable tool for analyzing polarization properties of an optical system. The 3x3 polarization ray tracing P matrix developed for anisotropic ray trace assists tracking the 3D polarization transformations along a ray path with series of surfaces in an optical system. To better represent the anisotropic light-matter interactions, the definition of the P matrix is generalized to incorporate not only the polarization change at a refraction/reflection interface, but also the induced optical phase accumulation as light propagates through the anisotropic medium. This enables realistic modeling of crystalline polarization elements, such as crystal waveplates and crystal polarizers. The wavefront and polarization aberrations of these anisotropic components are more complex than those of isotropic optical components and can be evaluated from the resultant P matrix for each eigen-wavefront as well as for the overall image. One incident ray refracting or reflecting into an anisotropic medium produces two eigenpolarizations or eigenmodes propagating in different directions. The associated ray parameters of these modes necessary for the anisotropic ray trace are described in Chapter 2. The algorithms to calculate the P matrix from these ray parameters are described in Chapter 3 for
Matter sourced anisotropic stress for dark energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Baorong; Lu, Jianbo; Xu, Lixin
2014-11-01
Usually a dark energy as a perfect fluid is characterized by the ratio of pressure to energy density (w =p /ρ ) and the ratio of their perturbations in its rest frame (cs2=δ p /δ ρ ). However, a dark energy would have other characteristics beyond its equation of state and the effective speed of sound. Here the extra property is the anisotropic stress sourced by matter as a simple extension to the perfect fluid model. At the background level, this anisotropic stress is zero with respect to the cosmological principle, but not at the first-order perturbation. We tested the viability of the existence of this kind of anisotropic stress by using the currently available cosmic observations through the geometrical and dynamical measurements. Using the Markov-chain Monte Carlo method, we found that the upper bounds on the anisotropic stress which enters into the summation of the Newtonian potentials should be of the order O (1 0-3)Δm . We did not find any strong evidence for the existence of this matter-sourced anisotropic stress, even in the 1 σ region.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shklyaev, A. A.; Budazhapova, A. E.
2016-01-01
The formation of islands arrays during Ge deposition on Si(1 0 0) at high temperatures is studied using scanning tunneling and electron microscopies. It is found that the island size and shape distributions, which are known to be bimodal at growth temperatures below 700 °C, become monomodal at temperatures above 800 °C. The obtained data suggest that the processes such as island nucleation and Ostwald ripening become less significant in the surface morphology formation, giving the advantage to selective attachment of deposited Ge atoms to island sidewalls and spatially inhomogeneous Si-Ge intermixing, as the temperature increases. At 900 °C, the islands exhibit a tendency to form laterally ordered arrays when the growth conditions approach the dynamic equilibrium between the growth of islands and their decay by means of Si-Ge intermixing. The islands ordering is accompanied by their shape transformation into the cone with shallow sidewalls inclined from (1 0 0) by angles of around 10°.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pflamm-Altenburg, J.; Kroupa, P.
2006-11-01
The Orion Nebula cluster (ONC) appears to be unusual on two grounds: the observed constellation of the OB stars of the entire ONC and its Trapezium at its centre implies a time-scale problem given the age of the Trapezium, and an initial mass function (IMF) problem for the whole OB star population in the ONC. Given the estimated crossing time of the Trapezium, it ought to have totally dynamically decayed by now. Furthermore, by combining the lower limit of the ONC mass with a standard IMF it emerges that the ONC should have formed at least about 40 stars heavier than 5 Msolar while only 10 are observed. Using the N-body experiments we (i) confirm the expected instability of the Trapezium and (ii) show that beginning with a compact OB-star configuration of about 40 stars both the number of observed OB stars after 1 Myr within 1 pc radius and a compact trapezium configuration can be reproduced. These two empirical constraints thus support our estimate of 40 initial OB stars in the cluster. Interestingly, a more-evolved version of the ONC resembles the Upper Scorpius OB association. The N-body experiments are performed with the new C-code CATENA by integrating the equations of motion using the chain-multiple-regularization method. In addition, we present a new numerical formulation of the IMF.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hobara, S.; Osono, T.; Noro, K.; Hirota, M.; Benner, R. H.
2011-12-01
There is still much to be revealed about carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) dynamics in terrestrial soil systems. The objectives of this study were to identify molecular changes in composition during plant litter decomposition and gain insights about microbial contributions to C and N dynamics in decaying litter. Litter bag experiments with three plant species, Miscanthus sinensis, Pinus densiflora and Quercus crispula, were conducted for three years, and the concentrations of C, N, amino acids and amino sugars were determined at various times during the experiments. Mass loss (AFDW) ranged from 66-90% for the plant tissues. The weight %C remained fairly constant, whereas the weight %N increased throughout the study indicating N immobilization was occurring. The percentages of C as amino acids and amino sugars also increased throughout the study suggesting these biomolecules were largely of microbial origin. The increasing yields of amino acids and amino sugars were inversely related to overall C loss from the litter material. As microorganisms degraded the plant litter they left behind molecular signatures that were useful predictors of the extent of overall degradation. The C/N ratio of litter decreased throughout the study and was inversely related to galactosamine yields. The glucosamine/galactosamine (GlcN/GalN) ratio gradually declined to values near 2 by the end of the study. Galactoasamine is more abundant in bacteria than fungi, and the declining GlcN/GalN ratio suggest the relative contributions of bacterial to litter C and N increased relative to contributions from fungi. A cluster analysis of 0- and 36-month litters based on amino acid and amino sugar composition showed that 0-month litters of three plant species were separated from 36-month litters, suggesting common diagenetic pathways during decomposition irrespective of plant species. The microbial decomposers contribute to N immobilization and their contributions to the C and N content of litter increases
Anisotropic metamaterial optical fibers.
Pratap, Dheeraj; Anantha Ramakrishna, S; Pollock, Justin G; Iyer, Ashwin K
2015-04-01
Internal physical structure can drastically modify the properties of waveguides: photonic crystal fibers are able to confine light inside a hollow air core by Bragg scattering from a periodic array of holes, while metamaterial loaded waveguides for microwaves can support propagation at frequencies well below cutoff. Anisotropic metamaterials assembled into cylindrically symmetric geometries constitute light-guiding structures that support new kinds of exotic modes. A microtube of anodized nanoporous alumina, with nanopores radially emanating from the inner wall to the outer surface, is a manifestation of such an anisotropic metamaterial optical fiber. The nanopores, when filled with a plasmonic metal such as silver or gold, greatly increase the electromagnetic anisotropy. The modal solutions in such anisotropic circular waveguides can be uncommon Bessel functions with imaginary orders. PMID:25968741
Kumar, Raj; Gupta, Raj K.
2009-03-15
Application of the preformed clusters based dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM) is made to the recent data on decay of the compound systems {sup 118,122}Ba* at a relatively low bombarding energy of 5.5 MeV/A. The same model has been applied earlier to the intermediate mass fragment (IMF) data of {sup 116}Ba*, observed at medium and higher incident energies. For the heavier {sup 118,122}Ba* systems, however, a complete mass fragmentation spectrum is observed experimentally. Except for a small narrow region of heavier mass fragments (8{<=}Z{sub L}{<=}15), the DCM gives an overall reasonable description of the observed data on both the intermediate mass fragments and the fusion-fission cross-sections, whereas the statistical model calculations based on BUSCO and GEMINI codes describe the intermediate mass fragment data and the heavier mass fragment and fusion-fission data, respectively. Within the DCM (with preformation factor P{sub 0}=1), the possibility of non-compound-nucleus decay contributing to the region 8{<=}Z{sub L}{<=}15 of heavier mass fragments is also explored. All three models use the maximum angular momentum l{sub max} as a fitting parameter, which in the DCM is fixed via a neck-length parameter for the penetrability P{yields}1.
Anisotropic eddy viscosity models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carati, D.; Cabot, W.
1996-01-01
A general discussion on the structure of the eddy viscosity tensor in anisotropic flows is presented. The systematic use of tensor symmetries and flow symmetries is shown to reduce drastically the number of independent parameters needed to describe the rank 4 eddy viscosity tensor. The possibility of using Onsager symmetries for simplifying further the eddy viscosity is discussed explicitly for the axisymmetric geometry.
Anisotropic Ambient Volume Shading.
Ament, Marco; Dachsbacher, Carsten
2016-01-01
We present a novel method to compute anisotropic shading for direct volume rendering to improve the perception of the orientation and shape of surface-like structures. We determine the scale-aware anisotropy of a shading point by analyzing its ambient region. We sample adjacent points with similar scalar values to perform a principal component analysis by computing the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the covariance matrix. In particular, we estimate the tangent directions, which serve as the tangent frame for anisotropic bidirectional reflectance distribution functions. Moreover, we exploit the ratio of the eigenvalues to measure the magnitude of the anisotropy at each shading point. Altogether, this allows us to model a data-driven, smooth transition from isotropic to strongly anisotropic volume shading. In this way, the shape of volumetric features can be enhanced significantly by aligning specular highlights along the principal direction of anisotropy. Our algorithm is independent of the transfer function, which allows us to compute all shading parameters once and store them with the data set. We integrated our method in a GPU-based volume renderer, which offers interactive control of the transfer function, light source positions, and viewpoint. Our results demonstrate the benefit of anisotropic shading for visualization to achieve data-driven local illumination for improved perception compared to isotropic shading. PMID:26529745
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gutzov, S.; Danchova, N.; Tsekov, R.; Barreno, I.; Ruiz del Portal, X.; Ulbikas, J.
2015-10-01
A new hybrid woven micromesh containing metal and polyester wires with a 2D porosity of about 30% has been created. The anisotropic microcomposite is developed as a new material with wide applications in thermal and electrical engineering. The mesh material is carefully characterized using electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, chemical analysis, thermal conductivity measurements and differential scanning calorimetry.
Zhu, Chaoyuan; Jasper, Ahren W; Truhlar, Donald G
2005-07-01
Electronic energy flow in an isolated molecular system involves coupling between the electronic and nuclear subsystems, and the coupled system evolves to a statistical mixture of pure states. In semiclassical theories, nuclear motion is treated using classical mechanics, and electronic motion is treated as an open quantal system coupled to a "bath" of nuclear coordinates. We have previously shown how this can be simulated by a time-dependent Schrödinger equation with coherent switching and decay of mixing, where the decay of mixing terms model the dissipative effect of the environment on the electronic subdynamics (i.e., on the reduced dynamics of the electronic subsystem). In the present paper we reformulate the problem as a Liouville-von Neumann equation of motion (i.e., we propagate the reduced density matrix of the electronic subsystem), and we introduce the assumption of first-order linear decay. We specifically examine the cases of equal relaxation times for both longitudinal (i.e., population) decay and transverse decay (i.e., dephasing) and of longitudinal relaxation only, yielding the linear decay of mixing (LDM) and the population-driven decay of mixing (PDDM) schemes, respectively. Because we do not generally know the basis in which coherence decays, that is, the pointer basis, we judge the semiclassical methods in part by their ability to give good results in both the adiabatic and diabatic bases. The accuracy in the prediction of physical observables is shown to be robust not only with respect to basis but also with respect to the way in which demixing is incorporated into the master equation for the density matrix. The success of the PDDM scheme is particularly interesting because it incorporates the least amount of decoherence (i.e., the PDDM scheme is the most similar of the methods discussed to the fully coherent semiclassical Ehrenfest method). For both the new and previous decay of mixing schemes, four kinds of decoherent state switching
Beyond the standard cosmology : anisotropic inflation and baryophilic dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dulaney, Timothy R.
2011-09-01
This thesis discusses two topics in cosmology that resulted in two independent publications. The first topic concerns persistent anisotropy during inflation and the second topic concerns a model of baryophillic dark matter. The motivation for the project contained within chapter one came from indications in the cosmic microwave background data that seemed to suggest that there may be a cosmologically preferred direction. Moira Gresham and I derived quantitative predictions about the signals one would observe in Cosmic Microwave Background data if isotropy is not assumed during inflation. We considered a particular example of a dynamical theory of anisotropic inflation that is characterized by a scalar field which is nonminimally coupled to an isotropy breaking abelian gauge field, thereby slowing the decay of the gauge field energy density. The motivation for the project contained within chapter two came from the observation that the global symmetries B (baryon number) and L (lepton number) of the standard model Lagrangian must be broken by higher-dimensional operators at a very high scale. Pavel F. Perez, Mark B. Wise and I analyzed a model that explained the protection of these accidental global symmetries by promoting B and L to gauge symmetries. This model has a natural dark matter, candidate and we discuss the experimental constraints on the parameters in the theory. Unexpected results are found in each chapter. For example, in chapter two, we find that the anisotropic contribution to the tensor power spectrum is suppressed with respect to that of the scalar power spectrum and, in chapter three, we show that a baryon asymmetry can be generated even within a model that has baryon number as a gauge symmetry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansel, C. M.; Buchwald, C.; Diaz, J. M.; Dyhrman, S.; Van Mooy, B. A. S.
2014-12-01
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are key players in the biogeochemistry of the ocean, where they serve a critical role in the cycling of carbon and metals. Research in the past decade has introduced phytoplankton and, most recently, heterotrophic bacteria as significant sources of ROS, including superoxide, within both photic and aphotic regions of the ocean. ROS are both beneficial and detrimental to life. For instance, superoxide is a vital inter- and intra-cellular signaling molecule, yet at high concentrations it induces lipid peroxidation and initiates programmed cell death (PCD). In fact, superoxide has been implicated in PCD in the nitrogen-fixing diazotroph Trichodesmium, presumably leading to the demise of blooms within oligotrophic marine systems. Here, we explore the rates of superoxide production and decay by natural Trichodesmium populations obtained from various surface waters in the Sargasso Sea. We investigate also the role of light and colony density and morphology (puff v. raft) on superoxide fluxes. We find that Trichodesmium colonies produce extracellular superoxide at extremely high rates in the dark that are on par with those of the toxic raphidophyte Chattonella. The rates of superoxide production, however, rapidly decline with increasing cell density pointing to a role for superoxide in cell signaling in these organisms. We also find extremely rapid extracellular superoxide degradation by Trichodesmium. Together, this likely reflects a need for these organisms to maintain ROS at levels that will support signaling but below the threshold level that triggers PCD or oxidative damage. We also show differences in the effect of light on superoxide fluxes as a function of Trichodesmium colony morphology, suggesting differences in either colony physiology or associated bacterial symbionts. These findings point to complex physiological, ecological, and physical influences on ROS dynamics in phytoplankton that require further exploration.
Anisotropic Nanomechanics of Boron Nitride Nanotubes: Nanostructured "Skin" Effect
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivastava, Deepak; Menon, Madhu; Cho, KyeongJae
2000-01-01
The stiffness and plasticity of boron nitride nanotubes are investigated using generalized tight-binding molecular dynamics and ab-initio total energy methods. Due to boron-nitride BN bond buckling effects, compressed zigzag BN nanotubes are found to undergo novel anisotropic strain release followed by anisotropic plastic buckling. The strain is preferentially released towards N atoms in the rotated BN bonds. The tubes buckle anisotropically towards only one end when uniaxially compressed from both. A "skin-effect" model of smart nanocomposite materials is proposed which will localize the structural damage towards the 'skin' or surface side of the material.
Kanevce, Ana; Kuciauskas, Darius; Levi, Dean H.; Johnston, Steven W.; Allende Motz, Alyssa M.
2015-07-28
We use two-dimensional numerical simulations to analyze high spatial resolution time-resolved spectroscopy data. This analysis is applied to two-photon excitation time-resolved photoluminescence (2PE-TRPL) but is broadly applicable to all microscopic time-resolved techniques. By solving time-dependent drift-diffusion equations, we gain insight into carrier dynamics and transport characteristics. Accurate understanding of measurement results establishes the limits and potential of the measurement and enhances its value as a characterization method. Diffusion of carriers outside of the collection volume can have a significant impact on the measured decay but can also provide an estimate of carrier mobility as well as lifetime. In addition to material parameters, the experimental conditions, such as spot size and injection level, can impact the measurement results. Although small spot size provides better resolution, it also increases the impact of diffusion on the decay; if the spot size is much smaller than the diffusion length, it impacts the entire decay. By reproducing experimental 2PE-TRPL decays, the simulations determine the bulk carrier lifetime from the data. The analysis is applied to single-crystal and heteroepitaxial CdTe, material important for solar cells, but it is also applicable to other semiconductors where carrier diffusion from the excitation volume could affect experimental measurements.
Multidimensional reaction rate theory with anisotropic diffusion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Szabo, Attila; Greives, Nicholas; Zhou, Huan-Xiang
2014-11-01
An analytical expression is derived for the rate constant that describes diffusive transitions between two deep wells of a multidimensional potential. The expression, in contrast to the Kramers-Langer formula for the rate constant, is valid even when the diffusion is highly anisotropic. Our approach is based on a variational principle for the reactive flux and uses a trial function for the splitting probability or commitor. The theoretical result is validated by Brownian dynamics simulations.
Parallel Anisotropic Tetrahedral Adaptation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, Michael A.; Darmofal, David L.
2008-01-01
An adaptive method that robustly produces high aspect ratio tetrahedra to a general 3D metric specification without introducing hybrid semi-structured regions is presented. The elemental operators and higher-level logic is described with their respective domain-decomposed parallelizations. An anisotropic tetrahedral grid adaptation scheme is demonstrated for 1000-1 stretching for a simple cube geometry. This form of adaptation is applicable to more complex domain boundaries via a cut-cell approach as demonstrated by a parallel 3D supersonic simulation of a complex fighter aircraft. To avoid the assumptions and approximations required to form a metric to specify adaptation, an approach is introduced that directly evaluates interpolation error. The grid is adapted to reduce and equidistribute this interpolation error calculation without the use of an intervening anisotropic metric. Direct interpolation error adaptation is illustrated for 1D and 3D domains.
Fractures in anisotropic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shao, Siyi
Rocks may be composed of layers and contain fracture sets that cause the hydraulic, mechanical and seismic properties of a rock to be anisotropic. Coexisting fractures and layers in rock give rise to competing mechanisms of anisotropy. For example: (1) at low fracture stiffness, apparent shear-wave anisotropy induced by matrix layering can be masked or enhanced by the presence of a fracture, depending on the fracture orientation with respect to layering, and (2) compressional-wave guided modes generated by parallel fractures can also mask the presence of matrix layerings for particular fracture orientations and fracture specific stiffness. This report focuses on two anisotropic sources that are widely encountered in rock engineering: fractures (mechanical discontinuity) and matrix layering (impedance discontinuity), by investigating: (1) matrix property characterization, i.e., to determine elastic constants in anisotropic solids, (2) interface wave behavior in single-fractured anisotropic media, (3) compressional wave guided modes in parallel-fractured anisotropic media (single fracture orientation) and (4) the elastic response of orthogonal fracture networks. Elastic constants of a medium are required to understand and quantify wave propagation in anisotropic media but are affected by fractures and matrix properties. Experimental observations and analytical analysis demonstrate that behaviors of both fracture interface waves and compressional-wave guided modes for fractures in anisotropic media, are affected by fracture specific stiffness (controlled by external stresses), signal frequency and relative orientation between layerings in the matrix and fractures. A fractured layered medium exhibits: (1) fracture-dominated anisotropy when the fractures are weakly coupled; (2) isotropic behavior when fractures delay waves that are usually fast in a layered medium; and (3) matrix-dominated anisotropy when the fractures are closed and no longer delay the signal. The
Anisotropic Total Variation Filtering
Grasmair, Markus; Lenzen, Frank
2010-12-15
Total variation regularization and anisotropic filtering have been established as standard methods for image denoising because of their ability to detect and keep prominent edges in the data. Both methods, however, introduce artifacts: In the case of anisotropic filtering, the preservation of edges comes at the cost of the creation of additional structures out of noise; total variation regularization, on the other hand, suffers from the stair-casing effect, which leads to gradual contrast changes in homogeneous objects, especially near curved edges and corners. In order to circumvent these drawbacks, we propose to combine the two regularization techniques. To that end we replace the isotropic TV semi-norm by an anisotropic term that mirrors the directional structure of either the noisy original data or the smoothed image. We provide a detailed existence theory for our regularization method by using the concept of relaxation. The numerical examples concluding the paper show that the proposed introduction of an anisotropy to TV regularization indeed leads to improved denoising: the stair-casing effect is reduced while at the same time the creation of artifacts is suppressed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyazaki, Tetsuo; Morikawa, Akiyuki; Kumagai, Jun; Ikehata, Masateru; Koana, Takao; Kikuchi, Shoshi
2002-09-01
Long-lived radicals produced by γ-irradiation or vital activity in plants, animals, cells, and protein (albumin) solution were studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Long-lived radicals produced by vital activity exist in biological systems, such as plants, animals, and cells, in the range of 0.1-20 nmol g -1. Since vital organs keep the radicals at a constant concentration, the radicals are probably related to life conservation. Long-lived radicals are also produced by γ-irradiation of cells or protein solution. The radicals decay after death of living things or after γ-irradiation. We found that the decay dynamics in all biological systems can be expressed by the same kinetic equation of an inhomogeneous reaction.
Rajala, Tiina; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Pennanen, Taina; Mäkipää, Raisa
2012-08-01
Decaying wood plays an important role in forest biodiversity, nutrient cycling and carbon balance. Community structure of wood-inhabiting fungi changes with mass loss of wood, but the relationship between substrate quality and decomposers is poorly understood. This limits the extent to which these ecosystem services can be effectively managed. We studied the fungal community and physico-chemical quality (stage of decay, dimensions, density, moisture, C : N ratio, lignin and water or ethanol extractives) of 543 Norway spruce logs in five unmanaged boreal forest sites of southern Finland. Fungi were identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of DNA extracted directly from wood samples. Macroscopic fruiting bodies were also recorded. Results showed a fungal community succession with decreasing wood density and C : N ratio, and increasing moisture and lignin content. Fungal diversity peaked in the most decayed substrates. Ascomycetes typically colonized recently fallen wood. Brown-rot fungi preferred the intermediate decay stages. White-rot fungi represented approximately one-fifth of sequenced species in all decay phases excluding the final phase, where ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi became dominant. Lignin content of logs with white-rot fungi was low, and ECM fungi were associated with substrates containing abundant nitrogen. Macroscopic fruiting bodies were observed for only a small number of species detected with molecular techniques. PMID:22458543
Nonequilibrium current-carrying steady states in the anisotropic X Y spin chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lancaster, Jarrett L.
2016-05-01
Out-of-equilibrium behavior is explored in the one-dimensional anisotropic X Y model. Initially preparing the system in the isotropic X X model with a linearly varying magnetic field to create a domain-wall magnetization profile, dynamics is generated by rapidly changing the exchange interaction anisotropy and external magnetic field. Relaxation to a nonequilibrium steady state is studied analytically at the critical transverse Ising point, where correlation functions may be computed in closed form. For arbitrary values of anisotropy and external field, an effective generalized Gibbs' ensemble is shown to accurately describe observables in the long-time limit. Additionally, we find spatial oscillations in the exponentially decaying, transverse spin-spin correlation functions with wavelength set by the magnetization jump across the initial domain wall. This wavelength depends only weakly on anisotropy and magnetic field in contrast to the current, which is highly dependent on these parameters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schiestel, R.
1987-01-01
The CTR numerical data base generated by direct simulation of homogeneous anisotropic turbulence was used to calculate all of the terms in the spectral balance equations for the turbulent Reynolds stresses. The aim in not only to test the main closure assumptions used in the split-spectrum models, but also to try to devise improved hypotheses deduced from the statistical information. Numerical simulations of turbulent flows provide a large amount of data, a thought provoking wealth of information. The main advantage of this type of comparison is that a great variety of flows can be considered, and this is necessary to test closure hypotheses. Moreover various initial conditions can be introduced in the calculation, even if they are not experimentally feasible. All the terms in the spectral equations can be calculated. The limited Reynolds numbers of the simulations and the statistical noise caused by a small sample, particularly at the large scales, causes some difficulty in the interpretation of the results, but the method of approach proved to be a powerful tool for testing and improving spectral closures.
Smectic liquid crystals in an anisotropic random environment
Liang, Dennis; Leheny, Robert L.
2007-03-15
We report a high-resolution x-ray scattering study of the smectic liquid crystal octylcyanobiphenyl (8CB) confined to aligned colloidal aerosil gels. The aligned gels introduce orientational fields that promote long-range nematic order while imposing positional random fields that couple to the smectic density wave and disrupt the formation of an ordered smectic phase. At low densities of aerosil, the low-temperature scattering intensity is consistent with the presence of a topologically ordered XY Bragg glass phase that is predicted to form in response to such anisotropic quenched disorder. The observed features of the phase include an algebraic decay of the smectic correlations, which is truncated at large length scales due to the imperfect nematic order, and a power-law exponent that agrees closely with the universal value predicted for the XY Bragg glass. At higher aerosil densities, deviations from the XY Bragg glass form are apparent. At high temperature, the scattering intensity displays pretransitional dynamic fluctuations associated with the destroyed nematic to smectic-A transition. The fluctuations obey quasicritical behavior over an extended range of reduced temperature. The effective critical exponents for the correlation lengths and smectic susceptibility differ systematically from those of pure 8CB, indicating that coupling of the nematic order to the gel suppresses its role in the smectic critical behavior.
Shear-free anisotropic cosmological models in {f (R)} gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abebe, Amare; Momeni, Davood; Myrzakulov, Ratbay
2016-04-01
We study a class of shear-free, homogeneous but anisotropic cosmological models with imperfect matter sources in the context of f( R) gravity. We show that the anisotropic stresses are related to the electric part of the Weyl tensor in such a way that they balance each other. We also show that within the class of orthogonal f( R) models, small perturbations of shear are damped, and that the electric part of the Weyl tensor and the anisotropic stress tensor decay with the expansion as well as the heat flux of the curvature fluid. Specializing in locally rotationally symmetric spacetimes in orthonormal frames, we examine the late-time behaviour of the de Sitter universe in f( R) gravity. For the Starobinsky model of f( R), we study the evolutionary behavior of the Universe by numerically integrating the Friedmann equation, where the initial conditions for the expansion, acceleration and jerk parameters are taken from observational data.
Anisotropic bouncing scenario in F(X)-V(φ) model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panda, Sukanta; Sharma, Manabendra
2016-02-01
We investigate the cosmology of a class of model with noncanonical scalar field and matter in an anisotropic time dependent background. Writing the Einstein Equations in terms of dimensionless dynamical variables appropriately defined for bouncing solutions, we find all the fixed points. While evolving the dynamical variables to their stable fixed points numerically, solutions satisfying non singular bounce are found.
Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Vanderbilt U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.
2005-07-06
With a sample of 232 x 10{sup 6} {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} events collected with the BABAR detector, we study the decay B{sup +} {yields} p{bar p}K{sup +} excluding charmonium decays to p{bar p}. We measure a branching fraction {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} p{bar p}K{sup +}) = (6.7 {+-} 0.5 {+-} 0.4) x 10{sup -6}. An enhancement at low p{bar p} mass is observed and the Dalitz plot asymmetry suggests dominance of the penguin amplitude in this B decay. We search for a pentaquark candidate {Theta}*{sup ++} decaying into pK{sup +} in the mass range 1.43 to 2.00 GeV/c{sup 2} and set limits on {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} {Theta}*{sup ++} {bar p}) x {Beta}({Theta}*{sup ++} {yields} pK{sup +}) at the 10{sup -7} level.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roscioli, Jerome D.; Ghosh, Soumen; Bishop, Michael M.; Lafountain, Amy M.; Frank, Harry A.; Beck, Warren F.
Transient grating spectroscopy was used to study the dynamics of nonradiative decay of the S1 (21Ag-) state in ß-carotene and peridinin after optical preparation of the S2) state. The kinetics of the recovery of the absorption and dispersion components of the third-order signal exhibit significantly different time constants. For β-carotene in benzonitrile, the absorption and dispersion recovery time constants are 11.6 and 10.2 ps. For peridinin in methanol, the time constants are 9.9 and 7.4 ps. These results indicate that the initial product of the decay of the S1 state is a conformationally displaced structure. The decay rate for the S1 state and the conformational relaxation rate are both slowed in peridinin as the polarity of the solvent decreases; in ethyl acetate, the conformational relaxation time constant is 45 ps, which rules out a dominant contribution from vibrational cooling. These results indicate that the S1 state develops intramolecular charge transfer character owing to distortions along torsional and out-of-plane coordinates, with a pyramidal structure favored as the most stable conformation. Recovery of the photoselected ground state conformation involves a reverse charge-transfer event followed by relaxation to a planar structure. Work supported by Photosynthetic Systems Program of the U.S. Department of Energy under Grant DE-SC0010847.
Anisotropic flow in transport + hydrodynamics hybrid approaches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petersen, Hannah
2014-12-01
This contribution to the focus issue covers anisotropic flow in hybrid approaches. The historical development of hybrid approaches and their impact on the interpretation of flow measurements is reviewed. The major ingredients of a hybrid approach and the transition criteria between transport and hydrodynamics are discussed. The results for anisotropic flow in (event-by-event) hybrid approaches are presented. Some hybrid approaches rely on hadronic transport for the late stages for the reaction (so called afterburner) and others employ transport approaches for the early non-equilibrium evolution. In addition, there are ‘full’ hybrid calculations where a fluid evolution is dynamically embedded in a transport simulation. After demonstrating the success of hybrid approaches at high Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and Large Hadron Collider energies, existing hybrid caluclations for collective flow observables at lower beam energies are discussed and remaining challenges outlined.
Optics of anisotropic nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rokushima, Katsu; Antoš, Roman; Mistrík, Jan; Višňovský, Štefan; Yamaguchi, Tomuo
2006-07-01
The analytical formalism of Rokushima and Yamakita [J. Opt. Soc. Am. 73, 901-908 (1983)] treating the Fraunhofer diffraction in planar multilayered anisotropic gratings proved to be a useful introduction to new fundamental and practical situations encountered in laterally structured periodic (both isotropic and anisotropic) multilayer media. These are employed in the spectroscopic ellipsometry for modeling surface roughness and in-depth profiles, as well as in the design of various frequency-selective elements including photonic crystals. The subject forms the basis for the solution of inverse problems in scatterometry of periodic nanostructures including magnetic and magneto-optic recording media. It has no principal limitations as for the frequencies and period to radiation wavelength ratios and may include matter wave diffraction. The aim of the paper is to make this formalism easily accessible to a broader community of students and non-specialists. Many aspects of traditional electromagnetic optics are covered as special cases from a modern and more general point of view, e.g., plane wave propagation in isotropic media, reflection and refraction at interfaces, Fabry-Perot resonator, optics of thin films and multilayers, slab dielectric waveguides, crystal optics, acousto-, electro-, and magneto-optics, diffraction gratings, etc. The formalism is illustrated on a model simulating the diffraction on a ferromagnetic wire grating.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gardiner, Thomas
2013-10-01
Anisotropic thermal diffusion in magnetized plasmas is an important physical phenomena for a diverse set of physical conditions ranging from astrophysical plasmas to MFE and ICF. Yet numerically simulating this phenomenon accurately poses significant challenges when the computational mesh is misaligned with respect to the magnetic field. Particularly when the temperature gradients are unresolved, one frequently finds entropy violating solutions with heat flowing from cold to hot zones for χ∥ /χ⊥ >=102 which is substantially smaller than the range of interest which can reach 1010 or higher. In this talk we present a new implicit algorithm for solving the anisotropic thermal diffusion equations and demonstrate its characteristics on what has become a fairly standard set of test problems in the literature. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2013-5687A.
Weibel Instability Driven by Spatially Anisotropic Density Structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomita, Sara; Ohira, Yutaka
2016-07-01
Observations of afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) suggest that post-shock magnetic fields are strongly amplified to about 100 times the shock-compressed value. The Weibel instability appears to play an important role in generating the magnetic field. However, recent simulations of collisionless shocks in homogeneous plasmas show that the magnetic field generated by the Weibel instability rapidly decays. There must be some density fluctuations in interstellar and circumstellar media. The density fluctuations are anisotropically compressed in the downstream region of relativistic shocks. In this paper, we study the Weibel instability in electron–positron plasmas with spatially anisotropic density distributions by means of two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. We find that large magnetic fields are maintained for a longer time by the Weibel instability driven by spatially anisotropic density structure. Particles anisotropically escape from the high density region, so that a temperature anisotropy is generated and the Weibel instability becomes unstable. Our simulation results suggest that the Weibel instability driven by an anisotropic density structure can generate sufficiently large magnetic fields and they can cover sufficiently large regions to explain the afterglow emission of GRBs.
Kumbhakar, Manoj; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Pal, Haridas
2005-01-01
The fluorescence anisotropy decay dynamics of the fluorescent probe Coumarin-153 (C153) have been investigated in two neutral micelles, Triton-X-100 (TX-100) and Brij-35 (BJ-35), at different temperatures and analyzed on the basis of the well-known two-step model. Because steady-state fluorescence spectra of the above probe do not show any noticeable changes with respect to temperature, for either of the studied micelles, suggests a similar polarity in the microenvironment around the probe at all the temperatures studied. The anisotropy results indicated that, for both the micelles, the fluidity inside the Palisade layer increases with temperature. However, the temperature effect on the anisotropy decay is relatively more pronounced in TX-100 than in BJ-35. It is inferred that the temperature effect on the anisotropy decay in the BJ-35 micelle is mainly due to the thermal effect on the microviscosity in the micellar phase. In the case of TX-100, the results indicate that, along with the above thermal effect, an additional effect is observed due to the increased size and hydration of the micelle with temperature, with the result being that the fluorescence anisotropy decay in TX-100 is more sensitive to temperature than in BJ-35. In the TX-100 micelle, our studies show that with an increase in temperature, even though the micellar size increases substantially, the distance of the probe from the micellar core does not increase that significantly. Thus, with increasing temperature, the probe undergoes a relative migration toward the micellar core to avoid the increased hydration in the micellar Palisade layer. PMID:15686443
Avraamova, O G; Kulazhenko, T V; Gabitova, K F
2016-01-01
The paper presents the assessment of tooth decay prevalence in clinically homogenous groups of children receiving long-term preventive program (PP) in school dental facilities. Five-years PP were introduced in clinical practice in 2 Moscow schools. Preventive treatment was performed by dental hygienist. The results show that systematic preventive treatment in school dental offices starting from elementary school allows reducing dental caries incidence 46-53% and stabilize the incidence of caries complications. It should be mentioned though that analysis of individualized outcomes proves heterogeneity of study results despite of equal conditions of PP. Potentially significant hence is early diagnostics and treatment of initial caries forms as demineralization foci, especially in children with intensive tooth decay. Optimization of pediatric dentist and dental hygienist activity in school dental facilities is the main factor of caries prevention efficiency. PMID:27239995
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matt-Leubner, S.; Feil, S.; Gluch, K.; Fedor, J.; Stamatovic, A.; Echt, O.; Scheier, P.; Becker, K.; Märk, T. D.
2005-05-01
Mass spectrometric analysis of metastable decay reactions is devoted to the measurements of the kinetic energy release distribution (KERD) for the decay of singly charged rare gas dimer ions Xe_{2}^{ + } and Kr_{2}^{ + } , the doubly charged acetylene parent ion C_{2}H_{2^{ 2+ }} and the singly and doubly charged SF6 fragment ions, like for example SF_{3}^{ + } , SF_{3}^{ 2 + } and SF_{4}^{ 2 + } . The KERDs are obtained either from high-resolution mass analysed ion kinetic energy spectra or the measurement of ion beam profiles using a specially improved mass spectrometric system. Due to the high energy resolution measurements and theoretical studies based on ab initio calculations of potential energy curves it is possible to assign the reaction products of the rare gas dimer decays to electronic transitions in the excited parent ion. The C_{2}H_{2^{ 2 + }} and also the SF_{4}^{ 2 + } ions are investigated because of obscurities in the production of their fragment ions. The unusual shape of the SF_{3}^{ + } ionization cross section indicates that at sufficiently high electron energies the fragmentation channel of doubly charged SF_{4}^{ 2 + } contributes significantly to the ion yield. Additional measurements of the corresponding appearance energies confirm the existence of this second production channel.
Simple types of anisotropic inflation
Barrow, John D.; Hervik, Sigbjoern
2010-01-15
We display some simple cosmological solutions of gravity theories with quadratic Ricci curvature terms added to the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian which exhibit anisotropic inflation. The Hubble expansion rates are constant and unequal in three orthogonal directions. We describe the evolution of the simplest of these homogeneous and anisotropic cosmological models from its natural initial state and evaluate the deviations they will create from statistical isotropy in the fluctuations produced during a period of anisotropic inflation. The anisotropic inflation is not a late-time attractor in these models but the rate of approach to a final isotropic de Sitter state is slow and is conducive to the creation of observable anisotropic statistical effects in the microwave background. The statistical anisotropy would not be scale invariant and the level of statistical anisotropy will grow with scale.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antonsson, E.; Patanen, M.; Nicolas, C.; Benkoula, S.; Neville, J. J.; Sukhorukov, V. L.; Bozek, J. D.; Demekhin, Ph. V.; Miron, C.
2015-10-01
Participator resonant Auger decay spectra populating the X , A , B , and C states of CO2+ are recorded with angular and vibrational resolution for selected photon energies in the vicinity of the C 1 s →π* resonance of CO2 using a narrow photon bandwidth and a high-resolution electron spectrometer. The measured electron spectra and the corresponding angular distribution parameters exhibit significant changes as functions of the photon energy across the resonance and with respect to the vibrational sublevels of a final ionic state. The measured spectra are interpreted by ab initio electronic structure and nuclear dynamics calculations which attribute observed variations to the effects of lifetime vibrational interference and of electronic state interference between the direct ionization amplitude and the resonant amplitudes for the excitation and decay of two overlapping resonant states of different symmetry. The present results provide deeper insight into the femtosecond relaxation dynamics of the core-excited CO2, which is not achievable with lower resolution, angle-averaged measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niyti; Gupta, Raj K.; Hess, Peter Otto
2015-06-01
The dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM), with deformation and orientation effects included, is used to calculate the fusion evaporation residue cross-sections σxn for x = 1, 2, 3 and 4 neutrons emission in a fusion reaction 206Pb + 48Ca → 254No* at various 48Ca-beam energies Elab = 212.7- 242.5 MeV (equivalently, E* = 19.8- 43.9 MeV). Considering the higher multipole deformations up to hexadecapole deformation β4i and the sticking moment-of-inertia IS, the DCM with pocket formula for nuclear proximity potential is shown to give a good description of the measured individual light-particle (here neutrons) decay channels for configurations of "hot, compact" orientations θci, within one parameter fitting of the neck-length ΔR. A check on some of the variables involved in DCM shows that (i) spherical configurations give nearly the same result as above for deformed and oriented ones; (ii) the non-sticking moment-of-inertia INS gives unphysical results; and (iii) configurations of "cold, elongated" orientations do not fit the data at all. Furthermore, for the four different isotopes of 204,206,207,208Pb-based reactions, the dependence of, say, the 2n-emission yield σ2n on the isotopic composition of the compound nucleus is also studied within the DCM for "hot" fusion process. Of all the four Pb-isotopes and three excitation energies E* considered, at each E*, the ΔR is largest for compound system 256No*, followed by 255No*, 254No* and smallest for 252No*, which means to suggest that the neutrons emission occur earliest for 256No*, then for 255No*, 254No* and finally by 252No*, in complete agreement with experimental data according to which compound system 256No* has the highest cross-section and 252No* the lowest with 255No* and 254No* lying in between. This result is related to the double magicity of both the target (208Pb) and projectile (48Ca) nuclei, as well as to the experimentally known result of projectile with a larger number of neutrons (here the target
Soft particles with anisotropic interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schurtenberger, Peter
Responsive colloids such as thermo- or pH-sensitive microgels are ideal model systems to investigate the relationship between the nature of interparticle interactions and the plethora of self-assembled structures that can form in colloidal suspensions. They allow for a variation of the form, strength and range of the interaction potential almost at will. While microgels have extensively been used as model systems to investigate various condensed matter problems such as glass formation, jamming or crystallization, they can also be used to study systems with anisotropic interactions. Here we show results from a systematic investigation of the influence of softness and anisotropy on the structural and dynamic properties of strongly interacting suspensions. We focus first on ionic microgels. Due to their large number of internal counterions they possess very large polarisabilities, and we can thus use external electrical ac fields to generate large dipolar contributions to the interparticle interaction potential. This leads to a number of new crystal phases, and we can trigger crystal-crystal phase transitions through the appropriate choice of the field strength. We then show that this approach can be extended to more complex particle shapes in an attempt to copy nature's well documented success in fabricating complex nanostructures such as virus shells via self assembly. European Research Council (ERC-339678-COMPASS).